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Sample records for hughes observed competitive

  1. Necrology: Hugh Carson Cutler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L. Browman

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available Hugh Carson Cutler, forner curator of Economic Botany at the Missouri Botanical Gardens, was one of the first generation paleoethnobotanists in this country. A pioneer in the field, and instrumental in getting American archaeologists to begin to employ flotation techniques for recovery of botanical remains. Cutler, the son of Manuel and Mary Cutler. was born September 8. 1912 in Milwaukee. Wisconsin. and died September 22, 1998 in Topeka, Kansas.

  2. (abstract) Observation by Clementine of a Hugh Opposition Surge on the Moon at Very Small Solar Phase Angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buratti, B. J.; Wang, M. C.

    1994-01-01

    The Clementine mission enabled the first quantative observations of the Moon at very small solar phase angles. It is well established from Earth-based observations that the Moon exhibits a non-linear increase in brightness as its face becomes fully illuminated to a terrestrial observer. Because the models of the opposition effect are sensitive indicators of surfical compaction state and particle size, observations at small solar phase angles are important to obtain. A recent model for optical coherent backscatter seeks to explain a narrow opposition spike at very small phase angles (Moon's surface at phase angles less than 0.5(deg) (the minimum phase angle observable from Earth due to the Moon's angular size) were obtained by the Clementine spacecraft. Our analysis of these images shows the moon exhibits a surge in brightness of approximately 20% below 0.25(deg), comparable to the values observed on icy satellites. No color dependence was detected in the lunar phase curve below 2 degrees.

  3. Earth Observation from Space: Competition or Cooperation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-01

    begin in earnest in April of 1960 with the launch of TIPOS (Television and Infrared Observation Satellite) which observed weather patterns in the United...data became a candidate for entry into the commercial sector where there appeared to be an imagery market . Responsibility for system operations was...it has not been fully developed. The slow emergence of remote sensing as a commercial enterprise has been attributed to two factors; 1) poor market

  4. The Many Worlds of Hugh Everett III

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2011-01-01

    A review of Peter Byrne's biography of Hugh Everett III, "The Many Worlds of Hugh Everett III: Multiple Universes, Mutual Assured Destruction, and the Meltdown of a Nuclear Family", (Oxford University Press, 2010).

  5. A guide to Hughes' syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Tina Louise

    Hughes' syndrome, or antiphospholipid syndrome, is thought to be the cause of one in four strokes in people aged less than 40 years. It is an antiinflammatory autoimmune disorder in which the blood has a tendency to clot too quickly. It can affect any artery or vein in the body and the main symptoms are thrombosis, pregnancy loss and the presence of antibodies. If detected it can be treated effectively.

  6. Determinants of Competitiveness: Observations in China's Textile and Apparel Industries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chi-Keung Lau; Kin-Man To; Zhiming Zhang; Jing Chen

    2009-01-01

    This paper attempts to explore key determinants of competitiveness in the textile and apparel industries, with special reference to Chinese Mainland The authors conduct a survey that is designed to use productivity, supply-side and demand-side determinants to measure enterprises" competitiveness. The collected survey data is then analyzed using factor analysis to capture the related determining factors indicative of competitiveness at the enterprise level. The findings demonstrate that government policies and related industry infrastructure are the most important determinants of competitiveness in the textile and apparel industries, followed by domestic demand This suggests that the improvement of industry infrastructure can foster industry performance, and that more resources should be endowed to enhance the domestic business competitiveness of local enterprises. The development of domestic demand will foster the competitiveness of the textile and apparel industries on a more sustainable basis.

  7. Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boone, J.

    2000-01-01

    Competition has been modelled in the literature in a number of ways.What do these different parametrizations of competition have in common?For instance, it turns out that it is not always the case that a rise in competition reduces price cost margins, industry wide profits or concentration.All param

  8. The Blues Poetry of Langston Hughes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, Edward E.

    1971-01-01

    The author discusses the criteria of the blues as an American art form. He then shows how Langston Hughes captures the mood, the feeling, the rhythm and the impact of the blues in his poetry. (Author/LF)

  9. Principles and Practices Fostering Inclusive Excellence: Lessons from the Howard Hughes Medical Institute's Capstone Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiBartolo, Patricia Marten; Gregg-Jolly, Leslie; Gross, Deborah; Manduca, Cathryn A.; Iverson, Ellen; Cooke, David B., III; Davis, Gregory K.; Davidson, Cameron; Hertz, Paul E.; Hibbard, Lisa; Ireland, Shubha K.; Mader, Catherine; Pai, Aditi; Raps, Shirley; Siwicki, Kathleen; Swartz, Jim E.

    2016-01-01

    Best-practices pedagogy in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) aims for inclusive excellence that fosters student persistence. This paper describes principles of inclusivity across 11 primarily undergraduate institutions designated as Capstone Awardees in Howard Hughes Medical Institute's (HHMI) 2012 competition. The Capstones…

  10. Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, D W

    1997-01-01

    Our ambivalence toward competition can be traced to an unspoken preference for certain types of competition which give us an advantage over the types we value less. Four types are defined (a) pure (same rules, same objectives), (b) collaborative (same rules, shared objective), (c) market share (different rules, same objectives), and (d) market growth (different rules, value added orientation). The defining characteristics of the four types of competition are respectively: needing a referee, arguing over the spoils, differentiation and substitutability, and customer focus. Dentistry has features of all four types of competition, thus making it difficult to have a meaningful discussion or frame a coherent policy on this topic.

  11. Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Bridoux

    2014-01-01

    Competition traditionally refers to the actions that firms take in a product market to outperform rivals in attracting customers and generating revenues. Yet, competition extends beyond product markets to other arenas such as factor markets, where firms compete for resources, and the political arena

  12. Assessing Preschool Children's Competitive Behaviour: An Observational System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiakara, Angeliki; Digelidis, Nikolaos M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a direct observational system in order to assess competitive behaviours in preschool children. Participants were 176 children (90 boys, 86 girls; M[subscript age]?=?5.2 years) from 10 kindergarten classes of one town of Central Greece. A new observational system (Observational System Assessing Competition in…

  13. Competition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕思思

    2007-01-01

    <正> The term competition reminds me of asoul-stirring fight between a mother monkeyand a crocodile,The crocodile caught her babywhen the baby was drinking water in a pool,Inthe end,the mother got her baby,but herbaby’s body only,She lost her child forever,just for a mouthful of water.Such is competition,cruel and merciless,But if we see the other side of the coin,we’ll

  14. Langston Hughes and his poem "Harlem"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝红

    2005-01-01

    @@ James Langston Hughes was born February 1,1902, in Joplin, Missouri. His parents divorced when he was a small child, and his father moved to Mexico. He was raised by his Grandmother until he was thirteen, when he moved to Lincoln,Illinois, to live with his mother and her husband, eventually settling in Cleveland, Ohio.

  15. Hugh Maaskant : architect van de vooruitgang

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Provoost, M.

    2003-01-01

    Hugh Maaskant (1907–1977) is best known as the architect who made the biggest mark on the post-war reconstruction of Rotterdam with such buildings as the Groothandelsgebouw, the Hilton Hotel and the Lijnbaan flats. Beginning his career in 1937 as the partner of Willem van Tijen, Maaskant embarked on

  16. Responses to Hugh Heclo's "On Thinking Institutionally"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennell, Robert C.; Ascough, Richard S.; Liew, Tat-siong Benny; McLain, Michael; Westfield, Nancy Lynne

    2010-01-01

    Hugh Heclo's recent book "On Thinking Institutionally" (Paradigm Publishers, 2008) analyzes changes that have taken place in the past half century in how North Americans tend to think and act in institutions. The volume is receiving particular attention as it can be applied to higher education and to religious denominations, and so deserves…

  17. Hugh Maaskant : architect van de vooruitgang

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Provoost, Michelle

    2003-01-01

    Hugh Maaskant (1907–1977) is best known as the architect who made the biggest mark on the post-war reconstruction of Rotterdam with such buildings as the Groothandelsgebouw, the Hilton Hotel and the Lijnbaan flats. Beginning his career in 1937 as the partner of Willem van Tijen, Maaskant embarked on

  18. Competition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Get ready for the Easter Egg Hunt! The Staff Association is organising a competition from 10 to 21 April 2017. There are several Go Sport gift vouchers to win, with a value of 50 € each. Try your luck! Count the number of different eggs that we have hidden on our website. Then indicate your answer in the online form. To participate, you just need to be a member of the Staff Association. Winners will be randomly drawn among the correct answers.

  19. Competition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

      The Staff Association is organising a competition from 13 to 21 December 2016. There are several Go Sport vouchers to win with a value of 50 € each. Try your luck! To participate, you just have to be a member of the Staff Association and take the online quiz: https://ap-vote.web.cern.ch/content/jeu-concours-de-noel. The winners will be drawn among the correct answers.

  20. Competition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

      The Staff Association is organising a competition from April 11 to 20. There are several Go Sport gift vouchers with a value of 50 € each to win. Try your luck! To participate, you just have to be a member of the Staff Association and take the online quiz: https://ap-vote.web.cern.ch/content/jeu-concours. The winners will be drawn among the correct answers.

  1. Symposium Festschrift Hughes (Vernon W) to Celebrate his 70th birthday

    CERN Document Server

    1992-01-01

    The contents of this book are derived from a celebration of the 70th birthday of Vernon W Hughes. Professor Hughes' career has touched on several areas in modern physics ranging from precision measurements of the fundamental properties of atoms to measurements of spin structure functions of the proton via deep inelastic muon scattering at the world's highest energy fixed target machines. This observance of his 70th birthday brings together experimental and theoretical physicists who are leaders of the many fields in which he has made contributions.

  2. Markov chain Monte Carlo approach to parameter estimation in the FitzHugh-Nagumo model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders Christian; Ditlevsen, Susanne; Kessler, Mathieu

    2012-01-01

    Excitability is observed in a variety of natural systems, such as neuronal dynamics, cardiovascular tissues, or climate dynamics. The stochastic FitzHugh-Nagumo model is a prominent example representing an excitable system. To validate the practical use of a model, the first step is to estimate m...

  3. On the Hughes model and numerical aspects

    KAUST Repository

    Gomes, Diogo A.

    2017-01-05

    We study a crowd model proposed by R. Hughes in [11] and we describe a numerical approach to solve it. This model comprises a Fokker-Planck equation coupled with an eikonal equation with Dirichlet or Neumann data. First, we establish a priori estimates for the solutions. Second, we study radial solutions and identify a shock formation mechanism. Third, we illustrate the existence of congestion, the breakdown of the model, and the trend to the equilibrium. Finally, we propose a new numerical method and consider two examples.

  4. Hugh Maaskant: architect van de vooruitgang

    OpenAIRE

    Provoost, M.

    2003-01-01

    Hugh Maaskant (1907–1977) is best known as the architect who made the biggest mark on the post-war reconstruction of Rotterdam with such buildings as the Groothandelsgebouw, the Hilton Hotel and the Lijnbaan flats. Beginning his career in 1937 as the partner of Willem van Tijen, Maaskant embarked on his most prolific period after establishing an independent practice in 1955. He produced the lion’s share of his work in the 1950s and ’60s, the very period architectural critics generally regard ...

  5. Donald Hugh Blocher (1928-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowd, E Thomas

    2015-01-01

    This article memorializes Donald Hugh Blocher (1928-2013). Blocher, a giant in counseling psychology, was elected a fellow of the American Psychological Association (APA) in 1973, received a Distinguished Achievement Award from Harvard University in 1968, and served as president of APA Division 17 (Society of Counseling Psychology) in 1980. He obtained a Fulbright Lectureship at the University of Keele (United Kingdom) for 1968-1969, where he helped develop a counseling psychology program according to American standards. He also published many books, book chapters, and articles over the course of his professional career.

  6. Hugh Owen Thomas (1834-1891)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Hugh Owen Thomas被称为英国骨科之父,他对英国乃至世界骨科作出了杰出的贡献. 早在17世纪,接骨师已经作为一个社会地位较高的职业在英国、法国兴盛起来.接骨师的技术通常是在家族内部传承而不会对外传授.

  7. Sandy ja Hugh - paar või mitte? / Hugh Grant, Sandra Bullock

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Grant, Hugh, 1960-

    2003-01-01

    Romantilises komöödias "Kaks nädalat armumiseks" ("Two Weeks Notice"), režissöör Marc Lawrence, mängivad kaks kuulsat näitlejat. Staarid oma suhetest : Hugh Grant : "Sandra on geenius"; Sandra Bullock : "Oleme temaga nagu kaksikud!"

  8. Sandy ja Hugh - paar või mitte? / Hugh Grant, Sandra Bullock

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Grant, Hugh, 1960-

    2003-01-01

    Romantilises komöödias "Kaks nädalat armumiseks" ("Two Weeks Notice"), režissöör Marc Lawrence, mängivad kaks kuulsat näitlejat. Staarid oma suhetest : Hugh Grant : "Sandra on geenius"; Sandra Bullock : "Oleme temaga nagu kaksikud!"

  9. Acute Charles Bonnet Syndrome following Hughes procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Michelle E; Pointdujour-Lim, Renelle; Lally, Sara; Shields, Carol L; Rabinowitz, Michael P

    2016-10-01

    A 69-year-old male experienced monocular formed visual hallucinations after occlusion of the right eye following resection of eyelid basal cell carcinoma and reconstruction with a Hughes procedure (tarsoconjunctival flap). His symptoms included recurrent, well-defined, organized, complex, formed images of small children playing in the snow. These visual phenomena occurred only in the occluded eye, began several hours after surgery, and recurred intermittently several times daily for 4 days, lasting several minutes with each occurrence. The patient retained insight into the false nature of the images throughout the duration of his symptoms, and the hallucinations resolved spontaneously while the flap was still in place. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of Charles Bonnet Syndrome (CBS) following a Hughes procedure in a patient with normal visual acuity in the non-occluded fellow eye. Unlike other reported cases of acute onset CBS following transient monocular occlusion, hallucinations in the occluded eye remitted prior to restoration of vision in the occluded eye. Ophthalmologists should be aware of the potential for CBS following even transient monocular occlusion and should consider warning patients about its potential to occur.

  10. Obituary: Lawrence Hugh Aller, 1913-2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaler, James B.

    2003-12-01

    The announcement still lies in my inbox: ``Lawrence Aller died last Sunday." On 16 March 2003, one of the world's fine astronomers passed away at the age of 89, leaving behind a legacy that will ripple as long as there are students of the celestial science, one that incorporated observation, theory, education, care, decency, and kindness. Lawrence was born in the humblest of conditions in Tacoma, Washington, on 24 September 1913. His mother, Lella (Belle) Allen, was a homemaker and his father Leslie Aller, was an occassional printer and gold prospector who thought that the use of the mind was a waste of time. With fierce persistence and dedication, Lawrence pulled off a feat that would probably not be possible now: getting into college without having finished high school, the result of being dragged to work in his father's primitive gold mining camp. His interest, sparked by leaflets from the Astronomical Society of the Pacific and by Russell, Dugan, and Stewart's venerable textbook, led him to a correspondence, and finally a meeting, with Donald Menzel of Harvard, who persuaded the admissions director of the University of California at Berkeley to admit him in 1932. From there, Lawrence went on to graduate school at Harvard and the Harvard Society of Fellows, where he studied with Menzel and developed his interest in stellar and nebular astronomy. After working in the War effort, he made his professorial debut at Indiana University, where he stayed until 1948 before leaving for the University of Michigan. Residing there for the next 14 years, he established his research reputation and helped develop the Michigan graduate program. In 1962, the opportunity arose to return to California, to UCLA, where he again was instrumental in founding a PhD program. There he stayed, through his retirement in 1984, doing research right up to the end. Eight other schools received him as visiting professor. Lawrence knew that to make inroads into astronomy, he needed to apply

  11. Crisis-related observations in competition: a case study in basketball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Eli, M; Sachs, S; Tenenbaum, G; Pie, J S; Falk, B

    1996-10-01

    This study presents a unique observational approach to basketball, based on the theory of psychological performance crisis in competition. The approach used takes into account the responses of a player' s actions to significant social factors such as team-mates, spectators, the coach and the referees. The contribution of this approach beyond traditional observational techniques is discussed. In our investigation, a single case design was used, in which a professional basketball player was observed during 10 home and 3 away games of the regular season. The relations between the observations and the crisis concept are discussed in detail. In addition, some relevant methodological and applied aspects are presented.

  12. Observing the coach-created motivational environment across training and competition in youth sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nathan; Quested, Eleanor; Appleton, Paul R; Duda, Joan L

    2017-01-01

    Adopting an integrated achievement goal (Nicholls, J. G. (1989). The competitive ethos and democratic education. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.) and self-determination theory (Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2000). The "what" and "why" of goal pursuits: Human needs and the self-determination of behavior. Psychological Inquiry, 11, 227-268. doi:10.1207/S15327965PLI1104_01) perspective as proffered by Duda, J. L. (2013). (The conceptual and empirical foundations of empowering coaching(TM): Setting the stage for the PAPA project. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 11, 311-318. doi:10.1080/1612197X.2013.839414), the aim of the current study was to observe empowering and disempowering features of the multidimensional motivational coaching environment in training and competition in youth sport. Seventeen grass-roots soccer coaches were observed and rated in training and competitive settings using the multidimensional motivational climate observation system (MMCOS; Smith, N., Tessier, D., Tzioumakis, Y., Quested, E., Appleton, P., Sarrazin, P., … Duda, J. L. (2015). Development and validation of the multidimensional motivational climate observation system (MMCOS). Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 37, 4-22. doi:10.1123/jsep.2014-0059). In line with our hypotheses, coaches created different motivational environments in the two contexts. More specifically, coaches were observed to create a less empowering and more disempowering environment in competition compared to in training. The observed differences were underpinned by distinctive motivational strategies used by coaches in the two contexts. Findings have implications for the assessment of the coach-created motivational environment and the promotion of quality motivation for young athletes taking part in grass-roots-level sport.

  13. Hugh Blairs Lectures on Rhetoric and Belles Lettres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schatz-Jakobsen, Claus

    1989-01-01

    Artiklen nærlæser dekonstruktivt dele af den skotske retorikprofessor Hugh Blairs Lecures on Rhetoric and Belles Lettres (1783) og påviser splittelsen mellem to vidt forskellige retorik- og liltteraturhistoriske interesser, neoklassicistiske vs. romantiske....

  14. Síndrome de Hughes-Stovin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Pankl

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available El síndrome de Hughes-Stovin es una entidad infrecuente caracterizada por trombosis venosa profunda y aneurismas de la arteria pulmonar, siendo su etiología y patogenia desconocida. Algunos autores la consideran una variante de la enfermedad de Behcet. Su curso natural es generalmente fatal. Se presenta con tos, disnea, hemoptisis, dolor torácico y fiebre. El tratamiento es con esteroides y agentes citotóxicos hasta la cirugía. Presentamos el caso de un hombre de 41 años que consultó por disnea, hemoptisis y dolor torácico, llegándose al diagnóstico de trombosis venosa profunda de miembro inferior derecho, trombo-embolismo de pulmón y aneurismas de arterias pulmonares. Recibió tratamiento con corticoides en altas dosis y 6 pulsos de ciclofosfamida de 1 gramo durante 6 meses, con regresión completa de los aneurismas y de la sintomatología.

  15. Symmetric bursting behaviors in the generalized FitzHugh-Nagumo model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasian, A H; Fallah, H; Razvan, M R

    2013-08-01

    In the current paper, we have investigated the generalized FitzHugh-Nagumo model. We have shown that symmetric bursting behaviors of different types could be observed in this model with an appropriate recovery term. A modified version of this system is used to construct bursting activities. Furthermore, we have shown some numerical examples of delayed Hopf bifurcation and canard phenomenon in the symmetric bursting of super-Hopf/homoclinic type near its super-Hopf and homoclinic bifurcations, respectively.

  16. Lian-Sheng Ma, Editor-in-Chief of WJG, warmly meets Professor Hugh J Freeman from the University of British Columbia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Lian-Sheng Ma, Editor-in-Chief of World Journal of Gastroenterology (WJG), warmly met Professor Hugh J Freeman from the University of British Columbia at Peninsula Hotel in Beijing on August 28, 2007. Professor Hugh J Freeman gave much helpful advice toward the further development of WJG. He will serve as series editor for a new column called OBSERVER which will start in WJG in 2008.

  17. Optimal observability of sustained stochastic competitive inhibition oscillations at organellar volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kevin L; Roussel, Marc R

    2006-01-01

    When molecules are present in small numbers, such as is frequently the case in cells, the usual assumptions leading to differential rate equations are invalid and it is necessary to use a stochastic description which takes into account the randomness of reactive encounters in solution. We display a very simple biochemical model, ordinary competitive inhibition with substrate inflow, which is only capable of damped oscillations in the deterministic mass-action rate equation limit, but which displays sustained oscillations in stochastic simulations. We define an observability parameter, which is essentially just the ratio of the amplitude of the oscillations to the mean value of the concentration. A maximum in the observability is seen as the volume is varied, a phenomenon we name system-size observability resonance by analogy with other types of stochastic resonance. For the parameters of this study, the maximum in the observability occurs at volumes similar to those of bacterial cells or of eukaryotic organelles.

  18. Market competition and price of disease management programmes: an observational study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, C.E. van; Venema, B.; Jong, J.D. de; Bakker, D.H. de

    2014-01-01

    Background: Managed competition was introduced into the health care system in several countries including the Netherlands, although effects of competition of both providers and health insurers on the price of health care are inconclusive. We investigated the association between competition of both p

  19. Radiologic diagnosis of Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Cheng-lin; GUO Xue-jun; YUAN Zhi-dong; SHI Qiao; HU Xiao-hong; FANG Lin

    2009-01-01

    @@ Litz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome (FHCS) was reported by Curtis after he found a fibrous adhesion between the surface of the liver and peritoneum in patients with gonococcal pelvic inflammation during laparoscopy in 1930, and the first report by Fitz-Hugh as acute gonococcal peritonitis in the right upper quadrant abdomen was published in 1934.1,2 The so-called FHCS is believed to originate from an inflammation in the pelvis which may ascend toward the diaphragmatic surface of the liver along the right paracolic gutters to cause the inflammation of the liver caosule with right upper abdominal pain.3-7

  20. Francesca Hughes: Architecture of Error: Matter, Measure and the Misadventure of Precision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foote, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Review of "Architecture of Error: Matter, Measure and the Misadventure of Precision" by Francesca Hughes (MIT Press, 2014)......Review of "Architecture of Error: Matter, Measure and the Misadventure of Precision" by Francesca Hughes (MIT Press, 2014)...

  1. The Impact of Competitive Foods on Children’s Fruit and Vegetable Consumption: An Observational Plate Waste Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janie W. Cole

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the effect of competitive foods on children’s consumption of lunch meals in elementary schools in Mississippi. The objective of this observational study was to examine how competitive food purchases affect entrée, fruit, and vegetable consumption using the quarter-waste method. A total of 862 meals and purchase of competitive foods were observed. Children who purchased ice cream or pudding were 1.6 times more likely to throw away more than 50% of their entrée, 3.5 times more likely to not eat their vegetables, and more than two times more likely to not eat their fruit than children who did not purchase ice cream or pudding. Children who purchased chips were also less likely to consume more than 50% of their entrée. These findings suggest that competitive foods can impact children’s fruit and vegetable consumption.

  2. Hugh Grant's Image Restoration Discourse: An Actor Apologizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, William L.

    1997-01-01

    Examines the strategies used by actor Hugh Grant (in his appearances on talk shows) to help restore his reputation after he was arrested for lewd behavior with a prostitute. Uses this case as a springboard to contrast entertainment image repair with political and corporate image repair, arguing that important situational differences can be…

  3. Additional Responses to Hugh Heclo's "On Thinking Institutionally"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, Timothy D.; Fennell, Robert C.

    2011-01-01

    Issue 13:3 of this journal (July 2010) included a "Conversation" on Hugh Heclo's recent publication "On Thinking Institutionally" (Paradigm Publishers, 2008) with a book review by Robert Fennell and responses by Richard Ascough, Tat-siong Benny Liew, Michael McLain, and Lynne Westfield. Here we publish two additional responses to this same book.…

  4. Vernon Hughes and the Quest for the Proton's Spin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Robert L.

    2004-12-01

    Vernon Hughes dedicated much of the latter part of his career to the question "What carries the spin of the proton?" The question remains unanswered and near the top of the list of fascinating questions in QCD. I present a perspective on the question and Vernon's pursuit of an answer.

  5. Dr. Vernon W. Hughes, 81, authority on the subatomic

    CERN Multimedia

    Lavietes, S

    2002-01-01

    "Dr. Vernon W. Hughes, a Yale physicist whose investigation of particles called muons poked holes in standard subatomic theory and provided evidence for the existence of previously undetected matter, died at Yale-New Haven Hospital last Tuesday" (1/2 page).

  6. Hugh Hefner - maailma esi-playboy / Neeme Raud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raud, Neeme, 1969-

    2004-01-01

    Ajakirja Playboy asutajast Hugh Hefner'ist, tema elufilosoofiast ja põhimõtetest erootikaväljaande sisu kujundamisel. Ärijuhi Christie Hefner'i sõnul on rahvusvahelise multimeedia-meelelahutusfirma praeguseks eesmärgiks brändi sobitamine erinevatesse meediavormidesse. Lisa: Mis on Playboy?

  7. Differential Response: What to Make of the Existing Research? A Response to Hughes et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Brett

    2013-01-01

    This article is a response to "Issues in Differential Response", a review of the current evidence pertaining to differential response (DR) programs in child protective services (CPS). In my view, the Hughes, Rycus, Saunders-Adams, Hughes, and Hughes article suffers from several weaknesses. First, DR programs are critiqued as if they were…

  8. Tools for Tomorrow's Science and Technology Workforce: MATE's 2006 ROV Competition Sets Students' Sights on Ocean Observing Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zande, Jill; Meeson, Blanche; Cook, Susan; Matsumoto, George

    2006-01-01

    Teams participating in the 2006 ROV competition organized by the Marine Advanced Technology Education (MATE) Center and the Marine Technology Society's (MTS) ROV Committee experienced first-hand the scientific and technical challenges that many ocean scientists, technicians, and engineers face every day. The competition tasked more than 1,000 middle and high school, college, and university students from Newfoundland to Hong Kong with designing and building ROVs to support the next generation of ocean observing systems. Teaming up with the National Office for Integrated and Sustained Ocean Observations, Ocean. US, and the Ocean Research Interactive Observatory Networks (ORION) Program, the competition highlighted ocean observing systems and the careers, organizations, and technologies associated with ocean observatories. The student teams were challenged to develop vehicles that can deploy, install, and maintain networks of instruments as well as to explore the practical applications and the research questions made possible by observing systems.

  9. Market competition and price of disease management programmes: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Christel E; Venema, Bob; de Jong, Judith D; de Bakker, Dinny H

    2014-10-30

    Managed competition was introduced into the health care system in several countries including the Netherlands, although effects of competition of both providers and health insurers on the price of health care are inconclusive. We investigated the association between competition of both providers (care groups) and health insurers and the price of disease management programmes (DMPs). Data from 76 DMP contractual agreements for type II diabetes mellitus in 2008, 2009 and 2010 were used to analyse the association between market competition and the price of DMPs. Market competition was calculated per municipal health services region (GGD). Insurer market competition was measured by the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI), care group competition by the number of care groups and the care group market share of GPs. The effect of competition was cross-sectionally studied with linear regression analyses. Insurer market concentration (HHI) and care group market share were not associated with the price of DMPs. The number of care groups in a GGD region was associated with a lower price (-€4.68; 95% CI: -8.36 - -1.00). The mean difference in the price of DMPs between health insurers was €58. The price of DMPs seems to be more dependent on the particular health insurer than on market conditions. For competition among health insurers and provider groups to develop, preconditions such as selective contracting and option for patient to change provider should be in place.

  10. Markov chain Monte Carlo approach to parameter estimation in the FitzHugh-Nagumo model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Anders Chr; Ditlevsen, Susanne; Kessler, Mathieu; Papaspiliopoulos, Omiros

    2012-10-01

    Excitability is observed in a variety of natural systems, such as neuronal dynamics, cardiovascular tissues, or climate dynamics. The stochastic FitzHugh-Nagumo model is a prominent example representing an excitable system. To validate the practical use of a model, the first step is to estimate model parameters from experimental data. This is not an easy task because of the inherent nonlinearity necessary to produce the excitable dynamics, and because the two coordinates of the model are moving on different time scales. Here we propose a Bayesian framework for parameter estimation, which can handle multidimensional nonlinear diffusions with large time scale separation. The estimation method is illustrated on simulated data.

  11. Hub-enhanced noise-sustained synchronization of an externally forced FitzHugh-Nagumo ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Alejandro D.; Izús, Gonzalo G.; dell'Erba, Matías G.; Deza, Roberto R.

    2017-02-01

    A ring of FitzHugh-Nagumo units with antiphase coupling between their activator fields and submitted to a adiabatic harmonic subthreshold signal, is in turn globally coupled in electrical mode with the activator field of a hub. Noise sustained synchronization of neural activity with the signal is numerically observed, and theoretically characterized. The different dynamical regimes are elucidated using the concept of nonequilibrium potential, and the hub is found to promote network synchronization. The minimum noise intensities triggering the activation and synchronization processes are estimated in the framework of a three-neuron model.

  12. Langston Hughes and his poem “Harlem”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝红

    2005-01-01

    James Langston Hughes was born February 1. 1902, in Joplin, Missouri. His parents divorced when he was a small child, and his father moved to Mexico. He was raised by his Grandmother until he was thirteen, when he moved to Lincoln,Illinois, to live with his mother and her husband, eventually settling in Cleveland, Ohio. It was in I,incoln, Illinois, that Hughes began writing poetry. Following graduation, he spent a year in Mexico and a year at Columbia University. During these years, he held old jobs as an assistant cook, launderer, and a busboy, and traveled to Africa and Europe working as a seaman. In November 1924, he moved to Washington,

  13. Fitz-Hugh-Curtis综合征7例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦浦生

    2000-01-01

    @@ FHC综合征Fitz-Hugh-Curtis Syntrome)是继发于盆腔感染的肝包膜炎症反应性疾病.该综合征典型临床表现是右上腹痛,发热伴有盆腔炎.现将我院近年来诊治FHC综合征7例总结中下.

  14. Bifurcaciones del Sistema de FitzHugh-Nagumo (FHN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Ongay Larios

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La familia paramétrica de los sistemas de FitzHugh-Nagumo es rica en bifurcaciones (Rocsoreanu et al., 2000. En este artículo estudiamos las bifurcaciones silla-nodo y de Hopf desde el punto de vista matemático de esta familia y se describen completamente los conjuntos de bifurcación en el espacio de parámetros.

  15. The Spin Structure of the Nucleon:. a Hughes Legacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cates, Gordon D.

    2004-12-01

    More than any other individual, Vernon Hughes can be pointed to as the father of the experimental investigation of nucleon spin structure. Even theoretical development in this area was spurred on by Vernon's pioneering efforts to make the control of spin degrees of freedom an experimental reality. This talk traces some of Vernon's work in this area, as well as examining, briefly and not in a complete fashion, some of the other work that can be looked upon as Vernon's legacy.

  16. Remembrance of Hugh E. Huxley, a founder of our field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Thomas D; Goldman, Yale E

    2013-09-01

    Hugh E. Huxley (1924-2013) carried out structural studies by X-ray fiber diffraction and electron microscopy that established how muscle contracts. Huxley's sliding filament mechanism with an ATPase motor protein taking steps along an actin filament, established the paradigm not only for muscle contraction but also for other motile systems using actin and unconventional myosins, microtubules and dynein and microtubules and kinesin.

  17. Optimal Competition : A Benchmark for Competition Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boone, J.

    2003-01-01

    This paper introduces optimal competition: the best form of competition in an industry that a competition authority can achieve under the information constraint that it cannot observe firms' effciency levels.We show that the optimal competition outcome in an industry becomes more competitive as more

  18. Competitive Adsorption between Bovine Serum Albumin and Collagen Observed by Atomic Force Microscope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong YU; Pei Qing YING; Gang JIN

    2004-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to study the competitive adsorption between bovine serum albumin (BSA) and type Ⅰ collagen on hydrophilic and hydrophobic silicon wafers.BSA showed a grain shape and the type I collagen displayed fibril-like molecules with relatively homogeneous height and width, characterized with clear twisting (helical formation). These AFM images illustrated that quite a lot of type I collagen appeared in the adsorption layer on hydrophilic surface in a competitive adsorption state, but the adsorption of BSA was more preponderant than that of type I collagen on hydrophobic silicon wafer surface. The experiments showed that the influence of BSA on type I collagen adsorption on hydrophilic surface was less than that on hydrophobic surface.

  19. Hugh de Wardener - the Man and the Scientist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, M E; de Wardener, S

    2016-02-01

    Hugh de Wardener died on 29th September 2013, ten days before his 98th birthday. He had a diverse upbringing and qualified in Medicine in 1939. He joined the army but was captured in 1942 and imprisoned in Singapore and Thailand until 1945. His clinical care of fellow prisoners was highly regarded. He preserved their clinical records and used them, post-war, to write two Lancet papers. One showed, for the first time, that Wernickes encephalopathy could be caused by severe malnutrition and cured by small doses of vitamin B1. His later academic interests were based on the emphasis he placed on renal physiology. This applied to the topic most associated with his name-Natriuretic Hormone. Whilst de Wardener never isolated this hormone, his early experiments, demonstrating that a third factor other than GFR and aldosterone affected renal sodium transport, were substantiated by others. Hugh had many research interests: pyelonephritis, renal histology, maintenance dialysis and metabolic/renal bone disease. In his later years he researched intensively into the role of sodium and salt in the aetiology of essential hypertension. Hugh was president of the International Society of Nephrology (1969-72) and the UK Renal Association (1975-78). He received many awards and recognitions from across the world, many of them after his (so-called) retirement. Throughout his career he never neglected the care of his patients. As Bob Schrier wrote in his obituary of de Wardener in Kidney International he was a caring physicianwhose dedication to his patients welfare was exemplary.

  20. Some Numerical Aspects on Crowd Motion - The Hughes Model

    KAUST Repository

    Gomes, Diogo A.

    2016-01-06

    Here, we study a crowd model proposed by R. Hughes in [5] and we describe a numerical approach to solve it. This model comprises a Fokker-Planck equation coupled with an Eikonal equation with Dirichlet or Neumann data. First, we establish a priori estimates for the solution. Second, we study radial solutions and identify a shock formation mechanism. Third, we illustrate the existence of congestion, the breakdown of the model, and the trend to the equilibrium. Finally, we propose a new numerical method and consider two numerical examples.

  1. Surviving To Write and Writing To Survive: The Complex Case of Langston Hughes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrom, Hans

    Studying the life of Langston Hughes in the context of how to teach freshman composition can shed light on two sometimes conflicting pedagogies, the expressivist and the social-constructionist. A discouraging period of fierce criticism, illness, depression, and financial woes coincided with Hughes' 39th birthday, which his biographer Arnold…

  2. The Progression About Fitz-Hugh-Curtis Syndrome Study%Fitz-Hugh-Curtis综合征研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    靳翠平; 尚玉敏

    2009-01-01

    Fitz-Hugh-Curtis综合征是盆腔感染合并肝周围炎,主要涉及肝包膜而无肝实质损害,在慢性盆腔炎患者中较为常见.病原菌主要是淋病奈瑟菌及衣原体,主要临床表现为右下腹痛,并可导致慢性腹痛、不孕、异位妊娠等多种并发症.可结合腹腔CT、相关实验室检验及腹腔镜检查对其进行诊断及鉴别诊断,并通过敏感抗生素及腹腔镜手术进行有效治疗.就Fitz-Hugh-Curtis综合征病因与发病机制、临床特征、并发症、诊断、治疗及相关意义进行综述.

  3. Extreme Rapid Weight Loss and Rapid Weight Gain Observed in UK Mixed Martial Arts Athletes Preparing for Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Joseph John; Nicholas, Ceri

    2016-10-06

    There is a lack of research documenting the weight-making practices of mixed-martial-arts (MMA) competitors. The purpose of the investigation was to quantify the magnitude and identify the methods of rapid weight loss (RWL) and rapid weight gain (RWG) in MMA athletes preparing for competition. Seven athletes (mean ± SD, age 24.6 ± 3.5 yrs, body mass 69.9 ± 5.7 kg, competitive experience 3.1 ± 2.2 yrs) participated in a repeated-measures design. Measures of dietary intake, urinary hydration status, and body mass were recorded in the week preceding competition. Body mass decreased significantly (p<0.0005) from baseline by 5.6 ± 1.4 kg (8 ± 1.8%). During the RWG period (32 ± 1 hours) body mass increased significantly (p<0.001) by 7.4 ± 2.8 kg (11.7 ± 4.7%), exceeding RWL. Mean energy and carbohydrate intake were 3176 ± 482 kcal·day(-1) and 471 ± 124 g·day(-1), respectively. At the official weigh-in 57% of athletes were dehydrated (1033 ± 19 mOsmol·kg(-1)) and the remaining 43% were severely dehydrated (1267 ± 47 mOsmol·kg(-1)). Athletes reported using harmful dehydration-based RWL strategies, including sauna (43%) and training in plastic suits (43%). Results demonstrated RWG greater than RWL, this is a novel finding and may be attributable to the 32 hour duration from weigh-in till competition. The observed magnitude of RWL and strategies used are comparable to those which have previously resulted in fatalities. Rule changes which make RWL impractical should be implemented with immediate effect to ensure the health, safety and wellbeing of competitors.

  4. The African-American grandmother in autobiographical works by Frederick Douglass, Langston Hughes, and Maya Angelou.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill-Lubin, M A

    1991-01-01

    Using the autobiographies of Frederick Douglass, Langston Hughes, and Maya Angelou, this article demonstrates that the portrait of the African-American grandmother is one of action, involvement, hope, and dignity. In examining the works, we observe her functioning in three areas: as the preserver and most tenacious survivor of the African extended family; second, as repository and distributor of the family history, wisdom, and black lore; this role places her at the foundation of the Black, oral and written, literary and creative traditions; and third, as the retainer and transmitter of values and ideals that support and enhance her humanity, her family, and her community. This function emphasizes her spirituality. It is suggested that the grandmother, having played an important role in the growth, development, and artistic flowering of the autobiographer, can become a model and source of empowerment for future generations.

  5. Observations on China-U.S.- Indian Competition And Cooperation over the New Silk Road

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gan; Junxian

    2015-01-01

    China,the United State and India have different strategies for building the New Silk Road.The differences lie in the fact that the U.S.main objective is to protect its war achievements in Afghanistan,serve its Central and South Asia strategy,and maintain its world hegemony.While China and India see the New Silk Road as channels for trade expansion,energy supply,and cultural exchanges.Comparing the three New Silk Road strategies,India’s is more similar with that of the United States because their routes are more consistent.China’s strategy is more inclusive and sustainable.If the three countries have sound cooperation on the New Silk Road construction,they will lead to Asian integration,and vicious competition among them will bring geopolitical unrest for Asia.Therefore,China should try to prevent the geopolitical risks,prioritize development of cross-border transportation with friendly neighbor,and continue to promote interconnectivity of the New Silk Road.

  6. A Powerful Friendship: Theodore von Karman and Hugh L. Dryden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorn, Michael

    2003-01-01

    During their long personal friendship and professional association, Theodore von Karman (1882-1963) and Hugh L. Dryden (1898-1965) exercised a pivotal if somewhat elusive influence over American aeronautics and spaceflight. Both decisive figures in organizing scientists and engineers at home and abroad, both men of undisputed eminence in their technical fields, their range of contacts in government, academia, the armed forces, industry, and professional societies spanned the globe to an extent unparalleled then as now. Moreover, because they coordinated their activities closely, their combined influence far exceeded the sum of each one s individual contributions. This paper illustrates their personal origins as well as the foundations of their friendship, how their relationship became a professional alliance, and their joint impact on the world of aeronautics and astronautics during the twentieth century.

  7. Realistic model of compact VLSI FitzHugh-Nagumo oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosp, Jordi; Binczak, Stéphane; Madrenas, Jordi; Fernández, Daniel

    2014-02-01

    In this article, we present a compact analogue VLSI implementation of the FitzHugh-Nagumo neuron model, intended to model large-scale, biologically plausible, oscillator networks. As the model requires a series resistor and a parallel capacitor with the inductor, which is the most complex part of the design, it is possible to greatly simplify the active inductor implementation compared to other implementations of this device as typically found in filters by allowing appreciable, but well modelled, nonidealities. We model and obtain the parameters of the inductor nonideal model as an inductance in series with a parasitic resistor and a second order low-pass filter with a large cut-off frequency. Post-layout simulations for a CMOS 0.35 μm double-poly technology using the MOSFET Spice BSIM3v3 model confirm the proper behaviour of the design.

  8. Right Pleural Effusion in Fitz-Hugh-Curtis Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tajiri,Takuma

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Right pleural effusion was diagnosed in a 36-year-old woman with right upper quadrant pain and fever. Enhanced pelvic computed tomography performed because of irregular genital bleeding revealed the pelvic inflammatory disease. Upon further questioning, the patient confirmed that she had recently undergone therapy for Chlamydia trachomatis infection. Therefore she was given an injection of tetracycline because we suspected Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome (FHCS, a pelvic inflammatory disease characterized by perihepatitis associated with chlamydial infection. A remarkable clinical response to antibiotics was noted. The right upper quadrant pain was due to perihepatitis, and the final diagnosis was FHCS. Right pleural effusion may be caused by inflammation of the diaphragm associated with perihepatitis. Once chlamydial infection reaches the subphrenic liver, conditions in the closed space between the liver and diaphragm due to inflammatory adhesion may be conductive to chlamydial proliferation. The possibility of FHCS should be considered in patients and carefully distinguished from other abdominal diseases.

  9. Training patterns and negative health outcomes in triathlon: longitudinal observations across a full competitive season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Main, L C; Landers, G J; Grove, J R; Dawson, B; Goodman, C

    2010-12-01

    Despite heavy training requirements, triathlon is a sport that is rapidly increasing in popularity. Yet, there is limited research detailing the relationship between training, the incidence of injuries and illness, psychological stress, overtraining and athlete burnout amongst triathletes. Six hypotheses relating inter-individual differences to training factors were generated to evaluate change in self-reported measures of these negative health outcomes over a training year. Thirty, well-trained, triathletes (males n=20: age=27.1±9.1 years and females n=10: age=27.4±6.6 years) from a local triathlon club participated in this study. The study commenced during pre-season training, and involved weekly monitoring of each athlete until the end of the competitive season 45 weeks later. Linear Mixed Modelling was used for the analysis. Signs and symptoms of injury and illness (SAS) were significantly associated with increases in training factors (P≤0.05); however, greatest impact on SAS was produced by psychological stressors (P≤0.001). Common symptoms of overtraining were significantly affected by increases in exposure to both training and psychological stressors (P≤0.05). Mood disturbance was not significantly affected by training factors (P>0.05) but rather increases in psychological stressors (P≤0.001). Finally, each of the three athlete burnout subscales were significantly affected by both psychological (P≤0.001) stressors as well as varying combinations of training factors (P≤0.05). Exposure to stressors (either training or psychological) had significant effects on all negative health outcomes assessed.

  10. Development Test 1 Advanced Attack Helicopter Competitive Evaluation Hughes YAH-64 Helicopter

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-12-01

    DENS OAT ROTOR FLIGHT COMFIGURATION WEIGHT LONG LAT ALT SPEED COOADITION (LB) (FS) (BL) (FT) (’C) (RPM) 13650 204.4(MID) O.O0( MIO ) 5000 25.3 287 LEVEL...0 0 0 00 0 0 0 0.32/REV 9.6 Hz ~-0.2 ’J 0.1 01 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ’~ 0.3 /REV = 4.8 Hz AA 0.3 0.2’ 20 40 CID go 100 120 140 160 CALIBRATED AIRSPEED...8217ROTOR FLIGHT CONFIGURATION WEGTLAY ALT SPEED CONDITION It-f. (FS) -- (BL)- (FT) (-C) (RPM) ) .~0 204.4( MIO ) 0.0O(MID) 5000 25.0 287 LEVEL FLT 8-TOW 8/REV

  11. Hughes, Twain, Child, and Sanger: Four Who Locked Horns with the Censors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, Milton

    1969-01-01

    A look at the lives and conflicts of four writers--Langston Hughes, Mark Twain, Lydia Maria Child, and Margaret Sanger--who faced public criticism and censorship because oftheir views on controversial issues. (RM)

  12. Investidura com a doctor honoris causa de l'Excm. Sr. Hugh Scott Fogler

    OpenAIRE

    Diversos autors

    2016-01-01

    Investidura com a doctor honoris causa del senyor Hugh Scott Fogler. Sessió acadèmica extraordinària, 15 d'abril de 2016. Elogi del candidat a càrrec del doctor Azael Fabregat Llagostera. Discurs d’investidura pronunciat pel senyor Hugh Scott Fogler. Paraules de benvinguda pronunciades pel doctor Josep Anton Ferré Vidal, Rector Magfc. de la Universitat.

  13. STS-40 Payload Specialist Millie Hughes-Fulford trains in JSC's SLS mockup

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    STS-40 Payload Specialist Millie Hughes-Fulford conducts Spacelab Life Sciences 1 (SLS-1) Experiment No. 198, Pulmonary Function During Weightlessness, in JSC's Life Sciences Project Division (LSPD) SLS mockup located in the Bioengineering and Test Support Facility Bldg 36. Hughes-Fulford monitors instruments and settings on Rack 8's panels. Behind her in the center aisle are the body mass measurement device (foreground) and the stowed bicycle ergometer.

  14. Pulmonary cytotoxicity of secondary metabolites of Stachybotrys chartarum (Ehrenb.) Hughes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieckova, Elena; Hurbankova, Marta; Cerna, Silvia; Pivovarova, Zuzana; Kovacikova, Zuzana

    2006-01-01

    Damp dwellings represent suitable conditions for extended indoor moulds. A cellulolytic micromycete Stachybotrys chartarum (Ehrenb.) Hughes is considered to be a tertiary colonizer of surfaces in affected buildings. Known adverse health effects of S. chartarum result from its toxins--trichothecenes or atranones, as well as spirolactams. Mechanism of their potential pathological effects on the respiratory tract has not yet been sufficiently clarified. The cytotoxic effects of complex chloroform-extractable endo- (in biomass) and exometabolites (in cultivation medium) of an indoor S. chartarum isolate of an atranone chemotype, grown on a liquid medium with yeast extract and sucrose at 25 degrees C for 14 d, on lung tissue were evaluated in the 3-day experiment. For the purpose, 4 mg of toxicants were intratracheally instilled in 200 g Wistar male rats. A trichothecene mycotoxin diacetoxyscirpenol was used as the positive control. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) parameters--viability and phagocytic activity of alveolar macrophages (AM), activity of lactate dehydrogenase, acid phosphatase and cathepsin D in cell-free BAL fluid (BALF), as well as in BAL cells, were measured. Acute exposure to the metabolites caused statistically significant changes, indicating lung tissue injury in the experimental animals. Decreased AM viability and increased activity of lysosomal enzyme cathepsin D in BAL cells after fungal exometabolite exposure were the most impressive. As toxic principles were found predominantly in the growth medium, toxins were more likely responsible for lung cell damage than e.g. fungal cell wall components. S. chartarum toxic metabolites can contribute to the ill health of occupants of mouldy building after inhalation of contaminated aerosol.

  15. Noise-sustained synchronization between electrically coupled FitzHugh-Nagumo networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cascallares, Guadalupe; Sánchez, Alejandro D.; dell'Erba, Matías G.; Izús, Gonzalo G.

    2015-09-01

    We investigate the capability of electrical synapses to transmit the noise-sustained network activity from one network to another. The particular setup we consider is two identical rings with excitable FitzHugh-Nagumo cell dynamics and nearest-neighbor antiphase intra-ring coupling, electrically coupled between corresponding nodes. The whole system is submitted to independent local additive Gaussian white noises with common intensity η, but only one ring is externally forced by a global adiabatic subthreshold harmonic signal. We then seek conditions for a particular noise level to promote synchronized stable firing patterns. By running numerical integrations with increasing η, we observe the excitation activity to become spatiotemporally self-organized, until η is so strong that spoils sync between networks for a given value of the electric coupling strength. By means of a four-cell model and calculating the stationary probability distribution, we obtain a (signal-dependent) non-equilibrium potential landscape which explains qualitatively the observed regimes, and whose barrier heights give a good estimate of the optimal noise intensity for the sync between networks.

  16. Clinical outcome of Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome mimicking acute biliary disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seong Yong Woo; Jin Il Kim; Dae Young Cheung; Se Hyun Cho; Soo-Heon Park; Joon-Yeol Han; Jae Kwang Kim

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To analyze the clinical characteristics of patients diagnosed with Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome.METHODS: The clinical courses of patients that visited St. Mary's Hospital with abdominal pain from January 2005 to December 2006 and were diagnosed with Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome were examined.RESULTS: Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome was identified in 22 female patients of childbearing age; their mean age was 31.0 + 8.1 years. Fourteen of these cases presented with pain in the upper right abdomen alone or together with pain in the lower abdomen,and six patients presented with pain only in the lower abdomen. The first impression at the time of visit was acute cholecystitis or cholangitis in 10 patients and acute appendicitis or pelvic inflammatory disease in eight patients. Twenty-one patients were diagnosed by abdominal computer tomograghy (CT), and the results of abdominal sonography were normal for 10 of these patients. Ch/amydia trichomatis was isolated from 18 patients. Two patients underwent laparoscopic adhesiotomy and 20 patients were completely cured by antibiotic treatment.CONCLUSION: For women of childbearing age with acute pain in the upper right abdomen alone or together with pain in the lower abdomen, Fitz-HughCurtis syndrome should be considered during differential diagnosis. Moreover, in cases suspected to be Fitz-HughCurtis syndrome, abdominal c-r, rather than abdominal sonography, assists in the diagnosis.

  17. Subthreshold and suprathreshold vibrational resonance in the FitzHugh-Nagumo neuron model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jinjie; Kong, Chen; Liu, Xianbin

    2016-09-01

    We study the subthreshold and suprathreshold vibrational resonance in the FitzHugh-Nagumo neuron model. For the subthreshold situation, two cases where the stationary states are equilibrium point and limit cycle are considered, where different natures of vibrational resonance are observed via theoretical and numerical methods. Especially when the frequency of the high-frequency driving force is near the so-called canard-resonance frequency, the firing rate can be significantly enhanced at the presence of noise. For the suprathreshold situation, we show that the local maxima of the response amplitude are located at the transition boundaries of different phase-locking patterns. The minimal required forcing amplitudes of high-frequency signal of the firing onset are just multiples of the spiking frequency. Furthermore, phase portraits and time series show that the presence of the global maxima of the response results from not only the suprathreshold but also the subthreshold phase-locking modes. In spite of the distinct characteristics for two stationary states on subthreshold oscillation, the suprathreshold vibrational resonance showed no qualitative difference between the two cases.

  18. Associations of Mother's and Father's Parenting Practices with Children's Observed Social Reticence in a Competitive Situation: A Monozygotic Twin Difference Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimond, Fanny-Alexandra; Brendgen, Mara; Forget-Dubois, Nadine; Dionne, Ginette; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E.; Boivin, Michel

    2012-01-01

    This study used the monozygotic (MZ) twin difference method to examine whether the unique environmental effects of maternal and paternal overprotection and hostility at the age of 30 months predict twins' observed social reticence in a competitive situation in kindergarten, while controlling for the effect of family-wide influences, including…

  19. Case of Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome in male without presentation of sexually transmitted disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Haram; Shim, Chan Sup; Kim, Gyu Won; Kim, Jung Seok; Choi, In Zoo

    2015-11-16

    Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome is a type of perihepatitis that causes liver capsular infection without infecting the hepatic parenchyma or pelvis. Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome is known to occur commonly in women of childbearing age who do not use oral contraceptives and have sexual partners older than 25 years of age. However, the syndrome has been reported to occur rarely in males. The clinical symptoms are right upper quadrant pain and tenderness, and pleuritic right sided chest pain. The clinical presentation is similar in male and female. We experienced a case of Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome in a 60-year-old man with the chief complaint of right upper quadrant abdominal pain. Despite a previous history of gonorrhea, we have also described our experiences of improved symptoms and recovery with allopathic medicines and have thereby reported the present case with a literature review.

  20. Real time optical edge enhancement using a Hughes liquid crystal light valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin

    1989-01-01

    The discovery of an edge enhancement effect in using a Hughes CdS liquid crystal light valve (LCLV) is reported. An edge-enhanced version of the input writing image can be directly obtained by operating the LCLV at a lower bias frequency and bias voltage. Experimental conditions in which this edge enhancement effect can be optimized are described. Experimental results show that the SNR of the readout image using this technique is superior to that obtained using high-pass filtering. The repeatability of this effect is confirmed by obtaining an edge enhancement result using two different Hughes LCLVs. The applicability of this effect to improve discrimination capability in optical pattern recognition is addressed. The results show that the Hughes LCLV can be used in both continuous tone and edge-enhancing modes by simply adjusting its bias conditions.

  1. On the Hughes' model for pedestrian flow: The one-dimensional case

    KAUST Repository

    Di Francesco, Marco

    2011-02-01

    In this paper we investigate the mathematical theory of Hughes\\' model for the flow of pedestrians (cf. Hughes (2002) [17]), consisting of a non-linear conservation law for the density of pedestrians coupled with an eikonal equation for a potential modelling the common sense of the task. For such an approximated system we prove existence and uniqueness of entropy solutions (in one space dimension) in the sense of Kružkov (1970) [22], in which the boundary conditions are posed following the approach of Bardos et al. (1979) [7]. We use BV estimates on the density ρ and stability estimates on the potential Π in order to prove uniqueness. Furthermore, we analyze the evolution of characteristics for the original Hughes\\' model in one space dimension and study the behavior of simple solutions, in order to reproduce interesting phenomena related to the formation of shocks and rarefaction waves. The characteristic calculus is supported by numerical simulations. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.

  2. Real time optical edge enhancement using a Hughes liquid crystal light valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin

    1989-01-01

    The discovery of an edge enhancement effect in using a Hughes CdS liquid crystal light valve (LCLV) is reported. An edge-enhanced version of the input writing image can be directly obtained by operating the LCLV at a lower bias frequency and bias voltage. Experimental conditions in which this edge enhancement effect can be optimized are described. Experimental results show that the SNR of the readout image using this technique is superior to that obtained using high-pass filtering. The repeatability of this effect is confirmed by obtaining an edge enhancement result using two different Hughes LCLVs. The applicability of this effect to improve discrimination capability in optical pattern recognition is addressed. The results show that the Hughes LCLV can be used in both continuous tone and edge-enhancing modes by simply adjusting its bias conditions.

  3. 77 FR 1975 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Discontinuance of Service Exemption-in Pittsburg, Hughes, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-12

    ..., Hughes, and Seminole Counties, Okla. (the line). The line traverses United States Postal Service Zip... discontinue service over a portion of a line of railroad known as the Shawnee Branch Line, between milepost... in Hughes County, which makes the line 0.19 miles longer than the terminal mileposts would...

  4. Rivers and Hughes's Construction of Black Culture in White America——Textual Analysis of "The Negro Speaks of RAvers"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾慧

    2009-01-01

    Langston Hughes's central purpose in writing is "to explain and illuminate the Negro condition in America". By means of textual analysis, this thesis is to discover how the images of rivers in "The Negro Speaks of Rivers" construct the black culture, to find Hughes's identity in America.

  5. IN MEMORIAM: Hugh P Kelly, 3 September 1931 - 29 June 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Jørgen E.

    1993-01-01

    It is said that Racah was one of the few physicists who was able not only to read Hermann Weyl's book "The Theory of Groups and Quantum Mechanics" but also to understand enough to use it himself. Something similar applies to Hugh Kelly, who introduced the methods of Many-Body Perturbation Theory (MBPT), which was being developed by nuclear physicists like Keith Brueckner whom Hugh worked with as a post-doc, into atomic physics. Since atomic physics with its "known" forces is a perfect area in which to apply the methods of MBPT, it is clear that this would have happened sooner or later. Hugh Kelly's achievement is that it happened very early. Hugh's death this summer after a long battle with cancer is a great loss to atomic physics and to his many friends in the community. Hugh P Kelly got his PhD from the University of California at Berkeley in 1963 under the supervision of Kenneth Watson and in 1965 he was hired as assistant Professor at the University of Virginia. His appointment was to a large extent due to the support of M E Rose, also a nuclear physicist with interest in atoms as is clear from his book "Elementary Theory of Angular Momentum". Hugh remained at the University of Virginia for the rest of his life, over the years serving as Department Chairman, Faculty Dean and, during the last years, as University Provost, but throughout Hugh pursued his real passion which was Physics. It is a clear sign of his dedication that he is sole author on a large number of papers particularly of course in the early years when he alone was Atomic Theory in Charlottesville. Hugh contributed to many areas of atomic physics although early on photoionization became his favourite subject and the one where he made his main contribution: first for closed shell atoms, but later extending his techniques to open shell systems for which the normal MBPT techniques did not apply. Hugh had a good nose for finding projects that were of topical interest and many of his papers are

  6. 75 FR 24973 - United States v. Baker Hughes Inc., et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-06

    .... IV. Trade and Commerce A. Background 1. Overview of Drilling and Completion Process 11. Offshore... impose on each other's pricing. Post merger, Baker Hughes will likely find it profitable to raise the... transaction may present a profitable opportunity to remove one or two vessels from the Gulf, an opportunity...

  7. The Political Economy of Rhetorical Style: Hugh Blair's Response to the Civic-Commercial Dilemma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longaker, Mark Garrett

    2008-01-01

    Recent scholarship treats Hugh Blair's "Lectures" on Rhetoric and Belles Lettres (1783) as an effort to endorse either the liberal or the civic political traditions in eighteenth-century Scotland. This essay questions this orthodoxy by reading the "Lectures", and in particular Blair's attention to considerations of rhetorical…

  8. The Political Economy of Rhetorical Style: Hugh Blair's Response to the Civic-Commercial Dilemma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longaker, Mark Garrett

    2008-01-01

    Recent scholarship treats Hugh Blair's "Lectures" on Rhetoric and Belles Lettres (1783) as an effort to endorse either the liberal or the civic political traditions in eighteenth-century Scotland. This essay questions this orthodoxy by reading the "Lectures", and in particular Blair's attention to considerations of rhetorical style, against their…

  9. "Comments on Greenhow, Robelia, and Hughes": Expanding the New Literacies Conversation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leu, Donald J.; O'Byrne, W. Ian; Zawilinski, Lisa; McVerry, J. Greg; Everett-Cacopardo, Heidi

    2009-01-01

    Using a popularized notion such as Web 2.0 limits research efforts by employing a binary construct, one initially prompted by commercial concerns. Instead, the authors of this article, commenting on Greenhow, Robelia, and Hughes (2009), suggest that continuous, not dichotomous, change in the technologies of literacy and learning defines the…

  10. Hugh E. Huxley: cambiando el paradigma de la contracción muscular, desde dentro. [Hugh E. Huxley: changing from inside the paradigm of muscle contraction].

    OpenAIRE

    Adolfo Araci

    2014-01-01

    Desde un punto de vista físico se puede entender la fibra muscular como un motor, es decir, un sistema capaz de transformar la energía química en energía mecánica, que se utiliza para realizar un trabajo. Por lo tanto, para entender cómo ocurre dicho proceso de transformación es necesario conocer la ultraestructura de la fibra muscular. Esta es, sin duda, la principal aportación al acervo científico del recientemente fallecido Hugh Emor Huxley (1924-2013). Huxley se graduó en Física en el Chr...

  11. Hugh E. Huxley: cambiando el paradigma de la contracción muscular, desde dentro. [Hugh E. Huxley: changing from inside the paradigm of muscle contraction].

    OpenAIRE

    Adolfo Araci

    2014-01-01

    Desde un punto de vista físico se puede entender la fibra muscular como un motor, es decir, un sistema capaz de transformar la energía química en energía mecánica, que se utiliza para realizar un trabajo. Por lo tanto, para entender cómo ocurre dicho proceso de transformación es necesario conocer la ultraestructura de la fibra muscular. Esta es, sin duda, la principal aportación al acervo científico del recientemente fallecido Hugh Emor Huxley (1924-2013). Huxley se graduó en Física en el Chr...

  12. Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome: abdominal pain in women of 26 years old Síndrome de Fitz-Hugh-Curtis: dolor abdominal en mujer de 26 años

    OpenAIRE

    Liseth Rivero-Sánchez; Elsa María López-Soriano; Luisa Guarner-Aguilar

    2011-01-01

    Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome is an inflammation of the liver capsule as a complication of pelvic inflammatory disease, whose most common etiologic agent is the C. trachomatis. The acute phase of the Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome may present itself with pain in right upper abdomen, commonly confused with other hepatobiliary and gastrointestinal tract diseases. Definitive diagnosis is now possible with non-invasive techniques such as ultrasound, computed tomography, as well as techniques to isolate th...

  13. Direct observation of competition between superconductivity and charge density wave order in YBa2Cu3O6.67

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chang, J.; Blackburn, E.; Holmes, A. T.

    2012-01-01

    Superconductivity often emerges in the proximity of, or in competition with, symmetry-breaking ground states such as antiferromagnetism or charge density waves (CDW). A number of materials in the cuprate family, which includes the high transition-temperature (high-Tc) superconductors, show spin...... and charge density wave order. Thus a fundamental question is to what extent do these ordered states exist for compositions close to optimal for superconductivity. Here we use high-energy X-ray diffraction to show that a CDW develops at zero field in the normal state of superconducting YBa2Cu3O6.67 (Tc= 67 K......). This sample has a hole doping of 0.12 per copper and a well-ordered oxygen chain superstructure. Below Tc, the application of a magnetic field suppresses superconductivity and enhances the CDW. Hence, the CDW and superconductivity in this typical high-Tc material are competing orders with similar energy...

  14. Numerical bifurcation analysis of two coupled FitzHugh-Nagumo oscillators

    CERN Document Server

    Hoff, Anderson; Manchein, Cesar; Albuquerque, Holokx A

    2015-01-01

    The behavior of neurons can be modeled by the FitzHugh-Nagumo oscillator model, consisting of two nonlinear differential equations, which simulates the behavior of nerve impulse conduction through the neuronal membrane. In this work, we numerically study the dynamical behavior of two coupled FitzHugh-Nagumo oscillators. We consider unidirectional and bidirectional couplings, for which Lyapunov and isoperiodic diagrams were constructed calculating the Lyapunov exponents and the number of the local maxima of a variable in one period interval of the time-series, respectively. By numerical continuation method the bifurcation curves are also obtained for both couplings. The dynamics of the networks here investigated are presented in terms of the variation between the coupling strength of the oscillators and other parameters of the system. For the network of two oscillators unidirectionally coupled, the results show the existence of Arnold tongues, self-organized sequentially in a branch of a Stern-Brocot tree and ...

  15. The fusion of the imagination and the material universe: Hugh Hood, Flying a red kite (1962

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksander Kustec

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available In the first weeks of January 1957 Hugh (John Blagdon Hood moved to Hartford, Connecticut, U. S. A, where he became Professor at Saint Joseph College. At the time Hood did not know that he was going to become one of Canada's greatest stylists and contemporary short story writers. Between January 1957 and March 1962, when he was going through a final selection o short stories for his first book, Flying a Red Kite (FRK, Hugh Hood wrote thirty-eight short stories and two novels (God Rest You Merry and Hungry Generations. The numbers show that Hood was an extremely productive writer in that period. From the thirty-eight stories he chose eleven for FRK, fourteen of them were published in subsequent collections, in various journals and short story anthologies, while thirteen of them have not been published yet.

  16. The 2016 Hughes Lecture: What's new in maternal morbidity and mortality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendt, K W

    2016-05-01

    Each year, the Board of Directors of the Society for Obstetric Anesthesia and Perinatology selects an individual to review a given year's published obstetric anesthesiology literature. This individual then produces a syllabus of the year's most influential publications, delivers the Ostheimer Lecture at the Society's annual meeting, the Hughes Lecture at the following year's Sol Shnider meeting, and writes corresponding review articles. This 2016 Hughes Lecture review article focuses specifically on the 2014 publications that relate to maternal morbidity and mortality. It begins by discussing the 2014 research that was published on severe maternal morbidity and maternal mortality in developed countries. This is followed by a discussion of specific coexisting diseases and specific causes of severe maternal mortality. The review ends with a discussion of worldwide maternal mortality and the 2014 publications that examined the successes and the shortfalls in the work to make childbirth safe for women throughout the entire world.

  17. Two-frequency self-oscillations in a FitzHugh-Nagumo neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glyzin, S. D.; Kolesov, A. Yu.; Rozov, N. Kh.

    2017-01-01

    A new mathematical model of a one-dimensional array of FitzHugh-Nagumo neurons with resistive-inductive coupling between neighboring elements is proposed. The model relies on a chain of diffusively coupled three-dimensional systems of ordinary differential equations. It is shown that any finite number of coexisting stable invariant two-dimensional tori can be obtained in this chain by suitably increasing the number of its elements.

  18. Selected results from LLNL-Hughes RAR for West Coast Scotland Experiment 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehman, S K; Johnston, B; Twogood, R; Wieting, M; Yorkey, T; Robey, H [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Whelan, D; Nagele, R [Hughes Aircraft Co., Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1993-01-05

    The joint US -- UK 1991 West Coast Scotland Experiment (WCSEX) was held in two locations. From July 5 to 12, 1991, in Upper Loch Linnhe, and from July 18 to July 26, 1991, in the Sound of Sleat. The LLNL-Hughes team fielded a fully polarimetric X-band hill-side real aperture radar to collect internal wave wake data. We present here a sample data set of the best radar runs.

  19. Young CAS biologist gets five-year grant from Howard Hughes Medical Institute

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Dr. TANG Chun, an outstanding young biologist from the CAS Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics (WIPM) was announced in January 2012 to have won the first International Early Career Award from Howard Hughes Medical Institute with a five-year grant totaling up to 650,000 US dollars. Dr. Tang is an expert in using novel nuclear magnetic resonance methods to study the behavior and function of proteins,

  20. 耦合的Fitz-Hugh-Nagumo模型的初边值问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    首先研究了具有耦合的 Fitz-Hugh-Nagumo 模型初值问题的渐近性. 其次,所对应的平衡态方程解的基本性态也将被讨论. 最后, 该模型的初边值问题古典解的最大吸引子的存在性将首次被证明.

  1. The Hughes Court and Radical Dissent: The Case of Dirk De Jonge and Angelo Herndon

    OpenAIRE

    Tushnet, Mark V.

    2012-01-01

    Scattered Supreme Court decisions in the early twentieth century dealt with the Constitution’s protection of freedom of speech. Radical dissent over United States participation in World War I and the nation’s intervention against the Bolshevik revolution in Russia led the Court to its first sustained engagement with free speech cases. By the time Chief Justice Hughes took the center chair, the national government largely had abandoned its pursuit of radical dissenters, some of whom played la...

  2. Percutaneous transhepatic venous embolization of pulmonary artery aneurysm in Hughes-Stovin syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyung Ah; Kim, Man Deuk; Oh, Do Yun; Park, Pil Won [Bundang CHA General Hospital, Pochon CHA University, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-08-15

    Hughes-Stovin syndrome is an extremely rare entity. We present a case of a 42-year-old man, who developed deep vein and inferior vena cava (IVC) thrombosis, repeated internal bleeding and pulmonary artery aneurysms (PAAs). The patient presented with massive hemoptysis and with PAAs of a 2.5 cm maximum diameter. We describe the successful percutaneous transhepatic venous embolization of the PAAs due to occluded common vascular pathways to the pulmonary artery.

  3. A política de Hugh Dalton e o Bloqueio Económico (1940-1942)

    OpenAIRE

    Mariana Castro

    2015-01-01

    The World War II was a scenery of conflict and protagonists. Hugh Dalton was Minister of Economics of War between 1940 and 1942 in England. Highlighted by the measure in economic blockade the belligerents and neutral countries, proposing the control of smuggling through the prohibition of exports and imports with the German enemy, in other words ‘dry internally and externally “to weaken. This essay focuses on Hugh Dalton policy, leaving few clues and suggestions for further study ...

  4. Competitive Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Pierrette; Hiller, Christine A.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the evolution of competitive intelligence since 1994, including terminology and definitions and analytical techniques. Addresses the issue of ethics; explores how information technology supports the competitive intelligence process; and discusses education and training opportunities for competitive intelligence, including core competencies…

  5. Vibrational and Stochastic Resonance in the FitzHugh-Nagumo Neural Model with Multiplicative and Additive Noise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Zheng-You; ZHOU Yu-Rong

    2011-01-01

    The vibrational resonance and stochastic resonance phenomena in the FitzHugh-Nagumo (FHN) neural model,driven by a high-frequency (HF) signal and a low-frequency (LF) signal and by coupled multiplicative and additive noises,is investigated.For the case that the frequency of the HF signal is much higher than that of the LF signal,under the adiabatic approximation condition,the expression of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) with respect to the LF signal is obtained.It is shown that the SNR is a non-monotonous function of the amplitude and frequency of the HF signal In addition,the SNR varies non-monotonically with the increasing intensities of the multiplicative and additive noise as well as with the increasing system parameters of the FHN model The influence of the coupling strength between the multiplicative and additive noises on the SNR is discussed.Stochastic resonance (SR) describes the phenomenon where an appropriate amount of noise is of constructive use in the sense that a weak signal becomes amplified upon harvesting the ambient noise in nonlinear systems.[1] Since its first discovery in the early eighties,SR has been observed in a great variety of systems pertaining to different disciplines such as physics,chemistry,engineering,biology and biomedical sciences.[1-4] The phenomenon vibrational resonance (VR) was named by Landa and McClintock.[5]%The vibrational resonance and stochastic resonance phenomena in the FitzHugh-Nagumo (FHN) neural model, driven by a high-frequency (HF) signal and a low-frequency (LF) signal and by coupled multiplicative and additive noises, is investigated. For the case that the frequency of the HF signal is much higher than that of the LF signal, under the adiabatic approximation condition, the expression of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) with respect to the LF signal is obtained. It is shown that the SNR is a non-monotonous function of the amplitude and frequency of the HF signal. In addition, the SNR varies non

  6. Acting nasty in the face of failure? Longitudinal observations of "hard-to-manage" children playing a rigged competitive game with a friend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, C; Cutting, A L; Dunn, J

    2001-10-01

    Peer problems are almost universal among children with disruptive behavior disorders, and have been linked to social information processing deficits that lead to heightened threat responses. This 2-year longitudinal study uses direct observations to examine the real-life significance of this finding. Forty "hard-to-manage" children and 40 typically developing control children were filmed at ages 5 and 7 playing a rigged competitive game in which they experienced a clear threat of losing. Group differences in negative behavior (hard-to-manage > controls) were stable over time and independent of verbal ability. Predictors of individual differences in negative behavior were also examined. Previous studies with this sample have shown that at 4 years of age, the hard-to-manage children displayed elevated frequencies of violent pretend play, coupled with poor performance on tests of executive function and theory of mind. In this study, 4-year-olds whose pretend play indicated a preoccupation with violence were more likely to respond negatively to the threat of losing a competitive game at age 5 and at age 7. Four-year-olds who performed poorly on tests of theory of mind and executive function showed higher rates of negative behavior at age 5 but not age 7. These findings highlight just a few of the multiple paths leading to peer problems among children with disruptive behavior problems.

  7. A "Queen of Hearts" trial of organ markets: why Scheper-Hughes's objections to markets in human organs fail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, J S

    2007-04-01

    Nancy Scheper-Hughes is one of the most prominent critics of markets in human organs. Unfortunately, Scheper-Hughes rejects the view that markets should be used to solve the current (and chronic) shortage of transplant organs without engaging with the arguments in favour of them. Scheper-Hughes's rejection of such markets is of especial concern, given her influence over their future, for she holds, among other positions, the status of an adviser to the World Health Organization (Geneva) on issues related to global transplantation. Given her influence, it is important that Scheper-Hughes's moral condemnation of markets in human organs be subject to critical assessment. Such critical assessment, however, has not generally been forthcoming. A careful examination of Scheper-Hughes's anti-market stance shows that it is based on serious mischaracterisations of both the pro-market position and the medical and economic realities that underlie it. In this paper, the author will expose and correct these mischaracterisations and, in so doing, show that her objections to markets in human organs are unfounded.

  8. HARP model rotor test at the DNW. [Hughes Advanced Rotor Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Seth; Jordan, David; Smith, Charles; Ekins, James; Silverthorn, Lou

    1989-01-01

    Data from a test of a dynamically scaled model of the Hughes Advanced Rotor Program (HARP) bearingless model main rotor and 369K tail rotor are reported. The history of the HARP program and its goals are reviewed, and the main and tail rotor models are described. The test facilities and instrumentation are described, and wind tunnel test data are presented on hover, forward flight performance, and blade-vortex interaction. Performance data, acoustic data, and dynamic data from near field/far field and shear layer studies are presented.

  9. The spike timing precision of FitzHugh-Nagumo neuron network coupled by gap junctions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Su-Hua; Zhan Yong; Yu Hui; An Hai-Long; Zhao Tong-Jun

    2006-01-01

    It has been proved recently that the spike timing can play an important role in information transmission, so in this paper we develop a network with N-unit FitzHugh-Nagumo neurons coupled by gap junctions and discuss the dependence of the spike timing precision on synaptic coupling strength, the noise intensity and the size of the neuron ensemble. The calculated results show that the spike timing precision decreases as the noise intensity increases; and the ensemble spike timing precision increases with coupling strength increasing. The electric synapse coupling has a more important effect on the spike timing precision than the chemical synapse coupling.

  10. Synchronization in heterogeneous FitzHugh-Nagumo networks with hierarchical architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikov, S. A.; Lehnert, J.; Fradkov, A. L.; Schöll, E.

    2016-07-01

    We study synchronization in heterogeneous FitzHugh-Nagumo networks. It is well known that heterogeneities in the nodes hinder synchronization when becoming too large. Here we develop a controller to counteract the impact of these heterogeneities. We first analyze the stability of the equilibrium point in a ring network of heterogeneous nodes. We then derive a sufficient condition for synchronization in the absence of control. Based on these results we derive the controller providing synchronization for parameter values where synchronization without control is absent. We demonstrate our results in networks with different topologies. Particular attention is given to hierarchical (fractal) topologies, which are relevant for the architecture of the brain.

  11. Synchronization and associative memory of FitzHugh-Nagumo neuronal networks with randomly distributed time delays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, J H; Wu, Y J [School of Information Science and Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Yu, H J [Department of Mechanics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)], E-mail: jhpeng@ecust.edu.cn

    2008-02-15

    Synchronization and associative memory in a neural network composed of the widely discussed FitzHugh-Nagumo neurons is investigated in this paper. Based on the reality of the microscopic biological structure in the neural system, the couplings among those neurons are accompanied with randomly distributed time delays which models the times needed for pulses propagating on the axons from the presynaptic neurons to the postsynaptic neurons. The memory is represented in the spatiotemporal firing pattern of the neurons, and the memory retrieval is accomplished with the fluctuations of the noise in the system.

  12. 空间离散Fitz-Hugh-Nagumo方程和双稳反应扩散方程组的渐近行为%Asymptotic Behavioui of Spatial Discretized Fitz-Hugh-Nagumo Equations and Bistable Reaction Diffusion Equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄建华; 路钢

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the asymptotic behaviour of spatial disretization of Fitz-Hugh-Nagumo equations and bistable reaction diffusion equations with Neumamn boundary conditions, and the invariant regions, absorbing sets and global attractors are obtained and the estimation of Hausdorff dimension is given.%本文利用扰动方法,研究了Fitz-Hugh-Nagumo方程和双稳反应扩散方程在Neuman边值条件下空间离散后的渐近行为,证明了两个格微分方程组的不变区域、吸引集和整体吸引子的存在性,并给出了离散Fitz-Hugh-Nagumo方程的整体吸引子的Hausdorff维数估计.

  13. Montage of a Queering Deferred: Memory, Ownership, and Archival Silencing in the Rhetorical Biography of Langston Hughes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, Ian

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the intersection of archival privilege and heteronormative bias in the queering of Langston Hughes. Although it has been a common belief in LGBTQ communities that Hughes was gay, the battle over how his sexuality is defined in various biographical texts involves broader issues of dominant representations of sexuality and who gets to speak for those no longer able to speak for themselves. As such, the article examines the texts Looking for Langston and The Life of Langston Hughes as well as the discourses that surrounded both. Through this case study, it is apparent that there are still numerous cultural challenges posed to historical queering and that scholars must take an inventive approach to overcome them.

  14. Friendly competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2006-01-01

    Competition that is characterized by rules, often informal, agreed among mutually accepted participants, and that gives the competitors a special, advantageous status with others is called friendly competition. Dentists have engaged in it deeply and it is good for the profession. Friendly competition offers the advantages of spillover of commonly useful information and technologies, stimulation of innovation, a united and convenient face to customers and suppliers, and standards that promote growth. Friendly competition increases the size of the pie, regardless of market share. Paradoxically, this is even true for the little guy in the shadow of the giant. If carried to extremes, unfriendly competition leads to destroying competitors, the confusion of multiple rules, and encouragement of disruptive change.

  15. Berta and Adelaide: the policy of consolidation of the royal power of Hugh of Arles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Vignodelli

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Both twins dowers made up by Hugh of Provence, king of Italic Kingdom, for his betrothal with Berta and that of his son Lothair with Adelaide, have to be understood within the policy of strengthening the royal power led by the king in the Thirties of the Tenth century: the dowers are in fact the crown of that policy. The double dower constitution supplies the king of Italy the opportunity to reserve for himself (and for the new formed young royal couple a strong control of the center of the Po valley around Pavia and dismantles (for the benefit of the royal domain ducal bases of power in Tuscia. The analysis of the work of Hugh allows us to understand its policy towards the aristocracy and the mechanisms for the promotion of new families (Aleramici, Obertenghi, Canossa. The original documents of dower were kept in the monastery of St. Salvatore of Pavia, founded by Adelaide; this locations isn’t due to the goods endowment of the monastery but to their importance as instrument of political legitimacy of the new Ottonian royal family.

  16. Frequency Effect of Harmonic Noise on the FitzHugh-Nagumo Neuron Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋艳丽

    2011-01-01

    Using harmonic noise,the frequency effect of noise on the FitzHugh-Nagumo neuron model is investigated.The results show that the neuron has a resonance characteristic and responds strongly to the noise with a certain frequency at fixed power.Driven by the noise with this frequency,the train is most regular and the coefficient of variation R has a minimum.The imperfect synchronization takes place,which,however,is optimal only for noise with an appropriate frequency.It is shown that there exists coherence resonance related to frequency.%Using harmonic noise, the frequency effect of noise on the FitzHugh-Nagumo neuron model is investigated. The results show that the neuron has a resonance characteristic and responds strongly to the noise with a certain frequency at fixed power. Driven by the noise with this frequency, the train is most regular and the coefficient of variation R has a minimum. The imperfect synchronization takes place, which, however, is optimal only for noise with an appropriate frequency. It is shown that there exists coherence resonance related to frequency.

  17. A School Competition on the computation of the solar parallax using observations from the Mercury Transit of 9 May 2016 - Results and Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zender, Joe; Barnes, Rebecca; Zuidervaart, Huib; Benkhoff, Johannes; Martinez, Santa; Breitfellner, Michel; Almeida, Miguel

    2017-04-01

    On 9 May 2016 an intriguing and rare event occurred. Seen from most countries in Europe, Mercury, the planet nearest to the Sun, crossed the Sun's surface. Such a phenomenon is better known for the moon, for during such an eclipse it gets dark (or darker), so everyone will notice that something special is going on. But as Mercury is very, very small compared to the Sun, one will never remark such a Mercury-eclipse by oneself. It was the famous astronomer Johannes Kepler who realized in 1601 that Mercury (or Venus) transits could be observed from the Earth. Later in 1691, Edmund Halley published a mathematical algorithm to compute the solar parallax (from which one can determine the distance from Earth to the Sun) from observations made during the transit. It is sad to note that neither of the both scientists had the chance to witness a Mercury transit during their lifetime. Well before the event, the ESA Communication Office announced a school competition to observe the Mercury transit and repeat the measurements proposed by Edmund Halley and other scientists since then. Several hints were given on the observation possibilities (telescope, binoculars, solar glasses), and examples of the algorithms in form of written formulae or excel sheet formulae were given. All schools were encouraged to share their data with each other and the needed support was provided by ESA. After the transit, all school teams were asked to provided their results and an accompanying report to allow us to get a picture of the team's technical, mathematical, and social activities in preparation of the event and the event itself. In our presentation, we will give a short overview of the participants and their efforts. We analyze our school competition expectations against the results as seen from a scientist point of view (1st and 3rd author) and a scientific communicator point of view (2nd author), and give our perspective towards upcoming planetary eclipse opportunities, i.e. the Mercury

  18. Environmental structure and competitive scoring advantages in team competitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, Sears; Clauset, Aaron

    2013-10-01

    In most professional sports, playing field structure is kept neutral so that scoring imbalances may be attributed to differences in team skill. It thus remains unknown what impact environmental heterogeneities can have on scoring dynamics or competitive advantages. Applying a novel generative model of scoring dynamics to roughly 10 million team competitions drawn from an online game, we quantify the relationship between the structure within a competition and its scoring dynamics, while controlling the impact of chance. Despite wide structural variations, we observe a common three-phase pattern in the tempo of events. Tempo and balance are highly predictable from a competition's structural features alone and teams exploit environmental heterogeneities for sustained competitive advantage. Surprisingly, the most balanced competitions are associated with specific environmental heterogeneities, not from equally skilled teams. These results shed new light on the design principles of balanced competition, and illustrate the potential of online game data for investigating social dynamics and competition.

  19. Environmental structure and competitive scoring advantages in team competitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, Sears; Clauset, Aaron

    2013-10-29

    In most professional sports, playing field structure is kept neutral so that scoring imbalances may be attributed to differences in team skill. It thus remains unknown what impact environmental heterogeneities can have on scoring dynamics or competitive advantages. Applying a novel generative model of scoring dynamics to roughly 10 million team competitions drawn from an online game, we quantify the relationship between the structure within a competition and its scoring dynamics, while controlling the impact of chance. Despite wide structural variations, we observe a common three-phase pattern in the tempo of events. Tempo and balance are highly predictable from a competition's structural features alone and teams exploit environmental heterogeneities for sustained competitive advantage. Surprisingly, the most balanced competitions are associated with specific environmental heterogeneities, not from equally skilled teams. These results shed new light on the design principles of balanced competition, and illustrate the potential of online game data for investigating social dynamics and competition.

  20. SÍNDROME DE FITZ-HUGH-CURTIS COMO HALLAZGO DURANTE CIRUGÍA GINECOLÓGICA

    OpenAIRE

    Ricci A,Paolo; Solà D,Vicente; Pardo S,Jack

    2009-01-01

    El síndrome de Fitz-Hugh-Curtis es una perihepatitis producida por una peritonitis secundaria al ascenso de bacterias, como resultado de una enfermedad inflamatoria pélvica. En la etapa crónica se pueden observar adherencias entre la pared abdominal y la superficie hepática, caracterizadas por la semejanza a "cuerdas de violín". Esta imagen es considerada criterio diagnóstico. Se presenta un caso de hallazgo de síndrome de Fitz-Hugh-Curtis, pesquisado durante la inspección rutinaria de la cav...

  1. SÍNDROME DE FITZ-HUGH-CURTIS COMO HALLAZGO DURANTE CIRUGÍA GINECOLÓGICA

    OpenAIRE

    Ricci A,Paolo; Solà D,Vicente; Pardo S,Jack

    2009-01-01

    El síndrome de Fitz-Hugh-Curtis es una perihepatitis producida por una peritonitis secundaria al ascenso de bacterias, como resultado de una enfermedad inflamatoria pélvica. En la etapa crónica se pueden observar adherencias entre la pared abdominal y la superficie hepática, caracterizadas por la semejanza a "cuerdas de violín". Esta imagen es considerada criterio diagnóstico. Se presenta un caso de hallazgo de síndrome de Fitz-Hugh-Curtis, pesquisado durante la inspección rutinaria de la cav...

  2. Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome: abdominal pain in women of 26 years old Síndrome de Fitz-Hugh-Curtis: dolor abdominal en mujer de 26 años

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liseth Rivero-Sánchez

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome is an inflammation of the liver capsule as a complication of pelvic inflammatory disease, whose most common etiologic agent is the C. trachomatis. The acute phase of the Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome may present itself with pain in right upper abdomen, commonly confused with other hepatobiliary and gastrointestinal tract diseases. Definitive diagnosis is now possible with non-invasive techniques such as ultrasound, computed tomography, as well as techniques to isolate the responsible germ, available in most centers.El síndrome de Fitz-Hugh-Curtis es una inflamación de la cápsula hepática, como complicación de una enfermedad inflamatoria pélvica, cuyo agente etiológico más frecuente es la C. trachomatis. La fase aguda del síndrome de Fitz-Hugh-Curtis puede presentarse con dolor en cuadrante superior derecho del abdomen, confundiéndose comúnmente con otras enfermedades hepatobiliares y del tracto gastrointestinal. El diagnóstico definitivo es posible hoy en día por técnicas no invasivas como ecografía, tomografía computarizada, además de técnicas para el aislamiento del germen responsable disponibles en la mayoría de los centros.

  3. University receives $1.4 million science education award from Howard Hughes Medical Institute to support innovate undergraduate science education

    OpenAIRE

    Owczarski, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Virginia Tech was among 50 top research universities nationwide to receive a Precollege and Undergraduate Science Education Program award from the Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI) that will be used to encourage university faculty to develop new ways to teach and inspire undergraduate students about science and research.

  4. Pretext, Context, Subtext: Textual Power in the Writing of Langston Hughes, Richard Wright, and Martin Luther King, Jr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogumil, Mary L.; Molino, Michael R.

    1990-01-01

    Studies verbal pretexts, social subtexts, and interpretive contexts of works by Langston Hughes, Richard Wright, and Martin Luther King, Jr. Notes that cultural repression is propagated (and dispelled) in part through the power of language. Notes that these texts are relevant for teaching textual power in hopes of affecting social change. (RS)

  5. Theoretical analysis and control results for the FitzHugh-Nagumo equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Antonio Rojas-Medar

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we are concerned with some theoretical questions for the FitzHugh-Nagumo equation. First, we recall the system, we briefly explain the meaning of the variables and we present a simple proof of the existence and uniqueness of strong solution. We also consider an optimal control problem for this system. In this context, the goal is to determine how can we act on the system in order to get good properties. We prove the existence of optimal state-control pairs and, as an application of the Dubovitski-Milyoutin formalism, we deduce the corresponding optimality system. We also connect the optimal control problem with a controllability question and we construct a sequence of controls that produce solutions that converge strongly to desired states. This provides a strategy to make the system behave as desired. Finally, we present some open questions related to the control of this equation.

  6. The synchronization of FitzHugh-Nagumo neuron network coupled by gap junction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhan Yong; Zhang Su-Hua; Zhao Tong-Jun; An Hai-Long; Zhang Zhen-Dong; Han Ying-Rong; Liu Hui; Zhang Yu-Hong

    2008-01-01

    It is well known that the strong coupling can synchronize a network of nonlinear oscillators. Synchronization provides the basis of the remarkable computational performance of the brain. In this paper the FitzHugh-Nagumo neuron network is constructed. The dependence of the synchronization on the coupling strength, the noise intensity and the size of the neuron network has been discussed. The results indicate that the coupling among neurons works to improve the synchronization, and noise increases the neuron random dynamics and the local fluctuations; the larger the size of network, the worse the synchronization. The dependence of the synchronization on the strength of the electric synapse coupling and chemical synapse coupling has also been discussed, which proves that electric synapse coupling can enhance the synchronization of the neuron network largely.

  7. A correspondence between the models of Hodgkin-Huxley and FitzHugh-Nagumo revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postnikov, Eugene B.; Titkova, Olga V.

    2016-11-01

    We present the discussion on the possibility to scale the classical dimensionless FitzHugh-Nagumo model of neuronal self-sustained oscillations to the range of variables corresponding to the results, which are provided by the biophysically relevant reduced two-dimensional Hodgkin-Huxley equations (the Rinzel model). It is shown that there exists a relatively simple choice of affine transformation, which results in time-dependent solutions, which reproduce with a high accuracy the time course of the recovery variable and the sharp onsets (intervals of fast motions on a phase trajectories) of the voltage spikes. As for the latter, the reasons for unavoidable difference are discussed as well as a necessity of taking into account applied current values during such a scaling procedure.

  8. Stochastic bifurcation in FitzHugh Nagumo ensembles subjected to additive and/or multiplicative noises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Hideo

    2008-02-01

    We have studied the dynamical properties of finite N-unit FitzHugh-Nagumo (FN) ensembles subjected to additive and/or multiplicative noises, reformulating the augmented moment method (AMM) with the Fokker-Planck equation (FPE) method [H. Hasegawa, J. Phys. Soc. Japan 75 (2006) 033001]. In the AMM, original 2N-dimensional stochastic equations are transformed to eight-dimensional deterministic ones, and the dynamics is described in terms of averages and fluctuations of local and global variables. The stochastic bifurcation is discussed by a linear stability analysis of the deterministic AMM equations. The bifurcation transition diagram of multiplicative noise is rather different from that of additive noise: the former has the wider oscillating region than the latter. The synchronization in globally-coupled FN ensembles is also investigated. Results of the AMM are in good agreement with those of direct simulations (DSs).

  9. Phase Propagations in a Coupled Oscillator-Excitor System of FitzHugh-Nagumo Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Lu-Qun; OUYANG Qi

    2006-01-01

    @@ A one-dimensional array of 2N + 1 automata with FitzHugh-Nagumo dynamics, in which one is set to be oscillatory and the others are excitable, is investigated with bi-directional interactions. We find that 1 : 1 rhythm propagation in the array depends on the appropriate couple strength and the excitability of the system. On the two sides of the 1: 1 rhythm area in parameter space, two different kinds of dynamical behaviour of the pacemaker, i.e. phase-locking phenomena and canard-like phenomena, are shown. The latter is found in company with chaotic pattern and period doubling bifurcation. When the coupling strength is larger than a critical value,the whole system ends to a steady state.

  10. Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome lacking typical characteristics of pelvic inflammatory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitaka, Hayato; Kitazono, Hidetaka; Deshpande, Gautam A; Hiraoka, Eiji

    2016-06-22

    A 23-year-old Japanese woman, previously a commercial sex worker, presented with a 2-day history of right upper quadrant (RUQ) abdominal pain, worse on deep inspiration. She had noticed increased vaginal discharge 2 months earlier and had developed dull, lower abdominal pain 3 weeks prior to presentation. Although pelvic examination and transvaginal ultrasonography revealed neither a tubal nor ovarian pathology, abdominal CT scan with contrast demonstrated early enhancement of the hepatic capsule, a finding pathognomonic for Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome (FHCS). Cervical discharge PCR assay confirmed Chlamydia trachomatis infection. This case highlights that normal gynaecological evaluation may be insufficient to rule out FHCS, for which physicians should have a high index of suspicion when seeing any woman of reproductive age with RUQ pain. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  11. Identification of the FitzHugh-Nagumo Model Dynamics via Deterministic Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xunde; Wang, Cong

    In this paper, a new method is proposed for the identification of the FitzHugh-Nagumo (FHN) model dynamics via deterministic learning. The FHN model is a classic and simple model for studying spiral waves in excitable media, such as the cardiac tissue, biological neural networks. Firstly, the FHN model described by partial differential equations (PDEs) is transformed into a set of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) by using finite difference method. Secondly, the dynamics of the ODEs is identified using the deterministic learning theory. It is shown that, for the spiral waves generated by the FHN model, the dynamics underlying the recurrent trajectory corresponding to any spatial point can be accurately identified by using the proposed approach. Numerical experiments are included to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  12. Environmental structure and competitive scoring advantages in team competitions

    CERN Document Server

    Merritt, Sears

    2013-01-01

    In most professional sports, the structure of the environment is kept neutral so that scoring imbalances may be attributed to differences in team skill. It thus remains unknown what impact structural heterogeneities can have on scoring dynamics and producing competitive advantages. Applying a generative model of scoring dynamics to roughly 10 million team competitions drawn from an online game, we quantify the relationship between a competition's structure and its scoring dynamics. Despite wide structural variations, we find the same three-phase pattern in the tempo of events observed in many sports. Tempo and balance are highly predictable from a competition's structural features alone and teams exploit environmental heterogeneities for sustained competitive advantage. The most balanced competitions are associated with specific environmental heterogeneities, not from equally skilled teams. These results shed new light on the principles of balanced competition, and illustrate the potential of online game data...

  13. Case competitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Anne Gram

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents and discusses a teaching project with case competitions for MA students of specialised translation at the Aarhus School of Business, Aarhus University. Drawing on a series of online questionnaires, the paper ascertains how the project was evaluated by the participating students...

  14. Case competitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Anne Gram

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents and discusses a teaching project with case competitions for MA students of specialised translation at the Aarhus School of Business, Aarhus University. Drawing on a series of online questionnaires, the paper ascertains how the project was evaluated by the participating students...

  15. EDITORIAL: Physics competitions Physics competitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordens, H.; Mathelitsch, L.

    2009-11-01

    1. Physics competitions: aims and realizations One aim of physics competitions is to increase the interest of young students, primarily at upper secondary level, to physics and natural sciences in general. A competition has motivational aspects known usually from sports events or games—comparing one's own ability with others, of course with the desire to be better and to win. If competitions reach nationwide and even international levels, additional stimulation is created. Competitions provide greatest attraction to possible winners, to the group of gifted people in a particular field. This implies that science contests are excellent tools for the promotion of talented students. Traditional teaching has been shown to have problems in supporting this group of students. Very often teachers are overstretched with the demands of teaching both low- and high-level students. Extracurricular activities are therefore a good chance to relieve the teacher, and to give talented students the opportunity for appropriate training and challenge. The competitions, however, have a broader impact and address more young people than one might guess from the statements above. Training courses and selection at school level give a larger group of students extra and, to some extent, complimentary education in physics. The degree of complexity of the tasks corresponds very often to the standards of the next level of education in the school system. Interestingly, many physics competitions have their origin in countries beyond the former Iron Curtain. They started as regional and national tournaments, were joined by neighbouring countries and have grown, in some cases, to events with participants from more than 80 countries. Although the features mentioned above are common to the different competitions, there are distinct differences between them [1]. The International Physics Olympiad (IPhO) is the oldest international physics competition for students at upper secondary level [2]. It dates

  16. Hugh E. Huxley: cambiando el paradigma de la contracción muscular, desde dentro. [Hugh E. Huxley: changing from inside the paradigm of muscle contraction].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Araci

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Desde un punto de vista físico se puede entender la fibra muscular como un motor, es decir, un sistema capaz de transformar la energía química en energía mecánica, que se utiliza para realizar un trabajo. Por lo tanto, para entender cómo ocurre dicho proceso de transformación es necesario conocer la ultraestructura de la fibra muscular. Esta es, sin duda, la principal aportación al acervo científico del recientemente fallecido Hugh Emor Huxley (1924-2013. Huxley se graduó en Física en el Christ’s College de Cambdrige, tras ver interrumpidos temporalmente sus estudios por su dedicación como operario de radar de la Royal Air Force entre 1943 y 1947, durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial (Pollard y Goldman, 2013; Spudich, 2013. Tras su graduación se incorporó como el primer estudiante de doctorado a una unidad de nueva creación del Medical Research Council, el “Laboratorio de Biología Molecular”, dirigida por Max Perutz y John Kendrew, siendo este último el director de sus tesis doctoral, que fue defendida en 1952 (Spudich, 2013. El uso de la técnicas de difracción de rayos X, que permitían el estudio en niveles de resolución inalcanzables con las técnicas microscópicas del momento, y su aplicación a la descripción de la ultraestructura muscular, fueron el objeto de su tesis doctoral, para el desarrollo de la cual diseñó y construyó sus propios instrumentos. El esclarecimiento de los aspectos estructurales implicados en la contracción muscular se convirtió desde entonces en la pregunta central de su biografía científica.

  17. PUBLIC EDUCATION AND ECONOMIC COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel-Andrei Donici

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available There is a certain connection between education and economic competitiveness. The relation between these two concepts is easy to intuit. On the medium and long term investments in education generate astrong increase in a country’s level of economic competitiveness. Through education the human capital is formed, and it affects all economic fields. Therefore we can observe that human capital has a decisive influence on the economic competitiveness of a country.

  18. EDITORIAL: Physics competitions Physics competitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordens, H.; Mathelitsch, L.

    2010-07-01

    This editorial opens the second special section on physics competitions in European Journal of Physics. In the first section last year, we asked for feedback on the idea of such a section and on the content of the articles. We received no answer whatsoever, which can be interpreted in two ways: the section is not interesting enough to raise motivation for feedback, or the reader is satisfied. Having no indication which scenario is the correct one, we are optimistic and favour the second. The section at hand contains three articles. Again, as last year, the organizer of the annual Olympiad reports on tasks and outcomes of this competition. The Olympiad took place in Merida, Mexico, and was by far the largest event with 316 contestants from 68 countries. Again, the predominance of Asian/Chinese students was manifest, showing how serious the training is taken by both their authorities and students. Unfortunately, the winners of the last International Young Physicists' Tournament (IYPT), the team from Korea, did not accept the offer to report on their prize-winning contribution. We are thankful that two students from Austria, who achieved second place with their team, took over and reported on the task which they presented in the finals of the competition. It connects the fields of sport and physics and explains a special move in skateboarding. The third contribution introduces a different competition, 'International Conference of Young Scientists'. On one hand, as in the Olympiad, it addresses individuals, not teams. On the other, as in the IYPT, students have several months to prepare and also the quality of the presentation is an important element of the judgment. In fact, this competition comes closer to real scientific research compared to the other events. Finally and again, we hope that this section will serve several purposes: To show the competitions as a very important tool in the support of gifted students. To raise awareness amongst university teachers, and

  19. The Long-Time Behavior of Legendre Spectral Approximation to Fitz-Hugh-Nagumo Equation%Fitz-Hugh-Nagumo方程Legendre谱逼近的长时间性态

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟斌

    2005-01-01

    利用Legendre谱方法对Fitz-Hugh-Nagumo方程在空间方向半离散,得到了其近似解的误差估计,并且证明了近似整体吸引子的存在性和上半连续性,从而为研究该方程的长时间行为提供了一个有效的算法.

  20. Logo competition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2013-01-01

    Award of the prizes The price ceremony for the Staff Association’s new logo competition which took place on Friday 1st March at 5 p.m. was a big success. The first prize, an Ezee Suisse electric bike, was won by Paulo Rios, from Portugal. In his absence, the bike was handed to his brother Vitor. The other five winners of the competition also received their prize: Go Sport vouchers. A peize draw was then organized to award 22 other participants with prizes offered by our commercial partners (Aquaparc, BCGE, L’Occitane, Passeport Gourmand, Sephora, Theater La Comédie de Genève), whom we would like to warmly thank. After all prices were distributed the evening continued with discussions around a friendly drink.

  1. Delcam立足中国再创辉煌--访Delcam公司总经理Hugh Humphreys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王崇民; 朱旭

    2004-01-01

    @@ 进入2004年以来,Delcam(中国)公司表现得非常活跃,在进行一系列人事调整之后,西安办事处正式挂牌,紧接着又将北京迪勒克斯科技发展有限公司纳入旗下,使其成为Delcam(中国)华北地区增值经销商,在签约仪式上,记者见到了专程从英国前来祝贺的Delcam PLC集团公司总经理HughHumphreys先生,开朗、风趣的HughHumphreys先生非常愉快地接受了本刊记者的采访.

  2. 2002 Report to Congress: Evaluating the Consensus Best Practices Developed through the Howard Hughes Medical Institute’s Collaborative Hazardous Waste Management Demonstration Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report discusses a collaborative project initiated by the Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI) to establish and evaluate a performance-based approach to management of hazardous wastes in the laboratories of academic research institutions.

  3. New type of chimera structures in a ring of bistable FitzHugh-Nagumo oscillators with nonlocal interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepelev, I. A.; Vadivasova, T. E.; Bukh, A. V.; Strelkova, G. I.; Anishchenko, V. S.

    2017-04-01

    We study the spatiotemporal dynamics of a ring of nonlocally coupled FitzHugh-Nagumo oscillators in the bistable regime. A new type of chimera patterns has been found in the noise-free network and when isolated elements do not oscillate. The region of existence of these structures has been explored when the coupling range and the coupling strength between the network elements are varied.

  4. Can Perceptuo-Motor Skills Assessment Outcomes in Young Table Tennis Players (7-11 years) Predict Future Competition Participation and Performance? An Observational Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, Irene R; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T; Faber, Niels R; Oosterveld, Frits G J; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, Maria W G

    2016-01-01

    Forecasting future performance in youth table tennis players based on current performance is complex due to, among other things, differences between youth players in growth, development, maturity, context and table tennis experience. Talent development programmes might benefit from an assessment of underlying perceptuo-motor skills for table tennis, which is hypothesized to determine the players' potential concerning the perceptuo-motor domain. The Dutch perceptuo-motor skills assessment intends to measure the perceptuo-motor potential for table tennis in youth players by assessing the underlying skills crucial for developing technical and tactical qualities. Untrained perceptuo-motor tasks are used as these are suggested to represent a player's future potential better than specific sport skills themselves as the latter depend on exposure to the sport itself. This study evaluated the value of the perceptuo-motor skills assessment for a talent developmental programme by evaluating its predictive validity for competition participation and performance in 48 young table tennis players (7-11 years). Players were tested on their perceptuo-motor skills once during a regional talent day, and the subsequent competition results were recorded half-yearly over a period of 2.5 years. Logistic regression analysis showed that test scores did not predict future competition participation (p >0.05). Yet, the Generalized Estimating Equations analysis, including the test items 'aiming at target', 'throwing a ball', and 'eye-hand coordination' in the best fitting model, revealed that the outcomes of the perceptuo-motor skills assessment were significant predictors for future competition results (R2 = 51%). Since the test age influences the perceptuo-motor skills assessment's outcome, another multivariable model was proposed including test age as a covariate (R2 = 53%). This evaluation demonstrates promising prospects for the perceptuo-motor skills assessment to be included in a talent

  5. Dynamical System Approach for Edge Detection Using Coupled FitzHugh-Nagumo Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shaobai; Dasmahapatra, Srinandan; Maharatna, Koushik

    2015-12-01

    The prospect of emulating the impressive computational capabilities of biological systems has led to considerable interest in the design of analog circuits that are potentially implementable in very large scale integration CMOS technology and are guided by biologically motivated models. For example, simple image processing tasks, such as the detection of edges in binary and grayscale images, have been performed by networks of FitzHugh-Nagumo-type neurons using the reaction-diffusion models. However, in these studies, the one-to-one mapping of image pixels to component neurons makes the size of the network a critical factor in any such implementation. In this paper, we develop a simplified version of the employed reaction-diffusion model in three steps. In the first step, we perform a detailed study to locate this threshold using continuous Lyapunov exponents from dynamical system theory. Furthermore, we render the diffusion in the system to be anisotropic, with the degree of anisotropy being set by the gradients of grayscale values in each image. The final step involves a simplification of the model that is achieved by eliminating the terms that couple the membrane potentials of adjacent neurons. We apply our technique to detect edges in data sets of artificially generated and real images, and we demonstrate that the performance is as good if not better than that of the previous methods without increasing the size of the network.

  6. The relaxation time of processes in a FitzHugh-Nagumo neural system with time delay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong Ailing; Zeng Chunhua [Faculty of Science, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 (China); Wang Hua, E-mail: zchh2009@126.com [Province Engineering Research Center of Industrial Energy Conservation and New Technology, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming, Yunnan 650093 (China)

    2011-08-01

    In this paper, we study the relaxation time (RT) of the steady-state correlation function in a FitzHugh-Nagumo neural system under the presence of multiplicative and additive white noises and time delay. The noise correlation parameter {lambda} can produce a critical behavior in the RT as functions of the multiplicative noise intensity D, the additive noise intensity Q and the time delay {tau}. That is, the RT decreases as the noise intensities D and Q increase, and increases as the time delay {tau} increases below the critical value of {lambda}. However, above the critical value, the RT first increases, reaches a maximum, and then decreases as D, Q and {tau} increase, i.e. a noise intensity D or Q and a time delay {tau} exist, at which the time scales of the relaxation process are at their largest. In addition, the additive noise intensity Q can also produce a critical behavior in the RT as a function of {lambda}. The noise correlation parameter {lambda} first increases the RT of processes, then decreases it below the critical value of Q. Above the critical value, {lambda} increases it.

  7. Robust Synchronization of Delayed Chaotic FitzHugh-Nagumo Neurons under External Electrical Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Rehan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Synchronization of chaotic neurons under external electrical stimulation (EES is studied in order to understand information processing in the brain and to improve the methodologies employed in the treatment of cognitive diseases. This paper investigates the dynamics of uncertain coupled chaotic delayed FitzHugh-Nagumo (FHN neurons under EES for incorporated parametric variations. A global nonlinear control law for synchronization of delayed neurons with known parameters is developed. Based on local and global Lipschitz conditions, knowledge of the bounds on the neuronal states, the Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional, and the L2 gain reduction, a less conservative local robust nonlinear control law is formulated to address the problem of robust asymptotic synchronization of delayed FHN neurons under parametric uncertainties. The proposed local control law guarantees both robust stability and robust performance and provides the L2 bound for uncertainty rejection in the synchronization error dynamics. Separate conditions for single-input and multiple-input control schemes for synchronization of a wide class of FHN systems are provided. The results of the proposed techniques are verified through numerical simulations.

  8. THE ONE-DIMENSIONAL HUGHES MODEL FOR PEDESTRIAN FLOW: RIEMANN-TYPE SOLUTIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Debora Amadori; M. Di Francesco

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with a coupled system consisting of a scalar conservation law and an eikonal equation,called the Hughes model.Introduced in [24],this model attempts to describe the motion of pedestrians in a densely crowded region,in which they are seen as a 'thinking' (continuum) fluid.The main mathematical difficulty is the discontinuous gradient of the solution to the eikonal equation appearing in the flux of the conservation law.On a one dimensional interval with zero Dirichlet conditions (the two edges of the interval are interpreted as 'targets'),the model can be decoupled in a way to consider two classical conservation laws on two sub-domains separated by a turning point at which the pedestrians change their direction.We shall consider solutions with a possible jump discontinuity around the turning point.For simplicity,we shall assume they are locally constant on both sides of the discontinuity.We provide a detailed description of the localin-time behavior of the solution in terms of a 'global' qualitative property of the pedestrian density (that we call 'relative evacuation rate'),which can be interpreted as the attitude of the pedestrians to direct towards the left or the right target.We complement our result with explicitly computable examples.

  9. Adaptable Analytical Vistas Illumine a Touchstone: Langston Hughes as Minor Author/Poet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mzenga A. Wanyama

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The authentic association of spontaneity, as a spur or basis for artistic expression, with the vaunted notion of autonomy in literary creationis nowhere more clearly established than in the work of theorists Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari as they, inter-alia, explicate the unique literary repertoire bestowed upon the world by Franz Kafka. In their acclaimed works: Kafka: Toward a Minor Literature and Anti-Oedipus: Capitalism and Schizophrenia,they offered to literary theory the fascinating and analytically productive constructs of deterritorialization and anti-Oedipus in the context of a compelling portraiture of the ways in which various institutionalized relationships subtly prescribe and reinforce inequity in society’s power mechanics that tendentiously impact, among other realities, the nature and quality of literary products. They offered, in the process, a refreshing definition of minor literature that unequivocally restores to literature its distinctive place and role in the amalgamated adjudications of society’s intergroup dissensions. In this regard, the present paper subscribes to the idea that spontaneity equaled the intrinsic and immutable desire of the gifted literary mind of African-American author/poet Langston Hughes to reach expressivity in accordance, strictly, with his unalloyed literary vision and thus made autonomy the inevitable upshot of his inspiration and practice.

  10. The future of competitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bates, Gary; Jensen, Boris Brorman; Miessen, Markus

    2010-01-01

    We wanted to explore the potential of the competition. The question we asked ourselves was if the competition can generate new, relevant and critical ideas within architecture? We organized an idea competition about the architectural competition....

  11. EDITORIAL: Physics competitions Physics competitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordens, H.; Mathelitsch, L.

    2011-07-01

    International tests on competences, such as TIMSS or PISA, and knowledge of young students have revealed low average scores in many countries, often unexpectedly. One effective measure to increase the average standard of a population is to bring the last third of the group to a higher level. Therefore, many nations put some effort into this activity. This brings the danger that not enough attention is paid to students at the other end, those who are talented. Indeed, it is a very difficult task for a teacher to support the less able and at the same time challenge the gifted students, to lead them to the limits of their abilities and provide for a smooth transition to university study. Physics competitions have been proven to fulfil these last demands to a large degree, and therefore are an important additional and, to some extent, complementary tool for the promotion of talented students. This third special section on physics competitions in European Journal of Physics contains three papers, each dealing with a different form of science contest. The first continues the series of presentations of tasks performed at the International Young Physicists' Tournament, which was held in Vienna in 2011. First place went to the team from Singapore, and they have put their investigation on vertical oscillations of coupled magnets into written form (not required by the tournament, where an oral presentation and a defence and discussion are the central aspects). Their paper shows how rich in physics this problem is, and what level of solutions high-school students can already achieve. Sadly, those responsible for the organization of last year's International Physics Olympiad did not provide us with a report on this competition. This is unfortunate, since the Olympiad in Zagreb was very successful and, in particular, the experimental tasks were creative and demanding. Very similar to the aims and the execution of the Physics Olympiad is the International Olympiad on Astronomy

  12. Can Perceptuo-Motor Skills Assessment Outcomes in Young Table Tennis Players (7–11 years) Predict Future Competition Participation and Performance? An Observational Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Forecasting future performance in youth table tennis players based on current performance is complex due to, among other things, differences between youth players in growth, development, maturity, context and table tennis experience. Talent development programmes might benefit from an assessment of underlying perceptuo-motor skills for table tennis, which is hypothesized to determine the players’ potential concerning the perceptuo-motor domain. The Dutch perceptuo-motor skills assessment intends to measure the perceptuo-motor potential for table tennis in youth players by assessing the underlying skills crucial for developing technical and tactical qualities. Untrained perceptuo-motor tasks are used as these are suggested to represent a player’s future potential better than specific sport skills themselves as the latter depend on exposure to the sport itself. This study evaluated the value of the perceptuo-motor skills assessment for a talent developmental programme by evaluating its predictive validity for competition participation and performance in 48 young table tennis players (7–11 years). Players were tested on their perceptuo-motor skills once during a regional talent day, and the subsequent competition results were recorded half-yearly over a period of 2.5 years. Logistic regression analysis showed that test scores did not predict future competition participation (p >0.05). Yet, the Generalized Estimating Equations analysis, including the test items ‘aiming at target’, ‘throwing a ball’, and ‘eye-hand coordination’ in the best fitting model, revealed that the outcomes of the perceptuo-motor skills assessment were significant predictors for future competition results (R2 = 51%). Since the test age influences the perceptuo-motor skills assessment’s outcome, another multivariable model was proposed including test age as a covariate (R2 = 53%). This evaluation demonstrates promising prospects for the perceptuo-motor skills assessment to be

  13. Can Perceptuo-Motor Skills Assessment Outcomes in Young Table Tennis Players (7-11 years Predict Future Competition Participation and Performance? An Observational Prospective Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene R Faber

    Full Text Available Forecasting future performance in youth table tennis players based on current performance is complex due to, among other things, differences between youth players in growth, development, maturity, context and table tennis experience. Talent development programmes might benefit from an assessment of underlying perceptuo-motor skills for table tennis, which is hypothesized to determine the players' potential concerning the perceptuo-motor domain. The Dutch perceptuo-motor skills assessment intends to measure the perceptuo-motor potential for table tennis in youth players by assessing the underlying skills crucial for developing technical and tactical qualities. Untrained perceptuo-motor tasks are used as these are suggested to represent a player's future potential better than specific sport skills themselves as the latter depend on exposure to the sport itself. This study evaluated the value of the perceptuo-motor skills assessment for a talent developmental programme by evaluating its predictive validity for competition participation and performance in 48 young table tennis players (7-11 years. Players were tested on their perceptuo-motor skills once during a regional talent day, and the subsequent competition results were recorded half-yearly over a period of 2.5 years. Logistic regression analysis showed that test scores did not predict future competition participation (p >0.05. Yet, the Generalized Estimating Equations analysis, including the test items 'aiming at target', 'throwing a ball', and 'eye-hand coordination' in the best fitting model, revealed that the outcomes of the perceptuo-motor skills assessment were significant predictors for future competition results (R2 = 51%. Since the test age influences the perceptuo-motor skills assessment's outcome, another multivariable model was proposed including test age as a covariate (R2 = 53%. This evaluation demonstrates promising prospects for the perceptuo-motor skills assessment to be

  14. OBITUARY: Eur.Ing. Professor David Dew-Hughes in memoriam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Archie; Dew-Hughes, Denise; Donaldson, Gordon; Palmer, Richard

    2007-06-01

    We regret to announce the death of David Dew-Hughes, the second Honorary Editor of Superconductor Science and Technology, in Autumn 2006. He was born in Manchester, the eldest of three children, attended Manchester Grammar School and took his first degree in metallurgy at Birmingham, before undertaking a Doctorate of Engineering at Yale University. After initial work for IBM on semiconductors, he returned to England as a lecturer in metallurgy at Cambridge University. There he devoted his career to superconductivity long before it became fashionable, starting a group on the properties of what we now know as type II materials, with his students Jan Evetts, Archie Campbell and Anant Narlikar. Between them they paved the way to our understanding of the magnetic vortex properties of these materials, and thus to the development of modern practical materials for superconducting magnets. Eur.Ing. Professor David Dew-Hughes 1932-2006 In 1965 he became a founding Senior Lecturer in physics at Lancaster University, moving to Brookhaven National Laboratory in 1974. His final academic post was in engineering science at Oxford University where he also held a University College Tutorial Fellowship. As long ago as 1971 David wrote an authoritative review for Reports on Progress in Physics on 'The metallurgical enhancement of type II superconductors'. Following the discovery of high-Tc superconductivity, IOP Publishing launched Superconductor Science and Technology in 1988 and he was a founder member of its Editorial Board. When Jan Evetts retired as Honorary Editor in 1992, David was the natural choice as his successor. He served a five year term and remained on the Board as Deputy Editor until the end of 2000. To mark the 10th anniversary of high-temperature superconductivity in 1997, David edited a special issue of Superconductor Science and Technology in which past and present members of the Editorial Board contributed reviews of their specialities. He noted that at that time

  15. CT Diagnosis of Fitz-Hugh and Curtis Syndrome: Value of the Arterial Phase Scan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, Seung Ho; Kim, Myeong Jin; Lim, Joon Seok; Kim, Joo Hee; Kim, Ki Whang [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-02-15

    We wanted to evaluate the role of the arterial phase (AP) together with the portal venous phase (PP) scans in the diagnosis of Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome (FHCS) with using computed tomography (CT). Twenty-five patients with FHCS and 25 women presenting with non-specifically diagnosed acute abdominal pain and who underwent biphasic CT examinations were evaluated. The AP scan included the upper abdomen, and the PP scan included the whole abdomen. Two radiologists blindly and retrospectively reviewed the PP scans first and then they reviewed the AP plus PP scans. The diagnostic accuracy of FHCS on each image set was compared for each reader by analyzing the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (Az). Weighted kappa (wk) statistics were used to measure the interobserver agreement for the presence of CT signs of the pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) on the PP images and FHCS as the diagnosis based on the increased perihepatic enhancement on both sets of images. The individual diagnostic accuracy of FHCS was higher on the biphasic images (Az = 0.905 and 0.942 for reader 1 and 2, respectively) than on the PP images alone (Az = 0.806 and 0.706, respectively). The interobserver agreement for the presence of PID on the PP images was moderate (wk = 0.530). The interobserver agreement for FHCS as the diagnosis was moderate on only the PP images (wk = 0.413), but it was substantial on the biphasic images (wk 0.719). Inclusion of the AP scan is helpful to depict the increased perihepatic enhancement, and it improves the diagnostic accuracy of FHCS on CT.

  16. Observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patell, Hilla

    2016-01-01

    In order to achieve the goal of observation, preparation of the adult, the observer, is necessary. This preparation, says Hilla Patell, requires us to "have an appreciation of the significance of the child's spontaneous activities and a more thorough understanding of the child's needs." She discusses the growth of both the desire to…

  17. Observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kripalani, Lakshmi A.

    2016-01-01

    The adult who is inexperienced in the art of observation may, even with the best intentions, react to a child's behavior in a way that hinders instead of helping the child's development. Kripalani outlines the need for training and practice in observation in order to "understand the needs of the children and...to understand how to remove…

  18. How Hugh Hampton Young's treatment of President Woodrow Wilson's urinary retention and urosepsis affected the resolution of World War I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogg, Ryan; Kutikov, Alexander; Uzzo, Robert G; Canter, Daniel

    2011-09-01

    President Woodrow Wilson was never able to gain ratification of the Treaty of Versailles, the peace accord to end World War I. Before he could convince the American people of the importance of ratification, Wilson suffered a stroke followed by life threatening urinary sepsis due to urinary retention, and was treated by the father of modern urology, Hugh Hampton Young. The effects of these health problems are examined in the context of their implications on international affairs. Biographical sources and primary documentation of Wilson's physicians were reviewed to determine the effect of Wilson's stroke on his voiding habits. Hugh Hampton Young's evaluation and decision making is examined in depth. In the fall of 1919 President Wilson was recovering from a stroke. Shortly after the stroke his preexisting voiding dysfunction progressed to urinary retention from which urinary sepsis developed. Hugh Hampton Young advised on Wilson's case and counseled patience over surgery. The President began voiding spontaneously and recovered from sepsis. The illness left him severely weakened and unable to mount an aggressive campaign to persuade the U.S. Senate of the importance of ratifying the Treaty of Versailles. His personal physician, Admiral Cary T. Grayson, stated that the President was mentally never the same after the sepsis. Wilson's voiding dysfunction contributed to his inability to win approval for the Treaty of Versailles and the League of Nations. As a result, the United States returned to a policy of isolationism and Europe plunged into 2 decades of upheaval, leading to World War II. Copyright © 2011 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Lunabotics Mining Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Rob; Murphy, Gloria

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation describes a competition to design a lunar robot (lunabot) that can be controlled either remotely or autonomously, isolated from the operator, and is designed to mine a lunar aggregate simulant. The competition is part of a systems engineering curriculum. The 2010 competition winners in five areas of the competition were acknowledged, and the 2011 competition was announced.

  20. Multinationals and Institutional Competitiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hull Kristensen, Peer; Morgan, Glenn

    This article discusses how institutional competitiveness and multinationals are mutually enriching concepts. Seen from the perspective of Multinationals, institutional competitiveness becomes expressed at two levels. At the level of corporate HQs institutional competitiveness proves itself...... competitiveness of Liberal Market Economies and Coordinated Markets Economies under the current competitive regime....

  1. The ingenious Mr Hughes: Combining forced, flat, and reverse perspective all in one art piece to pit objects against surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papathomas, Thomas V; Baker, Nicholas; Yeshua, Arielle S; Zhuang, Xiaohua; Ng, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    The artist Patrick Hughes has ingeniously painted rows of stacked Brillo boxes in Forced into Reverse Perspective. The geometry is in reverse perspective, predicting only one type of illusory motion for each planar surface for moving viewers. He “broke” these surfaces into objects by painting the boxes in three types of perspective (planar, forced, and reverse). Our experiments confirmed that he succeeded in eliciting different types of illusory motion, including “differential motion” between boxes for most viewers. In some sense, this illustrates the superiority of secondary (painted) over primary (physical) cues. PMID:23145280

  2. The Ingenious Mr Hughes: Combining Forced, Fat, and Reverse Perspective All in One Art Piece to Pit Objects against Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas V Papathomas

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The artist Patrick Hughes has ingeniously painted rows of stacked Brillo boxes in Forced into Reverse Perspective. The geometry is in reverse perspective, predicting only one type of illusory motion for each planar surface for moving viewers. He “broke” these surfaces into objects by painting the boxes in three types of perspective (planar, forced, and reverse. Our experiments confirmed that he succeeded in eliciting different types of illusory motion, including “differential motion” between boxes for most viewers. In some sense, this illustrates the superiority of secondary (painted over primary (physical cues.

  3. Maurice Hugh Frederick Wilkins CBE: 15 December 1916 - 5 October 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnott, Struther; Kibble, T W B; Shallice, Tim

    2006-01-01

    Maurice Hugh Frederick Wilkins was the 'Third man of the double helix; according to the publishers who were allowed to foist this title on his late-written autobiography. Certainly it is for his role in the discover of the duplex secondary structure of DNA that he will be remembered. It might be argued that he was the first man, rather than the third, for it was his successful revival of X-ray diffraction studies of DNA and his earliest result in 1950, a pattern of a well-oriented and polycrystalline DNA of unprecedented quality, that allowed him to conclude almost immediately that the basic framework of the genetical material was simple and symmetrical, and that the symmetrical structure took the form of a helix. This same pattern, displayed at a conference in Naples six months later, was the major inspiration for the involvement of J. D. Watson (ForMemRS 1981) in modelling DNA structure in collaboration with F. H. C. Crick (FRS 1959). Crick was a personal friend of Maurice's and was more involved with studies of proteins until the progress of Maurice's research programme and Watson's enthusiastic presence in Cambridge convinced him to put nucleic acids first. The carefully crafted citation for the 1960 Lasker Award, which these three men shared in 1960, put Maurice's name first and accurately referred to '...the painstaking x-ray diffraction studies of Wilkins that provided a most important clue that was pursued in a ingenious fashion and to a logical conclusion by Crick and Watson...'. Maurice's diffraction studies of DNA were not only the alpha but also the omega of the double helix because it left to him to remedy a major flaw in the original (1953) Watson-Crick conjecture. Maurice Wilkin's early acceptance of DNA as the genetic material and his recognition that it had structures that could and should be tackled by X-ray diffraction analyses, not necessarily under his exclusive control, was important in ensuring that the essence of DNA's structure was

  4. Competitive spirit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Leicester University will host the 65 international teams of students who will assemble in July for this year's International Physics Olympiad . The last time the Olympiad came to the UK was in 1986 in London, and it was the notable enthusiasm of the Leicester Physics and Astronomy department which persuaded the Olympiad Committee to give them the chance of organizing the prestigious event. The students taking part from all over the world are studying physics at A-level or an equivalent standard and they will take part in an intellectual marathon of theoretical and practical examinations. Each national team comprises five students selected from three rounds of competition and the teams will receive an official welcome from the city, as well as opportunities to visit some of the important educational and cultural centres of the surrounding region. The finalists will also be able to test their skills and initiative at the Challenger Learning Centre, which forms part of Leicester's new National Space Science Centre. Specific information on the event can be found on the Olympiad-2000 website at www.star.le.ac.uk/IphO-2000 . The Rudolf Ortvay problem solving contest in physics, which takes place in November, is a tradition of Eötvös University in Budapest, Hungary. The competition was first opened to international participants in 1998, enabling students from universities around the world to show their knowledge, ingenuity, problem-solving skills and physical insight into problems that are far beyond routine level. The problems (30 - 35 each year) are chosen from different branches of theoretical as well as applied physics. They have varying levels of difficulty, and every contestant can send solutions for ten problems. The focus is not on school-level problem-solving routines but rather on the `physical' way of thinking, recognition of the heart of the problem and an appropriate choice of mathematics. The majority of the assigned problems are original, few having

  5. Mode stability analysis in the beam-wave interaction process for a three-gap Hughes-type coupled cavity chain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luo Ji-Run; Cui Jian; Zhu Min; Guo Wei

    2013-01-01

    Based on space-charge wave theory,the formulae of the beam-wave coupling coefficient and the beam-loaded conductance are given for the beam-wave interaction in an N-gap Hughes-type coupled cavity chain.The ratio of the nonbeam-loaded quality factor of the coupled cavity chain to the beam quality factor is used to determine the stability of the beam-wave interaction.As an example,the stabilities of the beam-wave interaction in a three-gap Hughes-type coupled cavity chain are discussed with the formulae and the CST code for the operations of the 2π,π,and π/2 modes,respectively.The results show that stable operation of the 2π,π,and π/2 modes may all be realized in an extended-interaction klystron with the three-gap Hughes-type coupled cavity chain.

  6. Productive and Unproductive Competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerra, Alice; Luppi, Barbara; Parisi, Francesco

    Conventional theories of competition classify contests as being either “productive,” when the competitive efforts generate a surplus for society, or “unproductive,” when competition generates no social surplus and merely distributes already existing resources. These two discrete categories...... of competition create a division of real-world situations into analytical categories that fails to recognize the entire spectrum of competitive activities. Taking the existing models of productive and unproductive competition as benchmark idealizations, this paper explores the relationship between the privately...... and socially optimal levels of competition in the full range of intermediate cases, as well as in the extremum cases of destructive and super-productive competition....

  7. Fitz-Hugh-Curtis综合征在输卵管妊娠和不孕中的发生率及其意义%EXPLORATION ON INCIDENCE OF FITZ-HUGH-CURTIS SYNDROME IN TUBAL PREGNANCY AND TUBAL INFERTILITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左绪磊

    2003-01-01

    目的:了解Fitz-Hugh-Curtis综合征在输卵管妊娠和输卵管不孕中的发生率,探讨它们在输卵管妊娠和输卵管不孕发生中的作用.方法:在腹腔镜检查和治疗妇科疾病时,确诊Fitz-Hugh-Curtis综合征遗留的典型病理改变和输卵管周围炎性病变.肿瘤、多囊卵巢综合征、子宫肌瘤等非输卵管炎性疾病患者作为对照组.结果:在109例输卵管妊娠患者中,发现慢性肝周围炎15例(13.8%),升结肠-腹壁粘连10例(9.2%),单纯输卵管周围炎性粘连24例(20.2%).而在112例对照组患者中,发现慢性肝周围炎患者2例(1.8%),升结肠-腹壁粘连患者2例(1.8%),输卵管周围炎性粘连患者2例(1.8%).与对照组相比,输卵管妊娠中肝周围炎发生率明显高于对照组(P<0.01),升结肠-腹壁粘连发生率也高于对照组(P<0.05).在20例经腹腔镜检查诊断为输卵管不孕的患者中,发现肝周围炎5例(25%),未发现升结肠-腹壁粘连.与对照组相比,输卵管性不孕患者中肝周围炎发生率明显高于对照组,差别有极显著意义P<0.001).结论:Fitz-Hugh-Curtis综合征在输卵管妊娠和不孕患者中的发生率与国外接近.肝周围炎、升结肠-腹壁粘连从侧面反映了盆腔炎性疾病在输卵管妊娠和输卵管不孕中起着重要作用.

  8. Attention competition with advertisement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Uzay; Bingol, Haluk O.

    2014-09-01

    In the new digital age, information is available in large quantities. Since information consumes primarily the attention of its recipients, the scarcity of attention is becoming the main limiting factor. In this study, we investigate the impact of advertisement pressure on a cultural market where consumers have a limited attention capacity. A model of competition for attention is developed and investigated analytically and by simulation. Advertisement is found to be much more effective when the attention capacity of agents is extremely scarce. We have observed that the market share of the advertised item improves if dummy items are introduced to the market while the strength of the advertisement is kept constant.

  9. Attention competition with advertisement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Uzay; Bingol, Haluk O

    2014-09-01

    In the new digital age, information is available in large quantities. Since information consumes primarily the attention of its recipients, the scarcity of attention is becoming the main limiting factor. In this study, we investigate the impact of advertisement pressure on a cultural market where consumers have a limited attention capacity. A model of competition for attention is developed and investigated analytically and by simulation. Advertisement is found to be much more effective when the attention capacity of agents is extremely scarce. We have observed that the market share of the advertised item improves if dummy items are introduced to the market while the strength of the advertisement is kept constant.

  10. COMPETITIVENESS AND SUPPORTING THE BUSINESS COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mester Liana-Eugenia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Competitiveness designates efficiency, productivity, success, adaptability, quality products, optimum costs. Competitiveness is a complex concept which defines the ability of a firm or country to cope with actual or potential competition companies or countries on a particular market, on the world market respectively and it is synonymous with economic efficiency; competitiveness reflects a certain state of the economic activity arising from a certain resource consumption in order to achieve economic goods. Supporting the national competitiveness and flexibility is aimed at a sustained increase in productivity relying on the diversification and the innovation of the domestic industrial base. The Global Competitiveness Report 2011-2012 ranks Romania as the 77th out of 142 assessed economies. Romania has access to a large market and free trade area, which makes it attractive for many foreign companies, but Romania needs a coherent economic policy that changes the approach used today - from the traditionalist design of restructuring following the resources and, therefore, related to the comparative advantage to finding solutions that stimulate the activities based on knowledge and information so that they allow the emphasis of the competitive advantages. This paper aims to identify the factors and reasons that gave rise to the level of competitiveness for some activities or fields of activities from the economy of Romania during the reporting period, as well as the possibilities that would lead to increasing and supporting the competitiveness of the national economy.

  11. Positive Intervention for Serious Behavior Problems: Best Practices in Implementing the Hughes Bill (A.B. 2586) and the Positive Behavioral Intervention Regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Diana Browning; Gurman, Harvey B.

    This manual provides guidelines to educators attempting to comply with California's Hughes Bill, which is intended to ensure the rights of special education students to have positive behavioral intervention plans designed to bring lasting behavioral changes without interventions that cause pain or trauma. An introductory chapter summarizes the…

  12. Influence of spatially modified tissue on atrial fibrillation patterns: Insight from solutions of the FitzHugh-Nagumo equations

    CERN Document Server

    Lenk, Claudia; Maass, Philipp

    2010-01-01

    We study the interplay between traveling action potentials and spatial inhomogeneities in the FitzHugh-Nagumo model to investigate possible mechanisms for the occurrence of fibrillatory states in the atria of the heart. Different dynamical patterns such as ectopic foci, localized and meandering spiral waves are found depending on the characteristics of the inhomogeneities. Their appearance in dependence of the size and strength of the inhomogeneities is quantified by phase diagrams. Furthermore it is shown that regularly paced waves in a region R, that is connected by a small bridge connection to another region L with perturbing waves emanating from an additional pacemaker, can be strongly disturbed, so that a fibrillatory state emerges in region R after a transient time interval. This finding supports conjectures that fibrillatory states in the right atrium can be induced by self-excitatory pacemakers in the left atrium.

  13. Frédéric Sylvanise. Langston Hughes, poète jazz, poète blues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène CHRISTOL

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available La Renaissance de Harlem a été redécouverte en France au début du XXIe siècle, grâce à l’organisation de manifestations publiques et universitaires ainsi que la publication de nombreuses études qui « revisitent » la période et les œuvres de ses écrivains et de ses artistes.  L’ouvrage de Frédéric Sylvanise, Langston Hughes, poète jazz, poète blues, publié par les éditions de l’ENS en 2009, apporte sa pierre à cet édifice critique puisqu’il se penche sur certains recueils de poésie de cet écri...

  14. Stability Switches and Hopf Bifurcation in a Coupled FitzHugh-Nagumo Neural System with Multiple Delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengwei Yao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A FitzHugh-Nagumo (FHN neural system with multiple delays has been proposed. The number of equilibrium point is analyzed. It implies that the neural system exhibits a unique equilibrium and three ones for the different values of coupling weight by employing the saddle-node bifurcation of nontrivial equilibrium point and transcritical bifurcation of trivial one. Further, the stability of equilibrium point is studied by analyzing the corresponding characteristic equation. Some stability criteria involving the multiple delays and coupling weight are obtained. The results show that the neural system exhibits the delay-independence and delay-dependence stability. Increasing delay induces the stability switching between resting state and periodic activity in some parameter regions of coupling weight. Finally, numerical simulations are taken to support the theoretical results.

  15. Physics Competitions in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugosi, ErzséBet SzéP, Jenö

    The following sections are included: * Description of Physics Competitions in Hungary * Training of the Hungarian Team before the International Physics Olympiad * Few Problems for the Hungarian National Physics Competition for 15 - 16 Year Old students * Problems for the Hungarian National Physics Competition in 1989 for 17 - 18 Year Old Students * Experimental Problems for the Competition of KöMAL for 15 - 18 Year Old Students * Problems for the Hungarian National Physics Competition in 1989 for 17 - 18 Year Old Students * solving this equation we obtain m = 18kg * The work done is 427 joule - 80 joule 347 joule * Experimental Problems for the Competition of KöMAL for 15 - 18 Pear Old Students

  16. Diversifying evolution of competitiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldauf, Sebastian A; Engqvist, Leif; Weissing, Franz J

    2014-10-29

    In many species, individuals express phenotypic characteristics that enhance their competitiveness, that is, the ability to acquire resources in competition with others. Moreover, the degree of competitiveness varies considerably across individuals and in time. By means of an evolutionary model, we provide an explanation for this finding. We make the assumption that investment into competitiveness enhances the probability to acquire a high-quality resource, but at the same time reduces the ability of exploiting acquired resources with maximal efficiency. The model reveals that under a broad range of conditions competitiveness either converges to a polymorphic state, where individuals differing in competitive ability stably coexist, or is subject to perpetual transitions between periods of high and low competitiveness. The dynamics becomes even more complex if females can evolve preferences for (or against) competitive males. In extreme cases, such preferences can even drive the population to extinction.

  17. Influencia del nivel de competición sobre las conductas antisociales observadas en jugadores de fútbol Influence of competition level on observed antisocial behaviours in soccer players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Montes

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available

    En este estudio se examinó la influencia del nivel de la competición sobre las conductas antisociales observadas en jugadores del fútbol. Se obtuvieron datos correspondientes a diversas categorías de un club del fútbol a partir de las infracciones redactadas en 285 actas arbitrales. No se detectó ningún comportamiento antisocial en las categorías de 7-9 años, con una progresión en categorías superiores, hasta un máximo de 2,4 sanciones por partido en la categoría de 21 años. Se observaron diferencias significativas para conductas tales como falta en la disputa del balón, protestar decisiones arbitrales, agarrones o pérdida de tiempo. Dichas conductas no estaban presentes en las categorías más bajas, aumentando su número a partir de las categorías de 11-12 años hasta los niveles competitivos más altos. Otros comportamientos tales como falta sin disputa del balón, amenazas a contrarios, o insultos al árbitro y a contrarios no se ponían de manifiesto hasta las categorías de 13-14 años, pero el número de sanciones seguía siendo bajo y similar en los diversos niveles competitivos. Nuestros datos confirman que la experiencia puede ser un determinante importante de los comportamientos antisociales. Sin embargo, existen diferencias entre sus distintos tipos, siendo los de carácter instrumental los que aumenta claramente en función de nivel competitivo.
    Key Words: Conductas antisociales, fútbol, nivel de competición, edad

    This study examined the influence of competition level on observed antisocial behaviours in soccer players. Data corresponding to different categories of a soccer club were obtained by an archival method, using sanctions from 285 referees´game summary sheets. No antisocial behaviours were punished in the 7 to 9 years-old categories, with a progression thereafter until a maximum of 2

  18. Ireland's Competitiveness Challenge 2011

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The NCC publishes two annual competitiveness reports. Ireland's Competitiveness Challenge focuses on the national competitiveness issues of most importance to the enterprise sector and identifies policy recommendations required to address these issues. The report focuses on pursuing policies to improve competitiveness, particularly those to reduce the cost base for enterprise, to enhance the performance of the entire education system, and to deliver meaningful public sector reform. Ireland's ...

  19. Staphylococci in Competition1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, A. C.; Black, J. J.; Gunderson, M. F.

    1964-01-01

    Foods containing large amounts of carbohydrate have frequently been involved in staphylococcal food poisoning. Custard has been considered to be a highly favorable culture medium for staphylococci; however, it may be a selective medium rather than an ideal one. The influence of dextrose, lactose, and sucrose in varying amounts from 0.25 to 18%, and of starch, on the growth of staphylococci in mixed populations with saprophytes was determined. The inhibitory effect of the sugars was much greater on the saprophyte population than on the staphylococci. Of the three sugars, sucrose was most inhibitory to the saprophytes. It greatly decreased their lag periods as the concentration of sugar increased. Dextrose was the least inhibitory; in fact, 0.5% dextrose gave considerable stimulus to saprophyte growth. This sharply repressed staphylococcal growth. Lactose occupied an intermediate position. Rapid onset of the death phase of the staphylococci was observed in all increased sugar concentrations and seemed to be a pH effect rather than a result of competition. Sucrose exerted an inhibitory effect on the growth of saprophytes at and above room temperature. In the presence of 2.5% corn starch, staphylococcal growth in mixed cultures was slightly inhibited, while the death phase was sharply accelerated. Thus, carbohydrates exert their influence on staphylococcal growth in mixed cultures through their effect on the saprophytes by decreasing or increasing competition. PMID:14106944

  20. ECONOMIC ACTIVITY REGULATION AND COMPETITION ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berinde Mihai

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In a broad sense, the term „competition” defines the relations between economic operators acting on the same market seeking attainment of certain interests in economic freedom conditions. The need for regulations in the area of competition stems from the nature of free, open market economy which is founded on the existence of fair competition between economic agents, competition which must be observed, maintained and protected by the law. Public authorities who issue various regulations should be cautious about how far this role is played in the economy and they way adopted regulations affect competition in the market. Hence, the need for prior assessment relating to the potential effect of a regulation on competition. It was proven in practice that some regulations may lead to measures that may affect competition directly or indirectly by: limiting the number or range of suppliers; limiting supplier capability to compete and reducing interests of suppliers to compete vigorously.

  1. A epistemologia de Hugh Lacey em diálogo com a Economia Feminista: neutralidade, objetividade e pluralismo Hugh Lacey's epistemology dialogs with feminist economy: neutrality, objectivity and pluralism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brena Paula Magno Fernandez

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available A Economia Feminista é um dos mais recentes programas de pesquisa em ciência econômica. Desde a publicação de Beyond Economic Man, organizado por Marianne Ferber e Julie Nelson,¹ ele vem se desenvolvendo com crescente força, sobretudo nos Estados Unidos. Entretanto, a pesquisa feminista, em geral, e a economia feminista, em particular, são freqüentemente consideradas como menos objetivas do que as pesquisas tradicionais, e isso porque estas últimas seriam livres de valores, enquanto as primeiras não. Após traçar algumas definições centrais da Economia Feminista, propomos, a partir do modelo crítico de Hugh Lacey,² que: i almejar a objetividade não significa defender uma metodologia isenta de influências valorativas, ii a neutralidade é (e deve ser defensável para o conjunto da prática científica e, finalmente, iii a defesa da pluralidade de abordagens científicas é o meio através do qual a neutralidade da ciência como uma prática social pode ser salvaguardada.Feminist Economics is one of the most recent research programs in economic science. Since the publication of Beyond Economic Man, edited by Ferber and Nelson (1993, it has been developed with increasing strength, especially in the United States. However, feminist researches in general and feminist economics in particular are often perceived to be less objective than conventional research, on the grounds that the latter would be value-neutral and the former would not. After drawing up some central definitions of Feminist Economics, we follow Hugh Lacey's critical model (1998, 1999 and propose that: i to aim for objectivity does not mean to defend a methodology that is free from axiological influences, ii neutrality is (and ought to be defensible for scientific practice as a whole, and finally, iii the defense of a plurality of scientific approaches is the way through which the neutrality of science as a social practice can be safeguarded.

  2. Supplementing managed competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, W

    President Clinton's proposal for health care reform calls for managed competition within global expenditure targets. However, it is unlikely that health plans will have sufficient leverage with providers to negotiate arrangements consistent with expenditure targets in nonurban areas. This paper describes a reimbursement system based on competitive prospective payment and capitation (CPPC) which can supplement managed competition in less populous areas or replace managed competition should that strategy prove unsuccessful. The CPPC system is capable of enforcing an expenditure target while encouraging the formation of capitated networks and creating strong incentives for efficiency. It is generally compatible with the Clinton administration's version of managed competition.

  3. Mechanisms linking affective reactions to competition-related and competition-extraneous concerns in male martial artists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerin, E; Barnett, A

    2011-10-01

    The main aim of this study was to examine affective linkages between competition-related and competition-extraneous concern domains. A secondary purpose was to establish the contributions of pre-competition affects to post-competition performance appraisals, independent of pre-competition performance expectations. Thirty-nine highly skilled male martial artists were assessed at five random times a day for a week and 1 h before a major competition on affective states and sources of concern. They also reported their performance expectations and post-competition performance appraisals. Affective states triggered by competition-related and competition-extraneous concerns persisted in time. Carry-over effects were stronger after reports of competition-related concerns, emphasizing the subjective importance of the competitive event. Although positive (enjoyment and surprise) and negative (sadness and guilt) affective spill-over was observed from competition-extraneous to competition-related concerns, the reverse held true only for disgust. These findings may be due to the athletes' ability to regulate affective reactions within a sporting setting, in particular. Spill-over from competition-extraneous to competition-related concerns is indicative of a lesser degree of control over work/study and family life. Given that average weekly negative affects and anger/disgust were independent predictors of post-competition performance appraisals, the phenomenon of spill-over and other affective linkage mechanisms in sport warrant further investigation. © 2009 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  4. Gender and Competition in Adolescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreber, Anna; Essen, Emma von; Ranehill, Eva

    2013-01-01

    We look at gender differences among adolescents in Sweden in preferences for competition, altruism and risk. For competitiveness, we explore two different tasks that differ in associated stereotypes. We find no gender difference in competitiveness when comparing performance under competition...

  5. Approximate kernel competitive learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jian-Sheng; Zheng, Wei-Shi; Lai, Jian-Huang

    2015-03-01

    Kernel competitive learning has been successfully used to achieve robust clustering. However, kernel competitive learning (KCL) is not scalable for large scale data processing, because (1) it has to calculate and store the full kernel matrix that is too large to be calculated and kept in the memory and (2) it cannot be computed in parallel. In this paper we develop a framework of approximate kernel competitive learning for processing large scale dataset. The proposed framework consists of two parts. First, it derives an approximate kernel competitive learning (AKCL), which learns kernel competitive learning in a subspace via sampling. We provide solid theoretical analysis on why the proposed approximation modelling would work for kernel competitive learning, and furthermore, we show that the computational complexity of AKCL is largely reduced. Second, we propose a pseudo-parallelled approximate kernel competitive learning (PAKCL) based on a set-based kernel competitive learning strategy, which overcomes the obstacle of using parallel programming in kernel competitive learning and significantly accelerates the approximate kernel competitive learning for large scale clustering. The empirical evaluation on publicly available datasets shows that the proposed AKCL and PAKCL can perform comparably as KCL, with a large reduction on computational cost. Also, the proposed methods achieve more effective clustering performance in terms of clustering precision against related approximate clustering approaches.

  6. Isolamento e caracterização de Pseudomonas maltophilia (Hugh & Ryschenkow, 1960 de material clínico humano, na cidade do Rio de Janeiro Isolating and characterization of Pseudomonas maltophilia (Hugh & Ryschenkow, 1960 from human clinical specimens, in Rio de Janeiro, Guanabara, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altair A. Zebral

    1973-01-01

    Full Text Available Os autores estudaram as propriedades morfo-bioquímicas e a sensibilidade às substâncias antimicrobianas, de uma nova e rara espécie de Pseudomonas, a Pseudomonas maltophilia (Hugh & Ryschenkow, 1960, isolada de secração vaginal. Como características marcantes, dentre mais de 65 testadas, as amostras estudadas mostraram ser: oxidase negativa e lisina descarboxilase positiva; produziram desoxiribonuclease e um pigmento escuro que se difunde no meio; atacaram oxidativamente a maltose tanto em meio complexo nitrogenado como em meio de Hugh & Leifson e hidrolisaram a esculina. As amostras foram sensíveis ao cloranfenicol, gentamicina, kanamicina, colistin e gabromicina.The authors have studied the morpho-biochemical properties and the sensibility at antimicrobial drugs, of specie of Pseudomonas, the Pseudomonas maltophilia, (Hugh & Ryschenkow, 1960, isolated from vaginal secretion. Since important characteristics among more of sixty-five tested, the strains studied show to be: oxidase negative and lysine decarboxylase positive; to present deoxyrononuclease activity and produced a diffusible brown pigment: acid was produced by oxidation of maltose as much in nitrogenous complex medium as in Hugh & Leifson medium and they hydrolise the esculin. the strains was sensible, for the colistin chloranfenicol, gabromycin, gentamycin and nalidix acid.

  7. Fitz-Hugh-Curtis综合征的腹腔镜诊断及病原菌研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜海燕; 于宏艳; 殷丽华; 姚常晖

    2006-01-01

    Fitz-Hugh-Curtis综合征(FHCS)是盆腔炎合并肝周围炎,诊断需依据直视下观察肝表面和盆腔脏器的炎症表现,和(或)直接从肝表面、盆腔脏器表面检出病原菌,因此受条件限制有许多困难。我们充分利用腹腔镜的探查功能使本病的诊断变得容易。以往报道FHCS病原菌为淋球菌,随着沙眼衣原体感染的急剧增加,本病的报道亦日见增多,由此对其病原菌也提出了质疑。所以本研究拟用腹腔镜协助诊断FHCS及其病原菌,以指导临床诊断与治疗。

  8. Synchronization of coupled different chaotic FitzHugh-Nagumo neurons with unknown parameters under communication-direction-dependent coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Muhammad; Rehan, Muhammad; Khaliq, Abdul; Saeed-ur-Rehman; Hong, Keum-Shik

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the chaotic behavior and synchronization of two different coupled chaotic FitzHugh-Nagumo (FHN) neurons with unknown parameters under external electrical stimulation (EES). The coupled FHN neurons of different parameters admit unidirectional and bidirectional gap junctions in the medium between them. Dynamical properties, such as the increase in synchronization error as a consequence of the deviation of neuronal parameters for unlike neurons, the effect of difference in coupling strengths caused by the unidirectional gap junctions, and the impact of large time-delay due to separation of neurons, are studied in exploring the behavior of the coupled system. A novel integral-based nonlinear adaptive control scheme, to cope with the infeasibility of the recovery variable, for synchronization of two coupled delayed chaotic FHN neurons of different and unknown parameters under uncertain EES is derived. Further, to guarantee robust synchronization of different neurons against disturbances, the proposed control methodology is modified to achieve the uniformly ultimately bounded synchronization. The parametric estimation errors can be reduced by selecting suitable control parameters. The effectiveness of the proposed control scheme is illustrated via numerical simulations.

  9. Synchronization of Coupled Different Chaotic FitzHugh-Nagumo Neurons with Unknown Parameters under Communication-Direction-Dependent Coupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Iqbal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the chaotic behavior and synchronization of two different coupled chaotic FitzHugh-Nagumo (FHN neurons with unknown parameters under external electrical stimulation (EES. The coupled FHN neurons of different parameters admit unidirectional and bidirectional gap junctions in the medium between them. Dynamical properties, such as the increase in synchronization error as a consequence of the deviation of neuronal parameters for unlike neurons, the effect of difference in coupling strengths caused by the unidirectional gap junctions, and the impact of large time-delay due to separation of neurons, are studied in exploring the behavior of the coupled system. A novel integral-based nonlinear adaptive control scheme, to cope with the infeasibility of the recovery variable, for synchronization of two coupled delayed chaotic FHN neurons of different and unknown parameters under uncertain EES is derived. Further, to guarantee robust synchronization of different neurons against disturbances, the proposed control methodology is modified to achieve the uniformly ultimately bounded synchronization. The parametric estimation errors can be reduced by selecting suitable control parameters. The effectiveness of the proposed control scheme is illustrated via numerical simulations.

  10. Effect of spatially correlated noise on stochastic synchronization in globally coupled FitzHugh-Nagumo neuron systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yange Shao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of stochastic synchronization in globally coupled FitzHugh-Nagumo (FHN neuron system subjected to spatially correlated Gaussian noise is investigated based on dynamical mean-field approximation (DMA and direct simulation (DS. Results from DMA are in good quantitative or qualitative agreement with those from DS for weak noise intensity and larger system size. Whether the consisting single FHN neuron is staying at the resting state, subthreshold oscillatory regime, or the spiking state, our investigation shows that the synchronization ratio of the globally coupled system becomes higher as the noise correlation coefficient increases, and thus we conclude that spatial correlation has an active effect on stochastic synchronization, and the neurons can achieve complete synchronization in the sense of statistics when the noise correlation coefficient tends to one. Our investigation also discloses that the noise spatial correlation plays the same beneficial role as the global coupling strength in enhancing stochastic synchronization in the ensemble. The result might be useful in understanding the information coding mechanism in neural systems.

  11. Pulse propagation and failure in the discrete FitzHugh-Nagumo model subject to high-frequency stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratas, Irmantas; Pyragas, Kestutis

    2012-10-01

    We investigate the effect of a homogeneous high-frequency stimulation (HFS) on a one-dimensional chain of coupled excitable elements governed by the FitzHugh-Nagumo equations. We eliminate the high-frequency term by the method of averaging and show that the averaged dynamics depends on the parameter A=a/ω equal to the ratio of the amplitude a to the frequency ω of the stimulating signal, so that for large frequencies an appreciable effect from the HFS is attained only at sufficiently large amplitudes. The averaged equations are analyzed by an asymptotic theory based on the different time scales of the recovery and excitable variables. As a result, we obtain the main characteristics of a propagating pulse as functions of the parameter A and derive an analytical criterion for the propagation failure. We show that depending on the parameter A, the HFS can either enhance or suppress pulse propagation and reveal the mechanism underlying these effects. The theoretical results are confirmed by numerical simulations of the original system with and without noise.

  12. Heterogeneous logics of competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mossin, Christiane

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the article is to demonstrate that in order to understand competition as a socially organizing phenomenon, we should not examine competition in isolation, but as constellations of heterogeneous logics. More precisely, the article is based on two main theoretical points: (1) Logics...... of competition are only realized as particular forms of social organization by virtue of interplaying with other kinds of logics, like legal logics. (2) Competition logics enjoy a peculiar status in-between constructedness and givenness; although competition depends on laws and mechanisms of socialization, we...... still experience competition as an expression of spontaneous human activities. On the basis of these perspectives, a study of fundamental rights of EU law, springing from the principle of ‘free movement of people’, is conducted. The first part of the empirical analysis seeks to detect the presence...

  13. Competition in treasury auctions

    OpenAIRE

    Elsinger, Helmut; Schmidt-Dengler, Philipp; Zulehner, Christine

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the role of competition on the outcome of Austrian Treasury auctions. Austria's EU accession led to an increase in the number of banks participating in treasury auctions. We use structural estimates of bidders' private values to examine the effect of increased competition on auction performance: We find that increased competition reduced bidder surplus substantially, but less than reduced form estimates would suggest. A significant component of the surplus reduction is due to m...

  14. Intramural Gymnastics Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, William L.

    1981-01-01

    An intramural gymnastic competition, if properly organized, can foster student and community interest in gymnastics. Aspects of organization and essential preplanning include: directing, judging, scoring, and managing. (JN)

  15. Intramural Gymnastics Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, William L.

    1981-01-01

    An intramural gymnastic competition, if properly organized, can foster student and community interest in gymnastics. Aspects of organization and essential preplanning include: directing, judging, scoring, and managing. (JN)

  16. Maternal Competition in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linney, Catherine; Korologou-Linden, Laurel; Campbell, Anne

    2017-03-01

    We examined maternal competition, an unexplored form of competition between women. Given women's high investment in offspring and mothers' key role in shaping their reproductive, social, and cultural success as adults, we might expect to see maternal competition between women as well as mate competition. Predictions about the effect of maternal characteristics (age, relationship status, educational background, number of children, investment in the mothering role) and child variables (age, sex) were drawn from evolutionary theory and sociological research. Mothers of primary school children (in two samples: N = 210 and 169) completed a series of questionnaires. A novel nine-item measure of maternal competitive behavior (MCQ) and two subscales assessing Covert (MCQ-C) and Face-to-Face (MCQ-FF) forms of competition were developed using confirmatory factor analysis. Competitiveness (MCQ score) was predicted by maternal investment, single motherhood, fewer children, and (marginally) child's older age. The effect of single motherhood (but not other predictors) was partially mediated by greater maternal investment. In response to a scenario of their child underperforming relative to their peers, a mother's competitive distress was a positive function of the importance she ascribed to their success and her estimation of her child's ability. Her competitive distress was highly correlated with the distress she attributed to a female friend, hinting at bidirectional dyadic effects. Qualitative responses indicated that nonspecific bragging and boasting about academic achievements were the most common irritants. Although 40% of women were angered or annoyed by such comments, less than 5% endorsed a direct hostile response. Instead, competitive mothers were conversationally shunned and rejected as friends. We suggest that the interdependence of mothers based on reciprocal childcare has supported a culture of egalitarianism that is violated by explicit competitiveness.

  17. Competition and the Ratchet Effect

    OpenAIRE

    Charness, Gary; Kuhn, Peter; Villeval, Marie-Claire

    2011-01-01

    Working Paper GATE 2008-28; International audience; The 'ratchet effect' refers to a situation where a principal uses private information that is revealed by an agent's early actions to the agent's later disadvantage, in a context where binding multi-period contracts are not enforceable. In a simple, context-rich environment, we experimentally study the robustness of the ratchet effect to the introduction of ex post competition for principals or agents. While we do observe substantial and sig...

  18. Competition: Was Kohn Right?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, David Light; Bredemeier, Brenda Light

    2010-01-01

    Alfie Kohn made the case for competition being destructive to education. The truth may be that there are two separate ways to contest: true competition, which is a healthy desire to excel, and decompetition, which is the unhealthy desire merely to beat the opponent. Decompetition leads to the ills that Kohn enumerated. Educators should teach their…

  19. Competition, Ownership and Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baghdasaryan, Delia; la Cour, Lisbeth

    2013-01-01

    Theoretical results support two concurrent views regarding the mediating role that ownership structure might play on the effect of competition on firm performance. According to one stream of literature, competition has a high, positive impact in companies that have an effective ownership structur...

  20. Asymmetry within social groups: division of labour and intergroup competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, J L; Loope, K J; Reeve, H K

    2016-03-01

    Social animals vary in their ability to compete with group members over shared resources and also vary in their cooperative efforts to produce these resources. Competition among groups can promote within-group cooperation, but many existing models of intergroup cooperation do not explicitly account for observations that group members invest differentially in cooperation and that there are often within-group competitive or power asymmetries. We present a game theoretic model of intergroup competition that investigates how such asymmetries affect within-group cooperation. In this model, group members adopt one of two roles, with relative competitive efficiency and the number of individuals varying between roles. Players in each role make simultaneous, coevolving decisions. The model predicts that although intergroup competition increases cooperative contributions to group resources by both roles, contributions are predominantly from individuals in the less competitively efficient role, whereas individuals in the more competitively efficient role generally gain the larger share of these resources. When asymmetry in relative competitive efficiency is greater, a group's per capita cooperation (averaged across both roles) is higher, due to increased cooperation from the competitively inferior individuals. For extreme asymmetry in relative competitive efficiency, per capita cooperation is highest in groups with a single competitively superior individual and many competitively inferior individuals, because the latter acquiesce and invest in cooperation rather than within-group competition. These predictions are consistent with observed features of many societies, such as monogynous Hymenoptera with many workers and caste dimorphism.

  1. Competition in investment banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina Ellis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We construct a comprehensive measure of overall investment banking competitiveness for follow-on offerings that aggregates the various dimensions of competition such as fees, pricing accuracy, analyst recommendations, distributional abilities, market making prowess, debt offering capabilities, and overall reputation. The measure allows us to incorporate trade-offs that investment banks may use in competing for new or established clients. We find that firms who switch to similar-quality underwriters enjoy more intense competition among investment banks which manifests in lower fees and more optimistic recommendations. Investment banks do compete vigorously for some clients, with the level of competition related to the likelihood of gaining or losing clients. Finally, investment banks not performing up to market norms are more likely to be dropped in the follow-on offering. In contrast, firms who seek a higher reputation underwriter face relatively non-competitive markets.

  2. Hypolipidemic and Antioxidant Effects of Malus toringoides (Rehd.) Hughes Leaves in High-Fat-Diet-Induced Hyperlipidemic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shan; Liu, Haifeng; Meng, Ning; Li, Bin; Wang, Jule

    2017-03-01

    Malus toringoides (Rehd.) Hughes (MT) leaves are traditionally used as a medicine for treating or preventing cardiovascular disease in Tibet. In addition to the effect of this medicinal plant on thrombosis, we tested its effect on dyslipidemia in a hypolipidemic rat model. A total of 60 healthy Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into six groups, as follows: normal control, model control, simvastatin groups, and MT low-, medium-, and high-dose groups. The normal controls were fed with a normal diet, whereas all other groups were fed with a high-fat diet. After 6 weeks, the high-fat diet had induced hyperlipidemia in the rats, which were then orally administered with different doses of MT leaf extract (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg) for an additional 6 weeks. Serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c and HDL-c, respectively), as well as the antioxidant capacity of glutathione peroxidase (GSHP-x), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured at the end of the study. MT significantly reduced serum TC, TG, and LDL-c and increased the HDL-c content in MT-treated rats compared with the model group. These changes were dose dependent. MT treatment also significantly elevated the activity of SOD and GSHP-x, and decreased the serum levels of MDA compared with untreated hyperlipidemic rats, thereby increasing serum antioxidant capacity. In addition, MT reduced liver steatosis in hyperlipidemic rats. Overall, MT exerts considerable hypolipidemic and antioxidant properties.

  3. Mean-field description and propagation of chaos in networks of Hodgkin-Huxley and FitzHugh-Nagumo neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baladron, Javier; Fasoli, Diego; Faugeras, Olivier; Touboul, Jonathan

    2012-05-31

    We derive the mean-field equations arising as the limit of a network of interacting spiking neurons, as the number of neurons goes to infinity. The neurons belong to a fixed number of populations and are represented either by the Hodgkin-Huxley model or by one of its simplified version, the FitzHugh-Nagumo model. The synapses between neurons are either electrical or chemical. The network is assumed to be fully connected. The maximum conductances vary randomly. Under the condition that all neurons' initial conditions are drawn independently from the same law that depends only on the population they belong to, we prove that a propagation of chaos phenomenon takes place, namely that in the mean-field limit, any finite number of neurons become independent and, within each population, have the same probability distribution. This probability distribution is a solution of a set of implicit equations, either nonlinear stochastic differential equations resembling the McKean-Vlasov equations or non-local partial differential equations resembling the McKean-Vlasov-Fokker-Planck equations. We prove the well-posedness of the McKean-Vlasov equations, i.e. the existence and uniqueness of a solution. We also show the results of some numerical experiments that indicate that the mean-field equations are a good representation of the mean activity of a finite size network, even for modest sizes. These experiments also indicate that the McKean-Vlasov-Fokker-Planck equations may be a good way to understand the mean-field dynamics through, e.g. a bifurcation analysis.Mathematics Subject Classification (2000): 60F99, 60B10, 92B20, 82C32, 82C80, 35Q80.

  4. Competition Policy and Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møllgaard, Peter; Lorentzen, Jo

    2005-01-01

    We briefly review the rationale behind technological alliances and provide a snapshot oftheir role in global competition, especially insofar as it is based around intellectual capital.They nicely illustrate the increased importance of horizontal agreements and thusestablish the relevance...... of the topic. We move on to discuss the organisation of industriesin a dynamic context and draw out consequences for competition policy. We concludewith an outlook on the underlying tensions between technology alliances, competitionpolicy, and industrial policy.JEL codes: L4, L5, O31Keywords: Competition...

  5. Competition in education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Hanne; Christensen, Søren

    Competition in education has two functions: selection and motivation. How do these two functions correlate, contradict or co-exist? How has the educational system reflected on the relation between competition as motivational technology and as a technology for selection? The aim of this paper...... is to formulate the problem of competition in education as a relation between selection and motivation and provide an analytical strategy to grasp this problem. Our ambition is to theorize the problem and give empirical illustrations of how the connection between selection and motivation has been articulated...... in various educational institutions and programs....

  6. Competition from Isotopic Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginie Fabre

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available During later MOIS3, in Europe two populations were present, autochthonous Neanderthals and modern humans. Ecological competition between these two populations has often been evoked but never demonstrated. Our aim is to establish whether resource competition occurred. In this paper, in order to examine the possibility of ecological competition between these two populations, 599 isotopic data were subjected to rigorous statistical treatment and analysis through mixing models. The aim of this paper was to compare dietary strategies of Neanderthals and modern humans over time. Our conclusions suggest that Neanderthals and modern humans shared dietary habits in the particular environmental context of MOIS3 characterised in Europe by climatic deterioration. In this environmental context, the resource competition between Neanderthals and modern humans may have accelerated the disappearance of the Neanderthal population.

  7. Competition between Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, R.

    1985-01-01

    Examined competition and physical attractiveness among women. Results indicated that a large number of females are highly critical of other women, particularly attractive ones, and are highly concerned about their own appearance in relation to other women. (Author/BL)

  8. Heterogeneous logics of competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mossin, Christiane

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the article is to demonstrate that in order to understand competition as a socially organizing phenomenon, we should not examine competition in isolation, but as constellations of heterogeneous logics. More precisely, the article is based on two main theoretical points: (1) Logics...... still experience competition as an expression of spontaneous human activities. On the basis of these perspectives, a study of fundamental rights of EU law, springing from the principle of ‘free movement of people’, is conducted. The first part of the empirical analysis seeks to detect the presence...... of a presumed logic of competition within EU law, whereas the second part focuses on particular legal logics. In this respect, the so-called ‘real link criterion’ (determining the access to transnational social rights for certain groups of unemployed people) is given special attention. What is particularly...

  9. DMEPOS Competitive Bidding

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The DMEPOS Competitive Bidding Program was mandated by Congress through the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003 (MMA). The statute...

  10. COMPETITIVENESS FOR SUSTAINABLE ECONOMIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelu Eugen POPESCU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The current economic environment puts pressure on all national economies which struggle to improve their competitiveness and innovativeness in a sustainable way. This article aims to present the current state of the competitiveness by reviewing the main literature and worldwide researches, in order to provide a brief overview of the determinants that drive productivity and economic success at global and national level, taking into consideration the entrepreneurial activity for a country’s competitiveness and economic growth. The paper identifies the ways in which efficiency driven countries can improve their policies and get a better return on their investments, underlining a set of competitiveness enhancing policies (measures that can be implemented by public and private institutions in order to strengthen the economic fundamentals of the economies.

  11. Competition and Cheating

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cheating Family Life Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Competition and Cheating Page Content Article Body My son tends to cheat when he plays games. What should we do? Cheating is the result ...

  12. Gaining Relational Competitive Advantages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yimei; Zhang, Si; Li, Jizhen

    2015-01-01

    Establishing strategic technological partnerships (STPs) with foreign partners is an increasingly studied topic within the innovation management literature. Partnering firms can jointly create sources of relational competitive advantage. Chinese firms often lack research and development (R......&D) capabilities but are increasingly becoming preferred technological partners for transnational corporations. We investigate an STP between a Scandinavian and a Chinese firm and try to explore how to gain relational competitive advantage by focusing on its two essential stages: relational rent generation...

  13. FameLab competition

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    Are you 18 to 35 years old and studying or working in science in Switzerland? Are you passionate about your job and keen on exciting public imagination with a vision of the 21st century of science? Then this competition is for you!   For more information, check out http://www.famelab.ch/ or http://famelab.org/ or write to info@famelab.ch. Read more about the Famelab competition in this Bulletin article.  

  14. World competitiveness and agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. van Zyl

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Against the background of a changing environment in which market factors and greater world trade and competitiveness are increasingly becoming the only criteria for success, a framework for the analysis of world competitiveness is initially developed. This is followed by a discussion on the growth of productivity in agriculture, as well as an exposition of the role of agricultural research. Thirdly, price factors and the terms of trade are discussed, followed by a summary of policy implications.

  15. COMPETITION AS MARKET MECHANISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ya. Kazhuro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The essence of a competition as an objective law for development of the commodities production based on private ownership of the means of production and commodity exchange has been revealed in the paper. The paper presents an economic basis of market economy (private ownership which generates a corresponding production objective. Such purpose is a maximization of profit and a minimization of market subject expenses. Therefore, a struggle for the most favourable conditions on commodity production and sales is inevitable in such situation. The struggle is considered in the community with developed market economy as a competition.The competition is regarded not as an exogenic factor exerting its influence on market economic system from the outside, but as an objective phenomenon which is inherent to management market system in itself. Such treatment is substantiated by economic disintegration of individual commodity producers. Being an important engine of market economy, the competition does not establish its laws, and its role is to be an executive of data which are internally inherent in commodity production laws and firstly it concerns a profit maximization law which defines a purpose and guiding motif of economic entities in the given economy.The competition plays a contradictory role under conditions of market economy. On the one hand, it makes manufacturers constantly to aspire to expense reduction for the sake of profit increase. This has resulted in labour productivity increase, production cost decrease and a company receives an opportunity to reduce retail price for its products. Consequently, the competition acts as a potential factor for lowering of prices while increasing production efficiency. On the other hand, sellers have more freedom in price fixing under conditions of imperfect competition as they sell their products under the conditions of a monopolistic competition or an oligopoly. This is the main weakest point of the market

  16. Racial Discrimination and Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Ross Levine; Alexey Levkov; Yona Rubinstein

    2008-01-01

    This paper assesses the impact of competition on racial discrimination. The dismantling of inter- and intrastate bank restrictions by U.S. states from the mid-1970s to the mid-1990s reduced financial market imperfections, lowered entry barriers facing nonfinancial firms, and boosted the rate of new firm formation. We use bank deregulation to identify an exogenous intensification of competition in the nonfinancial sector, and evaluate its impact on the racial wage gap, which is that component ...

  17. Competitiveness in mass tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Claver Cortés, Enrique; Molina-Azorín, José F.; Pereira-Moliner, Jorge

    2007-01-01

    This paper offers an indepth analysis of a second-generation destination specializing in sun and sand mass tourism: Benidorm, Spain. Contrary to the view of many researchers, it is argued that such destinations need not inevitably decline and can in fact continue to be competitive. The persistence of this sun and sand mass tourism model is shown empirically through an analysis of its evolution and competitive situation. The paper offers suggestions about the strategies Benidorm hotels s...

  18. Competition and Offshoring

    OpenAIRE

    Jose Antonio Rodriguez-Lopez

    2012-01-01

    I present a model of offshoring decisions with heterogeneous firms, random adjustment costs, and endogenous markups. The model shows an inverted-U relationship between firm-level productivity and the probability of offshoring; hence, the most productive firms are less likely to offshore than some lower-productivity firms. A tougher competitive environment has two opposing effects on firm-level offshoring likelihood: a Schumpeterian effect--accounting for the negative effect of competition on ...

  19. Untangling healthcare competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, I C; McDaniel, R R

    1993-11-01

    Traditional approaches to competition may be inappropriate for healthcare providers. Neoclassical economics makes the implicit assumption that a single actor embodies consumption, compensation, and benefit from a transaction. In healthcare, this assumption does not hold. Instead, such actions are accomplished by three separate actors--consumers (physicians), customers (third-party payers), and clients (patients). A hospital simultaneously competes in three arenas. Hospitals compete for physicians along a technological dimension. Competition for third-party payers takes on a financial dimension. Hospitals compete for patients along a marketing dimension. Because of the complex marketplace interactions among hospital, patient, physician, and third-party payer, the role of price in controlling behavior is difficult to establish. The dynamics underlying the hospital selection decision--that is, the decision maker's expectations of services and the convenience of accessing services--must also be considered. Healthcare managers must understand the interrelationships involved in the three-pronged competitive perspective for several reasons. This perspective clarifies the multiple facets of competition a hospital faces. It also disentangles the actions previously fulfilled by the traditional single buyer. It illuminates the critical skills underlying the competition for each audience. Finally, it defines the primary criterion each audience uses in sorting among hospitals. Recognition of the multifaceted nature of competition among healthcare providers will help demystify market behavior and thereby improve internal organizational communication systems, managers' ability to focus on appropriate activities, and the hospital's ability to adapt to changing market conditions.

  20. Transnational Relations Between The BBC And The WDR (1960-1969: The Central Roles Of Hugh Greene And Klaus Von Bismarck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Potschka

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the relationship between the BBC Director-General Hugh Carleton Greene and the director of the West German Broadcasting Corporation (WDR Klaus von Bismarck between 1960 and 1969. The thrust of the article is to point out the great potential of evaluating interpersonal relationships and their contribution to European perspectives on television history. The research is situated within transnational television historiography and it argues that the relationship between the two key personalities is manifested in multiple interdependencies, exchanges, visits and correspondences that exemplify the long-term British impact on the German broadcasting system as well as the bilateral cordial relations between the BBC and the WDR.

  1. Competition between small RNAs: a quantitative view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loinger, Adiel; Shemla, Yael; Simon, Itamar; Margalit, Hanah; Biham, Ofer

    2012-04-18

    Two major classes of small regulatory RNAs--small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and microRNA (miRNAs)--are involved in a common RNA interference processing pathway. Small RNAs within each of these families were found to compete for limiting amounts of shared components, required for their biogenesis and processing. Association with Argonaute (Ago), the catalytic component of the RNA silencing complex, was suggested as the central mechanistic point in RNA interference machinery competition. Aiming to better understand the competition between small RNAs in the cell, we present a mathematical model and characterize a range of specific cell and experimental parameters affecting the competition. We apply the model to competition between miRNAs and study the change in the expression level of their target genes under a variety of conditions. We show quantitatively that the amount of Ago and miRNAs in the cell are dominant factors contributing greatly to the competition. Interestingly, we observe what to our knowledge is a novel type of competition that takes place when Ago is abundant, by which miRNAs with shared targets compete over them. Furthermore, we use the model to examine different interaction mechanisms that might operate in establishing the miRNA-Ago complexes, mainly those related to their stability and recycling. Our model provides a mathematical framework for future studies of competition effects in regulation mechanisms involving small RNAs.

  2. Statistical Inference for Partially Observed Diffusion Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders Christian

    -dimensional Ornstein-Uhlenbeck where one coordinate is completely unobserved. This model does not have the Markov property and it makes parameter inference more complicated. Next we take a Bayesian approach and introduce some basic Markov chain Monte Carlo methods. In chapter ve and six we describe an Bayesian method...... to perform parameter inference in multivariate diffusion models that may be only partially observed. The methodology is applied to the stochastic FitzHugh-Nagumo model and the two-dimensional Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process. Chapter seven focus on parameter identifiability in the aprtially observed Ornstein...

  3. Hughes Associates Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, Brad [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2013-05-22

    This report focuses on the more limiting gasket material (neoprene and viton). The use of polymer based gasketing material has led the DOE to question whether the ducts will be able to maintain structural integrity during a fire.

  4. Competition effects in an afrotemperate forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Seifert

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Information about competition responses is mainly available for monospecific stands or mixed stands with a small number of species. Studies on complex multi-species and highly structured forest ecosystems are scarce. Accordingly, the objective of this study was to quantify competition effects and analyse competition responses in a species-diverse afrotemperate forest in South Africa, based on an observational study with mapped tree positions and long-term diameter increment records. Methods The sensitivity to competition was analysed for individual species and involved the calculation of the slope of the linear relation between the value of a competition index (CI and diameter growth as a measure of sensitivity. In a next step different competition indices were combined and tree diameters were grouped in three classes as surrogates for canopy status and ontogenetic stage. Results Five competition indices were found to be effective in showing sensitivity to competition for a number of canopy and sub-canopy species. Significant linear regressions were fitted for 18 of a total of 25 species. Species reactions varied significantly in their sensitivity to the different CIs. The indices were classified as belonging to two groups, those that responded more to local crowding and those that are more sensitive to overtopping, which revealed species-specific sensitivities to both factors. The analysis based on diameter classes revealed that species clearly changed their sensitivity to crowding or overtopping depending on diameter. Canopy and sub-canopy species showed distinct differences in their reactions. Conclusions The application of multiple CIs brought novel insights relating to the dynamics of afrotemperate forests. The response patterns to different competition indices that focus on crowding and overtopping are varied and tree diameter dependent, indicating that oversimplified assumptions are not warranted in the interpretation of CI

  5. COMPETITION: CLASSICAL VERSUS NEOCLASSICAL VIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Mihaela Cornelia Sandu

    2013-01-01

    Competition is an important element from economical theory. Over time it has experienced several definitions and classifications much of them being contradictory. In this paper I will make a parallel between classical and neoclassical point of view according to competition. Keywords. Competition; neoclassical theory; classical theory; monopolistic; perfect competition.

  6. Political Failures and Intergovernmental Competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Hindriks

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In normative public economics, intergovernmental competition is usually viewed as harmful. Although empirical support for this position does not abound, market integration has intensified competition among developed countries. In this paper we argue that when assessing welfare effects of intergovernmental competition for various forms of political failures (the public choice critique, the outcome is ambiguous and competition can be welfare improving.

  7. Competitively tight graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Suh-Ryung; Park, Boram; Sano, Yoshio

    2011-01-01

    The competition graph of a digraph $D$ is a (simple undirected) graph which has the same vertex set as $D$ and has an edge between $x$ and $y$ if and only if there exists a vertex $v$ in $D$ such that $(x,v)$ and $(y,v)$ are arcs of $D$. For any graph $G$, $G$ together with sufficiently many isolated vertices is the competition graph of some acyclic digraph. The competition number $k(G)$ of $G$ is the smallest number of such isolated vertices. In general, it is hard to compute the competition number $k(G)$ for a graph $G$ and it has been one of the important research problems in the study of competition graphs. Opsut~[1982] suggested that the edge clique cover number $\\theta_E(G)$ should be closely related to $k(G)$ by showing $\\theta_E(G)-|V(G)|+2 \\leq k(G) \\leq \\theta_E(G)$. In this note, we study on these inequalities. We first show that for any positive integer $m$ satisfying $2 \\leq m \\leq |V(G)|$, there is a graph $G$ satisfying $k(G)=\\theta_E(G)-|V(G)|+m$ and characterize a graph $G$ satisfying $k(G)=\\...

  8. Business plan competition

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    "Venture – Companies for tomorrow" is a business plan competition, which supports students and other junior entrepreneurs in developing their business plans. The sixth edition of the competition is now taking place. Venture 2008 highlights: - prize money totalling CHF 150’000; - possibility to optimize business ideas and business plans with the help of experienced coaches: around 200 coaches are available, with a wide range of backgrounds, entrepreneurs as well as venture capitalists; -\tpossibility to present business ideas and business plans to potential investors ("Investor Days" - 17 January and 7 May); - active involvement in the start-up community; -\tcontribution to potential independence. The competition consists of two phases: Phase I, Business idea, Deadline for submission of business idea: 5 December 2007 (online at http://www.venture.ch). Award Ceremony: 17 January 2008 Phase II, Business plan Deadline for submission of business plan: 2 April 2008 (online at...

  9. Marketing mix and competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelković Slobodan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Competitiveness cannot simply be viewed as a country's ability to export or generate trade surpluses, since these can be brought about at least temporarily by means of artificially lowering the exchange rate and/or compressing domestic expenditures, as has been done in recent years by many DC that have tried to adjust to diminished resource availability. Authors standpoint is that international competitiveness requires creating comparative advantage where it does not exist, and requires action on several levels including an emerging consensus on the importance of macroeconomic policy, role and accountability of the government as well as the imperative of developing and internalizing technology body of knowledge for achieving competitiveness. Particular attention is given to the role and impact of marketing instruments marketing mix.

  10. COMPETITIVENESS THROUGH ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinu Cristina

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This millennium, confronted with a globalization of means leading as fast as possible at certain pursued aims, highlights the importance of competitiveness from the perspective of the continuous fight against limitation of resources. In this context, the machine of life evolution and economy has got an engine named competitiveness. The rules of circulation should focus on all livings to whom, from the perspective of survival and natural, human and social life accomplishment, the well- known concept of health may be attached. At the same time, competitiveness through environment health should try to reach the convergent performances which means that any form of superior knowledge and experience should always take into consideration environment health.

  11. Context Construction through Competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Poul F.

    This paper examines the relation between the evolution of statehood and institutionalised competition in the European context. The first half of the paper develops a historical-sociological view on the evolution of modern political power in the state form in Europe while the second half the paper...... reconstructs how the institutionalisation of competition as a specific type of policy tool which has been used by emerging modern states to establish its authority vis-à-vis competing claims to authority. It furthermore engages in an examination of corporatist and governance based attempts to respectively curb...... and expand the use of competition as a tool for organising social processes and the implications of the se attempts for the state of statehood....

  12. Architectural Competition and BIM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Nils Lykke; Frandsen, Anne Kathrine; Øien, Turid Borgestrand

    2015-01-01

    put under pressure. Thus, the two central actors involved inarchitectural competitions, architects and building clients, are continually influenced by such developments, interpreting and adaptingto changes according to their interests and horizons. During a project reviewing Nordic research literature...... on architecturalcompetitions, a series of interviews was conducted with building clients as well as architects, focusing on the impact of the above-mentioned changes within the building sector on architectural competitions as an institution. In the interviews, ICT and notleast BIM was a recurring theme that both parties saw...

  13. Competition Fosters Trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huck, Steffen; Lünser, Gabriele; Tyran, Jean-Robert Karl

    2012-01-01

    We study the effects of reputation and competition in a trust game. If trustees are anonymous, outcomes are poor: trustees are not trustworthy, and trustors do not trust. If trustees are identifiable and can, hence, build a reputation, efficiency quadruples but is still at only a third of the first...... best. Adding more information by granting trustors access to all trustees' complete history has, somewhat surprisingly, no effect. On the other hand, we find that competition, coupled with some minimal information, eliminates the trust problem almost completely...

  14. Competition and social cohesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Libertini

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available "Competition" and "social cohesion" are both protected by E.U. and Italian laws. The author moves from the analysis of the meaning of these two concepts, in order to reflect on their compatibility and the way to conciliate them. The central problem - in the opinion of the Author - is to abandon the myth of spontaneous markets' order and to rebuild a political order able to maintain and support, as far as possible, the competitive market economy, but also to govern economic processes in critical moments and situations.

  15. Competition Policy and Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møllgaard, Peter; Lorentzen, Jo

    2005-01-01

    We briefly review the rationale behind technological alliances and provide a snapshot oftheir role in global competition, especially insofar as it is based around intellectual capital.They nicely illustrate the increased importance of horizontal agreements and thusestablish the relevance of the t......We briefly review the rationale behind technological alliances and provide a snapshot oftheir role in global competition, especially insofar as it is based around intellectual capital.They nicely illustrate the increased importance of horizontal agreements and thusestablish the relevance...... policy, innovation, alliances, industrial policy...

  16. Competition Fosters Trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huck, Steffen; Ruchala, Gabriele K.; Tyran, Jean-Robert

    but is still at only a third of the first best. Adding more information by granting buyers access to all sellers’ complete history has, somewhat surprisingly, no effect. On the other hand, we find that competition, coupled with some minimal information, eliminates the trust problem almost completely......We study the effects of reputation and competition in a stylized market for experience goods. If interaction is anonymous, such markets perform poorly: sellers are not trustworthy, and buyers do not trust sellers. If sellers are identifiable and can, hence, build a reputation, efficiency quadruples...

  17. Is interspecific competition a major structuring force in animal communities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. J. Ryke

    1987-03-01

    Full Text Available Until recently the view that competition is the dominant ecological interaction was the prevailing one. Interspecific competition was widely regarded as a principal mechanism in determining community structure and organization and thus the distribution and abundance of species. The volume of literature that provides indirect evidence in favour of competition (observational approach greatly exceeds the number of studies that provide direct evidence (experimental approach. In part for this reason the importance of competition in community ecology is questioned by some ecologists. The strongest evidence for competition is derived from controlled field experiments which manipulate the abundancies of putative competitor species. It is stressed that to be able to study competition in the field and to test its theories, interaction coefficients have to be measured. In community studies the question should be asked how important competition, relative to other processes, is. A mechanistic perspective could be a powerful heuristic tool for community ecologists.

  18. Competition Law in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Anand Raj; Cynthia Lian; Wen-Ly Chin

    2015-01-01

    There is still some way for Malaysia to go and the lack of merger control (for the foreseeable future) remains a significant shortcoming in the Malaysian competition law regime at this stage. Anand Raj, Cynthia Lian, & Wen-Ly Chin (Shearn Delamore & Co., Kuala Lumpur)

  19. Positioning for Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapovsky, Lucie; Hubbell, Loren Loomis

    2000-01-01

    Analyzes results of the 1999 National Association of College and Business Officers tuition discounting survey and identifies trends. Finds colleges and universities are reactively responding to market pressures and proactively trying to analyze and position themselves ahead of the competition, often regional rather than national, for the…

  20. Competition in Individualized CAI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hativa, Nira; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Examines the effects of competition and cooperation on learning through computer-assisted instruction (CAI). A questionnaire was administered to 457 Israeli fourth graders who used two CAI arithmetic systems. The characteristics of the systems are discussed, and the results of the survey are correlated to students' gender and achievement levels.…

  1. Industrial location and competitiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Brakman (Steven); J.H. Garretsen (Harry); J.G.M. van Marrewijk (Charles)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThe interaction between the extent of location advantages and the intensity of firm competition relative to the size of the market jointly determines the location of industrial activity. Technology, factor endowments, geography, and scale economies are influential for determining locatio

  2. Explaining competitive reaction effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeflang, P.S.H.; Wittink, D.R.

    Changes in promotional expenditure decisions for a brand, as in other marketing decisions, should be based on the expected impact on purchase and consumption behavior as well as on the likely reactions by competitors. Purchase behavior may be predicted from estimated demand functions. Competitive

  3. Conflict exposure and competitiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cecchi, Francesco; Leuveld, Koen; Voors, Maarten

    2016-01-01

    We use data from a street football tournament and a series of lab-in-field experiments in postconflict Sierra Leone to examine the impact of exposure to conflict violence on competitive behavior. We find that football players who experienced more intense exposure to violence are more likely to get a

  4. Business Ideas Competition

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Business Ideas Competition "The Rainbow Seed Fund is a UK fund, which provides finance to support the commercialization of good ideas founded on scientific research; it is for the benefit of the UK industry in particular. To encourage ideas from CERN the Rainbow Seed Fund is running a business ideas competition.The winner of this competition will receive an immediate cash prize of GBP £1,000. In addition the Rainbow Seed Fund may well provide finance for market research, for protection of Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) and for prototyping to take the idea forward. Further awards of GBP £750 will be made for ideas which gain investment from the Fund.Candidates will only be required to prepare a 2-4-page summary of their business idea, and not a full business plan. Full details and an entry form are available at www.rainbowseedfund.com ." ALL Members of the Personnel seeking participation in the business ideas competition are asked to submit their ideas via the CERN TT Unit (Jean-Marie.Le Goff@cern.ch) th...

  5. Conflict exposure and competitiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cecchi, Francesco; Leuveld, Koen; Voors, Maarten

    2016-01-01

    We use data from a street football tournament and a series of lab-in-field experiments in postconflict Sierra Leone to examine the impact of exposure to conflict violence on competitive behavior. We find that football players who experienced more intense exposure to violence are more likely to get a

  6. Crop–weed competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gallandt, Eric R.; Weiner, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    on crops. Longer term management of crop–weed competition can be achieved through crop rotations, specifically crop sequences that reduce the weed seed bank, and therefore seedling density, and prevent proliferation of perennial weeds. Key ConceptsKey Concepts * Plant growth requires sunlight, water...

  7. Context Construction Through Competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Poul F.

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between the evolution of statehood and competition in the European context. To begin with, a particular take on the evolution of modern political power in the state form in Europe is developed. Against this background, the article reconstructs how the instit......This article examines the relationship between the evolution of statehood and competition in the European context. To begin with, a particular take on the evolution of modern political power in the state form in Europe is developed. Against this background, the article reconstructs how...... the institutionalization of competition as a specific type of policy tool has been used by emerging modern states to establish their authority vis-à-vis competing claims to public authority in society. The article, furthermore, engages in an examination of (neo-)corporatist and governance-based attempts both to curb...... and to expand the use of competition as a tool for organizing social processes, and the implications of these attempts for the state of statehood....

  8. Explaining competitive reaction effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeflang, P.S.H.; Wittink, D.R.

    2001-01-01

    Changes in promotional expenditure decisions for a brand, as in other marketing decisions, should be based on the expected impact on purchase and consumption behavior as well as on the likely reactions by competitors. Purchase behavior may be predicted from estimated demand functions. Competitive re

  9. Mediterranean Way of Competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Art Kovacic

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean area have a special concept of competitiveness topic. Normally is that region not so industrial and knowledge based oriented as a North Europe.That countries can't reach the same development level as the north one. Lisbon's and Goethenburg's strategies create the main framework of development programme. Mediterranean programme is such a case. European internal market has forced the EU countries to increase competitiveness. The economic prosperity of countries is associated with their ability to generate or attract economic activities which are able to increase income by performing well on themarket. Financial crisis in the EU has changed the look on the competitiveness research. Economy in the main countries has to find way of recovery. Former giants of the financial world have found themselves suddenly facing bankruptcy.Inevitably, the crisis is also having an effect on households and businesses - economic growth has slowed sharply and in some EU countries unemployment has begun to increase for the first time in several years. Form that perspective we have to find the right solution of European competitiveness.

  10. Growing Competition for Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Susan

    2001-01-01

    Describes the Questia subscription-based online academic digital books library. Highlights include weaknesses of the collection; what college students want from a library; importance of marketing; competition for traditional academic libraries that may help improve library services; and the ability of Questia to overcome barriers and…

  11. A Swimming Competition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹成兵; 邓新华

    2004-01-01

    Last Sunday, there was a swimming competition in our school. It had been a short time since I learned how to swim. Mr. Zhang, our PE teacher, said I had a gift in swimming and that competing in the game would help build up my confidence and courage. With his encouragement,I signed up for the swimming race.

  12. Context Construction Through Competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Poul F.

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between the evolution of statehood and competition in the European context. To begin with, a particular take on the evolution of modern political power in the state form in Europe is developed. Against this background, the article reconstructs how the instit...

  13. The Literature of Competitive Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Thomas D.

    1994-01-01

    Describes competitive intelligence (CI) literature in terms of its location, quantity, authorship, length, and problems of bibliographic access. Highlights include subject access; competitive intelligence research; espionage and security; monographs; and journals. (21 references) (LRW)

  14. Endogeneous Risk in Monopolistic Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Vladislav Damjanovic

    2012-01-01

    We consider a model of financial intermediation with a monopolistic competition market structure. A non-monotonic relationship between the risk measured as a probability of default and the degree of competition is established.

  15. The Value of Competitive Contracting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Contract FAR authority citations (from GAO, 2010) A few other notable reasons why some agencies inhibit competition are the following: a. Lack of...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA JOINT APPLIED PROJECT THE VALUE OF COMPETITIVE CONTRACTING By: Pamela A...

  16. RECONSIDERING COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Zaharia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Development of the competitive advantage involves a considerable effort from any organization. In particular, those organizations involved in a strong competitive market require the development of strategies to allocate long-term strategic marketing resources, efficiently and with easily quantifiable results. Faced with a multitude of phenomena and processes sometimes contradictory on different markets of consumption, contemporarily marketing has the mission to develop as creative as possible the business strategy of the organizations, their capacity of interacting with customers and other categories of audience. Such concepts as strategic positioning, relational marketing, management of the relationship with the consumer, marketing integrated research, a.s.o. are only a few of the tools with the help of which the marketing managers will implement successful operational strategies. All these developments are creating a real new paradigm of Marketing aimed to better explain the new types of complex market relationship in which the 21st Century organization is .

  17. Competition in Soccer Leagues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Bodil Olai; Tvede, Mich

    In the present paper a model of competition between sports clubs in a sports league is presented. Clubs are endowed with initial players but at a cost clubs are able to sell their initial players and buy new players. The results are that: if the quality of players is one-dimensional, then equilib......In the present paper a model of competition between sports clubs in a sports league is presented. Clubs are endowed with initial players but at a cost clubs are able to sell their initial players and buy new players. The results are that: if the quality of players is one......-dimensional, then equilibria in pure strategies exist, and; if the quality of players is multi-dimensional, then there need not exist equilibria in pure strategies, but equilibria in mixed strategies exist. Equilibria in mixed strategies resemblance signings on deadline day in european soccer...

  18. Competitiveness in Road Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borgström, Benedikte; Gammelgaard, Britta; Bruun, Poul

    take into account logistics service supplier strategic management. We also contribute with better understanding of value creation in order to escape commoditization and differentiate services through relationships (customers and/or other hauliers). Practical implications concern hauliers’ strategy...... a competitive value proposition? We will illustrate the strategy-as-practice with two projects, and discuss implications in terms of capabilities needed to create an effective value proposition and hence competitiveness. The theoretical contribution is in theorizing haulier strategic development in which we...... in the market also encourage strategic development of some road hauliers into providers of unique services. Such road haulier strategic development contributes to efficiency and effectiveness in basically all business sectors of EU. Little research is available of such strategic and operational management...

  19. Competitive Advantage through Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brem, Alexander; Maier, Maximilian; Wimschneider, Christine

    2016-01-01

    to failure several times. Before the current situation of the company, it remains challenging in the future as well. Hence, the Nespresso story provides interesting space for discussion and learning about what innovation is, how innovation emerges, and under which circumstances innovation can serve...... as a source for competitive advantage. Research limitations/implications Especially given the current market situation, the case offers different starting points for discussion about innovation and long-term company success. Practical implications Especially before the current market situation, the case...... offers different starting points for discussion about innovation and the success of a company on the long term. The case is designed to give practitioners a better understanding on what an innovation as, and how competitive advantages can be linked to innovation. Originality/value This case of Nespresso...

  20. Political Competition and Polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Christian

    This paper considers political competition and the consequences of political polarization when parties are better informed about how the economy functions than voters are. Specifically, parties know the cost producing a public good, voters do not. An incumbent's choice of policy acts like a signal...... for costs before an upcoming election. It is shown that the more polarized the political parties the more distorted the incumbent's policy choice....

  1. Managed competition that works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caper, P

    1993-05-19

    President Clinton has advocated managed competition within a global budget as a long-term strategy for simultaneously controlling health care costs and expanding access to medical care to all Americans. This proposal is intended to show how these two seemingly conflicting goals can be simultaneously accomplished. Managed competition, as it has been conceptualized to date, is primarily a strategy for reforming the system of providing health services. To work, it must be joined with a strategy for reforming our system of financing and paying for those services and of limiting overall system capacity. "Managed Competition That Works" is a proposal that would create a single trust-funded national system of health insurance, implemented through a system of vouchers to individuals. Global budgeting would be accomplished through establishment of the voucher's value each year. The trust fund would pay health plans for all medical care by capitation, but health plans would be free to negotiate a variety of payment arrangements with physicians, hospitals, and other providers. All plans would be required to offer a standard package of benefits, but would have great flexibility in offering benefits beyond the scope of the standard package, if those benefits replace high-cost with lower-cost services or permit the plan to compete more effectively for market share. This proposal would establish firm but acceptable national budget limits; provide universal, comprehensive, and uniform insurance coverage; eliminate cost shifting; encourage competition; reward efficiency-improving innovation; greatly reduce the need for centralized micromanagement of medical care; and retain local determination and a somewhat reduced level of consumer choice. Although this proposal is written as a national plan, trust funds could be implemented at the state level, if problems associated with portability of benefits among states could be solved.

  2. Competition and dental services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grytten, J; Sørensen, R

    2000-07-01

    Dental services for adults are different from all other Norwegian health services in that they are provided by private producers (dentists) who have full freedom to establish a practice. They have had this freedom since the end of World War II. A further liberalization of the market for dental services occurred in November 1995, when the so-called normal tariff was repealed. The system changed from a fixed fee system to a deregulated fee system. In principle, the market for dental services for adults operates as a free competitive market, in which dentists must compete for a market share. The aim of this study was to study the short-term effects of competition. A comprehensive set of data on fees, practice characteristics, treatment profiles and factors that dentists take into account when determining fees was analysed. The main finding was that competition has a weak effect. No support was found for the theory that the level of fees is the result of monopolistic competition or monopoly. The results also provided some evidence against the inducement hypothesis. At this stage, it is interesting to notice that dentists do not seem to exploit the power they have to control the market. One explanation, which is consistent with the more recent literature, is that physicians' behaviour to a large extent is influenced by professional norms and caring concerns about their patients. Financial incentives are important, but these incentives are constrained by norms other than self-interest. The interpretation of the results should also take into account that the deregulation has operated for a short time and that dentists and patients may not yet have adjusted to changes in the characteristics of the market.

  3. Ukraine Agricultural Competitiveness

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The agri-food sector is an important part of the Ukrainian economy. Agriculture could make an even larger contribution to economic growth and the vitality of rural areas in Ukraine than is currently the case. Ukraine has the agro-climatic potential to be a major player on world agricultural markets. Agricultural competitiveness in Ukraine also suffers from inadequate systems to test and do...

  4. Attention Competition with Advertisement

    OpenAIRE

    Cetin, Uzay; Bingol, Haluk O.

    2012-01-01

    In the new digital age, information is available in large quantities. Since information consumes primarily the attention of its recipients, the scarcity of attention is becoming the main limiting factor. In this study, we investigate the impact of advertisement pressure on a cultural market where consumers have a limited attention capacity. A model of competition for attention is developed and investigated analytically and by simulation. Advertisement is found to be much more effective when a...

  5. Competition: the answers

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    The correct answers to the Staff Association Competition are: How many women delegates are there currently in the Staff Council? -14 Who is the current President of the Staff Association? - Alessandro Raimondo Which year was the Nursery School established by the Staff Association at CERN?  -1965 How many CERN clubs are supported by the Staff Association? -44 What is the supreme representative body of the Staff Association ? -The Staff Council   The winners will be informed by email.

  6. APPROACHES ON THE COMPETITIVE INTELLIGENCE

    OpenAIRE

    Ioan PETRIŞOR; Natalia Ana STRĂIN (SILAŞ)

    2013-01-01

    Within this study, we approached the concept of "competitive intelligence" (CI), which we consider a key element for the success of a business, especially in the current period, characterized by numerous economic and financial turbulence. According to Society of Competitive Intelligence (SCIP), competitive intelligence is defined as a method of ethical and moral collection, analysis and dissemination of information regarding the competitive environment, opportunities, vulnerabilities, and int...

  7. Uniqueness is Important in Competition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Ai-Xia; XV Xiu-Lian; HE Da-Ren

    2009-01-01

    We propose a quantitative network description on the function of uniqueness in a competition system. Two statistical parameters, competition ability and uniqueness are defined, and their relationship in ordinary cases is analytically discussed. The competition between Chinese regional universities is taken as an example. The empirical investigation results show that the uniqueness of a university is really important in competition. Also,uniqueness is very helpful in the promotion of the university overall quality.

  8. Prescribing behavior of general practitioners : Competition matters!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaumans, C.B.C.

    Background General Practitioners (GP) have limited means to compete. As quality is hard to observe by patients, GPs have incentives to signal quality by using instruments patients perceive as quality. Objectives I investigate whether GPs prescribe more units when confronted with more competition. As

  9. A modified FitzHugh-Nagumo model for cardiac instabilities: The replacement of a conductance variable with Ca current as a slow variable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaka, Motohisa

    2013-02-01

    The FitzHugh-Nagumo model of nerve conduction is also used as a model of cardiac excitability. We propose the replacement of a gating variable of the conductance of K+ current with Ca2+ current as a slow variable of the model, in which plays a key role in the cardiac action potential. Since ion currents conduct transversely as well as longitudinally through gap junctions between myocytes, particularly in ischemia, a respective diffusion term is involved to both equations of a fast variable and a slow variable. We show that only a small increase of a coefficient of the diffusion term of Ca2+ current may cause cardiac instabilities, which are presumed to cause breakup of conduction and finally a lethal arrhythmia, ventricular fibrillation. Particularly, these instabilities do not occur without the diffusion term of Ca2+ current.

  10. Competition, cooperation, and collective choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Thomas; Reuben Paris, Ernesto Guillermo; Tyran, Jean-Robert Karl

    2014-01-01

    scheme fosters cooperation. Competition is popular, but the electoral outcome depends strongly on specific voting rules of institutional choice. If the majority decides, competition is almost always adopted. If likely losers from competition have veto power, it is often not, and substantial gains...

  11. Competition, cooperation, and collective choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Thomas; Reuben Paris, Ernesto Guillermo; Tyran, Jean-Robert Karl

    scheme fosters cooperation. Competition is popular but the electoral outcome depends strongly on specific voting rules of institutional choice. If the majority decides, competition is almost always adopted. If likely losers from competition have veto power, it is often not, and substantial gains...

  12. Competitive Intelligence and Social Advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Elisabeth; Cronin, Blaise

    1994-01-01

    Presents an overview of issues concerning civilian competitive intelligence (CI). Topics discussed include competitive advantage in academic and research environments; public domain information and libraries; covert and overt competitive intelligence; data diversity; use of the Internet; cooperative intelligence; and implications for library and…

  13. Competitive Environments and Protective Behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borm, P.E.M.; Estevez Fernandez, M.A.; Fiestras-Janeiro, G.

    2005-01-01

    The class of two-person competition games is introduced and analyzed.For any game in this class the set of Nash equilibria is convex, equilibrium strategies are exchangeable, and all Nash equilibria lead to the same payoff vector. Competition games are compared to other competitive environments such

  14. Competition policy and cartel size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, A.M.; Harrington Jr., J.E.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines endogenous cartel formation in the presence of a competition authority. Competition policy makes the most inclusive stable cartels less inclusive. In particular, small firms that might have been cartel members in the absence of a competition authority are no longer members. Regar

  15. Competition policy and cartel size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, A.M.; Harrington Jr., J.E.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines endogenous cartel formation in the presence of a competition authority. Competition policy makes the most inclusive stable cartels less inclusive. In particular, small firms that might have been cartel members in the absence of a competition authority are no longer members.

  16. Competitive Environments and Protective Behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borm, P.E.M.; Estevez Fernandez, M.A.; Fiestras-Janeiro, G.

    2005-01-01

    The class of two-person competition games is introduced and analyzed.For any game in this class the set of Nash equilibria is convex, equilibrium strategies are exchangeable, and all Nash equilibria lead to the same payoff vector. Competition games are compared to other competitive environments such

  17. Hospital survival in a competitive environment: the competitive constituency model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehreth, J

    1993-01-01

    Organizational theory is extended to develop a method for administrators to assess hospital effectiveness in a competitive environment. First, the literature pertaining to organizational effectiveness and survival is synthesized to show the lack of consideration for the effects of competition. Second, the article integrates the effects of competition on organizational effectiveness through a competitive constituency model. A step-by-step procedure is proposed to apply the theory in an organizational setting. The model explicitly addresses differences in power relations between hospitals, their competition, and their stakeholders. The relative nature of effectiveness is explored by comparing the hospital to its competition using criteria developed through specific goals of stakeholders. The distinction between managerial and organizational effectiveness constructs is clarified. Finally, the practical application of this model is demonstrated by assessing the effectiveness of a hospital in the competitive environment of Seattle, Washington, where two hospitals have recently closed.

  18. The First Kodokan Judo Kata International Competition and its Katas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lance Gatling

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In October 2007, the Kodokan hosted the first global Kodokan Judo forms (katas competition in Tokyo. This article briefly outlines the background of the competition, the competitors, the motivations for this competition, the historical development of judo katas, and their importance to the correct study of judo. Sources include personal kata study, observation of the two-day competition, interviews, and English and Japanese texts. Judo katas are an often neglected aspect of judo training, but there is growing interest in this classical, important part of the study of judo. The katas preserve the oldest techniques of judo, including its classical jujutsu roots.

  19. Measuring and explaining competition in the financial sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bikker, J.A.; Spierdijk, L.

    The first part of this paper provides a systematic discussion of the structural problems of competition on financial markets as observed from the demand and from the supply side, using a diagnostic framework. Potential impediments to competition are concentration, entry barriers, lack of

  20. Measuring and explaining competition in the financial sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bikker, J.A.; Spierdijk, L.

    2009-01-01

    The first part of this paper provides a systematic discussion of the structural problems of competition on financial markets as observed from the demand and from the supply side, using a diagnostic framework. Potential impediments to competition are concentration, entry barriers, lack of transparenc

  1. Injuries in the event horse: training versus competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Ellen R; Barnes, Jane; Saxby, Fiona; Murray, Jane K

    2008-01-01

    Two related studies on injuries sustained by event horses during competition and during training are reported. During the cross-country phase of competition, the most common injuries were lacerations and abrasions to the carpus and stifle. Superficial digital flexor tendonitis and exertional rhabdomyolysis were significantly more common during Cours Complete Internationale (CCI) competitions compared to one-day event (ODE) competitions. The difference in injury types at ODEs and CCI competitions probably relates to the increased athletic demands of the CCI and the closer veterinary observation at these competitions. The results of the training study indicate that 21% of horses intending to compete in a CCI did not start due to injury. Forty-three percent of these injuries involved soft tissue structures with injuries to the superficial digital flexor tendon and the suspensory ligament each accounting for 33%. The most important area for future research is investigation of the risk factors for these career-threatening soft tissue injuries.

  2. Experimental evolution of sperm competitiveness in a mammal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simmons Leigh W

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When females mate with multiple partners, sperm from rival males compete to fertilise the ova. Studies of experimental evolution have proven the selective action of sperm competition on male reproductive traits. However, while reproductive traits may evolve in response to sperm competition, this does not necessarily provide evidence that sperm competitive ability responds to selection. Indeed, a study of Drosophila failed to observe divergence in sperm competitive ability of males in lines selected for enhanced sperm offence and defence. Results Adopting the naturally polygamous house mouse (Mus domesticus as our vertebrate model, we performed an experimental evolution study and observed genetic divergence in sperm quality; males from the polygamous selection lines produced ejaculates with increased sperm numbers and greater sperm motility compared to males from the monogamous lines. Here, after 12 generations of experimental evolution, we conducted competitive matings between males from lineages evolving under sperm competition and males from lineages subject to relaxed selection. We reduced variation in paternity arising from embryo mortality by genotyping embryos in utero at 14 days gestation. Our microsatellite data revealed a significant paternity bias toward males that evolved under the selective regime of sperm competition. Conclusion We provide evidence that the sperm competitiveness phenotype can respond to selection, and show that improved sperm quality translates to greater competitive fertilisation success in house mice.

  3. Competition in a Business Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Chris; Medlin, Christopher J

    Competition and cooperation stabilize and structure business networks. In business research there is little focus on network based competition between firms and on how firms compete to gain network position. We review a range of conceptualizations of competition and cooperation and work towards...... a meaning of network competition and network cooperation based on goal structures within activity structures inside a firm network context. We conclude by presenting a framework to understand how network competition and cooperation are played out. We complete the paper with the opportunities for future...... research and also managerial thinking about network strategy and implementation....

  4. Competition Advocacy: the Italian Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Rebecchini

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Competition advocacy is considered, together with enforcement, the core business of an antitrust authority. Broadly speaking there are at least three main tasks regularly performed by most, if not all, antitrust agencies that are amenable to the advocacy function: addressing laws and regulations in order to remove unnecessary impediments to competition; engaging in sector enquiries to understand markets behavior and identify critical issues; explaining the benefits of open competitive markets to the public opinion. This article examines these three main tasks and outlines the challenges for competition agencies, with references to the experience of the Italian Competition Authority (ICA and the initiatives undertaken at international level.

  5. Corporate competition: A self-organized network

    CERN Document Server

    Braha, Dan; Bar-Yam, Yaneer

    2011-01-01

    A substantial number of studies have extended the work on universal properties in physical systems to complex networks in social, biological, and technological systems. In this paper, we present a complex networks perspective on interfirm organizational networks by mapping, analyzing and modeling the spatial structure of a large interfirm competition network across a variety of sectors and industries within the United States. We propose two micro-dynamic models that are able to reproduce empirically observed characteristics of competition networks as a natural outcome of a minimal set of general mechanisms governing the formation of competition networks. Both models, which utilize different approaches yet apply common principles to network formation give comparable results. There is an asymmetry between companies that are considered competitors, and companies that consider others as their competitors. All companies only consider a small number of other companies as competitors; however, there are a few compan...

  6. XMM classroom competitions : reaching for the stars!

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    Partnered by a unique education network 'European Schoolnet'(*), ESA is today launching these three competitions for schools (age range: 8 to final year) in its Member States: draw a telescope, describe the benefits of space-based astronomy or produce an astronomy observation proposal. Details can be found on the special competition website : http://sci.esa.int/xmm/competition "Draw me a telescope!" This competition for 8 to 12 year-olds asks the class to draw a telescope (inside a 20 - 50 cm diameter circle). The 14 winning entries, one per Member State, will be included in a specially-designed official XMM mission logo to go on the Ariane-5 launcher fairing for official unveiling on launch day. A representative of each winning class will be invited to Kourou for the launch. Deadline for entries : 8 October 1999. For full information on how to enter see : http://sci.esa.int/xmm/competition "What's new, Mr Galileo?" The essay competition for 13 to 15 year-olds challenges an English class, writing in the international language of space, to submit a single page (500 words maximum) description of space-based astronomy and its benefits for humanity. The 14 winners, one per Member States, will be invited to Kourou to visit the Guiana Space Centre, Europe's spaceport, and witness final XMM launch preparations. Deadline for entries : 15 October 1999. For full information on how to enter see : http://sci.esa.int/xmm/competition. "Stargazing" In the final-year class competition, ESA is providing a unique opportunity to use the XMM telescope. Here, the physics class, assisted by the scientific community, has to submit an observation project. The 14 winning proposals will be put into practice in 2000 at a summer camp. Further details will be announced once XMM is in orbit. Note to editors: The X-ray Multi-Mirror mission is the second Cornerstone of ESA's Horizon 2000 Plus science programme. The telescope will revolutionise cosmic X-ray astronomy by harvesting far more X

  7. Competitive Manufacturing Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rymaszewska, Anna; Christensen, Irene; Karlsson, Christer

    The increasing complexity of business environments and the pressure for organizations on delivering new products faster while maintaining the superior quality of their products, has forced manufacturing organizations to rethink their operations. Managers responsible for manufacturing ramp-up need...... to constantly improve this process in terms of time to volume, according to predefined cost and quality measures. The importance of the success of this process can lead to a significant creation of competitive advantage. This paper addresses the challenges of the manufacturing ramp-up process in the context...

  8. Profit maximization mitigates competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dierker, Egbert; Grodal, Birgit

    1996-01-01

    We consider oligopolistic markets in which the notion of shareholders' utility is well-defined and compare the Bertrand-Nash equilibria in case of utility maximization with those under the usual profit maximization hypothesis. Our main result states that profit maximization leads to less price...... competition than utility maximization. Since profit maximization tends to raise prices, it may be regarded as beneficial for the owners as a whole. Moreover, if profit maximization is a good proxy for utility maximization, then there is no need for a general equilibrium analysis that takes the distribution...... of profits among consumers fully into account and partial equilibrium analysis suffices...

  9. Competitive Manufacturing Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rymaszewska, Anna; Christensen, Irene; Karlsson, Christer

    The increasing complexity of business environments and the pressure for organizations on delivering new products faster while maintaining the superior quality of their products, has forced manufacturing organizations to rethink their operations. Managers responsible for manufacturing ramp-up need...... to constantly improve this process in terms of time to volume, according to predefined cost and quality measures. The importance of the success of this process can lead to a significant creation of competitive advantage. This paper addresses the challenges of the manufacturing ramp-up process in the context...... of lean improvements as well as organizational learning....

  10. Entrepreneurship and corporate competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihailović Božo

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Macroeconomics reforms are not enough for long-range stability. Transition enterprises in domestic economy hasn't prepare itself for the market economy. It has some specific characteristics which are analyzed in this paper. Entrepreneurship is the corner stone for enterprise development in the sense of achieving sustainable competitiveness in the contemporary globalized world economy. There are two possibilities to introduce it in transition enterprises: (a self-development (development by itself or evolution and (b create partnerships or alliance with some reputable competitor. In current situation, author proposal is for the second solution.

  11. Competitive Moves over Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antero, Michelle; Hedman, Jonas; Henningsson, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    its viability to survive in the marketplace. The study begins with a review of sourcing literature to position the Red Queen theory within the sourcing literature. It subsequently applies the framework to a case study of SAP AG to illustrate how sourcing strategies changed over time in response...... the firm; (c) organizations are reflexive and over time develop competitive hysteresis which allows them to become stronger competitors. In the case of SAP AG, various sourcing arrangements were selected over its 40-year history to respond to technological and market changes....

  12. Tax competition: A general review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raičević Božidar B.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Tax competition is increasingly attracting the attention of not only experts Although it is difficult to define precisely, grosso modo, it is actually a competition between states (jurisdictions in attracting capital (investors by tax instruments, especially tax incentives. The first recorded cases of tax competition emerged in 12th century (attracting wool weavers into regions of North Italy-Piemont. Today, tax competition has undreamt-of and very dynamic forms, both territorial and sectored. However, tax competition is accompanied not only by positive but also by rather strong negative effects. Positive effects worth mentioning are the following: 1. control of power, 2. innovations, and 3. incentives. However, negative effects, embodied in "unfair tax competition", provoke a range of unwanted and important distortions in international trade. All of them arise from requirements and wants of tax payers (especially companies to minimize or evade their tax obligations, on the one hand, as well as.

  13. Offshoring and International Competitiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørberg Jensen, Peter D.; Pedersen, Torben

    2012-01-01

    During the past decade, offshoring has become an established business practice. Yet it is still more common to offshore less advanced tasks compared with offshoring more advanced tasks, i.e., tasks closer to the core activities of the firm. The latter is a new phenomenon which raises many new...... of advanced offshoring, exploring what causes firms to offshore some of their more advanced tasks. Our findings indicate that while the lower cost of unskilled, labor-intensive processes is the main driver for firms that offshore less advanced tasks, the offshoring of advanced tasks is part of firms’ strategy...... to achieve international competitiveness through access to cross-border knowledge flows and foreign knowledge resources. Furthermore, offshoring of advanced manufacturing tasks seems to be more widespread and experience-based than the offshoring of advanced service tasks....

  14. Driving Competitiveness Through Servitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avlonitis, Viktor; Frandsen, Thomas; Hsuan, Juliana

    countries and emerging economies. It is our hope that this booklet can assist managers to analyze and plan a servitization strategy. The text is brief and comprehensive to supplement a workshop, but can also be used separately as a quick guide on steps to follow for a manager when considering servitization......Servitization, or adding services to the manufactured product, has become a strategy for increasing financial margins, getting closer to the customer and prolonging product lives. This is especially applicable to Western hemisphere companies in their efforts to compete with companies from low cost...... for the company. This booklet is produced to serve as a documentation of a research project together with industry on how servitization can be a strategy to enhance the competitiveness of manufacturing firms....

  15. Sport competitions in Antique Chersoneses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moutiev A.V.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available It is examined the content of physical education in Chersoneses in the ancient period. It is shown the participation of citizens in the Chersoneses competitions at various levels. Stressed the importance of physical culture, sports, sports training, organizing and conducting athletic competitions. Show the direction of physical education of youth, training for local and Panhellenic competitions, military service. The role of the teacher of gymnastics in physical education students in public schools. It is noted that the study involved in Chersoneses pedagogical methods and techniques. It is established that the citizens of Chersoneses actively participated in Panhellenic competitions and they became the victors.

  16. Competitive advantage and corporate communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitić Sanja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Strategic importance of corporate communications and its role in the development of competitive advantage has attracted interest of numerous researchers in the fields of organization, management, marketing and public relations. Recent studies particularly emphasise the growing importance of soft factors, such as reputation in the development of competitive advantage. Concept of reputation is strongly connected with stakeholder theory, which stresses the importance of corporate communications for competitive advantage of firms. The paper focuses on competitive advantage and the link among strategy, reputation and corporate communications.

  17. Competition in the Mashup Ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Shiga

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mashups combine data from multiple sources to create innovative web applications. Data providers gain compelling advantages in offering an open application programming interface (API, but face a competitive environment where growth occurs by virtue of developers' independent choices and where competitors are also complementors. This article explores the nature of competition within the mashup ecosystem by focusing on competitive actions taken by API providers and their link to mashup network structure. The resulting insights help entrants and incumbents refine their competitive strategies within this complex and unique environment.

  18. BUSINESS COMPETITORS AND COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUCIU TITUS

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the concept of competition, both from the perspective of the economic sector –where it is characteristic for pure monopole, oligopoly, monopole competition and pure competition, as well asfrom the market’s point of view – where it determines the strategies, objectives, advantages and weaknesses of acompany. The main point of the paper is the criticism of the pure and perfect competition theory. Concluding,the author insists on innovation, especially on the model of open innovation.

  19. Competition among Turkish hospitals and its effect on hospital efficiency and service quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torun, Nazan; Celik, Yusuf; Younis, Mustafa Z

    2013-01-01

    The level of competition among hospitals in Turkey was analyzed for the years 1990 through 2006 using the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI). Multiple and simple regression analyses were run to observe the development of competition among hospitals over this period of time, to examine likely determinants of competition, and to calculate the effects of competition on efficiency and quality in individual hospitals. This study found that the level of competition among hospitals in Turkey has increased throughout the years. Also, competition has had a positive effect on the efficiency of hospitals; however, it did not have a significant positive effect on their quality. Moreover, there are important differences in the level of competition among hospitals that vary according to the geographical region, the type of ownership, and the type of hospital. This study is one of the first to evaluate the effects of health policies on competition as well as the effects of increasing competition on hospital quality and efficiency in Turkey.

  20. Mapping your competitive position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Aveni, Richard A

    2007-11-01

    A price-benefit positioning map helps you see, through your customers' eyes, how your product compares with all its competitors in a market. You can draw such a map quickly and objectively, without having to resort to costly, time-consuming consumer surveys or subjective estimates of the excellence of your product and the shortcomings of all the others. Creating a positioning map involves three steps: First, define your market to include everything your customers might consider to be your product's competitors or substitutes. Second, track the price your customers actually pay (wholesale or retail? bundled or unbundled?) and identify what your customers see as your offering's primary benefit. This is done through regression analysis, determining which of the product's attributes (as described objectively by rating services, government agencies, R&D departments, and the like) explains most of the variance in its price. Third, draw the map by plotting on a graph the position of every product in the market you've selected according to its price and its level of primary benefit, and draw a line that runs through the middle of the points. What you get is a picture of the competitive landscape of your market, where all the products above the line command a price premium owing to some secondary benefit customers value, and all those below the line are positioned to earn market share through lower prices and reduced secondary benefits. Using examples as varied as Harley-Davidson motorcycles, Motorola cell phones, and the New York restaurant market, Tuck professor D'Aveni demonstrates some of the many ways the maps can be used: to locate unoccupied or less-crowded spaces in highly competitive markets, for instance, or to identify opportunities created through changes in the relationship between the primary benefit and prices. The maps even allow companies to anticipate--and counter-- rivals' strategies. R eprint RO711G

  1. Higher Education, Employability and Competitiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlin, Samo; Svetlicic, Marjan

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the relationship between competitiveness and higher education systems in Europe. It explores whether more competitive countries have developed more labour-market-oriented systems of higher education (HE) that thereby give their graduates greater short term employability potential. Based on and a large-scale survey among 45.000…

  2. Airline competition at European airports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Frenken; S. van Terwisga; T. Verburg; G. Burghouwt

    2004-01-01

    Hub-and-spoke networks of airlines create entry barriers at large hub airports. As a result, deregulation does not necessary lead to more competition. In this paper, airline competition at European airports in the 1990s is analysed. Results show important differences between airports, which are rela

  3. Higher Education, Employability and Competitiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlin, Samo; Svetlicic, Marjan

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the relationship between competitiveness and higher education systems in Europe. It explores whether more competitive countries have developed more labour-market-oriented systems of higher education (HE) that thereby give their graduates greater short term employability potential. Based on and a large-scale survey among 45.000…

  4. The Power Trading Agent Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Ketter (Wolfgang); J. Collins (John); P. Reddy (Prashant); C. Flath (Christoph); M.M. de Weerdt (Mathijs)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis is the specification for the Power Trading Agent Competition for 2012 (Power TAC 2012). Power TAC is a competitive simulation that models a “liberalized” retail electrical energy market, where competing business entities or “brokers” offer energy services to customers through tariff

  5. The Power Trading Agent Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketter, W.; Collins, J.; Reddy, P.; Flath, C.; De Weerdt, M.M.

    2011-01-01

    This is the specification for the Power Trading Agent Competition for 2012 (Power TAC 2012). Power TAC is a competitive simulation that models a “liberalized” retail electrical energy market, where competing business entities or “brokers” offer energy services to customers through tariff contracts,

  6. How to use competitive intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacStravic, R S

    1989-02-01

    Keeping tabs on the competition is a necessity, not a luxury, for organizations operating in today's health-care marketplace. This article, the second of two, explores various strategies for using competitive intelligence and suggests ways to ensure organization-wide commitment to gathering and using this information as part of an overall strategic plan.

  7. The need for competitive intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacStravic, R S

    1989-01-01

    Often associated with marketing warfare, competitive intelligence has become an essential part of health-care organizations' strategic planning efforts. Without overstepping ethical boundaries, providers can gather a vast array of "intelligence" about their competition from public sources, from the marketplace and from competitors themselves.

  8. Competitive strategy a new era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerman, Alan M

    2007-11-01

    By adopting five basic practices, your organization will be ready to advance to the next level of competitive fitness: Develop a reliable financial baseline. Insist on development of a competitive intelligence database system. Employ rigorous business planning. Advocate for focus and discipline. Really commit to competing.

  9. Competitive dimensions of human resources

    OpenAIRE

    Neykova Rumyana Mykolaivna; Prokopenko Olha Volodymyrіvna; Shcherbachenko Viktoriia Oleksiivna

    2015-01-01

    This article deals with the essence of human resources competitive dimensions. Their competitive priorities are analyzed in dynamic business environment, with an emphasis on the quality of human resources, their adaptive skills, communication skills and mobility. The attention is paid to the role behavior of personnel and the policies for its management in the context of cutting down management costs.

  10. Prediction of Competitive Microbial Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujikawa, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

     Prediction of competitive microbial growth is becoming important for microbial food safety. There would be two approaches to predict competitive microbial growth with mathematical models. The first approach is the development of a growth model for competitive microbes. Among several candidates for the competition model considered, the combination of the primary growth model of the new logistic (NL) model and the competition model of the Lotka-Vorttera (LV) model showed the best performance in predicting microbial competitive growth in the mixed culture of two species. This system further successfully predicted the growth of three competitive species in mixed culture. The second approach is the application of the secondary model especially for the parameter of the maximum cell population in the primary growth model. The combination of the NL model and a polynomial model for the maximum population successfully predicted Salmonella growth in raw ground beef. This system further successfully predicted Salmonella growth in beef at various initial concentrations and temperatures. The first approach requires microbial growth data in monoculture for analysis. The second approach to the prediction of competitive growth from the viewpoint of microbial food safety would be more suitable for practical application.

  11. Competitive dimensions of human resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neykova Rumyana Mykolaivna

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the essence of human resources competitive dimensions. Their competitive priorities are analyzed in dynamic business environment, with an emphasis on the quality of human resources, their adaptive skills, communication skills and mobility. The attention is paid to the role behavior of personnel and the policies for its management in the context of cutting down management costs.

  12. Essays on competition in banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Boxtel, A.A.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis consists of three chapters of a theoretical nature, all related to the topic of competition in the financial sector. The first chapter studies how competition for talented workers induces banks to set variable wage schemes, and how these wage schemes can lead to excessive risk. The secon

  13. MEASURING COMPETITIVENESS OF ECONOMIC ENTITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUNGIU-PUPĂZAN MARIANA CLAUDIA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A competitive structure of a national economy is influenced by the competitiveness of each of the actors made the national economy. In other words, to achieve competitive economic structure shall contribute all sectors of the national economy and hence all branches of the national economy, all organizations within each branch. Thus, the productive sectors of the economy contribute by increasing their competitiveness, GDP growth, added value, while other branches making a contribution through activity, increased quality of life (health, culture, social in training skilled labor (education to ensure effective functioning of the judiciary, protection of private property and citizen safety, lower crime rate (police, reducing the risk of political instability, increasing social cohesion, social disparities (richness and extreme poverty, and discrimination against women and minority groups. Human resources are probably the most important factor determining the competitiveness of an area. The ability of a country to move up the value chain is closely related to human resource capability. In understanding the competitive evaluation is important to assess not only in terms of education, improvement, skills and work experience, but also in terms of other attributes, more difficult to measure, as entrepreneurial relationships, creativity and risk tolerance. Secondly, we must accept that individual productivity is determined by external factors. Latent potential of the individual can develop when the person moves to another environment that provides better and more opportunities. Currently structural changes to remain competitive obtaining essential parameters of the Romanian economy to cope with competitive pressures of the single European market.

  14. The competition for supplier resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pulles, Niels J.

    2014-01-01

    Suppliers can have a major influence on the overall competitiveness of a firm. When firms lack certain capabilities or resources within their own organization, collaborations with suppliers can help them to acquire these resources and capabilities externally and improve competitive advantage. Howeve

  15. A Survey of Robotic Competitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Balogh

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A survey of robotic competitions all over the world, their short history and present state is given. Contests are classified according to their difficulty and conditions. Typical competition categories, also with interesting robot constructions are described. Sense, advantages and disadvantages of contests are discussed, especially concerning educational purposes. At the same time, our experiences with organising the contest Istrobot are presented.

  16. DOE Collegiate Wind Competition (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, J.

    2014-02-01

    This presentation for the January Stakeholder Engagement and Outreach webinar outlines the expanded need for workers in the wind industry and provides an overview of the DOE Wind Competition (to be held in May 2014) and the guiding principles of the competition.

  17. Mercury in waters, soils, and sediments of the New Jersey Coastal Plain: A comparison of regional distribution and mobility with the mercury contamination at the William J. Hughes Technical Center, Atlantic County, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barringer, Julia L.; Szabo, Zoltan; Reilly, Pamela A.

    2012-01-01

    Mercury in soils, surface water, and groundwater at the William J. Hughes Technical Center , Atlantic County, New Jersey, has been found at levels that exceed established background concentrations in Coastal Plain waters, and, in some cases, New Jersey State standards for mercury in various media. As of 2012, it is not known whether this mercury is part of regional mercury contamination or whether it is related to former military activities. Regionally, groundwater supplying about 700 domestic wells in the New Jersey Coastal Plain is contaminated with mercury that appears to be derived from anthropogenic inputs, such as agricultural pesticide use and atmospheric deposition. High levels of mercury occasionally are found in Coastal Plain soils, but disturbance during residential development on former agricultural land is thought to have mobilized any mercury applied during farming, a hypothesis borne out by experiments leaching mercury from soils. In the unsewered residential areas with mercury-contaminated groundwater, septic-system effluent is believed to create reducing conditions in which mercury sorbed to subsoils is mobilized to groundwater. In comparing the levels of mercury found in soils, sediments, streamwater, and groundwater at the William J. Hughes Technical Center site with those found regionally, mercury concentrations in groundwater in the region are, in some cases, substantially higher than those found in groundwater at the William J. Hughes Technical Center site. Nevertheless, concentrations of mercury in streamwater at the site are, in some instances, higher than most found regionally. The mercury contents in soils and sediment at the William J. Hughes Technical Center site are substantially higher than those found to date (2012) in the region, indicating that a source other than regional sources may be present at the site.

  18. Modeling discrete competitive facility location

    CERN Document Server

    Karakitsiou, Athanasia

    2015-01-01

    This book presents an up-to-date review of modeling and optimization approaches for location problems along with a new bi-level programming methodology which captures the effect of competition of both producers and customers on facility location decisions. While many optimization approaches simplify location problems by assuming decision making in isolation, this monograph focuses on models which take into account the competitive environment in which such decisions are made. New insights in modeling, algorithmic and theoretical possibilities are opened by this approach and new applications are possible. Competition on equal term plus competition between market leader and followers are considered in this study, consequently bi-level optimization methodology is emphasized and further developed. This book provides insights regarding modeling complexity and algorithmic approaches to discrete competitive location problems. In traditional location modeling, assignment of customer demands to supply sources are made ...

  19. Finite land resources and competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haberl, Helmut; Mbow, Cheikh; Deng, Xiangzheng

    2014-01-01

    Rising demand for land-based products (food, feed, fi ber, and bioenergy) as well as conservation of forests and carbon sinks create increasing competition for land. Landuse competition has many drivers, takes different forms, and can have many significant implications for ecosystems as well as s...... and energy systems, “ land architecture” (i.e., the significance of spatial confi gurations), and multiscale models to assess local-global connections and impacts.......Rising demand for land-based products (food, feed, fi ber, and bioenergy) as well as conservation of forests and carbon sinks create increasing competition for land. Landuse competition has many drivers, takes different forms, and can have many significant implications for ecosystems as well...... as societal well-being. This chapter discusses several emerging issues, including the effect of increased demand for nonprovisioning ecosystem services ( biodiversity conservation and carbon sequestration), urbanization, bioenergy, and teleconnections. Three major types of land-use competition are discerned...

  20. Evolutionary disarmament in interspecific competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisdi, E; Geritz, S A

    2001-12-22

    Competitive asymmetry, which is the advantage of having a larger body or stronger weaponry than a contestant, drives spectacular evolutionary arms races in intraspecific competition. Similar asymmetries are well documented in interspecific competition, yet they seldom lead to exaggerated traits. Here we demonstrate that two species with substantially different size may undergo parallel coevolution towards a smaller size under the same ecological conditions where a single species would exhibit an evolutionary arms race. We show that disarmament occurs for a wide range of parameters in an ecologically explicit model of competition for a single shared resource; disarmament also occurs in a simple Lotka-Volterra competition model. A key property of both models is the interplay between evolutionary dynamics and population density. The mechanism does not rely on very specific features of the model. Thus, evolutionary disarmament may be widespread and may help to explain the lack of interspecific arms races.

  1. EU Competition Policy Since 1990

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartalevich, Dzmitry

    2013-01-01

    reforms, carry out a comparative analysis between EU and U.S. competition policies, detect convergence or divergence, and account for the degree of convergence and for the relevant mechanisms triggering convergence. The main focus is on the analysis of anticartel enforcement policy, antimonopoly policy......In spite of the evidence of strong influence on the incorporation of policy provisions from the U.S. antitrust into the recent competition policy reforms in the European Union (EU), few considerable attempts have been made to analyze the influence of U.S. antitrust on EU competition policy...... in anticartel enforcement policies, antimonopoly regulation, and the regulation of mergers and acquisitions. The purpose of this article is to fill the gap by attempting to link EU competition policy with U.S. antitrust, provide a critical overview of the most important elements of European competition policy...

  2. FPGA implementation of a modified FitzHugh-Nagumo neuron based causal neural network for compact internal representation of dynamic environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-Paracuellos, L.; Alba, Luis; Villacorta-Atienza, Jose A.; Makarov, Valeri A.

    2011-05-01

    Animals for surviving have developed cognitive abilities allowing them an abstract representation of the environment. This internal representation (IR) may contain a huge amount of information concerning the evolution and interactions of the animal and its surroundings. The temporal information is needed for IRs of dynamic environments and is one of the most subtle points in its implementation as the information needed to generate the IR may eventually increase dramatically. Some recent studies have proposed the compaction of the spatiotemporal information into only space, leading to a stable structure suitable to be the base for complex cognitive processes in what has been called Compact Internal Representation (CIR). The Compact Internal Representation is especially suited to be implemented in autonomous robots as it provides global strategies for the interaction with real environments. This paper describes an FPGA implementation of a Causal Neural Network based on a modified FitzHugh-Nagumo neuron to generate a Compact Internal Representation of dynamic environments for roving robots, developed under the framework of SPARK and SPARK II European project, to avoid dynamic and static obstacles.

  3. Sir Hugh Cairns and World War II British advances in head injury management, diffuse brain injury, and concussion: an Oxford tale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, James L; Patel, Vimal; Bailes, Julian E

    2016-11-01

    The authors trace the Oxford, England, roots of World War II (WWII)-related advances in head injury management, the biomechanics of concussion and brain injury, and postwar delineation of pathological findings in severe concussion and diffuse brain injury in man. The prominent figure in these developments was the charismatic and innovative Harvey Cushing-trained neurosurgeon Sir Hugh Cairns. Cairns, who was to closely emulate Cushing's surgical and scholarly approach, is credited with saving thousands of lives during WWII by introducing and implementing innovative programs such as helmets for motorcyclists, mobile neurosurgical units near battle zones, and the military usage of penicillin. In addition, he inspired and taught a generation of neurosurgeons, neurologists, and neurological nurses in the care of brain and spinal cord injuries at Oxford's Military Hospital for Head Injuries. During this time Cairns also trained the first full-time female neurosurgeon. Pivotal in supporting animal research demonstrating the critical role of acceleration in the causation of concussion, Cairns recruited the physicist Hylas Holbourn, whose research implicated rotary acceleration and shear strains as particularly damaging. Cairns' work in military medicine and head injury remain highly influential in efforts to mitigate and manage brain injury.

  4. COMPETITIVE PRODUCT ADVANTAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian MICU

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Cost advantages may be either internal or external. Internal economics of scope, scale, or experience, and external economies of focus or logistical integration, enable a company to produce some products at a lower cost than the competition. The coordination of pricing with suppliers, although not actually economizing resources, can improve the efficiency of pricing by avoiding the incrementalization of a supplier's nonincremental fixed costs and profit. Any of these strategies can generate cost advantages that are, at least in the short run, sustainable. Even cost advantages that are not sustainable, however, can generate temporary savings that are often the key to building more sustainable cost or product advantages later.. Even when a product's physical attributes are not readily differentiable, opportunities to develop product advantages remain. The augmented product that customers buy is more than the particular product or service exchanged. It includes all sorts of ancillary services and intangible relationships that make buying thesame product from one company less difficult, less risky, or more pleasant than buying from a competitor. Superior augmentation of the same basic product can add substantial value in the eyes of consumers, leading them to pay willingly what are often considerable price premiums.

  5. From monopoly to competition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpentier, J-M.

    1997-12-31

    For nearly a century, electric utilities have been vertically integrated, having control over power generation, distribution and transmission. They virtually monopolized the markets which they served. In 1977, during the energy crisis, the electric utilities were challenged with the establishment of the US Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) and in 1978 by the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA). This independent agency, which was initially set up to promote new energy sources and cogeneration, was also a major player in regulating electric power transmission and wholesale trade. PURPA required that electric utilities buy their electricity from qualifying independent power producers. In 1996, FERC orders 888 and 889 were issued which opened up competition to a large degree. Traditional utilities were forced to unbundle their generating and transmission costs. Order 889 opened up information systems to show available transmission capacity on power grids. By setting up a division to take charge of its power transmission system, Hydro-Quebec hopes to gain full access to transmission setups and the wholesale electricity market in the US. 1 fig.

  6. Analysis of pre-competitive and competitive anxiety in youth judoka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Carla Interdonato

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study aimed to verify levels of trait anxiety in juvenile judo athletes (between 14 and 18 yrs. in pre-competitive and competitive moments.Method: Therefore, 40 athletes (20 boys and 20 girls with 5 ± 2 yrs. of judo practice were analyzed. The instrument used was the "Sport Competition Anxiety Test” (SCAT. In statistical analysis, we observed differences with Friedman and Mann-Whitney tests, p ≤ 0.05. The Spearman correlation coefficient was used to identify the relationship between variables.Results: Results demonstrated that males and females presented higher anxiety in championship, when compared with the training period. When compared gender in interaction with the moment, the competitive female group demonstrated higher anxiety than other groups. A significant and negatives correlations between anxiety, during championship and pre-competitive moments, and judo practice time were found.Conclusions: These data suggest preparatory work during the championship day should be different for male and female athletes, while female athletes have to control anxiety, in the male group other aspects could be analyzed/considered in the preparation of the athlete.

  7. Competitiveness of the region : content, factors, policies

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    The article describes a framework conception of regional competitiveness. The notion of regional competitiveness as well as approaches to the classification of competi-tiveness factors are considered in detail. The author elaborates a set of indicators of re-gional competitiveness. The article also dis-cusses three groups of factors which can influence the competitiveness of any region.

  8. Marketing Aspect of Banking Competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieizviestna Olena V.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to study the need for application of marketing tools in order to improve competitiveness and competitive advantages of banks. By analyzing, systematizing and summarizing the scientific works of many scientists, the relationship between the competitiveness of the commercial bank and its share in the banking market has been discovered. In the process of studying the integration of the strategy of maximizing customer satisfaction in the practice of strategic competition in the banking market there was presented the author’s position regarding the need to take into account the structure of the customer loyalty, as it is it that helps to properly distribute the bank’s marketing efforts. It has been proved that the technology of bank marketing should not only include the systems of identifying customer needs, creation of new financial products, but also contribute to the formation of the multi-factor strategic model of competitive strategy of the bank competitive development. It has been proposed to use the SWOT-analysis in order to effectively manage the bank’s competitiveness.

  9. Competition for nutrient and light: stable coexistence, alternative stable states, or competitive exclusion?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Passarge, J.; Hol, S.; Escher, M.; Huisman, J.

    2006-01-01

    Competition theory has put forward three contrasting hypotheses: Competition for nutrients and light may lead to (i) stable coexistence of species, (ii) alternative stable states, or (iii) competitive exclusion. This paper presents a detailed investigation of competition among phytoplankton species

  10. Competition for nutrients and light: Stable coexistence, alternative stable states or competitive exclusion?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Passarge, J.; Hol, S.; Escher, M.; Huisman, J.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract. Competition theory has put forward three contrasting hypotheses: Competition for nutrients and light may lead to (i) stable coexistence of species, (ii) alternative stable states, or (iii) competitive exclusion. This paper presents a detailed investigation of competition among phytoplankto

  11. Romania's Competitiveness and Competitive Position in Global Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin NECULITA

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Competitiveness increase has become a primordial framework of the social and economic development strategies of most world countries (mainly the most developed ones over the last decades. The vigorous boost of the contemporary phenomenon of globalization, which has widened the global area of economies, sectors and firms confrontation, has laid an emphasis on their competitiveness importance for their favorable position in the international competition and has therefore force the status to take proper, broad and concerted measures to stimulate the determining factors of action and to take better advantage of their effects. The purpose of the paper is to determine whether an increase in competitiveness could reduce the disparities between regions. The E.U. Member States and regions need significant financial help to solve various structural problems and to achieve their potential of growth. Romania is no exception, one of the main problems being the low rate in attracting European funds.

  12. Testosterone, cortisol, and human competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casto, Kathleen V; Edwards, David A

    2016-06-01

    Testosterone and cortisol figure prominently in the research literature having to do with human competition. In this review, we track the history of this literature, concentrating particularly on major theoretical and empirical contributions, and provide commentary on what we see as important unresolved issues. In men and women, athletic competition is typically associated with an increase in testosterone (T) and cortisol (C). Hormone changes in response to non-athletic competition are less predictable. Person (e.g., power motivation, mood, aggressiveness, social anxiety, sex, and baseline levels of T and C) and context (e.g., whether a competition is won or lost, the closeness of the competition, whether the outcome is perceived as being influenced by ability vs. chance, provocations) factors can influence hormone responses to competition. From early on, studies pointed to a positive relationship between T and dominance motivation/status striving. Recent research, however, suggests that this relationship only holds for individuals with low levels of C - this is the core idea of the dual-hormone hypothesis, and it is certain that the broadest applications of the hypothesis have not yet been realized. Individuals differ with respect to the extent to which they embrace competition, but the hormonal correlates of competitiveness remain largely unexplored. Although rapid increases in both T and C associated with competition are likely adaptive, we still know very little about the psychological benefits of these hormonal changes. Administration studies have and will continue to contribute to this inquiry. We close with a discussion of what, we think, are important methodological and mechanistic issues for future research.

  13. Competition and Oligopoly: A Case of UK Grocery Retailing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin A. Lawler

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we develop a model of Bertrand price competition with uncertainty as to the number of bidders. The auction models predict retail price dispersion as an observable feature of price discrimination. The implications of the auction models are tested using a logit model on primary data. Some simulations of the logit model further enrich and capture critical states of chain-store rivalry. The findings show that consumer characteristics define type of store choice and that an auction model of price competition with uncertainty is an appropriate way to model retail grocery competition.

  14. Competitive advantage: an analytical framework based on entrepreneurship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhibiao

    2006-01-01

    This article observes and studies the role and effect of entrepreneurship within the theoretical framework of resource-based view(RBV).It advances competitive advantage theory based on entrepreneurship by proving the distinctiveness of entrepreneurship. Distinctive cognition competence of entrepreneurs provides them with personal specific assets,which determines both the competence to explore new business opportunities and the competence to integrate resources for risk activities.The characteristics of such intangible resource as entrepreneurship,such as its distinctiveness,limitedness of competition,and incomplete mobility of factors,are the most important sources of competitive advantage of enterprises in the strategic management theory of RBV.

  15. Follow the Leaders: competition in the Brazilian Auto Financing Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo M. S. Moita

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study seeks to understand the competitive pattern and strategy of the firms in the Brazilian automobile financing market. First, we analyzed the strong segmentation observed in this market, determining market niches. We then estimated reaction functions to price changes. The results indicated that the three largest companies in the sector have a strong influence on interest rate setting within the entire segment. This phenomenon characterizes the competition of this sector as the leader-follower type, rather than Bertrand competition, the latter of which is often expected in the banking sector and it demonstrates the existence of the leading firms' market power.

  16. Distributed Wind Competitiveness Improvement Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-05-01

    The Competitiveness Improvement Project (CIP) is a periodic solicitation through the U.S. Department of Energy and its National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Manufacturers of small and medium wind turbines are awarded cost-shared grants via a competitive process to optimize their designs, develop advanced manufacturing processes, and perform turbine testing. The goals of the CIP are to make wind energy cost competitive with other distributed generation technology and increase the number of wind turbine designs certified to national testing standards. This fact sheet describes the CIP and funding awarded as part of the project.

  17. Distributional preferences and competitive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balafoutas, Loukas; Kerschbamer, Rudolf; Sutter, Matthias

    2012-06-01

    We study experimentally the relationship between distributional preferences and competitive behavior. We find that spiteful subjects react strongest to competitive pressure and win in a tournament significantly more often than efficiency-minded and inequality averse subjects. However, when given the choice between a tournament and a piece rate scheme, efficiency-minded subjects choose the tournament most often, while spiteful and inequality averse subjects avoid it. When controlling for distributional preferences, risk attitudes and past performance, the gender gap in the willingness to compete is no longer significant, indicating that gender-related variables explain why twice as many men as women self-select into competition.

  18. Keynote address: Coal competitiveness and energy alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broadbent, G. [IEA Coal Research, Clean Coal Centre, London (United Kingdom)

    2001-02-01

    The competitiveness of coal versus gas, nuclear and renewables for power generation is discussed. It is concluded that coal is competitive on existing plant but it needs to accelerate technology development faster than the competition to sustain its future.

  19. 5 CFR 351.402 - Competitive area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... effect less than 90 days prior to the effective date of a reduction in force, a description of the... Competition § 351.402 Competitive area. (a) Each agency shall establish competitive areas in which...

  20. Competition in natural populations of Daphnia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, M.

    1995-01-01

    I investigated the competitive relationships between two species of Daphnia, D. galeata and D. cucullata, and their interspecific hybrid. The term hemispecific competition was introduced to describe competition between parental species and hybrids. In eutrophic Tjeukemeer both parental species were

  1. Self-localized states in species competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulau, Pavel V.; Gomila, DamiÃ; López, Cristóbal; Hernández-García, Emilio

    2014-03-01

    We study the conditions under which species interaction, as described by continuous versions of the competitive Lotka-Volterra model (namely the nonlocal Kolmogorov-Fisher model, and its differential approximation), can support the existence of localized states, i.e., patches of species with enhanced population surrounded in niche space by species at smaller densities. These states would arise from species interaction, and not by any preferred niche location or better fitness. In contrast to previous works we include only quadratic nonlinearities, so that the localized patches appear on a background of homogeneously distributed species coexistence, instead of on top of the no-species empty state. For the differential model we find and describe in detail the stable localized states. For the full nonlocal model, however, competitive interactions alone do not allow the conditions for the observation of self-localized states, and we show how the inclusion of additional facilitative interactions leads to the appearance of them.

  2. Competitive Think Tanks in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelstrup, Jesper Dahl

    in opportunity structures that are mediated by historically constituted institutions in knowledge regimes. The paper distinguishes between four different strategies, the authoritative, the collaborative, the agenda-setting and the competitive strategy that are distinguished by the relations think tanks have...... to established institutions and power in public policy. On the basis of the hypothesis that more competitive think tanks have emerged due to lower opportunity costs, the paper investigates how ‘competitive’ think tank strategies have been used in Germany, Denmark, the EU-institutions in Brussels...... and in the United Kingdom from 2000 to 2012. The findings contradict the hypothesis that the competitive think tank strategy is the dominant or even a common strategy across the cases under investigation. The competitive strategy is particularly rare among EU and German think tanks. As such the paper challenges...

  3. FLEXIBLE BUDGET OF SPORT COMPETITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Vukasović

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Manager of sport competition has right to decide and also to take responsibility for costs, income and financial results. From economic point of wiev flexible budget and planning cost calculations is top management base for analyzing success level of sport competition. Flexible budget is made before sport competition with few output level, where one is always from static plan-master plan. At the end of competition when we have results, we make report of plan executing and we also analyzing plan variances. Results of comparation between achieved and planning level of static budget can be acceptable if achieved level is approximate to budget level or if we analyzing results from gross or net income. Flexible budget become very important in case of world eco- nomic crises

  4. The Scientific Competitiveness of Nations

    CERN Document Server

    Cimini, Giulio; Labini, Francesco Sylos

    2014-01-01

    We use citation data of scientific articles produced by individual nations in different scientific domains to determine the structure and efficiency of national research systems. We characterize the scientific fitness of each nation$-$that is, the competitiveness of its research system$-$and the complexity of each scientific domain by means of a non-linear iterative algorithm able to assess quantitatively the advantage of scientific diversification. We find that technological leading nations, beyond having the largest production of scientific papers and the largest number of citations, do not specialize in a few scientific domains. Rather, they diversify as much as possible their research system. On the other side, less developed nations are competitive only in scientific domains where also many other nations are present. Diversification thus represents the key element that correlates with scientific and technological competitiveness. A remarkable implication of this structure of the scientific competition is...

  5. Competitive Strategy in Continuing Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baden, Clifford

    1987-01-01

    Reviews strategic variables available to those planning continuing education marketing programs. Discusses generic competitive strategies: (1) overall cost leadership, (2) differentiation, and (3) specialization. Mentions several potential problems. (CH)

  6. Endogenous, Imperfectly Competitive Business Cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitta-Jacobsen, Hans Jørgen

    by monopolistic competition. An implicit assumption of barriers to entry justifies that the number of firms is fixed even when positive profits occur. It turns out that both market power of firms on the product markets and market power of unions on the labor markets make the occurrence of cycles more likely......We investigate how imperfect competition affects the occurrence and the properties of endogenous, rational expectations business cycles in an overlapping generations model with constant returns to scale in production. The model has explicit product and labor markets all characterized....... In particular, imperfect competition on the product markets and the positive profits associated with it may have the effect that there is a cycle even if the labor supply curve is increasing in the real-wage rate. For competitive cycles is required not only a decreasing labor supply curve, but a wage elasticity...

  7. Competitive Strategy in Continuing Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baden, Clifford

    1987-01-01

    Reviews strategic variables available to those planning continuing education marketing programs. Discusses generic competitive strategies: (1) overall cost leadership, (2) differentiation, and (3) specialization. Mentions several potential problems. (CH)

  8. Logistics systems optimization under competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Tsan Ming; Govindan, Kannan; Ma, Lijun

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, optimization on logistics and supply chain systems is a crucial and critical issue in industrial and systems engineering. Important areas of logistics and supply chain systems include transportation control, inventory management, and facility location planning. Under a competitive market...

  9. The Third International Timetabling Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, Gerhard; Di Gaspero, Luca; Kingston, Jeffrey H.; McCollum, Barry; Schaerf, Andrea; Kjenstad, D.; Riise, A.; Nordlander, T.E.; McCollum, B.; Burke, E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper is the organizers’ report on the Third International Timetabling Competition (ITC2011), run during the first half of 2012. Its participants tackled 35 instances of the high school timetabling problem, taken from schools in 10 countries.

  10. Knowledge Resources and Competitive Advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris Gomezelj Omerzel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses some definitions of knowledge as a potential sourceof competitive advantage. It reviews the literature pertaining to the assessmentof knowledge assets. According to the resource-based view,which links the competitive advantage of organizations with resourcesand capabilities that are firm-specific, and difficult to imitate or substitute,a firm’s competitive advantage is built on a set of strategicallyrelevant resources (Barney 1991; Grant 1991; Peteraf 1993. When firmshave access to similar resources, it is those companies that are able tomaximize the utilization of those resources that attain a competitiveadvantage. Among various strategic resources and capabilities that helpdetermine the extent of competitive advantages, a pivotal role is oftenassigned to knowledge – as both a resource in itself and an integratingfactor that makes other resources and capabilities effective – especiallyin complex and dynamic environments.

  11. DXC'11 Industrial Track Competition Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Competition data, including nominal and faulty scenarios, for Diagnostic Problem I of the Third International Diagnostic Competition. Three file formats are...

  12. An amusement park physics competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moll, Rachel F.

    2010-07-01

    Amusement park physics is a popular way to reinforce physics concepts and to motivate physics learners. This article describes a novel physics competition where students use simple tools to take amusement park ride measurements and use the data to answer challenging exam questions. Research into the impact of participating in the competition reveals positive effects such as the acquisition of experimentation skills and improved attitudes towards physics.

  13. NEW APPROACHES TO EXPORT COMPETITIVENESS

    OpenAIRE

    Alina Petronela NEGREA

    2015-01-01

    The economic literature and the political discourse typically look at international competitiveness mainly by the means of export market shares. However, globalisation, production fragmentation and the growing importance of global value chains (GVCs) increasingly challenge traditional approaches of export competitiveness and call for a more accurate and disaggregated level of analysis. Due to the growing fragmentation of production, a country exports now include a significant amount of import...

  14. Medical coverage of gymnastics competitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Suzanne S; Burton, Monique S

    2009-01-01

    Medical coverage of gymnastics competitions can be a challenging task for the sports medicine physician and other medical personnel because of the complexity and aerial nature of the sport. A broad understanding of the six gymnastics disciplines, along with the type of competitions, injury epidemiology, and the common acute gymnastics injuries will help sports medicine professionals in planning and delivering optimal care to the injured or ill gymnast.

  15. Bank Mergers, Competition and Liquidity

    OpenAIRE

    Carletti, Elena; Hartmann, Philipp; Spagnolo, Giancarlo

    2004-01-01

    We model the impact of bank mergers on loan competition, reserve holdings and aggregate liquidity. A merger changes the distribution of liquidity shocks and creates an internal money market, leading to financial cost efficiencies and more precise estimates of liquidity needs. The merged banks may increase their reserve holdings through an internalization effect or decrease them because of a diversification effect. The merger also affects loan market competition, which in turn modifies the dis...

  16. LOGISTICS - SOURCE OF COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana SCRIOSTEANU; Popescu, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the logistics if source of competitive advantage. Logistics can offer a source of competitive advantage, such as a superior position compared to the competitors regarding cost reductions, service diversity and satisfaction of consumer requirements. The logistic activities generate cost and give value to the final product .Despite that the same logistic activity can be done in many ways, with different costs and performance , the evaluation of the activities and the links b...

  17. Competitiveness of Slovenian Cargo Shipping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milojka Počuča

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents Slovenian cargo shipping, its system oforganisation, ownership, age and value stntcture. It shows theimportance of shipping in the Slovenian overseas trade and itsimpact on the state's balance of payments. The analysis of thecompetitiveness of shipping was made from the viewpoint ofoperation costs and in comparison with the competitiveness ofEU shippers. The paper concludes with a proposal of possiblesystemic solutions which improve the competitiveness of Slovenianshipping.

  18. COMPETITIVENESS TEXTILE CLUSTER PERU MEXICO

    OpenAIRE

    Gutiérrez Huby, Ana María; Facultad de Ciencias Contables, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos; Amador Murguía, María Eugenia; Universidad de Guadalajara

    2014-01-01

    This article is a summary of the research study entitled "A comparative study in Peru- Mexico textile cluster in determining competitive strategies" that was developed in 2010 by the author in collaboration with a team of researchers at the University of Guadalajara. This article basically presents the results in comparative terms of the competitive situation of the textile cluster, Peru and Mexico, "Gamarra" and "Zapotlanejo" respectively representing the textile industry in their countries,...

  19. Competitive advantage and corporate communications

    OpenAIRE

    Mitić Sanja; Ognjanov Galjina

    2013-01-01

    Strategic importance of corporate communications and its role in the development of competitive advantage has attracted interest of numerous researchers in the fields of organization, management, marketing and public relations. Recent studies particularly emphasise the growing importance of soft factors, such as reputation in the development of competitive advantage. Concept of reputation is strongly connected with stakeholder theory, which stresses the importance of corporate communications ...

  20. Heart rates during competitive orienteering.

    OpenAIRE

    Bird, S R; Bailey, R.; Lewis, J.

    1993-01-01

    This study investigated the heart rate profiles of 16 experienced, competitive orienteers (aged 15-62 years) during three competitive events. Each competitor was assessed over three different types of course which were classified as: fast run (FR), slow run (SR) and highly physical (HP). The results showed that all subjects recorded heart rates that were between 140 and 180 beats min-1 for the majority of each event (irrespective of age or course type). The heart rate data indicated that the ...

  1. Spatial competition between shopping centers

    OpenAIRE

    António Brandão; João Correia-da-Silva; Joana Pinho

    2010-01-01

    We study competition between two shopping centers (department stores or shopping malls) located at the extremes of a linear city. In contrast with the existing literature, we do not restrict consumers to make all their purchases at a single place. We obtain this condition as an equilibrium result. In the case of competition between a shopping mall and a department store, we find that the shops at the mall, taken together, obtain a lower profit than the department store. However, the shops at ...

  2. Yardstick Competition and Policy Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Rincke, Johannes

    2005-01-01

    A simple model of yardstick competition between jurisdictions is presented. Governments of jurisdictions face the alternative to choose between an old and a new policy with stochastic payoffs. The new policy is superior to the old policy in one state of the world, and inferior in the other. Governments are either benevolent, serving the interest of the voter, or rent-seeking. An equilibrium with yardstick competition is shown to exist where bad governments having a good government in their ne...

  3. Immunological impact of Taekwondo competitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y W; Shin, K W; Paik, I-Y; Jung, W M; Cho, S-Y; Choi, S T; Kim, H D; Kim, J Y

    2012-01-01

    Immunological changes in elite adolescent female athletes during Taekwondo competitions were investigated on-field. 6 female athletes (16.7 ± 0.8 year-old) volunteered and performed 5 bouts of demonstration Taekwondo competitions simulating real tournaments in intensity, duration, and break-time intervals on the same day. Blood samples were taken before, after the competitions and during the recovery, respectively. Immunological changes and oxidative stress in peripheral blood mononuclear cells were evaluated by flow-cytometry. During the competitions, exercise intensity was 92.2 ± 3.8% (86.1~95.7) of the maximal heart rate. Blood lactate increased immediately after the competitions (p=0.0165) and decreased to baseline during recovery. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the peripheral blood increased continuously during recovery (pTaekwondo competitions. Further large-scaled Taekwondo studies on immunologic and apoptotic changes related to oxidative stress should be performed for improving and protecting the health of adolescent athletes. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Biochemical Effects of Carbohydrate Supplementation in a Simulated Competition of Short Terrestrial Duathlon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campbell Bill

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The purpose of the present study was to investigate the biochemical effects of carbohydrate supplementation in a simulated competition of short terrestrial duathlon. Ten duathletes participated in a simulated competition of short terrestrial duathlon 30 minutes after the ingestion of a 6% (30 g/500 ml maltodextrin solution (MALT or a placebo (PLA. This solution was also ingested every 15 minutes during the competition (12 g/200 ml; and immediately after the competition (18 g/300 ml. Samples of blood were collected at 3 time points: 1 at rest 1 hour before the beginning of the competition; 2 during the competition (approximately 1 hour and 45 minutes after the 1st collection; 3 immediately after the competition. Blood was analyzed for blood glucose, lactate, insulin and cortisol. Significant differences were observed in relation to blood glucose levels between MALT and PLA in the post-competition phase. There was also a significant difference in the lactate levels observed between MALT and PLA during the competition phase. Similarly, a significant difference in the cortisol concentrations during and after the competition phases (MALT and PLA were observed. We conclude that maltodextrin supplementation appears to be beneficial during short terrestrial duathlon competition as evidenced by biochemical markers.

  5. 苹果优良砧木资源--变叶海棠%MALUS TORINGOIDES (REHD.) HUGHES - A PROMISING STOCK FOR APPLE TREES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石胜友; 成明昊; 梁国鲁

    2004-01-01

    变叶海棠(Malus toringoides (Rehd.) Hughes)的形态特征、种质特性、分布的生态环境具有极其复杂的多样性,也是苹果属植物中具有多种高抗性的种类.作苹果砧木利用,嫁接亲和性好,嫁接树半矮化,进入结果期早,果实品质好,是极重要的苹果砧木资源.变叶海棠种群是变叶海棠与陇东海棠和花叶海棠3 个种的杂交复合体,由于杂种的全部或部分能育子代中发生的基因重组和增加基因的突变率,丰富了物种的基因库,从而深入的揭示了变叶海棠具有高抗性的遗传机理.变叶海棠是横断山脉地区特有种,是极珍贵的种质资源.因此,对变叶海棠及其近缘种(陇东海棠和花叶海棠)的保护,对于研究物种生物学理论以及资源利用都具有重要的科学意义和应用前景.

  6. Local competition sparks concerns for fairness in the ultimatum game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, Pat; Stoller, Benjamin

    2014-05-01

    Humans reject uneven divisions of resources, even at personal cost. This is observed in countless experiments using the ultimatum game, where a proposer offers to divide a resource with a responder who either accepts the division or rejects it (whereupon both earn zero). Researchers debate why humans evolved a psychology that is so averse to inequity within partnerships. We suggest that the scale of competition is crucial: under local competition with few competitors, individuals reject low offers, because they cannot afford to be disadvantaged relative to competitors. If one competes against the broader population (i.e. global competition), then it pays to accept low offers to increase one's absolute pay-off. We support this intuition with an illustrative game-theoretical model. We also conducted ultimatum games where participants received prizes based on pay-offs relative to immediate partners (local competition) versus a larger group (global competition). Participants demanded higher offers under local competition, suggesting that local competition increases people's demands for fairness and aversion to inequality.

  7. COMPETITION IN ROMANIAN BANKING SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Capraru Bogdan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent turmoil in the global financial system has impacted severely on the banking sector with many banks suffering large losses and necessitating the need to raise additional capital privately or through their respective national governments. In our study we investigate the impact of structural reforms performed throughout the European Union (EU accession process on competition and contestability of banking systems in Romania. The literature of the measurement of competition can be divided into two major approaches: structural and non-structural. The structural approach to the assessment of competition embraces the Structure-Conduct-Performance Hypothesis (SCP and the Efficient Structure Hypothesis (ESH. The structural approach, as the name suggests, assesses bank competition by examining measures of market structure such as concentration ratios (the share of assets held by the top 3 or 5 institutions or indices (e.g., the Herfindhal-Hirschman index and supposes that higher concentration in the banking market causes less competitive bank conduct and leads to higher bank profitability. The SCP model is originally developed by Bain (1956. The second approach, ESH, developed by Demsetz (1973 and Peltzmann (1977 suggests that the superior performance of the market leaders determines the market structure, implying that higher efficiency produces both higher concentration and greater profitability. The non-structural indicators of competition are mainly based on the measures of monopoly power developed by Lerner (1934. The Lerner Index suggests the mark-up of price over marginal cost. An alternative non-structural indicator of the degree of market competition is the Panzar and Rosse (1987 H-statistic. The H-statistic measures the extent to which changes in banking costs are reflected in changes in banking revenues. In order to examine the level of competition and market power of banks in Romania for period 2003 - 2009, we estimate the non

  8. Competitive advantages of Caedibacter-infected Paramecia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusch, Jürgen; Czubatinski, Lars; Wegmann, Silke; Hubner, Markus; Alter, Margret; Albrecht, Petra

    2002-03-01

    Intracellular bacteria of the genus Caedibacter limit the reproduction of their host, the freshwater ciliate Paramecium. Reproduction rates of infected strains of paramecia were significantly lower than those of genetically identical strains that had lost their parasites after treatment with an antibiotic. Interference competition occurs when infected paramecia release a toxic form of the parasitic bacterium that kills uninfected paramecia. In mixed cultures of infected and uninfected strains of either P tetraurelia or of P novaurelia, the infected strains outcompeted the uninfected strains. Infection of new host paramecia seems to be rare. Infection of new hosts was not observed in either mixtures of infected with uninfected strains, or after incubation of paramecia with isolated parasites. The competitive advantages of the host paramecia, in combination with their vegetative reproduction, makes infection of new hosts by the bacterial parasites unnecessary, and could be responsible for the continued existence of "killer paramecia" in nature. Caedibacter parasites are not a defensive adaptation. Feeding rates and reproduction of the predators Didinium nasutum (Ciliophora) and Amoeba proteus (Amoebozoa, Gymnamoebia) were not influenced by whether or not their paramecia prey were infected. Infection of the predators frequently occurred when they preyed on infected paramecia. Caedibacter-infected predators may influence competition between Paramecium strains by release of toxic parasites into the environment that are harmful to uninfected strains.

  9. COMPETITIVE INTELLIGENCE ANALYSIS - SCENARIOS METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Valeriu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Keeping a company in the top performing players in the relevant market depends not only on its ability to develop continually, sustainably and balanced, to the standards set by the customer and competition, but also on the ability to protect its strategic information and to know in advance the strategic information of the competition. In addition, given that economic markets, regardless of their profile, enable interconnection not only among domestic companies, but also between domestic companies and foreign companies, the issue of economic competition moves from the national economies to the field of interest of regional and international economic organizations. The stakes for each economic player is to keep ahead of the competition and to be always prepared to face market challenges. Therefore, it needs to know as early as possible, how to react to others’ strategy in terms of research, production and sales. If a competitor is planning to produce more and cheaper, then it must be prepared to counteract quickly this movement. Competitive intelligence helps to evaluate the capabilities of competitors in the market, legally and ethically, and to develop response strategies. One of the main goals of the competitive intelligence is to acknowledge the role of early warning and prevention of surprises that could have a major impact on the market share, reputation, turnover and profitability in the medium and long term of a company. This paper presents some aspects of competitive intelligence, mainly in terms of information analysis and intelligence generation. Presentation is theoretical and addresses a structured method of information analysis - scenarios method – in a version that combines several types of analysis in order to reveal some interconnecting aspects of the factors governing the activity of a company.

  10. Observe Your Shadow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovšek, Barbara

    2016-04-01

    Observe Your Shadow was the title of an observational experiment that was, among others, conducted in the scope of the past year's (2014-2015) first Slovene science competition for elementary school pupils between the ages of 6 and 13. The main reason for establishing a new science competition was popularization of science and its experimental methods, particularly among elementary school students. Elementary school teachers are not generally specialists in science, but rather have (and should have) extremely wide scopes of interests and competencies. By providing them with ideas and instructions for science experiments, we aim to enrich regular school lessons. In the first year alone, the competition took place in over half of Slovene elementary schools, with a total of 9000 participating students. In this paper we shall report about pupils' responses to tasks related to one of the experiments, namely, observation of their shadows on a sunny day.

  11. Using Sustainable Development as a Competitive Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spearman, Pat

    Sustainable development reduces construction waste by 43%, generating 50% cost savings. Residential construction executives lacking adequate knowledge regarding the benefits of sustainable development practices are at a competitive disadvantage. Drawing from the diffusion of innovation theory, the purpose of this qualitative case study was to explore knowledge acquisition within the bounds of sustainable residential construction. The purposive sample size of 11 executive decision makers fulfilled the sample size requirements and enabled the extraction of meaningful data. Participants were members of the National Home Builders Association and had experience of a minimum of 5 years in residential construction. The research question addressed how to improve knowledge acquisition relating to the cost benefits of building green homes and increase the adoption rate of sustainable development among residential builders. Data were collected via semistructured telephone interviews, field observation, and document analysis. Transcribed data were validated via respondent validation, coded into 5 initial categories aligned to the focus of the research, then reduced to 3 interlocking themes of environment, competitive advantage, and marketing. Recommendations include developing comprehensive public policies, horizontal and vertical communications networks, and green banks to capitalize sustainable development programs to improve the diffusion of green innovation as a competitive advantage strategy. Business leaders could benefit from this data by integrating sustainable development practices into their business processes. Sustainable development reduces operational costs, increases competitive advantage for builders, and reduces greenhouse gas emissions. Implications for social change increase energy independence through conservation and developing a legislative policy template for comprehensive energy strategies. A comprehensive energy strategy promotes economic development

  12. GLOBAL COMPETITION AND ROMANIA’S NATIONAL COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pop Nicolae Alexandru

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Analyzing products and services around us it is clear that most of them are the result of production factors, labor and capital becoming more international and increasingly less and less national. We are witnessing the globalization of markets and production, to a large global integration and interdependence, increase personalization of production and services as a result of new communication systems interaction and flexible production processes. Markets will continue to homogenize and diversify at the same time, so it is important that as a global marketer one addresses a market segment defined by income, age, and consumption habits and not by membership of a nation. The most visible and polarized is the premium segment fighting for high income clients where brand value plays an important role. Instead identification of large segments of customers offers the advantages of scale economy in production and marketing for global enterprises. Consumer profile is the dominant global consumer requesting and accepting global products and services easily. In fact, what can force an economic alignment to achieve the best performance, rather than the global consumer. The research methodology used includes literature review, comparative analysis, synthesis of data based on bibliographic resources and official documents.The aim of the paper is to highlight current models that underlie the competitive advantage of nations and assess the competitive advantage of Romania in the context of the global market. A case study is used to offer an overview of competitive advantage of Antibiotice Iasi SA, a competitive player, in a global pharmaceutical market with strong global competition. Countries moderate companies’ achievements of global efficiency objectives due to the countries’ rivalry. Romania has to understand that it is in competition with other countries in order to fulfill economic, political and social objectives. The scope in the end is the well

  13. The selective peptide reactivity of chemical respiratory allergens under competitive and non-competitive conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalko, Jon F; Kimber, Ian; Dearman, Rebecca J; Api, Anne Marie; Gerberick, G Frank

    2013-01-01

    It is well established that certain chemicals cause respiratory allergy. In common with contact allergens, chemicals that induce sensitization of the respiratory tract must form stable associations with host proteins to elicit an immune response. Measurement of the reactivity of chemical allergens to single nucleophilic peptides is increasingly well-described, and standardized assays have been developed for use in hazard assessment. This study employed standard and modified peptide reactivity assays to investigate the selectivity of chemical respiratory allergens for individual amino acids under competitive and non-competitive conditions. The reactivity of 20 known chemical respiratory sensitizers (including diisocyanates, anhydrides, and reactive dyes) were evaluated for reactivity towards individual peptides containing cysteine, lysine, histidine, arginine, or tyrosine. Respiratory allergens exhibited the common ability to deplete both lysine and cysteine peptides; however, reactivity for histidine, arginine, and tyrosine varied between chemicals, indicating differences in relative binding affinity toward each nucleophile. To evaluate amino acid selectivity for cysteine and lysine under competitive conditions a modified assay was used in which reaction mixtures contained different relative concentrations of the target peptides. Under these reaction conditions, the binding preferences of reference respiratory and contact allergens (dinitrochlorobenzene, dinitrofluorobenzene) were evaluated. Discrete patterns of reactivity were observed showing various levels of competitive selectivity between the two allergen classes.

  14. Male competition fitness landscapes predict both forward and reverse speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keagy, Jason; Lettieri, Liliana; Boughman, Janette W

    2016-01-01

    Speciation is facilitated when selection generates a rugged fitness landscape such that populations occupy different peaks separated by valleys. Competition for food resources is a strong ecological force that can generate such divergent selection. However, it is unclear whether intrasexual competition over resources that provide mating opportunities can generate rugged fitness landscapes that foster speciation. Here we use highly variable male F2 hybrids of benthic and limnetic threespine sticklebacks, Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus, 1758, to quantify the male competition fitness landscape. We find that disruptive sexual selection generates two fitness peaks corresponding closely to the male phenotypes of the two parental species, favouring divergence. Most surprisingly, an additional region of high fitness favours novel hybrid phenotypes that correspond to those observed in a recent case of reverse speciation after anthropogenic disturbance. Our results reveal that sexual selection through male competition plays an integral role in both forward and reverse speciation.

  15. Out-of-equilibrium competitive dynamics of quasispecies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, J.; Manrubia, S. C.

    2007-02-01

    The composition of a quasispecies is completely characterized, in the large population and long time limit, by the matrix yielding the transition probabilities between different types in the population. Further, its asymptotic growth rate —i.e. the largest eigenvalue of the transition matrix— completely determines the winning population in an equilibrium competition. However, due to the intrinsically heterogeneous nature of quasispecies, out-of-equilibrium fluctuations in population size might change the expected fate of competition experiments. Using a simple model for a heterogeneous population we quantify the probability that, after a population bottleneck, the a priori weaker competitor wins in a competition with a population characterized by a larger asymptotic growth rate. We analyse the role played by different degrees of neutrality in the outcome of the process, and demonstrate that lower neutrality favours the weaker competitor in out-of-equilibrium situations. Our results might shed light on empirical observations in competition experiments with RNA viruses.

  16. RECENT ADVANCES IN TERRITORIAL COMPETITION AND COMPETITIVENESS ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela-Luminita Constantin

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the question of territorial competitiveness – at national and regional level – from the perspective of the most important research undertaken in the international arena in order to build-up competitiveness indicators able to reveal the complexity and dynamics of this phenomenon in the contemporary society. A special emphasis is put on studies developed by prestigious organisations and research centres such as World Economic Forum, International Institute for Management Development, Cambridge Econometrics, ECORYS-NEI and so on.

  17. A price adjustment process in a model of monopolistic competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Tuinstra

    2004-01-01

    We consider a price adjustment process in a model of monopolistic competition. Firms have incomplete information about the demand structure. When they set a price they observe the amount they can sell at that price and they observe the slope of the true demand curve at that price. With this informat

  18. Political Globalization and the Competition State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ove K.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction to the concept of Competition State and descriptition of slow change from traditional welfare state towards the present competition state.......Introduction to the concept of Competition State and descriptition of slow change from traditional welfare state towards the present competition state....

  19. 40 CFR 35.382 - Competitive process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Competitive process. 35.382 Section 35...)(3)) § 35.382 Competitive process. State Wetlands Development Grants are awarded on a competitive... established by EPA. After the competitive process is complete, the recipient can, at its discretion,...

  20. 40 CFR 35.603 - Competitive process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Competitive process. 35.603 Section 35... (section 104(b)(3)) § 35.603 Competitive process. EPA will award water quality cooperative agreement funds through a competitive process in accordance with national program guidance. After the competitive...

  1. 24 CFR 791.406 - Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Competition. 791.406 Section 791... Authority for Housing Assistance § 791.406 Competition. (a) All budget authority allocated pursuant to § 791.403(b)(2) shall be reserved and obligated pursuant to a competition. Any such competition shall...

  2. Political Globalization and the Competition State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ove K.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction to the concept of Competition State and descriptition of slow change from traditional welfare state towards the present competition state.......Introduction to the concept of Competition State and descriptition of slow change from traditional welfare state towards the present competition state....

  3. The Scientific Competitiveness of Nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimini, Giulio; Gabrielli, Andrea; Sylos Labini, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    We use citation data of scientific articles produced by individual nations in different scientific domains to determine the structure and efficiency of national research systems. We characterize the scientific fitness of each nation-that is, the competitiveness of its research system-and the complexity of each scientific domain by means of a non-linear iterative algorithm able to assess quantitatively the advantage of scientific diversification. We find that technological leading nations, beyond having the largest production of scientific papers and the largest number of citations, do not specialize in a few scientific domains. Rather, they diversify as much as possible their research system. On the other side, less developed nations are competitive only in scientific domains where also many other nations are present. Diversification thus represents the key element that correlates with scientific and technological competitiveness. A remarkable implication of this structure of the scientific competition is that the scientific domains playing the role of "markers" of national scientific competitiveness are those not necessarily of high technological requirements, but rather addressing the most "sophisticated" needs of the society.

  4. Interaction Enhanced Imperialist Competitive Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Shiou Li

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Imperialist Competitive Algorithm (ICA is a new population-based evolutionary algorithm. It divides its population of solutions into several sub-populations, and then searches for the optimal solution through two operations: assimilation and competition. The assimilation operation moves each non-best solution (called colony in a sub-population toward the best solution (called imperialist in the same sub-population. The competition operation removes a colony from the weakest sub-population and adds it to another sub-population. Previous work on ICA focuses mostly on improving the assimilation operation or replacing the assimilation operation with more powerful meta-heuristics, but none focuses on the improvement of the competition operation. Since the competition operation simply moves a colony (i.e., an inferior solution from one sub-population to another sub-population, it incurs weak interaction among these sub-populations. This work proposes Interaction Enhanced ICA that strengthens the interaction among the imperialists of all sub-populations. The performance of Interaction Enhanced ICA is validated on a set of benchmark functions for global optimization. The results indicate that the performance of Interaction Enhanced ICA is superior to that of ICA and its existing variants.

  5. TAX HARMONIZATION VERSUS FISCAL COMPETITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Alexandru MACSIM

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have brought into discussion once again subjects like tax harmonization and fiscal competition. Every time the European Union tends to take a step forward critics enter the scene and give contrary arguments to European integration. Through this article we have offered our readers a compelling view over the “battle” between tax harmonization and fiscal competition. While tax harmonization has key advantages as less costs regarding public revenues, leads to higher degree of integration and allows the usage of fiscal transfers between regions, fiscal competition is no less and presents key advantages as high reductions in tax rates and opens a large path for new investments, especially FDI. Choosing tax harmonization or fiscal competition depends on a multitude of variables, of circumstances, the decision of choosing one path or the other being ultimately influenced by the view of central and local authorities. Our analysis indicates that if we refer to a group of countries that are a part of a monetary union or that form a federation, tax harmonization seems to be the best path to choose. Moving the analysis to a group of regions that aren’t taking any kind of correlated actions or that have not signed any major treaties regarding monetary or fiscal policies, the optimal solution is fiscal competition.

  6. MICROECONOMIC ANALYSIS IN COMPETITION POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Prisecaru

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents some of the most important microeconomic tools used in assessing antitrust and merger cases by the competition authorities. By explaining the way that microeconomic concepts like “market power”, “critical loss” or “price elasticity of demand” are used by the modern competition policy, the microeconomics scholar can get a practical perspective on the way that these concepts fit into the more general concept of “competition policy”. Extensive economic research has shown what are the market forces and economic factors that determine how cartels, which are at the core of antitrust policy, are established and sustained over time. One of the most important of these factors is the markets exposure to innovation, especially disruptive innovation. In these markets, the paradox, from a competition policy perspective, can be considered the fact that collusion is one of the least important concerns, due to the specific elements that determine the nature of competition.Instead, the main anticompetitive risk in the markets exposed to intensive innovation is unilateral conduct by which dominant incumbents can exclude competitors.

  7. A KINEMATIC COMPARISON OF THE JUDO THROW HARAI-GOSHI DURING COMPETITIVE AND NON-COMPETITIVE CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney T. Imamura

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the kinematics of kuzushi/tsukuri (KT phases of the harai-goshi throw under competitive and non-competitive conditions. A third degree black belt subject served as the tori (thrower for both conditions. Two black belt participants ranked as first degree and fourth degree served as the uke (faller for the competitive and non-competitive conditions, respectively. Two video cameras (JVC 60 Hz and a three dimensional motion analysis system (Vicon-Peak Performance Technologies, Inc., Englewood, CO were used to collect and analyze peak velocity for the center of mass (COM of uke and tori and peak angular velocity of tori's trunk (TAV. Data were smoothed using a 4th order zero lag Butterworth filter with a cut-off frequency set by the Peak software optimization technique. All variables were normalized by time as a percentage of the KT phase. In general, the COM directional velocity patterns were similar between conditions. Uke's defensive efforts during the competitive condition created differences in timing and magnitude of peak COM and TAV velocities. During competition, tori created larger peak COM velocities onto uke which indicated greater throwing power. Peak velocities for tori's COM were larger during the non-competitive condition since uke's resistance was minimal. Findings of the competitive condition suggested that mediolateral COM movement towards tori's pulling (left hand can be an ideal set-up movement prior to execution. Tori's TAV was also greater during the competitive condition. Two distinct TAVs were observed, a counterclockwise TAV created by tori turning their hips during the entrance of the throw and a clockwise TAV created by the shoulders turning to complete the 180 degree body turn with the simultaneous leg sweep. It is thought that the counterclockwise rotation aids in producing a pre-stretch of trunk muscles which helps to create greater trunk rotation power

  8. Monopolistic Competition, International Trade and Firm Heterogeneity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller; Hansen, Jørgen Drud; Kvedaras, Virmantas

    This paper presents a dynamic international trade model based on monopolistic competition, where observed intra-industry differences at a given point in time reflect different stages of the firm's life cycle. New product varieties of still higher quality enter the market every period rendering old...... varieties obsolescent in a process of creative destruction. For given technology (variety) production costs decrease after an infant period due to learning. It is shown that several patterns of exports may arise depending primarily on the size of fixed trade costs. At a given point in time firms therefore...

  9. Collaboration and Competition in Exoplanet Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beichman, Charles

    2009-01-01

    Collaboration and competition are strong driving forces in the modern search for exoplanets, appears between individuals, agencies and nations as well as between observing techniques and theoretical interpretation. I will argue that these forces, taken in balance, are beneficial to the field and are partly responsible for the rapid progress in the search for planets and ultimately the search for life beyond the solar system. Specific examples will include indirect detection of Earth analogs from ground and space and the direct detection of gas giant and terrestrial planets.

  10. Monopolistic Competition, International Trade and Firm Heterogeneity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller; Hansen, Jørgen Drud; Kvedaras, Virmantas

    This paper presents a dynamic international trade model based on monopolistic competition, where observed intra-industry differences at a given point in time reflect different stages of the firm's life cycle. New product varieties of still higher quality enter the market every period rendering old...... varieties obsolescent in a process of creative destruction. For given technology (variety) production costs decrease after an infant period due to learning. It is shown that several patterns of exports may arise depending primarily on the size of fixed trade costs. At a given point in time firms therefore...

  11. NEW APPROACHES TO EXPORT COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Petronela NEGREA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The economic literature and the political discourse typically look at international competitiveness mainly by the means of export market shares. However, globalisation, production fragmentation and the growing importance of global value chains (GVCs increasingly challenge traditional approaches of export competitiveness and call for a more accurate and disaggregated level of analysis. Due to the growing fragmentation of production, a country exports now include a significant amount of imports of intermediate goods which are part of the export value. In this case, a simple analysis of the evolution of exports can distort the international competitive position of a country. The article suggests a new approach based on the value-added content of international trade measured by means of global value chain analysis.

  12. Corporate reputation and competitive advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitić Sanja

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available As the international environment changes, a closer inspection of the competitiveness drivers that change along with it becomes necessary. The rules are changing - competition is getting tougher, stakeholders are multiplying and the role of companies as members of the society grows. Undoubtedly, intangible resources are the key factors of success on the market in the 21st century. A company that can create and improve intangible resources is one that will have a good business performance. This paper aims to describe the role of corporate reputation, as a valuable intangible resource, in gaining competitive advantage. The social relations and interpersonal relationships form the base of corporate reputation. The reputation encompasses all relevant aspects of corporate activity in communication with all stakeholders, both internal and external.

  13. Global Energy Forecasting Competition 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hong, Tao; Pinson, Pierre; Fan, Shu

    2014-01-01

    The Global Energy Forecasting Competition (GEFCom2012) attracted hundreds of participants worldwide, who contributed many novel ideas to the energy forecasting field. This paper introduces both tracks of GEFCom2012, hierarchical load forecasting and wind power forecasting, with details on the asp......The Global Energy Forecasting Competition (GEFCom2012) attracted hundreds of participants worldwide, who contributed many novel ideas to the energy forecasting field. This paper introduces both tracks of GEFCom2012, hierarchical load forecasting and wind power forecasting, with details...... on the aspects of the problem, the data, and a summary of the methods used by selected top entries. We also discuss the lessons learned from this competition from the organizers’ perspective. The complete data set, including the solution data, is published along with this paper, in an effort to establish...

  14. NEW APPROACHES TO EXPORT COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Petronela NEGREA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The economic literature and the political discourse typically look at international competitiveness mainly by the means of export market shares. However, globalisation, production fragmentation and the growing importance of global value chains (GVCs increasingly challenge traditional approaches of export competitiveness and call for a more accurate and disaggregated level of analysis. Due to the growing fragmentation of production, a country exports now include a significant amount of imports of intermediate goods which are part of the export value. In this case, a simple analysis of the evolution of exports can distort the international competitive position of a country. The article suggests a new approach based on the value-added content of international trade measured by means of global value chain analysis.

  15. Game on: creating competitive advantages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riskind, Patricia; Foreman, M Shane

    2004-01-01

    Whether you are opening a new imaging center or trying to keep an existing center competitive, there are 3 critical factors: customer service, marketing, and a "what's next?" attitude. Customer service: Outstanding customer service is what sticks in the minds of referring physicians and patients. Not only does providing better service differentiate you from the competition, but it also boosts employee morale and motivates people to acquire new skills. Marketing: From the front office staff to the radiologists,promoting the center should be part of every employee's job description. Simply paying lip service to the concept of marketing will not cut it. A "what's next?" attitude: Complacency is a luxury that does not exist in today's competitive health care arena. Three facilities provide examples of how these factors applied to their success.

  16. Finite land resources and competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haberl, Helmut; Mbow, Cheikh; Deng, Xiangzheng;

    2014-01-01

    : production versus production (e.g., food vs. fuel), production versus conservation (e.g., food production vs. conservation), and built-up environment versus production or conservation (e.g., food vs. urban). Sustainability impacts that result from land-use competition are analyzed and found to differ...... strongly between the different types of land-use competition. They are associated with important trade-offs and high uncertainty. Institutional aspects related to land-use competition are discussed using a conceptual model that distinguishes types of institutions (government, private, community) as well...... and energy systems, “ land architecture” (i.e., the significance of spatial confi gurations), and multiscale models to assess local-global connections and impacts....

  17. Intrasexual competition among males : Competitive towards men, prosocial towards women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buunk, Abraham P.; Massar, Karlijn

    In a study among 40 males and 56 females, participants engaged in a series of decomposed social games in which they had to divide resources between themselves and either a same-sex or an opposite sex other. As predicted on the basis of theorizing on sexual selection, males behaved more competitively

  18. Can NCLB Survive the Competitiveness Competition? Education Outlook. Number 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Frederick M.; Rotherham, Andrew J.

    2007-01-01

    Some see the George W. Bush administration's American Competitiveness Initiative (ACI) as the perfect complement to the No Child Left Behind Act's (NCLB) equity focus. The authors believe, however, that the prospects for synergy of these two agendas are not bright. In this essay, the authors discuss the history behind NCLB and the ACI, and argue…

  19. Intrasexual competition among males : Competitive towards men, prosocial towards women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buunk, Abraham P.; Massar, Karlijn

    2012-01-01

    In a study among 40 males and 56 females, participants engaged in a series of decomposed social games in which they had to divide resources between themselves and either a same-sex or an opposite sex other. As predicted on the basis of theorizing on sexual selection, males behaved more competitively

  20. BlueCoat任命对安全市场富有远见的Hugh Thompson博士担任高级副总裁兼首席安全战略官

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    网络安全和广域网优化解决方案的市场与技术领导厂商BlueCoat系统公司今天宣布任命Hugh Thompson博士担任高级副总裁兼首席安全战略官。Thompson博士是安全行业的泰斗级人物.曾联合撰写了三本著作,并出版超过80期学术及行业刊物.均与信息安全相关。在新的职位上,

  1. Competition in a Noncompetitive Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-05-01

    different markets with di#erenit pctentad] levelb o# competition. Our behavior muSt certair:ly dl -pend upur. the type of marlet, we muit procure weapons...deal has been written about split buy techniques and problems. See Beltramo (1983), Boger and Liao (1985/87), Meeker (1984), Pelzer (1979), Sellers...Competition in the Procurement of Weapon Systems", JounAnaiQl!_8#1!1, Vol 4, Na 2 (Fall). Boger , D.C. and S.S. Liao (1985), "An Analysis oi Quantity

  2. Credit rating dynamics and competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirth, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    I analyze the market for credit ratings with competition between more than two rating agencies. How can honest rating behavior be achieved, and under which conditions can a new honest rating agency successfully invade a market with inflating incumbents? My model predicts cyclic dynamics if sophis......I analyze the market for credit ratings with competition between more than two rating agencies. How can honest rating behavior be achieved, and under which conditions can a new honest rating agency successfully invade a market with inflating incumbents? My model predicts cyclic dynamics...

  3. Magnitude Sensitive Competitive Neural Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Pelayo Campillos, Enrique; Buldain Pérez, David; Orrite Uruñuela, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    En esta Tesis se presentan un conjunto de redes neuronales llamadas Magnitude Sensitive Competitive Neural Networks (MSCNNs). Se trata de un conjunto de algoritmos de Competitive Learning que incluyen un término de magnitud como un factor de modulación de la distancia usada en la competición. Al igual que otros métodos competitivos, MSCNNs realizan la cuantización vectorial de los datos, pero el término de magnitud guía el entrenamiento de los centroides de modo que se representan con alto de...

  4. On A New Competitive Measure For Oblivious Routing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Németh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oblivious routing algorithms use only locally avail¬able information at network nodes to forward traffic, and as such, a plausible choice for distributed implementations. It is a natural desire to quantify the performance penalty we pay for this distributedness. Recently, Räcke has shown that for general undirected graphs the competitive ratio is only O(log n, that is, the maximum congestion caused by the oblivious algorithm is within a logarithmic factor of the best possible congestion. And while the performance penalty is larger for directed networks (Azar gives a O(vn lower bound, experiments on many real-world topologies show that it usually remains under 2. These competitive measures, however, are of worst-case type, and therefore do not always give adequate characterization. The more different combinations of demands a routing algorithm can accommodate in the network without congestion, the better. Driven by this observation, in this paper we introduce a new competitive measure, the volumetric competitive ratio, as the measure of all admissible demands compared to the measure of demands routed without congestion. The main result of the paper is a general lower bound on the volumetric ratio; and we also show a directed graph with O(1 competitive ratio that exhibits O(n volumetric ratio. Our numerical evaluations show that the competitivity of oblivious routing in terms of the new measure quickly vanishes even in relatively small common-place topologies.

  5. Competitive Liner Shipping Network Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsten, Christian Vad

    The goal of this thesis is to develop decision support tools, which can be used to optimize container shipping networks while supporting competitive transportation services. The competitiveness of container liner shipping is to a high degree determined by transportation times and number of transs......The goal of this thesis is to develop decision support tools, which can be used to optimize container shipping networks while supporting competitive transportation services. The competitiveness of container liner shipping is to a high degree determined by transportation times and number...... shipping company earnings.The operation of the route net constitute the majority of the total costs, so it is essential to achieve a good capacity utilization in a route plan with travel times that satisfy customer requirements. Most academic articles dealing with the design of container networks neither.......The contributions of this thesis cover modeling, methodology, and applications.The developed methods address operational (cargo routing), tactical (speed optimization and service selection), and strategic (network design) planning problems faced by liner shipping companies. Ultimately, the proposed methods help...

  6. Competition in a Social Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legara, Erika Fille; Longjas, Anthony; Batac, Rene

    Complex adaptive agents develop strategies in the presence of competition. In modern human societies, there is an inherent sense of locality when describing inter-agent dynamics because of its network structure. One then wonders whether the traditional advertising schemes that are globally publicized and target random individuals are as effective in attracting a larger portion of the population as those that take advantage of local neighborhoods, such as "word-of-mouth" marketing schemes. Here, we demonstrate using a differential equation model that schemes targeting local cliques within the network are more successful at gaining a larger share of the population than those that target users randomly at a global scale (e.g., television commercials, print ads, etc.). This suggests that success in the competition is dependent not only on the number of individuals in the population but also on how they are connected in the network. We further show that the model is general in nature by considering examples of competition dynamics, particularly those of business competition and language death.

  7. The rd LAK data competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drachsler, Hendrik; Dietze, Stefan; Herder, Eelco; d'Aquin, Mathieu; Taibi, Davide; Scheffel, Maren

    2017-01-01

    The LAK Data Challenge 2015 continues the research efforts of the previous data competitions in 2013 and 2014 by stimulating research on the evolving fields Learning Analytics (LA) and Educational Data Mining (EDM). Building on a series of activities of the LinkedUp project, the challenge aims to ge

  8. The Fetish of Global Competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Eva

    2014-01-01

    A number of scholars have criticised the methodological nationalism of the mainstream study of capitalist diversity for ignoring a global convergence trend triggered by global competition. This contribution agrees with this criticism but insists on the need to take the diversities into account...

  9. Review of submissions: competition impacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Burghouwt; W. de Wit

    2015-01-01

    The Airports Commission requested ITF/SEO to provide technical assistance with analysing responses that pertain to the previous work undertaken by the ITF/SEO. This report assesses the submissions by the stakeholders in relation to competition impacts and compares them with the ITF/SEO results and t

  10. Robotics Competitions and Science Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benke, Gertraud

    2012-01-01

    This paper looks at the distinctions between science classrooms and the robotics competition described in the article "Examining the mediation of power in a collaborative community: engaging in informal science as authentic practice" written by Anton Puvirajah, Geeta Verma and Horace Webb. Using the framework of "productive disciplinary…

  11. Media Competition and Electoral Politics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piolatto, A.; Schuett, F.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: We build a framework linking competition in the media market to political participation, media slant, and selection of politicians. Media outlets report on the ability of candidates running for office and compete for audience through their choice of slant. Citizens derive utility from foll

  12. Competition and Mergers among Nonprofits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prüfer, J.

    2007-01-01

    Should mergers among nonprofit organizations be regulated differently than mergers among for-profit firms? The relevant empirical literature is highly controversial, the theoretical literature is scarce. We analyze the question by modeling duopoly competition with quality-differentiated goods. We co

  13. Competition and Mergers among Nonprofits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prüfer, J.

    2007-01-01

    Should mergers among nonprofit organizations be regulated differently than mergers among for-profit firms? The relevant empirical literature is highly controversial, the theoretical literature is scarce. I analyze the question by modeling duopoly competition with quality-differentiated goods. I comp

  14. Multipolarity, multilateralism, and strategic competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hooft, P.

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the clash between political and economic transnationalisation, multipolarity, and the return of traditional inter-state competition. In response, the coming global order will be the result of the interplay between both structural and domestic factors, namely the realignment of

  15. Competitive strategies in the NHS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coad, H; Kennedy, B

    1992-04-01

    The NHS has, of necessity since implementation of the NHS and Community Care Act 1990, strengthened its skills in business, marketing and other functions borrowed from industry and commerce. One area where, however, the NHS is currently weak is in competitive intelligence. Hazel Coad and Barbara Kennedy explain what this strategically important function is and how it can help financial viability.

  16. Competition for cores in remanufacturing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulmus, Serra Caner; Zhu, Stuart X.; Teunter, Ruud

    2014-01-01

    We study competition between an original equipment manufacturer (OEM) and an independently operating remanufacturer (IO). Different from the existing literature, the OEM and IO compete not only for selling their products but also for collecting returned products (cores) through their acquisition pri

  17. An Amusement Park Physics Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moll, Rachel F.

    2010-01-01

    Amusement park physics is a popular way to reinforce physics concepts and to motivate physics learners. This article describes a novel physics competition where students use simple tools to take amusement park ride measurements and use the data to answer challenging exam questions. Research into the impact of participating in the competition…

  18. Economic Competitiveness: A Campaign Primer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Karin

    2008-01-01

    With the dollar's continued swoon and grim news on the job front, American economic competitiveness has become a central theme in the presidential election. Stumping in Ohio and Pennsylvania, old-line industrial states hit hard by the flight of manufacturing jobs, Democrats Hillary Rodham Clinton and Barack Obama have called for renegotiating the…

  19. Raising Economic Competitiveness with Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberman, Harry F.

    The current school reform movement has been plagued by three false assumptions. The first of these postulates that more academic requirements will strengthen the minds of students, improve their reasoning, prepare them for a rapidly changing economy, and make the U.S. economy more competitive. Although it is true that the workers of the future…

  20. Market competition and efficient cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandts, J.; Riedl, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    We use laboratory experiments to study the causal effects of favorable and unfavorable competitive market experience on cooperation in a subsequent social dilemma game. The issues we study are part of the broader topic of whether there are behavioral spillovers between different spheres of social

  1. Japanese Competitiveness and Japanese Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minabe, Shigeo

    1986-01-01

    Analyzes and compares Japanese and American industrial policy and labor practices. Proposes that certain aspects of the Japanese system be adapted by American businesses for purpose of increasing international competitiveness. Proposes specific actions and plans for both the Japanese and American systems. (ML)

  2. Urban Competition and Urban Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Anni

    The essay gives a brief summery of Michel Foucault's 1978-1979 lectures which offers an important point of reference for a deeper understanding of the shift from liberal to neo-liberal ideas. Here he points out that neo-liberalism is an art of governemt that seeks to enforce competition. But his...

  3. Competition in spatial location models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Webers, H.M.

    1996-01-01

    Models of spatial competition are designed and analyzed to describe the fact that space, by its very nature, is a source of market power. This field of research, lying at the interface of game theory and economics, has attracted much interest because location problems are related to many aspects of

  4. Cooperation and competition between relatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    West, S.A.; Pen, I.R.; Griffin, A.S.

    2002-01-01

    Individuals are predicted to. behave more altruistically and less competitively toward their relatives, because they share a relatively high proportion of their genes (e.g., one-half for siblings and one-eighth for cousins). Consequently, by helping a relative reproduce, an individual passes its gen

  5. Competition in spatial location models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Webers, H.M.

    1996-01-01

    Models of spatial competition are designed and analyzed to describe the fact that space, by its very nature, is a source of market power. This field of research, lying at the interface of game theory and economics, has attracted much interest because location problems are related to many aspects of

  6. EU environmental policy and competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Boban

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Protection of the environment was not a specific importance to the Community although the Treaty of Rome expressly specified that "health, safety environmental protection" shall be based on "a high level of protection". In deciding upon a framework for a European environmental policy, the Community was also responding to increased public awareness of the problem and concerns about the state of the natural and man-made environment. During the past years, competitiveness concerns have dominated the EU policy debate, in the course of which a growing consensus is being developed on the importance of eco-innovations and resource efficiency for EU competitiveness and on the market opportunities they offer. There is an increasing evidence that environmental policy and eco-innovations can promote economic growth, as well as maintain and create jobs, contributing both to competitiveness and employment. Environmental constraints to rapid economic growth are increasingly recognized by countries, leading to a rising awareness of the need for sustainable development. Implementation of an environmental policy however, generates significant implications for competition among countries.

  7. Does market competition explain fairness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descioli, Peter

    2013-02-01

    The target article by Baumard et al. uses their previous model of bargaining with outside options to explain fairness and other features of human sociality. This theory implies that fairness judgments are determined by supply and demand but humans often perceive prices (divisions of surplus) in competitive markets to be unfair.

  8. Factors Affecting Traditional Markets Competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hotnier Sipahutar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, traditional market is increasingly squeezed by the emergence of modern market that develops rapidly. The dominance shift in national retail is apparent when globalization can no longer be contained, let alone be banned. Middle class and small class (traditional market business retail seem to be in increasingly difficult condition to compete with upscale retail business (modern market. The purpose of this study is to analyze the factors influencing the competitiveness of traditional market and to develop policies to improve the competitiveness of traditional market. This study utilizes research strategy of case study in Bandung City, Serang City, and Surabaya City with qualitative descriptive approach. The study shows that the factors inhibiting the competitiveness of traditional market with modern stores are (1 Traditional market’s bad image, and (2 Traditional market’s sellers and managers are unprofessional. To improve the competitiveness of traditional market, this study recommends: (1 routine and regular maintenance of buildings and infrastructure of traditional market, (2 professionalism improvement of traditional market’s sellers and managers, and (3 the partiality of local government in traditional markets.

  9. Regional Competition in Maghreb Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    EL AMOURI ALLAL

    2016-01-01

    Great powers focus on cooperation instead of competition in their regions in order to maintain stability and develop the economy of their regions and the world in general. The United States for example created the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFT

  10. THE COMPETITIVENESS OF TEXTILE INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRUNEA ANA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The role of this paper is to highlight the position of the European players in the textile market and the challenges to which they are subjected. In this paper are presented ways, taking the „diamond" model of M. Porter and are adapted to the situation of the textile market. These adaptations have outlined the main existing problems and the possible solutions that can ensure the long-term competitive advantage. Gaining a competitive advantage based on innovation, the development of production and outsourcing strategies using the "diamond" model of M. Porter, we can say that is one of the viable solutions for gaining competitive advantages necessary for proper European companies to face competition from countries outside Europe. As developing countries do not meet certain environmental standards or norms of European law, but in terms of product innovation and development of new materials, they do not have the necessity for technology. We conducted an analysis of the factors that play a key role in the production of textiles, representing how they are used in the favor of European companies such investments to be supplemented can be found in how these factors act on the total costs.

  11. Management of competitiveness enterprise in modern terms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serhii Spivak

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses methodological approaches to assess the competitiveness of industrial enterprises on the basis of indicators to measure the production, finance, marketing potential, determination of the complex index of competitiveness. The problems of furniture manufacturing enterprises. The basic shortcomings of the industry in today's environment. The analysis of the competitiveness of furniture products on the market. Factors that influence the level of production and the mechanism of improving the competitiveness of enterprise management systems, including the implementation of the following steps: a the adoption of a fundamental decision by management on the feasibility competitiveness management; b formation of working groups; c analysis of the competitiveness of the furniture company, which is determined based on the competitiveness of certain furniture company; d management functional competitive furniture company; е evaluating the effectiveness of multi-use and implement actions organizational and economic mechanism of competitive.

  12. THE EFFECT OF COEXISTENCE ON COMPETITIVE OUTCOME IN TRIBOLIUM CASTANEUM AND TRIBOLIUM CONFUSUM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodnight, Charles J; Craig, David M

    1996-06-01

    We describe an experiment exploring the effects of coexistence and population differentiation on the competitive outcome of two species of Tribolium flour beetles, T. castaneum and T. confusum. The only manipulation was whether the populations used in the competitive phase of the study were raised initially in mixed-species communities, single-species populations, or in the standard culture conditions used to maintain stocks in the laboratory. Any treatment effects observed were due to natural selection acting within populations and genetic drift. In the competitive phase, we examined 10 mixed-species communities and 10 pairs of single-species populations. We replicated each community 15 times to provide an assessment of the distribution of competitive outcome. Statistical analysis demonstrates the lineages within the treatments became highly differentiated for all measures of competitive outcome: the outcome of competition (which species won), time to extinction of one of the competing species, and census history. The fraction of the variance that is among lineages has been referred to as the group or community heritability. All of these measures of competitive outcome had high community level heritabilities indicating that competitive ability would evolve rapidly as a result of group or community level selection. In contrast, competitive outcome was not affected by whether the two species had coexisted prior to the competitive phase. This indicates that the outcome of competition was not systematically changed by processes acting within the two species communities. © 1996 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  13. Non-additive effects of intra- and interspecific competition between two larval salamanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Thomas L; Whiteman, Howard H

    2015-05-01

    Assessment of the relative strengths of intra- and interspecific competition has increased in recent years and is critical to understanding the importance of competition. Yet, whether intra- and interspecific competition can have non-additive effects has rarely been tested. The resulting fitness consequences of such non-additive interactions are important to provide the context necessary to advance our understanding of competition theory. We compared the strength of additive and non-additive intra- and interspecific competition by manipulating densities of a pair of larval salamanders (Ambystoma talpoideum and A. maculatum) in experimental mesocosms within a response surface design. Intraspecific density had the strongest effect on the strength of competition for both species, and few observed comparisons indicated interspecific competition was an important factor in predicting body size, growth or larval period length of either species. Non-additive effects of intra- and interspecific competition influenced some response variables, including size and mass at metamorphosis in A. maculatum, but at a reduced strength compared to intraspecific effects alone. Intraspecific competition was thus the dominant biotic interaction, but non-additive effects also impact the outcome of competition in these species, validating the importance of testing for and incorporating non-additive density effects into competition models.

  14. Designing competitions for education in robotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nils Axel; Ravn, Ole

    2012-01-01

    The paper describes design considerations for making a robot competition. Topics as level of participants, learning objective, evaluation form, task design and competition rules are treated. It is shown that careful design considering these topics are necessary for a succesful outcome of a compet......The paper describes design considerations for making a robot competition. Topics as level of participants, learning objective, evaluation form, task design and competition rules are treated. It is shown that careful design considering these topics are necessary for a succesful outcome...... of a competition. The conclusions are based on examples from more than 15 years of experience with robotic competitions....

  15. Human Sperm Competition: A Comparative Evolutionary Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael N. Pham

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Sperm competition occurs when a female copulates with two or more males within a sufficiently brief time period, resulting in sperm of the different males competing to fertilize ova. Sperm competition has been documented or inferred to occur across several species. We address the evidence for sperm competition in humans by reviewing literature indicating apparently convergent adaptations to sperm competition in humans and non-humans. We discuss future research directions, and conclude that the evidence for anatomical, biological, physiological, and behavioral adaptations to human sperm competition provides compelling evidence that sperm competition has been a recurrent feature of human evolutionary history.

  16. Transient dynamics of invasive competition: barred owls, spotted owls, habitat, and the demons of competition present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugger, Katie M; Anthony, Robert G; Andrews, Lawrence S

    2011-10-01

    The recent range expansion of Barred Owls (Strix varia) into the Pacific Northwest, where the species now co-occurs with the endemic Northern Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis caurina), resulted in a unique opportunity to investigate potential competition between two congeneric, previously allopatric species. The primary criticism of early competition research was the use of current species' distribution patterns to infer past processes; however, the recent expansion of the Barred Owl and the ability to model the processes that result in site occupancy (i.e., colonization and extinction) allowed us to address the competitive process directly rather than inferring past processes through current patterns. The purpose of our study was to determine whether Barred Owls had any negative effects on occupancy dynamics of nesting territories by Northern Spotted Owls and how these effects were influenced by habitat characteristics of Spotted Owl territories. We used single-species, multi-season occupancy models and covariates quantifying Barred Owl detections and habitat characteristics to model extinction and colonization rates of Spotted Owl pairs in southern Oregon, USA. We observed a strong, negative association between Barred Owl detections and colonization rates and a strong positive effect of Barred Owl detections on extinction rates of Spotted Owls. We observed increased extinction rates in response to decreased amounts of old forest at the territory core and higher colonization rates when old-forest habitat was less fragmented. Annual site occupancy for pairs reflected the strong effects of Barred Owls on occupancy dynamics with much lower occupancy rates predicted for territories where Barred Owls were detected. The strong Barred Owl and habitat effects on occupancy dynamics of Spotted Owls provided evidence of interference competition between the species. These effects increase the importance of conserving large amounts of contiguous, old-forest habitat to maintain

  17. Modeling plant, microorganisms, and mineral surface competition for soil nitrogen and phosphorus: Competition representations and ecological significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Q.; Riley, W. J.; Chambers, J. Q.; Tang, J.

    2014-12-01

    It is widely accepted that terrestrial ecosystem carbon dynamics are strongly coupled and controlled by soil nutrients status. Nutrient availability serves as an indicator of aboveground carbon productivity and ecosystem stability, especially when soils are infertile. In these conditions, plants have to outcompete microorganism and mineral surfaces to acquire nutrients required for photosynthesis, respiration, seed production, defense, etc. It is usually hypothesized that microbes are short-term winners but long-term losers in nutrient competition. Microbes quickly trap available soil nitrogen and phosphorous, thereby preventing nutrient inaccessibility through hydrological leaching and mineral surface adsorption. Over longer temporal scales, nutrients are released into the soil and become available for plant uptake. Despite its ecological significance, nutrient competition is either absent or over-simplified (e.g., assuming all consumers are equally competitive) in terrestrial biogeochemistry models. Here, we aim to test the representation of different competitive strategies and to investigate their ecological consequences with a newly developed biogeochemical model structure. The new model includes three major soil nutrients (ammonia, nitrate, and phosphate) and multiple consumers (plants, microbes, mineral surfaces, nitrifiers, and denitrifiers). We analyze predicted soil carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus dynamics with three different competitive strategies: (1) plants compete poorly against microorganisms; (2) all consumers are equally competitive; and (3) an explicit Equilibrium Chemical Approximation (ECA; Tang and Riley (2013)) treatment. We find that very different ecosystem states are predicted when assuming different competitive structures, and that the ECA approach provides the best match with a large suite of observational constraints from tropical experimental and transect studies. We conclude that terrestrial biogeochemical models should represent a

  18. Modelling repeated competition records in genetic evaluations of Danish sport horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, L.; Madsen, P.; Mark, T.

    2016-01-01

    Genetic evaluations of sport performance typically consider competition records of ranking points in each competition, accumulated lifetime points or annual earnings. Repeated observations have the advantage of allowing for adjustment of effects associated with each competition such as rider...... for the other. Run D was the second best in both disciplines (D), and is expected to increase in performance over time as omission of a relatively large amount of historic data becomes less important....

  19. Demolishing the Competition: The Longitudinal Link between Competitive Video Games, Competitive Gambling, and Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Paul J. C.; Willoughby, Teena

    2013-01-01

    The majority of research on the link between video games and aggression has focused on the violent content in games. In contrast, recent experimental research suggests that it is video game competition, not violence, that has the greatest effect on aggression in the short-term. However, no researchers have examined the long-term relationship…

  20. Endorphin responses to stress induced by competitive swimming event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, L; Villaverde, C; Oltras, C M

    2007-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the changes in endorphins (END) induced by swimming competitive practice. Twenty-three males, (13 trained swimmers [experimental group] and 10 sedentary and healthy students [age-matched comparison group]) took part in this investigation. The swimmers were assessed at 3 points: basal conditions, pre- and postswimming competition (100 m freestyle), whereas subjects from the control group only undertook the basal trial. The variables analysed were anxiety level, plasma END and lactate concentrations. No statistical differences were observed in END basal levels between groups. An evident END response to precompetition psychological stress was observed in the experimental group, since the plasma END concentration rose from 36.3+/-2.9 pg/mL (basal conditions) to 51.8+/-3.2 pg/mL (P=0.05). The END response to the competitive effort produced a remarkable increase in its plasma concentration (128.6+/-18.1 pg/mL), showed statistical differences from precompetition (P=orSwimming competition (short-term maximal type of effort) induces a psychological and physiological stress, which stimulates the secretion of END. END are secreted to counter the negative effects of competitive stress, although more research is needed to accurate the relationship between END and anxiety levels during exercise.

  1. Report on global environmental competitiveness (2013)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li, Jianping

    2014-01-01

    This book explores the environmental competitiveness of 133 countries around the world, presenting an index evaluation system to facilitate a comparative analysis of environmental competitiveness on a global scale...

  2. Competition: a social marketer's friend or foe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayman, Jennifer J Clay; Beall, Tom; Thackeray, Rosemary; Brown, Kelli R McCormack

    2007-04-01

    In public health social marketing, is there such a thing as "healthy competition," or is the term an oxymoron? The primary focus of this article is on a type of competition that may not often be considered by public health social marketers--competition from other marketing activities that exist in the marketplace in which your intervention is operating. This could also be termed "promotion" competition. The purpose of this article is to briefly review promotion competition and then review competitive factors that can impact a social marketing initiative's success, examine how to conduct a useful competitive analysis, and offer strategies for maximizing the benefits and minimizing the negative implications of competition on your efforts.

  3. SIAM 2007 Text Mining Competition dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Subject Area: Text Mining Description: This is the dataset used for the SIAM 2007 Text Mining competition. This competition focused on developing text mining...

  4. Interspecific Resource Competition Effects on Fisheres Revenue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolfshaar, van de K.E.; Schellekens, T.; Poos, J.J.; Kooten, van T.

    2012-01-01

    In many fisheries multiple species are simultaneously caught while stock assessments and fishing quota are defined at species level. Yet species caught together often share habitat and resources, resulting in interspecific resource competition. The consequences of resource competition on population

  5. Developing Information Systems for Competitive Intelligence Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohhof, Bonnie

    1994-01-01

    Discusses issues connected with developing information systems for competitive intelligence support; defines the elements of an effective competitive information system; and summarizes issues affecting system design and implementation. Highlights include intelligence information; information needs; information sources; decision making; and…

  6. Competitive Intelligence and the Information Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, H. Frances

    1988-01-01

    Examines the competitive intelligence approach to corporate information gathering, and discusses how it differs from the traditional library information center approach. Steps for developing a competitive intelligence system in the library information center are suggested. (33 references) (MES)

  7. Tax Competition Leading to Strict Environmental Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Withagen, Cees; Halsema, Alex

    2012-01-01

    We study tax competition when pollution matters. Most notably we present a dynamic setting, where the supply of capital is endogenous. It is shown that tax competition may involve stricter environmental policy than the cooperative outcome.

  8. Dimensions of Real-World Competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch-Hansen, Hubert

    2014-01-01

    Mainstream economics consistently ignores the various socio-economic and environmental downsides of capitalist competition and instead lends legitimacy to the prevailing neoliberal discourse according to which merciless competition is unambiguously positive. In opposition to this one-dimensional ...

  9. Competitive pressures on income distribution in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pan, H.

    1999-01-01

    to explore what perfect competition would do to income distribution in China. The research analyzes this question by determining personal income distribution under hypothetical, perfectly competitive conditions, where factors are rewarded according to their marginal productivities. Comparison with t

  10. DXC'09 Industrial Track Competition Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Competition data, including nominal and faulty scenarios, for Industrial Track Tier 1 and Tier 2 of the First International Diagnostic Competition. Three file...

  11. The monopolistic competition revolution in retrospect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.J.H. Bettendorf (Leon); B.J. Heijdra (Ben)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractAvinash Dixit and Joseph Stiglitz revolutionized the modelling of imperfectly competitive markets and launched "the second monopolistic competition revolution". Experts in the areas of macroeconomics, international trade theory, economic geography, and international growth theory examine

  12. DXC'10 Industrial Track Competition Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Competition data, including nominal and faulty scenarios, for Diagnostic Problems I and II of the Second International Diagnostic Competition. Three file formats are...

  13. The political economy of competition in telecommunication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders; Skouby, Knud Erik

    1998-01-01

    Article dealing with the regulation of telecommunications and the establishment of a competitive regime.......Article dealing with the regulation of telecommunications and the establishment of a competitive regime....

  14. The monopolistic competition revolution in retrospect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.J.H. Bettendorf (Leon); B.J. Heijdra (Ben)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractAvinash Dixit and Joseph Stiglitz revolutionized the modelling of imperfectly competitive markets and launched "the second monopolistic competition revolution". Experts in the areas of macroeconomics, international trade theory, economic geography, and international growth theory examine

  15. Neanderthal extinction by competitive exclusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William E Banks

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite a long history of investigation, considerable debate revolves around whether Neanderthals became extinct because of climate change or competition with anatomically modern humans (AMH. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We apply a new methodology integrating archaeological and chronological data with high-resolution paleoclimatic simulations to define eco-cultural niches associated with Neanderthal and AMH adaptive systems during alternating cold and mild phases of Marine Isotope Stage 3. Our results indicate that Neanderthals and AMH exploited similar niches, and may have continued to do so in the absence of contact. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The southerly contraction of Neanderthal range in southwestern Europe during Greenland Interstadial 8 was not due to climate change or a change in adaptation, but rather concurrent AMH geographic expansion appears to have produced competition that led to Neanderthal extinction.

  16. Institutional Competitiveness in Media Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Anker Brink

    a social science / leadership perspective - not from the perspective of a journalist or from the ideologically critical perspective of the license payer. Thirdly, we consider competition in the media market as an institutional phenomenon that is not solely conditioned by economic considerations. We aim......This inaugural address is a welcome opportunity to call your attention to a new area of research that the International Center for Business and Politics has chosen as one of five areas of special interest. By referring to this area of focus as'institutional competition in the media market' we also...... signal an approach that will be free of much of the traditional dogma in Danish media research: First of all, we will consider the media as a market for opinion, goods and services - not primarily as a cultural discourse with a singular focus on public service. Secondly, we consider media activity from...

  17. Plan competitions reveal entrepreneurial talent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madison, Alison L.

    2011-05-15

    Monthly economic diversity column for Tri-City Herald business section. Excerpt below: There’s something to be said for gaining valuable real-world experience in a structured, nurturing environment. Take for instance learning to scuba dive in the comfort of my resort pool rather than immediately hanging out with sharks while I figure out little things like oxygen tanks and avoiding underwater panic attacks. Likewise, graduate students are getting some excellent, supportive real-world training through university business plan competitions. These competitions are places where smart minds, new technologies, months of preparation and coaching, and some healthy pre-presentation jitters collide to reveal not only solid new business ideas, but also some promising entrepreneurial talent. In fact, professionals from around our region descend upon college campuses every spring to judge these events, which help to bridge the gap between academics and the real technology and business-driven economy.

  18. BDS thin film damage competition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stolz, C J; Thomas, M D; Griffin, A J

    2008-10-24

    A laser damage competition was held at the 2008 Boulder Damage Symposium in order to determine the current status of thin film laser resistance within the private, academic, and government sectors. This damage competition allows a direct comparison of the current state-of-the-art of high laser resistance coatings since they are all tested using the same damage test setup and the same protocol. A normal incidence high reflector multilayer coating was selected at a wavelength of 1064 nm. The substrates were provided by the submitters. A double blind test assured sample and submitter anonymity so only a summary of the results are presented here. In addition to the laser resistance results, details of deposition processes, coating materials, and layer count will also be shared.

  19. Feature Discovery by Competitive Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-06-01

    McCulloch , W. S., & Pitts , W. (1943). A logical calculus of the ideas immanent in neural nets. Bid- letin of Mathematical Biophysics. 5. 115-137. Minsky, M...elevated to a status of p eat importance in those days because it was somehow uniquely sociated with the properties of animal brains. After McCulloch and... Pitts (1943) showed how neural-like networks or Rumelhart and Zipser 3 Competitive Learning could compute, the main problem then facing workers in this

  20. Green tax reform and competitiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Koskela, Erkki; Schöb, Ronnie; Sinn, Hans-Werner

    2000-01-01

    This paper develops a model of a small open economy that produces an export good with domestic labour and imported energy and is stuck in an unemployment situation resulting from an excessive fixed net-of-tax wage rate. We study a revenue-neutral green tax reform that substitutes energy for wage taxes. A moderate green tax reform will boost employment, improve welfare, and increase the economy's competitiveness. The driving force behind these results is the technological substitution process ...

  1. Competition in the sharing economy

    OpenAIRE

    Demary, Vera

    2015-01-01

    Sharing goods, services or knowledge is at the center of the so-called Sharing Economy. Businesses are usually based on online platforms that match demand and supply which is in many cases, but not always provided by individuals. Sharing Economy companies typically compete with traditional companies in many different markets. The main challenge of this type of competition currently is the application of the existing regulation. While incumbent firms adhere to this, Sharing Economy companies o...

  2. Observing participating observation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    2011-01-01

    Current methodology concerning participating observation in general leaves the act of observation unobserved. Approaching participating observation from systems theory offers fundamental new insights into the topic. Observation is always participation. There is no way to escape becoming...... as the idea of the naïve observer becomes a void. Not recognizing and observing oneself as observer and co-producer of empirical data simply leaves the process of observation as the major unobserved absorber of contingency in data production based on participating observation....

  3. Observing participating observation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    2010-01-01

    Current methodology concerning participating observation in general leaves the act of observation unobserved. Approaching participating observation from systems theory offers fundamental new insights into the topic. Observation is always participation. There is no way to escape becoming...... as the idea of the naïve observer becomes a void. Not recognizing and observing oneself as observer and co-producer of empirical data simply leaves the process of observation as the major unobserved absorber of contingency in data production based on participating observation....

  4. Customer Relationship Management - Competitiveness Improvement Tool

    OpenAIRE

    Jovan Zubovic; Ivana Domazet

    2007-01-01

    On the global market competitiveness of Serbian companies is at a very low level. According to Global Competitiveness Report 2007-2008 Serbia was ranked 91. Leading country is USA, whereas the UK had lost the second and fell to ninth position. The criteria on which Global Competitiveness Report ranks 131 world countries are creation of business strategies and a quality of business environment1. Competitiveness increase of local companies’ should be assessed through holistic concept which targ...

  5. Competitive Pressures and Transition to Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Failla, Virgilio; Melillo, Francesca; Reichstein, Toke

    This paper investigates whether the likelihood of entrepreneurial activity is associated with the competitive pressures for promotion within a firm. We argue that competitive pressures increase the relative attractiveness of entrepreneurship as a career option. We test our prediction using...... if they start working in organizational settings with strong competitive pressures. Furthermore, this competitive effect is more pronounced in firms that are entrepreneurially prominent, i.e. firms that spawn more entrepreneurial ventures, suggesting that combining different sources of incentives...

  6. Logistics capabilities for sustainable competitive advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Sandberg, Erik; Abrahamsson, Mats

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore how sustainable competitive advantage is generated in two Swedish best practice companies that successfully exploit logistics as a source for competitive advantage. Using a theoretical framework based on the resource-based view of the firm, this research elaborates on the links between operational and dynamic logistics capabilities and sustainable competitive advantage. The findings conclude that a sustainable competitive advantage is based on a combina...

  7. JPRS Report Science & Technology Europe Economic Competitiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-10-06

    many of them are now getting into the business of " competitive intelligence ." This practice, which is too often confused with industrial espionnage...information is a decisive factor in competitive- ness. Americans use the term competitive intelligence to describe a company’s capacity to unremittingly...had formerly practiced competitive intelligence "in a fairly makeshift fashion." Assigned to "organize the function," Bruno Martinet first strove to

  8. Renewing Team Competition for Himos-Safaris

    OpenAIRE

    Karttimo, Maiju

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to develop Himos-Safaris’ product, Team competition, into a more functional and fresher product and bring new lift for it. The competition had become outdated because it had stayed too long the same. Also the duration in the old competition was often too short. The total outcome for this project was a new team competition and related material for the company. The theoretical background of the thesis consisted of three parts: Product development, Experience Touri...

  9. PARADIGMS REGARDING CONCERTED PRACTICES OF COMPETITION POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela\tNEMŢOI

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The process of completing the single market requires the application of appropriate measures also in competition field. Rather, it is a truism that, once are removed the non-tariff barriers (physical, technical, fiscal of hindering trade, companies and governments will seek new ways to limit the restrictions so that competition laws to protect domestic industries. This study is a reflection on competitive practices regarding the theoretical and practical aspects in the phenomenon of economic competition.

  10. Assessing competition policy on economic development

    OpenAIRE

    Tilsa Oré

    2013-01-01

    Implementation of competition policies is one of the most recommended strategies to developing countries as a tool for achieving economic development. Using a panel dataset of over 100 countries and 7 years (from 2005-2011), I estimate the effect of competition on economic development, and also determine which of the comprehensive policy factors are the most relevant for increasing competition. A fixed effects instrumental variable approach is used. I find that competition intensity positivel...

  11. Competitiveness in the global economic crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Popescu

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The first challenge is to analyze the concept of "competitiveness" given the fact that in the centre of the great economic analystes' concerns lays from some time the phenomenon of competitiveness, along with the generation of competitive advantage at the organization level and, moreover, at country level. The economic science will have to be rethought, meaning that competitiveness will have to adapt to the new prospects launched today by the global economic crisis.

  12. Global Markets and Time-Based Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Elisa Rancati

    2005-01-01

    Time becomes the benchmark that defines a company's strategic behaviour, extensively revamping the entire company by reinterpreting the time dimension in a different, extremely dynamic context. Marketing activities always presuppose time-based competition. From a marketing perspective, oriented to analysis of the competition, time-based competition can be defined as a strategy based on immediate response to the customer's needs. In the competitive conditions of over-supply, the time dimension...

  13. Revised article: Business Ideas Competition

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    THIS ARTICLE REPLACES THAT PUBLISHED IN BULLETIN 27/2003, PAGE 8. "The Rainbow Seed Fund is a UK fund, which provides finance to support the commercialization of good ideas founded on scientific research; it is for the benefit of the UK industry in particular. To encourage ideas from CERN the Rainbow Seed Fund is running a business ideas competition. The winner of this competition will receive an immediate cash prize of GBP £1,000. In addition the Rainbow Seed Fund may well provide finance for market research, for protection of Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) and for prototyping to take the idea forward. Further awards of GBP £750 will be made for ideas which gain investment from the Fund. Candidates will only be required to prepare a 2-4-page summary of their business idea, and not a full business plan. Full details and an entry form are available at http://www.rainbowseedfund.com." ALL Members of the Personnel seeking participation in the business ideas competition are asked to submit their ideas via ...

  14. Kinetic competition during glass formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perepezko, J.H., E-mail: perepezk@engr.wisc.edu [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, 1509 University Ave., Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Santhaweesuk, C.; Wang, J.Q. [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, 1509 University Ave., Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Imhoff, S.D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Materials Science and Technology Div., Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • The kinetics of glass formation has been elucidated in an Fe and Au-base alloy. • A critical cooling rate range should be considered for glass formation. • Wedge casting, calorimetry and upquenching data are used to model TTT curves. - Abstract: For vitrification of an alloy melt during cooling there is a kinetic competition with the nucleation and growth of metastable and stable crystalline phases. Many of the measures of glass forming ability (GFA) attempt to capture some of the features of the kinetic competition, but the GFA metrics are static measures and the kinetic processes are dynamic in nature. In fact, the critical cooling rate for glass formation should be viewed in terms of a critical cooling rate range to acknowledge the stochastic nature of crystal nucleation behavior. Direct measurements of the critical cooling rate range confirm this behavior and also provide useful input for kinetics analysis. Usually kinetics analyses are based upon crystallization behavior that is measured either isothermally or upon heating to temperatures near the crystallization onset, T{sub x} and the results are extrapolated to much higher temperatures. This practice is based upon a number of assumptions about transport behavior in the undercooled liquid. With rapid up-quenching of amorphous samples, the high temperature crystallization behavior can be measured and used to refine the kinetics analysis and provide useful insight on the kinetic competition and glass forming ability.

  15. International Physics Olympiad Competition 2004 in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strawson, Robert; Lovett, David

    2005-01-01

    A British team attended the 35th International Physics Olympiad in South Korea. In the competition, a team of five, along with candidates from over 70 other nations, answered five-hour theoretical and experimental papers. In addition the candidates, together with their leaders and observers, were able to attend an extensive scientific, cultural…

  16. Competition Policy in an Open Economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.F. François (Joseph); H. Horn

    1998-01-01

    textabstractWe examine the setting of national competition policy in a two-country setting, emphasizing the relationship of trade to the goals of competition policy (such as the degree and nature of competition). The issues we address involve the general equilibrium distributional effects of competi

  17. Iranian mathematics competitions 1973–2007

    CERN Document Server

    Yahaghi, Bamdad R

    2010-01-01

    A collection of problems from a competition for college students organised by the Iranian Mathematical Society. It compiles problems from these competitions between 1973 and 2007 and provides solutions to most of them. It is suitable for students of mathematics preparing for competitions and for advanced studies.

  18. 40 CFR 35.362 - Competitive process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Competitive process. 35.362 Section 35... 104(b)(3)) § 35.362 Competitive process. EPA will award Water Quality Cooperative Agreement funds through a competitive process in accordance with national program guidance....

  19. 40 CFR 35.342 - Competitive process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Competitive process. 35.342 Section 35...) § 35.342 Competitive process. EPA Regions award Pollution Prevention State Grants to State programs through a competitive process in accordance with EPA guidance. When evaluating State applications,...

  20. 40 CFR 35.613 - Competitive process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Competitive process. 35.613 Section 35... (section 104(b)(3)) § 35.613 Competitive process. Wetlands development grants are awarded on a competitive... process is complete, the recipient can, at its discretion, accept the award as a wetlands...

  1. 40 CFR 35.723 - Competitive process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Competitive process. 35.723 Section 35... Grants (pub.l. 105-276) § 35.723 Competitive process. EPA will award Tribal hazardous waste program... guidance. After the competitive process is complete, the recipient can, at its discretion, accept the...

  2. 40 CFR 35.712 - Competitive process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Competitive process. 35.712 Section 35... Monitoring (section 28) § 35.712 Competitive process. EPA will award Toxic Substances Control Act Compliance Monitoring grants to Tribes or Intertribal Consortia through a competitive process in accordance...

  3. 40 CFR 35.661 - Competitive process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Competitive process. 35.661 Section 35... 6605) § 35.661 Competitive process. EPA Regions award Pollution Prevention Grant funds to Tribes and Intertribal Consortia through a competitive process in accordance with EPA guidance. When evaluating a...

  4. 13 CFR 313.8 - Competitive process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Competitive process. 313.8 Section... § 313.8 Competitive process. (a) Applications for assistance to develop a Strategic Plan or for an implementation grant shall be reviewed by EDA in accord with a competitive process as set forth in the...

  5. 14 CFR 1260.143 - Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Competition. 1260.143 Section 1260.143..., Hospitals, and Other Non-Profit Organizations Procurement Standards § 1260.143 Competition. All procurement... competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of interest as well as...

  6. 48 CFR 13.104 - Promoting competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Promoting competition. 13... METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SIMPLIFIED ACQUISITION PROCEDURES Procedures 13.104 Promoting competition. The contracting officer must promote competition to the maximum extent practicable to obtain supplies and...

  7. 45 CFR 2400.2 - Annual competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Annual competition. 2400.2 Section 2400.2 Public... FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS General § 2400.2 Annual competition. To achieve its principal purposes, the Foundation holds an annual national competition to select teachers in grades 7-12, college seniors,...

  8. 22 CFR 145.43 - Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Competition. 145.43 Section 145.43 Foreign... Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of...

  9. 28 CFR 70.43 - Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Competition. 70.43 Section 70.43 Judicial... Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 70.43 Competition. All procurement transactions must be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The...

  10. 7 CFR 3430.11 - Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Competition. 3430.11 Section 3430.11 Agriculture...-GENERAL AWARD ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS Pre-award: Solicitation and Application § 3430.11 Competition. (a) Standards for competition. Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, CSREES will enter...

  11. 20 CFR 435.43 - Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Competition. 435.43 Section 435.43 Employees...-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 435.43 Competition. All procurement transactions must be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The...

  12. 48 CFR 370.504 - Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Competition. 370.504... SPECIAL PROGRAMS AFFECTING ACQUISITION Acquisitions Under the Buy Indian Act 370.504 Competition. (a) Contracts awarded under the Buy Indian Act are subject to competition among Indians or Indian concerns...

  13. 22 CFR 518.43 - Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Competition. 518.43 Section 518.43 Foreign... Procurement Standards § 518.43 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert...

  14. 7 CFR 550.5 - Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Competition. 550.5 Section 550.5 Agriculture... Competition. REE agencies may enter into non-assistance cooperative agreements, as authorized by this part, without regard to any requirements for competition. (7 U.S.C. 3318(e))....

  15. 32 CFR 32.43 - Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Competition. 32.43 Section 32.43 National... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 32.43 Competition. All... free competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of interest as well...

  16. 34 CFR 74.43 - Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Competition. 74.43 Section 74.43 Education Office of... Standards § 74.43 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert...

  17. 14 CFR 1274.504 - Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Competition. 1274.504 Section 1274.504... FIRMS Procurement Standards § 1274.504 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall...

  18. 48 CFR 34.005-1 - Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Competition. 34.005-1... OF CONTRACTING MAJOR SYSTEM ACQUISITION General 34.005-1 Competition. (a) The program manager shall, throughout the acquisition process, promote full and open competition and sustain effective...

  19. 24 CFR 84.43 - Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Competition. 84.43 Section 84.43... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 84.43 Competition. All... free competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of interest as well...

  20. 49 CFR 19.43 - Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Competition. 19.43 Section 19.43 Transportation... Requirements Procurement Standards § 19.43 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall...