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Sample records for hudson bay freezes

  1. Towards a sustainable future in Hudson Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okrainetz, G.

    1991-01-01

    To date, ca $40-50 billion has been invested in or committed to hydroelectric development on the rivers feeding Hudson Bay. In addition, billions more have been invested in land uses such as forestry and mining within the Hudson Bay drainage basin. However, there has never been a study of the possible impacts on Hudson Bay resulting from this activity. Neither has there been any federal environmental assessment on any of the economic developments that affect Hudson Bay. To fill this gap in knowledge, the Hudson Bay Program was established. The program will not conduct scientific field research but will rather scan the published literature and consult with leading experts in an effort to identify biophysical factors that are likely to be significantly affected by the cumulative influence of hydroelectric and other developments within and outside the region. An annotated bibliography on Hudson Bay has been completed and used to prepare a science overview paper, which will be circulated for comment, revised, and used as the basis for a workshop on cumulative effects in Hudson Bay. Papers will then be commissioned for a second workshop to be held in fall 1993. A unique feature of the program is its integration of traditional ecological knowledge among the Inuit and Cree communities around Hudson Bay with the scientific approach to cumulative impact assessment. One goal of the program is to help these communities bring forward their knowledge in such a way that it can be integrated into the cumulative effects assessment

  2. Nelson River and Hudson Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Rivers that empty into large bodies of water can have a significant impact on the thawing of nearshore winter ice. This true-color Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image from May 18, 2001, shows the Nelson River emptying spring runoff from the Manitoba province to the south into the southwestern corner of Canada's Hudson Bay. The warmer waters from more southern latitudes hasten melting of ice near the shore, though some still remained, perhaps because in shallow coastal waters, the ice could have been anchored to the bottom. High volumes of sediment in the runoff turned the inflow brown, and the rim of the retreating ice has taken on a dirty appearance even far to the east of the river's entrance into the Bay. The sediment would have further hastened the melting of the ice because its darker color would have absorbed more solar radiation than cleaner, whiter ice. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  3. Sustainable development in the Hudson Bay/James Bay bioregion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    An overview is presented of projects planned for the James Bay/Hudson Bay region, and the expected environmental impacts of these projects. The watershed of James Bay and Hudson Bay covers well over one third of Canada, from southern Alberta to central Ontario to Baffin Island, as well as parts of north Dakota and Minnesota in the U.S.A. Hydroelectric power developments that change the timing and rate of flow of fresh water may cause changes in the nature and duration of ice cover, habitats of marine mammals, fish and migratory birds, currents into and out of Hudson Bay/James Bay, seasonal and annual loads of sediments and nutrients to marine ecosystems, and anadromous fish populations. Hydroelectric projects are proposed for the region by Quebec, Ontario and Manitoba. In January 1992, the Canadian Arctic Resources Committee (CARC), the Environmental Committee of Sanikuluaq, and the Rawson Academy of Arctic Science will launch the Hudson Bay/James Bay Bioregion Program, an independent initiative to apply an ecosystem approach to the region. Two main objectives are to provide a comprehensive assessment of the cumulative impacts of human activities on the marine and freshwater ecosystems of the Hudson Bay/James Bay bioregion, and to foster sustainable development by examining and proposing cooperative processes for decision making among governments, developers, aboriginal peoples and other stakeholders. 1 fig

  4. Cumulative impacts of hydroelectric development on the fresh water balance in Hudson Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anctil, F.; Couture, R.

    1994-01-01

    A study is presented of the impacts of hydroelectric development on the surface water layer of Hudson Bay, including James Bay and the Foxe Basin. These impacts are directly related to the modifications in the fresh water balance of Hudson Bay and originate from the management of hydroelectric complexes. The fresh water balance is determined by identifying, at different scales, the modifications caused by each complex. The main inputs are the freezing and thawing of the ice cover, runoff water, and mass exchange at the air-water interface. Three spatial scales were used to obtain the resolution required to document the cumulative effects of fresh water balance modifications on the water surface layer, one each for Hudson Bay, Hudson Strait, and the Labrador Sea. Finally, the addition of the proposed Great Whale hydroelectric complex is examined from the available information and forecasts. 18 refs,. 6 figs., 1 tab

  5. Climate change and sea ice: Shipping accessibility on the marine transportation corridor through Hudson Bay and Hudson Strait (1980–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Andrews

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Shipping traffic has been increasing in Hudson Strait and Hudson Bay and the shipping route through these waters to the Port of Churchill may soon become a federally-designated transportation corridor. A dataset on passive microwave-based sea ice concentration was used to characterize the timing of the ice on the shipping corridor to the Port between 1980 and 2014. Efforts were made to produce results in a readily accessible format for stakeholders of the shipping industry; for example, open water was defined using a sea ice concentration threshold of ≤ 15% and results are presented in terms of real dates instead of anomalies. Between 1980 and 2014, the average breakup date on the corridor was July 4, the average freeze-up date was November 25, and the average length of the open water season was 145 days. However, each of these three variables exhibited significant long-term trends and spatial variability over the 34-year time period. Regression analysis revealed significant linear trends towards earlier breakup (–0.66 days year–1, later freeze-up (+0.52 days year–1, and a longer open water season (+1.14 days year–1 along the shipping corridor between 1980 and 2014. Moreover, the section of the corridor passing through Hudson Strait displayed significantly stronger trends than the two sections in Hudson Bay (i.e., “Hudson Islands” and “Hudson Bay”. As a result, sea ice timing in the Hudson Strait section of the corridor has diverged from the timing in the Hudson Bay sections. For example, the 2010–2014 median length of the open water season was 177 days in Hudson Strait and 153 days in the Hudson Bay sections. Finally, significant linear relationships were observed amongst breakup, freeze-up, and the length of the open water season for all sections of the corridor; correlation analysis suggests that these relationships have greatest impact in Hudson Strait.

  6. On Measurements of the Tide at Churchill, Hudson Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Richard D.

    2016-01-01

    Since the late 1990s the semi-diurnal tide at Churchill, on the western shore of Hudson Bay, has been decreasing in amplitude, with M(sub 2) amplitudes falling from approximately 154 cm in 1998 to 146 cm in 2012 and 142 cm in 2014. There has been a corresponding small increase in phase lag. Mean low water, decreasing throughout most of the twentieth century, has levelled off. Although the tidal changes could reflect merely a malfunctioning tide gauge, the fact that there are no other measurements in the region and the possibility that the tide is revealing important environmental changes calls for serious investigation. Satellite altimeter measurements of the tide in Hudson Bay are complicated by the seasonal ice cover; at most locations less than 40% of satellite passes return valid ocean heights and even those can be impacted by errors from sea ice. Because the combined TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason-1, and Jason-2 time series is more than 23 years long, it is now possible to obtain sufficient data at crossover locations near Churchill to search for tidal changes. The satellites sense no changes in M(sub 2) that are comparable to the changes seen at the Churchill gauge. The changes appear to be localized to the harbour, or to the Churchill River, or to the gauge itself.

  7. Riverine organic matter composition and fluxes to Hudson Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzyk, Z. Z. A.; Macdonald, R. W.; Goni, M. A.; Godin, P.; Stern, G. A.

    2016-12-01

    With warming in northern regions, many changes including permafrost degradation, vegetation alteration, and wildfire incidence will impact the carbon cycle. Organic carbon (OC) carried by river runoff to northern oceans has the potential to provide integrated evidence of these impacts. Here, concentrations of dissolved (DOC) and particulate (POC) OC are used to estimate terrestrial OC transport in 17 major rivers draining varied vegetative and permafrost conditions into Hudson Bay and compositional data (lignin and 14C) to infer OC sources. Hudson Bay lies just south of the Arctic Circle in Canada and is surrounded by a large drainage basin (3.9 × 106 km2) dominated by permafrost. Analysis of POC and DOC in the 17 rivers indicates that DOC dominates the total OC load. The southern rivers dominate. The Nelson and Churchill Rivers to the southwest are particularly important suppliers of OC partly because of large drainage basins but also perhaps because of impacts by hydroelectric development, as suggested by a 14C age of DOC in the Churchill River of 2800 years. Higher DOC and POC concentrations in the southern rivers, which have substantive areas only partially covered by permafrost, compared to northern rivers draining areas with complete permafrost cover, implies that warming - and hence permafrost thawing - will lead to progressively higher DOC and POC loads for these rivers. Lignin composition in the organic matter (S/V and C/V ratios) reveals mixed sources of OC consistent with the dominant vegetation in the river basins. This vegetation is organized by latitude with southern regions below the tree line enriched by woody gymnosperm sources (boreal forest) and northern regions enriched with organic matter from non-woody angiosperms (flowering shrubs, tundra). Acid/Aldehyde composition together with Δ14C data for selected DOC samples suggest that most of the lignin has undergone oxidative degradation, particularly the DOC component. However, high Δ14C ages

  8. Mercury and cortisol in Western Hudson Bay polar bear hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechshoft, T; Derocher, A E; Richardson, E; Mislan, P; Lunn, N J; Sonne, C; Dietz, R; Janz, D M; St Louis, V L

    2015-08-01

    Non-invasive methods of assessing animal health and life history are becoming increasingly popular in wildlife research; hair samples from polar bears (Ursus maritimus), are being used to study an ever broader range of anthropogenic and endocrine compounds. A number of contaminants are known to disrupt endocrine function in polar bears. However, the relationship between mercury and cortisol remains unknown, although mercury is an endocrine disruptor in other species. Here, we examine the relationship between concentrations of cortisol and total mercury (THg) analyzed in guard hair from 378 polar bears (184 females, 194 males) sampled in Western Hudson Bay, 2004-2012. The difference in mean cortisol concentration between female (0.8 ± 0.6 pg/mg) and male (0.7 ± 0.5 pg/mg) polar bears bordered on significance (p = 0.054). However, mean mercury concentration was significantly greater (p = 0.009) in females (4.7 ± 1.4 μg/g) than males (4.3 ± 1.2 μg/g). Hair cortisol in males was significantly influenced by mercury, age, and fatness, as well as interactions between mercury and year, mercury and fatness, and year and fatness (all: p polar bears.

  9. Permafrost and peatland evolution in the northern Hudson Bay lowland, Manitoba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyke, L.D.; Sladen, W.E. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Geological Survey of Canada

    2010-12-15

    This article reported on a study that investigated the sensitivity of peat plateau terrain to continued climate warming in the area of the northern Hudson Bay lowland. Snow and shallow standing water were assessed as the environmental factors most likely to create above-freezing ground temperatures in peat plateau terrain that is otherwise frozen. The relationships between air and ground temperatures in creating these surface environmental conditions were determined and used with air temperature records to predict whether peat plateaus will thaw as a result of foreseeable climate warming. Lake erosion was also assessed as a mechanism for the degradation of frozen peat plateau terrain. Environmental conditions that result in elevated ground temperatures at the margin of peat plateaus either eliminate permafrost or promote permafrost temperatures that are warmer than those beneath unforested peat plateaus. Under present climatic conditions, the process in which a frozen peat plateau degrades and transitions to fen is slow, but with continued warming the subsidence at plateau edges will become more pronounced, accelerating the subsidence process. The consequences of continued warming will be the expansion of thawed zones, subsidence at plateau margins, and potentially the collapse of plateau surfaces and conversion into fen. Peat plateau bog is also being lost to wave erosion of subsiding plateau borders at lake shorelines. 30 refs., 14 figs.

  10. Demography and population status of polar bears in western Hudson Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunn, Nicholas J.; Regher, Eric V; Servanty, Sabrina; Converse, Sarah J.; Richardson, Evan S.; Stirling, Ian

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the demography and population status of the Western Hudson Bay (WH) polar bear subpopulation for the period 1984-2011, using live-recapture data from research studies and management actions, and dead-recovery data from polar bears harvested for subsistence purposes or removed during human-bear conflicts.

  11. Community-based observations on sustainable development in southern Hudson Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arragutainaq, L.; Fleming, B.

    1991-01-01

    Inuit residents of the Belcher Islands in Hudson Bay practice sustainable development over a wide region, and are heavily dependent on fish and wildlife for food. Large-scale hydroelectric developments on rivers emptying into Hudson Bay and James Bay threaten both the environment and the traditional economy and culture of those residents. The main focus of concern is the James Bay hydroelectric project, part 1 of which (La Grande) is now operational. In addition, hydroelectric projects in Manitoba and Ontario may also affect the region. The residents feel that the subdivision of each project into components, each subject to a separate environmental review and assessment, works in favor of the project proponents and does not address the issues of interest to those affected by the project. Neither does such a review process address questions related to the cumulative development of many projects over a long term. The Belcher Islands are remote from the territorial and national governments, neither of which seem to be giving the James Bay developments as much attention as seems necessary. The island community has identified its primary ecological concerns on part 2 of the James Bay project and presented them at a public hearing. These concerns include the long-term impacts of the project on the marine environment and the kinds of compensation, if any, for such impacts. 7 refs., 2 figs

  12. A History of Vegetation, Sediment and Nutrient Dynamics at Tivoli North Bay, Hudson Estuary, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sritrairat, Sanpisa; Peteet, Dorothy M.; Kenna, Timothy C.; Sambrotto, Ray; Kurdyla, Dorothy; Guilderson, Tom

    2012-01-01

    We conduct a stratigraphic paleoecological investigation at a Hudson River National Estuarine Research Reserve (HRNERR) site, Tivoli Bays, spanning the past 1100 years. Marsh sediment cores were analyzed for ecosystem changes using multiple proxies, including pollen, spores, macrofossils, charcoal, sediment bulk chemistry, and stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes. The results reveal climatic shifts such as the warm and dry Medieval Warm Period (MWP) followed by the cooler Little Ice Age (LIA), along with significant anthropogenic influence on the watershed ecosystem. A five-fold expansion of invasive species, including Typha angustifolia and Phragmites australis, is documented along with marked changes in sediment composition and nutrient input. During the last century, a ten-fold sedimentation rate increase due to land-use changes is observed. The large magnitude of shifts in vegetation, sedimentation, and nutrients during the last few centuries suggest that human activities have made the greatest impact to the marshes of the Hudson Estuary during the last millennium. Climate variability and ecosystem changes similar to those observed at other marshes in northeastern and mid-Atlantic estuaries, attest to the widespread regional signature recorded at Tivoli Bays.

  13. Estimating the abundance of the Southern Hudson Bay polar bear subpopulation with aerial surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obbard, Martyn E.; Stapleton, Seth P.; Middel, Kevin R.; Thibault, Isabelle; Brodeur, Vincent; Jutras, Charles

    2015-01-01

    The Southern Hudson Bay (SH) polar bear subpopulation occurs at the southern extent of the species’ range. Although capture–recapture studies indicate abundance was likely unchanged between 1986 and 2005, declines in body condition and survival occurred during the period, possibly foreshadowing a future decrease in abundance. To obtain a current estimate of abundance, we conducted a comprehensive line transect aerial survey of SH during 2011–2012. We stratified the study site by anticipated densities and flew coastal contour transects and systematically spaced inland transects in Ontario and on Akimiski Island and large offshore islands in 2011. Data were collected with double-observer and distance sampling protocols. We surveyed small islands in James Bay and eastern Hudson Bay and flew a comprehensive transect along the Québec coastline in 2012. We observed 667 bears in Ontario and on Akimiski Island and nearby islands in 2011, and we sighted 80 bears on offshore islands during 2012. Mark–recapture distance sampling and sight–resight models yielded an estimate of 860 (SE = 174) for the 2011 study area. Our estimate of abundance for the entire SH subpopulation (943; SE = 174) suggests that abundance is unlikely to have changed significantly since 1986. However, this result should be interpreted cautiously because of the methodological differences between historical studies (physical capture–recapture) and this survey. A conservative management approach is warranted given previous increases in duration of the ice-free season, which are predicted to continue in the future, and previously documented declines in body condition and vital rates.

  14. Estimating abundance of the Southern Hudson Bay polar bear subpopulation using aerial surveys, 2011 and 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obbard, Martyn E.; Middel, Kevin R.; Stapleton, Seth P.; Thibault, Isabelle; Brodeur, Vincent; Jutras, Charles

    2013-01-01

    The Southern Hudson Bay (SH) polar bear subpopulation occurs at the southern extent of the species’ range. Although capture-recapture studies indicate that abundance remained stable between 1986 and 2005, declines in body condition and survival were documented during the period, possibly foreshadowing a future decrease in abundance. To obtain a current estimate of abundance, we conducted a comprehensive line transect aerial survey of SH during 2011–2012. We stratified the study site by anticipated densities and flew coastal contour transects and systematically spaced inland transects in Ontario and on Akimiski Island and large offshore islands in 2011. Data were collected with double observer and distance sampling protocols. We also surveyed small islands in Hudson Bay and James Bay and flew a comprehensive transect along the Québec coastline in 2012. We observed 667 bears in Ontario and on Akimiski Island and nearby islands in 2011, and we sighted 80 bears on offshore islands during 2012. Mark-recapture distance sampling and sightresight models yielded a model-averaged estimate of 868 (SE: 177) for the 2011 study area. Our estimate of abundance for the entire SH subpopulation (951; SE: 177) suggests that abundance has remained unchanged. However, this result should be interpreted cautiously because of the methodological differences between historical studies (physical capture) and this survey. A conservative management approach is warranted given the previous increases in the duration of the ice-free season, which are predicted to continue in the future, and previously documented declines in body condition and vital rates.

  15. The impact of water loading on postglacial decay times in Hudson Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Holly Kyeore; Gomez, Natalya

    2018-05-01

    Ongoing glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) due to surface loading (ice and water) variations during the last glacial cycle has been contributing to sea-level changes globally throughout the Holocene, especially in regions like Canada that were heavily glaciated during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). The spatial and temporal distribution of GIA, as manifested in relative sea-level (RSL) change, are sensitive to the ice history and the rheological structure of the solid Earth, both of which are uncertain. It has been shown that RSL curves near the center of previously glaciated regions with no ongoing surface loading follow an exponential-like form, with the postglacial decay times associated with that form having a weak sensitivity to the details of the ice loading history. Postglacial decay time estimates thus provide a powerful datum for constraining the Earth's viscous structure and improving GIA predictions. We explore spatial patterns of postglacial decay time predictions in Hudson Bay by decomposing numerically modeled RSL changes into contributions from water and ice loading effects, and computing their relative impact on the decay times. We demonstrate that ice loading can contribute a strong geographic trend on the decay time estimates if the time window used to compute decay times includes periods that are temporally close to (i.e. contemporaneous with, or soon after) periods of active loading. This variability can be avoided by choosing a suitable starting point for the decay time window. However, more surprisingly, we show that across any adopted time window, water loading effects associated with inundation into, and postglacial flux out of, Hudson Bay and James Bay will impart significant geographic variability onto decay time estimates. We emphasize this issue by considering both maps of predicted decay times across the region and site-specific estimates, and we conclude that variability in observed decay times (whether based on existing or future data

  16. The Hudson's Bay Company as a context for science in the Columbia Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schefke, Brian

    2008-01-01

    This article aims to elucidate and analyze the links between science, specifically natural history, and the imperialist project in what is now the northwestern United States and western Canada. Imperialism in this region found its expression through institutions such as the Hudson's Bay Company (HBC). I examine the activities of naturalists such as David Douglas and William Tolmie Fraser in the context of the fur trade in the Columbia Department. Here I show how natural history aided Britain in achieving its economic and political goals in the region. The key to this interpretation is to extend the role of the HBC as an imperial factor to encompass its role as a patron for natural history. This gives a better understanding of the ways in which imperialism--construed as mercantile, rather than military--delineated research priorities and activities of the naturalists who worked in the Columbia Department.

  17. Dietary composition and spatial patterns of polar bear foraging on land in western Hudson Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormezano, Linda J; Rockwell, Robert F

    2013-12-21

    Flexible foraging strategies, such as prey switching, omnivory and food mixing, are key to surviving in a labile and changing environment. Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) in western Hudson Bay are versatile predators that use all of these strategies as they seasonally exploit resources across trophic levels. Climate warming is reducing availability of their ice habitat, especially in spring when polar bears gain most of their annual fat reserves by consuming seal pups before coming ashore in summer. How polar bears combine these flexible foraging strategies to obtain and utilize terrestrial food will become increasingly important in compensating for energy deficits from lost seal hunting opportunities. We evaluated patterns in the composition of foods in scat to characterize the foraging behaviors that underpin the diet mixing and omnivory observed in polar bears on land in western Hudson Bay. Specifically, we measured diet richness, proportions of plant and animal foods, patterns in co-occurrence of foods, spatial composition and an index of temporal composition. Scats contained between 1 and 6 foods, with an average of 2.11 (SE = 0.04). Most scats (84.9%) contained at least one type of plant, but animals (35.4% of scats) and both plants and animals occurring together (34.4% of scats) were also common. Certain foods, such as Lyme grass seed heads (Leymus arenarius), berries and marine algae, were consumed in relatively higher proportions, sometimes to the exclusion of others, both where and when they occurred most abundantly. The predominance of localized vegetation in scats suggests little movement among habitat types between feeding sessions. Unlike the case for plants, no spatial patterns were found for animal remains, likely due the animals' more vagile and ubiquitous distribution. Our results suggest that polar bears are foraging opportunistically in a manner consistent with maximizing intake while minimizing energy expenditure associated with movement. The

  18. Hair Mercury Concentrations in Western Hudson Bay Polar Bear Family Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechshoft, Thea; Derocher, Andrew E; Richardson, Evan; Lunn, Nicholas J; St Louis, Vincent L

    2016-05-17

    Methylmercury is one of the more toxic forms of mercury (Hg), the biomagnification of which is prevalent in the Arctic where apex predators such as polar bears (Ursus maritimus) can carry high loads. The maternal transfer of contaminants to offspring is a concern, as offspring may be particularly sensitive to the effects of environmental pollutants during early development. However, few studies of polar bears report on Hg in dependent young. We examined hair total Hg (THg) concentrations in 24 polar bear family groups in western Hudson Bay: mother, cub-of-the-year (COY), yearling, and 2 year old. THg concentrations increased with bear age, with COYs having lower concentrations than other offspring groups (p ≤ 0.008). Using AICc-based regression models, we found maternal THg to be positively related to body condition and litter size, while overall offspring THg was positively related to maternal body condition in addition to being dependent on the sex and age of the offspring. COY THg concentrations were positively related to maternal THg while also depending on the sex of the offspring. Considering our results, future studies in polar bear ecotoxicology are encouraged to include offspring of different ages and sexes.

  19. Magnitude and seasonality of wetland methane emissions from the Hudson Bay Lowlands (Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. Pickett-Heaps

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The Hudson Bay Lowlands (HBL is the second largest boreal wetland ecosystem in the world and an important natural source of global atmospheric methane. We quantify the HBL methane emissions by using the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model to simulate aircraft measurements over the HBL from the ARCTAS and pre-HIPPO campaigns in May–July 2008, together with continuous 2004–2008 surface observations at Fraserdale (southern edge of HBL and Alert (Arctic background. The difference in methane concentrations between Fraserdale and Alert is shown to be a good indicator of HBL emissions, and implies a sharp seasonal onset of emissions in late May (consistent with the aircraft data, a peak in July–August, and a seasonal shut-off in September. The model, in which seasonal variation of emission is mainly driven by surface temperature, reproduces well the observations in summer but its seasonal shoulders are too broad. We suggest that this reflects the suppression of emissions by snow cover and greatly improve the model simulation by accounting for this effect. Our resulting best estimate for HBL methane emissions is 2.3 Tg a−1, several-fold higher than previous estimates (Roulet et al., 1994; Worthy et al., 2000.

  20. Magnitude and Seasonality of Wetland Methane Emissions from the Hudson Bay Lowlands (Canada)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickett-Heaps, C. A.; Jacob, D. J.; Wecht, K. J.; Kort, E. A.; Wofsy, S. C.; Diskin, G. S.; Worthy, D. E. J.; Kaplan, J. O.; Bey, I.; Drevet, J.

    2011-01-01

    The Hudson Bay Lowlands (HBL) is the second largest boreal wetland ecosystem in the world and an important natural source of global atmospheric methane. We quantify the HBL methane emissions by using the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model to simulate aircraft measurements over the HBL from the ARCTAS and pre-HIPPO campaigns in May-July 2008, together with continuous 2004-2008 surface observations at Fraserdale (southern edge of HBL) and Alert (Arctic background). The difference in methane concentrations between Fraserdale and Alert is shown to be a good indicator of HBL emissions, and implies a sharp seasonal onset of emissions in late May (consistent with the aircraft data), a peak in July-August, and a seasonal shut-off in September. The model, in which seasonal variation of emission is mainly driven by surface temperature, reproduces well the observations in summer but its seasonal shoulders are too broad. We suggest that this reflects the suppression of emissions by snow cover and greatly improve the model simulation by accounting for this effect. Our resulting best estimate for HBL methane emissions is 2.3 Tg/a, several-fold higher than previous estimates (Roulet et al., 1994; Worthy et al., 2000).

  1. Small-scale variability in peatland pore-water biogeochemistry, Hudson Bay Lowland, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulanowski, T A; Branfireun, B A

    2013-06-01

    The Hudson Bay Lowland (HBL) of northern Ontario, Manitoba and Quebec, Canada is the second largest contiguous peatland complex in the world, currently containing more than half of Canada's soil carbon. Recent concerns about the ecohydrological impacts to these large northern peatlands resulting from climate change and resource extraction have catalyzed a resurgence in scientific research into this ecologically important region. However, the sheer size, heterogeneity and elaborate landscape arrangements of this ecosystem raise important questions concerning representative sampling of environmental media for chemical or physical characterization. To begin to quantify such variability, this study assessed the small-scale spatial (1m) and short temporal (21 day) variability of surface pore-water biogeochemistry (pH, dissolved organic carbon, and major ions) in a Sphagnum spp.-dominated, ombrotrophic raised bog, and a Carex spp.-dominated intermediate fen in the HBL. In general, pore-water pH and concentrations of dissolved solutes were similar to previously reported literature values from this region. However, systematic sampling revealed consistent statistically significant differences in pore-water chemistries between the bog and fen peatland types, and large within-site spatiotemporal variability. We found that microtopography in the bog was associated with consistent differences in most biogeochemical variables. Temporal changes in dissolved solute chemistry, particularly base cations (Na(+), Ca(2+) and Mg(2+)), were statistically significant in the intermediate fen, likely a result of a dynamic connection between surficial waters and mineral-rich deep groundwater. In both the bog and fen, concentrations of SO4(2-) showed considerable spatial variability, and a significant decrease in concentrations over the study period. The observed variability in peatland pore-water biogeochemistry over such small spatial and temporal scales suggests that under-sampling in

  2. Heritability of body size in the polar bears of Western Hudson Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malenfant, René M; Davis, Corey S; Richardson, Evan S; Lunn, Nicholas J; Coltman, David W

    2018-04-18

    Among polar bears (Ursus maritimus), fitness is dependent on body size through males' abilities to win mates, females' abilities to provide for their young and all bears' abilities to survive increasingly longer fasting periods caused by climate change. In the Western Hudson Bay subpopulation (near Churchill, Manitoba, Canada), polar bears have declined in body size and condition, but nothing is known about the genetic underpinnings of body size variation, which may be subject to natural selection. Here, we combine a 4449-individual pedigree and an array of 5,433 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to provide the first quantitative genetic study of polar bears. We used animal models to estimate heritability (h 2 ) among polar bears handled between 1966 and 2011, obtaining h 2 estimates of 0.34-0.48 for strictly skeletal traits and 0.18 for axillary girth (which is also dependent on fatness). We genotyped 859 individuals with the SNP array to test for marker-trait association and combined p-values over genetic pathways using gene-set analysis. Variation in all traits appeared to be polygenic, but we detected one region of moderately large effect size in body length near a putative noncoding RNA in an unannotated region of the genome. Gene-set analysis suggested that variation in body length was associated with genes in the regulatory cascade of cyclin expression, which has previously been associated with body size in mice. A greater understanding of the genetic architecture of body size variation will be valuable in understanding the potential for adaptation in polar bear populations challenged by climate change. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Effects of earlier sea ice breakup on survival and population size of polar bears in western Hudson Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regehr, E.V.; Lunn, N.J.; Amstrup, Steven C.; Stirling, I.

    2007-01-01

    Some of the most pronounced ecological responses to climatic warming are expected to occur in polar marine regions, where temperature increases have been the greatest and sea ice provides a sensitive mechanism by which climatic conditions affect sympagic (i.e., with ice) species. Population-level effects of climatic change, however, remain difficult to quantify. We used a flexible extension of Cormack-Jolly-Seber capture-recapture models to estimate population size and survival for polar bears (Ursus maritimus), one of the most ice-dependent of Arctic marine mammals. We analyzed data for polar bears captured from 1984 to 2004 along the western coast of Hudson Bay and in the community of Churchill, Manitoba, Canada. The Western Hudson Bay polar bear population declined from 1,194 (95% CI = 1,020-1,368) in 1987 to 935 (95% CI = 794-1,076) in 2004. Total apparent survival of prime-adult polar bears (5-19 yr) was stable for females (0.93; 95% CI = 0.91-0.94) and males (0.90; 95% CI = 0.88-0.91). Survival of juvenile, subadult, and senescent-adult polar bears was correlated with spring sea ice breakup date, which was variable among years and occurred approximately 3 weeks earlier in 2004 than in 1984. We propose that this correlation provides evidence for a causal association between earlier sea ice breakup (due to climatic warming) and decreased polar bear survival. It may also explain why Churchill, like other communities along the western coast of Hudson Bay, has experienced an increase in human-polar bear interactions in recent years. Earlier sea ice breakup may have resulted in a larger number of nutritionally stressed polar bears, which are encroaching on human habitations in search of supplemental food. Because western Hudson Bay is near the southern limit of the species' range, our findings may foreshadow the demographic responses and management challenges that more northerly polar bear populations will experience if climatic warming in the Arctic continues as

  4. Recent changes in mercury deposition and primary productivity inferred from sediments of lakes from the Hudson Bay Lowlands, Ontario, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brazeau, Michelle L.; Poulain, Alexandre J.; Paterson, Andrew M.; Keller, Wendel; Sanei, Hamed; Blais, Jules M.

    2013-01-01

    Spatial and temporal changes in mercury (Hg) concentrations and organic carbon in lake sediments were examined from the Hudson Bay Lowlands to investigate whether Hg deposition to sediments is related to indicators of autochthonous production. Total organic carbon, “S2” carbon (mainly algal-derived OC), C:N and ∂ 13 C indicators suggest an increase in autochthonous productivity in recent decades. Up-core profiles of S2 concentrations and fluxes were significantly correlated with Hg suggesting that varying algal matter scavenging of Hg from the water column may play an important role in the temporal profiles of Hg throughout the sediment cores. Absence of significant relationship between total Hg and methyl Hg (MeHg) in surficial sediments suggested that inorganic Hg supply does not limit MeHg production. MeHg and OC were highly correlated across lakes in surface and deep sediment layers, indicating that sediment organic matter content explains part of the spatial variation in MeHg concentrations between lakes. - Highlights: ► Hg concentrations in sediment cores correlate with autochthonous organic production. ► Inorganic Hg supply in sediment does not limit MeHg production. ► Sediment methylmercury concentration is highly correlated with organic C content. - Increased mercury concentrations in lake sediment cores coincide with evidence of increased autochthonous production in lakes of the Hudson Bay Lowlands, Canada.

  5. What to eat now? Shifts in polar bear diet during the ice-free season in western Hudson Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormezano, Linda J; Rockwell, Robert F

    2013-01-01

    Under current climate trends, spring ice breakup in Hudson Bay is advancing rapidly, leaving polar bears (Ursus maritimus) less time to hunt seals during the spring when they accumulate the majority of their annual fat reserves. For this reason, foods that polar bears consume during the ice-free season may become increasingly important in alleviating nutritional stress from lost seal hunting opportunities. Defining how the terrestrial diet might have changed since the onset of rapid climate change is an important step in understanding how polar bears may be reacting to climate change. We characterized the current terrestrial diet of polar bears in western Hudson Bay by evaluating the contents of passively sampled scat and comparing it to a similar study conducted 40 years ago. While the two terrestrial diets broadly overlap, polar bears currently appear to be exploiting increasingly abundant resources such as caribou (Rangifer tarandus) and snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) and newly available resources such as eggs. This opportunistic shift is similar to the diet mixing strategy common among other Arctic predators and bear species. We discuss whether the observed diet shift is solely a response to a nutritional stress or is an expression of plastic foraging behavior. PMID:24223286

  6. Drought as a Disturbance: Implications for Peatland Carbon Budgets in the Hudson Bay Lowland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, R.; Abnizova, A.; Miller, E.

    2009-05-01

    Carbon feedbacks are of particular importance in high latitudes, both because of large circumpolar peatland carbon pools and because climate warming is occurring more rapidly at these latitudes. Longer-term net ecosystem exchange will be influenced by the capacity of plant communities to respond to changing conditions. The nature of community change and the factors inducing change are examined in this study of a disturbance generated by severe drought in 1994 causing widespread mortality in the dominant moss, Dicranum elongatum, occupying an upland tundra site within the Hudson Bay Lowland near Churchill, Manitoba. One quarter of this moss has recently died and become encrusted with the micro-lichen, Ochrolechia spp. Moss cushions affected in this manner exhibit strong allelopathic inhibition of seedling establishment progressing to complete moss decay. Chamber NEE growing-season flux measurements show an average net release of 642 mg C /m2/d from the dead moss compared to an average net uptake of 164 mg C /m2/d from completely healthy cushions. Between these two extremes, stressed living moss cushions support abundant seedling cover which increases in direct proportion with the fractional mortality. A proxy method for estimating the growth rates of cushions, based on the length of green living shoots, indicates that the moss community is uniform in age and established shortly after the most severe drought of historical record in 1966. Subsequent growth rates of cushions show a strong dependency on proximity to the water table (4.17-1.11 mm/y over 58 cm height interval). A growing-season moss water budget identifies the dominant water flow pathways and indicates capillary uptake (0.08 mm h-1) provides 64% of the storage gains, emphasizing the importance of groundwater for growth and survival. Maximum storage capacities are directly related to cushion biomass, leading to both enhanced moisture stress and increased susceptibility to mortality as cushion size

  7. Kyanite from the Deep Freeze Range, Terra Nova Bay, Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, D.N.B.; Estrada, S.

    2002-01-01

    During GANOVEX VII in 1992, kyanite was discovered in quartz veins on the southwest flank of Mt Levick, in the Deep Freeze Range, Terra Nova Bay, Antarctica. The quartz veins cut an isoclinally (D 1 ) folded sequence of low-grade (Mu-Bt-Crd±And±St) pelitic schist with associated para-amphibolites, calc-silicates, and quartzites (Priestley Formation), which forms the western, steeply dipping to overturned limb of a D 2 , kilometric fold. The schists grade northeastwards into higher grade schists (Kfs-Sil-Crd) of the low-angle upper limb of the D 2 fold, and thus the regional metamorphism postdates the fold. D 3 southeast-verging folds lie on the upper limb. The kyanite crystals (up to 3.5 cm long) occur with paragonitic muscovite and minor plagioclase (An 36 . The quartz veins and saddle reefs are cleaved and boudinaged, but the kyanite shows only mild deformation suggesting late tectonic growth. There is no indication that the host schists entered the stability field of kyanite. The change in P-T conditions that promoted the growth of kyanite appears to have been transient and temporally insufficient to allow the country rocks to react. It is suggested that the action of the nearby Boomerang Thrust bringing older gneiss over the Priestley Formation schists could have generated the D 3 folds and provided the necessary overpressure conditions for the kyanite to grow from the quartz vein fluids. (author). 23 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  8. Mixing and photoreactivity of dissolved organic matter in the Nelson/Hayes estuarine system (Hudson Bay, Canada)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guéguen, C.; Mokhtar, M.; Perroud, A.; McCullough, G.; Papakyriakou, T.

    2016-09-01

    This work presents the results of a 4-year study (2009-2012) investigating the mixing and photoreactivity of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the Nelson/Hayes estuary (Hudson Bay). Dissolved organic carbon (DOC), colored DOM, and humic-like DOM decreased with increasing salinity (r2 = 0.70-0.84). Removal of DOM was noticeable at low to mid salinity range, likely due to degradation and/or adsorption to particles. DOM photobleaching rates (i.e., decrease in DOM signal resulting from exposure to solar radiation) ranged from 0.005 to 0.030 h- 1, corresponding to half-lives of 4.9-9.9 days. Dissolved organic matter from the Nelson and Hayes Rivers was more photoreactive than from the estuary where the photodegradation of terrestrial DOM decreased with increasing salinity. Coincident with the loss of CDOM absorption was an increase in spectral slope S, suggesting a decrease in DOM molecular weight. Marked differences in photoreactivity of protein- and humic-like DOM were observed with highly humidified material being the most photosensitive. Information generated by our study will provide a valuable data set for better understanding the impacts of future hydroelectric development and climate change on DOM biogeochemical dynamics in the Nelson/Hayes estuary and coastal domain. This study will constitute a reference on terrestrial DOM fate prior to building additional generating capacity on the Nelson River.

  9. Downward Migration of Coastal Conifers as a Response to Recent Land Emergence in Eastern Hudson Bay, Québec

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bégin, Yves; Bérubé, Dominique; Grégoire, Martin

    1993-07-01

    Postglacial uplift in the eastern Hudson Bay area is among the most rapid in the world (300 m during the last 8000 yr). Although emergence curves based on 14 C-dated raised shorelines give a consistent basis for modeling relative sea-level changes, such a low-resolution dating method is inappropriate for estimating trends over recent decades. A major downward displacement of white spruce ( Picea glauca (Moench) Voss) and tamarack ( Larix laricina (DuRoi) K. Koch) occurred on protected shores as a response to shoreline retreat during this century. Analysis of the age distribution of trees indicates a progradation of white spruce and tamarack on gently sloping terrain ranging from 1.3 and 2.6 cm/yr, respectively, toward the sea. Improvement of climatic conditions during the 20th century favored such expansion which was probably faster than the real land emergence rates, but recent episodes of high water levels caused regression of forest margins over the highly exposed shores. Nevertheless, the downward trend of the treeline over this century substantiates the projections of 14C-dated coastal emergence curves during the modern period (1.0 to 1.3 cm/yr) by providing an estimate of the maximum rates of shoreline retreat.

  10. Coastal conduit in southwestern Hudson Bay (Canada) in summer: Rapid transit of freshwater and significant loss of colored dissolved organic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granskog, Mats A.; MacDonald, Robie W.; Kuzyk, Zou Zou A.; Senneville, Simon; Mundy, Christopher-John; Barber, David G.; Stern, Gary A.; Saucier, Francois

    2009-08-01

    Distributions of freshwater (sea-ice melt and runoff) were investigated along inshore-offshore sections in southwestern Hudson Bay for fall conditions. Conductivity-temperature-density profiles and bottle samples collected for salinity, oxygen isotope (δ18O), and colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) analyses were used to discriminate between contributions of river water (RW) and sea-ice melt (SIM). Stations had a fresh summer surface mixed layer 5-25 m thick overlying a cold subsurface layer indicative of the previous winter's polar mixed layer (PML). The fraction of RW decreased strongly with distance from shore, while the opposite was true for SIM. The majority of RW was constrained in a coastal domain within 100-150 km from shore, which, because of high alongshore velocities, accounts for the majority of freshwater and volume transports. On the basis of freshwater inventories and composition, brine and RW accumulate in the PML over winter because of ice formation and downward mixing. The summer surface circulation results in an annual net export of SIM from the region. Residence times for freshwater components in the southwestern sector of the bay, based on currents derived from a 3-D ocean model for Hudson Bay, are about 1-10 months, implying rapid transit of freshwater. Despite the short residence time for RW (1-3 months), CDOM is significantly photobleached and provides an unreliable tracer for RW. Photobleaching represents an important sink for dissolved organic carbon entering from rivers and could, in part, explain why Hudson Bay is only a minor sink for atmospheric CO2 in the open water season.

  11. Upscaling reflectance information of lichens and mosses using a singularity index: a case study of the Hudson Bay Lowlands, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Neta

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Assessing moisture contents of lichens and mosses using ground-based high spectral resolution spectrometers (400–2500 nm offers immense opportunities for a comprehensive monitoring of peatland moisture status by satellite/airborne imagery. This information may be valuable for present and future carbon balance modeling. Previous studies are based upon point measurements of vegetation moisture content and water table position, and therefore a detailed moisture status of entire northern peatlands is not available. Consequently, upscaling ground and remotely sensed data to the desired spatial resolutions is inevitable. This study continues our previous investigation of the impact of various moisture conditions of common sub-Arctic lichen and moss species (i.e., Cladina stellaris, Cladina rangiferina, Dicranum elongatum, and Tomenthypnum nitens upon the spectral signatures obtained in the Hudson Bay Lowlands, Canada. Upscaling reflectance measurements of the above species were conducted in the field, and reflectance analysis using a singularity index was made, since this study serves as a basis for future aircraft/satellite research. An attempt to upscale current and new spectral reflectance indices developed in our previous studies was made as well. Our findings indicate that the spectral index C. rangiferina is to a lesser amount influenced by scale since it has a small R2 values between the log of the index and the log of the resolution, reduced slopes between the log of the index and the log of the resolution, and similar slopes between log reflectance and log resolution (α of two wavelengths employed by the index. Future study should focus on concurrent monitoring of moisture variations in lichens and mosses both in situ and from satellite and airborne images, as well as analysis of fractal models in relations to the upscaling experiments.

  12. Future sea ice conditions in Western Hudson Bay and consequences for polar bears in the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro de la Guardia, Laura; Derocher, Andrew E; Myers, Paul G; Terwisscha van Scheltinga, Arjen D; Lunn, Nick J

    2013-09-01

    The primary habitat of polar bears is sea ice, but in Western Hudson Bay (WH), the seasonal ice cycle forces polar bears ashore each summer. Survival of bears on land in WH is correlated with breakup and the ice-free season length, and studies suggest that exceeding thresholds in these variables will lead to large declines in the WH population. To estimate when anthropogenic warming may have progressed sufficiently to threaten the persistence of polar bears in WH, we predict changes in the ice cycle and the sea ice concentration (SIC) in spring (the primary feeding period of polar bears) with a high-resolution sea ice-ocean model and warming forced with 21st century IPCC greenhouse gas (GHG) emission scenarios: B1 (low), A1B (medium), and A2 (high). We define critical years for polar bears based on proposed thresholds in breakup and ice-free season and we assess when ice-cycle conditions cross these thresholds. In the three scenarios, critical years occur more commonly after 2050. From 2001 to 2050, 2 critical years occur under B1 and A2, and 4 under A1B; from 2051 to 2100, 8 critical years occur under B1, 35 under A1B and 41 under A2. Spring SIC in WH is high (>90%) in all three scenarios between 2001 and 2050, but declines rapidly after 2050 in A1B and A2. From 2090 to 2100, the mean spring SIC is 84 (±7)% in B1, 56 (±26)% in A1B and 20 (±13)% in A2. Our predictions suggest that the habitat of polar bears in WH will deteriorate in the 21st century. Ice predictions in A1B and A2 suggest that the polar bear population may struggle to persist after ca. 2050. Predictions under B1 suggest that reducing GHG emissions could allow polar bears to persist in WH throughout the 21st century. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. The Energetic Value of Land-Based Foods in Western Hudson Bay and Their Potential to Alleviate Energy Deficits of Starving Adult Male Polar Bears.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda J Gormezano

    Full Text Available Climate change is predicted to expand the ice-free season in western Hudson Bay and when it grows to 180 days, 28-48% of adult male polar bears are projected to starve unless nutritional deficits can be offset by foods consumed on land. We updated a dynamic energy budget model developed by Molnar et al. to allow influx of additional energy from novel terrestrial foods (lesser snow geese, eggs, caribou that polar bears currently consume as part of a mixed diet while on land. We calculated the units of each prey, alone and in combination, needed to alleviate these lethal energy deficits under conditions of resting or limited movement (2 km d-1 prior to starvation. We further considered the total energy available from each sex and age class of each animal prey over the period they would overlap land-bound polar bears and calculated the maximum number of starving adult males that could be sustained on each food during the ice-free season. Our results suggest that the net energy from land-based food, after subtracting costs of limited movement to obtain it, could eliminate all projected nutritional deficits of starving adult male polar bears and likely other demographic groups as well. The hunting tactics employed, success rates as well as behavior and abundance of each prey will determine the realized energetic values for individual polar bears. Although climate change may cause a phenological mismatch between polar bears and their historical ice-based prey, it may simultaneously yield a new match with certain land-based foods. If polar bears can transition their foraging behavior to effectively exploit these resources, predictions for starvation-related mortality may be overestimated for western Hudson Bay. We also discuss potential complications with stable-carbon isotope studies to evaluate utilization of land-based foods by polar bears including metabolic effects of capture-related stress and consuming a mixed diet.

  14. The Energetic Value of Land-Based Foods in Western Hudson Bay and Their Potential to Alleviate Energy Deficits of Starving Adult Male Polar Bears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormezano, Linda J; Rockwell, Robert F

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is predicted to expand the ice-free season in western Hudson Bay and when it grows to 180 days, 28-48% of adult male polar bears are projected to starve unless nutritional deficits can be offset by foods consumed on land. We updated a dynamic energy budget model developed by Molnar et al. to allow influx of additional energy from novel terrestrial foods (lesser snow geese, eggs, caribou) that polar bears currently consume as part of a mixed diet while on land. We calculated the units of each prey, alone and in combination, needed to alleviate these lethal energy deficits under conditions of resting or limited movement (2 km d-1) prior to starvation. We further considered the total energy available from each sex and age class of each animal prey over the period they would overlap land-bound polar bears and calculated the maximum number of starving adult males that could be sustained on each food during the ice-free season. Our results suggest that the net energy from land-based food, after subtracting costs of limited movement to obtain it, could eliminate all projected nutritional deficits of starving adult male polar bears and likely other demographic groups as well. The hunting tactics employed, success rates as well as behavior and abundance of each prey will determine the realized energetic values for individual polar bears. Although climate change may cause a phenological mismatch between polar bears and their historical ice-based prey, it may simultaneously yield a new match with certain land-based foods. If polar bears can transition their foraging behavior to effectively exploit these resources, predictions for starvation-related mortality may be overestimated for western Hudson Bay. We also discuss potential complications with stable-carbon isotope studies to evaluate utilization of land-based foods by polar bears including metabolic effects of capture-related stress and consuming a mixed diet.

  15. Proceedings of a workshop on the potential cumulative impacts of development in the region of Hudson and James Bays, 17-19 June 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunch, J.N.; Reeves, R.R.

    1992-01-01

    An interdepartmental scientific workshop was held to begin developing a response by the Canadian Department of Fisheries and Oceans to concerns about cumulative environmental effects of development in the region of Hudson Bay and James Bay. Discussions at the workshop centered on the major hydroelectric projects that are proposed or under way in that region. The main product of the workshop was a series of working hypotheses referring to potential cumulative effects under four headings: physics; inorganic nutrients, organic carbon, and suspended matter fluxes; mercury and other contaminants; and biological resources. Several of the hypotheses, such as those concerning the direction of physical changes due to modification of the timing and location of freshwater discharge, problems of mercury mobilization and contamination, and decreased productivity of anadromous fish populations, were considered well-supported by available data. Other hypotheses, such as those related to primary and secondary productivity in estuarine and marine environments, effects on isolated populations of harbor seals and Atlantic salmon, and the likely responses of fish and marine mammals to altered conditions in estuaries, were judged as needing more focused research. 27 refs., 2 figs

  16. Limnological regime shifts caused by climate warming and Lesser Snow Goose population expansion in the western Hudson Bay Lowlands (Manitoba, Canada).

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Lauren A; Farquharson, Nicole; Merritt, Gillian; Fooks, Sam; Medeiros, Andrew S; Hall, Roland I; Wolfe, Brent B; Macrae, Merrin L; Sweetman, Jon N

    2015-02-01

    Shallow lakes are dominant features in subarctic and Arctic landscapes and are responsive to multiple stressors, which can lead to rapid changes in limnological regimes with consequences for aquatic resources. We address this theme in the coastal tundra region of Wapusk National Park, western Hudson Bay Lowlands (Canada), where climate has warmed during the past century and the Lesser Snow Goose (LSG; Chen caerulescens caerulescens) population has grown rapidly during the past ∽40 years. Integration of limnological and paleolimnological analyses documents profound responses of productivity, nutrient cycling, and aquatic habitat to warming at three ponds ("WAP 12", "WAP 20", and "WAP 21″), and to LSG disturbance at the two ponds located in an active nesting area (WAP 20, WAP 21). Based on multiparameter analysis of (210)Pb-dated sediment records from all three ponds, a regime shift occurred between 1875 and 1900 CE marked by a transition from low productivity, turbid, and nutrient-poor conditions of the Little Ice Age to conditions of higher productivity, lower nitrogen availability, and the development of benthic biofilm habitat as a result of climate warming. Beginning in the mid-1970s, sediment records from WAP 20 and WAP 21 reveal a second regime shift characterized by accelerated productivity and increased nitrogen availability. Coupled with 3 years of limnological data, results suggest that increased productivity at WAP 20 and WAP 21 led to atmospheric CO2 invasion to meet algal photosynthetic demand. This limnological regime shift is attributed to an increase in the supply of catchment-derived nutrients from the arrival of LSG and their subsequent disturbance to the landscape. Collectively, findings discriminate the consequences of warming and LSG disturbance on tundra ponds from which we identify a suite of sensitive limnological and paleolimnological measures that can be utilized to inform aquatic ecosystem monitoring.

  17. Demography of an apex predator at the edge of its range: impacts of changing sea ice on polar bears in Hudson Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunn, Nicholas J; Servanty, Sabrina; Regehr, Eric V; Converse, Sarah J; Richardson, Evan; Stirling, Ian

    2016-07-01

    Changes in the abundance and distribution of wildlife populations are common consequences of historic and contemporary climate change. Some Arctic marine mammals, such as the polar bear (Ursus maritimus), may be particularly vulnerable to such changes due to the loss of Arctic sea ice. We evaluated the impacts of environmental variation on demographic rates for the Western Hudson Bay (WH), polar bear subpopulation from 1984 to 2011 using live-recapture and dead-recovery data in a Bayesian implementation of multistate capture-recapture models. We found that survival of female polar bears was related to the annual timing of sea ice break-up and formation. Using estimated vital rates (e.g., survival and reproduction) in matrix projection models, we calculated the growth rate of the WH subpopulation and projected population responses under different environmental scenarios while accounting for parametric uncertainty, temporal variation, and demographic stochasticity. Our analysis suggested a long-term decline in the number of bears from 1185 (95% Bayesian credible interval [BCI] = 993-1411) in 1987 to 806 (95% BCI = 653-984) in 2011. In the last 10 yr of the study, the number of bears appeared stable due to temporary stability in sea ice conditions (mean population growth rate for the period 2001-2010 = 1.02, 95% BCI = 0.98-1.06). Looking forward, we estimated long-term growth rates for the WH subpopulation of ~1.02 (95% BCI = 1.00-1.05) and 0.97 (95% BCI = 0.92-1.01) under hypothetical high and low sea ice conditions, respectively. Our findings support previous evidence for a demographic linkage between sea ice conditions and polar bear population dynamics. Furthermore, we present a robust framework for sensitivity analysis with respect to continued climate change (e.g., to inform scenario planning) and for evaluating the combined effects of climate change and management actions on the status of wildlife populations. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of

  18. Demography of an apex predator at the edge of its range: impacts of changing sea ice on polar bears in Hudson Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunn, Nicholas J.; Servanty, Sabrina; Regehr, Eric V.; Converse, Sarah J.; Richardson, Evan S.; Stirling, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Changes in the abundance and distribution of wildlife populations are common consequences of historic and contemporary climate change. Some Arctic marine mammals, such as the polar bear (Ursus maritimus), may be particularly vulnerable to such changes due to the loss of Arctic sea ice. We evaluated the impacts of environmental variation on demographic rates for the Western Hudson Bay (WH), polar bear subpopulation from 1984 to 2011 using live-recapture and dead-recovery data in a Bayesian implementation of multistate capture–recapture models. We found that survival of female polar bears was related to the annual timing of sea ice break-up and formation. Using estimated vital rates (e.g., survival and reproduction) in matrix projection models, we calculated the growth rate of the WH subpopulation and projected population responses under different environmental scenarios while accounting for parametric uncertainty, temporal variation, and demographic stochasticity. Our analysis suggested a long-term decline in the number of bears from 1185 (95% Bayesian credible interval [BCI] = 993–1411) in 1987 to 806 (95% BCI = 653–984) in 2011. In the last 10 yr of the study, the number of bears appeared stable due to temporary stability in sea ice conditions (mean population growth rate for the period 2001–2010 = 1.02, 95% BCI = 0.98–1.06). Looking forward, we estimated long-term growth rates for the WH subpopulation of ~1.02 (95% BCI = 1.00–1.05) and 0.97 (95% BCI = 0.92–1.01) under hypothetical high and low sea ice conditions, respectively. Our findings support previous evidence for a demographic linkage between sea ice conditions and polar bear population dynamics. Furthermore, we present a robust framework for sensitivity analysis with respect to continued climate change (e.g., to inform scenario planning) and for evaluating the combined effects of climate change and management actions on the status of wildlife populations.

  19. The role of diet on long-term concentration and pattern trends of brominated and chlorinated contaminants in western Hudson Bay polar bears, 1991-2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinney, Melissa A.; Stirling, Ian; Lunn, Nick J.; Peacock, Elizabeth; Letcher, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Adipose tissue was sampled from the western Hudson Bay (WHB) subpopulation of polar bears at intervals from 1991 to 2007 to examine temporal trends of PCB and OCP levels both on an individual and sum-(Σ-)contaminant basis. We also determined levels and temporal trends of emerging polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) and other current-use brominated flame retardants. Over the 17-year period, Σ DDT (and p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDD, p,p'-DDT) decreased (-8.4%/year); α-hexachlorocyclohexane (α-HCH) decreased (-11%/year); β-HCH increased (+ 8.3%/year); and Σ PCB and Σ chlordane (CHL), both contaminants at highest concentrations in all years (> 1 ppm), showed no distinct trends even when compared to previous data for this subpopulation dating back to 1968. Some of the less persistent PCB congeners decreased significantly (-1.6%/year to -6.3%/year), whereas CB153 levels tended to increase (+ 3.3%/year). Parent CHLs (c-nonachlor, t-nonachlor) declined, whereas non-monotonic trends were detected for metabolites (heptachlor epoxide, oxychlordane). Σ chlorobenzene, octachlorostyrene, Σ mirex, Σ MeSO 2 -PCB and dieldrin did not significantly change. Increasing Σ PBDE levels (+ 13%/year) matched increases in the four consistently detected congeners, BDE47, BDE99, BDE100 and BDE153. Although no trend was observed, total-(α)-HBCD was only detected post-2000. Levels of the highest concentration brominated contaminant, BB153, showed no temporal change. As long-term ecosystem changes affecting contaminant levels may also affect contaminant patterns, we examined the influence of year (i.e., aging or 'weathering' of the contaminant pattern), dietary tracers (carbon stable isotope ratios, fatty acid patterns) and biological (age/sex) group on congener/metabolite profiles. Patterns of PCBs, CHLs and PBDEs were correlated with dietary tracers and biological group, but only PCB and CHL patterns were correlated with year

  20. Researcher Interview: Tom Hudson

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom Hudson, M.D., President and Scientific Director of the Ontario Institute for Cancer Research, describes the International Cancer Genome Consortium (ICGC), which brings together cancer genomic data and research from across the world.

  1. Hudson 3 essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Meinholz, Lloyd

    2013-01-01

    A practical guide, packed with illustrations, that will help you become proficient with Hudson and able to utilize it how you want.If you are a Java developer or administrator who would to like automate some of the mundane work required to build and test software and improve software quality, this is the book for you. If you are a development manager or tester, you can also benefit from learning how Hudson works by gaining some insight into test results and historical trends.

  2. 2010 Hudson River Shallow Water Sediment Cores

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Hudson River Shallow Water Mapping project characterizes the bottom of the Hudson River Estuary in shallow water (<3 m). The characterization includes...

  3. 77 FR 40518 - Swim Events in the Captain of the Port New York Zone; Hudson River, East River, Upper New York...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-10

    ... 1625-AA00 Swim Events in the Captain of the Port New York Zone; Hudson River, East River, Upper New York Bay, Lower New York Bay; New York, NY ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing seven temporary safety zones for swim events within the Captain of the Port (COTP) New York Zone. These...

  4. Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxins and tetrachlorodibenzofurans in Atlantic coast striped bass and in selected Hudson River fish, waterfowl and sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Keefe, P; Hilker, D; Meyer, C; Aldous, K; Shane, L; Donnelly, R; Smith, R; Sloan, R; Skinner, L; Horn, E

    1884-01-01

    In striped bass samples from the lower Hudson River and its estuary 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD) was found at concentrations from 16 to 120 pg/g (ppt). Striped bass from two other locations (Rhode Island coastal waters and Chesapeake Bay, Maryland) had <5 ppt, 2,3,7,8-TCDD. The contaminant, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (2,3,7,8-TCDF), was found in striped bass from all three locations with concentrations varying from 6 ppt in Chesapeake Bay to 78 ppt in the Hudson River. Results from a limited number of non-migratory fish (carp and goldfish) and sediments suggest that the upper Hudson River is not a source for 2,3,7,8-TCDD/2,3,7,8-TCDF contamination of striped bass. 26 references, 3 tables.

  5. 27 CFR 9.47 - Hudson River Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hudson River Region. 9.47... Hudson River Region. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Hudson River Region.” (b) Approved maps. The approved maps for determining the boundaries of Hudson River...

  6. Recent Changes in Arctic Sea Ice Melt Onset, Freeze-Up, and Melt Season Length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markus, Thorsten; Stroeve, Julienne C.; Miller, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    In order to explore changes and trends in the timing of Arctic sea ice melt onset and freeze-up and therefore melt season length, we developed a method that obtains this information directly from satellite passive microwave data, creating a consistent data set from 1979 through present. We furthermore distinguish between early melt (the first day of the year when melt is detected) and the first day of continuous melt. A similar distinction is made for the freeze-up. Using this method we analyze trends in melt onset and freeze-up for 10 different Arctic regions. In all regions except for the Sea of Okhotsk, which shows a very slight and statistically insignificant positive trend (O.4 days/decade), trends in melt onset are negative, i.e. towards earlier melt. The trends range from -1.0day/decade for the Bering Sea to -7.3 days/decade for the East Greenland Sea. Except for the Sea of Okhotsk all areas also show a trend towards later autumn freeze onset. The Chukchi/Beaufort Seas and Laptev/East Siberian Seas observe the strongest trends with 7 days/decade. For the entire Arctic, the melt season length has increased by about 20 days over the last 30 years. Largest trends of over 1O days/decade are seen for Hudson Bay, the East Greenland Sea the Laptev/East Siberian Seas, and the Chukchi/Beaufort Seas. Those trends are statistically significant a1 the 99% level.

  7. Babesiosis in Lower Hudson Valley, New York

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast discusses a study about an increase in babesiosis in the Lower Hudson Valley of New York state. Dr. Julie Joseph, Assistant Professor of Medicine at New York Medical College, shares details of this study.

  8. Hudson River Sub-Bottom Profile Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hudson River Estuary Shallow Water Surveys. Subbottom Profile Points. Subbottom data was collected November 5 to December 15, 2009, in the estuary north from...

  9. Evidence of Spatially Extensive Resistance to PCBs in an Anadromous Fish of the Hudson River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Zhanpeng; Courtenay, Simon; Chambers, R. Christopher; Wirgin, Isaac

    2006-01-01

    Populations of organisms that are chronically exposed to high levels of chemical contaminants may not suffer the same sublethal or lethal effects as naive populations, a phenomenon called resistance. Atlantic tomcod (Microgadus tomcod) from the Hudson River, New York, are exposed to high concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and bioaccumulate polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). They have developed resistance to PCBs and PCDDs but not to PAHs. Resistance is largely heritable and manifests at early-life-stage toxic end points and in inducibility of cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) mRNA expression. Because CYP1A induction is activated by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) pathway, as are most toxic responses to these compounds, we sought to determine the geographic extent of resistance to CYP1A mRNA induction by PCBs in the Hudson River tomcod population. Samples of young-of-the-year tomcod were collected from seven locales in the Hudson River, extending from the Battery at river mile 1 (RM 1) to RM 90, and from the Miramichi River, New Brunswick, Canada. Laboratory-reared offspring of tomcod adults from Newark Bay, in the western portion of the Hudson River estuary, were also used in this study. Fish were partially depurated in clean water and intraperitoneally injected with 10 ppm coplanar PCB-77, 10 ppm benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), or corn oil vehicle, and levels of CYP1A mRNA were determined. CYP1A was significantly inducible by treatment with BaP in tomcod from the Miramichi River, from laboratory-spawned offspring of Newark Bay origin, and from all Hudson River sites spanning 90 miles of river. In contrast, only tomcod from the Miramichi River displayed significantly induced CYP1A mRNA expression when treated with PCB-77. Our results suggest that the population of tomcod from throughout the Hudson River estuary has developed resistance to CYP1A inducibility and probably

  10. Freezing Bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingett, Christian; Ahmadi, Farzad; Nath, Saurabh; Boreyko, Jonathan

    2017-11-01

    The two-stage freezing process of a liquid droplet on a substrate is well known; however, how bubbles freeze has not yet been studied. We first deposited bubbles on a silicon substrate that was chilled at temperatures ranging from -10 °C to -40 °C, while the air was at room temperature. We observed that the freeze front moved very slowly up the bubble, and in some cases, even came to a complete halt at a critical height. This slow freezing front propagation can be explained by the low thermal conductivity of the thin soap film, and can be observed more clearly when the bubble size or the surface temperature is increased. This delayed freezing allows the frozen portion of the bubble to cool the air within the bubble while the top part is still liquid, which induces a vapor pressure mismatch that either collapses the top or causes the top to pop. In cases where the freeze front reaches the top of the bubble, a portion of the top may melt and slowly refreeze; this can happen more than just once for a single bubble. We also investigated freezing bubbles inside of a freezer where the air was held at -20 °C. In this case, the bubbles freeze quickly and the ice grows radially from nucleation sites instead of perpendicular to the surface, which provides a clear contrast with the conduction limited room temperature bubbles.

  11. Quantum random walks and their convergence to Evans–Hudson ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Quantum dynamical semigroup; Evans–Hudson flow; quantum random walk. 1. Introduction. The aim of this article is to investigate convergence of random walks on von Neumann algebra to Evans–Hudson flows. Here the random walks and Evans–Hudson flows are gene- ralizations of classical Markov chains and Markov ...

  12. 77 FR 22530 - Safety Zone; Fireworks, Hudson River, Rhinecliff, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-16

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Fireworks, Hudson River, Rhinecliff, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of... navigable waters of the Hudson River in the vicinity of Rhinecliff, NY for a fireworks display. This... fireworks displays. This rule is intended to restrict all vessels from a portion of the Hudson River before...

  13. Defining the Pen Islands Caribou Herd of southern Hudson Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth F. Abraham

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we describe the Pen Islands Herd of caribou, the largest aggregation of caribou in Ontario (it also occupies a portion of northeastern Manitoba. Photographic counts showed the herd had a minimum population of 2300 in 1979, 4660 in 1986, 7424 in 1987 and 10 798 in 1994. Throughout the 1980s, the Pen Islands caribou exhibited population behaviour similar to migratory barren-ground caribou herds, although morphology suggests they are woodland caribou or possibly a mixture of subspecies. The herd had well-defined traditional tundra calving grounds, formed nursery groups and large mobile post-calving aggregations, and migrated over 400 km between tundra summer habitats and boreal forest winter habitats. Its migration took it into three Canadian jurisdictions (Ontario, Manitoba, Northwest Territories and it was important to residents of both Manitoba and Ontario. It is clear that the herd should be managed as a migratory herd and the critical importance of both the coastal and variable large winter ranges should be noted in ensuring the herd's habitat needs are secure.

  14. Babesiosis in Lower Hudson Valley, New York

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-05-12

    This podcast discusses a study about an increase in babesiosis in the Lower Hudson Valley of New York state. Dr. Julie Joseph, Assistant Professor of Medicine at New York Medical College, shares details of this study.  Created: 5/12/2011 by National Center for Emerging Zoonotic and Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 5/23/2011.

  15. Stock characteristics of Hudson River striped bass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoff, T.B.; McLaren, J.B.; Cooper, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    Striped bass, because of their tremendous popularity both commercially and recreationally, were a principal focus of the Hudson River power plant case. Between 1976 and 1979, over 23,000 age-II and older striped bass were studied as one facet of an extensive research program on the spring population in the Hudson River. Samples were collected from the overwintering as well as the spawning portion of the striped bass population, and included immature as well as mature fish. At least 12 age-groups contributed to spawning each year. Of these 12, age-groups III, IV, and V usually were most abundant, but the percentage of the population represented by any single age-group varied as the result of fluctuations in year-class strength. Males first became sexually mature at age II and females at age IV. Fast-growing individuals within a year class tended to mature earlier. Fecundity increased with the size of fish, reaching an observed maximum of about 3 million eggs per female. Although significant annual variations in maturity and growth were detected for Hudson River striped bass, there was no evidence of a consistent change in either variable that might be associated with increasing power plant operations and a reduction in striped bass abundance. Age at maturity and age structure are the two life history components that differ the most between the Hudson River population and other striped bass populations. 36 refs., 7 tabs

  16. Dating sediment cores from Hudson River marshes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robideau, R.; Bopp, R.F.

    1993-01-01

    There are several methods for determining sediment accumulation rates in the Hudson River estuary. One involves the analysis of the concentration of certain radionuclides in sediment core sections. Radionuclides occur in the Hudson River as a result of: natural sources, fallout from nuclear weapons testing and low level aqueous releases from the Indian Point Nuclear Power Facility. The following radionuclides have been studied in the authors work: Cesium-137, which is derived from global fallout that started in the 1950's and has peaked in 1963. Beryllium-7, a natural radionuclide with a 53 day half-life and found associated with very recently deposited sediments. Another useful natural radionuclide is Lead-210 derived from the decay of Radon-222 in the atmosphere. Lead-210 has a half-life of 22 years and can be used to date sediments up to about 100 years old. In the Hudson River, Cobalt-60 is a marker for Indian Point Nuclear Reactor discharges. The author's research involved taking sediment core samples from four sites in the Hudson River Estuarine Research Reserve areas. These core samples were sectioned, dried, ground and analyzed for the presence of radionuclides by the method of gamma-ray spectroscopy. The strength of each current pulse is proportional to the energy level of the gamma ray absorbed. Since different radionuclides produce gamma rays of different energies, several radionuclides can be analyzed simultaneously in each of the samples. The data obtained from this research will be compared to earlier work to obtain a complete chronology of sediment deposition in these Reserve areas of the river. Core samples may then by analyzed for the presence of PCB's, heavy metals and other pollutants such as pesticides to construct a pollution history of the river

  17. A River Summer on the Hudson

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenna, T. C.; Pfirman, S.; Selleck, B.; Son, L.; Land, M.; Cronin, J.

    2006-12-01

    River Summer is a month-long faculty development program extending from the continental shelf off New York City to the headwaters of the Hudson in the Adirondack Mountains. During the program, faculty from the Environmental Consortium of Hudson Valley Colleges and Universities teach each other about the Hudson environment, using innovative methods of teaching and learning, with a focus on incorporation of hands-on approaches from the perspective of multiple disciplines. Over four weeks, faculty from research universities, community colleges, liberal arts institutions, and middle and high schools work and live together, on board a research vessel or in a remote tent campsite, for several days at a time. Using the geology, hydrology, and landscape of the River as a foundation, River Summer focuses on understanding development of the Hudson within the context of its natural resources and cultural history. Participants conduct field sampling and analyses and consider issues through approaches that are common to many disciplines: scaling for problem solving; sampling and assessing bias and representation; observing and documenting; representing and depicting; interpretation and assessing relationships and causality; and evaluation. They also get a chance to experience, first-hand, the complexity and often open-ended nature of doing science. By allowing individuals, many of whom come from non-science disciplines, to experience these methods and processes in a safe learning environment, science is made more meaningful and accessible. The program's pedagogy is based on the principles of cognitive psychology and immersive field-, place- and inquiry-based learning. Field programs have been found to provide memorable, transformative experiences for undergraduate students, and our experience with River Summer 2005 and 2006 suggests they are equally effective with faculty. Evaluation shows that River Summer has a significant impact on its participants. Participants develop new

  18. SOLAR PANELS ON HUDSON COUNTY FACILITIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BARRY, KEVIN

    2014-06-06

    This project involved the installation of an 83 kW grid-connected photovoltaic system tied into the energy management system of Hudson County's new 60,000 square foot Emergency Operations and Command Center and staff offices. Other renewable energy features of the building include a 15 kW wind turbine, geothermal heating and cooling, natural daylighting, natural ventilation, gray water plumbing system and a green roof. The County intends to seek Silver LEED certification for the facility.

  19. Let's Bet on Sediments! Hudson Canyon Cruise--Grades 9-12. Focus: Sediments of Hudson Canyon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (DOC), Rockville, MD.

    These activities are designed to teach about the sediments of Hudson Canyon. Students investigate and analyze the patterns of sedimentation in the Hudson Canyon, observe how heavier particles sink faster than finer particles, and learn that submarine landslides are avalanches of sediment in deep ocean canyons. The activity provides learning…

  20. Impact of impingement on the Hudson River white perch population. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnthouse, L.W.; Van Winkle, W.; Kirk, B.L.; Vaughan, D.S.

    1982-02-01

    This report summarizes a series of analyses of the magnitude and biological significance of the impingement of white perch at the Indian Point Nuclear Generating Station and other Hudson River power plants. Included in these analyses were evaluations of: (1) two independent lines of evidence relating to the magnitude of impingement impacts on the Hudson River white perch population; (2) the additional impact caused by entrainment of white perch; (3) data relating to density-dependent growth among young-of-the-year white perch; (4) the feasibility of performing population-level analyses of impingement impacts on the white perch populations of Chesapeake Bay and the Delaware River; and (5) the feasibility of using simple food chain and food web models to evaluate community-level effects of impingement and entrainment. Estimated reductions in the abundances of the 1974 and 1975 white perch year classes, caused by impingement and entrainment, were high enough that the possibility of adverse long-term effects cannot be excluded.

  1. Radionuclides at the Hudson Canyon disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schell, W.R.; Nevissi, A.E.

    1983-01-01

    A sampling and analytical program was initiated in June 1978 to measure radionuclides in water, sediments, and biota collected at the deepwater (4000 m) radioactive waste disposal site at the mouth of the Hudson Canyon 350km off New York Harbor in the western Atlantic Ocean. Plutonium, americium, cesium, strontium, and uranium series isotopes were measured in selected samples; the /sup 210/Pb data were used to give sedimentation and mixing rates in the upper sediment layers. The results showed that /sup 137/Cs, /sup 239,240/Pu, and /sup 238/Pu were found at low concentrations in the skin, viscera, and stomach contents for some of the fish collected. Significant concentrations of /sup 241/Am were found in tissues of the common rattail Coryphaenoides (Macrouridae) collected at the disposal site, suggesting a local source for this radionuclide and biological accumulation. The edible muscle of this fish contained less than 2.6 x 10/sup -5/ Bq g/sup -1/ (dry wt) of /sup 239,240/Pu. Radionuclides measured in sediment-core profiles showed that mixing occurred to depths of 16 cm and that variable sedimentation or mixing rates, or both, exist at 4000 m deep. Radionuclide deposition near the canisters was not found to be significantly higher than the expected fallout levels at 4000 m deep. At the mouth of the Hudson Canyon variable sedimentation and mixing rates were found using the natural unsupported /sup 210/Pb tracer values; these variable rates were attributed to sediment transport by the currents and to bioturbation

  2. Habitat Mapping Cruise - Hudson Canyon (HB0904, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Objectives are to: 1) perform multibeam mapping of transitional and deepwater habitats in Hudson Canyon (off New Jersey) with the National Institute of Undersea...

  3. Distributions of polyhalogenated compounds in Hudson River (New York, USA) fish in relation to human uses along the river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, Lawrence C.

    2011-01-01

    PCBs (as Aroclor concentrations) have been extensively examined in fish along the Hudson River, but other xenobiotic chemicals in fish have had limited assessment. This study determined concentrations and congener distributions of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polybrominated and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs and PCDD/Fs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in smallmouth bass and striped bass taken from a 385 km reach of the Hudson River. Concentrations of PBDEs and PCBs in smallmouth bass, and PCBs in striped bass, were positively related to human uses of the compounds in the basin. Generally low levels of PCDD/Fs were found. One striped bass, however, contained elevated 2,3,7,8-TCDD, indicating exposure to a known source in the adjacent Newark Bay-Passaic River basin. PBDDs were generally below detection. PBDFs were present in four of 18 smallmouth bass, but were not detected in striped bass. Dioxin-like PCBs contribute most to 2,3,7,8-TCDD toxic equivalents in 29 of 30 samples. - Highlights: → In the Hudson River, → PBDEs in smallmouth bass follow human population patterns, but do not for striped bass. → Proximity to known PCB sources govern PCB levels and patterns in fish. → PBDFs were in smallmouth bass but not striped bass. PBDDs were present in one fish. → PCDD/Fs were low in 29 of 30 fish. A 2,3,7,8-TCDD source affected one striped bass. → PCBs contribute most to 2,3,7,8-TCDD toxic equivalents in 29 of 30 samples. - Residues of polyhalogenated compounds in resident and migratory fish from the Hudson River are compared with human uses of the compounds in the river basin.

  4. Distributions of polyhalogenated compounds in Hudson River (New York, USA) fish in relation to human uses along the river

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skinner, Lawrence C., E-mail: lxskinne@gw.dec.state.ny.us [New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, 625 Broadway, Albany, NY 12233 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    PCBs (as Aroclor concentrations) have been extensively examined in fish along the Hudson River, but other xenobiotic chemicals in fish have had limited assessment. This study determined concentrations and congener distributions of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polybrominated and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs and PCDD/Fs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in smallmouth bass and striped bass taken from a 385 km reach of the Hudson River. Concentrations of PBDEs and PCBs in smallmouth bass, and PCBs in striped bass, were positively related to human uses of the compounds in the basin. Generally low levels of PCDD/Fs were found. One striped bass, however, contained elevated 2,3,7,8-TCDD, indicating exposure to a known source in the adjacent Newark Bay-Passaic River basin. PBDDs were generally below detection. PBDFs were present in four of 18 smallmouth bass, but were not detected in striped bass. Dioxin-like PCBs contribute most to 2,3,7,8-TCDD toxic equivalents in 29 of 30 samples. - Highlights: > In the Hudson River, > PBDEs in smallmouth bass follow human population patterns, but do not for striped bass. > Proximity to known PCB sources govern PCB levels and patterns in fish. > PBDFs were in smallmouth bass but not striped bass. PBDDs were present in one fish. > PCDD/Fs were low in 29 of 30 fish. A 2,3,7,8-TCDD source affected one striped bass. > PCBs contribute most to 2,3,7,8-TCDD toxic equivalents in 29 of 30 samples. - Residues of polyhalogenated compounds in resident and migratory fish from the Hudson River are compared with human uses of the compounds in the river basin.

  5. Survival of fishes after impingement on traveling screens at Hudson River power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muessig, P.H.; Hutchison, J.B.; King, L.R.; Ligotino, R.J.; Daley, M.

    1988-01-01

    The survival of Hudson River fishes, juveniles and adults, after they had been impinged on continuously rotated traveling screens at the Bowline Point and Danskammer Point power plants was examined. Survival of principal species was similar at the two plants, and estimates of survival improved as monitoring stress was reduced. Adjusted for survival of control fish, survival over 84-108 h after fish were recovered from the screens was highest for Atlantic tomcod, striped bass, and white perch (50-90%) and lowest for bay anchovy, alewife, and blueback herring; other species showed intermediate survival. Survival of striped bass and white perch was positively correlated with water temperature in winter and with conductivity in spring and fall. Continual rotation of the screens, which shortens the average time that fish are impinged, increased survival over that associated with intermittent rotation. 24 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs

  6. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the LOUIS S. ST. LAURENT in the Baffin Bay, Davis Strait and others from 1997-08-03 to 1997-08-18 (NODC Accession 0114432)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0114432 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from LOUIS S. ST. LAURENT in the Baffin Bay, Davis Strait, Hudson...

  7. Freezing for Love

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carroll, Katherine; Kroløkke, Charlotte

    2018-01-01

    The promise of egg freezing for women’s fertility preservation entered feminist debate in connection with medical and commercial control over, and emancipation from, biological reproduction restrictions. In this paper we explore how women negotiate and make sense of the decision to freeze...... their eggs. Our analysis draws on semi-structured interviews with 16 women from the Midwest and East Coast regions of the USA who froze their eggs. Rather than freezing to balance career choices and ‘have it all’, the women in this cohort were largely ‘freezing for love’ and in the hope of having their ‘own...... healthy baby’. This finding extends existing feminist scholarship and challenges bioethical concerns about egg freezing by drawing on the voices of women who freeze their eggs. By viewing egg freezing as neither exclusively liberation nor oppression or financial exploitation, this study casts egg freezing...

  8. Surface freezing of water

    OpenAIRE

    P?rez-D?az, J. L.; ?lvarez-Valenzuela, M. A.; Rodr?guez-Celis, F.

    2016-01-01

    Freezing, melting, evaporation and condensation of water are essential ingredients for climate and eventually life on Earth. In the present work, we show how surface freezing of supercooled water in an open container is conditioned and triggered?exclusively?by humidity in air. Additionally, a change of phase is demonstrated to be triggered on the water surface forming surface ice crystals prior to freezing of bulk. The symmetry of the surface crystal, as well as the freezing point, depend on ...

  9. 75 FR 76943 - Regulated Navigation Area; Hudson River South of the Troy Locks, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-10

    ...-AA11 Regulated Navigation Area; Hudson River South of the Troy Locks, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... Navigation Area (RNA) on the navigable waters of the Hudson River in New York, south of the Troy Locks. This... within the waters of the Hudson River south of the Troy Locks when ice is a threat to navigation. DATES...

  10. 75 FR 8486 - Regulated Navigation Area; Hudson River south of the Troy Locks, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-25

    ...-AA11 Regulated Navigation Area; Hudson River south of the Troy Locks, New York AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... area on the navigable waters of the Hudson River south of the Troy Locks. This regulated navigation... Hudson River south of the Troy locks when ice conditions are 8 inches or greater unless authorized by the...

  11. 76 FR 8654 - Regulated Navigation Area; Hudson River South of the Troy Locks, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-15

    ...-AA11 Regulated Navigation Area; Hudson River South of the Troy Locks, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... navigable waters of the Hudson River in New York, south of the Troy Locks. This action is necessary to... Hudson River south of the Troy Locks when ice is a threat to navigation. DATES: This rule is effective in...

  12. Zirconium/niobium-95 determined in Hudson River water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linsalata, P.; Cohen, N.

    1982-01-01

    Zirconium 95 and Niobium 95 are the fission products detected in greatest abundance in Hudson River water following the atmospheric testing of a nuclear device in N.W. China in 1980. Water samples, collected continuously and on a 'grab' basis, and processed monthly, have been studied to determine 95 Zr and 95 Nb concentrations, and plotted against collection time. Total precipitation values for each month, averaged over the whole Hudson River are also plotted. Airborne concentration data were obtained from sites in Lower Manhattan and Chester, N.J. A maximum value for 95 Zr in the Hudson River was found for February 1981. Half-time removal of 95 Zr from water was also calculated. (U.K.)

  13. Estimates of entrainment mortality for striped bass and other fish species inhabiting the Hudson River estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boreman, J.; Goodyear, C.P.

    1988-01-01

    An empirically derived age-, time-, and space-variant equation was used to estimate entrainment mortality at power plants for seven fish species inhabiting the Hudson River estuary. Entrainment mortality is expressed as a conditional rate, which is the fractional reduction in year-class strength due to entrainment if other sources of mortality are density-independent. Estimates of the conditional entrainment mortality, based on historical and projected once-through cooling operation of five power plants, were 11-22% for striped bass, 11-17% for white perch, 5-7% for Atlantic tomcod, 14-21% for American shad, 4-11% for river herring (alewife and blueback herring combined), and 35-79% for bay anchovy. Closed-cycle cooling (natural-draft cooling towers) at three of the power plants (Indian Point, Bowline Point, and Roseton) would reduce entrainment mortality of striped bass by 50-80%, of white perch by 75-80%, of Atlantic tocod by 65-70%, of American shad by 80%, of river herring by 30-90%, and of bay anchovy by 45-80%. The life stages most vulnerable to entrainment mortality were post-yolk-sac larva and entrainable size juvenile. 18 refs., 7 tabs

  14. Impact of entrainment and impingement on fish populations in the Hudson River estuary. Volume I. Entrainment-impact estimates for six fish populations inhabiting the Hudson River estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boreman, J.; Barnthouse, L.W.; Vaughn, D.S.; Goodyear, C.P.; Christensen, S.W.; Kumar, K.D.; Kirk, B.L.; Van Winkle, W.

    1982-01-01

    This volume is concerned with the estimation of the direct (or annual) entrainment impact of power plants on populations of striped bass, white perch, Alosa spp. (blueback herring and alewife), American shad, Atlantic tomcod, and bay anchovy in the Hudson River estuary. Entrainment impact results from the killing of fish eggs, larvae, and young juveniles that are contained in the cooling water cycled through a power plant. An Empirical Transport Model (ETM) is presented as the means of estimating a conditional entrainment mortality rate (defined as the fraction of a year class which would be killed due to entrainment in the absence of any other source of mortality). Most of this volume is concerned with the estimation of several parameters required by the ETM: physical input parameters (e.g., power-plant withdrawal flow rates); the longitudinal distribution of ichthyoplankton in time and space; the duration of susceptibility of the vulnerable organisms; the W-factors, which express the ratios of densities of organisms in power plant intakes to densities of organisms in the river; and the entrainment mortality factors (f-factors), which express the probability that an organism will be killed if it is entrained. Once these values are obtained, the ETM is used to estimate entrainment impact for both historical and projected conditions

  15. Hudson River cooling tower proceeding: Interface between science and law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergen, G.S.P.

    1988-01-01

    As the Hudson River power plant case proceeded, the regulatory ground shifted under the utility companies. At first, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) contended that the utilities should build expensive closed-cycle cooling towers at three plants to minimize the plants' discharge of heated effluents to the river. When the formal hearing began, however, EPA claimed that cooling towers were needed to minimize the number of organisms impinged at and entrained through the plants. The Hudson River proceeding became a policy dispute over what the appropriate standard of environmental conduct should be, instead of a determination of whether a standard had been met or not. Such policy issues, which arise when legal precedent has yet to be developed for new laws like the Clean Water Act, are better addressed by a rule-making proceeding than by the adjudicatory hearing format used in the Hudson case. A rule-making proceeding would have markedly shortened the Hudson deliberations, probably without substantive change in the final settlement, and is recommended for future cases in which ambiguity in legislation or the lack of precedent has left policy matters unresolved. 2 refs

  16. 3 CFR - Pay Freeze

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pay Freeze Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Memorandum of January 21, 2009 Pay Freeze Memorandum for the Assistant to the President and Chief... the White House staff forgo pay increases until further notice. Accordingly, as a signal of our shared...

  17. The Freezing Bomb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Allan

    2010-01-01

    The extreme pressures that are generated when water freezes were traditionally demonstrated by sealing a small volume in a massive cast iron "bomb" and then surrounding it with a freezing mixture of ice and salt. This vessel would dramatically fail by brittle fracture, but no quantitative measurement of bursting pressure was available. Calculation…

  18. Surface freezing of water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Díaz, J L; Álvarez-Valenzuela, M A; Rodríguez-Celis, F

    2016-01-01

    Freezing, melting, evaporation and condensation of water are essential ingredients for climate and eventually life on Earth. In the present work, we show how surface freezing of supercooled water in an open container is conditioned and triggered-exclusively-by humidity in air. Additionally, a change of phase is demonstrated to be triggered on the water surface forming surface ice crystals prior to freezing of bulk. The symmetry of the surface crystal, as well as the freezing point, depend on humidity, presenting at least three different types of surface crystals. Humidity triggers surface freezing as soon as it overpasses a defined value for a given temperature, generating a plurality of nucleation nodes. An evidence of simultaneous nucleation of surface ice crystals is also provided.

  19. Freeze drying method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coppa, N.V.; Stewart, P.; Renzi, E.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention provides methods and apparatus for freeze drying in which a solution, which can be a radioactive salt dissolved within an acid, is frozen into a solid on vertical plates provided within a freeze drying chamber. The solid is sublimated into vapor and condensed in a cold condenser positioned above the freeze drying chamber and connected thereto by a conduit. The vertical positioning of the cold condenser relative to the freeze dryer helps to help prevent substances such as radioactive materials separated from the solution from contaminating the cold condenser. Additionally, the system can be charged with an inert gas to produce a down rush of gas into the freeze drying chamber to also help prevent such substances from contaminating the cold condenser

  20. Selective analysis of power plant operation on the Hudson River with emphasis on the Bowline Point Generating Station. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnthouse, L.W.; Cannon, J.B.; Christensen, S.G.

    1977-07-01

    Because of the location of the Bowline, Roseton, and Indian Point power generating facilities in the low-salinity zone of the Hudson estuary, operation of these plants with the present once-through cooling systems will adversely influence the fish populations that use the area for spawning and initial periods of growth and development. Recruitment rates and standing crops of several fish species may be lowered in response to the increased mortality caused by entrainment of nonscreenable eggs and larvae and by impingement of screenable young of the year. Entrainment and impingement data are particularly relevant for assessing which fish species have the greatest potential for being adversely affected by operation of Bowline, Roseton, and Indian Point with once-through cooling. These data from each of these three plants suggest that the six species that merit the greatest consideration are striped bass, white perch, tomcod, alewife, blueback herring, and bay anchovy. Two points of view are available for assessing the relative importance of the fish species in the Hudson River. From the fisheries point of view, the only two species of major importance are striped bass and shad. From the fish-community and ecosystem point of view, the dominant species, as determined by seasonal and regional standing crops (in numbers and biomass per hectare), are the six species most commonly entrained and impinged, namely, striped bass, white perch, tomcod, alewife, blueback herring, and anchovy

  1. Impact of impingement on the Hudson River white perch population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnthouse, L.W.; Van Winkle, W.

    1980-01-01

    The impact of power plant impingement on the 1974 and 1975 year classes of the Hudson River white perch population is assessed using a simple model derived from Ricker's theory of fisheries dynamics. The impact of impingement is expressed in the model as the conditional mortality rate, rather than as the more commonly used exploitation rate. Since the calculated impact is sensitive to errors in the estimation of population size and total mortality, ranges of probable values of these quantities are used to compute upper and lower bounds on the fractional reduction in abundance of each year class. Best estimates of abundance and mortality are used to compute the conditional impingement mortality rate separately for each plant and month. The results are used to assess the relative impacts of white perch impingement at six Hudson River power plants and to identify the seasons during which the impact is highest

  2. Hudson River settlement agreement: Technical rationale and cost considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnthouse, L.W.; Boreman, J.; Englert, T.L.; Kirk, W.L.; Horn, E.G.

    1988-01-01

    In an effort to end litigation over open-cycle cooling at Hudson River power plants, out-of-court negotiations began in August 1979. On December 19, 1980, an agreement that was acceptable to all parties was reached. As an alternative to building cooling towers at the Indian Point, Bowline Point, and Roseton generating stations, the utilities agreed to a variety of technical and operational changes intended to reduce entrainment and impingement. In addition, they agreed to supplement the production of striped bass in the Hudson River estuary by means of a hatchery, to conduct a biological monitoring program, and to fund an independent research foundation for study of Hudson River environmental problems. Although the settlement costs were substantial, they were much smaller than the estimated costs of constructing and operating cooling towers. The settlement was expected to provide 15-43% of the impact reduction that might have been obtained with cooling at approximately 10% of the cost. 20 refs., 3 tabs

  3. Polymerization with freezing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Naim, E; Krapivsky, P L

    2005-01-01

    Irreversible aggregation processes involving reactive and frozen clusters are investigated using the rate equation approach. In aggregation events, two clusters join irreversibly to form a larger cluster; additionally, reactive clusters may spontaneously freeze. Frozen clusters do not participate in merger events. Generally, freezing controls the nature of the aggregation process, as demonstrated by the final distribution of frozen clusters. The cluster mass distribution has a power-law tail, F k ∼k -γ , when the freezing process is sufficiently slow. Different exponents, γ = 1 and 3, are found for the constant and the product aggregation rates, respectively. For the latter case, the standard polymerization model, either no gels, or a single gel, or even multiple gels, may be produced

  4. Replication of Annual Cycles in Mn in Hudson River Cores: Mn Peaks During High Water Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, D. H.; Hutson, D.; Marrero, A. M.; Block, K. A.; Chang, C.; Cai, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Using the results from an ITRAX, XRF scanner, we previously reported apparent annual cycles in Mn in a single, high sedimentation rate Hudson River core, LWB1-8, taken off Yonkers, NY (Carlson et al., 2016). We replicated these results in three more high sedimentation rate cores and found stratigraphic markers that verify our inferences about the annual nature of the Mn cycles. The three new cores are LWB4-5 taken off Peekskill, NY, and LWB3-44 and LWB3-25, both taken in Haverstraw Bay. The cores are from water depths of 7-9 meters and all have high magnetic susceptibilities (typically > 30 cgs units) in their upper 1 to 2 meters. The high susceptibilities are primarily produced by magnetite from modern industrial combustion. One core, LWB1-8, has reconnaissance Cs dates that verify the annual nature of the cycles. More Cs dates are expected before the meeting. We developed several new methods of verifying the annual nature of our layer counts. The first is looking at the grain size distribution and age of layers with unusually high Mn peaks. Peaks in Si, Ni and Ti and peaks in percentage of coarse material typically accompany the peaks in Mn. Some are visible as yellow sandy layers. The five highest peaks in Mn in LWB1-8 have layer counted ages that correspond (within 1 year in the top meter and within 2 years in the bottom meter) to 1996, 1948, 1913, 1857 and 1790. The latter three events are the three largest historical spring freshets on the Hudson. 1996 is a year of unusually high flow rate during the spring freshet. Based on our work and previous work on Mn cycling in rivers, we infer that the peaks in Mn are produced by extreme erosional events that erode sediment and release pore water Mn into the water column. The other methods of testing our chronology involve marine storms that increase Ca and Sr and a search for fragments of the Peekskill meteorite that fell in October 1992. More information on the latter will be available by the meeting.

  5. 78 FR 20169 - Notice of Availability of an Environmental Assessment for the Proposed Hudson Yards Concrete...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    ... Environmental Assessment for the Proposed Hudson Yards Concrete Casing Project in New York, New York AGENCY... of Availability of Environmental Assessment for the Hudson Yards Concrete Casing Construction... the construction of an underground concrete casing to preserve a right-of- way (ROW) (the proposed...

  6. 75 FR 38714 - Safety Zone; Macy's Fourth of July Fireworks Display, Hudson River, New York, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-06

    ... is scheduled to occur on the waters of the Hudson River. This temporary safety zone is necessary to... public notification. Although the temporary safety zone will apply to the entire width of the river... establishment of a temporary safety zone on a portion of the Hudson River during the launching of fireworks. An...

  7. Comments on James D. Brown and Thom Hudson's "The Alternatives in Language Assessment."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruton, Anthony; Brown, James Dean; Hudson, Thom

    1999-01-01

    Anthony Bruton comments on Brown and Hudson's article "The Alternatives in Language Assessment," (v32 n4 Win 1998). Raises questions about some of their definitions and categories and suggests additional items that need to be considered by test takers. Brown and Hudson reply with clarifications of terms and definition of the scope of their paper.…

  8. 33 CFR 165.162 - Safety Zone: New York Super Boat Race, Hudson River, New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety Zone: New York Super Boat Race, Hudson River, New York. 165.162 Section 165.162 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 165.162 Safety Zone: New York Super Boat Race, Hudson River, New York. (a) Regulated area. The...

  9. 77 FR 41271 - Safety Zone; Newburgh to Beacon Swim, Newburgh, Hudson River, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    ... 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Newburgh to Beacon Swim, Newburgh, Hudson River, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... navigable waters of the Hudson River, NY in the vicinity of Newburgh, NY for the annual Newburgh Beacon Swim... Beacon Swim is an annual recurring event that has a permanent safety zone found at 33 CFR 165.160. The...

  10. The Hudson River Plume: Exploring Human Impact on the Coastal Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonnell, Janice; Duncan, Ravit; Lichtenwalner, C. Sage; Dunbar, Laura

    2010-01-01

    The Hudson River Watershed contains a variety of geologic, topographic, climatic, and hydrologic features and a diversity of land-use patterns--making it an ideal model for studying human impact on the coastal environment. In this article, the authors present the Hudson River Plume (HRP), a problem-based online module that explores nonpoint-source…

  11. 33 CFR 207.50 - Hudson River Lock at Troy, N.Y.; navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hudson River Lock at Troy, N.Y..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.50 Hudson River Lock at Troy, N.Y.; navigation. (a...) [Reserved] (n) Trespass on U.S. property. Trespass on U.S. property, or willful injury to the banks, masonry...

  12. 78 FR 31454 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Hudson River, Troy and Green Island, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-24

    ...-AA09 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Hudson River, Troy and Green Island, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... that governs the highway bridge (Troy Green Island) across the Hudson River, mile 152.7, between Troy... the regulations for the 112th Street Bridge, mile 155.4, between Troy and Cohoes which has been...

  13. 78 FR 56607 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Hudson River, Troy and Green Island, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-13

    ...-AA09 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Hudson River, Troy and Green Island, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... operation of the highway bridge across the Hudson River, mile 152.7, between Troy and Green Island, New York... Street Bridge, mile 155.4, between Troy and Cohoes which has been converted to a fixed bridge. It is...

  14. Transport of fallout and reactor radionuclides in the drainage basin of the Hudson River estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, H.J.; Linsalata, P.; Olsen, C.R.

    1982-01-01

    The transport and fate of Strontium 90, Cesium 137 and Plutonium 239, 240 in the Hudson River Estuary is discussed. Rates of radionuclide deposition and accumulation over time and space are calculated for the Hudson River watershed, estuary, and continental shelf offshore. 37 references, 7 figures, 15 tables

  15. Primula latifolia Lapeyr. and Primula vulgaris Hudson flavonoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Paola S; Flamini, Guido; Fico, Gelsomina

    2014-01-01

    Three flavonoids were isolated from the leaf MeOH extracts of Primula latifolia Lapeyr. and Primula vulgaris Hudson collected from Italian Alps: rutin (1) and kaempferol 3-neohesperidoside (2) from P. latifolia, and kaempferol 3-β-O-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 2) gentiobioside (3) from P. vulgaris. The structures were assigned on the basis of their (1)H and (13)C NMR data, including those derived from 2D NMR, as well as on HPLC-MS results. This article is the first to report on P. vulgaris tissue flavonoids after Harborne's study in 1968 and the first work ever on these compounds from P. latifolia.

  16. Benthic bacterial biomass and production in the Hudson River estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austin, H.K.; Findlay, S.E.G.

    1989-01-01

    Bacterial biomass, production, and turnover were determined for two freshwater march sites and a site in the main river channel along the tidally influenced Hudson River. The incorporation of [methyl- 3 H]thymidine into DNA was used to estimate the growth rate of surface and anaerobic bacteria. Bacterial production at marsh sites was similar to, and in some cases considerably higher than, production estimates reported for other aquatic wetland and marine sediment habitats. Production averaged 1.8-2.8 mg C·m -2 · hour -1 in marsh sediments. Anaerobic bacteria in marsh sediment incorporated significant amounts of [methyl- 3 H]thymidine into DNA. Despite differences in dominant vegatation and tidal regime, bacterial biomass was similar (1 x 10 3 ± 0.08 mg C·m -2 ) in Trapa, Typha, and Nuphar aquatic macrophyte communities. Bacterial abundance and productivity were lower in sandy sediments associated with Scirpus communities along the Hudson River (0.2 x 10 3 ± 0.05 mg C·m -2 and 0.3 ± 0.23 mg C · m -2 · hour -1 , respectively)

  17. Natural radiation dose to Gammarus from Hudson river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschoa, A.S.; Wrenn, M.E.; Eisenbud, M.

    1979-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to evaluate the natural radiation dose rate to whole body and components of the Gammarus species, a zooplankton which occurs in the Hudson River among other places, and to compare the results with the upper limits of dose rates from man-made sources. The alpha dose rates to the exoskeleton and soft tissues are about 10 times the average alpha dose rate to the whole body, assuming uniform distribution of 226 Ra. The natural alpha radiation dose rate to Gammarus represents only about 5% of the total natural dose to the organism, i.e., 492 mrad/yr. The external dose rate due to 40 K, 238 U plus daughters and 232 Th plus daughters accumulated in the sediments comprise 91% of that total natural dose rate, the remaining percentage being due to natural internal beta emitters and cosmic radiation. Man-made sources can cause an external dose rate up to 224 mrad/yr, which comprises roughly 1/3 of the total dose rate (up to 716 mrad/yr; natural plus man-made) to the Gammarus of Hudson River in front of Indian Point Nuclear Power Station. However, in terms of dose-equivalent the natural sources of radiation would contribute more than 75% of the total dose to Gammarus

  18. Historical development of entrainment models for Hudson River striped bass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, S.W.; Englert, T.L.

    1988-01-01

    In the mid-1960s, concerns surfaced regarding entrainment and impingement of young-of-the-year (age-0) striped bass by electric power generating facilities on the Hudson River. These concerns stimulated the development of increasingly complex models to evaluate the impacts of these facilities. The earliest simplistic formulas, based on empirical data, proved inadequate because of conceptual shortcomings, incomplete development, and lack of data. By 1972, complex transport models based on biological and hydrodynamic principles had been developed and applied by scientists representing both the utilities and the government. Disagreements about the acceptability of these models spurred the development of even more complex models. The entrainment models stimulated the collection of substantial amounts of field data to define the spatial distributions and entrainment survival of early life stages. As the difficulties of accounting for the movement of early life stages from hydrodynamic principles became more evident and as more field data became available, simpler empirical modeling approaches became both practical and defensible. Both empirical and hydrodynamic modeling approaches were applied during the US Environmental Protection Agency's hearings on the Hudson River power case (1977-1980). The main lessons learned from the experience with entrainment-impingement modeling are that complex mechanistic models are not necessarily better than simpler empirical models for young fish, and that care must be taken to construct even the simple models correctly. 29 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  19. Sea Level, Land Motion, and the Anomalous Tide at Churchill, Hudson Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, R. D.

    2015-12-01

    The importance of the tide gauge at Churchill, Manitoba, cannot be overstated. It is the only permanently operating tide gauge in the central Canadian Arctic, and it sits on a prime spot for monitoring the mantle's rebound from the Laurentide ice loss. Yet interpretation of the sea-level time series at Churchill has long been problematic, going back even to early work by Gutenberg in the 1940s. The long-term relative sea-level rates are inconsistent: approximately -4, -19, -5 ± 1 mm/y for the periods 1940-1970, 1970-1990, 1990-2014 respectively. Annual mean high water (MHW) and mean low water (MLW) reflect these trends until around 1990, after which MLW leveled off and is now nearly unchanging. Slightly later, around 2000, the semidiurnal tides became very anomalous, with falling amplitudes and slightly increasing phase lags. The amplitude of M2 was approximately 154 cm before 2000; it dropped to about 146 cm by 2010 and reached an all-time low of 142 cm in 2014. Satellite altimeter estimates of the tide in this region, although challenging because of seasonal ice cover, show no comparable M2 changes, so the tidal changes must be localized to the near vicinity of the gauge (or to the gauge itself if caused by a malfunction). On the other hand, altimetry confirms the post-1992 Churchill measurements of mean sea level, thanks to the long time series of land motion measurements obtained at GPS station CHUR, which gives a vertical uplift of 10.1 mm/y. Combining satellite altimeter data with the Churchill tide-gauge data gives an implied vertical crustal rate of about 9.0 ± 0.8 mm/y, in reasonable agreement with the GPS. In summary, we have still anomalous MSL measurements at the Churchill gauge for the intermediate 1970-1990 era, and very anomalous tidal measurements since 2000, but we have apparently quite reliable MSL rates since 1990.

  20. Estimation of arboreal lichen biomass available to woodland caribou in Hudson Bay lowland black spruce sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah K. Proceviat

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available An arboreal lichen index to be utilized in assessing woodland caribou habitat throughout northeastern Ontario was developed. The "index" was comprised of 5 classes, which differentiated arboreal lichen biomass on black spruce trees, ranging from maximal quantities of arboreal lichen (class 5 to minimal amounts of arboreal lichen (class 1. This arboreal lichen index was subsequently used to estimate the biomass of arboreal lichen available to woodland caribou on lowland black spruce sites ranging in age from 1 year to 150 years post-harvest. A total of 39 sites were assessed and significant differences in arboreal lichen biomass were found, with a positive linear relationship between arboreal lichen biomass and forest age. It is proposed that the index be utilized by government and industry as a means of assessing the suitability of lowland black spruce habitat for woodland caribou in this region.

  1. The value of a freeze

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bethe, H.A.; Long, F.A.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports on the rapid increase in public support for a nuclear-freeze agreement---that is, a mutual freeze on the testing, production and further deployment of nuclear weapons---which has been a remarkable political phenomenon. In less than a year, support has grown from a few volunteers collecting signatures on petitions to a congressional vote in which supporters of a freeze very nearly prevailed. This fall, eight states and the District of Columbia will vote on freeze referendums. Already Wisconsin voters have overwhelmingly voted yes in such a referendum. There are many reasons for this strong support for a freeze, including fear of nuclear war, resistance to high levels of military spending and opposition to particular military policies of the Reagan administration. But to most supporters, the chief purpose of a freeze is simple: it is to help stop an immense, continuing, dangerous and incredibly costly arms race between the two superpowers

  2. Hudson River Sub_Bottom Profile Data - Raw SEG-Y Files (*.sgy)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hudson River Estuary Shallow Water Surveys. Subbottom data was collected November 5 to December 15, 2009, in the estuary north from Saugerties to Troy. Data...

  3. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: Hudson River, maps and geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0014791)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for the Hudson River from 1942 to 2005. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and...

  4. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Hudson River: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, anadromous, and freshwater fish species in the Hudson River. Vector polygons in this...

  5. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Hudson River: REPTILES (Reptile Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for estuarine reptiles (turtles, terrapins) and amphibians (salamanders, frogs) for the Hudson River....

  6. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Hudson River: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine and estuarine invertebrate species for the Hudson River. Vector polygons in this data set...

  7. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Hudson River: STAGING (Staging Site Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains human-use resource data for staging sites along the Hudson River. Vector points in this data set represent locations of possible staging areas...

  8. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Hudson River: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive human-use data for regional and state parks, historic sites, marine sanctuaries, and other managed areas for the Hudson River....

  9. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Hudson River: RVRMILES (River Mile Marker Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains human-use resource data for river miles along the Hudson River. Vector lines in this data set represent river mile markers. This data set...

  10. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Hudson River: SENSITIV (Sensitive Area Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains human-use resource data for sensitive areas along the Hudson River. Vector points in this data set represent sensitive areas. This data set...

  11. 2012 FEMA Topographic Lidar: Hudson-Hoosic and Deerfield Watersheds, Massachusetts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) dataset is a survey of the Hudson-Hoosic and Deerfield project area. The entire survey area for Massachusetts is...

  12. Mex Bay

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2015-02-23

    Feb 23, 2015 ... surveys to assess the vulnerability of the most important physical and eutrophication parameters along. El- Mex Bay coast. As a result of increasing population and industrial development, poorly untreated industrial waste, domestic sewage, shipping industry and agricultural runoff are being released to the.

  13. Freeze Protection in Gas Holders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul G.; Duursma, Gail

    In cold weather, the water seals of gasholders need protection from freez- ing to avoid compromising the seal. These holders have a large reservoir of “tank water” at the base which is below ground. At present freeze- protection is achieved by external heating of the seal water which...

  14. Generalized structural theory of freezing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yussouff, M.

    1980-10-01

    The first-principles order parameter theory of freezing, proposed in an earlier work, has been successful in yielding quantitative agreement with known freezing parameters for monoatomic liquids forming solids with one atom per unit cell. A generalization of this theory is presented here to include the effects of a basis set of many atoms per unit cell. The basic equations get modified by the 'density structure factors' fsub(i) which arise from the density variations within the unit cell. Calculations are presented for the important case of monoatomic liquids freezing into hexagonal close packed solids. It is concluded that all freezing transitions can be described by using structural correlations in the liquid instead of the pair potential; and that the three body correlations are important in deciding the type of solid formed after freezing. (author)

  15. Salt Marsh Formation in the Lower Hudson River Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merley, Michael; Peteet, Dorothy; Hansen, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Salt marshes are constant depositional environments and as a result contain accurate indicators of past relative sea level rise and salinity. The Hudson River marshes are at least twice as deep when compared to coastal marshes on either side of the mouth of the Hudson. The reason for this difference in sedimentation is unclear. This study uses macrofossil data as well as sediment stratigraphy in order to understand the formation and evolution of these marshes. The composition of seeds, roots, shoots and foraminifera, are used to indicate past sea levels. The four sites involved in this study are, from south to north, the Arthur Kill Marsh in Staten Island (40 36 N, 74 77W), Piermont marsh (N 4100; 73 55W) Croton Point (41 14 N; 73 50W) and Iona Island (41 18N, 73 58W). These are all tidally influenced but with increasing distances from the New York Bight, which gives a good spectrum of tidal influence. AMS-C14 dates on basal macrofossils will document the time of each marsh formation. Basal material from Arthur Kill (8 m) includes freshwater seeds such as Viola, Potomageton and Alnus along with Salix buds. Basal material from Croton Point (10 m) includes fibrous woody material, foraminifera and Zanichellia seeds and other brackish vegetational components. The basal material from Piermont (13.77 m) is lacking any identifiable macrofossils between 150 and 500 microns. The basal material from Iona Island (10 m) has vegetation such as Scirpus and Cyperus seeds, probably implying a brackish environment. The freshwater origin of the Arthur Kill marsh in Staten Island is significant because it predates either sea level rise or the western channel incision. Additional implications for this study include evidence for changes in river channel geomorphology. Reasons for the relatively deeper river marshes include possible basal clay compaction, high production due to river and marine nutrients as well as tectonic activity. This study provides the groundwork for more high

  16. Technical descriptions of Hudson River electricity generating stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchison, J.B.

    1988-01-01

    Six fossil-fueled and one nuclear electricity generating plants are sited along the Hudson River estuary between kilometers 8 and 228, measured from the river mouth. Their aggregate rated capacity is 5,798 MW of electricity; operating at that capacity they would withdraw cooling water from the river at the rate of 1.5 x 10 to the 9th power cu m/d and reject heat at the rate of 155 x 10 to the 9th power kcal/d. Three of these plants, the fossil-fueled Roseton and Bowline and the nuclear Indian Point facilities; account for 75% of total rated capacity, 62% of maximum water withdrawal, and 79% of potential heat rejection. These three plants and a proposed pumped-storage facility at Cornwall, all sited between km 60 and 106, were the focus of environmental litigation. The Indian Point plant normally operates at 100% generation capacity; the other plants may experience daily operating load changes that vary from approximately 50% to 100% of total generation capacity, depending on system electrical demand or economic considerations. All plants experience periodic unscheduled outages for repairs. 6 refs., 7 figs

  17. Momentum anisotropy at freeze out

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feld, S.; Borghini, N.; Lang, C.

    2017-01-01

    The transition from a hydrodynamical modeling to a particle-based approach is a crucial element of the description of high-energy heavy-ion collisions. Assuming this “freeze out” happens instantaneously at each point of the expanding medium, we show that the local phase-space distribution of the emitted particles is asymmetric in momentum space. This suggests the use of anisotropic hydrodynamics for the last stages of the fluid evolution. We discuss how observables depend on the amount of momentum-space anisotropy at freeze out and how smaller or larger anisotropies allow for different values of the freeze-out temperature. (paper)

  18. Anhydrobiosis and Freezing-Tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGill, Lorraine; Shannon, Adam; Pisani, Davide

    2015-01-01

    Anhydrobiotic animals can survive the loss of both free and bound water from their cells. While in this state they are also resistant to freezing. This physiology adapts anhydrobiotes to harsh environments and it aids their dispersal. Panagrolaimus davidi, a bacterial feeding anhydrobiotic nematode...... Panagrolaimus strains from tropical, temperate, continental and polar habitats and we analysed their phylogenetic relationships. We found that several other Panagrolaimus isolates can also survive freezing when fully hydrated and that tissue extracts from these freezing-tolerant nematodes can inhibit the growth...

  19. Tsunami hazard assessment in the Hudson River Estuary based on dynamic tsunami-tide simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelby, Michael; Grilli, Stéphan T.; Grilli, Annette R.

    2016-12-01

    This work is part of a tsunami inundation mapping activity carried out along the US East Coast since 2010, under the auspice of the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation program (NTHMP). The US East Coast features two main estuaries with significant tidal forcing, which are bordered by numerous critical facilities (power plants, major harbors,...) as well as densely built low-level areas: Chesapeake Bay and the Hudson River Estuary (HRE). HRE is the object of this work, with specific focus on assessing tsunami hazard in Manhattan, the Hudson and East River areas. In the NTHMP work, inundation maps are computed as envelopes of maximum surface elevation along the coast and inland, by simulating the impact of selected probable maximum tsunamis (PMT) in the Atlantic ocean margin and basin. At present, such simulations assume a static reference level near shore equal to the local mean high water (MHW) level. Here, instead we simulate maximum inundation in the HRE resulting from dynamic interactions between the incident PMTs and a tide, which is calibrated to achieve MHW at its maximum level. To identify conditions leading to maximum tsunami inundation, each PMT is simulated for four different phases of the tide and results are compared to those obtained for a static reference level. We first separately simulate the tide and the three PMTs that were found to be most significant for the HRE. These are caused by: (1) a flank collapse of the Cumbre Vieja Volcano (CVV) in the Canary Islands (with a 80 km3 volume representing the most likely extreme scenario); (2) an M9 coseismic source in the Puerto Rico Trench (PRT); and (3) a large submarine mass failure (SMF) in the Hudson River canyon of parameters similar to the 165 km3 historical Currituck slide, which is used as a local proxy for the maximum possible SMF. Simulations are performed with the nonlinear and dispersive long wave model FUNWAVE-TVD, in a series of nested grids of increasing resolution towards the coast, by one

  20. FREEZE DRYING PROCESS: A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Soham Shukla

    2011-01-01

    Among the various methods of drying, this article has mentioned only one most important method, “Freeze drying”. This method is mainly used for the drying of thermo labile materials. This method works on the principle of sublimation. This method is divided into 3 steps for its better understanding; these are Freezing, Primary drying, and secondary drying. There are many advantages and disadvantages of this method, but still this is the most useful drying method nowadays.

  1. The Bible and mission in faith perspective: J.Hudson Taylor and the early China Inland Mission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wigram, C.E.M.

    2007-01-01

    The thesis 'The Bible and Mission in Faith Perspective: J.Hudson Taylor and the Early China Inland Mission' by Christopher E.M. Wigram analysis the hermeneutical assumptions that underlay Hudson Taylor's approach to biblical interpretation, and the significance of his approach for the mission which

  2. Analysis of impingement impacts on Hudson River fish populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnthouse, L.W.; van Winkle, W.

    1988-01-01

    Impacts of impingement, expressed as reductions in year-class abundance, were calculated for six Hudson River fish populations. Estimates were made for the 1974 and 1975 year classes of white perch, striped bass, Atlantic tomcod, and American shad, and the 1974 year classes of alewife and blueback herring. The maximum estimated reductions in year-class abundance were less than 5% for all year classes except the 1974 and 1975 white perch year classes and the 1974 striped bass year class. Only for white perch were the estimates greater than 10% per year. For striped bass, the 146,000 fish from the 1974 year class that were killed by impingement could have produced 12,000-16,000 5-year-old fish or 270-300 10-year-olds. Also estimated were the reductions in mortality that could have been achieved had closed-cycle cooling systems been installed at one or more of three power plants (Bowline point, Indian Point, and Roseton) and had the screen-wash systems at Bowline Point and Indian Point been modified to improve the survival of impinged fish. Closed-cycle cooling at all three plants would have reduced impingement impacts on white perch, striped bass, and Atlantic tomcod by 75% or more; installation of closed-cycle cooling at Indian Point alone would have reduced impingement impacts on white perch and Atlantic tomcod by 50%-80%. Modified traveling screens would have been less effective than closed-cycle cooling, but still would have reduced impingement impacts on white perch by roughly 20%. 23 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  3. A Theory of Immersion Freezing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barahona, Donifan

    2017-01-01

    Immersion freezing is likely involved in the initiation of precipitation and determines to large extent the phase partitioning in convective clouds. Theoretical models commonly used to describe immersion freezing in atmospheric models are based on the classical nucleation theory which however neglects important interactions near the immersed particle that may affect nucleation rates. This work introduces a new theory of immersion freezing based on two premises. First, immersion ice nucleation is mediated by the modification of the properties of water near the particle-liquid interface, rather than by the geometry of the ice germ. Second, the same mechanism that leads to the decrease in the work of germ formation also decreases the mobility of water molecules near the immersed particle. These two premises allow establishing general thermodynamic constraints to the ice nucleation rate. Analysis of the new theory shows that active sites likely trigger ice nucleation, but they do not control the overall nucleation rate nor the probability of freezing. It also suggests that materials with different ice nucleation efficiency may exhibit similar freezing temperatures under similar conditions but differ in their sensitivity to particle surface area and cooling rate. Predicted nucleation rates show good agreement with observations for a diverse set of materials including dust, black carbon and bacterial ice nucleating particles. The application of the new theory within the NASA Global Earth System Model (GEOS-5) is also discussed.

  4. Medical and social egg freezing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lallemant, Camille; Vassard, Ditte; Andersen, Anders Nyboe

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Until recently, limited options for preserving fertility in order to delay childbearing were available. Although egg freezing and successful thawing is now possible, it remains unclear to what extent women are aware of the availability of this technique, their attitudes towards its...... use, or the circumstances under which this technique may be considered. MATERIAL AND METHODS: An online cross-sectional survey was designed to investigate knowledge and attitudes of women in Denmark and the UK on egg freezing and their potential intentions regarding the procedure. RESULTS: Data...... was collected from September 2012 to September 2013 and the responses of 973 women were analyzed. In total, 83% of women reported having heard of egg freezing, and nearly all considered it acceptable for medical indications, whilst 89% considered it acceptable for social reasons. Overall, 19% expressed active...

  5. Freeze-dried microarterial allografts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raman, J.; Hargrave, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    Rehydrated freeze-dried microarterial allografts were implanted to bridge arterial defects using New Zealand White rabbits as the experimental model. Segments of artery from the rabbit ear and thigh were harvested and preserved for a minimum of 2 weeks after freeze-drying. These allografts, approximately 1 mm in diameter and ranging from 1.5 to 2.5 cm in length, were rehydrated and then implanted in low-pressure and high-pressure arterial systems. Poor patency was noted in low-pressure systems in both allografts and autografts, tested in 12 rabbits. In the high-pressure arterial systems, allografts that were freeze-dried and reconstituted failed in a group of 10 rabbits with an 8-week patency rate of 30 percent. Gamma irradiation in an effort to reduce infection and antigenicity of grafts after freeze-drying was associated with a patency rate of 10 percent at 8 weeks in this system in another group of 10 rabbits. Postoperative cyclosporin A therapy was associated with a patency rate of 22.2 percent in the high-pressure arterial system in a 9-rabbit group. Control autografts in this system in a group of 10 rabbits showed a 100 percent patency at 8 weeks. Microarterial grafts depend on perfusion pressure of the vascular bed for long-term patency. Rehydrated freeze-dried microarterial allografts do not seem to function well in lengths of 1 to 2.5 cm when implanted in a high-pressure arterial system. Freeze-dried arterial allografts are probably not antigenic

  6. Transport of fallout and reactor radionuclides in the drainage basin of the Hudson River estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, H.J.; Linsalata, P.; Olsen, C.R.; Cohen, N.; Trier, R.M.

    1987-01-01

    Fallout plutonium and radiocesium derived from both weapons testing and local reactor releases are found in the water column and sediments of the Hudson River in readily measurable amounts. The history of fallout delivery and dissolved phase runoff from the drainage basin of 80 Sr, 137 Cs, and /sup 239,240/Pu have been extensively documented since the mid-1950s. Sediment and water column concentrations of 134 Cs, 137 Cs, and /sup 239,240/Pu in the Hudson have also been documented since the mid-1960's and are summarized. Since the peak fallout years, substantial portions of the fallout radionuclides in the drainage basin have become unavailable to normal weathering processes as reflected by a measured decrease in the fallout nuclide transport to the waters of the tidal Hudson. Budget calculations indicate that plutonium may be transported into the estuary from the coastal ocean, and that desorption of radiocesium from particles has allowed a substantial fraction of radiocesium to be exported from the Hudson to marine waters. 29 references, 6 figures, 8 tables

  7. Radiogenic Lead Isotopes and Time Stratigraphy in the Hudson River, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chillrud, Steven N.; Bopp, Richard F.; Ross, James M.; Chaky, Damon A.; Hemming, Sidney; Shuster, Edward L.; Simpson, H. James; Estabrooks, Frank

    2004-01-01

    Radionuclide, radiogenic lead isotope and trace metal analyses on fine-grained sediment cores collected along 160 km of the upper and tidal Hudson River were used to examine temporal trends of contaminant loadings and to develop radiogenic lead isotopes both as a stratigraphic tool and as tracers for resolving decadal particle transport fluxes. Very large inputs of Cd, Sb, Pb, and Cr are evident in the sediment record, potentially from a single manufacturing facility. The total range in radiogenic lead isotope ratios observed in well-dated cores collected about 24 km downstream of the plant is large (e.g., maximum difference in 206 Pb/ 207 Pb is 10%), characterized by four major shifts occurring in the 1950s, 1960s, 1970s and 1980s. The upper Hudson signals in Cd and radiogenic lead isotopes were still evident in sediments collected 160 km downstream in the tidal Hudson. The large magnitude and abrupt shifts in radiogenic lead isotope ratios as a function of depth provide sensitive temporal constraints that complement information derived from radionuclide analyses to significantly improve the precision of dating assignments. Application of a simple dilution model to data from paired cores suggests much larger sediment inputs in one section of the river than previously reported, suggesting particle influxes to the Hudson have been underestimated

  8. Science, law, and Hudson River power plants: A case study in environmental impact assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnthouse, L.W.; Klauda, R.J.; Vaughan, D.S.; Kendall, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    Between 1963 and 1980, the Hudson River estuary was the focus of one of the most ambitious environmental research and assessment programs ever performed. The studies supported a series of US federal proceedings involving licenses and discharge permits for two controversial electric power generating facilities: the Cornwall pumped storage facility, and units 2 and 3 of the Indian Point nuclear generating station. Both facilities were to draw large volumes of water from a region of the Hudson used as spawning and nursery habitat by several fish species, including the striped bass. Fishermen and conservationists feared that a major fraction of the striped bass eggs and larvae in the Hudson would be entrained with the pumped water and killed. Additional fish would be killed on trash screens at the intakes. Scientists were asked to aid the utility companies and regulatory agencies in determining the biological importance of entrainment and impingement. This monograph contains both technical papers that present research results and synthesis papers that summarize and interpret the results. The intent was to: (1) summarize the scientific issues and approaches; (2) present the significant results of the Hudson River biological studies; (3) describe the role of the studies in the decision-making process; (4) evaluate the successes and failures of the studies; and (5) present recommendations for future estuarine impact assessments. Separate abstracts are processed for 22 papers for inclusion in the appropriate data bases

  9. 33 CFR 207.60 - Federal Dam, Hudson River, Troy, N.Y.; pool level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Federal Dam, Hudson River, Troy, N.Y.; pool level. 207.60 Section 207.60 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS..., N.Y.; pool level. (a) Whenever the elevation of the pool created by the Federal dam at Troy, N.Y...

  10. 75 FR 39839 - Regulated Navigation Area; Hudson River and Port of NY/NJ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-13

    ... navigation area (RNA) from Port Coeymans, New York on the Hudson River to Jersey City, New Jersey on Upper... replacement span. DATES: This rule is effective from July 13, 2010 through October 31, 2010. The RNA will be... time and place announced by a later notice in the Federal Register. [[Page 39840

  11. Using destination image to predict visitors' intention to revisit three Hudson River Valley, New York, communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudy M. Schuster; Laura Sullivan; Duarte Morais; Diane Kuehn

    2009-01-01

    This analysis explores the differences in Affective and Cognitive Destination Image among three Hudson River Valley (New York) tourism communities. Multiple regressions were used with six dimensions of visitors' images to predict future intention to revisit. Two of the three regression models were significant. The only significantly contributing independent...

  12. Hydrological functions of a mine-impacted and natural peatland-dominated watershed, James Bay Lowland

    OpenAIRE

    Leclair, Melissa; Whittington, Pete; Price, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Study region: This study was conducted in Northern Ontario, Canada, in the middle of the Hudson-James Bay. Lowland: one of the world’s largest wetland complexes. Study focus: Northern latitudes are expected to be the most impacted by climate change in the next century and adding to this stressor are increased mineral exploration activities, such as the De Beers Victor Mine, a large open-pit diamond mine. Because of the extremely low relief and presence of marine sediments, horizontal runof...

  13. Low Latitude Pelagic Foraminifera Found in the Hudson River: Are They Hurricane Deposits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monahan, K. M.; Abbott, D. H.; Hoenisch, B.; Breger, D.

    2011-12-01

    River sediment cores provide a record of past environmental changes through stacked layers of sediments. In core CD02-29A, recovered from the southern Hudson River, a significant number of tropical planktic foraminifer tests were found. Foraminifera were concentrated in sediment layers of low impedance, suggesting high carbonate content. Because modern planktic foraminifera are exclusively marine, their presence in Hudson sediments in the core was remarkable. We can think of only two mechanisms that could explain this observation: either living specimens are carried upriver with the daily tides, or storm surges carry large amounts of seawater and re-suspended marine sediment upriver. To test for the presence of living specimens in Hudson River water, plankton tow samples were collected during high tide at the Hudson Battery south of the sample site, and at Piermont Pier north of the sample site and no living foraminifera were found. In addition, oxygen isotope (δ18O) analyses reveal a marine composition but the large difference in δ18O between the two surface dwelling species Globigerinoides ruber (pink) and Globigerinoides sacculifer, picked from the same sediment layer, suggests re-suspension and mixing of marine sediment deposits. Because only planktic, tropical to subtropical foraminiferal assemblages were found, the Hudson River deposits differ from previously recorded storm deposits found on Long Island and in New Jersey. In particular, the foraminiferal assemblages contain up to 40% G. ruber (pink), suggesting a highly tropical signal from a location where abundances of G. ruber are very low. This data, in addition to the pulsed occurrence of tests in the sediment suggests that the introduction of planktic foraminifera into the Hudson River must be driven by rare events. We suggest that storm surges from rare high-intensity hurricanes most likely explain the presence of these tests in Hudson River sediments, possibly assisted by the Gulf Stream entraining

  14. Geochemical and sedimentological properties of Heinrich layers H2 and H1 off the Hudson Strait ice-surging source areas: ice-rafting vs water-laid down depositional mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttin, L.; Hillaire-Marcel, C.

    2012-12-01

    The ~9 m-long core HU08-029-004PC was raised from the lower Labrador Sea slope (2674 m water-depth), approximately 180 km off Hudson Strait shelf edge. It yielded a high resolution record spanning the last 35 ka. The sequence includes layers with abundant detrital carbonates produced by glacial erosion of Paleozoic rocks and released into the Labrador Sea through ice streaming processes in Hudson Strait and Ungava Bay. These layers are assigned to 'Heinrich events' 3 (at core bottom), 2 and 1. Sedimentological properties and U and Th isotope measurements are used to document depositional mechanisms and durations of these layers. Data suggest: i) intense ice-rafting deposition (IRD) due to iceberg calving at the ice-stream edge, as illustrated by the coarse fraction content of the layers, and ii) sub-glacial meltwater flushing over the Hudson Strait sill, carrying fine silt-size, carbonate-rich glacial flour to the shelf-edge. Such suspended sediment pulses led to the spreading of turbidites mostly into the deep Labrador Sea, through the NAMOC system. Others late-glacial events, such as the ~ 8.2 ka final drainage of Lake Agassiz, are also recorded in the study core, whereas the H0 layer, exclusively observed in the western Labrador Sea is missing. CAT-scan images, mineralogical data, carbonate abundance, %>106 μm fraction (mostly IRD here), U-Th isotope data and 14C ages of planktic foraminifera assemblages (Neogloboquadrina pachyderma, l.) are used to further document H2 (760 to 700 cm) and H1 (588 to 488 cm). The H-layers contain up to 60% of fine detrital carbonates (about 2/3 calcite, 1/3 dolomite). Whereas the fine calcitic material points to sediment sources (basal till/water-laid glacial sediments) in the Hudson Strait and Ungava Bay, i.e., originating from the glacial erosion of Paleozoic carbonates from the area, the dolomitic component might have several origins (from Proterozoic and Paleozoic limestones in the Hudson Bay and Strait, to northwestern

  15. Effect of magnetic field on food freezing

    OpenAIRE

    村田, 圭治; 奥村, 太一; 荒賀, 浩一; 小堀, 康功

    2010-01-01

    [Abstract] This paper presents an experimental investigation on effects of magnetic field on food freezing process. Although purpose of food freezing is to suppress the deterioration of food, freezing breaks food tissue down, and some nutrient and delicious element flow out after thawing. Recently, a few of refrigeration equipments with electric and magnetic fields have attracted attention from food production companies and mass media. Water and tuna were freezed in magnetic field (100kH, 1.3...

  16. Freeze out in heavy ion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csernai, Laszlo P.; Lazar, Zs.I.; Grassi, F.; Hama, Y.

    1998-01-01

    In fluid dynamical models the freeze out of particles across a three dimensional space-time hypersurface is discussed. The calculation of final momentum distribution of emitted particles is described for freeze out surfaces, with both space-like and time-like normals, taking into account conservation laws across the freeze out discontinuity. Generally the conservation laws lead to a change of temperature, baryon density and flow velocity at freeze out. (author)

  17. Quality changes and freezing time prediction during freezing and thawing of ginger

    OpenAIRE

    Singha, Poonam; Muthukumarappan, Kasiviswanathan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Effects of different freezing rates and four different thawing methods on chemical composition, microstructure, and color of ginger were investigated. Computer simulation for predicting the freezing time of cylindrical ginger for two different freezing methods (slow and fast) was done using ANSYS ? Multiphysics. Different freezing rates (slow and fast) and thawing methods significantly (P?

  18. 9 CFR 590.536 - Freezing operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Freezing operations. 590.536 Section 590.536 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG..., and Facility Requirements § 590.536 Freezing operations. (a) Freezing rooms shall be kept clean and...

  19. 9 CFR 590.534 - Freezing facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Freezing facilities. 590.534 Section 590.534 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG..., and Facility Requirements § 590.534 Freezing facilities. (a) Freezing rooms, either on or off the...

  20. Selective analysis of power plant operation on the Hudson River with emphasis on the Bowline Point Generating Station. Volume 2. [Multiple impact of power plant once-through cooling systems on fish populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnthouse, L. W.; Cannon, J. B.; Christensen, S. G.

    1977-07-01

    Because of the location of the Bowline, Roseton, and Indian Point power generating facilities in the low-salinity zone of the Hudson estuary, operation of these plants with the present once-through cooling systems will adversely influence the fish populations that use the area for spawning and initial periods of growth and development. Recruitment rates and standing crops of several fish species may be lowered in response to the increased mortality caused by entrainment of nonscreenable eggs and larvae and by impingement of screenable young of the year. Entrainment and impingement data are particularly relevant for assessing which fish species have the greatest potential for being adversely affected by operation of Bowline, Roseton, and Indian Point with once-through cooling. These data from each of these three plants suggest that the six species that merit the greatest consideration are striped bass, white perch, tomcod, alewife, blueback herring, and bay anchovy. Two points of view are available for assessing the relative importance of the fish species in the Hudson River. From the fisheries point of view, the only two species of major importance are striped bass and shad. From the fish-community and ecosystem point of view, the dominant species, as determined by seasonal and regional standing crops (in numbers and biomass per hectare), are the six species most commonly entrained and impinged, namely, striped bass, white perch, tomcod, alewife, blueback herring, and anchovy.

  1. Applicable technical method for freeze-substitution of high pressure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    bmshsj

    2011-11-02

    Quintana, 1994) are available for the microscopic visualization of intracellular organelles. Cryo- fixation, plunge freezing, propane jet freezing, cold metal block freezing, and high pressure freezing provide advantages over chemical ...

  2. Urban Greening Bay Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information about the San Francisco Bay Water Quality Project (SFBWQP) Urban Greening Bay Area, a large-scale effort to re-envision urban landscapes to include green infrastructure (GI) making communities more livable and reducing stormwater runoff.

  3. Methods to assess impacts on Hudson River white perch: report for the period October 1, 1978 to September 30, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnthouse, L.W.; Kirk, B.L.; Kumar, K.D.; Van Winkle, W.; Vaughan, D.S.

    1980-06-01

    This report is a brief description of the work done on the NRC project entitled 'Methods to Assess Impacts on Hudson River White Perch' October 1, 1978 to September 30, 1979. Accounts of special studies of white perch entrainment at Hudson River power plants, of density-dependent growth in the Hudson River white perch population, and of data on the white perch populations of the Delaware and Chesapeake systems were performed. Complete accounts of these special studies are included in this report. During this period, a final draft topical report entitled 'Evaluation of Impingement Losses of White Perch at the Indian Point Nuclear Station and Other Hudson River Power Plants' (NUREG/CR-1100) was completed

  4. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Hudson River: M_MAMMAL (Marine Mammal Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine mammals (seals) in the Hudson River. Vector polygons in this data set represent marine mammal...

  5. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Hudson River: ESI (Environmental Sensitivity Index Shoreline Types - Lines and Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector lines and polygons representing the shoreline and coastal habitats for the Hudson River, classified according to the Environmental...

  6. National Status and Trends: Bioeffects Program - Magnitude and Extent of Sediment Toxicity in the Hudson-Raritan Estuary

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A survey of the toxicity of sediments was performed by NOAA's National Status and Trends (NSandT) Program throughout the Hudson-Raritan Estuary. The objectives of...

  7. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Hudson River: T_MAMMAL (Terrestrial Mammal Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for small terrestrial mammals (woodrats, myotis, muskrat, mink) for the Hudson River. Vector polygons in...

  8. Impregnation of leather during "freeze-drying"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storch, Mikkel; Vestergaard Poulsen Sommer, Dorte; Hovmand, Ida

    2016-01-01

    Freeze-drying is a recognized method for the preservation of waterlogged objects. Naturally, freeze-drying has also been used for waterlogged archaeological leather often after treatment with Na2.EDTA and impregnation with PEG; but the treated leather sometimes suffers from “excessive drying......” becoming too stiff and brittle. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of a conventional freeze-drying method against an alternative freeze-drying method that preserves the natural moisture content of the leather. Both new and archaeological waterlogged leather were included in the study...... suggest that the process which takes place within the leather during the freeze-drying in not actual freeze-drying, but rather a sophisticated way of distributing the impregnating agent. The pure ice phase freezes out, but the impregnating agent remains liquid as the temperature does not become low enough...

  9. 239 240Pu and 238Pu in sediments of the Hudson River estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linsalata, P.; Wrenn, M.E.; Cohen, N.; Singh, N.P.

    1980-01-01

    Plutonium-239,240 and plutonium-238 were determined in 59 Hudson River sediment dredge samples collected during 1973-77 in the vicinity of the Indian Point Nuclear Power Station. Acid leaching followed by solvent extraction, electrodeposition, and alpha-spectrometry were used to extract, purify, and quantitate plutonium isotopes present in these samples. Annual median plutonium-238/plutonium-239,240 isotopic activity ratios in surficial sediments were 0.032 (1973-74), 0.035 (1975), 0.042 (1976), and 0.040 (1977). The source of these nuclides in the estuary was identified by analysis of the sample isotopic activity ratios. On the basis of the sampling regimen and the methods used, it is concluded that no input, other than that of fallout, has contributed significantly to the plutonium burden in Hudson sediments

  10. The partitioning of Triclosan between aqueous and particulate bound phases in the Hudson River Estuary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Brittan [University of Massachusetts, Department of Environment, Earth and Ocean Sciences, 100 Morrissey Blvd., Boston, MA 02125 (United States); Chen, Robert F. [University of Massachusetts, Department of Environment, Earth and Ocean Sciences, 100 Morrissey Blvd., Boston, MA 02125 (United States); Cantwell, Mark [NHEERL, Atlantic Ecology Division, US Environmental Protection Agency, 27 Tarzwell Drive, Narragansett, RI 02882 (United States); Gontz, Allen; Jun, Zhu; Olsen, Curtis R. [University of Massachusetts, Department of Environment, Earth and Ocean Sciences, 100 Morrissey Blvd., Boston, MA 02125 (United States)

    2009-07-01

    The distribution of Triclosan within the Hudson River Estuary can be explained by a balance among the overall effluent inputs from municipal sewage treatment facilities, dilution of Triclosan concentrations in the water column with freshwater and seawater inputs, removal of Triclosan from the water column by adsorption to particles, and loss to photodegradation. This study shows that an average water column concentration of 3 {+-} 2 ng/l (in the lower Hudson River Estuary) is consistent with an estimate for dilution of average wastewater concentrations with seawater and calculated rates of adsorption of Triclosan to particles. An average Triclosan sediment concentration of 26 {+-} 11 ng/g would be in equilibrium with the overlying water column if Triclosan has a particle-to-water partitioning coefficient of k{sub d} {approx} 10{sup 4}, consistent with laboratory estimates.

  11. The partitioning of Triclosan between aqueous and particulate bound phases in the Hudson River Estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, Brittan; Chen, Robert F.; Cantwell, Mark; Gontz, Allen; Zhu Jun; Olsen, Curtis R.

    2009-01-01

    The distribution of Triclosan within the Hudson River Estuary can be explained by a balance among the overall effluent inputs from municipal sewage treatment facilities, dilution of Triclosan concentrations in the water column with freshwater and seawater inputs, removal of Triclosan from the water column by adsorption to particles, and loss to photodegradation. This study shows that an average water column concentration of 3 ± 2 ng/l (in the lower Hudson River Estuary) is consistent with an estimate for dilution of average wastewater concentrations with seawater and calculated rates of adsorption of Triclosan to particles. An average Triclosan sediment concentration of 26 ± 11 ng/g would be in equilibrium with the overlying water column if Triclosan has a particle-to-water partitioning coefficient of k d ∼ 10 4 , consistent with laboratory estimates.

  12. Influence of Aroclor 1242 Concentration on Polychlorinated Biphenyl Biotransformations in Hudson River Test Tube Microcosms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, K. M.

    1996-01-01

    When 93.3 to 933 (mu)mol of Aroclor 1242 per kg was added to Hudson River sediment test tube microcosms, the rates of polychlorinated biphenyl biotransformations increased with increasing Aroclor 1242 concentration after a 4- to 8-week acclimation period. In contrast, when 37.3 (mu)mol of Aroclor 1242 per kg was added, polychlorinated biphenyl biotransformations occurred at slow constant rates. PMID:16535387

  13. Ecological investigation of Hudson River macrozooplankton in the vicinity of a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginn, T.C.

    1977-01-01

    Studies were conducted on selected Hudson River macrozooplankton species to determine temporal and spatial distributions and responses to power plant operation. Distinguishing morphological and habitat characteristics were determined for the three gammarid amphipods (Gammarus daiberi, G. tigrinus, and G. fasciatus) occurring in the Hudson River. The oedicerotid amphipod Monoculodes edwardsi and the mysid Neomysis americana, in addition to the gammarid amphipods, displayed characteristic diel and seasonal abundances which affect their potential availability for power plant entrainment. The selected macrozooplankton species were utilized in temperature and chlorine bioassays in order to predict responses to cooling water entrainment. Although amphipods (Gammarus spp. and M. edwardsi) survived typical Indian Point cooling water temperatures, N. americana had high mortalities during a 30-minute, 8.3 0 C ΔT at 25 0 C ambient temperature. The bioassay results were substantiated by generally high survivals of entrained amphipods at the Indian Point plant. Neomysis americana were more heat sensitive, as indicated in bioassays, with average entrainment mortalities ranging from 30 to 60 percent during the summer. All species examined had higher immediate and latent mortalities during plant condenser chlorination. The ability of Gammarus to survive condenser passage and exposure to the Indian Point thermal discharge plume indicates that power plant operation on the lower Hudson River Estuary has no adverse impact on local gammarid amphipod populations. Entrained N. americana experience considerable mortalities; however, the impact on Atlantic Coast populations is minimized by the limited exposure of the population fringe to the Indian Point power plant

  14. Seasonal air-water exchange fluxes of polychlorinated biphenyls in the Hudson River Estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Shu; Rodenburg, Lisa A.; Dachs, Jordi; Eisenreich, Steven J.

    2008-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in the air and water over the Hudson River Estuary during six intensive field campaigns from December 1999 to April 2001. Over-water gas-phase ΣPCB concentrations averaged 1100 pg/m 3 and varied with temperature. Dissolved-phase ΣPCB concentrations averaged 1100 pg/L and displayed no seasonal trend. Uncertainty analysis of the results suggests that PCBs with 5 or fewer chlorines exhibited net volatilization. The direction of net air/water exchange could not be determined for PCBs with 6 or more chlorines. Instantaneous net fluxes of ΣPCBs ranged from +0.2 to +630 ng m -2 d -1 . Annual fluxes of ΣPCBs were predicted from modeled gas-phase concentrations, measured dissolved-phase concentrations, daily surface water temperatures and wind speeds. The net volatilization flux was +62 μg m -2 yr -1 , corresponding to an annual loss of +28 kg/yr of ΣPCBs from the Hudson River Estuary for the year of 2000. - Investigation of the air-water exchange of PCBs in the Hudson River Estuary suggests that PCBs with 5 or fewer chlorines undergo net volatilization

  15. Sources of heavy metals in sediments of the Hudson River Estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, S.C.; Simpson, H.J.; Olsen, C.R.; Bopp, R.F.

    1978-01-01

    Sediments in the Hudson Estuary contain zinc, copper and lead from metal pollutants discharged to the harbor in the New York City area, from dispersed sources of contamination introduced upstream, and from natural weathering processes. The magnitude of the contribution from each of these three sources to particular sites can be estimated on the basis of total metal abundances, relative proportions of several metals, and other sediment properties. The pattern of recent heavy-metal contamination in Hudson sediments closely follows the distribution in sediments of 137 Cs which was derived over the past two decades from global fallout and local releases from a commercial nuclear reactor. Several simple empirical corrections related to grain size and mineralogy variations are suggested for comparing heavy-metal contamination levels of sandy continental shelf sediments with fine-grained estuarine and coastal sediments. Iron has little variation in Hudson sediments while manganese is greater in surface sediment of some low-salinity and fresh-water areas than deeper in the sediments, and generally less in the high-salinity area of rapid sediment deposition in New York harbor. Much of the pollutant Cu added to the harbor appears to be rapidly deposited in the sediments. (Auth.)

  16. Transition from natural-convection-controlled freezing to conduction-controlled freezing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparrow, E.M.; Ramsey, J.W.; Harris, J.S.

    1981-01-01

    Experiments were performed to study the transition between freezing controlled by natural convection in the liquid adjacent to a freezing interface and freezing controlled by heat conduction in the solidified material. The freezing took place on a cooled vertical tube immersed in an initially superheated liquid contained in an adiabatic-walled vessel. At early and intermediate times, temperature differences throughout the liquid induce a vigorous natural convection motion which retards freezing, but the temperature differences diminish with time and natural convection ebbs. At large times, the freezing rate is fully controlled by heat conduction in the solidified material. The frozen specimens for short and intermediate freezing times are smooth-surfaced and tapered, while those for large times are straight-sided and have surfaces that are overlaid with a thicket of large discrete crystals. These characteristics correspond respectively to those of natural-convection- controlled freezing and conduction-controlled freezing. At early times, the measured mass of the frozen material is identical to that for natural-convection-controlled freezing and conduction-controlled freezing. At early times, the measured mass of the frozen material is identical to that for natural-convection-controlled freezing. At later times, the frozen mass tends to approach that for conduction-controlled freezing, but a residual deficit remains

  17. Megabenthic assemblages at the Hudson Canyon head (NW Atlantic margin): Habitat-faunal relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierdomenico, Martina; Gori, Andrea; Guida, Vincent G.; Gili, Josep-Maria

    2017-09-01

    The distribution of megabenthic communities at the head of Hudson Canyon and adjacent continental shelf was studied by means of underwater video transects and still photo imagery collected using a towed camera system. The goal was to explore the relationships between faunal distribution and physical seafloor conditions and to test the hypothesis that increased seafloor heterogeneity in the Hudson Canyon supports a larger diversity of benthic communities, compared with the adjacent continental shelf. Hierarchical cluster analysis was performed to identify benthic assemblages as defined in imagery. The BIO-ENV procedure and the Canonical Correspondence Analysis were carried out to elucidate species groupings in relation to terrain variables extracted from bathymetric data. Species accumulation curves were generated to evaluate species turn over in and out of Hudson Canyon. The results indicate that seafloor morphology is the main physical factor related to benthic community composition and distribution. Assemblages dominated by sponges, zoanthids and cup corals colonized the canyon margins and flanks, and were associated with coarse-grained sediments, while sea pen assemblages were observed along muddy seafloor within the thalweg. An assemblage dominated by sea stars occurred on the shelf, associated with a sandy seafloor. Some assemblages were exclusively observed in the canyon area, suggesting that the increased variability of seafloor composition, together with the oceanographic processes specific to the canyon area, enhance beta diversity. The colonization by benthic suspension feeders within the canyon, in contrast to shelf assemblages, mainly composed of carnivores and detritus feeders could be favored the intense hydrodynamics at the canyon head that increase the availability of suspended organic matter. From the perspective of management and conservation of marine resources, the results obtained support the relevance of Hudson Canyon as a biodiversity hotspot

  18. Sequential Strangeness Freeze-out

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellwied, Rene

    2018-02-01

    I will describe the latest results from lattice QCD pertaining to a potential flavour hierarchy in the hadronic freeze-out from the QCD crossover region. I will compare these results to a variety of improved hadronic resonance gas calculations and to experimental data of fluctuations of net-charge, net-proton and net-kaon multiplicity distributions, which serve as a proxy for the susceptibilities of conserved quantum numbers on the lattice. I will conclude that there is intriguing evidence for a flavour dependent freezeout, and I will suggest expansions to the experimental program at RHIC and the LHC that could potentially demonstrate the impact of a flavour separation during hadronization.

  19. Fundamental Technical Elements of Freeze-fracture/Freeze-etch in Biological Electron Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeze-fracture/freeze-etch describes a process whereby specimens, typically biological or nanomaterial in nature, are frozen, fractured, and replicated to generate a carbon/platinum "cast" intended for examination by transmission electron microscopy. Specimens are subjected to u...

  20. Freeze dehydration of milk using microwave energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souda, K.B.; Akyel, C.; Bilgen, E.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents the results of experimental studies on heat and mass transfer during a microwave freeze dehydration process. An experimental system and procedure was developed to freeze dry milk. A 2500-W microwave system with an appropriate wave guide was set up and instrumented, and a procedure was experimentally developed to obtain milk powder first by freezing milk and then dehydrating it at low pressure using microwave energy. An unsteady-state analysis was used to derive a one-dimensional mathematical model of the freeze dehydration process in a microwave electromagnetic field

  1. A comparison of freezing-damage during isochoric and isobaric freezing of the potato

    OpenAIRE

    Lyu, Chenang; Nastase, Gabriel; Ukpai, Gideon; Serban, Alexandru; Rubinsky, Boris

    2017-01-01

    Background Freezing is commonly used for food preservation. It is usually done under constant atmospheric pressure (isobaric). While extending the life of the produce, isobaric freezing has detrimental effects. It causes loss of food weight and changes in food quality. Using thermodynamic analysis, we have developed a theoretical model of the process of freezing in a constant volume system (isochoric). The mathematical model suggests that the detrimental effects associated with isobaric freez...

  2. Mechanisms of deterioration of nutrients. [of freeze dried foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karel, M.; Flink, J. M.

    1976-01-01

    Methods which produce freeze dried foods of improved quality were examined with emphasis on storage stability. Specific topics discussed include: microstructure of freeze dried systems, investigation of structural changes in freeze dried systems, artificial food matrices, osmotic preconcentration to yield improved quality freeze dried fruits, and storage stability of osmotically preconcentrated freeze dried fruits.

  3. Freeze concentration of lime juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ampawan Tansakul

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research was to study the effects of processing conditions, i.e. cooling medium temperature (-6, -12 and -18C and scraper blade rotational speed (50, 100 and 150 rpm on the freeze concentration of lime juice. The initial soluble solid content of lime juice was 7.6 Brix. Results showed that soluble solid content of lime juice increased as cooling medium temperature decreased while scraper blade rotational speed increased. It was also found that the processing condition with -18˚C cooling medium temperature and 150 rpm rotational speed of the scraper blade was the best among all studied conditions, although the loss of the soluble solids with ice crystals during ice separation was relatively high at 35%.

  4. Bioinspired Design: Magnetic Freeze Casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Michael Martin

    Nature is the ultimate experimental scientist, having billions of years of evolution to design, test, and adapt a variety of multifunctional systems for a plethora of diverse applications. Next-generation materials that draw inspiration from the structure-property-function relationships of natural biological materials have led to many high-performance structural materials with hybrid, hierarchical architectures that fit form to function. In this dissertation, a novel materials processing method, magnetic freeze casting, is introduced to develop porous scaffolds and hybrid composites with micro-architectures that emulate bone, abalone nacre, and other hard biological materials. This method uses ice as a template to form ceramic-based materials with continuously, interconnected microstructures and magnetic fields to control the alignment of these structures in multiple directions. The resulting materials have anisotropic properties with enhanced mechanical performance that have potential applications as bone implants or lightweight structural composites, among others.

  5. eBay.com

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engholm, Ida

    2014-01-01

    Celebrated as one of the leading and most valuable brands in the world, eBay has acquired iconic status on par with century-old brands such as Coca-Cola and Disney. The eBay logo is now synonymous with the world’s leading online auction website, and its design is associated with the company...

  6. Freezing during tapping tasks in patients with advanced Parkinson's disease and freezing of gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delval, Arnaud; Defebvre, Luc; Tard, Céline

    2017-01-01

    Parkinson's disease patients with freezing of gait also experience sudden motor blocks (freezing) during other repetitive motor tasks. We assessed the proportion of patients with advanced PD and freezing of gait who also displayed segmental "freezing" in tapping tasks. Fifteen Parkinson's disease patients with freezing of gait were assessed. Freezing of gait was evaluated using a standardized gait trajectory with the usual triggers. Patients performed repetitive tapping movements (as described in the MDS-UPDRS task) with the hands or the feet in the presence or absence of a metronome set to 4 Hz. Movements were recorded with a video motion system. The primary endpoint was the occurrence of segmental freezing in these tapping tasks. The secondary endpoints were (i) the relationship between segmental episodic phenomena and FoG severity, and (ii) the reliability of the measurements. For the upper limbs, freezing was observed more frequently with a metronome (21% of trials) than without a metronome (5%). For the lower limbs, the incidence of freezing was higher than for the upper limbs, and was again observed more frequently in the presence of an auditory cue (47%) than in its absence (14%). Although freezing of the lower limbs was easily assessed during an MDS-UPDRS task with a metronome, it was not correlated with the severity of freezing of gait (as evaluated during a standardized gait trajectory). Only this latter was a reliable measurement in patients with advanced Parkinson's disease.

  7. Measurement Error Affects Risk Estimates for Recruitment to the Hudson River Stock of Striped Bass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis J. Dunning

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined the consequences of ignoring the distinction between measurement error and natural variability in an assessment of risk to the Hudson River stock of striped bass posed by entrainment at the Bowline Point, Indian Point, and Roseton power plants. Risk was defined as the probability that recruitment of age-1+ striped bass would decline by 80% or more, relative to the equilibrium value, at least once during the time periods examined (1, 5, 10, and 15 years. Measurement error, estimated using two abundance indices from independent beach seine surveys conducted on the Hudson River, accounted for 50% of the variability in one index and 56% of the variability in the other. If a measurement error of 50% was ignored and all of the variability in abundance was attributed to natural causes, the risk that recruitment of age-1+ striped bass would decline by 80% or more after 15 years was 0.308 at the current level of entrainment mortality (11%. However, the risk decreased almost tenfold (0.032 if a measurement error of 50% was considered. The change in risk attributable to decreasing the entrainment mortality rate from 11 to 0% was very small (0.009 and similar in magnitude to the change in risk associated with an action proposed in Amendment #5 to the Interstate Fishery Management Plan for Atlantic striped bass (0.006— an increase in the instantaneous fishing mortality rate from 0.33 to 0.4. The proposed increase in fishing mortality was not considered an adverse environmental impact, which suggests that potentially costly efforts to reduce entrainment mortality on the Hudson River stock of striped bass are not warranted.

  8. Diatoms as Proxies for Abrupt Events in the Hudson River Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorski, W.; Abbott, D. H.; Recasens, C.; Breger, D. L.

    2014-12-01

    The Hudson River estuary has been subject to many abrupt events throughout its history including hurricanes, droughts and pluvials. Hurricanes in particular are rare, discrete events that if fingerprinted can be used to develop better age models for Hudson River sediments. Proxies use observed physical characteristics or biological assemblages (e.g. diatom and foraminiferal assemblages) as tools to reconstruct past conditions prior to the modern instrumental record. Using a sediment core taken from the Hudson River (CDO2-29A), in New York City, drought and pluvial layers were selected based on Cs-137 dating while hurricane layers were determined from occurrences of tropical to subtropical foraminifera. Contrary to previous studies (Weaver, 1970, Weiss et al, 1978), more than sixty different diatom species have been identified using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Cosmopolitan, hurricane and drought assemblages have begun to be identified after observing multiple layers (Table 1). Tropical foraminifera dominated by Globigerinoides ruber pink were also found in a hurricane layer that we infer was deposited during Hurricane Belle in 1976. More diatom abundance analyses and cataloged SEM pictures will provide further insight into these proxies. Table 1 Diatom Genera and Species Environment Clarification Cyclotella caspia Planktonic, marine-brackish Cosmopolitan Karayevia clevei Freshwater Cosmopolitan Melosira sp Planktonic, marine Cosmopolitan Thalassiosira sp Marine, brackish Cosmopolitan Staurosirella leptostauron Benthic, freshwater Cosmopolitan Actinoptychus senarius Planktonic or benthic, freshwater to brackish Hurricane and pluvial layers Amphora aff. sp Benthic, marine or freshwater Hurricane layers only Nitzschia sp Benthic, marine or freshwater Hurricane layers only Gomphonema sp Freshwater Hurricane layers only Surirella sp Marine-brackish Drought layer only Triceratium sp Marine Drought layer only Other Genera and species Environment Clarification

  9. Spatial patterns of pharmaceuticals and wastewater tracers in the Hudson River Estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantwell, Mark G; Katz, David R; Sullivan, Julia C; Shapley, Daniel; Lipscomb, John; Epstein, Jennifer; Juhl, Andrew R; Knudson, Carol; O'Mullan, Gregory D

    2018-06-15

    The widespread use of pharmaceuticals by human populations results in their sustained discharge to surface waters via wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). In this study, 16 highly prescribed pharmaceuticals were quantified along a 250 km transect of the Hudson River Estuary and New York Harbor to describe their sources and spatial patterns. Sampling was conducted over two dry weather periods in May and July 2016, at 72 sites which included mid-channel and nearshore sites, as well as locations influenced by tributaries and WWTP outfalls. The detection frequency of the study pharmaceuticals was almost identical between the May and July sampling periods at 55% and 52%, respectively. Six pharmaceuticals were measurable at 92% or more of the sites during both sampling periods, illustrating their ubiquitous presence throughout the study area. Individual pharmaceutical concentrations were highly variable spatially, ranging from non-detect to 3810 ng/L during the study. Major factors controlling concentrations were proximity and magnitude of WWTP discharges, inputs from tributaries and tidal mixing. Two compounds, sucralose and caffeine, were evaluated as tracers to identify wastewater sources and assess pharmaceutical behavior. Sucralose was useful in identifying wastewater inputs to the river and concentrations showed excellent correlations with numerous pharmaceuticals in the study. Caffeine-sucralose ratios showed potential in identifying discharges of untreated wastewater occurring during a combined sewage overflow event. Many of the study pharmaceuticals were present throughout the Hudson River Estuary as a consequence of sustained wastewater discharge. Whereas some concentrations were above published effects levels, a more complete risk assessment is needed to understand the potential for ecological impacts due to pharmaceuticals in the Hudson River Estuary. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Desorption of Ba and 226Ra from river-borne sediments in the Hudson estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Y.-H.

    1979-01-01

    The pronounced desorption of Ba and 226 Ra from river-borne sediments in the Hudson estuary can be explained quantitatively by the drastic decrease in the distribution coefficients of both elements from a fresh to a salty water medium. The desorption in estuaries can augment, at least, the total global river fluxes of dissolved Ba and 226 Ra by one and nine times, respectively. The desorption flux of 226 Ra from estuaries accounts for 17-43% of the total 226 Ra flux from coastal sediments. Two mass balance models depicting mixing and adsorption-desorption processes in estuaries are discussed. (Auth.)

  11. Potential well yields from unconsolidated deposits in the lower Hudson and Delaware River basins, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolcott, Stephen W.

    1987-01-01

    A comprehensive groundwater protection plan, developed by the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation in 1985, identified the need to delineate significant aquifers within the state. A map of the unconsolidated aquifers in the lower Hudson and Delaware River basins was compiled from available data on the surficial geology and well yields. It delineates the significant unconsolidated aquifers and indicates the potential yield of wells that tap these aquifers. The potential well yield is categorized into three ranges: 100 gal/min. No yield range is given for till, but some large diameter or dug wells in till may yield up 10 gal/min. (Lantz-PTT)

  12. Methods to assess impacts on Hudson River striped bass: report for the period October 1, 1977 to September 30, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnthouse, L.W.; Christensen, S.W.; Kirk, B.L.; Kumar, K.D.; Van Winkle, W.

    1980-06-01

    The overall objective of this project is to develop and apply quantitative methods for assessing the effects of power plant entrainment and impingement on the Hudson River striped bass population. During the two years covered in this reporting period, our work dealt with five interrelated aspects of this assessment problem: (1) young-of-the year models, (2) mortality of entrained eggs, larvae, and juveniles, (3) projection of long-term impacts using stock recruitment models, (4) relative contribution of the Hudson River stock to the Atlantic coastal striped bass population, and (5) distribution of entrainable striped bass life stages in the immediate vicinity of power plant intakes

  13. Well-plate freeze-drying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trnka, Hjalte; Rantanen, Jukka; Grohganz, Holger

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Context: Freeze-drying in presence of excipients is a common practice to stabilize biomacromolecular formulations. The composition of this formulation is known to affect the quality of the final product. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate freeze-drying in well-plates as a h......Abstract Context: Freeze-drying in presence of excipients is a common practice to stabilize biomacromolecular formulations. The composition of this formulation is known to affect the quality of the final product. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate freeze-drying in well......-plates as a high throughput platform for formulation screening of freeze-dried products. Methods: Model formulations consisting of mannitol, sucrose and bovine serum albumin were freeze-dried in brass well plates, plastic well plates and vials. Physical properties investigated were solid form, residual moisture......, cake collapse and reconstitution time. Results: Samples freeze-dried in well-plates had an acceptable visual cake appearance. Solid form analysis by high throughput X-ray powder diffraction indicated comparable polymorphic outcome independent of the container. The expected increase in moisture level...

  14. Using Power Ultrasound to Accelerate Food Freezing Processes: Effects on Freezing Efficiency and Food Microstructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peizhi; Zhu, Zhiwei; Sun, Da-Wen

    2018-05-31

    Freezing is an effective way of food preservation. However, traditional freezing methods have the disadvantages of low freezing efficiency and generation of large ice crystals, leading to possible damage of food quality. Power ultrasound assisted freezing as a novel technique can effectively reduce the adverse effects during freezing process. This paper gives an overview on recent researches of power ultrasound technique to accelerate the food freezing processes and illustrates the main principles of power ultrasound assisted freezing. The effects of power ultrasound on liquid food, model solid food as well as fruit and vegetables are discussed, respectively, from the aspects of increasing freezing rate and improving microstructure. It is shown that ultrasound assisted freezing can effectively improve the freezing efficiency and promote the formation of small and evenly distributed ice crystals, resulting in better food quality. Different inherent properties of food samples affect the effectiveness of ultrasound application and optimum ultrasound parameters depend on the nature of the samples. The application of ultrasound to the food industry is more likely on certain types of food products and more efforts are still needed to realize the industrial translation of laboratory results.

  15. Hot big bang or slow freeze?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetterich, C.

    2014-09-01

    We confront the big bang for the beginning of the universe with an equivalent picture of a slow freeze - a very cold and slowly evolving universe. In the freeze picture the masses of elementary particles increase and the gravitational constant decreases with cosmic time, while the Newtonian attraction remains unchanged. The freeze and big bang pictures both describe the same observations or physical reality. We present a simple ;crossover model; without a big bang singularity. In the infinite past space-time is flat. Our model is compatible with present observations, describing the generation of primordial density fluctuations during inflation as well as the present transition to a dark energy-dominated universe.

  16. Wildlife habitat connectivity in the changing climate of New York's Hudson Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Timothy G; Schlesinger, Matthew D

    2013-09-01

    Maintaining and restoring connectivity are key adaptation strategies for biodiversity conservation under climate change. We present a novel combination of species distribution and connectivity modeling using current and future climate regimes to prioritize connections among populations of 26 rare species in New York's Hudson Valley. We modeled patches for each species for each time period and modeled potential connections among habitat patches by finding the least-cost path for every patch-to-patch connection. Finally, we aggregated these patches and paths to the tax parcel, commonly the primary unit of conservation action. Under future climate regimes, suitable habitat was predicted to contract or appear upslope and farther north. On average, predicted patches were nine times smaller and paths were twice as long under future climate. Parcels within the Hudson Highlands, Shawangunk Ridge, Catskill Mountains, and Harlem Valley had high species overlap, with areas upslope and northward increasing in importance over time. We envision that land managers and conservation planners can use these results to help prioritize parcel-level conservation and management and thus support biodiversity adaptation to climate change. © 2013 New York Academy of Sciences.

  17. Sediment mixing and accumulation rate effects on radionuclide depth profiles in Hudson estuary sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, C.R.; Simpson, H.J.; Peng, T.; Bopp, R.F.; Trier, R.M.

    1981-01-01

    Measured anthropogenic radionuclide profiles in sediment cores from the Hudson River estuary were compared with profiles computed by using known input histories of radionuclides to the estuary and mixing coefficients which decreased exponentially with depth in the sediment. Observed 134 Cs sediment depth profiles were used in the mixing rate computation because reactor releases were the only significant source for this nuclide, whereas the inputs of 137 Cs and /sup 239.240/Pu to the estuary were complicated by runoff or erosion in upstream areas, in addition to direct fallout from precipitation. Our estimates for the rates of surface sediment mixing in the low salinity reach of the estuary range from 0.25 to 1 cm 2 /yr, or less. In some areas of the harbor adjacent to New York City, were fine-particle accumulation rates are generally >3 cm/yr, and often as high as 10 to 20 cm/yr, sediment mixing rates as high as 10 cm 2 /yr would have little effect on radionuclide peak distributions. Consequently, anthropogenic radionuclide maximum activities in subsurface sediments of the Hudson appear to be useful as time-stratigraphic reference levels, which can be correlated with periods of maximum radionuclide inputs for estimating rates and patterns of sediment accumulation

  18. Determining the flux of methane into Hudson Canyon at the edge of methane clathrate hydrate stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinsten, A.; Navarrete, L; Ruppel, Carolyn D.; Weber, T.C.; Leonte, M.; Kellermann, M.; Arrington, E.; Valentine, D.L.; Scranton, M.L; Kessler, John D.

    2016-01-01

    Methane seeps were investigated in Hudson Canyon, the largest shelf-break canyon on the northern US Atlantic Margin. The seeps investigated are located at or updip of the nominal limit of methane clathrate hydrate stability. The acoustic identification of bubble streams was used to guide water column sampling in a 32 km2 region within the canyon's thalweg. By incorporating measurements of dissolved methane concentration with methane oxidation rates and current velocity into a steady-state box model, the total emission of methane to the water column in this region was estimated to be 12 kmol methane per day (range: 6 – 24 kmol methane per day). These analyses suggest this methane is largely retained inside the canyon walls below 300 m water depth, and that it is aerobically oxidized to near completion within the larger extent of Hudson Canyon. Based on estimated methane emissions and measured oxidation rates, the oxidation of this methane to dissolved CO2 is expected to have minimal influences on seawater pH. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. Groundwater quality in the Upper Hudson River Basin, New York, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Tia-Marie; Nystrom, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    Water samples were collected from 20 production and domestic wells in the Upper Hudson River Basin (north of the Federal Dam at Troy, New York) in New York in August 2012 to characterize groundwater quality in the basin. The samples were collected and processed using standard U.S. Geological Survey procedures and were analyzed for 148 physiochemical properties and constituents, including dissolved gases, major ions, nutrients, trace elements, pesticides, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), radionuclides, and indicator bacteria. The Upper Hudson River Basin covers 4,600 square miles in upstate New York, Vermont, and Massachusetts; the study area encompasses the 4,000 square miles that lie within New York. The basin is underlain by crystalline and sedimentary bedrock, including gneiss, shale, and slate; some sandstone and carbonate rocks are present locally. The bedrock in some areas is overlain by surficial deposits of saturated sand and gravel. Eleven of the wells sampled in the Upper Hudson River Basin are completed in sand and gravel deposits, and nine are completed in bedrock. Groundwater in the Upper Hudson River Basin was typically neutral or slightly basic; the water typically was moderately hard. Bicarbonate, chloride, calcium, and sodium were the major ions with the greatest median concentrations; the dominant nutrient was nitrate. Methane was detected in 7 samples. Strontium, iron, barium, boron, and manganese were the trace elements with the highest median concentrations. Two pesticides, an herbicide degradate and an insecticide degredate, were detected in two samples at trace levels; seven VOCs, including chloroform, four solvents, and the gasoline additive methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) were detected in four samples. The greatest radon-222 activity, 2,900 picocuries per liter, was measured in a sample from a bedrock well; the median radon activity was higher in samples from bedrock wells than in samples from sand and gravel wells. Coliform bacteria were

  20. Biscayne Bay Alongshore Epifauna

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Field studies to characterize the alongshore epifauna (shrimp, crabs, echinoderms, and small fishes) along the western shore of southern Biscayne Bay were started in...

  1. Bathymetry in Jobos Bay

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a 4x4 meter resolution bathymetric surface for Jobos Bay, Puerto Rico (in NAD83 UTM 19 North). The depth values are in meters referenced to the...

  2. Hammond Bay Biological Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Hammond Bay Biological Station (HBBS), located near Millersburg, Michigan, is a field station of the USGS Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC). HBBS was established by...

  3. Humboldt Bay Orthoimages

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of 0.5-meter pixel resolution, four band orthoimages covering the Humboldt Bay area. An orthoimage is remotely sensed image data in which...

  4. Freezing and refrigerated storage in fisheries

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnston, W. A

    1994-01-01

    ...; the factors affecting cold storage conditions, etc. In addition, the publication describes the methods used to calculate cold storage refrigeration loads as well as the costs of freezing and cold storage...

  5. Declining metal levels at Foundry Cove (Hudson River, New York): Response to localized dredging of contaminated sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackie, Joshua A.; Natali, Susan M.; Levinton, Jeffrey S.; Sanudo-Wilhelmy, Sergio A.

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of remediating a well-recognized case of heavy metal pollution at Foundry Cove (FC), Hudson River, New York. This tidal freshwater marsh was polluted with battery-factory wastes (1953-1979) and dredged in 1994-1995. Eight years after remediation, dissolved and particulate metals (Cd, Co, Cu, Pb, Ni, and Ag) were found to be lower than levels in the lower Hudson near New York City. Levels of metals (Co, Ni, Cd) on suspended particles were comparatively high. Concentrations of surface sediment Cd throughout the marsh system remain high, but have decreased both in the dredged and undredged areas: Cd was 2.4-230 mg/kg dw of sediment in 2005 vs. 109-1500 mg/kg in the same area in 1983. The rate of tidal export of Cd from FC has decreased by >300-fold, suggesting that dredging successfully stemmed a major source of Cd to the Hudson River. - Dredging of a hotspot of metal-contaminated sediment is associated with a recognizable local and river-wide decline in cadmium in the Hudson River, New York

  6. De vluchtige olie van enkele chemotypen van mentha suaveolens EHRH. en van hybriden met mentha longifolia (L.) HUDSON

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, Hindrik

    1974-01-01

    De opvatting dat Mentha x piperita L. een bastaard zou zijn van Mentha spicata L. en Mentha aquatica L. werd nader besproken. Hierbij werd Mentha spicata beschouwd als een bastaard van Mentha longifolia (L.) HUDSON en Mentha suaveolens EHRH. ... Zie: Samenvatting.

  7. 77 FR 63873 - Johnson Controls, Inc. Including On-Site Leased Workers of Valley Staffing and AZ Quality Hudson...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-17

    ... workers of Johnson Controls, Inc., including on-site leased workers from Valley Staffing, Hudson..., Wisconsin location of Johnson Controls, Inc. The Department has determined that these workers were sufficiently under the control of the subject firm to be considered leased workers. Based on these findings...

  8. The Natural Palette: Hudson River Artists and the Land. Teacher's Guide. Curriculum Resource: Grades 4 through 12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Ted; Sorin, Gretchen Sullivan; Mack, Stevie; Fiore, Jennifer, Ed.

    This interdisciplinary curriculum guide resource kit focuses on 19th-century Euro-American painters of the Hudson River School. Lessons are designed to encourage student recognition of the significant impact of North American Indians, the natural environment, and the romantic period writers and philosophers artists and their work. The guide…

  9. Computer simulation model for the striped bass young-of-the-year population in the Hudson River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eraslan, A.H.; Van Winkle, W.; Sharp, R.D.; Christensen, S.W.; Goodyear, C.P.; Rush, R.M.; Fulkerson, W.

    1975-09-01

    This report presents a daily transient (tidal-averaged), longitudinally one-dimensional (cross-section-averaged) computer simulation model for the assessment of the entrainment and impingement impacts of power plant operations on young-of-the-year populations of the striped bass, Morone saxatilis, in the Hudson River

  10. Freezing tolerance of conifer seeds and germinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, B J; Guest, H J; Kolotelo, D

    2003-12-01

    Survival after freezing was measured for seeds and germinants of four seedlots each of interior spruce (Picea glauca x engelmannii complex), lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud.), Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) and western red cedar (Thuja plicata Donn ex D. Donn). Effects of eight seed treatments on post-freezing survival of seeds and germinants were tested: dry, imbibed and stratified seed, and seed placed in a growth chamber for 2, 5, 10, 15, 20 or 30 days in a 16-h photoperiod and a 22/17 degrees C thermoperiod. Survival was related to the water content of seeds and germinants, germination rate and seedlot origin. After freezing for 3 h at -196 degrees C, dry seed of most seedlots of interior spruce, Douglas-fir and western red cedar had 84-96% germination, whereas lodgepole pine seedlots had 53-82% germination. Freezing tolerance declined significantly after imbibition in lodgepole pine, Douglas-fir and interior spruce seed (western red cedar was not tested), and mean LT50 of imbibed seed of these species was -30, -24.5 and -20 degrees C, respectively. Freezing tolerance continued to decline to a minimum LT50 of -4 to -7 degrees C after 10 days in a growth chamber for interior spruce, Douglas-fir and lodgepole pine, or after 15 days for western red cedar. Minimum freezing tolerance was reached at the stage of rapid hypocotyl elongation. In all species, a slight increase in freezing tolerance of germinants was observed once cotyledons emerged from the seed coat. The decrease in freezing tolerance during the transition from dry to germinating seed correlated with increases in seed water content. Changes in freezing tolerance between 10 and 30 days in the growth chamber were not correlated with seedling water content. Within a species, seedlots differed significantly in freezing tolerance after 2 or 5 days in the growth chamber. Because all seedlots of interior spruce and lodgepole pine germinated quickly, there was no correlation

  11. Bulk water freezing dynamics on superhydrophobic surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavan, S.; Carpenter, J.; Nallapaneni, M.; Chen, J. Y.; Miljkovic, N.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we elucidate the mechanisms governing the heat-transfer mediated, non-thermodynamic limited, freezing delay on non-wetting surfaces for a variety of characteristic length scales, Lc (volume/surface area, 3 mm commercial superhydrophobic spray coatings, showing a monotonic increase in freezing time with coating thickness. The added thermal resistance of thicker coatings was much larger than that of the nanoscale superhydrophobic features, which reduced the droplet heat transfer and increased the total freezing time. Transient finite element method heat transfer simulations of the water slab freezing process were performed to calculate the overall heat transfer coefficient at the substrate-water/ice interface during freezing, and shown to be in the range of 1-2.5 kW/m2K for these experiments. The results shown here suggest that in order to exploit the heat-transfer mediated freezing delay, thicker superhydrophobic coatings must be deposited on the surface, where the coating resistance is comparable to the bulk water/ice conduction resistance.

  12. Cognitive Factors Affecting Freeze-like Behavior in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alban, Michael W; Pocknell, Victoria

    2017-01-01

    Contemporary research on survival-related defensive behaviors has identified physiological markers of freeze/flight/fight. Our research focused on cognitive factors associated with freeze-like behavior in humans. Study 1 tested if an explicit decision to freeze is associated with the psychophysiological state of freezing. Heart rate deceleration occurred when participants chose to freeze. Study 2 varied the efficacy of freezing relative to other defense options and found "freeze" was responsive to variations in the perceived effectiveness of alternative actions. Study 3 tested if individual differences in motivational orientation affect preference for a "freeze" option when the efficacy of options is held constant. A trend in the predicted direction suggested that naturally occurring cognitions led loss-avoiders to select "freeze" more often than reward-seekers. In combination, our attention to the cognitive factors affecting freeze-like behavior in humans represents a preliminary step in addressing an important but neglected research area.

  13. Freezing the Master Production Schedule Under Rolling Planning Horizons

    OpenAIRE

    V. Sridharan; William L. Berry; V. Udayabhanu

    1987-01-01

    The stability of the Master Production Schedule (MPS) is a critical issue in managing production operations with a Material Requirements Planning System. One method of achieving stability is to freeze some portion or all of the MPS. While freezing the MPS can limit the number of schedule changes, it can also produce an increase in production and inventory costs. This paper examines three decision variables in freezing the MPS: the freezing method, the freeze interval length, and the planning ...

  14. 75 FR 11837 - Chesapeake Bay Watershed Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Commodity Credit Corporation Chesapeake Bay Watershed Initiative AGENCY...: Notice of availability of program funds for the Chesapeake Bay Watershed Initiative. SUMMARY: The... through the Chesapeake Bay Watershed Initiative for agricultural producers in the Chesapeake Bay watershed...

  15. 33 CFR 100.124 - Maggie Fischer Memorial Great South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay, New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maggie Fischer Memorial Great South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay, New York. 100.124 Section 100.124 Navigation and Navigable... NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.124 Maggie Fischer Memorial Great South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay, New York...

  16. Advantages of liquid nitrogen freezing of Penaeus monodon over conventional plate freezing

    OpenAIRE

    Chakrabarti, R.; Chaudhury, D.R.

    1987-01-01

    Liquid nitrogen frozen products are biochemically and organoleptically superior to conventional plate frozen products but beneficial effect of liquid nitrogen freezing over conventional plate freezing can exist only up to 59 days at a commercial storage temperature of -18°C.

  17. Building the Method to Determine the Rate of Freezing Water in Penaeus monodon of the Freezing Process

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen Tan Dzung; Trinh Van Dzung; Tran Duc Ba

    2012-01-01

    The method of determination the rate of freezing water in Penaeus monodon of freezing process was established on base the equation of energy balance in warming up process Penaeus monodon after freezing to determine specific heat of Penaeus monodon. The result obtained was built the mathematical model (19) to determine the rate of freezing water according to the freezing temperature of Penaeus monodon. The results indicated that when water was completely frozen (ω = 1 or 100%), the optimal fre...

  18. Plutonium, radiocesium and radiocobalt in sediments of the Hudson River estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, C.R.; Simpson, H.J.; Trier, R.M.; Columbia Univ., Palisades, NY

    1981-01-01

    Anthropogenic radionuclides have reached the Hudson estuary as global fallout from nuclear weapons testing and through local releases from commercial nuclear reactors. Significant activities of 238 Pu and 239 , 240 Pu (fallout-derived), 134 Cs and 60 Co (reactor-released), and 137 Cs (derived from both sources), have accumulated in the sediments throughout the estuary, with the primary zone of accumulation near the downstream end of the system in New York harbor. The estuary appears to have trapped nearly all of the 239 , 240 Pu delivered as fallout, and consequently, ocean dumping of dredged harbor sediment is currently the primary means for the net transport of these nuclides to coastal waters. In contrast, only 10-30% of the 137 Cs, 134 Cs and 60 Co delivered to the estuary have been retained on the fine particles which accumulate at a rapid rate in the harbor. (orig./HAE)

  19. Three-dimensional simulation of flow, salinity, sediment, and radionuclide movements in the Hudson River estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishi, Y.; Trent, D.S.

    1985-04-01

    The three-dimensional, finite difference model, FLESCOT simulates time-varying movements of flow, turbulent kinetic energy, salinity, water temperature, sediment, and contaminants in estuarine, coastal, and ocean waters. The model was applied to a 106-km (66-mi) reach of the Hudson River estuary in New York between Chelsea and the mouth of the river. It predicted the time-varying, three-dimensional distributions of tidal flow, salinity, three separate groups of sediments (i.e., sand, silt, and clay), and a radionuclide ( 137 Cs) in both dissolved and particulate (those sorbed by sediments) forms for over 40 days. The model also calculated riverbed elevation changes caused by sediment deposition and bed erosion, bed sediment size distribution and armoring, and distributions of the particulate 137 Cs sorbed by sand, silt, and clay in the bed

  20. Potential yields of wells in unconsolidated aquifers in upstate New York--Hudson-Mohawk sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugliosi, Edward F.; Trudell, Ruth A.; Casey, George D.

    1988-01-01

    This map shows the location and potential well yields of unconsolidated aquifers in the Hudson-Mohawk region at a scale of 1:250,000. It also delineates segments of aquifers that are heavily used by community water systems and designated by the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation as ' Primary Water Supply ' aquifers, and cites published reports that give detailed information on each area. Most aquifers were deposited in low-lying areas such as valleys or plains during deglaciations of the region. Thick, permeable, well-sorted sand and gravel deposits generally yield large quantities of water, greater than 100 gal/min. Thin sand, sand and gravel deposits, or thicker gravel units that have a large content of silt and fine sand, yield moderate amounts of water, 10 to 100 gal/min. Wells dug in till and those drilled in bedrock commonly yield less than 10 gal/min. (USGS)

  1. Potential yields of wells in unconsolidated aquifers in upstate New York--lower Hudson sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugliosi, Edward F.; Trudell, Ruth A.

    1988-01-01

    This map shows the location and potential well yields from unconsolidated aquifers in the lower-Hudson region at a 1:250 ,000 scale. It also delineates segments of aquifers that are heavily used by community water systems and designated by the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation as ' Primary water supply ' aquifers and cites published reports that give detailed information on each area. Most aquifers were deposited in low-lying areas such as valleys or plains during deglaciation of the region. Thick, permeable, well-sorted sand and gravel deposits generally yield large quantities of water, more than 100 gal/min. Thin sand, sand and gravel deposits, or thicker gravel units that have a large content of silt and fine sand, yield moderate amounts of water, 10 to 100 gal/min. Wells dug in till and those drilled in bedrock commonly yield less than 10 gal/min. (USGS)

  2. Understanding Spatial and Temporal Shifts in Blue Carbon, Piermont Marsh, Lower Hudson Estuary, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peteet, D. M.; Nichols, J. E.; Kenna, T. C.; Corbett, E. J.; Allen, K. A.; Newton, R.; Vincent, S.; Haroon, A.; Shumer, M.

    2015-12-01

    Piermont Marsh is a National Estuarine Research Reserve (NERR) protected brackish wetland in the lower Hudson Valley. It serves as a nursery for fish, a coastal buffer in storms, a repository of native wetland species unique to the Hudson, and a paleoenvironmental archive. At risk for disappearance due to rising sea level, we assess the present carbon stores and their spatial and temporal variability through time. Determining the depth of peat in transects throughout Piermont Marsh (41°N, 73°55'W), is one step in reconstructing the stores of carbon in the marsh and how they have shifted over millennia. Through the last decade, we have focused field efforts on probing the depths of the marsh through a series of transects and in acquiring sediment cores from which we establish sedimentation rates and carbon storage through time. AMS C-14 dating, XRF fluorescence, pollen analysis, and Cesium-137 provide chronological control for the sedimentation rates, pollution history, and an understanding of the regional and local shifts in vegetation. C-13 and pollen measurements in selected cores indicate major shifts in local vegetation with coastal eutrophication as the marsh has been invaded, first by Typha angustifolia in the nineteenth century and then by Phragmites australis in the twentieth century up to the present. N-15 measurements indicate a large shift in nitrogen as humans have impacted the marsh. We present a comprehensive, three-dimensional view of the effects of climate, vegetation, and human impact on the carbon storage of Piermont Marsh. This project provided a site for a place- and project-based learning through Lamont-Doherty's Secondary School Field Research Program. Many of the field samples were collected by young investigators from schools in New York City and towns near Piermont.

  3. Freezing of Lennard-Jones-type fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khrapak, Sergey A.; Chaudhuri, Manis; Morfill, Gregor E.

    2011-01-01

    We put forward an approximate method to locate the fluid-solid (freezing) phase transition in systems of classical particles interacting via a wide range of Lennard-Jones-type potentials. This method is based on the constancy of the properly normalized second derivative of the interaction potential (freezing indicator) along the freezing curve. As demonstrated recently it yields remarkably good agreement with previous numerical simulation studies of the conventional 12-6 Lennard-Jones (LJ) fluid [S.A.Khrapak, M.Chaudhuri, G.E.Morfill, Phys. Rev. B 134, 052101 (2010)]. In this paper, we test this approach using a wide range of the LJ-type potentials, including LJ n-6 and exp-6 models, and find that it remains sufficiently accurate and reliable in reproducing the corresponding freezing curves, down to the triple-point temperatures. One of the possible application of the method--estimation of the freezing conditions in complex (dusty) plasmas with ''tunable'' interactions--is briefly discussed.

  4. Chesapeake Bay under stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    According to extensive data obtained over its 13,000 km of shoreline, the Chesapeake Bay has been suffering a major, indeed unprecedented, reduction in submerged vegetation. Chesapeake Bay is alone in experiencing decline in submerged vegetation. Other estuary systems on the east coast of the United States are not so affected. These alarming results were obtained by the synthesis of the findings of numerous individual groups in addition to large consortium projects on the Chesapeake done over the past decade. R. J. Orth and R. A. Moore of the Virginia Institute of Marine Science pointed to the problem of the severe decline of submerged grasses on the Bay and along its tributaries. In a recent report, Orth and Moore note: “The decline, which began in the 1960's and accelerated in the 1970's, has affected all species in all areas. Many major river systems are now totally devoid of any rooted vegetation” (Science, 222, 51-53, 1983).

  5. Mobile Bay turbidity study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crozier, G. F.; Schroeder, W. W.

    1978-01-01

    The termination of studies carried on for almost three years in the Mobile Bay area and adjacent continental shelf are reported. The initial results concentrating on the shelf and lower bay were presented in the interim report. The continued scope of work was designed to attempt a refinement of the mathematical model, assess the effectiveness of optical measurement of suspended particulate material and disseminate the acquired information. The optical characteristics of particulate solutions are affected by density gradients within the medium, density of the suspended particles, particle size, particle shape, particle quality, albedo, and the angle of refracted light. Several of these are discussed in detail.

  6. Hot big bang or slow freeze?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetterich, C.

    2014-09-07

    We confront the big bang for the beginning of the universe with an equivalent picture of a slow freeze — a very cold and slowly evolving universe. In the freeze picture the masses of elementary particles increase and the gravitational constant decreases with cosmic time, while the Newtonian attraction remains unchanged. The freeze and big bang pictures both describe the same observations or physical reality. We present a simple “crossover model” without a big bang singularity. In the infinite past space–time is flat. Our model is compatible with present observations, describing the generation of primordial density fluctuations during inflation as well as the present transition to a dark energy-dominated universe.

  7. Heat transfer coefficient of cryotop during freezing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W J; Zhou, X L; Wang, H S; Liu, B L; Dai, J J

    2013-01-01

    Cryotop is an efficient vitrification method for cryopreservation of oocytes. It has been widely used owing to its simple operation and high freezing rate. Recently, the heat transfer performance of cryotop was studied by numerical simulation in several studies. However, the range of heat transfer coefficient in the simulation is uncertain. In this study, the heat transfer coefficient for cryotop during freezing process was analyzed. The cooling rates of 40 percent ethylene glycol (EG) droplet in cryotop during freezing were measured by ultra-fast measurement system and calculated by numerical simulation at different value of heat transfer coefficient. Compared with the results obtained by two methods, the range of the heat transfer coefficient necessary for the numerical simulation of cryotop was determined, which is between 9000 W/(m(2)·K) and 10000 W/(m (2)·K).

  8. Hot big bang or slow freeze?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetterich, C.

    2014-01-01

    We confront the big bang for the beginning of the universe with an equivalent picture of a slow freeze — a very cold and slowly evolving universe. In the freeze picture the masses of elementary particles increase and the gravitational constant decreases with cosmic time, while the Newtonian attraction remains unchanged. The freeze and big bang pictures both describe the same observations or physical reality. We present a simple “crossover model” without a big bang singularity. In the infinite past space–time is flat. Our model is compatible with present observations, describing the generation of primordial density fluctuations during inflation as well as the present transition to a dark energy-dominated universe

  9. Storage of human platelets by freezing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, B K; Tanoue, K; Baldini, M G

    1976-01-01

    Prolonged, probably indefinite storage of viable and functional human platelets is now possible by freezing with dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). The platelets have a nearly normal survival upon reinfusion and are capable of sustained hemostatic effectiveness in thrombocytopenic patients. Adaptation of the freezing technique for large-scale usage has more recently been achieved. The method is mainly based on the following principles: (1) use of plasma for suspension of the platelet concentrate; (2) gradual addition (0.5% every 2 min) of DMSO to a final concentration of 5% and its gradual removal; (3) a slow cooling rate of about 1/sup 0/C per min and rapid thawing (in 1 min); (4) use of a polyolefin plastic bag for freezing; (5) a washing medium of 20% plasma in Hanks' balanced salt solution; (6) final resuspension of the platelets in 50% plasma in Hanks' solution.

  10. Hot big bang or slow freeze?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Wetterich

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We confront the big bang for the beginning of the universe with an equivalent picture of a slow freeze — a very cold and slowly evolving universe. In the freeze picture the masses of elementary particles increase and the gravitational constant decreases with cosmic time, while the Newtonian attraction remains unchanged. The freeze and big bang pictures both describe the same observations or physical reality. We present a simple “crossover model” without a big bang singularity. In the infinite past space–time is flat. Our model is compatible with present observations, describing the generation of primordial density fluctuations during inflation as well as the present transition to a dark energy-dominated universe.

  11. To freeze or not to freeze embryos: clarity, confusion and conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Mohar; Murdoch, Alison P; Haimes, Erica

    2015-06-01

    Although embryo freezing is a routine clinical practice, there is little contemporary evidence on how couples make the decision to freeze their surplus embryos, or of their perceptions during that time. This article describes a qualitative study of 16 couples who have had in vitro fertilisation (IVF) treatment. The study question was 'What are the personal and social factors that patients consider when deciding whether to freeze embryos?' We show that while the desire for a baby is the dominant drive, couples' views revealed more nuanced and complex considerations in the decision-making process. It was clear that the desire to have a baby influenced couples' decision-making and that they saw freezing as 'part of the process'. However, there were confusions associated with the term 'freezing' related to concerns about the safety of the procedure. Despite being given written information, couples were confused about the practical aspects of embryo freezing, which suggests they were preoccupied with the immediate demands of IVF. Couples expressed ethical conflicts about freezing 'babies'. We hope the findings from this study will inform clinicians and assist them in providing support to couples confronted with this difficult decision-making.

  12. Richards Bay effluent pipeline

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lord, DA

    1986-07-01

    Full Text Available of major concern identified in the effluent are the large volume of byproduct calcium sulphate (phosphogypsum) which would smother marine life, high concentrations of fluoride highly toxic to marine life, heavy metals, chlorinated organic material... ........................ 9 THE RICHARDS BAY PIPELINE ........................................ 16 Environmental considerations ................................... 16 - Phosphogypsum disposal ................................... 16 - Effects of fluoride on locally occurring...

  13. Bayes and Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, F.

    2017-01-01

    The dissertation consists of research in three subjects in two themes—Bayes and networks: The first studies the posterior contraction rates for the Dirichlet-Laplace mixtures in a deconvolution setting (Chapter 1). The second subject regards the statistical inference in preferential attachment

  14. Selective analysis of power plant operation on the Hudson River with emphasis on the Bowline Point Generating Station. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnthouse, L.W.; Cannon, J.B.; Christensen, S.G.

    1977-07-01

    A comprehensive study of the effects of power plant operation on the Hudson River was conducted. The study included thermal, biological, and air quality effects of existing and planned electrical generating stations. This section on thermal impacts presents a comprehensive mathematical modeling and computer simulation study of the effects of heat rejection from the plants. The overall study consisted of three major parts: near-field analysis; far-field analysis; and zone-matched near-field/far-field analysis. Near-field analyses were completed for Roseton, Danskammer, and Bowline Point Generating Stations, and near-field dilution ratios range from a low of about 2 for Bowline Point and 3 for Roseton to a maximum of 6 for both plants. The far-field analysis included a critical review of existing studies and a parametric review of operating plants. The maximum thermal load case, based on hypothetical 1974 river conditions, gives the daily maximum cross-section-averaged and 2-mile-segment-averaged water temperatures as 83.80 0 F in the vicinity of the Indian Point Station and 83.25 0 F in the vicinity of the Bowline Station. This maximum case will be significantly modified if cooling towers are used at certain units. A full analysis and discussion of these cases is presented. A study of the Hudson River striped bass population is divided into the following eight subsections: distribution of striped bass eggs, larvae, and juveniles in the Hudson River; entrainment mortality factor; intake factor; impingement; effects of discharges; compensation; model estimates of percent reduction; and Hudson River striped bass stock

  15. Aversive Life Events Enhance Human Freezing Responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagenaars, M.A.; Stins, J.F.; Roelofs, K.

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effect of prior aversive life events on freezing-like responses. Fifty healthy females were presented neutral, pleasant, and unpleasant images from the International Affective Picture System while standing on a stabilometric platform and wearing a polar band

  16. Aversive life events enhance human freezing responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagenaars, M.A.; Stins, J.F.; Roelofs, K.

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effect of prior aversive life events on freezing-like responses. Fifty healthy females were presented neutral, pleasant, and unpleasant images from the International Affective Picture System while standing on a stabilometric platform and wearing a polar band

  17. The Practicalities of Assessing Freezing of Gait

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barthel, C.; Mallia, E.; Debu, B.; Bloem, B.R.; Ferraye, M.U.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Freezing of gait (FOG) is a mysterious, complex and debilitating phenomenon in Parkinson's disease. Adequate assessment is a pre-requisite for managing FOG, as well as for assigning participants in FOG research. The episodic nature of FOG, as well as its multiple clinical expressions

  18. Freezing of Water Droplet due to Evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Isao; Fushinobu, Kazuyoshi; Hashimoto, Yu

    In this study, the feasibility of cooling/freezing of phase change.. materials(PCMs) due to evaporation for cold storage systems was experimentally examined. A pure water was used as the test PCM, since the latent heat due to evaporation of water is about 7 times larger than that due to freezing. A water droplet, the diameter of which was 1-4 mm, was suspended in a test cell by a fine metal wire (O. D.= 100μm),and the cell was suddenly evacuated up to the pressure lower than the triple-point pressure of water, so as to enhance the evaporation from the water surface. Temperature of the droplet was measured by a thermocouple, and the cooling/freezing behavior and the temperature profile of the droplet surface were captured by using a video camera and an IR thermo-camera, respectively. The obtained results showed that the water droplet in the evacuated cell is effectively cooled by the evaporation of water itself, and is frozen within a few seconds through remarkable supercooling state. When the initial temperature of the droplet is slightly higher than the room temperature, boiling phenomena occur in the droplet simultaneously with the freezing due to evaporation. Under such conditions, it was shown that the degree of supercooling of the droplet is reduced by the bubbles generated in the droplet.

  19. Rehydration kinetics of freeze-dried carrots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vergeldt, F.J.; Dalen, van G.; Duijster, A.J.; Voda, A.; Khalloufi, S.; Vliet, van L.J.; As, van H.; Duynhoven, van J.P.M.; Sman, van der R.G.M.

    2014-01-01

    Rehydration kinetics by two modes of imbibition is studied in pieces of freeze-dried winter carrot, after different thermal pre-treatments. Water ingress at room temperature is measured in real time by in situ MRI and NMR relaxometry. Blanched samples rehydrate substantially faster compared to

  20. Sysnthesis of powders by freeze-drying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, S.M.; Gusman, M.I.; Hildenbrand, D.L.

    1988-01-01

    The freeze-drying method of synthesizing powders of the superconducting oxide YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 - δ is described. This process produces homogeneous, submicron powders of high purity. The effects of salt selection, solution concentration and pH on the process are described. Some evaluation of the sintering behavior and the effects on critical current density are included

  1. Freeze block testing of buried waste lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robbins, E.D.; Willi, J.C.

    1976-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to demonstrate application of freeze blocking in waste transfer lines such that a hydrostatic pressure test can be applied. A shop test was conducted on a 20-foot length, 3-inch schedule 40, carbon steel pipe using a coolant of dry ice and Freon. The positive results from these tests prompted a similar employment of the freeze block method in hydrostatic pressure testing the feed inlet leading to 241-S-101 Waste Tank. This pipeline is a 3-inch schedule 10, stainless steel pipe approximately 800 feet long. The freeze block was formed near the lower end of the pipe as it entered the 101-S Waste Tank and a pressure hold test was applied to this pipeline. This test proved the integrity of the pipeline in question, and demonstrated the validity of freeze blocking an open-ended pipeline which could not be hydrotested in other conventional ways. The field demonstration facility, costing $30,200 was completed late in 1975

  2. Scaling-Up Eutectic Freeze Crystallization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Genceli, F.E.

    2008-01-01

    A novel crystallization technology, Eutectic Freeze Crystallization (EFC) has been investigated and further developed in this thesis work. EFC operates around the eutectic temperature and composition of aqueous solutions and can be used for recovery of (valuable) dissolved salts (and/or or acids)

  3. Static delectric behavior of charged fluids near freezing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fasolino, A.; Parrinello, M.; Tosi, M.P.

    1978-01-01

    The wavenumber-dependent, static dielectric function of classical charged fluids near freezing is obtained from structural data based on computer simulation or neutron diffraction, and its behavior is connected with the freezing process. (Auth.)

  4. Canalization of freeze tolerance in an alpine grasshopper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawes, Timothy C

    2015-10-01

    In the Rock and Pillar Range, New Zealand, the alpine grasshopper, Sigaus australis Hutton, survives equilibrium freezing (EF) all-year round. A comparison of freeze tolerance (FT) in grasshoppers over four austral seasons for a 1 year period finds that: (a) the majority (>70%) of the sample population of grasshoppers survive single freeze-stress throughout the year; (b) exposure to increased freeze stress (multiple freeze-stress events) does not lead to a loss of freeze tolerance; and (c) responses to increased freeze stress reveal seasonal tuning of the FT adaptation to environmental temperatures. The Rock and Pillar sample population provides a clear example of the canalization of the FT adaptation. Seasonal variability in the extent of tolerance of multiple freezing events indicates that physiology is modulated to environmental temperatures by phenotypic plasticity - i.e. the FT adaptation is permanent and adjustable. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Adaptive Control of Freeze-Form Extrusion Fabrication Processes (Preprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhao, Xiyue; Landers, Robert G; Leu, Ming C

    2008-01-01

    Freeze-form Extrusion Fabrication (FEF) is an additive manufacturing process that extrudes high solids loading aqueous ceramic pastes in a layer-by-layer fashion below the paste freezing temperature for component fabrication...

  6. Freeze-thaw performance testing of whole concrete railroad ties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Freezing and thawing durability tests of prestressed concrete ties are normally performed according to ASTM C666 specifications. Small specimens are cut from the shoulders of concrete ties and tested through 300 cycles of freezing and thawing. Saw-cu...

  7. Freezing temperature protection admixture for Portland cement concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-10-01

    A number of experimental admixtures were compared to Pozzutec 20 admixture for their ability to protect fresh concrete from freezing and for increasing the rate of cement hydration at below-freezing temperatures. The commercial accelerator and low-te...

  8. Water vapor movement in freezing aggregate base materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    The objectives of this research were to 1) measure the extent to which water vapor movement results in : water accumulation in freezing base materials; 2) evaluate the effect of soil stabilization on water vapor movement : in freezing base materials;...

  9. Greenland coastal air temperatures linked to Baffin Bay and Greenland Sea ice conditions during autumn through regional blocking patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballinger, Thomas J.; Hanna, Edward; Hall, Richard J.; Miller, Jeffrey; Ribergaard, Mads H.; Høyer, Jacob L.

    2018-01-01

    Variations in sea ice freeze onset and regional sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in Baffin Bay and Greenland Sea are linked to autumn surface air temperatures (SATs) around coastal Greenland through 500 hPa blocking patterns, 1979-2014. We find strong, statistically significant correlations between Baffin Bay freeze onset and SSTs and SATs across the western and southernmost coastal areas, while weaker and fewer significant correlations are found between eastern SATs, SSTs, and freeze periods observed in the neighboring Greenland Sea. Autumn Greenland Blocking Index values and the incidence of meridional circulation patterns have increased over the modern sea ice monitoring era. Increased anticyclonic blocking patterns promote poleward transport of warm air from lower latitudes and local warm air advection onshore from ocean-atmosphere sensible heat exchange through ice-free or thin ice-covered seas bordering the coastal stations. Temperature composites by years of extreme late freeze conditions, occurring since 2006 in Baffin Bay, reveal positive monthly SAT departures that often exceed 1 standard deviation from the 1981-2010 climate normal over coastal areas that exhibit a similar spatial pattern as the peak correlations.

  10. Faktor Influencing the Vacuum Freezing Rate of Liquid Food

    OpenAIRE

    Tambunan, Armansyah H

    2000-01-01

    Many,freezing methods, mechanicul as well as cryogenic, have been in wide application in food industries. Each method has its own advantage, but in regard with the food quality, freezing rule can be accomplished by the method is one of the tnost important factors. Nowadays, many researchers are conducting experiment in order to enhance thefi.eezing rate. This paper deals with the advantage of vacuum freezing method in enhancing the freezing rate and its applicability for liquidfood.Experinren...

  11. Hudson Canyon benthic habitats characterization and mapping by integrated analysis of multidisciplinary data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierdomenico, Martina; Guida, Vincent G.; Rona, Peter A.; Macelloni, Leonardo; Scranton, Mary I.; Asper, Vernon; Diercks, Arne

    2013-04-01

    Hudson Canyon, about 180 km SE of New York City, is the largest eastern U.S. submarine canyon and is under consideration for HAPC (Habitat Area of Particular Concern) status, representing a fisheries and biodiversity hot spot. Interest in the area, within the perspective of ecosystem based management, marine spatial planning, habitat and species conservation, led to a joint project between NOAA Northeast Fisheries, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Mississippi Mineral Research Institute (MMRI), National Institute for Undersea Science and Technology (NIUST), Stony Brook and Rutgers Universities for the study of benthic habitats, that includes the assembly of existing data with newly collected ones: acoustic mapping, visual ground-truthing, hydrographic, sedimentological, and trawl data collections. Acoustic mapping, performed using AUV-mounted multibeam sonar, provided ultra-high resolution bathymetric and backscatter imagery (3m and 1m respectively) at all water depths for identification of geomorphological features and for the characterization of surficial sediments along the two thirds of the shelf portion of the canyon. Identification of benthic and demersal communities was accomplished by visual ground thruthing with underwater vehicle video and still cameras, and from trawl catch data. A CTD-rosette sampler provided water column salinity-temperature profiles and water samples for dissolved methane analysis in the vicinity of suspected bottom sources. Analysis of data revealed a complex of topographic structures and hydrological patterns that provide a wide range of physical habitats in a relatively small area. A mosaic of sandy and muddy substrates, gravel beds, rock outcrops, and semilithified clay outcrops host rich and varied faunal assemblages, including deepwater corals and sponge communities. Pockmark fields, occurring below 300 m depth, suggest that methane-based chemosynthetic carbonate deposition contributes to creation of specific hard bottom habitats

  12. Objective video quality assessment method for freeze distortion based on freeze aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Keishiro; Okamoto, Jun; Kurita, Takaaki

    2006-01-01

    With the development of the broadband network, video communications such as videophone, video distribution, and IPTV services are beginning to become common. In order to provide these services appropriately, we must manage them based on subjective video quality, in addition to designing a network system based on it. Currently, subjective quality assessment is the main method used to quantify video quality. However, it is time-consuming and expensive. Therefore, we need an objective quality assessment technology that can estimate video quality from video characteristics effectively. Video degradation can be categorized into two types: spatial and temporal. Objective quality assessment methods for spatial degradation have been studied extensively, but methods for temporal degradation have hardly been examined even though it occurs frequently due to network degradation and has a large impact on subjective quality. In this paper, we propose an objective quality assessment method for temporal degradation. Our approach is to aggregate multiple freeze distortions into an equivalent freeze distortion and then derive the objective video quality from the equivalent freeze distortion. Specifically, our method considers the total length of all freeze distortions in a video sequence as the length of the equivalent single freeze distortion. In addition, we propose a method using the perceptual characteristics of short freeze distortions. We verified that our method can estimate the objective video quality well within the deviation of subjective video quality.

  13. SLAPex Freeze/Thaw 2015: The First Dedicated Soil Freeze/Thaw Airborne Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Edward; Wu, Albert; DeMarco, Eugenia; Powers, Jarrett; Berg, Aaron; Rowlandson, Tracy; Freeman, Jacqueline; Gottfried, Kurt; Toose, Peter; Roy, Alexandre; hide

    2016-01-01

    Soil freezing and thawing is an important process in the terrestrial water, energy, and carbon cycles, marking the change between two very different hydraulic, thermal, and biological regimes. NASA's Soil Moisture Active/Passive (SMAP) mission includes a binary freeze/thaw data product. While there have been ground-based remote sensing field measurements observing soil freeze/thaw at the point scale, and airborne campaigns that observed some frozen soil areas (e.g., BOREAS), the recently-completed SLAPex Freeze/Thaw (F/T) campaign is the first airborne campaign dedicated solely to observing frozen/thawed soil with both passive and active microwave sensors and dedicated ground truth, in order to enable detailed process-level exploration of the remote sensing signatures and in situ soil conditions. SLAPex F/T utilized the Scanning L-band Active/Passive (SLAP) instrument, an airborne simulator of SMAP developed at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, and was conducted near Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, in October/November, 2015. Future soil moisture missions are also expected to include soil freeze/thaw products, and the loss of the radar on SMAP means that airborne radar-radiometer observations like those that SLAP provides are unique assets for freeze/thaw algorithm development. This paper will present an overview of SLAPex F/T, including descriptions of the site, airborne and ground-based remote sensing, ground truth, as well as preliminary results.

  14. 7 CFR 58.620 - Freezing and packaging rooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Freezing and packaging rooms. 58.620 Section 58.620 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....620 Freezing and packaging rooms. The rooms used for freezing and packaging frozen desserts shall be...

  15. Applications of Simulator Freeze to Carrier Glideslope Tracking Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-07-01

    Showing Datum Bars and Meatball . .. .. .. ... .. ... .... 19 4 Freezes Per Trial Averaged Across Freeze Conditions and Across 4-Trial Blocks of Training...algorithm linearly increased the criterion in meatball units from 1.0 at 6000 feet from the ramp to 1.5 at the ramp. "Freezes" did not occur beyond 6000

  16. Oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected from station Port of Albany weather/hydro by Hudson River Environmental Conditions Observing System (HRECOS) and assembled by Mid-Atlantic Regional Association Coastal Ocean Observing System (MARACOOS) in the Hudson River from 2011-01-04 to 2017-07-31 (NCEI Accession 0163364)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0163364 contains oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected at Port of Albany weather/hydro, a fixed station in the Hudson River. These...

  17. Oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected from station Schodack Island hydro/weather by Hudson River Environmental Conditions Observing System (HRECOS) and assembled by Mid-Atlantic Regional Association Coastal Ocean Observing System (MARACOOS) in the Hudson River from 2008-04-25 to 2017-05-31 (NCEI Accession 0163416)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0163416 contains oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected at Schodack Island hydro/weather, a fixed station in the Hudson River. These...

  18. Implications of power plant mortality for management of the Hudson River striped bass fishery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodyear, C.P.

    1988-01-01

    The Atlantic coastal stock of striped bass apparently declined from colonial times to the early 1930s and subsequently recovered. The reasons for the decline and recovery are not known, but fishing remains a possible explanation, which would suggest population sensitivity to increased mortality. Evidence suggests that fishing mortality has been increasing in recent years and will continue to increase in the absence of management intervention. The consequence of increased fishing mortality is an increase in the marginal effect of the power plant mortality which based on the utilities' models and parameter fits, could result in important reductions in the Hudson River striped bass population. Any management actions imposed to arrest population decline or to increase yield per effort in the fishery would be required to mitigate the impact of the power plants by reducing fishing mortality. It is estimated that a 20% conditional power plant mortality is equivalent to a 14% increase in the number of average fishermen using the stock. Consequently, should any management intervention be required on behalf of the population, managers would be required to reduce fishing mortality by about 14% just to account for the power plant mortality. 26 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  19. Widespread Micropollutant Monitoring in the Hudson River Estuary Reveals Spatiotemporal Micropollutant Clusters and Their Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Corey M G; Helbling, Damian E

    2018-06-05

    The objective of this study was to identify sources of micropollutants in the Hudson River Estuary (HRE). We collected 127 grab samples at 17 sites along the HRE over 2 years and screened for up to 200 micropollutants. We quantified 168 of the micropollutants in at least one of the samples. Atrazine, gabapentin, metolachlor, and sucralose were measured in every sample. We used data-driven unsupervised methods to cluster the micropollutants on the basis of their spatiotemporal occurrence and normalized-concentration patterns. Three major clusters of micropollutants were identified: ubiquitous and mixed-use (core micropollutants), sourced from sewage treatment plant outfalls (STP micropollutants), and derived from diffuse upstream sources (diffuse micropollutants). Each of these clusters was further refined into subclusters that were linked to specific sources on the basis of relationships identified through geospatial analysis of watershed features. Evaluation of cumulative loadings of each subcluster revealed that the Mohawk River and Rondout Creek are major contributors of most core micropollutants and STP micropollutants and the upper HRE is a major contributor of diffuse micropollutants. These data provide the first comprehensive evaluation of micropollutants in the HRE and define distinct spatiotemporal micropollutant clusters that are linked to sources and conserved across surface water systems around the world.

  20. Peat Archives in the Hudson River Estuary… Marsh Formation, Carbon Storage and Release, and Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peteet, D. M.; Corbett, E. J.; Nichols, J. E.; Kenna, T. C.; Chang, C.

    2017-12-01

    We target deep peat stores (at least 8 meters) of carbon in the lower Hudson Estuary, which formed as the glacial fjord became an estuary with mid-Holocene sea level rise. These deep marshes play an extremely important role in the estuary health and stability in a changing climate. Never before have we faced the threats to coastal marshes that we are facing today, and the resulting sedimentation rates, inorganic/organic component histories, pollen, macrofossil, isotopic, and XRF data reveal critical information about past vegetation and climate change. Long-term shifts in organic/inorganic storage appear to be linked to drought, as watershed erosion results in more sand, silt and clay in the marshes. Climatic shifts often result in regional watershed shifts in vegetation, both locally and regionally. Understanding how these marshes are linked to human impact (disturbance, invasive species, higher nitrogen, heavy metal pollution, dams) over the last four centuries is critical to providing management of these key ecosystems, and their preservation as sea level rises. Quantification of processes that cause carbon degradation and release from these wetlands to the estuary is also key to this investigation. Peat loss would contribute to heavy metal pollution in the estuary as well as carbon loss. Young investigators from secondary schools in New York City participated in much of the fieldwork as part of the NASA/GISS NYC Research Initiative and the LDEO Secondary School Field Research Carbon Team.

  1. The freezing and supercooling of garlic (Allium sativum L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, Christian; Seignemartin, Violaine; James, Stephen J. [Food Refrigeration and Process Engineering Research Centre (FRPERC), University of Bristol, Churchill Building, Langford, Bristol BS40 5DU (United Kingdom)

    2009-03-15

    This work shows that peeled garlic cloves demonstrate significant supercooling during freezing under standard conditions and can be stored at temperatures well below their freezing point (-2.7 C) without freezing. The nucleation point or 'metastable limit temperature' (the point at which ice crystal nucleation is initiated) of peeled garlic cloves was found to be between -7.7 and -14.6 C. Peeled garlic cloves were stored under static air conditions at temperatures between -6 and -9 C for up to 69 h without freezing, and unpeeled whole garlic bulbs and cloves were stored for 1 week at -6 C without freezing. (author)

  2. SOME STUDIES ON FREEZE - DRIED ARTERIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Sadeghi - Nejad

    1970-01-01

    Full Text Available (1 The secondary stage of freeze - drying, particularly the last day, is not important and I suggest the whole procedure is reduced to three days, the primary stage occupying two of these. (2 The mothod used obtains the satisfactory low level of residual moisture. RESUME (3 Experiments on reconstitution with saline and distilled water show that distilled water is more satisfactory and I suggest that saline should not he used.

  3. BCDC Bay Trail Alignment 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The Bay Trail provides easily accessible recreational opportunities for outdoor enthusiasts, including hikers, joggers, bicyclists and skaters. It also offers a...

  4. Atmospheric freeze drying assisted by power ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santacatalina, J V; Cárcel, J A; Garcia-Perez, J V; Mulet, A; Simal, S

    2012-01-01

    Atmospheric freeze drying (AFD) is considered an alternative to vacuum freeze drying to keep the quality of fresh product. AFD allows continuous drying reducing fix and operating costs, but presents, as main disadvantage, a long drying time required. The application of power ultrasound (US) can accelerate AFD process. The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the application of power ultrasound to improve atmospheric freeze drying of carrot. For that purpose, AFD experiments were carried out with carrot cubes (10 mm side) at constant air velocity (2 ms −1 ), temperature (−10°C) and relative humidity (10%) with (20.5 kWm −3 ,USAFD) and without (AFD) ultrasonic application. A diffusion model was used in order to quantify the influence of US in drying kinetics. To evaluate the quality of dry products, rehydration capacity and textural properties were determined. The US application during AFD of carrot involved the increase of drying rate. The effective moisture diffusivity identified in USAFD was 73% higher than in AFD experiments. On the other hand, the rehydration capacity was higher in USAFD than in AFD and the hardness of dried samples did not show significant (p<0.05) differences. Therefore, US application during AFD significantly (p<0.05) sped-up the drying process preserving the quality properties of the dry product.

  5. The influence of freezing rates on bovine pericardium tissue Freeze-drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Figueiredo Borgognoni

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The bovine pericardium has been used as biomaterial in developing bioprostheses. Freeze-drying is a drying process that could be used for heart valve's preservation. The maintenance of the characteristics of the biomaterial is important for a good heart valve performance. This paper describes the initial step in the development of a bovine pericardium tissue freeze-drying to be used in heart valves. Freeze-drying involves three steps: freezing, primary drying and secondary drying. The freezing step influences the ice crystal size and, consequently, the primary and secondary drying stages. The aim of this work was to investigate the influence of freezing rates on the bovine pericardium tissue freeze-drying parameters. The glass transition temperature and the structural behaviour of the lyophilized tissues were determined as also primary and secondary drying time. The slow freezing with thermal treatment presented better results than the other freeze-drying protocols.O pericárdio bovino é um material utilizado na fabricação de biopróteses. A liofilização é um método de secagem que vem sendo estudado para a conservação de válvulas cardíacas. A preservação das características do biomaterial é de fundamental importância no bom funcionamento das válvulas. Este artigo é a primeira etapa do desenvolvimento do ciclo de liofilização do pericárdio bovino. Liofilização é o processo de secagem no qual a água é removida do material congelado por sublimação e desorção da água incongelável, sob pressão reduzida. O congelamento influencia o tamanho do cristal de gelo e, consequentemente, a secagem primária e secundária. O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a influência das taxas de congelamento nos parâmetros de liofilização do pericárdio bovino. Determinou-se a temperatura de transição vítrea e o comportamento estrutural do pericárdio bovino liofilizado. Determinou-se o tempo da secagem primária e secundária. O

  6. Humic Substances from Manila Bay and Bolinao Bay Sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elma Llaguno

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available The C,H,N composition of sedimentary humic acids (HA extracted from three sites in Manila Bay and six sites in Bolinao Bay yielded H/C atomic ratios of 1.1-1.4 and N/C atomic ratios of 0.09 - 0.16. The Manila Bay HA's had lower H/C and N/C ratios compared to those from Bolinao Bay. The IR spectra showed prominent aliphatic C-H and amide I and II bands. Manila Bay HA's also had less diverse molecular composition based on the GC-MS analysis of the CuO and alkaline permanganate oxidation products of the humic acids.

  7. Plutonium, cesium and uranium series radionuclides in the Hudson River estuary and other environments. Annual technical progress report, 1 December 1980-30 November 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, H.J.; Trier, R.M.

    1981-01-01

    Radionuclide activities were measured in sediment cores and suspended particle samples throughout the salinity range of the Hudson River estuary. Activities of 137 Cs, 134 Cs, 60 Co, 239 240 Pu, and 238 Pu indicate reasonably rapid accumulation rates in the sediments of marginal cove areas, and very rapid deposition in the harbor region adjacent to New York City, resulting in 239 240 Pu accumulations there more than an order of magnitude greater than the fallout delivery rate. Fallout 239 240 Pu reaching the Hudson is almost completely retained within the systems by particle deposition, while 80 to 90% of the 137 Cs derived from both reactor releases and fallout is exported to the coastal waters in solution. Depth profiles of radionuclides in Hudson sediments are not significantly altered by physical mixing processes in the sediments in areas accumulating particles at greater than 1 cm/yr. Measurements of fallout 239 2 xperimental quantities

  8. Recent developments in smart freezing technology applied to fresh foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ji-Cheng; Zhang, Min; Mujumdar, Arun S; Adhikari, Benu

    2017-09-02

    Due to the increased awareness of consumers in sensorial and nutritional quality of frozen foods, the freezing technology has to seek new and innovative technologies for better retaining the fresh like quality of foods. In this article, we review the recent developments in smart freezing technology applied to fresh foods. The application of these intelligent technologies and the associated underpinning concepts have greatly improved the quality of frozen foods and the freezing efficiency. These technologies are able to automatically collect the information in-line during freezing and help control the freezing process better. Smart freezing technology includes new and intelligent technologies and concepts applied to the pretreatment of the frozen product, freezing processes, cold chain logistics as well as warehouse management. These technologies enable real-time monitoring of quality during the freezing process and help improve product quality and freezing efficiency. We also provide a brief overview of several sensing technologies used to achieve automatic control of individual steps of freezing process. These sensing technologies include computer vision, electronic nose, electronic tongue, digital simulation, confocal laser, near infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance technology and ultrasound. Understanding of the mechanism of these new technologies will be helpful for applying them to improve the quality of frozen foods.

  9. Plutonium, cesium, uranium and thorium series radionuclides in the Hudson River estuary and other environments. Annual technical progress report, 1 December 1984-30 November 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, H.J.; Trier, R.M.; Anderson, R.F.

    1985-01-01

    We have measured radionuclide activities in a large number of sediment cores and suspended particle samples throughout the salinity range of the Hudson River estuary. Activities of 137 Cs, 134 Cs and 60 Co determined by gamma spectrometry and /sup 239,240/Pu and 238 Pu determined by alpha spectrometry indicate reasonably rapid accumulation rates in the sediments of marginal cove areas, and very rapid deposition in the harbor region adjacent to New York City, resulting in /sup 239,240/Pu accumulations there more than an order of magnitude greater than the fallout delivery rate. Fallout /sup 239,240/Pu moving downstream in the Hudson appears to be almost completely retained within the system by particle deposition, while more than 50% of the 137 Cs derived from both reactor releases and fallout has been exported from the tidal Hudson to coastal waters. Some significant movement of dissolved plutonium into the estuary from the adjacent coastal waters may well be occurring. Depth profiles of radionuclides in Hudson sediments do not appear to be significantly altered by physical mixing processes in the sediment in areas accumulating particles at greater than 1 cm/y. Transport of fallout radionuclides from the drainage basin to the tidal Hudson appears to have decreased much faster than would be calculated from continuous removal from a well-mixed soil reservoir, indicating that sequestering of a substantial portion of the soil fallout burden has occurred in the watershed soils over the past two decades. Activities of 60 Co in New York harbor sediments in 1984 averaged considerably higher than in 1979 and 1981, suggesting releases of this nuclide to the Hudson comparable to the first five years of reactor operations. 12 figs., 9 tabs

  10. Comparing contact and immersion freezing from continuous flow diffusion chambers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Nagare

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Ice nucleating particles (INPs in the atmosphere are responsible for glaciating cloud droplets between 237 and 273 K. Different mechanisms of heterogeneous ice nucleation can compete under mixed-phase cloud conditions. Contact freezing is considered relevant because higher ice nucleation temperatures than for immersion freezing for the same INPs were observed. It has limitations because its efficiency depends on the number of collisions between cloud droplets and INPs. To date, direct comparisons of contact and immersion freezing with the same INP, for similar residence times and concentrations, are lacking. This study compares immersion and contact freezing efficiencies of three different INPs. The contact freezing data were obtained with the ETH CoLlision Ice Nucleation CHamber (CLINCH using 80 µm diameter droplets, which can interact with INPs for residence times of 2 and 4 s in the chamber. The contact freezing efficiency was calculated by estimating the number of collisions between droplets and particles. Theoretical formulations of collision efficiencies gave too high freezing efficiencies for all investigated INPs, namely AgI particles with 200 nm electrical mobility diameter, 400 and 800 nm diameter Arizona Test Dust (ATD and kaolinite particles. Comparison of freezing efficiencies by contact and immersion freezing is therefore limited by the accuracy of collision efficiencies. The concentration of particles was 1000 cm−3 for ATD and kaolinite and 500, 1000, 2000 and 5000 cm−3 for AgI. For concentrations  <  5000 cm−3, the droplets collect only one particle on average during their time in the chamber. For ATD and kaolinite particles, contact freezing efficiencies at 2 s residence time were smaller than at 4 s, which is in disagreement with a collisional contact freezing process but in accordance with immersion freezing or adhesion freezing. With “adhesion freezing”, we refer to a contact nucleation

  11. Freeze Casting for Assembling Bioinspired Structural Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Qunfeng; Huang, Chuanjin; Tomsia, Antoni P

    2017-12-01

    Nature is very successful in designing strong and tough, lightweight materials. Examples include seashells, bone, teeth, fish scales, wood, bamboo, silk, and many others. A distinctive feature of all these materials is that their properties are far superior to those of their constituent phases. Many of these natural materials are lamellar or layered in nature. With its "brick and mortar" structure, nacre is an example of a layered material that exhibits extraordinary physical properties. Finding inspiration in living organisms to create bioinspired materials is the subject of intensive research. Several processing techniques have been proposed to design materials mimicking natural materials, such as layer-by-layer deposition, self-assembly, electrophoretic deposition, hydrogel casting, doctor blading, and many others. Freeze casting, also known as ice-templating, is a technique that has received considerable attention in recent years to produce bioinspired bulk materials. Here, recent advances in the freeze-casting technique are reviewed for fabricating lamellar scaffolds by assembling different dimensional building blocks, including nanoparticles, polymer chains, nanofibers, and nanosheets. These lamellar scaffolds are often infiltrated by a second phase, typically a soft polymer matrix, a hard ceramic matrix, or a metal matrix. The unique architecture of the resultant bioinspired structural materials displays excellent mechanical properties. The challenges of the current research in using the freeze-casting technique to create materials large enough to be useful are also discussed, and the technique's promise for fabricating high-performance nacre-inspired structural materials in the future is reviewed. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Freeze-Dehydration by Microwave Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-12-01

    ntration and ter perat ure pr ofi l es for the microwave freeze-drying proce~s. .... c Q) () c 0 (.) )( CD 1.0 0 th e ver t ex of the parabola ...is chosen because a plot of kF vs temperature resembles a parabola with axis parallel to the horizontal temperature axis, and tangent at the vertex...validity of utili z ing the dielectric data of the alcohol ques tionable. However, this system is used as an indicator of melting occurence in the

  13. Freeze-fracture study of Trichomonas vaginalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Benchimol

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available The freeze-fracture technique was used to analyse the organization of the plasma membrane, as well as membranes of cytoplasmic organelles, of the pathogenic protozoan Trichomonas vaginalis. Rosettes formed by 4 to 14 intramembranous particles were seen on the fracture faces of the membrane lining the anterior flagella as well as in fracture faces of the plasma membrane enclosing the anterior region of the protozoan and in cytoplasmic organelles. Special organization of the membrane particles were also seen in the region of association of the recurrent flagellum to the cell body.

  14. Gradient porous hydroxyapatite ceramics fabricated by freeze casting method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuo Kaihui; Zhang Yuan; Jiang Dongliang; Zeng Yuping

    2011-01-01

    By controlling the cooling rates and the composition of slurries, the gradient porous hydroxyapatite ceramics are fabricated by the freeze casting method. According to the different cooling rate, the pores of HAP ceramics fabricated by gradient freeze casting are divided into three parts: one is lamellar pores, another is column pore and the last one is fine round pores. The laminated freeze casting is in favour of obtaining the gradient porous ceramics composed of different materials and the ceramics have unclear interfaces.

  15. Air-cooled steam condensers non-freeze warranties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larinoff, M.W.

    1995-09-01

    What this paper is suggesting is the seller quote a condenser package with a LIMITED NON-FREEZE WARRANTY. Relieve the inexperienced buyer of the responsibility for selecting freeze protection design options. The seller cannot afford to over-design because of the added costs and the need for a competitive price. Yet he cannot under-design and allow the condenser tubes to freeze periodically and then pay the repair bills in accordance with the warranty.

  16. Effects of various freezing containers for vitrification freezing on mouse oogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Chul; Kim, Jae Myeoung; Seo, Byoung Boo

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, various freezing containers were tested for mouse embryos of respective developmental stages; embryos were vitrified and then their survival rate and developmental rate were monitored. Mouse two cell, 8 cell, and blastula stage embryos underwent vitrification freezing-thawing and then their recovery rate, survival rate, development rate, and hatching rate were investigated. EM-grid, OPS, and cryo-loop were utilized for vitrification freezing-thawing of mouse embryos. It was found that recovery rate and survival rate were higher in the group of cryo-loop compared to those of EM-grid (p containers on vitrified embryos of respective developmental stages; it was demonstrated that higher developmental rate was shown in more progressed (or developed) embryos with more blastomeres. There was however, no difference in embryonic development rate was shown amongst containers. Taken together, further additional studies are warranted with regards to 1) manipulation techniques of embryos for various vitrification freezing containers and 2) preventive measures against contamination via liquid nitrogen.

  17. Parameter Sensitivity of the Microdroplet Vacuum Freezing Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijun Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The vacuum freezing process of microdroplets (1 mm. Pressure and droplet diameter have an effect on cooling and freezing stages, but initial temperature only affects the cooling stage. The thermal conductivity coefficient kl affected the cooling stage, whereas ki affected the freezing stage. Heat capacity Cl affected the cooling stage, but Ci has virtually no effect on all stages. The actual latent heat of freezing ΔH was also affected. Higher density corresponds to lower cooling rate in the cooling stage.

  18. Effects of freezing conditions on quality changes in blueberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xuehui; Zhang, Fangfang; Zhao, Dongyu; Zhu, Danshi; Li, Jianrong

    2018-03-12

    Freezing preservation is one of the most effective methods used to maintain the flavour and nutritional value of fruit. This research studied the effects of different freezing conditions, -20 °C, -40 °C, -80 °C, and immersion in liquid nitrogen, on quality changes of freeze-thawed blueberries. The water distribution estimates of blueberries were measured based on low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR) analysis. The pectin content, drip loss, and fruit texture were also detected to evaluate quality changes in samples. The freezing curves of blueberry showed super-cooling points at -20 °C and - 40 °C, whereas super-cooling points were not observed at -80 °C or in liquid nitrogen. After freeze-thaw treatment, the relaxation time of the cell wall water (T 21 ), cytoplasm water and extracellular space (T 22 ), and vacuole water (T 23 ) were significantly shortened compared to fresh samples, which suggested a lower liquidity. Although the freezing speed for samples immersed in liquid nitrogen was faster than other treatments, samples treated at -80 °C showed better quality regarding vacuole water holding, drip loss, and original pectin content retention. This study contributed to understanding how freezing temperature affects the qualities of blueberries. The super-fast freezing rate might injure fruit, and an appropriate freezing rate could better preserve blueberries. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Bay of Fundy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    The highest tides on Earth occur in the Minas Basin, the eastern extremity of the Bay of Fundy, Nova Scotia, Canada, where the tide range can reach 16 meters when the various factors affecting the tides are in phase. The primary cause of the immense tides of Fundy is a resonance of the Bay of Fundy-Gulf of Maine system. The system is effectively bounded at this outer end by the edge of the continental shelf with its approximately 40:1 increase in depth. The system has a natural period of approximately 13 hours, which is close to the 12h25m period of the dominant lunar tide of the Atlantic Ocean. Like a father pushing his daughter on a swing, the gentle Atlantic tidal pulse pushes the waters of the Bay of Fundy-Gulf of Maine basin at nearly the optimum frequency to cause a large to-and-fro oscillation. The greatest slosh occurs at the head (northeast end) of the system. The high tide image (top) was acquired April 20, 2001, and the low tide image (bottom) was acquired September 30, 2002. The images cover an area of 16.5 by 21 km, and are centered near 64 degrees west longitude and 45.5 degrees north latitude. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying

  20. Adult tree swallow survival on the polychlorinated biphenyl-contaminated Hudson River, New York, USA, between 2006 and 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, Christine M.; Custer, Thomas W.; Hines, James E.

    2012-01-01

    The upper Hudson River basin in east central New York, USA, is highly contaminated, primarily with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Reduced adult survival has been documented in tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) at a similarly PCB-contaminated river system in western Massachusetts. The purpose of the present study was to assess whether adult survival of tree swallows was likewise affected in the Hudson River basin. Between 2006 and 2010, a total of 521 female tree swallows were banded, of which 148 were retrapped at least once. The authors used Program MARK and an information theoretic approach to test the hypothesis that PCB contamination reduced annual survival of female tree swallows. The model that best described the processes that generated the capture history data included covariate effects of year and female plumage coloration on survival but not PCB/river. Annual survival rates of brown-plumaged females (mostly one year old) were generally lower (mean phi = 0.39) than those of blue-plumaged females (mean phi = 0.50, one year or older). Poor early spring weather in 2007 was associated with reduced survival in both plumage-color groups compared to later years. Models with the effects of PCB exposure on survival (all ΔAICc values >5.0) received little support.

  1. What we didn't learn about the Hudson River, why, and what it means for environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnthouse, L.W.; Klauda, R.J.; Vaughan, D.S.

    1988-01-01

    Many of the major objectives of utility-sponsored and agency-sponsored Hudson River research programs were not achieved. Among these were identification and quantification of regulatory mechanisms and discovery of factors controlling year-class strength in striped bass and other important fish populations. Questions about community-level and ecosystem-level effects were not seriously addressed. Because of these limitations, an unambiguous assessment of the effects of power plants on the long-term production and persistence of Hudson River fish populations was not possible. It is argued that the failure to reach a scientifically defensible bottom line was largely due to: (1) institutional constraints on the design and conduct of assessment studies; (2) the complexity and spatiotemporal variability of estuarine ecosystems; and (3) the inadequacy of existing population and ecosystem theory. It is concluded that, for the foreseeable future, estimates of short-term impacts on populations will continue to be the most useful indices of power plants effects. Long-term monitoring and basic research on ecological processes in estuaries, funded and managed independently of the regulatory process, are essential to improving future environmental impact assessments. 44 refs

  2. If it quacks like a duck: reviewing health care providers' speech restrictions under the first prong of Central Hudson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fultz, Shawn L

    2013-01-01

    The First Amendment protects the speech of health care providers. This protection can limit states' abilities to protect patients from harmful therapies involving speech, such as sexual orientation change efforts. Because providers' speech is more similar to commercial speech than traditional political discourse, it is possible to create a First Amendment review analysis that better balances states' police powers with providers' First Amendment rights. Under a "single-prong" approach, the first prong of Central Hudson can be used to identify quackery, which is analogous to false or misleading commercial speech and would therefore be outside the protection of the First Amendment. Because health care must be tailored to individual patients, restrictions on speech that survive the first prong of Central Hudson would be subject to strict scrutiny in order to leave the therapeutic decision to the provider and her patient, and maintain consistency with current jurisprudence. This Comment examines litigation from California's attempted ban on sexual orientation change therapy to illustrate the conflicts created by the current approach to First Amendment review of health care provider speech. This Comment then demonstrates the benefit of the proposed single-prong approach, including how it simultaneously protects patients from harm while protecting health care providers' speech.

  3. Plutonium and cesium radionuclides in the Hudson River estuary. Annual technical progress report, December 1, 1976--November 30, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, H.J.; Trier, R.M.

    1977-01-01

    We have obtained a large set of sediment cores from the Hudson estuary through much of the ambient salinity range. A number of core sections and samples of suspended particles have been analyzed for 137 Cs, 134 Cs and 60 Co by direct gamma counting, and 239 Pu, 240 Pu, and 238 Pu by alpha spectrometry. The distribution of both 137 Cs and 239 Pu, 240 Pu indicates rapid accumulation in marginal cover areas, and especially in the harbor region adjacent to New York City. The distributions of both 137 Cs and 239 Pu, 240 Pu are similar in surface sediments and with depth in cores, but there are deviations from the fallout ratio due to addition of reactor 137 Cs and loss of 137 Cs from the particle phases at higher salinities. Measureable amounts of reactor-derived 134 Cs and 60 Co are found in nearly all sediment samples containing appreciable 137 Cs, between 15 km upstream of Indian Point and the downstream extent of our sampling, 70 km south of the reactor. Accumulations of 239 Pu, 240 Pu in New York harbor sediments are more than an order of magnitude greater than the fallout delivery rate. The most likely explanation is accumulation of fine particles in the harbor which have been transported from upstream areas of the Hudson. Our evidence so far indicates that Indian Point is probably not a significant source of 239 Pu, 240 Pu or 238 Pu compared with the fallout burden of these nuclides already in the sediments

  4. Plutonium and cesium radionuclides in the Hudson River Estuary. Annual technical progress report, 1 December 1975--30 November 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, H.J.; Williams, S.C.

    1976-01-01

    We have obtained a large set of cores from the Hudson Estuary covering nearly all of the ambient salinity range. A number of core sections have been analyzed for 137 Cs, 134 Cs, 60 Co and 40 K by direct gamma counting and for 239 , 240 Pu and 238 Pu by alpha-spectrometry. Rapid accumulation, up to 20 cm/year, of sediments containing 239 , 240 Pu, 137 Cs, 134 Cs and 60 Co occurs in New York Harbor. Marginal coves upstream from the harbor also serve as depositional environments. The ratio of sediment /sup 239,240/Pu to 137 Cs is higher than the fallout ratio in the seaward end of New York Harbor, despite the presence of a significant component of reactor 137 Cs in the sediments, but lower than the range of ratios observed by others for nearshore environments with low sediment deposition rates. A substantial portion of gamma emitting fission product and activation nuclides released from the Indian Point nuclear facility have accumulated in New York Harbor, more than 60 km downstream from the release area. We have not yet established whether local transuranic releases to the Hudson have occurred

  5. Rapid freezing of water under dynamic compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myint, Philip C.; Belof, Jonathan L.

    2018-06-01

    Understanding the behavior of materials at extreme pressures is a central issue in fields like aerodynamics, astronomy, and geology, as well as for advancing technological grand challenges such as inertial confinement fusion. Dynamic compression experiments to probe high-pressure states often encounter rapid phase transitions that may cause the materials to behave in unexpected ways, and understanding the kinetics of these phase transitions remains an area of great interest. In this review, we examine experimental and theoretical/computational efforts to study the freezing kinetics of water to a high-pressure solid phase known as ice VII. We first present a detailed analysis of dynamic compression experiments in which water has been observed to freeze on sub-microsecond time scales to ice VII. This is followed by a discussion of the limitations of currently available molecular and continuum simulation methods in modeling these experiments. We then describe how our phase transition kinetics models, which are based on classical nucleation theory, provide a more physics-based framework that overcomes some of these limitations. Finally, we give suggestions on future experimental and modeling work on the liquid–ice VII transition, including an outline of the development of a predictive multiscale model in which molecular and continuum simulations are intimately coupled.

  6. USGS Tampa Bay Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, K.K.; Cronin, T. M.; Crane, M.; Hansen, M.; Nayeghandi, A.; Swarzenski, P.; Edgar, T.; Brooks, G.R.; Suthard, B.; Hine, A.; Locker, S.; Willard, D.A.; Hastings, D.; Flower, B.; Hollander, D.; Larson, R.A.; Smith, K.

    2007-01-01

    Many of the nation's estuaries have been environmentally stressed since the turn of the 20th century and will continue to be impacted in the future. Tampa Bay, one the Gulf of Mexico's largest estuaries, exemplifies the threats that our estuaries face (EPA Report 2001, Tampa Bay Estuary Program-Comprehensive Conservation and Management Plan (TBEP-CCMP)). More than 2 million people live in the Tampa Bay watershed, and the population constitutes to grow. Demand for freshwater resources, conversion of undeveloped areas to resident and industrial uses, increases in storm-water runoff, and increased air pollution from urban and industrial sources are some of the known human activities that impact Tampa Bay. Beginning on 2001, additional anthropogenic modifications began in Tampa Bat including construction of an underwater gas pipeline and a desalinization plant, expansion of existing ports, and increased freshwater withdrawal from three major tributaries to the bay. In January of 2001, the Tampa Bay Estuary Program (TBEP) and its partners identifies a critical need for participation from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in providing multidisciplinary expertise and a regional-scale, integrated science approach to address complex scientific research issue and critical scientific information gaps that are necessary for continued restoration and preservation of Tampa Bay. Tampa Bay stakeholders identified several critical science gaps for which USGS expertise was needed (Yates et al. 2001). These critical science gaps fall under four topical categories (or system components): 1) water and sediment quality, 2) hydrodynamics, 3) geology and geomorphology, and 4) ecosystem structure and function. Scientists and resource managers participating in Tampa Bay studies recognize that it is no longer sufficient to simply examine each of these estuarine system components individually, Rather, the interrelation among system components must be understood to develop conceptual and

  7. Application of the Quality by Design Approach to the Freezing Step of Freeze-Drying: Building the Design Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsiccio, Andrea; Pisano, Roberto

    2018-06-01

    The present work shows a rational method for the development of the freezing step of a freeze-drying cycle. The current approach to the selection of freezing conditions is still empirical and nonsystematic, thus resulting in poor robustness of control strategy. The final aim of this work is to fill this gap, describing a rational procedure, based on mathematical modeling, for properly choosing the freezing conditions. Mechanistic models are used for the prediction of temperature profiles during freezing and dimension of ice crystals being formed. Mathematical description of the drying phase of freeze-drying is also coupled with the results obtained by freezing models, thus providing a comprehensive characterization of the lyophilization process. In this framework, deep understanding of the phenomena involved is required, and according to the Quality by Design approach, this knowledge can be used to build the design space. The step-by-step procedure for building the design space for freezing is thus described, and examples of applications are provided. The calculated design space is validated upon experimental data, and we show that it allows easy control of the freezing process and fast selection of appropriate operating conditions. Copyright © 2018 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Increased spring freezing vulnerability for alpine shrubs under early snowmelt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, J A; Hoch, G; Cortés, A J; Sedlacek, J; Wipf, S; Rixen, C

    2014-05-01

    Alpine dwarf shrub communities are phenologically linked with snowmelt timing, so early spring exposure may increase risk of freezing damage during early development, and consequently reduce seasonal growth. We examined whether environmental factors (duration of snow cover, elevation) influenced size and the vulnerability of shrubs to spring freezing along elevational gradients and snow microhabitats by modelling the past frequency of spring freezing events. We sampled biomass and measured the size of Salix herbacea, Vaccinium myrtillus, Vaccinium uliginosum and Loiseleuria procumbens in late spring. Leaves were exposed to freezing temperatures to determine the temperature at which 50% of specimens are killed for each species and sampling site. By linking site snowmelt and temperatures to long-term climate measurements, we extrapolated the frequency of spring freezing events at each elevation, snow microhabitat and per species over 37 years. Snowmelt timing was significantly driven by microhabitat effects, but was independent of elevation. Shrub growth was neither enhanced nor reduced by earlier snowmelt, but decreased with elevation. Freezing resistance was strongly species dependent, and did not differ along the elevation or snowmelt gradient. Microclimate extrapolation suggested that potentially lethal freezing events (in May and June) occurred for three of the four species examined. Freezing events never occurred on late snow beds, and increased in frequency with earlier snowmelt and higher elevation. Extrapolated freezing events showed a slight, non-significant increase over the 37-year record. We suggest that earlier snowmelt does not enhance growth in four dominant alpine shrubs, but increases the risk of lethal spring freezing exposure for less freezing-resistant species.

  9. Computer simulation model for the striped bass young-of-the-year population in the Hudson River. [Effects of entrainment and impingement at power plants on population dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eraslan, A.H.; Van Winkle, W.; Sharp, R.D.; Christensen, S.W.; Goodyear, C.P.; Rush, R.M.; Fulkerson, W.

    1975-09-01

    This report presents a daily transient (tidal-averaged), longitudinally one-dimensional (cross-section-averaged) computer simulation model for the assessment of the entrainment and impingement impacts of power plant operations on young-of-the-year populations of the striped bass, Morone saxatilis, in the Hudson River.

  10. Timing of sediment-hosted Cu-Ag mineralization in the Trans-Hudson orogen at Janice Lake, Wollaston Domain, Saskatchewan, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perelló, José; Valencia, Víctor A.; Cornejo, Paula; Clifford, John; Wilson, Alan J.; Collins, Greg

    2018-04-01

    The Janice Lake Cu-Ag mineralization in the Wollaston Domain of northern Saskatchewan is hosted by a metasedimentary sequence in the upper part of the Wollaston Supergroup of the Trans-Hudson orogen. The Wollaston Supergroup was deposited between 2070 and 1865 Ma in a foreland basin setting constructed over Archean basement of the Hearne craton. The Trans-Hudson orogen underwent final collision and peak metamorphism at 1810 Ma, during consolidation of Laurentia and its amalgamation with the Columbia supercontinent. Titanite is a common constituent of the post-peak metamorphic assemblages of Trans-Hudson lithotectonic units and accompanied disseminated sediment-hosted Cu sulfide mineralization at Janice Lake. Titanite crystals, intergrown with chalcocite over a strike-length of 2 km of Cu-bearing stratigraphy, were dated by the ID-TIMS and LA-ICP-MS U-Pb methods, returning an age range from 1780 to 1760 Ma and a weighted average age of 1775 ± 10 Ma. The titanite ages effectively date the associated chalcocite-dominated sediment-hosted Cu-Ag mineralization and its formation during initial post-orogenic uplift and cooling, 30 myr after peak metamorphism. The age-range and tectonic setting of the Janice Lake mineralization confirms that sediment-hosted Cu mineralization was an integral part of the metallogenic endowment of Columbia and that its emplacement coincided with the continental-scale Trans-Hudson orogeny rather than with diagenesis and extensional basin development 100 myr earlier.

  11. Building sustainable communities using sense of place indicators in three Hudson River Valley, NY, tourism destinations: An application of the limits of acceptable change process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laura E. Sullivan; Rudy M. Schuster; Diane M. Kuehn; Cheryl S. Doble; Duarte. Morais

    2010-01-01

    This study explores whether measures of residents' sense of place can act as indicators in the Limits of Acceptable Change (LAC) process to facilitate tourism planning and management. Data on community attributes valued by residents and the associated values and meanings were collected through focus groups with 27 residents in three Hudson River Valley, New York,...

  12. Lavaca Bay 1985-1987

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Samples were collected from October 15, 1985 through June 12, 1987 in emergent marsh and non-vegetated habitats throughout the Lavaca Bay system to characterize...

  13. FL BAY SPECTROUT-DIET

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Juvenile spotted seatrout and other sportfish are being monitored annually over a 6-mo period in Florida Bay to assess their abundance over time relative to...

  14. Recent results from Daya Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chua Ming-chung

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Utilizing powerful nuclear reactors as antineutrino sources, high mountains to provide ample shielding from cosmic rays in the vicinity, and functionally identical detectors with large target volume for near-far relative measurement, the Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment has achieved unprecedented precision in measuring the neutrino mixing angle θ13 and the neutrino mass squared difference |Δm2ee|. I will report the latest Daya Bay results on neutrino oscillations and light sterile neutrino search.

  15. Do freeze events create a demographic bottleneck for Colophospermum mopane?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Whitecross, MA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available capacity of the effected plants. A severely freeze-damaged stand of Colophospermum mopane along a slope in the Venetia Limpopo Nature Reserve provided an opportunity to investigate the nature of freeze-damage impacts on C. mopane. Is this disturbance a...

  16. A subspecies of region crossing change, region freeze crossing change

    OpenAIRE

    Inoue, Ayumu; Shimizu, Ryo

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a local move on a link diagram named a region freeze crossing change which is close to a region crossing change, but not the same. We study similarity and difference between region crossing change and region freeze crossing change.

  17. Cellularized Cellular Solids via Freeze-Casting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoph, Sarah; Kwiatoszynski, Julien; Coradin, Thibaud; Fernandes, Francisco M

    2016-02-01

    The elaboration of metabolically active cell-containing materials is a decisive step toward the successful application of cell based technologies. The present work unveils a new process allowing to simultaneously encapsulate living cells and shaping cell-containing materials into solid-state macroporous foams with precisely controlled morphology. Our strategy is based on freeze casting, an ice templating materials processing technique that has recently emerged for the structuration of colloids into macroporous materials. Our results indicate that it is possible to combine the precise structuration of the materials with cellular metabolic activity for the model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. STEFINS: a steel freezing integral simulation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, M.V.

    1980-09-01

    STEFINS (STEel Freezing INtegral Simulation) is a computer program for the calculation of the rate of solidification of molten steel on solid steel. Such computations arize when investigating core melt accidents in fast reactors. In principle this problem involves a coupled two-dimensional thermal and hydraulic approach. However, by physically reasonable assumptions a decoupled approach has been developed. The transient solidification of molten steel on a cold wall is solved in the direction normal to the molten steel flow and independent from the solution for the molten steel temperature and Nusselt number along the direction of flow. The solutions to the applicable energy equations have been programmed in cylindrical and slab geometries. Internal gamma heating of steel is included

  19. Solar desalination by freezing and distillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvajic, G.

    It is noted that among seawater desalination processes the absorption-freeze vapor compression processes based on the thermal heat pump, although untested commercially and still in the development stage, appears technically and economically an attractive application of low-grade (exergy) solar heat. The distillation processes proposed here may be conveniently powered by low-grade solar heat (from flat plate solar collectors). It is expected that the scaling problem will be insignificant in comparison with that encountered in the conventional multistage flash process. The novel feature here is the use of enlarged capacity for heat exchange between distillate and brine via latent heat of solid-liquid phase change of a suitable hydrophobic intermediate heat transfer material.

  20. Cooling method with automated seasonal freeze protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambell, Levi; Chu, Richard; David, Milnes; Ellsworth, Jr, Michael; Iyengar, Madhusudan; Simons, Robert; Singh, Prabjit; Zhang, Jing

    2016-05-31

    An automated multi-fluid cooling method is provided for cooling an electronic component(s). The method includes obtaining a coolant loop, and providing a coolant tank, multiple valves, and a controller. The coolant loop is at least partially exposed to outdoor ambient air temperature(s) during normal operation, and the coolant tank includes first and second reservoirs containing first and second fluids, respectively. The first fluid freezes at a lower temperature than the second, the second fluid has superior cooling properties compared with the first, and the two fluids are soluble. The multiple valves are controllable to selectively couple the first or second fluid into the coolant in the coolant loop, wherein the coolant includes at least the second fluid. The controller automatically controls the valves to vary first fluid concentration level in the coolant loop based on historical, current, or anticipated outdoor air ambient temperature(s) for a time of year.

  1. Limonene encapsulation in freeze dried gellan systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evageliou, Vasiliki; Saliari, Dimitra

    2017-05-15

    The encapsulation of limonene in freeze-dried gellan systems was investigated. Surface and encapsulated limonene content was determined by measurement of the absorbance at 252nm. Gellan matrices were both gels and solutions. For a standard gellan concentration (0.5wt%) gelation was induced by potassium or calcium chloride. Furthermore, gellan solutions of varying concentrations (0.25-1wt%) were also studied. Limonene was added at two different concentrations (1 and 2mL/100g sample). Gellan gels encapsulated greater amounts of limonene than solutions. Among all gellan gels, the KCl gels had the greater encapsulated limonene content. However, when the concentration of limonene was doubled in these KCl gels, the encapsulated limonene decreased. The surface limonene content was significant, especially for gellan solutions. The experimental conditions and not the mechanical properties of the matrices were the dominant factor in the interpretation of the observed results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Cooling system with automated seasonal freeze protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Levi A.; Chu, Richard C.; David, Milnes P.; Ellsworth, Jr., Michael J.; Iyengar, Madhusudan K.; Simons, Robert E.; Singh, Prabjit; Zhang, Jing

    2016-05-24

    An automated multi-fluid cooling system and method are provided for cooling an electronic component(s). The cooling system includes a coolant loop, a coolant tank, multiple valves, and a controller. The coolant loop is at least partially exposed to outdoor ambient air temperature(s) during normal operation, and the coolant tank includes first and second reservoirs containing first and second fluids, respectively. The first fluid freezes at a lower temperature than the second, the second fluid has superior cooling properties compared with the first, and the two fluids are soluble. The multiple valves are controllable to selectively couple the first or second fluid into the coolant in the coolant loop, wherein the coolant includes at least the second fluid. The controller automatically controls the valves to vary first fluid concentration level in the coolant loop based on historical, current, or anticipated outdoor air ambient temperature(s) for a time of year.

  3. Freezing Injury in Onion Bulb Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palta, Jiwan P.; Levitt, Jacob; Stadelmann, Eduard J.

    1977-01-01

    Onion (Allium cepa L.) bulbs were frozen to −4 and −11 C and kept frozen for up to 12 days. After slow thawing, a 2.5-cm square from a bulb scale was transferred to 25 ml deionized H2O. After shaking for standard times, measurements were made on the effusate and on the effused cells. The results obtained were as follows. Even when the scale tissue was completely infiltrated, and when up to 85% of the ions had diffused out, all of the cells were still alive, as revealed by cytoplasmic streaming and ability to plasmolyze. The osmotic concentration of the cell sap, as measured plasmolytically, decreased in parallel to the rise in conductivity of the effusate. The K+ content of the effusate, plus its assumed counterion, accounted for only 20% of the total solutes, but for 100% of the conductivity. A large part of the nonelectrolytes in the remaining 80% of the solutes was sugars. The increased cell injury and infiltration in the −11 C treatment, relative to the −4 C and control (unfrozen) treatments, were paralleled by increases in conductivity, K+ content, sugar content, and pH of the effusate. In spite of the 100% infiltration of the tissue and the large increase in conductivity of the effusate following freezing, no increase in permeability of the cells to water could be detected. The above observations may indicate that freezing or thawing involves a disruption of the active transport system before the cells reveal any injury microscopically. PMID:16660100

  4. Predictive modeling of freezing and thawing of frost-susceptible soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Frost depth is an essential factor in design of various transportation infrastructures. In frost : susceptible soils, as soils freezes, water migrates through the soil voids below the freezing line : towards the freezing front and causes excessive he...

  5. Optimization of protectant, salinity and freezing condition for freeze-drying preservation of Edwardsiella tarda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yongxiang; Zhang, Zheng; Wang, Yingeng; Liao, Meijie; Li, Bin; Xue, Liangyi

    2017-10-01

    Novel preservation condition without ultra-low temperature is needed for the study of pathogen in marine fishes. Freeze-drying is such a method usually used for preservation of terrigenous bacteria. However, studies using freeze-drying method to preserving marine microorganisms remain very limited. In this study, we optimized the composition of protectants during the freeze-drying of Edwardsiella tarda, a fish pathogen that causes systemic infection in marine fishes. We found that the optimal composition of protectant mixture contained trehalose (8.0%), skim milk (12.0%), sodium citrate (2.0%), serum (12.0%) and PVP (2.0%). Orthogonal and interaction analyses demonstrated the interaction between serum and skim milk or sodium citrate. The highest survival rate of E. tarda was observed when the concentration of NaCl was 10.0, 30.0 and between 5.0 and 10.0 g L-1 for preparing TSB medium, E. tarda suspension and protectant mixture, respectively. When E. tarda was frozen at -80°C or -40°C for 6 h, its survival rate was higher than that under other tested conditions. Under the optimized conditions, when the protectant mixture was used during freeze-drying process, the survival rate (79.63%-82.30%) of E. tarda was significantly higher than that obtained using single protectant. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image indicated that E. tarda was embedded in thick matrix with detectable aggregation. In sum, the protectant mixture may be used as a novel cryoprotective additive for E. tarda.

  6. Multiple Glass Transitions and Freezing Events of Aqueous Citric Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Calorimetric and optical cryo-microscope measurements of 10–64 wt % citric acid (CA) solutions subjected to moderate (3 K/min) and slow (0.5 and 0.1 K/min) cooling/warming rates and also to quenching/moderate warming between 320 and 133 K are presented. Depending on solution concentration and cooling rate, the obtained thermograms show one freezing event and from one to three liquid–glass transitions upon cooling and from one to six liquid–glass and reverse glass–liquid transitions, one or two freezing events, and one melting event upon warming of frozen/glassy CA/H2O. The multiple freezing events and glass transitions pertain to the mother CA/H2O solution itself and two freeze-concentrated solution regions, FCS1 and FCS2, of different concentrations. The FCS1 and FCS2 (or FCS22) are formed during the freezing of CA/H2O upon cooling and/or during the freezing upon warming of partly glassy or entirely glassy mother CA/H2O. The formation of two FCS1 and FCS22 regions during the freezing upon warming to our best knowledge has never been reported before. Using an optical cryo-microscope, we are able to observe the formation of a continuous ice framework (IF) and its morphology and reciprocal distribution of IF/(FCS1 + FCS2). Our results provide a new look at the freezing and glass transition behavior of aqueous solutions and can be used for the optimization of lyophilization and freezing of foods and biopharmaceutical formulations, among many other applications where freezing plays a crucial role. PMID:25482069

  7. Improvements in Hudson River Water Quality Create the Need for a new Approach to Monitoring and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mullan, G. D.; Juhl, A.; Sambrotto, R.; Lipscomb, J.; Brown, T.

    2008-12-01

    The lower Hudson River is a well-flushed temperate estuary that continues to support diverse wildlife populations although its shores are home to the nation's most populated metropolitan area. Data sets from the last hundred years clearly demonstrate extreme nutrient concentrations, pathogen loading, and periods of persistent hypoxia. These data also show a clear trend of steadily improving water quality in the last thirty years. Recent increases in recreational activity, expanded shoreline parks, and waterfront redevelopment, indicate the return of the people of New York to the River, concomitant with improved water quality. While mean seasonal water quality indicators are now often acceptable for large portions of the River, there remains a lack of information about the finer scale spatial and temporal variability of water quality. A new water quality sampling program was initiated in the Fall of 2006 to address this challenge. Monthly sampling cruises collected continuous underway surface measurements of hydrographic variables in parallel with discrete sampling for nutrients and microbiology. In general, these data indicate that mid-channel locations are often within acceptable water quality standards during dry weather, but that wet weather events deliver large quantities of sewage to the River, leading to short-term deterioration in water quality. In 2006-2007, only 6 of 27 sample sites had geometric mean values for Enterococcus , a sewage-indicating microorganism, that suggest consistently poor water quality. In contrast, single-day exceedances of EPA recommended guidelines for Enterococcus were found at 21 of the 27 sites. Although the mid-channel of the River was relatively homogenous with respect to sewage indicators, large changes were observed at tributary mixing interfaces and along the shallow edges of the River where human contact is most likely. The changing use of the River, together with new information about the importance of episodic and

  8. The choice of a suitable oligosaccharide to prevent aggregation of PEGylated nanoparticles during freeze thawing and freeze drying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hinrichs, Wouter; Manceñido, F A; Sanders, N N; Braeckmans, K; De Smedt, S C; Demeester, J; Frijlink, H W

    2006-01-01

    In a previous Study we have shown that the oligosaccharide inulin can prevent aggregation of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) coated plasmid DNA/cationic liposome complexes ('' PEGylated lipoplexes '') during freeze thawing and freeze drying [Hinrichs et al., 2005. J. Control. Release 103, 465]. By

  9. Application of Spaceborne Scatterometer for Mapping Freeze-Thaw State in Northern Landscapes as a Measure of Ecological and Hydrological Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Kyle; Kimball, John; Zimmermann, Reiner; Way, JoBea; Frolking, Steve; Running, Steve

    1999-01-01

    Landscape freeze/thaw transitions coincide with marked shifts in albedo, surface energy and mass exchange, and associated snow dynamics. Monitoring landscape freeze/thaw dynamics would improve our ability to quantify the interannual variability of boreal hydrology and river runoff/flood dynamics. The annual duration of frost-free period also bounds the period of photosynthetic activity in boreal and arctic regions thus affecting the annual carbon budget and the interannual variability of regional carbon fluxes. In this study, we use the NASA scatterometer (NSCAT) to monitor the temporal change in the radar backscatter signature across selected ecoregions of the boreal zone. We have measured vegetation tissue temperatures, soil temperature profiles, and micrometeorological parameters in situ at selected sites along a north-south transect extending across Alaska from Prudhoe Bay to the Kenai Peninsula and in Siberia near the Yenisey River. Data from these stations have been used to quantify the scatterometer's sensitivity to freeze/thaw state under a variety of terrain and landcover conditions. Analysis of the NSCAT temporal response over the 1997 spring thaw cycle shows a 3 to 5 dB change in measured backscatter that is well correlated with the landscape springtime thaw process. Having verified the instrument's capability to monitor freeze/thaw transitions, regional scale mosaicked data are applied to derive temporal series of freeze/thaw transition maps for selected circumpolar high latitude regions. These maps are applied to derive areal extent of frozen and thawed landscape and demonstrate the utility of spaceborne radar for operational monitoring of seasonal freeze-thaw dynamics and associated biophysical processes for the circumpolar high latitudes.

  10. Heterogeneous freezing of super cooled water droplets in micrometre range- freezing on a chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häusler, Thomas; Witek, Lorenz; Felgitsch, Laura; Hitzenberger, Regina; Grothe, Hinrich

    2017-04-01

    A new setup to analyse the freezing behaviour of ice nucleation particles (INPs) dispersed in aqueous droplets has been developed with the aim to analyse ensembles of droplets with sizes in the micrometre range, in which INPs are immersed. Major disadvantages of conventional drop-freezing experiments like varying drop sizes or interactions between the water- oil mixture and the INP, were solved by introducing a unique freezing- chip consisting of an etched and sputtered 15x15x1 mm gold-plated silicon or pure gold film (Pummer et al., 2012; Zolles et al., 2015). Using this chip, isolated micrometre-sized droplets can be generated with sizes similar to droplets in real world clouds. The experimental set-up for drop-freezing experiments was revised and improved by establishing automated process control and image evaluation. We were able to show the efficiency and accuracy of our setup by comparing measured freezing temperatures of different INPs (Snomax®, K- feldspar, birch pollen (Betula pendula) washing water, juniper pollen suspension (Juniperus communis) and ultrapure water) with already published results (Atkinson et al., 2013; Augustin et al., 2013; Pruppacher and Klett, 1997; Pummer et al., 2012; Wex et al., 2015; Zolles et al., 2015). Comparison of our measurements with literature data show the important impact of droplet size, INP concentration and number of active sites on the T50 values. Here, the new set-up exhibits its strength in reproducibility and accuracy which is due to the defined and isolated droplets. Finally, it opens a temperature window down to -37˚ C for freezing experiments which was not accessible with former traditional approaches .Atkinson, J. D., Murray, B. J., Woodhouse, M. T., Whale, T. F., Baustian, K. J., Carslaw, K. S., Dobbie, S., O'Sullivan, D., and Malkin, T. L.: The importance of feldspar for ice nucleation by mineral dust in mixed-phase clouds (vol 498, pg 355, 2013), Nature, 500, 491-491, 2013. Augustin, S., Wex, H

  11. Biological effects of simulated discharge plume entrainment at Indian Point Nuclear Power Station, Hudson River estuary, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanza, G.R.; Lauer, G.J.; Ginn, T.C.; Storm, P.C.; Zubarik, L.; New York Univ., N.Y.

    1975-01-01

    Laboratory and field simulations of the discharge plume entrainment of phytoplankton, zooplankton and fish were carried out at the Indian Point Nuclear Station, Hudson River estuary, USA. Phytoplankton assemblages studied on two dates produced different response patterns measured as photosynthetic activity. Chlorophyll-a levels did not change following simulated entrainment. Possible explanations for the differences are discussed. The two abundant copepods Acartia tonsa and Eurytemorta affinis appear to tolerate exposure to discharge plume ΔT without adverse effects. Copepods subjected to plume entrainment may suffer considerable mortality during periods of condenser chlorination. In general, the amphipod Gammarus spp. did not appear to suffer significant mortality during simulated entrainment. Juvenile striped bass, Morone saxatilis, were not affected by simulated plume transit before and during plant condenser chlorination; however, a simulated ''worst possible case'' plume ΔT produced statistically significant moralities. (author)

  12. Engineering Condition Survey and Evaluation of Troy Lock and Dam, Hudson River, New York Report 2. Evaluation and Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    boats in both the spring and fall make seasonal trips from the sunny south to the more mountainous , wooded north, as well as completing many short...back- ground of Troy Lock and Dam 8. The Hudson River originates in the Adirondack Mountains in northern New York State among the highest peaks of the...0.00 0.00 0.00 ___ ___ __ ___ ___ __ __is_ B C BC 25.24 34.14 0.00 0.00 C 25.24 36.00 0. 00 0.06 &M~E ALEA D 3.45 36.00 0.00 6.10 E 3.45 17.00 0.00

  13. Dreamers in dialogue: evolution, sex and gender in the utopian visions of William Morris and William Henry Hudson

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caterina Novák

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to explore the parallels between two late-nineteenth-century utopias,William Henry Hudsons A Crystal Age (1882 and William Morriss News from Nowhere (1891. Itaims to explore how these two works respond to the transition from a kinetic to a static conception ofutopia that under pressure from evolutionary and feminist discourses took place during the period.Particular focus lies on the way in which this is negotiated through the depiction of evolution, sexuality,and gender roles in the respective novels, and how the depiction of these disruptive elements may workas a means of ensuring the readers active engagement in political, intellectual and emotional terms.

  14. Sources, distribution, and mobility of plutonium and radiocesium in soils, sediments and water of the Hudson River Estuary and watershed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linsalata, P.

    1984-01-01

    Results of 239 240 Pu, 238 Pu and 137 Cs measurements are reported for soil cores sampled within the watershed, for many sediment cores and surface dredge samples taken along the length of the Hudson River Estuary and for water samples collected on a continuous basis in both fresh and estuarine reaches. Accumulations of 239 240 Pu and 137 Cs measured within sediment cores taken from discrete regions of the river-estuary were summed to arrive at total sediment inventories of 1.6 +/- 0.7 Ci and 53 +/- 20 Ci, respectively. The variability observed in the sediment accumulation of radionuclides is discussed in terms of the physical and chemical characteristics of the river-estuary. Plutonium-239,240 and 137 Cs were similary distributed in sediments and water sampled from fresh water reaches of the Hudson with activity ratios (i.e., 239 240 Pu/ 1 2number 7 Cs) ranging from 0.01 to 0.03. Distribution coefficients, which were determined both in vitro and in situ were similar for both nuclides (i.e., from 1 x 10 5 to 3 x 10 5 L.kg -1 ) in fresh water, but diverged significantly (as a result of increased 137 Cs solubility) in brackish waters that exhibited chlorinities in excess of 1-2 g Cl - .L -1 . The concentrations of 239 240 Pu and 137 Cs observed in fresh water samples were primarily functions of the suspended load. Approximately 60-70% of the annual downstream transport of 239 240 Pu and 137 Cs calculated during 1980 and 1981 (i.e., 4 +/- 0.5 mCi and 515 +/- 84 mCi, respectively) was associated with suspended particulates greater than or equal to 0.45 μm. An empirical model was developed to determine the rates of vertical migration of these nuclides in soils of the watershed

  15. Simulating the Effects of Sea Level Rise on the Resilience and Migration of Tidal Wetlands along the Hudson River.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nava M Tabak

    Full Text Available Sea Level Rise (SLR caused by climate change is impacting coastal wetlands around the globe. Due to their distinctive biophysical characteristics and unique plant communities, freshwater tidal wetlands are expected to exhibit a different response to SLR as compared with the better studied salt marshes. In this study we employed the Sea Level Affecting Marshes Model (SLAMM, which simulates regional- or local-scale changes in tidal wetland habitats in response to SLR, and adapted it for application in a freshwater-dominated tidal river system, the Hudson River Estuary. Using regionally-specific estimated ranges of SLR and accretion rates, we produced simulations for a spectrum of possible future wetland distributions and quantified the projected wetland resilience, migration or loss in the HRE through the end of the 21st century. Projections of total wetland extent and migration were more strongly determined by the rate of SLR than the rate of accretion. Surprisingly, an increase in net tidal wetland area was projected under all scenarios, with newly-formed tidal wetlands expected to comprise at least 33% of the HRE's wetland area by year 2100. Model simulations with high rates of SLR and/or low rates of accretion resulted in broad shifts in wetland composition with widespread conversion of high marsh habitat to low marsh, tidal flat or permanent inundation. Wetland expansion and resilience were not equally distributed through the estuary, with just three of 48 primary wetland areas encompassing >50% of projected new wetland by the year 2100. Our results open an avenue for improving predictive models of the response of freshwater tidal wetlands to sea level rise, and broadly inform the planning of conservation measures of this critical resource in the Hudson River Estuary.

  16. Immersion in a Hudson Valley Tidal Marsh and Climate Research Community - Lamont-Doherty's Secondary School Field Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peteet, D. M.; Newton, R.; Vincent, S.; Sambrotto, R.; Bostick, B. C.; Schlosser, P.; Corbett, J. E.

    2015-12-01

    A primary advantage of place-based research is the multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary research that can be applied to a single locale, with a depth of continued study through time. Through the last decade, Lamont-Doherty's Secondary School Field Research Program (SSFRP) has promoted scientific inquiry, mostly among groups under-represented in STEM fields, in Piermont Marsh, a federally protected marsh in the Hudson estuary. At the same time, Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory (LDEO) scientists have become more involved, through mentoring by researchers, postdocs and graduate students, often paired with high school teachers. The sustained engagement of high school students in a natural environment, experiencing the Hudson River and its tidal cycles, protection of coastline, water quality improvement, native and invasive plant communities, is fundamental to their understanding of the importance of wetlands with their many ecosystem services. In addition, the Program has come to see "place" as inclusive of the Observatory itself. The students' work at Lamont expands their understanding of educational opportunities and career possibilities. Immersing students in a research atmosphere brings a level of serious inquiry and study to their lives and provides them with concrete contributions that they make to team efforts. Students select existing projects ranging from water quality to Phragmites removal, read papers weekly, take field measurements, produce lab results, and present their research at the end of six weeks. Ongoing results build from year to year in studies of fish populations, nutrients, and carbon sequestration, and the students have presented at professional scientific meetings. Through the Program students gain a sense of ownership over both their natural and the academic environments. Challenges include sustained funding of the program; segmenting the research for reproducible, robust results; fitting the projects to PIs' research goals, time

  17. Physical Stability of Freeze-Dried Isomalt Diastereomer Mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koskinen, Anna-Kaisa; Fraser-Miller, Sara J.; Bøtker, Johan P.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Isomalt is a sugar alcohol used as an excipient in commercially available solid oral dosage forms. The potential of isomalt as a novel freeze-drying excipient was studied in order to increase knowledge of the behavior of isomalt when it is freeze-dried. Methods Isomalt was freeze-dried in......Purpose Isomalt is a sugar alcohol used as an excipient in commercially available solid oral dosage forms. The potential of isomalt as a novel freeze-drying excipient was studied in order to increase knowledge of the behavior of isomalt when it is freeze-dried. Methods Isomalt was freeze......-dried in four different diastereomer compositions and its physical stability was investigated with differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier-transform infrared and Raman spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, Karl-Fischer titration and thermogravimetric analysis in order to verify the solid state form...... of the diastereomer compositions showed signs of physical instability when stored in the highest relative humidity condition. The four different crystalline diastereomer mixtures showed specific identifiable solid state properties. Conclusions Isomalt was shown to be a suitable excipient for freeze-drying. Preferably...

  18. Freeze-Thaw Durability of Air-Entrained Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huai-Shuai Shang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most damaging actions affecting concrete is the abrupt temperature change (freeze-thaw cycles. The types of deterioration of concrete structures by cyclic freeze-thaw can be largely classified into surface scaling (characterized by the weight loss and internal crack growth (characterized by the loss of dynamic modulus of elasticity. The present study explored the durability of concrete made with air-entraining agent subjected to 0, 100, 200, 300, and 400 cycles of freeze-thaw. The experimental study of C20, C25, C30, C40, and C50 air-entrained concrete specimens was completed according to “the test method of long-term and durability on ordinary concrete” GB/T 50082-2009. The dynamic modulus of elasticity and weight loss of specimens were measured after different cycles of freeze-thaw. The influence of freeze-thaw cycles on the relative dynamic modulus of elasticity and weight loss was analyzed. The findings showed that the dynamic modulus of elasticity and weight decreased as the freeze-thaw cycles were repeated. They revealed that the C30, C40, and C50 air-entrained concrete was still durable after 300 cycles of freeze-thaw according to the experimental results.

  19. Metabolic changes in Avena sativa crowns recovering from freezing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia A Henson

    Full Text Available Extensive research has been conducted on cold acclimation and freezing tolerance of fall-sown cereal plants due to their economic importance; however, little has been reported on the biochemical changes occurring over time after the freezing conditions are replaced by conditions favorable for recovery and growth such as would occur during spring. In this study, GC-MS was used to detect metabolic changes in the overwintering crown tissue of oat (Avena sativa L. during a fourteen day time-course after freezing. Metabolomic analysis revealed increases in most amino acids, particularly proline, 5-oxoproline and arginine, which increased greatly in crowns that were frozen compared to controls and correlated very significantly with days after freezing. In contrast, sugar and sugar related metabolites were little changed by freezing, except sucrose and fructose which decreased dramatically. In frozen tissue all TCA cycle metabolites, especially citrate and malate, decreased in relation to unfrozen tissue. Alterations in some amino acid pools after freezing were similar to those observed in cold acclimation whereas most changes in sugar pools after freezing were not. These similarities and differences suggest that there are common as well as unique genetic mechanisms between these two environmental conditions that are crucial to the winter survival of plants.

  20. Freeze-thaw durability of air-entrained concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Huai-Shuai; Yi, Ting-Hua

    2013-01-01

    One of the most damaging actions affecting concrete is the abrupt temperature change (freeze-thaw cycles). The types of deterioration of concrete structures by cyclic freeze-thaw can be largely classified into surface scaling (characterized by the weight loss) and internal crack growth (characterized by the loss of dynamic modulus of elasticity). The present study explored the durability of concrete made with air-entraining agent subjected to 0, 100, 200, 300, and 400 cycles of freeze-thaw. The experimental study of C20, C25, C30, C40, and C50 air-entrained concrete specimens was completed according to "the test method of long-term and durability on ordinary concrete" GB/T 50082-2009. The dynamic modulus of elasticity and weight loss of specimens were measured after different cycles of freeze-thaw. The influence of freeze-thaw cycles on the relative dynamic modulus of elasticity and weight loss was analyzed. The findings showed that the dynamic modulus of elasticity and weight decreased as the freeze-thaw cycles were repeated. They revealed that the C30, C40, and C50 air-entrained concrete was still durable after 300 cycles of freeze-thaw according to the experimental results.

  1. Microstructure, CTD and ADCP data collected from R/V ONRUST in Hudson River Estuary during 6 short cruises from 1994-05-19 to 2001-05-01 (NCEI Accession 0146260)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Observations of turbulent mixing, stratification and currents in the Hudson River Estuary made in 6 short cruises in 1994/1995 and 2001 were assembled. The lower...

  2. Effect of freezing temperature on the color of frozen salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottestad, Silje; Enersen, Grethe; Wold, Jens Petter

    2011-09-01

    New freezing methods developed with the purpose of improved product quality after thawing can sometimes be difficult to get accepted in the market. The reason for this is the formation of ice crystals that can give the product a temporary color loss and make it less appealing. We have here used microscopy to study ice crystal size as a function of freezing temperature by investigating the voids in the cell tissue left by the ice crystals. We have also investigated how freezing temperature affects the color and the visible absorption spectra of frozen salmon. Freezing temperatures previously determined to be the best for quality after thawing (-40 to -60 °C) were found to cause a substantial loss in perceived color intensity during frozen state. This illustrated the conflict between optimal freezing temperatures with respect to quality after thawing against visual appearance during frozen state. Low freezing temperatures gave many small ice crystals, increased light scattering and an increased absorption level for all wavelengths in the visible region. Increased astaxanthin concentration on the other hand would give higher absorption at 490 nm. The results showed a clear potential of using visible interactance spectroscopy to differentiate between poor product coloration due to lack of pigmentation and temporary color loss due to light scattering by ice crystal. This type of measurements could be a useful tool in the development of new freezing methods and to monitor ice crystal growth during frozen storage. It could also potentially be used by the industry to prove good product quality. In this article we have shown that freezing food products at intermediate to low temperatures (-40 to -80 °C) can result in paler color during frozen state, which could affect consumer acceptance. We have also presented a spectroscopic method that can separate between poor product color and temporary color loss due to freezing. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  3. SOME STUDIES ABOUT CEREALS BEHAVIOR DURING FREEZE DRYING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GABRIELA-VICTORIA MNERIE

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents some special method and equipment and the principal advantages of freeze-dried food. The freeze drying is a good method of freeze-drying for make some experiments with many kind of cereals, for the improvement that in food production. It is necessary and is possible to study the corn oil extract, wheat flour, the maltodextrin from corn, modified cornstarch, spice extracts, soy sauce, hydrolyzed wheat gluten, partially hydrogenated soybean and cottonseed oil etc. That is very porous, since it occupies the same volume as the original and so rehydrates rapidly. There is less loss of flavour and texture than with most other methods of drying.

  4. Preparation of freezing quantum state for quantum coherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lian-Wu; Man, Zhong-Xiao; Zhang, Ying-Jie; Han, Feng; Du, Shao-jiang; Xia, Yun-Jie

    2018-06-01

    We provide a method to prepare the freezing quantum state for quantum coherence via unitary operations. The initial product state consists of the control qubit and target qubit; when it satisfies certain conditions, the initial product state converts into the particular Bell diagonal state under the unitary operations, which have the property of freezing of quantum coherence under quantum channels. We calculate the frozen quantum coherence and corresponding quantum correlations, and find that the quantities are determined by the control qubit only when the freezing phenomena occur.

  5. Universal pion freeze-out in heavy-ion collisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamová, D; Agakichiev, G; Appelshäuser, H; Belaga, V; Braun-Munzinger, P; Castillo, A; Cherlin, A; Damjanović, S; Dietel, T; Dietrich, L; Drees, A; Esumi, S I; Filimonov, K; Fomenko, K; Fraenkel, Z; Garabatos, C; Glässel, P; Hering, G; Holeczek, J; Kushpil, V; Lenkeit, B; Ludolphs, W; Maas, A; Marín, A; Milosević, J; Milov, A; Miśkowiec, D; Panebrattsev, Yu; Petchenova, O; Petrácek, V; Pfeiffer, A; Rak, J; Ravinovich, I; Rehak, P; Sako, H; Schmitz, W; Schukraft, J; Sedykh, S; Shimansky, S; Slívová, J; Specht, H J; Stachel, J; Sumbera, M; Tilsner, H; Tserruya, I; Wessels, J P; Wienold, T; Windelband, B; Wurm, J P; Xie, W; Yurevich, S; Yurevich, V

    2003-01-17

    Based on an evaluation of data on pion interferometry and on particle yields at midrapidity, we propose a universal condition for thermal freeze-out of pions in heavy-ion collisions. We show that freeze-out occurs when the mean free path of pions lambda(f) reaches a value of about 1 fm, which is much smaller than the spatial extent of the system at freeze-out. This critical mean free path is independent of the centrality of the collision and beam energy from the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron to the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider.

  6. Universal pion freeze-out in heavy-ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Adamova, D; Appelshäuser, H; Belaga, V; Braun-Munzinger, P; Castillo, A; Cherlin, A; Damjanovic, S; Dietel, T; Dietrich, L; Drees, A; Esumi, S I; Filimonov, K; Fomenko, K; Fraenkel, Zeev; Garabatos, C; Glässel, P; Hering, G; Holeczek, J; Kushpil, V; Lenkeit, B C; Ludolphs, W; Maas, A; Marin, A; Milosevic, J; Milov, A; Miskowiec, D; Panebratsev, Yu A; Petchenova, O Yu; Petracek, V; Pfeiffer, A; Rak, J; Ravinovich, I; Rehak, P; Sako, H; Schükraft, Jürgen; Sedykh, S; Shimansky, S S; Slivova, J; Specht, H J; Stachel, J; Sumbera, M; Tilsner, H; Tserruya, Itzhak; Wessels, J P; Wienold, T; Windelband, B; Wurm, J P; Xie, W; Yurevich, S; Yurevich, V; Schmitz, W

    2003-01-01

    Based on an evaluation of recent systematic data on two-pion interferometry and on measured particle yields at mid-rapidity, we propose a universal condition for thermal freeze-out of pions in heavy-ion collisions. We show that freeze-out occurs when the mean free path of pions lambda_f reaches a value of approximately 2.5 fm, which is much smaller than the spatial extent of the system at freeze-out. This critical mean free path is independent of the centrality of the collision and its value is constant at all currently available beam energies from AGS to RHIC.

  7. 33 CFR 100.919 - International Bay City River Roar, Bay City, MI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false International Bay City River Roar, Bay City, MI. 100.919 Section 100.919 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Bay City River Roar, Bay City, MI. (a) Regulated Area. A regulated area is established to include all...

  8. 77 FR 2972 - Thunder Bay Power Company, Thunder Bay Power, LLC, et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Thunder Bay Power Company, Thunder Bay Power, LLC, et al.; Notice of Application for Transfer of Licenses, and Soliciting Comments and Motions To Intervene Thunder Bay Power Company Project No. 2404-095 Thunder Bay Power, LLC Midwest Hydro, Inc...

  9. 33 CFR 162.125 - Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Wisc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Wisc. 162.125 Section 162.125 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY INLAND WATERWAYS NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.125 Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship...

  10. 77 FR 38488 - Safety Zone; Alexandria Bay Chamber of Commerce, St. Lawrence River, Alexandria Bay, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-28

    ... 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Alexandria Bay Chamber of Commerce, St. Lawrence River, Alexandria Bay, NY... restrict vessels from a portion of the St. Lawrence River during the Alexandria Bay Chamber of Commerce... of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) entitled Safety Zone; Alexandria Bay Chamber of Commerce, St. Lawrence...

  11. Humboldt Bay, California Benthic Habitats 2009 Geodatabase

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Humboldt Bay is the largest estuary in California north of San Francisco Bay and represents a significant resource for the north coast region. Beginning in 2007 the...

  12. Humboldt Bay Benthic Habitats 2009 Aquatic Setting

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Humboldt Bay is the largest estuary in California north of San Francisco Bay and represents a significant resource for the north coast region. Beginning in 2007 the...

  13. San Francisco Bay Water Quality Improvement Fund

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPAs grant program to protect and restore San Francisco Bay. The San Francisco Bay Water Quality Improvement Fund (SFBWQIF) has invested in 58 projects along with 70 partners contributing to restore wetlands, water quality, and reduce polluted runoff.,

  14. South Bay Salt Pond Mercury Studies Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information about the SFBWQP South Bay Salt Pond Mercury Studies Project, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  15. Humboldt Bay, California Benthic Habitats 2009 Substrate

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Humboldt Bay is the largest estuary in California north of San Francisco Bay and represents a significant resource for the north coast region. Beginning in 2007 the...

  16. Humboldt Bay, California Benthic Habitats 2009 Geoform

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Humboldt Bay is the largest estuary in California north of San Francisco Bay and represents a significant resource for the north coast region. Beginning in 2007 the...

  17. Contaminant transport in Massachusetts Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butman, Bradford

    Construction of a new treatment plant and outfall to clean up Boston Harbor is currently one of the world's largest public works projects, costing about $4 billion. There is concern about the long-term impact of contaminants on Massachusetts Bay and adjacent Gulf of Maine because these areas are used extensively for transportation, recreation, fishing, and tourism, as well as waste disposal. Public concern also focuses on Stellwagen Bank, located on the eastern side of Massachusetts Bay, which is an important habitat for endangered whales. Contaminants reach Massachusetts Bay not only from Boston Harbor, but from other coastal communities on the Gulf of Maine, as well as from the atmosphere. Knowledge of the pathways, mechanisms, and rates at which pollutants are transported throughout these coastal environments is needed to address a wide range of management questions.

  18. Bayes linear statistics, theory & methods

    CERN Document Server

    Goldstein, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Bayesian methods combine information available from data with any prior information available from expert knowledge. The Bayes linear approach follows this path, offering a quantitative structure for expressing beliefs, and systematic methods for adjusting these beliefs, given observational data. The methodology differs from the full Bayesian methodology in that it establishes simpler approaches to belief specification and analysis based around expectation judgements. Bayes Linear Statistics presents an authoritative account of this approach, explaining the foundations, theory, methodology, and practicalities of this important field. The text provides a thorough coverage of Bayes linear analysis, from the development of the basic language to the collection of algebraic results needed for efficient implementation, with detailed practical examples. The book covers:The importance of partial prior specifications for complex problems where it is difficult to supply a meaningful full prior probability specification...

  19. With Prudhoe Bay in decline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, J.M.; Pollock, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    Almost every day, it seems, someone is mentioning Prudhoe Bay---its development activities, the direction of its oil production, and more recently its decline rate. Almost as frequently, someone is mentioning the number of companies abandoning exploration in Alaska. The state faces a double-edged dilemma: decline of its most important oil field and a diminished effort to find a replacement for the lost production. ARCO has seen the Prudhoe Bay decline coming for some time and has been planning for it. We have reduced staff, and ARCO and BP Exploration are finding cost-effective ways to work more closely together through such vehicles as shared services. At the same time, ARCO is continuing its high level of Alaskan exploration. This article will assess the future of Prudhoe Bay from a technical perspective, review ARCO's exploration plans for Alaska, and suggest what the state can do to encourage other companies to invest in this crucial producing region and exploratory frontier

  20. Adaptation to seasonality and the winter freeze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill Christine Preston

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Flowering plants initially diversified during the Mesozoic era at least 140 million years ago in regions of the world where temperate seasonal environments were not encountered. Since then several cooling events resulted in the contraction of warm and wet environments and the establishment of novel temperate zones in both hemispheres. In response, less than half of modern angiosperm families have members that evolved specific adaptations to cold seasonal climates, including cold acclimation, freezing tolerance, endodormancy, and vernalization responsiveness. Despite compelling evidence for multiple independent origins, the level of genetic constraint on the evolution of adaptations to seasonal cold is not well understood. However, the recent increase in molecular genetic studies examining the response of model and crop species to seasonal cold offers new insight into the evolutionary lability of these traits. This insight has major implications for our understanding of complex trait evolution, and the potential role of local adaptation in response to past and future climate change. In this review, we discuss the biochemical, morphological, and developmental basis of adaptations to seasonal cold, and synthesize recent literature on the genetic basis of these traits in a phylogenomic context. We find evidence for multiple genetic links between distinct physiological responses to cold, possibly reinforcing the coordinated expression of these traits. Furthermore, repeated recruitment of the same or similar ancestral pathways suggests that land plants might be somewhat pre-adapted to dealing with temperature stress, perhaps making inducible cold traits relatively easy to evolve.

  1. Drying a tuberculosis vaccine without freezing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Yun-Ling; Sampson, Samantha; Germishuizen, Willem Andreas; Goonesekera, Sunali; Caponetti, Giovanni; Sadoff, Jerry; Bloom, Barry R; Edwards, David

    2007-02-20

    With the increasing incidence of tuberculosis and drug resistant disease in developing countries due to HIV/AIDS, there is a need for vaccines that are more effective than the present bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine. We demonstrate that BCG vaccine can be dried without traditional freezing and maintained with remarkable refrigerated and room-temperature stability for months through spray drying. Studies with a model Mycobacterium (Mycobacterium smegmatis) revealed that by removing salts and cryoprotectant (e.g., glycerol) from bacterial suspensions, the significant osmotic pressures that are normally produced on bacterial membranes through droplet drying can be reduced sufficiently to minimize loss of viability on drying by up to 2 orders of magnitude. By placing the bacteria in a matrix of leucine, high-yield, free-flowing, "vial-fillable" powders of bacteria (including M. smegmatis and M. bovis BCG) can be produced. These powders show relatively minor losses of activity after maintenance at 4 degrees C and 25 degrees C up to and beyond 4 months. Comparisons with lyophilized material prepared both with the same formulation and with a commercial formulation reveal that the spray-dried BCG has better overall viability on drying.

  2. Contamination of freezing soils: Australia's Antarctic opportunity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, P.

    2002-01-01

    Last month, the Federal government announced that millions of dollars were to be spent cleaning up Antarctica, for which Australia has special responsibilities. Australia's largesse is especially interesting in a world context. Antarctica, by international agreement, is free of any industrial development - mining, storage of wastes, or any other profit-making activity that would disturb the environment (tourism is allowed under increasingly controlled conditions). The importance of the more or less pristine frigid environment lies in the wide range of scientific research that is carried out there. Sophisticated techniques to improve environmental quality are evidently in the early development stage. That cold-loving organisms can thrive in frozen ground in Antarctica and the Arctic was a discovery so unexpected that few people could grasp its importance. Only later was it found that these bugs can eat up contaminants - and the discovery assumed enormous practical significance. Little is known about how to clean up contamination in freezing soils even though there is a pressing need to solve the growing problem with military, industrial and nuclear waste in the Northern Hemisphere

  3. GPR utilization in artificial freezing engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Lei; Yang, Weihao; Huang, Jiahui; Li, Haipeng; Zhang, Xiaojun

    2013-01-01

    To utilize ground penetrating radar (GPR) in artificial freezing engineering (AFE), the electromagnetic parameters (EMP) of frozen soil were measured using a vector network analyser, which showed that the dielectric permittivity and electric conductivity change abruptly at the boundary between the frozen and the non-frozen soil. Then similarity criteria of GPR model experiments were deduced, and GPR laboratory model experiments and field explorations of AFE were carried out. It was found that for AFE, the GPR travel time and profile characters of anomalies in model experiments were similar to those in field explorations, while the amplitude of GPR signals in laboratory model experiments were much stronger than those in field explorations. Numerical simulations were also implemented to analyse the relationship between model experiments and field explorations, which further told us why we could easily find the targets by GPR in the laboratory but not in field explorations. The outputs showed that GPR could be used to detect the thickness of the frozen wall and to find unfrozen soil defects, even though the amplitude of the reflective signals were much weaker than those of laboratory experiments. The research findings have an important theoretical value for AFE and permafrost region engineering, and the deduced GPR similarity criteria could be widely used in other GPR model experiments. (paper)

  4. Distribution and behavior of major and trace elements in Tokyo Bay, Mutsu Bay and Funka Bay marine sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, Teruyuki; Kimura, Ken-ichiro

    2003-01-01

    Fourteen major and trace elements in marine sediment core samples collected from the coasts along eastern Japan, i.e. Tokyo Bay (II) (the recess), Tokyo Bay (IV) (the mouth), Mutsu Bay and Funka Bay and the Northwest Pacific basin as a comparative subject were determined by the instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The sedimentation rates and sedimentary ages were calculated for the coastal sediment cores by the 210 Pb method. The results obtained in this study are summarized as follows: (1) Lanthanoid abundance patterns suggested that the major origin of the sediments was terrigenous material. La*/Lu* and Ce*/La* ratios revealed that the sediments from Tokyo Bay (II) and Mutsu Bay more directly reflected the contribution from river than those of other regions. In addition, the Th/Sc ratio indicated that the coastal sediments mainly originated in the materials from the volcanic island-arcs, Japanese islands, whereas those from the Northwest Pacific mainly from the continent. (2) The correlation between the Ce/U and Th/U ratios with high correlation coefficients of 0.920 to 0.991 indicated that all the sediments from Tokyo Bay (II) and Funka Bay were in reducing conditions while at least the upper sediments from Tokyo Bay (IV) and Mutsu Bay were in oxidizing conditions. (3) It became quite obvious that the sedimentation mechanism and the sedimentation environment at Tokyo Bay (II) was different from those at Tokyo Bay (IV), since the sedimentation rate at Tokyo Bay (II) was approximately twice as large as that at Tokyo Bay (IV). The sedimentary age of the 5th layer (8∼10 cm in depth) from Funka Bay was calculated at approximately 1940∼50, which agreed with the time, 1943∼45 when Showa-shinzan was formed by the eruption of the Usu volcano. (author)

  5. Benthic habitat classification in Lignumvitae Key Basin, Florida Bay, using the U.S. Geological Survey Along-Track Reef Imaging System (ATRIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, C.D.; Zawada, D.G.; Thompson, P.R.; Reynolds, C.E.; Spear, A.H.; Umberger, D.K.; Poore, R.Z.

    2011-01-01

    The Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP) funded in partnership between the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, South Florida Water Management District, and other Federal, local and Tribal members has in its mandate a guideline to protect and restore freshwater flows to coastal environments to pre-1940s conditions (CERP, 1999). Historic salinity data are sparse for Florida Bay, so it is difficult for water managers to decide what the correct quantity, quality, timing, and distribution of freshwater are to maintain a healthy and productive estuarine ecosystem. Proxy records of seasurface temperature (SST) and salinity have proven useful in south Florida. Trace-element chemistry on foraminifera and molluscan shells preserved in shallow-water sediments has provided some information on historical salinity and temperature variability in coastal settings, but little information is available for areas within the main part of Florida Bay (Brewster-Wingard and others, 1996). Geochemistry of coral skeletons can be used to develop subannually resolved proxy records for SST and salinity. Previous studies suggest corals, specifically Solenastrea bournoni, present in the lower section of Florida Bay near Lignumvitae Key, may be suitable for developing records of SST and salinity for the past century, but the distribution and species composition of the bay coral community have not been well documented (Hudson and others, 1989; Swart and others, 1999). Oddly, S. bournoni thrives in the study area because it can grow on a sandy substratum and can tolerate highly turbid water. Solenastrea bournoni coral heads in this area should be ideally located to provide a record (~100-150 years) of past temperature and salinity variations in Florida Bay. The goal of this study was to utilize the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Along-Track Reef Imaging System (ATRIS) capability to further our understanding of the abundance, distribution, and size of corals in the Lignumvitae Key Basin. The

  6. Mobile Bay turbidity plume study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crozier, G. F.

    1976-01-01

    Laboratory and field transmissometer studies on the effect of suspended particulate material upon the appearance of water are reported. Quantitative correlations were developed between remotely sensed image density, optical sea truth data, and actual sediment load. Evaluation of satellite image sea truth data for an offshore plume projects contours of transmissivity for two different tidal phases. Data clearly demonstrate the speed of change and movement of the optical plume for water patterns associated with the mouth of Mobile bay in which relatively clear Gulf of Mexico water enters the bay on the eastern side. Data show that wind stress in excess of 15 knots has a marked impact in producing suspended sediment loads.

  7. Automation in tube finishing bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatnagar, Prateek; Satyadev, B.; Raghuraman, S.; Syama Sundara Rao, B.

    1997-01-01

    Automation concept in tube finishing bay, introduced after the final pass annealing of PHWR tubes resulted in integration of number of sub-systems in synchronisation with each other to produce final cut fuel tubes of specified length, tube finish etc. The tube finishing bay which was physically segregated into four distinct areas: 1. tube spreader and stacking area, 2. I.D. sand blasting area, 3. end conditioning, wad blowing, end capping and O.D. wet grinding area, 4. tube inspection, tube cutting and stacking area has been studied

  8. Chesapeake Bay plume dynamics from LANDSAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munday, J. C., Jr.; Fedosh, M. S.

    1981-01-01

    LANDSAT images with enhancement and density slicing show that the Chesapeake Bay plume usually frequents the Virginia coast south of the Bay mouth. Southwestern (compared to northern) winds spread the plume easterly over a large area. Ebb tide images (compared to flood tide images) show a more dispersed plume. Flooding waters produce high turbidity levels over the shallow northern portion of the Bay mouth.

  9. Default Bayes factors for ANOVA designs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rouder, Jeffrey N.; Morey, Richard D.; Speckman, Paul L.; Province, Jordan M.

    2012-01-01

    Bayes factors have been advocated as superior to p-values for assessing statistical evidence in data. Despite the advantages of Bayes factors and the drawbacks of p-values, inference by p-values is still nearly ubiquitous. One impediment to the adoption of Bayes factors is a lack of practical

  10. Normal freezing of ideal ternary systems of the pseudobinary type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C. H.

    1972-01-01

    Perfect liquid mixing but no solid diffusion is assumed in normal freezing. In addition, the molar compositions of the freezing solid and remaining liquid, respectively, follow the solidus and liquidus curves of the constitutional diagram. For the linear case, in which both the liquidus and solidus are perfectly straight lines, the normal freezing equation giving the fraction solidified at each melt temperature and the solute concentration profile in the frozen solid was determined as early as 1902, and has since been repeatedly published. Corresponding equations for quadratic, cubic or higher-degree liquidus and solidus lines have also been obtained. The equation of normal freezing for ideal ternary liquid solutions solidified into ideal solid solutions of the pseudobinary type is given. Sample computations with the use of this new equation were made and are given for the Ga-Al-As system.

  11. CFD modelling of condensers for freeze-drying processes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Freeze-drying; condenser; CFD simulation; mathematical modelling; ... it is used for the stabilization and storage of delicate, heat-sensitive materials .... The effect of the surface mass transfer has been included in the continuity equation and.

  12. Accelerated storage testing of freeze-dried Pseudomonas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Accelerated storage testing of freeze-dried Pseudomonas fluorescens BTP1, ... of all P. fluorescens strains were not significantly different and thermal inactivation ... useful to the development of improved reference materials and samples held ...

  13. Freezing Point Depressions of Phase Change CO2 Solvents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arshad, Muhammad Waseem; Fosbøl, Philip Loldrup; von Solms, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Freezing point depressions (FPD) in phase change solvents containing 2-(diethylamino)ethanol (DEEA) and 3-(methylamino)propylamine (MAPA) were measured using a modified Beckmann apparatus. The measurements were performed for the binary aqueous DEEA and MAPA solutions, respectively...

  14. A rapidly negotiable first-stage nuclear freeze

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports on the objective of a nuclear freeze which is to slow down or stop the so-far inexorable development and deployment of more and more (read destructive and deadly) nuclear warheads. The essential notion is not new. The proposed treaty for a comprehensive ban on nuclear tests that was very nearly negotiated in 1959 was perhaps the first serious effort to obtain a nuclear freeze, albeit a partial one. Growing concern about the nuclear arms race has led to greatly increased interest in much broader and more effective freezes. A comprehensive nuclear freeze, one that would stop all stages in the manufacture, testing, and deployment of nuclear warheads, would clearly be very desirable and have a great impact. It would not, however, deal with the other worrisome aspects of nuclear weapons, which is the very large number of such weapons that already exist

  15. Optoacoustic laser monitoring of cooling and freezing of tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larin, Kirill V; Larina, I V; Motamedi, M; Esenaliev, R O

    2002-01-01

    Real-time monitoring of cooling and freezing of tissues, cells, and other biological objects with a high spatial and time resolution, which is necessary for selective destruction of cancer and benign tumours during cryotherapy, as well as for preventing any damage to the structure and functioning of biological objects in cryobiology, is considered. The optoacoustic method, based on the measurement and analysis of acoustic waves induced by short laser pulses, is proposed for monitoring the cooling and freezing of the tissue. The effect of cooling and freezing on the amplitude and time profile of acoustic signals generated in real tissues and in a model object is studied. The experimental results indicate that the optoacoustic laser technique can be used for real-time monitoring of cooling and freezing of biological objects with a submillimeter spatial resolution and a high contrast. (laser biology and medicine)

  16. RESEARCH OF MOISTURE MIGRATION DURING PARTIAL FREEZING OF GROUND BEEF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Stefanovskiy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of «ideal product» is proposed for the study of mass transfer during partial freezing of food products by freezing plate. The ideal product is a product, in which number of factors affecting the «real product» (meat are excluded. These factors include chemical composition of meat, quality grade of raw material (NOR, DFD, PSE, cryoscopic temperature that determines the degree of water transformation into ice, the phenomenon of osmosis, rate of freezing, etc. By using the concept of «ideal product» and its implementation in a physical experiment, it is proved that the “piston effect” causing the migration of moisture is due to frozen crust formation during partial freezing of the body. During partial freezing of the product by freezing plate, «ideal» and «real» food environment is transformed from closed system into open one with inflow of moisture to unfrozen part of the body. In the «ideal product», there is an expulsion of unfrozen moisture from freezing front, so the water appears on the body surface. Thus, the displacement of moisture increases by the same law, according to which the thickness (weight of frozen layer increases. During partial freezing of ground meat, moisture does not appear on the surface of the product, but hydrates the unfrozen part of meat. The reason of this phenomenon is the expulsion of water during formation of frozen crust and water-binding capacity of meat.

  17. Ice, Ice, Baby? A Sociological Exploration of Social Egg Freezing

    OpenAIRE

    Baldwin, K.

    2016-01-01

    Social egg freezing is a fertility preservation strategy which enables women to preserve a number of healthy unfertilised eggs for potential future use when faced with the threat of age-related fertility decline. The overall aim of this thesis was to explore how women understand, construct and experience social egg freezing in the context of debates surrounding reproductive ‘choice’ and ‘delayed motherhood’. The study sought to provide insights into how women perceive the risks and benefi...

  18. Simulation Study on Freeze-drying Characteristics of Mashed Beef

    OpenAIRE

    Tambunan, Armansyah H; Solahudin, M; Rahajeng, Estri

    2000-01-01

    Drying characteristic of a particular product is important in analyzing the appropriateness of the drying method for the product. This is especially important for freeze drying, which is known as the most expensive drying method, asideji-om its good drying quality. The objectives of this experiment are to develop a computer simulation program using a retreating drying-frontmodel for predicting freeze drying characteristics of mashed nteat, especially for the influence of sublimation temperatu...

  19. Freeze concentration of dairy products Phase 2. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Best, D.E.; Vasavada, K.C.

    1993-09-01

    An efficient, electrically driven freeze concentration system offers potential for substantially increasing electricity demand while providing the mature dairy industry with new products for domestic and export markets together with enhanced production efficiencies. Consumer tests indicate that dairy products manufactured from freeze-concentrated ingredients are either preferred or considered equivalent in quality to fresh milk-based products. Economic analyses indicate that this technology should be competitive with thermal evaporation processes on a commercial basis.

  20. Natural activity in Hudson River estuary samples and their influence on the detection limits for gamma emitting radionuclides using NaI gamma spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wrenn, M.E.; Jinks, S.M.; Hairr, L.M.; Paschoa, A.S.; Lentsch, J.W.

    1972-01-01

    Sources of natural radioactivity in Hudson River Estuary are described. The technique of analysis for gamma spectrometry of environmental samples is presented and its pros and cons discussed. The distribution of natural radioactivity in water, biota and sediment was reported as well as the role played by the vertical distribution of cesium-137 in sediments as an indicator of the rate of sedimentation. The effect of the presence of natural radionuclides on the detection limits of man-made nuclides in the Hudson River environment is thoroughly examined. The results obtained with a 4-in. sodium iodide well crystal housed in a low background mercury shielding compare favorably with a more sophisticated Ge(Li) system which uses anticoincidence, as far as the analysis of environmental samples is concerned. (U.S.)

  1. Freeze injury to roots of southern pine seedlings in the USA | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and therefore root injury was often overlooked. Many freeze-injured seedlings died within two months of the freeze event. Since freeze injury symptoms to roots were overlooked, foresters offered various reasons (other than the freeze) for the poor seedling performance. Keywords: acclimation, frost, nursery, Pinus elliottii, ...

  2. Mechanisms of deterioration of nutrients. [improved quality of freeze-dried foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karel, M.; Flink, J. M.

    1978-01-01

    Methods for improving the quality of freeze-dried foods were investigated. Areas discussed include: (1) microstructure of freeze-dried systems, (2) structural changes in freeze-dried systems, (3) artificial food matrices, and (4) osmotic preconcentration to yield improved freeze-dried products.

  3. Quality Evaluation of Pork with Various Freezing and Thawing Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the physicochemical and sensory quality characteristics due to the influence of various thawing methods on electro-magnetic and air blast frozen pork were examined. The packaged pork samples, which were frozen by air blast freezing at −45℃ or electro-magnetic freezing at −55℃, were thawed using 4 different methods: refrigeration (4±1℃), room temperature (RT, 25℃), cold water (15℃), and microwave (2450 MHz). Analyses were carried out to determine the drip and cooking loss, water holding capacity (WHC), moisture content and sensory evaluation. Frozen pork thawed in a microwave indicated relatively less thawing loss (0.63-1.24%) than the other thawing methods (0.68-1.38%). The cooking loss after electro-magnetic freezing indicated 37.4% by microwave thawing, compared with 32.9% by refrigeration, 36.5% by RT, and 37.2% by cold water in ham. The thawing of samples frozen by electro-magnetic freezing showed no significant differences between the methods used, while the moisture content was higher in belly thawed by microwave (62.0%) after electro-magnetic freezing than refrigeration (54.8%), RT (61.3%), and cold water (61.1%). The highest overall acceptability was shown for microwave thawing after electro-magnetic freezing but there were no significant differences compared to that of the other samples. PMID:26761493

  4. Transcriptome Analysis of Spartina pectinata in Response to Freezing Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyoungju Nah

    Full Text Available Prairie cordgrass (Spartina pectinata, a perennial C4 grass native to the North American prairie, has several distinctive characteristics that potentially make it a model crop for production in stressful environments. However, little is known about the transcriptome dynamics of prairie cordgrass despite its unique freezing stress tolerance. Therefore, the purpose of this work was to explore the transcriptome dynamics of prairie cordgrass in response to freezing stress at -5°C for 5 min and 30 min. We used a RNA-sequencing method to assemble the S. pectinata leaf transcriptome and performed gene-expression profiling of the transcripts under freezing treatment. Six differentially expressed gene (DEG groups were categorized from the profiling. In addition, two major consecutive orders of gene expression were observed in response to freezing; the first being the acute up-regulation of genes involved in plasma membrane modification, calcium-mediated signaling, proteasome-related proteins, and transcription regulators (e.g., MYB and WRKY. The follow-up and second response was of genes involved in encoding the putative anti-freezing protein and the previously known DNA and cell-damage-repair proteins. Moreover, we identified the genes involved in epigenetic regulation and circadian-clock expression. Our results indicate that freezing response in S. pectinata reflects dynamic changes in rapid-time duration, as well as in metabolic, transcriptional, post-translational, and epigenetic regulation.

  5. Freeze-drying wet digital prints: An option for salvage?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juergens, M C; Schempp, N

    2010-01-01

    On the occasion of the collapse of the Historical Archive of the City of Cologne in March 2009 and the ensuing salvage effort, questions were raised about the use of freeze-drying for soaked digital prints, a technique that has not yet been evaluated for these materials. This study examines the effects of immersion, air-drying, drying in a blotter stack, freezing and freeze-drying on 35 samples of major digital printing processes. The samples were examined visually before, during and after testing; evaluation of the results was qualitative. Results show that some prints were already damaged by immersion alone (e.g. bleeding inks and soluble coatings) to the extent that the subsequent choice of drying method made no significant difference any more. For those samples that did survive immersion, air-drying proved to be crucial for water-sensitive prints, since any contact with the wet surface caused serious damage. Less water-sensitive prints showed no damage throughout the entire procedure, regardless of drying method. Some prints on coated media suffered from minor surface disruption up to total delamination of the surface coating due to the formation of ice crystals during shock-freezing. With few exceptions, freeze-drying did not cause additional damage to any of the prints that hadn't already been damaged by freezing. It became clear that an understanding of the process and materials is important for choosing an appropriate drying method.

  6. Effects of freezing, freeze drying and convective drying on in vitro gastric digestion of apples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalmau, Maria Esperanza; Bornhorst, Gail M; Eim, Valeria; Rosselló, Carmen; Simal, Susana

    2017-01-15

    The influence of processing (freezing at -196°C in liquid N2, FN sample; freeze-drying at -50°C and 30Pa, FD sample; and convective drying at 60°C and 2m/s, CD sample) on apple (var. Granny Smith) behavior during in vitro gastric digestion was investigated. Dried apples (FD and CD samples) were rehydrated prior to digestion. Changes in carbohydrate composition, moisture, soluble solids, acidity, total polyphenol content (TPC), and antioxidant activity (AA) of apple samples were measured at different times during digestion. Processing resulted in disruption of the cellular structure during digestion, as observed by scanning electron microscopy, light microscopy, and changes in carbohydrate composition. Moisture content increased (6-11% dmo), while soluble solids (55-78% dmo), acidity (44-72% dmo), total polyphenol content (30-61% dmo), and antioxidant activity (41-87%) decreased in all samples after digestion. Mathematical models (Weibull and exponential models) were used to better evaluate the influence of processing on apple behavior during gastric digestion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Classification using Hierarchical Naive Bayes models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langseth, Helge; Dyhre Nielsen, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Classification problems have a long history in the machine learning literature. One of the simplest, and yet most consistently well-performing set of classifiers is the Naïve Bayes models. However, an inherent problem with these classifiers is the assumption that all attributes used to describe......, termed Hierarchical Naïve Bayes models. Hierarchical Naïve Bayes models extend the modeling flexibility of Naïve Bayes models by introducing latent variables to relax some of the independence statements in these models. We propose a simple algorithm for learning Hierarchical Naïve Bayes models...

  8. Latest results from Daya Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorobel, Vit; Daya Bay Collaboration

    2017-07-01

    The Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment was designed to measure θ 13, the smallest mixing angle in the three-neutrino mixing framework, with unprecedented precision. The experiment consists of eight functionally identical detectors placed underground at different baselines from three pairs of nuclear reactors in South China. Since Dec. 2011, the experiment has been running stably for more than 4 years, and has collected the largest reactor anti-neutrino sample to date. Daya Bay is able to greatly improve the precision on θ 13 and to make an independent measurement of the effective mass splitting in the electron antineutrino disappearance channel. Daya Bay can also perform a number of other precise measurements, such as a high-statistics determination of the absolute reactor antineutrino flux and spectrum, as well as a search for sterile neutrino mixing, among others. The most recent results from Daya Bay are discussed in this paper, as well as the current status and future prospects of the experiment.

  9. Daya bay reactor neutrino experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Jun

    2010-01-01

    Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment is a large international collaboration experiment under construction. The experiment aims to precisely determine the neutrino mixing angle θ 13 by detecting the neutrinos produced by the Daya Bay Nuclear Power Plant. θ 13 is one of two unknown fundamental parameters in neutrino mixing. Its magnitude is a roadmap of the future neutrino physics, and very likely related to the puzzle of missing antimatter in our universe. The precise measurement has very important physics significance. The detectors of Daya Bay is under construction now. The full operation is expected in 2011. Three years' data taking will reach the designed the precision, to determine sin 2 2θ 13 to better than 0.01. Daya Bay neutrino detector is an underground large nuclear detector of low background, low energy, and high precision. In this paper, the layout of the experiment, the design and fabrication progress of the detectors, and some highlighted nuclear detecting techniques developed in the detector R and D are introduced. (author)

  10. Plutonium, cesium, uranium, and thorium series radionuclides in the Hudson River estuary and other environments. Annual technical progress report, December 1, 1982-November 30, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, H.J.; Trier, R.M.; Anderson, R.F.

    1983-01-01

    We have measured radionuclide activities in a large number of sediment cores and suspended particle samples throughout the salinity range of the Hudson River estuary. Activities of 137 Cs, 134 Cs and 60 Co determined by gamma spectrometry and 239 240 Pu and 238 Pu determined by alpha spectrometry indicate reasonably rapid accumulation rates in the sediments of marginal cove areas, and very rapid deposition in the harbor region adjacent to New York City, resulting in 239 240 Pu accumulations there more than an order of magnitude greater than the fallout delivery rate. Fallout 239 240 Pu moving downstream in the Hudson appears to be almost completely retained within the system by particle deposition, while more than 50% of the 137 Cs derived from both reactor releases and fallout has been exported from the tidal Hudson to coastal waters. Measurements of fallout 239 240 Pu in a saline lake with a high carbonate ion concentration yielded water column activities about two orders of magnitude greater than has been found for fallout plutonium in other continental waters, indicating extensive mobility in some natural water environments. Experiments using lake water suggest that carbonate ion is likely to be a critical factor in regulating plutonium solubility in some environments and that low molecular weight complexes are primarily responsible for enhanced plutonium solubility. 5 references

  11. Effects of Artificial Supercooling Followed by Slow Freezing on the Microstructure and Qualities of Pork Loin

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Yiseul; Hong, Geun-Pyo

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of artificial supercooling followed by still air freezing (SSF) on the qualities of pork loin. The qualities of pork frozen by SSF were compared with the fresh control (CT, stored at 4? for 24 h), slow freezing (SAF, still air freezing) and rapid freezing (EIF, ethanol immersion freezing) treatments. Compared with no supercooling phenomena of SAF and EIF, the extent of supercooling obtained by SSF treatment was 1.4?. Despite that SSF was conducted with the ...

  12. Study on dewatering of chemical sludge by freeze-thaw process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Shikun; Liu Pin

    1993-01-01

    The treatment of radioactive sludge that is produced from treating radioactive waste water contains radioactively is different from that of non-radioactive sludge. The methods of immersing freeze and simulated two-step freeze have been studied for the elementary properties of simulated low-level radioactive sledge, the effect of freezing temperature, freeze time, and settling time on volume-reduction factor. Some parameters for design of freeze-thaw device are provided

  13. Does anxiety cause freezing of gait in Parkinson's disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaylena A Ehgoetz Martens

    Full Text Available Individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD commonly experience freezing of gait under time constraints, in narrow spaces, and in the dark. One commonality between these different situations is that they may all provoke anxiety, yet anxiety has never been directly examined as a cause of FOG. In this study, virtual reality was used to induce anxiety and evaluate whether it directly causes FOG. Fourteen patients with PD and freezing of gait (Freezers and 17 PD without freezing of gait (Non-Freezers were instructed to walk in two virtual environments: (i across a plank that was located on the ground (LOW, (ii across a plank above a deep pit (HIGH. Multiple synchronized motion capture cameras updated participants' movement through the virtual environment in real-time, while their gait was recorded. Anxiety levels were evaluated after each trial using self-assessment manikins. Freezers performed the experiment on two separate occasions (in their ON and OFF state. Freezers reported higher levels of anxiety compared to Non-Freezers (p < 0.001 and all patients reported greater levels of anxiety when walking across the HIGH plank compared to the LOW (p < 0.001. Freezers experienced significantly more freezing of gait episodes (p = 0.013 and spent a significantly greater percentage of each trial frozen (p = 0.005 when crossing the HIGH plank. This finding was even more pronounced when comparing Freezers in their OFF state. Freezers also had greater step length variability in the HIGH compared to the LOW condition, while the step length variability in Non-Freezers did not change. In conclusion, this was the first study to directly compare freezing of gait in anxious and non-anxious situations. These results present strong evidence that anxiety is an important mechanism underlying freezing of gait and supports the notion that the limbic system may have a profound contribution to freezing in PD.

  14. Freeze-all cycle for all normal responders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roque, Matheus; Valle, Marcello; Guimarães, Fernando; Sampaio, Marcos; Geber, Selmo

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the freeze-all strategy in subgroups of normal responders, to assess whether this strategy is beneficial regardless of ovarian response, and to evaluate the possibility of implementing an individualized embryo transfer (iET) based on ovarian response. This was an observational, cohort study performed in a private IVF center. A total of 938 IVF cycles were included in this study. The patients were submitted to controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist protocol and a cleavage-stage day 3 embryo transfer. We performed a comparison of outcomes between the fresh embryo transfer (n = 523) and the freeze-all cycles (n = 415). The analysis was performed in two subgroups of patients based on the number of retrieved oocytes: Group 1 (4-9 oocytes) and Group 2 (10-15 oocytes). In Group 1 (4-9 retrieved oocytes), the implantation rates (IR) were 17.9 and 20.5% (P = 0.259) in the fresh and freeze-all group, respectively; the ongoing pregnancy rates (OPR) were 31 and 33% (P = 0.577) in the fresh and freeze-all group, respectively. In Group 2 (10-15 oocytes), the IR were 22.1 and 30.1% (P = 0.028) and the OPR were 34 and 47% (P = 0.021) in the fresh and freeze-all groups, respectively. Although the freeze-all policy may be related to better in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcomes in normal responders, these potential advantages decrease with worsening ovarian response. Patients with poorer ovarian response do not benefit from the freeze-all strategy.

  15. Rational design of an influenza subunit vaccine powder with sugar glass technology : preventing conformational changes of haemagglutinin during freezing and freeze-drying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amorij, J-P; Meulenaar, J; Hinrichs, W L J; Stegmann, T; Huckriede, A; Coenen, F; Frijlink, H W

    2007-01-01

    The development of a stable influenza subunit vaccine in the dry state was investigated. The influence of various carbohydrates, buffer types and freezing rates on the integrity of haemagglutinin after freeze-thawing or freeze-drying was investigated with a range of analytical and immunological

  16. Apparatus for freeze drying of biologic and sediment samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    Freeze drying to obtain water from individual samples, though not complicated, usually requires considerable effort to maintain the cold traps on a 24-hr basis. In addition, the transfer of a sample from sample containers to freeze-dry flasks is usually made with some risk of contamination to the sample. If samples are large, 300 g to 600 g, usually several days are required to dry the samples. The use of an unattended system greatly improves personnel and drying efficiency. Commercial freeze dryers are not readily applicable to the problems of collecting water from individual samples, and lab-designed collectors required sample transfer and continual replenishment of the dry ice. A freeze-dry apparatus for collecting water from individual sediment and/or biological samples was constructed to determine the tritium concentrations in fish for dose calcaluations and the tritium distribution in sediment cores for water movement studies. The freeze, dry apparatus, which can handle eight samples simultaneously and conveniently, is set up for unattended 24-hr operation and is designed to avoid sample transfer problems

  17. Prediction of frozen food properties during freezing using product composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonsupthip, W; Heldman, D R

    2007-06-01

    Frozen water fraction (FWF), as a function of temperature, is an important parameter for use in the design of food freezing processes. An FWF-prediction model, based on concentrations and molecular weights of specific product components, has been developed. Published food composition data were used to determine the identity and composition of key components. The model proposed in this investigation had been verified using published experimental FWF data and initial freezing temperature data, and by comparison to outputs from previously published models. It was found that specific food components with significant influence on freezing temperature depression of food products included low molecular weight water-soluble compounds with molality of 50 micromol per 100 g food or higher. Based on an analysis of 200 high-moisture food products, nearly 45% of the experimental initial freezing temperature data were within an absolute difference (AD) of +/- 0.15 degrees C and standard error (SE) of +/- 0.65 degrees C when compared to values predicted by the proposed model. The predicted relationship between temperature and FWF for all analyzed food products provided close agreements with experimental data (+/- 0.06 SE). The proposed model provided similar prediction capability for high- and intermediate-moisture food products. In addition, the proposed model provided statistically better prediction of initial freezing temperature and FWF than previous published models.

  18. A theoretical extension of the soil freezing curve paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Erfan A.; Craig, James R.; Kurylyk, Barret L.

    2018-01-01

    Numerical models of permafrost evolution in porous media typically rely upon a smooth continuous relation between pore ice saturation and sub-freezing temperature, rather than the abrupt phase change that occurs in pure media. Soil scientists have known for decades that this function, known as the soil freezing curve (SFC), is related to the soil water characteristic curve (SWCC) for unfrozen soils due to the analogous capillary and sorptive effects experienced during both soil freezing and drying. Herein we demonstrate that other factors beyond the SFC-SWCC relationship can influence the potential range over which pore water phase change occurs. In particular, we provide a theoretical extension for the functional form of the SFC based upon the presence of spatial heterogeneity in both soil thermal conductivity and the freezing point depression of water. We infer the functional form of the SFC from many abrupt-interface 1-D numerical simulations of heterogeneous systems with prescribed statistical distributions of water and soil properties. The proposed SFC paradigm extension has the appealing features that it (1) is determinable from measurable soil and water properties, (2) collapses into an abrupt phase transition for homogeneous media, (3) describes a wide range of heterogeneity within a single functional expression, and (4) replicates the observed hysteretic behavior of freeze-thaw cycles in soils.

  19. Does Anxiety Cause Freezing of Gait in Parkinson's Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehgoetz Martens, Kaylena A.; Ellard, Colin G.; Almeida, Quincy J.

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) commonly experience freezing of gait under time constraints, in narrow spaces, and in the dark. One commonality between these different situations is that they may all provoke anxiety, yet anxiety has never been directly examined as a cause of FOG. In this study, virtual reality was used to induce anxiety and evaluate whether it directly causes FOG. Fourteen patients with PD and freezing of gait (Freezers) and 17 PD without freezing of gait (Non-Freezers) were instructed to walk in two virtual environments: (i) across a plank that was located on the ground (LOW), (ii) across a plank above a deep pit (HIGH). Multiple synchronized motion capture cameras updated participants' movement through the virtual environment in real-time, while their gait was recorded. Anxiety levels were evaluated after each trial using self-assessment manikins. Freezers performed the experiment on two separate occasions (in their ON and OFF state). Freezers reported higher levels of anxiety compared to Non-Freezers (panxiety when walking across the HIGH plank compared to the LOW (panxiety is an important mechanism underlying freezing of gait and supports the notion that the limbic system may have a profound contribution to freezing in PD. PMID:25250691

  20. Plutonium and cesium radionuclides in the Hudson River Estuary. Annual technical progress report, December 1, 1974--November 30, 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, H.J.; Williams, S.C.

    1975-01-01

    We have obtained a large set of gravity cores from the Hudson Estuary through much of the ambient salinity range. A number of core sections have been analyzed for 137 Cs, 134 Cs, 60 Co, and 40 K by direct gamma counting, and for 239 , 240 Pu by alpha-spectrometry. The distribution of both 137 Cs and 239 , 240 Pu indicates rapid accumulation in marginal cove areas and in the harbor region adjacent to New York City. The distribution of both 137 Cs and 239 , 240 Pu in the sediments is quite similar in surface sediments, and the trends with depth in cores are also similar. The ratio of sediment 239 , 240 Pu to 137 Cs throughout the sampled salinity range (0-20 0 / 00 ) approximates that in fallout, except near the nuclear reactor at Indian Point where releases of 137 Cs result in a ratio lower (0.004 to 0.008) than typical of fallout (0.015). Measurement amounts of reactor-derived 134 Cs, 60 Co, and 54 Mn are found in nearly all of the samples containing appreciable 137 Cs. These samples were between 15 km upstream of Indian Point reactor site and the downstream extent of our sampling, 70 km south of the reactor

  1. Preliminary study of the antimicrobial activity of Mentha x villosa Hudson essential oil, rotundifolone and its analogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thúlio. A. Arruda

    Full Text Available Essential oils present antimicrobial activity against a variety of bacteria and yeasts, including species resistant to antibiotics and antifungicals. In this context, this work aims at the evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Mentha x villosa Hudson ("hortelã da folha miúda", its major component (rotundifolone and four similar analogues of rotundifolone (limonene oxide, pulegone oxide, carvone epoxide and (+-pulegone against strain standards of Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, E. coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomona aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Candida albicans ATCC 76645 and one strain of meticilin - resistant Staphylococcus aureus - MRSA (171c from human clinic. The method of the diffusion in plates with solid medium was used. The results showed that the oil of Mentha x villosa, rotundifolone, limonene oxide and (+-pulegone, are similar regarding the antimicrobial activity against the tested strains of S. aureus and C. albicans. All of the products present antimocrobial potential with antibacterial activity for S. aureus ATCC 25923 and antifungal activity for C. albicans ATCC 76645. None of the products presented antimicrobial activity for the strains of E. coli ATCC 25922 and P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853, representatives of the Gram negative bacteria.

  2. Working with Decision Makers to Improve Energy-Water System Resiliency in the Lower Hudson River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellows, J. D.; Schoonen, M. A.; Pullen, J.; González, J. E.; Saleh, F.; Bhatt, V.

    2017-12-01

    Nearly half of the 180 million people living in the eastern U.S. reside in coastal watershed or shoreline counties. The population density of these areas continues to increase, driving an increase in energy-water (EW) system demand and expansion of critical infrastructure. Along with population, these areas are also being stressed by environmental and technology stresses, including climate change. We have been working with decision makers in the Lower Hudson River Basin (LHRB) to develop the tools and data needed to better understand and improve the resiliency of LHRB EW systems facing these kinds of stresses. The LHRB represents: 1) a coastal environment subject to sea level rise that is among the fastest in the East; 2) one of the steepest gradients in population density in the US, with Manhattan the most densely populated coastal county in the nation; 3) a EWN infrastructure serving the largest metropolitan area in the US and the financial center of the world; 4) a history of environmental impacts, ranging from heatwaves, hurricanes to localized storms, that can be used to hindcast; and 5) a wealth of historic and real-time data, extensive monitoring facilities and existing specific sector models that can be leveraged. This presentation will focus on the lessons learned working with the LHRB decision makers.

  3. Hudson River Unionids and Zebra Mussels: The Beginning of the End or the End of the Beginning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strayer, D. L.; Malcom, H. M.

    2005-05-01

    The invasion of the Hudson River estuary by zebra mussels was followed by steep declines (77 to >99.7%) in populations of all species of native bivalves between 1992 and 1999. Body condition of all unionids, and growth and recruitment of young unionids also declined significantly. Declines in population size and body condition were correlated primarily with the filtration rate of the zebra mussel population, not with fouling of native bivalves by zebra mussels. Samples taken since 2000, however, have shown that populations of all 4 common native bivalves have stabilized or even recovered, although the zebra mussel population has not declined. The mechanisms underlying this apparent reversal of fortune are not clear: recruitment and growth of young mussels have showed limited recovery, but body condition of adults has not. We found no evidence that spatial refuges contributed to this reversal of population declines. Simple statistical models project now that native bivalves may persist at population densities about an order of magnitude below their pre-invasion densities.

  4. Ecological carryover effects associated with partial migration in white perch (Morone americana) within the Hudson River Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Brian K.; Piccoli, Philip M.; Secor, David H.

    2018-01-01

    Partial migration in complex life cycles allows environmental conditions experienced during one life-stage to interact with genetic thresholds and produce divergent spatial behaviors in the next stage. We evaluated partial migration over the entire life cycle of white perch, (Morone americana) within the Hudson River Estuary, combining otolith microchemistry, population demographics and environmental data analysis. Ecological carryover effects were used as a framework to test how environmental variation during the larval period influenced migration behaviors and growth characteristics in subsequent life-stages. Two annual cohorts of juveniles were classified based on whether they persisted in natal habitats (freshwater resident contingent) or dispersed into non-natal habitats (brackish water migratory contingent) as juveniles. The migratory contingent tended to hatch earlier and experience cooler temperatures as larvae, while the availability of zooplankton prey during the larval period appeared to influence growth dynamics before and after metamorphosis. Juvenile migration behaviors were reversible but usually persisted into adulthood. As juveniles, the consequences of partial migration on growth appeared to be modified by river flow, as demonstrated by the influence of a large storm event on feeding conditions in one of the study years. Migratory adults grew faster and attained larger maximum sizes, but may also experience higher rates of mortality. The interplay uncovered between life-stage transitions, conditional migration behaviors and habitat productivity throughout the life cycle shapes white perch population dynamics and will likely play an important role in responses to long-term environmental change.

  5. Use of an ADCP to compute suspended-sediment discharge in the tidal Hudson River, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Gary R.; Nystrom, Elizabeth A.; Litten, Simon

    2006-01-01

    Acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs) can provide data needed for computation of suspended-sediment discharge in complex river systems, such as tidal rivers, in which conventional methods of collecting time-series data on suspended-sediment concentration (SSC) and water discharge are not feasible. Although ADCPs are not designed to measure SSC, ADCP data can be used as a surrogate under certain environmental conditions. However, the software for such computation is limited, and considerable post-processing is needed to correct and normalize ADCP data for this use. This report documents the sampling design and computational procedure used to calibrate ADCP measures of echo intensity to SSC and water velocity to discharge in the computation of suspended-sediment discharge at the study site on the Hudson River near Poughkeepsie, New York. The methods and procedures described may prove useful to others doing similar work in different locations; however, they are specific to this study site and may have limited applicability elsewhere.

  6. Geometric origin of dynamically induced freezing of quantum evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matos-Abiague, A.; Berakdar, J.

    2006-01-01

    The phenomenon of dynamical, field-induced freezing of quantum evolution is discussed. It occurs when a time-dependent state is dynamically driven in such a way that the evolution of the corresponding wave function is effectively localized within a small region in the projective Hilbert space. As a consequence, the dynamics of the system is frozen and the expectation values of all physical observables hardly change with time. Necessary and sufficient conditions for inducing dynamical freezing are inferred from a general analysis of the geometry of quantum evolution. The relevance of the dynamical freezing for a sustainable in time, dynamical control is discussed and exemplified by a study of the coherent control of the kicked rotor motion

  7. A case history of a tunnel constructed by ground freezing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacy, H. S.; Jones, J. S., Jr.; Gidlow, B.

    Artificial ground freezing was used for structural support and groundwater control for a 37 m long, 3.2 m diameter tunnel located about 2 m beneath high speed railroad lines in Syracuse, New York. A double row of freeze pipes spaced approximately 0.9 m on-center was used around the periphery of the tunnel above the spring line, while only a single row of freeze pipes was required below the spring line. Excavation of the frozen soil within the tunnel was accomplished with a small road header tunnel boring machine. The results of in situ testing of frozen soil, laboratory testing of frozen soils, computer analysis to predict stress deformation-time characteristics under static and cyclic loading, the instrumentation program including a comparison of estimated and measured performance are discussed.

  8. Cryochemistry: freezing effect on peptide coupling in different organic solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vajda, T; Szókán, G; Hollósi, M

    1998-06-01

    The freezing effect on peptide coupling in organic solutions of different polarity has been investigated and compared with the results obtained in liquid phase. The model reaction of DCC-activated coupling of Boc-Ala-Phe-OH with H-Ala-OBu(t) has been carried out in dioxane, dimethylsulfoxide and formamide, as well as in mixtures (90%/10%, v/v) of dioxane with acetonitrile, dimethylformamide, dimethylsulfoxide and formamide. The reactions have been traced and evaluated by RP-HPLC analysis. Freezing the reaction mixture resulted in all cases in a significant suppression of the N-dipeptidylurea side-product formation together with a slight decrease of tripeptide epimerization. The coupling yields and the side effects depended on the solvent, with the dioxane and dioxane/acetonitrile mixture produced the best results. The role of freezing and solvent in the improved results is discussed.

  9. Cod and rainbow trout as freeze-chilled meal elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Louise Helene Søgaard; Nielsen, Jette; Jørgensen, Bo

    2010-01-01

    Meal elements' are elements of a meal, e.g. portions of pre-fried meat, sauces, frozen fish or pre-processed vegetables typically prepared industrially. The meal elements are distributed to professional satellite kitchens, where the staff can combine them into complete meals. Freeze......-chilling is a process consisting of freezing and frozen storage followed by thawing and chilled storage. Combining the two would enable the manufacturer to produce large quantities of frozen meal elements to be released into the chill chain according to demand. We have studied the influence of freeze...... days of chilled storage, and the corresponding time for rainbow trout was 10 days. After this period the sensory quality decreased and chemical indicators of spoilage were seen to increase. CONCLUSION: The consistent quality during storage and the high-quality shelf life are practically applicable...

  10. Positron probe to study the freezing of nanodroplets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pujari, P.K.

    2010-01-01

    Positron is an excellent in situ probe to study the phase behavior of fluid confined in nanodomains. The study of phase behavior (freezing/melting) of nano confined fluid or nanodroplet has great relevance in fundamental research as well as applications in nano-tribology, nanofabrication, membrane separation, interfacial adhesion and lubrication. It is seen that the properties of freezing/melting of nanodroplets are different from their bulk behavior due to the combined effects of finite size, surface force, surface anisotropy, pore disorder and reduced dimensionality. We have used positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) to study the freezing/melting behavior of different organic liquids like benzene, ethylene glycol and isopropanol confined in nanopores of ZSM5 zeolite and silica gel

  11. 78 FR 20559 - Safety Zones; Swim Events in the Captain of the Port New York Zone; Hudson River, East River...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-05

    ... Liberty to Freedom Swim: Waters of the Upper New York Bay, from Liberty Island, NJ to North Cove, New York... security of people, places or vessels. 7. Unfunded Mandates Reform Act The Unfunded Mandates Reform Act of..., local, or tribal government, in the aggregate, or by the private sector of $100,000,000 (adjusted for...

  12. Spill management strategy for the Chesapeake Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, H.L.; Chapman, R.S.; Johnson, B.H.

    1990-01-01

    The Chesapeake Bay Program is a unique cooperative effort between state and Federal agencies to restore the health and productivity of America's largest estuary. To assist in addressing specific management issues, a comprehensive three-dimensional, time-varying hydrodynamic and water quality model has ben developed. The Bay modeling strategy will serve as an excellent framework for including submodules to predict the movement, dispersion, and weathering of accidental spills, such as for petroleum products or other chemicals. This paper presents sample results from the Bay application to illustrate the success of the model system in simulating Bay processes. Also, a review of model requirements for successful spill modeling in Chesapeake Bay is presented. Recommendations are given for implementing appropriate spill modules with the Bay model framework and establishing a strategy for model use in addressing management issues

  13. The effect of dryer load on freeze drying process design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sajal M; Jameel, Feroz; Pikal, Michael J

    2010-10-01

    Freeze-drying using a partial load is a common occurrence during the early manufacturing stages when insufficient amounts of active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) are available. In such cases, the immediate production needs are met by performing lyophilization with less than a full freeze dryer load. However, it is not obvious at what fractional load significant deviations from full load behavior begin. The objective of this research was to systematically study the effects of variation in product load on freeze drying behavior in laboratory, pilot and clinical scale freeze-dryers. Experiments were conducted with 5% mannitol (high heat and mass flux) and 5% sucrose (low heat and mass flux) at different product loads (100%, 50%, 10%, and 2%). Product temperature was measured in edge as well as center vials with thermocouples. Specific surface area (SSA) was measured by BET gas adsorption analysis and residual moisture was measured by Karl Fischer. In the lab scale freeze-dryer, the molar flux of inert gas was determined by direct flow measurement using a flowmeter and the molar flux of water vapor was determined by manometric temperature measurement (MTM) and tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) techniques. Comparative pressure measurement (capacitance manometer vs. Pirani) was used to determine primary drying time. For both 5% mannitol and 5% sucrose, primary drying time decreases and product temperature increases as the load on the shelves decreases. No systematic variation was observed in residual moisture and vapor composition as load decreased. Further, SSA data suggests that there are no significant freezing differences under different load conditions. Independent of dryer scale, among all the effects, variation in radiation heat transfer from the chamber walls to the product seems to be the dominant effect resulting in shorter primary drying time as the load on the shelf decreases (i.e., the fraction of edge vials increases).

  14. Freezing tolerance of ectomycorrhizal fungi in pure culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehto, Tarja; Brosinsky, Arlena; Heinonen-Tanski, Helvi; Repo, Tapani

    2008-10-01

    The ability to survive freezing and thawing is a key factor for the existence of life forms in large parts of the world. However, little is known about the freezing tolerance of mycorrhizal fungi and their role in the freezing tolerance of mycorrhizas. Threshold temperatures for the survival of these fungi have not been assessed experimentally. We grew isolates of Suillus luteus, Suillus variegatus, Laccaria laccata, and Hebeloma sp. in liquid culture at room temperature. Subsequently, we exposed samples to a series of temperatures between +5 degrees C and -48 degrees C. Relative electrolyte leakage (REL) and re-growth measurements were used to assess the damage. The REL test indicated that the lethal temperature for 50% of samples (LT(50)) was between -8.3 degrees C and -13.5 degrees C. However, in the re-growth experiment, all isolates resumed growth after exposure to -8 degrees C and higher temperatures. As many as 64% of L. laccata samples but only 11% in S. variegatus survived -48 degrees C. There was no growth of Hebeloma and S. luteus after exposure to -48 degrees C, but part of their samples survived -30 degrees C. The fungi tolerated lower temperatures than was expected on the basis of earlier studies on fine roots of ectomycorrhizal trees. The most likely freezing tolerance mechanism here is tolerance to apoplastic freezing and the concomitant intracellular dehydration with consequent concentrating of cryoprotectant substances in cells. Studying the properties of fungi in isolation promotes the understanding of the role of the different partners of the mycorrhizal symbiosis in the freezing tolerance.

  15. Cost-Effectiveness of the Freeze-All Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roque, Matheus; Valle, Marcello; Guimarães, Fernando; Sampaio, Marcos; Geber, Selmo

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of freeze-all cycles when compared to fresh embryo transfer. This was an observational study with a cost-effectiveness analysis. The analysis consisted of 530 intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles in a private center in Brazil between January 2012 and December 2013. A total of 530 intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles - 351 fresh embryo transfers and 179 freeze-all cycles - with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist protocol and day 3 embryo transfers. The pregnancy rate was 31.1% in the fresh group and 39.7% in the freeze-all group. We performed two scenario analyses for costs. In scenario 1, we included those costs associated with the ICSI cycle (monitoring during controlled ovarian stimulation [COS], oocyte retrieval, embryo transfer, IVF laboratory, and medical costs), embryo cryopreservation of supernumerary embryos, hormone measurements during COS and endometrial priming, medication use (during COS, endometrial priming, and luteal phase support), ultrasound scan for frozen- thawed embryo transfer (FET), obstetric ultrasounds, and miscarriage. The total cost (in USD) per pregnancy was statistically lower in the freeze-all cycles (19,156.73 ± 1,732.99) when compared to the fresh cycles (23,059.72 ± 2,347.02). Even in Scenario 2, when charging all of the patients in the freeze-all group for cryopreservation (regardless of supernumerary embryos) and for FET, the fresh cycles had a statistically significant increase in treatment costs per ongoing pregnancy. The results presented in this study suggest that the freeze-all policy is a cost-effective strategy when compared to fresh embryo transfer.

  16. FY 2017 Status of Sodium Freezing and Remelting Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lv, Q. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Boron, E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Momozaki, Y. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Chojnowski, D. B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sienicki, J. J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Reed, C. B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-09-15

    The Sodium Freezing and Remelting experiment facility at Argonne National Laboratory has been significantly modified and improved. The main improvement was replacement of the two original stainless steel test sections that had strain gages limited by their bonds to the stainless steel to maximum temperatures of 350°C with a single new test section with strain gages that can be utilized up to 980°C and a thin wall to enhance measured strains. Wetting of stainless steel by sodium within a practical time of one to a few days is expected to require temperatures of 450°C or greater. Thus, the higher temperature strain gages enable wetting in a short time of a few days. Wetting below 350°C would have required an impractically long time of at least weeks. Other improvements included upgrading of the loop configuration, incorporation of a cold finger to purify sodium, a new data acquisition system, and reinstallation of the many heaters, heater controllers, and thermocouples. After the loop had been heated to 400°C for about two hours, an initial sodium freezing test was conducted. It is thought that the sodium might have at least partially wetted the stainless steel wall under these conditions. The strain gage measurements indicate that an incremental step inward deformation of the test section thin wall occurred as the temperature decreased through the sodium freezing temperature. This behavior is consistent with sodium initially adhering to the stainless steel inner wall but breaking away from the wall as the freezing sodium contracted. Conduct of additional sodium freezing tests under well wetted conditions was prevented as a result of stoppage of all electrical work at Argonne by the Laboratory Director on July 25, 2017. A pathway to resuming electrical work is now in place at Argonne and additional sodium freezing testing will resume next fiscal year.

  17. Experimental Investigation of Thermal Conductivity of Meat During Freezing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinbayeva, A.; Arkharov, I.; Aldiyarov, A.; Drobyshev, A.; Zhubaniyazova, M.; Kurnosov, V.

    2017-04-01

    The cryogenic technologies of processing and storage of agricultural products are becoming increasingly indispensable in the food industry as an important factor of ensuring food safety. One of such technologies is the shock freezing of meat, which provides a higher degree of preservation of the quality of frozen products in comparison with traditional technologies. The thermal conductivity of meat is an important parameter influencing the energy consumption in the freezing process. This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation of the temperature dependence of the thermal conductivity of beef. The measurements were taken by using a specially designed measurement cell, which allows covering the temperature range from 80 to 300 K.

  18. Entree Production Guides for Cook/Freeze Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-03-01

    92.29 50.00 22,680 1. Fill roasting pans with cut-up chicken . Salt 0.35 0.19 86 2. Combine ingredients listed Pepper, black 0.07 0.04 18 in this...INSTALLATIONS FREEZING RECIPES HOSPITAL FEEDING i, WACT (Vmentbs m reves - W neete y lsmer ~lr y block nguber) Entree production guides have been...control and better use of personnel. Standard recipes must be adapted to production guides for use in cook/freeze systems. Products must withstand the

  19. Freezing Point Determination of Water–Ionic Liquid Mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yanrong; Meyer, Anne S.; Nie, Yi

    2017-01-01

    .841 K in thefirst system and at a water mole fraction of 0.657 and 202.565 K inthe second system. Water activities in aqueous IL solutions were predictedby COSMO-RS and COSMO-SAC and compared to water activities derivedfrom the experimentally determined freezing points. The COSMO-RS predictionswere...... closer to the experimental water activities than the COSMO-SACpredictions. The experimental results indicate that the freezing pointsof IL+H2O systems are affected by the nature of both cationsand anions. However, according to the COSMO-RS excess enthalpy predictionresults, the anions have a relatively...

  20. Study on irradiaiton of freezing-dried Wuchang fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xueling; Cheng Wei; Xiong Guangquan; Ye Lixiu; Chen Yuxia; Guan Jian; He Jianjun

    2008-01-01

    The effects of irradiation on sterilization and storage time for the freezing-dried Wuchang fish were studied. The results show that the number of the coliform group in freezing-dried Wuchang fish irradiated at 1kGy can be acceptable according to the national industrial standard and the number of bacteria decrease from 3100cfu/g to <10cfu/g after irradiation. With the optimal irradiation dose 1kGy the shelf life of Wuchang fish can be extended over one year. (authors)

  1. Accelerated redox reaction between chromate and phenolic pollutants during freezing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ju, Jinjung; Kim, Jaesung [Department of Environmental Sciences and Biotechnology, Hallym University, Chuncheon, Gangwon-do 24252 (Korea, Republic of); Vetráková, Ľubica [Department of Chemistry and Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kamenice 5, 625 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Seo, Jiwon [School of Urban and Environmental Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), Ulsan 44919 (Korea, Republic of); Heger, Dominik [Department of Chemistry and Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kamenice 5, 625 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Lee, Changha [School of Urban and Environmental Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), Ulsan 44919 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Ho-Il [Korea Polar Research Institute (KOPRI), Incheon 21990 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kitae, E-mail: ktkim@kopri.re.kr [Korea Polar Research Institute (KOPRI), Incheon 21990 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jungwon, E-mail: jwk@hallym.ac.kr [Department of Environmental Sciences and Biotechnology, Hallym University, Chuncheon, Gangwon-do 24252 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-05-05

    Highlights: • Redox conversion of 4-CP/Cr(VI) was significantly accelerated during freezing. • Accelerated redox conversion in ice is ascribed to the freeze concentration effect. • 4-CP, Cr(VI), and protons are concentrated in the liquid brine by freezing. • Redox conversions of various phenolic pollutants/Cr(VI) were significant in ice. • Freezing-accelerated redox conversion was observed in real polluted water. - Abstract: The redox reaction between 4-chlorophenol (4-CP) and chromate (Cr(VI)) (i.e., the simultaneous oxidation of 4-CP by Cr(VI) and reduction of Cr(VI) by 4-CP) in ice (i.e., at −20 °C) was compared with the corresponding reaction in water (i.e., at 25 °C). The redox conversion of 4-CP/Cr(VI), which was negligible in water, was significantly accelerated in ice. This accelerated redox conversion of 4-CP/Cr(VI) in ice is ascribed to the freeze concentration effect occurring during freezing, which excludes solutes (i.e., 4-CP and Cr(VI)) and protons from the ice crystals and subsequently concentrates them in the liquid brine. The concentrations of Cr(VI) and protons in the liquid brine were confirmed by measuring the optical image and the UV–vis absorption spectra of cresol red (CR) as a pH indicator of frozen solution. The redox conversion of 4-CP/Cr(VI) was observed in water when the concentrations of 4-CP/protons or Cr(VI)/protons increased by 100/1000-fold. These results corroborate the freeze concentration effect as the reason for the accelerated redox conversion of 4-CP/Cr(VI) in ice. The redox conversion of various phenolic pollutants/Cr(VI) and 4-CP/Cr(VI) in real wastewater was successfully achieved in ice, which verifies the environmental relevance and importance of freezing-accelerated redox conversion of phenolic pollutants/Cr(VI) in cold regions.

  2. Accelerated redox reaction between chromate and phenolic pollutants during freezing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju, Jinjung; Kim, Jaesung; Vetráková, Ľubica; Seo, Jiwon; Heger, Dominik; Lee, Changha; Yoon, Ho-Il; Kim, Kitae; Kim, Jungwon

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Redox conversion of 4-CP/Cr(VI) was significantly accelerated during freezing. • Accelerated redox conversion in ice is ascribed to the freeze concentration effect. • 4-CP, Cr(VI), and protons are concentrated in the liquid brine by freezing. • Redox conversions of various phenolic pollutants/Cr(VI) were significant in ice. • Freezing-accelerated redox conversion was observed in real polluted water. - Abstract: The redox reaction between 4-chlorophenol (4-CP) and chromate (Cr(VI)) (i.e., the simultaneous oxidation of 4-CP by Cr(VI) and reduction of Cr(VI) by 4-CP) in ice (i.e., at −20 °C) was compared with the corresponding reaction in water (i.e., at 25 °C). The redox conversion of 4-CP/Cr(VI), which was negligible in water, was significantly accelerated in ice. This accelerated redox conversion of 4-CP/Cr(VI) in ice is ascribed to the freeze concentration effect occurring during freezing, which excludes solutes (i.e., 4-CP and Cr(VI)) and protons from the ice crystals and subsequently concentrates them in the liquid brine. The concentrations of Cr(VI) and protons in the liquid brine were confirmed by measuring the optical image and the UV–vis absorption spectra of cresol red (CR) as a pH indicator of frozen solution. The redox conversion of 4-CP/Cr(VI) was observed in water when the concentrations of 4-CP/protons or Cr(VI)/protons increased by 100/1000-fold. These results corroborate the freeze concentration effect as the reason for the accelerated redox conversion of 4-CP/Cr(VI) in ice. The redox conversion of various phenolic pollutants/Cr(VI) and 4-CP/Cr(VI) in real wastewater was successfully achieved in ice, which verifies the environmental relevance and importance of freezing-accelerated redox conversion of phenolic pollutants/Cr(VI) in cold regions.

  3. 75 FR 8297 - Tongass National Forest, Thorne Bay Ranger District, Thorne Bay, AK

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ..., Thorne Bay, AK AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Cancellation of Notice of intent to prepare an... Roberts, Zone Planner, Thorne Bay Ranger District, Tongass National Forest, P.O. Box 19001, Thorne Bay, AK 99919, telephone: 907-828-3250. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The 47,007-acre Kosciusko Project Area is...

  4. 77 FR 44140 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Sturgeon Bay, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-27

    ... Maple-Oregon Bridges so vehicular traffic congestion would not develop on downtown Sturgeon Bay streets... movement of vehicular traffic in Sturgeon Bay. The Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal is approximately 8.6 miles long... significant increase in vehicular and vessel traffic during the peak tourist and navigation season between...

  5. The onset of deglaciation of Cumberland Bay and Stromness Bay, South Georgia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Der Putten, N.; Verbruggen, C.

    Carbon dating of basal peat deposits in Cumberland Bay and Stromness Bay and sediments from a lake in Stromness Bay, South Georgia indicates deglaciation at the very beginning of the Holocene before c. 9500 14C yr BP. This post-dates the deglaciation of one local lake which has been ice-free since

  6. 78 FR 46813 - Safety Zone; Evening on the Bay Fireworks; Sturgeon Bay, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Evening on the Bay Fireworks; Sturgeon Bay, WI AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION.... This temporary safety zone will restrict vessels from a portion of Sturgeon Bay due to a fireworks... hazards associated with the fireworks display. DATES: This rule is effective from 8 p.m. until 10 p.m. on...

  7. Emerging techniques for assisting and accelerating food freezing processes: A review of recent research progresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Lina; Sun, Da-Wen; Zhu, Zhiwei; Zhang, Zi

    2017-03-04

    Freezing plays an important role in food preservation and the emergence of rapid freezing technologies can be highly beneficial to the food industry. This paper reviews some novel food freezing technologies, including high-pressure freezing (HPF), ultrasound-assisted freezing (UAF), electrically disturbed freezing (EF) and magnetically disturbed freezing (MF), microwave-assisted freezing (MWF), and osmo-dehydro-freezing (ODF). HPF and UAF can initiate ice nucleation rapidly, leading to uniform distribution of ice crystals and the control of their size and shape. Specifically, the former is focused on increasing the degree of supercooling, whereas the latter aims to decrease it. Direct current electric freezing (DC-EF) and alternating current electric freezing (AC-EF) exhibit different effects on ice nucleation. DC-EF can promote ice nucleation and AC-EF has the opposite effect. Furthermore, ODF has been successfully used for freezing various vegetables and fruit. MWF cannot control the nucleation temperature, but can decrease supercooling degree, thus decreasing the size of ice crystals. The heat and mass transfer processes during ODF have been investigated experimentally and modeled mathematically. More studies should be carried out to understand the effects of these technologies on food freezing process.

  8. Properties of subvisible cirrus clouds formed by homogeneous freezing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Kärcher

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Number concentrations and mean sizes of ice crystals and derived microphysical and optical properties of subvisible cirrus clouds (SVCs formed by homogeneous freezing of supercooled aerosols are investigated as a function of temperature and updraft speed of adiabatically ascending air parcels. The properties of such clouds are insensitive to variations of the aerosol number and size distribution. Based on criteria constraining the optical extinction, sedimentation time, and existence time of SVCs, longer-lived (>10min clouds, capable of exerting a measurable radiative or chemical impact, are generated within a narrow range of updraft speeds below 1-2cm s-1 at temperatures below about 215K, with concentrations of ice crystals not exceeding 0.1cm-3. The clouds do not reach an equilibrium state because the ice crystals sediment out of the formation layer typically before the supersaturation is removed. Two important conclusions emerge from this work. First, the above characteristics of SVCs may provide an explanation for why SVCs are more common in the cold tropical than in the warmer midlatitude tropopause region. Second, it seems likely that a limited number (-3 of effective heterogeneous freezing nuclei that nucleate ice below the homogeneous freezing threshold can control the formation and properties of SVCs, although homogeneous freezing nuclei are far more abundant.

  9. Freezing of gait: moving forward on a mysterious clinical phenomenon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nutt, J.G.; Bloem, B.R.; Giladi, N.; Hallett, M.; Horak, F.B.; Nieuwboer, A.

    2011-01-01

    Freezing of gait (FoG) is a unique and disabling clinical phenomenon characterised by brief episodes of inability to step or by extremely short steps that typically occur on initiating gait or on turning while walking. Patients with FoG, which is a feature of parkinsonian syndromes, show variability

  10. Seeing fearful body language rapidly freezes the observer's motor cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgomaneri, Sara; Vitale, Francesca; Gazzola, V.; Avenanti, Alessio

    Fearful body language is a salient signal alerting the observer to the presence of a potential threat in the surrounding environment. Although detecting potential threats may trigger an immediate reduction of motor output in animals (i.e., freezing behavior), it is unclear at what point in time

  11. Seeing fearful body language rapidly freezes the observer's motor cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgomaneri, S.; Vitale, F.; Gazzola, V.; Avenanti, A.

    2015-01-01

    Fearful body language is a salient signal alerting the observer to the presence of a potential threat in the surrounding environment. Although detecting potential threats may trigger an immediate reduction of motor output in animals (i.e., freezing behavior), it is unclear at what point in time

  12. Freeze-thaw resistance of concrete with marginal air content

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    Freeze-thaw resistance is a key durability factor for concrete pavements. Recommendations for the air void system parameters are normally 6 1 percent total air and a spacing factor of : < 0.20 millimeter (mm) (0.008 inch). However, it was observed...

  13. Accelerated storage testing of freeze-dried Pseudomonas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erika-Chris

    Full Length Research Paper ... was possible to compare rate constants of survival for the freeze-dried P. fluorescens ... studying and predicting the survival loss rate of the ... Erlenmeyer flask containing 3000 ml King B medium. ... The strain was grown in 20 L bioreactor (Biolafite) containing 15 L .... fermented banana media.

  14. Freeze Drying of Fruits and Vegetables: A Laboratory Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Richard D.

    1979-01-01

    Describes a laboratory experiment for freeze-drying fruits and vegetables which aims to expose college students to the principles of drying and simultaneous heat and mass transfer. The experimental apparatus, procedure of the experiment, and data analysis are also included. (HM)

  15. Monte Carlo simulation of the OCP freezing transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeWitt, H.E.; Slattery, W.L.; Yang, Juxing

    1992-09-01

    The One Component Plasma (OCP) in three dimensions is a system of classical point charges moving in a fixed uniform neutralizing background. In nature the OCP is a rough approximation of the conditions in a white dwarf star in which one has fully ionized nuclei such as carbon, oxygen, and smaller amounts of heavier elements up to iron all moving in a nearly uniform background provided by relativistically degenerate electrons. The OCP is also a mathematical limiting model for a non-neutral plasma of ions in a Penning trap and cooled to strongly coupled conditions. Similarly, a collection of charge colloidal suspensions in water can exhibit the Coulomb freezing behavior of the OCP. A single dimensionless parameter, Γ is sufficient to describe the system. For very weak coupling, Γ much-lt 1, the thermodynamic properties of the OCP are given rigorously by the Debye-Huckel theory. This paper reports on Monte Carlo simulation of the freezing of the OCP from a random start for particle numbers ranging from 500 to 2000. In one case the authors obtained a perfect bcc lattice, but in most cases the final state would be an imperfect crystal or two different microcrystals, fcc and bcc, growing into each other. With a cluster analysis program the authors looked at the formation of nucleating clusters, and followed the actual freezing process. Roughly 80 particles are needed in a cluster before it starts to grow rapidly and freeze

  16. Truths and myths of oocyte sensitivity to controlled rate freezing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coticchio, G; Bonu, M A; Sciajno, R; Sereni, E; Bianchi, V; Borini, A

    2007-07-01

    The mammalian oocyte is especially sensitive to cryopreservation. Because of its size and physiology, it can easily undergo cell death or sub-lethal damage as a consequence of intracellular ice formation, increase in the concentration of solutes and other undesired effects during the conversion of extracellular water into ice. This has generated the belief that oocyte storage cannot be achieved with the necessary efficiency and safety. However, many concerns raised by oocyte freezing are the result of unproven hypotheses or observations conducted under sometimes inappropriate conditions. For instance, spindle organization can undergo damage under certain freezing conditions but not with other protocols. The controversial suggestion that cryopreservation induces cortical granule discharge and zona pellucida hardening somehow questions the routine use of sperm microinjection. Damage to mouse oocytes caused by solute concentration is well documented but, in the human, there is no solid evidence that modifications of freezing mixtures, to prevent this problem, provide an actual advantage. The hope of developing oocyte cryopreservation as a major IVF option is becoming increasingly realistic, but major efforts are still required to clarify the authentic implications of oocyte cryopreservation at the cellular level and identify freezing conditions compatible with the preservation of viability and developmental ability.

  17. Freeze drying method for preparing radiation source material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosley, W.C.; Smith, P.K.

    1976-01-01

    Fabrication of a neutron source is specifically claimed. A palladium/californium solution is freeze dried to form a powder which, through conventional powder metallurgy, is shaped into a source containing the californium evenly distributed through a palladium metal matrix. (E.C.B.)

  18. Effect of freezing and thawing on UMTRA covers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rager, R.; Smith, G.; Brody, R.

    1988-01-01

    The proposed US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) groundwater standards (40 CFR 192) require that Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project remedial action designs meet low numerical limits for contaminants contained in water or vapor exiting the embankments. To meet the standards, a cover of compacted fine-grained soil is placed over UMTRA Project embankments. One of the functions of this cover is to limit infiltration. The hydraulic conductivity of this infiltration barrier must be low in order to reduce seepage from the cell to the extent necessary to comply with the proposed EPA groundwater standards. Analyses of infiltration barriers covered with rock erosion protection show that the infiltration barriers may become saturated. Accordingly, it is necessary to assure that freezing and thawing of the infiltration barrier materials do not affect the performance of the embankment. A study has been conducted to determine if the hydraulic conductivity of fine-grained clayey soils used or proposed for use in radon/infiltration barriers is affected by repeated freezing and thawing cycles. In addition, a procedure for determining the depth of frost penetration has been developed. Laboratory freeze-thaw tests were undertaken in order to determine if the saturated hydraulic conductivity of clay soils used in UMTRA Project radon/infiltration barriers was affected. The results indicate that an increase of an order of magnitude or more in saturated hydraulic conductivity may occur during repeated freeze-thaw cycles

  19. 7 CFR 58.638 - Freezing the mix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Freezing the mix. 58.638 Section 58.638 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE...

  20. [Super sweet corn hybrids adaptability for industrial processing. I freezing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonzo, Braunnier; Camacho, Candelario; Ortiz de Bertorelli, Ligia; De Venanzi, Frank

    2002-09-01

    With the purpose of evaluating adaptability to the freezing process of super sweet corn sh2 hybrids Krispy King, Victor and 324, 100 cobs of each type were frozen at -18 degrees C. After 120 days of storage, their chemical, microbiological and sensorial characteristics were compared with a sweet corn su. Industrial quality of the process of freezing and length and number of rows in cobs were also determined. Results revealed yields above 60% in frozen corns. Length and number of rows in cobs were acceptable. Most of the chemical characteristics of super sweet hybrids were not different from the sweet corn assayed at the 5% significance level. Moisture content and soluble solids of hybrid Victor, as well as total sugars of hybrid 324 were statistically different. All sh2 corns had higher pH values. During freezing, soluble solids concentration, sugars and acids decreased whereas pH increased. Frozen cobs exhibited acceptable microbiological rank, with low activities of mesophiles and total coliforms, absence of psychrophiles and fecal coliforms, and an appreciable amount of molds. In conclusion, sh2 hybrids adapted with no problems to the freezing process, they had lower contents of soluble solids and higher contents of total sugars, which almost doubled the amount of su corn; flavor, texture, sweetness and appearance of kernels were also better. Hybrid Victor was preferred by the evaluating panel and had an outstanding performance due to its yield and sensorial characteristics.

  1. Freezing tolerance of wheat cultivars at the early growing season ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cold stress is a worldwide abiotic stress in temperate regions that affects plant development and yield of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars and other winter crops. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of freezing stress at the early growing season on survival and also the relationship between resistances ...

  2. Freeze-all cycle in reproductive medicine: current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roque, Matheus; Valle, Marcello; Kostolias, Alessandra; Sampaio, Marcos; Geber, Selmo

    2017-02-01

    The freeze-all strategy has emerged as an alternative to fresh embryo transfer (ET) during in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles. Although fresh ET is the norm during assisted reproductive therapies (ART), there are many concerns about the possible adverse effects of controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) over the endometrium. The supra-physiologic hormonal levels that occur during a conventional COS are associated with modifications in the peri-implantation endometrium, which may be related to a decrease in pregnancy rates and poorer obstetric and perinatal outcomes when comparing fresh to frozen-thawed embryo transfers. The main objective of this study was to assess the available literature regarding the freeze-all strategy in IVF cycles, in regards to effectiveness and safety. Although there are many potential advantages in performing a freeze-all cycle over a fresh ET, it seems that the freeze-all strategy is not designed for all IVF patients. There is a need to develop a non-invasive clinical tool to evaluate the endometrial receptivity during a fresh cycle, which enables the selection of patients that would benefit from this strategy. Today, it is reasonable to perform elective cryopreservation of all oocytes/embryos in cases with a risk of OHSS development, and in patients with supra-physiologic hormonal levels during the follicular phase of COS. It is not clear if all normal responders and poor responders may benefit from this strategy.

  3. Standardinng initial cooling of sheep semen before freezing

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sheep semen before freezing. C. Kemp. Animal and Dairy Science Research Institute, Private Bag X2,. Irene, 1675 Republic of South Africa. Received 6 June 1985. A practical and repeatable method for the cooling, during the processing phase, of sheep semen, with the aim of minimizing inter-experiment variation is ...

  4. Molecular and genetic basis of freezing tolerance in crucifer species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heo, J.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding genetic variation for freezing tolerance is important for unraveling an adaptative strategy of species and for finding out an effective way to improve crop productivity to unfavorable winter environments. The aim of this thesis was to examine natural variation for

  5. Anatomy of a Tuition Freeze: The Case of Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rexe, Deanna

    2015-01-01

    Using two conceptual frameworks from political science--Kingdon's (2003) multiple streams model and the advocacy coalition framework (Sabatier & Jenkins-Smith, 1993)--this case study examines the detailed history of a major tuition policy change in Ontario in 2004: a tuition freeze. The paper explores the social, political, and economic…

  6. Preparation of superconducting powders by freeze-drying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, S.M.; Gusman, M.I.; Rowcliffe, D.J.; Geballe, T.H.; Sun, J.Z.

    1987-01-01

    A method of preparing superconducting powders by freeze-drying is described. Powders produced by this method are homogeneous, have high purities, and are very reactive. Materials sintered from these powders have densities up to 89% of the theoretical density, and exhibit very sharp resistivity drops and large Meissner effects. The microstructure of the materials is very sensitive to the sintering temperature

  7. Freeze-drying of filamentous fungi and yeasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, C.S.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to optimize the freeze-drying protocol for fungi in general and for those genera that do not survive this preservation method, in particular. To this end, the influence of the cooling rate, the lyoprotectant and the drying process itself was examined. Since most fungi

  8. Freeze desalination of seawater using LNG cold energy

    KAUST Repository

    Chang, Jian; Zuo, Jian; Lu, Kang-Jia; Chung, Neal Tai-Shung

    2016-01-01

    With the aid of cold energy from regasification of liquefied natural gas (LNG), freeze desalination (FD) is an emerging technology for seawater desalination because of its low energy characteristics and insensitivities to fouling problems. This work aims to investigate the major operating parameters of FD such as coolant temperature, freezing duration, supercooling, seeding, agitation, crystallizer material and subsequent washing procedure on ice production and water quality. It was found that the optimal freezing duration per batch was 1 h for an iron crystallizer and 1.5 h for a glass crystallizer. The optimal coolant temperature should be around −8 °C. The optimal amount of washing water to clean the raw ice was about 50 wt% of the raw ice. Over 50 wt% of the feed could be recovered as raw ice within 1 h, which means an overall ice recovery rate of higher than 25% (of the original seawater), considering the consumption of washing water. Both artificial and real seawater were tested under the optimized conditions. The total dissolved solid in the product ice was around 300 ppm, which met the World Health Organization (WHO) potable water salinity standard of 500 ppm. Therefore, the process parameters optimized in this study can be directly used for the freeze desalination of seawater.

  9. A heat equation for freezing processes with phase change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Backi, Christoph Josef; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Leth, John-Josef

    2016-01-01

    In this work, the stability properties as well as possible applications of a partial differential equation (PDE) with state-dependent parameters are investigated. Among other things, the PDE describes freezing of foodstuff, and is closely related to the (potential) Burgers’ equation. We show that...

  10. Separation of Contaminants in The Freeze/Thaw Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szpaczyński Janusz A.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available These studies examined the concept of concentration and purification of several types of wastewater by freezing and thawing. The experiments demonstrated that freezing of contaminated liquid contributed to concentration of contaminants in solution as well as significant concentration and agglomeration of solid particles. A high degree of purification was achieved for many parameters. The results of comparative laboratory tests for single and multiple freezing are presented. It was found that there was a higher degree of concentration of pollutants in wastewater frozen as man-made snow than in bulk ice. Furthermore, the hypothesis that long storage time of liquid as snow and sufficient temperature gradient metamorphism allows for high efficiency of the concentration process was confirmed. It was reported that the first 30% of the melted liquid volume contained over 90% of all impurities. It gives great opportunities to use this method to concentrate pollutants. The results revealed that the application of this process in full scale is possible. Significant agglomeration of solid particles was also noted. Tests with clay slurry showed that repeated freezing and thawing processes significantly improve the characteristics of slurry for sedimentation and filtration.

  11. Comment on "Infrared freezing of Euclidean QCD observables"

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Caprini, I.; Fischer, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 76, č. 1 (2007), 018501/1-018501/5 ISSN 1550-7998 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1P04LA211 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : QCD * analyticity * infrared freezing Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 4.696, year: 2007

  12. Freeze desalination of seawater using LNG cold energy

    KAUST Repository

    Chang, Jian

    2016-06-23

    With the aid of cold energy from regasification of liquefied natural gas (LNG), freeze desalination (FD) is an emerging technology for seawater desalination because of its low energy characteristics and insensitivities to fouling problems. This work aims to investigate the major operating parameters of FD such as coolant temperature, freezing duration, supercooling, seeding, agitation, crystallizer material and subsequent washing procedure on ice production and water quality. It was found that the optimal freezing duration per batch was 1 h for an iron crystallizer and 1.5 h for a glass crystallizer. The optimal coolant temperature should be around −8 °C. The optimal amount of washing water to clean the raw ice was about 50 wt% of the raw ice. Over 50 wt% of the feed could be recovered as raw ice within 1 h, which means an overall ice recovery rate of higher than 25% (of the original seawater), considering the consumption of washing water. Both artificial and real seawater were tested under the optimized conditions. The total dissolved solid in the product ice was around 300 ppm, which met the World Health Organization (WHO) potable water salinity standard of 500 ppm. Therefore, the process parameters optimized in this study can be directly used for the freeze desalination of seawater.

  13. Freezing-induced self-assembly of amphiphilic molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albouy, P. A.; Deville, S.; Fulkar, A.; Hakouk, K.; Impéror-Clerc, M.; Klotz, M.; Liu, Q.; Marcellini, M.; Perez, J.

    The self-assembly of amphiphilic molecules usually takes place in a liquid phase, near room temperature. Here, using small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) experiments performed in real time, we show that freezing of aqueous solutions of copolymer amphiphilic molecules can induce self-assembly below 0{\\deg}C.

  14. Capital stock management during a recession that freezes credit markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caulkins, J.P.; Feichtinger, G.; Grass, D.; Hartl, R.F.; Kort, Peter; Seidl, A.

    This paper considers the problem of how to price a conspicuous product while maintaining liquidity during a recession which both reduces demand and freezes credit markets. Reducing price would help maintain cash flow, but low prices can erode brand image and, hence, long-term sales. The paper

  15. Growing bubbles and freezing drops: depletion effects and tip singularities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Enriquez Paz y Puente, O.R.

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis, the author investigates the growth of gas bubbles in a supersaturated solution and the freezing of water drops when placed on a cold plate. Supersaturated solutions are common in nature and industry; perhaps the best know examples are carbonated drinks, such as beer or soda. These

  16. Freeze/thaw phenomena in concrete at low temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannesson, Björn

    2007-01-01

    Freeze/thaw damage in concrete is by general practice concluded to be a problem that can be avoided by using air-entraining agents to develop an air bubble structure in the hardened concrete together with the use of a relatively low water to cement ratio in mix. This fact is true for inner damage...

  17. Plutonium, cesium and uranium series radionuclides in the Hudson River estuary and other environments. Annual technical progress report, December 1, 1979-November 30, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, H.J.; Trier, R.M.; Olsen, C.R.

    1980-01-01

    Radionuclide activities were measured in a large number of sediment cores and suspended particle samples throughout the salinity range of the Hudson River estuary. Activities of 137 Cs, 134 Cs and 60 Co determined by gamma spectrometry and 239 240 Pu and 238 Pu determined by alpha spectrometry indicate reasonably rapid accumulation rates in the sediments of marginal cove areas, and very rapid deposition in the harbor region adjacent to New York City, resulting in 239 240 Pu accumulations there more than an order of magnitude greater than the fallout delivery rate. Measurable amounts of reactor-derived 134 Cs and 60 Co are found in nearly al sediment samples containing appreciable 137 Cs between 15 km upstream of Indian Point and the downstream extent of our sampling about 70 km south of the reactor. Fallout 239 240 Pu reaching the Hudson appears to be almost completely retained within the systems by particle deposition, while 70 to 90% of the 137 Cs derived from both reactor releases and fallout has been exported to the coastal waters in solution. Activity levels of 239 240 Pu in New York harbor sediments indicate a significant source in addition to suspended particles carried down the Hudson. The most likely cause appears to be transport into the estuary of particles from offshore waters having higher specific activities of 239 240 Pu. Measurements of fallout 239 240 Pu in a saline lake with a high carbonate ion concentration yielded water column activities about two orders of magnitude greater than has been found for fallout plutonium in other continental waters, indicating extensive mobility in some natural water environments. Experiments using lake water suggest that carbonate ion may indeed be a critical factor in regulating plutonium solubility and that low molecular weight complexes are primarily responsible for enhanced plutonium solubility

  18. Plutonium, cesium and uranium series radionuclides in the Hudson River estuary and other environments. Annual technical progress report, December 1, 1979-November 30, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, H. J.; Trier, R. M.; Olsen, C. R.

    1980-01-01

    Radionuclide activities were measured in a large number of sediment cores and suspended particle samples throughout the salinity range of the Hudson River estuary. Activities of /sup 137/Cs, /sup 134/Cs and /sup 60/Co determined by gamma spectrometry and /sup 239/ /sup 240/Pu and /sup 238/Pu determined by alpha spectrometry indicate reasonably rapid accumulation rates in the sediments of marginal cove areas, and very rapid deposition in the harbor region adjacent to New York City, resulting in /sup 239/ /sup 240/Pu accumulations there more than an order of magnitude greater than the fallout delivery rate. Measurable amounts of reactor-derived /sup 134/Cs and /sup 60/Co are found in nearly al sediment samples containing appreciable /sup 137/Cs between 15 km upstream of Indian Point and the downstream extent of our sampling about 70 km south of the reactor. Fallout /sup 239/ /sup 240/Pu reaching the Hudson appears to be almost completely retained within the systems by particle deposition, while 70 to 90% of the /sup 137/Cs derived from both reactor releases and fallout has been exported to the coastal waters in solution. Activity levels of /sup 239/ /sup 240/Pu in New York harbor sediments indicate a significant source in addition to suspended particles carried down the Hudson. The most likely cause appears to be transport into the estuary of particles from offshore waters having higher specific activities of /sup 239/ /sup 240/Pu. Measurements of fallout /sup 239/ /sup 240/Pu in a saline lake with a high carbonate ion concentration yielded water column activities about two orders of magnitude greater than has been found for fallout plutonium in other continental waters, indicating extensive mobility in some natural water environments. Experiments using lake water suggest that carbonate ion may indeed be a critical factor in regulating plutonium solubility and that low molecular weight complexes are primarily responsible for enhanced plutonium solubility.

  19. Experimental research of "microcable in a microconduct" system stability to effect of freezing water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreev, Vladimir A.; Burdin, Vladimir A.; Nikulina, Tatiana G.; Alekhin, Ivan N.; Gavryushin, Sergey A.; Nikulin, Aleksey G.; Praporshchikov, Denis E.

    2011-12-01

    Results of experimental researches of "optical microcable in a microduct" system stability to effect of freezing water are presented. It is shown this system is steadier to water freezing in comparison to lighten optical cable in protective polymer tube.

  20. Reduced freezing in posttraumatic stress disorder patients while watching affective pictures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fragkaki, Iro; Roelofs, Karin; Stins, John; Jongedijk, Ruud A.; Hagenaars, Muriel A.

    2017-01-01

    Besides fight and flight responses, animals and humans may respond to threat with freezing, a response characterized by bradycardia and physical immobility. Risk assessment is proposed to be enhanced during freezing to promote optimal decision making. Indeed, healthy participants showed

  1. Reduced freezing in posttraumatic stress disorder patients while watching affective pictures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fragkaki, Iro; Roelofs, Karin; Stins, John; Jongedijk, Ruud A.; Hagenaars, Muriel A.

    Besides fight and flight responses, animals and humans may respond to threat with freezing, a response characterized by bradycardia and physical immobility. Risk assessment is proposed to be enhanced during freezing to promote optimal decision making. Indeed, healthy participants showed

  2. Evaluation of a barrier net used to mitigate fish impingement at a Hudson River power plant intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchison, J.B.; Matousek, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    A multifilament nylon net of 0.95-cm bar mesh was deployed as a physical barrier to fish in front of the Bowline Point power plant cooling water intake on the Hudson River from 1976 to 1985. The barrier net was deployed during the historical peak impingement months of October-May. The primary species impinged on the intake screens during this period were young-of-year and yearling white perch, striped bass, rainbow smelt, alewife, blue-back herring, and American shad, generally ranging from 5 to 10 cm in total length. When the barrier net was deployed, median impingement of all fish was 91% lower than during comparable periods before the net was installed. A mark-recapture population estimate indicated that 230,000 yearling striped bass and white perch were in the embayment outside the net in April 1982; over a 9-d study period, only 1.6% of this estimated population was impinged. Concurrent survival probability studies of fish marked and released at locations inside and outside the barrier net showed that fish released inside had 72% lower survival (P

  3. TREATMENTS OF PLASMA CORONA RADIATION ON SEAWEED Gracilaria Verrucosa (HUDSON PAPENFUSS: Efforts to increase growth and biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filemon Jalu N Putra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Gracilaria verrucosa (Hudson Papenfuss has great potential to be farmed in the water resources in Indonesia. As natural resource, the weed has a major contribution in the field of industry both for human food and health. Efforts have been done intensively to increase the production capacity to meet the market demand especially gelatin, both national and international market. One of them is the application of plasma corona irradiation treatments on the weed to improve developmental pathways. The concept of plasma irradiation performed at atmospheric conditions may impact on nitrogen intrusion pathway that is important element in the growth of the weed. The aims of this study are to assess the potential impact of plasma irradiation in improving the growth of G. verrucosa and thus increase their biomass production. The treatments were done using five different duration of plasma irradiation, which were 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 minutes at a 0,5mA stable source of voltage and 8kV of electrical current. Observations of growth rate include thallus length and biomass of G. verrucosa , that was observed every week for 28 days. The result showed that the growth of weed exhibited better than those without radiation. The best growth was reached in the group of treatment of 8 minutes irradiation, exhibited 65,91g of biomass and 9.5515% growth rate and length of thallus reached 22,33 cm and daily growth rate of 2.9759%. The lowest growth of the weed occurred in the treatment of 10 minutes irradiation, which was 44,82 g biomass, 8.123% growth rate, 17,13 cm thallus length with a daily growth rate of 1.9942%

  4. Distinguishing oil and water layers in a cracked porous medium using pulsed neutron logging data based on Hudson's crack theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xueang; Yang, Zhichao; Tang, Bin; Wang, Renbo; Wei, Xiong

    2018-05-01

    During geophysical surveys, water layers may interfere with the detection of oil layers. In order to distinguish between oil and water layers in porous cracked media, research on the properties of the cracks, the oil and water layers, and their relation to pulsed neutron logging characteristics is essential. Using Hudson's crack theory, we simulated oil and water layers in a cracked porous medium with different crack parameters corresponding to the well log responses. We found that, in a cracked medium with medium-angle (40°-50°) cracks, the thermal neutron count peak value is higher and more sensitive than those in low-angle and high-angle crack environments; in addition, the thermal neutron density distribution shows more minimum values than in other cases. Further, the thermal neutron count and the rate of change for the oil layer are greater than those of the water layer, and the time spectrum count peak value for the water layer in middle-high-angle (40°-70°) cracked environments is higher than that of the oil layer. The thermal neutron density distribution sensitivity is higher in the water layer with a range of small crack angles (0°-30°) than in the oil layer with the same range of angles. In comparing the thermal neutron density distribution, thermal neutron count peak, thermal neutron density distribution sensitivity, and time spectrum maximum in the oil and water layers, we find that neutrons in medium-angle (40°-50°) cracked reservoirs are more sensitive to deceleration and absorption than those in water layers; neutrons in approximately horizontal (0°-30°) cracked water layers are more sensitive to deceleration than those in reservoirs. These results can guide future work in the cracked media neutron logging field.

  5. Freezing of liquid alkali metals as screened ionic plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badirkhan, Z.; Rovere, M.; Tosi, M.P.

    1990-08-01

    The relationship between Wigner crystallization of the classical ionic plasma and the liquid-solid transition of alkali metals is examined within the density wave theory of freezing. Freezing of the classical plasma on a rigid neutralizing background into the bcc structure is first re-evaluated, in view of recent progress in the determination of its thermodynamic functions by simulation and of the known difficulties of the theory relating to the order parameter at the (200) star of reciprocal lattice vectors. Freezing into the fcc structure is also considered in this context and found to be unfavoured. On allowing for long-wavelength deformability of the background, the ensuing appearance of a volume change on freezing into the bcc structure is accompanied by reduced stability of the fluid phase and by an increase in the entropy of melting. Freezing of alkali metals into the bcc structure is next evaluated, taking their ionic pair structure as that of an ionic plasma reference fluid screened by conduction electrons and asking that the correct ionic coupling strength at liquid-solid coexistence should be approximately reproduced. The ensuring values of the volume and entropy changes across the phase transition, as estimated from the theory by two alternative routes, are in reasonable agreement with experiment. The order parameters of the phase transition, excepting the (200) one, conform rather closely to a Gaussian behaviour and yield a Lindemann ratio in reasonable agreement with the empirical value for melting of bcc crystals. It is suggested that ionic ordering at the (200) star in the metal may be (i) assisted by medium range ordering in the conduction electrons, as indicated by differences in X-ray and neutron diffraction intensities from the liquid, and/or (ii) quite small in the hot bcc solid. Such a possible premelting behaviour of bcc metals should be worth testing experimentally by diffraction. (author). 48 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab

  6. Response of seasonal soil freeze depth to climate change across China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Tingjun; Frauenfeld, Oliver W.; Wang, Kang; Cao, Bin; Zhong, Xinyue; Su, Hang; Mu, Cuicui

    2017-05-01

    The response of seasonal soil freeze depth to climate change has repercussions for the surface energy and water balance, ecosystems, the carbon cycle, and soil nutrient exchange. Despite its importance, the response of soil freeze depth to climate change is largely unknown. This study employs the Stefan solution and observations from 845 meteorological stations to investigate the response of variations in soil freeze depth to climate change across China. Observations include daily air temperatures, daily soil temperatures at various depths, mean monthly gridded air temperatures, and the normalized difference vegetation index. Results show that soil freeze depth decreased significantly at a rate of -0.18 ± 0.03 cm yr-1, resulting in a net decrease of 8.05 ± 1.5 cm over 1967-2012 across China. On the regional scale, soil freeze depth decreases varied between 0.0 and 0.4 cm yr-1 in most parts of China during 1950-2009. By investigating potential climatic and environmental driving factors of soil freeze depth variability, we find that mean annual air temperature and ground surface temperature, air thawing index, ground surface thawing index, and vegetation growth are all negatively associated with soil freeze depth. Changes in snow depth are not correlated with soil freeze depth. Air and ground surface freezing indices are positively correlated with soil freeze depth. Comparing these potential driving factors of soil freeze depth, we find that freezing index and vegetation growth are more strongly correlated with soil freeze depth, while snow depth is not significant. We conclude that air temperature increases are responsible for the decrease in seasonal freeze depth. These results are important for understanding the soil freeze-thaw dynamics and the impacts of soil freeze depth on ecosystem and hydrological process.

  7. CONSIDERA TIONS OF ICE MORPHOLOGY AND DRIVING FORCES IN FREEZE CONCENTRATION

    OpenAIRE

    PETZOLD MALDONADO, GUILLERMO

    2013-01-01

    Ice rnorphology (size and shape) influence decisively in sensory appreciation, texture and quality of rnany frozen foods. Ice rnorphology is also irnportant in sorne technological processes such as freeze drying and freeze concentration, which influences the efficiency ofthese processes. The overall objective of this thesis was to increase our knowledge about the control on rnorphology of the ice phase in freezing food and related processes such as freeze concentration. Freezin...

  8. Unique thermal record in False Bay

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grundlingh, ML

    1993-10-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade False Bay has assumed a prime position in terms of research in to large South African bays. This is manifested by investigations that cover flow conditions modelling, thermal structure, management, biology and nutrients, geology...

  9. Hierarchical mixtures of naive Bayes classifiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiering, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    Naive Bayes classifiers tend to perform very well on a large number of problem domains, although their representation power is quite limited compared to more sophisticated machine learning algorithms. In this pa- per we study combining multiple naive Bayes classifiers by using the hierar- chical

  10. Safety culture development at Daya Bay NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shanming

    2001-01-01

    From view on Organization Behavior theory, the concept, development and affecting factors of safety culture are introduced. The focuses are on the establishment, development and management practice for safety culture at Daya Bay NPP. A strong safety culture, also demonstrated, has contributed greatly to improving performance at Daya Bay

  11. The Holocene History of Placentia Bay, Newfoundland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sheldon, Christina; Seidenkrantz, Marit-Solveig; Reynisson, Njall

    2013-01-01

    Marine sediments analyzed from cores taken in Placentia Bay, Newfoundland, located in the Labrador Sea, captured oceanographic and climatic changes from the end of the Younger Dryas through the Holocene. Placentia Bay is an ideal site to capture changes in both the south-flowing Labrador Current ...

  12. Cryogenic freezing of fresh date fruits for quality preservation during frozen storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Alhamdan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Fresh date fruits, especially Barhi cultivar, are favored and widely consumed at the Khalal maturity stage (first color edible stage. These fruits are seasonal and perishable and there is a need for extending their shelf life. This study evaluates two different freezing methods, namely cryogenic freezing using liquid nitrogen and conventional deep freezing on preserving the quality and stability of date fruits (cv. Barhi at Khalal maturity stage. Fresh date fruits (cv. Barhi at Khalal stage were frozen utilizing the two methods. The produced frozen dates were stored under frozen storage conditions for nine months (at −20 °C and −40 °C for the conventional and cryogenic freezing, respectively. Color values, textural properties (hardness, elasticity, chewiness and resilience, and nutrition attributes (enzymes and sugars for fresh dates before freezing and for the frozen dates were measured every three months during the frozen storage. Color values of the frozen dates were affected by the freezing method and the frozen storage period. There are substantial differences in the quality of the frozen fruits in favor of cryogenic freezing compared to the conventional slow freezing. The results revealed a large disparity between the times of freezing of the two methods. The freezing time accounted to 10 min in the cryogenic freezing method, whereas it was 1800 min for the conventional slow freezing system.

  13. Impact of the industrial freezing process on selected vegetables -Part II. Colour and bioactive compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mazzeo, Teresa; Paciulli, Maria; Chiavaro, Emma; Visconti, Attilio; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Ganino, Tommaso; Pellegrini, Nicoletta

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, the impact of the different steps (i.e. blanching, freezing, storage following the industrial freezing process and the final cooking prior to consumption) of the industrial freezing process was evaluated on colour, chlorophylls, lutein, polyphenols and ascorbic acid content

  14. Gelatin-Filtered Consomme: A Practical Demonstration of the Freezing and Thawing Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahne, Jacob B.; Schmidt, Shelly J.

    2010-01-01

    Freezing is a key food processing and preservation technique widely used in the food industry. Application of best freezing and storage practices extends the shelf-life of foods for several months, while retaining much of the original quality of the fresh food. During freezing, as well as its counterpart process, thawing, a number of critical…

  15. Reduced freezing in posttraumatic stress disorder patients while watching affective pictures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fragkaki, I.; Roelofs, K.; Stins, J.F.; Jongedijk, R.A.; Hagenaars, M.A.

    2017-01-01

    Besides fight and flight responses, animals and humans may respond to threat with freezing, an adaptive response characterized by bradycardia and physical immobility. Risk assessment is enhanced during freezing to promote optimal decision-making. Indeed, healthy participants showed freezing-like

  16. Reduced early growing season freezing resistance in alpine treeline plants under elevated atmospheric CO2.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, M.; Gavazov, K.S.; Körner, S.; Rixen, C.

    2010-01-01

    The frequency of freezing events during the early growing season and the vulnerability to freezing of plants in European high-altitude environments could increase under future atmospheric and climate change. We tested early growing season freezing sensitivity in 10 species, from four plant

  17. The impact of freeze-drying on microstructure and rehydration properties of carrot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voda, A.; Homan, N.; Witek, M.; Duijster, A.; Dalen, van G.; Sman, van der R.G.M.; Nijsse, J.; Vliet, van L.J.; As, van H.; Duynhoven, van J.P.M.

    2012-01-01

    The impact of freeze-drying, blanching and freezing rate pre-treatments on the microstructure and on the rehydration properties of winter carrots were studied by µCT, SEM, MRI and NMR techniques. The freezing rate determines the size of ice crystals being formed that leave pores upon drying. Their

  18. Sintering of a freeze-dried 10 mol% Y2O3-stabilized zirconia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakotoson, A.; Paulus, M.

    1983-01-01

    After presenting the results of freeze drying a sulfate solution, the authors describe a preparation process in which the freeze-drying technique by addition of a suspension of stabilized zirconia in the liquid solution before freeze-drying. This process breaks the polymeric chains, increases the green density of the compact, and decreases the sintering temperature. The mechanisms involved are discussed

  19. Effect of freezing conditions on β-Tricalcium Phosphate /Camphene scaffold with micro sized particles fabricated by freeze casting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gurdev; Soundarapandian, S

    2018-03-01

    The long standing need of the implant manufacturing industries is to fabricate multi-matrix, customized porous scaffold as cost-effectively. In recent years, freeze casting has shown greater opportunity in the fabrication of porous scaffolds (tricalcium phosphate, hydroxyapatite, bioglass, alumina, etc.) such as at ease and good control over pore size, porosity, a range of materials and economic feasibility. In particular, tricalcium phosphate (TCP) has proved as it possesses good biocompatible (osteoinduction, osteoconduction, etc.) and biodegradability hence beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP, particle size of 10µm) was used as base material and camphene was used as a freezing vehicle in this study. Both freezing conditions such as constant freezing temperature (CFT) and constant freezing rate (CFR) were used for six different conditional samples (CFT: 30, 35 and 40vol% solid loading; similarly CFR: 30, 35 and 40vol% solid loading) to study and understand the effect of various properties (pore size, porosity and compressive strength) of the freeze-cast porous scaffold. It was observed that the average size of the pore was varying linearly as from lower to higher when the solid loading was varying higher to lower. With the help of scanning electron micrographs (SEM), it was observed that the average size of pore during CFR (9.7/ 6.5/ 4.9µm) was comparatively higher than the process of CFT (6.0/ 4.8/ 2.6µm) with respect to the same solid loading (30/ 35/ 40vol%) conditions. From the Gas pycnometer analysis, it was found that the porosity in both freezing conditions (CFT, CFR) were almost near values such as 32.8% and 28.5%. Further to be observed that with the increase in solid loading, the total porosity value has decreased due to the reduction in the concentration of the freezing vehicle. Hence, the freezing vehicle was found as responsible for the formation of appropriate size and orientation of pores during freeze casting. The compressive strength (CS

  20. Applying Freeze Technology for Characterisation of Liquids, Sludge and Sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, Jens; Foster, Adam; Lindberg, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Contaminated solids below a water table or solids in a water saturated environment can be major cost drivers and have a massive impact on the overall schedule and scope for a decommissioning project if not managed properly. One well recognized key activity in the preparation for decommissioning is to perform a proper characterisation covering all objects and areas which have been affected or potentially affected by contamination. Characterization of potentially contaminated material located below water or in water saturated environments can be difficult to perform accurately. Furthermore, traditional sampling techniques typically result in the disturbance or spreading of the contamination during sample collection. Sampling programs should be done in such a way that the radioactivity is contained (to avoid further spread of contamination), and in a way that the risk for cross contamination is minimised. Studsvik's Freeze Technology has been used to develop the necessary sampling techniques to meet these objectives. This technology is proven and frequently used for environmental characterization and remediation applications. The design of the sampling tools for radiological characterisation allows for samples to be taken at specific depths and at specific locations within the contaminated area without disturbing the contaminated material around the sample location. In addition to the sampling technique described above, a modified freeze sampling design has proven to be very useful in collecting frozen core samples that provide an accurate profile of the contamination and chemical and physical characteristics of the sediment or sludge as a function of depth into the sludge or sediment. Ultimately, this technique is used to develop a 3-D map of the physical characteristics and the chemical and radiological composition of the contaminated area. For many projects, this type of information will allow for a large reduction in the

  1. Summer freezing resistance: a critical filter for plant community assemblies in Mediterranean high mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Sánchez Pescador

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Assessing freezing community response and whether freezing resistance is related to other functional traits is essential for understanding alpine community assemblages, particularly in Mediterranean environments where plants are exposed to freezing temperatures and summer droughts. Thus, we characterized the leaf freezing resistance of 42 plant species in 38 plots at Sierra de Guadarrama (Spain by measuring their ice nucleation temperature, freezing point (FP, and low-temperature damage (LT50, as well as determining their freezing resistance mechanisms (i.e., tolerance or avoidance. The community response to freezing was estimated for each plot as community weighted means (CWMs and functional diversity, and we assessed their relative importance with altitude. We established the relationships between freezing resistance, growth forms, and four key plant functional traits (i.e., plant height, specific leaf area, leaf dry matter content, and seed mass. There was a wide range of freezing resistance responses and more than in other alpine habitats. At the community level, the CWMs of FP and LT50 responded negatively to altitude, whereas the functional diversity of both traits increased with altitude. The proportion of freezing-tolerant species also increased with altitude. The ranges of FP and LT50 varied among growth forms, and only the leaf dry matter content correlated negatively with freezing-resistance traits. Summer freezing events represent important abiotic filters for assemblies of Mediterranean high mountain communities, as suggested by the CWMs. However, a concomitant summer drought constraint may also explain the high freezing resistance of species that thrive in these areas and the lower functional diversity of freezing resistance traits at lower altitudes. Leaves with high dry matter contents may maintain turgor at lower water potential and enhance drought tolerance in parallel to freezing resistance. This adaptation to drought seems to

  2. Freeze Tolerance of Seed-Producing Turf Bermudagrasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jeffrey A.; Taliaferro, Charles M.

    2002-01-01

    Bermudagrass, Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers., suffers periodic severe winter-kill throughout much of its area of use in the contiguous USA. A research goal is to increase freeze tolerance in cultivars to lessen the risk of such damage. An identified research need is for Cynodon germplasm resources to be characterized for freeze tolerance and hybridization potential. Accordingly, the objective of this research was to characterize the relative freeze tolerance of selected fertile bermudagrass plants. Nine tetraploid (2n = 4x = 36) C. dactylon and two triploid (2n = 3x = 27) hybrid (C. dactylon x C. transvaalensis Burtt Davy) clonal plants (standards) were evaluated in two experiments. Plants were propagated clonally and established in Cone-tainers (Ray Leach Cone-tainer Nursery, Canby, OR) for about 10 wk. Acclimation took place for 4 wk in controlled environment chambers at 8/2 degrees C (day/night) temperatures with a 10-h photoperiod. Following acclimation, Cone-tainers were placed into a freeze chamber and cooled rapidly to -2 degrees C, induced to freeze with ice chips, then held overnight at -2 degrees C. The freeze chamber was then programmed to cool linearly at 1 degrees C per hour. For each cultivar, three Cone-tainers were removed at each test temperature. Following thawing, Cone-tainers were transferred to a greenhouse and regrowth was evaluated visually. Nonlinear regression was used to estimate T(mid), which corresponded to the midpoint of the sigmoidal response curve of survival vs temperature. Within experiment one, Tifgreen (T(mid) = -7.2 degrees C) was significantly less cold hardy than Quickstand (-9.0 degrees C), A-12204 (-9.2 degrees C), Midiron (-9.9 degrees C), and A-12195 (-10.5 degrees C). A-12195 was significantly hardier than all genotypes except Midiron. In the second experiment, Arizona Common (-6.6 degrees C), Tifgreen (-7.1 degrees C), and A-12205 (-7.1 degrees C) were less hardy than A-9959 (-8.7 degrees C), A-12156 (-8.9 degrees C), A

  3. Bird surveys at McKinley Bay and Hutchison Bay, Northwest Territories, in 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornish, B J; Dickson, D L; Dickson, H L

    1992-03-01

    McKinley Bay is a shallow protected bay along the eastern Beaufort Sea coast which provides an important habitat for diving ducks. Since 1979, the bay has been the site of a winter harbor and support base for oil and gas exploraton in the Beaufort Sea. Aerial surveys for bird abundance and distribution were conducted in August 1991 as a continuation of long-term monitoring of birds in McKinley Bay and Hutchison Bay, a nearby area used as a control. The main objectives of the 1991 surveys were to expand the set of baseline data on natural annual fluctuations in diving duck numbers, and to determine if numbers of diving ducks had changed since the initial 1981-85 surveys. On the day with the best survey conditions, the population of diving ducks at McKinley bay was estimated at ca 32,000, significantly more than 1981-85. At Hutchison Bay, there were an estimated 11,000 ducks. As in previous years, large numbers of diving ducks were observed off Atkinson Point at the northwest corner of McKinley Bay, at the south end of the bay, and in the northeast corner near a long spit. Most divers in Hutchison Bay were at the west side. Diving ducks, primarily Oldsquaw and scoter, were the most abundant bird group in the study area. Observed distribution patterns of birds are discussed with reference to habitat preferences. 16 refs., 7 figs., 30 tabs.

  4. Organochlorine residues in harp seals, Phoca groenlandica, from the Gulf of St. Lawrence and Hudson Strait: An evaluation of contaminant concentrations and burdens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, G.G.; Smith, T.G. (Dept. of Fisheries and Oceans, Nanaimo, BC (Canada)); Addison, R.F. (Dept. of Fisheries and Oceans, Sidney, BC (Canada))

    1994-01-01

    Organochlorine contaminant concentrations and burdens were evaluated in blubber samples from 50 harp seals (Phoca groenlandica) obtained from the estuary and northern Gulf of St. Lawrence and Hudson Strait, Canada between December 1988 and December 1989. The concentration and burden of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) increased significantly during the winter months for males occupying the St. Lawrence estuary. The potential for rapid accumulation of contaminants in the estuary was also observed among females: nine postpartum females (1 month after weaning) had higher organochlorine levels than prepartum females from the same location. The lowest observed contaminant concentrations and burdens were in seals from Hudson Strait in autumn. In winter specimens, males had DDT and PCB concentrations about 4 and 2 times as great, respectively, as females of similar age distribution and collection date. Congeners with IUPAC Nos. 138 and 153 accounted for more than 50% of total identifiable PCBs, which is consistent with their prevalence in other marine biota. The concentration of PCBs has declined and the percent p,p'-DDE of total DDT has increased between 1982 and the present study. Unlike the beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas), harp seals occupy the more polluted waters of the estuary only seasonally, and this may account for their lower residue concentrations. 59 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  5. Polychlorinated biphenyls in adult black bass and yellow perch were not associated with their reproductive success in the upper Hudson River, New York, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maceina, Michael J; Sammons, Steven M

    2013-07-01

    Although production and use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) ceased nearly 35 yr ago, questions still remain concerning the potential chronic effects these compounds may have on wild fish, including their reproductive success. In the upper Hudson River, New York, USA, fish were exposed to PCBs primarily from 2 manufacturing plants located approximately 320 km upstream of New York City, New York, from the 1940s to 1977. The authors collected yellow perch (Perca flavescens), smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu), and largemouth bass (M. salmoides) using electrofishing, measured PCBs in these adults, and estimated abundance and size of their offspring at age 1 yr (age-1 fish). Fish were collected annually from 2004 to 2009 from 1 control site upstream of the PCB discharge sites and from 2 sites downstream from where PCBs were released. These sites (pools) are separated by a series of dams, locks, and canals. Muscle tissue wet weight PCB and lipid-based PCB concentrations in adults in the 2 PCB exposure pools averaged approximately 1 to 3 µg/g and 100 to 500 µg/g, respectively. Age-1 abundances were not related to adult PCB concentrations but were inversely related to river flow. Size of age-1 fish was slightly greater at the PCB-exposure sites. Levels of PCBs in yellow perch, largemouth bass, and smallmouth bass in the upper Hudson River did not impair or reduce recruitment or reproductive success. Copyright © 2013 SETAC.

  6. Analytical solution and numerical simulation of the liquid nitrogen freezing-temperature field of a single pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Haibing; Xu, Liuxun; Yang, Yugui; Li, Longqi

    2018-05-01

    Artificial liquid nitrogen freezing technology is widely used in urban underground engineering due to its technical advantages, such as simple freezing system, high freezing speed, low freezing temperature, high strength of frozen soil, and absence of pollution. However, technical difficulties such as undefined range of liquid nitrogen freezing and thickness of frozen wall gradually emerge during the application process. Thus, the analytical solution of the freezing-temperature field of a single pipe is established considering the freezing temperature of soil and the constant temperature of freezing pipe wall. This solution is then applied in a liquid nitrogen freezing project. Calculation results show that the radius of freezing front of liquid nitrogen is proportional to the square root of freezing time. The radius of the freezing front also decreases with decreased the freezing temperature, and the temperature gradient of soil decreases with increased distance from the freezing pipe. The radius of cooling zone in the unfrozen area is approximately four times the radius of the freezing front. Meanwhile, the numerical simulation of the liquid nitrogen freezing-temperature field of a single pipe is conducted using the Abaqus finite-element program. Results show that the numerical simulation of soil temperature distribution law well agrees with the analytical solution, further verifies the reliability of the established analytical solution of the liquid nitrogen freezing-temperature field of a single pipe.

  7. Optimization Of Freeze-Dried Starter For Yogurt By Full Factorial Experimental Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen He

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available With the rapidly development of fermented milk product, it is significant for enhancing the performance of starter culture. This paper not only investigated the influence of anti-freeze factors and freeze-drying protective agents on viable count, freeze-drying survival rate and yield of Lactobacillus bulgaricus (LB and Streptococcus thermophilus (ST, but also optimized the bacteria proportion of freeze-dried starter culture for yogurt by full factorial experimental design. The results showed as following: the freeze-drying protective agents or anti-freeze factors could enhanced survival rate of LB and ST; the freeze-dried LB and ST powders containing both of anti-freeze factors and freeze-drying protective agents had higher viable count and freeze-drying survival rate that were 84.7% and 79.7% respectively; In terms of fermentation performance, the best group of freeze-dried starter for yogurt was the compound of LB3 and ST2.

  8. Effects of Pressure-shift Freezing on the Structural and Physical Properties of Gelatin Hydrogel Matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byeongsoo; Gil, Hyung Bae; Min, Sang-Gi; Lee, Si-Kyung; Choi, Mi-Jung

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of the gelatin concentration (10-40%, w/v), freezing temperatures (from -20℃ to -50℃) and freezing methods on the structural and physical properties of gelatin matrices. To freeze gelatin, the pressure-shift freezing (PSF) is being applied at 0.1 (under atmospheric control), 50 and 100 MPa, respectively. The freezing point of gelatin solutions decrease with increasing gelatin concentrations, from -0.2℃ (10% gelatin) to -6.7℃ (40% gelatin), while the extent of supercooling did not show any specific trends. The rheological properties of the gelatin indicate that both the storage (G') and loss (G") moduli were steady in the strain amplitude range of 0.1-10%. To characterize gelatin matrices formed by the various freezing methods, the ice crystal sizes which were being determined by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) are affected by the gelatin concentrations. The ice crystal sizes are affected by gelatin concentrations and freezing temperature, while the size distributions of ice crystals depend on the freezing methods. Smaller ice crystals are being formed with PSF rather than under the atmospheric control where the freezing temperature is above -40℃. Thus, the results of this study indicate that the PSF processing at a very low freezing temperature (-50℃) offers a potential advantage over commercial atmospheric freezing points for the formation of small ice crystals. PMID:26760743

  9. Effect of freeze/thaw cycles on several biomarkers in urine from patients with kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yinan; Luo, Yi; Lu, Huijuan; Wang, Niansong; Shen, Yixie; Chen, Ruihua; Fang, Pingyan; Yu, Hong; Wang, Congrong; Jia, Weiping

    2015-04-01

    Urine samples were collected from eleven randomly selected patients with kidney disease, including diabetic nephropathy, chronic nephritis, and nephritic syndrome. Urine samples were treated with one of four protocols for freezing and thawing: freeze directly and thaw directly; freeze directly and thaw by temperature gradient; freeze by temperature gradient and thaw directly; and freeze by temperature gradient and thaw by temperature gradient. After one to six freeze/thaw cycles at -20°C or -80°C, different biomarkers showed differential stabilities. The concentrations of total protein, calcium, and potassium did not change significantly after five freeze/thaw cycles at either -20°C or -80°C. Albumin could only sustain three freeze/thaw cycles at -20°C before it started to degrade. We recommend that urine be stored at -80°C as albumin and the organic ions could sustain five and six freeze/thaw cycles, respectively, using the simple "direct freeze and direct thaw" protocol. Furthermore, in most cases, gradient freeze/thaw cycles are not necessary for urine sample storage.

  10. DSC and TMA studies on freezing and thawing gelation of galactomannan polysaccharide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iijima, Mika; Hatakeyama, Tatsuko; Hatakeyama, Hyoe

    2012-01-01

    Research highlights: ► Locust bean gum forms hydrogels by freezing and thawing. ► Syneresis was observed when freezing and thawing cycle (n) increased. ► Dynamic Young's modulus increased with increasing n. ► Non-freezing water content restrained by hydrogels decreased with increasing n. ► Strong gel with densely packed network structure formed with increasing n. - Abstract: Among various kinds of polysaccharides known to form hydrogels, locust bean gum (LBG) consisting of a mannose backbone and galactose side chains has unique characteristics, since LBG forms hydrogels by freezing and thawing. In this study, effect of thermal history on gelation was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermomechanical analysis (TMA). Gel/sol ratio calculated by weighing method was found to be affected by sol concentration, freezing rate and the number of freezing and thawing cycle (n). Once LBG hydrogels are formed, they are thermally stable, although syneresis was observed when n increased. Dynamic Young's modulus (E′) of hydrogels measured by TMA in water increased with increasing n and decreasing freezing rate. Non-freezing water calculated from DSC melting peak of ice in the gel decreased with increasing n and decreasing freezing rate. Morphological observation of freeze-dried gels was carried out by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The above results indicate that weak hydrogel having large molecular network structure transformed into strong gel with densely packed network structure by increasing n and decreasing freezing rate.

  11. Freezing and low temperature photoinhibition tolerance in cultivated potato and potato hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. SEPPÄNEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Four Solanum tuberosum L. cultivars (Nicola, Pito, Puikula, Timo and somatic hybrids between freezing tolerant S. commersonii and freezing sensitive S. tuberosum were evaluated for their tolerance to freezing and low temperature photoinhibition. Cellular freezing tolerance was studied using ion leakage tests and the sensitivity of the photosynthetic apparatus to freezing and high light intensity stress by measuring changes in chlorophyll fluorescence (FV/FM and oxygen evolution. Exposure to high light intensities after freezing stress increased frost injury significantly in all genotypes studied. Compared with S. tuberosum cultivars, the hybrids were more tolerant both of freezing and intense light stresses. In field experiments the mechanism of frost injury varied according to the severity of night frosts. During night frosts in 1999, the temperature inside the potato canopy was significantly higher than at ground level, and did not fall below the lethal temperature for potato cultivars (from -2.5 to -3.0°C. As a result, frost injury developed slowly, indicating that damage occurred to the photosynthetic apparatus. However, as the temperature at ground level and inside the canopy fell below -4°C, cellular freezing occurred and the canopy was rapidly destroyed. This suggests that in the field visual frost damage can follow from freezing or non-freezing temperatures accompanied with high light intensity. Therefore, in an attempt to improve low temperature tolerance in potato, it is important to increase tolerance to both freezing and chilling stresses.

  12. Contact freezing of supercooled cloud droplets on collision with mineral dust particles: effect of particle size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Nadine; Duft, Denis; Kiselev, Alexei; Leisner, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    The contact freezing of supercooled cloud droplets is one of the potentially important and the least investigated heterogeneous mechanism of ice formation in the tropospheric clouds [1]. On the time scales of cloud lifetime the freezing of supercooled water droplets via contact mechanism may occur at higher temperature compared to the same IN immersed in the droplet. However, the laboratory experiments of contact freezing are very challenging due to the number of factors affecting the probability of ice formation. In our experiment we study single water droplets freely levitated in the laminar flow of mineral dust particles acting as the contact freezing nuclei. By repeating the freezing experiment sufficient number of times we are able to reproduce statistical freezing behavior of large ensembles of supercooled droplets and measure the average rate of freezing events. We show that the rate of freezing at given temperature is governed only by the rate of droplet -particle collision and by the properties of the contact ice nuclei. In this contribution we investigate the relationship between the freezing probability and the size of mineral dust particle (represented by illite) and show that their IN efficiency scales with the particle size. Based on this observation, we discuss the similarity between the freezing of supercooled water droplets in immersion and contact modes and possible mechanisms of apparent enhancement of the contact freezing efficiency. [1] - K.C. Young, The role of contact nucleation in ice phase initiation in clouds, Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences 31, 1974

  13. Freezing in the presence of disorder: a lattice study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, Matthias; Lafuente, Luis; Cuesta, Jose A

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the freezing transition in a two-dimensional lattice model of annealed hard squares that are subject to the influence of randomly placed quenched particles of the same size. The latter model is a porous medium. By combining two recent density functional approaches we arrive at a theory for quenched-annealed lattice fluids that treats the quenched particles on the level of their one-body density distribution. We show that this approach yields thermodynamics that compare well with results from treating matrix realizations explicitly and performing subsequent averaging over the disorder. The freezing transition from a fluid to a columnar phase is found to be continuous. On increasing matrix density it shifts towards close packing and vanishes beyond a threshold matrix density

  14. Heat and Mass Transfer Model in Freeze-Dried Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfat, Sayahdin; Purqon, Acep

    2017-07-01

    There are big problems in agriculture sector every year. One of the major problems is abundance of agricultural product during the peak of harvest season that is not matched by an increase in demand of agricultural product by consumers, this causes a wasted agricultural products. Alternative way was food preservation by freeze dried method. This method was already using heat transfer through conduction and convection to reduce water quality in the food. The main objective of this research was to design a model heat and mass transfer in freeze-dried medium. We had two steps in this research, the first step was design of medium as the heat injection site and the second was simulate heat and mass transfer of the product. During simulation process, we use physical property of some agriculture product. The result will show how temperature and moisture distribution every second. The method of research use finite element method (FEM) and will be illustrated in three dimensional.

  15. Preventing freezing of condensate inside tubes of air cooled condenser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joo, Jeong A; Hwang, In Hwan; Lee, Dong Hwan; Cho, Young Il

    2012-01-01

    An air cooled condenser is a device that is used for converting steam into condensate by using ambient air. The air cooled condenser is prone to suffer from a serious explosion when the condensate inside the tubes of a heat exchanger is frozen; in particular, tubes can break during winter. This is primarily due to the structural problem of the tube outlet of an existing conventional air cooled condenser system, which causes the backflow of residual steam and noncondensable gases. To solve the backflow problem in such condensers, such a system was simulated and a new system was designed and evaluated in this study. The experimental results using the simulated condenser showed the occurrence of freezing because of the backflow inside the tube. On the other hand, no backflow and freezing occurred in the advanced new condenser, and efficient heat exchange occurred

  16. Superchilling of muscle foods: Potential alternative for chilling and freezing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Rituparna; Maheswarappa, Naveena Basappa

    2017-12-05

    Superchilling is an attractive technique for preservation of muscle foods which freezes part of the water and insulate the food products from temperature fluctuations thereby enhancing the shelf-life during storage, transportation and retailing. Superchilling process synergistically improves the product shelf-life when used in combination with vacuum or modified atmospheric packaging. The shelf-life of muscle foods was reported to be increased by 1.5 to 4.0 times relative to traditional chilling technique. Advantages of superchilling and its ability to maintain the freshness of muscle foods over freezing has been discussed and its potential for Industrial application is highlighted. Present review also unravel the mechanistic bases for ice-crystal formation during superchilling and measures to ameliorate the drip loss. The future challenges especially automation in superchilling process for large scale Industrial application is presented.

  17. Encapsulation of black carrot juice using spray and freeze drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murali, S; Kar, Abhijit; Mohapatra, Debabandya; Kalia, Pritam

    2015-12-01

    Black carrot juice extracted using pectinase enzyme was encapsulated in three different carrier materials (maltodextrin 20DE, gum arabic and tapioca starch) using spray drying at four inlet temperatures (150, 175, 200 and 225 ℃) and freeze drying at a constant temperature of - 53 ℃ and vacuum of 0.22-0.11 mbar with the constant feed mixture. The products were analyzed for total anthocyanin content, antioxidant activity, water solubility index, encapsulation efficiency and total colour change. For both the drying methods followed in this study, maltodextrin 20DE as the carrier material has proven to be better in retaining maximum anthocyanin and antioxidant activity compared to gum arabic and tapioca starch. The best spray dried product, was obtained at 150 ℃. The most acceptable was the freeze dried product with maximum anthocyanin content, antioxidant activity, water solubility index, encapsulation efficiency and colour change. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Five-dimensional imaging of freezing emulsions with solute effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedovets, Dmytro; Monteux, Cécile; Deville, Sylvain

    2018-04-20

    The interaction of objects with a moving solidification front is a common feature of many industrial and natural processes such as metal processing, the growth of single crystals, the cryopreservation of cells, or the formation of sea ice. Interaction of solidification fronts with objects leads to different outcomes, from total rejection of the objects to their complete engulfment. We imaged the freezing of emulsions in five dimensions (space, time, and solute concentration) with confocal microscopy. We showed that the solute induces long-range interactions that determine the solidification microstructure. The local increase of solute concentration enhances premelting, which controls the engulfment of droplets by the front and the evolution of grain boundaries. Freezing emulsions may be a good analog of many solidification systems where objects interact with a solidification interface. Copyright © 2018 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  19. Isolation of mutations affecting the development of freezing tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, G; McKown, R; Marin, A L; Teutonico, R

    1996-08-01

    We screened for mutations deleterious to the freezing tolerance of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. ecotype Columbia. Tolerance was assayed by the vigor and regrowth of intact plants after cold acclimation and freezing. From a chemically mutagenized population, we obtained 13 lines of mutants with highly penetrant phenotypes. In 5 of these, freezing sensitivity was attributable to chilling injury sustained during cold acclimation, but in the remaining 8 lines, the absence of injury prior to freezing suggested that they were affected specifically in the development of freezing tolerance. In backcrosses, freezing sensitivity from each line segregated as a single nuclear mutation. Complementation tests indicated that the 8 lines contained mutations in 7 different genes. The mutants' freezing sensitivity was also detectable in the leakage of electrolytes from frozen leaves. However, 1 mutant line that displayed a strong phenotype at the whole-plant level showed a relatively weak phenotype by the electrolyte leakage assay.

  20. Landscape controls on total and methyl mercury in the upper Hudson River basin of New York State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, D. A.; Murray, K. R.; Bradley, P. M.; Brigham, M. E.; Aiken, G.; Smith, M.

    2010-12-01

    High levels of mercury (Hg) in aquatic biota have been identified in surface waters of the Adirondack region of New York, and factors such as the prevalence of wetlands, extensive forest cover, and oligotrophic waters promote Hg bioaccumulation in this region. Past research in this region has focused on improved understanding of the Hg cycle in lake ecosystems. In the study described herein, the landscape controls on total Hg and methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in riverine ecosystems were explored through synoptic surveys of 27 sites in the upper Hudson River basin of the Adirondack region. Stream samples were collected and analyzed for total Hg, MeHg, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and ultraviolet absorbance at 254 nm (UV254) during spring and summer of 2006-08. Landscape indices including many common land cover, hydrographic, and topographic-based measures were explored as predictors of Hg through multivariate linear regression. Multivariate models that included a wetland or riparian area-based metric, an index for open water area, and in some cases a topographic metric such as the wetness index explained 55 to 65 percent of the variation in MeHg concentrations, and 55 to 80 percent of the variation in total Hg concentrations. An open water index (OWI) was developed that incorporated both the basin area drained by ponded water and the surface area of these ponds. This index was inversely related to concentrations of total Hg and MeHg. This OWI was also inversely related to specific ultra-violet absorbance, consistent with previous studies showing that open water increases the influence of algal-derived carbon on DOC, decreasing aromaticity, which should decrease the ability of the dissolved carbon pool to bind Hg. The OWI was not significant in models for total Hg that also included UV254 as a predictive variable, but the index did remain significant in similar models for MeHg suggesting that biogeochemical factors in addition to decreasing carbon

  1. Synthesis and structural evaluation of freeze-cast porous alumina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Douglas F., E-mail: souzadf@outlook.com [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Federal University of Minas Gerais — UFMG, Avenida Presidente Antônio Carlos, 6627, Campus UFMG, Belo Horizonte, MG CEP: 31270-901, Escola de Engenharia, bloco 2, sala 2230 (Brazil); Nunes, Eduardo H.M., E-mail: eduardohmn@gmail.com [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Federal University of Minas Gerais — UFMG, Avenida Presidente Antônio Carlos, 6627, Campus UFMG, Belo Horizonte, MG CEP: 31270-901, Escola de Engenharia, bloco 2, sala 2230 (Brazil); Pimenta, Daiana S.; Vasconcelos, Daniela C.L. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Federal University of Minas Gerais — UFMG, Avenida Presidente Antônio Carlos, 6627, Campus UFMG, Belo Horizonte, MG CEP: 31270-901, Escola de Engenharia, bloco 2, sala 2230 (Brazil); Nascimento, Jailton F.; Grava, Wilson [Petrobras/CENPES, Avenida Horácio Macedo 950, Cidade Universitária, Ilha do Fundão, Rio de Janeiro, RJ CEP:21941-915 (Brazil); Houmard, Manuel [Department of Materials Engineering and Civil Construction, Federal University of Minas Gerais — UFMG, Avenida Presidente Antônio Carlos, 6627, Campus UFMG, Belo Horizonte, MG CEP: 31270-901, Escola de Engenharia, bloco 1, sala 3304 (Brazil); Vasconcelos, Wander L., E-mail: wlv@demet.ufmg.br [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Federal University of Minas Gerais — UFMG, Avenida Presidente Antônio Carlos, 6627, Campus UFMG, Belo Horizonte, MG CEP: 31270-901, Escola de Engenharia, bloco 2, sala 2230 (Brazil)

    2014-10-15

    In this work we fabricated alumina samples by the freeze-casting technique using tert-butanol as the solvent. The prepared materials were examined by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray microtomography. Next, they were coated with sol–gel silica films by dip-coating. Permeability tests were carried out in order to assess the permeation behavior of the materials processed in this study. We observed that the sintering time and alumina loading showed a remarkable effect on both the structural properties and flexural strength of the freeze-cast samples. Nitrogen adsorption tests revealed that the silica prepared in this study exhibited a microporous structure. It was observed that the presence of silica coatings on the alumina surface decreased the CO{sub 2} permeance by about one order of magnitude. Because of the similar kinetic diameters of nitrogen and carbon dioxide, the CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2} system showed a separation efficiency that was lower than that observed for the He/CO{sub 2} and He/N{sub 2} systems. We noticed that increasing the feed pressure improved the separation capacity of the obtained materials. - Highlights: • Porous alumina samples obtained by the freeze-casting technique • Microporous silica coating prepared by a simple sol–gel dip-coating methodology • Samples examined by SEM, μ-CT, and nitrogen sorption tests • Mechanical tests were carried out in the freeze-cast samples. • The presence of silica coatings on the alumina surface decreased the CO{sub 2} permeance.

  2. Freezing and thawing resistance of aerial lime mortar with metakaolin\

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nunes, Cristiana Lara; Slížková, Zuzana

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 114, July (2016), s. 896-905 ISSN 0950-0618 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP105/12/G059 Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : freeze-thaw * lime * metakaolin * linseed oil * mortar * water-repellency Subject RIV: JN - Civil Engineering Impact factor: 3.169, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0950061816305645

  3. Contrasting continuous emission versus freeze-out via HBT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padula, S.S. [Instituto de Fisica Teorica (IFT), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Grassi, F.; Hama, Y.; Socolowski Junior, O. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    2001-07-01

    The effect of continuous emission hypothesis on the two-pion Bose-Einstein correlation is discussed and compared with the corresponding results based on the usual freeze-out ansatz. Sizable differences in the correlation function are observed when comparing these two scenarios of the decoupling process. They could lead to entirely different interpretation of properties of the hot matter formed in high-energy heavy-ion collisions. (author)

  4. Contrasting continuous emission versus freeze-out via HBT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padula, S.S.; Grassi, F.; Hama, Y.; Socolowski Junior, O.

    2001-01-01

    The effect of continuous emission hypothesis on the two-pion Bose-Einstein correlation is discussed and compared with the corresponding results based on the usual freeze-out ansatz. Sizable differences in the correlation function are observed when comparing these two scenarios of the decoupling process. They could lead to entirely different interpretation of properties of the hot matter formed in high-energy heavy-ion collisions. (author)

  5. Accelerated redox reaction between chromate and phenolic pollutants during freezing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Jinjung; Kim, Jaesung; Vetráková, Ľubica; Seo, Jiwon; Heger, Dominik; Lee, Changha; Yoon, Ho-Il; Kim, Kitae; Kim, Jungwon

    2017-05-05

    The redox reaction between 4-chlorophenol (4-CP) and chromate (Cr(VI)) (i.e., the simultaneous oxidation of 4-CP by Cr(VI) and reduction of Cr(VI) by 4-CP) in ice (i.e., at -20°C) was compared with the corresponding reaction in water (i.e., at 25°C). The redox conversion of 4-CP/Cr(VI), which was negligible in water, was significantly accelerated in ice. This accelerated redox conversion of 4-CP/Cr(VI) in ice is ascribed to the freeze concentration effect occurring during freezing, which excludes solutes (i.e., 4-CP and Cr(VI)) and protons from the ice crystals and subsequently concentrates them in the liquid brine. The concentrations of Cr(VI) and protons in the liquid brine were confirmed by measuring the optical image and the UV-vis absorption spectra of cresol red (CR) as a pH indicator of frozen solution. The redox conversion of 4-CP/Cr(VI) was observed in water when the concentrations of 4-CP/protons or Cr(VI)/protons increased by 100/1000-fold. These results corroborate the freeze concentration effect as the reason for the accelerated redox conversion of 4-CP/Cr(VI) in ice. The redox conversion of various phenolic pollutants/Cr(VI) and 4-CP/Cr(VI) in real wastewater was successfully achieved in ice, which verifies the environmental relevance and importance of freezing-accelerated redox conversion of phenolic pollutants/Cr(VI) in cold regions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Freeze-out conditions in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, N.

    1996-01-01

    The authors present recent results on single particle transverse momentum distributions of pions, kaons, and protons, measured in CERN Experiment NA44, of 200A·FeV/c S+S and 158A·GeV/c Pb+Pb central collisions. By comparing these data with thermal and transport models, freeze-out parameters like the temperature T fo and the chemical potentials (μ q , μ s ) are extracted and discussed

  7. Holy grail at Baglan Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, Jim

    1999-01-01

    The UK government's consent for the construction of a gas-fired power plant at Baglan Bay in South Wales is reported, and the growing popularity of economic combined-cycle gas turbine (CCGT) power plants and the resulting environmental improvements are noted . The combining of gas and steam turbines, design developments, and the UK moratorium on planning consents for gas fired power plants are discussed. General Electric's H System technology which will lower the amount of energy lost in the conversion of natural gas to electricity is described, and details of the ten most problematic CCGTs in the UK are given. The domination of the CCGT global market by four manufacturers, and the pressure on manufacturers to develop their designs are considered. (UK)

  8. Methods of human body odor sampling: the effect of freezing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenochova, Pavlina; Roberts, S Craig; Havlicek, Jan

    2009-02-01

    Body odor sampling is an essential tool in human chemical ecology research. However, methodologies of individual studies vary widely in terms of sampling material, length of sampling, and sample processing. Although these differences might have a critical impact on results obtained, almost no studies test validity of current methods. Here, we focused on the effect of freezing samples between collection and use in experiments involving body odor perception. In 2 experiments, we tested whether axillary odors were perceived differently by raters when presented fresh or having been frozen and whether several freeze-thaw cycles affected sample quality. In the first experiment, samples were frozen for 2 weeks, 1 month, or 4 months. We found no differences in ratings of pleasantness, attractiveness, or masculinity between fresh and frozen samples. Similarly, almost no differences between repeatedly thawed and fresh samples were found. We found some variations in intensity; however, this was unrelated to length of storage. The second experiment tested differences between fresh samples and those frozen for 6 months. Again no differences in subjective ratings were observed. These results suggest that freezing has no significant effect on perceived odor hedonicity and that samples can be reliably used after storage for relatively long periods.

  9. Freeze-dried processing of tungsten heavy alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, G.D.; Gurwell, W.E.

    1989-06-01

    Tungsten heavy alloy powders were produced from freeze-dried aqueous solutions of ammonium metatungstate and, principally, sulfates of Ni and Fe. The freeze-dried salts were calcined and hydrogen reduced to form very fine, homogeneous, low-density, W heavy alloy powders having a coral-like structure with elements of approximately 0.1 μm in diameter. The powders yield high green strength and sinterability. Tungsten heavy alloy powders of 70%, 90%, and 96% W were prepared by freeze drying, compacted, and solid-state (SS) sintered to fully density at temperatures as low as 1200 degree C and also at conventional liquid-phase (LP) sintering temperatures. Solid-state sintered microstructures contained polygonal W grains with high contiguity; the matrix did not coat and separate the W grains to form low-contiguity, high-ductility structures. Liquid-phase sintered microstructures were very conventional in appearance, having W spheroids of low contiguity. All these materials were found to be brittle. High levels of residual S accompanied by segregation of the S to all the microstructural interfaces are principally responsible for the brittleness; problems with S could be eliminated by using Fe and Ni nitrates rather than the sulfates. 9 refs., 22 figs., 3 tabs

  10. Effects of gamma radiation on freeze-dried wheat seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajayi, N.O.; Larsson, B.

    1975-07-01

    The effect of radiation on freeze-dried wheat seeds are reported. The response of the various parts of the seedling to radiation was found to differ from one another. There was no significant modification of the effect of radiation on the shoot and root growth, while the growth of the coleoptile was slightly reduced in the frezze-dried seeds. The change in the shoot growth-absorbed dose relationship reported by others to occur at high doses for oven-dried as compared to air-dried barley seeds was not seen for the control and freeze-dried wheat seeds. The freeze-dried seeds are believed to show only the effect of radiation without any modification due to drying as such. The dose-effect relationships may be splited into functions characterised by different radiosensitivity. The high sensitivty effect is mainly taking place within the first 40 krad of energy absorption, and the low sensitivity is dominating at higher doses. (author)

  11. Warm and cold fermionic dark matter via freeze-in

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klasen, Michael; Yaguna, Carlos E.

    2013-01-01

    The freeze-in mechanism of dark matter production provides a simple and intriguing alternative to the WIMP paradigm. In this paper, we analyze whether freeze-in can be used to account for the dark matter in the so-called singlet fermionic model. In it, the SM is extended with only two additional fields, a singlet scalar that mixes with the Higgs boson, and the dark matter particle, a fermion assumed to be odd under a Z 2 symmetry. After numerically studying the generation of dark matter, we analyze the dependence of the relic density with respect to all the free parameters of the model. These results are then used to obtain the regions of the parameter space that are compatible with the dark matter constraint. We demonstrate that the observed dark matter abundance can be explained via freeze-in over a wide range of masses extending down to the keV range. As a result, warm and cold dark matter can be obtained in this model. It is also possible to have dark matter masses well above the unitarity bound for WIMPs

  12. Open Zinc Freezing-Point Cell Assembly and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žužek, V.; Batagelj, V.; Drnovšek, J.; Bojkovski, J.

    2014-07-01

    An open metal freezing-point cell design has been developed in the Laboratory of Metrology and Quality. According to our design, a zinc cell was successfully assembled. The paper presents the needed parts for the cell, the cleaning process, and sealing of the cell. The assembled cell was then evaluated by comparison with two commercial closed zinc cells of different manufacturers. The freezing plateaus of the cells were measured, and a direct cell comparison was made. It was shown that the assembled open cell performed better than the used closed cell and was close to the brand new closed cell. The nominal purity of the zinc used for the open cell was 7 N, but the freezing plateau measurement suggests a higher impurity concentration. It was assumed that the zinc was contaminated to some extent during the process of cutting as its original shape was an irregular cylinder. The uncertainty due to impurities for the assembled cell is estimated to be 0.3 mK. Furthermore, the immersion profile and the pressure coefficient were measured. Both results are close to their theoretical values.

  13. Validation of Freezing-of-Gait Monitoring Using Smartphone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Han Byul; Lee, Hong Ji; Lee, Woong Woo; Kim, Sang Kyong; Jeon, Hyo Seon; Park, Hye Young; Shin, Chae Won; Yi, Won Jin; Jeon, Beomseok; Park, Kwang S

    2018-04-30

    Freezing of gait (FOG) is a commonly observed motor symptom for patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). The symptoms of FOG include reduced step lengths or motor blocks, even with an evident intention of walking. FOG should be monitored carefully because it not only lowers the patient's quality of life, but also significantly increases the risk of injury. In previous studies, patients had to wear several sensors on the body and another computing device was needed to run the FOG detection algorithm. Moreover, the features used in the algorithm were based on low-level and hand-crafted features. In this study, we propose a FOG detection system based on a smartphone, which can be placed in the patient's daily wear, with a novel convolutional neural network (CNN). The walking data of 32 PD patients were collected from the accelerometer and gyroscope embedded in the smartphone, located in the trouser pocket. The motion signals measured by the sensors were converted into the frequency domain and stacked into a 2D image for the CNN input. A specialized CNN model for FOG detection was determined through a validation process. We compared our performances with the results acquired by the previously reported settings. The proposed architecture discriminated the freezing events from the normal activities with an average sensitivity of 93.8% and a specificity of 90.1%. Using our methodology, the precise and continuous monitoring of freezing events with unconstrained sensing can assist patients in managing their chronic disease in daily life effectively.

  14. Dynamical Dark Matter from thermal freeze-out

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dienes, Keith R.; Fennick, Jacob; Kumar, Jason; Thomas, Brooks

    2018-03-01

    In the Dynamical Dark-Matter (DDM) framework, the dark sector comprises a large number of constituent dark particles whose individual masses, lifetimes, and cosmological abundances obey specific scaling relations with respect to each other. In particular, the most natural versions of this framework tend to require a spectrum of cosmological abundances which scale inversely with mass, so that dark-sector states with larger masses have smaller abundances. Thus far, DDM model-building has primarily relied on nonthermal mechanisms for abundance generation such as misalignment production, since these mechanisms give rise to abundances that have this property. By contrast, the simplest versions of thermal freeze-out tend to produce abundances that increase, rather than decrease, with the mass of the dark-matter component. In this paper, we demonstrate that there exist relatively simple modifications of the traditional thermal freeze-out mechanism which "flip" the resulting abundance spectrum, producing abundances that scale inversely with mass. Moreover, we demonstrate that a far broader variety of scaling relations between lifetimes, abundances, and masses can emerge through thermal freeze-out than through the nonthermal mechanisms previously considered for DDM ensembles. The results of this paper thus extend the DDM framework into the thermal domain and essentially allow us to "design" our resulting DDM ensembles at will in order to realize a rich array of resulting dark-matter phenomenologies.

  15. Freezing of a colloidal liquid subject to shear flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagchi, B.; Thirumalai, D.

    1988-01-01

    A nonequilibrium generalization of the density-functional theory of freezing is proposed to investigate the shear-induced first-order phase transition in colloidal suspensions. It is assumed that the main effect of a steady shear is to break the symmetry of the structure factor of the liquid and that for small shear rate, the phenomenon of a shear-induced order-disorder transition may be viewed as an equilibrium phase transition. The theory predicts that the effective density at which freezing takes place increases with shear rate. The solid (which is assumed to be a bcc lattice) formed upon freezing is distorted and specifically there is less order in one plane compared with the order in the other two perpendicular planes. It is shown that there exists a critical shear rate above which the colloidal liquid does not undergo a transition to an ordered (or partially ordered) state no matter how large the density is. Conversely, above the critical shear rate an initially formed bcc solid always melts into an amorphous or liquidlike state. Several of these predictions are in qualitative agreement with the light-scattering experiments of Ackerson and Clark. The limitations as well as possible extensions of the theory are also discussed

  16. Fluid Line Evacuation and Freezing Experiments for Digital Radiator Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berisford, Daniel F.; Birur, Gajanana C.; Miller, Jennifer R.; Sunada, Eric T.; Ganapathi, Gani B.; Stephan, Ryan; Johnson, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The digital radiator technology is one of three variable heat rejection technologies being investigated for future human-rated NASA missions. The digital radiator concept is based on a mechanically pumped fluid loop with parallel tubes carrying coolant to reject heat from the radiator surface. A series of valves actuate to start and stop fluid flow to di erent combinations of tubes, in order to vary the heat rejection capability of the radiator by a factor of 10 or more. When the flow in a particular leg is stopped, the fluid temperature drops and the fluid can freeze, causing damage or preventing flow from restarting. For this reason, the liquid in a stopped leg must be partially or fully evacuated upon shutdown. One of the challenges facing fluid evacuation from closed tubes arises from the vapor generated during pumping to low pressure, which can cause pump cavitation and incomplete evacuation. Here we present a series of laboratory experiments demonstrating fluid evacuation techniques to overcome these challenges by applying heat and pumping to partial vacuum. Also presented are results from qualitative testing of the freezing characteristics of several different candidate fluids, which demonstrate significant di erences in freezing properties, and give insight to the evacuation process.

  17. 78 FR 62293 - Safety Zone, Oyster Festival 30th Anniversary Fireworks Display, Oyster Bay; Oyster Bay, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-15

    ... Safety Zone, Oyster Festival 30th Anniversary Fireworks Display, Oyster Bay; Oyster Bay, NY AGENCY: Coast... zone on the navigable waters of Oyster Bay near Oyster Bay, NY for the Oyster Festival 30th Anniversary... Oyster Festival 30th Anniversary Fireworks Display is scheduled for October 19, 2013 and is one of...

  18. 46 CFR 7.20 - Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block Island Sound and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block Island Sound and easterly entrance to Long Island Sound, NY. 7.20 Section 7.20... Atlantic Coast § 7.20 Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block Island...

  19. 78 FR 27126 - East Bay, St. Andrews Bay and the Gulf of Mexico at Tyndall Air Force Base, Florida; Restricted...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers 33 CFR Part 334 East Bay, St. Andrews Bay and the Gulf of Mexico at Tyndall Air Force Base, Florida; Restricted Areas AGENCY: U.S. Army... read as follows: Sec. 334.665 East Bay, St. Andrews Bay and the Gulf of Mexico, Restricted Areas...

  20. 75 FR 15343 - Regulated Navigation Area: Narragansett Bay, RI and Mount Hope Bay, RI and MA, Including the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-29

    ...: Narragansett Bay, RI and Mount Hope Bay, RI and MA, Including the Providence River and Taunton River AGENCY... River and Mount Hope Bay in the vicinity of the two Brightman Street bridges have not been adopted and... Island and Mt. Hope Bay, MA.'' The notice was prompted primarily by two events: (1) The U.S. Army Corps...

  1. Description of gravity cores from San Pablo Bay and Carquinez Strait, San Francisco Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodrow, Donald L.; John L. Chin,; Wong, Florence L.; Fregoso, Theresa A.; Jaffe, Bruce E.

    2017-06-27

    Seventy-two gravity cores were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1990, 1991, and 2000 from San Pablo Bay and Carquinez Strait, California. The gravity cores collected within San Pablo Bay contain bioturbated laminated silts and sandy clays, whole and broken bivalve shells (mostly mussels), fossil tube structures, and fine-grained plant or wood fragments. Gravity cores from the channel wall of Carquinez Strait east of San Pablo Bay consist of sand and clay layers, whole and broken bivalve shells (less than in San Pablo Bay), trace fossil tubes, and minute fragments of plant material.

  2. Freeze-In dark matter with displaced signatures at colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Co, Raymond T.; D’Eramo, Francesco; Hall, Lawrence J.; Pappadopulo, Duccio

    2015-01-01

    Dark matter, X, may be generated by new physics at the TeV scale during an early matter-dominated (MD) era that ends at temperature T R ≪ TeV. Compared to the conventional radiation-dominated (RD) results, yields from both Freeze-Out and Freeze-In processes are greatly suppressed by dilution from entropy production, making Freeze-Out less plausible while allowing successful Freeze-In with a much larger coupling strength. Freeze-In is typically dominated by the decay of a particle B of the thermal bath, B→X. For a large fraction of the relevant cosmological parameter space, the decay rate required to produce the observed dark matter abundance leads to displaced signals at LHC and future colliders, for any m X in the range keV

  3. Freeze cast porous barium titanate for enhanced piezoelectric energy harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roscow, J. I.; Zhang, Y.; Kraśny, M. J.; Lewis, R. W. C.; Taylor, J.; Bowen, C. R.

    2018-06-01

    Energy harvesting is an important developing technology for a new generation of self-powered sensor networks. This paper demonstrates the significant improvement in the piezoelectric energy harvesting performance of barium titanate by forming highly aligned porosity using freeze casting. Firstly, a finite element model demonstrating the effect of pore morphology and angle with respect to poling field on the poling behaviour of porous ferroelectrics was developed. A second model was then developed to understand the influence of microstructure-property relationships on the poling behaviour of porous freeze cast ferroelectric materials and their resultant piezoelectric and energy harvesting properties. To compare with model predictions, porous barium titanate was fabricated using freeze casting to form highly aligned microstructures with excellent longitudinal piezoelectric strain coefficients, d 33. The freeze cast barium titanate with 45 vol.% porosity had a d 33  =  134.5 pC N‑1 compared to d 33  =  144.5 pC N‑1 for dense barium titanate. The d 33 coefficients of the freeze cast materials were also higher than materials with uniformly distributed spherical porosity due to improved poling of the aligned microstructures, as predicted by the models. Both model and experimental data indicated that introducing porosity provides a large reduction in the permittivity () of barium titanate, which leads to a substantial increase in energy harvesting figure of merit, , with a maximum of 3.79 pm2 N‑1 for barium titanate with 45 vol.% porosity, compared to only 1.40 pm2 N‑1 for dense barium titanate. Dense and porous barium titanate materials were then used to harvest energy from a mechanical excitation by rectification and storage of the piezoelectric charge on a capacitor. The porous barium titanate charged the capacitor to a voltage of 234 mV compared to 96 mV for the dense material, indicating a 2.4-fold increase that was similar to that

  4. A Determination of the Ratio of the Zinc Freezing Point to the Tin Freezing Point by Noise Thermometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labenski, J. R.; Tew, W. L.; Benz, S. P.; Nam, S. W.; Dresselhaus, P.

    2008-02-01

    A Johnson-noise thermometer (JNT) has been used with a quantized voltage noise source (QVNS), as a calculable reference to determine the ratio of temperatures near the Zn freezing point to those near the Sn freezing point. The temperatures are derived in a series of separate measurements comparing the synthesized noise power from the QVNS with that of Johnson noise from a known resistance. The synthesized noise power is digitally programed to match the thermal noise powers at both temperatures and provides the principle means of scaling the temperatures. This produces a relatively flat spectrum for the ratio of spectral noise densities, which is close to unity in the low-frequency limit. The data are analyzed as relative spectral ratios over the 4.8 to 450 kHz range averaged over a 3.2 kHz bandwidth. A three-parameter model is used to account for differences in time constants that are inherently temperature dependent. A drift effect of approximately -6 μK·K-1 per day is observed in the results, and an empirical correction is applied to yield a relative difference in temperature ratios of -11.5 ± 43 μK·K-1 with respect to the ratio of temperatures assigned on the International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90). When these noise thermometry results are combined with results from acoustic gas thermometry at temperatures near the Sn freezing point, a value of T - T 90 = 7 ± 30 mK for the Zn freezing point is derived.

  5. Geochemistry of peat over kimberlites in the Attawapiskat area, James Bay Lowlands, northern Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hattori, Keiko H. [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Ottawa, 140 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, Ontario, K1N 6N5 (Canada)], E-mail: khattori@uOttawa.ca; Hamilton, Stewart [Ontario Geological Survey, Sudbury, Ontario, P3E 6B5 (Canada)

    2008-12-15

    The James Bay Lowlands, which is the SE part of the Hudson Bay Lowlands, Canada, and within the Paleozoic limestone terrane, is covered mostly by peatlands. Peat samples were examined in the Attawapiskat area, a region of discontinuous permafrost, where more than 19 kimberlite pipes have been found beneath a cover of peat (2-4 m thick) and Quaternary sediments (up to 20 m thick) of Tyrell Sea clay beds and glacial tills. Pore water at a depth of 40 cm in the peat has a consistently low pH, <4, and high Eh, {approx}290 mV, in the areas over limestones far from kimberlites. On the other hand, peat pore water close to kimberlites has a high pH, up to 6.7, and low Eh, down to 49 mV; the values of pH and Eh are inversely correlated. The high pH and low Eh close to kimberlites suggest active serpentinization of olivine in the underlying kimberlites. The bulk compositions of peat indicate precipitation of secondary CaCO{sub 3} and Fe-O-OH. The secondary carbonate contains high concentrations of kimberlite pathfinder elements, such as Ni, rare earth elements (REE) and Y. The ratios of metal concentrations extracted by ammonium acetate solution at pH 5 (AA5) to those in a total digestion confirm that a majority of the divalent cations are hosted by the secondary carbonate, whereas tri-, tetra- and penta-valent cations are not. As these charged cations are not leached in Enzyme Leach, they are most likely adsorbed on Fe-O-OH. The compositions of peat show spatial variation with the distribution of kimberlites, suggesting that they are influenced by the underlying rocks even through there are thick layers of tills and sediments between the bedrocks and peat. However, elevated concentrations of pathfinder elements of kimberlites in bulk peat samples and AA5 leach are not necessarily directly above kimberlites. The diffused metal anomalies around kimberlites are attributed to the dissolution-precipitation of secondary phases (carbonates and Fe-O-OH) in acidic and reduced waters

  6. Freezing of bentonite. Experimental studies and theoretical considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birgersson, Martin; Karnland, Ola; Nilsson, Ulf (Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden))

    2010-01-15

    During its lifetime, a KBS-3 repository will be subject to various ambient temperatures. Backfilled tunnels, shafts and investigation bore holes closest to ground level will experience periods of temperature below 0 deg C. From a safety assessment perspective, it is therefore essential to understand the behavior of compacted bentonite below 0 deg C. A theoretical framework for predicting the pressure response in compacted water saturated bentonite due to temperature changes has been developed based on thermodynamics and a single pore-type. This model predicts an approximately linear temperature dependence of swelling pressure P{sub s}(w,DELTAT) = P{sub s}(w,0 deg C) + DELTAs(w)DELTAT/nu{sub clay}(w) where DELTAT denotes a temperature difference from 0 deg C, DELTAs(w) is the difference in partial molar entropy between clay water and bulk water, nu{sub clay} (w) is the partial molar volume of the clay water and w denotes the water/solid mass ratio of the clay. As bulk water changes phase at 0 deg C, DELTAs(w) has a different value dependent on whether DELTAT is negative or positive. Above 0 deg C DELTAs(w) is a small value for all relevant densities which means that the pressure response due to temperature changes is small. A further consequence of this fact is that DELTAs(w) is a large positive number below 0 deg C when the external water phase is transformed to ice. Consequently, the model predicts a large drop of swelling pressure with temperature below 0 deg C, in the order of 1.2 MPa/deg C. Specifically, the swelling pressure is zero at a certain (negative) temperature T{sub C}. T{sub C} also quantifies the freezing point of the bentonite sample under consideration, as ice formation in the bentonite does not occur until swelling pressure is lost. A large set of laboratory tests have been performed where fully water saturated samples of bentonites have been exposed to temperatures in the range -10 deg C to +25 deg C. The swelling pressure response has been

  7. Delaware River and Upper Bay Sediment Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The area of coverage consists of 192 square miles of benthic habitat mapped from 2005 to 2007 in the Delaware River and Upper Delaware Bay. The bottom sediment map...

  8. Willapa Bay, Washington Benthic Habitats 1995 Biotic

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In June 1995, the Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce (CREST) acquired 295 true color aerial photographs (1:12,000) of Willapa Bay, Washington, from the State of...

  9. Willapa Bay, Washington Benthic Habitats 1995 Geoform

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In June 1995, the Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce (CREST) acquired 295 true color aerial photographs (1:12,000) of Willapa Bay, Washington, from the State of...

  10. San Antonio Bay 1986-1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The effect of salinity on utilization of shallow-water nursery habitats by aquatic fauna was assessed in San Antonio Bay, Texas. Overall, 272 samples were collected...

  11. Corpus ChristiEast Matagorda Bay 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Patterns of habitat utilization were compared among transplanted and natural Spartina alterniflora marshes in the Halls Lake area of Chocolate Bay in the Galveston...

  12. San Francisco Bay Interferometric Bathymetry: Area B

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — High resolution sonar data were collected over ultra-shallow areas of the San Francisco Bay estuary system. Bathymetric and acoustic backscatter data were collected...

  13. BENTHIC MACROFAUNAL ALIENS IN WILLAPA BAY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benthic macrofaunal samples were collected at random stations in Willapa Bay, WA, in four habitats [eelgrass (Zostera marina), Atlantic cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora), mud shrimp (Upogebia pugettensis), ghost shrimp (Neotrypaea californiensis)] in 1996 and in seven habitats (Z...

  14. FL BAY SPECTROUT-POPULATION STATUS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Juvenile spotted seatrout and other sportfish are being monitored annually over a 6-mo period in Florida Bay to assess their abundance over time relative to...

  15. Willapa Bay, Washington Benthic Habitats 1995 Substrate

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In June 1995, the Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce (CREST) acquired 295 true color aerial photographs (1:12,000) of Willapa Bay, Washington, from the State of...

  16. Benthic harpacticoid copepods of Jiaozhou Bay, Qingdao

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lin; Li, Xinzheng

    2017-09-01

    The species richness of benthic harpacticoid copepod fauna in Jiaozhou Bay, Qingdao, on the southern coast of Shandong Peninsula, has not been comprehensively studied. We present a preliminary inventory of species for this region based on material found in nine sediment samples collected from 2011 to 2012. Our list includes 15 species belonging to 15 genera in 9 families, the most speciose family was the Miraciidae Dana, 1846 (seven species); all other families were represented by single species only. Sediment characteristics and depth are determined to be important environmental determinants of harpacticoid distribution in this region. We briefly detail the known distributions of species and provide a key to facilitate their identification. Both harpacticoid species richness and the species/genus ratio in Jiaozhou Bay are lower than in Bohai Gulf and Gwangyang Bay. The poor knowledge of the distribution of benthic harpacticoids, in addition to low sampling effort in Jiaozhou Bay, likely contribute to low species richness.

  17. Biscayne Bay Florida Bottlenose Dolphin Studies

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data sets include a compilation of small vessel based studies of bottlenose dolphins that reside within Biscayne Bay, Florida, adjacent estuaries and nearshore...

  18. Shrinkage of spray-freeze-dried microparticles of pure protein for ballistic injection by manipulation of freeze-drying cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straller, Georg; Lee, Geoffrey

    2017-10-30

    Spray-freeze-drying was used to produce shrivelled, partially-collapsed microparticles of pure proteins that may be suitable for use in a ballistic injector. Various modifications of the freeze drying cycle were examined for their effects on collapse of the pure protein microparticles. The use of annealing at a shelf temperature of up to +10°C resulted in no visible particle shrinkage. This was because of the high T g ' of the pure protein. Inclusion of trehalose or sucrose led to particle shrinkage because of the plasticizing effects of the disaccharides on the protein. Only by extending the duration of primary drying from 240 to 2745min at shelf temperatures in the range -12 to -8°C were shrivelled, wrinkled particles of bSA and bCA of reduced porosity obtained. Manipulation of the freeze-drying cycle used for SFD can therefore be used to modify particle morphology and increase particle density. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Immersion freezing of ice nucleation active protein complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hartmann

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Utilising the Leipzig Aerosol Cloud Interaction Simulator (LACIS, the immersion freezing behaviour of droplet ensembles containing monodisperse particles, generated from a Snomax™ solution/suspension, was investigated. Thereto ice fractions were measured in the temperature range between −5 °C to −38 °C. Snomax™ is an industrial product applied for artificial snow production and contains Pseudomonas syringae} bacteria which have long been used as model organism for atmospheric relevant ice nucleation active (INA bacteria. The ice nucleation activity of such bacteria is controlled by INA protein complexes in their outer membrane. In our experiments, ice fractions increased steeply in the temperature range from about −6 °C to about −10 °C and then levelled off at ice fractions smaller than one. The plateau implies that not all examined droplets contained an INA protein complex. Assuming the INA protein complexes to be Poisson distributed over the investigated droplet populations, we developed the CHESS model (stoCHastic modEl of similar and poiSSon distributed ice nuclei which allows for the calculation of ice fractions as function of temperature and time for a given nucleation rate. Matching calculated and measured ice fractions, we determined and parameterised the nucleation rate of INA protein complexes exhibiting class III ice nucleation behaviour. Utilising the CHESS model, together with the determined nucleation rate, we compared predictions from the model to experimental data from the literature and found good agreement. We found that (a the heterogeneous ice nucleation rate expression quantifying the ice nucleation behaviour of the INA protein complex is capable of describing the ice nucleation behaviour observed in various experiments for both, Snomax™ and P. syringae bacteria, (b the ice nucleation rate, and its temperature dependence, seem to be very similar regardless of whether the INA protein complexes inducing ice

  20. A Glance at Bohai Bay Oil Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Shoubai

    1995-01-01

    @@ Chinese oil industry keeps on developing in 1994. The oil production of Bohai Bay Oil Province located in East China also keeps on growing. Geologically,the total area of Bohai Bay Basin is about 200 000 km2 and the main structural units are: Liaohe Depression, Huanghua Depression,Jizhong Depression, Linqing Depression, Jiyang Depression, Changwei Depression, Bozhong Depression,Chengning Uplift and Cangjing Uplift (see figure 1). Area of the main structural units is listed in following: