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Sample records for human amnion current

  1. Time-dependent mechanical behavior of human amnion: Macroscopic and microscopic characterization

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Characterizing the mechanical response of the human amnion is essential to understand and to eventually prevent premature rupture of fetal membranes. In this study a large set of macroscopic and microscopic mechanical tests have been carried out on fresh unfixed amnion to gain insight into the time dependent material response and the underlying mechanisms. Creep and relaxation responses of amnion were characterized in...

  2. Human amnion as a biological dressing used to prevent prolonged air leakage in thoracic surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mijewski, M.; Uhrynowska-Tyszkiewicz, I.; Piech, K.; Gogowski, M.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Prolonged air leakage lasting 7 days or more is one of the most common complications in thoracic surgery. This complication may result in increased morbidity and prolonged hospital stay. Amnion allografts have been used to minimise this complication. The aim of our study was to evaluate the usefulness of human amnion grafts in the treatment of air leakage following thoracic surgery. Deep-frozen, radiation-sterilized (35 kGy) human amnion grafts prepared at the Central Tissue Bank in Warsaw (Poland) were used. Amnion allografts were applied to 69 patients who had surgery: 36 thoracotomies, and 33 rethoracotomies had been performed. During lung ventilation the air leakage sites were identified and covered by the amnion flap. Air leakage were evaluated during the postoperative period. Retrospectively we analysed air leakage duration in 170 thoracothomies and rethoracotomies without amnion transplantation. The separation of lung tissue and the liberation of pleural adhesions may be result in the lung and visceral pleura injury. Deep-frozen and radiation-sterilized human amnion is biocompatible, flexible, strong and airtight. It may be easily attached to the lung parenchyma and allows coverage of the area of the lung parenchyma deprived of the visceral pleura. The use of human amnion allografts is simple and safe. After treatment with amnion in 85% of the cases air leakage last less than 7 days, and only its traces were observed. Our results suggest that the human amnion grafts applied for the prevention of air leakage in lung surgery is a safe, simple and effective method. (Author)

  3. Syndecan expressions in the human amnion and chorionic plate

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    T. Lorenzi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The syndecan family consists of four distinct membrane glycoproteins in mammals. Syndecans control cell proliferation, differentiation, adhesion and migration through participation in cell-cell interactions, anchorage of cells to the extracellular environment, and modulation of multiple growth factors. Therefore, syndecans may play a pivotal role in the regulation of cell behaviour depending on the cellular microenvironment. Here, we demonstrate that syndecan-1, syndecan-2 and syndecan-4 are expressed in fetal membrane tissue with different immunolocalizations. Syndecan-1 is expressed in the amniotic epithelium, localizing at basolateral cell surfaces. Syndecan-2 and syndecan-4, in contrast, are mostly localized in intracellular compartments, in the extravillous cytotrophoblastic cells and in some fibroblasts of the chorionic plate as well as in the amniotic epithelial cells. In the latter, syndecan-4 is mainly localized in the apical part of the cells. Our results strongly suggest a key role of syndecan-1, syndecan-2 and syndecan-4 in the determination of structural and functional characteristics of human amnion and chorionic plate. Since the solute exchanges between fetus and mother take place in fetal membranes, our data suggest that syndecans are important players in the placenta for the establishment of the fetal-maternal inter-communication.

  4. Monovalent cations transfer through isolated human amnion: a new pharmacological model

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    Bara, M.; Guiet-Bara, A.; Durlach, J.

    1985-04-01

    Transfer of monovalent cations through the isolated human amnion consists of different factors: paracellular, coupling, ATPase dependent cellular transfer, leak cellular transfer. Understanding this transfer permits testing of the action of various substances. Physiological substances (Mg, taurine) increase ionic transfer and there is a vicarious effect between Mg and taurine. The tocolytic agents MgSO/sub 4/ and ethanol do not exhibit a good effect on the transfer: decrease with ethanol; equality between entry and exit fluxes with MgSO/sub 4/. On the other hand, amphotericin B increases mother-to-fetus transfer. Polluting metals (Pb, Cd, Hg, As) dramatically reduce exchanges and almost completely inhibit amnion permeability. Ingestion of ethanol also exhibits a dramatic effect on the exchange between mother and fetus through the amnion. Study of ionic transfer in vitro can be considered a pharmacological model to investigate the modifications of mother-fetus exchanges by various substances.

  5. The growth of human fibroblasts and A431 epidermoid carcinoma cells on gamma-irradiated human amnion collagen substrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, B; Harrell, R; Lamb, D J; Dresden, M H; Spira, M

    1989-10-15

    Human fibroblasts and A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells were cultured on gamma-irradiated human amnion collagen as well as on plastic dishes and non-irradiated collagen coated dishes. The morphology, attachment, growth and short-term cytotoxicity of these culture conditions have been determined. Both irradiated and non-irradiated amnion collagen enhanced the attachment and proliferation of fibroblasts as compared to the plastic dishes. No differences in these properties were observed for A431 cells cultured on irradiated collagen when compared with culture on non-irradiated collagen substrates. Cytotoxicity assays showed that irradiated and non-irradiated collagens were not cytotoxic for either fibroblasts or A431 cells. The results demonstrated that amnion collagen irradiated at doses of 0.25-2.0 Mrads is optimal for cell growth.

  6. Human amnion epithelial cells expressing HLA-G as novel cell-based treatment for liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strom, Stephen C; Gramignoli, Roberto

    2016-09-01

    Despite routine liver transplantation and supporting medical therapies, thousands of patients currently wait for an organ and there is an unmet need for more refined and widely available regenerative strategies to treat liver diseases. Cell transplants attempt to maximize the potential for repair and/or regeneration in liver and other organs. Over 40years of laboratory pre-clinical research and 25years of clinical procedures have shown that certain liver diseases can be treated by the infusion of isolated cells (hepatocyte transplant). However, like organ transplants, hepatocyte transplant suffers from a paucity of tissues useful for cell production. Alternative sources have been investigated, yet with limited success. The tumorigenic potential of pluripotent stem cells together with their primitive level of hepatic differentiation, have limited the use of stem cell populations. Stem cell sources from human placenta, and the amnion tissue in particular are receiving renewed interest in the field of regenerative medicine. Unlike pluripotent stem cells, human amnion epithelial (AE) cells are easily available without ethical or religious concerns; they do not express telomerase and are not immortal or tumorigenic when transplanted. In addition, AE cells have been reported to express genes normally expressed in mature liver, when transplanted into the liver. Moreover, because of the possibility of an immune-privileged status related to their expression of HLA-G, it might be possible to transplant human AE cells without immunosuppression of the recipient. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Retinoid inhibition of in vitro invasion of human amnion basement membrane by human tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazely, F.; Ledinko, N.; Smith, D.J.

    1986-01-01

    The biological activity of retinoids was assayed in an in vitro quantitative assay of human tumor cell invasion using human amnion basement membrane (BM). The effects measured were the inhibition of tumor cell migration through the BM and tumor cell degradative enzyme activity on 14 C-proline labeled collagenous and noncollagenous components of the BM. The human lung carcinoma A549 or the human Ewing's sarcoma TC-106 cell lines treated with retinoids for two days were incubated on the BM in the absence of retinoids. A dose-dependent inhibition of cell invasion was produced by retinoids. Among the retinoids tested, the most powerful was retinol acetate which inhibited invasion by 50% of A549 cells at a concentration of 0.009 μg/mL, and of TC-106 cells at 0.07 μg/mL. Retinol acetate inhibited A549 and TC-106 cell growth by approximately 50% at levels over 100-fold higher than those needed for antiinvasive activity. Retinol acetate was about 20 times more potent than retinoic acid and 30 times more potent than retinol palmitate. The model system will be useful for investigating antiinvasive activity of other retinoids as well as other compounds

  8. A comparative in vitro study of the viability of human keratinocytes grown on irradiated human amnion membrane and fibrin glue scaffolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorai, A.A.; Lim, C.K.; Azman, W.S.; Halim, A.S.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The dried irradiated human amnion membrane has been used as a biological dressing for various clinical conditions. Being another biological membrane its potential as a scaffold to grow human keratinocytes is not known yet. To compare the growth patterns and cell viability of keratinocytes using fibrin glue and air dried amnion membrane as a scaffold. Keratinocytes were obtained from skin samples of six patients undergoing elective surgery. Fibrin glue (Tisseel, Baxter ) was diluted and used to coat the wells. Human dried amnion membrane was obtained and placed into the 24 well plates. Keratinocytes were seeded into the fibrin and amnion scaffold. Cell viability assay (MTT) was performed after 24, 48 and 72 hours. Finally the measurements were done by the Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) reader at 570 nm. Six patients consented for the study. The cells growing on the amnion scaffold showed a decreasing trend (20.67%, 17.94% and 16.78% respectively for 24, 48 and 72 hours). The cells growing on the fibrin scaffold showed a steady increase in number at 24, 48 and 72 hours (73.03%, 74.12% and 79.66%). The percentage of growth of normal human keratinocytes were significantly greater in the fibrin scaffold group (Mann - Whitney p = 0.002) for 24, 48 and 72 hours. The air dried irradiated human amnion membrane can be used as a scaffold to grow keratinocytes but however the growth pattern does not sustain with time. Fibrin glue supports the growth of human keratinocytes and shows an increasing pattern of growth with time. (Author)

  9. Enantioselective cytotoxicity of the insecticide bifenthrin on a human amnion epithelial (FL) cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Huigang; Zhao Meirong; Zhang Cong; Ma Yun; Liu Weiping

    2008-01-01

    Synthetic pyrethroids (SPs) are used in preference to organochlorines and organophosphates due to their high efficiency, low toxicity to mammals, and ready biodegradability. Previous studies reported that enantioselective toxicity of SPs occurs in aquatic toxicity. Several studies have indicated that SPs could lead to oxidative damage in humans or animals which was associated with their toxic effects. Little is known about the differences in the effects of chronic toxicity induced by individual stereoisomers of chiral SPs. The present study was therefore undertaken to evaluate the enantioselectivity in cytotoxicity, genotoxicity caused by bifenthrin (BF) on human amnion epithelial (FL) cell lines and pesticidal activity on target organism. The cell proliferation and cytoflow analysis indicated that 1S-cis-BF presented more toxic effects than 1R-cis-BF above the concentration of 7.5 mg L -1 (p > 0.05). FL cells incubated with 1S-cis-BF exhibited a dose-dependent accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). In the comet assay, the number of cells with damaged DNA incubated with 1S-cis-BF was more than that with 1R-cis-BF (p 50 values of enantiomer to the target pest on Pieris rapae L. show that 1R-cis-BF was 300 times more active than 1S-cis-BF. These results indicate that the enantioselective toxicity and activity of BF between non-target organism and target organism was reversal. These implications together suggest that assessment of the environmental safety and new pesticides development with chiral centers should consider enantioselectivity

  10. Human amnion mesenchymal stem cells promote proliferation and osteogenic differentiation in human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuli; Yin, Ying; Jiang, Fei; Chen, Ning

    2015-02-01

    Human amnion mesenchymal stem cells (HAMSCs) can be obtained from human amniotic membrane, a highly abundant and readily available tissue. HAMSC sources present fewer ethical issues, have low immunogenicity, anti-inflammatory properties, considerable advantageous characteristics, and are considered an attractive potential treatment material in the field of regenerative medicine. We used a co-culture system to determine whether HAMSCs could promote osteogenesis in human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (HBMSCs). We isolated HAMSCs from discarded amnion samples and collected them using pancreatin/collagenase digestion. We cultured HAMSCs and HBMSCSs in basal medium. Activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), an early osteogenesis marker, was increased in the co-culture system compared to the control single cultures, which we also confirmed by ALP staining. We used immunofluorescence testing to investigate the effects of co-culturing with HAMSCs on HBMSC proliferation, which revealed that the co-culturing enhanced EdU expression in HBMSCs. Western blotting and quantitative real-time PCR indicated that co-culturing promoted osteogenesis in HBMSCs. Furthermore, Alizarin red S staining revealed that extracellular matrix calcium levels in mineralized nodule formation produced by the co-cultures were higher than that in the controls. Using the same co-culture system, we further observed the effects of HAMSCs on osteogenic differentiation in primary osteoblasts by Western blotting, which better addressed the mechanism for HAMSCs in bone regeneration. The results showed HAMSCs are osteogenic and not only play a role in promoting HBMSC proliferation and osteogenic differentiation but also in osteoblasts, laying the foundation for new regenerative medicine methods.

  11. Amnion: a potent graft source for cell therapy in stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Seong Jin; Soncini, Maddalena; Kaneko, Yuji; Hess, David C; Parolini, Ornella; Borlongan, Cesar V

    2009-01-01

    Regenerative medicine is a new field primarily based on the concept of transplanting exogenous or stimulating endogenous stem cells to generate biological substitutes and improve tissue functions. Recently, amnion-derived cells have been reported to have multipotent differentiation ability, and these cells have attracted attention as a novel cell source for cell transplantation therapy. Cells isolated from amniotic membrane can differentiate into all three germ layers, have low immunogenicity and anti-inflammatory function, and do not require the destruction of human embryos for their isolation, thus circumventing the ethical debate commonly associated with the use of human embryonic stem cells. Accumulating evidence now suggests that the amnion, which had been discarded after parturition, is a highly potent transplant material in the field of regenerative medicine. In this report, we review the current progress on the characterization of MSCs derived from the amnion as a remarkable transplantable cell population with therapeutic potential for multiple CNS disorders, especially stroke.

  12. Human amnion-derived mesenchymal stem cells protect against UVA irradiation-induced human dermal fibroblast senescence, in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunli; Yuchi, Haishen; Sun, Lu; Zhou, Xiaoli; Lin, Jinde

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine if human amnion-derived mesenchymal stem cells (HAMSCs) exert a protective effect on ultraviolet A (UVA) irradiation-induced human dermal fibroblast (HDF) senescence. A senescence model was constructed as follows: HDFs (104–106 cells/well) were cultured in a six-well plate in vitro and then exposed to UVA irradiation at 9 J/cm2 for 30 min. Following the irradiation period, HDFs were co-cultured with HAMSCs, which were seeded on transwells. A total of 72 h following the co-culturing, senescence-associated β-galactosidase staining was performed and reactive oxygen species (ROS) content and mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) were detected in the HDFs via flow cytometric analysis. The results demonstrated that the percentage of HDFs, detected via staining with X-gal, were markedly decreased when co-cultured with human HAMSCs, compared with the group that were not co-cultured. The ROS content was decreased and the mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) recovered in cells treated with UVA and HAMSCs, compared with that of cells treated with UVA alone. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction revealed the significant effects of HAMSCs on the HDF senescence marker genes p53 and matrix metalloproteinase-1 mRNA expression. In addition to this, western blot analysis verified the effects of HAMSCs on UVA induced senescence, providing a foundation for novel regenerative therapeutic methods. Furthermore, the results suggested that activation of the extracellular-signal regulated kinase 1/2 mitogen activated protein kinase signal transduction pathway, is essential for the HAMSC-mediated UVA protective effects. The decrease in ROS content additionally indicated that HAMSCs may exhibit the potential to treat oxidative stress-mediated UVA skin senescence in the future. PMID:28627622

  13. Amnion s and radio-sterilized porcine skin use as potential matrices for the development of human skin substitutes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez P, M. E.; Reyes F, M. L.; Reboyo B, D.; Velasquillo M, M. C.; Sanchez S, R.; Brena M, A. M.; Ibarra P, J. C.

    2014-10-01

    The injuries by burns constitute a primordial problem of public health; they cause a high mortality index, severe physical and psychological disability, etc. The autologous skin transplant is the replacement therapy recommended for its treatment, but in patients that present a high percentage of burnt skin; this is not possible to carry out. Another strategy is the transplant of donated skin; however, due to the little donation that exists in our country is not very feasible to apply this treatment. A challenge of the tissues engineering is to develop biological skin substitutes, based on cells and amnion s, favoring the cutaneous regeneration and quick repair of injuries, diminishing this way the hospitalization expenses. At present skin substitutes that can equal to the same skin do not exist. On the other hand, the mesenchymal stromal cells (Msc) represent an alternative to achieve this objective; since has been demonstrated that the Msc participate in the tissue repair by means of inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines and differentiation to dermal fibroblasts and keratinocytes. To apply the Msc in cutaneous injuries a support material is required that to allow transplanting these cells to a lesion or burn. The radio-sterilized human amnion and the radio-sterilized porcine skin, processed by the Radio-Sterilized Tissues Bank of the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ), are biomaterials that are used as temporary cutaneous coverings. We suppose that these two matrices will be appropriate for the growth and maintenance in cultivation of the Msc, to generate two biological skin substitutes, in collaboration with the Biotechnology Laboratory of the Instituto Nacional de Rehabilitacion. (Author)

  14. Influence of physiologically active complex isolated from human amnion on lipid peroxide oxidation state and antioxidant activity of blood in rats after irradiation in different doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borshchevs'ka, M.Yi.; Popov, V.V.; Abramova, L.P.; Kuz'myinova, Yi.A.

    1995-01-01

    The authors have studied the influence of physiologically active complex isolated from human amnion on the state of lipid peroxide oxidation according to diene conjugate and malonic dialdehyde amount and antioxidant enzyme activity (catalase and glutationperoxidase) in the blood of the rats exposed to single total irradiation in different doses (4 and 6 Gy) was studied. Definite changes of peroxide process intensity and reduction of the enzymes activity were shown to be observed in the blood of experimental animals even at long terms after the radiation exposure. Under the background of radiation exposure, administration of physiologically active complex isolated from human amnion produced protective effect on antioxidant enzyme activity which promoted normalization of peroxidation processes within the post-radiation period

  15. Regenerative and Antibacterial Properties of Acellular Fish Skin Grafts and Human Amnion/Chorion Membrane: Implications for Tissue Preservation in Combat Casualty Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, Skuli; Baldursson, Baldur Tumi; Kjartansson, Hilmar; Rolfsson, Ottar; Sigurjonsson, Gudmundur Fertram

    2017-03-01

    Improvised explosive devices and new directed energy weapons are changing warfare injuries from penetrating wounds to large surface area thermal and blast injuries. Acellular fish skin is used for tissue repair and during manufacturing subjected to gentle processing compared to biologic materials derived from mammals. This is due to the absence of viral and prion disease transmission risk, preserving natural structure and composition of the fish skin graft. The aim of this study was to assess properties of acellular fish skin relevant for severe battlefield injuries and to compare those properties with those of dehydrated human amnion/chorion membrane. We evaluated cell ingrowth capabilities of the biological materials with microscopy techniques. Bacterial barrier properties were tested with a 2-chamber model. The microstructure of the acellular fish skin is highly porous, whereas the microstructure of dehydrated human amnion/chorion membrane is mostly nonporous. The fish skin grafts show superior ability to support 3-dimensional ingrowth of cells compared to dehydrated human amnion/chorion membrane (p fish skin is a bacterial barrier for 24 to 48 hours. The unique biomechanical properties of the acellular fish skin graft make it ideal to be used as a conformal cover for severe trauma and burn wounds in the battlefield. Reprint & Copyright © 2017 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  16. Retinoid inhibition of in vitro invasion of human amnion basement membrane by human tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazely, F.

    1988-01-01

    The effects measured were the inhibition of tumor cell migration through the basement membrane (BM) and tumor cell degradative enzyme activity on 3 H-proline labeled collagenous and non collagenous components of the BM. The human lung carcinoma A549 or the human Ewing's sarcoma TC-106 cell lines treated with retinoids for two days were incubated on the BM in the absence of retinoids. A dose-dependent inhibition of cell invasion was produced by retinoids. Among the retinoids tested the most powerful was retinol acetate which inhibited invasion by 50% of A549 cells at a concentration of 0.09 μg/ml, and TC-106 cells at 0.08 μg/ml. Retinol acetate inhibited A549 and TC-106 cell growth by approximately 50% at levels almost 100-fold higher than those needed for antiinvasive activity. Retinol acetate was about 20 times more potent than retinoic acid and 30 times more than retinol palmitate. Furthermore, A549 cells treated with retinol acetate, under conditions whereby an anti-invasive state was induced,showed an increase in the number of cellular retinoic acid binding proteins (CRABP), a decrease in the activity of type IV collagenase and ectosialyltransferase, and no change in the activity of transglutaminase

  17. DREAM Is Involved in the Genesis of Inflammation-Induced Prolabour Mediators in Human Myometrial and Amnion Cells

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    Priyanka Goradia

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Preterm birth is the primary cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. Inflammation induces a cascade of events leading to preterm birth by activating nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB. In nongestational tissues, downstream regulatory element antagonist modulator (DREAM regulates NF-κB activity. Our aims were to analyse DREAM expression in myometrium and fetal membranes obtained at term and preterm and to determine the effect of DREAM inhibition on prolabour mediators in primary myometrial and amnion cells. DREAM mRNA expression was significantly higher in fetal membranes obtained after spontaneous labour compared to nonlabour and in amnion from women with histological preterm chorioamnionitis when compared to amnion from women without chorioamnionitis. In primary myometrial and amnion cells, the effect of DREAM silencing by siRNA was a significant decrease in the expression of proinflammatory cytokine IL-6, the chemokines IL-8 and MCP-1, the adhesion molecule ICAM-1, MMP-9 mRNA expression and activity, and NF-κB transcriptional activity when stimulated with the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1β, the bacterial products fsl-1 or flagellin, or the viral dsRNA analogue poly(I:C. These data suggest that, in states of heightened inflammation, DREAM mRNA expression is increased and that, in myometrial and amnion cells, DREAM regulates proinflammatory and prolabour mediators which may be mediated via NF-κB.

  18. Inflammatory gene regulatory networks in amnion cells following cytokine stimulation: translational systems approach to modeling human parturition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Li

    Full Text Available A majority of the studies examining the molecular regulation of human labor have been conducted using single gene approaches. While the technology to produce multi-dimensional datasets is readily available, the means for facile analysis of such data are limited. The objective of this study was to develop a systems approach to infer regulatory mechanisms governing global gene expression in cytokine-challenged cells in vitro, and to apply these methods to predict gene regulatory networks (GRNs in intrauterine tissues during term parturition. To this end, microarray analysis was applied to human amnion mesenchymal cells (AMCs stimulated with interleukin-1β, and differentially expressed transcripts were subjected to hierarchical clustering, temporal expression profiling, and motif enrichment analysis, from which a GRN was constructed. These methods were then applied to fetal membrane specimens collected in the absence or presence of spontaneous term labor. Analysis of cytokine-responsive genes in AMCs revealed a sterile immune response signature, with promoters enriched in response elements for several inflammation-associated transcription factors. In comparison to the fetal membrane dataset, there were 34 genes commonly upregulated, many of which were part of an acute inflammation gene expression signature. Binding motifs for nuclear factor-κB were prominent in the gene interaction and regulatory networks for both datasets; however, we found little evidence to support the utilization of pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP signaling. The tissue specimens were also enriched for transcripts governed by hypoxia-inducible factor. The approach presented here provides an uncomplicated means to infer global relationships among gene clusters involved in cellular responses to labor-associated signals.

  19. Effect of barbiturates on radiosensitivity of cells: a comparative study of electrophoretic mobility, colony forming ability and thymidine uptake on human amnion cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lalwani, N.D.; Chaubal, K.A.

    1980-01-01

    Suspensions of human amnion cells were 60 Co γ-irradiated in the presence of phenobarbital or thiobarbital (50 μg/ml). The barbiturates protected the cells against the dose-dependent reduction in electrophoretic mobility (EPM) observed 4 hours after irradiation of untreated cells, although there was an initial decrease in the EPM of treated cells followed by recovery. Treated irradiated cells exhibited greater colony-forming ability than the untreated cells. Pentobarbital and phenobarbital had similar effects, but thiobarbital was not so effective. 3 H-TdR uptake increased within 4 hours of irradiation for the treated cells. The reproductive capacity of the cells was retained at doses as high as 500 rad. The results are discussed with reference to the effects of anaesthetics on cell membranes. (U.K.)

  20. Role of human amnion-derived mesenchymal stem cells in promoting osteogenic differentiation by influencing p38 MAPK signaling in lipopolysaccharide -induced human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yuli; Wu, Hongxia; Shen, Ming; Ding, Siyang; Miao, Jing; Chen, Ning

    2017-01-01

    Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease induced by bacterial pathogens, which not only affect connective tissue attachments but also cause alveolar bone loss. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of Human amnion-derived mesenchymal stem cells (HAMSCs) on human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (HBMSCs) under lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory conditions. Proliferation levels were measured by flow cytometry and immunofluorescence staining of 5-ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine (EdU). Osteoblastic differentiation and mineralization were investigated using chromogenic alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP) activity substrate assays, Alizarin red S staining, and RT-PCR analysis of HBMSCs osteogenic marker expression. Oxidative stress induced by LPS was investigated by assaying reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. Here, we demonstrated that HAMSCs increased the proliferation, osteoblastic differentiation, and SOD activity of LPS-induced HBMSCs, and down-regulated the ROS level. Moreover, our results suggested that the activation of p38 MAPK signal transduction pathway is essential for reversing the LPS-induced bone-destructive processes. SB203580, a selective inhibitor of p38 MAPK signaling, significantly suppressed the anti-inflammatory effects in HAMSCs. In conclusion, HAMSCs show a strong potential in treating inflammation-induced bone loss by influencing p38 MAPK signaling. - Highlights: • LPS inhibites osteogenic differentiation in HBMSCs via suppression of p38 MAPK signaling pathway. • HAMSCs promote LPS-induced HBMSCs osteogenic differentiation through p38 MAPK signaling pathway. • HAMSCs reverse LPS-induced oxidative stress in LPS-induced HBMSCs through p38 MAPK signaling pathway.

  1. Contribution of aquaporin 9 and multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 to differential sensitivity to arsenite between primary cultured chorion and amnion cells prepared from human fetal membranes

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    Yoshino, Yuta [Department of Clinical Molecular Genetics, School of Pharmacy, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, 1432-1 Horinouchi, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0392 (Japan); Yuan, Bo, E-mail: yuanbo@toyaku.ac.jp [Department of Clinical Molecular Genetics, School of Pharmacy, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, 1432-1 Horinouchi, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0392 (Japan); Department of Bioengineering and Therapeutic Sciences, University of California San Francisco, 1550 4th St, RH584E Box 2911 San Francisco, CA 94158-2911 (United States); Kaise, Toshikazu [Laboratory of Environmental Chemodynamics, School of Life Sciences, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, 1432-1 Horinouchi, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0392 (Japan); Takeichi, Makoto [Yoneyama Maternity Hospital, 2-12 Shin-machi, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0065 (Japan); Tanaka, Sachiko; Hirano, Toshihiko [Department of Clinical Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, 1432-1 Horinouchi, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0392 (Japan); Kroetz, Deanna L. [Department of Bioengineering and Therapeutic Sciences, University of California San Francisco, 1550 4th St, RH584E Box 2911 San Francisco, CA 94158-2911 (United States); Toyoda, Hiroo [Department of Clinical Molecular Genetics, School of Pharmacy, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, 1432-1 Horinouchi, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0392 (Japan)

    2011-12-15

    Arsenic trioxide (arsenite, As{sup III}) has shown a remarkable clinical efficacy, whereas its side effects are still a serious concern. Therefore, it is critical to understand the effects of As{sup III} on human-derived normal cells for revealing the mechanisms underlying these side effects. We examined the effects of As{sup III} on primary cultured chorion (C) and amnion (A) cells prepared from human fetal membranes. A significant dose-dependent As{sup III}-mediated cytotoxicity was observed in the C-cells accompanied with an increase of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release. Higher concentrations of As{sup III} were required for the A-cells to show cytotoxicity and LDH release, suggesting that the C-cells were more sensitive to As{sup III} than the A-cells. The expression levels of aquaporin 9 (AQP9) were approximately 2 times higher in the C-cells than those in the A-cells. Both intracellular arsenic accumulation and its cytotoxicity in the C-cells were significantly abrogated by sorbitol, a competitive AQP9 inhibitor, in a dose-dependent manner. The protein expression levels of multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) 2 were downregulated by As{sup III} in the C-cells, but not in the A-cells. No significant differences in the expression levels of MRP1 were observed between C- and A-cells. The protein expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) was hardly detected in both cells, although a detectable amount of its mRNA was observed. Cyclosporine A, a broad-spectrum inhibitor for ABC transporters, and MK571, a MRP inhibitor, but not PGP-4008, a P-gp specific inhibitor, potently sensitized both cells to As{sup III}-mediated cytotoxicity. These results suggest that AQP9 and MRP2 are involved in controlling arsenic accumulation in these normal cells, which then contribute to differential sensitivity to As{sup III} cytotoxicity between these cells. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Examination of effect of As{sup III} on primary cultured chorion (C) and amnion

  2. Contribution of aquaporin 9 and multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 to differential sensitivity to arsenite between primary cultured chorion and amnion cells prepared from human fetal membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshino, Yuta; Yuan, Bo; Kaise, Toshikazu; Takeichi, Makoto; Tanaka, Sachiko; Hirano, Toshihiko; Kroetz, Deanna L.; Toyoda, Hiroo

    2011-01-01

    Arsenic trioxide (arsenite, As III ) has shown a remarkable clinical efficacy, whereas its side effects are still a serious concern. Therefore, it is critical to understand the effects of As III on human-derived normal cells for revealing the mechanisms underlying these side effects. We examined the effects of As III on primary cultured chorion (C) and amnion (A) cells prepared from human fetal membranes. A significant dose-dependent As III -mediated cytotoxicity was observed in the C-cells accompanied with an increase of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release. Higher concentrations of As III were required for the A-cells to show cytotoxicity and LDH release, suggesting that the C-cells were more sensitive to As III than the A-cells. The expression levels of aquaporin 9 (AQP9) were approximately 2 times higher in the C-cells than those in the A-cells. Both intracellular arsenic accumulation and its cytotoxicity in the C-cells were significantly abrogated by sorbitol, a competitive AQP9 inhibitor, in a dose-dependent manner. The protein expression levels of multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) 2 were downregulated by As III in the C-cells, but not in the A-cells. No significant differences in the expression levels of MRP1 were observed between C- and A-cells. The protein expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) was hardly detected in both cells, although a detectable amount of its mRNA was observed. Cyclosporine A, a broad-spectrum inhibitor for ABC transporters, and MK571, a MRP inhibitor, but not PGP-4008, a P-gp specific inhibitor, potently sensitized both cells to As III -mediated cytotoxicity. These results suggest that AQP9 and MRP2 are involved in controlling arsenic accumulation in these normal cells, which then contribute to differential sensitivity to As III cytotoxicity between these cells. -- Highlights: ► Examination of effect of As III on primary cultured chorion (C) and amnion (A) cells. ► Dose-dependent As III -mediated cytotoxicity in C

  3. Studies of hemidesmosomes in human amnion: the use of a detergent extraction protocol for compositional and ultrastructural analysis and preparation of a hemidesmosome-enriched fraction from tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behzad, F; Jones, C J; Ball, S; Alvares, T; Aplin, J D

    1995-01-01

    A method is described for the sequential detergent and high ionic strength extraction of human amnion with the progressive enrichment of the intermediate filament (IF) cytoskeleton and its associated structures including hemidesmosomes (HD). TEM of the extracted epithelium in situ reveals IF bundles beneath the apical cell surface, around the nucleus and at the lateral edges of the cells where association with desmosomes occurs. IF bundles are also very prominent within basal cell processes where they loop through the cytoplasm adjacent to the HDs. A novel connecting filament network is observed running between the IFs and the hemidesmosomal dense plaque. The adjacent IF network contains both cytokeratin and vimentin, the latter revealed much more fully as a result of the extraction protocol. The hemidesmosomal plasma membrane contains integrin subunits alpha 6 and beta 4 and these are quantitatively retained as the basal cell surface during extraction, while nonjunctional plasma membrane is solubilised. Integrin beta 1 is found at the basolateral cell surface but, like actin, is extracted quantitatively and is not present in HDs. The extracted epithelial cells may be recovered by scraping and the IF network depolymerised to produce a particulate fraction containing short residual IFs, associated thin filaments and plaque material. This fraction contains immunoreactive cytokeratin and vimentin. Integrin alpha 6 beta 4 has been used as a biochemical criterion of the presence of HD material in the fraction. Both subunits are highly enriched. The fraction also contains the hemidesmosomal components HD1, BP230 and BP180. This method is likely to be useful in further characterisation of the HD.

  4. Comparison of the effects of taurine and magnesium on electrical characteristics of artificial and natural membranes. V. Study on the human amnion of the antagonism between magnesium, taurine and polluting metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bara, M.; Guiet-Bara, A.; Durlach, J.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of metal pollutants (Pb, Cd, Hg, As) were studied on strips of human amnion isolated from the placental zone put in between two Ussing chambers with Hanks' solution at 37 degrees C and pH 7.4. The total conductance Gt through the human isolated amnion was decreased on the fetal side by Pb and As; on the maternal side by Cd, Hg and As. When Gt was decreased by metal pollutants, Mg or taurine (TA) were added in the external medium to induce an antagonism between Mg or TA and metal pollutants. The addition of Mg increased significantly the Gt reduced by Pb, Cd and Hg, but had no effect on the Gt reduced by As. The addition of taurine increased significantly the Gt reduced by Cd and Hg, but had no effect on the Gt reduced by Pb and As. Dixon's kinetics (Gt as a function of the Mg or TA concentration when the metal pollutant concentration increased) indicate that there is a competitive inhibition between Mg-Pb and Mg-Cd (the inhibition constant Ki is lower with Pb (= 2.5) than with Cd (= 11.4) and suggests a greater antagonism between Mg-Pb than between Mg-Cd). Moreover, there appears to be a noncompetitive inhibition between Mg-Hg, TA-Cd and TA-Hg. These results indicate that Mg and TA, on the fetal side, exert an action on the same sites and that, on the maternal side, their action takes place on the same sites and also on different ones. Also, TA can be considered as a partial magnesium agonist, at least in the human amnion.

  5. Amnion s and radio-sterilized porcine skin use as potential matrices for the development of human skin substitutes; Uso de amnios y piel porcina radioesterilizados como matrices potenciales para el desarrollo de sustitutos de piel humana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez P, M. E.; Reyes F, M. L.; Reboyo B, D. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Velasquillo M, M. C.; Sanchez S, R.; Brena M, A. M.; Ibarra P, J. C., E-mail: esther.martinez@inin.gob.mx [Instituto Nacional de Rehabilitacion, Calz. Mexico-Xochimilco No. 289, Col. Arenal de Guadalupe, 14389 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2014-10-15

    The injuries by burns constitute a primordial problem of public health; they cause a high mortality index, severe physical and psychological disability, etc. The autologous skin transplant is the replacement therapy recommended for its treatment, but in patients that present a high percentage of burnt skin; this is not possible to carry out. Another strategy is the transplant of donated skin; however, due to the little donation that exists in our country is not very feasible to apply this treatment. A challenge of the tissues engineering is to develop biological skin substitutes, based on cells and amnion s, favoring the cutaneous regeneration and quick repair of injuries, diminishing this way the hospitalization expenses. At present skin substitutes that can equal to the same skin do not exist. On the other hand, the mesenchymal stromal cells (Msc) represent an alternative to achieve this objective; since has been demonstrated that the Msc participate in the tissue repair by means of inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines and differentiation to dermal fibroblasts and keratinocytes. To apply the Msc in cutaneous injuries a support material is required that to allow transplanting these cells to a lesion or burn. The radio-sterilized human amnion and the radio-sterilized porcine skin, processed by the Radio-Sterilized Tissues Bank of the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ), are biomaterials that are used as temporary cutaneous coverings. We suppose that these two matrices will be appropriate for the growth and maintenance in cultivation of the Msc, to generate two biological skin substitutes, in collaboration with the Biotechnology Laboratory of the Instituto Nacional de Rehabilitacion. (Author)

  6. A multicenter, randomized, controlled clinical trial evaluating the use of dehydrated human amnion/chorion membrane allografts and multilayer compression therapy vs. multilayer compression therapy alone in the treatment of venous leg ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serena, Thomas E; Carter, Marissa J; Le, Lam T; Sabo, Matthew J; DiMarco, Daniel T

    2014-01-01

    Venous leg ulcers produce significant clinical and economic burdens on society and often require advanced wound therapy. The purpose of this multicenter, randomized, controlled study is to evaluate the safety and efficacy of one or two applications of dehydrated human amnion/chorion membrane allograft and multilayer compression therapy vs. multilayer compression therapy alone in the treatment of venous leg ulcers. The primary study outcome was the proportion of patients achieving 40% wound closure at 4 weeks. Of the 84 participants enrolled, 53 were randomized to receive allograft and 31 were randomized to the control group of multilayer compression therapy alone. At 4 weeks, 62% in the allograft group and 32% in the control group showed a greater than 40% wound closure (p = 0.005), thus showing a significant difference between the allograft-treated groups and the multilayer compression therapy alone group at the 4-week surrogate endpoint. After 4 weeks, wounds treated with allograft had reduced in size a mean of 48.1% compared with 19.0% for controls. Venous leg ulcers treated with allograft had a significant improvement in healing at 4 weeks compared with multilayer compression therapy alone. © 2014 by the Wound Healing Society.

  7. Gamma radiation sterilized amnion: use in ophthalmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez P, M. E.; Leon T, Y.; Vazquez M, L.

    2010-10-01

    Amnion processed at the Radio sterilized Tissue Bank at the National Institute of Nuclear Research, sterilized with 60 Co gamma radiation, have been used in Mexico since 2005 either as a graft to replace the damaged ocular surface, or as a patch to prevent unwanted inflammatory reactions. Patients from the Hospital General de Mexico (HGM) and Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS), suffering diverse pathologies such as keratoconjunctivitis; recurrent pterygium associated with symblepharon; corneal neuro trophic ulcers, chemical and thermal burns, and corneal thinning s, had been successfully treated with irradiated amnion. In the HGM, a clinical prospective study on lesions of the ocular surface of 17 eyes from 15 patients, affected with the above mentioned pathologies, was successful in 88.2%. The results have proven to be excellent as much for cosmetic purposes as for functional ones. Without the treatment, the patients could have suffered a healing after-effect or loss of sight. At IMSS, a controlled clinical randomized trial with 108 eyes from 100 patients, affected with primary nasal pterygium, was performed in 2009. These eyes were treated with radio sterilized amnion and intraoperative mitomycin C to prevent recurrence after excision of the primary pterygium. The preliminary results do not shown adverse reaction, inflammation and pain were significantly reduced radio sterilized amnion also offer security because they do no express antigens HLA-A, B or Dr and the sterile irradiated tissue do not provoke rejection or transmit an infective disease. (Author)

  8. Gamma radiation sterilized amnion: use in ophthalmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez P, M. E. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, Ocoyoacac 52750, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Leon T, Y. [Hospital General Regional 220, IMSS, Paseo Tollocan No. 620, Col. Vertice, Toluca 50150, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Vazquez M, L., E-mail: esther.martinez@inin.gob.m [Hospital General de Mexico, Dr. Balmis 148, Col. Doctores, 06720 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2010-10-15

    Amnion processed at the Radio sterilized Tissue Bank at the National Institute of Nuclear Research, sterilized with {sup 60}Co gamma radiation, have been used in Mexico since 2005 either as a graft to replace the damaged ocular surface, or as a patch to prevent unwanted inflammatory reactions. Patients from the Hospital General de Mexico (HGM) and Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS), suffering diverse pathologies such as keratoconjunctivitis; recurrent pterygium associated with symblepharon; corneal neuro trophic ulcers, chemical and thermal burns, and corneal thinning s, had been successfully treated with irradiated amnion. In the HGM, a clinical prospective study on lesions of the ocular surface of 17 eyes from 15 patients, affected with the above mentioned pathologies, was successful in 88.2%. The results have proven to be excellent as much for cosmetic purposes as for functional ones. Without the treatment, the patients could have suffered a healing after-effect or loss of sight. At IMSS, a controlled clinical randomized trial with 108 eyes from 100 patients, affected with primary nasal pterygium, was performed in 2009. These eyes were treated with radio sterilized amnion and intraoperative mitomycin C to prevent recurrence after excision of the primary pterygium. The preliminary results do not shown adverse reaction, inflammation and pain were significantly reduced radio sterilized amnion also offer security because they do no express antigens HLA-A, B or Dr and the sterile irradiated tissue do not provoke rejection or transmit an infective disease. (Author)

  9. Function and failure of the fetal membrane: Modelling the mechanics of the chorion and amnion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefaan W Verbruggen

    Full Text Available The fetal membrane surrounds the fetus during pregnancy and is a thin tissue composed of two layers, the chorion and the amnion. While rupture of this membrane normally occurs at term, preterm rupture can result in increased risk of fetal mortality and morbidity, as well as danger of infection in the mother. Although structural changes have been observed in the membrane in such cases, the mechanical behaviour of the human fetal membrane in vivo remains poorly understood and is challenging to investigate experimentally. Therefore, the objective of this study was to develop simplified finite element models to investigate the mechanical behaviour and rupture of the fetal membrane, particularly its constituent layers, under various physiological conditions. It was found that modelling the chorion and amnion as a single layer predicts remarkably different behaviour compared with a more anatomically-accurate bilayer, significantly underestimating stress in the amnion and under-predicting the risk of membrane rupture. Additionally, reductions in chorion-amnion interface lubrication and chorion thickness (reported in cases of preterm rupture both resulted in increased membrane stress. Interestingly, the inclusion of a weak zone in the fetal membrane that has been observed to develop overlying the cervix would likely cause it to fail at term, during labour. Finally, these findings support the theory that the amnion is the dominant structural component of the fetal membrane and is required to maintain its integrity. The results provide a novel insight into the mechanical effect of structural changes in the chorion and amnion, in cases of both normal and preterm rupture.

  10. Clinical studies on using lyophilised radiation sterilised amnion membranes as dressing for leprosy wound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarusarraya, P.; Basril, A.; Hilmy, N.

    1999-01-01

    Leprosy is a chronic disease caused by a bacillus Mycobacterium leprae and characterised by the formation of nodules or of macules that enlarge and spread accompanied by loss of sensation with eventual paralysis and production of deformities and mutilation. The wound of the disease can be treated by using conventional method such as Zinc Oxide (ZnO) Ointment with sterile gauze. Human amnion membranes have been used as a biological burn dressing with good results for several decades. A comparison study on using that conventional dressings and radiation sterilised lyophilised amnion membranes has been done at Sitanala Leprosarium to observe the effectiveness of using amnion membranes as leprosy wound dressing. Number of patients observed were 85, age from 12 to 60 years old. The locations of the wounds observed were at the leg and arm, with two types of wound i.e. reaction and simple ulcer. Parameter observed was the length of the healing time of the wounds. Results show that the average length of the healing time of the wound can be reduced from 64 days to 30 days when using amnion membranes compared to using the conventional wound dressing. The length of the healing time of the simple ulcer is longer that those of reaction wound using both of the dressings

  11. A Human Amnion-Derived Extracellular Matrix-Coated Cell-Free Scaffold for Cartilage Repair: In Vitro and In Vivo Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogami, Makiko; Kimura, Tomoatsu; Seki, Shoji; Matsui, Yoshito; Yoshida, Toshiko; Koike-Soko, Chika; Okabe, Motonori; Motomura, Hiraku; Gejo, Ryuichi; Nikaido, Toshio

    2016-04-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) derived from human amniotic mesenchymal cells (HAMs) has various biological activities. In this study, we developed a novel HAM-derived ECM-coated polylactic-co-glycolic acid (ECM-PLGA) scaffold, examined its property on mesenchymal cells, and investigated its potential as a cell-free scaffold for cartilage repair. ECM-PLGA scaffolds were developed by inoculating HAM on a PLGA. After decellularization by irradiation, accumulated ECM was examined. Exogenous cell growth and differentiation of rat mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) on the ECM-PLGA were analyzed in vitro by cell attachment/proliferation assay and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The cell-free ECM-PLGA scaffolds were implanted into osteochondral defects in the trochlear groove of rat knees. After 4, 12, or 24 weeks, the animals were sacrificed and the harvested tissues were examined histologically. The ECM-PLGA contained ECM that mimicked natural amniotic stroma that contains type I collagen, fibronectin, hyaluronic acid, and chondroitin sulfates. The ECM-PLGA showed excellent properties of cell attachment and proliferation. MSCs inoculated on the ECM-PLGA scaffold showed accelerated type II collagen mRNA expression after 3 weeks in culture. The ECM-PLGA implanted into an osteochondral defect in rat knees induced gradual tissue regeneration and resulted in hyaline cartilage repair, which was better than that in the empty control group. These in vitro and in vivo experiments show that the cell-free scaffold composed of HAM-derived ECM and PLGA provides a favorable growth environment for MSCs and facilitates the cartilage repair process. The ECM-PLGA may become a "ready-made" biomaterial for cartilage repair therapy.

  12. Radiation sterilisation dose determination for lyophilised amnion membranes and lyophilised bone grafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilmy, N.; Basril, A.; Febrida, A.

    1999-01-01

    Radiation sterilisation of medical products is now well established in commercial scale and at present there are more than two hundred irradiation facilities in operation throughout the world. It is a cold sterilisation process without toxic chemical residues, high degree of safety and easy to control, so that it is a safe technology to sterilise human tissue grafts. According to ISO (International Organisation of Standard) No. 11137, radiation sterilisation dose should be established based on the number of product's bioburden (number of product's contaminated microbes before irradiation). Bioburden of lyophilised amnion membranes and lyophilised bone grafts produced by Batan Research Tissue Bank (BRTB) have been determined since 1990 and 1994 consecutively by using 100 up to 120 pieces of samples per year. Results show that the average bioburden of the amnion membranes were 1.4 ( 0.2 x 103; 1.2 (0.2 x 103; 1.2 ( 1.2 x 103; 4.5 ( 0.5 x 102; 1.8 ( 0.9 x 102; 2.4 ( 2.3 x 102; 1.7(l.5 x 102; 1.5 ( 1.7 x 102 cells per sample, calculated in 1990 to 1997 consecutively and the average bioburden of the bonegrafts were 1.5 (0.4x 101; 0.25 (0.12 x 101; 0; 0 cells per sample, calculated in 1994 to 1997 consecutively. Morphological of those contaminants were found to be Gram positive coccoid forms (98%) and Gram positive vegetative rod (2%) with the D10 - values of 0.25 to 0.50 kGy. No spore forming bacteria and Gram negative bacteria were found in those contaminations. The highest bioburden of lyophilised amnion membranes and lyophilised bone grafts were found to be 4900 and 80 cells per sample consecutively, and the lowest was found to be 0 cell per sample in both of materials observed. According to ISO 11137 radiation sterilisation doses for amnion membranes were ranging between 21 to 25 kGy and for bone grafts was around 15 kGy with the Sterility Assurance Level (SAL) of 106. Since 1990, radiation sterilisation dose used for lyophilised amnion membranes produced by BRTB

  13. Timing of Histologic Progression from Chorio-Deciduitis to Chorio-Deciduo-Amnionitis in the Setting of Preterm Labor and Preterm Premature Rupture of Membranes with Sterile Amniotic Fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chan-Wook; Park, Joong Shin; Norwitz, Errol R; Moon, Kyung Chul; Jun, Jong Kwan; Yoon, Bo Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Histologic chorio-deciduitis and chorio-deciduo-amnionitis (amnionitis) in extra-placental membranes are known to represent the early and advanced stages of ascending intra-uterine infection. However, there are no data in humans about the time required for chorio-deciduitis to develop and for chorio-deciduitis without amnionitis to progress to chorio-deciduitis with amnionitis, and the effect of prolongation of pregnancy on the development of chorio-deciduitis and amnionitis in patients with preterm labor and intact membranes (PTL) and preterm premature rupture of membranes (preterm-PROM). We examined these issues in this study. The study population consisted of 289 women who delivered preterm (133 cases with PTL, and 156 cases with preterm-PROM) and who had sterile amniotic fluid (AF) defined as a negative AF culture and the absence of inflammation as evidenced by a matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8) level membranes (i.e., inflammation-free extra-placental membranes, choroi-deciduitis only, and chorio-deciduitis with amnionitis) in patients with PTL and preterm-PROM. Amniocentesis-to-delivery interval was longer in cases of chorio-deciduitis with amnionitis than in cases of chorio-deciduitis only in both PTL (median [interquartile-range (IQR)]; 645.4 [319.5] vs. 113.9 [526.9] hours; P = 0.005) and preterm-PROM (131.3 [135.4] vs. 95.2 [140.5] hours; Pmembranes. Moreover, prolongation of pregnancy is an independent predictor of the development of both chorio-deciduitis and amnionitis in cases of PTL with sterile AF.

  14. Staged closure of a giant omphalocele with amnion preservation, modified technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram H. Aljahdali

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Closure of a giant omphalocele can be challenging. Preservation of the amnion in staged closure is not commonly practiced. Here, we describe 2 cases of giant omphalocele treated with a modified amnion preservation, staged closure technique. This paper demonstrates the feasibility and safety of this technique, and the versatility of amnion to adapt to an escharization strategy if closure is not achievable.

  15. Comprehensive two-dimensional gel protein databases offer a global approach to the analysis of human cells: the transformed amnion cells (AMA) master database and its link to genome DNA sequence data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celis, J E; Gesser, B; Rasmussen, H H

    1990-01-01

    , mitochondria, Golgi, ribosomes, intermediate filaments, microfilaments and microtubules), levels in fetal human tissues, partial protein sequences (containing information on 48 human proteins microsequenced so far), cell cycle-regulated proteins, proteins sensitive to interferons alpha, beta, and gamma, heat...

  16. Amnioinfusion in preterm PROM: effects on amnion and cord histology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locatelli, A; Andreani, M; Ghidini, A; Verderio, M; Pizzardi, A; Vergani, P; Salafia, C M

    2008-02-01

    To investigate the effects of transabdominal amnioinfusion (TA) on the histology of amnion (A) and umbilical cord (UC). From a cohort of 56 singleton pregnancies with premature rupture of membranes (PROM) at

  17. Pregnancy outcome of monochorionic twins: does amnionicity matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Thiran; Contro, Elena; Thilaganathan, Basky; Khan, Hina; Zanardini, Cristina; Mahsud-Dornan, Samina; Bhide, Amar

    2011-12-01

    To compare the fetal loss rate of monochorionic (MC) twin pregnancies according to their amnionicity. A retrospective review of all MC pregnancy outcomes in a tertiary centre. Pregnancy outcomes were compared for monochorionic monoamniotic (MCMA) versus monochorionic diamniotic (MCDA) pregnancies. 29 MCMA and 117 MCDA twin pregnancies were identified. The overall fetal loss rate was significantly higher in MCMA (23/52, 44.2%) compared to MCDA pregnancies (28/233, 12%, Chi squared = 30.03, p fetal survival rate in MCDA twins were significantly higher than in MCMA twins (Log-rank Chi-squared = 27.9, p fetal losses in some MCMA twins. After exclusion of identifiable causes, the difference in fetal survival was not significant in the two groups (Log-rank chi-squared = 0.373, p = .54). The loss rate for MCMA twins is high and occurs mainly due to discordant congenital abnormality, conjoint twins or twin reversed arterial perfusion (TRAP) sequence. Although the fetal loss rate in MCDA is lower than in MCMA pregnancies, the majority of fetal loss in MCDA pregnancies cannot be predicted at the first scan at presentation. The data of this study questions the widespread policy of a difference in the scheduling of elective delivery for MCMA and MCDA twins.

  18. Research in Humans: Current Perspectives in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célia Alcantara Cunha Lima

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This work addressed the norms of ethics for human experimentation in Brazil, operationalized by the National Research Ethics Commission (CONEP of the National Health Council (CNS. It analyzed international principles of bioethics as a theoretical framework for the Brazilian regulation. National and international publications were reviewed, by Capes periodicals, relating to historical ethical infractions, such as reflection to the current day. It analyzed the law (PL 200/2015 of the Senate, which proposes flexibilities in Brazilian legislation and concluded that the requested changes should be discussed in depth by bioethicists, scientists and Brazilian lawyers with extended discussion to society.

  19. The advantages of the application of amnion membrane in the treatment of burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andonovska, D; Dzokic, Gj; Spasevska, L; Trajkovska, T; Popovska, K; Todorov, I; Petrovski, P; Kondov, G; Sapova, B; Marcikic, G; Atanasova, E; Obocki, E; Ugrinovska, J; Andonovski, D; Andonovski, D; Vasilevska, V; Mircevska-Zogovska, E

    2008-07-01

    A crucial and important factor for successful treatment of burns is the early covering of the burned area with skin substitutes. The covering of the burn requires material that restores the epidermal function and integrates itself into the process of healing. Biological dressings are the golden standard for the temporary covering of burns. All biological skin substitutes are susceptible to early graft reaction and the only exception is the amnion membrane. The importance of the amnion membrane as a biological dressing for burns amounts to: a barrier to bacterial colonization, hastens the epithelisation, and control of water loss. Amnioplasty is a method of application of amnion membrane on the recipient site. In this comparative study, 60 patients with dermal and sub-dermal burns were included. Research was made on an examination group of 30 patients with burns where the method of amnioplasty was applied, and for this amnion membrane conserved in 76% alcohol was used. The control group was made up of 30 patients with burns treated conventionally, and standard methods for the local treatment of burns were applied: exposition, occlusive dressing and initial excision with skin grafting. Pathohistological and microbiological analyses of the bioptical material were made. The degree of the burns was determined through a pathohistological analysis of the bioptical material taken the third day, and in some of the subjects where re-epithelialization was determined on the seventh day, the further re-epithelialization was observed clinically. Pathohistological examination enabled discrimination between bacterial colonization and the invasive bacterial infection. Furthermore, the type of bacterial colonization and infection was determined, which was confirmed with microbiological analysis. The analysis of the results from the microbiological and pathohistological researches of the bioptical material according to the bacterial colonization and infection showed that, although

  20. Current understanding of the human microbiome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, Jack A.; Blaser, Martin J.; Caporaso, J. Gregory; Jansson, Janet K.; Lynch, Susan V.; Knight, Rob

    2018-04-10

    Our understanding of the link between the human microbiome and disease, including obesity, inflammatory bowel disease, arthritis and autism, is rapidly expanding. Improvements in the throughput and accuracy of DNA sequencing of the genomes of microbial communities associated with human samples, complemented by analysis of transcriptomes, proteomes, metabolomes and immunomes, and mechanistic experiments in model systems, have vastly improved our ability to understand the structure and function of the microbiome in both diseased and healthy states. However, many challenges remain. In this Review we focus on studies in humans to describe these challenges, and propose strategies that leverage existing knowledge to move rapidly from correlation to causation, and ultimately to translation.

  1. Use of gamma-irradiated amnion as a biological dressing in the management of radiation induced ulcers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astrid Lobo Gajiwala; Cynthia D Lima; Urmila Samant; Vilas Mayekar

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The treatment of moist skin desquamation (ulceration) following radiation therapy focuses on promoting healing, preventing microbial infections, protecting from mechanical trauma and providing pain relief. Various dressings like hydrocolloid, 1% gentian violet and other topical applications are routinely used. This study evaluated the use of freeze-dried, irradiated amnion from the Tata Memorial Hospital Tissue Bank in the management of radiation ulcers from 2001 to 2007. During this period, 2095 amnion dressings were used in 554 patients (238 male and 316 female). The ulcer was cleaned with normal saline and the amnion applied directly on the affected area. No topical antibiotics were used. The ulcer sites were in the regions of the groin and perianal area (40.79%), head and neck (30.50%), breast and axilla (18.59%), limbs (5.78%), chest (2.70%) and back (1.62%). Healing occurred within 4 days to 14 days using a single application of amnion in 291 patients (52.53%), 2 dressings in 129 patients (23.28%) and 3 dressings in 74 patients (13.36%). The remaining 60 patients (10.83%) required four or more dressings which were used over a period of a month. The amnion dressing was found to be convenient to apply and adhered well to the affected areas without the use of any adhesives unlike with routine hydro-colloid dressing. This was particularly advantageous in sites with irregular contours such as the groin and perianal areas and the head and neck regions (71.29%). Patients experienced almost immediate pain relief and the need for analgesics was reduced. In the majority of patients healing occurred earlier than was usually obtained with routine dressings. The amnion dressing proved to be advantageous over co ventional dressings because of its convenience of use and cost effectiveness due to shorter duration of healing, fewer dressing changes and diminished use of analgesics and antibiotics. (Author)

  2. Amnion and Chorion Membranes: Potential Stem Cell Reservoir with Wide Applications in Periodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Akanksha; Kedige, Suresh D; Jain, Kanu

    2015-01-01

    The periodontal therapy usually aims at elimination of disease causing bacteria and resolution of inflammation. It involves either resective or regenerative surgery to resolve the inflammation associated defects. Over the years, several methods have been used for achievement of periodontal regeneration. One of the oldest biomaterials used for scaffolds is the fetal membrane. The amniotic membranes of developing embryo, that is, amnion (innermost lining) and chorion (a layer next to it), have the properties with significant potential uses in dentistry. This paper reviews the properties, mechanism of action, and various applications of these placental membranes in general and specifically in Periodontics.

  3. Human Genetics of Diabetic Retinopathy: Current Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel P. K. Ng

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic retinopathy (DR is a most severe microvascular complication which, if left unchecked, can be sight-threatening. With the global prevalence of diabetes being relentlessly projected to rise to 438 million subjects by 2030, DR will undoubtedly pose a major public health concern. Efforts to unravel the human genetics of DR have been undertaken using the candidate gene and linkage approaches, while GWAS efforts are still lacking. Aside from evidence for a few genes including aldose reductase and vascular endothelial growth factor, the genetics of DR remain poorly elucidated. Nevertheless, the promise of impactful scientific discoveries may be realized if concerted and collaborative efforts are mounted to identify the genes for DR. Harnessing new genetic technologies and resources such as the upcoming 1000 Genomes Project will help advance this field of research, and potentially lead to a rich harvest of insights into the biological mechanisms underlying this debilitating complication.

  4. Comparative study of regenerative effects of mesenchymal stem cells derived from placental amnion, chorion and umbilical cord on dermal wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertl, Juliane; Pichlsberger, Melanie; Tuca, Alexandru-Cristian; Wurzer, Paul; Fuchs, Jakob; Geyer, Stefan H; Maurer-Gesek, Barbara; Weninger, Wolfgang J; Pfeiffer, Dagmar; Bubalo, Vladimir; Parvizi, Daryousch; Kamolz, Lars-Peter; Lang, Ingrid

    2018-05-01

    Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells derived from human term placentas (PMSCs) are novel therapeutic agents and more topical than ever. Here we evaluated the effects of three types of PMSCs on wound healing in an in vivo mouse model: Amnion-derived MSCs (AMSCs), blood vessel-derived MSCs (BV-MSCs) from the chorionic plate and Wharton's jelly-derived MSCs (WJ-MSCs) from the umbilical cord. We topically applied PMSCs onto skin wounds in mice using the dermal substitute Matriderm ® as carrier and evaluated wound healing parameters. In addition, we investigated the effects of all PMSC types under co-application with placental endothelial cells (PLECs). After 8 days, we compared the percent of wound closure and the angiogenic potential between all groups. AMSCs, BV-MSCs and WJ-MSCs significantly induced a faster healing and a higher number of blood vessels in the wound when compared to controls (Matriderm ® -alone). PLECs did not further improve the advantageous effects of PMSC-treatment. Quantitative data and 3D analysis by high resolution episcopic microscopy confirmed a lower density of vessels in Matriderm ® /PMSCs/PLECs co-application compared to Matriderm ® /PMSCs treatment. Results indicate that all three PMSC types exert similar beneficial effects on wound closure and neovascularization in our mouse model. Using Matriderm ® as carrier for PMSCs propagates rapid cell migration towards the wound area that allows a fast and clinically practicable method for stem cell application. These promising effects warrant further investigation in clinical trials. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Amnion as a surrogate tissue reporter of the effects of maternal preeclampsia on the fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Masako; Maekawa, Ryo; Patterson, Nicole E; Reynolds, David M; Calder, Brent R; Reznik, Sandra E; Heo, Hye J; Einstein, Francine Hughes; Greally, John M

    2016-01-01

    Preeclampsia, traditionally characterized by high blood pressure and proteinuria, is a common pregnancy complication, which affects 2-8 % of all pregnancies. Although children born to women with preeclampsia have a higher risk of hypertension in later life, the mechanism of this increased risk is unknown. DNA methylation is an epigenetic modification that has been studied as a mediator of cellular memory of adverse exposures in utero. Since each cell type in the body has a unique DNA profile, cell subtype composition is a major confounding factor in studies of tissues with heterogeneous cell types. The best way to avoid this confounding effect is by using purified cell types. However, using purified cell types in large cohort translational studies is difficult. The amnion, the inner layer of the fetal membranes of the placenta, is derived from the epiblast and consists of two cell types, which are easy to isolate from the delivered placenta. In this study, we demonstrate the value of using amnion samples for DNA methylation studies, revealing distinctive patterns between fetuses exposed to proteinuria or hypertension and fetuses from normal pregnancies. We performed a genome-wide DNA methylation analysis, HpaII tiny fragment Enrichment by Ligation-mediated PCR (HELP)-tagging, on 62 amnion samples from the placentas of uncomplicated, normal pregnancies and from those with complications of preeclampsia or hypertension. Using a regression model approach, we found 123, 85, and 99 loci with high-confidence hypertension-associated, proteinuria-associated, and hypertension- and proteinuria-associated DNA methylation changes, respectively. A gene ontology analysis showed DNA methylation changes to be selecting genes with different biological processes in exposure status. We also found that these differentially methylated regions overlap loci previously reported as differentially methylated regions in preeclampsia. Our findings support prior observations that preeclampsia

  6. Human pharmacology of current and new treatments for schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liem-Moolenaar, Marieke

    2012-01-01

    The studies in this thesis together show different ways of studying human pharmacology, give an impression of the current drug development in schizophrenia, and provide examples how human pharmacology can be applied in an early stage of drug development in healthy volunteers. The investigated

  7. Cloning humans? Current science, current views, and a perspective from Christianity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, Rudolf B

    2002-01-01

    Therapeutic cloning is urgent and should be vigorously supported. To successfully argue for this position, the distinction between a human embryo and a human nuclear transplant may be helpful. Even if current technical difficulties should be solved, global legislation should prohibit cloning for the purpose of fabricating babies. This position originates from a view on human nature in general and from a Christian perspective in particular.

  8. Academic Freedom, Critique and the Humanities: some current ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article presents some of the current challenges facing academic freedom and the humanities in South Africa as well as across the world. It focuses first on the shifting fortunes of academic freedom in South Africa, contrasting the pride of place given to it in the pre-1994 social imaginary with its current undermining in ...

  9. Radiosensitivity of angiogenic and mitogenic factors in human amniotic membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deocaris, Custer C.; De Guzman, Zenaida M.; Deocaris, Chester C.; Jacinto, Sonia D.

    2003-01-01

    Amniotic membrane as a temporary biological dressing remains as a beneficial and cost-effective means of treating burns in developing countries. This medical application is attributed mainly to placental structural and biochemical features that are important for maintaining proper embryonic development. Since fresh amnions are nevertheless for straightforward clinical use and for preservation, radiation-sterilization is been performed to improve the safety of this placental material. However, like any other sterilization method, gamma-radiation may induce physical and chemical changes that may influence the biological property of the material. Thus, the aim of this study is to compare the effects of various levels of radiation-sterilization protocols for human amnions on angiogenic (neovascularization) and epithelial-mitogenic activities, both of which are physiological processes fundamental to wound healing. Water-soluble extract of non-irradiated amnions demonstrates a strong stimulatory effect on both cell proliferation and angiogenesis. No change in biological activity is seen in amnions irradiated at 25 kGy, the sterilization dose used by the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI) for the production of radiation-sterilized human amniotic membranes (RSHAM). However, it appears that amniotic angiogenic factors are more radiosensitive than its mitogenic components, evident from the depressed vascularization of the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) exposed to 35 kGy-irradiated amnions. The dose of 35 kGy is at present the medical sterilization dose used at the Central Tissue Bank in Warsaw (Poland) for the preparation of their amnion allografts. (Authors)

  10. Evaluation of the cranial base in amnion rupture sequence involving the anterior neural tube: implications regarding recurrence risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kenneth Lyons; Robinson, Luther K; Benirschke, Kurt

    2006-09-01

    Amniotic bands can cause disruption of the cranial end of the developing fetus, leading in some cases to a neural tube closure defect. Although recurrence for unaffected parents of an affected child with a defect in which the neural tube closed normally but was subsequently disrupted by amniotic bands is negligible; for a primary defect in closure of the neural tube to which amnion has subsequently adhered, recurrence risk is 1.7%. In that primary defects of neural tube closure are characterized by typical abnormalities of the base of the skull, evaluation of the cranial base in such fetuses provides an approach for making a distinction between these 2 mechanisms. This distinction has implications regarding recurrence risk. The skull base of 2 fetuses with amnion rupture sequence involving the cranial end of the neural tube were compared to that of 1 fetus with anencephaly as well as that of a structurally normal fetus. The skulls were cleaned, fixed in 10% formalin, recleaned, and then exposed to 10% KOH solution. After washing and recleaning, the skulls were exposed to hydrogen peroxide for bleaching and photography. Despite involvement of the anterior neural tube in both fetuses with amnion rupture sequence, in Case 3 the cranial base was normal while in Case 4 the cranial base was similar to that seen in anencephaly. This technique provides a method for determining the developmental pathogenesis of anterior neural tube defects in cases of amnion rupture sequence. As such, it provides information that can be used to counsel parents of affected children with respect to recurrence risk.

  11. The current crisis in human resources for health in Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Overview. The current crisis in human resources for health in. Africa has reached a serious level in many countries. A complex set of reasons has contributed to this problem, some exogenous, such as the severe economic measures introduced by structural adjustment, which often result in cutbacks in the number of health ...

  12. Apamin does not inhibit human cardiac Na+ current, L-type Ca2+ current or other major K+ currents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Chieh Yu

    Full Text Available Apamin is commonly used as a small-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (SK current inhibitor. However, the specificity of apamin in cardiac tissues remains unclear.To test the hypothesis that apamin does not inhibit any major cardiac ion currents.We studied human embryonic kidney (HEK 293 cells that expressed human voltage-gated Na+, K+ and Ca2+ currents and isolated rabbit ventricular myocytes. Whole-cell patch clamp techniques were used to determine ionic current densities before and after apamin administration.Ca2+ currents (CACNA1c+CACNB2b were not affected by apamin (500 nM (data are presented as median [25th percentile;75th percentile] (from -16 [-20;-10] to -17 [-19;-13] pA/pF, P = NS, but were reduced by nifedipine to -1.6 [-3.2;-1.3] pA/pF (p = 0.008. Na+ currents (SCN5A were not affected by apamin (from -261 [-282;-145] to -268 [-379;-132] pA/pF, P = NS, but were reduced by flecainide to -57 [-70;-47] pA/pF (p = 0.018. None of the major K+ currents (IKs, IKr, IK1 and Ito were inhibited by 500 nM of apamin (KCNQ1+KCNE1, from 28 [20]; [37] to 23 [18]; [32] pA/pF; KCNH2+KCNE2, from 28 [24]; [30] to 27 [24]; [29] pA/pF; KCNJ2, from -46 [-48;-40] to -46 [-51;-35] pA/pF; KCND3, from 608 [505;748] to 606 [454;684]. Apamin did not inhibit the INa or ICaL in isolated rabbit ventricular myocytes (INa, from -67 [-75;-59] to -68 [-71;-59] pA/pF; ICaL, from -16 [-17;-14] to -14 [-15;-13] pA/pF, P = NS for both.Apamin does not inhibit human cardiac Na+ currents, L-type Ca2+ currents or other major K+ currents. These findings indicate that apamin is a specific SK current inhibitor in hearts as well as in other organs.

  13. Human Factors Engineering: Current Practices and Development Needs in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savioja, Paula; Norros, Leena; Liinasuo, Marja; Laarni, Jari [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Finland (Finland)

    2011-08-15

    This paper describes initial findings from a study concerning the practices and development needs of Human Factors Engineering (HFE) in Finland. HFE is increasing in importance as the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority Finland (STUK) is renewing the regulatory guidelines and the intention is to include requirements concerning HFE. The motivation for the paper is to discover how HFE is conducted currently in order to envision what should be aimed at when modifying requirements for design practices. In an interview with STUK it was discovered that current HFE practices encompass mainly activities related to control room modifications and as such namely verification and validation of new designs. The adoption of the entire HFE process in design and modification projects requires changes that include better integration of technical and Human Factors Engineering approaches. Boundary objects that mediate between different design disciplines are needed in order to enforce the stronger integration. Concept of operations (CONOPS) is suggested as a such boundary object.

  14. Current applications of human pluripotent stem cells: possibilities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Pai-Jiun; Yen, Men-Luh; Yet, Shaw-Fang; Yen, B Linju

    2012-01-01

    Stem cells are self-renewable cells with the differentiation capacity to develop into somatic cells with biological functions. This ability to sustain a renewable source of multi- and/or pluripotential differentiation has brought new hope to the field of regenerative medicine in terms of cell therapy and tissue engineering. Moreover, stem cells are invaluable tools as in vitro models for studying diverse fields, from basic scientific questions such as developmental processes and lineage commitment, to practical application including drug screening and testing. The stem cells with widest differentiation potential are pluripotent stem cells (PSCs), which are rare cells with the ability to generate somatic cells from all three germ layers. PSCs are considered the most optimal choice for therapeutic potential of stem cells, bringing new impetus to the field of regenerative medicine. In this article, we discuss the therapeutic potential of human PSCs (hPSCs) including human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs), reviewing the current preclinical and clinical data using these stem cells. We describe the classification of different sources of hPSCs, ongoing research, and currently encountered clinical obstacles of these novel and versatile human stem cells.

  15. Current understanding of mdig/MINA in human cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Chitra; Chen, Fei

    2015-07-01

    Mineral dust-induced gene, mdig has recently been identified and is known to be overexpressed in a majority of human cancers and holds predictive power in the poor prognosis of the disease. Mdig is an environmentally expressed gene that is involved in cell proliferation, neoplastic transformation and immune regulation. With the advancement in deciphering the prognostic role of mdig in human cancers, our understanding on how mdig renders a normal cell to undergo malignant transformation is still very limited. This article reviews the current knowledge of the mdig gene in context to human neoplasias and its relation to the clinico-pathologic factors predicting the outcome of the disease in patients. It also emphasizes on the promising role of mdig that can serve as a potential candidate for biomarker discovery and as a therapeutic target in inflammation and cancers. Considering the recent advances in understanding the underlying mechanisms of tumor formation, more preclinical and clinical research is required to validate the potential of using mdig as a novel biological target of therapeutic and diagnostic value. Expression level of mdig influences the prognosis of several human cancers especially cancers of the breast and lung. Evaluation of mdig in cancers can offer novel biomarker with potential therapeutic interventions for the early assessment of cancer development in patients.

  16. Experiment of amnion epithelial cell suspension liquid used for acute rabbit corneal alkali burn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Yan Zhang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the effects of amnion epithelial cell(AECsuspension liquid on the biological behavior of the rabbit's corneal epithelium, combined with the in vitro and in vivo experiments. METHODS: The rabbit's corneal epithelium were cultured in the lower chamber of transwell, and AEC suspension liquid was dropwised in the upper chamber. There was only culture medium in the upper chamber of the control group. The proliferation of rabbit's corneal epithelium was observed with CCK-8 automated colorimetry and the expression of PCNA was detected by immunocytochemistry. We used the scratch wound assay to detect the migration of corneal epithelial cell(CEC. The in vivo models were established by placing a 10mm diameter corneal trephine in the center of the cornea, within 1mol/L NaOH for 1min. We divided those into three groups: treatment group of AEC suspension liquid eye drop, AEC suspension liquid subconjunctival injection and the control group without any treatment. Using the slit-lamp biomicroscope and fluorescence staining to observe the cornea per week. After 28d we took the eyeballs with the HE staining. The expression of VEGF was detected by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: The activity of CEC with AEC treatment was much higher than the control group(PPIn vivo, the inflammation of the corneal and the CNV of the AEC group were all significantly reduced compared with the control group(PPCONCLUSION: AEC suspension liquid can promote the proliferation and migration of the rabbit's corneal epithelium. The potential of AEC suspension liquid as a therapy for acute corneal alkali burn.

  17. Self-organized amniogenesis by human pluripotent stem cells in a biomimetic implantation-like niche

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yue; Taniguchi, Kenichiro; Gurdziel, Katherine; Townshend, Ryan F.; Xue, Xufeng; Yong, Koh Meng Aw; Sang, Jianming; Spence, Jason R.; Gumucio, Deborah L.; Fu, Jianping

    2017-04-01

    Amniogenesis--the development of amnion--is a critical developmental milestone for early human embryogenesis and successful pregnancy. However, human amniogenesis is poorly understood due to limited accessibility to peri-implantation embryos and a lack of in vitro models. Here we report an efficient biomaterial system to generate human amnion-like tissue in vitro through self-organized development of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) in a bioengineered niche mimicking the in vivo implantation environment. We show that biophysical niche factors act as a switch to toggle hPSC self-renewal versus amniogenesis under self-renewal-permissive biochemical conditions. We identify a unique molecular signature of hPSC-derived amnion-like cells and show that endogenously activated BMP-SMAD signalling is required for the amnion-like tissue development by hPSCs. This study unveils the self-organizing and mechanosensitive nature of human amniogenesis and establishes the first hPSC-based model for investigating peri-implantation human amnion development, thereby helping advance human embryology and reproductive medicine.

  18. The NASA Human Space Flight Supply Chain, Current and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Edgar

    2007-01-01

    The current NASA Human Space Flight transportation system, the Space Shuttle, is scheduled for final flight in 2010. The Exploration initiative will create a new capability with a combination of existing systems and new flight and ground elements. To fully understand and act on the implications of such change it is necessary to understand what, how, when and where such changes occur and more importantly, how all these interact. This paper presents Human Space Flight, with an emphasis on KSC Launch and Landing, as a Supply Chain of both information and materials. A supply chain methodology for understanding the flow of information and materials is presented. Further, modeling and simulation projects funded by the Exploration initiative to understand the NASA Exploration Supply Chain are explained. Key concepts and their purpose, including the Enterprise, Locations, Physical and Organizational Functional Units, Products, and Resources, are explained. It is shown that the art, science and perspective of Supply Chain Management is not only applicable to such a government & contractor operation, it is also an invaluable approach for understanding, focusing improvement and growth. It is shown that such commercial practice applies to Human Space Flight and is invaluable towards one day creating routine, affordable access to and from space.

  19. Inflammatory Response of Human Gestational Membranes to Ureaplasma parvum Using a Novel Dual-Chamber Tissue Explant System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, Lauren C; Feng, Liping; Seed, Patrick C; Jayes, Friederike L; Kuchibhatla, Maragatha; Antczak, Brian; Nazzal, Matthew K; Murtha, Amy P

    2016-05-01

    Preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) is often associated with intra-amniotic inflammation and infection. Current understanding of the pathogenesis of PPROM includes activation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and proteolytic enzymes leading to compromise of membrane integrity. The impact of exposure to bacterial pathogens, including Ureaplasma parvum, on gestational membranes is poorly understood. Our objective was to develop a dual-chamber system to characterize the inflammatory response of gestational membranes to U. parvum in a directional nature. Full-thickness human gestational membrane explants, with either choriodecidua or amnion oriented superiorly, were suspended between two washers in a cylindrical device, creating two distinct compartments. Brilliant green dye was introduced into the top chamber to assess the integrity of the system. Tissue viability was evaluated after 72 h using a colorimetric cell proliferation assay. Choriodecidua or amnion was exposed to three doses of U. parvum and incubated for 24 h. Following treatment, media from each compartment were used for quantification of U. parvum (quantitative PCR), interleukin (IL)-8 (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay), and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 activity (zymography). We observed that system integrity and explant viability were maintained over 72 h. Dose-dependent increases in recovered U. parvum, IL-8 concentration, and MMP-2 activity were detected in both compartments. Significant differences in IL-8 concentration and MMP-9 activity were found between the choriodecidua and amnion. This tissue explant system can be used to investigate the inflammatory consequences of directional bacterial exposure for gestational membranes and provides insight into the pathogenesis of PPROM and infectious complications of pregnancy. © 2016 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  20. Current Human Reliability Analysis Methods Applied to Computerized Procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald L. Boring

    2012-06-01

    Computerized procedures (CPs) are an emerging technology within nuclear power plant control rooms. While CPs have been implemented internationally in advanced control rooms, to date no US nuclear power plant has implemented CPs in its main control room (Fink et al., 2009). Yet, CPs are a reality of new plant builds and are an area of considerable interest to existing plants, which see advantages in terms of enhanced ease of use and easier records management by omitting the need for updating hardcopy procedures. The overall intent of this paper is to provide a characterization of human reliability analysis (HRA) issues for computerized procedures. It is beyond the scope of this document to propose a new HRA approach or to recommend specific methods or refinements to those methods. Rather, this paper serves as a review of current HRA as it may be used for the analysis and review of computerized procedures.

  1. Findings from analysing and quantifying human error using current methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang, V.N.; Reer, B.

    1999-01-01

    In human reliability analysis (HRA), the scarcity of data means that, at best, judgement must be applied to transfer to the domain of the analysis what data are available for similar tasks. In particular for the quantification of tasks involving decisions, the analyst has to choose among quantification approaches that all depend to a significant degree on expert judgement. The use of expert judgement can be made more reliable by eliciting relative judgements rather than absolute judgements. These approaches, which are based on multiple criterion decision theory, focus on ranking the tasks to be analysed by difficulty. While these approaches remedy at least partially the poor performance of experts in the estimation of probabilities, they nevertheless require the calibration of the relative scale on which the actions are ranked in order to obtain the probabilities of interest. This paper presents some results from a comparison of some current HRA methods performed in the frame of a study of SLIM calibration options. The HRA quantification methods THERP, HEART, and INTENT were applied to derive calibration human error probabilities for two groups of operator actions. (author)

  2. Stem cell therapy to protect and repair the developing brain: a review of mechanisms of action of cord blood and amnion epithelial derived cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margie eCastillo-Melendez

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In the research, clinical and wider community there is great interest in the use of stem cells to reduce the progression, or indeed repair brain injury. Perinatal brain injury may result from acute or chronic insults sustained during fetal development, during the process of birth, or in the newborn period. The most readily identifiable outcome of perinatal brain injury is cerebral palsy, however this is just one consequence in a spectrum of mild to severe neurological deficits. As we review, there are now clinical trials taking place worldwide targeting cerebral palsy with stem cell therapies. It will likely be many years before strong evidence-based results emerge from these trials. With such trials underway, it is both appropriate and timely to address the physiological basis for the efficacy of stem-like cells in preventing damage to, or regenerating, the newborn brain. Appropriate experimental animal models are best placed to deliver this information. Cell availability, the potential for immunological rejection, ethical and logistical considerations, together with the propensity for native cells to form terratomas, make it unlikely that embryonic or fetal stem cells will be practical. Fortunately, these issues do not pertain to the use of human amnion epithelial cells (hAECs, or umbilical cord blood (UCB stem cells that are readily and economically obtained from the placenta and umbilical cord discarded at birth. These cells have the potential for transplantation to the newborn where brain injury is diagnosed or even suspected. We will explore the novel characteristics of hAECs and undifferentiated UCB cells, as well as UCB-derived endothelial progenitor cells and mesenchymal stem cells, and how immunomodulation and anti-inflammatory properties are principal mechanisms of action that are common to these cells, and which in turn may ameliorate the cerebral hypoxia and inflammation that are final pathways in the pathogenesis of perinatal brain

  3. Human Factors and Robotics: Current Status and Future Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, H. McIlvaine; Kearsley, Greg P.

    The principal human factors engineering issue in robotics is the division of labor between automation (robots) and human beings. This issue reflects a prime human factors engineering consideration in systems design--what equipment should do and what operators and maintainers should do. Understanding of capabilities and limitations of robots and…

  4. Enhancement of human capital assets role in current economic situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pechenaia Liudmila Timofeevna

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents transformation of the notion “human capital assets” in economics. Methodical approaches to evaluation of human capital assets and involvement in innovation process. Generalization of theoretical overview data allows conclusion about strong interest to this economic category, testifying to good promise of this field development.

  5. The study of human bodies' impedance networks in testing leakage currents of electrical equipments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhaohui; Wang, Xiaofei

    2006-11-01

    In the testing of electrical equipments' leakage currents, impedance networks of human bodies are used to simulate the current's effect on human bodies, and they are key to the preciseness of the testing result. This paper analyses and calculates three human bodies' impedance networks of measuring electric burn current, perception or reaction current, let-go current in IEC60990, by using Matlab, compares the research result of current effect thresholds' change with sine wave's frequency published in IEC479-2, and amends parameters of measuring networks. It also analyses the change of perception or reaction current with waveform by Multisim.

  6. The human gut microbiome: current knowledge, challenges, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Maneesh; Higgins, Peter D; Middha, Sumit; Rioux, Kevin P

    2012-10-01

    The Human Genome Project was completed a decade ago, leaving a legacy of process, tools, and infrastructure now being turned to the study of the microbes that reside in and on the human body as determinants of health and disease, and has been branded "The Human Microbiome Project." Of the various niches under investigation, the human gut houses the most complex and abundant microbial community and is an arena for important host-microbial interactions that have both local and systemic impact. Initial studies of the human microbiome have been largely descriptive, a testing ground for innovative molecular techniques and new hypotheses. Methods for studying the microbiome have quickly evolved from low-resolution surveys of microbial community structure to high-definition description of composition, function, and ecology. Next-generation sequencing technologies combined with advanced bioinformatics place us at the doorstep of revolutionary insight into the composition, capability, and activity of the human intestinal microbiome. Renewed efforts to cultivate previously "uncultivable" microbes will be important to the overall understanding of gut ecology. There remain numerous methodological challenges to the effective study and understanding of the gut microbiome, largely relating to study design, sample collection, and the number of predictor variables. Strategic collaboration of clinicians, microbiologists, molecular biologists, computational scientists, and bioinformaticians is the ideal paradigm for success in this field. Meaningful interpretation of the gut microbiome requires that host genetic and environmental influences be controlled or accounted for. Understanding the gut microbiome in healthy humans is a foundation for discovering its influence in various important gastrointestinal and nutritional diseases (eg, inflammatory bowel disease, diabetes, and obesity), and for rational translation to human health gains. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights

  7. Human memory research: Current hypotheses and new perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Jaeger

    Full Text Available Abstract Research on human memory has increased significantly in the last few decades. Inconsistencies and controversies inherent to such research, however, are rarely articulated on published reports. The goal of the present article is to present and discuss a series of open questions related to major topics on human memory research that can be addressed by future research. The topics covered here are visual working memory, recognition memory, emotion and memory interaction, and methodological issues of false memories studies. Overall, the present work reveals a series of open questions and alternative analysis which could be useful for the process of hypothesis generation, and consequently for the design and implementation of future research on human memory.

  8. Brief communication: sliding displacement of amnion and chorion following controlled laser wounding suggests a mechanism for short-term sealing of ruptured membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behzad, F; Dickinson, M R; Charlton, A; Aplin, J D

    1994-10-01

    The Erbium-YAG laser was used to produce narrow wounds of defined depth in term amniochorion. The charring effect of the laser meant that sites could be readily localized in histological sections. During brief post-wounding incubations, sliding displacement of the amnion relative to the chorion occurred through the plane of the spongy layer. This suggests a possible short-term mechanism whereby a spontaneous rupture could be sealed in vivo.

  9. Human-Automation Allocations for Current Robotic Space Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquez, Jessica J.; Chang, Mai L.; Beard, Bettina L.; Kim, Yun Kyung; Karasinski, John A.

    2018-01-01

    Within the Human Research Program, one risk delineates the uncertainty surrounding crew working with automation and robotics in spaceflight. The Risk of Inadequate Design of Human and Automation/Robotic Integration (HARI) is concerned with the detrimental effects on crew performance due to ineffective user interfaces, system designs and/or functional task allocation, potentially compromising mission success and safety. Risk arises because we have limited experience with complex automation and robotics. One key gap within HARI, is the gap related to functional allocation. The gap states: We need to evaluate, develop, and validate methods and guidelines for identifying human-automation/robot task information needs, function allocation, and team composition for future long duration, long distance space missions. Allocations determine the human-system performance as it identifies the functions and performance levels required by the automation/robotic system, and in turn, what work the crew is expected to perform and the necessary human performance requirements. Allocations must take into account each of the human, automation, and robotic systems capabilities and limitations. Some functions may be intuitively assigned to the human versus the robot, but to optimize efficiency and effectiveness, purposeful role assignments will be required. The role of automation and robotics will significantly change in future exploration missions, particularly as crew becomes more autonomous from ground controllers. Thus, we must understand the suitability of existing function allocation methods within NASA as well as the existing allocations established by the few robotic systems that are operational in spaceflight. In order to evaluate future methods of robotic allocations, we must first benchmark the allocations and allocation methods that have been used. We will present 1) documentation of human-automation-robotic allocations in existing, operational spaceflight systems; and 2) To

  10. Human Factors Engineering: Current and Emerging Dual-Use Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandlee, G. O.; Goldsberry, B. S.

    1994-01-01

    Human Factors Engineering is a multidisciplinary endeavor in which information pertaining to human characteristics is used in the development of systems and machines. Six representatives considered to be experts from the public and private sectors were surveyed in an effort to identify the potential dual-use of human factors technology. Each individual was asked to provide a rating as to the dual-use of 85 identified NASA technologies. Results of the survey were as follows: nearly 75 percent of the technologies were identified at least once as high dual-use by one of the six survey respondents, and nearly 25 percent of the identified NASA technologies were identified as high dual-use technologies by a majority of the respondents. The perceived level of dual-use appeared to be independent of the technology category. Successful identification of dual-use technology requires expanded input from industry. As an adjunct, cost-benefit analysis should be conducted to identify the feasibility of the dual-use technology. Concurrent with this effort should be an examination of precedents established by other technologies in other industrial settings. Advances in human factors and systems engineering are critical to reduce risk in any workplace and to enhance industrial competitiveness.

  11. A roentgenographic assessment of regenerative efficacy of bioactive Gengigel® in conjunction with amnion membrane in grade II furcation defect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Harveen Kalra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nowadays, techniques are being developed to guide and instruct the specialized cellular components of the periodontium to participate in the regenerative process. This approach of reconstruction makes use of understanding of the development of the periodontium and the cellular processes that are involved. Hyaluronic acid is a naturally occurring non-sulfated high molecular weight glycosaminoglycan that forms a critical component of the extracellular matrix and contributes significantly to tissue hydrodynamics, cell migration, and proliferation. Hence, its administration to periodontal wound sites could achieve comparable beneficial effects in periodontal tissue regeneration. Hence, the purpose of the present case report was to assess roentgenographically, the regenerative capacity of Gengigel® in conjunction with bioactive amnion guided tissue regeneration (GTR membrane in a patient with Grade II furcation defect. Case Presentation: A patient complained of bleeding gums from the lower back tooth region, reportedly found Grade II furcation in the lower right mandibular first molar. After Phase, I therapy, Gengigel® along with bioactive amnion membrane was placed in the furcation area during the surgical phase. Roentgenographic assessment was done at 4 months and 6 months postoperatively. It resulted in complete defect-fill and loss of radiolucency at 6 months. Conclusion: Surgical placement of Gengigel® along with amnion membrane in the furcation defect can significantly improve the periodontal defect morphology.

  12. Current status of cancer immunodetection with radiolabeled human monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jager, R; Abdel-Nabi, H; Serafini, A; Pecking, A; Klein, J L; Hanna, M G

    1993-04-01

    The use of radiolabeled murine monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) for cancer immunodetection has been limited by the development of human antimouse antibodies (HAMA). Human monoclonal antibodies do not elicit a significant human antihuman (HAHA) response. The generation and production of human monoclonal antibodies met with technical difficulties that resulted in delaying their clinical testing. Human monoclonal antibodies of all isotypes have been obtained. Most were immunoglobulin (Ig) M directed against intracellular antigens. Two antibodies, 16.88 (IgM) and 88BV59 (IgG3k), recognize different epitopes on a tumor-associated antigen, CTA 16.88, homologous to cytokeratins 8, 18, and 19. CTA 16.88 is expressed by most epithelial-derived tumors including carcinomas of the colon, pancreas, breast, ovary, and lung. The in vivo targeting by these antibodies is related to their localization in nonnecrotic areas of tumors. Repeated administration of 16.88 over 5 weeks to a cumulative dose of 1,000 mg did not elicit a HAHA response. Two of 53 patients developed a low titer of HAHA 1 to 3 months after a single administration of 88BV59. Planar imaging of colorectal cancer with Iodine-131 (131I)-16.88 was positive in two studies in 9 of 12 and 16 of 20 patients preselected by immunohistochemistry. Tumors less than 2 cm in diameter are usually not detected. The lack of immunogenicity and long tumor residence time (average = 17 days) makes 16.88 a good candidate for therapy. Radioimmunlymphoscintigraphy with indium-111 (111In)-LiLo-16.88 administered by an intramammary route was used in the presurgical staging of primary breast cancer. The negative predictive value of lymph node metastases for tumors less than 3 cm was 90.5%. Planar and single photon emission computed tomography imaging of colorectal carcinoma with technetium-99m (99mTc) 88BV59 was compared with computed tomography (CT) scan in 36 surgical patients. The antibody scan was more sensitive than the CT scan in detecting

  13. The American War on Human Rights: Current Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Boutrup, Louise Skovgaard; Jørgensen, Merete Gro

    2017-01-01

    The War on Terror (WoT), has been defended by its proponents, with a claim that all means, illegal and legal, are justified when fighting the WoT. Critics have questioned if the standards of the human right norms have been met. The use of targeted killings by drones have posed new questions, specifically the Central Intelligence Agency’s (CIA) drone-program, which uses targeted killings as a tool to fight terrorism. The research study aims to answer the following question: “Can the War on Ter...

  14. Current status of human taeniasis in Lao People's Democratic Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Yong, Tai-Soon; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Chai, Jong-Yil; Min, Duk-Young; Yun, Cheong-Ha; Rim, Han-Jong; Pongvongsa, Tiengkham; Banouvong, Virasack; Insisiengmay, Bounnaloth; Phommasack, Bounlay; Eom, Keeseon S

    2013-04-01

    Human taeniasis was investigated in Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) between 2000 and 2011 as part of the nation's helminthiasis survey. A total of 55,038 inhabitants, including 29,846 school children, were examined using the Kato-Katz and scotch-tape anal swab method, and morphological observation of adult worms. Molecular identification of Taenia tapeworms was performed by multiplex PCR or DNA sequence analysis of the mitochondrial cox1 gene. Taenia eggs were present at a rate of 1.5% (845/55,038) in the subject population. Adult tapeworms were identified as T. solium or T. saginata by analyzing the collectable stool specimens (n=126). Three specimens identified as T. solium were found in Luang Prabang, while the remaining 123 specimens, which were T. saginata, were found in Bokeo, Bolikhamxay, Champasak, Houaphan, Khammouane, Luang Namta, Luang Prabang, Oudomxay, Phongsaly, Saysomboune, Saravane, Savannakhet, Xayaboury, Xekong, Xieng Khouang Province, and Vientiane Municipality.

  15. Book Review: Current Issues in International Human Resource Management and Strategy Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gretzinger, Susanne

    2009-01-01

    The article reviews the book "Current Issues in International Human Resource Management and Strategy Research," edited by Marion Festing and Susanne Royer.......The article reviews the book "Current Issues in International Human Resource Management and Strategy Research," edited by Marion Festing and Susanne Royer....

  16. Current status of immunologic studies in human lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross, R.L.

    1978-06-01

    Several aspects of the immunology of human malignancy are reviewed, with particular emphasis on relevant findings in lung cancer. The existence of tumor-specific cell-mediated immune responses in patients with cancer has been demonstrated in numerous tumor types. Of more relevance in clinical situations is the association of generalized immunologic depression with malignancy. In the vast majority of cases, progressive declines in both tumor-specific and nonspecific immunologic parameters are observed with advancing disease. The approach to the immunologic evaluation of cancer patients and the potential usefulness of this approach to the diagnosis, prognosis, management, and assessment of therapeutic response are discussed. Evidence aimed at elucidating the mechanism of immunosuppression in malignancy, such as serum-blocking factors, immunoregulatory alpha globulins, and suppressor cells, is presented. Finally, emphasis is placed on the various forms of immunotherapy, including both specific active methods such as tumor cell or tumor antigen vaccines and nonspecific active immunotherapy involving agents like Bacillus Calmette-Guerin and levamisole. Early results from clinical immunotherapeutic trials are discussed.

  17. Benefits of donor human milk for preterm infants: current evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertino, Enrico; Giuliani, Francesca; Occhi, Luciana; Coscia, Alessandra; Tonetto, Paola; Marchino, Federica; Fabris, Claudio

    2009-10-01

    It's undoubted that optimum nutrition for term infants is breastfeeding, exclusive for the first six months, then followed by a complementary diet and carried on, if possible, for the first year of life or even more. During the last decades several data confirmed the great advantages of fresh mother's milk use also for feeding very low and extremely low birthweight preterm infants. When mother's milk is unavailable or in short supply, pasteurized donor breast milk is widely used in neonatal intensive care units. Pasteurization partially affects nutritional and immunological properties of breast milk, however it is known that pasteurized milk maintains some biological properties and clinical benefits. The substantial benefits of mother's own milk feeding of preterm infants are supported by strong evidence. However, there is increasing evidence also on specific benefits of donor breast milk. Future research is needed to compare formula vs. nutrient fortified donor breast milk, to compare formula and DM as supplements to maternal milk rather than as sole diet and to compare effects of different methods of heat treatments on donor human milk quality.

  18. Current status of prediction of drug disposition and toxicity in humans using chimeric mice with humanized liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Shigeyuki; Sugihara, Kazumi

    2014-01-01

    1. Human-chimeric mice with humanized liver have been constructed by transplantation of human hepatocytes into several types of mice having genetic modifications that injure endogenous liver cells. Here, we focus on liver urokinase-type plasminogen activator-transgenic severe combined immunodeficiency (uPA/SCID) mice, which are the most widely used human-chimeric mice. Studies so far indicate that drug metabolism, drug transport, pharmacological effects and toxicological action in these mice are broadly similar to those in humans. 2. Expression of various drug-metabolizing enzymes is known to be different between humans and rodents. However, the expression pattern of cytochrome P450, aldehyde oxidase and phase II enzymes in the liver of human-chimeric mice resembles that in humans, not that in the host mice. 3. Metabolism of various drugs, including S-warfarin, zaleplon, ibuprofen, naproxen, coumarin, troglitazone and midazolam, in human-chimeric mice is mediated by human drug-metabolizing enzymes, not by host mouse enzymes, and thus resembles that in humans. 4. Pharmacological and toxicological effects of various drugs in human-chimeric mice are also similar to those in humans. 5. The current consensus is that chimeric mice with humanized liver are useful to predict drug metabolism catalyzed by cytochrome P450, aldehyde oxidase and phase II enzymes in humans in vivo and in vitro. Some remaining issues are discussed in this review.

  19. Involuntary Euthanasia and Current Attempts to Define Persons with Mental Retardation as Less Than Human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusthaus, Evelyn W.

    1985-01-01

    The author examines current attempts to define mentally retarded persons as less than human and suggests that these ideologies are being used to justify euthanasia practices and to formulate euthanasia policies. (CL)

  20. The correlation between histologic placentitis and amnionitis and the amnioniotic fluid's inflammatory cytokines in case of spontaneous pre-term labor with intact membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Abadi

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Pre-term labor is presumed to result from spreading of lower genital infection to upper part, subsequently to decidual and choioamniotic tissues. Host response to this injury include the expression of protein which is responsible to the inflammatory reactions. The expression of the inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α increase in case of infection.These cytokines may play an essential role in the pathophysiology of spontaneous pretem labor with intact membrane.An observational analytic cohort study was caried out on cases of spontaneous pre-tefln labor with intact membrane. The objectives of this study are to examine the relationship between l the histologic amnionitis and placentitis and the incidence of preterm delivery,2 the expression of amniotic fluid's IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α and the incidence of preterm delivery, 3 the level of amniotic fluid's IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α and the grade of histologic amnionitis and placentitis in case of pre-term labor with intact membrane. Cases of spontaneous Pre'teftn labor with intact membrane which underwent transabdominal amniocentesis at admission and managed as standard procedure for pre-term labor with intact membrane. Atl of the cases were observed until the delivery of the baby, eithir preterm or term. The membrane and the placentawere cut postnatally and then the histologic acute inflammation eyaluated based on the criteria of Salafia.The level of amniotic fluid IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α were analyzed quantitatively by Elisa method. This study showed thet the degree of histologic amnionitis and placentitis, and the level of amniotic fluid's IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α were significantly higher in pre-term compared to terrn deliveries (p<0.05 and lhere were a positive correlation between the grade of histoLogic inflammation and the level of amniotic fluid's cytokines (Spearmann Rank Conelation test; p<0,05 in cases of preterm labor with intact membrane. The

  1. Human Nav1.8: enhanced persistent and ramp currents contribute to distinct firing properties of human DRG neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chongyang; Estacion, Mark; Huang, Jianying; Vasylyev, Dymtro; Zhao, Peng; Dib-Hajj, Sulayman D.

    2015-01-01

    Although species-specific differences in ion channel properties are well-documented, little has been known about the properties of the human Nav1.8 channel, an important contributor to pain signaling. Here we show, using techniques that include voltage clamp, current clamp, and dynamic clamp in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, that human Nav1.8 channels display slower inactivation kinetics and produce larger persistent current and ramp current than previously reported in other species. DRG neurons expressing human Nav1.8 channels unexpectedly produce significantly longer-lasting action potentials, including action potentials with half-widths in some cells >10 ms, and increased firing frequency compared with the narrower and usually single action potentials generated by DRG neurons expressing rat Nav1.8 channels. We also show that native human DRG neurons recapitulate these properties of Nav1.8 current and the long-lasting action potentials. Together, our results demonstrate strikingly distinct properties of human Nav1.8, which contribute to the firing properties of human DRG neurons. PMID:25787950

  2. Human Reliability and the Current Dilemma in Human-Machine Interface Design Strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passalacqua, Roberto; Yamada, Fumiaki

    2002-01-01

    Since human error dominates the probability of failures of still-existing human-requiring systems (as the Monju reactor), the human-machine interface needs to be improved. Several rationales may lead to the conclusion that 'humans' should limit themselves to monitor the 'machine'. For example, this is the trend in the aviation industry: newest aircrafts are designed to be able to return to a safe state by the use of control systems, which do not need human intervention. Thus, the dilemma whether we really need operators (for example in the nuclear industry) might arise. However, social-technical approaches in recent human error analyses are pointing out the so-called 'organizational errors' and the importance of a human-machine interface harmonization. Typically plant's operators are a 'redundant' safety system with a much lower reliability (than the machine): organizational factors and harmonization requirements suggest designing the human-machine interface in a way that allows improvement of operator's reliability. In addition, taxonomy studies of accident databases have also proved that operators' training should promote processes of decision-making. This is accomplished in the latest trends of PSA technology by introducing the concept of a 'Safety Monitor' that is a computer-based tool that uses a level 1 PSA model of the plant. Operators and maintenance schedulers of the Monju FBR will be able to perform real-time estimations of the plant risk level. The main benefits are risk awareness and improvements in decision-making by operators. Also scheduled maintenance can be approached in a more rational (safe and economic) way. (authors)

  3. Docetaxel modulates the delayed rectifier potassium current (IK) and ATP-sensitive potassium current (IKATP) in human breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tao; Song, Zhi-Guo; Jiang, Da-Qing; Nie, Hong-Guang; Han, Dong-Yun

    2015-04-01

    Ion channel expression and activity may be affected during tumor development and cancer growth. Activation of potassium (K(+)) channels in human breast cancer cells is reported to be involved in cell cycle progression. In this study, we investigated the effects of docetaxel on the delayed rectifier potassium current (I K) and the ATP-sensitive potassium current (I KATP) in two human breast cancer cell lines, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-435S, using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. Our results show that docetaxel inhibited the I K and I KATP in both cell lines in a dose-dependent manner. Compared with the control at a potential of +60 mV, treatment with docetaxel at doses of 0.1, 1, 5, and 10 µM significantly decreased the I K in MCF-7 cells by 16.1 ± 3.5, 30.2 ± 5.2, 42.5 ± 4.3, and 46.4 ± 9% (n = 5, P < 0.05), respectively and also decreased the I KATP at +50 mV. Similar results were observed in MDA-MB-435S cells. The G-V curves showed no significant changes after treatment of either MCF-7 or MDA-MB-435S cells with 10 μM docetaxel. The datas indicate that the possible mechanisms of I K and I KATP inhibition by docetaxel may be responsible for its effect on the proliferation of human breast cancer cells.

  4. Transient interaction model of electromagnetic field generated by lightning current pulses and human body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iváncsy, T; Kiss, I; Tamus, Z Á; Szücs, L

    2015-01-01

    The lightning current generates time-varying magnetic field near the down-conductor and the down-conductors are mounted on the wall of the buildings where residential places might be situated. It is well known that the rapidly changing magnetic fields can generate dangerous eddy currents in the human body.The higher duration and gradient of the magnetic field can cause potentially life threatening cardiac stimulation. The coupling mechanism between the electromagnetic field and the human body is based on a well-known physical phenomena (e.g. Faradays law of induction). However, the calculation of the induced current is very complicated because the shape of the organs is complex and the determination of the material properties of living tissues is difficult, as well. Our previous study revealed that the cardiac stimulation is independent of the rising time of the lightning current and only the peak of the current counts.In this study, the authors introduce an improved model of the interaction of electromagnetic fields of lighting current near down-conductor and human body. Our previous models are based on the quasi stationer field calculations, the new improved model is a transient model. This is because the magnetic field around the down-conductor and in the human body can be determined more precisely, therefore the dangerous currents in the body can be estimated. (paper)

  5. Evaluation of Amnion-derived Multipotent Progenitor (AMP) Cells and Amnion-derived Cellular Cytokine Solution (ST266) in Promoting Craniomaxillofacial Regenerative Bone Healing in Critical Size Calvarial Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-10

    well as diseases that can lead to eventual bone loss such as periodontitis (currently being evaluated in human clinical trials). A previous report...28 using ST266 treatment in a rabbit periodontal model revealed that ST266 treatment reduced inflammation and had increased new bone formation [32...The increase in new bone formation may have arisen due to the reduction in chronic inflammation by ST266 treatment, thus allowing the initiation

  6. Potential antitumor therapeutic strategies of human amniotic membrane and amniotic fluid-derived stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, N-H; Hwang, K-A; Kim, S U; Kim, Y-B; Hyun, S-H; Jeung, E-B; Choi, K-C

    2012-08-01

    As stem cells are capable of self-renewal and can generate differentiated progenies for organ development, they are considered as potential source for regenerative medicine and tissue replacement after injury or disease. Along with this capacity, stem cells have the therapeutic potential for treating human diseases including cancers. According to the origins, stem cells are broadly classified into two types: embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and adult stem cells. In terms of differentiation potential, ESCs are pluripotent and adult stem cells are multipotent. Amnion, which is a membranous sac that contains the fetus and amniotic fluid and functions in protecting the developing embryo during gestation, is another stem cell source. Amnion-derived stem cells are classified as human amniotic membrane-derived epithelial stem cells, human amniotic membrane-derived mesenchymal stem cells and human amniotic fluid-derived stem cells. They are in an intermediate stage between pluripotent ESCs and lineage-restricted adult stem cells, non-tumorigenic, and contribute to low immunogenicity and anti-inflammation. Furthermore, they are easily available and do not cause any controversial issues in their recovery and applications. Not only are amnion-derived stem cells applicable in regenerative medicine, they have anticancer capacity. In non-engineered stem cells transplantation strategies, amnion-derived stem cells effectively target the tumor and suppressed the tumor growth by expressing cytotoxic cytokines. Additionally, they also have a potential as novel delivery vehicles transferring therapeutic genes to the cancer formation sites in gene-directed enzyme/prodrug combination therapy. Owing to their own advantageous properties, amnion-derived stem cells are emerging as a new candidate in anticancer therapy.

  7. Calcium Transient and Sodium-Calcium Exchange Current in Human versus Rabbit Sinoatrial Node Pacemaker Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arie O. Verkerk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There is an ongoing debate on the mechanism underlying the pacemaker activity of sinoatrial node (SAN cells, focusing on the relative importance of the “membrane clock” and the “Ca2+ clock” in the generation of the small net membrane current that depolarizes the cell towards the action potential threshold. Specifically, the debate centers around the question whether the membrane clock-driven hyperpolarization-activated current, If, which is also known as the “funny current” or “pacemaker current,” or the Ca2+ clock-driven sodium-calcium exchange current, INaCa, is the main contributor to diastolic depolarization. In our contribution to this journal’s “Special Issue on Cardiac Electrophysiology,” we present a numerical reconstruction of If and INaCa in isolated rabbit and human SAN pacemaker cells based on experimental data on action potentials, If, and intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i that we have acquired from these cells. The human SAN pacemaker cells have a smaller If, a weaker [Ca2+]i transient, and a smaller INaCa than the rabbit cells. However, when compared to the diastolic net membrane current, INaCa is of similar size in human and rabbit SAN pacemaker cells, whereas If is smaller in human than in rabbit cells.

  8. Human factors inspection of current control room panel in Jose Cabrera NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, P.; O'Hara, J.; Higgins, J.

    2002-01-01

    Within the process of renewal of Exploitation Permit of Jose Cabrera Nuclear Power Plant, UNION FENOSA GENERACIO, S. A. (UFG) has carried out an analysis and evaluation project regarding human factors implications of current control room panel arrangement. The project has been developed in two phases. In the first phase, leaded by EPRI and carried out by experts from SAIC, an independent review from a double viewpoint of human reliability and human factors was developed. In the second phase, a multidisciplinary team (composed by human factors, risk analysis, operation, engineering, training and instrumentation and controls experts) has developed a study on human factors implications of current panel arrangement, following the methodology pointed out in NUREG-0711. The project has been developed under the direction of Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), organisation that has authored the aforementioned methodology, with the participation of UFG and SOLUZIONA Ingenieria. For the development of the second study the following steps were taken: Firstly, the potential effects of panel arrangement on crew performance were identified its real evidence was analysed and the goals for the improvement of control room operation were established; following NUREG-0711. After this, several design alternatives that addressed these goals were identified and were analysed along three dimensions: human factors, risk analysis and economic costs. Finally the results of these evaluations were combined using a multi-attribute decision method to arrive at a recommended alternative as he best proposal to incorporate human factors criteria and good practices in the design of control room panels. (Author)

  9. An interdisciplinary review of current and future approaches to improving human-predator relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pooley, S; Barua, M; Beinart, W; Dickman, A; Holmes, G; Lorimer, J; Loveridge, A J; Macdonald, D W; Marvin, G; Redpath, S; Sillero-Zubiri, C; Zimmermann, A; Milner-Gulland, E J

    2017-06-01

    In a world of shrinking habitats and increasing competition for natural resources, potentially dangerous predators bring the challenges of coexisting with wildlife sharply into focus. Through interdisciplinary collaboration among authors trained in the humanities, social sciences, and natural sciences, we reviewed current approaches to mitigating adverse human-predator encounters and devised a vision for future approaches to understanding and mitigating such encounters. Limitations to current approaches to mitigation include too much focus on negative impacts; oversimplified equating of levels of damage with levels of conflict; and unsuccessful technical fixes resulting from failure to engage locals, address hidden costs, or understand cultural (nonscientific) explanations of the causality of attacks. An emerging interdisciplinary literature suggests that to better frame and successfully mitigate negative human-predator relations conservation professionals need to consider dispensing with conflict as the dominant framework for thinking about human-predator encounters; work out what conflicts are really about (they may be human-human conflicts); unravel the historical contexts of particular conflicts; and explore different cultural ways of thinking about animals. The idea of cosmopolitan natures may help conservation professionals think more clearly about human-predator relations in both local and global context. These new perspectives for future research practice include a recommendation for focused interdisciplinary research and the use of new approaches, including human-animal geography, multispecies ethnography, and approaches from the environmental humanities notably environmental history. Managers should think carefully about how they engage with local cultural beliefs about wildlife, work with all parties to agree on what constitutes good evidence, develop processes and methods to mitigate conflicts, and decide how to monitor and evaluate these. Demand for

  10. The pristine rain forest? Remnants of historical human impacts on current tree species composition and diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gemerden, van B.S.; Olff, H.; Parren, M.P.E.; Bongers, F.J.J.M.

    2003-01-01

    Aim Tropical rain forests are often regarded as pristine and undisturbed by humans. In Central Africa, community-wide disturbances by natural causes are rare and therefore current theory predicts that natural gap phase dynamics structure tree species composition and diversity. However, the dominant

  11. The pristine rain forest? Remnants of historical human impacts on current tree species composition and diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gemerden, Barend S. van; Olff, Han; Parren, Marc P.E.; Bongers, Frans

    2003-01-01

    Aim: Tropical rain forests are often regarded as pristine and undisturbed by humans. In Central Africa, community-wide disturbances by natural causes are rare and therefore current theory predicts that natural gap phase dynamics structure tree species composition and diversity. However, the dominant

  12. Effect of Human Model Height and Sex on Induced Current Dosimetry in Household Induction Heater Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarao, Hiroo; Hayashi, Noriyuki; Isaka, Katsuo

    Induced currents in the high-resolution, anatomical human models are numerically calculated by the impedance method. The human models are supposed to be exposed to highly inhomogeneous 20.9 kHz magnetic fields from a household induction heater (IH). In the case of the adult models, the currents ranging from 5 to 19 mA/m2 are induced for between the shoulder and lower abdomen. Meanwhile, in the case of the child models, the currents ranging from 5 to 21 mA/m2 are induced for between the head and abdomen. In particular, the induced currents near the brain tissue are almost the same as those near the abdomen. When the induced currents in the central nervous system tissues are considered, the induced currents in the child model are 2.1 to 6.9 times as large as those in the adult model under the same B-field exposure environment. These results suggest the importance of further investigation intended for a pregnant female who uses the IH as well as for a child (or the IH users of small standing height).

  13. Current strategic thinking for the development of a trivalent alphavirus vaccine for human use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Daniel N; Heppner, D Gray; Gardner, Shea N; Jaing, Crystal; Dupuy, Lesley C; Schmaljohn, Connie S; Carlton, Kevin

    2014-09-01

    Vaccinations against the encephalitic alphaviruses (western, eastern, and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus) are of significant interest to biological defense, public health, and agricultural communities alike. Although vaccines licensed for veterinary applications are used in the Western Hemisphere and attenuated or inactivated viruses have been used under Investigational New Drug status to protect at-risk personnel, there are currently no licensed vaccines for use in humans. Here, we will discuss the need for a trivalent vaccine that can protect humans against all three viruses, recent progress to such a vaccine, and a strategy to continue development to Food and Drug Administration licensure. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  14. Computational dosimetry for grounded and ungrounded human models due to contact current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Kwok Hung; Hattori, Junya; Laakso, Ilkka; Hirata, Akimasa; Taki, Masao

    2013-01-01

    This study presents the computational dosimetry of contact currents for grounded and ungrounded human models. The uncertainty of the quasi-static (QS) approximation of the in situ electric field induced in a grounded/ungrounded human body due to the contact current is first estimated. Different scenarios of cylindrical and anatomical human body models are considered, and the results are compared with the full-wave analysis. In the QS analysis, the induced field in the grounded cylindrical model is calculated by the QS finite-difference time-domain (QS-FDTD) method, and compared with the analytical solution. Because no analytical solution is available for the grounded/ungrounded anatomical human body model, the results of the QS-FDTD method are then compared with those of the conventional FDTD method. The upper frequency limit for the QS approximation in the contact current dosimetry is found to be 3 MHz, with a relative local error of less than 10%. The error increases above this frequency, which can be attributed to the neglect of the displacement current. The QS or conventional FDTD method is used for the dosimetry of induced electric field and/or specific absorption rate (SAR) for a contact current injected into the index finger of a human body model in the frequency range from 10 Hz to 100 MHz. The in situ electric fields or SAR are compared with the basic restrictions in the international guidelines/standards. The maximum electric field or the 99th percentile value of the electric fields appear not only in the fat and muscle tissues of the finger, but also around the wrist, forearm, and the upper arm. Some discrepancies are observed between the basic restrictions for the electric field and SAR and the reference levels for the contact current, especially in the extremities. These discrepancies are shown by an equation that relates the current density, tissue conductivity, and induced electric field in the finger with a cross-sectional area of 1 cm 2 . (paper)

  15. Human-carnivore conflict in China: a review of current approaches with recommendations for improved management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettigrew, Melissa; Xie, Yan; Kang, Aili; Rao, Madhu; Goodrich, John; Liu, Tong; Berger, Joshua

    2012-06-01

    Human-wildlife conflict (HWC) is a conservation concern that increasingly threatens the continued existence of some of the world's most endangered species. With an increase in human population, urban sprawl and subsequent encroachment on wild land, human and wildlife interaction has become inevitable. In the majority of cases, this interaction results in a negative outcome for humans, wildlife or both. In China, these key elements, along with a decrease in wild prey species, have resulted in the expansion of HWC encounters, and the need for alleviating this conflict has become a conservation priority. Loss of human life, livestock and/or crops is most often the catalysts that fuel HWC. Techniques to alleviate conflict around the world have included preventative measures and mitigation techniques, such as financial compensation and other incentive programs. Both types of measures have had variable success. We review the current status of human-carnivore conflict management in China, and, drawing lessons from around the globe, we make recommendations for improving conservation management in China. For example, an increase in law enforcement in nature reserves is vital to reducing human disturbance in prime carnivore habitat, thereby reducing conflict encounters. Also, modifications to current wildlife compensation programs, so that they are linked with preventative measures, will ensure that moral hazards are avoided. Furthermore, investigating the potential for a community self-financed insurance scheme to fund compensation and increasing efforts to restore wild prey populations will improve the outcome for wildlife conservation. Ultimately, HWC management in China will greatly benefit from an integrative approach. © 2012 ISZS, Blackwell Publishing and IOZ/CAS.

  16. Experimental primates and non-human primate (NHP) models of human diseases in China: current status and progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Liang; Pang, Wei; Hu, Xin-Tian; Li, Jia-Li; Yao, Yong-Gang; Zheng, Yong-Tang

    2014-11-18

    Non-human primates (NHPs) are phylogenetically close to humans, with many similarities in terms of physiology, anatomy, immunology, as well as neurology, all of which make them excellent experimental models for biomedical research. Compared with developed countries in America and Europe, China has relatively rich primate resources and has continually aimed to develop NHPs resources. Currently, China is a leading producer and a major supplier of NHPs on the international market. However, there are some deficiencies in feeding and management that have hampered China's growth in NHP research and materials. Nonetheless, China has recently established a number of primate animal models for human diseases and achieved marked scientific progress on infectious diseases, cardiovascular diseases, endocrine diseases, reproductive diseases, neurological diseases, and ophthalmic diseases, etc. Advances in these fields via NHP models will undoubtedly further promote the development of China's life sciences and pharmaceutical industry, and enhance China's position as a leader in NHP research. This review covers the current status of NHPs in China and other areas, highlighting the latest developments in disease models using NHPs, as well as outlining basic problems and proposing effective countermeasures to better utilize NHP resources and further foster NHP research in China.

  17. Human Performance Modeling in Military Simulation: Current State of the Art and the Way Ahead (2002 TTCP HUM Group Meeting)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2004-01-01

    .... This report examines the requirements for human performance modeling within the military, assesses the state of the practice in current operational models, documents ongoing human performance research and development (R and D...

  18. Current Applications of Chromatographic Methods in the Study of Human Body Fluids for Diagnosing Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jóźwik, Jagoda; Kałużna-Czaplińska, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Currently, analysis of various human body fluids is one of the most essential and promising approaches to enable the discovery of biomarkers or pathophysiological mechanisms for disorders and diseases. Analysis of these fluids is challenging due to their complex composition and unique characteristics. Development of new analytical methods in this field has made it possible to analyze body fluids with higher selectivity, sensitivity, and precision. The composition and concentration of analytes in body fluids are most often determined by chromatography-based techniques. There is no doubt that proper use of knowledge that comes from a better understanding of the role of body fluids requires the cooperation of scientists of diverse specializations, including analytical chemists, biologists, and physicians. This article summarizes current knowledge about the application of different chromatographic methods in analyses of a wide range of compounds in human body fluids in order to diagnose certain diseases and disorders.

  19. Plastics, the environment and human health: current consensus and future trends

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Richard C.; Moore, Charles J.; vom Saal, Frederick S.; Swan, Shanna H.

    2009-01-01

    Plastics have transformed everyday life; usage is increasing and annual production is likely to exceed 300 million tonnes by 2010. In this concluding paper to the Theme Issue on Plastics, the Environment and Human Health, we synthesize current understanding of the benefits and concerns surrounding the use of plastics and look to future priorities, challenges and opportunities. It is evident that plastics bring many societal benefits and offer future technological and medical advances. However...

  20. Current status and issues of nuclear human resource development/General activities of Japan nuclear human resource development network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Hiroyuki; Hino, Sadami; Tsuru, Hisanori

    2013-01-01

    The Japan Nuclear Human Resource Development Network (JN-HRD Net) was established in November 2010 with the aim of developing a framework for mutual cooperation and information sharing among nuclear-related organizations. Although the tasks and goals of developing human resources in the nuclear field have been shifted since the accident at the Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, the necessity of fostering capable personnel in this field stays unchanged and the importance of our network activities has further emphasized. The meeting of JN-HRD Net was held on the 5th of February 2013, where its activities by each field were reported and views and opinions were actively exchanged between more than 90 participants. This paper briefly describes current status and issues of JN-HRD Net and its general activities conducted by the JN-HRD Net secretariat. (J.P.N.)

  1. Exploring the current application of professional competencies in human resource management in the South African context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico Schutte

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Human research (HR practitioners have an important role to play in the sustainability and competitiveness of organisations. Yet their strategic contribution and the value they add remain unrecognised. Research purpose: The main objective of this research was to explore the extent to which HR practitioners are currently allowed to display HR competencies in the workplace, and whether any significant differences exist between perceived HR competencies, based on the respondents’ demographic characteristics. Motivation for the study: Limited empirical research exists on the extent to which HR practitioners are allowed to display key competencies in the South African workplace. Research approach, design, and method: A quantitative research approach was followed. A Human Resource Management Professional Competence Questionnaire was administered to HR practitioners and managers (N = 481. Main findings: The results showed that HR competencies are poorly applied in selected South African workplaces. The competencies that were indicated as having the poorest application were talent management, HR metrics, HR business knowledge, and innovation. The white ethic group experienced a poorer application of all human research management (HRM competencies compared to the black African ethnic group. Practical/managerial implications: The findings of the research highlighted the need for management to evaluate the current application of HR practices in the workplace and also the extent to which HR professionals are involved as strategic business partners. Contribution/value-add: This research highlights the need for the current application of HR competencies in South African workplaces to be improved.

  2. Analysis of Ion Currents Contribution to Repolarization in Human Heart Failure Using Computer Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marotta, F.; Paci, M.A.; Severi, S.; Trenor, B.

    2016-07-01

    The mechanisms underlying repolarization of the ventricular action potential (AP) are subject of research for anti-arrhythmic drugs. In fact, the prolongation of the AP occurs in several conditions of heart disease, such as heart failure, a major problem precursor for serious arrhythmias. In this study, we investigated the phenomena of repolarization reserve, defined as the capacity of the cell to repolarize in case of a functional loss, and the all-or-none repolarization, which depends on the delicate balance of inward and outward currents in the different phases of the AP, under conditions of human heart failure (HF). To simulate HF conditions, the O'Hara et al. human AP model was modified and specific protocols for all-or-none repolarization were applied. Our results show that in the early repolarization the threshold for all-or-none repolarization is not altered in HF even if a decrease in potassium currents can be observed. To quantify the contribution of the individual ion currents to HF induced AP prolongation, we used a novel piecewise-linear approximation approach proposed by Paci et al. In particular, INaL and ICaL are the main responsible for APD prolongation due to HF (85 and 35 ms respectively). Our results highlight this novel algorithm as a powerful tool to have a more complete picture of the complex ionic mechanisms underlying this disease and confirm the important role of the late sodium current in HF repolarization. (Author)

  3. A Novel Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Approach for Measuring Weak Electric Currents Inside the Human Brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Göksu, Cihan

    of individual ohmic conductivity values may open up the possibility of creating more realistic and accurate head models, which may ameliorate the simulations and practical use of NIBS techniques. Magnetic resonance current density imaging (MRCDI) and magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography (MREIT......Knowing the electrical conductivity and current density distribution inside the human brain will be useful in various biomedical applications, i.e. for improving the efficiency of non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) techniques, the accuracy of electroencephalography (EEG......) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) source localization, or localization of pathological tissues. For example, the accuracy of electric field simulations for NIBS techniques is currently reduced by assigning inaccurate ohmic conductivity values taken from literature to different brain tissues. Therefore, the knowledge...

  4. Detectability of Neuronal Currents in Human Brain with Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Howland D. T. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Thomas, Edward V. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Harper, Jason C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mayer, Andrew R. [Mind Research Network, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Caprihan, Arvind [Mind Research Network, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gasparovic, Charles [Mind Research Network, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Blagoev, Krastan B. [Mind Research Network, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Haaland, David M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Magnetic resonance spectroscopy has been used in a high-risk, high-payoff search for neuronal current (NC) signals in the free induction decay (FID) data from the visual cortex of human subjects during visual stimulation. If successful, this approach could make possible the detection of neuronal currents in the brain at high spatial and temporal resolution. Our initial experiments indicated the presence of a statistically significant change in the FID containing the NC relative to FIDs with the NC absent, and this signal was consistent with the presence of NC. Unfortunately, two follow-on experiments were not able to confirm or replicate the positive findings of the first experiment. However, even if the result from the first experiment were evidence of NC in the FID, it is clear that its effect is so small, that a true NC imaging experiment would not be possible with the current instrumentation and experimental protocol used here.

  5. Increased oxidative stress in human fetal membranes overlying the cervix from term non-labouring and post labour deliveries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, M; Barker, G; Menon, R; Lappas, M

    2012-08-01

    Enzymatic breakdown of the collagen-rich extracellular matrix (ECM) that connects the amnion and chorion layers of the fetal membranes is one of the key events leading to rupture of membranes. Oxidant stress caused by increased formation of reactive oxygen species and/or reduced antioxidant capacity may predispose to membrane rupture, a major cause of preterm birth. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of human labour and supracervical (SC) apposition on antioxidant enzymes and 8-isoprostane (a marker of lipid peroxidation). To determine the effect of human labour on oxidative stress status, fetal membranes from the SC site (SCS) were collected from women at term Caesarean section (no labour), and from the site of membrane rupture (SOR) after spontaneous labour onset and delivery (post labour). To determine the effect of SC apposition on oxidative stress status, amnion was collected from the SCS and a distal site (DS) in women at term Caesarean section in the absence of labour. The release of 8-isoprostane was significantly higher in amnion from the SCS compared to DS, and in fetal membranes from the SOR compared to the SCS. Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were lower in amnion from the SC compared to DS. SOD gene expression and enzyme activity were lower in fetal membranes after labour. There was no difference in expression or activity in catalase, GPx and glutathione reductase (GSR) between no labour and post labour fetal membranes. In primary amnion cells, SOD supplementation significantly augmented IL-1β induced MMP-9 expression and activity. In summary, non-labouring SC fetal membranes are characterised by reduced antioxidant enzyme activity when compared to distal membranes, and, as such, may be more susceptible to oxidative damage and thus membrane rupture. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Voltage-gated Na+ currents in human dorsal root ganglion neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiulin; Priest, Birgit T; Belfer, Inna; Gold, Michael S

    2017-01-01

    Available evidence indicates voltage-gated Na+ channels (VGSCs) in peripheral sensory neurons are essential for the pain and hypersensitivity associated with tissue injury. However, our understanding of the biophysical and pharmacological properties of the channels in sensory neurons is largely based on the study of heterologous systems or rodent tissue, despite evidence that both expression systems and species differences influence these properties. Therefore, we sought to determine the extent to which the biophysical and pharmacological properties of VGSCs were comparable in rat and human sensory neurons. Whole cell patch clamp techniques were used to study Na+ currents in acutely dissociated neurons from human and rat. Our results indicate that while the two major current types, generally referred to as tetrodotoxin (TTX)-sensitive and TTX-resistant were qualitatively similar in neurons from rats and humans, there were several differences that have important implications for drug development as well as our understanding of pain mechanisms. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.23235.001 PMID:28508747

  7. Human resource aspects of antiretroviral treatment delivery models: current practices and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assefa, Yibeltal; Van Damme, Wim; Hermann, Katharina

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE OF VIEW: To illustrate and critically assess what is currently being published on the human resources for health dimension of antiretroviral therapy (ART) delivery models. The use of human resources for health can have an effect on two crucial aspects of successful ART programmes, namely the scale-up capacity and the long-term retention in care. Task shifting as the delegation of tasks from higher qualified to lower qualified cadres has become a widespread practice in ART delivery models in low-income countries in recent years. It is increasingly shown to effectively reduce the workload for scarce medical doctors without compromising the quality of care. At the same time, it becomes clear that task shifting can only be successful when accompanied by intensive training, supervision and support from existing health system structures. Although a number of recent publications have focussed on task shifting in ART delivery models, there is a lack of accessible information on the link between task shifting and patient outcomes. Current ART delivery models do not focus sufficiently on retention in care as arguably one of the most important issues for the long-term success of ART programmes. There is a need for context-specific re-designing of current ART delivery models in order to increase access to ART and improve long-term retention.

  8. Calculation of induced current densities for humans by magnetic fields from electronic article surveillance devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Om P.; Kang, Gang

    2001-11-01

    This paper illustrates the use of the impedance method to calculate the electric fields and current densities induced in millimetre resolution anatomic models of the human body, namely an adult and 10- and 5-year-old children, for exposure to nonuniform magnetic fields typical of two assumed but representative electronic article surveillance (EAS) devices at 1 and 30 kHz, respectively. The devices assumed for the calculations are a solenoid type magnetic deactivator used at store checkouts and a pass-by panel-type EAS system consisting of two overlapping rectangular current-carrying coils used at entry and exit from a store. The impedance method code is modified to obtain induced current densities averaged over a cross section of 1 cm2 perpendicular to the direction of induced currents. This is done to compare the peak current densities with the limits or the basic restrictions given in the ICNIRP safety guidelines. Because of the stronger magnetic fields at lower heights for both the assumed devices, the peak 1 cm2 area-averaged current densities for the CNS tissues such as the brain and the spinal cord are increasingly larger for smaller models and are the highest for the model of the 5-year-old child. For both the EAS devices, the maximum 1 cm2 area-averaged current densities for the brain of the model of the adult are lower than the ICNIRP safety guideline, but may approach or exceed the ICNIRP basic restrictions for models of 10- and 5-year-old children if sufficiently strong magnetic fields are used.

  9. Calculation of induced current densities for humans by magnetic fields from electronic article surveillance devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, O P; Kang, G

    2001-11-01

    This paper illustrates the use of the impedance method to calculate the electric fields and current densities induced in millimetre resolution anatomic models of the human body, namely an adult and 10- and 5-year-old children, for exposure to nonuniform magnetic fields typical of two assumed but representative electronic article surveillance (EAS) devices at 1 and 30 kHz, respectively. The devices assumed for the calculations are a solenoid type magnetic deactivator used at store checkouts and a pass-by panel-type EAS system consisting of two overlapping rectangular current-carrying coils used at entry and exit from a store. The impedance method code is modified to obtain induced current densities averaged over a cross section of 1 cm2 perpendicular to the direction of induced currents. This is done to compare the peak current densities with the limits or the basic restrictions given in the ICNIRP safety guidelines. Because of the stronger magnetic fields at lower heights for both the assumed devices, the peak 1 cm2 area-averaged current densities for the CNS tissues such as the brain and the spinal cord are increasingly larger for smaller models and are the highest for the model of the 5-year-old child. For both the EAS devices, the maximum 1 cm2 area-averaged current densities for the brain of the model of the adult are lower than the ICNIRP safety guideline, but may approach or exceed the ICNIRP basic restrictions for models of 10- and 5-year-old children if sufficiently strong magnetic fields are used.

  10. HAMLET -Human Model MATROSHKA for Radiation Exposure Determination of Astronauts -Current status and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, Guenther; Berger, Thomas; Bilski, Pawel; Burmeister, Soenke; Labrenz, Johannes; Hager, Luke; Palfalvi, Jozsef K.; Hajek, Michael; Puchalska, Monika; Sihver, Lembit

    The exploration of space as seen in specific projects from the European Space Agency (ESA) acts as groundwork for human long duration space missions. One of the main constraints for long duration human missions is radiation. The radiation load on astronauts and cosmonauts in space (as for the ISS) is a factor of 100 higher than the natural radiation on Earth and will further increase should humans travel to Mars. In preparation for long duration space missions it is important to evaluate the impact of space radiation in order to secure the safety of the astronauts and minimize their radiation risks. To determine the radiation risk on humans one has to measure the radiation doses to radiosensitive organs within the human body. One way to approach this is the ESA facility MATROSHKA (MTR), under the scientific and project lead of DLR. It is dedicated to determining the radiation load on astronauts within and outside the International Space Station (ISS), and was launched in January 2004. MTR is currently preparing for its fourth experimental phase inside the Japanese Experimental Module (JEM) in summer 2010. MTR, which mimics a human head and torso, is an anthropomorphic phantom containing over 6000 radiation detectors to determine the depth dose and organ dose distribution in the body. It is the largest international research initiative ever performed in the field of space dosimetry and combines the expertise of leading research institutions around the world, thereby generating a huge pool of data of potentially immense value for research. Aiming at optimal scientific exploitation, the FP7 project HAMLET aims to process and compile the data acquired individually by the participating laboratories of the MATROSHKA experiment. Based on experimental input from the MATROSHKA experiment phases as well as on radiation transport calculations, a three-dimensional model for the distribution of radiation dose in an astronaut's body will be built up. The scientific achievements

  11. Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation reduces psychophysically measured surround suppression in the human visual cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel P Spiegel

    Full Text Available Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS is a safe, non-invasive technique for transiently modulating the balance of excitation and inhibition within the human brain. It has been reported that anodal tDCS can reduce both GABA mediated inhibition and GABA concentration within the human motor cortex. As GABA mediated inhibition is thought to be a key modulator of plasticity within the adult brain, these findings have broad implications for the future use of tDCS. It is important, therefore, to establish whether tDCS can exert similar effects within non-motor brain areas. The aim of this study was to assess whether anodal tDCS could reduce inhibitory interactions within the human visual cortex. Psychophysical measures of surround suppression were used as an index of inhibition within V1. Overlay suppression, which is thought to originate within the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN, was also measured as a control. Anodal stimulation of the occipital poles significantly reduced psychophysical surround suppression, but had no effect on overlay suppression. This effect was specific to anodal stimulation as cathodal stimulation had no effect on either measure. These psychophysical results provide the first evidence for tDCS-induced reductions of intracortical inhibition within the human visual cortex.

  12. Current trend of annotating single nucleotide variation in humans--A case study on SNVrap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mulin Jun; Wang, Junwen

    2015-06-01

    As high throughput methods, such as whole genome genotyping arrays, whole exome sequencing (WES) and whole genome sequencing (WGS), have detected huge amounts of genetic variants associated with human diseases, function annotation of these variants is an indispensable step in understanding disease etiology. Large-scale functional genomics projects, such as The ENCODE Project and Roadmap Epigenomics Project, provide genome-wide profiling of functional elements across different human cell types and tissues. With the urgent demands for identification of disease-causal variants, comprehensive and easy-to-use annotation tool is highly in demand. Here we review and discuss current progress and trend of the variant annotation field. Furthermore, we introduce a comprehensive web portal for annotating human genetic variants. We use gene-based features and the latest functional genomics datasets to annotate single nucleotide variation (SNVs) in human, at whole genome scale. We further apply several function prediction algorithms to annotate SNVs that might affect different biological processes, including transcriptional gene regulation, alternative splicing, post-transcriptional regulation, translation and post-translational modifications. The SNVrap web portal is freely available at http://jjwanglab.org/snvrap. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Advanced alarm system design and human performance: Guidance development and current research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O` Hara, J M [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1997-09-01

    This paper describes a research program sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission to address the human factors engineering (HFE) aspects of nuclear power plant alarm systems. The overall objective of the program is to develop HFE review guidance for advanced alarm systems. Guidance has been developed based on a broad base of technical and research literature. As part of the development effort, aspects of alarm system design for which the technical basis was insufficient to support guidance development were identified and prioritized. Research is currently underway to address the highest priority topics: alarm processing and display characteristics. (author). 29 refs, 2 figs.

  14. Advanced alarm system design and human performance: Guidance development and current research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Hara, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes a research program sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission to address the human factors engineering (HFE) aspects of nuclear power plant alarm systems. The overall objective of the program is to develop HFE review guidance for advanced alarm systems. Guidance has been developed based on a broad base of technical and research literature. As part of the development effort, aspects of alarm system design for which the technical basis was insufficient to support guidance development were identified and prioritized. Research is currently underway to address the highest priority topics: alarm processing and display characteristics. (author). 29 refs, 2 figs

  15. [SWOT Analysis of the National Survey on Current Status of Major Human Parasitic Diseases in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZHU, Hui-hui; ZHOU, Chang-hai; CHEN, Ying-dan; ZANG, Wei; XIAO, Ning; ZHOU, Xiao-nong

    2015-10-01

    The National Survey on Current Status of Major Human Parasitic Diseases in China has been carried out since 2014 under the organization of the National Health and Family Planning Commission of the People's Republic of China. The National Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (NIPD, China CDC) provided technical support and was responsible for quality control in this survey. This study used SWOT method to analyze the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats that were encountered by he NIPD, China CDC during the completion of the survey. Accordingly, working strategies were proposed to facilitate the future field work.

  16. Saturation in Phosphene Size with Increasing Current Levels Delivered to Human Visual Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosking, William H; Sun, Ping; Ozker, Muge; Pei, Xiaomei; Foster, Brett L; Beauchamp, Michael S; Yoshor, Daniel

    2017-07-26

    Electrically stimulating early visual cortex results in a visual percept known as a phosphene. Although phosphenes can be evoked by a wide range of electrode sizes and current amplitudes, they are invariably described as small. To better understand this observation, we electrically stimulated 93 electrodes implanted in the visual cortex of 13 human subjects who reported phosphene size while stimulation current was varied. Phosphene size increased as the stimulation current was initially raised above threshold, but then rapidly reached saturation. Phosphene size also depended on the location of the stimulated site, with size increasing with distance from the foveal representation. We developed a model relating phosphene size to the amount of activated cortex and its location within the retinotopic map. First, a sigmoidal curve was used to predict the amount of activated cortex at a given current. Second, the amount of active cortex was converted to degrees of visual angle by multiplying by the inverse cortical magnification factor for that retinotopic location. This simple model accurately predicted phosphene size for a broad range of stimulation currents and cortical locations. The unexpected saturation in phosphene sizes suggests that the functional architecture of cerebral cortex may impose fundamental restrictions on the spread of artificially evoked activity and this may be an important consideration in the design of cortical prosthetic devices. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Understanding the neural basis for phosphenes, the visual percepts created by electrical stimulation of visual cortex, is fundamental to the development of a visual cortical prosthetic. Our experiments in human subjects implanted with electrodes over visual cortex show that it is the activity of a large population of cells spread out across several millimeters of tissue that supports the perception of a phosphene. In addition, we describe an important feature of the production of phosphenes by

  17. Human factors and ergonomics in home care: Current concerns and future considerations for health information technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Or, Calvin K.L.; Valdez, Rupa S.; Casper, Gail R.; Carayon, Pascale; Burke, Laura J.; Brennan, Patricia Flatley; Karsh, Ben-Tzion

    2010-01-01

    Sicker patients with greater care needs are being discharged to their homes to assume responsibility for their own care with fewer nurses available to aid them. This situation brings with it a host of human factors and ergonomic (HFE) concerns, both for the home care nurse and the home dwelling patient, that can affect quality of care and patient safety. Many of these concerns are related to the critical home care tasks of information access, communication, and patient self-monitoring and self-management. Currently, a variety of health information technologies (HITs) are being promoted as possible solutions to those problems, but those same technologies bring with them a new set of HFE concerns. This paper reviews the HFE considerations for information access, communication, and patients self-monitoring and self-management, discusses how HIT can potentially mitigate current problems, and explains how the design and implementation of HIT itself requires careful HFE attention. PMID:19713630

  18. Plastics, the environment and human health: current consensus and future trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Richard C.; Moore, Charles J.; vom Saal, Frederick S.; Swan, Shanna H.

    2009-01-01

    Plastics have transformed everyday life; usage is increasing and annual production is likely to exceed 300 million tonnes by 2010. In this concluding paper to the Theme Issue on Plastics, the Environment and Human Health, we synthesize current understanding of the benefits and concerns surrounding the use of plastics and look to future priorities, challenges and opportunities. It is evident that plastics bring many societal benefits and offer future technological and medical advances. However, concerns about usage and disposal are diverse and include accumulation of waste in landfills and in natural habitats, physical problems for wildlife resulting from ingestion or entanglement in plastic, the leaching of chemicals from plastic products and the potential for plastics to transfer chemicals to wildlife and humans. However, perhaps the most important overriding concern, which is implicit throughout this volume, is that our current usage is not sustainable. Around 4 per cent of world oil production is used as a feedstock to make plastics and a similar amount is used as energy in the process. Yet over a third of current production is used to make items of packaging, which are then rapidly discarded. Given our declining reserves of fossil fuels, and finite capacity for disposal of waste to landfill, this linear use of hydrocarbons, via packaging and other short-lived applications of plastic, is simply not sustainable. There are solutions, including material reduction, design for end-of-life recyclability, increased recycling capacity, development of bio-based feedstocks, strategies to reduce littering, the application of green chemistry life-cycle analyses and revised risk assessment approaches. Such measures will be most effective through the combined actions of the public, industry, scientists and policymakers. There is some urgency, as the quantity of plastics produced in the first 10 years of the current century is likely to approach the quantity produced in the

  19. Plastics, the environment and human health: current consensus and future trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Richard C; Moore, Charles J; vom Saal, Frederick S; Swan, Shanna H

    2009-07-27

    Plastics have transformed everyday life; usage is increasing and annual production is likely to exceed 300 million tonnes by 2010. In this concluding paper to the Theme Issue on Plastics, the Environment and Human Health, we synthesize current understanding of the benefits and concerns surrounding the use of plastics and look to future priorities, challenges and opportunities. It is evident that plastics bring many societal benefits and offer future technological and medical advances. However, concerns about usage and disposal are diverse and include accumulation of waste in landfills and in natural habitats, physical problems for wildlife resulting from ingestion or entanglement in plastic, the leaching of chemicals from plastic products and the potential for plastics to transfer chemicals to wildlife and humans. However, perhaps the most important overriding concern, which is implicit throughout this volume, is that our current usage is not sustainable. Around 4 per cent of world oil production is used as a feedstock to make plastics and a similar amount is used as energy in the process. Yet over a third of current production is used to make items of packaging, which are then rapidly discarded. Given our declining reserves of fossil fuels, and finite capacity for disposal of waste to landfill, this linear use of hydrocarbons, via packaging and other short-lived applications of plastic, is simply not sustainable. There are solutions, including material reduction, design for end-of-life recyclability, increased recycling capacity, development of bio-based feedstocks, strategies to reduce littering, the application of green chemistry life-cycle analyses and revised risk assessment approaches. Such measures will be most effective through the combined actions of the public, industry, scientists and policymakers. There is some urgency, as the quantity of plastics produced in the first 10 years of the current century is likely to approach the quantity produced in the

  20. Human in-vivo brain magnetic resonance current density imaging (MRCDI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Göksu, Cihan; Hanson, Lars G.; Siebner, Hartwig R

    2017-01-01

    is modulated by these shifts, allowing to determine ΔBz,c for the reconstruction of the current flow and ohmic conductivity. Here, we demonstrate reliable ΔBz,c measurements in-vivo in the human brain based on multi-echo spin echo (MESE) and steady-state free precession free induction decay (SSFP......-FID) sequences. In a series of experiments, we optimize their robustness for in-vivo measurements while maintaining a good sensitivity to the current-induced fields. We validate both methods by assessing the linearity of the measured ΔBz,c with respect to the current strength. For the more efficient SSFP...... of ΔBz,c fields as weak as 1 nT, caused by currents of 1 mA strength. Comparison of the ΔBz,c measurements with simulated ΔBz,c images based on FEM calculations and individualized head models reveals significant linear correlations in all subjects, but only for the stray field-corrected data. As final...

  1. Systems Analysis of Human Visuo-Myoelectric Control Facilitated by Anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation in Healthy Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinh Kha

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Induction of neuroplasticity by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS applied to the primary motor cortex facilitates motor learning of the upper extremities in healthy humans. The impact of tDCS on lower limb functions has not been studied extensively so far. In this study, we applied a system identification approach to investigate the impact of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation of the leg area of the motor cortex via the human visuo-myoelectric controller. The visuo-myoelectric reaching task (VMT involves ballistic muscle contraction after a visual cue. We applied a black box approach using a linear ARX (Auto-regressive with eXogenous input model for a visuomotor myoelectric reaching task. We found that a 20th order finite impulse response (FIR model captured the TARGET (single input—CURSOR (single output dynamics during a VMT. The 20th order FIR model was investigated based on gain/phase margin analysis, which showed a significant (p < 0.01 effect of anodal tDCS on the gain margin of the VMT system. Also, response latency and the corticomuscular coherence (CMC time delay were affected (p < 0.05 by anodal tDCS when compared to sham tDCS. Furthermore, gray box simulation results from a Simplified Spinal-Like Controller (SSLC model demonstrated that the input-output function for motor evoked potentials (MEP played an essential role in increasing muscle activation levels and response time improvement post-tDCS when compared to pre-tDCS baseline performance. This computational approach can be used to simulate the behavior of the neuromuscular controller during VMT to elucidate the effects of adjuvant treatment with tDCS.

  2. Methodological Dimensions of Transcranial Brain Stimulation with the Electrical Current in Human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Rostami

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial current stimulation (TCS is a neuromodulation method in which the patient is exposed to a mild electric current (direct or alternating at 1-2 mA, resulting in an increase or a decrease in the brain excitability. This modi.cation in neural activities can be used as a method for functional human brain mapping with causal inferences. This method might also facilitate the treatments of many neuropsychiatric disorders based on its inexpensive, simple, safe, noninvasive, painless, semi-focal excitatory and inhibitory effects. Given this, a comparison amongst different brain stimulation modalities has been made to determine the potential advantages of the TCS method. In addition, considerable methodological details on using TCS in basic and clinical neuroscience studies in human subjects have been introduced. Technical characteristics of TCS devices and their related accessories with regard to safety concerns have also been well articulated. Finally, some TCS application opportunities have been emphasized, including its potential use in the near future

  3. A Metabolic Biofuel Cell: Conversion of Human Leukocyte Metabolic Activity to Electrical Currents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui X Tracy

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract An investigation of the electrochemical activity of human white blood cells (WBC for biofuel cell (BFC applications is described. WBCs isolated from whole human blood were suspended in PBS and introduced into the anode compartment of a proton exchange membrane (PEM fuel cell. The cathode compartment contained a 50 mM potassium ferricyanide solution. Average current densities between 0.9 and 1.6 μA cm-2 and open circuit potentials (Voc between 83 and 102 mV were obtained, which were both higher than control values. Cyclic voltammetry was used to investigate the electrochemical activity of the activated WBCs in an attempt to elucidate the mechanism of electron transfer between the cells and electrode. Voltammograms were obtained for the WBCs, including peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs - a lymphocyte-monocyte mixture isolated on a Ficoll gradient, a B lymphoblastoid cell line (BLCL, and two leukemia cell lines, namely K562 and Jurkat. An oxidation peak at about 363 mV vs. SCE for the PMA (phorbol ester activated primary cells, with a notable absence of a reduction peak was observed. Oxidation peaks were not observed for the BLCL, K562 or Jurkat cell lines. HPLC confirmed the release of serotonin (5-HT from the PMA activated primary cells. It is believed that serotonin, among other biochemical species released by the activated cells, contributes to the observed BFC currents.

  4. Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato genotypes infecting humans--review of current knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez Rojas, Cristian A; Romig, Thomas; Lightowlers, Marshall W

    2014-01-01

    the G5, G8 and G10 genotypes. No cases of human infection with G4 have been described. Biological differences between the species and genotypes have potential to affect the transmission dynamics of the parasite, requiring modification of methods used in disease control initiatives. Recent investigations have revealed that the protective vaccine antigen (EG95), developed for the G1 genotype, is immunologically different in the G6 genotype. Further research will be required to determine whether the current EG95 vaccine would be effective against the G6 or G7 genotypes, or whether it will be necessary, and possible, to develop genotype-specific vaccines. Copyright © 2013 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Current theoretical models fail to predict the topological complexity of the human genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier eArsuaga

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the folding of the human genome is a key challenge of modern structural biology. The emergence of chromatin conformation capture assays ({it e.g.} Hi-C has revolutionized chromosome biology and provided new insights into the three dimensional structure of the genome. The experimental data are highly complex and need to be analyzed with quantitative tools. It has been argued that the data obtained from Hi-C assays are consistent with a fractal organization of the genome. A key characteristic textcolor{red}{of the fractal globule} is the lack of topological complexity (knotting or inter-linking. However, the absence of topological complexity contradicts results from polymer physics showing that the entanglement of long linear polymers in a confined volume increases rapidly with the length and with decreasing volume. textcolor{red}{{it In vivo} and {it in vitro} assays support this claim in some biological systems. We simulate knotted lattice polygons confined inside a sphere and demonstrate that their contact frequencies agree with the human Hi-C data.} We conclude that the topological complexity of the human genome cannot be inferred from current Hi-C data.

  6. Human taeniasis: current insights into prevention and management strategies in endemic countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okello, Anna L; Thomas, Lian Francesca

    2017-01-01

    Human taeniasis is a zoonotic condition resulting from infection with the adult stages of Taenia saginata (“beef tapeworm”), Taenia solium (“pork tapeworm”) or Taenia asiatica (“Asian tapeworm”). Although these parasites have a worldwide distribution, the overwhelming burden is felt by communities in low- and middle-income countries. This is particularly true for T. solium, whereby infection of the central nervous system with the larval stage of the parasite (neurocysticercosis) is a major cause of acquired epilepsy in low-resource settings. With a focus on endemic countries, this review provides an insight into the prevention and management of human taeniasis, concluding with some recent case studies describing their implementation. Discussion of the opportunities and challenges regarding current fecal and serological diagnostic assays for detecting Taenia spp. highlights the importance of accurate and accessible diagnostic options for the field situation. The lack of long-term impact on the parasites’ lifecycle from human anthelmintic treatment, coupled with the propensity for adverse reactions, highlights the importance of a “two-pronged” approach that considers the relevant animal hosts, particularly in the case of T. solium. Aside from the therapeutic options, this review reiterates the importance of adequate assessment and consideration of the associated behavioral and policy aspects around sanitation, hygiene and meat inspection that have been shown to support parasite control, and potential elimination, in endemic regions. PMID:28615981

  7. Role of Nrf2 in preventing oxidative stress induced chloride current alteration in human lung cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canella, Rita; Benedusi, Mascia; Martini, Marta; Cervellati, Franco; Cavicchio, Carlotta; Valacchi, Giuseppe

    2018-08-01

    The lung tissue is one of the main targets of oxidative stress due to external sources and respiratory activity. In our previous work, we have demonstrated in that O 3 exposure alters the Cl - current-voltage relationship, with the appearance of a large outward rectifier component mainly sustained by outward rectifier chloride channels (ORCCs) in human lung epithelial cells (A549 line). In the present study, we have performed patch clamp experiments, in order to identify which one of the O 3 byproducts (4hydroxynonenal (HNE) and/or H 2 O 2 ) was responsible for chloride current change. While 4HNE exposition (up to 25 μM for 30' before electrophysiological analysis) did not reproduce O 3 effect, H 2 O 2 produced by glucose oxidase 10 mU for 24 hr before electrophysiological analysis mimicked O 3 response. This result was confirmed treating the cell with catalase (CAT) before O 3 exposure (1,000 U/ml for 2 hr): CAT was able to rescue Cl - current alteration. Since CAT is regulated by Nrf2 transcription factor, we pre-treated the cells with the Nrf2 activators, resveratrol and tBHQ. Immunochemical and immunocytochemical results showed Nrf2 activation with both substances that lead to prevent OS effect on Cl - current. These data bring new insights into the mechanisms involved in OS-induced lung tissue damage, pointing out the role of H 2 O 2 in chloride current alteration and the ability of Nfr2 activation in preventing this effect. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Pharmacological modulation of cortical excitability shifts induced by transcranial direct current stimulation in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitsche, M A; Fricke, K; Henschke, U; Schlitterlau, A; Liebetanz, D; Lang, N; Henning, S; Tergau, F; Paulus, W

    2003-11-15

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the human motor cortex results in polarity-specific shifts of cortical excitability during and after stimulation. Anodal tDCS enhances and cathodal stimulation reduces excitability. Animal experiments have demonstrated that the effect of anodal tDCS is caused by neuronal depolarisation, while cathodal tDCS hyperpolarises cortical neurones. However, not much is known about the ion channels and receptors involved in these effects. Thus, the impact of the sodium channel blocker carbamazepine, the calcium channel blocker flunarizine and the NMDA receptor antagonist dextromethorphane on tDCS-elicited motor cortical excitability changes of healthy human subjects were tested. tDCS-protocols inducing excitability alterations (1) only during tDCS and (2) eliciting long-lasting after-effects were applied after drug administration. Carbamazepine selectively eliminated the excitability enhancement induced by anodal stimulation during and after tDCS. Flunarizine resulted in similar changes. Antagonising NMDA receptors did not alter current-generated excitability changes during a short stimulation, which elicits no after-effects, but prevented the induction of long-lasting after-effects independent of their direction. These results suggest that, like in other animals, cortical excitability shifts induced during tDCS in humans also depend on membrane polarisation, thus modulating the conductance of sodium and calcium channels. Moreover, they suggest that the after-effects may be NMDA receptor dependent. Since NMDA receptors are involved in neuroplastic changes, the results suggest a possible application of tDCS in the modulation or induction of these processes in a clinical setting. The selective elimination of tDCS-driven excitability enhancements by carbamazepine proposes a role for this drug in focussing the effects of cathodal tDCS, which may have important future clinical applications.

  9. Notes on Human Trials of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation between 1960 and 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeilpour, Zeinab; Schestatsky, Pedro; Bikson, Marom; Brunoni, André R.; Pellegrinelli, Ada; Piovesan, Fernanda X.; Santos, Mariana M. S. A.; Menezes, Renata B.; Fregni, Felipe

    2017-01-01

    Background: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is investigated to modulate neuronal function including cognitive neuroscience and neuropsychiatric therapies. While cases of human stimulation with rudimentary batteries date back more than 200 years, clinical trials with current controlled stimulation were published intermittently since the 1960s. The modern era of tDCS only started after 1998. Objectives: To review methods and outcomes of tDCS studies from old literature (between 1960 and 1998) with intention of providing new insight for ongoing tDCS trials and development of tDCS protocols especially for the purpose of treatment. Methods: Articles were identified through a search in PubMed and through the reference list from its selected articles. We included only non-invasive human studies that provided controlled direct current and were written in English, French, Spanish or Portuguese before the year of 1998, the date in which modern stimulation paradigms were implemented. Results: Fifteen articles met our criteria. The majority were small-randomized controlled clinical trials that enrolled a mean of approximately 26 subjects (Phase II studies). Most of the studies (around 83%) assessed the role of tDCS in the treatment of psychiatric conditions, in which the main outcomes were measured by means of behavioral scales and clinical observation, but the diagnostic precision and the quality of outcome monitoring, including adverse events, were deficient by modern standards. Compared to modern tDCS dose, the stimulation intensities used (0.1–1 mA) were lower, however as the electrodes were typically smaller (e.g., 1.26 cm2), the average electrode current density (0.2 mA/cm2) was approximately 4× higher. The number of sessions ranged from one to 120 (median 14). Notably, the stimulation session durations of several minutes to 11 h (median 4.5 h) could markedly exceed modern tDCS protocols. Twelve studies out of 15 showed positive results. Only mild side

  10. A 540-[Formula: see text] Duty Controlled RSSI With Current Reusing Technique for Human Body Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jaeeun; Lee, Yongsu; Cho, Hyunwoo; Yoo, Hoi-Jun

    2016-08-01

    An ultra-low-power duty controlled received signal strength indicator (RSSI) is implemented for human body communication (HBC) in 180 nm CMOS technology under 1.5 V supply. The proposed RSSI adopted 3 following key features for low-power consumption; 1) current reusing technique (CR-RSSI) with replica bias circuit and calibration unit, 2) duty controller, and 3) reconfigurable gm-boosting LNA. The CR-RSSI utilizes stacked amplifier-rectifier-cell (AR-cell) to reuse the supply current of each blocks. As a result, the power consumption becomes 540 [Formula: see text] with +/-2 dB accuracy and 75 dB dynamic range. The replica bias circuit and calibration unit are adopted to increase the reliability of CR-RSSI. In addition, the duty controller turns off the RSSI when it is not required, and this function leads 70% power reduction. At last, the gm-boosting reconfigurable LNA can adaptively vary its noise and linearity performance with respect to input signal strength. Fro current reusing technique m this feature, we achieve 62% power reduction in the LNA. Thanks to these schemes, compared to the previous works, we can save 70% of power in RSSI and LNA.

  11. Effect of cAMP on short-circuit current in isolated human ciliary body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ren-yi; Ma, Ning; Hu, Qian-qian

    2013-07-01

    Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) could activate chloride channels in bovine ciliary body and trigger an increase in the ionic current (short-circuit current, Isc) across the ciliary processes in pigs. The purpose of this study was to investigate how cAMP modulates Isc in isolated human ciliary processes and the possible involvement of chloride transport across the tissue in cAMP-induced Isc change. In an Ussing-type chamber system, the Isc changes induced by the cAMP analogue 8-bromo-cAMP and an adenylyl cyclase activator forskolin in isolated human ciliary processes were assessed. The involvement of Cl(-) component in the bath solution was investigated. The effect of Cl(-) channel (10 µmol/L niflumic acid and 1 mmol/L 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (DIDS)), K(+) channel (10 mmol/L tetraethylammonium chloride (TEA)), or Na(+) channel blockers (1 mmol/L amiloride) on 8-bromo-cAMP-induced Isc change was also studied. Dose-dependently, 8-bromo-cAMP (10 nmol/L-30 µmol/L) or forskolin (10 nmol/L-3 µmol/L) increased Isc across the ciliary processes with an increase in negative potential difference on the non-pigmented epithelium (NPE) side of the tissue. Isc increase induced by 8-bromo-cAMP was more pronounced when the drug was applied on the NPE side than on the pigmented epithelium side. When the tissue was bathed in low Cl(-) solutions, the Isc increase was significantly inhibited. Finally, niflumic acid and DIDS, but not TEA or amiloride, significantly prevented the Isc increase induced by 8-bromo-cAMP. cAMP stimulates stroma-to-aqueous anionic transport in isolated human ciliary processes. Chloride is likely to be among the ions, the transportation of which across the tissue is triggered by cAMP, suggesting the potential role of cAMP in the process of aqueous humor formation in human eyes.

  12. HUMAN RELIABILITY ANALYSIS FOR COMPUTERIZED PROCEDURES, PART TWO: APPLICABILITY OF CURRENT METHODS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald L. Boring; David I. Gertman

    2012-10-01

    Computerized procedures (CPs) are an emerging technology within nuclear power plant control rooms. While CPs have been implemented internationally in advanced control rooms, to date no U.S. nuclear power plant has implemented CPs in its main control room. Yet, CPs are a reality of new plant builds and are an area of considerable interest to existing plants, which see advantages in terms of easier records management by omitting the need for updating hardcopy procedures. The overall intent of this paper is to provide a characterization of human reliability analysis (HRA) issues for computerized procedures. It is beyond the scope of this document to propose a new HRA approach or to recommend specific methods or refinements to those methods. Rather, this paper serves as a review of current HRA as it may be used for the analysis and review of computerized procedures.

  13. Qualitative ergonomics/human factors research in health care: Current state and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Rupa Sheth; McGuire, Kerry Margaret; Rivera, A Joy

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this systematic review was to understand the current state of Ergonomics/Human Factors (E/HF) qualitative research in health care and to draw implications for future efforts. This systematic review identified 98 qualitative research papers published between January 2005 and August 2015 in the seven journals endorsed by the International Ergonomics Association with an impact factor over 1.0. The majority of the studies were conducted in hospitals and outpatient clinics, were focused on the work of formal health care professionals, and were classified as cognitive or organizational ergonomics. Interviews, focus groups, and observations were the most prevalent forms of data collection. Triangulation and data archiving were the dominant approaches to ensuring rigor. Few studies employed a formal approach to qualitative inquiry. Significant opportunities remain to enhance the use of qualitative research to advance systems thinking within health care. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A review of current and possible future human-water dynamics in Myanmar's river basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taft, Linda; Evers, Mariele

    2016-12-01

    Rivers provide a large number of ecosystem services and riparian people depend directly and indirectly on water availability and quality and quantity of the river waters. The country's economy and the people's well-being and income, particularly in agriculturally dominated countries, are strongly determined by the availability of sufficient water. This is particularly true for the country of Myanmar in South-east Asia, where more than 65 % of the population live in rural areas, working in the agricultural sector. Only a few studies exist on river basins in Myanmar at all and detailed knowledge providing the basis for human-water research is very limited. A deeper understanding of human-water system dynamics in the country is required because Myanmar's society, economy, ecosystems and water resources are facing major challenges due to political and economic reforms and massive and rapid investments from neighbouring countries. However, not only policy and economy modify the need for water. Climate variability and change are other essential drivers within human-water systems. Myanmar's climate is influenced by the Indian Monsoon circulation which is subject to interannual and also regional variability. Particularly the central dry zone and the Ayeyarwady delta are prone to extreme events such as serious drought periods and extreme floods. On the one hand, the farmers depend on the natural fertiliser brought by regular river inundations and high groundwater levels for irrigation; on the other hand, they suffer from these water-related extreme events. It is expected that theses climatic extreme events will likely increase in frequency and magnitude in the future as a result of global climate change. Different national and international interests in the abundant water resources may provide opportunities and risks at the same time for Myanmar. Several dam projects along the main courses of the rivers are currently in the planning phase. Dams will most likely modify the

  15. [Current situation of human resources of parasitic disease control and prevention organizations in Henan Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ya-Lan, Zhang; Yan-Kun, Zhu; Wei-Qi, Chen; Yan, Deng; Peng, Li

    2018-01-10

    To understand the current status of human resources of parasitic disease control and prevention organizations in Henan Province, so as to provide the reference for promoting the integrative ability of the prevention and control of parasitic diseases in Henan Province. The questionnaires were designed and the method of census was adopted. The information, such as the amounts, majors, education background, technical titles, working years, and turnover in each parasitic disease control and prevention organization was collected by the centers for disease control and prevention (CDCs) at all levels. The data were descriptively analyzed. Totally 179 CDCs were investigated, in which only 19.0% (34/179) had the independent parasitic diseases control institution (department) . There were only 258 full-time staffs working on parasitic disease control and prevention in the whole province, in which only 61.9% (159/258) were health professionals. Those with junior college degree or below in the health professionals accounted for 60.3% (96/159) . Most of them (42.1%) had over 20 years of experience, but 57.9% (92/159) of their technical post titles were at primary level or below. The proportion of the health professionals is low in the parasitic disease control and prevention organizations in Henan Province. The human resource construction for parasitic disease control and prevention at all levels should be strengthened.

  16. Human iPS Cell-Derived Germ Cells: Current Status and Clinical Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuya Ishii

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Recently, fertile spermatozoa and oocytes were generated from mouse induced pluripotent (iPS cells using a combined in vitro and in vivo induction system. With regard to germ cell induction from human iPS cells, progress has been made particularly in the male germline, demonstrating in vitro generation of haploid, round spermatids. Although iPS-derived germ cells are expected to be developed to yield a form of assisted reproductive technology (ART that can address unmet reproductive needs, genetic and/or epigenetic instabilities abound in iPS cell generation and germ cell induction. In addition, there is still room to improve the induction protocol in the female germline. However, rapid advances in stem cell research are likely to make such obstacles surmountable, potentially translating induced germ cells into the clinical setting in the immediate future. This review examines the current status of the induction of germ cells from human iPS cells and discusses the clinical potential, as well as future directions.

  17. Current status of tissue engineering applied to bladder reconstruction in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasanz, C; Raventós, C; Morote, J

    2018-01-11

    Bladder reconstruction is performed to replace or expand the bladder. The intestine is used in standard clinical practice for tissue in this procedure. The complications of bladder reconstruction range from those of intestinal resection to those resulting from the continuous contact of urine with tissue not prepared for this contact. In this article, we describe and classify the various biomaterials and cell cultures used in bladder tissue engineering and reviews the studies performed with humans. We conducted a review of literature published in the PubMed database between 1950 and 2017, following the principles of the PRISM declaration. Numerous in vitro and animal model studies have been conducted, but only 18 experiments have been performed with humans, with a total of 169 patients. The current evidence suggests that an acellular matrix, a synthetic polymer with urothelial and autologous smooth muscle cells attached in vitro or stem cells would be the most practical approach for experimental bladder reconstruction. Bladder replacement or expansion without using intestinal tissue is still a challenge, despite progress in the manufacture of biomaterials and the development of cell therapy. Well-designed studies with large numbers of patients and long follow-up times are needed to establish an effective clinical translation and standardisation of the check-up functional tests. Copyright © 2017 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Current demographics suggest future energy supplies will be inadequate to slow human population growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLong, John P; Burger, Oskar; Hamilton, Marcus J

    2010-10-05

    Influential demographic projections suggest that the global human population will stabilize at about 9-10 billion people by mid-century. These projections rest on two fundamental assumptions. The first is that the energy needed to fuel development and the associated decline in fertility will keep pace with energy demand far into the future. The second is that the demographic transition is irreversible such that once countries start down the path to lower fertility they cannot reverse to higher fertility. Both of these assumptions are problematic and may have an effect on population projections. Here we examine these assumptions explicitly. Specifically, given the theoretical and empirical relation between energy-use and population growth rates, we ask how the availability of energy is likely to affect population growth through 2050. Using a cross-country data set, we show that human population growth rates are negatively related to per-capita energy consumption, with zero growth occurring at ∼13 kW, suggesting that the global human population will stop growing only if individuals have access to this amount of power. Further, we find that current projected future energy supply rates are far below the supply needed to fuel a global demographic transition to zero growth, suggesting that the predicted leveling-off of the global population by mid-century is unlikely to occur, in the absence of a transition to an alternative energy source. Direct consideration of the energetic constraints underlying the demographic transition results in a qualitatively different population projection than produced when the energetic constraints are ignored. We suggest that energetic constraints be incorporated into future population projections.

  19. Current demographics suggest future energy supplies will be inadequate to slow human population growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P DeLong

    Full Text Available Influential demographic projections suggest that the global human population will stabilize at about 9-10 billion people by mid-century. These projections rest on two fundamental assumptions. The first is that the energy needed to fuel development and the associated decline in fertility will keep pace with energy demand far into the future. The second is that the demographic transition is irreversible such that once countries start down the path to lower fertility they cannot reverse to higher fertility. Both of these assumptions are problematic and may have an effect on population projections. Here we examine these assumptions explicitly. Specifically, given the theoretical and empirical relation between energy-use and population growth rates, we ask how the availability of energy is likely to affect population growth through 2050. Using a cross-country data set, we show that human population growth rates are negatively related to per-capita energy consumption, with zero growth occurring at ∼13 kW, suggesting that the global human population will stop growing only if individuals have access to this amount of power. Further, we find that current projected future energy supply rates are far below the supply needed to fuel a global demographic transition to zero growth, suggesting that the predicted leveling-off of the global population by mid-century is unlikely to occur, in the absence of a transition to an alternative energy source. Direct consideration of the energetic constraints underlying the demographic transition results in a qualitatively different population projection than produced when the energetic constraints are ignored. We suggest that energetic constraints be incorporated into future population projections.

  20. The Metal Neurotoxins: An Important Role in Current Human Neural Epidemics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Schofield

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Many published studies have illustrated that several of the present day neurological epidemics (autism, attention deficit disorder, Alzheimer’s cannot be correlated to any single neurotoxicant. However, the present scientific examination of the numerous global blood monitoring databases for adults that include the concentrations of the neurotoxic elements, aluminum (Al, arsenic (As, lead (Pb, manganese (Mn, mercury (Hg, and selenium (Se clearly indicate that, when considered in combination, for some, the human body may become easily over-burdened. This can be explained by changes in modern lifestyles. Similar data, solely for pregnant women, have been examined confirming this. All these elements are seen to be present in the human body and at not insignificant magnitudes. Currently suggested minimum risk levels (MRL for humans are discussed and listed together with averages of the reported distributions, together with their spread and maximum values. One observation is that many distributions for pregnant women are not too dissimilar from those of general populations. Women obviously have their individual baseline of neurotoxin values before pregnancy and any efforts to modify this to any significant degree is not yet clearly apparent. For any element, distribution shapes are reasonably similar showing broad distributions with extended tails with numerous outlier values. There are a certain fraction of people that lie well above the MRL values and may be at risk, especially if genetically susceptible. Additionally, synergistic effects between neurotoxins and with other trace metals are now also being reported. It appears prudent for women of child-bearing age to establish their baseline values well before pregnancy. Those at risk then can be better identified. Adequate instrumental testing now is commercially available for this. In addition, directives are necessary for vaccination programs to use only non-neurotoxic adjuvants, especially for

  1. Human taeniasis: current insights into prevention and management strategies in endemic countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okello A

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Anna L Okello,1 Lian Francesca Thomas2 1Division of Infection and Pathway Medicine, Edinburgh Medical School, Biomedical Sciences College of Medicine and Veterinary Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Scotland; 2Independent Consultant, Lusaka, Zambia Abstract: Human taeniasis is a zoonotic condition resulting from infection with the adult stages of Taenia saginata (“beef tapeworm”, Taenia solium (“pork tapeworm” or Taenia asiatica (“Asian tapeworm”. Although these parasites have a worldwide distribution, the overwhelming burden is felt by communities in low- and middle-income countries. This is particularly true for T. solium, whereby infection of the central nervous system with the larval stage of the parasite (neurocysticercosis is a major cause of acquired epilepsy in low-resource settings. With a focus on endemic countries, this review provides an insight into the prevention and management of human taeniasis, concluding with some recent case studies describing their implementation. Discussion of the opportunities and challenges regarding current fecal and serological diagnostic assays for detecting Taenia spp. highlights the importance of accurate and accessible diagnostic options for the field situation. The lack of long-term impact on the parasites’ lifecycle from human anthelmintic treatment, coupled with the propensity for adverse reactions, highlights the importance of a “two-pronged” approach that considers the relevant animal hosts, particularly in the case of T. solium. Aside from the therapeutic options, this review reiterates the importance of adequate assessment and consideration of the associated behavioral and policy aspects around sanitation, hygiene and meat inspection that have been shown to support parasite control, and potential elimination, in endemic regions. Keywords: Taenia solium, Taenia saginata, cysticercosis, zoonotic disease, neglected tropical diseases

  2. Role of an inward rectifier K+ current and of hyperpolarization in human myoblast fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J-H; Bijlenga, P; Fischer-Lougheed, J; Occhiodoro, T; Kaelin, A; Bader, C R; Bernheim, L

    1998-01-01

    The role of K+ channels and membrane potential in myoblast fusion was evaluated by examining resting membrane potential and timing of expression of K+ currents at three stages of differentiation of human myogenic cells: undifferentiated myoblasts, fusion-competent myoblasts (FCMBs), and freshly formed myotubes. Two K+ currents contribute to a hyperpolarization of myoblasts prior to fusion: IK(NI), a non-inactivating delayed rectifier, and IK(IR), an inward rectifier. IK(NI) density is low in undifferentiated myoblasts, increases in FCMBs and declines in myotubes. On the other hand, IK(IR) is expressed in 28 % of the FCMBs and in all myotubes. IK(IR) is reversibly blocked by Ba2+ or Cs+. Cells expressing IK(IR) have resting membrane potentials of −65 mV. A block by Ba2+ or Cs+ induces a depolarization to a voltage determined by IK(NI) (−32 mV). Cs+ and Ba2+ ions reduce myoblast fusion. It is hypothesized that the IK(IR)-mediated hyperpolarization allows FCMBs to recruit Na+, K+ and T-type Ca2+ channels which are present in these cells and would otherwise be inactivated. FCMBs, rendered thereby capable of firing action potentials, could amplify depolarizing signals and may accelerate fusion. PMID:9705997

  3. Isolation and characterization of current human coronavirus strains in primary human epithelial cell cultures reveal differences in target cell tropism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkman, Ronald; Jebbink, Maarten F.; Koekkoek, Sylvie M.; Deijs, Martin; Jónsdóttir, Hulda R.; Molenkamp, Richard; Ieven, Margareta; Goossens, Herman; Thiel, Volker; van der Hoek, Lia

    2013-01-01

    The human airway epithelium (HAE) represents the entry port of many human respiratory viruses, including human coronaviruses (HCoVs). Nowadays, four HCoVs, HCoV-229E, HCoV-OC43, HCoV-HKU1, and HCoV-NL63, are known to be circulating worldwide, causing upper and lower respiratory tract infections in

  4. Presenilin-1 mutations alter K+ currents in the human neuroblastoma cell line, SH-SY5Y

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plant, Leigh D; Boyle, John P; Thomas, Natasha M

    2002-01-01

    Mutations in presenilin 1 (PS1) are the major cause of autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease. We have measured the voltage-gated K+ current in the human neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y using whole-cell patch-clamp. When cells were stably transfected to over-express PS1, no change in K+ current...

  5. Reassortment and evolution of current human influenza A and B viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiyan; Lindstrom, Stephen E; Shaw, Michael W; Smith, Catherine B; Hall, Henrietta E; Mungall, Bruce A; Subbarao, Kanta; Cox, Nancy J; Klimov, Alexander

    2004-07-01

    During the 2001-2002 influenza season, human influenza A (H1N2) reassortant viruses were detected globally. The hemagglutinin (HA) of these H1N2 viruses was similar to that of the A/New Caledonia/20/99 (H1N1) vaccine strain both antigenically and genetically, while their neuraminidase (NA) was antigenically and genetically related to that of recent human influenza H3N2 reference viruses such as A/Moscow/10/99. All six internal genes of the H1N2 reassortants originated from an H3N2 virus. After being detected only in eastern Asia during the past 10 years, Influenza B/Victoria/2/87 lineage viruses reappeared in many countries outside of Asia in 2001. Additionally, reassortant influenza B viruses possessing an HA similar to that of B/Shandong/7/97, a recent B/Victoria/2/87 lineage reference strain, and an NA closely related to that of B/Sichuan/379/99, a recent B/Yamagata/16/88 lineage reference strain, were isolated globally and became the predominant influenza B epidemic strain. The current influenza vaccine is expected to provide good protection against H1N2 viruses because it contains A/New Caledonia/20/99 (H1N1) and A/Panama/2007/99 (H3N2) like viruses whose H1 HA or N2 NA are antigenically similar to those of recent circulating H1N2 viruses. On the other hand, widespread circulation of influenza B Victoria lineage viruses required inclusion of a strain from this lineage in influenza vaccines for the 2002-2003 season.

  6. Protein Analysis in Human Cerebrospinal Fluid: Physiological Aspects, Current Progress and Future Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas F. Hühmer

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of lumbar puncture into clinical medicine over 100 years ago marks the beginning of the study of central nervous system diseases using the human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF. Ever since, CSF has been analyzed extensively to elucidate the physiological and biochemical bases of neurological disease. The proximity of CSF to the brain makes it a good target for studying the pathophysiology of brain functions, but the barrier function of the CSF also impedes its diagnostic value. Today, measurements to determine alterations in the composition of CSF are central in the differential diagnosis of specific diseases of the central nervous system (CNS. In particular, the analysis of the CSF protein composition provides crucial information in the diagnosis of CNS diseases. This enables the assessment of the physiology of the blood-CSF barrier and of the immunology of intrathecial responses. Besides those routine measurements, protein compositional studies of CSF have been extended recently to many other proteins in the expectation that comprehensive analysis of lower abundance CSF proteins will lead to the discovery of new disease markers. Disease marker discovery by molecular profiling of the CSF tissue has the enormous potential of providing many new disease relevant molecules. New developments in protein profiling techniques hold promise for the discovery and validation of relevant disease markers. In this review, we summarize the current efforts and progress in CSF protein profiling measurements using conventional and current protein analysis tools. We also discuss necessary development in methodology in order to have the highest impact on the study of the molecular composition of CSF proteins.

  7. A Critique on the Effectiveness of Current Human Reliability Analysis Approach for the Human-Machine Interface Design in Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yong Hee

    2010-01-01

    Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) in cooperation of PSA has been conducted to evaluate the safety of a system and the validity of a system design. HRA has been believed to provide a quantitative value of human error potential and the safety level of a design alternative in Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). However, it becomes doubtful that current HRA is worth to conduct to evaluate the human factors of NPP design, since there have been many critiques upon the virtue of HRA. Inevitably, the newer the technology becomes, the larger endeavors bound for the new facilitated methods. This paper describes the limitations and the obsolescence of the current HRA, especially for the design evaluation of Human-Machine Interface (HMI) utilizing the recent digital technologies. An alternative approach to the assessment of the human error potential of HMI design is proposed

  8. Historical Overview, Current Status, and Future Trends in Human-Computer Interfaces for Process Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owre, Fridtjov

    2003-01-01

    Approximately 25 yr ago, the first computer-based process control systems, including computer-generated displays, appeared. It is remarkable how slowly the human-computer interfaces (HCI's) of such systems have developed over the years. The display design approach in those early days had its roots in the topology of the process. Usually, the information came from the piping and instrumentation diagrams. Later, some important additional functions were added to the basic system, such as alarm and trend displays. Today, these functions are still the basic ones, and the end-user displays have not changed much except for improved display quality in terms of colors, font types and sizes, resolution, and object shapes, resulting from improved display hardware.Today, there are two schools of display design competing for supremacy in the process control segment of the HCI community. One can be characterized by extension and integration of current practice, while the other is more revolutionary.The extension of the current practice approach can be described in terms of added system functionality and integration. This means that important functions for the plant operator - such as signal validation, plant overview information, safety parameter displays, procedures, prediction of future states, and plant performance optimization - are added to the basic functions and integrated in a total unified HCI for the plant operator.The revolutionary approach, however, takes as its starting point the design process itself. The functioning of the plant is described in terms of the plant goals and subgoals, as well as the means available to reach these goals. Then, displays are designed representing this functional structure - in clear contrast to the earlier plant topology representation. Depending on the design approach used, the corresponding displays have various designations, e.g., function-oriented, task-oriented, or ecological displays.This paper gives a historical overview of past

  9. Effects of frontal transcranial direct current stimulation on emotional processing and mood in healthy humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Nitsche

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The prefrontal cortex is involved in mood and emotional processing. In patients suffering from depression, the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is hypoactive, while activity of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is enhanced. Counterbalancing these pathological excitability alterations by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS or transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS improves mood in these patients. In healthy subjects, however, rTMS of the same areas has no major effect, and the effects of tDCS are mixed. We aimed to evaluate the effects of prefrontal tDCS on mood and mood-related cognitive processing in healthy humans. In a first study, we administered excitability-enhancing anodal, excitability-diminishing cathodal and placebo tDCS to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, combined with antagonistic stimulation of the right frontopolar cortex, and tested acute mood changes by an adjective checklist. Subjective mood was not influenced by tDCS. Emotional face identification, however, which was explored in a second experiment, was subtly improved by a tDCS-driven excitability modulation of the prefrontal cortex, markedly by anodal tDCS of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex for positive emotional content. We conclude that tDCS of the prefrontal cortex improves mood processing in healthy subjects, but does not influence subjective mood state.

  10. No Effect of Cathodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation on Fear Memory in Healthy Human Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Mungee

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies have demonstrated that fear memories can be modified using non-invasive methods. Recently, we demonstrated that anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is capable of enhancing fear memories. Here, we examined the effects of cathodal tDCS of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex during fear reconsolidation in humans. Methods: Seventeen young, healthy subjects were randomly assigned to two groups, which underwent fear conditioning with mild electric stimuli paired with a visual stimulus. Twenty-four hours later, both groups were shown a reminder of the conditioned fearful stimulus. Shortly thereafter, they received either tDCS (right prefrontal—cathodal, left supraorbital—anodal for 20 min at 1 mA, or sham stimulation. A day later, fear responses of both groups were compared. Results: On Day 3, during fear response assessment, there were no significant differences between the tDCS and sham group (p > 0.05. Conclusion: We conclude that cathodal tDCS of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (right prefrontal—cathodal, left supraorbital—anodal did not influence fear memories.

  11. Current status of production and market of human vaccine products in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So Youn; Cho, Jahyang; Cha, Sung-Ho; Bae, Chong-Woo

    2013-07-01

    The goal of this study was to build basic information related to the production and market of human vaccine products in Korea, which can be an important indicator to provide basic data in practical use. Statistical data were obtained from the Bank of Korea, Korea Health Industry Development Institute, Korea Pharmaceutical Traders Association, and Korea Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Association. Vaccines are the 10th ranked drugs in the classification of whole complete preparated drugs. The production output of vaccines in Korea was 392.2 billion KRW in 2011, comprising 2.83% of complete preparated drug production output (13 trillion 880.8 billion KRW) and 2.54% of medical-pharmaceutical product output (15 trillion 440.3 billion KRW). The market scale of vaccines in Korea was 710 billion KRW in 2011, with an annual average growth rate of 11% in the past 6 years, comprising 2% of vaccine market in the world. There was also a significant increase in essential vaccines and other preventive vaccines in a global scale. Vaccines have the potential of becoming an emerging attractive industry. Based on the current analysis about the production of vaccine products and market scale, further development of the vaccine industry is expected in Korea.

  12. Nutrigenomics in human intervention studies: current status, lessons learned and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittwer, Jonas; Rubio-Aliaga, Isabel; Hoeft, Birgit; Bendik, Igor; Weber, Peter; Daniel, Hannelore

    2011-03-01

    Nutrigenomics applications comprise transcript-, proteome- and metabolome-profiling techniques in which responses to diets or individual ingredients are assessed in biological samples. They may also include the characterization of heterogeneity in relevant genes that affect the biological processes. This review explores various areas of nutrition and food sciences in which transcriptome-, proteome- and metabolome-analyses have been applied in human intervention studies, including nutrigenetics aspects and discusses the advantages and limitations of the methodologies. Despite the power of the profiling techniques to generate huge data sets, a critical assessment of the study outcomes emphasizes the current constraints in data interpretation, including huge knowledge gaps, the need for improved study designs and more comprehensive phenotyping of volunteers before selection for study participation. In this respect, nutrigenomics faces the same problems as all other areas of the life sciences, employing the same tools. However, there is a growing trend toward systemic approaches in which different technologies are combined and applied to the same sample, allowing physiological changes to be assessed more robustly throughout all molecular layers of mRNA, protein and metabolite changes. Nutrigenomics is thereby maturing as a branch of the life sciences and is gaining significant recognition in the scientific community. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Milestones of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation – From First Human Studies to Current Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juric, Mateja Kralj; Ghimire, Sakhila; Ogonek, Justyna; Weissinger, Eva M.; Holler, Ernst; van Rood, Jon J.; Oudshoorn, Machteld; Dickinson, Anne; Greinix, Hildegard T.

    2016-01-01

    Since the early beginnings, in the 1950s, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has become an established curative treatment for an increasing number of patients with life-threatening hematological, oncological, hereditary, and immunological diseases. This has become possible due to worldwide efforts of preclinical and clinical research focusing on issues of transplant immunology, reduction of transplant-associated morbidity, and mortality and efficient malignant disease eradication. The latter has been accomplished by potent graft-versus-leukemia (GvL) effector cells contained in the stem cell graft. Exciting insights into the genetics of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system allowed improved donor selection, including HLA-identical related and unrelated donors. Besides bone marrow, other stem cell sources like granulocyte-colony stimulating-mobilized peripheral blood stem cells and cord blood stem cells have been established in clinical routine. Use of reduced-intensity or non-myeloablative conditioning regimens has been associated with a marked reduction of non-hematological toxicities and eventually, non-relapse mortality allowing older patients and individuals with comorbidities to undergo allogeneic HSCT and to benefit from GvL or antitumor effects. Whereas in the early years, malignant disease eradication by high-dose chemotherapy or radiotherapy was the ultimate goal; nowadays, allogeneic HSCT has been recognized as cellular immunotherapy relying prominently on immune mechanisms and to a lesser extent on non-specific direct cellular toxicity. This chapter will summarize the key milestones of HSCT and introduce current developments. PMID:27881982

  14. Regenerating the human heart: direct reprogramming strategies and their current limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiroldi, Andrea; Piccoli, Marco; Ciconte, Giuseppe; Pappone, Carlo; Anastasia, Luigi

    2017-10-27

    Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death in the Western world. Unfortunately, current therapies are often only palliative, consequently essentially making heart transplantation necessary for many patients. However, several novel therapeutic approaches in the past two decades have yielded quite encouraging results. The generation of induced pluripotent stem cells, through the forced expression of stem cell-specific transcription factors, has inspired the most promising strategies for heart regeneration by direct reprogramming of cardiac fibroblasts into functional cardiomyocytes. Initial attempts at this reprogramming were conducted using a similar approach to the one used with transcription factors, but during years, novel strategies have been tested, e.g., miRNAs, recombinant proteins and chemical molecules. Although preliminary results on animal models are promising, the low reprogramming efficiency, as well as the incomplete maturation of the cardiomyocytes, still represents important obstacles. This review covers direct transdifferentiation strategies that have been proposed and developed and illustrates the pros and cons of each approach. Indeed, as described in the manuscript, there are still many unanswered questions and drawbacks that require a better understanding of the basic signaling pathways and transcription factor networks before functional cells, suitable for cardiac regeneration and safe for the patients, can be generated and used for human therapies.

  15. Human Na(v)1.8: enhanced persistent and ramp currents contribute to distinct firing properties of human DRG neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chongyang; Estacion, Mark; Huang, Jianying; Vasylyev, Dymtro; Zhao, Peng; Dib-Hajj, Sulayman D; Waxman, Stephen G

    2015-05-01

    Although species-specific differences in ion channel properties are well-documented, little has been known about the properties of the human Nav1.8 channel, an important contributor to pain signaling. Here we show, using techniques that include voltage clamp, current clamp, and dynamic clamp in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, that human Na(v)1.8 channels display slower inactivation kinetics and produce larger persistent current and ramp current than previously reported in other species. DRG neurons expressing human Na(v)1.8 channels unexpectedly produce significantly longer-lasting action potentials, including action potentials with half-widths in some cells >10 ms, and increased firing frequency compared with the narrower and usually single action potentials generated by DRG neurons expressing rat Na(v)1.8 channels. We also show that native human DRG neurons recapitulate these properties of Na(v)1.8 current and the long-lasting action potentials. Together, our results demonstrate strikingly distinct properties of human Na(v)1.8, which contribute to the firing properties of human DRG neurons.

  16. Radiosterilization of freeze-dried human amniotic Membrane and its use in the treatment of burn wound. Algerian experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djefal, A.; Mahlous, M.; Nacer Khodja, A.; Larbi, M.; Larbi Daho Bachir, M.

    2001-01-01

    The present study evaluates the usefulness of human amniotic membrane as biological dressing and its efficacy in the treatment of burns comparatively to the conventional dressing. We reported the practical methods of preparation, preservation and radiation sterilisation of amnion, and the clinical results of its successful use in the treatment of 80 cases of superficial and intermediate depth dermal burns. The increased rate of healing, pain relief, good adhesion to the bed wound and absence of infection were observed

  17. Current perspectives on attachment and bonding in the dog–human dyad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Elyssa; Bennett, Pauleen C; McGreevy, Paul D

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews recent research concerning dog–human relationships and how attributes that arise from them can be measured. It highlights the influence of human characteristics on dog behavior, and consequently, the dog–human bond. Of particular importance are the influences of human attitudes and personality. These themes have received surprisingly little attention from researchers. Identifying human attributes that contribute to successful dog–human relationships could assist in the development of a behavioral template to ensure dyadic potential is optimized. Additionally, this article reveals how dyadic functionality and working performance may not necessarily be mutually inclusive. Potential underpinnings of various dog–human relationships and how these may influence dogs’ perceptions of their handlers are also discussed. The article considers attachment bonds between humans and dogs, how these may potentially clash with or complement each other, and the effects of different bonds on the dog–human dyad as a whole. We review existing tools designed to measure the dog–human bond and offer potential refinements to improve their accuracy. Positive attitudes and affiliative interactions seem to contribute to the enhanced well-being of both species, as reflected in resultant physiological changes. Thus, promoting positive dog–human relationships would capitalize on these benefits, thereby improving animal welfare. Finally, this article proposes future research directions that may assist in disambiguating what constitutes successful bonding between dogs and the humans in their lives. PMID:25750549

  18. Current perspectives on attachment and bonding in the dog-human dyad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Elyssa; Bennett, Pauleen C; McGreevy, Paul D

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews recent research concerning dog-human relationships and how attributes that arise from them can be measured. It highlights the influence of human characteristics on dog behavior, and consequently, the dog-human bond. Of particular importance are the influences of human attitudes and personality. These themes have received surprisingly little attention from researchers. Identifying human attributes that contribute to successful dog-human relationships could assist in the development of a behavioral template to ensure dyadic potential is optimized. Additionally, this article reveals how dyadic functionality and working performance may not necessarily be mutually inclusive. Potential underpinnings of various dog-human relationships and how these may influence dogs' perceptions of their handlers are also discussed. The article considers attachment bonds between humans and dogs, how these may potentially clash with or complement each other, and the effects of different bonds on the dog-human dyad as a whole. We review existing tools designed to measure the dog-human bond and offer potential refinements to improve their accuracy. Positive attitudes and affiliative interactions seem to contribute to the enhanced well-being of both species, as reflected in resultant physiological changes. Thus, promoting positive dog-human relationships would capitalize on these benefits, thereby improving animal welfare. Finally, this article proposes future research directions that may assist in disambiguating what constitutes successful bonding between dogs and the humans in their lives.

  19. Early effect of NEURAPAS® balance on current source density (CSD of human EEG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koch Klaus

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Psychiatric patients often suffer from stress, anxiety and depression. Various plant extracts are known to fight stress (valerian, anxiety (passion flower or depression (St. John's wort. NEURAPAS® balance is a mixture of these three extracts and has been designed to cover this complex of psychiatric conditions. The study was initiated to quantitatively assess the effect of this combination on brain electric activity. Method Quantitative electroencephalogram (EEG current source density (CSD recording from 16 healthy male and female human volunteers (average age 49 years was used in a randomized, placebo-controlled cross over study. Recordings were performed 0. 5, 1. 5, 3 and 4 hours after administration of the preparations under the conditions of 6 min eyes open and 5 min d2 concentration test, mathematical calculation test and memory test, respectively. All variables (electric power within 6 frequency ranges at 17 electrode positions were fed into a linear discriminant analysis (eyes open condition. In the presence of mental load these variables were used to construct brain maps of frequency changes. Results Under the condition of mental load, centro-parietal spectral power remained statistically significantly lower within alpha1, alpha2 and beta1 frequencies in the presence of verum in comparison to placebo. Discriminant analysis revealed a difference to placebo 3 and 4 hours after intake of 6 tablets of NEURAPAS® balance. Data location within the polydimensional space was projected into the area of the effects of sedative and anti-depressive reference drugs tested earlier under identical conditions. Results appeared closer to the effects of fluoxetine than to St. John's wort. Conclusions Analysis of the neurophysiological changes following the intake of NEURAPAS® balance revealed a similarity of frequency changes to those of calming and anti-depressive drugs on the EEG without impairment of cognition. Trial registration Clinical

  20. Humans, Animals, and Aristotle. Aristotelian Traces in the Current Critique of Moral Individualism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Huth

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of moral individualism is part of the foundational structure of most prominent modern moral philosophies. It rests on the assumption that moral obligations towards a respective individual are constituted solely by her or his capacities. Hence, these obligations are independent of any ἔθος (ethos, of any shared ethical sense and social significations. The moral agent and the individual with moral status (who is the target of a respective action are construed as subjects outside of any social relation or lifeworld significations. This assumption has been contested in the last decades by diverse authors with very different approaches to moral philosophy. In the last years, an increasing number of philosophers like Cora Diamond and Alice Crary (with a Wittgensteinian background, but also phenomenologists like Paul Ricœur, Klaus Held, and Bernhard Waldenfels question the presupposition that individual capacities are the agent-neutral and context-neutral ground of moral considerations. This critique of moral individualism in different contemporary discourses shows a striking similarity between Wittgensteinian and phenomenological philosophers as their critical inquiry of prominent theories like the ones by Immanuel Kant, John Rawls, Peter Singer or Tom Regan is derived from mostly implicitly efficacious Aristotelian theorems. Telling examples are the ἔθος (ethos as pre-given normative infrastructure, the ἕξις (hexis as individual internalization of the ethos, the φρόνησις (phronesis described as a specific practical know-how in contrast to scientific knowledge, and not at least the definition of the human being as ζῷον πολιτικόν (zoon politikon. However, the Aristotelian sources of this movement have not yet been scrutinized systematically. This paper aims, first, to reveal the significance of these sources to make them visible and, second, to contribute to the notion of the topicality of Aristotelian

  1. Current situation of the facilities, equipments and human resources in nuclear medicine in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiliutti, Claudia A.

    2008-01-01

    The current situation of nuclear medicine in Argentina, taking into account the facilities, their equipment and human resources available is presented in this paper. A review and analysis of the equipment, including technical characteristics and a survey of the professionals and technicians of the area, was carried out. In Argentina, there are 266 centers of nuclear medicine distributed all over the country. The operating licenses are granted by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear - ARN). Forty four percent of the installed equipment are SPECT of 1 or 2 heads and 39,4 % are gamma camera. Besides, there are eleven PET operating in Argentina. There are 416 nuclear medicine physicians with individual permit for diagnostic purposes and 50% of them has also individual permit for treatment purposes. With the purpose of analyzing the regional distribution of the available resources in nuclear medicine, the country was divided into 7 geographical regions: City of Buenos Aires, Province of Buenos Aires, Pampa, Cuyo, Northeast, Northwest and Patagonia. From the analysis of the gathered information it is possible to conclude that the nuclear medicine equipment as well as the personnel present an irregular distribution, with a major concentration in the City of Buenos Aires and Province of Buenos Aires. The Northeast region presents the lowest number of Nuclear Medicine centers and the Patagonia region has the lowest number of medicine nuclear physicians with individual permits. The number of SPECT and gamma cameras is 7,3 per million of inhabitants. The information about the available resources in nuclear medicine presented in this paper and its comparison with the international information available provide elements for a better planning of the future activities in the area not only for the operators but also from the regulatory point of view. (author)

  2. [A national survey on current status of the important parasitic diseases in human population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-30

    In order to understand the current status and trends of the important parasitic diseases in human population, to evaluate the effect of control activities in the past decade and provide scientific base for further developing control strategies, a national survey was carried out in the country (Taiwan, Hongkong and Macau not included) from June, 2001 to 2004 under the sponsorship of the Ministry of Health. The sample sizes of the nationwide survey and of the survey in each province (autonomous region and municipality, P/A/M) were determined following a calculating formula based on an estimation of the sample size of random sampling to the rate of population. A procedure of stratified cluster random sampling was conducted in each province based on geographical location and economical condition with three strata: county/city, township/town, and spot, each spot covered a sample of 500 people. Parasitological examinations were conducted for the infections of soil-transmitted nematodes, Taenia spp, and Clonorchis sinensis, including Kato-Katz thick smear method, scotch cellulose adhesive tape technique and test tube-filter paper culture (for larvae). At the same time, another sampled investigation for Clonorchis sinensis infection was carried out in the known endemic areas in 27 provinces. Serological tests combined with questionnaire and/or clinical diagnosis were applied for hydatid disease, cysticercosis, paragonimiasis, trichinosis, and toxoplasmosis. A total sampled population of 356 629 from the 31 P/A/M was examined by parasitological methods and 26 species of helminth were recorded. Among these helminth, human infections of Metorchis orientalis and Echinostoma aegypti were detected in Fujian Province which seemed to be the first report in the world, and Haplorchis taichui infection in Guangxi Region was the first human infection record in the country. The overall prevalence of helminth infections was 21.74%. The prevalence of soil-transmitted nematodes was 19

  3. Current trends in dog-human communication:do dogs inform?

    OpenAIRE

    Kaminski, Juliane; Piotti, Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    Domestic dogs are especially skillful at understanding human forms of communication. Evidence suggests that dogs’ skills in this domain might be an adaptation to life with humans and the result of selection processes during domestication. One question that has sparked a lot of research in recent years is to what extent dogs’ communication is in any way comparable to that of human infants. Here, we discuss recent research that has examined the extent to which dogs communicate to inform others....

  4. Current perspectives on attachment and bonding in the dog?human dyad

    OpenAIRE

    Payne, Elyssa; Bennett, Pauleen C; McGreevy, Paul D

    2015-01-01

    Elyssa Payne,1 Pauleen C Bennett,2 Paul D McGreevy1 1Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 2School of Psychological Science, La Trobe University, Bendigo, VIC, Australia Abstract: This article reviews recent research concerning dog–human relationships and how attributes that arise from them can be measured. It highlights the influence of human characteristics on dog behavior, and consequently, the dog–human bond. Of particular import...

  5. Current perspectives on attachment and bonding in the dog–human dyad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payne E

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Elyssa Payne,1 Pauleen C Bennett,2 Paul D McGreevy1 1Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 2School of Psychological Science, La Trobe University, Bendigo, VIC, Australia Abstract: This article reviews recent research concerning dog–human relationships and how attributes that arise from them can be measured. It highlights the influence of human characteristics on dog behavior, and consequently, the dog–human bond. Of particular importance are the influences of human attitudes and personality. These themes have received surprisingly little attention from researchers. Identifying human attributes that contribute to successful dog–human relationships could assist in the development of a behavioral template to ensure dyadic potential is optimized. Additionally, this article reveals how dyadic functionality and working performance may not necessarily be mutually inclusive. Potential underpinnings of various dog–human relationships and how these may influence dogs' perceptions of their handlers are also discussed. The article considers attachment bonds between humans and dogs, how these may potentially clash with or complement each other, and the effects of different bonds on the dog–human dyad as a whole. We review existing tools designed to measure the dog–human bond and offer potential refinements to improve their accuracy. Positive attitudes and affiliative interactions seem to contribute to the enhanced well-being of both species, as reflected in resultant physiological changes. Thus, promoting positive dog–human relationships would capitalize on these benefits, thereby improving animal welfare. Finally, this article proposes future research directions that may assist in disambiguating what constitutes successful bonding between dogs and the humans in their lives. Keywords: human–animal bond, personality, attitudes, social learning, affective state, dog

  6. Biomonitoring of the mycotoxin Zearalenone: current state-of-the art and application to human exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mally, Angela; Solfrizzo, Michele; Degen, Gisela H

    2016-06-01

    Zearalenone (ZEN), a mycotoxin with high estrogenic activity in vitro and in vivo, is a widespread food contaminant that is commonly detected in maize, wheat, barley, sorghum, rye and other grains. Human exposure estimates based on analytical data on ZEN occurrence in various food categories and food consumption data suggest that human exposure to ZEN and modified forms of ZEN may be close to or even exceed the tolerable daily intake (TDI) derived by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) for some consumer groups. Considering the inherent uncertainties in estimating dietary intake of ZEN that may lead to an under- or overestimation of ZEN exposure and consequently human risk and current lack of data on vulnerable consumer groups, there is a clear need for more comprehensive and reliable exposure data to refine ZEN risk assessment. Human biomonitoring (HBM) is increasingly being recognized as an efficient and cost-effective way of assessing human exposure to food contaminants, including mycotoxins. Based on animal and (limited) human data on the toxicokinetics of ZEN, it appears that excretion of ZEN and its major metabolites may present suitable biomarkers of ZEN exposure. In view of the limitations of available dietary exposure data on ZEN and its modified forms, the purpose of this review is to provide an overview of recent studies utilizing HBM to monitor and assess human exposure to ZEN. Considerations are given to animal and human toxicokinetic data relevant to HBM, analytical methods, and available HBM data on urinary biomarkers of ZEN exposure in different cohorts.

  7. Basally activated nonselective cation currents regulate the resting membrane potential in human and monkey colonic smooth muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Laura; Rhee, Poong-Lyul; Lowe, Vanessa; Zheng, Haifeng; Peri, Lauren; Ro, Seungil; Sanders, Kenton M.

    2011-01-01

    Resting membrane potential (RMP) plays an important role in determining the basal excitability of gastrointestinal smooth muscle. The RMP in colonic muscles is significantly less negative than the equilibrium potential of K+, suggesting that it is regulated not only by K+ conductances but by inward conductances such as Na+ and/or Ca2+. We investigated the contribution of nonselective cation channels (NSCC) to the RMP in human and monkey colonic smooth muscle cells (SMC) using voltage- and current-clamp techniques. Qualitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction was performed to examine potential molecular candidates for these channels among the transient receptor potential (TRP) channel superfamily. Spontaneous transient inward currents and holding currents were recorded in human and monkey SMC. Replacement of extracellular Na+ with equimolar tetraethylammonium or Ca2+ with Mn2+ inhibited basally activated nonselective cation currents. Trivalent cations inhibited these channels. Under current clamp, replacement of extracellular Na+ with N-methyl-d-glucamine or addition of trivalent cations caused hyperpolarization. Three unitary conductances of NSCC were observed in human and monkey colonic SMC. Molecular candidates for basally active NSCC were TRPC1, C3, C4, C7, M2, M4, M6, M7, V1, and V2 in human and monkey SMC. Comparison of the biophysical properties of these TRP channels with basally active NSCC (bINSCC) suggests that TRPM4 and specific TRPC heteromultimer combinations may underlie the three single-channel conductances of bINSCC. In conclusion, these findings suggest that basally activated NSCC contribute to the RMP in human and monkey colonic SMC and therefore may play an important role in determining basal excitability of colonic smooth muscle. PMID:21566016

  8. Isolation and Characterization of Current Human Coronavirus Strains in Primary Human Epithelial Cell Cultures Reveal Differences in Target Cell Tropism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkman, Ronald; Jebbink, Maarten F.; Koekkoek, Sylvie M.; Deijs, Martin; Jónsdóttir, Hulda R.; Molenkamp, Richard; Ieven, Margareta; Goossens, Herman; Thiel, Volker

    2013-01-01

    The human airway epithelium (HAE) represents the entry port of many human respiratory viruses, including human coronaviruses (HCoVs). Nowadays, four HCoVs, HCoV-229E, HCoV-OC43, HCoV-HKU1, and HCoV-NL63, are known to be circulating worldwide, causing upper and lower respiratory tract infections in nonhospitalized and hospitalized children. Studies of the fundamental aspects of these HCoV infections at the primary entry port, such as cell tropism, are seriously hampered by the lack of a universal culture system or suitable animal models. To expand the knowledge on fundamental virus-host interactions for all four HCoVs at the site of primary infection, we used pseudostratified HAE cell cultures to isolate and characterize representative clinical HCoV strains directly from nasopharyngeal material. Ten contemporary isolates were obtained, representing HCoV-229E (n = 1), HCoV-NL63 (n = 1), HCoV-HKU1 (n = 4), and HCoV-OC43 (n = 4). For each strain, we analyzed the replication kinetics and progeny virus release on HAE cell cultures derived from different donors. Surprisingly, by visualizing HCoV infection by confocal microscopy, we observed that HCoV-229E employs a target cell tropism for nonciliated cells, whereas HCoV-OC43, HCoV-HKU1, and HCoV-NL63 all infect ciliated cells. Collectively, the data demonstrate that HAE cell cultures, which morphologically and functionally resemble human airways in vivo, represent a robust universal culture system for isolating and comparing all contemporary HCoV strains. PMID:23427150

  9. Subcortical structures in humans can be facilitated by transcranial direct current stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nonnekes, Johan Hendrik; Arrogi, Anass; Munneke, Moniek; van Asseldonk, Edwin H.F.; Oude Nijhuis, Lars; Geurts, Alexander; Weerdesteyn, Vivian

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a noninvasive brain stimulation technique that alters cortical excitability via application of a weak direct current. Interestingly, it was demonstrated in cats that tDCS can facilitate subcortical structures as well (Bolzonii et al., J

  10. Comparison of two alternative sequences for human in-vivo brain MR Current Density Imaging (MRCDI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Göksu, Cihan; Hanson, Lars G.; Siebner, Hartwig

    ) and steady-state free precession free induction decay (SSFP-FID), with single- vs. multi-gradient-echo readouts. We demonstrate that multi-gradient-echo readouts improve both methods. We validate the linear dependence of the measured current-induced magnetic eld on the injected current strength for both...

  11. Feasibility of the current-duration approach to studying human fecundity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slama, Rémy; Ducot, Béatrice; Carstensen, Lisbeth

    2006-01-01

    of unprotected intercourse was defined for 69 women (5.7%). An additional 15 women (1.2%) were planning to start trying to become pregnant within the next 6 months. Parametric methods allowed, based on current duration of unprotected intercourse, estimation of fecundity as if the couples had been followed...... up (current-duration design). To illustrate the feasibility of the current-duration design, we contacted a random sample of 1204 French women age 18 to 44 years in 2004 and recruited those who were currently having unprotected sexual intercourse. The current duration since the beginning...... prospectively. The estimated proportion of couples not pregnant after 12 months of unprotected intercourse was 34% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 15-54%). The accelerated-failure time model allows study of the influence of environmental factors on fecundity. As an illustration, tobacco smoking by the woman...

  12. The spirituality of human consciousness: a Catholic evaluation of some current neuro-scientific interpretations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGoldrick, Terence A

    2012-09-01

    Catholic theology's traditional understanding of the spiritual nature of the human person begins with the idea of a rational soul and human mind that is made manifest in free will--the spiritual experience of the act of consciousness and cause of all human arts. The rationale for this religion-based idea of personhood is key to understanding ethical dilemmas posed by modern research that applies a more empirical methodology in its interpretations about the cause of human consciousness. Applications of these beliefs about the body/soul composite to the theory of evolution and to discoveries in neuroscience, paleoanthropology, as well as to recent animal intelligence studies, can be interpreted from this religious and philosophical perspective, which argues for the human soul as the unifying cause of the person's unique abilities. Free will and consciousness are at the nexus of the mutual influence of body and soul upon one another in the traditional Catholic view, that argues for a spiritual dimension to personality that is on a par with the physical metabolic processes at play. Therapies that affect consciousness are ethically problematic, because of their implications for free will and human dignity. Studies of resilience, as an example, argue for the greater, albeit limited, role of the soul's conscious choices in healing as opposed to metabolic or physical changes to the brain alone.

  13. Challenges of influenza A viruses in humans and animals and current animal vaccines as an effective control measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Influenza A viruses (IAVs) are genetically diverse and variable pathogens that share various hosts including human, swine, and domestic poultry. Interspecies and intercontinental viral spreads make the ecology of IAV more complex. Beside endemic IAV infections, human has been exposed to pandemic and zoonotic threats from avian and swine influenza viruses. Animal health also has been threatened by high pathogenic avian influenza viruses (in domestic poultry) and reverse zoonosis (in swine). Considering its dynamic interplay between species, prevention and control against IAV should be conducted effectively in both humans and animal sectors. Vaccination is one of the most efficient tools against IAV. Numerous vaccines against animal IAVs have been developed by a variety of vaccine technologies and some of them are currently commercially available. We summarize several challenges in control of IAVs faced by human and animals and discuss IAV vaccines for animal use with those application in susceptible populations. PMID:29399575

  14. Surface-seeking radionuclides in the skeleton: current approach and recent developments in biokinetic modelling for humans and beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luciani, A.; Polig, E.

    2007-01-01

    In the last decade, the biokinetics of surface-seeking radionuclides in the skeleton has been the object of several studies. Investigations were carried out to determine the kinetics of plutonium and americium in the skeleton of humans and beagles. As a result of these investigations, in recent years the models presented by ICRP in Publication 67 for humans were partially revised, particularly the skeletal part. The aim of the present work is to present recent developments in the biokinetic modelling of surface-seeking radionuclides (plutonium and americium) in beagles and humans. Various assumptions and physiological interpretations of the different approaches to the biokinetic modelling of the skeleton are discussed. Current ICRP concepts and skeleton modelling of plutonium and americium in humans are compared to the latest developments in biokinetic modelling in beagles. (authors)

  15. Tricarbonyldichlororuthenium (II) dimer (CORM2) activates non-selective cation current in human endothelial cells independently of carbon monoxide releasing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, De-Li; Chen, Chang; Huang, Wei; Chen, Yan; Zhang, Xiao-Lan; Li, Zhe; Li, Yue; Yang, Bao-Feng

    2008-08-20

    Tricarbonyldichlororuthenium (II) dimer (CORM2) has been developed as carbon monoxide (CO) donor. We found that CORM2 activated a type of specific current which was distinct from the big-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) current activated by CO in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). So the aim of the present study was to characterize the CORM2-induced current and to access the relation with CO releasing. CORM2 (100 microM) activated a kind of bi-directional current in HUVECs when the ramp protocol (holding potential 0 mV, from -120 mV to +120 mV) was applied. The current was not blocked by apamin, TRAM-34 and iberiotoxin, the small, intermediate and big-conductance Ca(2+) -activated K(+) channel blockers, and it was not sensitive to the pipette solution chelated with EGTA. CORM2 still activated the current when the chloride in the pipette solution was substituted by equal mol gluconic acid. Substitution of the sodium in the bath with choline significantly reduced the current activated by CORM2. The current was regarded as the non-selective cation current. The current showed slightly inward rectifier property and was not sensitive to Gd(3+) (100 microM), La(3+) (10 microM) or 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (100 microM). CO (10 microM), CORM3 (100, 200 microM) and RuCl(3) (100 microM) were used as controls and showed no effect of the current activation. In conclusion, CORM2 activated the non-selective cation current in HUVECs independently of its CO releasing.

  16. The point spread function of the human head and its implications for transcranial current stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dmochowski, Jacek P; Bikson, Marom; Parra, Lucas C

    2012-01-01

    Rational development of transcranial current stimulation (tCS) requires solving the ‘forward problem’: the computation of the electric field distribution in the head resulting from the application of scalp currents. Derivation of forward models has represented a major effort in brain stimulation research, with model complexity ranging from spherical shells to individualized head models based on magnetic resonance imagery. Despite such effort, an easily accessible benchmark head model is greatly needed when individualized modeling is either undesired (to observe general population trends as opposed to individual differences) or unfeasible. Here, we derive a closed-form linear system which relates the applied current to the induced electric potential. It is shown that in the spherical harmonic (Fourier) domain, a simple scalar multiplication relates the current density on the scalp to the electric potential in the brain. Equivalently, the current density in the head follows as the spherical convolution between the scalp current distribution and the point spread function of the head, which we derive. Thus, if one knows the spherical harmonic representation of the scalp current (i.e. the electrode locations and current intensity to be employed), one can easily compute the resulting electric field at any point inside the head. Conversely, one may also readily determine the scalp current distribution required to generate an arbitrary electric field in the brain (the ‘backward problem’ in tCS). We demonstrate the simplicity and utility of the model with a series of characteristic curves which sweep across a variety of stimulation parameters: electrode size, depth of stimulation, head size and anode–cathode separation. Finally, theoretically optimal montages for targeting an infinitesimal point in the brain are shown. (paper)

  17. Current status of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infection in animals & humans in India: What needs to be done?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Vir Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP has emerged as a major health problem for domestic livestock and human beings. Reduced per animal productivity of domestic livestock seriously impacts the economics of dairy farming globally. High to very high bioload of MAP in domestic livestock and also in the human population has been reported from north India. Presence of live MAP bacilli in commercial supplies of raw and pasteurized milk and milk products indicates its public health significance. MAP is not inactivated during pasteurization, therefore, entering into human food chain daily. Recovery of MAP from patients with inflammatory bowel disease or Crohn's disease and animal healthcare workers suffering with chronic gastrointestinal problems indicate a close association of MAP with a number of chronic and other diseases affecting human health. Higher bioload of MAP in the animals increases the risk of exposure to the human population with MAP. This review summarizes the current status of MAP infection in animals as well as in human beings and also highlights the prospects of effective management and control of disease in animals to reduce the risk of exposure to human population.

  18. Sodium leak channel, non-selective contributes to the leak current in human myometrial smooth muscle cells from pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinl, Erin L; Cabeza, Rafael; Gregory, Ismail A; Cahill, Alison G; England, Sarah K

    2015-10-01

    Uterine contractions are tightly regulated by the electrical activity of myometrial smooth muscle cells (MSMCs). These cells require a depolarizing current to initiate Ca(2+) influx and induce contraction. Cationic leak channels, which permit a steady flow of cations into a cell, are known to cause membrane depolarization in many tissue types. Previously, a Gd(3+)-sensitive, Na(+)-dependent leak current was identified in the rat myometrium, but the presence of such a current in human MSMCs and the specific ion channel conducting this current was unknown. Here, we report the presence of a Na(+)-dependent leak current in human myometrium and demonstrate that the Na(+)-leak channel, NALCN, contributes to this current. We performed whole-cell voltage-clamp on fresh and cultured MSMCs from uterine biopsies of term, non-laboring women and isolated the leak currents by using Ca(2+) and K(+) channel blockers in the bath solution. Ohmic leak currents were identified in freshly isolated and cultured MSMCs with normalized conductances of 14.6 pS/pF and 10.0 pS/pF, respectively. The myometrial leak current was significantly reduced (P < 0.01) by treating cells with 10 μM Gd(3+) or by superfusing the cells with a Na(+)-free extracellular solution. Reverse transcriptase PCR and immunoblot analysis of uterine biopsies from term, non-laboring women revealed NALCN messenger RNA and protein expression in the myometrium. Notably, ∼90% knockdown of NALCN protein expression with lentivirus-delivered shRNA reduced the Gd(3+)-sensitive leak current density by 42% (P < 0.05). Our results reveal that NALCN, in part, generates the leak current in MSMCs and provide the basis for future research assessing NALCN as a potential molecular target for modulating uterine excitability. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Establishing the Appropriate Attributes in Current Human Reliability Assessment Techniques for Nuclear Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowie, Jane; Munley, Gary; Dang, Vinh; Wreathall, John; Bye, Andreas; Cooper, Susan; Marble, Julie; Peters, Sean; Xing, Jing; Fauchille, Veronique; Fiset, Jean Yves; Haage, Monica; Johanson, Gunnar; Jung, Won Dae; Kim, Jaewhan; Lee, Seung Jung; Kubicek, Jan; Le Bot, Pierre; Pesme, Helene; Preischl, Wolfgang; Salway, Alice; Amri, Abdallah; Lamarre, Greg; White, Andrew; )

    2015-03-01

    This report presents the results of a joint task of the Working Groups on Risk Assessment (WGRISK) and on Human and Organisational Factors (WGHOF) of the OECD/NEA CSNI, to identify desirable attributes of Human Reliability Assessment (HRA) methods, and to evaluate a range of HRA methods used in OECD member countries against those attributes. The purpose of this project is to provide information that will support regulators and operators of nuclear facilities when making judgements about the appropriateness of HRA methods for conducting assessments in support of Probabilistic Safety Assessments (PSA). The task was performed by an international team of Human Factors, HRA and PSA experts from a broad range of OECD member countries. As in other reviews of HRA methods, the study did not set out to recommend or promote the use of any particular HRA method. Rather the study aims to identify the strengths and limitations of commonly used and developing methods to aid those responsible for production of HRAs in selecting appropriate tools for specific HRA applications. The study also aims to assist regulators when making judgements on the appropriateness of the application of an HRA technique within nuclear-related probabilistic safety assessments. The report is aimed at practitioners in the field of human reliability assessment, human factors, and risk assessment more generally

  20. Upper Pleistocene Human Dispersals out of Africa: A Review of the Current State of the Debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyin, Amanuel

    2011-01-01

    Although there is a general consensus on African origin of early modern humans, there is disagreement about how and when they dispersed to Eurasia. This paper reviews genetic and Middle Stone Age/Middle Paleolithic archaeological literature from northeast Africa, Arabia, and the Levant to assess the timing and geographic backgrounds of Upper Pleistocene human colonization of Eurasia. At the center of the discussion lies the question of whether eastern Africa alone was the source of Upper Pleistocene human dispersals into Eurasia or were there other loci of human expansions outside of Africa? The reviewed literature hints at two modes of early modern human colonization of Eurasia in the Upper Pleistocene: (i) from multiple Homo sapiens source populations that had entered Arabia, South Asia, and the Levant prior to and soon after the onset of the Last Interglacial (MIS-5), (ii) from a rapid dispersal out of East Africa via the Southern Route (across the Red Sea basin), dating to ~74–60 kya. PMID:21716744

  1. Electric fields and currents induced in organs of the human body when exposed to ELF and VLF electromagnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Ronold W. P.; Sandler, Sheldon S.

    1996-09-01

    Formulas for the transverse components of the electric and magnetic fields of the traveling-wave currents of three different types of three-wire, three-phase high-voltage power lines and of a typical VLF transmitter are given. From them, exposure situations for the human body are chosen which permit the analytical determination of the total current induced in that body. With this, the fraction of the total axial current, the axial current density, and the axial electric field in each organ of the body are obtained at any desired cross section. The dimensions and conductivity of these organs must be known. The electric field so obtained is the average macroscopic field in which the cells in each organ are immersed when the whole body is exposed to a known incident field. It corresponds in vivo to the electric field used in vitro to expose cells in tissues.

  2. Human gene therapy: novel approaches to improve the current gene delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucchiarini, Magali

    2016-06-01

    Even though gene therapy made its way through the clinics to treat a number of human pathologies since the early years of experimental research and despite the recent approval of the first gene-based product (Glybera) in Europe, the safe and effective use of gene transfer vectors remains a challenge in human gene therapy due to the existence of barriers in the host organism. While work is under active investigation to improve the gene transfer systems themselves, the use of controlled release approaches may offer alternative, convenient tools of vector delivery to achieve a performant gene transfer in vivo while overcoming the various physiological barriers that preclude its wide use in patients. This article provides an overview of the most significant contributions showing how the principles of controlled release strategies may be adapted for human gene therapy.

  3. Current outlook for the study of human rights since its dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Giovanna Vivas Barrera

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we shows a overview of a state of art about the relationships between ontological, epistemological and sociological dimension of human rights. In this research we seek to identify central problems and the methodologies used in such dimensions. In this way, we expose the conceptual framework and tree topics in the research problem: (i constitutional theory; (ii constitutional procedural law, and (iii international systems of human rights protection. This work present the problems found in scientifically articles available in expert databases such as Proquest, Ebsco, Dialnet and Redalyc.

  4. Automated MRI segmentation for individualized modeling of current flow in the human head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu; Dmochowski, Jacek P; Su, Yuzhuo; Datta, Abhishek; Rorden, Christopher; Parra, Lucas C

    2013-12-01

    High-definition transcranial direct current stimulation (HD-tDCS) and high-density electroencephalography require accurate models of current flow for precise targeting and current source reconstruction. At a minimum, such modeling must capture the idiosyncratic anatomy of the brain, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and skull for each individual subject. Currently, the process to build such high-resolution individualized models from structural magnetic resonance images requires labor-intensive manual segmentation, even when utilizing available automated segmentation tools. Also, accurate placement of many high-density electrodes on an individual scalp is a tedious procedure. The goal was to develop fully automated techniques to reduce the manual effort in such a modeling process. A fully automated segmentation technique based on Statical Parametric Mapping 8, including an improved tissue probability map and an automated correction routine for segmentation errors, was developed, along with an automated electrode placement tool for high-density arrays. The performance of these automated routines was evaluated against results from manual segmentation on four healthy subjects and seven stroke patients. The criteria include segmentation accuracy, the difference of current flow distributions in resulting HD-tDCS models and the optimized current flow intensities on cortical targets. The segmentation tool can segment out not just the brain but also provide accurate results for CSF, skull and other soft tissues with a field of view extending to the neck. Compared to manual results, automated segmentation deviates by only 7% and 18% for normal and stroke subjects, respectively. The predicted electric fields in the brain deviate by 12% and 29% respectively, which is well within the variability observed for various modeling choices. Finally, optimized current flow intensities on cortical targets do not differ significantly. Fully automated individualized modeling may now be feasible

  5. Domain Decomposition for Computing Extremely Low Frequency Induced Current in the Human Body

    OpenAIRE

    Perrussel , Ronan; Voyer , Damien; Nicolas , Laurent; Scorretti , Riccardo; Burais , Noël

    2011-01-01

    International audience; Computation of electromagnetic fields in high resolution computational phantoms requires solving large linear systems. We present an application of Schwarz preconditioners with Krylov subspace methods for computing extremely low frequency induced fields in a phantom issued from the Visible Human.

  6. Current (1984) status of the study of 226Ra and 228Ra in humans at the Center for Human Radiobiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rundo, J.; Keane, A.T.; Lucas, H.F.; Schlenker, R.A.; Stebbings, J.H.; Stehney, A.F.

    1984-01-01

    The Center for Human Radiobiology has identified 5784 persons by name and type of exposure to 226 Ra and 228 Ra. Included are 4863 dial painters (mostly women) and non-laboratory employees of the radium dial industry, 410 laboratory workers, 399 persons who received radium for supposed therapeutic effects, and 112 in other categories. Body contents of radium have been measured in 1916 of the dial workers and about one-half of the subjects in the other groups. Bone sarcomas, carcinomas of the paranasal sinuses and mastoids, and deterioration of skeletal tissue are still the only effects unequivocally attributable to internal radium. Excess leukemias have not been observed and other malignancies, if in excess, appear more likely to be related to external gamma radiation or radon than to internal radium. Positive correlations with radium burdens have been found for the incidence of benign exostoses among subjects exposed to radium before age 18 and for shortened latency of ocular cataracts. 26 references, 3 figures, 5 tables

  7. Current (1984) status of the study of 226Ra and 228Ra in humans at the Center for Human Radiobiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rundo, J.; Keane, A.T.; Lucas, H.F.; Schlenker, R.A.; Stebbings, J.H.; Stehney, A.F.

    1985-01-01

    The Center for Human Radiobiology has identified 5784 persons by name and type of exposure to 226 Ra and 228 Ra. Included are 4863 dial painters (mostly women) and non-laboratory employees of the radium dial industry, 410 laboratory workers, 399 persons who received radium for supposed therapeutic effects, and 112 in other categories. Body contents of radium have been measured in 1916 of the dial workers and about one-half of the subjects in the other groups. Bone sarcomas, carcinomas of the paranasal sinuses and mastoids, and deterioration of skeletal tissue are still the only effects unequivocally attributable to internal radium. Excess leukemias have not been observed and other malignancies, if in excess, appear more likely to be related to external gamma radiation or radon than to internal radium. Positive correlations with radium burdens have been found for the incidence of benign exostoses among subjects exposed to radium before age 18 and for shortened latency of ocular cataracts. 27 references, 3 figures, 5 tables

  8. Subcortical structures in humans can be facilitated by transcranial direct current stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nonnekes, J.H.; Arrogi, A.; Munneke, M.A.M.; Asseldonk, E.H. van; Nijhuis, L.B.; Geurts, A.C.H.; Weerdesteyn, V.G.M.

    2014-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a noninvasive brain stimulation technique that alters cortical excitability. Interestingly, in recent animal studies facilitatory effects of tDCS have also been observed on subcortical structures. Here, we sought to provide evidence for the potential

  9. Subcortical Structures in Humans Can Be Facilitated by Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nonnekes, Johan Hendrik; Arrogi, A.; Munneke, M.A.M.; van Asseldonk, Edwin H.F.; Oude Nijhuis, L.B.; Geurts, A.C.; Weerdesteyn, V.

    2014-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a noninvasive brain stimulation technique that alters cortical excitability. Interestingly, in recent animal studies facilitatory effects of tDCS have also been observed on subcortical structures. Here, we sought to provide evidence for the potential

  10. Simulating Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation With a Detailed Anisotropic Human Head Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rampersad, S.; Janssen, A.J.E.M.; Lucka, F.; Aydin, U.; Lanfer, B.; Lew, S.; Wolters, C.H.; Stegeman, D.F.; Oostendorp, T.F.

    2014-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a noninvasive brain stimulation technique able to induce long-lasting changes in cortical excitability that can benefit cognitive functioning and clinical treatment. In order to both better understand the mechanisms behind tDCS and possibly improve

  11. Simulating transcranial direct current stimulation with a detailed anisotropic human head model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rampersad, S.M.; Janssen, A.M.; Lucka, F.; Aydin, U.; Lanfer, B.; Lew, S.; Wolters, C.H.; Stegeman, D.F.; Oostendorp, T.F.

    2014-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a noninvasive brain stimulation technique able to induce long-lasting changes in cortical excitability that can benefit cognitive functioning and clinical treatment. In order to both better understand the mechanisms behind tDCS and possibly improve

  12. Human factors implications of vehicle automation: Current understanding and future directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merat, N.; de Waard, Dick

    2014-01-01

    Advances in vehicle-based technology are currently progressing at an ever- increasing rate and innovations in this area are no longer restricted to Original Equipment Manufacturers or the automotive industry, with service providers such as Google and a number of research institutes in Europe and

  13. Humanizing the Teaching of Physics through Storytelling: The Case of Current Electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadzigeorgiou, Yannis

    2006-01-01

    The main purpose of this article is to discuss the potential role of storytelling in the teaching and learning of physics. I first present the main historical events concerning the discovery of current electricity by focusing on the Galvani-Volta controversy and the work of Michael Faraday. Then I outline a planning framework for teaching through…

  14. Human development and carbon dioxide emissions: The current picture and the long-term prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darmstadter, J.; Edmonds, J.

    1991-01-01

    The scale of human activity has grown to the point that gaseous emissions produced by four areas of human endeavor (energy, agriculture, land use, and chemical manufacture) are changing the stock of gases in the atmosphere. That change, in turn, affects the global temperature and climate. Such gases are called greenhouse, or radiatively important, gases (RIGs). The nature and timing of future climate change depend on three things: the rate of emission of RIGs into the atmosphere, the capacity of removal mechanisms, and the interaction between atmospheric composition and the climate. Herein, the first of these is examined: the rate of emission of RIGs and its determinants. The broad diversity of RIGs is briefly reviewed, but particular emphasis is on the relationship between energy use and the release of carbon dioxide from fossil fuels

  15. Human Missions to Near-Earth Asteroids: An Update on NASA's Current Status and Proposed Activities for Small Body Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, P. A.; Mazanek, D. D.; Barbee, B. W.; Mink, R. G.; Landis, R. R.; Adamo, D. R.; Johnson, L. N.; Yeomans, D. K.; Reeves, D. M.; Larman, K. T.; hide

    2012-01-01

    Over the past several years, much attention has been focused on the human exploration of near-Earth asteroids (NEAs). Two independent NASA studies examined the feasibility of sending piloted missions to NEAs, and in 2009, the Augustine Commission identified NEAs as high profile destinations for human exploration missions beyond the Earth-Moon system as part of the Flexible Path. More recently the current U.S. presidential administration directed NASA to include NEAs as destinations for future human exploration with the goal of sending astronauts to a NEA in the mid to late 2020s. This directive became part of the official National Space Policy of the United States of America as of June 28, 2010.

  16. The current 'state of play' of regenerative medicine in horses: what the horse can tell the human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Roger Kw; Garvican, Elaine R; Fortier, Lisa A

    2014-01-01

    The horse is an attractive model for many human age-related degenerative diseases of the musculoskeletal system because it is a large animal species that both ages and exercises, and develops naturally occurring injuries with many similarities to the human counterpart. It therefore represents an ideal species to use as a 'proving ground' for new therapies, most notably regenerative medicine. Regenerative techniques using cell-based therapies for the treatment of equine musculoskeletal disease have been in use for over a decade. This review article provides a summary overview of the sources, current challenges and problems surrounding the use of stem cell and non-cell-based therapy in regenerative medicine in horses and is based on presentations from a recent Havemeyer symposium on equine regenerative medicine where speakers are selected from leading authorities in both equine and human regenerative medicine fields from 10 different countries.

  17. Density distribution of currents induced inside the brain in the head part of the human model exposed to power frequency electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiba, Atsuo [Yongo National Collage of Technology (Japan); Isaka, Katsuo [University of Tokushima (Japan)

    1999-07-01

    The health effect of the weak current induced in the human body as a result of the interaction between human body and power frequency electric fields has been investigated. However, the current density inside the head part tissues of the human body exposed to the electric fields has rarely been discussed. In this paper, the finite element method is applied to the analysis of the current density distribution of the head part composed of scalp, skull, cerebrospinal liquid and brain tissues. The basic characteristics of the current density distributions of the brain in the asymmetrical human model have been made clear. (author)

  18. Stochastic Uncertainty Quantification of Eddy Currents in the Human Body by Polynomial Chaos Decomposition

    OpenAIRE

    Gaignaire , Roman; Scorretti , Riccardo; Sabariego , Ruth ,; Geuzaine , Christophe

    2011-01-01

    The finite element method can be used to compute the electromagnetic fields induced in the human body by environmental extremely low frequency (ELF) fields. However, the electric properties of tissues are not precisely known and may vary depending on the individual, his/her age and other physiological parameters. In this paper, we account for the uncertainties on the conductivities of the brain tissues and spread them out to the induced fields by means of a nonintrusive approach based on Herm...

  19. The human impact on the current hydromorphological states of small watercourses in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jakubínský, Jiří

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 4 (2014), s. 313-322 ISSN 1642-3593 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.4.31.0056; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2010007 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : hydromorphology * small watercourse * human impact * river landscape Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  20. Human Embryonic Stem Cell Responses to Ionizing Radiation Exposures: Current State of Knowledge and Future Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykyta V. Sokolov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Human embryonic stem cells, which are derived from the inner cell mass of the blastocyst, have become an object of intense study over the last decade. They possess two unique properties that distinguish them from many other cell types: (i the ability to self-renew indefinitely in culture under permissive conditions, and (ii the pluripotency, defined as the capability of giving rise to all cell types of embryonic lineage under the guidance of the appropriate developmental cues. The focus of many recent efforts has been on the elucidating the signaling pathways and molecular networks operating in human embryonic stem cells. These cells hold great promise in cell-based regenerative therapies, disease modeling, drug screening and testing, assessing genotoxic and mutagenic risks associated with exposures to a variety of environmental factors, and so forth. Ionizing radiation is ubiquitous in nature, and it is widely used in diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in medicine. In this paper, our goal is to summarize the recent progress in understanding how human embryonic stem cells respond to ionizing radiation exposures, using novel methodologies based on “omics” approaches, and to provide a critical discussion of what remains unknown; thus proposing a roadmap for the future research in this area.

  1. Prediction of Human Drug Targets and Their Interactions Using Machine Learning Methods: Current and Future Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Abhigyan; Kumari, Priyanka; Chaube, Radha

    2018-01-01

    Identification of drug targets and drug target interactions are important steps in the drug-discovery pipeline. Successful computational prediction methods can reduce the cost and time demanded by the experimental methods. Knowledge of putative drug targets and their interactions can be very useful for drug repurposing. Supervised machine learning methods have been very useful in drug target prediction and in prediction of drug target interactions. Here, we describe the details for developing prediction models using supervised learning techniques for human drug target prediction and their interactions.

  2. Tea and human health: biomedical functions of tea active components and current issues*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zong-mao; Lin, Zhi

    2015-01-01

    Originating in China, tea and tea planting have spread throughout the world since the middle of the Tang dynasty. Now people from 160 countries in the world are accustomed to tea drinking. A brief history of tea’s medicinal role in China and its spread to the world are introduced. The effectiveness of tea active components and tea drinking on major human diseases, including cancer, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, and neurodegenerative diseases, is discussed. Also presented are some related issues, such as the bioavailability of tea active components, the new formulations of tea polyphenols, and the safety for consumers of dietary supplements containing tea polyphenols. PMID:25644464

  3. Transcranial electrical currents to probe EEG brain rhythms and memory consolidation during sleep in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Marshall

    Full Text Available Previously the application of a weak electric anodal current oscillating with a frequency of the sleep slow oscillation (∼0.75 Hz during non-rapid eye movement sleep (NonREM sleep boosted endogenous slow oscillation activity and enhanced sleep-associated memory consolidation. The slow oscillations occurring during NonREM sleep and theta oscillations present during REM sleep have been considered of critical relevance for memory formation. Here transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS oscillating at 5 Hz, i.e., within the theta frequency range (theta-tDCS is applied during NonREM and REM sleep. Theta-tDCS during NonREM sleep produced a global decrease in slow oscillatory activity conjoint with a local reduction of frontal slow EEG spindle power (8-12 Hz and a decrement in consolidation of declarative memory, underlining the relevance of these cortical oscillations for sleep-dependent memory consolidation. In contrast, during REM sleep theta-tDCS appears to increase global gamma (25-45 Hz activity, indicating a clear brain state-dependency of theta-tDCS. More generally, results demonstrate the suitability of oscillating-tDCS as a tool to analyze functions of endogenous EEG rhythms and underlying endogenous electric fields as well as the interactions between EEG rhythms of different frequencies.

  4. CURRENT ISSUES FACING THE INTRODUCTION OF HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS VACCINE IN MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Ching Sam

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Certain human papillomavirus (HPV types are strongly associated with cervical cancer. Recently-described effective vaccines against these HPV types represent a great medical breakthrough in preventing cervical cancer. In Malaysia, the vaccine has just received regulatory approval. We are likely to face similar barriers to implementing HPV vaccination as reported by countries where vaccination has been introduced. Most women have poor understanding of HPV and its link to cervical cancer. Physicians who will be recommending HPV vaccines may not have extensive knowledge or experience with HPV-related disease. Furthermore, a vaccine against a sexually-transmitted infection may elicit negative reactions from potential recipients or their carers, particularly in a conservative society. Given the high cost of the vaccine, reaching the most vulnerable women is a concern. To foster broad acceptance of HPV vaccine, education must be provided to health care providers, parents and young women about the risks of HPV infection and the benefits of vaccination.

  5. The current approach to human error and blame in the NHS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottewill, Melanie

    There is a large body of research to suggest that serious errors are widespread throughout medicine. The traditional response to these adverse events has been to adopt a 'person approach' - blaming the individual seen as 'responsible'. The culture of medicine is highly complicit in this response. Such an approach results in enormous personal costs to the individuals concerned and does little to address the root causes of errors and thus prevent their recurrence. Other industries, such as aviation, where safety is a paramount concern and which have similar structures to the medical profession, have, over the past decade or so, adopted a 'systems' approach to error, recognizing that human error is ubiquitous and inevitable and that systems need to be developed with this in mind. This approach has been highly successful, but has necessitated, first and foremost, a cultural shift. It is in the best interests of patients, and medical professionals alike, that such a shift is embraced in the NHS.

  6. Twenty Years of Creativity Research in Human-Computer Interaction: Current State and Future Directions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frich Pedersen, Jonas; Biskjaer, Michael Mose; Dalsgaard, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Creativity has been a growing topic within the ACM community since the 1990s. However, no clear overview of this trend has been offered. We present a thorough survey of 998 creativity-related publications in the ACM Digital Library collected using keyword search to determine prevailing approaches......, topics, and characteristics of creativity-oriented Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) research. . A selected sample based on yearly citations yielded 221 publications, which were analyzed using constant comparison analysis. We found that HCI is almost exclusively responsible for creativity......-oriented publications; they focus on collaborative creativity rather than individual creativity; there is a general lack of definition of the term ‘creativity’; empirically based contributions are prevalent; and many publications focus on new tools, often developed by researchers. On this basis, we present three...

  7. Computationally derived points of fragility of a human cascade are consistent with current therapeutic strategies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deyan Luan

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The role that mechanistic mathematical modeling and systems biology will play in molecular medicine and clinical development remains uncertain. In this study, mathematical modeling and sensitivity analysis were used to explore the working hypothesis that mechanistic models of human cascades, despite model uncertainty, can be computationally screened for points of fragility, and that these sensitive mechanisms could serve as therapeutic targets. We tested our working hypothesis by screening a model of the well-studied coagulation cascade, developed and validated from literature. The predicted sensitive mechanisms were then compared with the treatment literature. The model, composed of 92 proteins and 148 protein-protein interactions, was validated using 21 published datasets generated from two different quiescent in vitro coagulation models. Simulated platelet activation and thrombin generation profiles in the presence and absence of natural anticoagulants were consistent with measured values, with a mean correlation of 0.87 across all trials. Overall state sensitivity coefficients, which measure the robustness or fragility of a given mechanism, were calculated using a Monte Carlo strategy. In the absence of anticoagulants, fluid and surface phase factor X/activated factor X (fX/FXa activity and thrombin-mediated platelet activation were found to be fragile, while fIX/FIXa and fVIII/FVIIIa activation and activity were robust. Both anti-fX/FXa and direct thrombin inhibitors are important classes of anticoagulants; for example, anti-fX/FXa inhibitors have FDA approval for the prevention of venous thromboembolism following surgical intervention and as an initial treatment for deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. Both in vitro and in vivo experimental evidence is reviewed supporting the prediction that fIX/FIXa activity is robust. When taken together, these results support our working hypothesis that computationally derived points of

  8. Current status and future of non-invasive studies of human brain functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibasaki, Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    Currently available non-invasive studies are divided into two groups: electrophysiological studies and functional neuroimaging based on the hemodynamic principle. The former includes electroencephalography (EEG), magnetoencephalography (MEG) and transcranial magnetic stimulation, and the latter includes functional MRI, positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and near-infrared spectroscopy. The hemodynamic response has been shown to be correlated with neuronal electrical activity, especially with synaptic activity rather than spiking activity, within a certain range. Since each technique has advantage and disadvantage, it is important to apply the most appropriate technique to solve each specific question. The combined use of more than one techniques of different principles, if possible, provides data of higher spatial and temporal resolution. Functional connectivity among different brain areas can be studied by using some of these techniques either alone or in combination. (author)

  9. Current Status of Human Resource Training Program for Fostering RIBiomics Professionals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong-Eun; Jang, Beom-Su; Choi, Dae Seong [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Tai-jin [Radiation Research Division, Korea Radioisotope Association, Seoul 132-822, Republic of Korea (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sang Hyun [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Radiation Research Division, Korea Radioisotope Association, Seoul 132-822, Republic of Korea (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiobiotechnology and Applied Radioisotope Science, Korea University of Science and Technology, Deajeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-01

    RI-Biomics is a state-of-the-art radiation fusion technology for evaluating in-vivo dynamics such as absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) of new drug candidates and biomaterials using radioisotope (RI), and quantitative evaluation of their efficacy via molecular imaging techniques and animal models. The RI-Biomics center is the sole comprehensive research and experiment complex in Korea that can simultaneously perform the radio-synthesis of drug candidate with radioisotope, analysis, and molecular imaging evaluation with animal model. Molecular imaging techniques, including nuclear imaging (SPECT and PET), near-infrared fluorescent (NIRF) imaging, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), are the cutting-edge technologies for evaluating drug candidates. Since they allow in vivo real-time imaging of the diseased site, monitoring the biodistribution of drug and determining the optimal therapeutic efficacy following treatments, we have integrated RI-ADME and molecular imaging to provide useful information for drug evaluation and to accelerate the development of new drugs and biomaterials. The RI-Biomics center was established with total investment of 18 million $ during four years from 2009 to 2012 in order to develop a comprehensive analyzing system using RI for new drug development as an axis for national growth in the next generation. The RI-Biomics center has labeling synthesis facility for the radiosynthesis of drug candidate with radioisotope such as Tc-99m, I-125, I-131, F-18, H-3 and C-14 using hot cell. It also includes RI-general analysis facilities, such as Radio-HPLC, LC/MS, GC/MS, gamma counter that can analyzing the radio-synthesized materials, and animal image analysis facilities that developed small animal imaging equipment such as SPECT/PET/CT, 7 T MRI, in-vivo optical imaging system and others. In order to achieve the system to verify safety and effectiveness of the new drugs using RI, it is necessary to establish a human resource

  10. Current Status of Human Resource Training Program for Fostering RIBiomics Professionals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dong-Eun; Jang, Beom-Su; Choi, Dae Seong; Park, Tai-jin; Park, Sang Hyun

    2015-01-01

    RI-Biomics is a state-of-the-art radiation fusion technology for evaluating in-vivo dynamics such as absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) of new drug candidates and biomaterials using radioisotope (RI), and quantitative evaluation of their efficacy via molecular imaging techniques and animal models. The RI-Biomics center is the sole comprehensive research and experiment complex in Korea that can simultaneously perform the radio-synthesis of drug candidate with radioisotope, analysis, and molecular imaging evaluation with animal model. Molecular imaging techniques, including nuclear imaging (SPECT and PET), near-infrared fluorescent (NIRF) imaging, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), are the cutting-edge technologies for evaluating drug candidates. Since they allow in vivo real-time imaging of the diseased site, monitoring the biodistribution of drug and determining the optimal therapeutic efficacy following treatments, we have integrated RI-ADME and molecular imaging to provide useful information for drug evaluation and to accelerate the development of new drugs and biomaterials. The RI-Biomics center was established with total investment of 18 million $ during four years from 2009 to 2012 in order to develop a comprehensive analyzing system using RI for new drug development as an axis for national growth in the next generation. The RI-Biomics center has labeling synthesis facility for the radiosynthesis of drug candidate with radioisotope such as Tc-99m, I-125, I-131, F-18, H-3 and C-14 using hot cell. It also includes RI-general analysis facilities, such as Radio-HPLC, LC/MS, GC/MS, gamma counter that can analyzing the radio-synthesized materials, and animal image analysis facilities that developed small animal imaging equipment such as SPECT/PET/CT, 7 T MRI, in-vivo optical imaging system and others. In order to achieve the system to verify safety and effectiveness of the new drugs using RI, it is necessary to establish a human resource

  11. Impact of morphometry, myelinization and synaptic current strength on spike conduction in human and cat spiral ganglion neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Rattay

    Full Text Available Our knowledge about the neural code in the auditory nerve is based to a large extent on experiments on cats. Several anatomical differences between auditory neurons in human and cat are expected to lead to functional differences in speed and safety of spike conduction.Confocal microscopy was used to systematically evaluate peripheral and central process diameters, commonness of myelination and morphology of spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs along the cochlea of three human and three cats. Based on these morphometric data, model analysis reveales that spike conduction in SGNs is characterized by four phases: a postsynaptic delay, constant velocity in the peripheral process, a presomatic delay and constant velocity in the central process. The majority of SGNs are type I, connecting the inner hair cells with the brainstem. In contrast to those of humans, type I neurons of the cat are entirely myelinated. Biophysical model evaluation showed delayed and weak spikes in the human soma region as a consequence of a lack of myelin. The simulated spike conduction times are in accordance with normal interwave latencies from auditory brainstem response recordings from man and cat. Simulated 400 pA postsynaptic currents from inner hair cell ribbon synapses were 15 times above threshold. They enforced quick and synchronous spiking. Both of these properties were not present in type II cells as they receive fewer and much weaker (∼26 pA synaptic stimuli.Wasting synaptic energy boosts spike initiation, which guarantees the rapid transmission of temporal fine structure of auditory signals. However, a lack of myelin in the soma regions of human type I neurons causes a large delay in spike conduction in comparison with cat neurons. The absent myelin, in combination with a longer peripheral process, causes quantitative differences of temporal parameters in the electrically stimulated human cochlea compared to the cat cochlea.

  12. Impact of Morphometry, Myelinization and Synaptic Current Strength on Spike Conduction in Human and Cat Spiral Ganglion Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattay, Frank; Potrusil, Thomas; Wenger, Cornelia; Wise, Andrew K.; Glueckert, Rudolf; Schrott-Fischer, Anneliese

    2013-01-01

    Background Our knowledge about the neural code in the auditory nerve is based to a large extent on experiments on cats. Several anatomical differences between auditory neurons in human and cat are expected to lead to functional differences in speed and safety of spike conduction. Methodology/Principal Findings Confocal microscopy was used to systematically evaluate peripheral and central process diameters, commonness of myelination and morphology of spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) along the cochlea of three human and three cats. Based on these morphometric data, model analysis reveales that spike conduction in SGNs is characterized by four phases: a postsynaptic delay, constant velocity in the peripheral process, a presomatic delay and constant velocity in the central process. The majority of SGNs are type I, connecting the inner hair cells with the brainstem. In contrast to those of humans, type I neurons of the cat are entirely myelinated. Biophysical model evaluation showed delayed and weak spikes in the human soma region as a consequence of a lack of myelin. The simulated spike conduction times are in accordance with normal interwave latencies from auditory brainstem response recordings from man and cat. Simulated 400 pA postsynaptic currents from inner hair cell ribbon synapses were 15 times above threshold. They enforced quick and synchronous spiking. Both of these properties were not present in type II cells as they receive fewer and much weaker (∼26 pA) synaptic stimuli. Conclusions/Significance Wasting synaptic energy boosts spike initiation, which guarantees the rapid transmission of temporal fine structure of auditory signals. However, a lack of myelin in the soma regions of human type I neurons causes a large delay in spike conduction in comparison with cat neurons. The absent myelin, in combination with a longer peripheral process, causes quantitative differences of temporal parameters in the electrically stimulated human cochlea compared to the cat

  13. Osteoblastic differentiation and stress response of human mesenchymal stem cells exposed to alternating current electric fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaplan David L

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Electric fields are integral to many biological events, from maintaining cellular homeostasis to embryonic development to healing. The application of electric fields offers substantial therapeutic potential, while optimal dosing regimens and the underlying mechanisms responsible for the positive clinical impact are poorly understood. Methods The purpose of this study was to track the differentiation profile and stress response of human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs undergoing osteogenic differentiation during exposure to a 20 mV/cm, 60 kHz electric field. Morphological and biochemical changes were imaged using endogenous two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF and quantitatively assessed through eccentricity calculations and extraction of the redox ratio from NADH, FAD and lipofuscin contributions. Real time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reactions (RT-PCR were used to track osteogenic differentiation markers, namely alkaline phosphatase (ALP and collagen type 1 (col1, and stress response markers, such as heat shock protein 27 (hsp27 and heat shock protein 70 (hsp70. Comparisons of collagen deposition between the stimulated hMSCs and controls were examined through second harmonic generation (SHG imaging. Results Quantitative differences in cell morphology, as described through an eccentricity ratio, were found on days 2 and days 5 (p Conclusions Electrical stimulation is a useful tool to improve hMSC osteogenic differentiation, while heat shock proteins may reveal underlying mechanisms, and optical non-invasive imaging may be used to monitor the induced morphological and biochemical changes.

  14. Current Global Pricing For Human Papillomavirus Vaccines Brings The Greatest Economic Benefits To Rich Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlihy, Niamh; Hutubessy, Raymond; Jit, Mark

    2016-02-01

    Vaccinating females against human papillomavirus (HPV) prior to the debut of sexual activity is an effective way to prevent cervical cancer, yet vaccine uptake in low- and middle-income countries has been hindered by high vaccine prices. We created an economic model to estimate the distribution of the economic surplus-the sum of all health and economic benefits of a vaccine, minus the costs of development, production, and distribution-among different country income groups and manufacturers for a cohort of twelve-year-old females in 2012. We found that manufacturers may have received economic returns worth five times their original investment in HPV vaccine development. High-income countries gained the greatest economic surplus of any income category, realizing over five times more economic value per vaccinated female than low-income countries did. Subsidizing vaccine prices in low- and middle-income countries could both reduce financial barriers to vaccine adoption and still allow high-income countries to retain their economic surpluses and manufacturers to retain their profits. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  15. The evolution of the natriuretic peptides - Current applications in human and animal medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kimmenade, Roland R J; Januzzi, James L

    2009-05-01

    Although natriuretic peptides have played an important role in the fluid homeostasis of vertebrates for over several million years, their importance has only been noticed in the last few decades. Yet, the family of natriuretic peptides have since their discovery, drawn the attention of a broad spectrum of physicians and researchers involved in the maintenance of fluid homeostasis, including marine biologists, basic scientists, physicians and veterinarians. While all natriuretic peptides share a common phylogenetic background, due to differences in receptor-binding affinities, they have evolved into different hormones with clear distinct functions. B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) is the most studied member of the natriuretic peptide family, and together with its cleavage equivalent amino-terminal proB-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) these peptides have emerged as important cardiovascular serum markers. However, since their introduction, physicians involved in human or animal medicine have faced common but also different challenges in order to optimally interpret the diagnostic and prognostic value of these novel cardiovascular biomarkers.

  16. Fetal Microchimerism in Cancer Protection and Promotion: Current Understanding in Dogs and the Implications for Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Jeffrey N

    2015-05-01

    Fetal microchimerism is the co-existence of small numbers of cells from genetically distinct individuals living within a mother's body following pregnancy. During pregnancy, bi-directional exchange of cells occurs resulting in maternal microchimerism and even sibling microchimerism in offspring. The presence of fetal microchimerism has been identified with lower frequency in patients with cancers such as breast and lymphoma and with higher frequency in patients with colon cancer and autoimmune diseases. Microchimeric cells have been identified in healing and healed tissues as well as normal and tumor tissues. This has led to the hypothesis that fetal microchimerism may play a protective role in some cancers and may provoke other cancers or autoimmune disease. The long periods of risk for these diseases make it a challenge to prospectively study this phenomenon in human populations. Dogs get similar cancers as humans, share our homes and environmental exposures, and live compressed life-spans, allowing easier prospective study of disease development. This review describes the current state of understanding of fetal microchimerism in humans and dogs and highlights the similarities of the common cancers mammary carcinoma, lymphoma, and colon cancer between the two species. Study of fetal microchimerism in dogs might hold the key to characterization of the type and function of microchimeric cells and their role in health and disease. Such an understanding could then be applied to preventing and treating disease in humans.

  17. Current and future climate- and air pollution-mediated impacts on human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Ruth M; Heal, Mathew R; Wilkinson, Paul; Pattenden, Sam; Vieno, Massimo; Armstrong, Ben; Atkinson, Richard; Chalabi, Zaid; Kovats, Sari; Milojevic, Ai; Stevenson, David S

    2009-12-21

    We describe a project to quantify the burden of heat and ozone on mortality in the UK, both for the present-day and under future emission scenarios. Mortality burdens attributable to heat and ozone exposure are estimated by combination of climate-chemistry modelling and epidemiological risk assessment. Weather forecasting models (WRF) are used to simulate the driving meteorology for the EMEP4UK chemistry transport model at 5 km by 5 km horizontal resolution across the UK; the coupled WRF-EMEP4UK model is used to simulate daily surface temperature and ozone concentrations for the years 2003, 2005 and 2006, and for future emission scenarios. The outputs of these models are combined with evidence on the ozone-mortality and heat-mortality relationships derived from epidemiological analyses (time series regressions) of daily mortality in 15 UK conurbations, 1993-2003, to quantify present-day health burdens. During the August 2003 heatwave period, elevated ozone concentrations > 200 microg m-3 were measured at sites in London and elsewhere. This and other ozone photochemical episodes cause breaches of the UK air quality objective for ozone. Simulations performed with WRF-EMEP4UK reproduce the August 2003 heatwave temperatures and ozone concentrations. There remains day-to-day variability in the high ozone concentrations during the heatwave period, which on some days may be explained by ozone import from the European continent.Preliminary calculations using extended time series of spatially-resolved WRF-EMEP4UK model output suggest that in the summers (May to September) of 2003, 2005 & 2006 over 6000 deaths were attributable to ozone and around 5000 to heat in England and Wales. The regional variation in these deaths appears greater for heat-related than for ozone-related burdens.Changes in UK health burdens due to a range of future emission scenarios will be quantified. These future emissions scenarios span a range of possible futures from assuming current air quality

  18. Current trends of human infections and antibiotic resistance of the genus Shewanella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousfi, K; Bekal, S; Usongo, V; Touati, A

    2017-08-01

    Shewanella spp. are commonly known as environmental bacteria and are most frequently isolated from aquatic areas. Currently, diseases syndromes and multidrug resistance have increasingly been reported in the genus Shewanella. Some species are associated with various infections, such as skin and soft tissue infections, as well as bacteremia. Generally, these bacteria are opportunistic and mostly affect people with an impaired immune system. This genus is also a probable vehicle and progenitor of antibiotic resistance genes. In fact, several resistance genes and mobile genetic elements have been identified in some resistant species isolated from environmental or clinical settings. These genes confer resistance to different antibiotic classes, including those used in therapies such as β-lactams and quinolones, and are generally located on the chromosome. Recently, a multidrug-resistant (MDR) plasmid harboring several drug resistance genes associated with transposons and integrons has been identified in Shewanella xiamenensis. These antibiotic resistance genes can circulate in the environment and contribute to the emergence of antibiotic resistance. This review describes different aspects of Shewanella, focusing on the infections caused by this genus, as well as their role in the propagation of antibiotic resistance via mobile genetic elements.

  19. Horse-meat for human consumption - Current research and future opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belaunzaran, Xabier; Bessa, Rui J B; Lavín, Paz; Mantecón, Angel R; Kramer, John K G; Aldai, Noelia

    2015-10-01

    The consumption of horse-meat is currently not popular in most countries, but because of its availability and recognized nutritional value consumption is slowly increasing in several western European countries based on claims that it could be an alternative red meat. In this review, horse-meat production, trade and supply values have been summarized. In addition, the advantage of horse production is noted because of its lower methane emissions and increased uptake, particularly of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), which is based on its digestive physiology. Of particular interest in this review is the unique fatty acid composition of horse-meat with its high level of the nutritionally desirable PUFAs in both the adipose and muscle fat. Because of its large frame size and digestive physiology, the horse can be considered an alternative to bovine meat, with large advantages regarding the maintenance of less favored mountain grazing areas and its facility to transfer PUFA from feed to meat. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging of the human female breast. Current status and pathologic correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, D.E.; Stelling, C.B.

    1988-01-01

    In the field of breast cancer, attention has focused on the problem of detection and diagnosis of the tumor in its early stages as the best means of reducing mortality. Many imaging modalities have been applied to breast cancer, including mammography, ultrasonography, computerized tomography, and thermography. More recently interest has turned to NMR or magnetic resonance (MR) imaging (as it is termed in more current usage) for the detection of breast disease and particularly carcinoma of the breast. This review discusses the present role of MR imaging in the diagnosis of breast lesions based on work from several institutions. Possible areas for future development to increase the usefulness of MR as a diagnostic modality are discussed. For those not familiar with terminology used in the field of MR, a short glossary of terms is supplied at the end of the chapter. Some general references on MR imaging are give at the end of the references for those wishing to review the subject in general

  1. Current knowledge of microRNA-mediated regulation of drug metabolism in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Masataka; Nakajima, Miki

    2018-05-01

    Understanding the factors causing inter- and intra-individual differences in drug metabolism potencies is required for the practice of personalized or precision medicine, as well as for the promotion of efficient drug development. The expression of drug-metabolizing enzymes is controlled by transcriptional regulation by nuclear receptors and transcriptional factors, epigenetic regulation, such as DNA methylation and histone acetylation, and post-translational modification. In addition to such regulation mechanisms, recent studies revealed that microRNAs (miRNAs), endogenous ~22-nucleotide non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression through the translational repression and degradation of mRNAs, significantly contribute to post-transcriptional regulation of drug-metabolizing enzymes. Areas covered: This review summarizes the current knowledge regarding miRNAs-dependent regulation of drug-metabolizing enzymes and transcriptional factors and its physiological and clinical significance. We also describe recent advances in miRNA-dependent regulation research, showing that the presence of pseudogenes, single-nucleotide polymorphisms, and RNA editing affects miRNA targeting. Expert opinion: It is unwavering fact that miRNAs are critical factors causing inter- and intra-individual differences in the expression of drug-metabolizing enzymes. Consideration of miRNA-dependent regulation would be a helpful tool for optimizing personalized and precision medicine.

  2. Current progress in the development and use of artemether for chemoprophylaxis of major human schistosome parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utzinger, J; Xiao, S; Keiser, J; Chen, M; Zheng, J; Tanner, M

    2001-12-01

    Human schistosomiasis, a chronic and debilitating parasitic disease of the tropics, is ranked second after malaria in terms of public health importance. At present, there is no vaccine available, and chemotherapy is the cornerstone of schistosomiasis control. Praziquantel is the drug of choice. Oxamniquine has become difficult to obtain and metrifonate has recently been withdrawn from the market. Rapid re-infection following treatment and concern about praziquantel resistance called for the search of novel drugs for prevention and cure of schistosomiasis. Significant progress has been made with artemether, the methyl ether of dihydroartemisinin, already widely used for the treatment of malaria. The present article reviews the literature that led to the development of artemether for chemoprophylaxis in schistosomiasis, and it summarises the experiences so far obtained with its use to control schistosomiasis in different endemic settings. Topics covered include an overview of the global burden of schistosomiasis and approaches for its control; the nature and features of artemisinin and related derivatives, initially discovered as antimalarials, other bioactivities, and their recent discovery of antischistosomal properties; a historic account disclosing the antischistosomal activity of artemether; in vivo assessment of drug susceptibility of different developmental stages of schistosome parasites; artemether-induced pathology evidenced by scanning and transmission electron microscopy; the possible mechanism of action; in vivo studies with combination therapy of artemether and praziquantel; results of randomised controlled clinical trials of oral artemether for the prevention of patent infection and morbidity; and, ultimately the translation of this knowledge into public health action in different endemic settings towards a more integrated approach of schistosomiasis control.

  3. A human rights approach to advocacy for people with dementia: A review of current provision in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Jeremy; Laing, Judy; Valentine, Christine

    2018-01-01

    In this article, we review current advocacy services for people with dementia in England and Wales (provided, respectively, under the Mental Capacity Act 2005 , the Mental Health Act 1983 /2007 and the Care Act 2014) through the lens of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD). We examine what a human rights' approach to advocacy support would entail, and whether current frameworks in England and Wales are adequate for this approach and provide a sufficient safeguard. First, we consider how the human rights of persons with dementia have become increasingly important and the extent to which the CRPD provides an opportunity to bolster safeguards and protection. Second, we discuss cause and case advocacy, and how these advocacy models could be shaped by the CRPD to promote the rights of persons with dementia at each stage of the disease. Third, we highlight current dilemmas and challenges in the provision of advocacy support in England and Wales by focusing on case law, commissioning of services and current practice. In particular, we analyse how the different legislative schemes have given rise to some confusion about the various advocacy provisions, as well as potential for overlap and discrepancies between different regimes. We also highlight the need for further research to address important gaps in knowledge, including the scale of need, patterns of referral and attitudes to advocacy services. The article concludes by highlighting how advocacy support could be recalibrated as a universal right to promote the aims and aspirations of the CRPD, and how education is needed to address the stigma of dementia and promote the benefits of advocacy in protecting the rights of those with dementia.

  4. Effects of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) on Human Memory.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matzen, Laura E.; Trumbo, Michael Christopher Stefan

    2014-10-01

    Training a person in a new knowledge base or skill set is extremely time consuming and costly, particularly in highly specialized domains such as the military and the intelligence community. Recent research in cognitive neuroscience has suggested that a technique called transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has the potential to revolutionize training by enabling learners to acquire new skills faster, more efficiently, and more robustly (Bullard et al., 2011). In this project, we tested the effects of tDCS on two types of memory performance that are critical for learning new skills: associative memory and working memory. Associative memory is memory for the relationship between two items or events. It forms the foundation of all episodic memories, so enhancing associative memory could provide substantial benefits to the speed and robustness of learning new information. We tested the effects of tDCS on associative memory, using a real-world associative memory task: remembering the links between faces and names. Working memory refers to the amount of information that can be held in mind and processed at one time, and it forms the basis for all higher-level cognitive processing. We investigated the degree of transfer between various working memory tasks (the N-back task as a measure of verbal working memory, the rotation-span task as a measure of visuospatial working memory, and Raven's progressive matrices as a measure of fluid intelligence) in order to determine if tDCS-induced facilitation of performance is task-specific or general.

  5. Evidence of transcranial direct current stimulation-generated electric fields at subthalamic level in human brain in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhatbar, Pratik Y; Kautz, Steven A; Takacs, Istvan; Rowland, Nathan C; Revuelta, Gonzalo J; George, Mark S; Bikson, Marom; Feng, Wuwei

    2018-03-13

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a promising brain modulation technique for several disease conditions. With this technique, some portion of the current penetrates through the scalp to the cortex and modulates cortical excitability, but a recent human cadaver study questions the amount. This insufficient intracerebral penetration of currents may partially explain the inconsistent and mixed results in tDCS studies to date. Experimental validation of a transcranial alternating current stimulation-generated electric field (EF) in vivo has been performed on the cortical (using electrocorticography, ECoG, electrodes), subcortical (using stereo electroencephalography, SEEG, electrodes) and deeper thalamic/subthalamic levels (using DBS electrodes). However, tDCS-generated EF measurements have never been attempted. We aimed to demonstrate that tDCS generates biologically relevant EF as deep as the subthalamic level in vivo. Patients with movement disorders who have implanted deep brain stimulation (DBS) electrodes serve as a natural experimental model for thalamic/subthalamic recordings of tDCS-generated EF. We measured voltage changes from DBS electrodes and body resistance from tDCS electrodes in three subjects while applying direct current to the scalp at 2 mA and 4 mA over two tDCS montages. Voltage changes at the level of deep nuclei changed proportionally with the level of applied current and varied with different tDCS montages. Our findings suggest that scalp-applied tDCS generates biologically relevant EF. Incorporation of these experimental results may improve finite element analysis (FEA)-based models. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Estimation of parameters for the electrostatic discharge current equation with real human discharge events reference using genetic algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsivelis, P S; Gonos, I F; Stathopulos, I A

    2010-01-01

    Thorough study of the electrostatic discharge (ESD) current equation shows that it may be different from the equation proposed in the IEC 61000-4-2 Standard. This problem is dealt with in this paper. Using a 2.5 GHz digital oscilloscope and a 50 Ω Pellegrini target as the measuring system, and a dc power supply to provide a charging voltage of 2 kVdc, a series of measurements were performed, so real human-to-metal ESD current waveforms were recorded. Treating the average waveform as a reference, a genetic algorithm (GA) was applied to the equation of the IEC 61000-4-2 Standard for the ESD current, in order to achieve its best fitting to the data set. Four different error norms were used for the GA applications. The best result of the applications of each of them was saved and compared to the others. Thus, a very satisfactory modification of the Standard's equation is presented, which is closer to the real ESD current waveform

  7. Sensory function assessment of the human male lower urinary tract using current perception thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knüpfer, Stephanie C; Liechti, Martina D; Gregorini, Flavia; De Wachter, Stefan; Kessler, Thomas M; Mehnert, Ulrich

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate the feasibility and reliability of current perception threshold (CPT) measurement for sensory assessment of distinct locations in the male lower urinary tract (LUT). Twelve male subjects (>18 years) without LUT symptoms or medical comorbidities were eligible. CPTs were determined twice (interval: 7-20 days) at the bladder dome, trigone and the proximal, membranous, and distal urethra. Square wave electrical stimulation of 3 Hz/0.2 ms and 0.5 Hz/1 ms was applied using a transurethral 8F catheter placed under fluoroscopic control. Bladder volume was kept constant (60 mL) using a second 10F catheter. Repetitive measurements and reliability were assessed by analysis of variance (ANOVA) and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). The ANOVA revealed significant main effects for stimulation site (P = 0.008) and type of stimulation (P < 0.001) with lower CPTs for 0.5 Hz/1 ms compared to 3 Hz/0.2 ms. There was no significant effect for visit number (P = 0.061). CPTs were higher for bladder dome than for proximal (0.5 Hz/1 ms: P = 0.022; 3 Hz/0.2 ms: P = 0.022) and distal urethra (0.5 Hz/1 ms: P = 0.026; 3 Hz/0.2 ms: P = 0.030). Reliability of CPT measurements was excellent to good (ICC = 0.67-0.96) except for the bladder dome (5 Hz/1 ms: ICC = 0.45; 3 Hz/0.2 ms: ICC = 0.20) and distal urethra (3 Hz/0.2 ms: ICC = 0.57). CPTs can be reliably detected at different LUT locations. However, alert and compliant subjects are essential. CPTs of LUT may become a complementary assessment method providing information on responsiveness and sensitivity of afferent LUT nerves. This is especially relevant for urethral afferents, which are not covered by standard urodynamic investigations. Neurourol. Urodynam. 36:469-473, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Metal metabolism in laboratory animals and human tissues as investigated by neutron activation analysis: current status and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabbioni, E.; Pietra, R.; Marafante, E.

    1982-01-01

    The definition of dose-response relationships in man is the essential requisite to set scientifically health protection standards for the evaluation of a safe level exposure of humans to heavy metals. The derivation of these relationships requires sequential multidisciplinary informations including data on metabolic patterns and biochemical effects in mammals. Unfortunately, sufficient data are not available to establish dose-response curves expecially in long term-low level exposure conditions and a need exists to gather such informations for each metal on absorption, distribution and excretion in laboratory animals and humans. This paper: (1) discuss main problems related to the use of neutron activation analysis (NAA) in metallobiochemistry of present levels of trace elements; (2) report data on the current applications of NAA in metallobiochemistry in relation to the work carried out in the context of a project Heavy Metal Pollution of CEC JRC - Ispra. Applications deal with in vivo studies on laboratory animals, in vitro studies on biochemical systems and experiments on tissues of human origin; (3) discuss the perspectives of the use of the nuclear techniques in the environmental toxicology. (author)

  9. Ca2+-currents in human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes - effects of two different culture conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Umur Uzun

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CM provide a unique opportunity to study human heart physiology and pharmacology and repair injured hearts. The suitability of hiPSC-CM critically depends on how closely they share physiological properties of human adult cardiomyocytes (CM. Here we investigated whether a 3D engineered heart tissue (EHT culture format favors maturation and addressed the L-type Ca2+-current (ICa,L as a readout. The results were compared with hiPSC-CM cultured in conventional monolayer (ML and to our previous data from human adult atrial and ventricular CM obtained when identical patch-clamp protocols were used. HiPSC-CM were 2-3 fold smaller than adult CM, independently of culture format (capacitance ML 45±1 pF (n=289, EHT 45±1 pF (n=460, atrial CM 87±3 pF (n=196, ventricular CM 126±8 pF (n=50. Only 88% of ML cells showed ICa, but all EHT. Basal ICa density was 10±1 pA/pF (n=207 for ML and 12±1 pA/pF (n=361 for EHT and was larger than in adult CM (7±1 pA/pF (p<0.05, n=196 for atrial CM and 6±1 pA/pF (p<0.05, n=47 for ventricular CM. However, ML and EHT showed robust T-type Ca2+-currents (ICa,T. While (--Bay K 8644, that activates ICa,L directly, increased ICa,L to the same extent in ML and EHT, β1- and β2-adrenoceptor effects were marginal in ML, but of same size as (--Bay K 8644 in EHT. The opposite was true for serotonin receptors. Sensitivity to β1 and β2-adrenoceptor stimulation was the same in EHT as in adult CM (-logEC50: 5.9 and 6.1 for norepinephrine (NE and epinephrine (Epi, respectively, but very low concentrations of Rp-8-Br-cAMPS were sufficient to suppress effects (-logEC50: 5.3 and 5.3 respectively for NE and Epi. Taken together, hiPSC-CM express ICa,L at the same density as human adult CM, but, in contrast, possess robust ICa,T. Increased effects of catecholamines in EHT suggest more efficient maturation.

  10. Flaws in current human training protocols for spontaneous Brain-Computer Interfaces: lessons learned from instructional design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabien eLotte

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available While recent research on Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCI has highlighted their potential for many applications, they remain barely used outside laboratories. The main reason is their lack of robustness. Indeed, with current BCI, mental state recognition is usually slow and often incorrect. Spontaneous BCI (i.e., mental imagery-based BCI often rely on mutual learning efforts by the user and the machine, with BCI users learning to produce stable EEG patterns (spontaneous BCI control being widely acknowledged as a skill while the computer learns to automatically recognize these EEG patterns, using signal processing. Most research so far was focused on signal processing, mostly neglecting the human in the loop. However, how well the user masters the BCI skill is also a key element explaining BCI robustness. Indeed, if the user is not able to produce stable and distinct EEG patterns, then no signal processing algorithm would be able to recognize them. Unfortunately, despite the importance of BCI training protocols, they have been scarcely studied so far, and used mostly unchanged for years.In this paper, we advocate that current human training approaches for spontaneous BCI are most likely inappropriate. We notably study instructional design literature in order to identify the key requirements and guidelines for a successful training procedure that promotes a good and efficient skill learning. This literature study highlights that current spontaneous BCI user training procedures satisfy very few of these requirements and hence are likely to be suboptimal. We therefore identify the flaws in BCI training protocols according to instructional design principles, at several levels: in the instructions provided to the user, in the tasks he/she has to perform, and in the feedback provided. For each level, we propose new research directions that are theoretically expected to address some of these flaws and to help users learn the BCI skill more efficiently.

  11. Obtaining source current density related to irregularly structured electromagnetic target field inside human body using hybrid inverse/FDTD method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jijun; Yang, Deqiang; Sun, Houjun; Xin, Sherman Xuegang

    2017-01-01

    Inverse method is inherently suitable for calculating the distribution of source current density related with an irregularly structured electromagnetic target field. However, the present form of inverse method cannot calculate complex field-tissue interactions. A novel hybrid inverse/finite-difference time domain (FDTD) method that can calculate the complex field-tissue interactions for the inverse design of source current density related with an irregularly structured electromagnetic target field is proposed. A Huygens' equivalent surface is established as a bridge to combine the inverse and FDTD method. Distribution of the radiofrequency (RF) magnetic field on the Huygens' equivalent surface is obtained using the FDTD method by considering the complex field-tissue interactions within the human body model. The obtained magnetic field distributed on the Huygens' equivalent surface is regarded as the next target. The current density on the designated source surface is derived using the inverse method. The homogeneity of target magnetic field and specific energy absorption rate are calculated to verify the proposed method.

  12. Functional Evolution of Influenza Virus NS1 Protein in Currently Circulating Human 2009 Pandemic H1N1 Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Amelia M; Nogales, Aitor; Martinez-Sobrido, Luis; Topham, David J; DeDiego, Marta L

    2017-09-01

    In 2009, a novel H1N1 influenza virus emerged in humans, causing a global pandemic. It was previously shown that the NS1 protein from this human 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) virus was an effective interferon (IFN) antagonist but could not inhibit general host gene expression, unlike other NS1 proteins from seasonal human H1N1 and H3N2 viruses. Here we show that the NS1 protein from currently circulating pH1N1 viruses has evolved to encode 6 amino acid changes (E55K, L90I, I123V, E125D, K131E, and N205S) with respect to the original protein. Notably, these 6 residue changes restore the ability of pH1N1 NS1 to inhibit general host gene expression, mainly by their ability to restore binding to the cellular factor CPSF30. This is the first report describing the ability of the pH1N1 NS1 protein to naturally acquire mutations that restore this function. Importantly, a recombinant pH1N1 virus containing these 6 amino acid changes in the NS1 protein (pH1N1/NSs-6mut) inhibited host IFN and proinflammatory responses to a greater extent than that with the parental virus (pH1N1/NS1-wt), yet virus titers were not significantly increased in cell cultures or in mouse lungs, and the disease was partially attenuated. The pH1N1/NSs-6mut virus grew similarly to pH1N1/NSs-wt in mouse lungs, but infection with pH1N1/NSs-6mut induced lower levels of proinflammatory cytokines, likely due to a general inhibition of gene expression mediated by the mutated NS1 protein. This lower level of inflammation induced by the pH1N1/NSs-6mut virus likely accounts for the attenuated disease phenotype and may represent a host-virus adaptation affecting influenza virus pathogenesis. IMPORTANCE Seasonal influenza A viruses (IAVs) are among the most common causes of respiratory infections in humans. In addition, occasional pandemics are caused when IAVs circulating in other species emerge in the human population. In 2009, a swine-origin H1N1 IAV (pH1N1) was transmitted to humans, infecting people then and up

  13. Inhibition linearizes firing rate responses in human motor units: implications for the role of persistent inward currents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revill, Ann L; Fuglevand, Andrew J

    2017-01-01

    Motor neurons are the output neurons of the central nervous system and are responsible for controlling muscle contraction. When initially activated during voluntary contraction, firing rates of motor neurons increase steeply but then level out at modest rates. Activation of an intrinsic source of excitatory current at recruitment onset may underlie the initial steep increase in firing rate in motor neurons. We attempted to disable this intrinsic excitatory current by artificially activating an inhibitory reflex. When motor neuron activity was recorded while the inhibitory reflex was engaged, firing rates no longer increased steeply, suggesting that the intrinsic excitatory current was probably responsible for the initial sharp rise in motor neuron firing rate. During graded isometric contractions, motor unit (MU) firing rates increase steeply upon recruitment but then level off at modest rates even though muscle force continues to increase. The mechanisms underlying such firing behaviour are not known although activation of persistent inward currents (PICs) might be involved. PICs are intrinsic, voltage-dependent currents that activate strongly when motor neurons (MNs) are first recruited. Such activation might cause a sharp escalation in depolarizing current and underlie the steep initial rise in MU firing rate. Because PICs can be disabled with synaptic inhibition, we hypothesized that artificial activation of an inhibitory pathway might curb this initial steep rise in firing rate. To test this, human subjects performed slow triangular ramp contractions of the ankle dorsiflexors in the absence and presence of tonic synaptic inhibition delivered to tibialis anterior (TA) MNs by sural nerve stimulation. Firing rate profiles (expressed as a function of contraction force) of TA MUs recorded during these tasks were compared for control and stimulation conditions. Under control conditions, during the ascending phase of the triangular contractions, 93% of the firing

  14. A Lean, Fast Mars Round-trip Mission Architecture: Using Current Technologies for a Human Mission in the 2030s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Lora; Folta, David; Barbee, Brent W.; Vaughn, Frank; Kirchman, Frank; Englander, Jacob; Campbell, Bruce; Thronson, Harley; Lin, Tzu Yu

    2013-01-01

    We present a lean fast-transfer architecture concept for a first human mission to Mars that utilizes current technologies and two pivotal parameters: an end-to-end Mars mission duration of approximately one year, and a deep space habitat of approximately 50 metric tons. These parameters were formulated by a 2012 deep space habitat study conducted at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) that focused on a subset of recognized high- engineering-risk factors that may otherwise limit space travel to destinations such as Mars or near-Earth asteroid (NEA)s. With these constraints, we model and promote Mars mission opportunities in the 2030s enabled by a combination of on-orbit staging, mission element pre-positioning, and unique round-trip trajectories identified by state-of-the-art astrodynamics algorithms.

  15. Simulation and mechanistic investigation of the arrhythmogenic role of the late sodium current in human heart failure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Trenor

    Full Text Available Heart failure constitutes a major public health problem worldwide. The electrophysiological remodeling of failing hearts sets the stage for malignant arrhythmias, in which the role of the late Na(+ current (I(NaL is relevant and is currently under investigation. In this study we examined the role of I(NaL in the electrophysiological phenotype of ventricular myocytes, and its proarrhythmic effects in the failing heart. A model for cellular heart failure was proposed using a modified version of Grandi et al. model for human ventricular action potential that incorporates the formulation of I(NaL. A sensitivity analysis of the model was performed and simulations of the pathological electrical activity of the cell were conducted. The proposed model for the human I(NaL and the electrophysiological remodeling of myocytes from failing hearts accurately reproduce experimental observations. The sensitivity analysis of the modulation of electrophysiological parameters of myocytes from failing hearts due to ion channels remodeling, revealed a role for I(NaL in the prolongation of action potential duration (APD, triangulation of the shape of the AP, and changes in Ca(2+ transient. A mechanistic investigation of intracellular Na(+ accumulation and APD shortening with increasing frequency of stimulation of failing myocytes revealed a role for the Na(+/K(+ pump, the Na(+/Ca(2+ exchanger and I(NaL. The results of the simulations also showed that in failing myocytes, the enhancement of I(NaL increased the reverse rate-dependent APD prolongation and the probability of initiating early afterdepolarizations. The electrophysiological remodeling of failing hearts and especially the enhancement of the I(NaL prolong APD and alter Ca(2+ transient facilitating the development of early afterdepolarizations. An enhanced I(NaL appears to be an important contributor to the electrophysiological phenotype and to the dysregulation of [Ca(2+](i homeostasis of failing myocytes.

  16. Modulation of the transient outward current (Ito) in rat cardiac myocytes and human Kv4.3 channels by mefloquine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Cortes, E.J.; Islas, A.A.; Arevalo, J.P.; Mancilla, C.; Monjaraz, E.; Salinas-Stefanon, E.M.

    2015-01-01

    The antimalarial drug mefloquine, is known to be a potassium channel blocker, although its mechanism of action has not being elucidated and its effects on the transient outward current (I to ) and the molecular correlate, the K v 4.3 channel has not being studied. Here, we describe the mefloquine-induced inhibition of the rat ventricular I to and of CHO cells co-transfected with human K v 4.3 and its accessory subunit hKChIP2C by whole-cell voltage-clamp. Mefloquine inhibited rat I to and hK v 4.3 + KChIP2C currents in a concentration-dependent manner with a limited voltage dependence and similar potencies (IC 50 = 8.9 μM and 10.5 μM for cardiac myocytes and K v 4.3 channels, respectively). In addition, mefloquine did not affect the activation of either current but significantly modified the hK v 4.3 steady-state inactivation and recovery from inactivation. The effects of this drug was compared with that of 4-aminopyridine (4-AP), a well-known potassium channel blocker and its binding site does not seem to overlap with that of 4-AP. - Highlights: • Mefloquine inhibited ventricular I to and hK v 4.3 channels. IC 50 = 8.9 and 10.5 μM. • Inactivation and recovery from inactivation in the hK v 4.3 channels were modified by mefloquine. • Mefloquine displayed a higher affinity for the inactivated state. • The binding site for mefloquine may be located in the extracellular side of the channel.

  17. Biphasic response of action potential duration to metabolic inhibition in rabbit and human ventricular myocytes: role of transient outward current and ATP-regulated potassium current

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkerk, A. O.; Veldkamp, M. W.; van Ginneken, A. C.; Bouman, L. N.

    1996-01-01

    Inhibition of cell metabolism is associated with significant changes in action potential duration. The aim of this study was to investigate the time course of the changes in action potential duration during metabolic inhibition and to determine what changes in membrane currents are responsible. The

  18. Introducing graph theory to track for neuroplastic alterations in the resting human brain: a transcranial direct current stimulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanía, Rafael; Paulus, Walter; Antal, Andrea; Nitsche, Michael A

    2011-02-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive brain stimulation technique that alters cortical excitability and activity in a polarity-dependent way. Stimulation for a few minutes has been shown to induce plastic alterations of cortical excitability and to improve cognitive performance. These effects might be related to stimulation-induced alterations of functional cortical network connectivity. We aimed to investigate the impact of tDCS on cortical network function by functional connectivity and graph theoretical analysis of the BOLD fMRI spontaneous activity. fMRI resting-state datasets were acquired immediately before and after 10-min bipolar tDCS during rest, with the anode placed over the left primary motor cortex (M1) and the cathode over the contralateral frontopolar cortex. For each dataset, grey matter voxel-based synchronization matrices were calculated and thresholded to construct undirected graphs. Nodal connectivity degree and minimum path length maps were calculated and compared before and after tDCS. Nodal minimum path lengths significantly increased in the left somatomotor (SM1) cortex after anodal tDCS, which means that the number of direct functional connections from the left SM1 to topologically distant grey matter voxels significantly decreased. In contrast, functional coupling between premotor and superior parietal areas with the left SM1 significantly increased. Additionally, the nodal connectivity degree in the left posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) area as well as in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (right DLPFC) significantly increased. In summary, we provide initial support that tDCS-induced neuroplastic alterations might be related to functional connectivity changes in the human brain. Additionally, we propose our approach as a powerful method to track for neuroplastic changes in the human brain. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. In vitro secretion profiles of interleukin (IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and TNF alpha after selective infection with Escherichia coli in human fetal membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maida-Claros Rolando

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chorioamniotic membranes infection is a pathologic condition in which an abnormal secretion of proinflammatory cytokines halts fetal immune tolerance. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the functional response of human chorioamniotic membranes, as well as the individual contribution of the amnion and choriodecidua after stimulation with Escherichia coli, a pathogen associated with preterm labor. Methods Explants of chorioamniotic membranes from 10 women (37–40 weeks of gestation were mounted and cultured in a Transwell system, which allowed us to test the amnion and choriodecidua compartments independently. Escherichia coli (1 × 10 6 CFU/mL was added to either the amniotic or the choriodecidual regions or both; after a 24-h incubation, the secretion of IL-1beta, IL-6, TNFalpha, IL-8, and IL-10 in both compartments was measured using a specific ELISA. Data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance. Results After stimulation with Escherichia coli, the choriodecidua compartment showed an increase in the secretion of IL-1beta (21-fold, IL-6 (2-fold, IL-8 (6-fold, and IL-10 (37-fold, regardless of which side of the membrane was stimulated; TNFalpha secretion augmented (22-fold also but only when the stimulus was applied simultaneously to both sides. When the amnion was stimulated directly, the level of IL-1beta (13-fold rose significantly; however, the increase in IL-8 secretion was larger (20-fold, regardless of the primary site of infection. TNFalpha secretion in the amnion compartment rose markedly only when Escherichia coli was simultaneously applied to both sides. Conclusion Selective stimulation of fetal membranes with Escherichia coli results in a differential production of IL-1beta, IL-6, TNFalpha, IL-8, and IL-10. These tissues were less responsive when the amnion side was stimulated. This is in agreement with the hypothesis that the choriodecidua may play a primary role during an ascending

  20. Human gestation-associated tissues express functional cytosolic nucleic acid sensing pattern recognition receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, A H; Menzies, G E; Scott, L M; Spencer-Harty, S; Davies, L B; Smith, R A; Jones, R H; Thornton, C A

    2017-07-01

    The role of viral infections in adverse pregnancy outcomes has gained interest in recent years. Innate immune pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and their signalling pathways, that yield a cytokine output in response to pathogenic stimuli, have been postulated to link infection at the maternal-fetal interface and adverse pregnancy outcomes. The objective of this study was to investigate the expression and functional response of nucleic acid ligand responsive Toll-like receptors (TLR-3, -7, -8 and -9), and retinoic acid-inducible gene 1 (RIG-I)-like receptors [RIG-I, melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5 (MDA5) and Laboratory of Genetics and Physiology 2(LGP2)] in human term gestation-associated tissues (placenta, choriodecidua and amnion) using an explant model. Immunohistochemistry revealed that these PRRs were expressed by the term placenta, choriodecidua and amnion. A statistically significant increase in interleukin (IL)-6 and/or IL-8 production in response to specific agonists for TLR-3 (Poly(I:C); low and high molecular weight), TLR-7 (imiquimod), TLR-8 (ssRNA40) and RIG-I/MDA5 (Poly(I:C)LyoVec) was observed; there was no response to a TLR-9 (ODN21798) agonist. A hierarchical clustering approach was used to compare the response of each tissue type to the ligands studied and revealed that the placenta and choriodecidua generate a more similar IL-8 response, while the choriodecidua and amnion generate a more similar IL-6 response to nucleic acid ligands. These findings demonstrate that responsiveness via TLR-3, TLR-7, TLR-8 and RIG-1/MDA5 is a broad feature of human term gestation-associated tissues with differential responses by tissue that might underpin adverse obstetric outcomes. © 2017 British Society for Immunology.

  1. Pharmacological modulation of the short-lasting effects of antagonistic direct current-stimulation over the human motor cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila eChaieb

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Combined administration of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS with either pergolide (PGL or D-cycloserine (D-CYC can prolong the excitability-diminishing effects of cathodal, or the excitability enhancing effect of anodal stimulation for up to 24hrs poststimulation. However, it remains unclear whether the potentiation of the observed aftereffects is dominated by the polarity and duration of the stimulation, or the dual application of combined stimulation and drug administration. The present study looks at whether the aftereffects of oral administration of PGL (a D1/D2 agonist or D-CYC (a partial NMDA receptor agonist, in conjunction with the short duration antagonistic application of tDCS (either 5 min cathodal followed immediately by 5 min anodal or vice versa, that alone only induces short lasting aftereffects, can modulate cortical excitability in healthy human subjects, as revealed by a single-pulse MEP (motor-evoked-potential paradigm. Results indicate that the antagonistic application of DC currents induces short-term neuroplastic aftereffects that are dependent upon the polarity of the second application of short-duration tDCS. The application of D-cycloserine resulted in a reversal of this trend and so consequently a marked inhibition of cortical excitability with the cathodal-anodal stimulation order was observed. The administration of pergolide showed no significant aftereffects in either case. These results emphasise that the aftereffects of tDCS are dependent upon the stimulation orientation, and mirror the findings of other studies reporting the neuroplasticity inducing aftereffects of tDCS, and their prolongation when combined with the administration of CNS active drugs.

  2. Toward best practice in Human Machine Interface design for older drivers: A review of current design guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, K L; Koppel, S; Charlton, J L

    2017-09-01

    Older adults are the fastest growing segment of the driving population. While there is a strong emphasis for older people to maintain their mobility, the safety of older drivers is a serious community concern. Frailty and declines in a range of age-related sensory, cognitive, and physical impairments can place older drivers at an increased risk of crash-related injuries and death. A number of studies have indicated that in-vehicle technologies such as Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) and In-Vehicle Information Systems (IVIS) may provide assistance to older drivers. However, these technologies will only benefit older drivers if their design is congruent with the complex needs and diverse abilities of this driving cohort. The design of ADAS and IVIS is largely informed by automotive Human Machine Interface (HMI) guidelines. However, it is unclear to what extent the declining sensory, cognitive and physical capabilities of older drivers are addressed in the current guidelines. This paper provides a review of key current design guidelines for IVIS and ADAS with respect to the extent they address age-related changes in functional capacities. The review revealed that most of the HMI guidelines do not address design issues related to older driver impairments. In fact, in many guidelines driver age and sensory cognitive and physical impairments are not mentioned at all and where reference is made, it is typically very broad. Prescriptive advice on how to actually design a system so that it addresses the needs and limitations of older drivers is not provided. In order for older drivers to reap the full benefits that in-vehicle technology can afford, it is critical that further work establish how older driver limitations and capabilities can be supported by the system design process, including their inclusion into HMI design guidelines. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Divalent ion block of inward rectifier current in human capillary endothelial cells and effects on resting membrane potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jow, Flora; Numann, Randy

    1998-01-01

    Cultured human capillary endothelial cells (HCEC) contain a large inward rectifier current, IK(IR), that can be abolished by removing external K+ or by adding 50 μm Ba2+.We show that IK(IR) is responsible for maintaining the hyperpolarized potential (−60.6 ± 0.5 mV, n = 83) of HCEC. Blocking IK(IR) with 50 μm Ba2+ shifts the zero current level and depolarizes HCEC by 36.5 ± 1.3 mV (n = 4).Increasing external Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]o) from 0.5 to 7 mm reduces the magnitude of IK(IR) by 36.5 ± 2.3 % (n = 5) and depolarizes the cells by 10.33 ± 2.4 mV (n = 3), whereas decreasing [Ca2+]o from 1.8 to 0.5 mm increases the amplitude of IK(IR) by 6.9 ± 1.9 % (n = 4). The relationship between [Ca2+]o and the percentage block of IK(IR) gives a Kd value of 5.4 ± 0.6 mm at −120 mV.IK(IR) is also blocked by other divalent ions, with Ba2+ >> Sr2+ > Mg2+ > Mn2+= Ca2+, and the block of peak current at −120 mV being 85.3 ± 3.2 % (n = 5) for 50 μm Ba2+, 62.9 ± 2.2 % (n = 5) for 5 mm Sr2+, 40.7 ± 2.5 % (n = 9) for 5 mm Mg2+, 33.4 ± 2.1 % (n = 5) for 5 mm Mn2+ and 32.9 ± 2.1 % (n = 5) for 5 mm Ca2+.The voltage dependence of Sr2+ block of peak IK(IR) occurred with a Kd value of 1.0 ± 0.09 mm for −140 mV, 1.9 ± 0.16 mm for −130 mV, 3.1 ± 0.28 mm for −120 mV, 4.6 ± 0.34 mm for −110 mV and 6.4 ± 0.5 mm for −100 mV (n = 5), with a calculated electrical distance (δ) of 0.44 from the outside. PMID:9729622

  4. The ultimate intrinsic signal-to-noise ratio of loop- and dipole-like current patterns in a realistic human head model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfrommer, Andreas; Henning, Anke

    2018-03-13

    The ultimate intrinsic signal-to-noise ratio (UISNR) represents an upper bound for the achievable SNR of any receive coil. To reach this threshold a complete basis set of equivalent surface currents is required. This study systematically investigated to what extent either loop- or dipole-like current patterns are able to reach the UISNR threshold in a realistic human head model between 1.5 T and 11.7 T. Based on this analysis, we derived guidelines for coil designers to choose the best array element at a given field strength. Moreover, we present ideal current patterns yielding the UISNR in a realistic body model. We distributed generic current patterns on a cylindrical and helmet-shaped surface around a realistic human head model. We excited electromagnetic fields in the human head by using eigenfunctions of the spherical and cylindrical Helmholtz operator. The electromagnetic field problem was solved by a fast volume integral equation solver. At 7 T and above, adding curl-free current patterns to divergence-free current patterns substantially increased the SNR in the human head (locally >20%). This was true for the helmet-shaped and the cylindrical surface. On the cylindrical surface, dipole-like current patterns had high SNR performance in central regions at ultra-high field strength. The UISNR increased superlinearly with B0 in most parts of the cerebrum but only sublinearly in the periphery of the human head. The combination of loop and dipole elements could enhance the SNR performance in the human head at ultra-high field strength. © 2018 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  5. Extending breath analysis to the cellular level: current thoughts on the human microbiome and the expression of organic compounds in the human exposome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human biomarkers are comprised of compounds from cellular metabolism, oxidative stress, and the microbiome of bacteria in the gut, genitourinary, and pulmonary tracts. When we examine patterns in human biomarkers to discern human health state or diagnose specific diseases, it is...

  6. Comparison of Measured and Estimated CT Organ Doses for Modulated and Fixed Tube Current:: A Human Cadaver Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padole, Atul; Deedar Ali Khawaja, Ranish; Otrakji, Alexi; Zhang, Da; Liu, Bob; Xu, X George; Kalra, Mannudeep K

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the directly measured and the estimated computed tomography (CT) organ doses obtained from commercial radiation dose-tracking (RDT) software for CT performed with modulated tube current or automatic exposure control (AEC) technique and fixed tube current (mAs). With the institutional review board (IRB) approval, the ionization chambers were surgically implanted in a human cadaver (88 years old, male, 68 kg) in six locations such as liver, stomach, colon, left kidney, small intestine, and urinary bladder. The cadaver was scanned with routine abdomen pelvis protocol on a 128-slice, dual-source multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) scanner using both AEC and fixed mAs. The effective and quality reference mAs of 100, 200, and 300 were used for AEC and fixed mAs, respectively. Scanning was repeated three times for each setting, and measured and estimated organ doses (from RDT software) were recorded (N = 3*3*2 = 18). Mean CTDIvol for AEC and fixed mAs were 4, 8, 13 mGy and 7, 14, 21 mGy, respectively. The most estimated organ doses were significantly greater (P < 0.01) than the measured organ doses for both AEC and fixed mAs. At AEC, the mean estimated organ doses (for six organs) were 14.7 mGy compared to mean measured organ doses of 12.3 mGy. Similarly, at fixed mAs, the mean estimated organ doses (for six organs) were 24 mGy compared to measured organ doses of 22.3 mGy. The differences among the measured and estimated organ doses were higher for AEC technique compared to the fixed mAs for most organs (P < 0.01). The most CT organ doses estimated from RDT software are greater compared to directly measured organ doses, particularly when AEC technique is used for CT scanning. Copyright © 2016 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Inhibition of PIM1 kinase attenuates inflammation-induced pro-labour mediators in human foetal membranes in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Ratana; Barker, Gillian; Lappas, Martha

    2017-06-01

    Does proviral integration site for Moloney murine leukaemic virus (PIM)1 kinase play a role in regulating the inflammatory processes of human labour and delivery? PIM1 kinase plays a critical role in foetal membranes in regulating pro-inflammatory and pro-labour mediators. Infection and inflammation have strong causal links to preterm delivery by stimulating pro-inflammatory cytokines and collagen degrading enzymes, which can lead to rupture of membranes. PIM1 has been shown to have a role in immune regulation and inflammation in non-gestational tissues; however, its role has not been explored in the field of human labour. PIM1 expression was analysed in myometrium and/or foetal membranes obtained at term and preterm (n = 8-9 patients per group). Foetal membranes, freshly isolated amnion cells and primary myometrial cells were used to investigate the effect of PIM1 inhibition on pro-labour mediators (n = 5 patients per treatment group). Foetal membranes, from term and preterm, were obtained from non-labouring and labouring women, and from preterm pre-labour rupture of membranes (PPROM) (n = 9 per group). Amnion was collected from women with and without preterm chorioamnionitis (n = 8 per group). Expression of PIM1 kinase was determined by qRT-PCR and western blotting. To determine the effect of PIM1 kinase inhibition on the expression of pro-inflammatory and pro-labour mediators induced by bacterial products lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (10 μg/ml) and flagellin (1 μg/ml) and pro-inflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor (TNF) (10 ng/ml), chemical inhibitors SMI-4a (20 μM) and AZD1208 (50 μM) were used in foetal membrane explants and siRNA against PIM1 was used in primary amnion cells. Statistical significance was set at P membranes after spontaneous term labour compared to no labour at term and in amnion with preterm chorioamnionitis compared to preterm with no chorioamnionitis. There was no change in PIM1 expression with preterm labour or PPROM

  8. Characterization of the past and current duplication activities in the human 22q11.2 region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morrow Bernice

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Segmental duplications (SDs on 22q11.2 (LCR22, serve as substrates for meiotic non-allelic homologous recombination (NAHR events resulting in several clinically significant genomic disorders. Results To understand the duplication activity leading to the complicated SD structure of this region, we have applied the A-Bruijn graph algorithm to decompose the 22q11.2 SDs to 523 fundamental duplication sequences, termed subunits. Cross-species syntenic analysis of primate genomes demonstrates that many of these LCR22 subunits emerged very recently, especially those implicated in human genomic disorders. Some subunits have expanded more actively than others, and young Alu SINEs, are associated much more frequently with duplicated sequences that have undergone active expansion, confirming their role in mediating recombination events. Many copy number variations (CNVs exist on 22q11.2, some flanked by SDs. Interestingly, two chromosome breakpoints for 13 CNVs (mean length 65 kb are located in paralogous subunits, providing direct evidence that SD subunits could contribute to CNV formation. Sequence analysis of PACs or BACs identified extra CNVs, specifically, 10 insertions and 18 deletions within 22q11.2; four were more than 10 kb in size and most contained young AluYs at their breakpoints. Conclusions Our study indicates that AluYs are implicated in the past and current duplication events, and moreover suggests that DNA rearrangements in 22q11.2 genomic disorders perhaps do not occur randomly but involve both actively expanded duplication subunits and Alu elements.

  9. The effect of acute hypoxia on short-circuit current and epithelial resistivity in biopsies from human colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carra, Graciela E; Ibáñez, Jorge E; Saraví, Fernando D

    2013-09-01

    In isolated colonic mucosa, decreases in short-circuit current (ISC) and transepithelial resistivity (RTE) occur when hypoxia is either induced at both sides or only at the serosal side of the epithelium. We assessed in human colon biopsies the sensitivity to serosal-only hypoxia and mucosal-only hypoxia and whether Na, K-ATPase blockade with ouabain interacts with hypoxia. Biopsy material from patients undergoing colonoscopy was mounted in an Ussing chamber for small samples (1-mm2 window). In a series of experiments we assessed viability and the electrical response to the mucolytic, dithiothreitol (1 mmol/l). In a second series, we explored the effect of hypoxia without and with ouabain. In a third series, we evaluated the response to a cycle of hypoxia and reoxygenation induced at the serosal or mucosal side while keeping the oxygenation of the opposite side. 1st series: Dithiothreitol significantly decreased the unstirred layer and ISC but increased RTE. 2nd series: Both hypoxia and ouabain decreased ISC, but ouabain increased RTE and this effect on RTE prevailed even during hypoxia. 3rd series: Mucosal hypoxia caused lesser decreases of ISC and RTE than serosal hypoxia; in the former, but not in the latter, recovery was complete upon reoxygenation. In mucolytic concentration, dithiothreitol modifies ISC and RTE. Oxygen supply from the serosal side is more important to sustain ISC and RTE in biopsy samples. The different effect of hypoxia and Na, K-ATPase blockade on RTE suggests that their depressing effect on ISC involves different mechanisms.

  10. Current trends in platelet transfusions practice: The role of ABO-RhD and human leukocyte antigen incompatibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Valsami

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Platelet transfusions have contributed to the revolutionary modern treatment of hypoproliferative thrombocytopenia. Despite the long-term application of platelet transfusion in therapeutics, all aspects of their optimal use (i.e., in cases of ABO and/or Rh (D incompatibility have not been definitively determined yet. We reviewed the available data on transfusion practices and outcome in ABO and RhD incompatibility and platelet refractoriness due to anti-human leukocyte antigen (HLA antibodies. Transfusion of platelets with major ABO-incompatibility is related to reduced posttransfusion platelet (PLT count increments, compared to ABO-identical and minor, but still are equally effective in preventing clinical bleeding. ABO-minor incompatible transfusions pose the risk of an acute hemolytic reaction of the recipient that is not always related to high anti-A, B donor titers. ABO-identical PLT transfusion seems to be the most effective and safest therapeutic strategy. Exclusive ABO-identical platelet transfusion policy could be feasible, but alternative approaches could facilitate platelet inventory management. Transfusion of platelets from RhD positive donors to RhD negative patients is considered to be effective and safe though is associated with low rate of anti-D alloimmunization due to contaminating red blood cells. The prevention of D alloimmunization is recommended only for women of childbearing age. HLA alloimmunization is a major cause of platelet refractoriness. Managing patients with refractoriness with cross-matched or HLA-matched platelets is the current practice although data are still lacking for the efficacy of this practice in terms of clinical outcome. Leukoreduction contributes to the reduction of both HLA and anti-D alloimmunization.

  11. Partially non-linear stimulation intensity-dependent effects of direct current stimulation on motor cortex excitability in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batsikadze, G; Moliadze, V; Paulus, W; Kuo, M-F; Nitsche, M A

    2013-04-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the human motor cortex at an intensity of 1 mA with an electrode size of 35 cm(2) has been shown to induce shifts of cortical excitability during and after stimulation. These shifts are polarity-specific with cathodal tDCS resulting in a decrease and anodal stimulation in an increase of cortical excitability. In clinical and cognitive studies, stronger stimulation intensities are used frequently, but their physiological effects on cortical excitability have not yet been explored. Therefore, here we aimed to explore the effects of 2 mA tDCS on cortical excitability. We applied 2 mA anodal or cathodal tDCS for 20 min on the left primary motor cortex of 14 healthy subjects. Cathodal tDCS at 1 mA and sham tDCS for 20 min was administered as control session in nine and eight healthy subjects, respectively. Motor cortical excitability was monitored by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)-elicited motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) from the right first dorsal interosseous muscle. Global corticospinal excitability was explored via single TMS pulse-elicited MEP amplitudes, and motor thresholds. Intracortical effects of stimulation were obtained by cortical silent period (CSP), short latency intracortical inhibition (SICI) and facilitation (ICF), and I wave facilitation. The above-mentioned protocols were recorded both before and immediately after tDCS in randomized order. Additionally, single-pulse MEPs, motor thresholds, SICI and ICF were recorded every 30 min up to 2 h after stimulation end, evening of the same day, next morning, next noon and next evening. Anodal as well as cathodal tDCS at 2 mA resulted in a significant increase of MEP amplitudes, whereas 1 mA cathodal tDCS decreased corticospinal excitability. A significant shift of SICI and ICF towards excitability enhancement after both 2 mA cathodal and anodal tDCS was observed. At 1 mA, cathodal tDCS reduced single-pulse TMS-elicited MEP amplitudes and shifted SICI

  12. The estimated impact of human papillomavirus vaccine coverage on the lifetime cervical cancer burden among girls currently aged 12 years and younger in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesson, Harrell W; Ekwueme, Donatus U; Saraiya, Mona; Dunne, Eileen F; Markowitz, Lauri E

    2014-11-01

    Using a previously published dynamic model, we illustrate the potential benefits of human papillomavirus vaccination among girls currently 12 years or younger in the United States. Increasing vaccine coverage of young girls to 80% would avert 53,300 lifetime cervical cancer cases versus 30% coverage and 28,800 cases versus 50% coverage.

  13. Genistein and tyrphostin AG556 decrease ultra-rapidly activating delayed rectifier K+ current of human atria by inhibiting EGF receptor tyrosine kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Guo-Sheng; Zhang, Yan-Hui; Wu, Wei; Sun, Hai-Ying; Wang, Yan; Li, Gui-Rong

    2017-03-01

    The ultra-rapidly activating delayed rectifier K + current I Kur (encoded by K v 1.5 or KCNA5) plays an important role in human atrial repolarization. The present study investigates the regulation of this current by protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs). Whole-cell patch voltage clamp technique and immunoprecipitation and Western blotting analysis were used to investigate whether the PTK inhibitors genistein, tyrphostin AG556 (AG556) and PP2 regulate human atrial I Kur and hKv1.5 channels stably expressed in HEK 293 cells. Human atrial I Kur was decreased by genistein (a broad-spectrum PTK inhibitor) and AG556 (a highly selective EGFR TK inhibitor) in a concentration-dependent manner. Inhibition of I Kur induced by 30 μM genistein or 10 μM AG556 was significantly reversed by 1 mM orthovanadate (a protein tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor). Similar results were observed in HEK 293 cells stably expressing hK v 1.5 channels. On the other hand, the Src family kinase inhibitor PP2 (1 μM) slightly enhanced I Kur and hK v 1.5 current, and the current increase was also reversed by orthovanadate. Immunoprecipitation and Western blotting analysis showed that genistein, AG556, and PP2 decreased tyrosine phosphorylation of hK v 1.5 channels and that the decrease was countered by orthovanadate. The PTK inhibitors genistein and AG556 decrease human atrial I Kur and cloned hK v 1.5 channels by inhibiting EGFR TK, whereas the Src kinase inhibitor PP2 increases I Kur and hK v 1.5 current. These results imply that EGFR TK and the soluble Src kinases may have opposite effects on human atrial I Kur . © 2017 The British Pharmacological Society.

  14. Effects of alternating and direct electrical current application on the odontoblastic layer in human teeth : an in vitro study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alwas-Danowska, HM; Huysmans, MCDNJM; Verdonschot, EH

    Aim The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of a low intensity alternating current on the odontoblasts and odontoblast layer and compare this with the effects of a direct current. Methodology Teeth extracted for orthodontic were immersed in physiological saline stabilized with thymol

  15. Expression and function of NOD-like receptors by human term gestation-associated tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Aled H; Bevan, Ryan J; Spencer-Harty, Samantha; Scott, Louis M; Jones, Ruth H; Thornton, Catherine A

    2017-10-01

    Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors or NOD-like receptors (NLRs) have been implicated in several disease pathologies associated with inflammation. Since local and systemic inflammation is a hallmark of both term and preterm labour, a role for NLRs at the materno-fetal interface has been postulated. Gene expression and immunolocalisation of NLR family members in human placenta, choriodecidua, and amnion were examined. Tissue explants were used to examine the response to activators of NOD1 (Tri-DAP), NOD2 (MDP) and NLRP3 (nigericin). Cell/tissue-free supernatants were examined for the production of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10 using specific ELISAs. Expression of transcripts for NOD1, NOD2, NLRP3, NLRC4, NLRX1, NLRP1 and NAIP and protein expression of NOD1, NOD2 and NLRP3 were a broad feature of all term gestation-associated tissues. Production of cytokines was increased significantly in response to all ligands in placenta and choriodecidua, except for MDP-induced IL-10. Similarly, there was a significant in the amnion except for MDP induced IL-1β and IL-10 response to either agonist. IL-1β production was dependent on caspase-1 regardless of agonist used or tissue examined. Term human gestation-associated tissues express functional NLRs which likely play a role in both sterile and pathogen-driven inflammatory responses at the materno-fetal interface. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Human Factors in Coast Guard Computer Security - An Analysis of Current Awareness and Potential Techniques to Improve Security Program Viability

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Whalen, Timothy

    2001-01-01

    .... This thesis attempts to identify both the susceptibility of Coast Guard information systems to human factors-based security risks and possible means for increasing user awareness of those risks...

  17. Human Factors in Coast Guard Computer Security - An Analysis of Current Awareness and Potential Techniques to Improve Security Program Viability

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Whalen, Timothy

    2001-01-01

    .... As such, our ability to ensure the security of those systems is also increasing in import. Traditional information security measures tend to be system-oriented and often fail to address the human element that is critical to system success...

  18. In Vitro Ability of Currently Available Oximes to Reactivate Organophosphate Pesticide-Inhibited Human Acetylcholinesterase and Butyrylcholinesterase

    OpenAIRE

    Kamil Musilek; Kamil Kuca; Daniel Jun; Lucie Musilova

    2011-01-01

    We have in vitro tested the ability of common, commercially available, cholinesterase reactivators (pralidoxime, obidoxime, methoxime, trimedoxime and HI-6) to reactivate human acetylcholinesterase (AChE), inhibited by five structurally different organophosphate pesticides and inhibitors (paraoxon, dichlorvos, DFP, leptophos-oxon and methamidophos). We also tested reactivation of human butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) with the aim of finding a potent oxime, suitable to serve as a “pseudocatalytic...

  19. Testing the hypothesis on cognitive evolution of modern humans' learning ability: current status of past-climatic approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneda, Minoru; Abe-Ouchi, Ayako; Kawahata, Hodaka; Yokoyama, Yusuke; Oguchi, Takashi

    2014-05-01

    The impact of climate change on human evolution is important and debating topic for many years. Since 2010, we have involved in a general joint project entitled "Replacement of Neanderthal by Modern Humans: Testing Evolutional Models of Learning", which based on a theoretical prediction that the cognitive ability related to individual and social learning divide fates of ancient humans in very unstable Late Pleistocene climate. This model predicts that the human populations which experienced a series of environmental changes would have higher rate of individual learners, while detailed reconstructions of global climate change have reported fluent and drastic change based on ice cores and stalagmites. However, we want to understand the difference between anatomically modern human which survived and the other archaic extinct humans including European Neanderthals and Asian Denisovans. For this purpose the global synchronized change is not useful for understanding but the regional difference in the amplitude and impact of climate change is the information required. Hence, we invited a geophysicist busing Global Circulation Model to reconstruct the climatic distribution and temporal change in a continental scale. At the same time, some geochemists and geographers construct a database of local climate changes recorded in different proxies. At last, archaeologists and anthropologists tried to interpret the emergence and disappearance of human species in Europe and Asia on the reconstructed past climate maps using some tools, such as Eco-cultural niche model. Our project will show the regional difference in climate change and related archaeological events and its impact on the evolution of learning ability of modern humans.

  20. In-vivo Imaging of Magnetic Fields Induced by Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) in Human Brain using MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jog, Mayank V.; Smith, Robert X.; Jann, Kay; Dunn, Walter; Lafon, Belen; Truong, Dennis; Wu, Allan; Parra, Lucas; Bikson, Marom; Wang, Danny J. J.

    2016-10-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is an emerging non-invasive neuromodulation technique that applies mA currents at the scalp to modulate cortical excitability. Here, we present a novel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique, which detects magnetic fields induced by tDCS currents. This technique is based on Ampere’s law and exploits the linear relationship between direct current and induced magnetic fields. Following validation on a phantom with a known path of electric current and induced magnetic field, the proposed MRI technique was applied to a human limb (to demonstrate in-vivo feasibility using simple biological tissue) and human heads (to demonstrate feasibility in standard tDCS applications). The results show that the proposed technique detects tDCS induced magnetic fields as small as a nanotesla at millimeter spatial resolution. Through measurements of magnetic fields linearly proportional to the applied tDCS current, our approach opens a new avenue for direct in-vivo visualization of tDCS target engagement.

  1. Triglycerides, fatty acids, sterols, mono- and disaccharides and sugar alcohols in human milk and current types of infant formula milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, M; vanBeusekom, CM; Nijeboer, HJ; Muskiet, FAJ; Boersma, ER

    Objective: To investigate differences in the fatty acid composition, sterols, minor carbohydrates and sugar alcohols between human and formula milk. Design: We analyzed the concentrations of triglycerides, sterols, di- and monosaccharides and sugar alcohols, as well as the fatty acid composition of

  2. "The Project Cannot Be Approved in Its Current Form": Feminist Visual Research Meets the Human Research Ethics Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitt, Penelope

    2014-01-01

    This article reflects on a university human research ethics committee's unease regarding a feminist visual pilot study within the field of education. The small exploratory study proposed to explore a migrant mother's production of her son's identity through her family photograph collection. The committee requested substantial…

  3. Health and human rights education in U.S. schools of medicine and public health: current status and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotter, L Emily; Chevrier, Jonathan; El-Nachef, Wael Noor; Radhakrishna, Rohan; Rahangdale, Lisa; Weiser, Sheri D; Iacopino, Vincent

    2009-01-01

    Despite increasing recognition of the importance of human rights in the protection and promotion of health, formal human rights education has been lacking in schools of medicine and public health. Our objectives were: 1) to determine the nature and extent of health and human rights (HHR) education among schools of medicine (SOMs) and public health (SPHs); 2) to identify perceived barriers to implementing HHR curricula; 3) to learn about deans' interests and attitudes toward HHR education, and; 4) to identify factors associated with offering HHR education. We conducted a cross-sectional survey among deans of all accredited allopathic SOMs and SPHs in the United States and Puerto Rico. Seventy-one percent of U.S. SOMs and SPHs responded. Thirty-seven percent of respondents indicated that their schools offered some form of HHR education. Main barriers to offering HHR education included competition for time, lack of qualified instructors and lack of funding. Among schools not offering HHR education, 35% of deans were interested in offering HHR education. Seventy-six percent of all deans believed that it was very important or important to offer HHR education. Multiple regression analysis revealed that deans' attitudes were the most important factor associated with offering any HHR education. Findings indicate that though a majority of deans of SOMs and SPHs believe that knowledge about human rights is important in health practice and support the inclusion of HHR studies in their schools, HHR education is lacking at most of their institutions. These results and the growing recognition of the critical interdependence between health and human rights indicate a need for SOMs and SPHs to work towards formal inclusion of HHR studies in their curricula, and that HHR competency requirements be considered to overcome barriers to its inclusion.

  4. Human epithelial hair follicle stem cells and their progeny: current state of knowledge, the widening gap in translational research and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purba, Talveen S; Haslam, Iain S; Poblet, Enrique; Jiménez, Francisco; Gandarillas, Alberto; Izeta, Ander; Paus, Ralf

    2014-05-01

    Epithelial hair follicle stem cells (eHFSCs) are required to generate, maintain and renew the continuously cycling hair follicle (HF), supply cells that produce the keratinized hair shaft and aid in the reepithelialization of injured skin. Therefore, their study is biologically and clinically important, from alopecia to carcinogenesis and regenerative medicine. However, human eHFSCs remain ill defined compared to their murine counterparts, and it is unclear which murine eHFSC markers really apply to the human HF. We address this by reviewing current concepts on human eHFSC biology, their immediate progeny and their molecular markers, focusing on Keratin 15 and 19, CD200, CD34, PHLDA1, and EpCAM/Ber-EP4. After delineating how human eHFSCs may be selectively targeted experimentally, we close by defining as yet unmet key challenges in human eHFSC research. The ultimate goal is to transfer emerging concepts from murine epithelial stem cell biology to human HF physiology and pathology. © 2014 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Current direction-dependent modulation of human hand motor function by intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirota, Yuichiro; Dhaka, Suman; Paulus, Walter; Sommer, Martin

    2017-05-22

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) with different current directions can activate different sets of neurons. Current direction can also affect the results of repetitive TMS. To test the influence of uni-directional intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) using different current directions, namely posteroanterior (PA) and anteroposterior (AP), on motor behaviour. In a cross-over design, PA- and AP-iTBS was applied over the left primary motor cortex in 19 healthy, right-handed volunteers. Performance of a finger-tapping task was recorded before and 0, 10, 20, and 30min after the iTBS. The task was conducted with the right and left hands separately at each time point. As a control, AP-iTBS with reduced intensity was applied to 14 participants in a separate session (AP weak condition). The finger-tapping count with the left hand was decreased after PA-iTBS. Neither AP- nor AP weak -iTBS altered the performance. Current direction had a significant impact on the after-effects of iTBS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Density distribution of currents induced inside the brain in the heat part of the human model exposed to power frequency electric field; Denryoku shuhasu no denkai ni yori jintai model tobu nonai ni yudosareru denryu mitsudo bunpu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiba, A. [Yonago National College of Technology, Tottori (Japan); Isaka, K. [The University of Tokushima, Tokushima (Japan); Kaune, W.

    1998-06-01

    The health effect of the weak current induced in the human body as a result of the interaction between human body and power frequency electric fields has been investigated. However, the current density inside the head part tissues of the human body exposed to the electric fields has little been discussed. In this paper, the finite element method is applied to the analysis of the current density distributions of the head part composed of scalp, skull, cerebrospinal liquid and brain tissues. The basic characteristics of the current density distributions of the brain in the bead part of the axisymmetrical human model have been made clear. 13 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Human Milk Fortifiers Do Not Meet the Current Recommendation for Nutrients in Very Low Birth Weight Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Winston; Tice, Hilary

    2017-06-01

    Use of multinutrient fortifiers is standard of care for small preterm infants fed exclusively human milk. However, adequacy of human milk fortifiers (HMFs) to meet the recommended intake for macronutrients and micronutrients is now known. Nutrient content of human milk fortified according to manufacturer's recommendations was compared at isocaloric levels for 1 human milk-based (HMF-A), 2 bovine milk protein-based (HMF-B, HMF-C), and 2 preterm infant formulas (PTF-B, PTF-C). In addition, 4 multivitamin supplements were compared. At 130 kcal/kg, intake of macronutrients was similar to the recommendation, although deficient and excess intake of micronutrient occurred with all fortifiers. Four to 9 micronutrients were absent in HMF or PTF (biotin, choline, inositol, carnitine, taurine, molybdenum, iodine, selenium, or chromium). For the remainder, HMF resulted in deficient intake for 1-13 micronutrients, occurring most frequently with HMF-A. Excess micronutrients (3-15 at <50% and 1-3 at 109%-437%) occurred with all HMF and most frequently with HMF-B and HMF-C. At 150 kcal/kg, deficient intake improved but generally remained below recommendation, while excess intake became exaggerated. PTF and multivitamin formulations do not fully compensate for the deficiencies and can result in extremely high micronutrient intake. At the recommended energy intake for very low birth weight infants, many micronutrients are absent or are present in grossly inadequate amounts, and several micronutrients are in excess. Reformulation of HMF is urgently needed since PTF or multivitamin supplement only partially corrects some deficiencies while providing some nutrients in excess. ( JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. XXXX;xx:xx-xx).

  8. The Biological Function and Clinical Utilization of CD147 in Human Diseases: A Review of the Current Scientific Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Lijuan; Edwards, Carl K.; Zhou, Lijun

    2014-01-01

    CD147 or EMMPRIN is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily in humans. It is widely expressed in human tumors and plays a central role in the progression of many cancers by stimulating the secretion of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and cytokines. CD147 regulates cell proliferation, apoptosis, and tumor cell migration, metastasis and differentiation, especially under hypoxic conditions. CD147 is also important to many organ systems. This review will provide a detailed overview of the discovery, characterization, molecular structure, diverse biological functions and regulatory mechanisms of CD147 in human physiological and pathological processes. In particular, recent studies have demonstrated the potential application of CD147 not only as a phenotypic marker of activated regulatory T cells but also as a potential diagnostic marker for early-stage disease. Moreover, CD147 is recognized as an effective therapeutic target for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and other cancers, and exciting clinical progress has been made in HCC treatment using CD147-directed monoclonal antibodies. PMID:25268615

  9. [Retinotopic mapping of the human visual cortex with functional magnetic resonance imaging - basic principles, current developments and ophthalmological perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, M B; Kaule, F; Grzeschik, R; Behrens-Baumann, W; Wolynski, B

    2011-07-01

    Since its initial introduction in the mid-1990 s, retinotopic mapping of the human visual cortex, based on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), has contributed greatly to our understanding of the human visual system. Multiple cortical visual field representations have been demonstrated and thus numerous visual areas identified. The organisation of specific areas has been detailed and the impact of pathophysiologies of the visual system on the cortical organisation uncovered. These results are based on investigations at a magnetic field strength of 3 Tesla or less. In a field-strength comparison between 3 and 7 Tesla, it was demonstrated that retinotopic mapping benefits from a magnetic field strength of 7 Tesla. Specifically, the visual areas can be mapped with high spatial resolution for a detailed analysis of the visual field maps. Applications of fMRI-based retinotopic mapping in ophthalmological research hold promise to further our understanding of plasticity in the human visual cortex. This is highlighted by pioneering studies in patients with macular dysfunction or misrouted optic nerves. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. The Biological Function and Clinical Utilization of CD147 in Human Diseases: A Review of the Current Scientific Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijuan Xiong

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available CD147 or EMMPRIN is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily in humans. It is widely expressed in human tumors and plays a central role in the progression of many cancers by stimulating the secretion of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs and cytokines. CD147 regulates cell proliferation, apoptosis, and tumor cell migration, metastasis and differentiation, especially under hypoxic conditions. CD147 is also important to many organ systems. This review will provide a detailed overview of the discovery, characterization, molecular structure, diverse biological functions and regulatory mechanisms of CD147 in human physiological and pathological processes. In particular, recent studies have demonstrated the potential application of CD147 not only as a phenotypic marker of activated regulatory T cells but also as a potential diagnostic marker for early-stage disease. Moreover, CD147 is recognized as an effective therapeutic target for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC and other cancers, and exciting clinical progress has been made in HCC treatment using CD147-directed monoclonal antibodies.

  11. Tissue Banking: Current procedures, ethical consideration and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tissue banking provides safe and effective cells and tissues for transplantation in reconstruction surgery. Bone, amnion, skin, cartilage, heart valves and xenograft tissues are the most commonly used biological tissues. Acquisition of tissue is dependent on elaborate donor screening criteria based on medical and social ...

  12. Dietary Flavonoids as Therapeutics for Preterm Birth: Luteolin and Kaempferol Suppress Inflammation in Human Gestational Tissues In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Courtney; Lim, Ratana; Poljak, Marin; Lappas, Martha

    2013-01-01

    Infection/inflammation is commonly associated with preterm birth (PTB), initiating uterine contractions and rupture of fetal membranes. Proinflammatory cytokines induce matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) that degrade the extracellular matrix (ECM) and prostaglandins which initiate uterine contractions. Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and activator-protein- (AP-)1 have key roles in the formation of these prolabour mediators. In nongestational tissues, dietary flavonoids such as luteolin and kaempferol inhibit NF-κB, AP-1, and their downstream targets. The aim of this study was to determine if luteolin and kaempferol reduce infection-induced prolabour mediators in human gestational tissues. Fetal membranes were incubated with LPS, and primary amnion cells and myometrial cells were incubated with IL-1β in the absence or presence of luteolin or kaempferol. Luteolin and kaempferol significantly reduced LPS-induced secretion of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and IL-8) and prostaglandins (PGE2 and PGF2α) in fetal membranes, IL-1β-induced COX-2 gene expression and prostaglandin production in myometrium, and IL-1β-induced MMP-9 activity in amnion and myometrial cells. Luteolin and kaempferol decreased IL-1β-induced NF-κB p65 DNA binding activity and nuclear c-Jun expression. In conclusion, luteolin and kaempferol inhibit prolabour mediators in human gestational tissues. Given the central role of inflammation in provoking preterm labour, phytophenols may be a therapeutic approach to reduce the incidence of PTB. PMID:23840918

  13. Current advances in the generation of human iPS cells: implications in cell-based regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revilla, Ana; González, Clara; Iriondo, Amaia; Fernández, Bárbara; Prieto, Cristina; Marín, Carlos; Liste, Isabel

    2016-11-01

    Over the last few years, the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from human somatic cells has proved to be one of the most potentially useful discoveries in regenerative medicine. iPSCs are becoming an invaluable tool to study the pathology of different diseases and for drug screening. However, several limitations still affect the possibility of applying iPS cell-based technology in therapeutic prospects. Most strategies for iPSCs generation are based on gene delivery via retroviral or lentiviral vectors, which integrate into the host's cell genome, causing a remarkable risk of insertional mutagenesis and oncogenic transformation. To avoid such risks, significant advances have been made with non-integrative reprogramming strategies. On the other hand, although many different kinds of somatic cells have been employed to generate iPSCs, there is still no consensus about the ideal type of cell to be reprogrammed. In this review we present the recent advances in the generation of human iPSCs, discussing their advantages and limitations in terms of safety and efficiency. We also present a selection of somatic cell sources, considering their capability to be reprogrammed and tissue accessibility. From a translational medicine perspective, these two topics will provide evidence to elucidate the most suitable combination of reprogramming strategy and cell source to be applied in each human iPSC-based therapy. The wide variety of diseases this technology could treat opens a hopeful future for regenerative medicine. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Estimation of the genetic risks of exposure to ionizing radiation in humans. Current status and emerging perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sankaranarayanan, K.

    2006-01-01

    The 2001 report of the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) on ''Hereditary effects of radiation'' incorporates two important concepts that have emerged from advances in radiation genetics and molecular biology: most radiation-induced mutations are DNA deletions, often encompassing multiple genes; however, because of structural and functional constraints, only a proportion of induced deletions may be compatible with viability and hence recoverable in the progeny and viability-compatible DNA deletions induced in human germ cells are more likely to cause multi-system developmental abnormalities rather than single-gene diseases. The work reported in this paper pursues these concepts further: it examines how mechanistic insights gained from studies of repair of radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in mammalian somatic cells and from those on the origin of deletions in human genomic disorders can be extended to germ cells the aim being the development of a framework to predict regions of the human genome that may be susceptible to radiation-induced deletions. A critical analysis of the available information permits the hypothesis that in stem cell spermatogonia, most induced deletions may arise via the non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) mechanism of DSB repair whereas in irradiated oocytes, the main mechanism is likely to be non-allelic homologous recombination (NAHR) between misaligned region-specific segmental duplications that are present in the genome (NAHR is an error-prone form of homologous recombination repair). Should this hypothesis turn out to be valid, then it is possible to build on the structural and functional aspects of genomic knowledge to devise strategies to predict where in the genome deletions may be induced by radiation, their extent and their potential phenotypes. (author)

  15. Chlorinated volatile organic compounds (Cl-VOCs) in environment - sources, potential human health impacts, and current remediation technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Binbin; Lei, Chao; Wei, Chaohai; Zeng, Guangming

    2014-10-01

    Chlorinated volatile organic compounds (Cl-VOCs), including polychloromethanes, polychloroethanes and polychloroethylenes, are widely used as solvents, degreasing agents and a variety of commercial products. These compounds belong to a group of ubiquitous contaminants that can be found in contaminated soil, air and any kind of fluvial mediums such as groundwater, rivers and lakes. This review presents a summary of the research concerning the production levels and sources of Cl-VOCs, their potential impacts on human health as well as state-of-the-art remediation technologies. Important sources of Cl-VOCs principally include the emissions from industrial processes, the consumption of Cl-VOC-containing products, the disinfection process, as well as improper storage and disposal methods. Human exposure to Cl-VOCs can occur through different routes, including ingestion, inhalation and dermal contact. The toxicological impacts of these compounds have been carefully assessed, and the results demonstrate the potential associations of cancer incidence with exposure to Cl-VOCs. Most Cl-VOCs thus have been listed as priority pollutants by the Ministry of Environmental Protection (MEP) of China, Environmental Protection Agency of the U.S. (U.S. EPA) and European Commission (EC), and are under close monitor and strict control. Yet, more efforts will be put into the epidemiological studies for the risk of human exposure to Cl-VOCs and the exposure level measurements in contaminated sites in the future. State-of-the-art remediation technologies for Cl-VOCs employ non-destructive methods and destructive methods (e.g. thermal incineration, phytoremediation, biodegradation, advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) and reductive dechlorination), whose advantages, drawbacks and future developments are thoroughly discussed in the later sections. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Current Advances in the Antimicrobial Potential of Species of Genus Ganoderma (Higher Basidiomycetes) against Human Pathogenic Microorganisms (Review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Mahendra K; Gaikwad, Swapnil; Nagaonkar, Dipali; dos Santos, Carolina Alves

    2015-01-01

    Ganoderma spp. are very important therapeutic mushrooms and have been used traditionally for 4000 years in the treatment of various human disorders. Different species of Ganoderma possess bioactive compounds, which have already demonstrated antiviral, antibacterial, and antifungal activities. Various bioactive compounds such as triterpenoids, colossolactones, and polysaccharides, which are responsible for the antimicrobial potential of the genus, are discussed here in detail. Some Ganoderma spp. have been reported to be potential agents for the synthesis of metal nanoparticles. These nanoparticles have demonstrated antimicrobial activity and also are reviewed herein. The main aim of this review is to discuss the possible use of Ganoderma extracts and their active principles in antimicrobial therapy.

  17. In Vitro Ability of Currently Available Oximes to Reactivate Organophosphate Pesticide-Inhibited Human Acetylcholinesterase and Butyrylcholinesterase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Musilek

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available We have in vitro tested the ability of common, commercially available, cholinesterase reactivators (pralidoxime, obidoxime, methoxime, trimedoxime and HI-6 to reactivate human acetylcholinesterase (AChE, inhibited by five structurally different organophosphate pesticides and inhibitors (paraoxon, dichlorvos, DFP, leptophos-oxon and methamidophos. We also tested reactivation of human butyrylcholinesterase (BChE with the aim of finding a potent oxime, suitable to serve as a “pseudocatalytic” bioscavenger in combination with this enzyme. Such a combination could allow an increase of prophylactic and therapeutic efficacy of the administered enzyme. According to our results, the best broad-spectrum AChE reactivators were trimedoxime and obidoxime in the case of paraoxon, leptophos-oxon, and methamidophos-inhibited AChE. Methamidophos and leptophos-oxon were quite easily reactivatable by all tested reactivators. In the case of methamidophos-inhibited AChE, the lower oxime concentration (10−5 M had higher reactivation ability than the 10−4 M concentration. Therefore, we evaluated the reactivation ability of obidoxime in a concentration range of 10−3–10−7 M. The reactivation of methamidophos-inhibited AChE with different obidoxime concentrations resulted in a bell shaped curve with maximum reactivation at 10−5 M. In the case of BChE, no reactivator exceeded 15% reactivation ability and therefore none of the oximes can be recommended as a candidate for “pseudocatalytic” bioscavengers with BChE.

  18. Current Perspectives of Telomerase Structure and Function in Eukaryotes with Emerging Views on Telomerase in Human Parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Abhishek; Chakrabarti, Kausik

    2018-01-24

    Replicative capacity of a cell is strongly correlated with telomere length regulation. Aberrant lengthening or reduction in the length of telomeres can lead to health anomalies, such as cancer or premature aging. Telomerase is a master regulator for maintaining replicative potential in most eukaryotic cells. It does so by controlling telomere length at chromosome ends. Akin to cancer cells, most single-cell eukaryotic pathogens are highly proliferative and require persistent telomerase activity to maintain constant length of telomere and propagation within their host. Although telomerase is key to unlimited cellular proliferation in both cases, not much was known about the role of telomerase in human parasites (malaria, Trypanosoma , etc.) until recently. Since telomerase regulation is mediated via its own structural components, interactions with catalytic reverse transcriptase and several factors that can recruit and assemble telomerase to telomeres in a cell cycle-dependent manner, we compare and discuss here recent findings in telomerase biology in cancer, aging and parasitic diseases to give a broader perspective of telomerase function in human diseases.

  19. Dietary antioxidants for chronic periodontitis prevention and its treatment: a review on current evidences from animal and human studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Varela-López

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Given the relationship between chronic periodontitis and high levels of oxidative stress, this review aims to clarify what role can played the dietary intake of different antioxidants in maintaining a healthy periodontium and in reducing chronic periodontitis risk, as well as possible use of dietary therapies based on them for this disease treatment. Methods: The database of the National Library of Medicine, Washington, DC (MEDLINE PubMed was used and all the studies in animals and humans are on the subject of interest in English writing online available from inception of the database until May 2015 were collected. Results: Antioxidants analyzed in this regard include vitamin C, vitamin A, carotenoids and some polyphenols, and coenzyme Q; as well as minerals iron, copper and zinc that are constituents of antioxidant enzymes. Still, there is a paucity of studies with few human studies, mostly observational. Among the various antioxidants, vitamin E and polyphenols seem to have more evidence for its beneficial effect, but in general the studies are insufficient to rule out or establish what antioxidants are useful and which are not. Conclusions: Overall, the data presented indicate that dietary antioxidants are beneficial for periodontal health, at least under certain circumstances. However more studies are needed to establish the relationship between chronic periodontitis and each specific antioxidant and to design useful dietary interventions for this disease management.

  20. CURRENT SITUATION OF HUMAN RESOURCES IN ROMANIAN PRE-UNIVERSITY EUCATION CONTEXT OF E.U. INTEGRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luminita Claudia CORBU

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to present development of human resource in the process of accession to the European Union took into account the standards proposed by the European Union, as formulated at the level of principles and objectives, the Single European Act and the Treaty on European Union, including the Treaty Amsterdam, then the sequence of documents developed by the European Commission. It is expected that documents the evolution of education and training in the European Union around concepts such as: further education, knowledge society, knowledge - skills - competitiveness, globalization, discrimination and inequality etc. Around this concept formulated a strategy for workforce training to meet European standards and to escape from captivity regional. But this process of convergent evolution of the labor force for the European market has gone from multiple realities. One of these areas, with its own legacy in terms of human resources and how to perceive its specific educational objectives proposed by Europe was Romania. Knowing one of the toughest centralized systems, the labor market was absorbing all graduates of vocational education, high school and university, after 1989, Romania was confronted with a massive disturbance of the labor market. This dimension has been linked to a certain inadequacies supply training system Romanian, which itself on the one hand, a transformation natural caused by seclusion has been maintained for several years, on the other hand, in a process of adaptation to European standards.

  1. The MRC-5 human embryonal lung fibroblast two-dimensional gel cellular protein database: quantitative identification of polypeptides whose relative abundance differs between quiescent, proliferating and SV40 transformed cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celis, J E; Dejgaard, K; Madsen, Peder

    1990-01-01

    interferon-induced proteins, were not detected in the master MRC-5 images. The identity of 36 of the transformation-sensitive proteins whose levels are up or down regulated by two times or more was determined and additional information can be transferred from the master transformed human epithelial amnion......, this comprehensive database will outline an integrated picture of the expression levels and properties of the thousands of protein components of organelles, pathways and cytoskeletal systems that may be directly or indirectly involved in properties associated with the transformed state. Udgivelsesdato: 1990-Dec...

  2. The gut microbiome as a target for prevention and treatment of hyperglycaemia in type 2 diabetes: from current human evidence to future possibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunkwall, Louise; Orho-Melander, Marju

    2017-06-01

    The totality of microbial genomes in the gut exceeds the size of the human genome, having around 500-fold more genes that importantly complement our coding potential. Microbial genes are essential for key metabolic processes, such as the breakdown of indigestible dietary fibres to short-chain fatty acids, biosynthesis of amino acids and vitamins, and production of neurotransmitters and hormones. During the last decade, evidence has accumulated to support a role for gut microbiota (analysed from faecal samples) in glycaemic control and type 2 diabetes. Mechanistic studies in mice support a causal role for gut microbiota in metabolic diseases, although human data favouring causality is insufficient. As it may be challenging to sort the human evidence from the large number of animal studies in the field, there is a need to provide a review of human studies. Thus, the aim of this review is to cover the current and future possibilities and challenges of using the gut microbiota, with its capacity to be modified, in the development of preventive and treatment strategies for hyperglycaemia and type 2 diabetes in humans. We discuss what is known about the composition and functionality of human gut microbiota in type 2 diabetes and summarise recent evidence of current treatment strategies that involve, or are based on, modification of gut microbiota (diet, probiotics, metformin and bariatric surgery). We go on to review some potential future gut-based glucose-lowering approaches involving microbiota, including the development of personalised nutrition and probiotic approaches, identification of therapeutic components of probiotics, targeted delivery of propionate in the proximal colon, targeted delivery of metformin in the lower gut, faecal microbiota transplantation, and the incorporation of genetically modified bacteria that express therapeutic factors into microbiota. Finally, future avenues and challenges for understanding the interplay between human nutrition, genetics

  3. An update discussion on the current assessment of the safety of veterinary antimicrobial drug residues in food with regard to their impact on the human intestinal microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerniglia, Carl E; Pineiro, Silvia A; Kotarski, Susan F

    2016-05-01

    The human gastrointestinal tract ecosystem consists of complex and diverse microbial communities that have now been collectively termed the intestinal microbiome. Recent scientific breakthroughs and research endeavours have increased our understanding of the important role the intestinal microbiome plays in human health and disease. The use of antimicrobial new animal drugs in food-producing animals may result in the presence of low levels of drug residues in edible foodstuffs. There is concern that antimicrobial new animal drugs in or on animal-derived food products at residue-level concentrations could disrupt the colonization barrier and/or modify the antimicrobial resistance profile of human intestinal bacteria. Therapeutic doses of antimicrobial drugs have been shown to promote shifts in the intestinal microbiome, and these disruptions promote the emergence of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria. To assess the effects of antimicrobial new animal drug residues in food on human intestinal bacteria, many national regulatory agencies and international committees follow a harmonized process, VICH GL36(R), which was issued by a trilateral organization of the European Union, the USA, and Japan called the International Cooperation on Harmonization of Technical Requirements for Veterinary Medicinal Products (VICH). The guidance describes a general approach currently used by national regulatory agencies and international committees to assess the effects of antimicrobial new animal drug residues in animal-derived food on human intestinal bacteria. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of this current approach as part of the antimicrobial new animal drug approval process in participating countries, give insights on the microbiological endpoints used in this safety evaluation, and discuss the availability of new information. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Region-wide assessment of the capacity for human nutrition training in West Africa: current situation, challenges, and way forward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Sodjinou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a dearth of information on existing nutrition training programs in West Africa. A preliminary step in the process of developing a comprehensive framework to strengthen human capacity for nutrition is to conduct an inventory of existing training programs. Objective: This study was conducted to provide baseline data on university-level nutrition training programs that exist in the 16 countries in West Africa. It also aimed to identify existing gaps in nutrition training and propose solutions to address them. Design: Participating institutions were identified based on information provided by in-country key informants, UNICEF offices or through internet searches. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews during on-site visits or through self-administered questionnaires. Simple descriptive and bivariate analyses were performed. Results: In total, 83 nutrition degree programs comprising 32 B.Sc. programs, 34 M.Sc. programs, and 17 Ph.D. programs were identified in the region. More than half of these programs were in Nigeria. Six countries (Cape Verde, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, The Gambia, and Togo offered no nutrition degree program. The programs in francophone countries were generally established more recently than those in anglophone countries (age: 3.5 years vs. 21.4 years. Programs were predominantly (78% run by government-supported institutions. They did not provide a comprehensive coverage of all essential aspects of human nutrition. They were heavily oriented to food science (46%, with little emphasis on public health nutrition (24% or overnutrition (2%. Annual student intakes per program in 2013 ranged from 3 to 262; 7 to 40; and 3 to 10, respectively, for bachelor's, master's, and doctoral programs while the number of graduates produced annually per country ranged from 6 to 271; 3 to 64; and 1 to 18, respectively. External collaboration only existed in 15% of the programs. In-service training programs on

  5. Motor coordination and balance measurements reveal differential pathogenicity of currently spreading enterovirus 71 strains in human SCARB2 transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mei-Feng; Shih, Shin-Ru

    2016-12-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) has caused large-scale epidemics with neurological complications in the Asia-Pacific region. The C4a and B5 strains are the two major genotypes circulating in many countries recently. This study used a new protocol, a motor coordination task, to assess the differential pathogenicity of C4a and B5 strains in human SCARB2 transgenic mice. We found that the pathogenicity of C4a viruses was more severe than that of B5 viruses. Moreover, we discovered that an increased level of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 was positively correlated with severely deficient motor function. This study provides a new method for evaluating EV71 infection in mice and distinguishing the severity of the symptoms caused by different clinical strains, which would contribute to studies of pathogenesis and development of vaccines and antivirals in EV71 infections.

  6. An analysis of the gradient-induced electric fields and current densities in human models when situated in a hybrid MRI-LINAC system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Limei; Trakic, Adnan; Sanchez-Lopez, Hector; Liu, Feng; Crozier, Stuart

    2014-01-01

    MRI-LINAC is a new image-guided radiotherapy treatment system that combines magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with a linear accelerator (LINAC) in a single unit. One drawback is that the pulsing of the split gradient coils of the system induces an electric field and currents in the patient which need to be predicted and evaluated for patient safety. In this novel numerical study the in situ electric fields and associated current densities were evaluated inside tissue-accurate male and female human voxel models when a number of different split-geometry gradient coils were operated. The body models were located in the MRI-LINAC system along the axial and radial directions in three different body positions. Each model had a region of interest (ROI) suitable for image-guided radiotherapy. The simulation results show that the amplitudes and distributions of the field and current density induced by different split x-gradient coils were similar with one another in the ROI of the body model, but varied outside of the region. The fields and current densities induced by a split classic coil with the surface unconnected showed the largest deviation from those given by the conventional non-split coils. Another finding indicated that the distributions of the peak current densities varied when the body position, orientation or gender changed, while the peak electric fields mainly occurred in the skin and fat tissues. (paper)

  7. The relationship of temperature rise to specific absorption rate and current in the human leg for exposure to electromagnetic radiation in the high frequency band

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wainwright, P R

    2003-01-01

    Of the biological effects of human exposure to radiofrequency and microwave radiation, the best-established are those due to elevation of tissue temperature. To prevent harmful levels of heating, restrictions have been proposed on the specific absorption rate (SAR). However, the relationship between SAR and temperature rise is not an invariant, since not only the heat capacity but also the efficiency of heat dissipation varies between different tissues and exposure scenarios. For small enough SAR, the relationship is linear and may be characterized by a 'heating factor'. Under whole-body irradiation the SAR may be particularly high in the ankles due to the concentration of current flowing through a relatively small cross-sectional area. In a previous paper, the author has presented calculations of the SAR distribution in a human leg in the high frequency (HF) band. In this paper, the heating factor for this situation is derived using a finite element approximation of the Pennes bio-heat equation. The sensitivity of the results to different blood perfusion rates is investigated, and a simple local thermoregulatory model is applied. Both time-dependent and steady-state solutions are considered. Results confirm the appropriateness of the ICNIRP reference level of 100 mA on current through the leg, but suggest that at higher currents significant thermoregulatory adjustments to muscle blood flow will occur

  8. Probing neural mechanisms underlying auditory stream segregation in humans by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deike, Susann; Deliano, Matthias; Brechmann, André

    2016-10-01

    One hypothesis concerning the neural underpinnings of auditory streaming states that frequency tuning of tonotopically organized neurons in primary auditory fields in combination with physiological forward suppression is necessary for the separation of representations of high-frequency A and low-frequency B tones. The extent of spatial overlap between the tonotopic activations of A and B tones is thought to underlie the perceptual organization of streaming sequences into one coherent or two separate streams. The present study attempts to interfere with these mechanisms by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and to probe behavioral outcomes reflecting the perception of ABAB streaming sequences. We hypothesized that tDCS by modulating cortical excitability causes a change in the separateness of the representations of A and B tones, which leads to a change in the proportions of one-stream and two-stream percepts. To test this, 22 subjects were presented with ambiguous ABAB sequences of three different frequency separations (∆F) and had to decide on their current percept after receiving sham, anodal, or cathodal tDCS over the left auditory cortex. We could confirm our hypothesis at the most ambiguous ∆F condition of 6 semitones. For anodal compared with sham and cathodal stimulation, we found a significant decrease in the proportion of two-stream perception and an increase in the proportion of one-stream perception. The results demonstrate the feasibility of using tDCS to probe mechanisms underlying auditory streaming through the use of various behavioral measures. Moreover, this approach allows one to probe the functions of auditory regions and their interactions with other processing stages. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Wonder world of phages: potential biocontrol agents safeguarding biosphere and health of animals and humans- current scenario and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Ruchi; Chakraborty, Sandip; Dhama, Kuldeep; Wani, Mohd Yaqoob; Kumar, Amit; Kapoor, Sanjay

    2014-02-01

    Darwin's theory of natural selection and concept of survival of fittest of Wallace is a universal truth which derives the force of life among all live entities on this biosphere. Issues regarding food safety along with increased drug resistance and emerging zoonotic infections have proved that multidisciplinary efforts are in demand for human and animal welfare. This has led to development of various novel therapies the list of which remains incomplete without mentioning about phages. Homologous and non-homologous recombination along with point mutation and addition of new genes play role in their evolution. The rapid emergence of the antibiotic resistant strains of bacteria have created keen interest in finding necessary alternatives to check microbial infections and there comes the importance of phages. Phages kill the bacteria either by lysis or by releasing holins. Bacteriophages; the viruses that live on bacteria are nowadays considered as the best biocontrol agents. They are used as replacers of antibiotics; food industry promoter; guard of aquatic life as well as of plants; pre-slaughter treatment agents; Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS) food additives; Typing agent of bacteria; active tool of super bug therapy; in post harvest crops and food and during post infection and also to combat intracellular pathogens viz. Mycobacteria and Mycoplasma. Cyanophages/phycophages are particularly useful in controlling blooms produced by various genera of algae and cyanobacteria. By performing centrifugation studies and based on electron microscopy certain virus like particles containing ds RNA have been confirmed as mycophages. They are well proven as threat to pathogenic fungi (both fungal hyphae and yeast). Those that infect yeasts are called zymophages. Virophages have exquisite specificity for their viral host, hence can extensively be used for genetic studies and can also act as evolutionary link. After the discovery of very first virophage till now, a total of 3

  10. Assessment of current burden of human rabies at Sir Ronald Ross Institute of Tropical and Communicable Diseases (Government Fever Hospital – Five year study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dukkipati Kalyani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Human rabies has been still endemic in India. There are an increasing number of studies estimating the burden of human rabies, but the true incidence of the disease and endemicity were rarely reported in the literature. The main objectives of the present study were to determine the endemicity and to estimate the current burden of human rabies in and around Sir Ronald Ross Institute of Tropical and Communicable Diseases (SRRIT & CD, Nallakunta, Hyderabad. All cases admitted at SRRIT & CD with signs and symptoms of rabies were studied during the period of January 2009 and December 2013. The annual incidence of human rabies in this hospital was estimated to be 152. It is endemic mainly in urban areas that include many areas in Hyderabad and Secunderabad and also adjacent districts. The majority of the patients were children and adult male, from urban areas, and had not taken post exposure prophylaxis (PEP i.e. wound care, active immunization (ARV and passive immunization (RIG. The main animals responsible for bites were dogs (99%, most of which were stray and the most common bite sites were the extremities. Most common clinical feature was hydrophobia. About 92.76% of these patients had not taken PEP. Human rabies continues to be a dreadful disease in India and the dogs are the principal reservoir, mainly stray dogs. This study provides strong evidence that human rabies is still an endemic disease even in urban areas. This is mainly due to lack of awareness about proper PEP. Improved coverage with modern rabies vaccines, control of rabies due to dogs and other animals and intensifying public education about the disease play main role in the reduction of the disease. [J Med Allied Sci 2017; 7(1.000: 14-19

  11. Research on road traffic noise and human health in India: Review of literature from 1991 to current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dibyendu Banerjee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the literature on research conducted during the last two decades on traffic noise impacts in India. Road traffic noise studies in India are fewer and restricted only to the metropolitan areas. The studies over the years have also focused on the monitoring, recording, analysis, modeling, and to some extent mapping related themes. Negligible studies are observed in areas of physiological and sleep research exposure-effect context. Most impact studies have been associated with annoyance and attitudinal surveys only. Little scientific literature exists related to effects of traffic noise on human physiology in the Indian context. The findings of this review search and analysis observe that very little studies are available relating to traffic noise and health impacts. All of them are subjective response studies and only a small portion of them quantify the exposure-effect chain and model the noise index with annoyance. The review of papers showed that road traffic noise is a cause for annoyance to a variety of degree among the respondents. A generalization of impacts and meta-analysis was not possible due to variability of the study designs and outputs preferred.

  12. 'That thing of human rights': discourse, emergency assistance, and sexual violence in South Sudan's current civil war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luedke, Alicia Elaine; Logan, Hannah Faye

    2018-01-01

    One of the most widely covered aspects of the current conflict in South Sudan has been the use sexual violence by rival factions of the Sudan People's Liberation Movement/Army (SPLM/A) and other armed groups. While this has had the positive effect of ensuring that sexual violence is an integral component of intervention strategies in the country, it has also had a number of unintended consequences. This paper demonstrates how the narrow focus on sexual violence as a 'weapon of war', and the broader emergency lens through which the plight of civilians, especially women, has been viewed, are overly simplistic, often neglecting the root causes of such violence. More specifically, it highlights how dominant discourses on sexual violence in South Sudan's conflict have disregarded the historically violent civil-military relations that have typified the SPLM/A's leadership, and the structural violence connected with the local political economy of bride wealth and the associated commodification of feminine identities and bodies. © 2018 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2018.

  13. From Medicinal Chemistry to Human Health: Current Approaches to Drug Discovery for Cancer and Neglected Tropical Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEONARDO G. FERREIRA

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Scientific and technological breakthroughs have compelled the current players in drug discovery to increasingly incorporate knowledge-based approaches. This evolving paradigm, which has its roots attached to the recent advances in medicinal chemistry, molecular and structural biology, has unprecedentedly demanded the development of up-to-date computational approaches, such as bio- and chemo-informatics. These tools have been pivotal to catalyzing the ever-increasing amount of data generated by the molecular sciences, and to converting the data into insightful guidelines for use in the research pipeline. As a result, ligand- and structure-based drug design have emerged as key pathways to address the pharmaceutical industry’s striking demands for innovation. These approaches depend on a keen integration of experimental and molecular modeling methods to surmount the main challenges faced by drug candidates - in vivo efficacy, pharmacodynamics, metabolism, pharmacokinetics and safety. To that end, the Laboratório de Química Medicinal e Computacional (LQMC of the Universidade de São Paulo has developed forefront research on highly prevalent and life-threatening neglected tropical diseases and cancer. By taking part in global initiatives for pharmaceutical innovation, the laboratory has contributed to the advance of these critical therapeutic areas through the use of cutting-edge strategies in medicinal chemistry.

  14. Advances in the study of current-use non-PBDE brominated flame retardants and dechlorane plus in the environment and humans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The fate of the high production volume,currently in use,and not regulated non-polybrominated diphenyl ether(PBDE) flame retardants,such as tetrabromobisphenol A(TBBPA) ,hexabromocyclododecane(HBCD) and dechlorane plus(DP),and the alternative flame retardants of PBDE,such as BTBPE and DBDPE,in the environment has attracted increasing attention and aroused concern due to the increasing regulation and phasing-out of PBDEs.This paper reviews the distribution,bioaccumulation,human exposure and environmental behavior of those non-PBDE flame retardants in various environmental compartments.The data gaps and needs for future research are discussed.

  15. Asynchronous recruitment of low-threshold motor units during repetitive, low-current stimulation of the human tibial nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Jesse C; Clair-Auger, Joanna M; Lagerquist, Olle; Collins, David F

    2014-01-01

    Motoneurons receive a barrage of inputs from descending and reflex pathways. Much of our understanding about how these inputs are transformed into motor output in humans has come from recordings of single motor units during voluntary contractions. This approach, however, is limited because the input is ill-defined. Herein, we quantify the discharge of soleus motor units in response to well-defined trains of afferent input delivered at physiologically-relevant frequencies. Constant frequency stimulation of the tibial nerve (10-100 Hz for 30 s), below threshold for eliciting M-waves or H-reflexes with a single pulse, recruited motor units in 7/9 subjects. All 25 motor units recruited during stimulation were also recruited during weak (recruited more units (n = 3/25 at 10 Hz; n = 25/25 at 100 Hz) at shorter latencies (19.4 ± 9.4 s at 10 Hz; 4.1 ± 4.0 s at 100 Hz) than lower frequencies. When a second unit was recruited, the discharge of the already active unit did not change, suggesting that recruitment was not due to increased synaptic drive. After recruitment, mean discharge rate during stimulation at 20 Hz (7.8 Hz) was lower than during 30 Hz (8.6 Hz) and 40 Hz (8.4 Hz) stimulation. Discharge was largely asynchronous from the stimulus pulses with "time-locked" discharge occurring at an H-reflex latency with only a 24% probability. Motor units continued to discharge after cessation of the stimulation in 89% of trials, although at a lower rate (5.8 Hz) than during the stimulation (7.9 Hz). This work supports the idea that the afferent volley evoked by repetitive stimulation recruits motor units through the integration of synaptic drive and intrinsic properties of motoneurons, resulting in "physiological" recruitment which adheres to Henneman's size principle and results in relatively low discharge rates and asynchronous firing.

  16. The use of human samples obtained during medicolegal autopsies in research: An introduction to current conditions and initiatives in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimura-Ito, Takako; Inoue, Yusuke; Muto, Kaori; Yoshida, Ken-Ichi

    2017-04-01

    Background Leftover samples obtained during autopsies are extremely important basic materials for forensic research. However, there are no established practices for research-related use of obtained samples. Objective This study discusses good practice for the secondary use of samples collected during medicolegal autopsies. Methods A questionnaire was posted to all 76 departments of forensic medicine performing medicolegal autopsies in Japan, and 48 responses were received (response rate: 63.2%). As a secondary analysis, we surveyed information provided on department websites. Results Ethical reviews conducted when samples were to be used for research varied greatly among departments, with 21 (43.8%) departments reporting 'fundamentally, all cases are subject to review', eight (16.7%) reporting 'only some are subject to review' and 17 (39.6%) reporting 'none are subject to review'. Information made available on websites indicated that 11 departments had a statement of some type to bereaved families about the potential research use of human samples obtained during autopsies. Nine of these included a notice stating that bereaved families may revoke their consent for use. Several departments used an opt-out system. Conclusion There is no common practice in the field of legal medicine on the ethical use for medical research of leftover samples from medicolegal autopsies. The trust of not only bereaved families but also society in general is required for the scientific validity and social benefits of medical studies using leftover samples from medicolegal autopsies through the use of opt-out consenting and offline and online dissemination and public-relations activities.

  17. The current state of research on ayahuasca: A systematic review of human studies assessing psychiatric symptoms, neuropsychological functioning, and neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Rafael G; Balthazar, Fermanda M; Bouso, José C; Hallak, Jaime Ec

    2016-12-01

    In recent decades, the use of ayahuasca (AYA) - a β-carboline- and dimethyltryptamine-rich hallucinogenic botanical preparation traditionally used by Northwestern Amazonian tribes for ritual and therapeutic purposes - has spread from South America to Europe and the USA, raising concerns about its possible toxicity and hopes of its therapeutic potential. Thus, it is important to analyze the acute, subacute, and long-term effects of AYA to assess its safety and toxicity. The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review of human studies assessing AYA effects on psychiatric symptoms, neuropsychological functioning, and neuroimaging. Papers published until 16 December 2015 were included from PubMed, LILACS and SciELO databases following a comprehensive search strategy and pre-determined set of criteria for article selection. The review included 28 full-text articles. Acute AYA administration was well tolerated, increased introspection and positive mood, altered visual perceptions, activated frontal and paralimbic regions and decreased default mode network activity. It also improved planning and inhibitory control and impaired working memory, and showed antidepressive and antiaddictive potentials. Long-term AYA use was associated with increased cortical thickness of the anterior cingulate cortex and cortical thinning of the posterior cingulate cortex, which was inversely correlated to age of onset, intensity of prior AYA use, and spirituality. Subacute and long-term AYA use was not associated with increased psychopathology or cognitive deficits, being associated with enhanced mood and cognition, increased spirituality, and reduced impulsivity. Acute, subacute, and long-term AYA use seems to have low toxicity. Preliminary studies about potential therapeutic effects of AYA need replication due to their methodological limitations. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. [Current modalities and concepts on access and use of biospecimen samples and associated data for research from human biobanks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Roman; Semler, Sebastian Claudius

    2016-03-01

    It is accepted worldwide that biospecimen and data sharing (BDS) play an essential role for the future of medical research to improve diagnostics and prognostics, e.g. by validated biomarkers. BDS is also pivotal to the development of new therapeutic treatments and for the improvement of population health. Human biobanks can generate an added value to this need by providing biospecimens and/or associated data to researchers. An inspection of several examples of epidemiological as well as clinical/disease-oriented biobanks in Germany shows that best practice procedures (BPP) that are internationally agreed on are being installed for biospecimen and/or data access. In general, fair access is aimed at requiring a written application by the requesting scientist, which is then peer-reviewed for scientific and ethical validity by the Biobank. Applied BPP take into account (i) patient education/agreement according to the informed consent model, (ii) privacy protection, (iii) intellectual property rights, the (iv) notification obligation of health-related findings (including incidental findings), the (v) use of material (MTA) and data transfer agreements (DTA) for mutual legal security, the avoidance of conflicts of interests, as well as for cost recovery/fee for service as a basis for sustainability of the biobank. BPP are rooted in the self-regulation efforts of life sciences and are supported by parent ethics committees in Germany. Central biobank registries displaying aggregated information on biospecimens stored and the research foci constitute an important tool to make biobanks that are scattered across the country visible to each other, and, can thus promote access to hitherto unknown biospecimen and data resources.

  19. Preventing preterm births: trends and potential reductions with current interventionsin 39 very high human development index countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hannah H.; Larson, Jim; Blencowe, Hannah; Spong, Catherine Y.; Howson, Christopher P.; Cairns-Smith, Sarah; Lackritz, Eve M.; Lee, Shoo K.; Mason, Elizabeth; Serazin, Andrew C.; Walani, Salimah; Simpson, Joe Leigh; Lawn, Joy E.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Each year,1.1 million babies die from prematurity, andmany survivors are disabled. Worldwide, 15 million babies are preterm(10,000 births, country-by-country analyses were performed based on target population, incremental coverage increase,and intervention efficacy. Cost savings were estimated based on reported costs for preterm care in the USAadjusted usingWorld Bank purchasing power parity. Findings From 2010, even if all VHHDI countries achieved annual preterm birth rate reductions of the best performers, (Sweden and Netherlands), 2000-2010 or 2005-2010(Lithuania, Estonia)), rates would experience a relative reduction of<5% by 2015 on average across the 39 countries.Our analysis of preterm birth rise 1998-2004 in USA suggests half the change is unexplained, but important drivers includeinductions/cesareandelivery and ART.For all 39 VHHDI countries, five interventionsmodeling at high coveragepredicted 5%preterm birth rate relative reduction from 9.59 to 9.07% of live births:smoking cessation (0.01 rate reduction), decreasing multiple embryo transfers during assisted reproductive technologies (0.06), cervical cerclage (0.15), progesterone supplementation (0.01), and reduction of non-medically indicated labour induction or caesarean delivery (0.29).These translate to 58,000 preterm births averted and total annual economic cost savings of ~US$ 3 billion. Interpretation Even with optimal coverage of current interventions, many being complex to implement, the estimated potential reduction in preterm birth is tiny. Hence we recommenda conservative target of 5% preterm birth rate relative reductionby 2015. Our findings highlight the urgent need for discovery research into underlying mechanisms of preterm birth, and developmentof innovative interventions. Furthermore, the highest preterm birth rates occur in low-income settings where the causes of prematurity may differand have simpler solutions, such as birth spacing and treatment of infections in

  20. The effects of deoxyelephantopin on the cardiac delayed rectifier potassium channel current (IKr) and human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teah, Yi Fan; Abduraman, Muhammad Asyraf; Amanah, Azimah; Adenan, Mohd Ilham; Sulaiman, Shaida Fariza; Tan, Mei Lan

    2017-09-01

    Elephantopus scaber Linn and its major bioactive component, deoxyelephantopin are known for their medicinal properties and are often reported to have various cytotoxic and antitumor activities. This plant is widely used as folk medicine for a plethora of indications although its safety profile remains unknown. Human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) encodes the cardiac I Kr current which is a determinant of the duration of ventricular action potentials and QT interval. The hERG potassium channel is an important antitarget in cardiotoxicity evaluation. This study investigated the effects of deoxyelephantopin on the current, mRNA and protein expression of hERG channel in hERG-transfected HEK293 cells. The hERG tail currents following depolarization pulses were insignificantly affected by deoxyelephantopin in the transfected cell line. Current reduction was less than 40% as compared with baseline at the highest concentration of 50 μM. The results were consistent with the molecular docking simulation and hERG surface protein expression. Interestingly, it does not affect the hERG expression at both transcriptional and translational level at most concentrations, although higher concentration at 10 μM caused protein accumulation. In conclusion, deoxyelephantopin is unlikely a clinically significant hERG channel and I kr blocker. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Asynchronous recruitment of low-threshold motor units during repetitive, low-current stimulation of the human tibial nerve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse eDean

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Motoneurons receive a barrage of inputs from descending and reflex pathways. Much of our understanding about how these inputs are transformed into motor output in humans has come from recordings of single motor units during voluntary contractions. This approach, however, is limited because the input is ill-defined. Herein, we quantify the discharge of soleus motor units in response to well-defined trains of afferent input delivered at physiologically-relevant frequencies. Constant frequency stimulation of the tibial nerve (10-100 Hz for 30 s, below threshold for eliciting M-waves or H-reflexes with a single pulse, recruited motor units in 7/9 subjects. All 25 motor units recruited during stimulation were also recruited during weak (<10% MVC voluntary contractions. Higher frequencies recruited more units (n=3/25 at 10 Hz; n=25/25 at 100 Hz at shorter latencies (19.4±9.4 s at 10 Hz; 4.1±4.0 s at 100 Hz than lower frequencies. When a second unit was recruited, the discharge of the already active unit did not change, suggesting that recruitment was not due to increased synaptic drive. After recruitment, mean discharge rate during stimulation at 20 Hz (7.8 Hz was lower than during 30 Hz (8.6 Hz and 40 Hz (8.4 Hz stimulation. Discharge was largely asynchronous from the stimulus pulses with time-locked discharge occurring at an H-reflex latency with only a 24% probability. Motor units discharged after the stimulation ended in 89% of trials, although at a lower rate (5.8 Hz than during the stimulation (7.9 Hz. This work supports the idea that the afferent volley evoked by repetitive stimulation recruits motor units through the integration of synaptic drive and intrinsic properties of motoneurons, resulting in physiological recruitment which adheres to Henneman's size principle and results in relatively low discharge rates and asynchronous firing.

  2. Mapping human resources for eye health in 21 countries of sub-Saharan Africa: current progress towards VISION 2020

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Development of human resources for eye health (HReH) is a major focus of the Global Action Plan 2014 to 2019 to reduce the prevalence of avoidable visual impairment by 25% by the year 2019. The eye health workforce is thought to be much smaller in sub-Saharan Africa than in other regions of the world but data to support this for policy-making is scarce. We collected HReH and cataract surgeries data from 21 countries in sub-Sahara to estimate progress towards key suggested population-based VISION 2020 HReH indicators and cataract surgery rates (CSR) in 2011. Methods Routinely collected data on practitioner and surgery numbers in 2011 was requested from national eye care coordinators via electronic questionnaires. Telephone and e-mail discussions were used to determine data collection strategies that fit the national context and to verify reported data quality. Information was collected on six practitioner cadres: ophthalmologists, cataract surgeons, ophthalmic clinical officers, ophthalmic nurses, optometrists and ‘mid-level refractionists’ and combined with publicly available population data to calculate practitioner to population ratios and CSRs. Associations with development characteristics were conducted using Wilcoxon rank sum tests and Spearman rank correlations. Results HReH data was not easily available. A minority of countries had achieved the suggested VISION 2020 targets in 2011; five countries for ophthalmologists/cataract surgeons, four for ophthalmic nurses/clinical officers and two for CSR. All countries were below target for optometrists, even when other cadres who perform refractions as a primary duty were considered. The regional (sample) ratio for surgeons (ophthalmologists and cataract surgeons) was 2.9 per million population, 5.5 for ophthalmic clinical officers and nurses, 3.7 for optometrists and other refractionists, and 515 for CSR. A positive correlation between GDP and CSR as well as many practitioner ratios was observed

  3. Mapping human resources for eye health in 21 countries of sub-Saharan Africa: current progress towards VISION 2020.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Jennifer J; Chinanayi, Farai; Gilbert, Alice; Pillay, Devan; Fox, Samantha; Jaggernath, Jyoti; Naidoo, Kovin; Graham, Ronnie; Patel, Daksha; Blanchet, Karl

    2014-08-15

    Development of human resources for eye health (HReH) is a major focus of the Global Action Plan 2014 to 2019 to reduce the prevalence of avoidable visual impairment by 25% by the year 2019. The eye health workforce is thought to be much smaller in sub-Saharan Africa than in other regions of the world but data to support this for policy-making is scarce. We collected HReH and cataract surgeries data from 21 countries in sub-Sahara to estimate progress towards key suggested population-based VISION 2020 HReH indicators and cataract surgery rates (CSR) in 2011. Routinely collected data on practitioner and surgery numbers in 2011 was requested from national eye care coordinators via electronic questionnaires. Telephone and e-mail discussions were used to determine data collection strategies that fit the national context and to verify reported data quality. Information was collected on six practitioner cadres: ophthalmologists, cataract surgeons, ophthalmic clinical officers, ophthalmic nurses, optometrists and 'mid-level refractionists' and combined with publicly available population data to calculate practitioner to population ratios and CSRs. Associations with development characteristics were conducted using Wilcoxon rank sum tests and Spearman rank correlations. HReH data was not easily available. A minority of countries had achieved the suggested VISION 2020 targets in 2011; five countries for ophthalmologists/cataract surgeons, four for ophthalmic nurses/clinical officers and two for CSR. All countries were below target for optometrists, even when other cadres who perform refractions as a primary duty were considered. The regional (sample) ratio for surgeons (ophthalmologists and cataract surgeons) was 2.9 per million population, 5.5 for ophthalmic clinical officers and nurses, 3.7 for optometrists and other refractionists, and 515 for CSR. A positive correlation between GDP and CSR as well as many practitioner ratios was observed (CSR P = 0

  4. Immunohistochemical expression of CD44s in human neuroblastic tumors: Moroccan experience and highlights on current data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Peripheral neuroblastic tumors (pNTs), including neuroblastoma (NB), ganglioneuroblastoma (GNB) and ganglioneuroma (GN), are extremely heterogeneous pediatric tumors responsible for 15 % of childhood cancer death. The aim of the study was to evaluate the expression of CD44s (‘s’: standard form) cell adhesion molecule by comparison with other specific prognostic markers. Methods An immunohistochemical profile of 32 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded pNTs tissues, diagnosed between January 2007 and December 2010, was carried out. Results Our results have demonstrated the association of CD44s negative pNTs cells to lack of differentiation and tumour progression. A significant association between absence of CD44s expression and metastasis in human pNTs has been reported. We also found that expression of CD44s defines subgroups of patients without MYCN amplification as evidenced by its association with low INSS stages, absence of metastasis and favorable Shimada histology. Discussion These findings support the thesis of the role of CD44s glycoprotein in the invasive growth potential of neoplastic cells and suggest that its expression could be taken into consideration in the therapeutic approaches targeting metastases. Virtual Slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1034403150888863 Résumé Introduction les tumeurs neuroblastiques périphériques (TNPs), comprenant le neuroblastome (NB), le ganglioneuroblastome (GNB) et le ganglioneurome (GN), sont des tumeurs pédiatriques extrêmement hétérogènes responsables de 15% des décès par cancer chez les enfants. Le but de cette étude était d’évaluer l’expression de la molécule d’adhésion cellulaire CD44s (‘s’: pour standard) par rapport à d’autres facteurs pronostiques spécifiques. Méthodes Un profil immunohistochimique de 32 TNPs fixées au formol et incluses en paraffine, diagnostiquées entre Janvier 2007 et D

  5. Combination of Multiple Spectral Libraries Improves the Current Search Methods Used to Identify Missing Proteins in the Chromosome-Centric Human Proteome Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jin-Young; Lee, Hyoung-Joo; Jeong, Seul-Ki; Kim, Kwang-Youl; Kwon, Kyung-Hoon; Yoo, Jong Shin; Omenn, Gilbert S; Baker, Mark S; Hancock, William S; Paik, Young-Ki

    2015-12-04

    Approximately 2.9 billion long base-pair human reference genome sequences are known to encode some 20 000 representative proteins. However, 3000 proteins, that is, ~15% of all proteins, have no or very weak proteomic evidence and are still missing. Missing proteins may be present in rare samples in very low abundance or be only temporarily expressed, causing problems in their detection and protein profiling. In particular, some technical limitations cause missing proteins to remain unassigned. For example, current mass spectrometry techniques have high limits and error rates for the detection of complex biological samples. An insufficient proteome coverage in a reference sequence database and spectral library also raises major issues. Thus, the development of a better strategy that results in greater sensitivity and accuracy in the search for missing proteins is necessary. To this end, we used a new strategy, which combines a reference spectral library search and a simulated spectral library search, to identify missing proteins. We built the human iRefSPL, which contains the original human reference spectral library and additional peptide sequence-spectrum match entries from other species. We also constructed the human simSPL, which contains the simulated spectra of 173 907 human tryptic peptides determined by MassAnalyzer (version 2.3.1). To prove the enhanced analytical performance of the combination of the human iRefSPL and simSPL methods for the identification of missing proteins, we attempted to reanalyze the placental tissue data set (PXD000754). The data from each experiment were analyzed using PeptideProphet, and the results were combined using iProphet. For the quality control, we applied the class-specific false-discovery rate filtering method. All of the results were filtered at a false-discovery rate of libraries, iRefSPL and simSPL, were designed to ensure no overlap of the proteome coverage. They were shown to be complementary to spectral library

  6. The fine structure of human germ layers in vivo: clues to the early differentiation of embryonic stem cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathananthan, Henry; Selvaraj, Kamala; Clark, Joan

    2011-08-01

    The fine structure of the three germ layers in human ectopic embryos (stage 7) have been documented by digital light and electron microscopy. The formation of ectoderm, endoderm and mesoderm and notochordal cells, and also the extraembryonic membranes, amnion and yolk sac, are imaged. The germ layers give rise to all the cells and tissues of the human body. Possible clues to the early differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESC) in vitro were obtained, since these events are more or less mimicked in cultures of ESC derived from the inner cell mass of human blastocysts. The findings are discussed with reference to previous studies on the fine structure of ESC using the same technique. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Current nonclinical testing paradigm enables safe entry to First-In-Human clinical trials: The IQ consortium nonclinical to clinical translational database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monticello, Thomas M; Jones, Thomas W; Dambach, Donna M; Potter, David M; Bolt, Michael W; Liu, Maggie; Keller, Douglas A; Hart, Timothy K; Kadambi, Vivek J

    2017-11-01

    The contribution of animal testing in drug development has been widely debated and challenged. An industry-wide nonclinical to clinical translational database was created to determine how safety assessments in animal models translate to First-In-Human clinical risk. The blinded database was composed of 182 molecules and contained animal toxicology data coupled with clinical observations from phase I human studies. Animal and clinical data were categorized by organ system and correlations determined. The 2×2 contingency table (true positive, false positive, true negative, false negative) was used for statistical analysis. Sensitivity was 48% with a 43% positive predictive value (PPV). The nonhuman primate had the strongest performance in predicting adverse effects, especially for gastrointestinal and nervous system categories. When the same target organ was identified in both the rodent and nonrodent, the PPV increased. Specificity was 84% with an 86% negative predictive value (NPV). The beagle dog had the strongest performance in predicting an absence of clinical adverse effects. If no target organ toxicity was observed in either test species, the NPV increased. While nonclinical studies can demonstrate great value in the PPV for certain species and organ categories, the NPV was the stronger predictive performance measure across test species and target organs indicating that an absence of toxicity in animal studies strongly predicts a similar outcome in the clinic. These results support the current regulatory paradigm of animal testing in supporting safe entry to clinical trials and provide context for emerging alternate models. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Noninvasive brain stimulation with transcranial magnetic or direct current stimulation (TMS/tDCS)-From insights into human memory to therapy of its dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparing, Roland; Mottaghy, Felix M

    2008-04-01

    Noninvasive stimulation of the brain by means of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) or transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has driven important discoveries in the field of human memory functions. Stand-alone or in combination with other brain mapping techniques noninvasive brain stimulation can assess issues such as location and timing of brain activity, connectivity and plasticity of neural circuits and functional relevance of a circumscribed brain area to a given cognitive task. In this emerging field, major advances in technology have been made in a relatively short period. New stimulation protocols and, especially, the progress in the application of tDCS have made it possible to obtain longer and much clearer inhibitory or facilitatory effects even after the stimulation has ceased. In this introductory review, we outline the basic principles, discuss technical limitations and describe how noninvasive brain stimulation can be used to study human memory functions in vivo. Though improvement of cognitive functions through noninvasive brain stimulation is promising, it still remains an exciting challenge to extend the use of TMS and tDCS from research tools in neuroscience to the treatment of neurological and psychiatric patients.

  9. The current status of coral reefs and their vulnerability to climate change and multiple human stresses in the Comoros Archipelago, Western Indian Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowburn, B; Samoilys, M A; Obura, D

    2018-05-31

    Coral bleaching and various human stressors have degraded the coral reefs of the Comoros Archipelago in the past 40 years and rising atmospheric CO 2 levels are predicted to further impact marine habitats. The condition of reefs in the Comoros is poorly known; using SCUBA based methods we surveyed reef condition and resilience to bleaching at sites in Grande Comore and Mohéli in 2010 and 2016. The condition of reefs was highly variable, with a range in live coral cover between 6% and 60% and target fishery species biomass between 20 and 500 kg per ha. The vulnerability assessment of reefs to future coral bleaching and their exposure to fishing, soil erosion and river pollution in Mohéli Marine Park found that offshore sites around the islets south of the island were least likely to be impacted by these negative pressures. The high variability in both reef condition and vulnerability across reefs in the Park lends itself to spatially explicit conservation actions. However, it is noteworthy that climate impacts to date appear moderate and that local human pressures are not having a major impact on components of reef health and recovery, suggesting these reefs are relatively resilient to the current anthropogenic stresses that they are experiencing. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The activities of current antimalarial drugs on the life cycle stages of Plasmodium: a comparative study with human and rodent parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delves, Michael; Plouffe, David; Scheurer, Christian; Meister, Stephan; Wittlin, Sergio; Winzeler, Elizabeth A; Sinden, Robert E; Leroy, Didier

    2012-02-01

    Malaria remains a disease of devastating global impact, killing more than 800,000 people every year-the vast majority being children under the age of 5. While effective therapies are available, if malaria is to be eradicated a broader range of small molecule therapeutics that are able to target the liver and the transmissible sexual stages are required. These new medicines are needed both to meet the challenge of malaria eradication and to circumvent resistance. Little is known about the wider stage-specific activities of current antimalarials that were primarily designed to alleviate symptoms of malaria in the blood stage. To overcome this critical gap, we developed assays to measure activity of antimalarials against all life stages of malaria parasites, using a diverse set of human and nonhuman parasite species, including male gamete production (exflagellation) in Plasmodium falciparum, ookinete development in P. berghei, oocyst development in P. berghei and P. falciparum, and the liver stage of P. yoelii. We then compared 50 current and experimental antimalarials in these assays. We show that endoperoxides such as OZ439, a stable synthetic molecule currently in clinical phase IIa trials, are strong inhibitors of gametocyte maturation/gamete formation and impact sporogony; lumefantrine impairs development in the vector; and NPC-1161B, a new 8-aminoquinoline, inhibits sporogony. These data enable objective comparisons of the strengths and weaknesses of each chemical class at targeting each stage of the lifecycle. Noting that the activities of many compounds lie within achievable blood concentrations, these results offer an invaluable guide to decisions regarding which drugs to combine in the next-generation of antimalarial drugs. This study might reveal the potential of life-cycle-wide analyses of drugs for other pathogens with complex life cycles.

  11. The Activities of Current Antimalarial Drugs on the Life Cycle Stages of Plasmodium: A Comparative Study with Human and Rodent Parasites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delves, Michael; Plouffe, David; Scheurer, Christian; Meister, Stephan; Wittlin, Sergio; Winzeler, Elizabeth A.; Sinden, Robert E.; Leroy, Didier

    2012-01-01

    Background Malaria remains a disease of devastating global impact, killing more than 800,000 people every year—the vast majority being children under the age of 5. While effective therapies are available, if malaria is to be eradicated a broader range of small molecule therapeutics that are able to target the liver and the transmissible sexual stages are required. These new medicines are needed both to meet the challenge of malaria eradication and to circumvent resistance. Methods and Findings Little is known about the wider stage-specific activities of current antimalarials that were primarily designed to alleviate symptoms of malaria in the blood stage. To overcome this critical gap, we developed assays to measure activity of antimalarials against all life stages of malaria parasites, using a diverse set of human and nonhuman parasite species, including male gamete production (exflagellation) in Plasmodium falciparum, ookinete development in P. berghei, oocyst development in P. berghei and P. falciparum, and the liver stage of P. yoelii. We then compared 50 current and experimental antimalarials in these assays. We show that endoperoxides such as OZ439, a stable synthetic molecule currently in clinical phase IIa trials, are strong inhibitors of gametocyte maturation/gamete formation and impact sporogony; lumefantrine impairs development in the vector; and NPC-1161B, a new 8-aminoquinoline, inhibits sporogony. Conclusions These data enable objective comparisons of the strengths and weaknesses of each chemical class at targeting each stage of the lifecycle. Noting that the activities of many compounds lie within achievable blood concentrations, these results offer an invaluable guide to decisions regarding which drugs to combine in the next-generation of antimalarial drugs. This study might reveal the potential of life-cycle–wide analyses of drugs for other pathogens with complex life cycles. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID

  12. A Promising Tool in Retina Regeneration: Current Perspectives and Challenges When Using Mesenchymal Progenitor Stem Cells in Veterinary and Human Ophthalmological Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cislo-Pakuluk, Anna; Marycz, Krzysztof

    2017-10-01

    Visual impairment is a common ailment of the current world population, with more exposure to CCD screens and fluorescent lighting, approximately 285 billion people suffer from this deficiency and 13% of those are considered clinically blind. More common causes for visual impairment include age-related macular degeneration (AMD), glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy (Zhu et al. Molecular Medicine Reports, 2015; Kolb et al. 2007; Machalińska et al. Current Eye Research, 34(9),748-760, 2009) among a few. As cases of retinal and optic nerve diseases rise, it is vital to find a treatment, which has led to investigation of the therapeutic potential of various stem cells types (Bull et al. Investigative Opthalmology & Visual Science, 50(9), 4244, 2009; Bull et al. Investigative Opthalmology & Visual Science, 49(8), 3449, 2008; Yu et al. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 344(4), 1071-1079, 2006; Na et al. Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, 247(4), 503-514, 2008). In previous studies, some of the stem cell variants used include human Muller SCs and bone marrow derived SCs. Some of the regenerative potential characteristics of mesenchymal progenitor stem cells (MSCs) include their multilineage differentiation potential, their immunomodulatory effects, their high proliferative activity, they can be easily cultured in vitro, and finally their potential to synthesize and secrete membrane derived vesicles rich in growth factors, mRNA and miRNA which possibly aid in regulation of tissue damage regeneration. These facts alone, explain why MSCs are so widely used in clinical trials, 350 up to date (Switonski, Reproductive Biology, 14(1), 44-50, 2014). Animal studies have demonstrated that sub-retinal transplantation of MSCs delays retinal degeneration and preserves retinal function through trophic response (Inoue et al. Experimental Eye Research, 85(2), 234-241, 2007). Umbilical cord derived MSCs (UC/MSCs) have also been shown to contain

  13. Adaptation of the human population to the environment: Current knowledge, clues from Czech cytogenetic and "omics" biomonitoring studies and possible mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossnerova, Andrea; Pokorna, Michaela; Svecova, Vlasta; Sram, Radim J; Topinka, Jan; Zölzer, Friedo; Rossner, Pavel

    2017-07-01

    The human population is continually exposed to numerous harmful environmental stressors, causing negative health effects and/or deregulation of biomarker levels. However, studies reporting no or even positive impacts of some stressors on humans are also sometimes published. The main aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview of the last decade of Czech biomonitoring research, concerning the effect of various levels of air pollution (benzo[a]pyrene) and radiation (uranium, X-ray examination and natural radon background), on the differently exposed population groups. Because some results obtained from cytogenetic studies were opposite than hypothesized, we have searched for a meaningful interpretation in genomic/epigenetic studies. A detailed analysis of our data supported by the studies of others and current epigenetic knowledge, leads to a hypothesis of the versatile mechanism of adaptation to environmental stressors via DNA methylation settings which may even originate in prenatal development, and help to reduce the resulting DNA damage levels. This hypothesis is fully in agreement with unexpected data from our studies (e.g. lower levels of DNA damage in subjects from highly polluted regions than in controls or in subjects exposed repeatedly to a pollutant than in those without previous exposure), and is also supported by differences in DNA methylation patterns in groups from regions with various levels of pollution. In light of the adaptation hypothesis, the following points may be suggested for future research: (i) the chronic and acute exposure of study subjects should be distinguished; (ii) the exposure history should be mapped including place of residence during the life and prenatal development; (iii) changes of epigenetic markers should be monitored over time. In summary, investigation of human adaptation to the environment, one of the most important processes of survival, is a new challenge for future research in the field of human

  14. Transcranial alternating current stimulation at beta frequency: lack of immediate effects on excitation and interhemispheric inhibition of the human motor cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viola Rjosk

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS is a form of noninvasive brain stimulation and is capable of influencing brain oscillations and cortical networks. In humans, the endogenous oscillation frequency in sensorimotor areas peaks at 20 Hz. This beta-band typically occurs during maintenance of tonic motor output and seems to play a role in interhemispheric coordination of movements. Previous studies showed that tACS applied in specific frequency bands over primary motor cortex (M1 or the visual cortex modulates cortical excitability within the stimulated hemisphere. However, the particular impact remains controversial because effects of tACS were shown to be frequency, duration and location specific. Furthermore, the potential of tACS to modulate cortical interhemispheric processing, like interhemispheric inhibition (IHI, remains elusive. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS is a noninvasive and well-tolerated method of directly activating neurons in superficial areas of the human brain and thereby a useful tool for evaluating the functional state of motor pathways. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the immediate effect of 10 min tACS in the β-frequency band (20 Hz over left M1 on IHI between M1s in 19 young, healthy, right-handed participants. A series of TMS measurements (MEP size, RMT, IHI from left to right M1 and vice versa was performed before and immediately after tACS or sham using a double-blinded, cross-over design. We did not find any significant tACS-induced modulations of intracortical excitation (as assessed by MEP size and RMT and/or interhemispheric inhibition (IHI. These results indicate that 10 min of 20 Hz tACS over left M1 seems incapable of modulating immediate brain activity or inhibition. Further studies are needed to elucidate potential aftereffects of 20 Hz tACS as well as frequency-specific effects of tACS on intracortical excitation and interhemispheric inhibition.

  15. A discrete electromechanical model for human cardiac tissue: effects of stretch-activated currents and stretch conditions on restitution properties and spiral wave dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weise, Louis D; Panfilov, Alexander V

    2013-01-01

    We introduce an electromechanical model for human cardiac tissue which couples a biophysical model of cardiac excitation (Tusscher, Noble, Noble, Panfilov, 2006) and tension development (adjusted Niederer, Hunter, Smith, 2006 model) with a discrete elastic mass-lattice model. The equations for the excitation processes are solved with a finite difference approach, and the equations of the mass-lattice model are solved using Verlet integration. This allows the coupled problem to be solved with high numerical resolution. Passive mechanical properties of the mass-lattice model are described by a generalized Hooke's law for finite deformations (Seth material). Active mechanical contraction is initiated by changes of the intracellular calcium concentration, which is a variable of the electrical model. Mechanical deformation feeds back on the electrophysiology via stretch-activated ion channels whose conductivity is controlled by the local stretch of the medium. We apply the model to study how stretch-activated currents affect the action potential shape, restitution properties, and dynamics of spiral waves, under constant stretch, and dynamic stretch caused by active mechanical contraction. We find that stretch conditions substantially affect these properties via stretch-activated currents. In constantly stretched medium, we observe a substantial decrease in conduction velocity, and an increase of action potential duration; whereas, with dynamic stretch, action potential duration is increased only slightly, and the conduction velocity restitution curve becomes biphasic. Moreover, in constantly stretched medium, we find an increase of the core size and period of a spiral wave, but no change in rotation dynamics; in contrast, in the dynamically stretching medium, we observe spiral drift. Our results may be important to understand how altered stretch conditions affect the heart's functioning.

  16. A discrete electromechanical model for human cardiac tissue: effects of stretch-activated currents and stretch conditions on restitution properties and spiral wave dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis D Weise

    Full Text Available We introduce an electromechanical model for human cardiac tissue which couples a biophysical model of cardiac excitation (Tusscher, Noble, Noble, Panfilov, 2006 and tension development (adjusted Niederer, Hunter, Smith, 2006 model with a discrete elastic mass-lattice model. The equations for the excitation processes are solved with a finite difference approach, and the equations of the mass-lattice model are solved using Verlet integration. This allows the coupled problem to be solved with high numerical resolution. Passive mechanical properties of the mass-lattice model are described by a generalized Hooke's law for finite deformations (Seth material. Active mechanical contraction is initiated by changes of the intracellular calcium concentration, which is a variable of the electrical model. Mechanical deformation feeds back on the electrophysiology via stretch-activated ion channels whose conductivity is controlled by the local stretch of the medium. We apply the model to study how stretch-activated currents affect the action potential shape, restitution properties, and dynamics of spiral waves, under constant stretch, and dynamic stretch caused by active mechanical contraction. We find that stretch conditions substantially affect these properties via stretch-activated currents. In constantly stretched medium, we observe a substantial decrease in conduction velocity, and an increase of action potential duration; whereas, with dynamic stretch, action potential duration is increased only slightly, and the conduction velocity restitution curve becomes biphasic. Moreover, in constantly stretched medium, we find an increase of the core size and period of a spiral wave, but no change in rotation dynamics; in contrast, in the dynamically stretching medium, we observe spiral drift. Our results may be important to understand how altered stretch conditions affect the heart's functioning.

  17. Will the Needs-Based Planning of Health Human Resources Currently Undertaken in Several Countries Lead to Excess Supply and Inefficiency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Kisalaya; Pak, Maxwell

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the emphasis on health human resources (HHR) planning has shifted away from a utilization-based approach toward a needs-based one in which planning is based on the projected health needs of the population. However, needs-based models that are currently in use rely on a definition of 'needs' that include only the medical circumstances of individuals and not personal preferences or other socio-economic factors. We examine whether planning based on such a narrow definition will maximize social welfare. We show that, in a publicly funded healthcare system, if the planner seeks to meet the aggregate need without taking utilization into consideration, then oversupply of HHR is likely because 'needs' do not necessarily translate into 'usage.' Our result suggests that HHR planning should track the healthcare system as access gradually improves because, even if health care is fully accessible, individuals may not fully utilize it to the degree prescribed by their medical circumstances. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Patient-specific mutations impair BESTROPHIN1’s essential role in mediating Ca2+-dependent Cl- currents in human RPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yao [Jonas Children’s Vision Care, and Bernard and Shirlee Brown Glaucoma Laboratory, Department of Ophthalmology and Pathology & Cell Biology, Edward S. Harkness Eye Institute, New York Presbyterian Hospital/Columbia University, New York, United States; Zhang, Yu [Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Rochester, Rochester, United States; Xu, Yu [Jonas Children’s Vision Care, and Bernard and Shirlee Brown Glaucoma Laboratory, Department of Ophthalmology and Pathology & Cell Biology, Edward S. Harkness Eye Institute, New York Presbyterian Hospital/Columbia University, New York, United States; Department of Ophthalmology, Xinhua Hospital affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China; Kittredge, Alec [Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Rochester, Rochester, United States; Ward, Nancy [Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Rochester, Rochester, United States; Chen, Shoudeng [Molecular Imaging Center, Department of Experimental Medicine, The Fifth Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Zhuhai, China; Tsang, Stephen H. [Jonas Children’s Vision Care, and Bernard and Shirlee Brown Glaucoma Laboratory, Department of Ophthalmology and Pathology & Cell Biology, Edward S. Harkness Eye Institute, New York Presbyterian Hospital/Columbia University, New York, United States; Yang, Tingting [Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Rochester, Rochester, United States

    2017-10-24

    Mutations in the human BEST1 gene lead to retinal degenerative diseases displaying progressive vision loss and even blindness. BESTROPHIN1, encoded by BEST1, is predominantly expressed in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), but its physiological role has been a mystery for the last two decades. Using a patient-specific iPSC-based disease model and interdisciplinary approaches, we comprehensively analyzed two distinct BEST1 patient mutations, and discovered mechanistic correlations between patient clinical phenotypes, electrophysiology in their RPEs, and the structure and function of BESTROPHIN1 mutant channels. Our results revealed that the disease-causing mechanism of BEST1 mutations is centered on the indispensable role of BESTROPHIN1 in mediating the long speculated Ca2+-dependent Cl- current in RPE, and demonstrate that the pathological potential of BEST1 mutations can be evaluated and predicted with our iPSC-based ‘disease-in-a-dish’ approach. Moreover, we demonstrated that patient RPE is rescuable with viral gene supplementation, providing a proof-of-concept for curing BEST1-associated diseases.

  19. Current challenges of research on filamentous fungi in relation to human welfare and a sustainable bio-economy: a white paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Vera; Andersen, Mikael R; Brakhage, Axel A; Braus, Gerhard H; Caddick, Mark X; Cairns, Timothy C; de Vries, Ronald P; Haarmann, Thomas; Hansen, Kim; Hertz-Fowler, Christiane; Krappmann, Sven; Mortensen, Uffe H; Peñalva, Miguel A; Ram, Arthur F J; Head, Ritchie M

    2016-01-01

    The EUROFUNG network is a virtual centre of multidisciplinary expertise in the field of fungal biotechnology. The first academic-industry Think Tank was hosted by EUROFUNG to summarise the state of the art and future challenges in fungal biology and biotechnology in the coming decade. Currently, fungal cell factories are important for bulk manufacturing of organic acids, proteins, enzymes, secondary metabolites and active pharmaceutical ingredients in white and red biotechnology. In contrast, fungal pathogens of humans kill more people than malaria or tuberculosis. Fungi are significantly impacting on global food security, damaging global crop production, causing disease in domesticated animals, and spoiling an estimated 10 % of harvested crops. A number of challenges now need to be addressed to improve our strategies to control fungal pathogenicity and to optimise the use of fungi as sources for novel compounds and as cell factories for large scale manufacture of bio-based products. This white paper reports on the discussions of the Think Tank meeting and the suggestions made for moving fungal bio(techno)logy forward.

  20. Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Characteristics and Perceptions of the Medicare Population Data from the 2010 Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey is a series of source books based on the...

  1. Inhibitory effects of hesperetin on Kv1.5 potassium channels stably expressed in HEK 293 cells and ultra-rapid delayed rectifier K(+) current in human atrial myocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huan; Wang, Hong-Fei; Wang, Chen; Chen, Yu-Fang; Ma, Rong; Xiang, Ji-Zhou; Du, Xin-Ling; Tang, Qiang

    2016-10-15

    In the present study, the inhibitory effects of hesperetin (HSP) on human cardiac Kv1.5 channels expressed in HEK 293 cells and the ultra-rapid delayed rectifier K(+) current (Ikur) in human atrial myocytes were examined by using the whole-cell configuration of the patch-clamp techniques. We found that hesperetin rapidly and reversibly suppressed human Kv1.5 current in a concentration dependent manner with a half-maximal inhibition (IC50) of 23.15 μΜ with a Hill coefficient of 0.89. The current was maximally diminished about 71.36% at a concentration of 300μM hesperetin. Hesperetin significantly positive shifted the steady-state activation curve of Kv1.5, while negative shifted the steady-state inactivation curve. Hesperetin also accelerated the inactivation and markedly slowed the recovery from the inactivation of Kv1.5 currents. Block of Kv1.5 currents by hesperetin was in a frequency dependent manner. However, inclusion of 30μM hesperetin in pipette solution produced no effect on Kv1.5 channel current, while the current were remarkable and reversibly inhibited by extracellular application of 30μM hesperetin. We also found that hesperetin potently and reversibly inhibited the ultra-repaid delayed K(+) current (Ikur) in human atrial myocytes, which is in consistent with the effects of hesperetin on Kv1.5 currents in HEK 293 cells. In conclusion, hesperetin is a potent inhibitor of Ikur (which is encoded by Kv1.5), with blockade probably due to blocking of both open state and inactivated state channels from outside of the cell. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Cell-mediated immunity to herpes simplex in humans: lymphocyte cytotoxicity measured by 51Cr release from infected cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, A.S.; Percy, J.S.; Kovithavongs, T.

    1975-01-01

    We assessed cell-mediated immunity to herpes simplex virus type 1 antigen in patients suffering from recurrent cold sores and in a series of healthy controls. Paradoxically, all those subject to recurrent herpetic infections had, without exception, evidence of cell-mediated immunity to herpes antigens. This was demonstrated by lymphocyte transformation and specific 51 Cr release from infected human amnion cells after incubation with peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Where performed, skin tests with herpes antigen were also positive. In addition, serum from these patients specifically sensitized herpes virus-infected cells to killing by nonimmune, control mononuclear cells. These tests were negative in the control patients except in a few cases, and it is suggested that these latter may be the asymptomatic herpes virus carriers previously recognized or that they may have experienced a genital infection. (U.S.)

  3. Weak currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leite Lopes, J.

    1976-01-01

    A survey of the fundamental ideas on weak currents such as CVC and PCAC and a presentation of the Cabibbo current and the neutral weak currents according to the Salam-Weinberg model and the Glashow-Iliopoulos-Miami model are given [fr

  4. Spin current

    CERN Document Server

    Valenzuela, Sergio O; Saitoh, Eiji; Kimura, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    In a new branch of physics and technology called spin-electronics or spintronics, the flow of electrical charge (usual current) as well as the flow of electron spin, the so-called 'spin current', are manipulated and controlled together. This book provides an introduction and guide to the new physics and application of spin current.

  5. Current status of human rabies transmitted by dogs in Latin America Raiva humana transmitida por caninos: situação atual na América Latina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Schneider

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Latin American countries made the political decision to eliminate human rabies transmitted by dogs by the year 2005. The purpose of the current study is to evaluate to what extent this goal has been reached. The epidemiological situation and control measures were analyzed and broken down within the countries by georeferencing. The 27 human cases reported in 2003 occurred in some 0.2% of the second-level geopolitical units (municipalities or counties in the region, suggesting that the disease is a local problem. Several areas within the countries reported no more transmission of rabies in dogs. Nearly 1 million people potentially exposed to rabies received treatment. On average, 34,383 inhabitants per health post receive anti-rabies treatment (range: 4,300-148,043. Nearly 42 million dogs are vaccinated annually. Surveillance is considered fair according to the epidemiological criteria adopted by the study. Samples sent for rabies testing represent 0.05% of the estimated canine population (range: 0.001 to 0.2%. The countries are quite close to achieving the goal.Os países da América Latina tomaram a decisão política de eliminar a raiva humana transmitida por cão até 2005, e o objetivo deste estudo é analisar o cumprimento desta meta. A situação epidemiológica e as ações de controle foram analisadas de forma desagregada dentro dos países, utilizando-se georreferenciamento da informação. Os 27 casos humanos relatados em 2003 ocorreram em cerca de 0,2% das unidades de segundo nível geopolítico (municípios da região. Esse dado sugere que a doença atualmente é muito localizada. Vários países não reportam mais transmissão de raiva em cães. Cerca de 1 milhão de pessoas são potencialmente expostas ao risco da raiva e recebem atendimento médico. Existem em média 34.383 (classe: 4.300-148.043 habitantes por posto de saúde com tratamento anti-rábico. São vacinados cerca de 42 milhões de cães anualmente, 70% deles no Brasil

  6. The current situation of human resources for health in the province of Cabinda in Angola: is it a limitation to provide universal access to healthcare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macaia, Damas; Lapão, Luís Velez

    2017-12-28

    Angola is among sub-Saharan African countries dealing with a crisis of Human Resources for Health (HRH). The province of Cabinda, besides the efforts, still suffers from both HRH shortage and a badly distributed health workforce. In Cabinda, one can find urban concentration and rural shortages of healthcare professionals, many rural areas' healthcare facilities often secured only by basic or medium level HRH; and difficulties in developing HRH retention strategies in rural areas where most services are covered by foreign HRH. This study aims at analysing the situation of HRH in the province of Cabinda. It considers organizational issues, policies and practices resulting from the HRH strategy followed in the recent years, moreover the creation of a medical school. The context that affects the distribution of the health workforce is analysed to contribute to the development of evidence-based policies that promote a better HRH allocation in the poorest and distant villages in the province. A mixed-methods study was developed, combining a quantitative and qualitative approach to analyse HRH situation in the province of Cabinda. Data was collected from key informants, selected by intentional sampling from public and private health organizations, to respond to a questionnaire and a semi-structured interview. Quantitative and qualitative data was analysed with descriptive and inferential statistics and content analysis respectively. The study was complemented by a comprehensive desk review. Results show a clear change in HRH data from 2011 to 2015 with significant fluctuations due to variations in retirement, migration and lack of regular public HRH recruitment tenders. HRH density is apparently better in rural when compared with urban areas. However, one should bear in mind that often HRH allocated to rural areas do not stay there, which leads to real geographical imbalances. Factors like lack of proper incentives for HRH retention and social support goes against

  7. Drug Establishments Current Registration Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Drug Establishments Current Registration Site (DECRS) is a database of current information submitted by drug firms to register establishments (facilities) which...

  8. Haunted by the ghost in the machine. Commentary on "The spirituality of human consciousness: a Catholic evaluation of some current neuro-scientific interpretations".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, James B

    2012-09-01

    Metaphysical and epistemological dualism informs much contemporary discussion of the relationships of science and religion, in particular in relation to the neurosciences and the religious understanding of the human person. This dualism is a foundational artifact of modern culture; however, contemporary scientific research and historical theological scholarship encourage a more holistic view wherein human personhood is most fittingly understood as an emergent phenomenon of, but not simply reducible to, evolutionary and developmental neurobiology.

  9. Current limiters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loescher, D.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Systems Surety Assessment Dept.; Noren, K. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    1996-09-01

    The current that flows between the electrical test equipment and the nuclear explosive must be limited to safe levels during electrical tests conducted on nuclear explosives at the DOE Pantex facility. The safest way to limit the current is to use batteries that can provide only acceptably low current into a short circuit; unfortunately this is not always possible. When it is not possible, current limiters, along with other design features, are used to limit the current. Three types of current limiters, the fuse blower, the resistor limiter, and the MOSFET-pass-transistor limiters, are used extensively in Pantex test equipment. Detailed failure mode and effects analyses were conducted on these limiters. Two other types of limiters were also analyzed. It was found that there is no best type of limiter that should be used in all applications. The fuse blower has advantages when many circuits must be monitored, a low insertion voltage drop is important, and size and weight must be kept low. However, this limiter has many failure modes that can lead to the loss of over current protection. The resistor limiter is simple and inexpensive, but is normally usable only on circuits for which the nominal current is less than a few tens of milliamperes. The MOSFET limiter can be used on high current circuits, but it has a number of single point failure modes that can lead to a loss of protective action. Because bad component placement or poor wire routing can defeat any limiter, placement and routing must be designed carefully and documented thoroughly.

  10. An investigation into the magnitude of the current window and perception of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) sensation at various frequencies and body sites in healthy human participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Nicola; Bennett, Michael I; Johnson, Mark I

    2013-02-01

    Strong nonpainful transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is prerequisite to a successful analgesic outcome although the ease with which this sensation is achieved is likely to depend on the magnitude of current amplitude (mA) between sensory detection threshold (SDT) and pain threshold, that is, the current window. To measure the current window and participant's perception of the comfort of the TENS sensation at different body sites. A repeated measure cross-over study was conducted using 30 healthy adult volunteers. Current amplitudes (mA) of TENS [2 pulses per second (pps); 30 pps; 80 pps] at SDT, pain threshold, and strong nonpainful intensities were measured at the tibia (bone), knee joint (connective tissue), lower back [paraspinal (skeletal) muscle], volar surface of forearm (nerve) and waist (fat). The amplitude to achieve a strong nonpainful intensity was represented as a percentage of the current window. Data were analyzed using repeated measures analysis of variance. Effects were detected for body site and frequency for SDT (PTENS as a percentage of the current window (P=0.002, PTENS as most comfortable at the lower back (PTENS is most comfortable and easiest to titrate to a strong nonpainful intensity when applied over areas of muscle and soft tissue.

  11. Spin current

    CERN Document Server

    Valenzuela, Sergio O; Saitoh, Eiji; Kimura, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    Since the discovery of the giant magnetoresistance effect in magnetic multilayers in 1988, a new branch of physics and technology, called spin-electronics or spintronics, has emerged, where the flow of electrical charge as well as the flow of electron spin, the so-called “spin current,” are manipulated and controlled together. The physics of magnetism and the application of spin current have progressed in tandem with the nanofabrication technology of magnets and the engineering of interfaces and thin films. This book aims to provide an introduction and guide to the new physics and applications of spin current, with an emphasis on the interaction between spin and charge currents in magnetic nanostructures.

  12. Effects of currently used pesticides in the AhR-CALUX assay: comparison between the human TV101L and the rat H4IIE cell line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Long, M.; Laier, Peter; Vinggaard, Anne

    2003-01-01

    TV101L hepatoma cell lines. In comparison the results indicated that the rat H4IIE cell line is more sensitive than the human TV101L for detection of TCDD inducing AhR-CALUX activity. The pesticides iprodione, chlorpyrifos and prochloraz showed dose-dependent AhR agonistic effects in both cell lines...

  13. Human Capital. Corps of Engineers Needs to Update Its Workforce Planning Process to More Effectively Address Its Current and Future Workforce Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    Subcommittee on Oversight of Government Management, the Federal Workforce, and the District of Columbia Committee on Homeland Security and...allows flex-time, telecommuting , or alternative work schedules. Page 17 GAO-08-596 Corps of Engineers Table 1: Examples of Human Capital...programs and policies; and provides analyses, recommendations, and other assistance to help Congress make informed oversight , policy, and funding

  14. Monophasic Pulsed 200-μA Current Promotes Galvanotaxis With Polarization of Actin Filament and Integrin α2β1 in Human Dermal Fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uemura, Mikiko; Maeshige, Noriaki; Koga, Yuka; Ishikawa-Aoyama, Michiko; Miyoshi, Makoto; Sugimoto, Masaharu; Terashi, Hiroto; Usami, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    The monophasic pulsed microcurrent is used to promote wound healing, and galvanotaxis regulation has been reported as one of the active mechanisms in the promotion of tissue repair with monophasic pulsed microcurrent. However, the optimum monophasic pulsed microcurrent parameters and intracellular changes caused by the monophasic pulsed microcurrent have not been elucidated in human dermal fibroblasts. The purpose of this study was to investigate the optimum intensity for promoting galvanotaxis and the effects of electrical stimulation on integrin α2β1 and actin filaments in human dermal fibroblasts. Human dermal fibroblasts were treated with the monophasic pulsed microcurrent of 0, 100, 200, or 300 μA for 8 hours, and cell migration and cell viability were measured 24 hours after starting monophasic pulsed microcurrent stimulation. Polarization of integrin α2β1 and lamellipodia formation were detected by immunofluorescent staining 10 minutes after starting monophasic pulsed microcurrent stimulation. The migration toward the cathode was significantly higher in the cells treated with the 200-μA monophasic pulsed microcurrent than in the controls (P microcurrent did not alter the migration ratio. The electrostimulus of 200 μA also promoted integrin α2β1 polarization and lamellipodia formation at the cathode edge (P microcurrent intensity to promote migration toward the cathode, and this intensity could regulate polarization of migration-related intracellular factors in human dermal fibroblasts.

  15. Current Ebola vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoenen, Thomas; Groseth, Allison; Feldmann, Heinz

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Ebolaviruses cause severe viral hemorrhagic fever in humans and non-human primates, with case fatality rates of up to 90%. Currently, neither a specific treatment nor a vaccine licensed for use in humans is available. However, a number of vaccine candidates have been developed in the last decade that are highly protective in non-human primates, the gold standard animal model for Ebola hemorrhagic fever. Areas covered This review analyzes a number of scenarios for the use of ebolavirus vaccines, discusses the requirements for ebolavirus vaccines in these scenarios, and describes current ebolavirus vaccines. Among these vaccines are recombinant Adenoviruses, recombinant Vesicular Stomatitis viruses, recombinant Human Parainfluenza viruses and virus-like particles. Interestingly, one of these vaccine platforms, based on recombinant Vesicular Stomatitis viruses, has also demonstrated post-exposure protection in non-human primates. Expert opinion The most pressing remaining challenge is now to move these vaccine candidates forward into human trials and towards licensure. In order to achieve this, it will be necessary to establish the mechanisms and correlates of protection for these vaccines, and to continue to demonstrate their safety, particularly in potentially immunocompromised populations. However, already now there is sufficient evidence that, from a scientific perspective, a vaccine protective against ebolaviruses is possible. PMID:22559078

  16. Activation of AMPK in human fetal membranes alleviates infection-induced expression of pro-inflammatory and pro-labour mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, R; Barker, G; Lappas, M

    2015-04-01

    In non-gestational tissues, the activation of adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated kinase (AMPK) is associated with potent anti-inflammatory actions. Infection and/or inflammation, by stimulating pro-inflammatory cytokines and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, play a central role in the rupture of fetal membranes. However, no studies have examined the role of AMPK in human labour. Fetal membranes, from term and preterm, were obtained from non-labouring and labouring women, and after preterm pre-labour rupture of membranes (PPROM). AMPK activity was assessed by Western blotting of phosphorylated AMPK expression. To determine the effect of AMPK activators on pro-inflammatory cytokines, fetal membranes were pre-treated with AMPK activators then stimulated with bacterial products LPS and flagellin or viral dsDNA analogue poly(I:C). Primary amnion cells were used to determine the effect of AMPK activators on IL-1β-stimulated MMP-9 expression. AMPK activity was decreased with term labour. There was no effect of preterm labour. AMPK activity was also decreased in preterm fetal membranes, in the absence of labour, with PROM compared to intact membranes. AMPK activators AICAR, phenformin and A769662 significantly decreased IL-6 and IL-8 stimulated by LPS, flagellin and poly(I:C). Primary amnion cells treated with AMPK activators significantly decreased IL-1β-induced MMP-9 expression. The decrease in AMPK activity in fetal membranes after spontaneous term labour and PPROM indicates an anti-inflammatory role for AMPK in human labour and delivery. The use of AMPK activators as possible therapeutics for threatened preterm labour would be an exciting future avenue of research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Neutral currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschos, E.A.

    1977-01-01

    It is stated that over the past few years considerable progress has been made in the field of weak interactions. The existence of neutral currents involving leptons and hadrons has been established and some of the questions concerning their detailed structure have been answered. This imposes constraints on the gauge theories and has eliminated large classes of models. New questions have also been raised, one of which concerns the conservation laws obeyed by neutral currents. The wide range of investigations is impressive and is expected to continue with new results from particle, nuclear, and atomic physics. Headings include - various aspects of a gauge theory (choice of group, the symmetry breaking scheme, representation assignments for fermion fields); space-time structure; isospin structure; leptonic neutral currents; and atomic experiments. (U.K.)

  18. Considering Human Capital Theory in Assessment and Training: Mapping the Gap between Current Skills and the Needs of a Knowledge-Based Economy in Northeast Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihm-Herold, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    In light of the current economic downturn, thousands of Iowans are unemployed and this is the ideal time to build the skills of the workforce to compete in the knowledge-based economy so businesses and entrepreneurs can compete in a global economy. A tool for assessing the skills and knowledge of dislocated workers and students as well as…

  19. Neutral currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubert, B.

    1994-11-01

    The evidence for the existence of weak neutral current has been a very controverted topics in the early 1970's, as well as the muon did in the 1930's. The history is very rich considering the evolution of the experimental techniques in high energy particle physics. The history of the discovery and the study of weak neutral current is reviewed. Later the quest of the intermediate vector boson continues with the decision of the community to build a large proton antiproton collider. (K.A.). 14 refs., 1 fig

  20. The human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) current inhibition selectively prolongs action potential of midmyocardial cells to augment transmural dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, C; Yasuda, S; Yamashita, H; Okada, J; Hisada, T; Sugiura, S

    2015-08-01

    The majority of drug induced arrhythmias are related to the prolongation of action potential duration following inhibition of rapidly activating delayed rectifier potassium current (I(Kr)) mediated by the hERG channel. However, for arrhythmias to develop and be sustained, not only the prolongation of action potential duration but also its transmural dispersion are required. Herein, we evaluated the effect of hERG inhibition on transmural dispersion of action potential duration using the action potential clamp technique that combined an in silico myocyte model with the actual I(Kr) measurement. Whole cell I(Kr) current was measured in Chinese hamster ovary cells stably expressing the hERG channel. The measured current was coupled with models of ventricular endocardial, M-, and epicardial cells to calculate the action potentials. Action potentials were evaluated under control condition and in the presence of 1, 10, or 100 μM disopyramide, an hERG inhibitor. Disopyramide dose-dependently increased the action potential durations of the three cell types. However, action potential duration of M-cells increased disproportionately at higher doses, and was significantly different from that of epicardial and endocardial cells (dispersion of repolarization). By contrast, the effects of disopyramide on peak I(Kr) and instantaneous current-voltage relation were similar in all cell types. Simulation study suggested that the reduced repolarization reserve of M-cell with smaller amount of slowly activating delayed rectifier potassium current levels off at longer action potential duration to make such differences. The action potential clamp technique is useful for studying the mechanism of arrhythmogenesis by hERG inhibition through the transmural dispersion of repolarization.

  1. Molecular characterization of reptile pathogens currently known as members of the chrysosporium anamorph of Nannizziopsis vriesii complex and relationship with some human-associated isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigler, Lynne; Hambleton, Sarah; Paré, Jean A

    2013-10-01

    In recent years, the Chrysosporium anamorph of Nannizziopsis vriesii (CANV), Chrysosporium guarroi, Chrysosporium ophiodiicola, and Chrysosporium species have been reported as the causes of dermal or deep lesions in reptiles. These infections are contagious and often fatal and affect both captive and wild animals. Forty-nine CANV isolates from reptiles and six isolates from human sources were compared with N. vriesii based on their cultural characteristics and DNA sequence data. Analyses of the sequences of the internal transcribed spacer and small subunit of the nuclear ribosomal gene revealed that the reptile pathogens and human isolates belong in well-supported clades corresponding to three lineages that are distinct from all other taxa within the family Onygenaceae of the order Onygenales. One lineage represents the genus Nannizziopsis and comprises N. vriesii, N. guarroi, and six additional species encompassing isolates from chameleons and geckos, crocodiles, agamid and iguanid lizards, and humans. Two other lineages comprise the genus Ophidiomyces, with the species Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola occurring only in snakes, and Paranannizziopsis gen. nov., with three new species infecting squamates and tuataras. The newly described species are Nannizziopsis dermatitidis, Nannizziopsis crocodili, Nannizziopsis barbata, Nannizziopsis infrequens, Nannizziopsis hominis, Nannizziopsis obscura, Paranannizziopsis australasiensis, Paranannizziopsis californiensis, and Paranannizziopsis crustacea. Chrysosporium longisporum has been reclassified as Paranannizziopsis longispora. N. guarroi causes yellow fungus disease, a common infection in bearded dragons and green iguanas, and O. ophiodiicola is an emerging pathogen of captive and wild snakes. Human-associated species were not recovered from reptiles, and reptile-associated species were recovered only from reptiles, thereby mitigating concerns related to zoonosis.

  2. Method for the quantification of current use and persistent pesticides in cow milk, human milk and baby formula using gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xianyu; Panuwet, Parinya; Hunter, Ronald E; Riederer, Anne M; Bernoudy, Geneva C; Barr, Dana Boyd; Ryan, P Barry

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an analytical method for the quantification of organochlorine (OC), organophosphate (OP), carbamate, and pyrethroid insecticide residues in cow milk, human milk, and baby formula. A total of 25 compounds were included in this method. Sample extraction procedures combined liquid-liquid extraction, freezing-lipid filtration, dispersive primary-secondary amine cleanup, and solid-phase extraction together for effective extraction and elimination of matrix interferences. Target compounds were analyzed using gas chromatography with electron impact ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-EI-MS/MS) in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. Average extraction recoveries obtained from cow milk samples fortified at two different concentrations (10 ng/mL and 25 ng/mL), ranged from 34% to 102%, with recoveries for the majority of target compounds falling between 60% and 80%. Similar ranges were found for formula fortified at 25 ng/mL. The estimated limits of detection for most target analytes were in the low pg/mL level (range 3-1600 pg/mL). The accuracies and precisions were within the range of 80-120% and less than 15%, respectively. This method was tested for its viability by analyzing 10 human milk samples collected from anonymous donors, 10 cow milk samples and 10 baby formula samples purchased from local grocery stores in the United States. Hexachlorobenzene, p,p-dicofol, o,p-DDE, p,p-DDE, and chlorpyrifos were found in all samples analyzed. We found detectable levels of permethrin, cyfluthrin, and fenvalerate in some of the cow milk samples but not in human milk or baby formula samples. Some of the pesticides, such as azinphos-methyl, heptachlor epoxide, and the pesticide synergist piperonyl butoxide, were detected in some of the cow milk and human milk samples but not in baby formula samples. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Summary of current radiation dose estimates to humans from 123I, 124I, 126I, 130I, and 131I as sodium rose bengal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    Estimated absorbed doses to human gall bladder, gastrointestinal tract, liver, ovaries, bone marrow, and testes from 123 I, 124 I, 126 I, 130 I, and 131 I after a single intravenous administration as sodium rose bengal are summarized. The greatest uncertainty in these dose estimates is due to the variability in time for the movement of radioiodine through the biliary tract, gall bladder, and gastrointestinal tract

  4. Monophasic Pulsed 200-?A Current Promotes Galvanotaxis With Polarization of Actin Filament and Integrin ?2?1 in Human Dermal Fibroblasts

    OpenAIRE

    Uemura, Mikiko; Maeshige, Noriaki; Koga, Yuka; Ishikawa-Aoyama, Michiko; Miyoshi, Makoto; Sugimoto, Masaharu; Terashi, Hiroto; Usami, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The monophasic pulsed microcurrent is used to promote wound healing, and galvanotaxis regulation has been reported as one of the active mechanisms in the promotion of tissue repair with monophasic pulsed microcurrent. However, the optimum monophasic pulsed microcurrent parameters and intracellular changes caused by the monophasic pulsed microcurrent have not been elucidated in human dermal fibroblasts. The purpose of this study was to investigate the optimum intensity for promoting...

  5. The currently used commercial DNA-extraction methods give different results of clostridial and actinobacterial populations derived from human fecal samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maukonen, Johanna; Simões, Catarina; Saarela, Maria

    2012-03-01

    Recently several human health-related microbiota studies have had partly contradictory results. As some differences may be explained by methodologies applied, we evaluated how different storage conditions and commonly used DNA-extraction kits affect bacterial composition, diversity, and numbers of human fecal microbiota. According to our results, the DNA-extraction did not affect the diversity, composition, or quantity of Bacteroides spp., whereas after a week's storage at -20 °C, the numbers of Bacteroides spp. were 1.6-2.5 log units lower (P Eubacterium rectale (Erec)-group, Clostridium leptum group, bifidobacteria, and Atopobium group were 0.5-4 log units higher (P < 0.05) after mechanical DNA-extraction as detected with qPCR, regardless of storage. Furthermore, the bacterial composition of Erec-group differed significantly after different DNA-extractions; after enzymatic DNA-extraction, the most prevalent genera detected were Roseburia (39% of clones) and Coprococcus (10%), whereas after mechanical DNA-extraction, the most prevalent genera were Blautia (30%), Coprococcus (13%), and Dorea (10%). According to our results, rigorous mechanical lysis enables detection of higher bacterial numbers and diversity from human fecal samples. As it was shown that the results of clostridial and actinobacterial populations are highly dependent on the DNA-extraction methods applied, the use of different DNA-extraction protocols may explain the contradictory results previously obtained. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Current algebra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, M.

    1967-01-01

    The first three chapters of these lecture notes are devoted to generalities concerning current algebra. The weak currents are defined, and their main properties given (V-A hypothesis, conserved vector current, selection rules, partially conserved axial current,...). The SU (3) x SU (3) algebra of Gell-Mann is introduced, and the general properties of the non-leptonic weak Hamiltonian are discussed. Chapters 4 to 9 are devoted to some important applications of the algebra. First one proves the Adler- Weisberger formula, in two different ways, by either the infinite momentum frame, or the near-by singularities method. In the others chapters, the latter method is the only one used. The following topics are successively dealt with: semi leptonic decays of K mesons and hyperons, Kroll- Ruderman theorem, non leptonic decays of K mesons and hyperons ( ΔI = 1/2 rule), low energy theorems concerning processes with emission (or absorption) of a pion or a photon, super-convergence sum rules, and finally, neutrino reactions. (author) [fr

  7. Current Titles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Various

    2006-06-01

    This booklet is published for those interested in current research being conducted at the National Center for Electron Microscopy. The NCEM is a DOE-designated national user facility and is available at no charge to qualified researchers. Access is controlled by an external steering committee. Interested researchers may contact Jane Cavlina, Administrator, at 510/486-6036.

  8. Current scenario

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Current scenario. India , like other parts of the world, is also facing the problem of increase in the incidence of drug resistance in tuberculosis. Multi-drug resistance (MDR, resistance to RIF & INH) and extensively drug resistant strains (X-DR, resistance to RIF, INH, FQs ...

  9. Chapel Hill bisphenol A expert panel consensus statement: Integration of mechanisms, effects in animals and potential to impact human health at current levels of exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    vom Saal, Frederick S.; Akingbemi, Benson T.; Belcher, Scott M.; Birnbaum, Linda S.; Crain, D. Andrew; Eriksen, Marcus; Farabollini, Francesca; Guillette, Louis J.; Hauser, Russ; Heindel, Jerrold J.; Ho, Shuk-Mei; Hunt, Patricia A.; Iguchi, Taisen; Jobling, Susan; Kanno, Jun; Keri, Ruth A.; Knudsen, Karen E.; Laufer, Hans; LeBlanc, Gerald A.; Marcus, Michele; McLachlan, John A.; Myers, John Peterson; Nadal, Angel; Newbold, Retha R.; Olea, Nicolas; Prins, Gail S.; Richter, Catherine A.; Rubin, Beverly S.; Sonnenschein, Carlos; Soto, Ana M.; Talsness, Chris E.; Vandenbergh, John G.; Vanderberg, Laura N.; Walser-Kuntz, Debby R.; Watson, Cheryl S.; Welshons, Wade V.; Wetherill, Yelena; Zoeller, R. Thomas

    2007-01-01

    This document is a summary statement of the outcome from the meeting: “Bisphenol A: An Examination of the Relevance of Ecological, In vitro and Laboratory Animal Studies for Assessing Risks to Human Health” sponsored by both the NIEHS and NIDCR at NIH/DHHS, as well as the US-EPA and Commonweal on the estrogenic environmental chemical bisphenol A (BPA, 2,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)propane; CAS# 80-05-7). The meeting was held in Chapel Hill, NC, 28–30 November 2006 due to concerns about the potential for a relationship between BPA and negative trends in human health that have occurred in recent decades. Examples include increases in abnormal penile/urethra development in males, early sexual maturation in females, an increase in neurobehavioral problems such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism, an increase in childhood and adult obesity and type 2 diabetes, a regional decrease in sperm count, and an increase in hormonally mediated cancers, such as prostate and breast cancers. Concern has been elevated by published studies reporting a relationship between treatment with “low doses” of BPA and many of theses negative health outcomes in experimental studies in laboratory animals as well as in vitro studies identifying plausible molecular mechanisms that could mediate such effects. Importantly, much evidence suggests that these adverse effects are occurring in animals within the range of exposure to BPA of the typical human living in a developed country, where virtually everyone has measurable blood, tissue and urine levels of BPA that exceed the levels produced by doses used in the “low dose” animal experiments.

  10. Current Knowledge on Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs from Animal Biology to Humans, from Pregnancy to Adulthood: Highlights from a National Italian Meeting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elisabeth Street

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Wildlife has often presented and suggested the effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs. Animal studies have given us an important opportunity to understand the mechanisms of action of many chemicals on the endocrine system and on neurodevelopment and behaviour, and to evaluate the effects of doses, time and duration of exposure. Although results are sometimes conflicting because of confounding factors, epidemiological studies in humans suggest effects of EDCs on prenatal growth, thyroid function, glucose metabolism and obesity, puberty, fertility, and on carcinogenesis mainly through epigenetic mechanisms. This manuscript reviews the reports of a multidisciplinary national meeting on this topic.

  11. Toxicokinetics of drugs of abuse: current knowledge of the isoenzymes involved in the human metabolism of tetrahydrocannabinol, cocaine, heroin, morphine, and codeine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Hans H; Sauer, Christoph; Theobald, Denis S

    2006-06-01

    This review summarizes the major metabolic pathways of the drugs of abuse, tetrahydrocannabinol, cocaine, heroin, morphine, and codeine, in humans including the involvement of isoenzymes. This knowledge may be important for predicting their possible interactions with other xenobiotics, understanding pharmaco-/toxicokinetic and pharmacogenetic variations, toxicological risk assessment, developing suitable toxicological analysis procedures, and finally for understanding certain pitfalls in drug testing. The detection times of these drugs and/or their metabolites in biological samples are summarized and the implications of the presented data on the possible interactions of drugs of abuse with other xenobiotics, ie, inhibition or induction of individual polymorphic and nonpolymorphic isoenzymes, discussed.

  12. U.S. Department of Energy Roadmap on Instrumentation, Controls, and Human-Machine Interface Technologies in Current and Future Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holcomb, David Eugene

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) recently sponsored the creation of a roadmap for instrumentation, controls, and human-machine interface (ICHMI) technology development. The roadmap represents the collective efforts of a group of subject matter experts from the DOE national laboratories, academia, vendors, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and utilities. It is intended to provide the underpinnings to the government sponsored ICHMI research, development, and demonstration (RD and D) performed in the United States for the next several years. A distinguishing feature of this roadmapping effort is that it is not limited to a technology progression plan but includes a detailed rationale, aimed at the nonspecialist, for the existence of a focused ICHMI RD and D program. Eight specific technology areas were identified for focused RD and D as follows: (1) sensors and electronics for harsh environments,(2) uncertainty characterization for diagnostics/prognostics applications, (3) quantification of software quality for high-integrity digital applications, (4) intelligent controls for nearly autonomous operation of advanced nuclear plants, (5) plant network architecture, (6) intelligent aiding technology for operational support, (7) human system interaction models and analysis tools, and (8) licensing and regulatory challenges and solutions.

  13. A review of critical factors for assessing the dermal absorption of metal oxide nanoparticles from sunscreens applied to humans, and a research strategy to address current deficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulson, Brian; McCall, Maxine J; Bowman, Diana M; Pinheiro, Teresa

    2015-11-01

    Metal oxide nanoparticles in sunscreens provide broad-spectrum ultraviolet protection to skin. All studies to assess dermal penetration of nanoparticles have unanimously concluded that the overwhelming majority of nanoparticles remain on the outer surface of the skin. However, possibly due to many different experimental protocols in use, conclusions over the potential penetration to viable skin are mixed. Here, we review several factors that may influence experimental results for dermal penetration including the species studied (human, or animal model), size and coating of the metal oxide nanoparticles, composition of the sunscreen formulation, site of sunscreen application, dose and number of applications, duration of the study, types of biological samples analysed, methods for analysing samples, exposure to UV and skin flexing. Based on this information, we suggest an appropriate research agenda involving international collaboration that maximises the potential for dermal absorption of nanoparticles, and their detection, under normal conditions of sunscreen use by humans. If results from this research agenda indicate no absorption is observed, then concerns over adverse health effects from the dermal absorption of nanoparticles in sunscreens may be allayed.

  14. Signal-to-noise ratio and MR tissue parameters in human brain imaging at 3, 7, and 9.4 tesla using current receive coil arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohmann, Rolf; Speck, Oliver; Scheffler, Klaus

    2016-02-01

    Relaxation times, transmit homogeneity, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and parallel imaging g-factor were determined in the human brain at 3T, 7T, and 9.4T, using standard, tight-fitting coil arrays. The same human subjects were scanned at all three field strengths, using identical sequence parameters and similar 31- or 32-channel receive coil arrays. The SNR of three-dimensional (3D) gradient echo images was determined using a multiple replica approach and corrected with measured flip angle and T2 (*) distributions and the T1 of white matter to obtain the intrinsic SNR. The g-factor maps were derived from 3D gradient echo images with several GRAPPA accelerations. As expected, T1 values increased, T2 (*) decreased and the B1 -homogeneity deteriorated with increasing field. The SNR showed a distinctly supralinear increase with field strength by a factor of 3.10 ± 0.20 from 3T to 7T, and 1.76 ± 0.13 from 7T to 9.4T over the entire cerebrum. The g-factors did not show the expected decrease, indicating a dominating role of coil design. In standard experimental conditions, SNR increased supralinearly with field strength (SNR ∼ B0 (1.65) ). To take full advantage of this gain, the deteriorating B1 -homogeneity and the decreasing T2 (*) have to be overcome. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Current and future availability of and need for human resources for sexual, reproductive, maternal and newborn health in 41 countries in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra Arias, Maria; Nove, Andrea; Michel-Schuldt, Michaela; de Bernis, Luc

    2017-05-03

    The WHO African region, covering the majority of Sub-Saharan Africa, faces the highest rates of maternal and neonatal mortality in the world. This study uses data from the State of the World's Midwifery 2014 survey to cast a spotlight on the WHO African region, highlight the specific characteristics of its sexual, reproductive, maternal and newborn health (SRMNH) workforce and describe and compare countries' different trajectories in terms of meeting the population need for services. Using data from 41 African countries, this study used a mathematical model to estimate potential met need for SRMNH services, defined as "the percentage of a universal SRMNH package that could potentially be obtained by women and newborns given the composition, competencies and available working time of the SRMNH workforce." The model defined the 46 key interventions included in this universal SRMNH package and allocated them to the available health worker time and skill set in each country to estimate the potential met need. Based on the current and projected potential met need in the future, the countries were grouped into three categories: (1) 'making or maintaining progress' (expected to meet more, or the same level, of the need in the future than currently): 14 countries including Ghana, Senegal and South Africa, (2) 'at risk' (currently performing relatively well but expected to deteriorate due to the health workforce not keeping pace with population growth): 6 countries including Gabon, Rwanda and Zambia, and (3) 'low performing' (not performing well and not expected to improve): 21 countries including Burkina Faso, Eritrea and Sierra Leone. The three groups face different challenges, and policy solutions to increasing met need should be tailored to the specific context of the country. National health workforce accounts should be strengthened so that workforce planning can be evidence-informed.

  16. Current challenges of research on filamentous fungi in relation to human welfare and a sustainable bio-economy: a white paper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Vera; Andersen, Mikael Rørdam; Brakhage, Axel A.

    2016-01-01

    The EUROFUNG network is a virtual centre of multidisciplinary expertise in the field of fungal biotechnology. The first academic-industry Think Tank was hosted by EUROFUNG to summarise the state of the art and future challenges in fungal biology and biotechnology in the coming decade. Currently...... as sources for novel compounds and as cell factories for large scale manufacture of bio-based products. This white paper reports on the discussions of the Think Tank meeting and the suggestions made for moving fungal bio(techno)logy forward....

  17. A single Markov-type kinetic model accounting for the macroscopic currents of all human voltage-gated sodium channel isoforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbi, Pietro; Massobrio, Paolo; Hellgren Kotaleski, Jeanette

    2017-09-01

    Modelling ionic channels represents a fundamental step towards developing biologically detailed neuron models. Until recently, the voltage-gated ion channels have been mainly modelled according to the formalism introduced by the seminal works of Hodgkin and Huxley (HH). However, following the continuing achievements in the biophysical and molecular comprehension of these pore-forming transmembrane proteins, the HH formalism turned out to carry limitations and inconsistencies in reproducing the ion-channels electrophysiological behaviour. At the same time, Markov-type kinetic models have been increasingly proven to successfully replicate both the electrophysiological and biophysical features of different ion channels. However, in order to model even the finest non-conducting molecular conformational change, they are often equipped with a considerable number of states and related transitions, which make them computationally heavy and less suitable for implementation in conductance-based neurons and large networks of those. In this purely modelling study we develop a Markov-type kinetic model for all human voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs). The model framework is detailed, unifying (i.e., it accounts for all ion-channel isoforms) and computationally efficient (i.e. with a minimal set of states and transitions). The electrophysiological data to be modelled are gathered from previously published studies on whole-cell patch-clamp experiments in mammalian cell lines heterologously expressing the human VGSC subtypes (from NaV1.1 to NaV1.9). By adopting a minimum sequence of states, and using the same state diagram for all the distinct isoforms, the model ensures the lightest computational load when used in neuron models and neural networks of increasing complexity. The transitions between the states are described by original ordinary differential equations, which represent the rate of the state transitions as a function of voltage (i.e., membrane potential). The

  18. Can the controversy about the putative role of the human female orgasm in sperm transport be settled with our current physiological knowledge of coitus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Roy J

    2011-06-01

    Spermatozoal uptake, facilitated by uterine contractions induced by oxytocin at orgasm during coitus, has been a long term concept. Studies attempting its support, however, have been poorly examined especially in the context of the changes in the female genital tract activated by sexual arousal. To examine experimental support for the concept. Using a variety of search engines, mainly peer reviewed articles and un-reviewed books were examined relating to sperm transport and function in the human female genital tract in the absence and presence of arousal to orgasm. Identifying evidence-based data to support authority-based opinion. All the experimental observations of sperm or model substitute's transport have been undertaken in women who were not sexually aroused. They fail to take into account that arousal creates vaginal tenting lifting the cervico-uterine complex into the false pelvis away from the ejaculated semen. This delays sperm uptake and transport making conclusions from these observations invalid in relation to transport during coitus. Studies injecting oxytocin have not used women in their sexually aroused state and used supraphysiological doses unlikely to be comparable with coitus and orgasm. The proposal that the transport of extra sperm by oxytocin-induced uterine contractions at orgasm is needed to facilitate fertility ignores possible harm from increased sperm numbers creating polyspermy and sperm enzyme release causing ovum degeneration, leading to decreased fertility. The role of sperm motility in their uptake from the vagina into the cervix as opposed to en bloc transfer through uterine archimyometrial-mediated transport in the absence of orgasm is at present unresolvable because of conflicting studies. The bulk of the reported evidence favors the conclusion that the female orgasm, with its concomitant central release of oxytocin, has little or no effective role in the transport of spermatozoa in natural human coitus. © 2010 International

  19. Current awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compagno, C; Brambilla, L; Capitanio, D; Boschi, F; Ranzi, B M; Porro, D

    2001-05-01

    In order to keep subscribers up-to-date with the latest developments in their field, this current awareness service is provided by John Wiley & Sons and contains newly-published material on yeasts. Each bibliography is divided into 10 sections. 1 Books, Reviews & Symposia; 2 General; 3 Biochemistry; 4 Biotechnology; 5 Cell Biology; 6 Gene Expression; 7 Genetics; 8 Physiology; 9 Medical Mycology; 10 Recombinant DNA Technology. Within each section, articles are listed in alphabetical order with respect to author. If, in the preceding period, no publications are located relevant to any one of these headings, that section will be omitted. (4 weeks journals - search completed 7th Mar. 2001)

  20. Current titles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    This booklet is published for those interested in current research being conducted at the National Center for Electron Microscopy. The NCEM is a DOE-designated national user facility and is available at no charge to qualified researchers. Access is controlled by an external steering committee. Interested researchers may contact Gretchen Hermes at (510) 486-5006 or address below for a User`s Guide. Copies of available papers can be ordered from: Theda Crawford National Center for Electron Microscopy, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, One Cyclotron Rd., MS72, Berkeley, California, USA 94720.

  1. Current ornithology

    CERN Document Server

    1983-01-01

    The appearance of the first volume of a projected series is the occasion for comment on scope, aims, and genesis of the work. The scope of Current Ornithology is all of the biology of birds. Ornithology, as a whole-organism science, is concerned with birds at every level of bi­ ological organization, from the molecular to the community, at least from the Jurassic to the present time, and over every scholarly discipline in which bird biology is done; to say this is merely to expand a dic­ tionary definition of "ornithology. " The aim of the work, to be realized over several volumes, is to present reviews or position statements con­ cerning the active fields of ornithological research. The reviews will be relatively short, and often will be done from the viewpoint of a readily­ identified group or school. Such a work could have come into being at any time within the past fifty years, but that Current Ornithology appears now is a result of events that are only seven to eight years old. One important event wa...

  2. Swine brucellosis: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olsen SC

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available SC Olsen, FM Tatum Infectious Bacterial Diseases of Livestock Research Unit, National Animal Disease Center, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Ames, IA, USA Abstract: Brucella suis is a significant zoonotic species that is present in domestic livestock and wildlife in many countries worldwide. Transmission from animal reservoirs is the source of human infection as human-to-human transmission is very rare. Although swine brucellosis causes economic losses in domestic livestock, preventing human infection is the primary reason for its emphasis in disease control programs. Although disease prevalence varies worldwide, in areas outside of Europe, swine brucellosis is predominantly caused by B. suis biovars 1 and 3. In Europe, swine are predominantly infected with biovar 2 which is much less pathogenic in humans. In many areas worldwide, feral or wild populations of swine are important reservoir hosts. Like other Brucella spp. in their natural host, B. suis has developed mechanisms to survive in an intracellular environment and evade immune detection. Limitations in sensitivity and specificity of current diagnostics require use at a herd level, rather for individual animals. There is currently no commercial vaccine approved for preventing brucellosis in swine. Although not feasible in all situations, whole-herd depopulation is the most effective regulatory mechanism to control swine brucellosis. Keywords: livestock, transmission, pathogenicity, vaccine, host, infection

  3. Debates atuais em humanização e saúde: quem somos nós? Current debates on humanization and health: who are we?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosângela Minardi Mitre Cotta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Considerando ser o SUS um processo social em construção, e sendo os profissionais de saúde importantes sujeitos desse processo, destaca-se o papel da educação permanente como um relevante instrumento para a garantia do cuidado humanizado. OBJETIVO: discutir a experiência do curso de capacitação dos profissionais de saúde de uma Unidade de Saúde pública-ambulatorial, com base na perspectiva da humanização, visando a implementação de um modelo sanitário comprometido com os valores essenciais impressos nos ideais do SUS. MÉTODOS: A metodologia de ensino-aprendizagem utilizada baseou-se na problematização, utilizando-se do processamento de uma situação problema elaborada a partir da experiência dos docentes. RESULTADO: Os profissionais identificaram que o padrão instituído no modo de pensar e fazer em saúde é insatisfatório para suprir os desafios enfrentados no setor. As estratégias utilizadas contribuíram para sistematizar o conteúdo através da reflexão sobre os referenciais teóricos apresentados, ao estimular o pensamento reflexivo e crítico, aspectos estes fundamentais para ampliar e aprofundar o processo de empoderamento dos profissionais. CONCLUSÃO: o curso estimulou a grupalidade, colocando em pauta na agenda, a discussão sobre a humanização das ações em saúde.Bearing in mind that the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS is a social process in construction, and as health professionals are important individuals in this process, the role of permanent education as an important instrument to ensure humanized care is highlighted. The scope of this paper is to discuss the experience of the training course for health professionals of a public health outpatient unit, based on the prospect of humanized treatment, seeking the implementation of a sanitary model committed to the formal values contained in the SUS ideals. The teaching-learning methodology used is based on problem-solving, derived from

  4. DNA methylation dynamics in human induced pluripotent stem cells over time.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichiro Nishino

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Epigenetic reprogramming is a critical event in the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs. Here, we determined the DNA methylation profiles of 22 human iPSC lines derived from five different cell types (human endometrium, placental artery endothelium, amnion, fetal lung fibroblast, and menstrual blood cell and five human embryonic stem cell (ESC lines, and we followed the aberrant methylation sites in iPSCs for up to 42 weeks. The iPSCs exhibited distinct epigenetic differences from ESCs, which were caused by aberrant methylation at early passages. Multiple appearances and then disappearances of random aberrant methylation were detected throughout iPSC reprogramming. Continuous passaging of the iPSCs diminished the differences between iPSCs and ESCs, implying that iPSCs lose the characteristics inherited from the parent cells and adapt to very closely resemble ESCs over time. Human iPSCs were gradually reprogrammed through the "convergence" of aberrant hyper-methylation events that continuously appeared in a de novo manner. This iPS reprogramming consisted of stochastic de novo methylation and selection/fixation of methylation in an environment suitable for ESCs. Taken together, random methylation and convergence are driving forces for long-term reprogramming of iPSCs to ESCs.

  5. Report of the International Stem Cell Banking Initiative Workshop Activity: Current Hurdles and Progress in Seed-Stock Banking of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Hyun; Kurtz, Andreas; Yuan, Bao-Zhu; Zeng, Fanyi; Lomax, Geoff; Loring, Jeanne F; Crook, Jeremy; Ju, Ji Hyeon; Clarke, Laura; Inamdar, Maneesha S; Pera, Martin; Firpo, Meri T; Sheldon, Michael; Rahman, Nafees; O'Shea, Orla; Pranke, Patricia; Zhou, Qi; Isasi, Rosario; Rungsiwiwut, Ruttachuk; Kawamata, Shin; Oh, Steve; Ludwig, Tenneille; Masui, Tohru; Novak, Thomas J; Takahashi, Tsuneo; Fujibuchi, Wataru; Koo, Soo Kyung; Stacey, Glyn N

    2017-11-01

    This article summarizes the recent activity of the International Stem Cell Banking Initiative (ISCBI) held at the California Institute for Regenerative Medicine (CIRM) in California (June 26, 2016) and the Korean National Institutes for Health in Korea (October 19-20, 2016). Through the workshops, ISCBI is endeavoring to support a new paradigm for human medicine using pluripotent stem cells (hPSC) for cell therapies. Priority considerations for ISCBI include ensuring the safety and efficacy of a final cell therapy product and quality assured source materials, such as stem cells and primary donor cells. To these ends, ISCBI aims to promote global harmonization on quality and safety control of stem cells for research and the development of starting materials for cell therapies, with regular workshops involving hPSC banking centers, biologists, and regulatory bodies. Here, we provide a brief overview of two such recent activities, with summaries of key issues raised. Stem Cells Translational Medicine 2017;6:1956-1962. © 2017 The Authors Stem Cells Translational Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of AlphaMed Press.

  6. Evidence that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) generates little-to-no reliable neurophysiologic effect beyond MEP amplitude modulation in healthy human subjects: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Jared Cooney; Forte, Jason D; Carter, Olivia

    2015-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a form of neuromodulation that is increasingly being utilized to examine and modify a number of cognitive and behavioral measures. The theoretical mechanisms by which tDCS generates these changes are predicated upon a rather large neurophysiological literature. However, a robust systematic review of this neurophysiological data has not yet been undertaken. tDCS data in healthy adults (18-50) from every neurophysiological outcome measure reported by at least two different research groups in the literature was collected. When possible, data was pooled and quantitatively analyzed to assess significance. When pooling was not possible, data was qualitatively compared to assess reliability. Of the 30 neurophysiological outcome measures reported by at least two different research groups, tDCS was found to have a reliable effect on only one: MEP amplitude. Interestingly, the magnitude of this effect has been significantly decreasing over the last 14 years. Our systematic review does not support the idea that tDCS has a reliable neurophysiological effect beyond MEP amplitude modulation - though important limitations of this review (and conclusion) are discussed. This work raises questions concerning the mechanistic foundations and general efficacy of this device - the implications of which extend to the steadily increasing tDCS psychological literature. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Relationships between body mass index and short-circuit current in human duodenal and colonic mucosal biopsies. Osbak PS, Bindslev N, Hansen MB. Acta Physiol (Oxf). 2011 Jan;201(1):47-53

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osbak, Philip Samuel; Bindslev, Niels; Berner-Hansen, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Aim: Retrospectively, to investigate the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and basal electrogenic transport as measured by short-circuit current (SCC) in human duodenal and colonic mucosal biopsies. Methods: The study included biopsies from mucosa of normal appearance in the sigmoid colon...... and >25 kg m)2). Statistical significance was assessed by the unpaired t-test or Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Correlation coefficients were calculated by Pearson product moment correlation. Results: In colonic biopsies, basal SCC (mean standard deviation) was significantly higher in 59 biopsies from 30...

  8. Currently used organophosphate flame retardants determined in the settled dust of masjids and hotels of Saudi Arabia, a new insight into human health implications of dust exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Nadeem; Ibrahim Ismail, Iqbal Mohammad; Kadi, Mohammad W; Salem Ali Albar, Hussain Mohammed

    2018-05-23

    Indoor settled dust particles are considered as an important source of human exposure to chemicals such as organophosphate flame retardants (PFRs). In recent decades the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) has experienced tremendous growth in population, as a result the number of masjids has also increased significantly to provide sufficient space for the public to offer prayers. The hospitality industry in KSA is also expanding to cater for the ever-increasing number of pilgrims visiting the two holy cities of the kingdom. However, limited data are available on the indoor pollution of masjids and hotels. In this study, PFRs were analyzed in the settled dust collected from various hotels and masjids of Jeddah, KSA. Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP) and tris(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCPP) were the major PFRs in masjid (median = 2490 and 2055 ngg-1) and hotel (median = 2360 and 3315 ngg-1) dust, respectively. A public health risk assessment was carried out by determining the incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR), and daily exposure via dust ingestion, inhalation, and dermal contact of PFRs. The calculated daily exposure via dust ingestion was well below the reference dose (RfD) values, and also the calculated hazardous quotient (HQ) and carcinogenic risk were well below the risk mark. However, the ILCR for PFRs was below the reference values of USEPA, which suggested that long-term exposure to these chemicals has a limited cause for concern. The study showed that the general public is exposed to PFRs in the studied microenvironments and the major exposure routes are dermal contact and ingestion.

  9. Current capabilities of the IRD-CNEN-RJ whole body counter for in vivo monitoring of internally deposited radionuclides in human body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dantas, Bernando Maranhao; Dantas, Ana Leticia Almeida; Lucena, Eder Augusto, E-mail: bmdantas@ird.gov.br, E-mail: adantas@ird.gov.br, E-mail: eder@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Monitoracao In Vivo. Div. de Dosimetria

    2014-07-01

    Occupational exposure to radioactive materials may occur as a result of a variety of professional human activities, such as in nuclear industry; use of unsealed sources in nuclear medicine, biological research and agriculture; production of radiopharmaceuticals, as well as in mining and milling of minerals associated with naturally occurring radioactive materials. The IRD whole-body counter (UCCI) consists of a shielded room with internal dimensions of 2.5 m x 2.5 m x 2.5 m. The walls are made of steel and have a graded-Z interior lining made of 3 mm of lead, 1.5 mm of cadmium and 0.5 mm of copper. Such thin layers are aimed to reduce environmental sources of natural background radiation that would affect the measurements of radionuclides emitting low energy photons. An array of four HPGe detectors was used to perform low-energy measurements of radionuclides emitting photons in the energy range from 10 to 200 keV in the lungs, liver and bone tissue. Additionally, one NaI(Tl)8” x 4” and one NaI(Tl)3” x 3” scintillation detectors are used for measurements in the energy range from 100 up to 3000 keV. A configuration of detector supports allows setting up flexible counting geometries, i.e., whole body and specific organs such as head, lungs, liver and thyroid of an individual laid on a monitoring chair. The UCCI is able to perform in vivo measurement of a large variety of radionuclides emitting photons in the energy range from 10 to 3000 keV. The minimum detectable activities for most of the radionuclides of interest allow its application for occupational monitoring as well as in the case of accidental incorporations. (author)

  10. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling of human exposure to perfluorooctanoic acid suggests historical non drinking-water exposures are important for predicting current serum concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worley, Rachel Rogers; Yang, Xiaoxia; Fisher, Jeffrey

    2017-09-01

    Manufacturing of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), a synthetic chemical with a long half-life in humans, peaked between 1970 and 2002, and has since diminished. In the United States, PFOA is detected in the blood of >99% of people tested, but serum concentrations have decreased since 1999. Much is known about exposure to PFOA in drinking water; however, the impact of non-drinking water PFOA exposure on serum PFOA concentrations is not well characterized. The objective of this research is to apply physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling and Monte Carlo analysis to evaluate the impact of historic non-drinking water PFOA exposure on serum PFOA concentrations. In vitro to in vivo extrapolation was utilized to inform descriptions of PFOA transport in the kidney. Monte Carlo simulations were incorporated to evaluate factors that account for the large inter-individual variability of serum PFOA concentrations measured in individuals from North Alabama in 2010 and 2016, and the Mid-Ohio River Valley between 2005 and 2008. Predicted serum PFOA concentrations were within two-fold of experimental data. With incorporation of Monte Carlo simulations, the model successfully tracked the large variability of serum PFOA concentrations measured in populations from the Mid-Ohio River Valley. Simulation of exposure in a population of 45 adults from North Alabama successfully predicted 98% of individual serum PFOA concentrations measured in 2010 and 2016, respectively, when non-drinking water ingestion of PFOA exposure was included. Variation in serum PFOA concentrations may be due to inter-individual variability in the disposition of PFOA and potentially elevated historical non-drinking water exposures. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Transport and Biodistribution of Dendrimers Across Human Fetal Membranes: Implications for Intravaginal Administration of Dendrimers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menjoge, Anupa R.; Navath, Raghavendra S.; Asad, Abbas; Kannan, Sujatha; Kim, Chong Jai; Romero, Roberto; Kannan, Rangaramanujam M.

    2010-01-01

    Dendrimers are emerging as promising topical antimicrobial agents, and as targeted nanoscale drug delivery vehicles. Topical intravaginal antimicrobial agents are prescribed to treat the ascending genital infections in pregnant women. The fetal membranes separate the extra-amniotic space and fetus. The purpose of the study is to determine if the dendrimers can be selectively used for local intravaginal application to pregnant women without crossing the membranes into the fetus. In the present study, the transport and permeability of PAMAM (poly(amidoamine)) dendrimers, across human fetal membrane (using a side-by-side diffusion chamber), and its biodistribution (using immunofluorescence) are evaluated ex-vivo. Transport across human fetal membranes (from the maternal side) was evaluated using Fluorescein (FITC), an established transplacental marker (positive control, size~ 400 Da) and fluorophore-tagged G4-PAMAM dendrimers (~ 16 kDa). The fluorophore-tagged G4-PAMAM dendrimers were synthesized and characterized using 1H NMR, MALDI TOF-MS and HPLC analysis. Transfer was measured across the intact fetal membrane (chorioamnion), and the separated chorion and amnion layers. Over a five hour period, the dendrimer transport across all the three membranes was less than transport of FITC was relatively fast with as much as 49% transport across the amnion. The permeability of FITC (7.9 × 10-7 cm2/s) through the chorioamnion was 7-fold higher than that of the dendrimer (5.8 × 10-8 cm2/s). The biodistribution showed that the dendrimers were largely present in interstitial spaces in the decidual stromal cells and the chorionic trophoblast cells (in 2.5 to 4 h) and surprisingly, to a smaller extent internalized in nuclei of trophoblast cells and nuclei and cytoplasm of stromal cells. Passive diffusion and paracellular transport appear to be the major route for dendrimer transport. The overall findings further suggest that entry of drugs conjugated to dendrimers would be

  12. Simultaneous PET/MR imaging in a human brain PET/MR system in 50 patients—Current state of image quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwenzer, N.F.; Stegger, L.; Bisdas, S.; Schraml, C.; Kolb, A.; Boss, A.; Müller, M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The present work illustrates the current state of image quality and diagnostic accuracy in a new hybrid BrainPET/MR. Materials and methods: 50 patients with intracranial masses, head and upper neck tumors or neurodegenerative diseases were examined with a hybrid BrainPET/MR consisting of a conventional 3T MR system and an MR-compatible PET insert. Directly before PET/MR, all patients underwent a PET/CT examination with either [ 18 F]-FDG, [ 11 C]-methionine or [ 68 Ga]-DOTATOC. In addition to anatomical MR scans, functional sequences were performed including diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), arterial spin labeling (ASL) and proton-spectroscopy. Image quality score of MR imaging was evaluated using a 4-point-scale. PET data quality was assessed by evaluating FDG-uptake and tumor delineation with [ 11 C]-methionine and [ 68 Ga]-DOTATOC. FDG uptake quantification accuracy was evaluated by means of ROI analysis (right and left frontal and temporo-occipital lobes). The asymmetry indices and ratios between frontal and occipital ROIs were compared. Results: In 45/50 patients, PET/MR examination was successful. Visual analysis revealed a diagnostic image quality of anatomical MR imaging (mean quality score T2 FSE: 1.27 ± 0.54; FLAIR: 1.38 ± 0.61). ASL and proton-spectroscopy was possible in all cases. In DTI, dental artifacts lead to one non-diagnostic dataset (mean quality score DTI: 1.32 ± 0.69; ASL: 1.10 ± 0.31). PET datasets of PET/MR and PET/CT offered comparable tumor delineation with [ 11 C]-methionine; additional lesions were found in 2/8 [ 68 Ga]-DOTATOC-PET in the PET/MR. Mean asymmetry index revealed a high accordance between PET/MR and PET/CT (1.5 ± 2.2% vs. 0.9 ± 3.6%; mean ratio (frontal/parieto-occipital) 0.93 ± 0.08 vs. 0.96 ± 0.05), respectively. Conclusions: The hybrid BrainPET/MR allows for molecular, anatomical and functional imaging with uncompromised MR image quality and a high accordance of PET results between PET/MR and PET

  13. Simultaneous PET/MR imaging in a human brain PET/MR system in 50 patients-Current state of image quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwenzer, N.F., E-mail: nina.schwenzer@med.uni-tuebingen.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Eberhard-Karls University Tuebingen, Tuebingen (Germany); Stegger, L., E-mail: stegger@gmx.net [Department of Nuclear Medicine and European Institute for Molecular Imaging, University of Muenster, Muenster (Germany); Bisdas, S., E-mail: sbisdas@gmail.com [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Eberhard-Karls University Tuebingen, Tuebingen (Germany); Schraml, C., E-mail: christina.schraml@med.uni-tuebingen.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Eberhard-Karls University Tuebingen, Tuebingen (Germany); Kolb, A., E-mail: armin.kolb@med.uni-tuebingen.de [Laboratory for Preclinical Imaging and Imaging Technology of the Werner Siemens-Foundation, Department of Preclinical Imaging and Radiopharmacy, Eberhard-Karls University Tuebingen, Tuebingen (Germany); Boss, A., E-mail: Andreas.Boss@usz.ch [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Eberhard-Karls University Tuebingen, Tuebingen (Germany); Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Zuerich, Zuerich (Switzerland); Mueller, M., E-mail: mark.mueller@med.uni-tuebingen.de [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Eberhard-Karls University Tuebingen, Tuebingen (Germany); and others

    2012-11-15

    Objectives: The present work illustrates the current state of image quality and diagnostic accuracy in a new hybrid BrainPET/MR. Materials and methods: 50 patients with intracranial masses, head and upper neck tumors or neurodegenerative diseases were examined with a hybrid BrainPET/MR consisting of a conventional 3T MR system and an MR-compatible PET insert. Directly before PET/MR, all patients underwent a PET/CT examination with either [{sup 18}F]-FDG, [{sup 11}C]-methionine or [{sup 68}Ga]-DOTATOC. In addition to anatomical MR scans, functional sequences were performed including diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), arterial spin labeling (ASL) and proton-spectroscopy. Image quality score of MR imaging was evaluated using a 4-point-scale. PET data quality was assessed by evaluating FDG-uptake and tumor delineation with [{sup 11}C]-methionine and [{sup 68}Ga]-DOTATOC. FDG uptake quantification accuracy was evaluated by means of ROI analysis (right and left frontal and temporo-occipital lobes). The asymmetry indices and ratios between frontal and occipital ROIs were compared. Results: In 45/50 patients, PET/MR examination was successful. Visual analysis revealed a diagnostic image quality of anatomical MR imaging (mean quality score T2 FSE: 1.27 {+-} 0.54; FLAIR: 1.38 {+-} 0.61). ASL and proton-spectroscopy was possible in all cases. In DTI, dental artifacts lead to one non-diagnostic dataset (mean quality score DTI: 1.32 {+-} 0.69; ASL: 1.10 {+-} 0.31). PET datasets of PET/MR and PET/CT offered comparable tumor delineation with [{sup 11}C]-methionine; additional lesions were found in 2/8 [{sup 68}Ga]-DOTATOC-PET in the PET/MR. Mean asymmetry index revealed a high accordance between PET/MR and PET/CT (1.5 {+-} 2.2% vs. 0.9 {+-} 3.6%; mean ratio (frontal/parieto-occipital) 0.93 {+-} 0.08 vs. 0.96 {+-} 0.05), respectively. Conclusions: The hybrid BrainPET/MR allows for molecular, anatomical and functional imaging with uncompromised MR image quality and a high accordance

  14. Current issues in medically assisted reproduction and genetics in Europe: research, clinical practice, ethics, legal issues and policy. European Society of Human Genetics and European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Joyce C; Geraedts, Joep; Borry, Pascal; Cornel, Martina C; Dondorp, Wybo; Gianaroli, Luca; Harton, Gary; Milachich, Tanya; Kääriäinen, Helena; Liebaers, Inge; Morris, Michael; Sequeiros, Jorge; Sermon, Karen; Shenfield, Françoise; Skirton, Heather; Soini, Sirpa; Spits, Claudia; Veiga, Anna; Vermeesch, Joris Robert; Viville, Stéphane; de Wert, Guido; Macek, Milan

    2013-11-01

    In March 2005, a group of experts from the European Society of Human Genetics and European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology met to discuss the interface between genetics and assisted reproductive technology (ART), and published an extended background paper, recommendations and two Editorials. Seven years later, in March 2012, a follow-up interdisciplinary workshop was held, involving representatives of both professional societies, including experts from the European Union Eurogentest2 Coordination Action Project. The main goal of this meeting was to discuss developments at the interface between clinical genetics and ARTs. As more genetic causes of reproductive failure are now recognised and an increasing number of patients undergo testing of their genome before conception, either in regular health care or in the context of direct-to-consumer testing, the need for genetic counselling and preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) may increase. Preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) thus far does not have evidence from randomised clinical trials to substantiate that the technique is both effective and efficient. Whole-genome sequencing may create greater challenges both in the technological and interpretational domains, and requires further reflection about the ethics of genetic testing in ART and PGD/PGS. Diagnostic laboratories should be reporting their results according to internationally accepted accreditation standards (International Standards Organisation - ISO 15189). Further studies are needed in order to address issues related to the impact of ART on epigenetic reprogramming of the early embryo. The legal landscape regarding assisted reproduction is evolving but still remains very heterogeneous and often contradictory. The lack of legal harmonisation and uneven access to infertility treatment and PGD/PGS fosters considerable cross-border reproductive care in Europe and beyond. The aim of this paper is to complement previous publications and provide

  15. Amniotic Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Exhibit Preferential Osteogenic and Chondrogenic Differentiation and Enhanced Matrix Production Compared With Adipose Mesenchymal Stromal Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topoluk, Natasha; Hawkins, Richard; Tokish, John; Mercuri, Jeremy

    2017-09-01

    Therapeutic efficacy of various mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) types for orthopaedic applications is currently being investigated. While the concept of MSC therapy is well grounded in the basic science of healing and regeneration, little is known about individual MSC populations in terms of their propensity to promote the repair and/or regeneration of specific musculoskeletal tissues. Two promising MSC sources, adipose and amnion, have each demonstrated differentiation and extracellular matrix (ECM) production in the setting of musculoskeletal tissue regeneration. However, no study to date has directly compared the differentiation potential of these 2 MSC populations. To compare the ability of human adipose- and amnion-derived MSCs to undergo osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation. Controlled laboratory study. MSC populations from the human term amnion were quantified and characterized via cell counting, histologic assessment, and flow cytometry. Differentiation of these cells in comparison to commercially purchased human adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (hADSCs) in the presence and absence of differentiation media was evaluated via reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for bone and cartilage gene transcript markers and histology/immunohistochemistry to examine ECM production. Analysis of variance and paired t tests were performed to compare results across all cell groups investigated. The authors confirmed that the human term amnion contains 2 primary cell types demonstrating MSC characteristics-(1) human amniotic epithelial cells (hAECs) and (2) human amniotic mesenchymal stromal cells (hAMSCs)-and each exhibited more than 90% staining for MSC surface markers (CD90, CD105, CD73). Average viable hAEC and hAMSC yields at harvest were 2.3 × 10 6 ± 3.7 × 10 5 and 1.6 × 10 6 ± 4.7 × 10 5 per milliliter of amnion, respectively. As well, hAECs and hAMSCs demonstrated significantly greater osteocalcin ( P = .025), aggrecan ( P

  16. Current standardisation for nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bard, Delphine; Mark, David; Moehlmann, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    Standardisation and standards provide an important mechanism to support both innovation and the application of regulations. There is currently no specific regulation for any nanomaterials. Health, safety and environmental protection aspects associated with nanomaterials are however in principle covered to different levels by current EU regulatory framework. There are a number of national, European and international organisations developing standards associated with the development, description and use of nanomaterials as well as the protection of human health and the environment from the production and use of chemicals and consumer products, including nanomaterials. These organisations have also established specific committees on nanotechnology. This paper outlines the different relevant regulations and standards. This paper will mainly be focused on a European health and safety perspective.

  17. Primordial germ cells and amnion development in the avian embryo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Melo Bernardo, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Primordial germ cells (PGCs) are the progenitors of the gametes, responsible for transmitting genetic information from generation to generation. Although there is a long history of gamete biology research, there is still a lot to be learned about many of the mechanisms underlying germ cell

  18. Human trichuriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Betson, Martha; Søe, Martin Jensen; Nejsum, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Human trichuriasis is a neglected tropical disease which affects hundreds of millions of people worldwide and is particularly prevalent among children living in areas where sanitation is poor. This review examines the current knowledge on the taxonomy, genetics and phylogeography of human Trichuris...

  19. The potent activation of Ca(2+)-activated K(+) current by NVP-AUY922 in the human pancreatic duct cell line (PANC-1) possibly independent of heat shock protein 90 inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Nai-Jung; Wu, Sheng-Nan; Chen, Li-Tzong

    2015-04-01

    NVP-AUY922 (AUY) is a potent inhibitor of heat shock protein 90 (HSP90). Whether this compound can exert additional effects on membrane ion channels remains elusive. We investigated the effect of AUY on ion currents in human pancreatic duct epithelial cells (PDECs), including PANC-1 and MIA PaCa-2. AUY increased the amplitude of the K(+) current (IK) in PANC-1 cells shown by whole-cell configuration. Single-channel recordings revealed a large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (BKCa) channel in PANC-1, but not in MIA PaCa-2. In cell-attached mode, AUY increased the probability of BKCa channel opening and also potentiated the activity of stretch-induced channels. However, other HSP inhibitors, 17-AAG or BIIB021 only slightly increased the activity of BKCa channels. In inside-out recordings, sodium hydrosulphide or caffeic acid phenethyl ester increased the activity of BKCa channels, but AUY did not. We further evaluated whether conductance of Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels (IK(Ca)) influenced secretion of HCO3(-) and fluid in PDECs by using a modified Whitcomb-Ermentrout model. Simulation studies showed that an increase in IK(Ca) resulted in additional secretion of HCO3(-) and fluid by mimicking the effect of AUY in PDECs. Collectively, AUY can interact with the BKCa channel to largely increase IK(Ca) in PDECs. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Current Cigarette Smoking Among Adults Infographic

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Explore the Current Cigarette Smoking Among Adults Infographic which outlines key facts related to current smoking among adults. For accessibility issues contact...

  1. An APC:WNT Counter-Current-Like Mechanism Regulates Cell Division Along the Human Colonic Crypt Axis: A Mechanism That Explains How APC Mutations Induce Proliferative Abnormalities That Drive Colon Cancer Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boman, Bruce M.; Fields, Jeremy Z.

    2013-01-01

    APC normally down-regulates WNT signaling in human colon, and APC mutations cause proliferative abnormalities in premalignant crypts leading to colon cancer, but the mechanisms are unclear at the level of spatial and functional organization of the crypt. Accordingly, we postulated a counter-current-like mechanism based on gradients of factors (APC;WNT) that regulate colonocyte proliferation along the crypt axis. During crypt renewal, stem cells (SCs) at the crypt bottom generate non-SC daughter cells that proliferate and differentiate while migrating upwards. The APC concentration is low at the crypt bottom and high at the top (where differentiated cells reside). WNT signaling, in contrast, is high at the bottom (where SCs reside) and low at the top. Given that WNT and APC gradients are counter to one another, we hypothesized that a counter-current-like mechanism exists. Since both APC and WNT signaling components (e.g., survivin) are required for mitosis, this mechanism establishes a zone in the lower crypt where conditions are optimal for maximal cell division and mitosis orientation (symmetric versus asymmetric). APC haploinsufficiency diminishes the APC gradient, shifts the proliferative zone upwards, and increases symmetric division, which causes SC overpopulation. In homozygote mutant crypts, these changes are exacerbated. Thus, APC-mutation-induced changes in the counter-current-like mechanism cause expansion of proliferative populations (SCs, rapidly proliferating cells) during tumorigenesis. We propose this mechanism also drives crypt fission, functions in the crypt cycle, and underlies adenoma development. Novel chemoprevention approaches designed to normalize the two gradients and readjust the proliferative zone downwards, might thwart progression of these premalignant changes. PMID:24224156

  2. Renewable energies in the service of humanity. 40. anniversary of the congress 'The sun in the Service of Mankind' 1973-2013. Current challenges and prospects by 2030 and 2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campana, Dominique; D'Adesky, Marie; Bolinches, Christine; Caillierez, Laurent; Schwarz, Virginie; Varet, Anne; Moisan, Francois; Lechevin, Bruno; Dollet, Alain; Lincot, Daniel; Bertrand, Joel; Benchikh, Osman; Kalonji, Gretchen; Palz, Wolfgang; Lins, Christine; Frankl, Paolo; ); Wouters, Frank; Swanson, Richard; Tiwari, Ayodhya; Yamaguchi, Masafumi; Flamant, Gilles; Maegaard, Preben; Kariniotakis, Georges; Roy, Claude; Rayol, Caroline; Duplan, Jean-Luc; Boeuf, Marc; Sanner, Burkard; Graff, Jean-Jacques; Chabrillat, Remi; Hadjsaid, Nouredine; Tarascon, Jean-Marie; Priem, Thierry; Vidal, Olivier; Alt, Franz; Bal, Jean-Louis; Ould-Dada, Zitouni; ); Kappiah, Mahama; Allal, Houda; Eckhart, Michael; Gromard, Christian de; Benchikh, Osman; Marzin, Jean-Yves; Aubert, Marie Helene; Yumkella, Kandeh K.; Lalonde, Brice

    2015-03-01

    The 'Renewable energies in the service of humanity' international scientific symposium took place in Paris together with the ceremony that marked the 40. anniversary of the first international congress 'The Sun in the service of mankind', held at UNESCO in 1973. This event was intended to show the progress achieved over 40 years of development in renewable energies, but also the energy and climate challenges to be faced before 2050. Indeed, this is the date by which we must have successfully cut our current greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) by four to limit global warming below 2 deg. C above pre-industrial levels. For the first time in 1973, almost 900 scientists gathered to launch an initiative that aimed to promote research on solar energy, aware that the development of this inexhaustible renewable energy could strongly benefit the future well-being of humanity. The ensuing forty years and above all recent times, have proved these forerunners right. Renewable energy has indeed experienced extraordinary growth, whether it is solar power, particularly photovoltaic, but also wind power, or even biomass. The International Energy Agency (IEA) estimates that renewable energy will represent a third of all electricity produced by 2035. Driven by the same global ambition as the 1973 congress, the French Environment and Energy Management Agency (ADEME), the French National Scientific Research Centre (CNRS) and the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) have jointly organised this international meeting on the current challenges and prospects for renewable energies by 2030 and 2050. High-level experts and representatives from international organisations discussed the global scientific, technical, political, economic and social aspects of the various branches in the renewable energies field. The aim was to assess the development of renewable energies, put their contribution to global energy transition into perspective and

  3. Human niche, human behaviour, human nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Agustin

    2017-10-06

    The concept of a 'human nature' or 'human natures' retains a central role in theorizing about the human experience. In Homo sapiens it is clear that we have a suite of capacities generated via our evolutionary past, and present, and a flexible capacity to create and sustain particular kinds of cultures and to be shaped by them. Regardless of whether we label these capacities 'human natures' or not, humans occupy a distinctive niche and an evolutionary approach to examining it is critical. At present we are faced with a few different narratives as to exactly what such an evolutionary approach entails. There is a need for a robust and dynamic theoretical toolkit in order to develop a richer, and more nuanced, understanding of the cognitively sophisticated genus Homo and the diverse sorts of niches humans constructed and occupied across the Pleistocene, Holocene, and into the Anthropocene. Here I review current evolutionary approaches to 'human nature', arguing that we benefit from re-framing our investigations via the concept of the human niche and in the context of the extended evolutionary synthesis (EES). While not a replacement of standard evolutionary approaches, this is an expansion and enhancement of our toolkit. I offer brief examples from human evolution in support of these assertions.

  4. Challenges in validating the sterilisation dose for processed human amniotic membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusof, Norimah; Hassan, Asnah; Firdaus Abd Rahman, M.N.; Hamid, Suzina A.

    2007-01-01

    Most of the tissue banks in the Asia Pacific region have been using ionising radiation at 25 kGy to sterilise human tissues for save clinical usage. Under tissue banking quality system, any dose employed for sterilisation has to be validated and the validation exercise has to be a part of quality document. Tissue grafts, unlike medical items, are not produced in large number per each processing batch and tissues relatively have a different microbial population. A Code of Practice established by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in 2004 offers several validation methods using smaller number of samples compared to ISO 11137 (1995), which is meant for medical products. The methods emphasise on bioburden determination, followed by sterility test on samples after they were exposed to verification dose for attaining of sterility assurance level (SAL) of 10 -1 . This paper describes our experience in using the IAEA Code of Practice in conducting the validation exercise for substantiating 25 kGy as sterilisation dose for both air-dried amnion and those preserved in 99% glycerol

  5. Challenges in validating the sterilisation dose for processed human amniotic membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yusof, Norimah [Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia)], E-mail: norimah@mint.gov.my; Hassan, Asnah [Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Firdaus Abd Rahman, M.N.; Hamid, Suzina A. [National Tissue Bank, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, 16130 Kelantan (Malaysia)

    2007-11-15

    Most of the tissue banks in the Asia Pacific region have been using ionising radiation at 25 kGy to sterilise human tissues for save clinical usage. Under tissue banking quality system, any dose employed for sterilisation has to be validated and the validation exercise has to be a part of quality document. Tissue grafts, unlike medical items, are not produced in large number per each processing batch and tissues relatively have a different microbial population. A Code of Practice established by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in 2004 offers several validation methods using smaller number of samples compared to ISO 11137 (1995), which is meant for medical products. The methods emphasise on bioburden determination, followed by sterility test on samples after they were exposed to verification dose for attaining of sterility assurance level (SAL) of 10{sup -1}. This paper describes our experience in using the IAEA Code of Practice in conducting the validation exercise for substantiating 25 kGy as sterilisation dose for both air-dried amnion and those preserved in 99% glycerol.

  6. Genotyping of the human papilloma virus in a group of Mexican women treated in a highly specialist hospital: Multiple infections and their potential transcendence in the current vaccination programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Morelos, Pablo; Uribe-Jiménez, Arizbett; Bandala, Cindy; Poot-Vélez, Albros; Ornelas-Corral, Nora; Rodríguez-Esquivel, Miriam; Valdespino-Zavala, Mariana; Taniguchi, Keiko; Marrero-Rodríguez, Daniel; López-Romero, Ricardo; Salcedo, Mauricio

    2017-10-11

    Human papilloma virus (HPV) is one of the main risk factors associated with the development of cervical cancer and its precursor lesions. It has been reported that HPV16 and 18 types cover approximately 70% of cervical cancer worldwide; however, significant variation in percentages of HPV infections could be related to specific populations. Purified DNA of 67 cervical samples were analyzed by Linear Array® HPV genotyping kit. These analyzed samples correspond to 19 cervical tumors, 15 high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, 20 low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, and 13 cervical samples without injury were studied, all of them previously diagnosed. In general, 16 different HPV types were found with differences in their frequencies, cervical invasive cancer being the richest in HPV sequences, followed by the low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions and then high-grade lesions. HPV16 was the most frequently distributed type in neoplastic lesions of the cervix, followed by the HPV52, suggesting viral type variability, probably associated to the geographical region studied. The results could indicate variability in HPV presence in Mexico, underlining the important role for HPV52 among others in the Mexican population. This would also potentially have an impact on the current anti-HPV vaccination schemes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Humanized mouse models: Application to human diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Ryoji; Takahashi, Takeshi; Ito, Mamoru

    2018-05-01

    Humanized mice are superior to rodents for preclinical evaluation of the efficacy and safety of drug candidates using human cells or tissues. During the past decade, humanized mouse technology has been greatly advanced by the establishment of novel platforms of genetically modified immunodeficient mice. Several human diseases can be recapitulated using humanized mice due to the improved engraftment and differentiation capacity of human cells or tissues. In this review, we discuss current advanced humanized mouse models that recapitulate human diseases including cancer, allergy, and graft-versus-host disease. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. TAFRO syndrome: current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakashita, Kentaro; Murata, Kengo; Takamori, Mikio

    2018-01-01

    Multicentric Castleman's disease (MCD), a distinct subtype of Castleman's disease, is a rare, nonneoplastic, lymphoproliferative disorder. Patients with MCD present with systemic symptoms and multiple lymphadenopathy. Lymph node biopsy is necessary for the diagnosis of various histological MCD patterns including hyaline vascular, plasma cell, and mixed types. Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8) infection was identified as an important etiology of MCD among immunocompromised patients such as those positive for human immunodeficiency virus. Although HHV8-negative MCD was reported in immunocompetent patients, the underlying etiology remains unknown. Several experts speculate that MCD in immunocompetent patients might be due to proinflammatory hypercytokinemia because of infection by a virus other than HHV8, inflammation, or neoplastic disease. In 2010, a distinct variant of HHV8-negative MCD reported in Japan was characterized by thrombocytopenia, anasarca, myelofibrosis, renal dysfunction, and organomegaly (TAFRO). Recent case reports and a systematic review suggest that TAFRO syndrome might have a unique pathogenesis among HHV8-negative MCD variants. This review introduces TAFRO syndrome as a subtype of HHV8-negative MCD and offers an overview of the current perspectives on this syndrome.

  9. Human Decidua-Derived Mesenchymal Cells Are a Promising Source for the Generation and Cell Banking of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shofuda, Tomoko; Kanematsu, Daisuke; Fukusumi, Hayato; Yamamoto, Atsuyo; Bamba, Yohei; Yoshitatsu, Sumiko; Suemizu, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Masato; Sugimoto, Yoshikazu; Furue, Miho Kusuda; Kohara, Arihiro; Akamatsu, Wado; Okada, Yohei; Okano, Hideyuki; Yamasaki, Mami; Kanemura, Yonehiro

    2013-01-01

    Placental tissue is a biomaterial with remarkable potential for use in regenerative medicine. It has a three-layer structure derived from the fetus (amnion and chorion) and the mother (decidua), and it contains huge numbers of cells. Moreover, placental tissue can be collected without any physical danger to the donor and can be matched with a variety of HLA types. The decidua-derived mesenchymal cells (DMCs) are highly proliferative fibroblast-like cells that express a similar pattern of CD antigens as bone marrow-derived mesenchymal cells (BM-MSCs). Here we demonstrated that induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells could be efficiently generated from DMCs by retroviral transfer of reprogramming factor genes. DMC-hiPS cells showed equivalent characteristics to human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) in colony morphology, global gene expression profile (including human pluripotent stem cell markers), DNA methylation status of the OCT3/4 and NANOG promoters, and ability to differentiate into components of the three germ layers in vitro and in vivo. The RNA expression of XIST and the methylation status of its promoter region suggested that DMC-iPSCs, when maintained undifferentiated and pluripotent, had three distinct states: (1) complete X-chromosome reactivation, (2) one inactive X-chromosome, or (3) an epigenetic aberration. Because DMCs are derived from the maternal portion of the placenta, they can be collected with the full consent of the adult donor and have considerable ethical advantages for cell banking and the subsequent generation of human iPS cells for regenerative applications. PMID:26858858

  10. Holographic heat current as Noether current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hai-Shan; Lü, H.; Pope, C. N.

    2017-09-01

    We employ the Noether procedure to derive a general formula for the radially conserved heat current in AdS planar black holes with certain transverse and traceless perturbations, for a general class of gravity theories. For Einstein gravity, the general higher-order Lovelock gravities and also a class of Horndeski gravities, we derive the boundary stress tensor and show that the resulting boundary heat current matches precisely the bulk Noether current.

  11. Current lead thermal analysis code 'CURRENT'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Masahito; Tada, Eisuke; Shimamoto, Susumu; Hata, Kenichiro.

    1985-08-01

    Large gas-cooled current lead with the capacity more than 30 kA and 22 kV is required for superconducting toroidal and poloidal coils for fusion application. The current lead is used to carry electrical current from the power supply system at room temperature to the superconducting coil at 4 K. Accordingly, the thermal performance of the current lead is significantly important to determine the heat load requirements of the coil system at 4 K. Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has being developed the large gas-cooled current leads with the optimum condition in which the heat load is around 1 W per 1 kA at 4 K. In order to design the current lead with the optimum thermal performances, JAERI developed thermal analysis code named as ''CURRENT'' which can theoretically calculate the optimum geometric shape and cooling conditions of the current lead. The basic equations and the instruction manual of the analysis code are described in this report. (author)

  12. Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey - Limited Data Set

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey (MCBS) is a continuous, multipurpose survey of a representative national sample of the Medicare population. There are two...

  13. CMOS current controlled fully balanced current conveyor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chunhua; Zhang Qiujing; Liu Haiguang

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a current controlled fully balanced second-generation current conveyor circuit (CF-BCCII). The proposed circuit has the traits of fully balanced architecture, and its X-Y terminals are current controllable. Based on the CFBCCII, two biquadratic universal filters are also proposed as its applications. The CFBCCII circuits and the two filters were fabricated with chartered 0.35-μm CMOS technology; with ±1.65 V power supply voltage, the total power consumption of the CFBCCII circuit is 3.6 mW. Comparisons between measured and HSpice simulation results are also given.

  14. Cryogenic current leads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zizek, F.

    1982-01-01

    Theoretical, technical and design questions are examined of cryogenic current leads for SP of magnetic systems. Simplified mathematical models are presented for the current leads. To illustrate modeling, the calculation is made of the real current leads for 500 A and three variants of current leads for 1500 A for the enterprise ''Shkoda.''

  15. Endocrine gland-derived endothelial growth factor (EG-VEGF) is a potential novel regulator of human parturition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunand, C; Hoffmann, P; Sapin, V; Blanchon, L; Salomon, A; Sergent, F; Benharouga, M; Sabra, S; Guibourdenche, J; Lye, S J; Feige, J J; Alfaidy, N

    2014-09-01

    EG-VEGF is an angiogenic factor that we identified as a new placental growth factor during human pregnancy. EG-VEGF is also expressed in the mouse fetal membrane (FM) by the end of gestation, suggesting a local role for this protein in the mechanism of parturition. However, injection of EG-VEGF to gravid mice did not induce labor, suggesting a different role for EG-VEGF in parturition. Here, we searched for its role in the FM in relation to human parturition. Human pregnant sera and total FM, chorion, and amnion were collected during the second and third trimesters from preterm no labor, term no labor, and term labor patients. Primary human chorion trophoblast and FM explants cultures were also used. We demonstrate that circulating EG-VEGF increased toward term and significantly decreased at the time of labor. EG-VEGF production was higher in the FM compared to placentas matched for gestational age. Within the FM, the chorion was the main source of EG-VEGF. EG-VEGF receptors, PROKR1 and PROKR2, were differentially expressed within the FM with increased expression toward term and an abrupt decrease with the onset of labor. In chorion trophoblast and FM explants collected from nonlaboring patients, EG-VEGF decreased metalloproteinase-2 and -9 activities and increased PGDH (prostaglandin-metabolizing enzyme) expression. Altogether these data demonstrate that EG-VEGF is a new cytokine that acts locally to ensure FM protection in late pregnancy. Its fine contribution to the initiation of human labor is exhibited by the abrupt decrease in its levels as well as a reduction in its receptors. © 2014 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  16. Current interruption transients calculation

    CERN Document Server

    Peelo, David F

    2014-01-01

    Provides an original, detailed and practical description of current interruption transients, origins, and the circuits involved, and how they can be calculated Current Interruption Transients Calculationis a comprehensive resource for the understanding, calculation and analysis of the transient recovery voltages (TRVs) and related re-ignition or re-striking transients associated with fault current interruption and the switching of inductive and capacitive load currents in circuits. This book provides an original, detailed and practical description of current interruption transients, origins,

  17. Swine Brucellosis: Current Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brucella suis is a significant zoonosis that is present in domestic livestock and wildlife in many countries worldwide. Transmission from animal reservoirs is the source of human infection as human to human transmission is very rare. Although swine brucellosis causes economic losses in domestic liv...

  18. LANSCE beam current limiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallegos, F.R.

    1996-01-01

    The Radiation Security System (RSS) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) provides personnel protection from prompt radiation due to accelerated beam. Active instrumentation, such as the Beam Current Limiter, is a component of the RSS. The current limiter is designed to limit the average current in a beam line below a specific level, thus minimizing the maximum current available for a beam spill accident. The beam current limiter is a self-contained, electrically isolated toroidal beam transformer which continuously monitors beam current. It is designed as fail-safe instrumentation. The design philosophy, hardware design, operation, and limitations of the device are described

  19. Risk of high-risk human papillomavirus infection and cervical precancerous lesions with past or current trichomonas infection: a pooled analysis of 25,054 women in rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Rui-Mei; Z Wang, Margaret; Smith, Jennifer S; Dong, Li; Chen, Feng; Pan, Qin-Jing; Zhang, Xun; Qiao, You-Lin; Zhao, Fang-Hui

    Trichomonas vaginitis (TV) infection has obviously been implicated in gynecological morbidity but still unclear in cervical lesions. To evaluate the risk of hr-HPV infection and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse (CIN2 + ) by TV infection. The pooled study was conducted among 12 population-based, cervical cancer screening studies throughout China (N = 24,054). HPV was detected by Hybrid Capture ® 2 (HC2) test. Past TV infection was measured by self-reporting, current TV infection was diagnosed by liquid-based cytology (LBC), cervical lesions was diagnosed by histopathology. Respective prevalence of hr-HPV and CIN2+ were 17.4% and 3.3%. Out of 24,054 women, 14.6% reported past TV infection, and out of 11,853 women, 9.9% had current TV infection. Current TV-positive women had an increased risk for hr-HPV (OR 1.31, 95%CI: 1.11-1.56). The risk of CIN2+ decreased for hr-HPV positive women with current TV infection (adjusted OR 0.50, 95% CI: 0.30-0.84) and past TV infection (adjusted OR 0.68, 95% CI: 0.54-0.86). Among hr-HPV negative women, no significant associations were observed between past or current TV infection and risk of CIN2+. Women infected with HPV are more likely to be infected by other types of sexually transmitted diseases. Current TV-positive women had an increased risk for hr-HPV infection compared to currently TV-negative women. Both past and current TV-positive women had a decreased risk for CIN2+, especially among high-risk HPV positive women. More direct investigation into the interaction between TV, HPV, inflammatory signals, and risk of carcinogenesis are further needed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. 21 CFR 110.5 - Current good manufacturing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Current good manufacturing practice. 110.5 Section...) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN MANUFACTURING, PACKING, OR HOLDING HUMAN FOOD General Provisions § 110.5 Current good manufacturing practice. (a) The criteria and...

  1. Superconformal current multiplet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smailagic, A.

    1982-12-01

    We consider a derivation of a superconformal current multiplet based directly on superconformal algebra. This gives usual multiplet of currents without anomalies, directly in terms of ''improved'' quantities and without reference to a particular Lagrangian model. (author)

  2. Current Research Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Success Home > Explore Research > Current Research Studies Current Research Studies Email Print + Share The Crohn’s & Colitis Foundation ... conducted online. Learn more about IBD Partners. Clinical Research Alliance The Clinical Research Alliance is a network ...

  3. Currents on Grassmann algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coquereaux, R.; Ragoucy, E.

    1993-09-01

    Currents are defined on a Grassmann algebra Gr(N) with N generators as distributions on its exterior algebra (using the symmetric wedge product). The currents are interpreted in terms of Z 2 -graded Hochschild cohomology and closed currents in terms of cyclic cocycles (they are particular multilinear forms on Gr(N)). An explicit construction of the vector space of closed currents of degree p on Gr(N) is given by using Berezin integration. (authors). 10 refs

  4. Eddy current seminar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emson, C.R.I.

    1988-11-01

    The paper presents the fifth symposium in the series of Eddy Current Seminars, held in Abingdon, 1988. The meeting included a discussion on three-dimensional eddy current formulations, as well as thirteen contributed papers on computational electromagnetics. Of the thirteen papers, two papers on eddy currents in tokamaks were selected for INIS and indexed separately. (U.K.)

  5. Fast wave current drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goree, J.; Ono, M.; Colestock, P.; Horton, R.; McNeill, D.; Park, H.

    1985-07-01

    Fast wave current drive is demonstrated in the Princeton ACT-I toroidal device. The fast Alfven wave, in the range of high ion-cyclotron harmonics, produced 40 A of current from 1 kW of rf power coupled into the plasma by fast wave loop antenna. This wave excites a steady current by damping on the energetic tail of the electron distribution function in the same way as lower-hybrid current drive, except that fast wave current drive is appropriate for higher plasma densities

  6. Current and Current Fluctuations in Quantum Shuttles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jauho, Antti-Pekka; Flindt, Christian; Novotny, Tomas

    2005-01-01

    theoretical tools needed for the analysis, e.g., generalized master equations and Wigner functions, and we outline the methods how the resulting large numerical problems can be handled. Illustrative results are given for current, noise, and full counting statistics for a number of model systems. Throughout...... the review we focus on the physics behind the various approximations, and some simple examples are given to illustrate the theoretical concepts. We also comment on the experimental situation. ©2005 American Institute of Physics...

  7. Methylation of Promoter Regions of Genes of the Human Intrauterine Renin Angiotensin System and Their Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shane D. Sykes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The intrauterine renin angiotensin system (RAS is implicated in placentation and labour onset. Here we investigate whether promoter methylation of RAS genes changes with gestation or labour and if it affects gene expression. Early gestation amnion and placenta were studied, as were term amnion, decidua, and placenta collected before labour (at elective caesarean section or after spontaneous labour and delivery. The expression and degree of methylation of the prorenin receptor (ATP6AP2, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE, angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AGTR1, and two proteases that can activate prorenin (kallikrein, KLK1, and cathepsin D, CTSD were measured by qPCR and a DNA methylation array. There was no effect of gestation or labour on the methylation of RAS genes and CTSD. Amnion and decidua displayed strong correlations between the percent hypermethylation of RAS genes and CTSD, suggestive of global methylation. There were no correlations between the degree of methylation and mRNA abundance of any genes studied. KLK1 was the most methylated gene and the proportion of hypermethylated KLK1 alleles was lower in placenta than decidua. The presence of intermediate methylated alleles of KLK1 in early gestation placenta and in amnion after labour suggests that KLK1 methylation is uniquely dynamic in these tissues.

  8. Presence of human papillomavirus-18 and Epstein-Barr virus in a squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue in a 20-year-old patient. Case report and review of the current literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermann, R.M.; Pradier, O.; Christiansen, H.; Schmidberger, H.; Fuzesi, L.

    2004-01-01

    We report on a squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue in a 20-year-old woman with co-infection of the tumor with human papilloma virus type 18 and Epstein-Barr virus.To our knowledge, this is the first case of co-infection in carcinoma of the tongue to be reported. We review the present data and theories concerning viral onco-genesis of oral carcinomas. (author)

  9. Current Status of HPV Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Barbara; Roden, Richard; Wu, T.C.

    2010-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second largest cause of cancer deaths in women worldwide, with ~500,000 diagnoses and 274,000 deaths annually. It remains a significant source of morbidity and mortality despite effective screening tools and treatments for its precursor high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). Increased understanding of cervical pathogenesis has led to the identification of human papillomavirus (HPV) as the etiological agent for cervical cancer and the development of preventive and therapeutic vaccines targeting HPV antigens for the control of cervical cancer. Herein, we discuss the current status of HPV vaccines. PMID:20677402

  10. Current Cervical Carcinoma Screening Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan J. Schlichte

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A formidable threat to the health of women, cervical carcinoma can be prevented in many cases with adequate screening. The current guidelines for cervical carcinoma screening were created as joint recommendations of the American Cancer Society (ACS, the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology (ASCCP and the American Society for Clinical Pathology (ASCP in 2012, and later accepted and promoted by the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG. The 2012 recommendations underscore the utility of molecular testing as an adjunct to cytology screening for certain women and provide guidance to clinicians based on different risk-benefit considerations for different ages. This manuscript will review screening techniques and current recommendations for cervical cancer screening and human papilloma virus (HPV testing, as well as possible future screening strategies.

  11. Current limiter circuit system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witcher, Joseph Brandon; Bredemann, Michael V.

    2017-09-05

    An apparatus comprising a steady state sensing circuit, a switching circuit, and a detection circuit. The steady state sensing circuit is connected to a first, a second and a third node. The first node is connected to a first device, the second node is connected to a second device, and the steady state sensing circuit causes a scaled current to flow at the third node. The scaled current is proportional to a voltage difference between the first and second node. The switching circuit limits an amount of current that flows between the first and second device. The detection circuit is connected to the third node and the switching circuit. The detection circuit monitors the scaled current at the third node and controls the switching circuit to limit the amount of the current that flows between the first and second device when the scaled current is greater than a desired level.

  12. Purely leptonic currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gourdin, M.

    1976-01-01

    In most gauge theories weak neutral currents appear as a natural consequence of the models, but the specific properties are not predicted in a general way. In purely leptonic interactions the structure of these currents can be tested without making assumptions about the weak couplings of the hadrons. The influence of neutral currents appearing in the process e + e - → μ + μ - can be measured using the polarization of the outgoing myons. (BJ) [de

  13. Modulated Current Drive Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petty, C.C.; Lohr, J.; Luce, T.C.; Prater, R.; Cox, W.A.; Forest, C.B.; Jayakumar, R.J.; Makowski, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    A new measurement approach is presented which directly determines the noninductive current profile from the periodic response of the motional Stark effect (MSE) signals to the slow modulation of the external current drive source. A Fourier transform of the poloidal magnetic flux diffusion equation is used to analyze the MSE data. An example of this measurement technique is shown using modulated electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) discharges from the DIII-D tokamak

  14. Superconducting current generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genevey, P.

    1970-01-01

    After a brief summary of the principle of energy storage and liberation with superconducting coils,two current generators are described that create currents in the range 600 to 1400 A, used for two storage experiments of 25 kJ and 50 kJ respectively. The two current generators are: a) a flux pump and b) a superconducting transformer. Both could be developed into more powerful units. The study shows the advantage of the transformer over the flux pump in order to create large currents. The efficiencies of the two generators are 95 per cent and 40 to 60 per cent respectively. (author) [fr

  15. Quantization of interface currents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotani, Motoko [AIMR, Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Schulz-Baldes, Hermann [Department Mathematik, Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen (Germany); Villegas-Blas, Carlos [Instituto de Matematicas, Cuernavaca, UNAM, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    2014-12-15

    At the interface of two two-dimensional quantum systems, there may exist interface currents similar to edge currents in quantum Hall systems. It is proved that these interface currents are macroscopically quantized by an integer that is given by the difference of the Chern numbers of the two systems. It is also argued that at the interface between two time-reversal invariant systems with half-integer spin, one of which is trivial and the other non-trivial, there are dissipationless spin-polarized interface currents.

  16. Classification of exchange currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friar, J.L.

    1983-01-01

    After expansion of the vector and axial vector currents in powers of (v/c), a heretofore unremarked regularity results. Meson exchange currents can be classified into types I and II, according to the way they satisfy the constraints of special relativity. The archetypes of these two categories are the impulse approximation to the vector and axial vector currents. After a brief discussion of these constraints, the (rhoπγ) and (ωsigmaγ) exchange currents are constructed and classified, and used to illustrate a number of important points which are often overlooked

  17. Current Energy Patents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, R.C.

    1982-01-01

    Current Energy Patents (CEP) provides abstracting and indexing coverage of the international patent literature, including patent applications, that concerns any aspect of energy production, conservation, and utilization

  18. Compton current detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho Campos, J.S. de.

    1984-01-01

    The project and construction of a Compton current detector, with cylindrical geometry using teflon as dielectric material; for electromagnetic radiation in range energy between 10 KeV and 2 MeV are described. The measurements of Compton current in teflon were obtained using an electrometer. The Compton current was promoted by photon flux proceeding from X ray sources (MG 150 Muller device) and gamma rays of 60 Co. The theory elaborated to explain the experimental results is shown. The calibration curves for accumulated charge and current in detector in function of exposition rates were obtained. (M.C.K.) [pt

  19. Low current beam techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saint, A; Laird, J S; Bardos, R A; Legge, G J.F. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics; Nishijima, T; Sekiguchi, H [Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan).

    1994-12-31

    Since the development of Scanning Transmission Microscopy (STIM) imaging in 1983 many low current beam techniques have been developed for the scanning (ion) microprobe. These include STIM tomography, Ion Beam Induced Current, Ion Beam Micromachining and Microlithography and Ionoluminense. Most of these techniques utilise beam currents of 10{sup -15} A down to single ions controlled by beam switching techniques This paper will discuss some of the low beam current techniques mentioned above, and indicate, some of their recent applications at MARC. A new STIM technique will be introduced that can be used to obtain Z-contrast with STIM resolution. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  20. Low current beam techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saint, A.; Laird, J.S.; Bardos, R.A.; Legge, G.J.F. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics; Nishijima, T.; Sekiguchi, H. [Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan).

    1993-12-31

    Since the development of Scanning Transmission Microscopy (STIM) imaging in 1983 many low current beam techniques have been developed for the scanning (ion) microprobe. These include STIM tomography, Ion Beam Induced Current, Ion Beam Micromachining and Microlithography and Ionoluminense. Most of these techniques utilise beam currents of 10{sup -15} A down to single ions controlled by beam switching techniques This paper will discuss some of the low beam current techniques mentioned above, and indicate, some of their recent applications at MARC. A new STIM technique will be introduced that can be used to obtain Z-contrast with STIM resolution. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  1. Current organic chemistry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    Provides in depth reviews on current progress in the fields of asymmetric synthesis, organometallic chemistry, bioorganic chemistry, heterocyclic chemistry, natural product chemistry, and analytical...

  2. Transport and biodistribution of dendrimers across human fetal membranes: implications for intravaginal administration of dendrimer-drug conjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menjoge, Anupa R; Navath, Raghavendra S; Asad, Abbas; Kannan, Sujatha; Kim, Chong J; Romero, Roberto; Kannan, Rangaramanujam M

    2010-06-01

    Dendrimers are emerging as promising topical antimicrobial agents, and as targeted nanoscale drug delivery vehicles. Topical intravaginal antimicrobial agents are prescribed to treat the ascending genital infections in pregnant women. The fetal membranes separate the extra-amniotic space and fetus. The purpose of the study is to determine if the dendrimers can be selectively used for local intravaginal application to pregnant women without crossing the membranes into the fetus. In the present study, the transport and permeability of PAMAM (poly (amidoamine)) dendrimers, across human fetal membrane (using a side by side diffusion chamber), and its biodistribution (using immunofluorescence) are evaluated ex-vivo. Transport across human fetal membranes (from the maternal side) was evaluated using Fluorescein (FITC), an established transplacental marker (positive control, size approximately 400 Da) and fluorophore-tagged G(4)-PAMAM dendrimers (approximately 16 kDa). The fluorophore-tagged G(4)-PAMAM dendrimers were synthesized and characterized using (1)H NMR, MALDI TOF MS and HPLC analysis. Transfer was measured across the intact fetal membrane (chorioamnion), and the separated chorion and amnion layers. Over a 5 h period, the dendrimer transport across all the three membranes was less than dendrimer (5.8 x 10(-8) cm(2)/s). The biodistribution showed that the dendrimers were largely present in interstitial spaces in the decidual stromal cells and the chorionic trophoblast cells (in 2.5-4 h) and surprisingly, to a smaller extent internalized in nuclei of trophoblast cells and nuclei and cytoplasm of stromal cells. Passive diffusion and paracellular transport appear to be the major route for dendrimer transport. The overall findings further suggest that entry of drugs conjugated to dendrimers would be restricted across the human fetal membranes when administered topically by intravaginal route, suggesting new ways of selectively delivering therapeutics to the mother

  3. Radiofrequency contact currents: sensory responses and dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavet, Robert; Tell, R.A.; Olsen, R.G.

    2014-01-01

    The process of setting science-based exposure standards (or guidelines) for radiofrequency (RF) contact current exposure has been disadvantaged by a lack of relevant data. The authors first review the essential features and results of the available studies and illustrate the apparent discrepancies among them. Then, they examine the manner in which current was administered in these studies and suggest as to how the physical relationship of a contacting finger to the current electrode may play a role in affecting sensory thresholds specific to those configurations. A major factor in this analysis relates to whether current density is uniformly distributed across the contact area or whether an electrode's 'edge effects' enhance currents with a net effect of decreasing apparent thresholds, when expressed as the bulk current entering a subject. For an exposure with a clear hazard potential, thresholds of human sensory response to RF currents require further investigation. (authors)

  4. Human cognition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norman, D.A.

    1982-01-01

    The study of human cognition encompasses the study of all mental phenomena, from the receipt and interpretation of sensory information to the final control of the motor system in the performance of action. The cognitive scientist examines all intermediary processes, including thought, decision making, and memory and including the effects of motivation, states of arousal and stress, the study of language, and the effects of social factors. The field therefore ranges over an enormous territory, covering all that is known or that should be known about human behavior. It is not possible to summarize the current state of knowledge about cognition with any great confidence that we know the correct answer about any aspect of the work. Nontheless, models provide good characterizations of certain aspects of the data and situations. Even if these models should prove to be incorrect, they do provide good approximate descriptions of people's behavior in some situations, and these approximations will still apply even when the underlying theories have changed. A quick description is provided of models within a number of areas of human cognition and skill and some general theoretical frameworks with which to view human cognition. The frameworks are qualitative descriptions that provide a way to view the development of more detailed, quantitative models and, most important, a way of thinking about human performance and skill

  5. High current ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, I.G.

    1989-06-01

    The concept of high current ion source is both relative and evolutionary. Within the domain of one particular kind of ion source technology a current of microamperers might be 'high', while in another area a current of 10 Amperes could 'low'. Even within the domain of a single ion source type, what is considered high current performance today is routinely eclipsed by better performance and higher current output within a short period of time. Within their fields of application, there is a large number of kinds of ion sources that can justifiably be called high current. Thus, as a very limited example only, PIGs, Freemen sources, ECR sources, duoplasmatrons, field emission sources, and a great many more all have their high current variants. High current ion beams of gaseous and metallic species can be generated in a number of different ways. Ion sources of the kind developed at various laboratories around the world for the production of intense neutral beams for controlled fusion experiments are used to form large area proton deuteron beams of may tens of Amperes, and this technology can be used for other applications also. There has been significant progress in recent years in the use of microwave ion sources for high current ion beam generation, and this method is likely to find wide application in various different field application. Finally, high current beams of metal ions can be produced using metal vapor vacuum arc ion source technology. After a brief consideration of high current ion source design concepts, these three particular methods are reviewed in this paper

  6. Two modes of polyamine block regulating the cardiac inward rectifier K+ current IK1 as revealed by a study of the Kir2.1 channel expressed in a human cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Keiko; Ehara, Tsuguhisa

    2004-04-01

    The strong inward rectifier K(+) current, I(K1), shows significant outward current amplitude in the voltage range near the reversal potential and thereby causes rapid repolarization at the final phase of cardiac action potentials. However, the mechanism that generates the outward I(K1) is not well understood. We recorded currents from the inside-out patches of HEK 293T cells that express the strong inward rectifier K(+) channel Kir2.1 and studied the blockage of the currents caused by cytoplasmic polyamines, namely, spermine and spermidine. The outward current-voltage (I-V) relationships of Kir2.1, obtained with 5-10 microm spermine or 10-100 microm spermidine, were similar to the steady-state outward I-V relationship of I(K1), showing a peak at a level that is approximately 20 mV more positive than the reversal potential, with a negative slope at more positive voltages. The relationships exhibited a plateau or a double-hump shape with 1 microm spermine/spermidine or 0.1 microm spermine, respectively. In the chord conductance-voltage relationships, there were extra conductances in the positive voltage range, which could not be described by the Boltzmann relations fitting the major part of the relationships. The extra conductances, which generated most of the outward currents in the presence of 5-10 microm spermine or 10-100 microm spermidine, were quantitatively explained by a model that considered two populations of Kir2.1 channels, which were blocked by polyamines in either a high-affinity mode (Mode 1 channel) or a low-affinity mode (Mode 2 channel). Analysis of the inward tail currents following test pulses indicated that the relief from the spermine block of Kir2.1 consisted of an exponential component and a virtually instantaneous component. The fractions of the two components nearly agreed with the fractions of the blockages in Mode 1 and Mode 2 calculated by the model. The estimated proportion of Mode 1 channels to total channels was 0.9 with 0.1-10 microm

  7. Turbidity Current Bedforms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cartigny, Matthieu; Postma, G.

    2017-01-01

    Turbidity currents in the submarine seascape are what river flows are in terrestrial landscapes. While rivers transport sediment from the mountains through valleys towards the sea, turbidity currents transport sediment from the shallow marine realms through canyons towards the deeper abyssal plains.

  8. Electric Current Solves Mazes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayrinhac, Simon

    2014-01-01

    We present in this work a demonstration of the maze-solving problem with electricity. Electric current flowing in a maze as a printed circuit produces Joule heating and the right way is instantaneously revealed with infrared thermal imaging. The basic properties of electric current can be discussed in this context, with this challenging question:…

  9. CLIA Currently Waived Analytes

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This database contains the commercially marketed in vitro test systems categorized as CLIA waived by the FDA since January 31, 2000, and by the Centers for Disease...

  10. CURRENT TRENDS IN HRM

    OpenAIRE

    Otilia ALBU; Lucia MOROŞAN-DĂNILĂ

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this article is to establish the importance of human resource management (HRM) and how it emerged, to provide some evidence of its context, to discuss its potential and future development. Many specialists underlined the fact that human resource requires more attention and careful management then any other resource of an organization. The role of the HR manager must parallel the needs of the changing organization. Successful organizations are becoming more adaptable, resilient, qu...

  11. Cryogenic high current discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meierovich, B.E.

    1994-01-01

    Z-pinches formed from frozen deuterium fibers by a rapidly rising current have enhanced stability and high neutron yield. The efforts to understand the enhanced stability and neutron yield on the basis of classical picture of Bennett equilibrium of the current channel has not given satisfactory results. The traditional approach does not take into account the essential difference between the frozen deuterium fiber Z-pinches and the usual Z-pinches such as exploding wires or classical gas-puffed Z-pinches. The very low temperature of the fiber atoms (10 K), together with the rapidly rising current, result in the coexistence of a high current channel with unionized fiber atoms for a substantial period of time. This phenomena lasts during the risetime. This approach takes into account the difference of the breakdown in a dielectric deuterium fiber and the breakdown in a metallic wire. This difference is essential to the understanding of specific features of cryogenic high current discharges. Z-pinches in frozen deuterium fibers should be considered as a qualitatively new phenomenon on the boundary of cryogenic and high current physics. It is a start of a new branch in plasma physics: the physics of cryogenic high current discharges

  12. Current density tensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzeretti, Paolo

    2018-04-01

    It is shown that nonsymmetric second-rank current density tensors, related to the current densities induced by magnetic fields and nuclear magnetic dipole moments, are fundamental properties of a molecule. Together with magnetizability, nuclear magnetic shielding, and nuclear spin-spin coupling, they completely characterize its response to magnetic perturbations. Gauge invariance, resolution into isotropic, deviatoric, and antisymmetric parts, and contributions of current density tensors to magnetic properties are discussed. The components of the second-rank tensor properties are rationalized via relationships explicitly connecting them to the direction of the induced current density vectors and to the components of the current density tensors. The contribution of the deviatoric part to the average value of magnetizability, nuclear shielding, and nuclear spin-spin coupling, uniquely determined by the antisymmetric part of current density tensors, vanishes identically. The physical meaning of isotropic and anisotropic invariants of current density tensors has been investigated, and the connection between anisotropy magnitude and electron delocalization has been discussed.

  13. Turbulent current drive mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDevitt, Christopher J.; Tang, Xian-Zhu; Guo, Zehua

    2017-08-01

    Mechanisms through which plasma microturbulence can drive a mean electron plasma current are derived. The efficiency through which these turbulent contributions can drive deviations from neoclassical predictions of the electron current profile is computed by employing a linearized Coulomb collision operator. It is found that a non-diffusive contribution to the electron momentum flux as well as an anomalous electron-ion momentum exchange term provide the most efficient means through which turbulence can modify the mean electron current for the cases considered. Such turbulent contributions appear as an effective EMF within Ohm's law and hence provide an ideal means for driving deviations from neoclassical predictions.

  14. Geothermal Energy: Current abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ringe, A.C. (ed.)

    1988-02-01

    This bulletin announces the current worldwide information available on the technologies required for economic recovery of geothermal energy and its use as direct heat or for electric power production. (ACR)

  15. Opinions on Current Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Blacks in Higher Education, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Presents eight reviews of current books, covering issues of particular interest to black educators and historians. Topics considered include slavery, college admissions and affirmative action, the marginalization of black scientists, black politics, bigotry, and higher education. (SLD)

  16. CURRENT TRANSFER SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, D.A.

    1956-07-01

    A current transfer system is described for transferring current between a rotating member and a co-axial stationary member. The particular area of application for the invention is in connection with homopolar generators where a low voltage and high current are generated. The current tramsfer system of the invention comprises a rotor member and a co-axial stator member wherein one of the members is shaped to provide a circumferential surface concave in section and the other member is shaped to have a peripheral portion in close proximity to the surface, whereby a liquid metal can be stably supported between the two members when they are moving relative to one another to establish an electrical conducting path between the members.

  17. Current Resource Imagery Projects

    Data.gov (United States)

    Farm Service Agency, Department of Agriculture — Map showing coverage of current Resource imagery projects. High resolution/large scale Resource imagery is typically acquired for the U.S. Forest Service and other...

  18. Current Icing Product

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Current Icing Product (CIP) is an automatically-generated index suitable for depicting areas of potentially hazardous airframe icing. The CIP algorithm combines...

  19. Charged weak currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turlay, R.

    1979-01-01

    In this review of charged weak currents I shall concentrate on inclusive high energy neutrino physics. There are surely still things to learn from the low energy weak interaction but I will not discuss it here. Furthermore B. Tallini will discuss the hadronic final state of neutrino interactions. Since the Tokyo conference a few experimental results have appeared on charged current interaction, I will present them and will also comment on important topics which have been published during the last past year. (orig.)

  20. Eddy current testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Sung Jin; Lee, Hyang Beom; Kim, Young Hwan [Soongsil Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Young Kil [Kunsan Univ., Gunsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-02-15

    Eddy current testing has been widely used for non destructive testing of steam generator tubes. In order to retain reliability in ECT, the following subjects were carried out in this study: numerical modeling and analysis of defects by using BC and RPC probes in SG tube, preparation of absolute coil impedance plane diagram by FEM. Signal interpretation of the eddy current signals obtained from nuclear power plants.

  1. Eddy current testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Sung Jin; Lee, Hyang Beom; Kim, Young Hwan; Shin, Young Kil

    2004-02-01

    Eddy current testing has been widely used for non destructive testing of steam generator tubes. In order to retain reliability in ECT, the following subjects were carried out in this study: numerical modeling and analysis of defects by using BC and RPC probes in SG tube, preparation of absolute coil impedance plane diagram by FEM. Signal interpretation of the eddy current signals obtained from nuclear power plants

  2. Current Issues in Tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Shi; Martinez, Larry R.; Hubert, Van Hoof; Tews, Michael; Torres, Leonardo; Farfán, Karina

    2015-01-01

    Ram (2015 Ram, Y. (2015). Hostility or hospitality? A review on violence, bullying and sexual harassment in the tourism and hospitality industry. Current Issues in Tourism. doi:10.1080/13683500.2015.1064364 [Taylor & Francis Online], [Google Scholar] . Hostility or hospitality? A review on violence, bullying and sexual harassment in the tourism and hospitality industry. Current Issues in Tourism. doi:10.1080/13683500.2015.1064364) posits that violence and harassment are areas of concern...

  3. Simple WZW currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, J.

    1990-08-01

    A complete classification of simple currents of WZW theory is obtained. The proof is based on an analysis of the quantum dimensions of the primary fields. Simple currents are precisely the primaries with unit quantum dimension; for WZW theories explicit formulae for the quantum dimensions can be derived so that an identification of the fields with unit quantum dimension is possible. (author). 19 refs.; 2 tabs

  4. Current level detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerns, C.R.

    1977-01-01

    A device is provided for detecting the current level of a dc signal. It includes an even harmonic modulator to which a reference ac signal is applied. The unknown dc signal acts on the reference ac signal so that the output of the modulator includes an even harmonic whose amplitude is proportional to the unknown dc current. The device may be used to provide overcurrent protection for proportional wire chambers

  5. Induced current heating probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thatcher, G.; Ferguson, B.G.; Winstanley, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    An induced current heating probe is of thimble form and has an outer conducting sheath and a water flooded flux-generating unit formed from a stack of ferrite rings coaxially disposed in the sheath. The energising coil is made of solid wire which connects at one end with a coaxial water current tube and at the other end with the sheath. The stack of ferrite rings may include non-magnetic insulating rings which help to shape the flux. (author)

  6. Superconducting current transducer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuchnir, M.; Ozelis, J.P.

    1990-10-01

    The construction and performance of an electric current meter that operates in liquid He and mechanically splits apart to permit replacement of the current carrying conductor is described. It permits the measurement of currents induced in a loop of superconducting cable and expeditious exchange of such loops. It is a key component for a short sample cable testing facility that requires no high current power supplies nor high current leads. Its superconducting pickup circuit involves a non-magnetic core toroidal split-coil that surrounds the conductor and a solenoid whose field is sensed by a Hall probe. This toroidal split-coil is potted inside another compensating toroidal split-coil. The C shaped half toroids can be separated and brought precisely together from outside the cryostat. The Hall probe is energized and sensed by a lock-in amplifier whose output drives a bipolar power supply which feeds the compensating coil. The output is the voltage across a resistor in this feedback circuit. Currents of up to 10 kA can be measured with a precision of 150 mA. 3 refs., 4 figs

  7. The Case for the Humanities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cary, Michael S.

    1981-01-01

    Describes the current impoverishment of the humanities and the gulf separating the humanities from the sciences. Discusses the need for adequate humanities instruction at the elementary-secondary level. Suggests that humanities teachers rediscover the Italian Renaissance spirit to improve their teaching. (SB)

  8. Current possibilities of cervical precancerous lesions screening in Slovakia: prevalence of high risk human papillomavirus in patients with cytological diagnoses of atypical squamous cells of unknown significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolnikova, G; Ondrusova, M; Repiska, V; Drobna, R; Marinova, P; Meciarova, I; Rampalova, J; Ondrias, F

    2014-01-01

    It has been confirmed, that there is a causal relationship between persistent infection of high risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) and the development of cervical cancer. In population of women older than 30 years HPV infection becomes a significant etiological factor of precancerous lesion of the cervix, but HPV infection may spontaneously regress in the majority of the cases. The analysed study group consisted of 397 samples with cytological diagnosis of atypical squamous cells of unknown significance (ASCUS). All cases underwent HPV DNA testing using the Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2) assay. We analysed prevalence of HR-HPV and a viral load expressed as relative light units/cut off ratio (RLU/CO) in different age groups with cytological diagnoses of ASCUS. The prevalence of HR-HPV with cytological diagnoses of ASCUS was detected in 44 %. The prevalence of HR-HPV between patients aged 17-29 and between patients aged 30-40 was 55 % and 48 % respectively and we detected significant reduction of prevalence (28 %) in patients older than 41 years. Based on the results of presented study we assumed that age the 40 and over is crucial for the development of serious precancerous lesions in Slovakia, thus this age group is the most suitable for HPV triage of ASCUS. As a refinement of that type of ASCUS triage we recommend to add to the algorithm quantitative measurement of viral load in the specimens in the form of RLU/CO ratio (Fig. 3, Ref. 27).

  9. Adjustable direct current and pulsed circuit fault current limiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boenig, Heinrich J.; Schillig, Josef B.

    2003-09-23

    A fault current limiting system for direct current circuits and for pulsed power circuit. In the circuits, a current source biases a diode that is in series with the circuits' transmission line. If fault current in a circuit exceeds current from the current source biasing the diode open, the diode will cease conducting and route the fault current through the current source and an inductor. This limits the rate of rise and the peak value of the fault current.

  10. Collisionless current sheet equilibria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neukirch, T.; Wilson, F.; Allanson, O.

    2018-01-01

    Current sheets are important for the structure and dynamics of many plasma systems. In space and astrophysical plasmas they play a crucial role in activity processes, for example by facilitating the release of magnetic energy via processes such as magnetic reconnection. In this contribution we will focus on collisionless plasma systems. A sensible first step in any investigation of physical processes involving current sheets is to find appropriate equilibrium solutions. The theory of collisionless plasma equilibria is well established, but over the past few years there has been a renewed interest in finding equilibrium distribution functions for collisionless current sheets with particular properties, for example for cases where the current density is parallel to the magnetic field (force-free current sheets). This interest is due to a combination of scientific curiosity and potential applications to space and astrophysical plasmas. In this paper we will give an overview of some of the recent developments, discuss their potential applications and address a number of open questions.

  11. Visible Human Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cryosections are associated with anatomical terminology. AnatLine : A prototype system consisting of an anatomical image database and ... further information is available Publications VHJOE: Visible Human Journal of Endoscopy. NLM's Current Bibliographies in Medicine, Visible ...

  12. Reconstruction of Cell Surface Densities of Ion Pumps, Exchangers, and Channels from mRNA Expression, Conductance Kinetics, Whole-Cell Calcium, and Current-Clamp Voltage Recordings, with an Application to Human Uterine Smooth Muscle Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolene Atia

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Uterine smooth muscle cells remain quiescent throughout most of gestation, only generating spontaneous action potentials immediately prior to, and during, labor. This study presents a method that combines transcriptomics with biophysical recordings to characterise the conductance repertoire of these cells, the 'conductance repertoire' being the total complement of ion channels and transporters expressed by an electrically active cell. Transcriptomic analysis provides a set of potential electrogenic entities, of which the conductance repertoire is a subset. Each entity within the conductance repertoire was modeled independently and its gating parameter values were fixed using the available biophysical data. The only remaining free parameters were the surface densities for each entity. We characterise the space of combinations of surface densities (density vectors consistent with experimentally observed membrane potential and calcium waveforms. This yields insights on the functional redundancy of the system as well as its behavioral versatility. Our approach couples high-throughput transcriptomic data with physiological behaviors in health and disease, and provides a formal method to link genotype to phenotype in excitable systems. We accurately predict current densities and chart functional redundancy. For example, we find that to evoke the observed voltage waveform, the BK channel is functionally redundant whereas hERG is essential. Furthermore, our analysis suggests that activation of calcium-activated chloride conductances by intracellular calcium release is the key factor underlying spontaneous depolarisations.

  13. Electric current - frequency converter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumahara, Tadashi; Kinbana, Setsuro.

    1967-01-01

    Herein disclosed is an improved simple electric current-frequency converter, the input current and output frequency linearity of which is widened to a range of four to five figures while compensating, for temperature. The converter may be used for computor processing and for telemetering the output signals from a nuclear reactor. The converter is an astable multivibrator which includes charging circuits comprising emitter-voltage compensated NPN transistors, a charged voltage detecting circuit of temperature compensated field effect transistors, and a transistor switching circuit for generating switching pulses independent of temperature. The converter exhibited a 0.7% frequency change within a range of 5 - 45 0 C and less than a 0.1% frequency drift after six hours of operation when the input current was maintained constant. (Yamaguchi, T.)

  14. Decomposing the Current

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tim

    The field of molecular electronics have been shown to span a huge range of properties. In an effort to extract the parameters of the system that governs these properties, a number of methods that decomposes the current have been developed. These methods function not just as tools for data...... extraction, but also serves as the foundation upon which to gain insights into the physics that governs the molecular properties. As such, the understanding of the applicability and the development of new methods to decompose the current may be a goal in it self. In this thesis we will explore some...... of these methods, and use the insights from this study to develop new methods. First, we will compare two methods that decompose the current into the transmission from a single conducting level of the molecular device, by extracting level position and broadening. In general we see that the method that relies on I...

  15. Current algebra for parafields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palev, Ch.D.

    1976-01-01

    Within the framework of the Lagrangean QFT a generalization of canonical commutation and anticommutation relations in terms of three-linear commutation relations, corresponding to the parastatistics, s discussed. A detailed derivation of these three-linear relations for a set of parafermi fields is presented. Then for a Lagrangean, depending of a family of parabose fields and a family of paraferm fields, is shown that the fundamental hypothesis of current algebra is valid. In other words, the currents corresponding to the linear gauge transformations are found to meet the commutation relation: [Jsub(f)sup(0)(x), Jsub(g)sup(0)]sub(x 0 =y 0 ) = -idelta(x vector - y vector)Jsub([f,g])sup(0) (x), where Jsub(f)sup(0) is a time component of the current, corresponding to transformation f. (S.P.)

  16. Fault current limiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmann, Francis Anthony

    2013-10-08

    A fault current limiter (FCL) includes a series of high permeability posts for collectively define a core for the FCL. A DC coil, for the purposes of saturating a portion of the high permeability posts, surrounds the complete structure outside of an enclosure in the form of a vessel. The vessel contains a dielectric insulation medium. AC coils, for transporting AC current, are wound on insulating formers and electrically interconnected to each other in a manner such that the senses of the magnetic field produced by each AC coil in the corresponding high permeability core are opposing. There are insulation barriers between phases to improve dielectric withstand properties of the dielectric medium.

  17. Current trends in plant breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalani, B.S.; Rajanaidu, N.

    2000-01-01

    The current world population is 6 billion and it is likely to reach 7 billion in 2010 and 8 billion 2025. Sufficient food must be produced for the ever increasing human population. The available suitable land for intensive agriculture is limited. We have to produce more food from less land, pesticide, labour and water resources. Hence, increase in crop productivity are essential to feed the world in the next century. Plant breeding provides the avenue to increase the food production to feed the growing world population. Development of a cultivar involves (I) Construction of a genetic model (II) creating a gene pool (III) selection among plants and (IV) testing the selected genotypes for adaptation to the biotic and abiotic environments (Frey, 1999). This paper discusses the trends in plant breeding using the oil palm as a model. It covers (i) genetic resources (ii) physiological traits (III) exploitation of genotype x environment interaction (IV) oil palm clones, and (v) biotechnology application. (Author)

  18. Second class weak currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delorme, J.

    1978-01-01

    The definition and general properties of weak second class currents are recalled and various detection possibilities briefly reviewed. It is shown that the existing data on nuclear beta decay can be consistently analysed in terms of a phenomenological model. Their implication on the fundamental structure of weak interactions is discussed [fr

  19. Issues in neutral currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sehgal, L.M.

    1980-01-01

    The experimental results on low energy confirming the structure of the effective Lagrangian of the weak neutral current processes as predicted by the Salam-Weinberg model are reviewed. Some possible modifications of the effective Lagrangian and the feasibility of their experimental verification are also considered. (P.L.)

  20. Introduction to human factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winters, J.M.

    1988-03-01

    Some background is given on the field of human factors. The nature of problems with current human/computer interfaces is discussed, some costs are identified, ideal attributes of graceful system interfaces are outlined, and some reasons are indicated why it's not easy to fix the problems

  1. High current induction linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barletta, W.; Faltens, A.; Henestroza, E.; Lee, E.

    1994-07-01

    Induction linacs are among the most powerful accelerators in existence. They have accelerated electron bunches of several kiloamperes, and are being investigated as drivers for heavy ion driven inertial confinement fusion (HIF), which requires peak beam currents of kiloamperes and average beam powers of some tens of megawatts. The requirement for waste transmutation with an 800 MeV proton or deuteron beam with an average current of 50 mA and an average power of 40 MW lies midway between the electron machines and the heavy ion machines in overall difficulty. Much of the technology and understanding of beam physics carries over from the previous machines to the new requirements. The induction linac allows use of a very large beam aperture, which may turn out to be crucial to reducing beam loss and machine activation from the beam halo. The major issues addressed here are transport of high intensity beams, availability of sources, efficiency of acceleration, and the state of the needed technology for the waste treatment application. Because of the transformer-like action of an induction core and the accompanying magnetizing current, induction linacs make the most economic sense and have the highest efficiencies with large beam currents. Based on present understanding of beam transport limits, induction core magnetizing current requirements, and pulse modulators, the efficiencies could be very high. The study of beam transport at high intensities has been the major activity of the HIF community. Beam transport and sources are limiting at low energies but are not significant constraints at the higher energies. As will be shown, the proton beams will be space-charge-dominated, for which the emittance has only a minor effect on the overall beam diameter but does determine the density falloff at the beam edge

  2. Donor milk: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliani F

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Francesca Giuliani,1 Ilaria Rovelli,1 Chiara Peila,1 Stefania Alfonsina Liguori,2 Enrico Bertino,1 Alessandra Coscia1 1SCDU Neonatologia, Dipartimento di Scienze Pediatriche e dell'Adolescenza, Università degli Studi di Torino, Torino, Italy; 2SC Neonatologia, Ospedale Maria Vittoria, Torino, Italy Abstract: Mother's own milk is widely recognized as the optimal feeding for term infants, but increasing evidence exists of its benefits also for sick and preterm infants in neonatal intensive care units. However, the nutritional needs for appropriate growth and neurodevelopmental outcomes of such a particular population of infants should be attentively evaluated, considering also the indication to an appropriate fortification of human milk. The target is to achieve growth potential for preterm newborns while ensuring good metabolic outcomes and normal neurological development. When mother's milk is unavailable or in short supply, donor human milk (DHM represents the second best choice and, although somewhat modified by the Holder pasteurization process, it preserves many benefits when compared to formula, as documented by more and more reports, randomized controlled trials, and meta-analyses published in the past few years. Evidence exists of the protection exerted by DHM from necrotizing enterocolitis, while further studies are required to look at possible beneficial effects regarding infections, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, long-term cardiovascular risk factors, feeding tolerance, neurological outcome, and allergy. Finally, the concern that the use of DHM might decrease preterm infant breastfeeding is being raised. Conversely, publications exist showing that the use of DHM in the neonatal unit increases breastfeeding rates at discharge for infants of very low birth weight. Keywords: human milk, preterm infant feeding, milk bank, breast milk, mother's own milk, pasteurized human milk, fortification

  3. [Current aspects of handedness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, M; Reiss, G

    1999-12-23

    Handedness is one example of many forms of behavioural lateralization seen in humans. Left-handedness has existed in a small subset of the human population, approximately 8%, since the origin of man. The incidence of left-handedness is usually reported to be consistent among human populations. Sinistrality is more common in males than in females. A vast range of testing techniques have been used to assess handedness. There are preference and performance tests. Writing hand and self-report are two of the most popular techniques. There is a strong evidence that the dominance of language functions in the cerebral cortex is different in left-handed from that in right-handed people. An understanding of handedness may provide valuables clues as to how the brain becomes organized the way it is. Several theories have been advanced over the years to explain the genesis of handedness and, in particular, left-handedness. Theories have ranged from genetic models to socio-cultural theories. Other authors suggested a pathological origin of left-handedness in man. Left-handedness runs in families and adoption studies suggests a genetic rather than an environmental origin. However, monozygotic twins appear to be substantially discordant. A polygenetic explanation which takes environmental influences into consideration is probably called for.

  4. Current Knowledge on Hepatitis E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Gracia, María Teresa; García, Mario; Suay, Beatriz; Mateos-Lindemann, María Luisa

    2015-06-28

    Although only a single serotype of hepatitis E virus (HEV), the causative agent of hepatitis E, has been identified, there is great genetic variation among the different HEV isolates reported. There are at least four major recognized genotypes of HEV: genotypes 1 and 2 are mainly restricted to humans and linked to epidemic outbreaks in nonindustrialized countries, whereas genotypes 3 and 4 are zoonotic in both developing and industrialized countries. Besides human strains, genotype 3 and 4 strains of HEV have been genetically characterized from swine, sika deer, mongooses, sheep, and rabbits. Currently, there are approximately 11,000 human and animal sequences of HEV available at the International Nucleotide Sequence Database Collaboration. HEV is the major cause of waterborne outbreaks of hepatitis in areas of poor sanitation. Additionally, it is responsible for sporadic cases of viral hepatitis in not only endemic but industrialized countries as well. Transmission of HEV occurs predominantly by the fecal-oral route, although parenteral and perinatal routes have been reported. HEV infection develops in most individuals as a self-limiting, acute, icteric hepatitis; with mortality rates around 1%. However, some affected individuals will develop fulminant hepatic failure, a serious condition that is frequently fatal without a liver transplant. This complication is particularly common when the infection occurs in pregnant women, where mortality rates rise dramatically to up to 25%. Among the preventive measures available to avoid HEV infection, two separate subunit vaccines containing recombinant truncated capsid proteins of HEV have been shown to be highly effective in the prevention of disease. One of them, HEV 239, was approved in China, and its commercialization by Innovax began in November 2012 under the name Hecolin(®).

  5. Human Modeling for Ground Processing Human Factors Engineering Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stambolian, Damon B.; Lawrence, Brad A.; Stelges, Katrine S.; Steady, Marie-Jeanne O.; Ridgwell, Lora C.; Mills, Robert E.; Henderson, Gena; Tran, Donald; Barth, Tim

    2011-01-01

    There have been many advancements and accomplishments over the last few years using human modeling for human factors engineering analysis for design of spacecraft. The key methods used for this are motion capture and computer generated human models. The focus of this paper is to explain the human modeling currently used at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), and to explain the future plans for human modeling for future spacecraft designs

  6. Current challenges in autonomous driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barabás, I.; Todoruţ, A.; Cordoş, N.; Molea, A.

    2017-10-01

    Nowadays the automotive industry makes a quantum shift to a future, where the driver will have smaller and smaller role in driving his or her vehicle ending up being totally excluded. In this paper, we have investigated the different levels of driving automatization, the prospective effects of these new technologies on the environment and traffic safety, the importance of regulations and their current state, the moral aspects of introducing these technologies and the possible scenarios of deploying the autonomous vehicles. We have found that the self-driving technologies are facing many challenges: a) They must make decisions faster in very diverse conditions which can include many moral dilemmas as well; b) They have an important potential in reducing the environmental pollution by optimizing their routes, driving styles by communicating with other vehicles, infrastructures and their environment; c) There is a considerable gap between the self-drive technology level and the current regulations; fortunately, this gap shows a continuously decreasing trend; d) In case of many types of imminent accidents management there are many concerns about the ability of making the right decision. Considering that this field has an extraordinary speed of development, our study is up to date at the submission deadline. Self-driving technologies become increasingly sophisticated and technically accessible, and in some cases, they can be deployed for commercial vehicles as well. According to the current stage of research and development, it is still unclear how the self-driving technologies will be able to handle extreme and unexpected events including their moral aspects. Since most of the traffic accidents are caused by human error or omission, it is expected that the emergence of the autonomous technologies will reduce these accidents in their number and gravity, but the very few currently available test results have not been able to scientifically underpin this issue yet. The

  7. 21 CFR 1271.150 - Current good tissue practice requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Current good tissue practice requirements. 1271... HUMAN CELLS, TISSUES, AND CELLULAR AND TISSUE-BASED PRODUCTS Current Good Tissue Practice § 1271.150 Current good tissue practice requirements. (a) General. This subpart D and subpart C of this part set...

  8. Human genome I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    An international conference, Human Genome I, was held Oct. 2-4, 1989 in San Diego, Calif. Selected speakers discussed: Current Status of the Genome Project; Technique Innovations; Interesting regions; Applications; and Organization - Different Views of Current and Future Science and Procedures. Posters, consisting of 119 presentations, were displayed during the sessions. 119 were indexed for inclusion to the Energy Data Base

  9. [Currently available skin substitutes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oravcová, Darina; Koller, Ján

    2014-01-01

    The current trend of burn wound care has shifted to more holistic approach of improvement in the long-term form and function of the healed burn wounds and quality of life. Autologous split or full-thickness skin graft are the best definitive burn wound coverage, but it is constrained by the limited available sources, especially in major burns. Donor site morbidities in term of additional wounds and scarring are also of concern of the autograft application. This has demanded the emergence of various skin substitutes in the management of acute burn injury as well as post burn reconstructions. This paper reviews currently available skin substitutes, produced in not for-profit skin banks as well as commercially available. They are divided according to type of material included, as biological, biosynthetic and synthetic and named respectively.

  10. Marijuana: Current concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald eGreydanus

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Marijuana (cannabis remains a controversial drug in the 21st century. This paper considers current research on use of Cannabis sativa and its constituents such as the cannabinoids. Topics reviewed include prevalence of cannabis use, other drugs consumed with pot, the endocannabinoid system, use of medicinal marijuana, medical adverse effects of cannabis, and psychiatric adverse effects of cannabis use. Treatment of cannabis withdrawal and dependence is difficult and remains mainly based on psychological therapy; current research on pharmacologic management of problems related to cannabis consumption is also considered. The potential role of specific cannabinoids for medical benefit will be revealed as the 21st century matures. However, potential dangerous adverse effects from smoking marijuana are well known and should be clearly taught to a public often confused by a media-driven, though false message and promise of benign pot consumption.

  11. Marijuana: Current Concepts†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greydanus, Donald E.; Hawver, Elizabeth K.; Greydanus, Megan M.; Merrick, Joav

    2013-01-01

    Marijuana (cannabis) remains a controversial drug in the twenty-first century. This paper considers current research on use of Cannabis sativa and its constituents such as the cannabinoids. Topics reviewed include prevalence of cannabis (pot) use, other drugs consumed with pot, the endocannabinoid system, use of medicinal marijuana, medical adverse effects of cannabis, and psychiatric adverse effects of cannabis use. Treatment of cannabis withdrawal and dependence is difficult and remains mainly based on psychological therapy; current research on pharmacologic management of problems related to cannabis consumption is also considered. The potential role of specific cannabinoids for medical benefit will be revealed as the twenty-first century matures. However, potential dangerous adverse effects from smoking marijuana are well known and should be clearly taught to a public that is often confused by a media-driven, though false message and promise of benign pot consumption. PMID:24350211

  12. More Human than Human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, David

    2017-07-01

    Within the literature surrounding nonhuman animals on the one hand and cognitively disabled humans on the other, there is much discussion of where beings that do not satisfy the criteria for personhood fit in our moral deliberations. In the future, we may face a different but related problem: that we might create (or cause the creation of) beings that not only satisfy but exceed these criteria. The question becomes whether these are minimal criteria, or hierarchical, such that those who fulfill them to greater degree should be afforded greater consideration. This article questions the validity and necessity of drawing divisions among beings that satisfy the minimum requirements for personhood; considering how future beings-intelligent androids, synthezoids, even alternate-substrate sentiences-might fit alongside the "baseline" human. I ask whether these alternate beings ought to be considered different to us, and why this may or may not matter in terms of a notion of "human community." The film Blade Runner, concerned in large part with humanity and its key synthezoid antagonist Roy Batty, forms a framing touchstone for my discussion. Batty is stronger, faster, more resilient, and more intelligent than Homo sapiens. His exploits, far beyond the capability of normal humans, are contrasted with his frailty and transient lifespan, his aesthetic appreciation of the sights he has seen, and his burgeoning empathy. Not for nothing does his creator within the mythos term him "more human than human."

  13. Lead toxicity: current concerns.

    OpenAIRE

    Goyer, R A

    1993-01-01

    Over the 20-year period since the first issue of Environmental Health Perspectives was published, there has been considerable progress in the understanding of the potential toxicity of exposure to lead. Many of these advances have been reviewed in published symposia, conferences, and review papers in EHP. This brief review identifies major advances as well as a number of current concerns that present opportunities for prevention and intervention strategies. The major scientific advance has be...

  14. Marijuana: Current Concepts†

    OpenAIRE

    Greydanus, Donald E.; Hawver, Elizabeth K.; Greydanus, Megan M.; Merrick, Joav

    2013-01-01

    Marijuana (cannabis) remains a controversial drug in the twenty-first century. This paper considers current research on use of Cannabis sativa and its constituents such as the cannabinoids. Topics reviewed include prevalence of cannabis (pot) use, other drugs consumed with pot, the endocannabinoid system, use of medicinal marijuana, medical adverse effects of cannabis, and psychiatric adverse effects of cannabis use. Treatment of cannabis withdrawal and dependence is difficult and remains mai...

  15. Current driven wiggler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tournes, C.; Aucouturier, J.; Arnaud, B.; Brasile, J. P.; Convert, G.; Simon, M.

    1992-07-01

    A current-driven wiggler is the cornerstone of an innovative, compact, high-efficiency, transportable tunable free-electron laser (FEL), the feasibility of which is currently being evaluated by Thomson-CSF. The salient advantages are: compactness of the FEL, along with the possibility to accelerate the beam through several successive passes through the accelerating section (the number of passes being defined by the final wavelength of the radiation; i.e. visible, MWIR, LWIR); the wiggler can be turned off and be transparent to the beam until the last pass. Wiggler periodicities as small as 5 mm can be achieved, hence contributing to FEL compactness. To achieve overall efficiencies in the range of 10% at visible wavelengths, not only the wiggler periodicity must be variable, but the strength of the magnetic field of each period can be adjusted separately and fine-tuned versus time during the macropulse, so as to take into account the growing contribution of the wave energy in the cavity to the total ponderomotive force. The salient theoretical point of this design is the optimization of the parameters defining each period of the wiggler for each micropacket of the macropulse. The salient technology point is the mechanical and thermal design of the wiggler which allows the required high currents to achieve magnetic fields up to 2T.

  16. Current issues in onychomycosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trépanier, E F; Amsden, G W

    1998-02-01

    To review the epidemiology, mycology, clinical features and diagnosis, current pharmacotherapy, and pharmacoeconomics of onychomycosis. We conducted a MEDLINE search from 1966 to May 1997. References from these articles, manufacturers of the discussed antimycotics, and relevant abstracts from recent dermatology conferences were used to collect pertinent data. Data were obtained from published controlled studies and case reports. In the pharmacotherapy section, the most weight was placed on fully reported, randomized, controlled comparative trials, but abstracts and case series were included when well-controlled studies were unavailable. Onychomycosis is a common nail disorder that has a substantial impact on patients' quality of life. It is most commonly caused by dermatophytes, but yeasts and molds can also be involved. Diagnosis is made through clinical presentation, potassium hydroxide preparations, and culture of tissue/nail samples. Griseofulvin was the drug of choice for many years, but its low cure rates and the development of newer, more effective drugs made it fall out of favor. Current therapeutic alternatives include fluconazole, itraconazole, and terbinafine. Data on the use of fluconazole are limited to case series and reports. Continuous dosing of itraconazole and terbinafine are well-proven therapies. New data are becoming available on the use of pulse itraconazole dosing, which has recently been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for fingernail infections. These drugs are well tolerated, but attention to drug interactions is necessary with the azoles. Currently, continuous terbinafine appears to be the most cost-effective drug for dermatophyte onychomycosis.

  17. Clopidogrel Resistance: Current Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NS Neki

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Antiplatelet agents are mainly used in the prevention and management of atherothrombotic complications. Dual antiplatelet therapy, combining aspirin and clopidogrel, is the standard care for patients having acute coronary syndromes or undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention according to the current ACC/AHA and ESC guidelines. But in spite of administration of dual antiplatelet therapy, some patients develop recurrent cardiovascular ischemic events especially stent thrombosis which is a serious clinical problem. Antiplatelet response to clopidogrel varies widely among patients based on ex vivo platelet function measurements. Clopidogrel is an effective inhibitor of platelet activation and aggregation due to its selective and irreversible blockade of the P2Y12 receptor. Patients who display little attenuation of platelet reactivity with clopidogrel therapy are labeled as low or nonresponders or clopidogrel resistant. The mechanism of clopidogrel resistance remains incompletely defined but there are certain clinical, cellular and genetic factors including polymorphisms responsible for therapeutic failure. Currently there is no standardized or widely accepted definition of clopidogrel resistance. The future may soon be realised in the routine measurement of platelet activity in the same way that blood pressure, cholesterol and blood sugar are followed to help guide the therapy, thus improving the care for millions of people. This review focuses on the methods used to identify patients with clopidogrel resistance, the underlying mechanisms, metabolism, clinical significance and current therapeutic strategies to overcome clopidogrel resistance. J Enam Med Col 2016; 6(1: 38-46

  18. Turbidity Current Head Mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, David; Sanchez, Miguel Angel; Medina, Pablo

    2010-05-01

    A laboratory experimental set - up for studying the behaviour of sediment in presence of a turbulent field with zero mean flow is compared with the behaviour of turbidity currents [1] . Particular interest is shown on the initiation of sediment motion and in the sediment lift - off. The behaviour of the turbidity current in a flat ground is compared with the zero mean flow oscilating grid generated turbulence as when wave flow lifts off suspended sediments [2,3]. Some examples of the results obtained with this set-up relating the height of the head of the turbidity current to the equilibrium level of stirred lutoclines are shown. A turbulent velocity u' lower than that estimated by the Shield diagram is required to start sediment motion. The minimum u' required to start sediment lift - off, is a function of sediment size, cohesivity and resting time. The lutocline height depends on u', and the vorticity at the lutocline seems constant for a fixed sediment size [1,3]. Combining grid stirring and turbidty current head shapes analyzed by means of advanced image analysis, sediment vertical fluxes and settling speeds can be measured [4,5]. [1] D. Hernandez Turbulent structure of turbidity currents and sediment transport Ms Thesis ETSECCPB, UPC. Barcelona 2009. [2] A. Sánchez-Arcilla; A. Rodríguez; J.C. Santás; J.M. Redondo; V. Gracia; R. K'Osyan; S. Kuznetsov; C. Mösso. Delta'96 Surf-zone and nearshore measurements at the Ebro Delta. A: International Conference on Coastal Research through large Scale Experiments (Coastal Dynamics '97). University of Plymouth, 1997, p. 186-187. [3] P. Medina, M. A. Sánchez and J. M. Redondo. Grid stirred turbulence: applications to the initiation of sediment motion and lift-off studies Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Part B: Hydrology, Oceans and Atmosphere. 26, Issue 4, 2001, Pages 299-304 [4] M.O. Bezerra, M. Diez, C. Medeiros, A. Rodriguez, E. Bahia., A. Sanchez-Arcilla and J.M. Redondo. Study on the influence of waves on

  19. Antiretroviral therapy: current drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pau, Alice K; George, Jomy M

    2014-09-01

    The rapid advances in drug discovery and the development of antiretroviral therapy is unprecedented in the history of modern medicine. The administration of chronic combination antiretroviral therapy targeting different stages of the human immunodeficiency virus' replicative life cycle allows for durable and maximal suppression of plasma viremia. This suppression has resulted in dramatic improvement of patient survival. This article reviews the history of antiretroviral drug development and discusses the clinical pharmacology, efficacy, and toxicities of the antiretroviral agents most commonly used in clinical practice to date. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Response of human limbal epithelial cells to wounding on 3D RAFT tissue equivalents: effect of airlifting and human limbal fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massie, Isobel; Levis, Hannah J; Daniels, Julie T

    2014-10-01

    Limbal epithelial stem cell deficiency can cause blindness but may be treated by human limbal epithelial cell (hLE) transplantation, normally on human amniotic membrane. Clinical outcomes using amnion can be unreliable and so we have developed an alternative tissue equivalent (TE), RAFT (Real Architecture for 3D Tissue), which supports hLE expansion, and stratification when airlifted. Human limbal fibroblasts (hLF) may be incorporated into RAFT TEs, where they support overlying hLE and improve phenotype. However, the impact of neither airlifting nor hLF on hLE function has been investigated. hLE on RAFT TEs (±hLF and airlifting) were wounded using heptanol and re-epithelialisation (fluorescein diacetate staining), and percentage putative stem cell marker p63α and proliferative marker Ki67 expression (wholemount immunohistochemistry), measured. Airlifted, hLF- RAFT TEs were unable to close the wound and p63α expression was 7 ± 0.2% after wounding. Conversely, non-airlifted, hLF- RAFT TEs closed the wound within 9 days and p63α expression was higher at 22 ± 5% (p < 0.01). hLE on both hLF- and hLF+ RAFT TEs (non-airlifted) closed the wound and p63α expression was 26 ± 8% and 36 ± 3% respectively (ns). Ki67 expression by hLE increased from 1.3 ± 0.5% before wounding to 7.89 ± 2.53% post-wounding for hLF- RAFT TEs (p < 0.01), and 0.8 ± 0.08% to 17.68 ± 10.88% for hLF+ RAFT TEs (p < 0.05), suggesting that re-epithelialisation was a result of proliferation. These data suggest that neither airlifting nor hLF are necessarily required to maintain a functional epithelium on RAFT TEs, thus simplifying and shortening the production process. This is important when working towards clinical application of regenerative medicine products. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Bremsstrahlung and neutral currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, R.G.; McKellar, B.H.J.

    1979-01-01

    The utility of the bremsstrahlung process in detecting parity violations from V-A weak neutral current interference is analysed in two ways. Firstly, bremsstrahlung from polarized lepton-nucleus scattering has an asymmetry with respect to the polarization of the incident leptons, and secondly, bremsstrahlung from unpolarized lepton nucleus scattering has a small circular polarization. The magnitude of each effect is calculated. The ratio of the parity violating contribution and the parity conserving contribution to the cross section is shown to be a misleading measure of the utility of these experiments. A parameter, the figure of merit, is introduced and used to discuss the feasibility of possible experiments

  2. Teleradiology - current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baltadjiev, D.; Charakchiev

    2000-01-01

    Tele-radiology is a term becoming increasingly popular in the medical literature. Nevertheless, terminological definitions in this particular field are still rather vague. The scope of applications extend from simple image presenting via analogue telephone lines to transmission of 3-D medical images through a satellite. It is a matter of standards highly differing in terms of data transmission rates, safety, technical demands on the systems and the like. In this article new information technologies, technical aspects, as well as some major applications of tele-radiology are discussed. The current status of tele-medicine/tele-radiology in this country is likewise briefly outlined

  3. Current awareness on yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-02-01

    In order to keep subscribers up-to-date with the latest developments in their field, this current awareness service is provided by John Wiley & Sons and contains newly-published material on yeasts. Each bibliography is divided into 10 sections. 1 Books, Reviews & Symposia; 2 General; 3 Biochemistry; 4 Biotechnology; 5 Cell Biology; 6 Gene Expression; 7 Genetics; 8 Physiology; 9 Medical Mycology; 10 Recombinant DNA Technology. Within each section, articles are listed in alphabetical order with respect to author. If, in the preceding period, no publications are located relevant to any one of these headings, that section will be omitted. (3 weeks journals - search completed 5th. Dec. 2001)

  4. Low Current Magnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Because Goddard Space Flight Center needed a way to cool sensors aboard the AXAF, a low current superconducting magnet was developed under contract by Cryomagnetics, Inc. The magnet, now commercially available, reduced the rate of helium consumption, extending the lifetime of the AXAF's x-ray spectrometer. On Earth, it offers a way to reduce operating costs through smaller, less expensive power supplies and reduced use of coolant. The magnet has particular advantages for MRI systems, as it is safer and has lower maintenance requirements.

  5. Andropause: Current concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parminder Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Andropause or late-onset hypogonadism is a common disorder which increases in prevalence with advancing age. Diagnosis of late-onset of hypogonadism is based on presence of symptoms suggestive of testosterone deficiency - prominent among them are sexual symptoms like loss of libido, morning penile erection and erectile dysfunction; and demonstration of low testosterone levels. Adequate therapeutic modalities are currently available, but disparate results of clinical trial suggest further evaluation of complex interaction between androgen deficiency and ageing. Before initiating therapy benefits and risk should be discussed with patients and in case of poor response , alternative cause should be investigated.

  6. Intrinsic superspin Hall current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Jacob; Amundsen, Morten; Risinggârd, Vetle

    2017-09-01

    We discover an intrinsic superspin Hall current: an injected charge supercurrent in a Josephson junction containing heavy normal metals and a ferromagnet generates a transverse spin supercurrent. There is no accompanying dissipation of energy, in contrast to the conventional spin Hall effect. The physical origin of the effect is an antisymmetric spin density induced among transverse modes ky near the interface of the superconductor arising due to the coexistence of p -wave and conventional s -wave superconducting correlations with a belonging phase mismatch. Our predictions can be tested in hybrid structures including thin heavy metal layers combined with strong ferromagnets and ordinary s -wave superconductors.

  7. Dispersion and current measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boelskifte, S.

    1986-04-01

    A model for the simulation of particle movements in water should incorporate the mutual distance dependent correlation. As long as reliable data are given accessible a model can be created of the dispersion in a given area from a statistical description of turbulence. Current measurements have been performed in an area north of the Swedish nuclear power plant Barsebaeck, and statistical time series analysis have made it possible to estimate multivariate autoregressive moving-average (ARMA) models for these data using the Box-Jenkins method. The correlation structure for the area has been investigated in detail. Transport and dispersion models for the marine environment are used in estimating doses to the population from the aquatic food chain. Some of these models are described with special emphasis on the time and length scales they cover. Furthermore, to illustrate the background of the simulation model, short introductuions are given to health physics, time series analysis, and turbulence theory. Analysis of the simulation model shows the relative importance of the different parameters. The model can be expanded to conditional simulation, where the current measurements are used directly to simulate the movement of one of the particles. Results from the model are also compared to results from a sampling of bioindicators (Fucus vesiculosus) along the Danish coast. The reliability of bioindicators in this kind of experiment is discussed. (author)

  8. Has Human Evolution Stopped?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan R. Templeton

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available It has been argued that human evolution has stopped because humans now adapt to their environment via cultural evolution and not biological evolution. However, all organisms adapt to their environment, and humans are no exception. Culture defines much of the human environment, so cultural evolution has actually led to adaptive evolution in humans. Examples are given to illustrate the rapid pace of adaptive evolution in response to cultural innovations. These adaptive responses have important implications for infectious diseases, Mendelian genetic diseases, and systemic diseases in current human populations. Moreover, evolution proceeds by mechanisms other than natural selection. The recent growth in human population size has greatly increased the reservoir of mutational variants in the human gene pool, thereby enhancing the potential for human evolution. The increase in human population size coupled with our increased capacity to move across the globe has induced a rapid and ongoing evolutionary shift in how genetic variation is distributed within and among local human populations. In particular, genetic differences between human populations are rapidly diminishing and individual heterozygosity is increasing, with beneficial health effects. Finally, even when cultural evolution eliminates selection on a trait, the trait can still evolve due to natural selection on other traits. Our traits are not isolated, independent units, but rather are integrated into a functional whole, so selection on one trait can cause evolution to occur on another trait, sometimes with mildly maladaptive consequences.

  9. IEDA [Intelligent Eddy Current Data Analysis] helps make sense of eddy current data [steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, R.

    1989-01-01

    The increasing sophistication of eddy current signal interpretation in steam generator tubing has improved capabilities, but has also made the process of analysis more complex and time consuming. Westinghouse has developed an intelligent computerised tool - the IEDA (Intelligent Eddy Current Data Analysis) system, to lighten the load on analysts. Since 1985, 44 plants have been inspected with IEDA, representing over 400,000 tubes. The system has provided a repeatability and a consistency not achieved by human operators. (U.K.)

  10. Influence of Current Transformer Saturation on Operation of Current Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. A. Romaniouk

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of the influence of instrument current transformer errors on operation of current protection of power supply diagram elements has been carried out in the paper. The paper shows the influence of an aperiodic component of transient current and secondary load on current  transformer errors.Peculiar operational features of measuring elements of electromechanical and microprocessor current protection with their joint operation with electromagnetic current transformers have been analyzed in the paper.

  11. Human steroidogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Claus Y; Ezcurra, Diego

    2014-01-01

    In the menstrual cycle, the mid-cycle surge of gonadotropins (both luteinising hormone [LH] and follicle-stimulating hormone [FSH]) signals the initiation of the periovulatory interval, during which the follicle augments progesterone production and begins to luteinise, ultimately leading to the r......In the menstrual cycle, the mid-cycle surge of gonadotropins (both luteinising hormone [LH] and follicle-stimulating hormone [FSH]) signals the initiation of the periovulatory interval, during which the follicle augments progesterone production and begins to luteinise, ultimately leading...... reviews current knowledge of the regulation of progesterone in the human ovary during the follicular phase and highlights areas where knowledge remains limited. In this review, we provide in-depth information outlining the regulation and function of gonadotropins in the complicated area of steroidogenesis...

  12. On Hall current fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, M.C.; Ebel, D.

    1987-01-01

    In this paper some new results concerning magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations with the Hall current (HC) term in the Ohm's law are presented. For the cylindrical pinch of a compressible HC fluid, it is found that for large time and long wave length the solution to the governing equations exhibits the behavior of solitons as in the case of an ideal MHD model. In some special cases, the HC model appears to be better posed. An open question is whether a simple toroidal equilibrium of an HC fluid with resistivity and viscosity exists. The answer to this question is affirmative if the prescribed velocity on the boundary has a small norm. Furthermore, the equilibrium is also linearly and nonlinearly stable

  13. Pulsed current generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semenov, V.D.; Furman, Eh.G.

    1974-01-01

    The paper describes a current pulse generator with an auxiliary network consisting of a choke and diode in series designed to enlarge the range of pulse frequency control. One output of the network is connected to an adjustable valve cathode and via antoher auxiliary condenser to the point where the cathode of the main key unit is joined to the start of the magnetizing coil. A second output is connected to the anode of another adjustable valve and via another auxiliary condenser to the point where the anode of the other main key unit is joined to the end of the magnetizing coil. The generator can be used to excite the electromagnets of charged particle accelerators or in devices designed to produce magnetic fields. (author)

  14. Brain abscess: Current management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernando Alvis-Miranda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain abscess (BA is defined as a focal infection within the brain parenchyma, which starts as a localized area of cerebritis, which is subsequently converted into a collection of pus within a well-vascularized capsule. BA must be differentiated from parameningeal infections, including epidural abscess and subdural empyema. The BA is a challenge for the neurosurgeon because it is needed good clinical, pharmacological, and surgical skills for providing good clinical outcomes and prognosis to BA patients. Considered an infrequent brain infection, BA could be a devastator entity that easily left the patient into dead. The aim of this work is to review the current concepts regarding epidemiology, pathophysiology, etiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and management of BA.

  15. Fluctuation Relations for Currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinitsyn, Nikolai; Akimov, Alexei; Chernyak, Vladimir; Chertkov, Michael

    2011-03-01

    We consider a non-equilibrium statistical system on a graph or a network. Identical particles are injected, interact with each other, traverse, and leave the graph in a stochastic manner described in terms of Poisson rates, possibly strongly dependent on time and instantaneous occupation numbers at the nodes of the graph. We show that the system demonstrates a profound statistical symmetry, leading to new Fluctuation Relations that originate from the supersymmetry and the principle of the geometric universality of currents rather than from the relations between probabilities of forward and reverse trajectories. NSF/ECCS-0925618, NSF/CHE-0808910 and DOE at LANL under Contract No. DE-AC52-06NA25396.

  16. Necrotizing enterocolitis: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajamanyam PK

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Phani Kiran Yajamanyam,1 Shree Vishna Rasiah,1 Andrew K Ewer1,2 1Neonatal Unit, Birmingham Women's Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, 2School of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK Abstract: Necrotizing enterocolitis is the most common gastrointestinal emergency in neonates, particularly in those born very preterm. It is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality, especially in extremely low birth weight infants. Despite extensive research, the pathophysiology of necrotizing enterocolitis remains unclear and therapeutic options are limited. Multiple risk factors have been reported, but most are associated with prematurity and its complications. This makes management very challenging in vulnerable preterm infants. In this review, we focus on the risk factors and some of the current research in this area, particularly studies aimed at early detection and potential preventive measures for this potentially lethal condition. Keywords: necrotizing enterocolitis, preterm infants, prematurity, probiotics

  17. Transgender youth: current concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    In many countries throughout the world, increasing numbers of gender nonconforming/transgender youth are seeking medical services to enable the development of physical characteristics consistent with their experienced gender. Such medical services include use of agents to block endogenous pub