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Sample records for hpv na mucosa

  1. A frequência do HPV na mucosa oral normal de indivíduos sadios por meio da PCR The frequency of human papillomavirus findings in normal oral mucosa of healthy people by PCR

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    David Esquenazi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Os papilomavírus humanos (HPV são DNA vírus pertencentes à família papilomaviridae com grupos de baixo e alto risco que infectam a pele e a mucosa podendo induzir a formação de tumores epiteliais benignos e malignos. Na mucosa oral, estes vírus têm sido associados a papilomas orais, hiperplasias epiteliais focais, leucoplasias e neoplasias orais. OBJETIVO: Estudar a frequência do HPV em mucosa oral de indivíduos normais. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Trabalho prospectivo em coorte transversal. Participaram desse estudo 100 indivíduos voluntários, faixa etária de 20 a 31 anos, estudantes universitários, sem história, queixas ou lesões visíveis ao exame físico de cavidade oral e orofaringe. Foram submetidos a questionário com perguntas referentes à epidemiologia da infecção pelo HPV. Foi colhido material de mucosa oral por raspado com escova e analisado pelo PCR. RESULTADOS: Os resultados mostraram ausência de HPV em todas as amostras. CONCLUSÃO: Parece ter havido participação do alto nível socioeconômico com alimentação rica em carotenoides e vitamina C, baixo consumo tabágico e etílico e comportamento heterossexual predominantemente monogâmico com uso regular de preservativos.The human papillomavirus (HPV is a DNA virus, which belongs to papillomaviridae family, being of low and high risk, which infect the skin and mucous membranes and can induce benign and malign tumor formation. In the oral mucosa they have been associated with oral papilloma, focal epithelial hyperplasia, leucoplakia and oral neoplasia. AIM: to study the frequency of HPV finding in oral mucosa of normal people. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Prospective study, cross-sectional cohort. One hundred volunteers, young adults, healthy, aged between 20 and 31 years, university students with no history, no complains, without oral or oropharyngeal lesions. They were submitted to a questionnaire with questions regarding HPV infection epidemiology. The samples were

  2. Modeling the Mechanisms by Which HIV-Associated Immunosuppression Influences HPV Persistence at the Oral Mucosa.

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    Verma, Meghna; Erwin, Samantha; Abedi, Vida; Hontecillas, Raquel; Hoops, Stefan; Leber, Andrew; Bassaganya-Riera, Josep; Ciupe, Stanca M

    2017-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients are at an increased risk of co-infection with human papilloma virus (HPV), and subsequent malignancies such as oral cancer. To determine the role of HIV-associated immune suppression on HPV persistence and pathogenesis, and to investigate the mechanisms underlying the modulation of HPV infection and oral cancer by HIV, we developed a mathematical model of HIV/HPV co-infection. Our model captures known immunological and molecular features such as impaired HPV-specific effector T helper 1 (Th1) cell responses, and enhanced HPV infection due to HIV. We used the model to determine HPV prognosis in the presence of HIV infection, and identified conditions under which HIV infection alters HPV persistence in the oral mucosa system. The model predicts that conditions leading to HPV persistence during HIV/HPV co-infection are the permissive immune environment created by HIV and molecular interactions between the two viruses. The model also determines when HPV infection continues to persist in the short run in a co-infected patient undergoing antiretroviral therapy. Lastly, the model predicts that, under efficacious antiretroviral treatment, HPV infections will decrease in the long run due to the restoration of CD4+ T cell numbers and protective immune responses.

  3. Modeling the Mechanisms by Which HIV-Associated Immunosuppression Influences HPV Persistence at the Oral Mucosa.

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    Meghna Verma

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-infected patients are at an increased risk of co-infection with human papilloma virus (HPV, and subsequent malignancies such as oral cancer. To determine the role of HIV-associated immune suppression on HPV persistence and pathogenesis, and to investigate the mechanisms underlying the modulation of HPV infection and oral cancer by HIV, we developed a mathematical model of HIV/HPV co-infection. Our model captures known immunological and molecular features such as impaired HPV-specific effector T helper 1 (Th1 cell responses, and enhanced HPV infection due to HIV. We used the model to determine HPV prognosis in the presence of HIV infection, and identified conditions under which HIV infection alters HPV persistence in the oral mucosa system. The model predicts that conditions leading to HPV persistence during HIV/HPV co-infection are the permissive immune environment created by HIV and molecular interactions between the two viruses. The model also determines when HPV infection continues to persist in the short run in a co-infected patient undergoing antiretroviral therapy. Lastly, the model predicts that, under efficacious antiretroviral treatment, HPV infections will decrease in the long run due to the restoration of CD4+ T cell numbers and protective immune responses.

  4. Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus (HPV in upper respiratory tract mucosa in a group of pre-school children

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    Jaroslaw Szydłowski

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available [b]introduction[/b]. Human Papillomavirus (HPV is a group of DNA viruses which is an etiological factor of many benign and malignant diseases of the upper respiratory tract mucosa, female genital tract and the skin. HPV infection is considered a sexually-transmitted infection, but can also be transmitted by non-sexual routes, including perinatal vertical transmission, physical contact, iatrogenic infection and autoinoculation. Recurrent Respiratory Papillomatosis (RRP in children is connected with HPV infection transmitted vertically from mother to child during the passage of the foetus through an infected birth canal. [b]objective. [/b]The aim of this study was to establish the level of Human Papillomaviruses carrier state in upper respiratory tract mucosa in healthy pre-school children, and to identify potential risk factors for HPV infection. [b]materials and method[/b]. After obtaining consent from their parents, 97 pre-school children were examined – 51 girls and 46 boys between the ages of 3 – 5 years; average age – 4 years and 5 months. 68 children were urban dwellers and 29 came from a rural environment. A questionnaire with detailed history was taken including parents’ and child`s personal data, as well as perinatal risk factors in pregnancy. Socio-demographic information was also obtained, including the standard of living, and chosen environmental factors. Routine ENT examination was performed. Exfoliated oral squamous cells were collected from swabs and analysed for the presence of DNA papillomaviruses by polymerase chain reaction. [b]results.[/b] The presence of HPV in the respiratory tract in children was detected in 19.6% cases. ‘High oncogenic potential’ HPVs, such as HPV-16 and HPV-18, were not observed in squamous cell mucosa of the respiratory tract in the children. No significant differences were observed between the HPV carrier state in urban and rural inhabitants.

  5. Detection of Human Papilloma Virus (HPV in oral mucosa of women with cervical lesions and their relation to oral sex practices

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    Martinez-Martinez Alejandro

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have either investigated the relationship of HPV with oral cancer or the prevalence of HPV on the oral cavity. The purpose of this investigation was to study the prevalence of HPV in oral cavity of women with oral sex practices and cervical lesions. Methods Forty six (46 non-smokers and non-alcoholic patients attended the "Clínica de Displasias" of "Ciudad Juarez" were sampled. This population had a CIN diagnosis sometime between the previous six months. On previous consent they filled out a questionnaire related to their oral sex practices. Afterwards one swab from cheeks and another from palate/gum were taken; PCR was used to determine generic HPV, HPV16 and HPV18. Results Seventy two percent (72% of the patients stated to have oral sex practices regularly which all of them were positive to HPV either in oral mucus, palate/gum or both. The total of the given results showed that 35% had HPV16; among those distributed in 26% with regular oral sex practices and 9% stated as never practiced oral sex. An association was found between oral HPV16 positivity and progression to cervical CIN advanced lesions. On the other hand HPV18 was not detected. The frequency of HPV16 was higher in buccal mucosa (23% versus palate/gum (16%. Conclusions This study suggests that buccal HPV16 infection is associated with CIN progression.

  6. Detection of Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) in oral mucosa of women with cervical lesions and their relation to oral sex practices.

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    Sánchez-Vargas, Luis O; Díaz-Hernández, Cecilia; Martinez-Martinez, Alejandro

    2010-12-04

    Previous studies have either investigated the relationship of HPV with oral cancer or the prevalence of HPV on the oral cavity. The purpose of this investigation was to study the prevalence of HPV in oral cavity of women with oral sex practices and cervical lesions. Forty six (46) non-smokers and non-alcoholic patients attended the "Clínica de Displasias" of "Ciudad Juarez" were sampled. This population had a CIN diagnosis sometime between the previous six months. On previous consent they filled out a questionnaire related to their oral sex practices. Afterwards one swab from cheeks and another from palate/gum were taken; PCR was used to determine generic HPV, HPV16 and HPV18. Seventy two percent (72%) of the patients stated to have oral sex practices regularly which all of them were positive to HPV either in oral mucus, palate/gum or both. The total of the given results showed that 35% had HPV16; among those distributed in 26% with regular oral sex practices and 9% stated as never practiced oral sex. An association was found between oral HPV16 positivity and progression to cervical CIN advanced lesions. On the other hand HPV18 was not detected. The frequency of HPV16 was higher in buccal mucosa (23%) versus palate/gum (16%). This study suggests that buccal HPV16 infection is associated with CIN progression.

  7. HPV

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    Human papillomaviruses (HPV) are a group of related viruses. They can cause warts on different parts of your body. There are ... cancer. There are two categories of sexually-transmitted HPV. Low-risk HPV can cause genital warts. High- ...

  8. Co-fatores do HPV na oncogênese cervical

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    PINTO ÁLVARO P.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O papilomavírus humano (HPV exerce um papel central na carcinogênese do colo uterino. Em torno a ele orbitam outros fatores que influenciam direta ou indiretamente a instalação deste mecanismo no epitélio escamoso cervical. Investigações a respeito dos mecanismos de atuação e interação desses co-fatores com os elementos virais encontram-se na literatura dos últimos 20 anos. O presente artigo de revisão explora os possíveis co-fatores do HPV na gênese do carcinoma escamoso do colo uterino, levando em conta apenas os fatores cuja associação com o vírus ou câncer cervical tenha sido documentada experimentalmente, e não apenas clínica ou epidemiologicamente. Dentre os parâmetros abordados estão os fatores imunológicos (resposta imune local e humoral, a associação com a Síndrome da Imunodeficiência Adquirida Humana, fatores genéticos como o polimorfismo da proteína p53, o tabagismo e o uso de contraceptivos orais. Todos estes fatores interagem em menor ou maior intensidade com oncoproteínas e outros elementos do HPV, potencializando a ação do vírus na célula hospedeira e facilitando o desenvolvimento dos processos de imortalização e carcinogênese.

  9. Low prevalence of high risk human papillomavirus in normal oral mucosa by hybrid capture 2 Baixa prevalência de papilomavírus humano de alto risco na mucosa oral normal através de Captura Híbrida 2

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    Maria del Refugio González-Losa

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available High risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV are recognized as a necessary factor to development cervical cancer. During the last decade many studies have found HR-HPV in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC and normal oral mucosa, however the association between HR-HPV and OSCC is still uncertain. The aim of the study was to determine DNA HR-HPV in normal oral cavity of healthy adults. A cross-sectional study was performed; samples from 77 patients with normal oral cavity were collected at the Dentistry school, Autonomous University of Yucatan, Merida, Yucatan, México. HR-HPV was detected by hybrid capture 2. One sample out of 77(1.2% was positive for HR-PVH. It was from a man of 50 years old. HR-HPV is present in low rate among healthy oral mucosa. Hybrid capture 2 could be a good methodology for large epidemiology studies.Papilomavírus humano de alto risco (HR-HPV é um fator reconhecido como necessário para o desenvolvimento de câncer cervical. Na última década vários estudos encontraram HR-HPV em OSCC (oral squamous cell carcinoma e em mucosa oral normal, mas a associação entre HR-HPV e OSCC não é bem conhecida. O objetivo desse estudo foi determinar DNA de HR-HPV na cavidade oral normal de adultos saudáveis. Realizou-se um estudo cross-sectional com amostras da cavidade oral normal de 77 pacientes da Escola de Odontologia da Autonomous University of Yucatan, Merida, Yucatan, México. HR-HPV foi detectado através de Captura Híbrida 2. Uma amostra em 77 (1,2% foi positiva para HR-PVH e era proveniente de um homem de 50 anos de idade. Concluiu-se que HR-HPV tem baixa prevalência na mucosa oral normal e a Captura Híbrida 2 pode ser um método adequado para estudos epidemiológicos.

  10. Influence of regular black tea consumption on tobacco associated DNA damage and HPV prevalence in human oral mucosa.

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    Pal, Debolina; Banerjee, Sarmistha; Indra, Dipanjana; Mandal, Shyamsundar; Dum, Anirudha; Bhowmik, Anup; Panda, Chinmay Kr; Das, Sukta

    2007-01-01

    Black tea is more widely consumed than green tea worldwide, particularly in India. Therefore, it is necessary to focus attention on black tea with respect to its health promoting and anti-cancer actions. In order to establish the concept that black tea is a potential candidate for cancer prevention, it is important to provide epidemiological evidence derived from investigations of human populations. In view of this, the objective of the present study was to determine the correlation between nature of black tea consumption and DNA damage in normal subjects with or without tobacco habit and oral cancer patients, taking the latter as positive controls. Much experimental evidence points to associations between tobacco habit and HPV 16 and HPV 18 (Human Papilloma virus) infection. But no studies have taken into account the possible confounding effect of black tea consumption on DNA damage along with HPV infection. A pilot study was therefore undertaken. Comet assay was used to evaluate the DNA damage among normal subjects including tobacco users (n = 86), non-tobacco users (n = 45) and Oral cancer patients (n = 37). Percentage of damaged cells was scored in the buccal squamous cells of all subjects mentioned above. HPV analysis was performed on 79 samples (including 37 oral cancer patients). The evaluation of various confounding factors like age, tenure of tobacco habit and tea habit showed significant associations with DNA damage. The observations strongly indicate that regular intake of black tea at least above four cups can reduce tobacco associated DNA damage among normal tobacco users. HPV prevalence was not seen to be associated with age, tenure of tobacco habit or the tea drinking habit.

  11. Performance Evaluation of Manual and Automated (MagNA Pure Nucleic Acid Isolation in HPV Detection and Genotyping Using Roche Linear Array HPV Test

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    Aikaterini Chranioti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nucleic acids of human papillomavirus (HPV isolated by manual extraction method (AmpliLute and automated MagNA pure system were compared and evaluated with cytohistological findings in 253 women. The concordance level between AmpliLute and MagNA was very good 93.3% (=0.864, <.0001. Overall HPVpositivity detected by AmpliLute was 57.3% (30.4% as single and 27% as multiple infections in contrast to MagNA 54.5% (32% and 23%, resp.. Discrepant results observed in 25 cases: 11 MagNA(−/AmpliLute(+, 10 of which had positive histology; 5 MagNA(+/AmpliLute(− with negative histology; 8 MagNA(+/AmpliLute(+: in 7 of which AmpliLute detected extra HPV genotypes and 1 MagNA(invalid/AmpliLute(+ with positive histology. Both methods performed well when compared against cytological (area under curve (AUC of AmpliLute 0.712 versus 0.672 of MagNA and histological diagnoses (AUC of AmpliLute 0.935 versus 0.877 of MagNA, with AmpliLute showing a slightly predominance over MagNA. However, higher sensitivities, specificities, and positive/negative predictive values were obtained by AmpliLute.

  12. Efeitos adversos de medicamentos tópicos e sistêmicos na mucosa bucal

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    Loureiro

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Muitos medicamentos utilizados com ou sem prescrição de um profissional de saúde têm o potencial de causar reações adversas na mucosa bucal e, por esta razão, torna-se necessário que os profissionais a saúde estejam conscientes dos possíveis efeitos indesejáveis causados por cada droga, possibilitando um diagnóstico correto, e a conduta clínica adequada a fim de tomar as medidas necessárias para poder minimizá-los. Apresentamos neste trabalho uma revisão sobre os medicamentos que mais comumente podem causar estas alterações bucais.

  13. Human papillomavirus-32-associated focal epithelial hyperplasia accompanying HPV-16-positive papilloma-like lesions in oral mucosa.

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    Liu, Na; Wang, Jiayi; Lei, Lei; Li, Yanzhong; Zhou, Min; Dan, Hongxia; Zeng, Xin; Chen, Qianming

    2013-05-01

    Human papillomavirus infection can cause a variety of benign or malignant oral lesions, and the various genotypes can cause distinct types of lesions. To our best knowledge, there has been no report of 2 different human papillomavirus-related oral lesions in different oral sites in the same patient before. This paper reported a patient with 2 different oral lesions which were clinically and histologically in accord with focal epithelial hyperplasia and oral papilloma, respectively. Using DNA extracted from these 2 different lesions, tissue blocks were tested for presence of human papillomavirus followed by specific polymerase chain reaction testing for 6, 11, 13, 16, 18, and 32 subtypes in order to confirm the clinical diagnosis. Finally, human papillomavirus-32-positive focal epithelial hyperplasia accompanying human papillomavirus-16-positive oral papilloma-like lesions were detected in different sites of the oral mucosa. Nucleotide sequence sequencing further confirmed the results. So in our clinical work, if the simultaneous occurrences of different human papillomavirus associated lesions are suspected, the multiple biopsies from different lesions and detection of human papillomavirus genotype are needed to confirm the diagnosis.

  14. Determinação da prevalência de HPV em amostras de mucosa oral/orofaríngea em um distrito rural de São Paulo

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    Vitor Breseghello Cavenaghi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Averiguar a eficácia da metodologia para coleta de amostras em cavidade oral e orofaringe e determinar a prevalência do HPV na cavidade oral e orofaringe de adultos e crianças. MÉTODO: A população estudada foi atendida por um programa assistencial em um distrito rural de São Paulo. Os indivíduos foram convidados a doar amostras independentemente de queixas. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÃO: Foram incluídos no estudo 47 homens, 77 mulheres e 22 crianças, dos quais amostras da cavidade oral foram obtidas por bochecho e gargarejo com antisséptico oral comercial. Foram encontrados três resultados positivos (2,4% em adultos, duas amostras de HPV 55 e uma amostra de HPV 58. Não foram observados resultados positivos em crianças. Além disso, concluímos que o método de coleta com o enxágue bucal com antisséptico mostrou-se eficaz e rápido para a detecção de HPV na cavidade oral e orofaríngea na população geral.

  15. A mucosa oral na hanseníase: um estudo clínico e histopatológico The oral mucosa in leprosy: a clinical and histopathological study

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    Marilda Aparecida Milanez Morgado de Abreu

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: a anseníase multibacilar pode causar comprometimento da mucosa oral, com ou sem lesões aparentes. Há poucos estudos que tratam deste assunto na era da multidrogaterapia. OBJETIVO: Verificar a freqüência do comprometimento da mucosa oral em pacientes de hanseníase multibacilar. CASUÍSTICA E MÉTODOS: Foi realizado um estudo transversal em vinte pacientes de hanseníase multibacilar, não-tratados, atendidos consecutivamente em Dracena, São Paulo, entre o período de 2000 e 2002. Foi realizado exame clínico completo da mucosa oral. Os pacientes foram submetidos a biópsias na mucosa jugal, na língua e no palato mole, em alteração ou em pontos pré-estabelecidos. Os cortes foram corados pelas técnicas da hematoxilina-eosina e Ziehl-Neelsen. O encontro de granuloma e bacilos álcool-ácido-resistentes ao exame histopatológico determinou o comprometimento específico. RESULTADOS: O estudo envolveu 19 pacientes multibacilares com tempo médio de evolução de 2,5 anos. Ocorreu comprometimento histopatológico específico em apenas um paciente virchowiano, com mucosa oral clinicamente normal, na língua e no palato mole. CONCLUSÕES: 1. Alteração clínica na mucosa oral não implica em comprometimento pela doença, é necessário confirmação histopatológica. 2. Alterações clínicas específicas aparentes são raras. 3. A mucosa oral clinicamente normal pode exibir comprometimento histopatológico específico.INTRODUCTION: Multibacillary leprosy may involve the oral mucosa, with or without apparent lesions. There are few studies that deal with this issue in the era of multidrug therapy. AIM: To assess the frequence of oral mucosa involvement in multibacillary leprosy patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A transversal study with twenty non-treated multibacillary leprosy patients. The patients were treated in Dracena, São Paulo, between 2000 and 2002. Clinical examination of the oral mucosa was carried out. All patients were

  16. Cytologic alterations in the oral mucosa after chronic exposure to ethanol Alterações citológicas na mucosa bucal após exposição crônica ao etanol

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    Sílvia Regina de Almeida Reis

    2006-04-01

    érica e algumas das alterações citológicas analisadas também foi investigada. O grupo etanol mostrou um aumento significativo nas freqüências de todas as alterações investigadas nas células da língua quando comparado ao grupo controle (p 0,05; Mann-Whitney. No grupo etanol, a correlação entre GGT sérica e as freqüências de micronúcleo e a relação núcleo/citoplasma anormal em células da mucosa bucal não foi significativa (p > 0,05; Spearman. Conclui-se que o consumo crônico de etanol pode estar associado a alterações citológicas carcinogênicas na mucosa bucal, mesmo na ausência de exposição ao fumo. Tais alterações não apresentaram correlação com o comprometimento hepatobiliar.

  17. Manifestações orais associada ao papilomavírus humano (hpv conceitos atuais: revisão bibliográfica Oral manifestations related to papillomavirus (hpv

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    Therezita M.P.G. Castro

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available O papilomavírus (HPV é um DNA vírus do grupo papovavírus, que é altamente transmissível sexualmente, sendo freqüente na região ano-genital e raro na mucosa oral. A sua implantação oral pode ser por auto-inoculação ou pelo contato oro-sexual. As manifestações orais associadas ao HPV são: papiloma, condiloma acuminado, verruga vulgar, hiperplasia epitelial focal, leucoplasias, líquen plano e carcinoma. O diagnóstico é dado pelo exame da lesão e confirmado pela biópsia, com a identificação do tipo de HPV pelas técnicas de biologia molecular (captura híbrida e PCR. O tratamento, dependendo da lesão, pode ser clínico e/ou cirúrgico, obtendo assim a cura clínica, pois o vírus permanece no epitélio da mucosa mesmo após o tratamento.The human papillomavirus (HPV is a DNA virus, of the papovavirus group, that is highly sexually transmittable. It is common in the anal and genital parts and rarely in the oral mucosa. The oral implantation can be by self-inoculation or by oral-sexual contact. The oral manifestations related to HPV are: papilloma, condyloma acuminatum, verruca vulgaris, focal epithelial hyperplasia, leukoplasia, lichen planus, and the squamous cell carcinoma. The diagnosis is performed by lesion exam and confirmed by biopsy, showing the HPV genotype by molecular biology techniques (hybrid capture and PCR. The treatment, depending on the lesion, can be clinical or surgical, allowing clinical cure, because the virus remains in the epithelium of the mucosa even after the treatment.

  18. High- and ultrahigh-field magnetic resonance imaging of naïve, injured and scarred vocal fold mucosae in rats

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    Kishimoto, Ayami Ohno; Kishimoto, Yo; Young, David L.; Zhang, Jinjin

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Subepithelial changes to the vocal fold mucosa, such as fibrosis, are difficult to identify using visual assessment of the tissue surface. Moreover, without suspicion of neoplasm, mucosal biopsy is not a viable clinical option, as it carries its own risk of iatrogenic injury and scar formation. Given these challenges, we assessed the ability of high- (4.7 T) and ultrahigh-field (9.4 T) magnetic resonance imaging to resolve key vocal fold subepithelial tissue structures in the rat, an important and widely used preclinical model in vocal fold biology. We conducted serial in vivo and ex vivo imaging, evaluated an array of acquisition sequences and contrast agents, and successfully resolved key anatomic features of naïve, acutely injured, and chronically scarred vocal fold mucosae on the ex vivo scans. Naïve lamina propria was hyperintense on T1-weighted imaging with gadobenate dimeglumine contrast enhancement, whereas chronic scar was characterized by reduced lamina propria T1 signal intensity and mucosal volume. Acutely injured mucosa was hypointense on T2-weighted imaging; lesion volume steadily increased, peaked at 5 days post-injury, and then decreased – consistent with the physiology of acute, followed by subacute, hemorrhage and associated changes in the magnetic state of hemoglobin and its degradation products. Intravenous administration of superparamagnetic iron oxide conferred no T2 contrast enhancement during the acute injury period. These findings confirm that magnetic resonance imaging can resolve anatomic substructures within naïve vocal fold mucosa, qualitative and quantitative features of acute injury, and the presence of chronic scar. PMID:27638667

  19. High- and ultrahigh-field magnetic resonance imaging of naïve, injured and scarred vocal fold mucosae in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishimoto, Ayami Ohno; Kishimoto, Yo; Young, David L; Zhang, Jinjin; Rowland, Ian J; Welham, Nathan V

    2016-11-01

    Subepithelial changes to the vocal fold mucosa, such as fibrosis, are difficult to identify using visual assessment of the tissue surface. Moreover, without suspicion of neoplasm, mucosal biopsy is not a viable clinical option, as it carries its own risk of iatrogenic injury and scar formation. Given these challenges, we assessed the ability of high- (4.7 T) and ultrahigh-field (9.4 T) magnetic resonance imaging to resolve key vocal fold subepithelial tissue structures in the rat, an important and widely used preclinical model in vocal fold biology. We conducted serial in vivo and ex vivo imaging, evaluated an array of acquisition sequences and contrast agents, and successfully resolved key anatomic features of naïve, acutely injured, and chronically scarred vocal fold mucosae on the ex vivo scans. Naïve lamina propria was hyperintense on T1-weighted imaging with gadobenate dimeglumine contrast enhancement, whereas chronic scar was characterized by reduced lamina propria T1 signal intensity and mucosal volume. Acutely injured mucosa was hypointense on T2-weighted imaging; lesion volume steadily increased, peaked at 5 days post-injury, and then decreased - consistent with the physiology of acute, followed by subacute, hemorrhage and associated changes in the magnetic state of hemoglobin and its degradation products. Intravenous administration of superparamagnetic iron oxide conferred no T2 contrast enhancement during the acute injury period. These findings confirm that magnetic resonance imaging can resolve anatomic substructures within naïve vocal fold mucosa, qualitative and quantitative features of acute injury, and the presence of chronic scar. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  20. High- and ultrahigh-field magnetic resonance imaging of naïve, injured and scarred vocal fold mucosae in rats

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    Ayami Ohno Kishimoto

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Subepithelial changes to the vocal fold mucosa, such as fibrosis, are difficult to identify using visual assessment of the tissue surface. Moreover, without suspicion of neoplasm, mucosal biopsy is not a viable clinical option, as it carries its own risk of iatrogenic injury and scar formation. Given these challenges, we assessed the ability of high- (4.7 T and ultrahigh-field (9.4 T magnetic resonance imaging to resolve key vocal fold subepithelial tissue structures in the rat, an important and widely used preclinical model in vocal fold biology. We conducted serial in vivo and ex vivo imaging, evaluated an array of acquisition sequences and contrast agents, and successfully resolved key anatomic features of naïve, acutely injured, and chronically scarred vocal fold mucosae on the ex vivo scans. Naïve lamina propria was hyperintense on T1-weighted imaging with gadobenate dimeglumine contrast enhancement, whereas chronic scar was characterized by reduced lamina propria T1 signal intensity and mucosal volume. Acutely injured mucosa was hypointense on T2-weighted imaging; lesion volume steadily increased, peaked at 5 days post-injury, and then decreased – consistent with the physiology of acute, followed by subacute, hemorrhage and associated changes in the magnetic state of hemoglobin and its degradation products. Intravenous administration of superparamagnetic iron oxide conferred no T2 contrast enhancement during the acute injury period. These findings confirm that magnetic resonance imaging can resolve anatomic substructures within naïve vocal fold mucosa, qualitative and quantitative features of acute injury, and the presence of chronic scar.

  1. HPV Vaccine

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    ... Against HPV Print en español Vacuna contra el virus del papiloma humano (VPH) What Is HPV and Why Is It a Problem? Human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) . HPV is the virus that causes genital warts . Besides genital warts, an ...

  2. Atrofia mucosa/translocação bacteriana na sepse experimental em ratos Wistar Mucosal atrophy/bacterial translocation in experimental sepsis in Wistar rats

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    Armando José d'Acampora

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avalizar a relação entre lesão mucosa e translocação bacteriana. MÉTODO: Utilizou-se 50 ratos distribuídos em 5 grupos: 1.Controle: injeção de inóculo padrão de Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 2.Dreno: injeção do inóculo padrão e drenagem da cavidade abdominal, após 6 horas, 3.Lavado: injeção do inóculo padrão e lavagem da cavidade abdominal, após 6 horas, 4.Lavado + dreno: injeção do inóculo padrão e após 6 horas, drenagem e lavagem da cavidade, 5.Normal: avaliação histológica da parede intestinal normal. Após o óbito, realizou-se hemocultura e cultura peritoneal. Realizou-se medida da espessura total da parede do jejuno e da camada mucosa em vilosidades seccionadas de forma longitudinal. RESULTADOS: Na hemocultura, houve crescimento de Pseudomonas aeruginosa e Escherichia coli em 90% e 52,5% dos animais. Na cultura peritoneal, houve crescimento de P. aeruginosa, E. coli e Klebsiella sp em 87,5%, 85% e 5% dos animais. Quanto a altura da camada mucosa e da parede intestinal, não houve alteração estatisticamente significativa entre os 5 grupos. CONCLUSÃO: A sepse aguda não causou alteração na camada mucosa do intestino delgado e a translocação ocorrida não pode ser considerada como decorrente de uma lesão da mucosa intestinal.PURPOSE: Observe the relation between small intestine's mucosal injury and bacterial translocation. METHODS: 50 adult female rats were distributed in 5 groups: 1. Control: intraperitoneal injection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 2. Drainage: intraperitoneal injection of P. aeruginosa and drainage of the abdominal cavity, after 6 hours, 3. Washed: intraperitoneal injection of P. aeruginosa and washing of the abdominal cavity, after 6 hours, 4. Washed + drainage: intraperitoneal injection of P. aeruginosa plus drainage and washing of the cavity, after 6 hours, 5. Normal: evaluation of the normal intestinal wall. After death, blood and peritoneal cultures were performed. Fragments of

  3. Effect of level of alimentation on visceral organ mass and the morphology and Na+, K+ adenosinetriphosphatase activity of intestinal mucosa in lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rompala, R E; Hoagland, T A

    1987-10-01

    Changes in ovine visceral organ mass and small intestinal mucosa morphology and metabolism due to short-term and prolonged modifications in level of alimentation were studied. Thirty-six lambs were fed for 21 d at either 100 or 50% ad libitum levels of intake. For the next 5 d, lambs either remained on the same intake levels or were switched from 100 or 50% or from 50 to 100% ad libitum intake levels and were subsequently slaughtered. Levels of alimentation the last 5 d before slaughter had a significant effect on weights of the large intestine, small intestine, stomach complex and liver, while only the weight of the liver was affected by 21-d adaptation period. Weights of the heart, lungs, carcass and visceral fat were not affected by level of alimentation. Villus height and mucosal mass at a constant intestinal tissue weight were modified by level of alimentation 5 d before slaughter but static to the previous 21-d nutritional plane. Activity of Na+, K+ ATPase of jejunal mucosa was not influenced by level of alimentation 5 d before slaughter, but was influenced by 21-d adapted level of alimentation. Results from this study are interpreted to indicate that weights of the liver and alimentary tract and small intestinal mucosa development are highly sensitive to changes in level of alimentation.

  4. Cytokine expression in the duodenal mucosa of patients with visceral leishmaniasis Expressão de citocinas na mucosa duodenal de pacientes com leishmaniose visceral

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    Kleber Giovanni Luz

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL is a neglected tropical disease with a complex immune response in different organs. This pattern of organ-specific immune response has never been evaluated in the gastrointestinal tract. The aim of this study was to determine the in situ immune response in duodenal biopsies on patients with VL. METHODS: A case-control study was conducted on 13 patients with VL in comparison with nine controls. The immune response was evaluated using immunohistochemistry, for CD4, CD8, CD68, IL-4, IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-10. Histological findings from the villi, crypts and inflammatory process were analyzed. RESULTS: All the cases of VL presented Leishmania antigens. No antigen was detected in the control group. The villus size was greater in the VL patients (p INTRODUÇÃO: Leishmaniose visceral (LV é uma doença tropical negligenciada com uma resposta imune complexa em diferentes órgãos. Este padrão de resposta imune órgão-específica nunca foi avaliada no trato gastrointestinal. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a resposta imune in situ em biópsias duodenais de pacientes com LV. MÉTODOS: Um estudo de caso controle com 13 pacientes com LV foi comparado com 9 controles. A resposta imune foi avaliada por imunohistoquímica para CD4, CD8, CD68, IL-4, IFN-γ, TNF-α e IL-10. Achados histológicos nos vilos, criptas e processo inflamatório foram analisados. RESULTADOS: Todos os casos de LV apresentaram antígenos de Leishmania. Nenhum antígeno foi encontrado no grupo controle. O tamanho do vilo foi maior em pacientes com LV (p < 0,05. CD68 (macrófagos e CD4 estavam aumentados em pacientes com LV (p < 0,05. Nenhuma diferença foi demonstrada na expressão de CD8, TNF-α, IL-10 e IL-4. O número de células expressando IFN-γ foi mais baixo que no grupo controle (p < 0,05. CONCLUSÕES: Baixos níveis de citocinas foram encontrados no trato gastrointestinal de pacientes com LV. Este padrão não foi encontrado em

  5. High- and ultrahigh-field magnetic resonance imaging of na?ve, injured and scarred vocal fold mucosae in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Kishimoto, Ayami Ohno; Kishimoto, Yo; Young, David L.; Zhang, Jinjin; Rowland, Ian J.; Welham, Nathan V.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Subepithelial changes to the vocal fold mucosa, such as fibrosis, are difficult to identify using visual assessment of the tissue surface. Moreover, without suspicion of neoplasm, mucosal biopsy is not a viable clinical option, as it carries its own risk of iatrogenic injury and scar formation. Given these challenges, we assessed the ability of high- (4.7?T) and ultrahigh-field (9.4?T) magnetic resonance imaging to resolve key vocal fold subepithelial tissue structures in the rat, an...

  6. [HPV immunization for the prevention of cervical cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mougin, Christiane; Bourgault-Villada, Isabelle; Coursaget, Pierre

    2009-12-01

    Human Papillomaviruses (HPV) infect epithelial cells of the skin and mucosae. Mucosal high-risk HPV types (mainly HPV 16 and 18) are involved in the development of cervical cancer, one of the most common cancers in young women. HPV infection is usually asymptomatic and clears spontaneously, but 10 - 15 % of high-risk HPV infections are persistent and increase the risk of precancerous and cancerous lesions of the cervix. Two HPV vaccines have been licensed to provide protection against cervical cancer. To report the different aspects of HPV infection in order to improve the understanding of the particular problems of HPV vaccination and to review the most recent findings related to HPV vaccines, particularly regarding the protective efficacy of vaccines and the roles of adjuvants and immune response in protection. Articles were selected from the PubMed database (National Library of Medicine- National Institute of Health) with the following Keywords "HPV", "Prevention", "HPV vaccines", "Immune response", "Antibody". Abstracts of oral presentations from international meetings were also selected for the more recent findings. a critical analysis of the majority of papers published was undertaken and relevant information summarized. Virus-like particle production by expressing the major protein of the HPV capsid was carried out in the early 90's, leading to the recent development of two HPV vaccines. These vaccines are now licensed in many countries and have been demonstrated to be highly immunogenic. In subjects that are non-infected at the time of vaccination, HPV vaccines are highly effective in preventing persistent HPV 16 - 18 infections (90 %) and precursors lesions of cervical cancer associated with these two HPV types (close to 100 %). Clinical trials have also confirmed that HPV vaccines are well tolerated by recipients. The present paper is a detailed review published in French on HPV vaccines, their efficacy in the prevention of HPV infections and unresolved

  7. Genital Warts (HPV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Genital Warts (HPV) KidsHealth / For Teens / Genital Warts (HPV) What's in ... HPV infection. How Do People Know They Have HPV? Most HPV infections have no signs or symptoms. ...

  8. Coexistência de pênfigo vulgar e infecção pelo vírus herpes simples na mucosa oral Coexistence of pemphigus vulgaris and herpes simplex virus infection in oral mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrianna Milagres

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O pênfigo vulgar é uma doença mucocutânea, imunomediada, caracterizada por lesões vesiculobolhosas, enquanto a infecção pelo vírus herpes simples (HSV é comum na cavidade oral. A coexistência das duas doenças tem sido relatada por alguns autores. Este artigo relata o caso de um paciente com múltiplas lesões em várias áreas da mucosa oral, cujo procedimento foi raspagem e biópsia incisional, que resultou no diagnóstico de pênfigo vulgar associado à infecção pelo HSV. Destaca-se a inusitada associação das doenças e a identificação citopatológica de duas populações celulares com aspectos morfológicos distintos e característicos, capazes de determinar o correto diagnóstico, sendo fundamental para a conduta e terapêutica adequada.Pemphigus vulgaris is an autoimmune mucocutaneous disease, characterized by vesiculobullous lesions. Herpes simplex virus (HSV infection is common in the oral cavity and the coexistence of pemphigus vulgaris and HSV infection has been reported by some authors. In this work, we report a case of a patient with multiple lesions involving several areas of the oral mucous membrane. Based on scraping cytology and incisional biopsy findings, the diagnosis was pemphigus vulgaris associated with HSV infection. We call attention to the uncommon association of both diseases and the cytological identification of two cell populations with different and characteristic morphological aspects, able enough to establish the correct diagnosis and define an appropriate therapeutic approach.

  9. Estudo terapêutico aberto com sulfato de aminosidine na leishmaniose mucosa causada for Leishmania (viannia braziliensis

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    Gustavo A.S. Romero

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available No período de setembro a novembro de 1994 foram tratados 21 pacientes com leishmaniose mucosa ativa, predominantemente adultos lavradores do sexo masculino, com sulfato de aminosidine intramuscular, I6mg/kg/dia por 20 dias. Treze pacientes eram virgens de tratamento e 8 haviam sido tratados sem sucesso com Glucantime®". O diagnóstico baseou-se inicialmente em crítêrios epidemiolôgicos, clínicos e nos resultados da intrademoireação de Montenegro e a imunofluorescência indireta para anticoipos séricos antileishmânia e durante o acompanhamento nos resultados dos estudos parasitológicos. Sessenta e sete por cento dos pacientes tiveram diagnóstico parasitológico confirmado sendo a inoculação do material de biópsia das lesões em hamsters o método mais sensível. O tempo médio de acompanhamento foi de 12,6 meses. A adesão ao tratamento foi de 100%. Os efeitos colaterais foram dor no local da injeção (86%, proteinúria leve (24%, elevação do nível sérico de creatinina (5% e perda auditiva subclínica em um dos dois pacientes que realizaram audiometria. Obsevou-se cura clínica em 48% dos pacientes e a percentagem acumulada de recidiva foi de 29% (4/14pacientes durante o acompanhamento.

  10. Estudo terapêutico aberto com sulfato de aminosidine na leishmaniose mucosa causada for Leishmania (viannia braziliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo A.S. Romero

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available No período de setembro a novembro de 1994 foram tratados 21 pacientes com leishmaniose mucosa ativa, predominantemente adultos lavradores do sexo masculino, com sulfato de aminosidine intramuscular, I6mg/kg/dia por 20 dias. Treze pacientes eram virgens de tratamento e 8 haviam sido tratados sem sucesso com Glucantime®". O diagnóstico baseou-se inicialmente em crítêrios epidemiolôgicos, clínicos e nos resultados da intrademoireação de Montenegro e a imunofluorescência indireta para anticoipos séricos antileishmânia e durante o acompanhamento nos resultados dos estudos parasitológicos. Sessenta e sete por cento dos pacientes tiveram diagnóstico parasitológico confirmado sendo a inoculação do material de biópsia das lesões em hamsters o método mais sensível. O tempo médio de acompanhamento foi de 12,6 meses. A adesão ao tratamento foi de 100%. Os efeitos colaterais foram dor no local da injeção (86%, proteinúria leve (24%, elevação do nível sérico de creatinina (5% e perda auditiva subclínica em um dos dois pacientes que realizaram audiometria. Obsevou-se cura clínica em 48% dos pacientes e a percentagem acumulada de recidiva foi de 29% (4/14pacientes durante o acompanhamento.From September to November 1994, 21 patients with active mucosal leishmaniasis were treated with aminosidine sulphate I6mg/kg/day by intramuscular injection for 20 days. They were principally adult male agricultural workers. Thirteen patients had not received specific treatment and eight had failed to respond to Glucantime® therapy. Diagnosis was based on clinical and epidemiological observations, a search for the parasite, leishmanin skin sensitivity and indirect fluorescent antibody serological tests. Sixty seven percent of patients had Leishmania parasites isolated from inoculated hamsters or visualized in imprints or histopathological sections. The mean follow-up period was 12.6 months. All patients completed treatment. Side effects were

  11. Búsquedas de epitopes conformacionales en la proteína HPV16-E7 del virus de papiloma humano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio C. Calvo

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available El virus de papiloma humano tipo 16 (HPV-16 es la principal causa de cáncer entre las mujeres en Colombia. Es importante desarrollar pruebas de bajo costo y confiables para detectar la presencia de este virus en las primeras etapas de la enfermedad. Los péptidos pueden ser usados para detectar anticuerpos en sueros, pero a menudo no son activos. Sin embargo, péptidos restringidos que imiten epitopes conformacionales pueden ser más efectivos.

  12. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Why get vaccinated?HPV vaccine prevents infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) types that are associated with cause ... at http://www.cdc.gov/hpv. HPV Vaccine (Human Papillomavirus) Information Statement. U.S. Department of Health and ...

  13. Alterações estruturais na mucosa jejunal de camundongos infectados com Schistosoma mansoni, alimentados com dietas hipo ou hiperprotéicas

    OpenAIRE

    Couto, Janira Lúcia Assumpção; Ferreira, Haroldo da Silva; Rocha, Dinalva Bezerra da; Duarte, Maria Eugênia Leite; Assunção, Monica Lopes; Coutinho, Eridan de Medeiros

    2002-01-01

    The effects of high and low-protein diets on the structure of the jejunal mucosa were studied in Schistosoma mansoni infected mice (morphology and histomorphometry). Weaning male albino mice were infected with 80 cercariae, fed with high (20%) or low-protein (5%) diets and compared to uninfected controls under the same conditions. Mice were sacrificed 12 weeks after infection. Animals submitted to a low-protein diet showed lower weight curves, mainly when infected. In the jejunal mucosa, fing...

  14. Prevalência de helicobactérias e alterações na mucosa gástrica de cães saudáveis Prevalence of helicobacters and alterations in gastric mucosa of healthy dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.Q. Moutinho

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence, distribution and density of gastric helicobacter colonization were determined in 50 healthy dogs, characterizing the macroscopic and microcospic aspects of their mucosa. Helicobacter prevalence was 96%, with greater distribution in the gastric fundus and body. Although the presence of macroscopic alterations was high (58%, it was characterized as mild due to the predominance of less severe ones (65.5%. High prevalence of mostly monoclear cell infriltate (64.7% was noted. Association between the presence of helicobacter and macro and microscopic alterations was not observed.

  15. Wound healing in the jugal mucosa of rats with a cold blade scalpel and an ultrasonic harmonic scalpel Cicatrização de feridas realizadas na mucosa jugal de ratos com bisturi com lâmina fria e com bisturi harmônico ultrassônico

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    Elen Carolina David João De Masi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasound harmonic scalpel has been recently introduced in otorhinolaryngological procedures. AIM: to assess macro and microscopic evolution of the healing process of wounds created in the jugal mucosa of rats by the use of ultrasound scalpel. METHOD: we used 30 Wistar rats in which we made mucosal incisions on the right jugal mucosa with the ultrasound harmonic scalpel (USHS and on the left side with the cold blade scalpel (CBS. Macroscopic and microscopic evaluations were carried out on the third, seventh and fourteenth days of postoperative. For the microscopic evaluation we used HE to asses the inflammatory process and the Sirius Red approach for collagens type I and III. Anti-CD 3 antibodies and anti-factor VIII assessed the concentration of T-lymphocytes and neovessels. RESULTS: the USHS caused greater cell damage with reepitelization delay. Microscopy showed more intense inflammatory reactions and a loss in collagen build up, delay in scar maturation and a greater vessel neoformation. CONCLUSION: USHS brings about a greater lesion in the incision area; delayed regeneration; promotes greater inflammatory process and angiogenic activity; delays in fibroplasia and scar tissue maturation on the rats' jugal mucosa when compared to cold blade scalpel.O bisturi harmônico ultrassônico foi introduzido recentemente em operações otorrinolaringológicas. ObJETIVO: Avaliar a evolução macro e microscópica do processo de cicatrização de feridas realizadas na mucosa jugal de ratas com uso de bisturi ultrassônico. MÉTODO: Foram utilizadas 30 ratas Wistar com incisões na mucosa, no lado direito com bisturi harmônico ultrassônico (BHU e à esquerda com bisturi com lâmina fria (BLF. As avaliações macroscópicas e microscópicas foram realizadas no terceiro, sétimo e décimo quarto dias pós-operatório. Na análise microscópica utilizou-se coloração HE para avaliar o processo inflamatório e a técnica de Sirius red para os colágenos I

  16. Efeitos de baixas pressões no balonete da máscara laríngea na mucosa faringolaríngea do cão Efectos de bajas presiones en el balón de la máscara laríngea en la mucosa faringolaríngea del can Effects of low laryngeal mask cuff pressure on the laryngopharyngeal mucosa of dogs

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    Regina Helena Garcia Martins

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Lesões da mucosa faringolaríngea e compressões de vasos e de nervos têm sido relatadas e atribuídas às altas pressões no balonete da máscara laríngea (ML. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar em cães a mucosa faringolaríngea em contato com o balonete da ML sob baixas pressões e avaliar as condições ventilatórias durante a anestesia. MÉTODO: Em 8 cães sob anestesia com pentobarbital foi inserida ML de número 4, mantendo-se a pressão no balonete em 60 cmH2O. Os atributos: freqüência de pulso (FP, pressão arterial média (PAM, pressão inspiratória (PI, pressão expiratória final de CO2 (P ET CO2 e saturação de pulso de O2 (SpO2 foram estudados em 0 (controle, 30, 60, 90 e 120 minutos após a inserção da ML. Após eutanásia, realizou-se biópsias nas áreas da contato da mucosa faringolaríngea com a ML para exame à microscopia óptica (MO e eletrônica de varredura (MEV. RESULTADOS: Os atributos estudados mantiveram-se sem alterações significativas durante o experimento, ocorrendo apenas pequeno aumento dos valores da PAM e da P ET CO2 nos tempos finais do experimento. À MO, o epitélio da mucosa faringolaríngea apresentou-se sem alterações na grande maioria das áreas examinadas, mas em algumas áreas houve pequena infiltração inflamatória de polimorfonucleares neutrófilos e leve congestão na camada subepitelial, sem diferença significativa entre as áreas (p JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: Lesiones de la mucosa faringolaríngea y compresiones de vasos y de nervios han sido relatadas y atribuidas a las altas presiones del balón de la máscara laríngea (ML. El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar en canes la mucosa faringolaríngea en contacto con el balón de la ML bajo bajas presiones y evaluar las condiciones ventilatorias durante la anestesia. MÉTODO: En 8 canes bajo anestesia con pentobarbital fue introducida ML de número 4, manteniéndose la presión en el balón en 60 cm

  17. Helicobacter spp. infection in dogs is not associated with changes in epithelial proliferation or E-cadherin expression in gastric mucosaInfecção por Helicobacter spp. em cães não está associada com alterações na proliferação epitelial ou na expressão de E-caderina na mucosa gástrica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Bracarense

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori infection causes gastritis and can induce gastric adenocarcinoma and MALT lymphoma in humans. The aim of this study was to determine in dogs whether there is an association between Helicobacter spp. infection in gastric mucosa, histological lesions, including epithelial cell proliferation and cell adhesion. Gastric biopsies of 12 dogs with gastric disturbances and 25 healthy dogs were evaluated. Warthin-Starry staining (WS and PCR assay were performed to confirm the presence of helicobacteria. The Helicobacter species were determined by PCR assay with speciesspecific primers for H. heilmannii, H. bizzozeronii or H. salomonis, H. felis and H. pylori. Mucosal lesions were evaluated by haematoxylin and eosin (HE and epithelial proliferation was determined by AgNOR and PCNA methods. Cell adhesion was evaluated by the expression of E-cadherin by epithelial cells. Helicobacter spp. was confirmed in 75.7% (28/37 and 73.0% (27/37 of the samples by WS and PCR, respectively. H. bizzozeronii was the species most frequently detected (37%; co-infection was observed in six (22% dogs. Histological changes in the lamina propria included mild chronic gastritis, fibrosis, glandular degeneration, and presence of lymphoid aggregates. There was a significant association between H. heilmannii infection and the presence of lymphoid follicles (p Infecção por Helicobacter pylori provoca gastrite e pode induzir adenocarcinoma gástrico e linfoma tipo MALT em seres humanos. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar se existe associação entre infecção por Helicobacter spp. na mucosa gástrica de cães e lesões histológicas, incluindo proliferação epitelial e adesão celular. Foram avaliadas biópsias de 12 cães com distúrbios gástricos e de 25 cães saudáveis. A coloração de Warthin-Starry (WS e o método de PCR foram utilizados para confirmar a presença de helicobactérias. As espécies de Helicobacter foram determinadas por PCR com

  18. Expression of the Na+/l- symporter (NIS is markedly decreased or absent in gastric cancer and intestinal metaplastic mucosa of Barrett esophagus

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    Wapnir Irene L

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The sodium/iodide symporter (NIS is a plasma membrane glycoprotein that mediates iodide (I- transport in the thyroid, lactating breast, salivary glands, and stomach. Whereas NIS expression and regulation have been extensively investigated in healthy and neoplastic thyroid and breast tissues, little is known about NIS expression and function along the healthy and diseased gastrointestinal tract. Methods Thus, we investigated NIS expression by immunohistochemical analysis in 155 gastrointestinal tissue samples and by immunoblot analysis in 17 gastric tumors from 83 patients. Results Regarding the healthy Gl tract, we observed NIS expression exclusively in the basolateral region of the gastric mucin-producing epithelial cells. In gastritis, positive NIS staining was observed in these cells both in the presence and absence of Helicobacter pylori. Significantly, NIS expression was absent in gastric cancer, independently of its histological type. Only focal faint NIS expression was detected in the direct vicinity of gastric tumors, i.e., in the histologically intact mucosa, the expression becoming gradually stronger and linear farther away from the tumor. Barrett mucosa with junctional and fundic-type columnar metaplasia displayed positive NIS staining, whereas Barrett mucosa with intestinal metaplasia was negative. NIS staining was also absent in intestinalized gastric polyps. Conclusion That NIS expression is markedly decreased or absent in case of intestinalization or malignant transformation of the gastric mucosa suggests that NIS may prove to be a significant tumor marker in the diagnosis and prognosis of gastric malignancies and also precancerous lesions such as Barrett mucosa, thus extending the medical significance of NIS beyond thyroid disease.

  19. HPV and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are a group of more than 200 related viruses that can cause several cancers including cervical cancer, anal cancer, and oropharyngeal cancer. Learn more about how HPV is transmitted, the different types of HPV, HPV vaccines, and HPV treatment.

  20. High-risk human papilloma virus in archival tissues of oral pathosis and normal oral mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghu Dhanapal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Oral cancer ranks third among all cancers in the Indian population. Human papilloma virus (HPV plays a significant role in oral carcinogenesis. Population-based subtype variations are present in the HPV prevalence. This study gives an emphasis on the parameters to be considered in formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissues for polymerase chain reaction (PCR-based research work. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional study on archival paraffin-embedded tissue samples of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC, epithelial dysplasia, and normal oral mucosa surrounding impacted tooth was amplified by PCR for the E6 gene of HPV type 16 and E1 gene of HPV type 18. Results: HPV 18 was positive in three OSCC cases. There was no statistically significant association of the positivity of HPV with the age, gender or habit. The HPV positive patients had a tobacco habit and were of a younger age group. Conclusion: The presence of HPV in carcinomatous tissue highlights the possible role of HPV in carcinogenesis and archival paraffin embedded tissue specimen can be used for this analysis. Recent studies on genomic analyses have highlighted that the HPV positive tumors are a separate subgroup based on genomic sequencing. The results of a larger retrospective study will help further in our understanding of the role of HPV in carcinogenesis, this study could form the baseline for such follow-up studies.

  1. High-risk human papilloma virus in archival tissues of oral pathosis and normal oral mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanapal, Raghu; Ranganathan, K; Kondaiah, Paturu; Devi, R Uma; Joshua, Elizabeth; Saraswathi, T R

    2015-01-01

    Oral cancer ranks third among all cancers in the Indian population. Human papilloma virus (HPV) plays a significant role in oral carcinogenesis. Population-based subtype variations are present in the HPV prevalence. This study gives an emphasis on the parameters to be considered in formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissues for polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based research work. Cross-sectional study on archival paraffin-embedded tissue samples of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), epithelial dysplasia, and normal oral mucosa surrounding impacted tooth was amplified by PCR for the E6 gene of HPV type 16 and E1 gene of HPV type 18. HPV 18 was positive in three OSCC cases. There was no statistically significant association of the positivity of HPV with the age, gender or habit. The HPV positive patients had a tobacco habit and were of a younger age group. The presence of HPV in carcinomatous tissue highlights the possible role of HPV in carcinogenesis and archival paraffin embedded tissue specimen can be used for this analysis. Recent studies on genomic analyses have highlighted that the HPV positive tumors are a separate subgroup based on genomic sequencing. The results of a larger retrospective study will help further in our understanding of the role of HPV in carcinogenesis, this study could form the baseline for such follow-up studies.

  2. Evaluation of quadrivalent HPV 6/11/16/18 vaccine efficacy against cervical and anogenital disease in subjects with serological evidence of prior vaccine type HPV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, Sven-Eric; Kjaer, Susanne K; Sigurdsson, Kristján

    2009-01-01

    Objective: In the quadrivalent (types 6/11/16/18) HPV vaccine (GARDASIL((R))/SILGARD((R))) clinical program, 73% of women aged 16-26 were naïve to all vaccine HPV types. In these women, prophylactic administration of the vaccine was highly effective in preventing HPV 6/11/16/18-related cervical...

  3. Tissue quantification of neutral and acid mucins in the mucosa of the colon with and without fecal stream in rats Quantificação tecidual de mucinas neutras e ácidas na mucosa do cólon com e sem trânsito intestinal em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Nonose

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To quantify the intensity of the expression of neutral and acids mucins in mucosa of the colon with and without fecal stream and to correlate this with the duration of fecal transit diversion. METHODS: Thirty male Wistar rats were subjected to fecal transit deviation in the left colon by a proximal colostomy and a distal mucous fistula. The animals were divided into three experimental groups, according to whether sacrificing would be performed six, 12 or 18 weeks after surgery. The expression of neutral and acid mucins was evaluated using the histochemical techniques of Periodic Acid Schiff and Alcian Blue, respectively. The tissue mucins expression was quantified by computer-assisted image analysis software (NIS-Elements in the segments with and without fecal stream. Student's paired t test was used to compare the quantities of mucins in colon with or without fecal stream and variance between the experimental groups by ANOVA and Newman-Keuls post-test, establishing level of signification of 5% (pOBJETIVO: Quantificar a intensidade de expressão de mucinas neutras e ácidas na mucosa cólica provida e desprovida de trânsito intestinal relacionando-a ao tempo de exclusão fecal. MÉTODOS: Trinta ratos Wistar machos foram submetidos à derivação do trânsito no cólon esquerdo por colostomia proximal e fístula mucosa distal. Os animais foram divididos em três grupos experimentais segundo o sacrifício ter sido realizado seis, 12 e 18 semanas após a cirurgia. A avaliação da expressão de mucinas neutras e ácidas na mucosa cólica foi realizada com as técnicas histoquímicas do Periódico Ácido de Schiff e Azul de Alcian, respectivamente. A quantificação da expressão tecidual das mucinas foi com auxílio de programa de análise de imagem assistida por computador (NIS-Elements nos segmentos providos e desprovidos de trânsito fecal. Utilizou-se o teste t de Student pareado na comparação da expressão de mucinas nos segmentos

  4. Characterization of two novel gammapapillomaviruses, HPV179 and HPV184, isolated from common warts of a renal-transplant recipient.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lea Hošnjak

    Full Text Available Gammapapillomavirus (Gamma-PV is a diverse and rapidly expanding PV-genus, currently consisting of 76 fully characterized human papillomavirus (HPV types. In this study, DNA genomes of two novel HPV types, HPV179 and HPV184, obtained from two distinct facial verrucae vulgares specimens of a 64 year-old renal-transplant recipient, were fully cloned, sequenced and characterized. HPV179 and HPV184 genomes comprise 7,228-bp and 7,324-bp, respectively, and contain four early (E1, E2, E6 and E7 and two late genes (L1 and L2; the non-coding region is typically positioned between L1 and E6 genes. Phylogenetic analysis of the L1 nucleotide sequence placed both novel types within the Gamma-PV genus: HPV179 was classified as a novel member of species Gamma-15, additionally containing HPV135 and HPV146, while HPV184 was classified as a single member of a novel species Gamma-25. HPV179 and HPV184 type-specific quantitative real-time PCRs were further developed and used in combination with human beta-globin gene quantitative real-time PCR to determine the prevalence and viral load of the novel types in the patient's facial warts and several follow-up skin specimens, and in a representative collection, a total of 569 samples, of HPV-associated benign and malignant neoplasms, hair follicles and anal and oral mucosa specimens obtained from immunocompetent individuals. HPV179 and HPV184 viral loads in patients' facial warts were estimated to be 2,463 and 3,200 genome copies per single cell, respectively, suggesting their active role in the development of common warts in organ-transplant recipients. In addition, in this particular patient, both novel types had established a persistent infection of the skin for more than four years. Among immunocompetent individuals, HPV179 was further detected in low-copy numbers in a few skin specimens, indicating its cutaneous tissue tropism, while HPV184 was further detected in low-copy numbers in one mucosal and a few skin

  5. Effects of Na-sucrose Octasulfate on skin and mucosa reactions during radiotherapy of head and neck cancers - A randomized prospective study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evensen, Jan F.; Bjordal, K.; Jacobsen, Anne-Birgitte; Loekkevik, E.; Tausjoe, J.E. [Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo (Norway). Dept. of Medical Oncology and Radiotherapy

    2001-11-01

    Na sucrose octasulfate (Na SOS) was tested for ability to relieve radiation-induced acute skin and mucosal reactions in patients with head and neck cancer. Sixty patients were included in this prospective, double-blind, randomized study. Skin and mucosal reactions were scored using several variables. No statistically significant difference was found between the results with Na SOS and those with placebo for any of the variables, with the exception of skin desquamation, which showed a significant difference in the placebo group. The most likely explanation for this is that the Na SOS gel itself left behind a flaky layer that was difficult to distinguish from radiation-induced flaking. In conclusion, we cannot recommend Na SOS in the routine management of radiation-induced skin and mucosal reactions.

  6. HPV and Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... Twitter STD on Facebook Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) HPV and Men - Fact Sheet Language: English (US) Español ( ...

  7. HPV (Human Papillomavirus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women HPV (human papillomavirus) Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... Español In Chamorro In Urdu In Vietnamese HPV (human papillomavirus) is a sexually transmitted virus. It is ...

  8. Omeprazole and misoprostol for preventing gastric mucosa effects caused by indomethacin and celecoxib in rats Omeprazol e misoprostol na prevenção de lesões de mucosa gástrica causadas por indometacina e celecoxib em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Míriam Elias Cavallini

    2006-06-01

    ástrica com omeprazol e misoprostol. MÉTODOS: A amostragem consistiu 150 ratos machos da raça Wistar, com peso médio de 200g, divididos em quatro grupos, a saber: grupo A, subdividido em grupos A1 e A2 - pré-tratamento com omeprazol (20 mg/rato durante sete dias, e no oitavo dia receberam o AINEs, sendo A1 (20 ratos receberam celecoxib (1mg/rato e A2 (20 ratos receberam indometacina (12,5mg/rato. O grupo B, subdividido em grupo B1 e B2 - pré-tratamento com misoprostol (20ìg/rato durante sete dias e no oitavo dia receberam AINEs, sendo B1 (20 ratos receberam celecoxib (1mg/rato e B2 (20 ratos receberam indometacina (12,5mg/rato. O grupo C não recebeu citoproteção durante sete dias e no oitavo dia recebeu AINEs, sendo C1 (20 ratos receberam celecoxib (1mg/rato , C2 (20ratos receberam indometacina (12,5mg/rato, C3 (20 ratos receberam celecoxib e grupo D - grupo controle, no qual dez ratos foram observados recebendo ração e água ad libitum. A seguir, no 9º dia (de todos os grupos, os estômagos eram removidos e avaliados macro e microscopicamente para a identificação das lesões gástricas. RESULTADOS: Na análise macroscópica, os grupos A2, B2 e C2 apresentaram número de lesões por cm²/animal significativamente elevados, sendo respectivamente 18,55 lesões por cm²/animal, 16,25 lesões por cm²/animal e 13,55 lesões por cm²/animal. Na análise microscópica, a porcentagem da mucosa com lesão mostrou diferença significativa entre os grupos A1, B1, C1 quando comparados com os grupos A2, B2 e C2 (p<0,0001. Os resultados da média da extensão/lesão e da média da profundidade das lesões não mostraram diferenças estatísticas significativas entre os grupos A2, B2 e C2. A média do edema mostrou diferença estatística significativa entre os grupos A2 e D; B2 e C2 e entre C2 e D (p<0,05. CONCLUSÕES: A indometacina na concentração empregada provoca número significativo de lesões macro e microscópicas na mucosa gástrica de ratos quando comparadas ao

  9. HPV Vaccine and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and anus. If I have HPV, will that cause pregnancy problems? It is unclear. Even though HPV is ... HPV can be passed to a newborn during pregnancy or through the birth canal. Usually this causes no problems for the newborn. In rare cases, ...

  10. Two novel genital human papillomavirus (HPV) types, HPV68 and HPV70, related to the potentially oncogenic HPV39.

    OpenAIRE

    Longuet, M; Beaudenon, S; Orth, G

    1996-01-01

    The genomes of two novel human papillomavirus (HPV) types, HPV68 and HPV70, were cloned from a low-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and a vulvar papilloma, respectively, and partially sequenced. Both types are related to HPV39, a potentially oncogenic virus. HPV68 and HPV70 were also detected in genital intraepithelial neoplasia from three patients and one patient, respectively. Comparison with sequence data in the literature indicates that the subgenomic ME180-HPV DNA fragment, clone...

  11. HPV-FASTER

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bosch, F Xavier; Robles, Claudia; Díaz, Mireia

    2016-01-01

    protocol would represent an attractive approach for many health-care systems, in particular, countries in Central and Eastern Europe, Latin America, Asia, and some more-developed parts of Africa. The role of vaccination in women aged >30 years and the optimal number of HPV-screening tests required......Human papillomavirus (HPV)-related screening technologies and HPV vaccination offer enormous potential for cancer prevention, notably prevention of cervical cancer. The effectiveness of these approaches is, however, suboptimal owing to limited implementation of screening programmes and restricted...... indications for HPV vaccination. Trials of HPV vaccination in women aged up to 55 years have shown almost 90% protection from cervical precancer caused by HPV16/18 among HPV16/18-DNA-negative women. We propose extending routine vaccination programmes to women of up to 30 years of age (and to the 45-50-year...

  12. Atypical Clinical Behavior of p16-Confirmed HPV-Related Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Treated With Radical Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Shaohui [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital/University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Perez-Ordonez, Bayardo [Department of Pathology, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Liu Feifei [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital/University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Division of Applied Molecular Oncology, Ontario Cancer Institute, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Waldron, John; Ringash, Jolie [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital/University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Irish, Jonathan [Department of Surgical Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital/University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Cummings, Bernard [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital/University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Siu, Lillian L. [Division of Medical Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital/University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Kim, John [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital/University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Weinreb, Ilan [Department of Pathology, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Hope, Andrew [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital/University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Gullane, Patrick; Brown, Dale [Department of Surgical Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital/University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Shi, Willa [Division of Applied Molecular Oncology, Ontario Cancer Institute, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); O' Sullivan, Brian, E-mail: Brian.OSullivan@rmp.uhn.on.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital/University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To report atypical clinical behavior observed in human papillomavirus (HPV)-related oropharyngeal carcinoma (OPC) treated with radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: A retrospective cohort study was conducted for all newly diagnosed OPC cases treated with radiotherapy on July 1, 2003 to April 30, 2009. HPV positivity was determined by p16 immunostaining in tumors. The incidence of additional malignancies and the pattern of distant metastases (DMs) were compared between the HPV-positive (HPV+) and HPV-negative (HPV-) cohorts. Results: HPV status was evaluated in 318 of 613 consecutive OPC cases (52%), showing 236 HPV+ and 82 HPV- patients. Compared with HPV-, HPV+ cases were less likely to have additional malignancies (prior: 11% vs. 20%, p = 0.038; synchronous: 1% vs. 9%, p = 0.001; metachronous: 6% vs. 16%, p = 0.003). Whereas the majority (10 of 12) of HPV- additional head-and-neck (HN) mucosal malignancies were in the oral cavity, there was none (0 of 7) in the HPV+ cohort (p < 0.001). HPV+ synchronous HN second primaries (SPs) were in the supraglottis, post-cricoid, and nasopharynx; metachronous HN SPs were in the glottis, supraglottis, and ethmoid plus glottis/post-cricoid region. All SPs that could be tested were HPV+. There was no difference in DM rate (10% vs. 15%, p = 0.272), but HPV+ DMs were more likely to involve multiple organs (46% vs. 0%, p = 0.005) and unusual sites. Conclusions: This study reports atypical clinical behavior seen in HPV+ OPC, including multicentric lesions in HN mucosa and DM to multiple organs and unusual sites. The frequency of these events is low, but they may have clinical implications. The routine assessment of HPV status for all OPC is warranted.

  13. Conhecimento, atitude e práticas na prevenção do câncer de colo uterino e hpv em adolescentes Conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas en la prevención de cáncer cervicouterino y el VPH en adolescentes Knowledge, attitude and practice in the prevention of cervical cancer and HPV in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferla Maria Simas Bastos Cirino

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O início sexual cada vez mais cedo propicia alta vulnerabilidade da adolescente a problemas da esfera sexual/reprodutiva, incluindo o câncer de colo uterino e a infecção pelo HPV. O presente estudo teve como objetivo identificar o conhecimento, atitude e prática na prevenção do câncer de colo uterino e infecção pelo HPV na população adolescente e avaliar as situações que as tornam vulneráveis. Trata-se de estudo transversal realizado em uma escola pública de São Paulo com 134 adolescentes entre 14 e 19 anos. Verificou-se idade de iniciação sexual aos 14,8 anos em média. Grande parte das adolescentes não apresentou conhecimento adequado sobre a prevenção desta neoplasia. A adesão ao Papanicolaou também se mostrou baixa. As estatísticas justificam a inserção da adolescente nos programas de detecção deste câncer. É preciso haver investimentos na educação sexual nas instituições de ensino e associar campanhas de Papanicolaou com atividades educativas, com enfoque adequado e linguagem apropriada.La iniciación sexual cada vez más temprana propicia un nivel alto de vulnerabilidad de los adolescentes a los problemas de la esfera sexual / reproductiva, incluyendo el cáncer del cuello del útero y la infección por VPH. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo identificar los conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas en la prevención de cáncer cervical y la infección por VPH en la población adolescente y evaluar las situaciones que los tornan vulnerables. Este es un estudio transversal realizado en una escuela pública en Sao Paulo con 134 adolescentes entre 14 y 19 años. El promedio de la edad de iniciación sexual fue de 14,8 años. La mayoría de los adolescentes no tienen conocimientos adecuados sobre la prevención de este tipo de cáncer. También presentó bajas tasas de la prueba del Papanicolaou . Las estadísticas justifican la inclusión de estas adolescentes en los programas para la detección de este cáncer. Es

  14. Effect of a hyperlipidic diet rich in omegas 3, 6 and 9 on aberrant crypt formation in rat colonic mucosa Efeito de uma dieta hiperlipídica rica em ômegas 3, 6 e 9 na formação de criptas aberrantes em mucosa cólica de ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idália Maria Brasil Burlamaqui

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To determine whether a hypercaloric and hyperlipidic diet enriched with polyunsaturated fatty acids influences the formation of aberrant crypt foci (ACF in colonic mucosa of Wistar rats treated with azoxymethane (AOM. METHODS: At eight weeks of life, the rats were assigned to four groups: Group I―standard diet (STD not treated with AOM; Group II―hypercaloric and hyperlipidic diet (FED, not treated with AOM; Group III―STD, treated with AOM; Group IV―FED, treated with AOM. At 16 weeks, the animals were injected intraperitoneal with 0.9% saline solution (Group I and II or AOM at 15mg/Kg (Groups III and IV once a week for two weeks. Fifteen weeks later, the animals were euthanized. RESULTS: FED promoted weight gain in Groups II and IV compared to Groups I and III, respectively. The groups did not differ with regard to the total number of ACF. The Chi-square test revealed no predominance of the presence of foci with OBJETIVO: Determinar se uma dieta hipercalórica, hiperlipídica, rica em ácidos graxos poliinsaturados (FED tem influência na formação de focos de cripta aberrante (FCA em mucosa cólica de ratos Wistar expostos ao azoximetano (AOM. MÉTODOS: Com oito semanas de vida, os ratos foram distribuídos em quatro grupos: Grupo I: Dieta padrão (SD sem AOM; Grupo II: FED, sem AOM; Grupo III: SD, com AOM; Grupo IV: FED com AOM. Com 16 semanas, os animais dos grupos I e II receberam injeções intraperitoneais de solução salina 0,9%, enquanto os dos grupos III e IV receberam AOM na dose de 15mg/Kg de peso, 1 vez por semana por duas semanas. Quinze semanas após, os animais foram mortos. RESULTADOS: FED promoveu aumento de peso nos grupos II e IV em relação aos grupos I e III. Não houve aumento significante no número total de FCA entre os grupos. Em relação à multiplicidade das criptas por FCA, o teste do qui-quadrado mostrou que não houve predominância da presença <4 criptas por foco. Contudo, focos ≥5 criptas

  15. HPV Infection in Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel M. Palefsky

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available While much is known about the natural history of cervical human papillomavirus (HPV infection and its consequences, including cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical cancer, relatively little is known about the natural history of anogenital HPV infection and diseases in men. In part this reflects difficulties in penile sampling and visual assessment of penile lesions. Anal HPV infection and disease also remain poorly understood. Although HPV is transmitted sexually and infects the genitals of both sexes, the cervix remains biologically more vulnerable to malignant transformation than does the penis or anus in men. An understanding of male HPV infection is therefore important in terms of reducing transmission of HPV to women and improving women's health. However, it is also important due to the burden of disease in men, who may develop both penile and anal cancer, particularly among HIV-positive men who have sex with men. Improved sampling techniques of the male genitalia and cohort studies in progress should provide important information on the natural history of anogenital HPV infection and disease in men, including risk factors for HPV acquisition and transmission. The impact of HPV vaccination in women on male anogenital HPV infection will also need to be assessed.

  16. Avaliação dos danos do DNA na mucosa esofágica e sangue periférico de portadores da doença do refluxo gastroesofágico Evaluation of DNA damage in the esophageal mucosa and peripheral blood of patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilene Lúcia Bertolozzo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available RACIONAL: A doença do refluxo gastroesofágico é a afecção digestiva de maior prevalência. Os portadores podem apresentar na evolução algumas complicações, sendo o esôfago de Barrett a de maior importância, tendo em vista seu potencial de malignidade. Todavia os processos inflamatórios do trato gastrointestinal podem apresentar degeneração maligna. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar os possíveis danos do DNA em portadores de esofagite de refluxo gastroesofágico de vários graus e verificar a aplicação do ensaio Cometa na detecção dos mesmos. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados 25 pacientes distribuídos em quatro grupos: controle (n=5, esofagite leve (n=8, esofagite severa (n=5 e câncer (n=7. O ensaio Cometa foi realizado no sangue periférico (linfócitos e biópsia do terço distal do esôfago. RESULTADOS: O ensaio Cometa detectou danos no DNA nos pacientes com esofagite leve e severa (sangue periférico e biópsia, sendo que na esofagite severa a intensidade dos danos foi maior (pBACKGROUND: The gastroesophageal reflux disease is the most prevalent digestive disorder. Patients with it may present some complications during its development, and Barrett's esophagus is the most important in view of its potential malignancy. However, the inflammatory processes of the gastrointestinal tract may show malignant degeneration. AIM: To assess possible DNA damage in patients with gastroesophageal reflux esophagitis of various degrees and to evaluate the application of the Comet assay in its detection. METHODS: Twenty-five patients were studied. They were divided into four groups: control (n=5, mild esophagitis (n=8, severe esophagitis (n=5 and cancer (n=7. The Comet assay was performed on peripheral blood cells (lymphocytes and biopsy of the distal esophagus. RESULTS: The Comet assay detected DNA damage in patients with mild and severe esophagitis (peripheral blood and biopsy, and damage intensity was greater in severe esophagitis (p<0,05. DNA damage in

  17. Human papillomavirus-mediated carcinogenesis and HPV-associated oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. Part 2: Human papillomavirus associated oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection of the mouth and oropharynx can be acquired by a variety of sexual and social forms of transmission. HPV-16 genotype is present in many oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomata. It has an essential aetiologic role in the development of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma in a subset of subjects who are typically younger, are more engaged with high-risk sexual behaviour, have higher HPV-16 serum antibody titer, use less tobacco and have better survival rates than in subjects with HPV-cytonegative oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. In this subset of subjects the HPV-cytopositive carcinomatous cells have a distinct molecular profile. In contrast to HPV-cytopositive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma, the causal association between HPV-16 and other high-risk HPV genotypes and squamous cell carcinoma of the oral mucosa is weak, and the nature of the association is unclear. It is likely that routine administration of HPV vaccination against high-risk HPV genotypes before the start of sexual activity will bring about a reduction in the incidence of HPV-mediated oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. This article focuses on aspects of HPV infection of the mouth and the oropharynx with emphasis on the link between HPV and squamous cell carcinoma, and on the limitations of the available diagnostic tests in identifying a cause-and-effect relationship of HPV with squamous cell carcinoma of the mouth and oropharynx. PMID:20633288

  18. Reparative Spheroids in HPV-Associated Chronic Cervicitis

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    Gennadiy T. Sukhikh

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Spheroid cell structures (SCS described in cell culture are used to study cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. However, the role of the SCS in the repair process in vivo remains unexplored. The aim of the study was to examine the cellular composition of the spherical structures and their functional significance in the repair of the squamous epithelium in human papilloma virus-associated chronic cervicitis (HPV-CC. Methods and Results: The cytology and biopsy materials from 223 patients with HPV-CC were subjected to molecular testing for HPV DNA by Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (Real-Time PCR with genotyping and chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH, as well as immunocytological and immunohistochemical analyses of p16INK4A, Ki67, SMA, Vimentin, CD34, E-cadherin, Oct4, CD44, CKW markers. In the stem cell niche zone, these spheroid structures were discovered having proliferative activity and showing signs of producing stem cells involved in the repair of the cervical mucosa in HPV-CC. Conclusion: The persistence of the HPV in the stem cell niche zone cells in the cervix determines the chronization of inflammation in this area, with the ability to perform pathological repair. The immunophenotype of the spheroid cell structures in the HPV-CC includes cells with signs of stem cells (‘stemness’ and the mesenchymal-epithelial transition.

  19. Viabilidade celular da mucosa do intestino delgado de ratos, após correção de choque hipovolêmico com solução de NaCl 7,5%

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brito Marcus Vinicius Henriques

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estudar o efeito da correção volêmica com diferentes tipos de solução, na mucosa do intestino delgado de ratos. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados 120 ratos Wistar (Rattus norvegicus albinus, machos, adultos, com peso individual entre 310 e 410g, oriundos do Instituto Evandro Chagas de Belém do Pará, submetidos a período de adaptação por 15 dias, recebendo água e ração ad libitum, durante todo o experimento. Os animais foram distribuídos em: Grupo Padrão (P, Grupo Choque (C, Grupo Solução Fisiológica (SF e Grupo Solução Hipertônica (SH, com 30 animais cada. Estes foram divididos em subgrupos com 10 animais cada, de acordo com o dia de pós-operatório (DPO previsto para a eutanásia dos animais, (1masculine, 3masculine ou 7masculine DPO, sendo após esta, colhido material para realização de teste de absorvância pelo MTT em todos os animais. RESULTADOS: O grupo SF apresentou menores índices de viabilidade celular comparado aos grupos SH e C (p<0.05. CONCLUSÃO: A correção volêmica com solução de cloreto de sódio a 7.5% levou a manutenção de maior quantidade de células viáveis, no intestino delgado em ratos no 7masculine dia do experimento.

  20. Cicatrização de feridas realizadas na mucosa jugal de ratos com bisturi com lâmina fria e com bisturi harmônico ultrassônico

    OpenAIRE

    Masi, Elen Carolina David João De; Rocha, Sergio Luis; Mocellin, Marcos; Faria, João Luis Garcia de

    2009-01-01

    Ultrasound harmonic scalpel has been recently introduced in otorhinolaryngological procedures. AIM: to assess macro and microscopic evolution of the healing process of wounds created in the jugal mucosa of rats by the use of ultrasound scalpel. METHOD: we used 30 Wistar rats in which we made mucosal incisions on the right jugal mucosa with the ultrasound harmonic scalpel (USHS) and on the left side with the cold blade scalpel (CBS). Macroscopic and microscopic evaluations were carried out on ...

  1. Verruca vulgaris of the buccal mucosa: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aastha Mattoo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral verruca vulgaris is caused by human papillomavirus (HPV infection. Verruca vulgaris most frequently occurs on the fingers, toes, soles, and dorsal surfaces of hands and is mostly asymptomatic. Varieties of verrucous and papillary lesions affect the skin as well as oral mucosa which may be either benign or reactive. Common wart is one of the most commonly observed skin growths and a lesion of childhood. Intraoral warts can occur at any age with equal incidence in both genders but are most commonly seen in the third to fifth decade. It is found commonly on the palate followed by lip, tongue, buccal mucosa, and rarely seen on gingiva. Surgical excision with adequate margins is the treatment of choice.

  2. The HPV Vaccination Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Following the release of a consensus statement from the NCI-Designated Cancer Centers urging HPV vaccination in the United States, Dr. Noel Brewer discusses the country’s low vaccination rates and how clinicians can help to improve them.

  3. HPV DNA test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... test; Cancer of cervix - HPV DNA test References Hacker NF. Cervical dysplasia and cancer. In: Hacker NF, Gambone JC, Hobel CJ, eds. Hacker and Moore's Essentials of Obstetrics and Gynecology . 6th ...

  4. Asymptomatic oral carriage of Candida species in HIV-infected patients in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era Carreadores assintomáticos de espécies de Candida na mucosa bucal de pacientes infectados pelo HIV na era da terapia antiretroviral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Rodrigues Costa

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Oropharyngeal candidiasis is the most common opportunistic fungal infection in individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus. CD4+ lymphocytes count and the quantification of viral RNA in blood plasma have been found to be the main markers of HIV disease progression. The present study was conducted to evaluate Candida sp. diversity in the oral cavity of HIV-infected patients and to determine whether there was association of CD4+ cell count and viral load with asymptomatic oral Candida carriage. Out of 99 HIV-positive patients studied, 62 (62.6% had positive culture for Candida (oral carriage and 37 patients (37.4% had Candida negative culture (no oral carriage. The etiologic agents most common were C. albicans and C. tropicalis. The range of CD4+ was 6-2305 cells/mm³ in colonized patients and 3-839 cells/mm³ for non-colonized patients, while the viral load was 60-90016 copies/mL for colonized patients and 75-110488 copies/mL for non colonized patients. The viral load was undetectable in 15 colonized patients and in 12 non colonized patients. Our results showed that there was no significant difference of the variables CD4+ cell count and viral load between oral candida carriage and no oral candida carriage patients.Candidíase de orofaringe é a infecção fúngica oportunística mais comum em indivíduos infectados com o vírus da imunodeficiência humana. Contagem de linfócitos CD4+ e quantificação de RNA viral no plasma sanguíneo são os principais marcadores da progressão da doença pelo HIV. O presente estudo foi conduzido para avaliar a diversidade de espécies de Candida presentes na cavidade bucal de pacientes infectados pelo HIV e para determinar se havia associação de contagem de células CD4+ e de carga viral com carreadores assintomáticos de Candida, na mucosa bucal. Dos 99 pacientes HIV positivo estudados, 62 (62,6% apresentaram cultura positiva para Candida sp. sendo denominados carreadores de Candida e os 37

  5. Atypical Clinical Behavior of p16-Confirmed HPV-Related Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Treated With Radical Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Shaohui; Perez-Ordonez, Bayardo; Liu Feifei; Waldron, John; Ringash, Jolie; Irish, Jonathan; Cummings, Bernard; Siu, Lillian L.; Kim, John; Weinreb, Ilan; Hope, Andrew; Gullane, Patrick; Brown, Dale; Shi, Willa; O’Sullivan, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To report atypical clinical behavior observed in human papillomavirus (HPV)–related oropharyngeal carcinoma (OPC) treated with radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: A retrospective cohort study was conducted for all newly diagnosed OPC cases treated with radiotherapy on July 1, 2003 to April 30, 2009. HPV positivity was determined by p16 immunostaining in tumors. The incidence of additional malignancies and the pattern of distant metastases (DMs) were compared between the HPV-positive (HPV+) and HPV-negative (HPV–) cohorts. Results: HPV status was evaluated in 318 of 613 consecutive OPC cases (52%), showing 236 HPV+ and 82 HPV– patients. Compared with HPV–, HPV+ cases were less likely to have additional malignancies (prior: 11% vs. 20%, p = 0.038; synchronous: 1% vs. 9%, p = 0.001; metachronous: 6% vs. 16%, p = 0.003). Whereas the majority (10 of 12) of HPV– additional head-and-neck (HN) mucosal malignancies were in the oral cavity, there was none (0 of 7) in the HPV+ cohort (p < 0.001). HPV+ synchronous HN second primaries (SPs) were in the supraglottis, post-cricoid, and nasopharynx; metachronous HN SPs were in the glottis, supraglottis, and ethmoid plus glottis/post-cricoid region. All SPs that could be tested were HPV+. There was no difference in DM rate (10% vs. 15%, p = 0.272), but HPV+ DMs were more likely to involve multiple organs (46% vs. 0%, p = 0.005) and unusual sites. Conclusions: This study reports atypical clinical behavior seen in HPV+ OPC, including multicentric lesions in HN mucosa and DM to multiple organs and unusual sites. The frequency of these events is low, but they may have clinical implications. The routine assessment of HPV status for all OPC is warranted.

  6. Antibiotic concentrations in intestinal mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmborg, A S

    1985-01-01

    The concentrations in the intestinal mucosa after the initial dose of cefoxitin, piperacillin and clindamycin have been studied. The antibiotics were given at the induction of anesthesia as prophylaxis to patients undergoing elective colorectal surgery. The concentrations of the antibiotics in serum and intestinal mucosa taken during the operation were determined by the microbiological agar diffusion method. Therapeutic concentrations in intestinal mucosa were maintained during the major part of the operation period. The mean mucosa/serum concentration ratios were for cefoxitin 0.4, for piperacillin 0.5 and for clindamycin 1.2.

  7. Comparison between single PCR and nested PCR in detection of human papilloma viruses in paraffin-embedded OSCC and fresh oral mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalouli, Miranda; Jalouli, Jamshid; Ibrahim, Salah O; Hirsch, Jan-Michaél; Sand, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Infection with human papilloma virus (HPV) has been implicated as one of the risk factors for the development of oropharyngeal cancer. Many different HPV tests exist, and information regarding their specific technical, analytical, and clinical properties is increasing. This study aimed to compare the level of detection of HPV using two reliable polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods, nested PCR (NPCR) and single PCR (SPCR), in archival paraffin-embedded oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) samples and fresh oral mucosa specimens. The presence of HPV genome in two groups of tissue samples was analyzed: (i) 57 paraffin-embedded OSCC samples from Sudan and (ii) eight healthy fresh oral mucosal samples from Swedish volunteers. The specimens were tested by SPCR with primer pair MY9/MY11 and NPCR using GP5+/GP6+ primer sets. Eighteen (32%) out of the 57 paraffin-embedded OSCC samples, and five (62%) out of the eight fresh clinically healthy samples were found to be HPV-positive with NPCR. With SPCR, four (7%) out of the paraffin-embedded OSCC samples were HPV-positive. A statistically significant difference between HPV-positive and -negative samples was found when comparing NPCR and SPCR in OSCC and fresh oral mucosa (pnested PCR increased the positivity rate, efficiency rate and sensitivity of HPV detection in oral samples significantly and should be considered as the method of choice. Copyright © 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  8. HPV detection in oral carcinomas Detecção do HPV em carcinomas orais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurora Karla de Lacerda Vidal

    2004-02-01

    para o HPV de baixo risco; e também uma (2,5% foi positiva apenas para o HPV de alto risco. Houve concordância entre todos os resultados positivos para presença de HPV-DNA nas amostras citológicas submetidas ao teste de captura híbrida Digene® e na leitura de esfregaço citológico ao microscópio óptico convencional. Desta forma, conclui-se que o vírus HPV pode comportar-se como mais um co-carcinógeno para o câncer de boca, à semelhança do carcinoma uterino.

  9. Inmunohistoquímica de la proteína p16INK4a en biopsias y extendidos cervicovaginales y su relación con HPV por PCR Immunohistochemistry of p16INK4a in biopsies and cervicovaginal smears, and its correlation with HPV detected by PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro García

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudios recientes sugieren que la sobreexpresión de p16, determinada por inmunohistoquímica, sería un marcador específico de células escamosas displásicas y neoplásicas con alta asociación con HPV de alto riesgo. Nuestro objetivo fue correlacionar los hallazgos cito/histológicos con la expresión de p16 y el subtipo de HPV por PCR. Seleccionamos 95 biopsias de cuello uterino y 4 legrados endocervicales de 99 individuos, y 30 extendidos cervicovaginales de otros 30 individuos, que se dividieron según el diagnóstico morfológico. Inmunomarcamos cortes del material incluido en parafina y los extendidos con el kit CINtecT p16INK4a (DAKO. Evaluamos HPV por PCR utilizando 25/99 biopsias con lesión intraepitelial escamosa de bajo grado. Observamos marcación positiva para p16 en 1/35 biopsias (2.9% y 1/11 extendidos (9% en los grupos sin HPV ni displasia; 16/25 biopsias (64% y 6/10 extendidos (60% en aquellos con lesión de bajo grado y 38/39 biopsias (97.4% y 8/9 extendidos (89% en los grupos con lesión de alto grado y carcinoma escamoso. Todas las muestras con HPV-6/11 fueron negativas o positivas focales para p16, en tanto que aquellas con HPV-18 u otros subtipos fueron mayoritariamente positivas de tipo difuso. Concluimos que la expresión de p16 presenta alta correlación con el diagnóstico cito/histológico y alta asociación entre la marcación difusa y la presencia de HPV de alto riesgo, aportando mayor objetividad en casos dudosos y ayudando a seleccionar grupos de individuos con riesgo de progresión de enfermedad, con un costo aceptable para estudiar grandes grupos.Recent studies suggest that p16 overexpression determined by immunohistochemistry would be a specific marker for neoplastic and dysplastic squamous cells associated with high-risk HPV. The purpose of this study was to assess the correlation between cyto-histological findings, p16 expression and HPV subtype. A total of 99 biopsies were selected, 4 endocervical

  10. Leishmaniasis mucosa y otras lesiones destructivas centrofaciales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Rodríguez

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Varias enfermedades producen lesiones del área centrofacial. Una de las más frecuentes en nuestro medio es la leishmaniasis destructivas mucosa. Como el INS es un centro de estudio de leishmaniasis, se atendieron pacientes o sus biopsias con afecciones del macizo centrofacial, primariamente remitidas con el diagnóstico clínico de leihsmaniasis mucosa. En un período de 7 años (1987-1993, se estudiaron 134 biopsias de estos pacientes. El diagnóstico de leishmaniasis mucosa fue definitivo en 26 casos, por demostración del amastigote con la coloración de hematoxilina eosina y el mismo diagnóstico se estableció por patrón histopatológico solamente, en 27 casos. Una técnica inmunoenzimática para demostrar los amastigotes no fue satisfactoria. La perforación banal del tabique nasal (52 biopsias es la entidad que el clínico y el patólogo confunden con mayor frecuencia con la leishmaniasis mucosa. Otras entidades demostradas fueron la paracoccidioidomicosis (3, histoplasmosis (2, rinosporidiosis (2. esporotricosis (l, tuberculosis bucal (3, lepra leprornatosa (l, escleroma nasal (2, granulomatosis de Wegener (2, linfomas angiocéntricos (4, aspiración crónica de cocaína (l, y carcinoma escamocelular palatino (1. La biopsia, luego de la historia clínica, es el pilar esencial para identificar y manejar adecuadamente estas lesiones, que pueden originar destrucción facial grave, a veces letal, si no se dispone del diagnóstico preciso y del tratamiento oportuno.

  11. Clinical and endoscopic findings in the mucosae of the upper respiratory and digestive tracts in post-treatment follow-up of paracoccidioidomycosis patients Achados clínicos e endoscópicos na mucosa das vias aéreas e digestivas superiores no segmento pós-terapêutico de pacientes com paracoccidioidomicose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos Francesconi do Valle

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available Systematic examination of the upper respiratory and digestive tracts (URDT was performed in a group of 80 paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM patients submitted to post-treatment follow-up ranging from 8 months to 17 years. Mucosae of the URDT had been involved prior to specific treatment in 74 patients, distributed as follows: oropharynx, 50 (41 alone, 7 in association with the larynx, and 2 with the nasal mucosa; larynx, 30 (23 alone and 7 in association; and nasal mucosa, 3(1 alone and 2 in association. Inactive lesions were observed in all the 50 patients with lesions of the oropharynx, 3 of whom with deforming scars (1 with retraction of the tongue and 2 with narrowing of the oral orifice. One case presented a destructive lesion, with perfuration of the palate. Of the other 46 cases, examination showed nacreous white striated scars which were nearly imperceptible in some cases and in others displayed partial retraction of anatomical structures without any alteration of their features. Patients presented a high rate of missing teeth. In 3 patients with involvement of the nasal mucosa, none of whom presented active PCM lesions, 2 still had nasal voices. In 30 patients with lesions of the larynx, 1 suffered a relapse of PCM and 2 developed epidermoid carcinoma. Of the other 27 cases, none of whom had active PCM lesions, 15 presented dysphonia, 3 were tracheotomized, and 9 were asymptomatic.Foi realizado sistematicamente o exame das vias aero-digestivas superiores (VADS em grupo de 80 pacientes de paracoccidioidomicose (PCM acompanhados após o tratamento específico por período que variou de 8 meses a 17 anos. A mucosa das VADS estava comprometida antes do tratamento específico em 74 pacientes, assim distribuídos: orofaringe, 50 (41 isoladamente, 7 em associação com o laringe e 2 com a mucosa nasal; laringe, 30 (23 isoladamente e 7 em associação e nasal, 3 (1 isoladamente e 2 em associação. Em todos os 50 que apresentavam lesões no

  12. HPV Infections in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Barbara Moscicki

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Adolescents who are sexually active have the highest rates of prevalent and incident HPV infection rates with over 50–80% having infections within 2–3 years of initiating intercourse. These high rates reflect sexual behavior and biologic vulnerability. Most infections are transient in nature and cause no cytologic abnormality. However, a small number of adolescents will not clear the infection. Persistence of HPV is strongly linked to the development of high-grade squamous intra-epithelial lesions (HSIL and invasive cancer. The HSIL detected, however, does not appear to progress rapidly to invasive cancer. Understanding the natural history of HPV in adolescents has shed light into optional treatment strategies which include watchful observation of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS and low grade (LSIL. The association between age of first intercourse and invasive cancer cannot be ignored. Consequently, initiating screening at appropriate times in this vulnerable group is essential. In addition, with the advent of the HPV vaccine, vaccination prior to the onset of sexual activity is critical since most infections occur within a short time frame post initiation.

  13. HPV Testing Among Providers

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-15

    Dr. Walter Kinney, a gynecologic oncologist with The Permanente Medical Group in Sacramento, California, talks about Pap and human papillomavirus (HPV) cotesting in women aged 30 and over.  Created: 10/15/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  14. HPV Vaccine PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    In this 30 second public service announcement, a mother talks about the importance of protecting 11-12 year-old boys and girls with HPV vaccination. (Una madre habla sobre la importancia de proteger a los niños y las niñas de 11 a 12 años con la vacuna contra el VPH.)

  15. Grantee Spotlight: Dr. Meena Jaggi - Investigating Curcumin (Turmeric) as HPV Repressor for Native A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dr. Meena Jaggi’s research, funded by an NCI/CRCHD U01 grant, involves the use of curcumin (commonly known as turmeric) to inhibit human papillomavirus (HPV) infection among Native American (NA) women.

  16. Comparison of Real-Time Multiplex Human Papillomavirus (HPV) PCR Assays with INNO-LiPA HPV Genotyping Extra Assay▿

    OpenAIRE

    Else, Elizabeth A.; Swoyer, Ryan; Zhang, Yuhua; Taddeo, Frank J.; Bryan, Janine T.; Lawson, John; Van Hyfte, Inez; Roberts, Christine C.

    2011-01-01

    Real-time type-specific multiplex human papillomavirus (HPV) PCR assays were developed to detect HPV DNA in samples collected for the efficacy determination of the quadrivalent HPV (type 6, 11, 16, and 18) L1 virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine (Gardasil). Additional multiplex (L1, E6, and E7 open reading frame [ORF]) or duplex (E6 and E7 ORF) HPV PCR assays were developed to detect high-risk HPV types, including HPV type 31 (HPV31), HPV33, HPV35, HPV39, HPV45, HPV51, HPV52, HPV56, HPV58, and H...

  17. Reduction in oxidative stress levels in the colonic mucosa without fecal stream after the application of enemas containing aqueous Ilex paraguariensis extract Redução dos níveis de estresse oxidativo na mucosa cólica sem trânsito intestinal após aplicação de enemas contendo extrato aquoso de Ilex paraguariensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Lorenzetti da Cunha

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the antioxidant effects of enemas containing aqueous extract of Ilex paraguariensis, comparing segments with and without fecal stream and correlating the segments with the duration of intervention. METHODS: Twenty-six Wistar rats were subjected to a diversion of the fecal stream in the left colon by a proximal colostomy and distal mucosal fistula. The rats were distributed randomly into two experimental groups of 13 animals each based on the time of sacrifice after surgical procedure (two or four weeks. Each group was then divided into two experimental subgroups that received either second daily enemas containing 0.9% saline solution or aqueous extract of Ilex paraguariensis at 0.2g/100g. Colitis was diagnosed by histopathological analysis and the detection of oxidative tissue damage by measuring the levels of malondialdehyde. The Mann-Whitney test was used to compare the tissue levels of malondialdehyde between colon segments with and without fecal stream in each experimental group, and the Kruskal-Wallis test was used to verify the variance between the levels of oxidative stress according the duration of the irrigation; both tests determined significance at 5% (pOBJETIVO: Avaliar os efeitos antioxidantes de clisteres contendo extrato aquoso de Ilex paraguariensis comparando segmentos com e sem trânsito fecal e correlacionando com o tempo de intervenção. MÉTODOS: Vinte e seis ratos Wistar machos foram submetidos à derivação do trânsito no cólon esquerdo pela confecção de colostomia proximal e fístula mucosa distal. Foram divididos de forma randomizada em dois grupos experimentais de 13 animais, de acordo com o sacrifício ser realizado após duas ou quatro semanas do procedimento cirúrgico. Cada grupo foi dividido em dois subgrupos experimentais segundo a aplicação diária ter sido realizada com enemas diários contendo solução fisiológica a 0,9% ou extrato aquoso de Ilex paraguariensis na concentra

  18. HPV vaccines: a controversial issue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicol, A F; Andrade, C V; Russomano, F B; Rodrigues, L L S; Oliveira, N S; Provance, D W

    2016-01-01

    Controversy still exists over whether the benefits of the available HPV vaccines outweigh the risks and this has suppressed uptake of the HPV vaccines in comparison to other vaccines. Concerns about HPV vaccine safety have led some physicians, healthcare officials and parents to withhold the recommended vaccination from the target population. The most common reason for not administering the prophylactic HPV vaccines are concerns over adverse effects. The aim of this review is the assessment of peer-reviewed scientific data related to measurable outcomes from the use of HPV vaccines throughout the world with focused attention on the potential adverse effects. We found that the majority of studies continue to suggest a positive risk-benefit from vaccination against HPV, with minimal documented adverse effects, which is consistent with other vaccines. However, much of the published scientific data regarding the safety of HPV vaccines appears to originate from within the financially competitive HPV vaccine market. We advocate a more independent monitoring system for vaccine immunogenicity and adverse effects to address potential conflicts of interest with regular systematic literature reviews by qualified individuals to vigilantly assess and communicate adverse effects associated with HPV vaccination. Finally, our evaluation suggests that an expanded use of HPV vaccine into more diverse populations, particularly those living in low-resource settings, would provide numerous health and social benefits.

  19. HPV vaccines: a controversial issue?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.F. Nicol

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Controversy still exists over whether the benefits of the available HPV vaccines outweigh the risks and this has suppressed uptake of the HPV vaccines in comparison to other vaccines. Concerns about HPV vaccine safety have led some physicians, healthcare officials and parents to withhold the recommended vaccination from the target population. The most common reason for not administering the prophylactic HPV vaccines are concerns over adverse effects. The aim of this review is the assessment of peer-reviewed scientific data related to measurable outcomes from the use of HPV vaccines throughout the world with focused attention on the potential adverse effects. We found that the majority of studies continue to suggest a positive risk-benefit from vaccination against HPV, with minimal documented adverse effects, which is consistent with other vaccines. However, much of the published scientific data regarding the safety of HPV vaccines appears to originate from within the financially competitive HPV vaccine market. We advocate a more independent monitoring system for vaccine immunogenicity and adverse effects to address potential conflicts of interest with regular systematic literature reviews by qualified individuals to vigilantly assess and communicate adverse effects associated with HPV vaccination. Finally, our evaluation suggests that an expanded use of HPV vaccine into more diverse populations, particularly those living in low-resource settings, would provide numerous health and social benefits.

  20. Efeito de um hidrolisado de proteínas de soro de leite e de seus peptídeos na proteção de lesões ulcerativas da mucosa gástrica de ratos Effects of a whey protein concentrate and it's peptides in the protection of ulcerative lesions at rat gastric mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Bertoldo Pacheco

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a atividade do hidrolisado das proteínas de soro de leite bovino e uma fração de peptídeos de baixo peso molecular (peso molecular OBJECTIVE: To assess the ability of bovine whey protein hydrolysate and its low molecular weight fraction (molecular weight <1kDa to protect the gastric mucosa of rats against ulcerative process induced by three different agents. METHODS: Adult Wistar rats were subjected to the indomethacin-induced ulcer (30mg/kg body weigh, absolute ethanol (1ml/animal and immobilization and cold stress (4(0C/2h, models. RESULTS: Whey protein hydrolysate was obtained by treatment with pancreatin to a degree of hydrolysis of 20% and fractionated using a tangential flow membrane with a molecular weight cut-off of 1kDa to obtain the fraction containing low molecular weight peptides (<1kDa. In the ethanol-induced acute ulcer model (single dose, whey protein hydrolysate inhibited the gastric lesion index by 65.5% and the double dose resulted in a 77.4% inhibition. CONCLUSION: For the anti-inflammatory model, the cytoprotective effect of low molecular weight peptides was stronger than that of total hydrolysate (53.1 and 71.6%, ulcerative lesion index for single and double dose, respectively. No mucosa cytoprotective activity was found for whey protein concentrate, whey protein hydrolysate or WPHP in the immobilization and cold stress model.

  1. Avaliação da tolerância e nefrotoxicidade do antimonial pentavalente administrado na dose de 40mg Sb v/kg/dia, de 12/12h, por 30 dias na forma cutaneo-mucosa de leishmaniose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimunda N.R. Sampaio

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliada a função renal de 11 pacientes com leishmaniose cutâneo-mucosa tratados com antimonial pentavalente na dose de 40mg SbV/kg/dia aplicada de 12/12 horas, em esquema contínuo, durante trinta dias. No estudo, um paciente apresentou insuficiência renal reversível e dois desenvolveram alterações enzimáticas hepáticas e eletrocardiográficas sendo o esquema terapêutico interrompido. Nos demais pacientes observou-se efeitos nefrotóxicos tais como diminuição da taxa de filtração glomerular, diminuição da capacidade de concentração urinária, avaliada por um jejum hídrico de 16 horas e aumento na fração de excreção de sódio. No exame do sedimento urinário observou-se um aumento no número de leucócitos e cilindros. Os resultados encontrados neste estudo sugerem que o tratamento com antimonial pentavalente na dose de 40mg SbV/kg/dia foi menos tolerado em virtude de seus efeitos tóxicos, não parecendo apresentar índice de cura superior ao esquema atualmente preconizado de 20mg SbV/kg/dia.The renal function of eleven patients with mucocutaneous leishmaniasis was analyzed in a prospective study realized at the School Hospital of University of Brasília. The patients were treated with doses of 40mg/kg/day of pentavalent antimony (SbV, in a continuous scheme during thirty days. In this study three patients were excluded, one patient with reversible renal failure and two patients with hepatic and cardiac malfunctions. In the other eight patients, severe nephrotoxics effects were observed, like reduction of glomerular filtration rate, reduction of the urinary concentration capacity, evaluated by a sixteen hours hydric fasting and an increase of sodium fractional excretion. An increase in the number of leucocytes and cylinders were observed at the urinary sediment exam. Finally, the results shows that the treatment with pentavalent antimony in doses of 40mg Sb/kg/day was less tolerated on account of its renal toxics

  2. HPV Vaccine Information for Young Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Transmitted Diseases (STDs) HPV Vaccine Information For Young Women Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... warts at any point in time. Which girls/women should receive HPV vaccination? HPV vaccination is recommended ...

  3. Preventing Cervical Cancer with HPV Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervical cancer can be prevented with HPV vaccines. NCI-supported researchers helped establish HPV as a cause of cervical cancer. They also helped create the first HPV vaccines, were involved in the vaccine trials, and contribute to ongoing studies.

  4. Evaluation of HPV type-replacement in unvaccinated and vaccinated adolescent females-Post-hoc analysis of a community-randomized clinical trial (II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Penelope; Palmroth, Johanna; Luostarinen, Tapio; Apter, Dan; Dubin, Gary; Garnett, Geoff; Eriksson, Tiina; Natunen, Kari; Merikukka, Marko; Pimenoff, Ville; Söderlund-Strand, Anna; Vänskä, Simopekka; Paavonen, Jorma; Pukkala, Eero; Dillner, Joakim; Lehtinen, Matti

    2018-06-15

    Efficacy of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines promises to control HPV infections. However, HPV vaccination programs may lay bare an ecological niche for non-vaccine HPV types. We evaluated type-replacement by HPV type and vaccination strategy in a community-randomized trial executed in HPV vaccination naïve population. Thirty-three communities were randomized to gender-neutral vaccination with AS04-adjuvanted HPV16/18 vaccine (Arm A), HPV vaccination of girls and hepatitis B-virus (HBV) vaccination of boys (Arm B) and gender-neutral HBV vaccination (Arm C). Resident 1992-95 born boys (40,852) and girls (39,420) were invited. 11,662 boys and 20,513 girls were vaccinated with 20-30% and 45-48% coverage, respectively. HPV typing of 11,396 cervicovaginal samples was performed by high throughput PCR. Prevalence ratios (PR) between arms and ranked order of HPV types and odds ratio (OR) for having multiple HPV types in HPV16 or 18/45 positive individuals were calculated. The ranked order of HPV types did not significantly differ between arms or birth cohorts. For the non-HPV vaccinated 1992-1993 birth cohorts increased PR, between the gender-neutral intervention versus control arms for HPV39 (PR A 1.84, 95% CI 1.12-3.02) and HPV51 (PR A 1.56, 95% CI 1.11-2.19) were observed. In the gender-neutral arm, increased clustering between HPV39 and the vaccine-covered HPV types 16 or 18/45 (OR A16  = 5.1, OR A18/45  = 11.4) was observed in the non-HPV vaccinated 1994-1995 birth cohorts. Comparable clustering was seen between HPV51 and HPV16 or HPV18/45 (OR B16  = 4.7, OR B18/45  = 4.3), in the girls-only arm. In conclusion, definitively consistent postvaccination patterns of HPV type-replacement were not observed. Future occurrence of HPV39 and HPV51 warrant investigation. © 2018 UICC.

  5. Specificity of the Linear Array HPV Genotyping Test for detecting human papillomavirus genotype 52 (HPV-52)

    OpenAIRE

    Kocjan, Boštjan; Poljak, Mario; Oštrbenk, Anja

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: HPV-52 is one of the most frequent human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes causing significant cervical pathology. The most widely used HPV genotyping assay, the Roche Linear Array HPV Genotyping Test (Linear Array), is unable to identify HPV- 52 status in samples containing HPV-33, HPV-35, and/or HPV-58. Methods: Linear Array HPV-52 analytical specificity was established by testing 100 specimens reactive with the Linear Array HPV- 33/35/52/58 cross-reactive probe, but not with the...

  6. Prevalence and multiplicity of HPV in HIV women in Minas Gerais, Brazil Prevalência e multiplicidade do HPV em mulheres infectadas pelo HIV em Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Miranda Corrêa

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To detect the frequency and subtypes of HPV in the uterine cervix of HIV-infected women. METHODS: Sample consisted of 288 HIV-infected women, recruited from the public health system of five cities of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Women were seen from August 2003 to August 2008. Cervical samples were collected for cytological analysis and for HPV DNA detection, using polymerase chain reaction (PCR. HPV DNA was classified according to its oncogenic potential in low risk (types 6, 11 and high risk (types 16, 18, 31, 33, 35. Colposcopy was performed, followed by cervical biopsy when necessary. Categorical variables were compared using the Chi-squared test, with a significance level established at the 5% level. RESULTS: HPV prevalence was 78.8%. Most frequent genotypes were HPV-6 (63.9% and HPV-16 (48.5%. High-risk HPV were observed in 70.5% of the women; low-risk in 71.4%; both high and low-risk HPV were detected in 55.1% of the patients. Multiple HPV genotypes were detected in 64.8% of the patients; two genotypes in 23.8%, and three in 18.9%. CONCLUSION: HPV prevalence was high among HIV-infected women. Multiple HPV genotypes were common in samples from the uterine cervix of HIV-infected womenOBJETIVO: Detectar a frequência e os subtipos do HPV na cérvice uterina de mulheres infectadas pelo HIV. MÉTODOS: A amostra era composta por 288 mulheres infectadas pelo HIV, recrutadas do sistema público de saúde de cinco cidades de Minas Gerais, Brasil. As mulheres foram avaliadas de agosto de 2003 a agosto de 2008. Amostras cervicais foram coletadas para análise citológica e para detecção do HPV DNA, usando a reação em cadeia de polimerase (PCR. O HPV DNA foi classificado de acordo com seu potencial oncogênico em baixo risco (tipos 6,11 e alto risco (tipos 16, 18, 31, 33, 35. Foi realizada colposcopia, seguida de biópsia cervical, quando indicada. Variáveis categóricas foram comparadas usando o teste do quiquadrado, com nível de signific

  7. Expressions of HPV 16-E6 in Esophageal Carcinoma and its Clinical Significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Zhao

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: The role of (Human Papilloma Virus HPV in cancer of certain anatomical location, such as cervix, has been widely recognized. The present study was conducted to explore the association between HPV 16-E6 protein and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Methods: SP immunohistochemical method was used to examine the expression of HPV 16-E6 in 50 cases of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, 10 cases of normal esophageal squamous cell and 10 cases of adjacent tissue. Results: The expression of HPV 16-E6 was significantly higher in esophageal carcinoma than in normal esophageal mucosa and in adjacent tissue. The expressions of HPV 16-E6 had significant correlation with invasive depth (P<0.05, but not with patient age, lymph node metastasis, tumor size (P>0.05. Conclusion: HPV 16-E6 can promote the growth and metastasis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and can be a prognostic factor of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jcmsn.v10i4.12970 JCMS Nepal 2014; 10(4:1-5 

  8. HPV prevalence and HPV-related dysplasia in elderly women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth S Hermansson

    Full Text Available In Sweden, where screening ends at the age of 60, about 30% of the cervical cancer cases occur in women older than 60. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of HPV and cervical dysplasia in women of 60 years and above.From September 2013 until June 2015, 1051 women aged 60-89 years (mean 68 years were sampled for an HPV test when attending an outpatient gynecology clinic. Women with positive results had a second HPV test and liquid based cytology (LBC, after 3.5 months on average. Those with a positive second HPV test were examined by colposcopy, and biopsy and a sample for LBC was obtained.The prevalence of HPV was 4.1%, (95%CI 3.0-5.5, n = 43 at the first test, and at the second test 2.6% remained positive (95%CI 1.7-3.8, n = 27. The majority of women positive in both HPV tests, had dysplasia in histology, 81.5% (22/27 (4 CIN 2-0.4%, 18 CIN 1-1.7%. HPV-related dysplasia was found in 2.1%, (95%CI 1.3-3.2, n = 22 of the 1051 women. Four of the 22 women with positive HPV tests also had abnormal cytology, one ASCUS and three CIN 1. No cancer or glandular dysplasia was detected.A significant proportion of elderly women were found to have a persistent cervical HPV infection. Among them there was a high prevalence of CIN diagnosed by histology. The HPV test showed high sensitivity and specificity in detecting CIN in elderly women, while cytology showed extremely low sensitivity.

  9. HPV Carcinomas in Immunocompromised Patients

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    Nicole M. Reusser

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Human papillomavirus (HPV infection is the most common sexually transmitted disease worldwide and can result in pre-malignancies or overt malignancies of the skin and mucosal surfaces. HPV-related illnesses are an important personal and public health problem causing physical, mental, sexual and financial detriments. Moreover, this set of malignancies severely affects the immunosuppressed population, particularly HIV-positive patients and organ-transplant recipients. There is growing incidence of HPV-associated anogenital malignancies as well as a decrease in the average age of affected patients, likely related to the rising number of high-risk individuals. Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common type of HPV-related malignancy. Current treatment options for HPV infection and subsequent disease manifestations include imiquimod, retinoids, intralesional bleomycin, and cidofovir; however, primary prevention with HPV vaccination remains the most effective strategy. This review will discuss anogenital lesions in immunocompromised patients, cutaneous warts at nongenital sites, the association of HPV with skin cancer in immunocompromised patients, warts and carcinomas in organ-transplant patients, HIV-positive patients with HPV infections, and the management of cutaneous disease in the immunocompromised patient.

  10. Characterization of two novel cutaneous human papillomaviruses, HPV93 and HPV96

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vasiljevic, Natasa; Hazard, Kristina; Eliasson, Linda

    2007-01-01

    Two novel human papillomaviruses (HPVs), HPV93 and HPV96, with genomes of 7450 and 7438 bp, respectively, are described. The L1 open reading frame of HPV93 showed highest identity to HPV24 (79%) and that of HPV96 had highest identity to HPV92 (71%). Real-time PCR for HPV92, 93 and 96 on stripped ...... per 45 cells to one copy per 10,000 cells. The E7 proteins of HPV92, 93 and 96 were found to bind the retinoblastoma protein (pRb). These results suggest a possible role for these HPV types in skin carcinogenesis that deserves further study....

  11. HPV Vaccine PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-01-15

    In this 30 second public service announcement, a mother talks about the importance of protecting 11-12 year-old boys and girls with HPV vaccination. (Una madre habla sobre la importancia de proteger a los niños y las niñas de 11 a 12 años con la vacuna contra el VPH.).  Created: 1/15/2014 by National Center for Immunizations and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 1/15/2014.

  12. HPV DNA methylation at the early promoter and E1/E2 integrity: A comparison between HPV16, HPV18 and HPV45 in cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaro-Filho, Sérgio Menezes; Pereira Chaves, Cláudia Bessa; Felix, Shayany Pinto; Basto, Diogo Lisbôa; de Almeida, Liz Maria; Moreira, Miguel Angelo Martins

    2018-04-09

    To compare and describe type-specific characteristics of HPV16, HPV18 and HPV45 in cervical cancer with respect to 3'LCR methylation and disruption of E1/E2. The methylation level of 137 cervical cancer samples (70 with HPV16, 37 with HPV18, and 30 with HPV45) of Brazilian patients was analyzed by pyrosequencing. PCR amplifications were performed to characterize E1 and E2 disruption as an episomal surrogate. The 3'LCR of HPV16 showed a higher methylation at all CpG sites (7%, 9%, 11%, 10% and 10%) than homologous HPV18 regions (4%, 5%. 6%, 9% and 5%) and HPV45 regions (7%, 7% and 5%). Presence of intact E1/E2 was associated with higher HPV16 and HPV18 methylation levels at all CpG sites (p < 0.05). Disruption of E1/E2 was more frequently found in HPV45 (97%) and HPV18 (84%) than in HPV16 DNA (30%). HPV16 disruption was more frequently found in E1 (48%) unlike HPV18, where it was found in E2 (61%). Concomitant disruption of E1/E2 was most frequent in HPV45 (72%). The findings showed a higher methylation associated with intact E1/E2 for HPV16 and HPV18. The closely phylogenetic related HPV18 and HPV45 share a similar methylation level and the frequency of viral genome disruption. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Antimicrobial compounds of porcine mucosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotenkova, E. A.; Lukinova, E. A.; Fedulova, L. V.

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate porcine oral cavity mucosa (OCM), nasal cavity mucosa (NCM), rectal mucosa (RM) and tongue mucosa (TM) as sources of antimicrobial compounds. Ultrafiltrates with MW >30 kDa, MW 5-30 kDa and MW 30 kDa, the zone of microbial growth inhibition was 7.5 mm, for the MW<5 kDa fraction, it was 7 mm, and for MW 5-30 kDa fraction, it was 4.5 mm. No significant differences were found in high molecular weight proteomic profile, while qualitative and quantitative differences were observed in the medium and low molecular weight areas, especially in OCM and NCM. HPLC showed 221 tissue-specific peptides in OCM, 156 in NCM, 225 in RM, but only 5 in TM. The results observed confirmed porcine mucous tissues as a good source of antimicrobial compounds, which could be an actual alternative for reduction of microbial spoilage of foods.

  14. Integration of Oncogenes via Sleeping Beauty as a Mouse Model of HPV16+ Oral Tumors and Immunologic Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi-Hsin; Yang, Ming-Chieh; Tseng, Ssu-Hsueh; Jiang, Rosie; Yang, Andrew; Farmer, Emily; Peng, Shiwen; Henkle, Talia; Chang, Yung-Nien; Hung, Chien-Fu; Wu, T-C

    2018-01-23

    Human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) is the etiologic factor for cervical cancer and a subset of oropharyngeal cancers. Although several prophylactic HPV vaccines are available, no effective therapeutic strategies to control active HPV diseases exist. Tumor implantation models are traditionally used to study HPV-associated buccal tumors. However, they fail to address precancerous phases of disease progression and display tumor microenvironments distinct from those observed in patients. Previously, K14-E6/E7 transgenic mouse models have been used to generate spontaneous tumors. However, the rate of tumor formation is inconsistent, and the host often develops immune tolerance to the viral oncoproteins. We developed a preclinical, spontaneous, HPV16 + buccal tumor model using submucosal injection of oncogenic plasmids expressing HPV16-E6/E7, NRas G12V , luciferase, and sleeping beauty (SB) transposase, followed by electroporation in the buccal mucosa. We evaluated responses to immunization with a pNGVL4a-CRT/E7(detox) therapeutic HPV DNA vaccine and tumor cell migration to distant locations. Mice transfected with plasmids encoding HPV16-E6/E7, NRas G12V , luciferase, and SB transposase developed tumors within 3 weeks. We also found transient anti-CD3 administration is required to generate tumors in immunocompetent mice. Bioluminescence signals from luciferase correlated strongly with tumor growth, and tumors expressed HPV16-associated markers. We showed that pNGVL4a-CRT/E7(detox) administration resulted in antitumor immunity in tumor-bearing mice. Lastly, we demonstrated that the generated tumor could migrate to tumor-draining lymph nodes. Our model provides an efficient method to induce spontaneous HPV + tumor formation, which can be used to identify effective therapeutic interventions, analyze tumor migration, and conduct tumor biology research. Cancer Immunol Res; 6(3); 1-15. ©2018 AACR. ©2018 American Association for Cancer Research.

  15. Long-term persistence of oral human papillomavirus type 16: the HPV Infection in Men (HIM) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce Campbell, Christine M; Kreimer, Aimée R; Lin, Hui-Yi; Fulp, William; O'Keefe, Michael T; Ingles, Donna J; Abrahamsen, Martha; Villa, Luisa L; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Giuliano, Anna R

    2015-03-01

    Persistent infection with oral HPV16 is believed to drive the development of most oropharyngeal cancers. However, patterns of oral HPV16 persistence remain understudied, particularly among HIV-negative individuals. Oral HPV16 persistence was evaluated among 1,626 participants of the HPV Infection in Men (HIM) Study. Twenty-three oral HPV16-positive men who provided an oral gargle sample on ≥2 study visits were included in the analysis. Archived oral samples from all follow-up visits were tested for HPV16 using Linear Array and INNO-LiPA detection methods. Persistence was evaluated using consecutive HPV16-positive visits held approximately 6 months apart and using the Kaplan-Meier method. Oral HPV16-positive men were aged 18 to 64 years [median, 36 years; interquartile range (IQR), 25-42] and were followed for a median of 44.4 months (IQR, 29.9-49.5). Of 13 incident infections, 4 (30.8%) persisted ≥12 months, 1 (10.0%) persisted ≥24 months, and none persisted ≥36 months [median infection duration, 7.3 months; 95% confidence interval (CI), 6.4-NA)]. Of 10 prevalent infections, 9 (90.0%) persisted ≥12 months, 8 (80.0%) persisted ≥24 months, 4 (57.1%) persisted ≥36 months, and 2 (40.0%) persisted ≥48 months (median infection duration, NA). Twelve-month persistence of incident infections increased significantly with age (Ptrend = 0.028). Prevalent oral HPV16 infections in men persisted longer than newly acquired infections, and persistence appeared to increase with age. These findings may explain the high prevalence of oral HPV observed at older ages. Understanding oral HPV16 persistence will aid in the identification of men at high-risk of developing HPV-related oropharyngeal cancer. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  16. Current Status of HPV Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Barbara; Roden, Richard; Wu, T.C.

    2010-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second largest cause of cancer deaths in women worldwide, with ~500,000 diagnoses and 274,000 deaths annually. It remains a significant source of morbidity and mortality despite effective screening tools and treatments for its precursor high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). Increased understanding of cervical pathogenesis has led to the identification of human papillomavirus (HPV) as the etiological agent for cervical cancer and the development of preventive and therapeutic vaccines targeting HPV antigens for the control of cervical cancer. Herein, we discuss the current status of HPV vaccines. PMID:20677402

  17. Worldwide burden of cancer attributable to HPV by site, country and HPV type

    OpenAIRE

    de Martel, Catherine; Plummer, Martyn; Vignat, Jerome; Franceschi, Silvia

    2017-01-01

    HPV is the cause of almost all cervical cancer and is responsible for a substantial fraction of other anogenital cancers and oropharyngeal cancers. Understanding the HPV?attributable cancer burden can boost programs of HPV vaccination and HPV?based cervical screening. Attributable fractions (AFs) and the relative contributions of different HPV types were derived from published studies reporting on the prevalence of transforming HPV infection in cancer tissue. Maps of age?standardized incidenc...

  18. Infecção oral pelo HPV e lesões epiteliais proliferativas associadas HPV oral infection and proliferative epithelial associated lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia Tereza Lima Ferraro

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Os papilomavírus humanos (HPVs pertencem à família Papillomaviridae e seu ciclo de vida é diretamente ligado à diferenciação das células epiteliais do hospedeiro. Possuem seis genes que se expressam precocemente e dois genes que se expressam tardiamente, sendo denominados respectivamente E (early e L (late. O ácido desoxirribonucleico (DNA viral dentro da célula do hospedeiro pode assumir duas formas: epissomal e integrada. O HPV tem como alvo as células basais de epitélios escamosos, em particular da área genital, onde está associado ao carcinoma da cérvice uterina. Na boca, o HPV está associado a papiloma escamoso oral, condiloma acuminado, verruga vulgar e hiperplasia epitelial focal. Entretanto, seu papel na carcinogênese oral é ainda controverso, sendo também identificado como agente etiológico de alguns carcinomas de células escamosas de cabeça e pescoço. A infecção pelo HPV pode agir sinergicamente com agentes carcinogênicos, como o tabaco e o álcool. Pelo menos 150 subtipos diferentes de HPV já foram identificados, sendo que 25 têm sido detectados em lesões orais. Considerando a relevância do tema para a melhor compreensão da infecção oral pelo HPV, o objetivo desta atualização é rever os aspectos relevantes da biologia do HPV, com ênfase na relação HPV-ceratinócitos, e a importância dos dados clínicos e histopatológicos na definição diagnóstica das lesões orais possivelmente associadas ao HPV.Papillomaviruses belong to the family Papillomaviridae and their life cycle is directly linked to the differentiation of host epithelial cells. They have six genes that are expressed earlier and two genes that are expressed later in their life cycle, named respectively E (early and L (late. Host cell viral DNA can take two forms: episomal and integrated. The human papillomavirus (HPV targets the basal cells of squamous epithelia, particularly from the genital area, which is associated with uterine

  19. Low hematocrit impairs gastric mucosal CO2 removal during experimental severe normovolemic hemodilution Hematócrito baixo compromete a remoção de CO2 da mucosa gástrica na hemodiluição normovolêmica intensa experimental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Perin

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The net effects of acute normovolemic hemodilution with different hemoglobin levels on splanchnic perfusion have not been elucidated. The hypothesis that during moderate and severe normovolemic hemodilution, systemic and splanchnic hemodynamic parameters, oxygen-derived variables, and biochemical markers of anaerobic metabolism do not reflect the adequacy of gastric mucosa, was tested in this study. METHODS: Twenty one anesthetized mongrel dogs (16 ± 1 kg were randomized to controls (CT, n = 7, no hemodilution, moderate hemodilution (hematocrit 2 5% ± 3%, n = 7 or severe hemodilution (severe hemodilution, hematocrit 15% ± 3%, n = 7, through an isovolemic exchange of whole blood and 6% hydroxyethyl starch, at a 20 mL/min rate, to the target hematocrit. The animals were followed for 120 min after hemodilution. Cardiac output (CO, L/min, portal vein blood flow (PVF, mL/min, portal vein-arterial and gastric mucosa-arterial CO2 gradients (PV-artCO2 and PCO2 gap, mm Hg, respectively were measured throughout the experiment. RESULTS: Exchange blood volumes were 33.9 ± 3.3 and 61.5 ± 5.8 mL/kg for moderate hemodilution and severe hemodilution, respectively. Arterial pressure and systemic and regional lactate levels remained stable in all groups. There were initial increases in cardiac output and portal vein blood flow in both moderate hemodilution and severe hemodilution; systemic and regional oxygen consumption remained stable largely due to increases in oxygen extraction rate. There was a significant increase in the PCO2-gap value only in severe hemodilution animals. CONCLUSION: Global and regional hemodynamic stability were maintained after moderate and severe hemodilution. However, a very low hematocrit induced gastric mucosal acidosis, suggesting that gastric mucosal CO2 monitoring may be useful during major surgery or following trauma.OBJETIVO: Os efeitos da hemodiluição normovolêmica com diferentes níveis de hemoglobina na

  20. Drug Reactions in Oral Mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Derviş

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Both immunologic and nonimmunologic drug reactions can be seen in oral mucosa. Since considerable number of these reactions heals spontaneously without being noticed by the patients, exact frequency of the lesions is unknown. Most common lesions are xerostomia, taste disorders, mucosal ulcerations and edema. In this article, oral lesions resulting from drug intake similar to those from oral lesions of local and systemic diseases, and diagnostic problems caused by these similarities, have been reviewed.

  1. [Redo urethroplasty with buccal mucosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, C M; Ernst, L; Engel, O; Dahlem, R; Fisch, M; Kluth, L A

    2017-10-01

    Urethral strictures can occur on the basis of trauma, infections, iatrogenic-induced or idiopathic and have a great influence on the patient's quality of life. The current prevalence rate of male urethral strictures is 0.6% in industrialized western countries. The favored form of treatment has experienced a transition from less invasive interventions, such as urethrotomy or urethral dilatation, to more complex open surgical reconstruction. Excision and primary end-to-end anastomosis and buccal mucosa graft urethroplasty are the most frequently applied interventions with success rates of more than 80%. Risk factors for stricture recurrence after urethroplasty are penile stricture location, the length of the stricture (>4 cm) and prior repeated endoscopic therapy attempts. Radiation-induced urethral strictures also have a worse outcome. There are various therapy options in the case of stricture recurrence after a failed urethroplasty. In the case of short stricture recurrences, direct vision urethrotomy shows success rates of approximately 60%. In cases of longer or more complex stricture recurrences, redo urethroplasty should be the therapy of choice. Success rates are higher than after urethrotomy and almost comparable to those of primary urethroplasty. Patient satisfaction after redo urethroplasty is high. Primary buccal mucosa grafting involves a certain rate of oral morbidity. In cases of a redo urethroplasty with repeated buccal mucosa grafting, oral complications are only slightly higher.

  2. HPV-Associated Cancers Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What CDC Is Doing Related Links Stay Informed Statistics for Other Kinds of Cancer Breast Cervical Colorectal ( ... Vaginal and Vulvar Cancer Home HPV-Associated Cancer Statistics Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ...

  3. Perspectives for Preventive and Therapeutic HPV Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ken; Doolan, Kimberley; Hung, Chien-Fu; Wu, T-C

    2010-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common cause of female cancer death worldwide. Persistent infection with `high risk' HPV genotypes is the major etiological factor in cervical cancer and thus effective vaccination against HPV provides an opportunity to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with HPV. The FDA has approved two preventive vaccines to limit the spread of HPV. However, these are unlikely to impact upon HPV prevalence and cervical cancer rates for many years. Furthermore, preventive vaccines do not exert therapeutic effects on pre-existing HPV infections and HPV-associated lesions. In order to further impact upon the burden of HPV infections worldwide, therapeutic vaccines are being developed. These vaccines aim to generate a cell-mediated immune response to infected cells. This review discusses current preventive and therapeutic HPV vaccines and their future directions. PMID:20123582

  4. Predictors of Adults' Knowledge and Awareness of HPV, HPV-Associated Cancers, and the HPV Vaccine: Implications for Health Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Kimberly R; Singh, Shipra

    2018-02-01

    High human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence and low HPV vaccine uptake are significant public health concerns. Disparities in HPV-associated cancers and HPV vaccine uptake rates suggest the need for additional research examining factors associated with vaccine acceptance. This study assessed HPV awareness and knowledge and identified sociodemographic characteristics associated with HPV knowledge at the population level. Data from adult men ( n = 1,197) and women ( n = 1,906) who participated in the National Cancer Institute's 2014 Health Information National Trends Survey were analyzed. Multivariable regression was used to identify predictors of four HPV knowledge categories: (1) general knowledge, (2) cervical cancer knowledge, (3) "other" cancer knowledge (i.e., anal, oral, penile), and (4) vaccine knowledge. Significant gender differences in awareness and knowledge of HPV and the HPV vaccine were revealed. Most participants (>70%) knew that HPV could cause cervical cancer, but fewer (14.9% to 31.5%) knew of the association between HPV and "other" cancers. Women were more likely to report that a health care provider recommended vaccination. Significant predictors of general HPV and HPV vaccine knowledge included gender, education, income, race, and other sociodemographic characteristics. Age and income predicted cervical cancer knowledge. Knowledge of "other" HPV-associated cancers was predicted by having a child under 18 years in the household and relationship status. HPV knowledge appears to be socially patterned. Low HPV knowledge among men and some racial minorities suggests a need for further intervention. Health education should emphasize risks of noncervical HPV-associated cancers. Patient-provider communication that includes education, counseling, and clear recommendations favoring vaccination may improve uptake.

  5. Efeito da schinus terebinthifolius raddi sobre o processo de reparo tecidual das lesões ulceradas induzidas na mucosa bucal do rato = Effect of the schinus terebinthifolius raddi in the process of tissular repair in ulcers induced in mucosa oral of the rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribas, Marina de Oliveira

    2006-01-01

    Os grupos controles não receberam nenhum tipo de tratamento e os grupos experimentais foram tratados com o extrato da folha de Schinus terebinthifoLius Raddi. As informações obtidas foram analisadas estatisticamente através do teste de Kruskal-Wallis e comparações múltiplas, utilizando probabilidade de p > 0,05. Na análise dos resultados obtidos do efeito do extrato, observou-se que as úlceras nos grupos experimentais, quando comparadas às dos grupos controles, mostraram fechamento epitelial acelerado, maior proliferação vascular e fibroblástica. A Schinus terebenthifoüus Raddi mostrou ter efeito positivo no processo de reparo tecidual

  6. HPV infections among MSM in Shenzhen, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Yan Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An increasing incidence of anal cancer among men, especially men who have sex with men (MSM suggests a need to better understand anal human papillomavirus (HPV infection among this group. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among MSM in Shenzhen, China. Blood was collected for HIV serological testing and syphilis serological screening, and anal swabs were collected for HPV genotyping. Difference of HPV prevalence between HIV seropositive and HIV seronegative MSM was assessed by chi-square test. Factors associated with anal canal HPV infection were assessed by univariate and multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: A total of 408 MSM were recruited. HIV and HPV prevalence were 6.9% and 36.4%, respectively. HPV was detected in the anal canal in 71.4% of the HIV-positive MSM and in 33.8% of the HIV-negative MSM (P<0.001. Oncogenic types were seen more often in anal specimens of HIV-positive MSM than in specimens of HIV-negative MSM (P = 0.001. The HPV genotypes detected most frequently were HPV06 (8.2%, HPV16 (7.2%, HPV11 (6.4%, HPV18 (4.7%, HPV58 (4.7%, and HPV52 (4.2%. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, HIV positive MSM had a higher burden of HPV infection, especially oncogenic HPV infection. HPV types 52 and 58 were as popular as those types designed for the currently available vaccine (HPV6, 11, 16, 18.

  7. Deletion of epidermal Rac1 inhibits HPV-8 induced skin papilloma formation and facilitates HPV-8- and UV-light induced skin carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, Jayesh; Pofahl, Ruth; Pfister, Herbert; Haase, Ingo

    2016-09-06

    Overexpression and increased activity of the small Rho GTPase Rac1 has been linked to squamous cell carcinoma of the epidermis and mucosa in humans. Targeted deletion of Rac1 or inhibition of Rac1 activity in epidermal keratinocytes reduced papilloma formation in a chemical skin carcinogenesis mouse model. However, a potential role of Rac1 in HPV- and UV-light induced skin carcinogenesis has not been investigated so far, solar UV radiation being an important carcinogen to the skin.To investigate this, we deleted Rac1 or modulated its activity in mice with transgenic expression of Human papilloma virus type-8 (HPV-8) in epidermal keratinocytes. Our data show that inhibition or deletion of Rac1 results in reduced papilloma formation upon UV-irradiation with a single dose, whereas constitutive activation of Rac1 strongly increases papilloma frequency in these mice. Surprisingly, we observed that, upon chronic UV-irradiation, the majority of mice with transgenic expression of HPV-8 and epidermis specific Rac1 deletion developed squamous cell carcinomas. Taken together, our data show that Rac1 exerts a dual role in skin carcinogenesis: its activation is, on one hand, required for HPV-8- and UV-light induced papilloma formation but, on the other, suppresses the development of squamous cell carcinomas.

  8. Burden of HPV-caused cancers in Denmark and the potential effect of HPV-vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skorstengaard, Malene; Thamsborg, Lise Holst; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2017-01-01

    -caused cancers in women and men, and to evaluate the potential of HPV-vaccination in cancer control. Methods: Data were retrieved from the literature on population prevalence of high risk (HR) HPV, on HR HPV-prevalence and genotypes in HPV-related cancers, and on number of cytology samples in cervical screening...... were preventable with HPV vaccination. However, including screening prevented cervical cancers, the burden of cancers caused by HPV-infection would be 1300–2000 in women as compared to 234 in men. Conclusion: Taking screening prevented cervical cancers into account, the cancer control potential of HPV...

  9. One Family's Struggles with HPV (Human Papillomavirus)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... sq how to do kids infect kids links & resources M.O.V.E. parents for prevention ... go to GETVAXED.ORG cme Immunizations HPV (Human Papillomavirus) One family's struggles with HPV We provide ...

  10. One Family's Struggles with HPV (Human Papillomavirus)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... GETVAXED print ads go to GETVAXED.ORG cme Immunizations HPV (Human Papillomavirus) One family's struggles with HPV ... not possible without a visit to your doctor. Immunizations stop disease from spreading. Check with your family ...

  11. Localization of ectopic gastric mucosa by scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Alonzo, W.A. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    When gastric mucosal tissue occurs outside of the confines of the stomach, it is termed ectopic or heterotopic. Ectopic gastric mucosa may be found within Meckel's diverticulum, duplications of the alimentary tract, and Barrett's esophagus. In addition, a surgeon may inadvertently leave behind antral gastric mucosa while performing a partial gastrectomy for peptic ulcer disease (i.e., retained gastric antrum). It is important to detect the presence and location of ectopic mucosa because acid and pepsin secretion may cause ulceration in the adjacent tissue resulting in serious complications. The only currently available specific diagnostic technique for detecting ectopic gastric mucosa is pertechnetate Tc 99m (TcO 4- ) scintigraphy. This chapter reviews the functional anatomy of gastric mucosa, the mechanism of TcO 4 - localization, the various entities containing ectopic gastric mucosa, and the methods and results of TcO 4 - scanning for these disorders

  12. HPV: Molecular pathways and targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Shilpi; Kumar, Prabhat; Das, Bhudev C

    2018-04-05

    Infection of high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) is a prerequisite for the development of cervical carcinoma. HPV infections are also implicated in the development of other types of carcinomas. Chronic or persistent infection of HPV is essential but HPV alone is inadequate, additional endogenous or exogenous cues are needed along with HPV to induce cervical carcinogenesis. The strategies that high-risk HPVs have developed in differentiating epithelial cells to reach a DNA-synthesis competent state leading to tumorigenic transformation are basically due to overexpression of the E6 and E7 oncoproteins and the activation of diverse cellular regulatory or signaling pathways that are targeted by them. Moreover, the Wnt/β-catenin/Notch and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) pathways are deregulated in various cancers, and have also been implicated in HPV-induced cancers. These are basically related to the "cancer hallmarks," and include sustaining proliferative signals, the evasion of growth suppression and immune destruction, replicative immortality, inflammation, invasion, metastasis and angiogenesis, as well as genome instability, resisting cell death, and deregulation of cellular energetics. These information could eventually aid in identifying or developing new diagnostic, prognostic biomarkers, and may contribute to design more effective targeted therapeutics and treatment strategies. Although surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy can cure more than 90% of women with early stage cervical cancer, the recurrent and metastatic disease remains a major cause of cancer mortality. Numerous efforts have been made to design new drugs and develop gene therapies to treat cervical cancer. In recent years, research on treatment strategies has proposed several options, including the role of HPV E5, E6, and E7 oncogenes, which are retained and overexpressed in most of the cervical cancers and whose respective oncoproteins are critical to the induction

  13. Foreign Body in Jugal Mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Thiago Luís Infanger; Pauna, Henrique Furlan; Hazboun, Igor Moreira; Dal Rio, Ana Cristina; Correa, Maria Elvira Pizzigatti; Nicola, Ester Maria Danielli

    2015-10-01

    Introduction Foreign body in the oral cavity may be asymptomatic for long time and only sometimes it can lead to a typical granulomatous foreign body reaction. Some patients may complain of oral pain and present signs of inflammation with purulent discharge. A granuloma is a distinct, compact microscopic structure composed of epithelioid-shaped macrophages typically surrounded by a rim of lymphocytes and filled with fibroblasts and collagen. Nowadays, the increase of cosmetic invasive procedures such as injection of prosthetic materials in lips and cheeks may lead to unusual forms of inflammatory granulomas. Objectives Describe an unusual presentation of a foreign body reaction in the buccal mucosa due to previous injection of cosmetic agent. Resumed Report A 74-year-old woman was referred to the Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery to investigate the presence of multiple painless, bilateral nodules in the buccal mucosa, with progressive growth observed during the previous 2 months. The histologic results showed a foreign body inflammatory reaction. Conclusion Oral granulomatosis lesions represent a challenging diagnosis for clinicians and a biopsy may be necessary. Patients may feel ashamed to report previous aesthetic procedures, and the clinicians must have a proactive approach.

  14. Foreign Body in Jugal Mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serrano, Thiago Luís Infanger

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Foreign body in the oral cavity may be asymptomatic for long time and only sometimes it can lead to a typical granulomatous foreign body reaction. Some patients may complain of oral pain and present signs of inflammation with purulent discharge. A granuloma is a distinct, compact microscopic structure composed of epithelioid-shaped macrophages typically surrounded by a rim of lymphocytes and filled with fibroblasts and collagen. Nowadays, the increase of cosmetic invasive procedures such as injection of prosthetic materials in lips and cheeks may lead to unusual forms of inflammatory granulomas. Objectives Describe an unusual presentation of a foreign body reaction in the buccal mucosa due to previous injection of cosmetic agent. Resumed Report A 74-year-old woman was referred to the Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery to investigate the presence of multiple painless, bilateral nodules in the buccal mucosa, with progressive growth observed during the previous 2 months. The histologic results showed a foreign body inflammatory reaction. Conclusion Oral granulomatosis lesions represent a challenging diagnosis for clinicians and a biopsy may be necessary. Patients may feel ashamed to report previous aesthetic procedures, and the clinicians must have a proactive approach.

  15. HPV Vaccine Effective at Multiple Anatomic Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new study from NCI researchers finds that the HPV vaccine protects young women from infection with high-risk HPV types at the three primary anatomic sites where persistent HPV infections can cause cancer. The multi-site protection also was observed at l

  16. Predictors of Adults' Knowledge and Awareness of HPV, HPV-Associated Cancers, and the HPV Vaccine: Implications for Health Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Kimberly R.; Singh, Shipra

    2018-01-01

    High human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence and low HPV vaccine uptake are significant public health concerns. Disparities in HPV-associated cancers and HPV vaccine uptake rates suggest the need for additional research examining factors associated with vaccine acceptance. This study assessed HPV awareness and knowledge and identified…

  17. Resultados histológicos e detecção do HPV em mulheres com células escamosas atípicas de significado indeterminado e lesão escamosa intra-epitelial de baixo grau na colpocitologia oncológica Histological results and HPV detection in women with pap smear showing atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luis Ferreira Santos

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: avaliar o desempenho da colpocitologia oncológica (CO e da Captura de Híbridos II (CHII para o diagnóstico de lesão cervical histológica significativa (NIC2/3 em mulheres encaminhadas com CO contendo atipias celulares de significado indeterminado (ASCUS ou lesão escamosa intra-epitelial de baixo grau (LSIL. MÉTODOS: estudo de corte transversal no qual foram incluídas 161 mulheres encaminhadas, entre agosto de 2000 e setembro de 2002, devido a CO com resultado de ASCUS ou LSIL. As mulheres responderam a questionário específico sobre características sociodemográficas e reprodutivas e foram submetidas a exame ginecológico com coleta de CO e CHII, sendo realizada colposcopia com eventual biópsia de áreas suspeitas. Foi aplicado o teste do qui-quadrado para as associações da idade, uso de condom, uso de anticoncepcional oral e tabagismo com os resultados da CHII. Foram calculados a sensibilidade, especificidade, valor preditivo positivo e valor preditivo negativo da CO e da CHII para detectar NIC2/3. Todos os cálculos foram realizados com intervalos de confiança estatística de 95%. RESULTADOS: sessenta e sete porcento das mulheres com menos de 30 anos de idade tiveram testes positivos para o HPV. A CO e CHII tiveram sensibilidade de 82% em detectar NIC2/3 quando considerados como positivos ASCUS, LSIL ou HSIL. Quando se consideram como positivas apenas as CO com HSIL, este exame apresenta acentuado ganho de especificidade (de 29 para 95% e valor preditivo positivo (de 12 para 50%, superando a CHII, porém com redução igualmente significativa de sua sensibilidade (de 82 para 41%. CONCLUSÕES: nossos resultados indicaram grande potencial da CHII para detectar mulheres com NIC2/3 entre as pacientes com ASCUS/LSIL na CO de encaminhamento.OBJECTIVE: to assess the ability of Pap smear and hybrid capture II (HCII to detect clinically significant cervical lesions (CIN2/3 in women referred to hospital due to atypical squamous

  18. Human papilloma viruses (HPV and breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Sutherland Lawson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Human papillomaviruses (HPV may have a role in some breast cancers. The purpose of this study is to fill important gaps in the evidence. These gaps are: (i confirmation of the presence of high risk for cancer HPVs in breast cancers, (ii evidence of HPV infections in benign breast tissues prior to the development of HPV positive breast cancer in the same patients, (iii evidence that HPVs are biologically active and not harmless passengers in breast cancer.Methods: RNA-seq data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA was used to identify HPV RNA sequences in breast cancers. We also conducted a retrospective cohort study based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR analyses to identify HPVs in archival specimens from Australian women with benign breast biopsies who later developed breast cancer. To assess whether HPVs in breast cancer were biologically active, the expression of the oncogenic protein HPV E7 was assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC.Results: Thirty (3.5% low risk and 20 (2.3% high risk HPV types were identified in 855 breast cancers from the TCGA data base. The high risk types were HPV 18 (48%, HPV 113 (24%, HPV 16 (10%, HPV 52 (10%. Data from the PCR cohort study, indicated that HPV type 18 was the most common type identified in breast cancer specimens (55% of 40 breast cancer specimens followed by HPV 16 (13%. The same HPV type was identified in both the benign and subsequent breast cancer in 15 patients. HPV E7 proteins were identified in 72% of benign breast specimens and 59% of invasive breast cancer specimens.Conclusions: There were 4 observations of particular interest: (i confirmation by both NGS and PCR of the presence of high risk HPV gene sequences in breast cancers, (ii a correlation between high risk HPV in benign breast specimens and subsequent HPV positive breast cancer in the same patient, (iii HPVs in breast cancer are likely to be biologically active (as shown by transcription of HPV DNA to RNA plus the expression of

  19. Os papilomavírus humanos – HPV: histórico, morfologia e ciclo biológico - doi: 10.5102/ucs.v1i1.502

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geni N. N. de Lima Camara

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Os papilomavírus são patógenos responsáveis pelo desenvolvimento de tumores benignos e malignos de pele e de mucosas. Pertencem à família Papillomaviridae, gênero Papillomavirus, espécie Human papillomavirus – HPV, que corresponde a uma das oito espécies incluídas no gênero. Os HPVs são classificados em genotipos, com base na comparação de seqüências do gene L1. Seu genoma circular, com cerca de 8.000 pares de bases, é formado por duas fitas de DNA, com oito genes e uma região não codificadora, de controle da origem da replicação e da expressão dos genes reguladores da transcrição. Os HPVs infectam inicialmente as células da camada profunda. Seu genoma pode ficar sob a forma circular (epissomal, dentro do núcleo da célula ou sofrer ruptura na região de E2 e se integrar ao DNA celular. Essa integração tem conseqüências na produção de outras proteínas precoces do vírus e que são responsáveis pela transformação celular.

  20. Presenting symptoms and clinical findings in HPV-positive and HPV-negative oropharyngeal cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpén, Timo; Sjöblom, Anni; Lundberg, Marie; Haglund, Caj; Markkola, Antti; Syrjänen, Stina; Tarkkanen, Jussi; Mäkitie, Antti; Hagström, Jaana; Mattila, Petri

    2018-05-01

    Oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) is divided in two different disease entities depending on HPV involvement. We investigated differences in presenting symptoms and clinical findings in patients with HPV-positive and -negative OPSCC tumors. Altogether 118 consecutive patients diagnosed with primary OPSCC between 2012 and 2014 at the Helsinki University Hospital were included. HPV-status of the tumors was assessed by PCR detection of HPV DNA and immunostaining with p16-INK4a antibody. Fifty-one (47.7%) of the patients had HPV-positive and 56 (52.3%) HPV-negative tumors. Forty-nine (49/51, 96.1%) of the HPV+ tumors were also p16+ showing high concordance. The most common presenting symptom among HPV+/p16+ patients was a neck mass (53.1%), whereas any sort of pain in the head and neck area was more frequently related to the HPV-/p16- (60.0%) group. HPV+/p16+ tumors had a tendency to locate in the tonsillar complex and more likely had already spread into regional lymph nodes compared with HPV-/p16- tumors. Smoking and heavy alcohol consumption were significantly more common among HPV-/p16- patients but also rather common among HPV+/p16+ patients. This analysis of symptoms and signs confirm that OPSCC can be dichotomized in two distinct disease entities as defined by HPV status.

  1. Baseline demographic characteristics of subjects enrolled in international quadrivalent HPV (types 6/11/16/18) vaccine clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paavonen, Jorma

    2008-06-01

    In Phase II/III trials, administration of quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) (types 6/11/16/18) L1 virus-like-particle vaccine was highly effective in preventing HPV6/11/16/18-related cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and non-invasive cervical cancer in women aged 16-26 years who were naïve to these HPV types at enrollment. However, the makeup and extent of catch-up vaccination programs among young women is unclear, because a proportion of this population will likely already have been exposed to one or more vaccine-HPV-types. Herein we analyze baseline data from the quadrivalent HPV vaccine clinical trial program to investigate variables which may help shape catch-up vaccine implementation policies. Female adolescents and young adults aged 16-26 years were randomized into five clinical trials. Baseline data regarding demographics, sexual history, pregnancy history, and other characteristics were collected at enrollment. At the baseline gynecological examination during enrollment, specimens were obtained for Pap testing. Swabs of external genital, lateral vaginal, and cervical sites for HPV polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing were taken, and serum samples were obtained for HPV serology testing. Regional analyses of data were conducted. Overall, 72% of subjects enrolled worldwide were naïve by both serology and PCR to all four vaccine HPV types. Few subjects were seropositive and/or PCR positive for more than two vaccine-related HPV types. Of all subjects with HSIL at enrollment, 78% were positive to at least one vaccine-related HPV type at enrollment. Regional differences in HPV and STD prevalence were evident. Study limitations included under-representation of women with >/=4 sexual partners and possible underestimation of prior HPV exposure. Our findings demonstrate that sexually active 16-26 year-old women with America, Europe, Latin America, and Asia Pacific are generally naïve to most or all types targeted by the quadrivalent HPV6/11/16/18 vaccine

  2. The impact of HPV vaccination on future cervical screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hestbech, Mie Sara; Lynge, Elsebeth; Kragstrup, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade 2+ and 3+ as cut-off values. RESULTS: The proportion of positive screening tests was reduced from 8.7% before vaccination to 6.5% after vaccination, and the proportion of false-positive screening tests using CIN2+ as a cut-off was reduced from 5.5% pre-vaccination to 4......OBJECTIVES: To explore the interplay between primary and secondary prevention of cervical cancer by estimating future screening outcomes in women offered human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination when they were sexually naïve. DESIGN: Estimation of outcome of liquid-based cytology screening for a post...... vaccinated for HPV before sexual debut. All identified studies were reviewed by two authors, and weighted pooled estimates of vaccine efficacies were used. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Proportions of positive and false-positive cervical cytologies and positive predictive value (PPV) were calculated using cervical...

  3. HPV Vaccine Safety PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    In this 30 second public service announcement, a mother talks about the importance of protecting 11-12 year-old boys and girls with HPV vaccination. (Una madre habla sobre la importancia de proteger a los niños y las niñas de 11 a 12 años con la vacuna contra el VPH.)

  4. HPV Vaccine (:30) (No Tag)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    In this 30 second public service announcement, a mother talks about the importance of protecting 11-12 year-old boys and girls with HPV vaccination. (Una madre habla sobre la importancia de proteger a los niños y las niñas de 11 a 12 años con la vacuna contra el VPH.)

  5. Prevalência dos HPV 16, 18, 45 e 31 em mulheres com lesão cervical Prevalence of HPV 16, 18, 45 and 31 in women with cervical lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Rocha Pitta

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a prevalência dos HPV 16, 18, 31 e 45 em amostras de raspado cervical de mulheres com alterações celulares e/ou colposcopia sugestiva de lesão de alto grau ou lesão de baixo grau persistente submetidas à conização. MÉTODOS: Foram incluídas 120 mulheres. A análise histológica dos cones cervicais revelou 7 casos de cervicite, 22 de NIC1, 31 de NIC2, 54 de NIC3 e 6 carcinomas invasores. Foram analisadas as amostras de raspado cervical coletadas antes da conização para a presença do DNA-HPV por PCR com os primers de consenso, PGMY09/11. As amostras positivas para DNA de HPV foram testadas para presença do HPV16, 18, 31 e 45 utilizando-se primers tipo específico para esses HPV. RESULTADOS: O DNA-HPV foi detectado em 67,5% das mulheres. O HPV 16 (40% foi o tipo mais prevalente na maioria das lesões, seguido dos HPV 31 (13,3%, 45 (13,3% e 18 (4,1%. Infecções múltiplas ocorreram em 15% dos casos e as infecções por outros tipos de HPV foram detectadas em 14% da amostra. CONCLUSÕES: as infecções pelos HPV 16 e 18 nem sempre ocorrem de maneira solitária (infecção única, estando associadas a outros tipos de HPV em diversas ocasiões.PURPOSE: to determine the prevalence of HPV 16, 18, 31 and 45 in cervical screening samples of women with cellular changes and/or colposcopy suggestive of persistent high grade or low grade lesion who were submitted to conization. METHODS: a total of 120 women were included in the study. Histological analysis of the cervical cones revealed 7 cases of cervicitis, 22 of CIN1, 31 of CIN2, 54 of CIN3, and 6 invasive carcinomas. The cervical screening samples were analyzed before conization for the presence of HPV-DNA by PCR using the consensus primers PGMY09/11. HPV-DNA-positive samples were tested for the presence of HPV16, 18, 31 and 45 using type-specific primers for these HPV. RESULTS: HPV-DNA was detected in 67.5% of the studied women. HPV 16 (40% was the most prevalent type in

  6. Diagnóstico de HPV anal em mulheres com NIC: prevenção de câncer do ânus? Anal HPV diagnosis in women with NIC: anal cancer prevention?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Capobiango

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste estudo foram avaliar a frequência de HPV anal em pacientes com neoplasia intraepitelial cervical (NIC, verificar a concordância entre os subtipos encontrados nos dois locais e investigar os fatores que influenciaram a ocorrência de HPV anal em mulheres com NIC sem evidências clínicas de imunodepressão. Foram avaliadas 52 mulheres com idades entre 16 e 72 anos e diagnóstico de neoplasia intraepitelial cervical graus I, II e III. A identificação do DNA (ácido desoxirribonucleico do HPV e de sete subtipos dos vírus foi realizada por meio da reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR em material colhido no ânus e colo uterino. Foram pesquisados fatores que poderiam contribuir para a infecção anal, como paridade, número de parceiros, tabagismo, manipulação e coito anal e o tipo de doença ginecológica. Das 52 mulheres, foi diagnosticado HPV na região anal em 25 (48%, das quais 23 (44% também apresentavam HPV no colo uterino - resultado significativo para existência do HPV em portadoras de NIC. Em 16 (31% o HPV foi diagnosticado somente no colo uterino e em 11 (21% não foi identificado em colo ou ânus. Houve associação significativa nas variáveis paridade (p=0,02 e número de parceiros (p=0,04. Concluiu-se que: as mulheres com HPV genital têm mais probabilidade de serem acometidas por HPV anal; não há concordância unânime entre os subtipos do HPV do colo do útero e do ânus e a paridade e o número de parceiros contribuem para aumentar a incidência de HPV anal nas mulheres sem imunodeficiência e com HPV cervical.This study aims were to assess the frequency of HPV anal infection in patients with cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia (CIN, to find out the relation between the found subtypes, when present in both regions, and investigate factors that influenced the occurrence of anal HPV in women with CIN. Fifty two women with age between 16 and 72 years and cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia (CIN diagnosis

  7. Indicação da anuscopia de alta resolução e citologia anal na prevenção de HPV e câncer colorretal em pacientes portadores de HIV Indication of high resolution anoscopy and anal cytology for prevention of HPV and colorectal cancer in HIV patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Leonardo Madeiro Arcanjo Silva

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Rastreamento do papilomavírus humano (HPV assim como sua correlação com a neoplasia anorretal nos pacientes portadores do vírus da imunodeficiência humana (HIV por meio da anuscopia de alta resolução (AAR e da citologia anal. MÉTODOS: Desenvolvemos um estudo observacional, transversal e duplo-cego em que participaram 31 pacientes portadores do HIV independente de queixas proctológicas. Os pacientes foram submetidos à AAR e citologia anal cujas lâminas foram enviadas ao setor de anatomia patológica para coloração e posterior análise. RESULTADOS: Verificamos 22 pacientes do sexo masculino e 9 do sexo feminino entre 20 e 67 anos. Dos 31 analisados, quatro encontravam-se em estágio de imunodepressão, 23 utilizavam terapia antirretroviral, 16 com passado de sexo anal receptivo e 12 com passado de condiloma acuminado. À AAR 11 pacientes tinham alterações e 7 foram confirmados pela citologia. Verificamos ainda oito pacientes com alterações à citologia os quais possuíam ausência de alterações à AAR. À citologia apresentaram três células escamosas atípicas de significância (Ascus, do inglês atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance, cinco com paraceratose e/ou hiperceratose, seis lesões intraepiteliais de baixo grau e uma lesão intraepitelial de alto grau. CONCLUSÃO: Sugerimos a utilização da AAR aliada à citologia anal para rastreamento nos pacientes portadores do HIV, visto que esses exames complementam-se para a detecção de lesões que estejam relacionadas ao câncer anorretal.OBJECTIVE: Screening for HPV as well as its correlation with anorectal cancer in patients carrying the human immuno deficiency virus (HIV through high-resolution anoscopy (HRA and anal cytology. METHODS: We developed an observational study, double-blind attended by 31 patients with HIV independent proctologic complaints. Patients underwent HRA and anal cytology slides were sent to which sector pathology staining and

  8. Comparison of HPV detection technologies: Hybrid capture 2, PreTect HPV-Proofer and analysis of HPV DNA viral load in HPV16, HPV18 and HPV33 E6/E7 mRNA positive specimens.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Keegan, Helen

    2012-02-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) testing using molecular methods in liquid based cytology (LBC) specimens may be useful as an adjunct to cervical screening by cytology. We compared the positivity rate of the commercially available HPV DNA method hybrid capture 2 (hc2) and the commercially available E6\\/E7 mRNA method PreTect HPV-Proofer in cytological specimens (n=299). LBC specimens collected (n=299) represented the following cervical cytological disease categories: Normal (n=60), borderline nuclear abnormalities (BNA) (n=34), CIN1 (n=121), CIN2 (n=60), CIN3 (n=24). Overall, 69% (205\\/299) of the cases were positive by hc2 and 38% (112\\/299) of the cases were positive by PreTect HPV-Proofer. Concordance rates between the two tests were highest in the high-grade cytology cases (CIN2: 67% and CIN3: 83%) and the normal cytology cases (88%) and lowest in the BNA and CIN1 categories (56% and 52%). HPV DNA viral load analyses were carried out on HPV16 (n=55), HPV18 (n=9) and HPV33 (n=13) samples that were positive by PreTect HPV-Proofer. The sensitivity and specificity of PreTect HPV-Proofer and the hc2 DNA test for the detection of high-grade cytology (i.e. CIN2+) were 71.4% and 75.8% vs 100% and 43.7%, respectively. The relatively low detection rate observed by PreTect HPV-Proofer in the whole range of cytological positive cases, combined with a relatively higher specificity and PPV, suggests that PreTect HPV-Proofer may be more useful than hc2 for triage and in predicting high-grade disease.

  9. Awareness and Knowledge About HPV and HPV Vaccine Among Romanian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigore, Mihaela; Teleman, Sergiu Iuliu; Pristavu, Anda; Matei, Mioara

    2018-02-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the most prevalent gynecological malignancies worldwide. Romania has the highest incidence of this type of cancer in Europe. A successful prevention strategy has to consider the primary prevention measures (including health education on human papilloma virus (HPV) infection but also vaccination). The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge and attitudes of Romanian women about HPV and HPV vaccine. We conducted a cross-sectional study survey of 454 women using an anonymously completed questionnaire covering the awareness and knowledge of HPV infection and attitudes to vaccination. We also analyzed the discussions and conclusion from a focus group of healthcare professionals regarding (1) HPV and HPV awareness and attitude, and (2) suggestions for improving HPV vaccine knowledge and acceptance. 69.2% of women were aware about HPV but their knowledge was minimal and incomplete. While 62.3% had heard about HPV vaccine, only 50.7% had a positive attitude toward it. The main barriers to vaccination were the fear of side effects, the perception that is risky, and the financial concerns. Deficiencies in knowledge were noted for vaccine, genital warts, or risks factors for HPV infection like the early onset of sexual life. The information regarding HPV and vaccine is not always accurate and complete, and only 50.7% of women have a positive attitude toward the vaccine. More educational programs and clearer communication are needed to raise awareness and knowledge regarding HPV and HPV vaccine.

  10. Young adults awareness of HPV and vaccine acceptance after introduction of the HPV vaccine in the Dutch national vaccination program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmeink, C.E.; Gosens, K.C.; Melchers, W.J.G.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; Bekkers, R.L.M.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of implementation of the HPV vaccine on HPV knowledge and HPV vaccine acceptance. METHODS: From June until December 2009 in Nijmegen, the Netherlands, 698 male and female students aged 18-25 years were recruited and interviewed about HPV, cervical carcinoma and HPV

  11. Deconstructing Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Knowledge: Objective and Perceived Knowledge in Males' Intentions to Receive the HPV Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczyk, Andrea; Stephenson, Ellen; Perez, Samara; Lau, Elsa; Rosberger, Zeev

    2013-01-01

    Background: The human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine was recently approved for men. To effectively tailor HPV education efforts toward men, it is important to understand what men know about HPV and how this knowledge relates to their decision to receive the vaccine. This study examines how objective HPV knowledge, objective HPV vaccine knowledge,…

  12. Highly Tissue Substructure-Specific Effects of Human Papilloma Virus in Mucosa of HIV-Infected Patients Revealed by Laser-Dissection Microscopy-Assisted Gene Expression Profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgarth, Nicole; Szubin, Richard; Dolganov, Greg M.; Watnik, Mitchell R.; Greenspan, Deborah; Da Costa, Maria; Palefsky, Joel M.; Jordan, Richard; Roederer, Mario; Greenspan, John S.

    2004-01-01

    Human papilloma virus (HPV) causes focal infections of epithelial layers in skin and mucosa. HIV-infected patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) appear to be at increased risk of developing HPV-induced oral warts. To identify the mechanisms that allow long-term infection of oral epithelial cells in these patients, we used a combination of laser-dissection microscopy (LDM) and highly sensitive and quantitative, non-biased, two-step multiplex real-time RT-PCR to study pathogen-induced alterations of specific tissue subcompartments. Expression of 166 genes was compared in three distinct epithelial and subepithelial compartments isolated from biopsies of normal mucosa from HIV-infected and non-infected patients and of HPV32-induced oral warts from HIV-infected patients. In contrast to the underlying HIV infection and/or HAART, which did not significantly elaborate tissue substructure-specific effects, changes in oral warts were strongly tissue substructure-specific. HPV 32 seems to establish infection by selectively enhancing epithelial cell growth and differentiation in the stratum spinosum and to evade the immune system by actively suppressing inflammatory responses in adjacent underlying tissues. With this highly sensitive and quantitative method tissue-specific expression of hundreds of genes can be studied simultaneously in a few cells. Because of its large dynamic measurement range it could also become a method of choice to confirm and better quantify results obtained by microarray analysis. PMID:15331396

  13. The Intersection of HPV Epidemiology, Genomics and Mechanistic Studies of HPV-Mediated Carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirabello, Lisa; Clarke, Megan A; Nelson, Chase W; Dean, Michael; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Yeager, Meredith; Cullen, Michael; Boland, Joseph F; Schiffman, Mark; Burk, Robert D

    2018-02-13

    Of the ~60 human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes that infect the cervicovaginal epithelium, only 12-13 "high-risk" types are well-established as causing cervical cancer, with HPV16 accounting for over half of all cases worldwide. While HPV16 is the most important carcinogenic type, variants of HPV16 can differ in their carcinogenicity by 10-fold or more in epidemiologic studies. Strong genotype-phenotype associations embedded in the small 8-kb HPV16 genome motivate molecular studies to understand the underlying molecular mechanisms. Understanding the mechanisms of HPV genomic findings is complicated by the linkage of HPV genome variants. A panel of experts in various disciplines gathered on 21 November 2016 to discuss the interdisciplinary science of HPV oncogenesis. Here, we summarize the discussion of the complexity of the viral-host interaction and highlight important next steps for selected applied basic laboratory studies guided by epidemiological genomic findings.

  14. The Intersection of HPV Epidemiology, Genomics and Mechanistic Studies of HPV-Mediated Carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Mirabello

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Of the ~60 human papillomavirus (HPV genotypes that infect the cervicovaginal epithelium, only 12–13 “high-risk” types are well-established as causing cervical cancer, with HPV16 accounting for over half of all cases worldwide. While HPV16 is the most important carcinogenic type, variants of HPV16 can differ in their carcinogenicity by 10-fold or more in epidemiologic studies. Strong genotype-phenotype associations embedded in the small 8-kb HPV16 genome motivate molecular studies to understand the underlying molecular mechanisms. Understanding the mechanisms of HPV genomic findings is complicated by the linkage of HPV genome variants. A panel of experts in various disciplines gathered on 21 November 2016 to discuss the interdisciplinary science of HPV oncogenesis. Here, we summarize the discussion of the complexity of the viral–host interaction and highlight important next steps for selected applied basic laboratory studies guided by epidemiological genomic findings.

  15. Human papillomavirus (HPV) and HPV-associated tumour vaccines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bubeník, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 52, 1-2 (2006), s. 45-46 ISSN 0015-5500 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NR7807; GA MZd(CZ) NR8004; GA ČR(CZ) GA301/04/0492; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA500520605 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : HPV * tumour vaccines Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.387, year: 2006

  16. HPV and HPV vaccination: knowledge and consciousness of young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coşar, E; Gencer, M; Hacivelioğlu, S O; Güngör, A C; Uysal, A

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the knowledge and the awareness of the young Turkish women regarding cervical cancer and human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccines. The authors analyze a probable relationship between the overall knowledge level and a few socio-demographic parameters. The authors interviewed with students from Canakkale 18 March University and young women that did not continue with school in the same city from January to September 2011. All the students answered the questionnaire voluntarily and independently. The participants had low level of knowledge about the risk factors for cervical cancer. Smoking is the major risk factor that was known by the participants (65%). Proportion of the participants that were aware of pap smear test and HPV were 65% and 17% respectively. A small proportion of young women had knowledge regarding protection from HPV. Educational stream, educational level, family income, and family size had significant association knowledge level (p level of knowledge so that general public can easily take preventative measures.

  17. HPV Infections Decrease in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) types targeted by the quadrivalent HPV vaccine has declined by nearly two-thirds among teenage girls since HPV vaccination was recommended in the United States.

  18. HPV (Human Papillomavirus) vaccine - what you need to know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is taken in its entirety from the CDC HPV (Human Papillomavirus) Vaccine Information Statement (VIS): www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/hpv.html . CDC review information for HPV (Human Papillomavirus) ...

  19. Endoscopic appearance of irradiated gastric mucosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Sagher, L I; Van den Heule, B; Van Houtte, P; Engelholm, L; Balikdjan, D; Bleiberg, H

    1979-09-01

    Irradiation of the epigastric area for gastric cancer may induce actinic lesions of the stomach characterized on endoscopic examination by ulcerations, haemorrhagic gastritis, fragility of the mucosa, thickening and congestion of the gastric folds.

  20. Oral mucosa grafts for urethral reconstruction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reports reveal that split and full thickness skin grafts from the scrotum, penis, extragenital sites (ureter, saphenous .... Table 1: Summary of the history of oral mucosa grafts for urethroplasty .... advised that care should be taken when suturing the.

  1. Reação liquenoide à carbamazepina em mucosa bucal: relato de caso Lichenoid reaction to carbamazepine in the oral mucosa: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Artico

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available As reações liquenoides por drogas são mais comuns na pele, mas também podem ocorrer na mucosa bucal. Estas lesões são de difícil diagnóstico por causa de sua semelhança clínica com às do líquen plano oral idiopático. O presente artigo relata um caso de reação liquenoide em mucosa bucal, associado ao uso de carbamazepina, no qual o processo de diagnóstico é enfatizadoLichenoid drug reactions are more commom in skin, but they may also occur in the oral mucosa. It is difficult to diagnose these lesions due to their clinical similarity to the idiopathic oral lichen planus lesions. The present article reports a case of lichenoid reaction in oral mucosa associated to the use of carbamazepine, emphasizing the diagnostic process

  2. Differences in T-cell infiltrates and survival between HPV+ and HPV- oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matlung, Sanne Evelien; van Kempen, Pauline Maria Wilhelmina; Bovenschen, Niels; van Baarle, Debbie; Willems, Stefan Martin

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that immune cells as part of tumor's microenvironment could partly explain the better outcome in HPV-associated oropharyngeal carcinoma. We performed a systematic review of the literature focused on differences in immune-infiltrate in HPV+ versus HPV- oropharyngeal

  3. Variables associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine acceptance by men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, Daron G; Waller, Jennifer L; Miller, Jeremiah; Patel, Pratik; Price, George A; Jackson, Lanier; Wilson, Courtesia

    2009-01-01

    To determine correlates of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine acceptance for men. A convenience sample of men aged 18 to 45 years read a one-page information sheet about HPV and the HPV vaccine, then completed a 29-item questionnaire. chi(2) tests were used to determine whether differences in demographic, sexual, and vaccine-related variables existed between levels of wanting the HPV vaccine. Positive correlates of HPV vaccine acceptance included higher education (P acceptance of the HPV vaccine by men.

  4. Augmentation of cellular and humoral immune responses to HPV16 and HPV18 E6 and E7 antigens by VGX-3100

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew P Morrow

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We have previously demonstrated the immunogenicity of VGX-3100, a multicomponent DNA immunotherapy for the treatment of Human Papillomavirus (HPV16/18-positive CIN2/3 in a phase 1 clinical trial. Here, we report on the ability to boost immune responses with an additional dose of VGX-3100. Patients completing our initial phase 1 trial were offered enrollment into a follow on trial consisting of a single boost dose of VGX-3100. Data show both cellular and humoral immune responses could be augmented above pre-boost levels, including the induction of interferon (IFNγ production, tumor necrosis factor (TNFα production, CD8+ T cell activation and the synthesis of lytic proteins. Moreover, observation of antigen-specific regulation of immune-related gene transcripts suggests the induction of a proinflammatory response following the boost. Analysis of T cell receptor (TCR sequencing suggests the localization of putative HPV-specific T cell clones to the cervical mucosa, which underscores the putative mechanism of action of lesion regression and HPV16/18 elimination noted in our double-blind placebo-controlled phase 2B trial. Taken together, these data indicate that VGX-3100 drives the induction of robust cellular and humoral immune responses that can be augmented by a fourth “booster” dose. These data could be important in the scope of increasing the clinical efficacy rate of VGX-3100.

  5. Monitoring HPV-16 E7 phosphorylation events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, Marcela O.; Hošek, Tomáš; Calçada, Eduardo O.; Castiglia, Francesca [Magnetic Resonance Center (CERM) and Department of Chemistry “Ugo Schiff”, University of Florence, via Luigi Sacconi 6, Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Massimi, Paola; Banks, Lawrence [International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (ICGEB), Padriciano 99, Trieste (Italy); Felli, Isabella C., E-mail: felli@cerm.unifi.it [Magnetic Resonance Center (CERM) and Department of Chemistry “Ugo Schiff”, University of Florence, via Luigi Sacconi 6, Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Pierattelli, Roberta, E-mail: pierattelli@cerm.unifi.it [Magnetic Resonance Center (CERM) and Department of Chemistry “Ugo Schiff”, University of Florence, via Luigi Sacconi 6, Sesto Fiorentino (Italy)

    2017-03-15

    HPV-16 E7 is one of the key proteins that, by interfering with the host metabolism through many protein-protein interactions, hijacks cell regulation and contributes to malignancy. Here we report the high resolution investigation of the CR3 region of HPV-16 E7, both as an isolated domain and in the full-length protein. This opens the way to the atomic level study of the many interactions in which HPV-16 E7 is involved. Along these lines we show here the effect of one of the key post-translational modifications of HPV-16 E7, the phosphorylation by casein kinase II.

  6. Impact of HPV in Oropharyngeal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Marklund

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of oropharyngeal cancers has increased in the western world and Human Papilloma Virus (HPV has been recognised as a risk factor in the last decades. During the same period the prevalence of HPV in oropharyngeal tumours has increased and HPV has been suggested responsible for the increase. The HPV-positive tumours are today recognized as a distinct subset of head and neck cancers with its own clinopathological and risk profile and have a significantly improved prognosis regardless of treatment strategy. This review summarizes current knowledge regarding human papillomavirus biology, oncogenic mechanisms, risk factors, and impact of treatment.

  7. A Cross-Sectional Study to Assess HPV Knowledge and HPV Vaccine Acceptability in Mali

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Danielle N.; Tracy, J. Kathleen; Levitz, Lauren; Rochas, Mali; Sangare, Kotou; Yekta, Shahla; Tounkara, Karamoko; Aboubacar, Ben; Koita, Ousmane; Lurie, Mark; De Groot, Anne S.

    2013-01-01

    Despite a high prevalence of oncogenic human papilloma virus (HPV) infection and cervical cancer mortality, HPV vaccination is not currently available in Mali. Knowledge of HPV and cervical cancer in Mali, and thereby vaccine readiness, may be limited. Research staff visited homes in a radial pattern from a central location to recruit adolescent females and males aged 12–17 years and men and women aged ≥18 years (N = 51) in a peri-urban village of Bamako, Mali. Participants took part in structured interviews assessing knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to HPV, cervical cancer, and HPV vaccination. We found low levels of HPV and cervical cancer knowledge. While only 2.0% of respondents knew that HPV is a sexually transmitted infection (STI), 100% said they would be willing to receive HPV vaccination and would like the HPV vaccine to be available in Mali. Moreover, 74.5% said they would vaccinate their child(ren) against HPV. Men were found to have significantly greater autonomy in the decision to vaccinate themselves than women and adolescents (p = 0.005), a potential barrier to be addressed by immunization campaigns. HPV vaccination would be highly acceptable if the vaccine became widely available in Bamako, Mali. This study demonstrates the need for a significant investment in health education if truly informed consent is to be obtained for HPV vaccination. Potential HPV vaccination campaigns should provide more information about HPV and the vaccine. Barriers to vaccination, including the significantly lower ability of the majority of the target population to autonomously decide to get vaccinated, must also be addressed in future HPV vaccine campaigns. PMID:23431375

  8. A cross-sectional study to assess HPV knowledge and HPV vaccine acceptability in Mali.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle N Poole

    Full Text Available Despite a high prevalence of oncogenic human papilloma virus (HPV infection and cervical cancer mortality, HPV vaccination is not currently available in Mali. Knowledge of HPV and cervical cancer in Mali, and thereby vaccine readiness, may be limited. Research staff visited homes in a radial pattern from a central location to recruit adolescent females and males aged 12-17 years and men and women aged ≥ 18 years (N = 51 in a peri-urban village of Bamako, Mali. Participants took part in structured interviews assessing knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to HPV, cervical cancer, and HPV vaccination. We found low levels of HPV and cervical cancer knowledge. While only 2.0% of respondents knew that HPV is a sexually transmitted infection (STI, 100% said they would be willing to receive HPV vaccination and would like the HPV vaccine to be available in Mali. Moreover, 74.5% said they would vaccinate their child(ren against HPV. Men were found to have significantly greater autonomy in the decision to vaccinate themselves than women and adolescents (p = 0.005, a potential barrier to be addressed by immunization campaigns. HPV vaccination would be highly acceptable if the vaccine became widely available in Bamako, Mali. This study demonstrates the need for a significant investment in health education if truly informed consent is to be obtained for HPV vaccination. Potential HPV vaccination campaigns should provide more information about HPV and the vaccine. Barriers to vaccination, including the significantly lower ability of the majority of the target population to autonomously decide to get vaccinated, must also be addressed in future HPV vaccine campaigns.

  9. Smoking and human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in the HPV in Men (HIM) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schabath, Matthew B; Villa, Luisa L; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Salmerón, Jorge; Quiterio, Manuel; Giuliano, Anna R

    2012-01-01

    The influence of smoking on the natural history of HPV infection in men is not well understood. Smoking could influence the incidence and persistence of HPV infections by suppressing local immune function, increased cellular proliferation, upregulated proinflammatory factors, or induced host DNA damage resulting in increased susceptibility to infection. The purpose of this analysis is to assess prevalent HPV infections by smoking status in men, and to determine baseline risk of HPV infection associated with smoking. The HPV in Men (HIM) study is a multinational prospective study of the natural history of HPV infections in men. Samples from the coronal sulcus, glans penis, shaft, and scrotum were combined for HPV DNA testing. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the association between smoking and any-, oncogenic-, and nononcogenic HPV infections. Our analyses revealed that current smoking was associated with an increased risk of any HPV infection (OR = 1.19; 95% CI: 1.01-1.41) and oncogenic HPV infection (OR = 1.24; 95% CI: 1.05-1.47). However, the association between smoking and any HPV infection (OR = 1.35; 95% CI: 1.05-1.73) and oncogenic HPV infection (OR = 1.46; 95% CI: 1.11-1.92) was only evident among men reporting fewer lifetime sexual partners. These results suggest that current smokers with the fewest number of sexual partners are associated with an increased risk for oncogenic HPV infection. The relationship between smoking and HPV infection remains understudied in men; these data shed new light on the interplay between smoking, sexual activity, and risk of HPV infection.

  10. Comprehensive mapping of the human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA integration sites in cervical carcinomas by HPV capture technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Lu, Zheming; Xu, Ruiping; Ke, Yang

    2016-02-02

    Integration of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA into the host genome can be a driver mutation in cervical carcinoma. Identification of HPV integration at base resolution has been a longstanding technical challenge, largely due to sensitivity masking by HPV in episomes or concatenated forms. The aim was to enhance the understanding of the precise localization of HPV integration sites using an innovative strategy. Using HPV capture technology combined with next generation sequencing, HPV prevalence and the exact integration sites of the HPV DNA in 47 primary cervical cancer samples and 2 cell lines were investigated. A total of 117 unique HPV integration sites were identified, including HPV16 (n = 101), HPV18 (n = 7), and HPV58 (n = 9). We observed that the HPV16 integration sites were broadly located across the whole viral genome. In addition, either single or multiple integration events could occur frequently for HPV16, ranging from 1 to 19 per sample. The viral integration sites were distributed across almost all the chromosomes, except chromosome 22. All the cervical cancer cases harboring more than four HPV16 integration sites showed clinical diagnosis of stage III carcinoma. A significant enrichment of overlapping nucleotides shared between the human genome and HPV genome at integration breakpoints was observed, indicating that it may play an important role in the HPV integration process. The results expand on knowledge from previous findings on HPV16 and HPV18 integration sites and allow a better understanding of the molecular basis of the pathogenesis of cervical carcinoma.

  11. HPV testing and vaccination in Europe.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Leeson, Simon C

    2014-01-01

    Current cytology-based screening has a moderate sensitivity to detect cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (CIN 3) and cervical cancer even in those states providing rigorous quality control of their cervical screening programs. The impact of vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16 and 18 as well as the incorporation of HPV testing on the detection of CIN 3 and cancer is discussed. HPV testing used as a triage for atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, test of cure after treatment, and HPV-based primary screening may improve current cervical screening programs.HPV testing as a triage test for ASCUS seems to offer an improved sensitivity, with a similar specificity as compared to repeat cytology for diagnosing high-grade CIN and has been recommended throughout most EU states. HPV testing as a triage test for low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions has a low specificity and is not recommended in most member states. HPV test of cure offers an improved sensitivity compared to cytology for women with persistent cervical precancer after treatment. HPV-based cervical cancer screening is more effective than screening with cytology. The effects of HPV-based screening depend on the organization of the program and on adherence to algorithms for screening triage. Otherwise, it is likely that HPV-based screening will increase the referral rate to colposcopy including more women with no detectable cervical lesion. HPV vaccination will require many years to evaluate any beneficial effects on cervical cancer incidence and mortality.

  12. Alterações anatomopatologicas da mucosa gastrica associadas a infecção pelo helicobacter pylori

    OpenAIRE

    Correa, Esther Buzaglo Dantas

    1996-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro de Ciencias da Saude Foram comparadas as alterações anátomo-patológicas observadas na mucosa gástrica (inflamação, atividade da gastrite, atrofia, metaplasia intestinal e folículos linfóides) de 64 pacientes portadores de infecção pelo Helicobacter pylori com as alterações presentes na mucosa de 20 pacientes sem infecção. Inflamação, atividade da gastrite e folículos linfóides foram mais freqüentes na mucosa de corpo e...

  13. [Colorimetric detection of HPV6 and HPV16 by loop mediated isothermal amplification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chun-bin; Luo, Le; Yang, Meng-jie; Nie, Kai; Wang, Miao; Ma, Xue-Jun

    2011-01-01

    A simple, rapid and sensitive colorimetric loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method was established to detect HPV6 and HPV 16 respectively. The method employed a set of four specially designed primers that recognized six distinct sequences of HPV6-E6 or HPV16-E7 for amplification of nucleic acid under isothermal conditions at 63 degrees C for one hour. The amplification process of LAMP was monitored by the addition of HNB (hydroxy naphthol blue) dye prior to amplification. A positive reaction was indicated by a color change from violet to sky blue and confirmed by real-time turbidimeter and agarose electrophoresis. Thirteen cervical swab samples having single infection with 13 different HPV genotypes were examined to evaluate the specificity. A serial dilution of a cloned plasmid containing HPV-E6 or HPV-E7 gene was examined to evaluate the sensitivity. The results showed that no cross-reaction with other HPV genotypes was observed. The colorimetric LAMP assay could achieve a sensitivity of 1000 copies, 10-20 times lower than that of real-time PCR. The assay was further evaluated with 62 clinical specimens and consistent results were obtained compared with the detection using Kai Pu HPV Genotyping Kit. We concluded that this colorimetric LAMP assay had potential usefulness for the rapid screening of the HPV6 or HPV16 infection in the laboratories and hospitals of provincial and municipal region in China.

  14. 9-Valent HPV vaccine for cancers, pre-cancers and genital warts related to HPV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitisuttithum, Punnee; Velicer, Christine; Luxembourg, Alain

    2015-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the causative agent of nearly all cervical cancer cases as well as a substantial proportion of anal, vulvar, vaginal, penile and oropharyngeal cancers, making it responsible for approximately 5% of the global cancer burden. The first-generation HPV vaccines that is, quadrivalent HPV type 6/11/16/18 vaccine and bivalent HPV type 16/18 vaccine were licensed in 2006 and 2007, respectively. A second-generation 9-valent HPV type 6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58 vaccine with broader cancer coverage was initiated even before the first vaccines were approved. By preventing HPV infection and disease due to HPV31/33/45/52/58, the 9vHPV vaccine has the potential to increase prevention of cervical cancer from 70 to 90%. In addition, the 9vHPV vaccine has the potential to prevent 85-95% of HPV-related vulvar, vaginal and anal cancers. Overall, the 9vHPV vaccine addresses a significant unmet medical need, although further health economics and implementation research is needed.

  15. Assessing HPV and Cervical Knowledge, Preference and HPV Status Among Urban American Indian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cina, Kristin R; Omidpanah, Adam A; Petereit, Daniel G

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate whether or not an educational intervention would lead to a change in knowledge and attitudes about human papillomavirus (HPV), HPV vaccines, and cervical cancer. The HPV status was also investigated for interested participants. We provided HPV and cervical cancer education to urban American Indian (AI) women 18 and older using a pre and post-knowledge exam to assess knowledge and attitudes. Women were also given the option to perform vaginal self-tests for high risk HPV (hrHPV) analysis immediately after the education. Ninety-six women participated in our educational sessions. Improvement in performance on a knowledge exam increased from 61.6 to 84.3 percent. Ninety-three women performed the vaginal self-test with 63.1 percent of women preferring vaginal self-testing over conventional screening methods. Thirty-five out of 91 women (38.5 percent) had hrHPV types with 12 of the 35 harboring multiple hrHPV types (13 percent overall). HPV and cervical cancer education was beneficial for urban AI women with the majority of women preferring vaginal self-testing. HPV self-testing may be a strategy to improve screening rates for cervical cancer. Urban AI women had high rates of hrHPV compared to rural AI populations as reported in previous studies.

  16. Parent HPV vaccine perspectives and the likelihood of HPV vaccination of adolescent males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Sarah J; Cowan, Anne E; Filipp, Stephanie L; Fisher, Allison M; Stokley, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    In 2013, approximately one-third of US adolescent males age 13-17 y had received ≥1 doses of HPV vaccines and only 14% had received ≥3 doses. This study used a nationally representative, online survey to explore experiences and attitudes related to HPV vaccination among parents with adolescent sons. Analyses compared the perspective of parents who do not intend to initiate HPV vaccine for ≥1 adolescent son to that of parents who are likely to initiate or continue HPV vaccination. Of 809 parents of sons age 11-17 years, half were classified as Unlikely to Initiate HPV vaccination and 39% as Likely to Vaccinate. A higher proportion of the Likely to Vaccinate group felt their son's doctor was knowledgeable about HPV vaccine, did a good job explaining its purpose, and spent more time discussing HPV vaccine; in contrast, over half of the Unlikely to Initiate group had never discussed HPV vaccine with their child's doctor. The majority of parents in both groups showed favorable attitudes to adolescent vaccination in general, with lower levels of support for HPV vaccine-specific statements. Physician-parent communication around HPV vaccine for adolescent males should build on positive attitude toward vaccines in general, while addressing parents' HPV vaccine-specific concerns.

  17. IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF ORAL MUCOSA LEUKOPLAKIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. G. KOLENKO

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, substantial changes have occurred in the structure of oral mucosa diseases, in particular an increased ratio of precancerous diseases, so that an effective non-invasive detection of any sign of malignancy appears as an urgent and most actual task of dentistry. Aim: To study the proliferative activity of epithelial cells in Ki-67 antigenin patients with leukoplakia of the oral mucosa. Materials and method: A complex clinical and laboratory examination was performed on 155 patients with oral leukoplakia, who addressed the Operative Dentistry Department of the “A.A.Bogomolets” National Medical University of Kiev between 2010 and 2014. All patients have been subjected to a careful clinical examination, which included: dental anamnesis, visual inspection, oral examination and digital palpation of oral mucosa and tongue mucosa, biopsy of leukoplakia lesions for cytological and histological examination. Results: Histological evaluation of the material has been performed according to the WHO (2005 classification of leukoplakia. 10 (14% sites of unaltered mucosa, 10 (14% samples of hyperkeratosis without atypia, 14 (19% biopsy specimens of hyperkeratosis SIN1, 15 (21% – hyperkeratosis SIN2, 10 (14% - SIN3 and 13 (18% cases of squamous cell carcinoma were evidenced. Immunohistochemical investigation evidenced the presence of protein Ki-67 in the nuclei of epithelial cells. In the unmodified epithelium of the oral mucosa, all epithelial cells with stained nuclei are virtually located in the basal layer. Conclusion: Against the general increase of the proliferative activity of epithelial cells with increasing SIN, a characteristic distribution of proliferating cells in the thickness of the epithelium was revealed for each studied group, as follows: in the control group and in leukoplakia without atypia, immunopositive cells are located in the basal layer, in leukoplakia (SIN1, SIN2 and SIN3 – in parabasal position while, in squamous

  18. Incarcerated women's HPV awareness, beliefs, and experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankey, Tyson; Ramaswamy, Megha

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore incarcerated women's awareness, beliefs, and experiences with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and vaccination. Researchers conducted focus groups with 45 incarcerated women in an urban Midwestern US jail to assess how women talked about their Papanicolaou (Pap) test screening and abnormal Pap test follow-up experiences. Some focus group questions specifically assessed individual awareness, beliefs, and experiences with HPV infection and vaccination. Based on these data, the authors described participants' awareness of HPV, as well as used open coding to ultimately extract themes related to beliefs and experiences with HPV infection and vaccine. While all 45 participants reported experiencing an abnormal Pap test event within the last five years, only two-thirds of participants (n=30) reported having heard of the HPV infection. Several themes emerged from the analysis of the data: the women's beliefs about cause and severity of HPV; frustration with age requirements of the vaccine; varied experiences with vaccinations for themselves and their children; the impact of media exposure on knowledge; and desire for more HPV infection and vaccine information. Incarcerated women's awareness and limited experiences with HPV infection and vaccination may be a barrier to adequate screening and cervical cancer prevention. This study has implications for the development of cervical health education for this high-risk group of women, who are four to five times as likely to have cervical cancer as non-incarcerated women.

  19. Is HPV vaccination in pregnancy safe?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Zwol, Ulla Bonde; Joergensen, J. S.; Lamont, R. F.

    2016-01-01

    the subject of HPV vaccine and pregnancy , the databases of PubMed and Embase were searched to find the relevant literature published in English within the last 10 y. Most of the evidence pertaining to fetal adverse events following HPV vaccination relates to spontaneous miscarriage. None of the relevant...

  20. HIV/AIDS, HPV and Anal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chia-ching J.; Sparano, Joseph; Palefsky, Joel M.

    2016-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Anal cancer is an increasingly common non-AIDS-defining cancer among HIV-infected individuals. It is associated with human papillomavirus (HPV), the most common sexually transmitted infectious agent. The 14 oncogenic types of HPV are causally associated with 5–10% of all cancers, notably anogenital cancers. HPV16 is the most common genotype detected in about 70% of anal cancers. The HPV types detected in anal cancer are included in the 9-valent vaccine. HPV vaccines have demonstrated efficacy in reducing anal precancerous lesions in HIV-infected individuals. The standard treatment for anal cancer has been fluorouracil (5-FU) and mitomycin (or cisplatin) as chemotherapy agents plus radiation, which can also be effectively used for the HIV-infected patients. Continued studies will be needed to test new treatment strategies in HIV-infected patients with anal cancer to determine which treatment protocols provide the best therapeutic index. PMID:27889034

  1. Knowledge and Awareness of Cervical Cancer, Human Papillomavirus (HPV), and HPV Vaccine Among HPV-Infected Chinese Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baloch, Zulqarnain; Yasmeen, Nafeesa; Li, Yuanyue; Zhang, Wenhui; Lu, Hongyu; Wu, Xiaomei; Xia, Xueshan; Yang, Shihua

    2017-09-04

    BACKGROUND It is important to understand the knowledge that various groups of a population have about cervical cancer and human papillomavirus (HPV) and their attitudes toward HPV vaccination, as it will ultimately influence their decision-making for or against the acceptability of vaccines and other preventive methods. This study was designed to determine the level of knowledge and awareness about cervical cancer, HPV, and the HPV vaccine among Chinese women in Yunnan province. MATERIAL AND METHODS A survey was conducted in Yunnan province by the Laboratory of Molecular Virology in collaboration with the Yunnan First People's Hospital in Feb 2015. A total of 388 women were recruited and asked to participate in a questionnaire-based interview that collected information related to their awareness and knowledge about: (1) cervical cancer, (2) HPV and HPV vaccine and willingness to have their children receive vaccination, and (3) demographic characteristics. RESULTS A total of 388 HPV-positive women were included; 300/388 (73.3%) were Han, and 88/388 (22.7%) were other ethnicities. Overall, 204/388 (52.6%) of the women were aware of cervical cancer, with a significant difference between Han women and women of other ethnic groups (168/388, 56.0% and 36/88, 40.9%; P=0.015). Overall, 26.5% of the women were aware of the role of HPV in cervical cancer; 29.0% of the Han women and 18.2% of women of other ethnic groups were aware of this role of HPV (P=0.05). The knowledge that HPV infection leads to cervical cancer was higher among Han women (29.0%) compared to women of other ethnicities (18.2%). Knowledge about the HPV vaccine was very low in all ethnic groups, but the Han women were more willing to allow their children to be vaccinated before they become sexually active. A similar difference has also been found in women from various regions. CONCLUSIONS Although level of awareness and knowledge about cervical cancer was moderate, knowledge and awareness of HPV and the HPV

  2. Primary Care Physicians' Perspectives About HPV Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Mandy A; Hurley, Laura P; Markowitz, Lauri; Crane, Lori A; Brtnikova, Michaela; Beaty, Brenda L; Snow, Megan; Cory, Janine; Stokley, Shannon; Roark, Jill; Kempe, Allison

    2016-02-01

    Because physicians' practices could be modified to reduce missed opportunities for human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination, our goal was to: (1) describe self-reported practices regarding recommending the HPV vaccine; (2) estimate the frequency of parental deferral of HPV vaccination; and (3)identify characteristics associated with not discussing it. A national survey among pediatricians and family physicians (FP) was conducted between October 2013 and January 2014. Using multivariable analysis, characteristics associated with not discussing HPV vaccination were examined. Response rates were 82% for pediatricians (364 of 442) and 56% for FP (218 of 387). For 11-12 year-old girls, 60% of pediatricians and 59% of FP strongly recommend HPV vaccine; for boys,52% and 41% ostrongly recommen. More than one-half reported ≥25% of parents deferred HPV vaccination. At the 11-12 year well visit, 84% of pediatricians and 75% of FP frequently/always discuss HPV vaccination. Compared with physicians who frequently/always discuss , those who occasionally/rarely discuss(18%) were more likely to be FP (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 2.0 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.1-3.5), be male (aOR: 1.8 [95% CI: 1.1-3.1]), disagree that parents will accept HPV vaccine if discussed with other vaccines (aOR: 2.3 [95% CI: 1.3-4.2]), report that 25% to 49% (aOR: 2.8 [95% CI: 1.1-6.8]) or ≥50% (aOR: 7.8 [95% CI: 3.4-17.6]) of parents defer, and express concern about waning immunity (aOR: 3.4 [95% CI: 1.8-6.4]). Addressing physicians' perceptions about parental acceptance of HPV vaccine, the possible advantages of discussing HPV vaccination with other recommended vaccines, and concerns about waning immunity could lead to increased vaccination rates. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  3. HPV genotype-specific concordance between EuroArray HPV, Anyplex II HPV28 and Linear Array HPV Genotyping test in Australian cervical samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyssa M. Cornall

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To compare human papillomavirus genotype-specific performance of two genotyping assays, Anyplex II HPV28 (Seegene and EuroArray HPV (EuroImmun, with Linear Array HPV (Roche. Methods: DNA extracted from clinican-collected cervical brush specimens in PreservCyt medium (Hologic, from 403 women undergoing management for detected cytological abnormalities, was tested on the three assays. Genotype-specific agreement were assessed by Cohen's kappa statistic and Fisher's z-test of significance between proportions. Results: Agreement between Linear Array and the other 2 assays was substantial to almost perfect (κ = 0.60 − 1.00 for most genotypes, and was almost perfect (κ = 0.81 – 0.98 for almost all high-risk genotypes. Linear Array overall detected most genotypes more frequently, however this was only statistically significant for HPV51 (EuroArray; p = 0.0497, HPV52 (Anyplex II; p = 0.039 and HPV61 (Anyplex II; p=0.047. EuroArray detected signficantly more HPV26 (p = 0.002 and Anyplex II detected more HPV42 (p = 0.035 than Linear Array. Each assay performed differently for HPV68 detection: EuroArray and LA were in moderate to substantial agreement with Anyplex II (κ = 0.46 and 0.62, respectively, but were in poor disagreement with each other (κ = −0.01. Conclusions: EuroArray and Anyplex II had similar sensitivity to Linear Array for most high-risk genotypes, with slightly lower sensitivity for HPV 51 or 52. Keywords: Human papillomavirus, Genotyping, Linear Array, Anyplex II, EuroArray, Cervix

  4. HPV genotype-specific concordance between EuroArray HPV, Anyplex II HPV28 and Linear Array HPV Genotyping test in Australian cervical samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornall, Alyssa M; Poljak, Marin; Garland, Suzanne M; Phillips, Samuel; Machalek, Dorothy A; Tan, Jeffrey H; Quinn, Michael A; Tabrizi, Sepehr N

    2017-12-01

    To compare human papillomavirus genotype-specific performance of two genotyping assays, Anyplex II HPV28 (Seegene) and EuroArray HPV (EuroImmun), with Linear Array HPV (Roche). DNA extracted from clinican-collected cervical brush specimens in PreservCyt medium (Hologic), from 403 women undergoing management for detected cytological abnormalities, was tested on the three assays. Genotype-specific agreement were assessed by Cohen's kappa statistic and Fisher's z-test of significance between proportions. Agreement between Linear Array and the other 2 assays was substantial to almost perfect (κ = 0.60 - 1.00) for most genotypes, and was almost perfect (κ = 0.81 - 0.98) for almost all high-risk genotypes. Linear Array overall detected most genotypes more frequently, however this was only statistically significant for HPV51 (EuroArray; p = 0.0497), HPV52 (Anyplex II; p = 0.039) and HPV61 (Anyplex II; p=0.047). EuroArray detected signficantly more HPV26 (p = 0.002) and Anyplex II detected more HPV42 (p = 0.035) than Linear Array. Each assay performed differently for HPV68 detection: EuroArray and LA were in moderate to substantial agreement with Anyplex II (κ = 0.46 and 0.62, respectively), but were in poor disagreement with each other (κ = -0.01). EuroArray and Anyplex II had similar sensitivity to Linear Array for most high-risk genotypes, with slightly lower sensitivity for HPV 51 or 52. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. HPV Vaccine Safety PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-01-15

    In this 30 second public service announcement, a mother talks about the importance of protecting 11-12 year-old boys and girls with HPV vaccination. (Una madre habla sobre la importancia de proteger a los niños y las niñas de 11 a 12 años con la vacuna contra el VPH.).  Created: 1/15/2014 by National Center for Immunizations and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 1/15/2014.

  6. HPV Vaccine (:30) (No Tag)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-01-15

    In this 30 second public service announcement, a mother talks about the importance of protecting 11-12 year-old boys and girls with HPV vaccination. (Una madre habla sobre la importancia de proteger a los niños y las niñas de 11 a 12 años con la vacuna contra el VPH.).  Created: 1/15/2014 by National Center for Immunizations and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 1/15/2014.

  7. [Nasal mucosa in patients with diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Maciej; Betlejewski, Stanisław

    2003-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is the most common endocrinologic disease all over the world. 150 million people suffer from this disease, in Poland about 2 million. The disease on the basis of the onset and pathophysiology may be divided into type I and type II. Pathophysiologic changes include diabetic microangiopathy, macroangiopathy and neuropathy. The most common presentations in head and neck are otitis externa, hypoacusis, vertigo, disequilibrium, xerostomia, dysphagia, fungal and recurrent infections. The changes in nasal mucosa are not very well known. Only few papers concerned the problem. The main complaints of patients regarding the nose are xeromycteria, hyposmia and various degree of decreased patency of the nose. Chronic atrophic rhinitis, septal perforation, ulceration of nasal mucosa, alar necrosis, symptoms of staphylococcal or fungal infection can be found during otolaryngologic examination. The treatment in this group of patients should consist of systemic therapy of diabetes mellitus and on the other hand focal therapy with the use of a solution to moisten the nasal mucosa.

  8. Radiation tolerance of the vaginal mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hintz, b.L.; Kagan, A.R.; Chan, P.; Gilbert, H.A.; Nussbaum, H.; Rao, A.R.; Wollin, M.

    1980-01-01

    Sixteen patients with cancer of the vagina that were controlled locally for a minimum of eighteen months after teletherpay (T) or brachytherapy (B) or both (T and B), were analyzed for radiation tolerance of the vaginal mucosa. The site of vaginal necrosis did not always coincide with the site of the tumor. The posterior wall appeared more vulnerable than the anterior or lateral walls. For the distal vaginal mucosa, necrosis requiring surgical intervention occurred following combined T and B, if summated rad exceeded9800. The upper vagina tolerated higher dosages. No patient surgery for upper vaginal necrosis even though summated (T and B) dosage up to 14,000 rad was applied. Placing radioactive needles on the surface of the vaginal cylinder with or without interstitial perincal needles should be avoided. Further accumulation of data is needed to define these vaginal mucosa tolerance limits more closely

  9. [Effect of nasogastric tube on esophageal mucosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barinagarrementeria, R; Blancas Valencia, J M; Teramoto Matsubara, O; de la Garza González, S

    1991-01-01

    We studied 30 patients. 20 were males and 10 females. Mean age was 48 year old. Esophageal disease was not present neither gastro-esophageal reflux. Biopsy was taken between 24 hours and 25 days after nasogastric tube (NG) was put into place. Endoscopic findings were: hyperemic mucosa, submucosal hemorrhage, clots, erosions and ulcers near Esophago-gastric junction. Intraepithelial edema, vessel congestion, polymorphonuclear infiltration, fibrin thrombosis of submucosal vessels, ischemia, epithelial regeneration and ulcer were common histologic findings. All endoscopic and histologic alterations were related to the length of time of NG tube contact with the esophageal mucosa. We concluded that NG tube damages the esophageal mucosa by two mechanisms: a) Local irritation that favors b) gastric reflux by decreasing lower esophageal sphincter pressure.

  10. Oncogenic and incidental HPV types associated with histologically ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. In Africa, data on the relationship between oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) types, immune status and cervical preinvasive lesions are lacking. Methods. We investigated low-risk (lrHPV) and high-risk (hrHPV) HPV types in a cohort of women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) II/III confirmed on ...

  11. Sensitivity and specificity of oral HPV detection for HPV-positive head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gipson, Brooke J; Robbins, Hilary A; Fakhry, Carole; D'Souza, Gypsyamber

    2018-02-01

    The incidence of HPV-related head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HPV-HNSCC) is increasing. Oral samples are easy and non-invasive to collect, but the diagnostic accuracy of oral HPV detection methods for classifying HPV-positive HNSCC tumors has not been well explored. In a systematic review, we identified eight studies of HNSCC patients meeting our eligibility criteria of having: (1) HPV detection in oral rinse or oral swab samples, (2) tumor HPV or p16 testing, (3) a publication date within the last 10 years (January 2007-May 2017, as laboratory methods change), and (4) at least 15 HNSCC cases. Data were abstracted from each study and a meta-analysis performed to calculate sensitivity and specificity. Eight articles meeting inclusion criteria were identified. Among people diagnosed with HNSCC, oral HPV detection has good specificity (92%, 95% CI = 82-97%) and moderate sensitivity (72%, 95% CI = 45-89%) for HPV-positive HNSCC tumor. Results were similar when restricted to studies with only oropharyngeal cancer cases, with oral rinse samples, or testing for HPV16 DNA (instead of any oncogenic HPV) in the oral samples. Among those who already have HNSCC, oral HPV detection has few false-positives but may miss one-half to one-quarter of HPV-related cases (false-negatives). Given these findings in cancer patients, the utility of oral rinses and swabs as screening tests for HPV-HNSCC among healthy populations is probably limited. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Cervical screening in HPV-vaccinated populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canfell, K

    2018-06-01

    Cervical screening with cytology has been the basis for substantial reductions in cervical cancer incidence and mortality in most high-income countries over the last few decades. More recently, there have been two key, parallel developments which have prompted a major re-consideration of cervical screening. The first is the emergence of evidence on the improved sensitivity of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing compared to cytology, and the second is the large-scale deployment of prophylactic vaccination against HPV. A key challenge to be overcome before HPV screening could be introduced into national cervical screening programs was the specificity of an infection, for detection of precancerous lesions. This has been done in three ways: (1) by considering the appropriate age for starting HPV screening (30 years in unvaccinated populations and 25 years in populations with mature vaccination programs and high vaccine uptake) and the appropriate screening interval; (2) via development of clinical HPV tests, which are (by design) not as sensitive to low viral loads; and (3) by introducing effective triaging for HPV-positive women, which further risk-stratifies women before referral for diagnostic evaluation. This review discusses these major developments and describes how the benefits of HPV screening are being optimized in both unvaccinated and vaccinated populations.

  13. Congestion of mastoid mucosa and influence on middle ear pressure - Effect of retroauricular injection of adrenaline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fooken Jensen, Pernille Vita; Gaihede, Michael

    2016-10-01

    Micro-CT scanning of temporal bones has revealed numerous retroauricular microchannels, which connect the outer bone surface directly to the underlying mastoid air cells. Their structure and dimensions have suggested a separate vascular supply to the mastoid mucosa, which may play a role in middle ear (ME) pressure regulation. This role may be accomplished by changes in the mucosa congestion resulting in volumetric changes, which ultimately affect the pressure of the enclosed ME gas pocket (Boyle's law). Further, such mucosa congestion may be susceptible to α-adrenergic stimulation similar to the mucosa of the nose. The purpose of our study was to investigate these hypotheses by recording the ME pressure in response to adrenergic stimulation administered by retroauricular injections at the surface of the microchannels. In a group of 20 healthy adults we measured the ME pressure by tympanometry initially in the sitting position, and then in the supine position over a 5 min period with 30 s intervals. In each subject, the study included 1) a control reference experiment with no intervention, 2) a control experiment with subcutaneously retroauricular injection of 1 ml isotonic NaCl solution, and 3) a test experiment with subcutaneously retroauricular injection of 1 ml NaCl-adrenaline solution. In both control experiments the ME pressure displayed an immediate increase in response to changing body position; this pressure increase remained stable for the entire period up to five minutes. In the test experiments the ME pressure also showed an initial pressure increase, but it was followed by a distinct significant pressure decrease with a maximum after 90 s. The test group was injected with both a 5 and 10% adrenaline solution, but the responses appeared similar for the two concentrations. Subcutaneous retroauricular injection of adrenaline caused a significant pressure decrease in ME pressure compared with control ears. This may be explained by the microchannels

  14. FOXA1 in HPV associated carcinomas: Its expression in carcinomas of the head and neck and of the uterine cervix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpathiou, Georgia; Da Cruz, Vanessa; Casteillo, Francois; Mobarki, Mousa; Dumollard, Jean Marc; Chauleur, Celine; Forest, Fabien; Prades, Jean Michel; Peoc'h, Michel

    2017-04-01

    FOXA1 is a major transcription factor involved in the action of human papilloma virus (HPV). However, it has been never studied in HPV-associated tumors. To investigate its expression in cervical and head and neck tumors. 63 cervical carcinomas/dysplasias and 152 head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) were immunohistochemically studied for the expression of FOXA1. 63.1% of cervical SCC and 40.7% of endocervical adenocarcinomas strongly expressed FOXA1. Most (90%) pre-invasive lesions (CIN3 and in situ adenocarcinomas) strongly expressed FOXA1 and this difference from invasive lesions was statistically significant (p=0.005). No association with clinicopathological factors was found. 51.3% of HNSCC expressed FOXA1. In these tumors, FOXA1 expression was associated with the non-keratinizing morphology but not with the HPV/p16 status neither other clinicopathological features. Of normal structures, salivary glands, endocervical glands and basal/parabasal cell layer of squamous epithelium of both uterine cervix and head and neck mucosa, all strongly expressed FOXA1. FOXA1 is expressed by basal cells of squamous epithelium, pre-invasion lesions of the uterine cervix and the head/neck and almost half invasive cervical and head/neck carcinomas, supporting its possible implication in HPV pathogenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Proteome Analysis of Rheumatoid Arthritis Gut Mucosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennike, Tue Bjerg; Ellingsen, Torkell; Glerup, Henning

    2017-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an inflammatory joint disease leading to cartilage damage and ultimately impaired joint function. To gain new insight into the systemic immune manifestations of RA, we characterized the colon mucosa proteome from 11 RA-patients and 10 healthy controls. The biopsies were...

  16. Ectopic gastric mucosa in the duodenal bulb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnell, H.; Oehler, G.; Schulz, A.; Rau, W.S.; Giessen Univ.; Giessen Univ.

    1989-01-01

    The radiological and clinical findings of 12 patients with ectopic gastric mucosa in the duodenal bulb are presented. This is a defined disease with characteristic radiological features: multiple small nodular defects of the contrast medium of 1-3 mm diameter. Histology shows complete heterotopia. Pathogenesis and clinical significance are discussed with reference to the literature on this subject. (orig.) [de

  17. Esophageal heterotopic gastric mucosa in esophageal atresia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lachlan J.R. Harrison

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Heterotopic gastric mucosa (HGM is occasionally found at endoscopy in the proximal esophagus of adults and children, when it manifests as an asymptomatic small island of reddish pink mucosa just below the upper esophageal sphincter. There are few reports of esophageal HGM detected by endoscopy after repair of esophageal atresia (EA with tracheo-esophageal fistula (TEF. We report a child with multiple patches of HGM in the proximal and distal esophagus seen at endoscopy after EA/TEF repair. No obvious symptoms were related to the HGM and she remains under endoscopic surveillance. The incidence of esophageal HGM may be increased in patients with EA and its distribution can be more extensive than a simple “inlet patch”. There is evidence to suggest that esophageal HGM increases the risk of developing Barrett's esophagus and has a malignant potential. Heterotopic gastric mucosa extends the spectrum of potential pathologies affecting the esophagus in patients with EA/TEF and supports current international guidelines for endoscopic surveillance of these patients. Keywords: Tracheo-esophageal fistula, Ectopic mucosa, Esophageal malignancy

  18. Parent HPV vaccine perspectives and the likelihood of HPV vaccination of adolescent males

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Sarah J; Cowan, Anne E; Filipp, Stephanie L; Fisher, Allison M; Stokley, Shannon

    2015-01-01

    In 2013, approximately one-third of US adolescent males age 13–17 y had received ≥1 doses of HPV vaccines and only 14% had received ≥3 doses. This study used a nationally representative, online survey to explore experiences and attitudes related to HPV vaccination among parents with adolescent sons. Analyses compared the perspective of parents who do not intend to initiate HPV vaccine for ≥1 adolescent son to that of parents who are likely to initiate or continue HPV vaccination. Of 809 paren...

  19. Vacinas contra rotavírus e papilomavírus humano (HPV Vaccines against rotavirus and human papillomavirus (HPV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre C. Linhares

    2006-07-01

    -se que a implementação de vacinas de elevada eficácia na prevenção de tumores benignos e malignos causados por alguns tipos de HPV leve a uma queda acentuada das taxas desses tumores, os quais afetam milhões de pessoas em todo o mundo.OBJECTIVE: To briefly review strategies aimed at the development of rotavirus and HPV vaccines, with emphasis on the current status of studies assessing the safety, reactogenicity, immunogenicity and efficacy of recently developed vaccines. SOURCES OF DATA: This review focuses on articles published from 1996 to 2006, mainly those from the last five years, with special emphasis on data obtained from recently completed studies involving a new live attenuated human rotavirus vaccine and a virus-like particle (HPV vaccine. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: Strategies for developing rotavirus vaccines ranged from Jennerian approaches to the new human-derived rotavirus vaccine. Currently, two rotavirus vaccines are recognized as both efficacious and safe: a pentavalent human-bovine reassortant vaccine and a vaccine derived from an attenuated rotavirus of human origin. The second of these has been evaluated in more than 70,000 infants all over the world. Prophylactic vaccines against HPV have been tested in more than 25,000 young individuals around the world. Results from phase II and III clinical studies indicate that such vaccines against the most common types of HPV, those linked to both genital warts and 70% of cervical cancers, are safe and highly efficacious. CONCLUSIONS: A future rotavirus immunization program covering 60 to 80% of infants worldwide is likely to reduce by at least 50% the number of rotavirus-associated hospitalizations and deaths. It is also reasonable to expect that implementation of HPV prophylactic vaccines will reduce the burden of the HPV-related diseases that presently impact millions of people around the world.

  20. Acceptability of HPV vaccines and associations with perceptions related to HPV and HPV vaccines among men who have sex with men in Hong Kong.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph T F Lau

    Full Text Available HPV vaccines are available to men but there are few studies investigating the acceptability of HPV vaccines among men who have sex with men (MSM, a high risk group. We assessed the intention to take up HPV vaccines among MSM in Hong Kong and the associated factors related to cognitions on HPV and HPV vaccines, basing on the Health Belief Model (n = 542. The acceptability of HPV vaccines was 20% (unconditional on efficacies and price, 29.2% (conditional on efficacies and market price, 51.7% (conditional on efficacies and discounted price and 79.1% (conditional on efficacies and free price. Adjusting for background variables, composite scores of perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, perceived barriers and cue to actions were significantly associated with acceptability of HPV vaccines conditional on specific efficacies and the market price. Acceptability of HPV vaccines was highly price sensitive. Future studies need to use conditional measures. Implementation and translational researches are warranted.

  1. Recombinant Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Bivalent Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains brief information about recombinant human papillomavirus (HPV) bivalent vaccine and a collection of links to more information about the use of this vaccine, research results, and ongoing clinical trials.

  2. Recombinant Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Nonavalent Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains brief information about recombinant human papillomavirus (HPV) nonavalent vaccine and a collection of links to more information about the use of this vaccine, research results, and ongoing clinical trials.

  3. Recombinant Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Quadrivalent Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains brief information about recombinant human papillomavirus (HPV) quadrivalent vaccine and a collection of links to more information about the use of this vaccine, research results, and ongoing clinical trials.

  4. One Family's Struggles with HPV (Human Papillomavirus)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... news labs links & resources hpv overview why vaccinate posters buttons and banners videos someone you love flu ... such thing as stomach flu pregnancy and flu posters meningitis overview why vaccinate CDC and meningitis Stiletto ...

  5. One Family's Struggles with HPV (Human Papillomavirus)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... getvaxed about GETVAXED print ads go to GETVAXED.ORG cme Immunizations HPV (Human Papillomavirus) One family's struggles ... free-of-charge. Branded videos contain the "PKIDs.ORG" end slate; unbranded videos are provided for organizations ...

  6. HPV and cancer of the oral cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübbers, Christian U; Akgül, Baki

    2015-01-01

    Increased awareness of human papillomavirus (HPV) as an etiological cause of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma has increased the interest in analysis of distinct oral sub-sites. It is currently under debate, whether HPV plays a role in the development of squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity (OSCC). The weakness in most published studies is the lack of performing different HPV detection tests combined with analysis for biological activity of the virus. In addition, different sub-sites of the oral cavity had been combined to a single entity, which retrospectively leads to a highly heterogeneous basis of data. In this review we mainly discuss the unclear role of HPV in OSCC development.

  7. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) and Oropharyngeal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Human papillomavirus (HPV) can cause serious health problems, including ... 6348 Email CDC-INFO U.S. Department of Health & Human Services HHS/Open USA.gov TOP

  8. Natural History of HPV and Cervical Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Dr. Phil Castle, an intramural research scientist at the National Institutes of Health, talks about the natural history of human papillomavirus (HPV) infections, and cervical cancer and other anogenital cancers.

  9. One Family's Struggles with HPV (Human Papillomavirus)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... immunizations current news Flu's Gonna Lose hepatitis a & b vaccines im/sq how to do kids infect ... vaccine safety q & a videos chickenpox (varicella) hepatitis b hib hpv pertussis (whooping cough) pneumococcal rotavirus shingles ...

  10. One Family's Struggles with HPV (Human Papillomavirus)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... freed meet keri russell posters grand article rich media video/audio pneumonia tb overview links & resources families ... hib hpv pertussis (whooping cough) pneumococcal rotavirus shingles media room Flu's Gonna Lose M.O.V.E. ...

  11. Knowledge of HPV, Perception of Risk, and Intent to Obtain HPV Vaccination among Male University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Dawn

    2014-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV), the most common sexually transmitted virus in the world, is associated with almost all cases of cervical cancer. It is also related to vulvar, vaginal, penile, anal, and oropharyngeal cancer. HPV vaccination is recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) for both boys and girls. Unfortunately,…

  12. No evidence for active human papillomavirus (HPV) in fields surrounding HPV-positive oropharyngeal tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietbergen, M.M.; Braakhuis, B.J.M.; Moukhtari, N.; Bloemena, E.; Brink, A.; Sie, D.; Ylstra, B.; Baatenburg de Jong, R.J.; Snijders, P.J.F.; Brakenhoff, R.H.; Leemans, C.R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Patients with human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (OPSCCs) have a better prognosis than patients with HPV-negative OPSCCs. Important factors contributing to this better prognosis are relatively low numbers of local/regional recurrences (LRRs) and

  13. Efficacy of radiotherapy of oral mucosa cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorob'ev, Yu.I.; Garbuzov, M.I.; Sarantseva, I.P.; Popov, N.V.; Pereslegin, O.I.

    1986-01-01

    An analysis of 10-year experience of a radiological department (962 patients) indicated late admission of oral mucosa cancer patients for specialized treatment: 75-85% of the patients were admitted with Stage 2-4 disease. The assessment of the efficacy of radiotherapy according to the 3 ad 5-year survival rates showed that better results were obtained for buccal mucosa cancer and the worst for mouth fundus cancer. Regional metastates are a poor prognostic sign, particularly fixed metastases in patients with tongue and mouth fundus cancer. Combined therapy turned out be the most effective in tongue cancer. In different variants of dose delivery in time the most favorable results were obtained with small fractionation (a conventional course). However it should be noted that a split course was usually applied to weak elderly patients with advanced stages of disease

  14. Oral Neurothekeoma of the Right Buccal Mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex C. Tham

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral neurothekeoma or nerve sheath myxoma is a rare benign oral tumour of nerve sheath origin. Historically, this tumour has been subclassified as myxoid (classic, mixed, or the cellular type, depending on the amount of myxoid stroma and cellularity. We present a case of oral neurothekeoma (mixed type of the buccal mucosa. The tumour was completely excised. No recurrence was detected in the last 3 years after local excision.

  15. Experimental model of traumatic ulcer in the cheek mucosa of rats Modelo experimental de úlcera traumática em mucosa jugal de ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galyléia Meneses Cavalcante

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To establish an experimental model of traumatic ulcer in rat cheek mucosa for utilization in future alternative therapy studies. METHODS: A total of 60 adult male rats (250 - 300g were used. Ulceration of the left cheek mucosa was provoked by abrasion using a nº 15 scalpel blade. The animals were observed for 10 days, during which they were weighed and their ulcers were measured. The histological characteristics were analyzed and scored according to the ulcer phase. In the statistical analysis, a value of pOBJETIVO: Estabelecer um modelo experimental de úlcera traumática em mucosa jugal de ratos para utilização em futuros testes de terapias alternativas. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados 60 ratos, adultos, machos, pesando entre 250 a 300g. A ulceração na mucosa jugal esquerda foi provocada por meio da abrasão desta com uma lâmina de bisturi número 15. Os animais foram observados por um período de 10 dias, sendo estes pesados e suas escoriações mensuradas. As características histológicas foram analisadas e descritas adotando escores para comparação dos estágios da fase da úlcera. Na análise estatística um valor de p<0,01 foi considerado uma resposta estatisticamente significante em todos os casos. RESULTADOS: Durante os cinco primeiros dias os animais perderam peso ("t" Student - p<0,01. A área da úlcera regrediu linearmente com o tempo, estando quase que completamente cicatrizada ao final de dez dias (ANOVA, pós-teste de Tendência - p<0,0001. Os grupos do 1º, 2º e 3º dias tiveram comportamento semelhante havendo uma diminuição dos escores a partir do 4º dia. CONCLUSÃO: O modelo de úlcera na mucosa jugal de ratos proposto pode ser considerado eficaz, apresentando reprodutibilidade confiável e baixo custo.

  16. Dopamine receptors in human gastrointestinal mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, D.E.; Mason, G.A.; Walker, C.H.; Valenzuela, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    Dopamine is a putative enteric neurotransmitter that has been implicated in exocrine secretory and motility functions of the gastrointestinal tract of several mammalian species including man. This study was designed to determine the presence of dopamine binding sites in human gastric and duodenal mucosa and to describe certain biochemical characteristics of these enteric receptor sites. The binding assay was performed in triplicate with tissue homogenates obtained from healthy volunteers of both sexes using 3 H-dopamine as a ligand. The extent of nonspecific binding was determined in the presence of a 100-fold excess of unlabeled dopamine. Scatchard analysis performed with increasing concentrations of 3 H-dopamine (20-500 nM) revealed a single class of saturable dopamine binding sites in gastric and duodenal mucosa. The results of this report demonstrate the presence of specific dopamine receptors in human gastric and duodenal mucosa. These biochemical data suggest that molecular abnormalities of these receptor sites may be operative in the pathogenesis of important gastrointestinal disorders. 33 references, 2 figures

  17. Insulin and thyroxine effect on /sup 32/P incorporation in the phospholipids of chicken intestinal mucosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleksandrov, S; Lazarov, J [Akademiya na Selskostopanskite Nauki, Sofia-Kostinbrod (Bulgaria). Inst. po Zhivotnovydstvo

    1977-01-01

    Trials were conducted with 56-day-old broiler chickens. The effect was followed up of insulin and alloxan as well as of L-thyroxine and 6-methylthiouracil on /sup 32/P incorporation in phospholipids of the duodenal mucosa. A segment of the duodenum was isolated and Na/sub 2/H/sup 32/PO/sub 4/ was introduced therein. The lipids were extracted from duodenal mucosa and the individual phospholipids were separated by means of thin layer chromatography on sillica gel-G. Radioactivity was determined of individual phospholipid fractions. Blood glucose level was studied in insulin and alloxan-treated chickens. The inference was drawn that insulin significantly enhances /sup 32/P incorporation in the phospholipids in broiler chicken duodenal mucosa. The drop in blood glucose in insulin-treated chickens is inversely proportional to /sup 32/ P inclusion in individual phospholipids of duodenal mucosa. L-thyroxine exerts positive effect in chickens concerning /sup 32/P incorporation in lecithin and lysolecithin, this effect being negative with respect to sphingomyelin, cephalin and cardiolipin. Thyroid gland inhibition by 6-methylthiouracil induces negligible decline in /sup 32/P inclusion.

  18. Worldwide burden of cancer attributable to HPV by site, country and HPV type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Martyn; Vignat, Jerome; Franceschi, Silvia

    2017-01-01

    HPV is the cause of almost all cervical cancer and is responsible for a substantial fraction of other anogenital cancers and oropharyngeal cancers. Understanding the HPV‐attributable cancer burden can boost programs of HPV vaccination and HPV‐based cervical screening. Attributable fractions (AFs) and the relative contributions of different HPV types were derived from published studies reporting on the prevalence of transforming HPV infection in cancer tissue. Maps of age‐standardized incidence rates of HPV‐attributable cancers by country from GLOBOCAN 2012 data are shown separately for the cervix, other anogenital tract and head and neck cancers. The relative contribution of HPV16/18 and HPV6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58 was also estimated. 4.5% of all cancers worldwide (630,000 new cancer cases per year) are attributable to HPV: 8.6% in women and 0.8% in men. AF in women ranges from 20% in India and sub‐Saharan Africa. Cervix accounts for 83% of HPV‐attributable cancer, two‐thirds of which occur in less developed countries. Other HPV‐attributable anogenital cancer includes 8,500 vulva; 12,000 vagina; 35,000 anus (half occurring in men) and 13,000 penis. In the head and neck, HPV‐attributable cancers represent 38,000 cases of which 21,000 are oropharyngeal cancers occurring in more developed countries. The relative contributions of HPV16/18 and HPV6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58 are 73% and 90%, respectively. Universal access to vaccination is the key to avoiding most cases of HPV‐attributable cancer. The preponderant burden of HPV16/18 and the possibility of cross‐protection emphasize the importance of the introduction of more affordable vaccines in less developed countries. PMID:28369882

  19. Validation of a Human Papillomavirus (HPV) DNA Cervical Screening Test That Provides Expanded HPV Typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demarco, Maria; Carter-Pokras, Olivia; Hyun, Noorie; Castle, Philip E; He, Xin; Dallal, Cher M; Chen, Jie; Gage, Julia C; Befano, Brian; Fetterman, Barbara; Lorey, Thomas; Poitras, Nancy; Raine-Bennett, Tina R; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Schiffman, Mark

    2018-05-01

    As cervical cancer screening shifts from cytology to human papillomavirus (HPV) testing, a major question is the clinical value of identifying individual HPV types. We aimed to validate Onclarity (Becton Dickinson Diagnostics, Sparks, MD), a nine-channel HPV test recently approved by the FDA, by assessing (i) the association of Onclarity types/channels with precancer/cancer; (ii) HPV type/channel agreement between the results of Onclarity and cobas (Roche Molecular Systems, Pleasanton, CA), another FDA-approved test; and (iii) Onclarity typing for all types/channels compared to typing results from a research assay (linear array [LA]; Roche). We compared Onclarity to histopathology, cobas, and LA. We tested a stratified random sample ( n = 9,701) of discarded routine clinical specimens that had tested positive by Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2; Qiagen, Germantown, MD). A subset had already been tested by cobas and LA ( n = 1,965). Cervical histopathology was ascertained from electronic health records. Hierarchical Onclarity channels showed a significant linear association with histological severity. Onclarity and cobas had excellent agreement on partial typing of HPV16, HPV18, and the other 12 types as a pool (sample-weighted kappa value of 0.83); cobas was slightly more sensitive for HPV18 and slightly less sensitive for the pooled high-risk types. Typing by Onclarity showed excellent agreement with types and groups of types identified by LA (kappa values from 0.80 for HPV39/68/35 to 0.97 for HPV16). Onclarity typing results corresponded well to histopathology and to an already validated HPV DNA test and could provide additional clinical typing if such discrimination is determined to be clinically desirable. This is a work of the U.S. Government and is not subject to copyright protection in the United States. Foreign copyrights may apply.

  20. Prevalência de infecção do colo do útero pelo HPV no Brasil: revisão sistemática Prevalencia de infección de cuello de útero por HPV en Brasil: revisión sistemática Cervical HPV infection in Brazil: systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Rodrigues Gonçalves Ayres

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a prevalência de infecção pelo vírus do papiloma humano (HPV em mulheres no Brasil. MÉTODOS: Revisão sistemática que incluiu artigos recuperados em busca livre nos portais PubMed e Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde, em abril/2009, utilizando-se os termos "human papillomavirus", "HPV", "prevalence" e "Brazil". Dos 155 artigos identificados, 82 permaneceram após leitura de título e resumo e foram submetidos à leitura integral, sendo selecionados 14 artigos. RESULTADOS: Os artigos sobre o tema foram publicados entre 1989 e 2008. Os 14 artigos representaram estudos de quatro regiões brasileiras (Sudeste 43%, Sul 21,4%, Nordeste 21,4% e Norte 7,1%. Nove artigos relatavam estudos transversais. Em oito utilizaram-se técnicas moleculares para tipagem do HPV e em sete deles utilizou-se captura híbrida para detecção do HPV. As populações estudadas variaram de 49 a 2.329 mulheres. A prevalência geral de infecção do colo do útero pelo HPV variou entre 13,7% e 54,3%, e para as mulheres com citologia normal, variou entre 10,4% e 24,5%. Quatro estudos relataram os tipos de HPV mais freqüentes, segundo resultado de citologia. CONCLUSÕES: As técnicas de citologia disponíveis resultam em diversas classificações e estimativas de prevalência do HPV. Contudo, considerando separadamente os estudos segundo a técnica utilizada, observa-se que a prevalência do HPV tem aumentado. O HPV16 foi o tipo mais freqüente entre as mulheres, independentemente do resultado de citologia. A concentração dos estudos na região Sudeste do País, especialmente nas regiões metropolitanas, mostra que investigações adicionais serão necessárias para aumentar a abrangência das informações disponíveis sobre as mulheres brasileiras.OBJETIVO: Analizar la prevalencia de infección por el virus de papiloma humano en mujeres en Brasil. MÉTODOS: Revisión sistemática que incluyó artículos recuperados en búsqueda libre en las páginas de

  1. Discrepant HPV/cytology cotesting results: Are there differences between cytology-negative versus HPV-negative cervical intraepithelial neoplasia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracht, Jessica M; Davis, Antoinette D; Fasciano, Danielle N; Eltoum, Isam-Eldin A

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this study was to compare cervical high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions subcategorized as cervical intraepithelial neoplasia-3 (CIN-3)-positive after a negative cytology result but positive for high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) testing to those with a negative HR-HPV test but positive cytology (atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance [ASCUS]-positive/HPV-negative) and to assess reasons for discrepancies. The authors retrospectively analyzed women who underwent screening with cytology and HPV testing from 2010 through 2013. After a review of surgical specimens and cytology, discrepancies were classified as sampling or interpretation error. Clinical and pathologic findings were compared. In total, 15,173 women (age range, 25-95 years; 7.1% were aged ASCUS-positive/HPV-positive, 11 that tested negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy (NILM)/HPV-positive, 10 that tested ASCUS-positive/HPV-negative, 3 that tested NILM/HPV-negative, and 5 tests that were unsatisfactory. There was no significant difference between NILM/HPV-positive and ASCUS-positive/HPV-negative CIN-3 in terms of size, time to occurrence, the presence of a cytopathic effect, screening history, race, or age. Six of 11 NILM/HPV-positive cases were reclassified as ASCUS, indicating an interpreting error of 55% and a sampling error of 45%. No ASCUS-positive/HPV-negative cases were reclassified. Seven cases of CIN-3 with positive cytology were HPV-negative. There are no significant clinical or pathologic differences between NILM/HPV-positive and ASCUS-positive/HPV-negative CIN-3-positive specimens. Cytologic sampling or interpretation remains the main reason for discrepancies. However, HPV-negative CIN-3 with positive cytology exists and may be missed by primary HPV screening. Cancer Cytopathol 2017;125:795-805. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  2. Comparison of the cobas Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Test with the Hybrid Capture 2 and Linear Array HPV DNA Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadorra, Mark; LaMere, Brandon J.; Kail, Randi; Aldrich, Carrie; Kinney, Walter; Fetterman, Barbara; Lorey, Thomas; Schiffman, Mark; Castle, Philip E.

    2012-01-01

    The cobas human papillomavirus (HPV) test (cobas) was recently approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and identifies HPV16 and HPV18 separately as well as detecting a pool of 11 HR-HPV genotypes (HPV31, -33, -35, -39, -45, -51, -52, -56, -58, -59, -68) and also HPV66. We compared cobas, Linear Array (LA), and Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2) assays for detection of carcinogenic HPV DNA, and cobas and LA for detection of HPV16 and HPV18 DNA, among the first 1,852 women enrolled in the HPV Persistence and Progression Cohort (PaP Cohort) study. Specimens were tested by all 3 assays 1 year after an HC2-positive result. In 1,824 specimens with cobas results, cobas had an 85.9% agreement with HC2 and 91.0% agreement with LA for carcinogenic HPV detection. When results between cobas and HC2 disagreed, cobas tended to call more women HPV positive (P < 0.01). Categorizing cobas and LA results hierarchically according to cancer risk (HPV16, HPV18, other carcinogenic HPV genotypes, or carcinogen negative), there was a 90% agreement for all categories of HPV (n = 1,824). We found good agreement between the two U.S. FDA-approved HPV tests, with discrepancies between the two assays due to specific characteristics of the individual assays. Additional studies are needed to compare HC2 and cobas for detecting and predicting CIN3 to understand the clinical implications of the discrepant test results between the two tests. PMID:22075592

  3. Moderate Awareness and Limited Knowledge Relating to Cervical Cancer, HPV, and the HPV Vaccine Among Hispanics/Latinos in Utah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodson, Julia; Warner, Echo L; Kepka, Deanna

    2016-07-01

    We investigate the demographic factors associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine-related awareness and knowledge in an emerging (rather than established) Hispanic/Latino population. We surveyed 119 Spanish-speaking, mostly low-income and immigrant, Hispanic/Latino parents and guardians of adolescents 11 to 17 years old (i.e., eligible to receive the HPV vaccine) about their HPV vaccine-related awareness and knowledge. Data collection took place between August 2013 and October 2013 in Salt Lake City, Utah. Participants had moderately high awareness scores, with more than half the participants reporting having heard of cervical cancer (84.5%), HPV (76.4%), and the HPV vaccine (67.3%). HPV vaccine-related knowledge was low, with fewer than half the participants reporting they knew that most people are infected with HPV (32.7%), that HPV is asymptomatic among women (16.4%), that the HPV vaccine requires more than one dose (33.6%), and that the HPV vaccine is recommended for adolescent girls (47.3%) and boys (35.5%). Combined awareness and knowledge was significantly associated with educational attainment (p = .02) and country of origin (p = .03). Results demonstrate moderate to high HPV vaccine-related awareness and limited HPV vaccine-related knowledge among Hispanic/Latino parents living in Utah. These findings will inform educational interventions to improve the HPV vaccine-related awareness and knowledge in this vulnerable population. © 2016 Society for Public Health Education.

  4. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) L1 Serum Antibodies and the Risk of Subsequent Oral HPV Acquisition in Men: The HIM Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce Campbell, Christine M; Viscidi, Raphael P; Torres, B Nelson; Lin, Hui-Yi; Fulp, William; Abrahamsen, Martha; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Villa, Luisa L; Kreimer, Aimée R; Giuliano, Anna R

    2016-07-01

    The role of antibody-mediated immunity in preventing newly acquired oral human papillomavirus (HPV) is not well understood. Among 1618 men participating in the HPV Infection in Men (HIM) Study, we evaluated oral rinses for HPV DNA and baseline sera for HPV-6, -11, -16, and -18 L1 antibodies. Thirty percent of men (486) were seropositive for ≥1 HPV type, and 25 men developed incident oral HPV infection (HPV-6 was detected in 7, HPV-11 in 0, HPV-16 in 17, and HPV-18 in 1). Cox models revealed that men with circulating antibodies to HPV-6, -11, -16, or -18 were not less likely to acquire type-specific oral HPV than men without antibodies (hazard ratio for the risk of acquiring HPV-6, -11, -16, or -18, 1.63; 95% confidence interval, .56-4.76). © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. HPV Prevention (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Human papillomavirus, or HPV, is a virus that can cause certain cancers and is the most commonly sexually transmitted infection in the U.S. In this podcast, Dr. Laura Viens discusses the importance of getting vaccinated against HPV.

  6. HPV Prevention (A Minute of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Human papillomavirus, or HPV, is the most common sexually transmitted infection in the U.S. and is associated with almost 39,000 cancers each year. This podcast discusses the importance of getting the HPV vaccine.

  7. HPV16/18 genotyping for the triage of HPV positive women in primary cervical cancer screening in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagos, Marcela; Van De Wyngard, Vanessa; Poggi, Helena; Cook, Paz; Viviani, Paola; Barriga, María Isabel; Pruyas, Martha; Ferreccio, Catterina

    2015-01-01

    We previously conducted a population-based screening trial of high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) testing and conventional cytology, demonstrating higher sensitivity (92.7 % vs 22.1 % for CIN2+) but lower positive predictive value (10.5 % vs 23.9 %) of hrHPV testing. Here we report the performance of HPV16/18 genotyping to triage the hrHPV positive participants. Women aged 25 years and older received hrHPV (Hybrid Capture 2) and Papanicolaou testing; positives by either test underwent colposcopy and directed biopsy, as did a sample of double-negatives. hrHPV positive women were reflex-tested with HPV16/18 genotyping (Digene HPV Genotyping PS Test). Among the 8,265 participants, 10.7 % were hrHPV positive, 1.7 % had ASCUS+ cytology, 1.2 % had CIN2+; 776 (88 %) hrHPV positive women had complete results, of whom 38.8 % were positive for HPV16 (24.0 %), HPV18 (9.7 %) or both (5.1 %). CIN2+ prevalence in HPV16/18 positive women (16.3 %, 95 % CI 12.3-20.9) was twice that of HPV16/18 negative women (8.0 %, 95 % CI 5.7-10.8). HPV16/18 genotyping identified 40.5 % of CIN2, 66.7 % of CIN3 and 75.0 % of cancers. Compared to hrHPV screening alone, HPV16/18 triage significantly reduced the referral rate (10.7 % vs 3.7 %) and the number of colposcopies required to detect one CIN2+ (9 vs 6). When HPV16/18 negative women with baseline ASCUS+ cytology were also colposcopied, an additional 14 % of CIN2+ was identified; referral increased slightly to 4.2 %. HPV16/18 triage effectively stratified hrHPV positive women by their risk of high-grade lesions. HPV16/18 positive women must be referred immediately; referral could be deferred in HPV16/18 negative women given the slower progression of non-HPV16/18 lesions, however, they will require active follow-up.

  8. Towards the eradication of HPV infection through universal specific vaccination

    OpenAIRE

    Crosignani, Piergiorgio; De Stefani, Antonella; Fara, Gaetano Maria; Isidori, Andrea M; Lenzi, Andrea; Liverani, Carlo Antonio; Lombardi, Alberto; Mennini, Francesco Saverio; Palu?, Giorgio; Pecorelli, Sergio; Peracino, Andrea P; Signorelli, Carlo; Zuccotti, Gian Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    Background The Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is generally recognized to be the direct cause of cervical cancer. The development of effective anti-HPV vaccines, included in the portfolio of recommended vaccinations for any given community, led to the consolidation in many countries of immunization programs to prevent HPV-related cervical cancers. In recent years, increasing evidence in epidemiology and molecular biology have supported the oncogenic role of HPV in the development of other neoplasm...

  9. Impact of HPV infection on oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Götz, Carolin; Drecoll, Enken; Straub, Melanie; Bissinger, Oliver; Wolff, Klaus-Dietrich; Kolk, Andreas

    2016-11-22

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) are often divided by their aetiology. Noxae associated collectives are compared with the human papilloma virus (HPV)-associated group, whereas different localisations of oral (OSCC) and oropharyngeal (OPSCC) squamous cell carcinomas are mostly discussed as one single group. Our aim was to show that classification by aetiology is not appropriate for OSCC. HPV DNA was detected by PCR in 7 (3.47%) patients, and we identified 12 (5.94%) positive (+) cases by p16INK4a immunostaining. Only 4 (1.98%) of the p16INK4a+ cases were + for HPV using PCR. Our homogenous collective of OSCC allowed us to compare HPV+ and HPV negative (-) patients without creating bias for tumour localisation, age, gender or tumour stage. After testing OSCC samples for HPV positivity, we compared the results of two commonly used HPV detection methods, p16INK4a immunostaining and HPV DNA-related PCR, on 202 OSCC patients. HPV subtypes were determined with an HPV LCD Array Kit. Clinicopathological features of the patients were analysed, and the disease specific survival rates (DSS) for HPV+ and HPV- patients were obtained. p16INK4a immunostaining is a not a reliable HPV detection method for OSCC. Positive p16INK4a immunostaining did not agree with + results from PCR of HPV DNA. Furthermore, the influence of HPV-related oncogenic transformation in OSCC is overestimated. The significance of HPV infection remains clinically unclear, and its influence on survival rates is not relevant to OSCC cases.

  10. Is incidence of multiple HPV genotypes rising in genital infections?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Sohrabi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Frequency of cervical cancer related to Human Papilloma Virus (HPV has increased remarkably in less-developed countries. Hence, applying capable diagnostic methods is urgently needed, as is having a therapeutic strategy as an effective step for cervical cancer prevention. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of various multi-type HPV infection patterns and their possible rising incidence in women with genital infections.This descriptive study was conducted on women who attended referral clinical laboratories in Tehran for genital infections from January 2012 until December 2013. A total of 1387 archival cervical scraping and lesion specimens were collected from referred women. HPV genotyping was performed using approved HPV commercial diagnostic technologies with either INNO-LiPA HPV or Geno Array Test kits.HPV was positive in 563 cases (40.59% with mean age of 32.35 ± 9.96. Single, multiple HPV genotypes and untypable cases were detected in 398 (70.69%, 160 (28.42% and 5 (0.89% cases, respectively. Multiple HPV infections were detected in 92 (57.5%, 42 (26.2%, 17 (10.6% and 9 (5.7% cases as two, three, four and five or more genotypes, respectively. The prevalence of 32 HPV genotypes was determined one by one. Seventeen HPV genotypes were identified in 95.78% of all positive infections. Five dominant genotypes, HPV6, 16, 53, 11 and 31, were identified in a total of 52.35%of the HPV positive cases.In the present study, we were able to evaluate the rate of multiple HPV types in genital infections. Nevertheless, it is necessary to evaluate the role of the dominant HPV low-risk types and the new probably high-risk genotypes, such as HPV53, in the increasing incidences of genital infections. Keywords: Multiple HPV Types, Incidence, Genital infection, Cervical cancer, Iran

  11. HPV Vaccine (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Nearly all sexually active men and women will get infected with the human papillomavirus, or HPV, at some point in their lives. HPV can lead to serious health problems later in life, including certain cancers in both men and women. Since 2006, a vaccine has been available that protects against the most frequent cancer-causing types of HPV. In this podcast, Shannon Stokley discusses the importance of getting the HPV vaccine.

  12. HPV genotypes in invasive cervical cancer in Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirschner, Benny; Junge, Jette; Holl, Katsiaryna

    2013-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) genotype distribution in invasive cervical cancers may differ by geographic region. The primary objective of this study was to estimate HPV-genotype distribution in Danish women with a diagnosis of invasive cervical cancer.......Human papillomavirus (HPV) genotype distribution in invasive cervical cancers may differ by geographic region. The primary objective of this study was to estimate HPV-genotype distribution in Danish women with a diagnosis of invasive cervical cancer....

  13. HPV test by Hybrid Capture II for the diagnosis of HR-HPV persistent infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serour, Y; Bendahmane, M; Abbou Baker, F; Medles, M; Moueddene, B; Kraiba, R

    2017-11-01

    Persistent high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) infection is associated with a greater risk of cervical cancer. Statistical data on the prevalence of HR-HPV infections in the Algerian population is lacking. We conducted a prospective study of 300 women aged between 25 and 50 years, screened for cervical cancer from 2012 to 2015 in Sidi Bel Abbès, a western region of Algeria. We aimed to assess the reliability of the repeated use of the HC II test (three longitudinal HPV tests 9 months apart from each other) in diagnosing the persistence of HR-HPV infection. The prevalence of HR-HPV infection was 7.33% and infected women were aged 37.9±3years. For 90.9% of HR-HPV-positive patients, the infection persisted for a mean of 18.5months [95% CI: 16.9-22.1months]. Among these patients, 55.55% developed CIN1 and 11.11% developed CIN2. The sensitivity of the HC II test was 81.74% [95% CI: 71.3-89.6] and its positive predictive value associated with abnormal cervical biopsy was 27.49% [95% CI: 16.0-33.33]. Repeating the HC II test is a good predictor for identifying women at high risk of cervical cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Young multiethnic women's attitudes toward the HPV vaccine and HPV vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Li Ping

    2008-11-01

    To investigate the acceptability of the HPV vaccine among a multiethnic sample of young women in Malaysia. A qualitative study of 40 young women aged between 13 and 27 years recruited into 7 focus groups to discuss their knowledge of HPV infection, and their attitudes toward and acceptance of the HPV vaccine. The women were divided into Malay, Chinese, and Indian groups to allow for comparison among ethnicities. Poor knowledge about HPV did not influence the HPV vaccine's acceptability. Although participants were in favor of the vaccine, the majority preferred to delay vaccination because it is newly introduced, they did not perceive themselves to be at risk of HPV infection, or because of cost factors. Concerns were raised regarding the vaccine's safety, the potential to be perceived as promiscuous and sexually active, and whether the vaccine was halal. Promotion of the HPV vaccine should take account of social and cultural acceptability. The findings will help develop strategies for effective vaccination initiatives in a multiethnic and multireligious Asian society.

  15. Male Undergraduates' HPV Vaccination Behavior: Implications for Achieving HPV-Associated Cancer Equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hee Yun; Lust, Katherine; Vang, Suzanne; Desai, Jay

    2018-06-01

    Despite the availability of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine for males, uptake of the vaccine has been low, particularly among young adult males. This study aimed to investigate the levels of HPV vaccination and predictors of HPV vaccine completion in college men ages 18-26. We analyzed data from the 2015 College Student Health Survey, which was administered at 17 post-secondary institutions in Midwest areas. We included only responses from male participants who were ages 18-26 years old, resulting in a sample size of 2516. We used Andersen's Behavioral Model of Health Services Utilization to guide our study design. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine predictors of HPV vaccine receipt. College-aged males in our sample had a HPV vaccine completion rate of 50.0%. Male students who were younger, had at least one parent who held a graduate degree, had initiated sex, and were enrolled at a private 4-year institution were more likely to have been vaccinated. These findings suggest that HPV vaccination in college-aged men are low. Efforts are needed to increase HPV vaccination in male students who are older, from lower socioeconomic statuses, have not initiated sex, and enrolled at public institutions. Findings also indicate important gender disparities in vaccine uptake that must be addressed in order to achieve optimal vaccine uptake in college-aged males.

  16. Influence of evidence type and narrative type on HPV risk perception and intention to obtain the HPV vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Xiaoli; Dahlstrom, Michael F; Richards, Adam; Rangarajan, Sarani

    2015-01-01

    This research examines the influence of evidence type (statistical, narrative, or hybrid) and narrative type (first-person or third-person) on risk perception about human papillomavirus (HPV) and behavioral intention to get the HPV vaccine. In total, 174 college students who had not received the HPV vaccine participated in a controlled experiment. Results show that the hybrid message containing both statistical and narrative descriptions of HPV resulted in greater perceived risk of getting HPV than either of the messages containing just one type of evidence--statistical or narrative. Moreover, the first-person narrative message led to greater risk perception about HPV than the third-person narrative message. Both evidence type and narrative type had an indirect effect on intention to get the HPV vaccine free of cost through HPV risk perception. Implications of the findings for vaccine risk communication are discussed.

  17. Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination of adolescents in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In SA, two vaccines (HPV quadrivalent (types 6, 11, 16, and 18) vaccine, recombinant (Gardasil) and HPV bivalent (types 16 and 18) vaccine, recombinant (Cervarix)) are currently registered for the prevention of HPV-related disease. In the past, there have been significant challenges to achieving high coverage and uptake ...

  18. HPV in minority populations : Epidemiology and vaccination acceptability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alberts, C.J.

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation describes the epidemiology of human papillomavirus (HPV) and the social-psychological aspects of HPV vaccination acceptability in two different minority populations. Both populations are at higher risk of developing HPV induced disease (notably cervical, penile, anal, and head and

  19. Understanding HPV Disease and Prevention: A Guide for School Nurses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood-Rayermann, Suzy; McIntyre, Susan J.

    2009-01-01

    Oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) causes 99.7% of all cervical cancers. HPV Types 16 and 18 are responsible for approximately 77% of cases, and peak prevalence occurs in females younger than 25 years of age. The recent implementation of HPV vaccination provides females with the opportunity to prevent infection. School nurses are advocates of…

  20. New Approaches to Immunotherapy for HPV Associated Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Mittal

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer of women worldwide and is the first cancer shown to be entirely induced by a virus, the human papillomavirus (HPV, major oncogenic genotypes HPV-16 and -18. Two recently developed prophylactic cervical cancer vaccines, using virus-like particles (VLP technology, have the potential to prevent a large proportion of cervical cancer associated with HPV infection and to ensure long-term protection. However, prophylactic HPV vaccines do not have therapeutic effects against pre-existing HPV infections and do not prevent their progression to HPV-associated malignancy. In animal models, therapeutic vaccines for persisting HPV infection can eliminate transplantable tumors expressing HPV antigens, but are of limited efficacy in inducing rejection of skin grafts expressing the same antigens. In humans, clinical trials have reported successful immunotherapy of HPV lesions, providing hope and further interest. This review discusses possible new approaches to immunotherapy for HPV associated cancer, based on recent advances in our knowledge of the immunobiology of HPV infection, of epithelial immunology and of immunoregulation, with a brief overview on previous and current HPV vaccine clinical trials.

  1. Clinicopathological Implications of Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) L1 Capsid Protein Immunoreactivity in HPV16-Positive Cervical Cytology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung-Jong; Lee, Ah-Won; Kang, Chang-Suk; Park, Jong-Sup; Park, Dong-Choon; Ki, Eun-Young; Lee, Keun-Ho; Yoon, Joo-Hee; Hur, Soo-Young; Kim, Tae-Jung

    2014-01-01

    Background: The objective of this study was to investigate the expression of human papilloma virus (HPV) L1 capsid protein in abnormal cervical cytology with HPV16 infection and analyze its association with cervical histopathology in Korean women. Material and Methods: We performed immunocytochemistry for HPV L1 in 475 abnormal cervical cytology samples from patients with HPV16 infections using the Cytoactiv® HPV L1 screening set. We investigated the expression of HPV L1 in cervical cytology samples and compared it with the results of histopathological examination of surgical specimens. Results: Of a total of 475 cases, 188 (39.6%) were immunocytochemically positive and 287 (60.4%) negative for HPV L1. The immunocytochemical expression rates of HPV L1 in atypical squamous cells of unknown significance (ASCUS), low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL), high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL), and cancer were 21.8%, 59.7%, 19.1%, and 0.0%, respectively. LSIL exhibited the highest rate of HPV L1 positivity. Of a total of 475 cases, the multiple-type HPV infection rate, including HPV16, in HPV L1-negative cytology samples was 27.5%, which was significantly higher than that in HPV L1-positive cytology samples (p = 0.037). The absence of HPV L1 expression in ASCUS and LSIL was significantly associated with high-grade (≥cervical intraepithelial neoplasia [CIN] 2) than low-grade (≤CIN1) histopathology diagnoses (p 0.05). On the other hand, among 188 HPV L1-positive cases, 30.6% of multiple-type HPV infections showed high-grade histopathology diagnoses (≥CIN3), significantly higher than the percentage of HPV16 single infections (8.6%) (p = 0.0004) Conclusions: Our study demonstrates that the expression of HPV L1 is low in advanced dysplasia. Furthermore, the absence of HPV L1 in HPV16-positive low-grade cytology (i.e., ASCUS and LSIL) is strongly associated with high-grade histopathology diagnoses. The multiplicity of HPV infections may have an

  2. HPV genotype distribution and anomalous association of HPV33 to cervical neoplastic lesions in San Luis Potosí, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DelaRosa-Martínez, Raúl; Sánchez-Garza, Mireya; López-Revilla, Rubén

    2016-01-01

    The association of human papillomavirus (HPV) types to neoplastic lesions increase as a function of their oncogenicity and the duration of the infection since lesion severity progresses from low-grade to high-grade and cancer. In an outbreak, the prevalence of the HPV type involved would increase and the proportion of the associated low-grade lesions would predominate over severe lesions. In this study, the prevalence of HPV types and their association to neoplastic lesions was determined in women subjected to colposcopy in San Luis Potosí, Mexico. DNA from high-risk (HR) and low-risk (LR) HPV types was identified by E6 nested multiplex PCR in cervical scrapes from 700 women with normal cytology, atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS), low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL), high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) or invasive cervical cancer (CC). Overall HPV-DNA prevalence was 67.7 %, that of HR-HPV was 63.1 %, and that of LR-HPV was 21.3 %. The highest prevalence (78.2 %) occurred in the 15-24 year group, whereas that of single infections was 52 % and that of multiple infections (i.e., by 2-6 HPV types) was 48 %. The most prevalent HR types were HPV33 (33.1 %), HPV16 (16.6 %), HPV18 and HPV51 (6.7 % each). HR-HPV prevalence was 29.6 % in normal cytology, 26.7 % in ASCUS, 63.3 % in LSIL, 68.2 % in HSIL, and 90.5 % in CC. Three prevalence trends for HR-HPV types were found in neoplastic lesions of increasing severity: increasing (LSIL  CC) for HPV33. Two-thirds of the women subjected to colposcopy from 2007 to 2010 in San Luis Potosí have HPV infections which predominate in the 15-24 years group. Around half of the infections are by one viral type and the rest by 2-6 types. HPV33 is the most prevalent type, followed by HPV16. Overall HR-HPV prevalence increases with the severity of neoplastic lesions. HPV33 prevalence is highest in LSIL and its U-shaped trend with progressing neoplastic lesions

  3. Premalignant alterations of the gastric mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frager, D.; Mitsudo, S.; Kozecky, O.; Frager, J.; Wolf, E.; Beneventano, T.C.

    1986-01-01

    Atrophic gastritus or intestinal metaplasia is the precursor to many gastric carcinomas that arise in a dysplatic epithelium. The authors retrospectively reviewed the radiographic features of the gastric mucosa in 30 patients with the pathologic diagnosis of intestinal metaplasia (27) or atrophic gastritus (3). In 12 patients (40%) the area gastricae were enlarged to 5 mm or greater. In these 12 patients and in an additional 11 (total of 23, or 76%), a polypoid-nodular gastric mucosal pattern was seen. These findings and patterns are illustrated, and the differential diagnosis and clinical implications are discussed

  4. CYTOKINE REGULATION OF ULCEROGENESIS IN GASTRODUODENAL MUCOSA

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    L. V. Matveeva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ulcerogenesis in gastroduodenal mucosa area is a complex multistep process. Its, phases arecontrolled by interaction and activation of pro­ and antiinflammatory cytokine cascade. Present review article summarizes scientific data on impact of cytokines upon ulcerative and reparatory processes, a variety of their diagnostic and therapeutic options is defined. Evaluation of cytokine status, or, in some cases, cytokine genotyping in patients with stomach and duodenal ulcers, may predict clinical course of the disease, as well as efficiency of basic and eradication therapy, correction of the treatment.

  5. Glutamina e turnover do carbono da mucosa intestinal de leitões desmamados Glutamine and carbon turnover of the intestinal mucosa of weaned piglets

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    Fabiana Ribeiro Caldara

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento foi conduzido para verificar a influência da glutamina no turnover do carbono na mucosa intestinal de leitões desmamados. Nove matrizes receberam dietas compostas basicamente de plantas do ciclo fotossintético C4 durante toda a gestação (d‰13C = 17,12 e lactação (d‰13C = -19,26. Os leitões foram desmamados aos 21 dias de idade e 68 deles foram alimentados com ração composta de plantas do ciclo fotossintético C3 (d‰13C = -25,12. Os leitões foram aleatoriamente distribuídos em duas dietas: uma sem suplementação de glutamina; e outra suplementada com 1% de glutamina. Aos 0; 1; 1,5; 2; 2,5; 3; 3,5; 4; 4,5; 5; 5,5; 8; 11; 15, 20; 29 e 46 dias pós-desmame, dois leitões de cada dieta foram abatidos para coleta de amostras da mucosa intestinal, que foram analisadas quanto à composição isotópica de d‰13C e mensurada a velocidade de substituição do carbono no tempo. Os valores da meia-vida do carbono para a mucosa intestinal foram de 6,0 e 3,5 dias para as dietas controle e com glutamina, respectivamente. A glutamina acelerou a velocidade de substituição do carbono na mucosa intestinal, evidenciando sua ação benéfica na recuperação da estrutura do intestino após o desmame.An experiment was carried out to evaluate the influence of glutamine on the carbon turnover in the intestinal mucosa of weaned piglets. Nine matrices received diets predominantly composed by photosintetic cycle C4 plants during the gestation (d‰13C = -17.12 and lactation (d‰13C = -19.26. The piglets were weaned at 21 days of age, and 68 animals were fed rations composed by photosintetic cycle C3 plants (d‰13C = -25.12. The piglets were distributed at random in two treatments: one diet without glutamine supplementation and the other diet supplemented with 1% of glutamine. On days 0; 1; 1.5; 2; 2.5; 3; 3.5; 4; 4.5; 5; 5.5; 8; 11; 15, 20; 29 and 46 after weaning, two piglets from each diet were slaughtered for collection of samples

  6. Introduction and sustained high coverage of the HPV bivalent vaccine leads to a reduction in prevalence of HPV 16/18 and closely related HPV types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, K; Pollock, K G J; Potts, A; Love, J; Cuschieri, K; Cubie, H; Robertson, C; Donaghy, M

    2014-05-27

    In 2008, a national human papillomavirus (HPV) immunisation programme began in Scotland for 12-13 year old females with a three-year catch-up campaign for those under the age of 18. Since 2008, three-dose uptake of bivalent vaccine in the routine cohort aged 12-13 has exceeded 90% annually, while in the catch-up cohort overall uptake is 66%. To monitor the impact of HPV immunisation, a programme of national surveillance was established (pre and post introduction) which included yearly sampling and HPV genotyping of women attending for cervical screening at age 20. By linking individual vaccination, screening and HPV testing records, we aim to determine the impact of the immunisation programme on circulating type-specific HPV infection particularly for four outcomes: (i) the vaccine types HPV 16 or 18 (ii) types considered to be associated with cross-protection: HPV 31, 33 or 45; (iii) all other high-risk types and (iv) any HPV. From a total of 4679 samples tested, we demonstrate that three doses (n=1100) of bivalent vaccine are associated with a significant reduction in prevalence of HPV 16 and 18 from 29.8% (95% confidence interval 28.3, 31.3%) to 13.6% (95% confidence interval 11.7, 15.8%). The data also suggest cross-protection against HPV 31, 33 and 45. HPV 51 and 56 emerged as the most prevalent (10.5% and 9.6%, respectively) non-vaccine high-risk types in those vaccinated, but at lower rates than HPV 16 (25.9%) in those unvaccinated. This data demonstrate the positive impact of bivalent vaccination on the prevalence of HPV 16, 18, 31, 33 and 45 in the target population and is encouraging for countries which have achieved high-vaccine uptake.

  7. The Role of Human Papillomavirus (HPV)-Related Stigma on HPV Vaccine Decision-Making among College Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Georden; Perez, Samara; Huta, Veronika; Rosberger, Zeev; Lebel, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The goals of the present study are (1) to identify sociodemographic and psychosocial predictors of human papillomavirus (HPV)-related stigma and (2) to examine the relationship between HPV-related stigma in predicting HPV vaccine decision-making among college males. Participants: Six hundred and eighty college males aged 18--26 from 3…

  8. The feminization of HPV: How science, politics, economics and gender norms shaped U.S. HPV vaccine implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen M. Daley

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Human papillomavirus (HPV can cause a number of anogenital cancers (i.e., cervical, penile, anal, vaginal, vulvar and genital warts. A decade ago, the HPV vaccine was approved, and has been shown to be a public health achievement that can reduce the morbidity and mortality for HPV-associated diseases. Yet, the mistaken over-identification of HPV as a female-specific disease has resulted in the feminization of HPV and HPV vaccines. In this critical review, we trace the evolution of the intersection of science, politics, economics and gender norms during the original HPV vaccine approval, marketing era, and implementation. Given the focus on cervical cancer screening, women were identified as bearing the burden of HPV infection and its related illnesses, and the group responsible for prevention. We also describe the consequences of the feminization of HPV, which has resulted primarily in reduced protection from HPV-related illnesses for males. We propose a multilevel approach to normalizing HPV vaccines as an important aspect of overall health for both genders. This process must engage multiple stakeholders, including providers, parents, patients, professional organizations, public health agencies, policymakers, researchers, and community-based organizations. Keywords: HPV vaccination, Feminization, Critical review

  9. Nonendemic HPV-Positive Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma: Association With Poor Prognosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenmark, Matthew H., E-mail: stenmark@med.umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); McHugh, Jonathan B. [Department of Pathology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Schipper, Matthew [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Department of Biostatistics, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Walline, Heather M.; Komarck, Christine [Department of Head and Neck Surgery, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Feng, Felix Y. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Worden, Francis P. [Department of Medical Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Wolf, Gregory T.; Chepeha, Douglas B.; Prince, Mark E.; Bradford, Carol R. [Department of Head and Neck Surgery, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Mukherji, Suresh K. [Department of Radiology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Eisbruch, Avraham [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Carey, Thomas E. [Department of Head and Neck Surgery, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: To investigate the relationship between human papillomavirus (HPV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in nonendemic nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and assess the prognostic implications of viral status. Methods and Materials: Paraffin-embedded tumor specimens from 62 patients with primary NPC diagnosed between 1985 and 2011 were analyzed for EBV and high-risk HPV. EBV status was determined by the use of in situ hybridization for EBV encoded RNA. HPV status was assessed with p16 immunohistochemistry and multiplex polymerase chain reaction MassArray for determination of HPV type. Proportional hazards models were used to compare the risk of death among patients as stratified by viral status. Results: Of 61 evaluable tumors, 26 (43%) were EBV-positive/HPV-negative, 18 (30%) were HPV-positive/EBV-negative, and 17 (28%) were EBV/HPV-negative. EBV and HPV infection was mutually exclusive. HPV positivity was significantly correlated with World Health Organization grade 2 tumors, older age, and smoking (all P<.001). The racial distribution of the study population was 74% white, 15% African American, and 11% Asian/Middle Eastern. Among HPV-positive patients, 94% were white. At a median follow-up time of 7 years, HPV-positive and EBV/HPV-negative tumors exhibited worse outcomes than did EBV-positive tumors, including decreased overall survival (hazard ratio [HR] 2.98, P=.01; and HR 3.89, P=.002), progression-free survival (HR 2.55, P=.02; and HR 4.04, P<.001), and locoregional control (HR 4.01, P=.03; and HR 6.87, P=.001). Conclusion: In our Midwestern population, high-risk HPV infection may play an etiologic role in the development of nonendemic, EBV-negative NPC. Compared with EBV-positive NPC, HPV-positive and EBV/HPV-negative NPC are associated with worse outcomes. A larger confirmatory study is needed to validate these findings.

  10. Nonendemic HPV-Positive Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma: Association With Poor Prognosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenmark, Matthew H.; McHugh, Jonathan B.; Schipper, Matthew; Walline, Heather M.; Komarck, Christine; Feng, Felix Y.; Worden, Francis P.; Wolf, Gregory T.; Chepeha, Douglas B.; Prince, Mark E.; Bradford, Carol R.; Mukherji, Suresh K.; Eisbruch, Avraham; Carey, Thomas E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the relationship between human papillomavirus (HPV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in nonendemic nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and assess the prognostic implications of viral status. Methods and Materials: Paraffin-embedded tumor specimens from 62 patients with primary NPC diagnosed between 1985 and 2011 were analyzed for EBV and high-risk HPV. EBV status was determined by the use of in situ hybridization for EBV encoded RNA. HPV status was assessed with p16 immunohistochemistry and multiplex polymerase chain reaction MassArray for determination of HPV type. Proportional hazards models were used to compare the risk of death among patients as stratified by viral status. Results: Of 61 evaluable tumors, 26 (43%) were EBV-positive/HPV-negative, 18 (30%) were HPV-positive/EBV-negative, and 17 (28%) were EBV/HPV-negative. EBV and HPV infection was mutually exclusive. HPV positivity was significantly correlated with World Health Organization grade 2 tumors, older age, and smoking (all P<.001). The racial distribution of the study population was 74% white, 15% African American, and 11% Asian/Middle Eastern. Among HPV-positive patients, 94% were white. At a median follow-up time of 7 years, HPV-positive and EBV/HPV-negative tumors exhibited worse outcomes than did EBV-positive tumors, including decreased overall survival (hazard ratio [HR] 2.98, P=.01; and HR 3.89, P=.002), progression-free survival (HR 2.55, P=.02; and HR 4.04, P<.001), and locoregional control (HR 4.01, P=.03; and HR 6.87, P=.001). Conclusion: In our Midwestern population, high-risk HPV infection may play an etiologic role in the development of nonendemic, EBV-negative NPC. Compared with EBV-positive NPC, HPV-positive and EBV/HPV-negative NPC are associated with worse outcomes. A larger confirmatory study is needed to validate these findings

  11. Commercially available molecular tests for human papillomaviruses (HPV): 2015 update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poljak, Mario; Kocjan, Boštjan J; Oštrbenk, Anja; Seme, Katja

    2016-03-01

    Commercial molecular tests for human papillomaviruses (HPV) are invaluable diagnostic tools in cervical carcinoma screening and management of women with cervical precancerous lesions as well as important research tools for epidemiological studies, vaccine development, and implementation and monitoring of vaccination programs. In this third inventory of commercial HPV tests, we identified 193 distinct commercial HPV tests and at least 127 test variants available on the market in 2015, which represents a 54% and 79% increase in the number of distinct HPV tests and variants, respectively, in comparison to our last inventory performed in 2012. Identified HPV tests were provisionally divided into eight main groups and several subgroups. Among the 193 commercial HPV tests, all but two target alpha-HPV types only. Although the number of commercial HPV tests with at least one published study in peer-reviewed literature has increased significantly in the last three years, several published performance evaluations are still not in line with agreed-upon standards in the HPV community. Manufacturers should invest greater effort into evaluating their products and publishing validation/evaluation results in peer-reviewed journals. To achieve this, more clinically oriented external quality-control panels and initiatives are required. For evaluating the analytical performance of the entire range of HPV tests currently on the market, more diverse and reliable external quality-control programs based on international standards for all important HPV types are indispensable. The performance of a wider range of HPV tests must be promptly evaluated on a variety of alternative clinical specimens. In addition, more complete HPV assays containing validated sample-extraction protocols and appropriate internal controls are urgently needed. Provision of a broader range of automated systems allowing large-scale HPV testing as well as the development of reliable, rapid, and affordable molecular

  12. A study of HPV typing for the management of HPV-positive ASC-US cervical cytologic results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffman, Mark; Vaughan, Laurence M; Raine-Bennett, Tina R; Castle, Philip E; Katki, Hormuzd A; Gage, Julia C; Fetterman, Barbara; Befano, Brian; Wentzensen, Nicolas

    2015-09-01

    In US cervical screening, immediate colposcopy is recommended for women with HPV-positive ASC-US (equivocal) cytology. We evaluated whether partial typing by Onclarity™ (BD) might identify HPV-positive women with low enough CIN3+ risk to permit 1-year follow-up instead. The NCI-Kaiser Permanente Northern California Persistence and Progression cohort includes a subset of 13,890 women aged 21+ with HC2 (Qiagen)-positive ASC-US at enrollment; current median follow-up is 3.0years. Using stratified random sampling, we typed 2079 archived enrollment specimens including 329 women subsequently diagnosed with CIN3+, 563 with CIN2, and 1187 with HPV16, 7.4% for HPV18, 7.0% for HPV31, 7.1% for grouped HPV33/58, 4.3% for HPV52, 3.9% for HPV45, 2.7% for HPV51, 1.6% for HPV39/68/35, and 1.3% for HPV59/56/66. ASC-US linked to HPV16, HPV18, HPV31, or HPV33/58 warrants immediate colposcopy. Optimal management of women with HPV52 or HPV45 is uncertain. Risk of women with only HPV51, HPV39/68/35, or HPV59/56/66 might be low enough to recommend 1-year retesting permitting viral clearance. This strategy would defer colposcopy for 40% of women with HPV-positive ASC-US, half of whom would be cotest-negative at 1-year return. Approximately 10% of those with CIN3 diagnosable at enrollment would be delayed 1year instead. Cost-effectiveness analyses are needed. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Acceptability of HPV vaccine implementation among parents in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Proma; Tanner, Amanda E; Gravitt, Patti E; Vijayaraghavan, K; Shah, Keerti V; Zimet, Gregory D; Study Group, Catch

    2014-01-01

    Due to high cervical cancer rates and limited research on human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine acceptability in India, the research team examined parental attitudes toward HPV vaccines. Thirty-six interviews with parents were conducted to assess sexually transmitted infection (STI)-related knowledge and HPV-specific vaccine awareness and acceptability. Despite limited knowledge, parents had positive views toward HPV vaccines. Common barriers included concerns about side effects, vaccine cost, and missing work to receive the vaccine. Parents were strongly influenced by health care providers' recommendations. Our findings suggest that addressing parental concerns, health worker training and polices, and efforts to minimize cost will be central to successful HPV vaccine implementation.

  14. Honey and Apoptosis in Human Gastric Mucosa

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    Alireza Ostadrahimi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gastric cancer is the fourth most common malignancy in the world. Honey is acomplex mixture of special biological active constituents. Honey possesses antioxidant and antitumorproperties. Nutritional studies have indicated that consumption of honey modulates therisk of developing gastric cancer. On the other hand, apoptosis has been reported to play a decisiverole in precancerous changes. Our chief study was conducted to assess the relationship betweenconsumption of honey and apoptosis in human gastric mucosa.Method: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 98 subjects over 18 years old, referred totwo hospitals in Tabriz, Iran. Subjects were undergone an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, 62subjects were finally enrolled. Honey consumption was assessed by a Food Frequency Questionnaire(FFQ and apoptosis was detected by TUNEL technique. We tested polynomial curve tofind the best fit between honey consumption and apoptosis.Results: A positive relation between honey consumption and apoptosis was found (P=0.024.Our results indicated that the final and the best fit curve was: apoptosis = 1.714+1.648(honeyamount - 0.533(honey amount2 +1.833×10-5(honey amount7.Conclusion: Honey consumption had positive effects on gastric cancer by inducing apoptosis ingastric mucosa.

  15. Infecciones virales en piel y mucosas

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    María José Martínez G., Dra.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Diversos virus pueden infectar la piel y las mucosas de los seres humanos, manifestándose en diferentes patologías, de acuerdo a la edad, género y estado inmunológico. Un grupo importante de éstos tiene capacidad de replicar en células epiteliales, originando cuadros clínicos en los cuales se evidencia la destrucción celular o bien la hiperplasia del tejido infectado. Gran parte de estos virus persisten en células infectadas por años y tienen la capacidad de reactivarse y de manifestar nuevamente enfermedades cutáneas o mucosas. En algunos casos, ésta sólo se expresa de manera subclínica en una excreción del virus por secreciones que son fuente de infección. En los últimos años, los avances en técnicas moleculares han permitido contar con metodologías diagnósticas cada vez más sensibles, específicas y rápidas. Así como también el progreso en el área de vacunas y antivirales nos entrega mayores herramientas profilácticas y terapéuticas.

  16. Cholesterol esterase activity of human intestinal mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponz de Leon, M.; Carubbi, F.; Di Donato, P.; Carulli, N.

    1985-01-01

    It has been suggested that cholesterol absorption in humans is dependent on bile acid pool composition and that expansion of the cholic acid pool size is followed by an increase of the absorption values. Similar observations were reported in rats. In the present study, therefore, the authors investigated some general properties of human intestinal cholesterol esterase, with particular emphasis on the effect of bile acids on this enzymatic activity. Twenty-nine segments of small intestine were taken during operations; the enzymatic activity was studied by using mucosal homogenate as a source of enzyme and oleic acid, cholesterol, and 14 C-labeled cholesterol as substrates. The time-activity relationship was linear within the first two hours; optimal pH for esterification ranged between 5 and 6.2. There was little difference between the esterifying activity of the jejunal and ileal mucosa. Esterification of cholesterol was observed with all the investigated fatty acids but was maximal with oleic acid. Bile acids did not affect cholesterol esterase activity when present in the incubation mixture at 0.1 and 1.0 mM; the enzymatic activity, however, was significantly inhibited when bile acids were added at 20 mM. In conclusion, this study has shown that the human intestinal mucosa possesses a cholesterol esterase activity; at variance with the rat, however, the human enzyme does not seem to be stimulated by trihydroxy bile acids

  17. Evaluation of pemphigus cases involving oral mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagöz, Gizem; Bektaş-Kayhan, Kivanç; Ünür, Meral

    2014-09-01

    Pemphigus, defines a group of disorders in autoimmune etiology which could be life-threatening and clinical manifestations are mainly epithelial blistering affecting cutaneous and/or mucosal surfaces including oral mucosa. The aim of our study is to evaluate the clinical appearance of pemphigus with oral involvement by reported 15 pemphigus cases. This retrospective study of 15 cases of pemphigus obtained over a period of 7 years from 2006 to 2013 in Istanbul University, Dentistry Faculty, Oral Medicine and Surgery Department was designed. Age distribution of pemphigus was from 15 to 59 years with an average age of 41.3 years. Of the 15 patients, the male:female ratio was 1:2.75 (4 male, 11 female). The most common clinical various of pemphigus was pemphigus vulgaris, diagnosed in all patients. The buccal mucosa (34.3%) was the most commonly affected site followed by tongue (20%), gingiva (17.1%), palate (11.4%), lips (11.4%) and floor of mouth (5.7%). Our explanation of this conclusion, while speculative, is that socioeconomic situation related stress in males and hormonal changes like pregnancy and menostasis in females; systemic disease and using drugs; dental trauma and bruxism could be responsible for flare up in the disease.

  18. Significant difference in p53 and p21 protein immunoreactivity in HPV 16 positive and HPV negative breast carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennig, E.M.; Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo; Kvinnsland, S.; Holm, R.; Nesland, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 has previously been found in 19/41 breast carcinomas (46%) in women with a history of HPV 16 positive CIN III lesions. There was no significant difference in distribution of histological subtypes, mean or median tumour diameter or number of regional lymph node metastases in the HPV positive and HPV negative breast carcinoma groups. P53, p21 and c-erbB-2 proteins were analyzed by immunohistochemistry in the HPV 16 positive and HPV negative breast carcinomas. There was a significant difference in p53 and p21 protein immunoreactivity between HPV 16 positive and HPV negative breast carcinomas (p=0.0091 and p=0.0040), with a significant less detectable p53 and p21 protein immunoreactivity in the HPV 16 positive cases. There was also a significant difference in the coexpression of p53/p21 between the HPV 16 positive and HPV 16 negative breast carcinomas (p=0.002). No significant difference in immunostaining for c-erbB-2 protein in the two groups was found (p=0.15), or for the coexpression of p53/c-erbB-2 (p=0.19). The significantly lower expression of p53 and p21 proteins in HPV 16 positive than in HPV 16 negative breast carcinomas supports the hypothesis of inactivation and degradation of wild-type p53 proteins by HPV 16 E6 and that p53 mutation is not necessary for transformation in the HPV 16 positive cases. (orig.)

  19. HPV primary cervical screening in England: Women's awareness and attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Hersha; Moss, Esther L; Sherman, Susan M

    2018-03-09

    Primary human papillomavirus (HPV) cervical screening is due to be implemented in England within the next 2 years; however, the acceptability of HPV testing as the primary screening test is unclear. This study explores women's awareness and attitudes toward HPV testing/screening. Qualitative interviews (semistructured and focus group) were conducted with 46 women (aged 25-65 years) from community and secondary care settings. Data were analyzed by using the inductive-framework method. Women were unaware that cervical screening currently includes HPV testing and lacked HPV-related knowledge. Emotions of shock, fear, and anxiety were reported upon receiving a positive HPV result. For women in long-term relationships, the realization that HPV is a sexually transmitted infection was seen as a barrier to primary HPV testing. Knowledge that HPV testing is a screening test to prevent cervical cancer did not change their attitudes. Women debated the need for continued screening following a negative result. Women feared judgment by the community if they participated with primary HPV screening because they were being tested for a sexually transmitted infection, with the possible attendant perception that they had adopted a high-risk lifestyle in comparison to nonattenders. The acceptability of HPV testing may be a limiting factor in encouraging participation with screening in the future. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. The pathobiology and mechanisms of infection of HPV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, N H; Khammissa, R A G; Chikte, U M E; Meyerov, R; Lemmer, J; Feller, L

    2010-04-01

    There are more than 120 types of low-risk and high-risk human papillomaviruses, all of which are epitheliotropic. HPV infection may be latent, or active in a subclinical form or a symptomatic form, the latter manifesting as benign or malignant neoplasms. In basal cells with non-productive HPV infection some early HPV proteins are expressed independently of cell maturation: the productive cycle of HPV replication depends upon specific cellular factors of the maturation of the infected keratinocytes. In HPV-mediated oncogenesis, the combined pathobiological effects of E6 and E7 oncoproteins of high-risk HPV culminate in cellular genomic instability and transformation of persistently infected cells, that progress to the development of a malignant phenotype. In this article we provide insights into the stages of HPV infection, and into the viral genomic organization and replicative cycle.

  1. The impact and cost-effectiveness of nonavalent HPV vaccination in the United States: Estimates from a simplified transmission model

    OpenAIRE

    Chesson, Harrell W.; Markowitz, Lauri E.; Hariri, Susan; Ekwueme, Donatus U.; Saraiya, Mona

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The objective of this study was to assess the incremental costs and benefits of the 9-valent HPV vaccine (9vHPV) compared with the quadrivalent HPV vaccine (4vHPV). Like 4vHPV, 9vHPV protects against HPV types 6, 11, 16, and 18. 9vHPV also protects against 5 additional HPV types 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58. Methods: We adapted a previously published model of the impact and cost-effectiveness of 4vHPV to include the 5 additional HPV types in 9vHPV. The vaccine strategies we examined w...

  2. HPV-testing versus HPV-cytology co-testing to predict the outcome after conization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruhn, Laerke Valsøe; Andersen, Sisse Josephine; Hariri, Jalil

    2018-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of human Papillomavirus (HPV) testing alone as a prognostic tool to predict recurrent disease within a three-year follow-up period after treatment for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)2 + . Retrospectively, 128 women with histologically verified CIN2 + who had a conization performed at Southern Jutland Hospital in Denmark between 1 January 2013 and 31 December 2013 were included. Histology, cytology and HPV test results were obtained for a three-year follow-up period. 4.7% (6/128) of the cases developed recurrent disease during follow-up. Of the cases without free margins, recurrent dysplasia was detected normal in 10.4% (5/48), whereas in the group with free margins it was 1.3% (1/80). The post-conization HPV test was negative in 67.2% (86/128) and Pap smear normal in 93.7% (120/128). Combining resection margins, cytology and HPV had sensitivity for prediction of recurrent dysplasia of 100%. Specificity was 45.8%, positive predictive value (PPV) 8.5% and negative predictive value (NPV) 100%. Using HPV test alone as a predictor of recurrent dysplasia gave a sensitivity of 83.3%, specificity 69.7%, PPV 11.9% and NPV 98.8%. Combining resection margin and HPV test had a sensitivity of 100%, specificity 45.9%, PPV 8.3% and NPV 100%. HPV test at six months control post-conization gave an NPV of 98.8% and can be used as a solitary test to identify women at risk for recurrent disease three years after treatment for precursor lesions. Using both resection margin and HPV test had a sensitivity of 100% and NPV 100%. Adding cytology did not increase the predictive value. © 2018 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  3. Young Hungarian Students’ Knowledge about HPV and Their Attitude Toward HPV Vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Claudia Balla

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: Hungarys’s estimated cervical cancer mortality was 6.9/100,000 in 2012, above the average of the EU27 countries (3.7/100,000 in the same year. Since 2014, the bivalent HPV vaccine has been offered to schoolgirls aged 12–13. (2 Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study among 1022 high school seniors (492 girls, 530 boys in 19 randomly selected schools in Budapest. Our anonymous questionnaire contained 54 items: basic socio-demographic data, knowledge about HPV infection/cervical cancer and HPV vaccination. (3 Results: 54.9% knew that HPV caused cervical cancer, and 52.1% identified HPV as an STD. Knowledge of risk factors such as promiscuity (46.9% and early sexual activity (15.6% was low, but higher than that of further HPV-induced diseases: genital warts (in females 9.9%, in males 9%, anal cancer (in females 2.2%, in males 1.9%, penile cancer (9.4%, and vulvar cancer (7.8%. A percentage of 14.6% feared getting infected, and 35.7% supported compulsory HPV vaccination. A percentage of 51.2% would have their future children vaccinated—significantly more girls than boys. (4 Conclusion: Our results support the findings of previous studies about young adults’ HPV-related knowledge, which was poor, especially regarding pathologies in men. Despite the low level of awareness, the students’ attitude was mostly positive when asked about vaccinating their future children.

  4. Sequence imputation of HPV16 genomes for genetic association studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Smith

    Full Text Available Human Papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16 causes over half of all cervical cancer and some HPV16 variants are more oncogenic than others. The genetic basis for the extraordinary oncogenic properties of HPV16 compared to other HPVs is unknown. In addition, we neither know which nucleotides vary across and within HPV types and lineages, nor which of the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs determine oncogenicity.A reference set of 62 HPV16 complete genome sequences was established and used to examine patterns of evolutionary relatedness amongst variants using a pairwise identity heatmap and HPV16 phylogeny. A BLAST-based algorithm was developed to impute complete genome data from partial sequence information using the reference database. To interrogate the oncogenic risk of determined and imputed HPV16 SNPs, odds-ratios for each SNP were calculated in a case-control viral genome-wide association study (VWAS using biopsy confirmed high-grade cervix neoplasia and self-limited HPV16 infections from Guanacaste, Costa Rica.HPV16 variants display evolutionarily stable lineages that contain conserved diagnostic SNPs. The imputation algorithm indicated that an average of 97.5±1.03% of SNPs could be accurately imputed. The VWAS revealed specific HPV16 viral SNPs associated with variant lineages and elevated odds ratios; however, individual causal SNPs could not be distinguished with certainty due to the nature of HPV evolution.Conserved and lineage-specific SNPs can be imputed with a high degree of accuracy from limited viral polymorphic data due to the lack of recombination and the stochastic mechanism of variation accumulation in the HPV genome. However, to determine the role of novel variants or non-lineage-specific SNPs by VWAS will require direct sequence analysis. The investigation of patterns of genetic variation and the identification of diagnostic SNPs for lineages of HPV16 variants provides a valuable resource for future studies of HPV16

  5. One Family's Struggles with HPV (Human Papillomavirus)

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    Full Text Available ... thimerosal vaccine safety q & a videos chickenpox (varicella) hepatitis b hib hpv pertussis (whooping cough) pneumococcal rotavirus shingles media room Flu's Gonna Lose M.O.V.E. newsfeeds PSAs publications infectious disease workshop pediatric hepatitis report someone you know has hbv/hcv standard ...

  6. Cancers Caused by HPV PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    In this 30 second public service announcement, a mother talks about the importance of protecting 11-12 year-old boys and girls with HPV vaccination. (Una madre habla sobre la importancia de proteger a los niños y las niñas de 11 a 12 años con la vacuna contra el VPH.)

  7. Cervical Cancer Screening with HPV Test

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Dr. Stewart Massad, a professor in the Division of Gynecologic Oncology at Washington University in Saint Louis and a board member of the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Cancer Prevention (ASCCP), talks about cotesting with human papillomavirus (HPV) as part of a cervical cancer screening program.

  8. One Family's Struggles with HPV (Human Papillomavirus)

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    Full Text Available ... immunizations about immunizations current news Flu's Gonna Lose hepatitis a & b vaccines im/sq how to do kids ... abcs of mmr & dtp thimerosal vaccine safety q & a videos chickenpox (varicella) hepatitis b hib hpv pertussis (whooping cough) pneumococcal rotavirus ...

  9. One Family's Struggles with HPV (Human Papillomavirus)

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  10. HPV knowledge and factors associated with intention to use condoms for reducing HPV infection risk among adolescent women in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Yu-Ching; Wang, Hsiu-Hung; Lin, Yi-Jung; Chan, Te-Fu

    2015-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a frequent cause of sexually transmitted infection worldwide, and has a key role in the etiology of cervical cancer. Young people are the most vulnerable age group for acquiring HPV infection, but this particular age group in Taiwan knows little about it. This study investigated Taiwanese adolescent women's knowledge of HPV and factors associated with intention to use condoms for reducing HPV-related diseases among adolescent women. A descriptive cross-sectional design was used, and a convenience sample of 384 adolescent women aged 15 to 16 years in Southern Taiwan was recruited. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire and analyzed with descriptive statistics, t-test or ANOVA, and multiple regression analysis. Only 26.6% of the participants were aware of HPV. The percentage of correct answers for knowledge about HPV was 35.4%. Factors associated with intention to use condoms for HPV prevention were discussion of sexual issues, attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, and HPV knowledge. These variables accounted for 55.8% of the variance in scores for intention to use condoms for HPV prevention. These findings could be used in future HPV prevention education and campaigns. Future intervention programs might be particularly focused on insufficient HPV knowledge among adolescent females.

  11. Roscovitine strongly enhances the effect of olaparib on radiosensitivity for HPV neg. but not for HPV pos. HNSCC cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemann, Frank; Seltzsam, Steve; Dreffke, Kristin; Preising, Stefanie; Arenz, Andrea; Subtil, Florentine S B; Rieckmann, Thorsten; Engenhart-Cabillic, Rita; Dikomey, Ekkehard; Wittig, Andrea

    2017-12-01

    At present, advanced stage human Papillomavirus (HPV) negative and positive head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) are treated by intense multimodal therapy that includes radiochemotherapy, which are associated with relevant side effects. Patients with HPV positive tumors possess a far better prognosis than those with HPV negative cancers. Therefore, new therapeutic strategies are needed to improve the outcome especially of the latter one as well as quality of life for all HNSCC patients. Here we tested whether roscovitine, an inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), which hereby also blocks homologous recombination (HR), can be used to enhance the radiation sensitivity of HNSCC cell lines. In all five HPV negative and HPV positive cell lines tested, roscovitine caused inhibition of CDK1 and 2. Surprisingly, all HPV positive cell lines were found to be defective in HR. In contrast, HPV negative strains demonstrated efficient HR, which was completely suppressed by roscovitine. In line with this, for HPV negative but not for HPV positive cell lines, treatment with roscovitine resulted in a pronounced enhancement of the radiation-induced G2 arrest as well as a significant increase in radiosensitivity. Due to a defect in HR, all HPV positive cell lines were efficiently radiosensitized by the PARP-1 inhibitor olaparib. In contrast, in HPV negative cell lines a significant radiosensitization by olaparib was only achieved when combined with roscovitine.

  12. Beliefs about cervical cancer and human papillomavirus (HPV) and acceptability of HPV vaccination among Chinese women in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Peter W H; Kwan, Tracy T C; Tam, Kar Fai; Chan, Karen K L; Young, Phyllis M C; Lo, Sue S T; Cheung, Annie N Y; Ngan, Hextan Y S

    2007-01-01

    To assess the knowledge and beliefs on cervical cancer and HPV infection and to evaluate the acceptability of HPV vaccination among Chinese women. Seven focus groups were conducted with ethnic Chinese women aged 18-25 (n=20), 26-35 (n=13), and 36 and above (n=16) in a community women's health clinic in Hong Kong in 2006. The discussions were audio taped, transcribed and analyzed. Recurrent themes related to cervical cancer, HPV infection and vaccination were highlighted. Diverse conceptions on likely causes of cervical cancer were noted, covering biological, psychological, environmental, lifestyle and sexual factors. Most women had not heard of HPV and its mode of transmission. The participants had difficulties understanding and accepting the linkage between cervical cancer and the sexually transmitted HPV infection. HPV infection was seen as personally stigmatizing with significant adverse impact on self-esteem and significant relationships. Participants favored HPV vaccination both for themselves and their teenage daughters if authoritative endorsement was provided. Inadequate knowledge and misconceptions on cervical cancer and HPV were common. Most participants welcomed and favored having HPV vaccination. Apart from promoting HPV vaccination, cervical cancer prevention should also include strategies to promote knowledge and minimize the stigmatizing effect of a sexually transmitted HPV infection.

  13. Primary Screening for Cervical Cancer Based on High-Risk Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Detection and HPV 16 and HPV 18 Genotyping, in Comparison to Cytology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantinidis, Theocharis; Constantinidis, Theodoros C.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The objective of the present study is to assess the performance of a high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) DNA test with individual HPV-16/HPV-18 genotyping as a method for primary cervical cancer screening compared with liquid-based cytology (LBC) in a population of Greek women taking part in routine cervical cancer screening. Methods The study, conducted by the “HEllenic Real life Multicentric cErvical Screening” (HERMES) study group, involved the recruitment of 4,009 women, aged 25–55, who took part in routine cervical screening at nine Gynecology Departments in Greece. At first visit cervical specimens were collected for LBC and HPV testing using the Roche Cobas 4800 system. Women found positive for either cytology or HPV were referred for colposcopy, whereas women negative for both tests will be retested after three years. The study is ongoing and the results of the first screening round are reported herein. Results Valid results for cytology and HPV testing were obtained for 3,993 women. The overall prevalence of HR-HPV was 12.7%, of HPV-16 2.7% and of HPV-18 1.4%. Of those referred for colposcopy, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse (CIN2+) was detected in 41 women (1.07%). At the threshold of CIN2+, cytology [atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) or worse] and HPV testing showed a sensitivity of 53.7% and 100% respectively, without change between age groups. Cytology and HPV testing showed specificity of 96.8% and 90.3% respectively, which was increased in older women (≥30) in comparison to younger ones (25–29). Genotyping for HPV16/18 had similar accuracy to cytology for the detection of CIN2+ (sensitivity: 58.5%; specificity 97.5%) as well as for triage to colposcopy (sensitivity: 58.5% vs 53.7% for cytology). Conclusion HPV testing has much better sensitivity than cytology to identify high-grade cervical lesions with slightly lower specificity. HPV testing with individual HPV-16/HPV-18

  14. HPV vaccination acceptability in young boys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giancarlo Tisi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the comprehension and acceptance of HPV vaccination in parents of adolescent boys aged 11 to 15 years. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted by means of questionnaires sent directly to the homes of all families with young males aged between 11 and 15, residents of three municipalities of the Province of Brescia, Italy. The documentation also contained an informative leaflet summarizing the HPV-related disease characteristics, the burden of disease and the available strategies for prevention and treatment, illustrating the rationale of vaccination and describing the project and its phases. The questionnaire included questions on demographic data, acceptance and motivations for HPV vaccination. The collected data was analyzed using descriptive statistics. At the end of the study, parents who received the questionnaires were also offered the possibility of vaccinating their male sons for free. RESULTS: From a total of 1072 questionnaires sent, 161 where returned from the three selected municipalities (average response rate 15%; 97% of adolescent males involved in the study were Italian and 91% Catholic; 97% of parents declared themselves to be willing to vaccinate their sons: the principal motivation given (92% was prevention of the disease, cancerous or not, related to viral infection. Among the respondents not willing to vaccinate their sons, the motivation was lack of information about the vaccine and the disease. At the end of the study, around 71 boys were vaccinated. DISCUSSION: To our knowledge, this is the first survey in Italy exclusively conducted on parents of adolescent males about the acceptability and feasibility of vaccination against HPV: a very high percentage of respondents was favorable to accept the vaccination for their sons, the main motivation being the fact that parents considered protecting their sons from HPV-related diseases highly important. Of the 161 boys

  15. Broad HPV distribution in the genital region of men from the HPV infection in men (HIM) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sichero, Laura; Pierce Campbell, Christine M; Ferreira, Silvaneide; Sobrinho, João S; Luiza Baggio, Maria; Galan, Lenice; Silva, Roberto C; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Giuliano, Anna R; Villa, Luisa L

    2013-09-01

    The HPV infection in men (HIM) study examines the natural history of genital HPV infection in men. Genotyping methods used in this study identify 37 α-HPV types; however, the viral type could not be identified in approximately 22% of male genital specimens that were HPV PCR positive. Our aim was to genotype HPV-unclassified specimens by sequencing PGMY09/11, GP5+/6+ or FAP59/64 PCR products. Using this approach we were able to detect 86 unique HPV types among 508 of 931 specimens analyzed. We report for the first time the presence of a broad range of α-, β- and γ-HPV at the male genitals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. [Infections of the oral mucosa II. Bacterial, mycotic and viral infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichart, P A

    1999-11-01

    Non-specific infections of the oral mucosa are rare; however, they may present during HIV infection in the form of gingivo-periodontal lesions. In some of these Candida albicans may play a role in the pathogenesis. Sexually transmitted bacterial infections such as gonorrhoea and syphilis are frequently associated with HIV infection. Since penicillin resistance is frequent in gonorrhoea, the cephalosporines are mainly used for treatment. Syphilis increases the risk for transmission of HIV. Lues maligna with oral manifestations has been described. For this, penicillin G is the therapy of choice. Tuberculosis, characterized by multitherapy resistance, is associated with HIV infections world-wide; oral manifestations are rare. Oral candidiasis during HIV infection is often characterized by therapy resistance against fluconazole and a shift in species, with Candida glabrata and Candida krusei as the emerging species. The azoles are still the mainstay of therapy, particularly fluconazole. Herpes simplex (HSV) infections run an atypical course during HIV disease; resistance against acyclovir is a clinical problem. The association of HSV infection with erythema exudativum multiforme has been clearly shown. Oral hairy leukoplakia caused by Epstein Barr virus is a characteristic infection during immunosuppression. Cytomegalovirus infection is also observed in immunodeficient patients. Cases of ganciclovir resistance have been described. Human herpes virus 8 (HHV 8) is associated with Kaposi's sarcoma. Therapeutic trials have focussed on the inhibition of HHV 8 replication. Over 100 different genotypes of human papillomaviruses are known; some can cause infections of the oral mucosa. Characteristic lesions caused by different HPV genotypes are verruca vulgaris, condyloma acuminatum and focal epithelial hyperplasia.

  17. Chlamydia trachomatis prevalence and chlamydial/HPV co-infection among HPV-unvaccinated young Italian females with normal cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panatto, Donatella; Amicizia, Daniela; Bianchi, Silvia; Frati, Elena Rosanna; Zotti, Carla Maria; Lai, Piero Luigi; Domnich, Alexander; Colzani, Daniela; Gasparini, Roberto; Tanzi, Elisabetta

    2015-01-01

    Infections caused by Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) and human papillomavirus (HPV) are the two main sexually transmitted infections; however, epidemiological data on Ct prevalence and Ct/HPV co-infection in Italy are scant. This study aimed at estimating the prevalence of Ct infection and Ct/HPV co-infection in young HPV-unvaccinated females with normal cytology, and placed particular attention on the possible association between Ct-DNA positivity and different HPV infecting genotypes. Five hundred 66 healthy females aged 16-26 years without cervical lesions, previously assessed for HPV infection (HPV-DNA prevalence: 18.2%), were tested for Ct-DNA. The overall prevalence of Ct was 5.8% (95% CI: 4.2-8.1), while Ct/HPV co-infection was recorded in 2.7% (95% CI: 1.6-4.3) of subjects. Compared with HPV-DNA-negative females, HPV-DNA positive subjects had significantly (P < 0.001) higher odds of being infected with Ct (odds ratio of 4.20, 95% CI: 2.01-8.71). Both Ct and Ct/HPV infections were much more prevalent in under 18-year-olds than in older women. Subjects positive for single high-risk HPV genotypes and various multiple HPV infections had higher odds of being Ct-DNA positive. Our findings confirm that HPV and Ct infections are very common among asymptomatic young Italian females. This underlines the urgent need for nationwide Ct screening programs and reinforcement of sexual health education, which would be the most important public health strategies, since no Ct vaccines are currently available.

  18. Factors that Predict Parental Willingness to Have Their Children Vaccinated against HPV in a Country with Low HPV Vaccination Coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganczak, Maria; Owsianka, Barbara; Korzeń, Marcin

    2018-03-31

    Background: Adolescent HPV (Human Papilloma Virus) vaccination is yet to be introduced as a mandatory program in Poland. Polish literature on factors associated with adolescent HPV vaccination is scant, despite the fact that uptake is one of the poorest in the European Union. Objectives: To assess HPV awareness and identify independent predictors for parental willingness to have their children vaccinated against HPV. Methods: All parents of first grade students from three selected high schools in Zgorzelec, Poland, who participated in parent-teacher meetings at the time the study was conducted, had their children unvaccinated regarding HPV, and who gave informed consent to participate were included. There were 600 first grade students; 9 were vaccinated against HPV. This left 591 parents who met the eligibility criteria; the response rate was 76.1%. Results: Awareness of HPV was reported by 55.3% of 450 parents (mean age 42 years, 70.9% females); 85.1% expressed their willingness to vaccinate their children against HPV; 31.3% identified HPV as a sexually transmitted pathogen, and 36.2% identified it as a risk factor of cervical cancer. Multivariable logistic regression analyses indicated that being employed (OR 2.09; 95% CI: 1.10-3.86), having positive attitudes toward vaccines (OR 3.02; 95% CI: 1.34-6.49), previous information about HPV (OR 2.02; 95% CI: 1.17-3.51), and concerns about the side effects of the HPV vaccine (OR 0.60; 95% CI: 0.35-0.99) were independent predictors of parents' willingness to vaccinate. Conclusions: Attitudes regarding their child being vaccinated against HPV were positive among Polish parents, even though awareness and knowledge of HPV in this group were low. Most of the significant factors that influenced their willingness were modifiable, such as being informed about HPV and having positive attitudes toward vaccines. Future interventions should focus specifically on vulnerable subgroups, such as unemployed parents.

  19. Evaluation of the clinical performance of the Abbott RealTime High-Risk HPV for carcinogenic HPV detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halfon, Philippe; Benmoura, Dominique; Agostini, Aubert; Khiri, Hacene; Penaranda, Guillaume; Martineau, Agnes; Blanc, Bernard

    2010-08-01

    Abbott RealTime (RT) High-Risk (HR) HPV assay is a new qualitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based assay for the detection of 14 HR HPV DNA. The assay can differentiate between the infection by HPV 16, HPV 18 and non-HPV 16/18 types through the distinct fluorescent labels on the type specific probes. To evaluate the clinical performance of the Abbott RT HR HPV test, in comparison with biopsy, Hybrid Capture II (HCII), and Linear Array (LA), for detection of high-grade disease (CIN2+). The study population consisted of 143 women who were included in three referral gynecology clinics in Marseilles (France) between March 2007 and June 2008. The clinical performance of the RT HR HPV assay, performed on the fully automated m2000 system, was compared with HCII and LA. HR HPV positivity rate was similar for all tests (Abbott RT HR HPV and HCII, 62%, and LA 63%). All tests had high sensitivities and negative predictive values for CIN2+ detection (>90%). The agreement between HCII and Abbott RT HR HPV, and between HCII and LA were 93% (k=0.85) and 96% (k=0.91) respectively. As expected, HPV16 or HPV18 positivity was greater in advanced grades of disease, especially in CIN2+ patients: 85% in CIN2+ vs. 33% in Abbott RT HR HPV assay is good and closely correlated with the two other assays. The automation and ability to identify type 16 and 18 make this a very attractive option for HPV testing in laboratories and potentially provides improved patient management. Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Lichenoid reaction to carbamazepine in the oral mucosa: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artico, Gabriela; Bruno, Ingrid S; Seo, Juliana; Hirota, Silvio K; Acay, Renata; Migliari, Dante A

    2011-01-01

    Lichenoid drug reactions are more common in skin, but they may also occur in the oral mucosa. It is difficult to diagnose these lesions due to their clinical similarity to the idiopathic oral lichen planus lesions. The present article reports a case of lichenoid reaction in oral mucosa associated to the use of carbamazepine, emphasizing the diagnostic process.

  1. Eurogin 2016 Roadmap: how HPV knowledge is changing screening practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentzensen, Nicolas; Arbyn, Marc; Berkhof, Johannes; Bower, Mark; Canfell, Karen; Einstein, Mark; Farley, Christopher; Monsonego, Joseph; Franceschi, Silvia

    2017-05-15

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are the necessary cause of most cervical cancers, a large proportion of other anogenital cancers, and a subset of oropharyngeal cancers. The knowledge about HPV has led to development of novel HPV-based prevention strategies with important impact on clinical and public health practice. Two complementary reviews have been prepared following the 2015 Eurogin Conference to evaluate how knowledge about HPV is changing practice in HPV infection and disease control through vaccination and screening. This review focuses on screening for cervical and anal cancers in increasingly vaccinated populations. The introduction of HPV vaccines a decade ago has led to reductions in HPV infections and early cancer precursors in countries with wide vaccination coverage. Despite the high efficacy of HPV vaccines, cervical cancer screening will remain important for many decades. Many healthcare systems are considering switching to primary HPV screening, which has higher sensitivity for cervical precancers and allows extending screening intervals. We describe different approaches to implementing HPV-based screening efforts in different healthcare systems with a focus in high-income countries. While the population prevalence for other anogenital cancers is too low for population-based screening, anal cancer incidence is very high in HIV-infected men who have sex with men, warranting consideration of early detection approaches. We summarize the current evidence on HPV-based prevention of anal cancers and highlight important evidence gaps. © 2016 UICC.

  2. Surrogate for oropharyngeal cancer HPV status in cancer database studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megwalu, Uchechukwu C; Chen, Michelle M; Ma, Yifei; Divi, Vasu

    2017-12-01

    The utility of cancer databases for oropharyngeal cancer studies is limited by lack of information on human papillomavirus (HPV) status. The purpose of this study was to develop a surrogate that can be used to adjust for the effect of HPV status on survival. The study cohort included 6419 patients diagnosed with oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma between 2004 and 2012, identified in the National Cancer Database (NCDB). The HPV surrogate score was developed using a logistic regression model predicting HPV-positive status. The HPV surrogate score was predictive of HPV status (area under the curve [AUC] 0.73; accuracy of 70.4%). Similar to HPV-positive tumors, HPV surrogate positive tumors were associated with improved overall survival (OS; hazard ratio [HR] 0.73; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.59-0.91; P = .005), after adjusting for important covariates. The HPV surrogate score is useful for adjusting for the effect of HPV status on survival in studies utilizing cancer databases. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Parental acceptance of HPV vaccines in Chiang Mai, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juntasopeepun, Phanida; Thana, Kanjana

    2018-06-01

    To identify variables associated with the acceptance of HPV vaccination among Thai parents/primary caregivers. The present prospective cross-sectional study recruited the parents/caregivers of female adolescents aged 12-18 years from schools in Chiang Mai, Thailand, between January 1 and February 29, 2016. A four-part questionnaire was distributed to assess demographics, HPV vaccine acceptance, knowledge, and beliefs toward HPV and cervical cancer. Predictors of HPV vaccine acceptance were determined by logistic regression analysis. The study enrolled 331 parents; more than half (195 [61.1%]) had heard of HPV vaccines. Their knowledge related to HPV and cervical cancer was moderate. A majority of parents (266/313 [85.0%]) indicated they would accept HPV vaccination if the costs were subsidized by the government. Acceptance of HPV vaccines was associated with perceived benefits of HPV vaccination (odds ratio [OR] 1.49; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.18-1.88), perceived susceptibility to disease (OR 1.42; 95% CI 1.11-1.81), and household income (OR 1.35; 95% CI 1.02-1.78). Parental beliefs have an important role in their acceptance to vaccinate their daughters. These potentially modifiable beliefs offer strategies for future interventions designed to increase uptake for future HPV vaccination campaigns. © 2018 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  4. Barriers and Facilitators of HPV Vaccination in the VFC Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Wayne S; Sznajder, Kristin K; Nepps, Margaret; Boktor, Sameh W

    2018-06-01

    This study determined facilitators and barriers to human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination perceived by providers of healthcare in the federally funded Pennsylvania Vaccines for Children (PA VFC) program. The cross-sectional study gathered descriptive data through a survey research design. Providers of healthcare were recruited through an email containing a link to an 18-question online survey. The survey was divided into four main sections which assessed the perceived facilitators and barriers to HPV vaccination of PA VFC program-eligibles. Survey respondents represented 65 of 66 Pennsylvania counties covered by the PA VFC Program. The study recruited 772 PA VFC participating healthcare facilities for a response rate of 52%. Ninety eight percent of the responding facilities reported that they offered the HPV vaccine. The most common barriers to vaccine administration were the parental belief that HPV vaccination is associated with sexual activity and parent/patient refusal of the HPV vaccination which together accounted for (44%) of responses. The majority of respondents (75.6%) indicated counseling parents and adolescents on the benefits of HPV vaccination was a very important factor in HPV vaccination uptake. Healthcare provider facility based training (32%) and web-based training for healthcare providers (22%) were the most recommended avenues for HPV training. The most common barrier to HPV vaccination was identified as the parental misconception that HPV vaccination is associated with sexual activity. Providers believed that the best way to increase HPV vaccination is through counseling parents and adolescents on the benefits of HPV vaccination and to correct misconceptions and change attitudes. Providers are desirous of receiving HPV web-based or workplace training.

  5. Comparison of the Abbott RealTime High Risk HPV test and the Roche cobas 4800 HPV test using urine samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Myong Cheol; Lee, Do-Hoon; Hwang, Sang-Hyun; Hwang, Na Rae; Lee, Bomyee; Shin, Hye Young; Jun, Jae Kwan; Yoo, Chong Woo; Lee, Dong Ock; Seo, Sang-Soo; Park, Sang-Yoon; Joo, Jungnam

    2017-05-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) testing based on cervical samples is important for use in cervical cancer screening. However, cervical sampling is invasive. Therefore, non-invasive methods for detecting HPV, such as urine samples, are needed. For HPV detection in urine samples, two real-time PCR (RQ-PCR) tests, Roche cobas 4800 test (Roche_HPV; Roche Molecular Diagnostics) and Abbott RealTime High Risk HPV test (Abbott_HPV; Abbott Laboratories) were compared to standard cervical samples. The performance of Roche_HPV and Abbott_HPV for HPV detection was evaluated at the National Cancer Center using 100 paired cervical and urine samples. The tests were also compared using urine samples stored at various temperatures and for a range of durations. The overall agreement between the Roche_HPV and Abbott_HPV tests using urine samples for any hrHPV type was substantial (86.0% with a kappa value of 0.7173), and that for HPV 16/18 was nearly perfect (99.0% with a kappa value of 0.9668). The relative sensitivities (based on cervical samples) for HPV 16/18 detection using Roche_HPV and Abbott_HPV with urine samples were 79.2% (95% CI; 57.9-92.9%) and 81.8% (95% CI; 59.7-94.8%), respectively. When the cut-off C T value for Abbott_HPV was extended to 40 for urine samples, the relative sensitivity of Abbott_HPV increased to 91.7% from 81.8% for HPV16/18 detection and to 87.0% from 68.5% for other hrHPV detection. The specificity was not affected by the change in the C T threshold. Roche_HPV and Abbott_HPV showed high concordance. However, HPV DNA detection using urine samples was inferior to HPV DNA detection using cervical samples. Interestingly, when the cut-off C T value was set to 40, Abbott_HPV using urine samples showed high sensitivity and specificity, comparable to those obtained using cervical samples. Fully automated DNA extraction and detection systems, such as Roche_HPV and Abbott_HPV, could reduce the variability in HPV detection and accelerate the standardization of HPV

  6. Local HPV Recombinant Vaccinia Boost Following Priming with an HPV DNA Vaccine Enhances Local HPV-Specific CD8+ T Cell Mediated Tumor Control in the Genital Tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yun-Yan; Peng, Shiwen; Han, Liping; Qiu, Jin; Song, Liwen; Tsai, Yachea; Yang, Benjamin; Roden, Richard B.S.; Trimble, Cornelia L.; Hung, Chien-Fu; Wu, T-C

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Two viral oncoproteins, E6 and E7, are expressed in all human papillomavirus (HPV)-infected cells, from initial infection in the genital tract to metastatic cervical cancer. Intramuscular vaccination of women with high grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN2/3) twice with a naked DNA vaccine, pNGVL4a-sig/E7(detox)/HSP70, and a single boost with HPVE6/E7 recombinant vaccinia vaccine (TA-HPV) elicited systemic HPV-specific CD8 T cell responses that could traffic to the lesion and was associated with regression in some patients (NCT00788164). Experimental Design Here we examine whether alteration of this vaccination regimen by administration of TA-HPV vaccination in the cervicovaginal tract, rather than IM delivery, can more effectively recruit antigen-specific T cells in an orthotopic syngeneic mouse model of HPV16+ cervical cancer (TC-1 luc). Results We found that pNGVL4a-sig/E7(detox)/HSP70 vaccination followed by cervicovaginal vaccination with TA-HPV increased accumulation of total and E7-specific CD8+ T cells in the cervicovaginal tract and better controlled E7-expressing cervicovaginal TC-1 luc tumor than IM administration of TA-HPV. Furthermore, the E7-specific CD8+ T cells in the cervicovaginal tract generated through the cervicovaginal route of vaccination expressed the α4β7 integrin and CCR9, which are necessary for the homing of the E7-specific CD8+ T cells to the cervicovaginal tract. Finally, we show that cervicovaginal vaccination with TA-HPV can induce potent local HPV-16 E7 antigen-specific CD8+ T cell immune responses regardless of whether an HPV DNA vaccine priming vaccination was administered IM or within the cervicovaginal tract. Conclusions Our results support future clinical translation using cervicovaginal TA-HPV vaccination. PMID:26420854

  7. Immunogenicity of HPV prophylactic vaccines: Serology assays and their use in HPV vaccine evaluation and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Ligia A; Dillner, Joakim; Beddows, Simon; Unger, Elizabeth R

    2018-01-17

    When administered as standard three-dose schedules, the licensed HPV prophylactic vaccines have demonstrated extraordinary immunogenicity and efficacy. We summarize the immunogenicity of these licensed vaccines and the most commonly used serology assays, with a focus on key considerations for one-dose vaccine schedules. Although immune correlates of protection against infection are not entirely clear, both preclinical and clinical evidence point to neutralizing antibodies as the principal mechanism of protection. Thus, immunogenicity assessments in vaccine trials have focused on measurements of antibody responses to the vaccine. Non-inferiority of antibody responses after two doses of HPV vaccines separated by 6 months has been demonstrated and this evidence supported the recent WHO recommendations for two-dose vaccination schedules in both boys and girls 9-14 years of age. There is also some evidence suggesting that one dose of HPV vaccines may provide protection similar to the currently recommended two-dose regimens but robust data on efficacy and immunogenicity of one-dose vaccine schedules are lacking. In addition, immunogenicity has been assessed and reported using different methods, precluding direct comparison of results between different studies and vaccines. New head-to-head vaccine trials evaluating one-dose immunogenicity and efficacy have been initiated and an increase in the number of trials relying on immunobridging is anticipated. Therefore, standardized measurement and reporting of immunogenicity for the up to nine HPV types targeted by the current vaccines is now critical. Building on previous HPV serology assay standardization and harmonization efforts initiated by the WHO HPV LabNet in 2006, new secondary standards, critical reference reagents and testing guidelines will be generated as part of a new partnership to facilitate harmonization of the immunogenicity testing in new HPV vaccine trials. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  8. Vaginal type-II mucosa is an inductive site for primary CD8+ T-cell mucosal immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yichuan; Sui, Yongjun; Kato, Shingo; Hogg, Alison E.; Steel, Jason C.; Morris, John C.; Berzofsky, Jay A.

    2014-01-01

    The structured lymphoid tissues are considered the only inductive sites where primary T cell immune responses occur. The naïve T cells in structured lymphoid tissues, once being primed by antigen -bearing dendritic cells, differentiate into memory T cells and traffic back to the mucosal sites through the bloodstream. Contrary to this belief, here we show that the vaginal type-II mucosa itself, despite lack of structured lymphoid tissues, can act as an inductive site during primary CD8+ T cell immune responses. We provide evidence that the vaginal mucosa supports both the local immune priming of naïve CD8+ T cells and the local expansion of antigen-specific CD8+ T cells, thereby demonstrating a different paradigm for primary mucosal T cell immune induction. PMID:25600442

  9. Effects Aerosol of Industrial Bleach and Detergent Mixture on Mucosa Layer and Lamina Mucosa Conjunctiva in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gh. Vaezi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Today bleach and detergents are being frequently used and some people use their mixture for more cleaning. Because of chemical interaction of bleach and detergent, chlorine gas was released and thereby it could be dangerous for human health. This study examined the effects of exposed toxic mixture of bleach and detergent on the Mucosa layer and Lamina mucosa conjunctiva in the mice. In this study, 42 adult male mice NMRI race weighing 35-40 gr and from age 8 to 10 weeks were divided into 6 experimental groups and one control group. Experimental groups 1-2-3 with the use of chamber, the exposed 20 minutes were exposed to spray the amount 1 cc of mixture of bleach and detergent by nebulizer. Experimental groups 4-5-6 were for 35 minutes to inhale the same amount of material. Mice killed at 24-48-72 hours after exposed and the Mucosa Layer and Lamina mucosa conjunctiva tissue was studied pathology. In the study of microscopic sections prepared of mouse mucosa layer and Lamina mucosa conjunctiva tissue experimental group comparison with the control group, significant decrease was observed in mucosa layer the have (p ≤ 0.001  and significant decrease was observed in the Lamina mucosa have(p ≤ 0. 01,  p ≤ 0.001. As a result, increasing the exposed time of mixing bleach and detergent, as time passed, increasing the tissue damage and changes.

  10. HPV-QUEST: A highly customized system for automated HPV sequence analysis capable of processing Next Generation sequencing data set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Li; Yao, Jiqiang; Gardner, Brent P; Chang, Kaifen; Yu, Fahong; Goodenow, Maureen M

    2012-01-01

    Next Generation sequencing (NGS) applied to human papilloma viruses (HPV) can provide sensitive methods to investigate the molecular epidemiology of multiple type HPV infection. Currently a genotyping system with a comprehensive collection of updated HPV reference sequences and a capacity to handle NGS data sets is lacking. HPV-QUEST was developed as an automated and rapid HPV genotyping system. The web-based HPV-QUEST subtyping algorithm was developed using HTML, PHP, Perl scripting language, and MYSQL as the database backend. HPV-QUEST includes a database of annotated HPV reference sequences with updated nomenclature covering 5 genuses, 14 species and 150 mucosal and cutaneous types to genotype blasted query sequences. HPV-QUEST processes up to 10 megabases of sequences within 1 to 2 minutes. Results are reported in html, text and excel formats and display e-value, blast score, and local and coverage identities; provide genus, species, type, infection site and risk for the best matched reference HPV sequence; and produce results ready for additional analyses.

  11. Clinical and epidemiological correlations between the infection with HPV 16 and HPV 18 and female cervical lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoian, M; Repanovici, R; Corniţescu, F

    1995-01-01

    A number of 66 specimens from female cervical lesions were examined for infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) types 6, 11, 16, and 18 by nucleic acid hybridization in dot-blot techniques and 35 sera were tested by the immunodot-blot technique, in order to detect the presence of anti E4 and E7 HPV protein antibodies. The findings were compared with the histologic diagnosis. Fifty-six per cent of specimens contained HPV DNA sequences. In 47% of specimens from cervical carcinoma, HPV 11 was detected in 4 cases, HPV 16 in 21 cases, and HPV 18 in 7 cases. Serum antibodies against HPV 16 E4 and HPV 16 E7 occurred in all the cases of uterine carcinoma, in 4 of 10 cases of CIN I-II, and in 3 of 5 sera obtained from apparently healthy women. The analysis of risk factors disclosed the early onset of sexual activity, a relatively high number of births and abortions before the age of 22 years, the use of oral oestroprogestative contraceptive agents, the presence in anamnesis of genital infections with bacterial flora--Candida albicans, Trichomonas vaginalis, Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma, etc. Our results showed that HPV typing by nucleic acid hybridization was useful for differentiating low- from high-risk cervical lesions and also tried to elucidate the risk factors associated with HPV infections and progression to malignancy.

  12. Seroconversion following anal and genital HPV infection in men: The HIM study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna R. Giuliano

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Protection from naturally acquired human papillomavirus (HPV antibodies may influence HPV infection across the lifespan. This study describes seroconversion rates following genital, anal, and oral HPV 6/11/16/18 infections in men and examines differences by HPV type and anatomic site. Methods: Men with HPV 6/11/16/18 infections who were seronegative for those genotypes at the time of DNA detection were selected from the HPV Infection in Men (HIM Study. Sera specimens collected ≤36 months after detection were analyzed for HPV 6/11/16/18 antibodies using a virus-like particle-based ELISA. Time to seroconversion was separately assessed for each anatomic site, stratified by HPV type. Results: Seroconversion to ≥1 HPV type (6/11/16/18 in this sub-cohort (N=384 varied by anatomic site, with 6.3%, 18.9%, and 0.0% seroconverting following anal, genital, and oral HPV infection, respectively. Regardless of anatomic site, seroconversion was highest for HPV 6 (19.3%. Overall, seroconversion was highest following anal HPV 6 infection (69.2%. HPV persistence was the only factor found to influence seroconversion. Conclusions: Low seroconversion rates following HPV infection leave men susceptible to recurrent infections that can progress to HPV-related cancers. This emphasizes the need for HPV vaccination in men to ensure immune protection against new HPV infections and subsequent disease. Keywords: HPV, Men, Seroconversion, HPV antibodies, Human papillomavirus

  13. Relationship between Humoral Immune Responses against HPV16, HPV18, HPV31 and HPV45 in 12-15 Year Old Girls Receiving Cervarix® or Gardasil® Vaccine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Godi

    Full Text Available Human papillomavirus (HPV vaccines confer protection against the oncogenic genotypes HPV16 and HPV18 through the generation of type-specific neutralizing antibodies raised against virus-like particles (VLP representing these genotypes. The vaccines also confer a degree of cross-protection against HPV31 and HPV45, which are genetically-related to the vaccine types HPV16 and HPV18, respectively, although the mechanism is less certain. There are a number of humoral immune measures that have been examined in relation to the HPV vaccines, including VLP binding, pseudovirus neutralization and the enumeration of memory B cells. While the specificity of responses generated against the vaccine genotypes are fairly well studied, the relationship between these measures in relation to non-vaccine genotypes is less certain.We carried out a comparative study of these immune measures against vaccine and non-vaccine genotypes using samples collected from 12-15 year old girls following immunization with three doses of either Cervarix® or Gardasil® HPV vaccine.The relationship between neutralizing and binding antibody titers and HPV-specific memory B cell levels for the vaccine genotypes, HPV16 and HPV18, were very good. The proportion of responders approached 100% for both vaccines while the magnitude of these responses induced by Cervarix® were generally higher than those following Gardasil® immunization. A similar pattern was found for the non-vaccine genotype HPV31, albeit at a lower magnitude compared to its genetically-related vaccine genotype, HPV16. However, both the enumeration of memory B cells and VLP binding responses against HPV45 were poorly related to its neutralizing antibody responses. Purified IgG derived from memory B cells demonstrated specificities similar to those found in the serum, including the capacity to neutralize HPV pseudoviruses.These data suggest that pseudovirus neutralization should be used as the preferred humoral immune

  14. Prevalence of HPV 16 and 18 and attitudes toward HPV vaccination trials in patients with cervical cancer in Mali

    Science.gov (United States)

    Téguété, Ibrahima; Dolo, Amadou; Sangare, Kotou; Sissoko, Abdoulaye; Rochas, Mali; Beseme, Sarah; Tounkara, Karamoko; Yekta, Shahla; De Groot, Anne S.; Koita, Ousmane A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Cervical cancer is one of the most common and lethal cancers in West Africa. Even though vaccines that protect against the most common Human papillomavirus (HPV) strains, 16 and 18, are currently in use in developed countries, the implementation of these vaccines in developing countries has been painfully slow, considering the pre-eminence of HPV-associated cervical cancer among women in those countries. Aim We performed serological and PCR-based assessment of blood and tissue specimens obtained from women undergoing cervical cancer-related surgery at a major urban hospital in Bamako. Since several therapeutic HPV vaccines are currently in clinical trials, we also assessed willingness to participate in HPV cancer vaccine trials. Methods Blood and biopsy samples of 240 women were evaluated for HPV types 16 and 18 by serology and PCR. Knowledge regarding the HPV vaccine and autonomy to decide to vaccinate their own child was assessed with a standardized questionnaire. Results HPV 16 and 18 were identified in 137/166 (82.5%) cervical cancer biopsy samples by PCR. Co-infection with both HPV 16 and 18 was significantly more frequent in women over 50 years of age than in younger women (63.0% vs. 37.0%). 44% of study participants said they would be willing to vaccinate their child with HPV vaccine. Only 39% of women participating in this study reported that they would be able to make an autonomous decision to receive HPV vaccination. Permission from a male spouse or head of household was identified as important for participation by 59% of the women. Conclusion This study provides strong support for the introduction of currently available HPV vaccines in Mali, and also provides key information about conditions for obtaining informed consent for HPV vaccine trials and HPV vaccination in Mali. PMID:28231334

  15. Efeito genotóxico do etanol em células da mucosa bucal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reis Silvia Regina de Almeida

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O etanol é um dos agentes químicos relacionados ao desenvolvimento de neoplasias malignas bucais. Os micronúcleos são porções de cromatina que permanecem próximas ao núcleo, resultantes de mitoses aberrantes após a ação de agentes genotóxicos. Dessa forma, sua ocorrência reflete o grau de exposição celular a carcinógenos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a freqüência de micronúcleos em células esfoliadas da língua e da mucosa jugal de indivíduos dependentes químicos de etanol. A amostra constou de células esfoliadas da língua e da mucosa jugal de 40 indivíduos alcoólatras não fumantes e de 20 abstêmios de álcool e fumo. As células obtidas foram coradas pelo método de Feulgen e contracoradas pelo "Fast Green". Observou-se um aumento estatisticamente significativo da freqüência de micronúcleos em células esfoliadas da língua no grupo de indivíduos expostos ao etanol em relação ao grupo controle (p 0,05. Conclui-se, portanto, que o consumo excessivo de etanol promove alterações efetivas em células da mucosa bucal, mesmo na ausência de exposição ao fumo. Tais alterações apresentam-se mais expressivas no bordo lateral de língua, um sítio mais exposto à ação de carcinógenos quando comparado à mucosa jugal.

  16. HPV (Human Papillomavirus) Gardasil® Vaccine - what you need to know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is taken in its entirety from the CDC HPV (Human Papillomavirus) Vaccine - Gardasil® Vaccine Information Statement (VIS): www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/hpv-gardasil.html . CDC review information for HPV Gardasil® ...

  17. HPV vaccine (Human Papillomavirus) Cervarix® - what you need to know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is taken in its entirety from the CDC HPV (Human Papillomavirus) Cervarix® Vaccine Information Statement: www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/hpv-cervarix.html . CDC review information for HPV Cervarix® ...

  18. Significance of molecular diagnostics in human papilloma virus (HPV determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačević G.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available HPV infection is considered to be the most important etiologic factor in cervical cancer development. In this retrospective study, which included the period from 2000 to 2012, the results of two molecular techniques used in the detection of HPV infection among women of the South Bačka District were analyzed. By using the technique of in situ hybridization and the rPCR method, the proportion of high-risk HPV among women with normal cytology was determined to be 19.8% and 32.7%, respectively, and among women with abnormal cytology 43.1% and 61%, respectively. Among the analyzed women, HPV type 16 was the most prevalent, followed by HPV types 31, 51 and 18. Application of molecular HPV diagnosis is valuable because it increases the sensitivity of the screening test, so that the application of both tests to detect cervical cancer is a true prevention of malignancy.

  19. Modulation of antigen presenting cell functions during chronic HPV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abate Assefa Bashaw

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available High-risk human papillomaviruses (HR-HPV infect basal keratinocytes, where in some individuals they evade host immune responses and persist. Persistent HR-HPV infection of the cervix causes precancerous neoplasia that can eventuate in cervical cancer. Dendritic cells (DCs are efficient in priming/cross-priming antigen-specific T cells and generating antiviral and antitumor cytotoxic CD8+ T cells. However, HR-HPV have adopted various immunosuppressive strategies, with modulation of DC function crucial to escape from the host adaptive immune response. HPV E6 and E7 oncoproteins alter recruitment and localization of epidermal DCs, while soluble regulatory factors derived from HPV-induced hyperplastic epithelium change DC development and influence initiation of specific cellular immune responses. This review focuses on current evidence for HR-HPV manipulation of antigen presentation in dendritic cells and escape from host immunity.

  20. Ethnic and Racial Disparities in HPV Vaccination Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otanez, Staci; Torr, Berna M

    2017-12-20

    There are substantial racial and ethnic disparities in the vaccination rate for human papillomavirus (HPV), which helps protect against cervical cancer. Using data from the 2007 Health Information National Trends Survey, we explore differences between Whites, Blacks, Hispanics, and Asians in attitudes toward vaccinating adolescent girls for HPV. We use logistic regression models to explore whether racial/ethnic differences in attitudes toward HPV vaccinations are explained by HPV knowledge, demographic and socioeconomic status, and/or general distrust of the healthcare system. We include interactions to explore whether the effects of HPV knowledge and doctor distrust vary by racial/ethnic group. We find that greater HPV knowledge increases general willingness to vaccinate for all groups except Blacks. Our findings point to a need for additional research and design of culturally appropriate interventions that address barriers to vaccination.

  1. Overview of Current Humman Papilloma Virus (HPV Vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cumhur Artuk

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Persistent viral infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV genotypes causes virtually all cancer of the cervix. The same HPV genotypes (“types” also cause cases of anal cancer. Cervical cancer is the third most frequent cancer in women worldwide after breast and colorectal cancers. It ranks fourth of women’s cancers according to the mortality ratio. Two vaccines have been developed against HPV infection; one is a quadrivalent vaccine (Gardasil™ and the other is a bivalent vaccine (Cervarix™. This topic will cover issues related to HPV infections, routine HPV immunization recommendations, vaccination in special patient populations, the cost-effectiveness of HPV vaccination, and vaccine safety. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2013; 12(3.000: 327-334

  2. Impact of human papillomavirus (HPV)-6/11/16/18 vaccine on all HPV-associated genital diseases in young women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muñoz, Nubia; Kjaer, Susanne K; Sigurdsson, Kristján

    2010-01-01

    The impact of the prophylactic vaccine against human papillomavirus (HPV) types 6, 11, 16, and 18 (HPV6/11/16/18) on all HPV-associated genital disease was investigated in a population that approximates sexually naive women in that they were "negative to 14 HPV types" and in a mixed population of...

  3. Factors Related To HPV Vaccine Practice Among Adult Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelia Perwita Sari

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Cervical cancer is one of most common diseases among women worldwide. Human papilloma virus (HPV is known as precursor of cervical cancer. Cervical cancer can be prevented effectively by practicing hpv vaccine. But the coverage of HPV vaccine is remain low. The objection of study was to analyze factors related to HPV vaccine pratice among adult women. This study used case control design with sample size 25 for each group. Sample case was women who took HPV vaccine in IBI Kota Kediri on 2013, while sample control was neighboor from the sample case who didn’t take HPV vaccine. The independent variabels were age, education level, marital status, income level, knowledge, family support, family history of cervical cancer and the dependent variable was HPV vaccine practice. Those variables was analyzed with chi square or Fisher’s exact with significancy level at 95%. The result showed that there were correlation between education level (p = 0.006; c = 0.346, knowledge (p = 0.001; c = 0.464, and family support (p = 0.000; c = 0.516 with HPV vaccination practice. While there were no correlation between age (p = 0.275, marital status (0.490 and income level (p = 0.098 and family history of cervical cancer (p = 1.000 with HPV vaccination practice. Based on data from this study can be concluded that family support and knowledge had average strenght correlation withHPV vaccine practice among adult women. So, the intervention should be focused in increasing knowledge among women and their family about the important of HPV vaccine as a cervical cancer prevention. Keywords: practice, preventive, HPV, vaccine, adult women

  4. Genetic variability in L1 and L2 genes of HPV-16 and HPV-58 in Southwest China.

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    Yaofei Yue

    Full Text Available HPV account for most of the incidence of cervical cancer. Approximately 90% of anal cancers and a smaller subset (<50% of other cancers (oropharyngeal, penile, vaginal, vulvar are also attributed to HPV. The L1 protein comprising HPV vaccine formulations elicits high-titre neutralizing antibodies and confers type restricted protection. The L2 protein is a promising candidate for a broadly protective HPV vaccine. In our previous study, we found the most prevalent high-risk HPV infectious serotypes were HPV-16 and HPV-58 among women of Southwest China. To explore gene polymorphisms and intratypic variations of HPV-16 and HPV-58 L1/L2 genes originating in Southwest China, HPV-16 (L1: n = 31, L2: n = 28 and HPV-58 (L1: n = 21, L2: n = 21 L1/L2 genes were sequenced and compared to others described and submitted to GenBank. Phylogenetic trees were then constructed by Neighbor-Joining and the Kimura 2-parameters methods (MEGA software, followed by an analysis of the diversity of secondary structure. Then selection pressures acting on the L1/L2 genes were estimated by PAML software. Twenty-nine single nucleotide changes were observed in HPV-16 L1 sequences with 16/29 non-synonymous mutations and 13/29 synonymous mutations (six in alpha helix and two in beta turns. Seventeen single nucleotide changes were observed in HPV-16 L2 sequences with 8/17 non-synonymous mutations (one in beta turn and 9/17 synonymous mutations. Twenty-four single nucleotide changes were observed in HPV-58 L1 sequences with 10/24 non-synonymous mutations and 14/24 synonymous mutations (eight in alpha helix and four in beta turn. Seven single nucleotide changes were observed in HPV-58 L2 sequences with 4/7 non-synonymous mutations and 3/7 synonymous mutations. The result of selective pressure analysis showed that most of these mutations were of positive selection. This study may help understand the intrinsic geographical relatedness and biological differences of HPV-16/HPV-58 and

  5. The oral mucosa in leprosy: a clinical and histopathological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Abreu, Marilda Aparecida Milanez Morgado; Michalany, Nilceo Schwery; Weckx, Luc Louis Maurice; Neto Pimentel, Dalva Regina; Hirata, Cleonice Hitomi Watashi; de Avelar Alchorne, Maurício Mota

    2006-01-01

    Multibacillary leprosy may involve the oral mucosa, with or without apparent lesions. There are few studies that deal with this issue in the era of multidrug therapy. To assess the frequency of oral mucosa involvement in multibacillary leprosy patients. A transversal study with twenty non-treated multibacillary leprosy patients. The patients were treated in Dracena, São Paulo, between 2000 and 2002. Clinical examination of the oral mucosa was carried out. All patients were submitted to jugal mucosa, soft palate and tongue biopsies, in altered or in pre-established sites. The cross-sections were stained by techniques of hematoxilin-eosin and Ziehl-Neelsen. Granuloma and alcohol-acid-resistant bacilli findings determined the specific histopathological involvement. The study involved 19 patients with an average of 2.5 years of disease progression. Specific histopathological involvement occurred in the tongue and soft palate of one lepromatous patient with an apparently normal oral mucosa. (1) Clinical alterations in the oral mucosa does not imply disease involvement, it is necessary to have histopathological confirmation. (2) Apparent specific clinical alterations are rare. (3) The clinically normal oral mucosa can show specific histopathological involvement.

  6. Diagnostic methods and techniques in cervical cancer prevention Part II: Molecular diagnostics of HPV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Vince,

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Clinical diagnostics of HPV infection is based on analytically andclinically validated assays for qualitative detection of HPV DNAfrom high risk genotypes. New generation of HPV DNA assayscombines qualitative detection of 12 high-risk HPV genotypeswith HPV-16 and HPV-18 genotyping. New generation of HPVmolecular assays designed to increase clinical specificity of moleculartesting is based on detection of mRNA for E6 and E7.

  7. Epigenetic changes in the CDKN2A locus are associated with differential expression of P16INK4A and P14ARF in HPV-positive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlecht, Nicolas F; Ben-Dayan, Miriam; Anayannis, Nicole; Lleras, Roberto A; Thomas, Carlos; Wang, Yanhua; Smith, Richard V; Burk, Robert D; Harris, Thomas M; Childs, Geoffrey; Ow, Thomas J; Prystowsky, Michael B; Belbin, Thomas J

    2015-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) is recognized as a distinct disease entity associated with improved survival. DNA hypermethylation profiles differ significantly by HPV status suggesting that a specific subset of methylated CpG loci could give mechanistic insight into HPV-driven OPSCC. We analyzed genome-wide DNA methylation of primary tumor samples and adjacent normal mucosa from 46 OPSCC patients undergoing treatment at Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, NY using the Illumina HumanMethylation27 beadchip. For each matched tissue set, we measured differentially methylated CpG loci using a change in methylation level (M value). From these analyses, we identified a 22 CpG loci panel for HPV+ OPSCC that included four CDKN2A loci downstream of the p16(INK4A) and p14(ARF) transcription start sites. This panel was significantly associated with overall HPV detection (P < 0.05; ROC area under the curve = 0.96, 95% CI: 0.91–1.0) similar to the subset of four CDKN2A-specific CpG loci (0.90, 95% CI: 0.82–0.99) with equivalence to the full 22 CpG panel. DNA hypermethylation correlated with a significant increase in alternative open reading frame (ARF) expression in HPV+ OPSCC primary tumors, but not to the other transcript variant encoded by the CDKN2A locus. Overall, this study provides evidence of epigenetic changes to the downstream region of the CDKN2A locus in HPV+ oropharyngeal cancer that are associated with changes in expression of the coded protein products

  8. HPV Vaccine Safety PSA (:30) (No Tag)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    In this 30 second public service announcement, a mother talks about the importance of protecting 11-12 year-old boys and girls with HPV vaccination. No CDC tag at the end. (Una madre habla sobre la importancia de proteger a los niños y las niñas de 11 a 12 años con la vacuna contra el VPH.)

  9. Cervical Cancer Screening with HPV Test

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-15

    Dr. Stewart Massad, a professor in the Division of Gynecologic Oncology at Washington University in Saint Louis and a board member of the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Cancer Prevention (ASCCP), talks about cotesting with human papillomavirus (HPV) as part of a cervical cancer screening program.  Created: 10/15/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  10. Natural History of HPV and Cervical Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-12

    Dr. Phil Castle, an intramural research scientist at the National Institutes of Health, talks about the natural history of human papillomavirus (HPV) infections, and cervical cancer and other anogenital cancers.  Created: 10/12/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  11. [HPV (Human Papilloma Virus) implication in other cancers than gynaecological].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badoual, C; Tartour, E; Roussel, H; Bats, A S; Pavie, J; Pernot, S; Weiss, L; Mohamed, A Si; Thariat, J; Hoffmann, C; Péré, H

    2015-08-01

    Worldwide, approximately 5 to 10% of the population is infected by a Human Papilloma Virus (HPV). Some of these viruses, with a high oncogenic risk (HPV HR), are responsible for about 5% of cancer. It is now accepted that almost all carcinomas of the cervix and the vulva are due to an HPV HR (HPV16 and 18) infection. However, these viruses are known to be involved in the carcinogenesis of many other cancers (head and neck [SCCHN], penis, anus). For head and neck cancer, HPV infection is considered as a good prognostic factor. The role of HPV HR in anal cancer is also extensively studied in high-risk patient's population. The role of HPV infection in the carcinogenesis of esophageal, bladder, lung, breast or skin cancers is still debated. Given the multiple possible locations of HPV HR infection, the question of optimizing the management of patients with a HPV+ cancer arises in the implementation of a comprehensive clinical and biological monitoring. It is the same in therapeutics with the existence of a preventive vaccination, for example. Copyright © 2015 Société nationale française de médecine interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Assessing mandatory HPV vaccination: who should call the shots?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javitt, Gail; Berkowitz, Deena; Gostin, Lawrence O

    2008-01-01

    In 2007, many legislatures considered, and two enacted, bills mandating HPV vaccination for young girls as a condition of school attendance. Such mandates raise significant legal, ethical, and social concerns. This paper argues that mandating HPV vaccination for minor females is premature since long-term safety and effectiveness of the vaccine has not been established, HPV does not pose imminent and significant risk of harm to others, a sex specific mandate raises constitutional concerns, and a mandate will burden financially existing government health programs and private physicians. Absent careful consideration and public conversation, HPV mandates may undermine coverage rates for other vaccines.

  13. Surveillance Imaging in HPV-related Oropharyngeal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, William; Miles, Brett A; Posner, Marshall; Som, Peter; Kostakoglu, Lale; Gupta, Vishal; Bakst, Richard L

    2018-03-01

    Current guidelines derived from a pre-human papilloma virus (HPV) era in oropharyngeal cancer do not recommend routine surveillance imaging. We aimed to analyze the method of recurrence detection in HPV+ disease to determine a role for follow-up imaging. All HPV+ and HPV- oropharyngeal cancer patients treated at our institution from 2005-2016 with biopsy-proven recurrence were identified and their method of recurrence detection was analyzed. A total of 16 HPV+ oropharyngeal cancer patients were identified to have recurrence, 12 (75%) of which experienced distant recurrence and 13 (81.3%) were detected asymptomatically with imaging at a median time of 19.7 months after initial treatment and verifying no residual disease. Twelve (75%) detections were with PET-CT. While HPV- patients (17 patients) also have a high rate of asymptomatic detection (16 patients, 94.1%), their 3-year post-recurrence survival was significantly lower at 6.5% compared to 83.6% for the HPV+ group (pHPV+ patients, a large proportion of failures are asymptomatic distant metastases, which occur beyond 6 months following treatment completion, and are detected with whole body imaging alone. In light of long term post-recurrence survival observed, this preliminary data suggests that routine surveillance imaging should be further studied for HPV+ disease. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  14. Immunogenicity of an HPV-16 L2 DNA vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitzeroth, Inga I.; Passmore, Jo-Ann S.; Shephard, Enid; Stewart, Debbie; Müller, Martin; Williamson, Anna-Lise; Rybicki, Edward P.; Kast, W. Martin

    2009-01-01

    The ability to elicit cross-neutralizing antibodies makes human papillomavirus (HPV) L2 capsid protein a possible HPV vaccine. We examined and compared the humoral response of mice immunised with a HPV-16 L2 DNA vaccine or with HPV-16 L2 protein. The L2 DNA vaccine elicited a non-neutralising antibody response unlike the L2 protein. L2 DNA vaccination suppressed the growth of L2-expressing C3 tumor cells, which is a T cell mediated effect, demonstrating that the lack of non-neutralizing antibody induction by L2 DNA was not caused by lack of T cell immunogenicity of the construct. PMID:19559114

  15. HPV Vaccine (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-07-25

    Nearly all sexually active men and women will get infected with the human papillomavirus, or HPV, at some point in their lives. HPV can lead to serious health problems later in life, including certain cancers in both men and women. Since 2006, a vaccine has been available that protects against the most frequent cancer-causing types of HPV. In this podcast, Shannon Stokley discusses the importance of getting the HPV vaccine.  Created: 7/25/2013 by MMWR.   Date Released: 7/25/2013.

  16. Gavi HPV Programs: Application to Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celina M. Hanson

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Developing countries disproportionately suffer from the burden of cervical cancer yet lack the resources to establish systematic screening programs that have resulted in significant reductions in morbidity and mortality in developed countries. Human Papillomavirus (HPV vaccination provides an opportunity for primary prevention of cervical cancer in low-resource settings through vaccine provision by Gavi The Vaccine Alliance. In addition to the traditional national introduction, countries can apply for a demonstration program to help them make informed decisions for subsequent national introduction. This article summarizes information from approved Gavi HPV demonstration program proposals and preliminary implementation findings. After two rounds of applications, 23 countries have been approved targeting approximately 400,000 girls for vaccination. All countries are proposing primarily school-based strategies with mixed strategies to locate and vaccinate girls not enrolled in school. Experiences to date include: Reaching marginalized girls has been challenging; Strong coordination with the education sector is key and overall acceptance has been high. Initial coverage reports are encouraging but will have to be confirmed in population based coverage surveys that will take place later this year. Experiences from these countries are consistent with existing literature describing other HPV vaccine pilots in low-income settings.

  17. Therapeutic Vaccination for HPV Induced Cervical Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joeli A. Brinkman

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical Cancer is the second leading cause of cancer–related deaths in women worldwide and is associated with Human Papillomavirus (HPV infection, creating a unique opportunity to treat cervical cancer through anti-viral vaccination. Although a prophylactic vaccine may be available within a year, millions of women, already infected, will continue to suffer from HPV-related disease, emphasizing the need to develop therapeutic vaccination strategies. A majority of clinical trials examining therapeutic vaccination have shown limited efficacy due to examining patients with more advanced-stage cancer who tend to have decreased immune function. Current trends in clinical trials with therapeutic agents examine patients with pre-invasive lesions in order to prevent invasive cervical cancer. However, longer follow-up is necessary to correlate immune responses to lesion regression. Meanwhile, preclinical studies in this field include further exploration of peptide or protein vaccination, and the delivery of HPV antigens in DNA-based vaccines or in viral vectors. As long as pre-clinical studies continue to advance, the prospect of therapeutic vaccination to treat existing lesions seem good in the near future. Positive consequences of therapeutic vaccination would include less disfiguring treatment options and fewer instances of recurrent or progressive lesions leading to a reduction in cervical cancer incidence.

  18. Microstructure imaging of human rectal mucosa using multiphoton microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, N. R.; Chen, G.; Chen, J. X.; Yan, J.; Zhuo, S. M.; Zheng, L. Q.; Jiang, X. S.

    2011-01-01

    Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) has high resolution and sensitivity. In this study, MPM was used to image microstructure of human rectal mucosa. The morphology and distribution of the main components in mucosa layer, absorptive cells and goblet cells in the epithelium, abundant intestinal glands in the lamina propria and smooth muscle fibers in the muscularis mucosa were clearly monitored. The variations of these components were tightly relevant to the pathology in gastrointestine system, especially early rectal cancer. The obtained images will be helpful for the diagnosis of early colorectal cancer.

  19. Large scale study of HPV genotypes in cervical cancer and different cytological cervical specimens in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chansaenroj, Jira; Junyangdikul, Pairoj; Chinchai, Teeraporn; Swangvaree, Sukumarn; Karalak, Anant; Gemma, Nobuhiro; Poovorawan, Yong

    2014-04-01

    Identification of high-risk HPV genotypes in patients is essential for vaccination and prevention programs while the geographic distribution of cervical cancer varies widely. HPV 16 is the major cause of cervical cancer followed by HPV 18, HPV 31, HPV 52, or HPV 58 depending on geographic area. In this study, the distribution of HPV genotypes in cervical specimens from women living in Thailand was analyzed by HPV testing with electrochemical DNA chip and PCR direct sequencing. The 716 specimens were grouped according to their cytological grades; 100 normal, 100 low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, 100 high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, and 416 specimens of cervical cancer. The results showed that HPV 16, HPV 18, HPV 52, and HPV 58 are the most common HPV genotypes in Thailand, respectively. With respect to age, women below the age of 26 years were almost negative for high-risk HPV DNA exclusively. Conversely, high prevalence of high-risk HPV DNA and abnormal cytology were usually found in women between 26 and 45 years while cervical cancer was detected mainly in women above the age of 45 years. To increase protection efficiency, a vaccine including HPV 52 and HPV 58 should be offered to Asian women, and primary HPV screening should start at 26-30 years of age. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Human papilloma virus (HPV genotypes prevalence in a region of South Italy (Apulia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Franca Coscia

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION. Since human papillomavirus (HPV is the central casual factor in cervical cancer, understanding the epidemiology and geographical area distribution of the most prevalent HPV genotypes constitutes an important step towards development of strategies of prevention. AIM. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of HPV infection and to determine HPV types distribution among 822 HPV positive women and some sexual male partners in Apulia (Italy. METHODS. HPV DNA detection and genotyping was performed by nested-PCR for the L1 region and reverse line blot hybridization allowing the specific detection of 24 HPV genotyping both high risk (HR and low risk (LR. RESULTS. The most prevalent HPV genotypes were HPV 16 (35%, HPV 31 (16% HPV 6 (9%, HPV 58 and 66 (7%, followed by HPV 33 (6%, HPV 18 and 56 (4%, HPV 70 and 45 (3%, HPV 53 and 11 (2%. Currently 1.5% of tested specimens remained unclassified. Multiple infections with at last two different high-risk HPV genotypes were observed in 10% of specimens. CONCLUSIONS. This finding adds knowledge to HPV epidemiological investigation, and addresses further studies aimed to consider public health for identifying groups at risk for cervical cancer.

  1. Human papilloma virus (HPV) genotypes prevalence in a region of South Italy (Apulia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coscia, Maria Franca; Monno, Rosa; Ballini, Andrea; Mirgaldi, Rosanna; Dipalma, Gianna; Pettini, Francesco; Cristallo, Vincenzo; Inchingolo, Francesco; Foti, Caterina; de Vito, Danila

    2015-01-01

    Since human papillomavirus (HPV) is the central casual factor in cervical cancer, understanding the epidemiology and geographical area distribution of the most prevalent HPV genotypes constitutes an important step towards development of strategies of prevention. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of HPV infection and to determine HPV types distribution among 822 HPV positive women and some sexual male partners in Apulia (Italy). HPV DNA detection and genotyping was performed by nested-PCR for the L1 region and reverse line blot hybridization allowing the specific detection of 24 HPV genotyping both high risk (HR) and low risk (LR). The most prevalent HPV genotypes were HPV 16 (35%), HPV 31 (16%) HPV 6 (9%), HPV 58 and 66 (7%), followed by HPV 33 (6%), HPV 18 and 56 (4%), HPV 70 and 45 (3%), HPV 53 and 11 (2%). Currently 1.5% of tested specimens remained unclassified. Multiple infections with at last two different high- risk HPV genotypes were observed in 10% of specimens. This finding adds knowledge to HPV epidemiological investigation, and addresses further studies aimed to consider public health for identifying groups at risk for cervical cancer.

  2. Estimating HPV DNA Deposition Between Sexual Partners Using HPV Concordance, Y Chromosome DNA Detection, and Self-reported Sexual Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malagón, Talía; Burchell, Ann N; El-Zein, Mariam; Guénoun, Julie; Tellier, Pierre-Paul; Coutlée, François; Franco, Eduardo L

    2017-12-05

    Detection of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA in genital samples may not always represent true infections but may be depositions from infected sexual partners. We examined whether sexual risk factors and a biomarker (Y chromosome DNA) were associated with genital HPV partner concordance and estimated the fraction of HPV detections potentially attributable to partner deposition. The HITCH study enrolled young women attending a university or college in Montréal, Canada, and their male partners, from 2005 to 2010. We tested baseline genital samples for Y chromosome DNA and HPV DNA using polymerase chain reaction. Type-specific HPV concordance was 42.4% in partnerships where at least one partner was HPV DNA positive. Y chromosome DNA predicted type-specific HPV concordance in univariate analyses, but in multivariable models the independent predictors of concordance were days since last vaginal sex (26.5% higher concordance 0-1 vs 8-14 days after last vaginal sex) and condom use (22.6% higher concordance in never vs always users). We estimated that 14.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 6.3-21.9%) of HPV DNA detections in genital samples were attributable to vaginal sex in the past week. A substantial proportion of HPV DNA detections may be depositions due to recent unprotected vaginal sex. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Human papillomavirus type 16 E6-specific antitumor immunity is induced by oral administration of HPV16 E6-expressing Lactobacillus casei in C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tae-Young; Kim, Yang-Hyun; Lee, Kyung-Soon; Kim, Jeong-Ki; Lee, Il-Han; Yang, Jai-Myung; Sung, Moon-Hee; Park, Jong-Sup; Poo, Haryoung

    2010-11-01

    Given that local cell-mediated immunity (CMI) against the human papillomavirus type 16 E6 (HPV16 E6) protein is important for eradication of HPV16 E6-expressing cancer cells in the cervical mucosa, the HPV16 E6 protein may be a target for the mucosal immunotherapy of cervical cancer. Here, we expressed the HPV16 E6 antigen on Lactobacillus casei (L. casei) and investigated E6-specific CMI following oral administration of the L. casei-PgsA-E6 to mice. Surface expression of HPV16 E6 antigens was confirmed and mice were orally inoculated with the L. casei-PgsA or the L. casei-PgsA-E6. Compared to the L. casei-PgsA-treated mice, significantly higher levels of serum IgG and mucosal IgA were observed in L. casei-PgsA-E6-immunized mice; these differences were significantly enhanced after boost. Consistent with this, systemic and local CMI were significantly increased after the boost, as shown by increased counts of IFN-gamma-secreting cells in splenocytes, mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN), and vaginal samples. Furthermore, in the TC-1 tumor model, animals receiving the orally administered L. casei-PgsA-E6 showed reduced tumor size and increased survival rate versus mice receiving control (L. casei-PgsA) immunization. We also found that L. casei-PgsA-E6-induced antitumor effect was decreased by in vivo depletion of CD4(+) or CD8(+) T cells. Collectively, these results indicate that the oral administration of lactobacilli bearing the surface-displayed E6 protein induces T cell-mediated cellular immunity and antitumor effects in mice.

  4. Characterization of a bovine isolate Lactobacillus mucosae DPC 6426 which produces an exopolysaccharide composed predominantly of mannose residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, L E E; Price, N P J; Ryan, P; Wang, L; Auty, M A E; Fitzgerald, G F; Stanton, C; Ross, R P

    2014-08-01

    To characterize Lactobacillus strains with EPS-producing ability compared with non-EPS-producing lactobacilli of the same species for technological performance including simulated gastrointestinal tract (GIT) conditions. Characterization of EPS-producing Lactobacillus mucosae DPC 6426 in detail based on 16S rRNA sequencing, and EPS production using scanning electron and atomic force microscopy. The EPS was found to consist of mannosyl residues, with mannose, glucose and galactose found to be the major sugar residues present in an approximate ratio of 3: 2: 2. The strain was compared to non-EPS-producing Lact. mucosae DPC 6420 following exposure to salt, bile, acid and heat stresses. Lact. mucosae DPC 6426 exhibited twofold increased (P survival during 120-min exposure to 5 mol NaCl, threefold increased survival during 90-min exposure to 0·7% (w/v) bile (P survival when exposed to simulated gastric juice (P survival during 60-min exposure to HCl (P strain. The data implicate the potential suitability of EPS-producing Lact. mucosae DPC 6426 in food applications and/or as a probiotic culture. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  5. Primary HPV testing recommendations of US providers, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Crystale Purvis; Saraiya, Mona

    2017-12-01

    To investigate the HPV testing recommendations of US physicians who perform cervical cancer screening. Data from the 2015 DocStyles survey of U.S. health care providers were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression to identify provider characteristics associated with routine recommendation of primary HPV testing for average-risk, asymptomatic women ≥30years old. The analysis was limited to primary care physicians and obstetrician-gynecologists who performed cervical cancer screening (N=843). Primary HPV testing for average-risk, asymptomatic women ≥30years old was recommended by 40.8% of physicians who performed cervical cancer screening, and 90.1% of these providers recommended primary HPV testing for women of all ages. The screening intervals most commonly recommended for primary HPV testing with average-risk, asymptomatic women ≥30years old were every 3years (35.5%) and annually (30.2%). Physicians who reported that patient HPV vaccination status influenced their cervical cancer screening practices were almost four times more likely to recommend primary HPV testing for average-risk, asymptomatic women ≥30years old than other providers (Adj OR=3.96, 95% CI=2.82-5.57). Many US physicians recommended primary HPV testing for women of all ages, contrary to guidelines which limit this screening approach to women ≥25years old. The association between provider recommendation of primary HPV testing and patient HPV vaccination status may be due to anticipated reductions in the most oncogenic HPV types among vaccinated women. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Dorsal onlay graft bulbar urethroplasty using buccal mucosa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    G. Barbagli

    2015-12-02

    Dec 2, 2015 ... promote the transformation of the urethral mucosa plate into a tube, according to ... Allen stirrups and sequential inflatable compression sleeves. Figure 2 .... the ventral, dorsal or lateral surface of the urethra, we investigated if.

  7. Reconstruction of highly contracted socket after irradiation with antral mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanabe, Yosihiko; Masaki, Michiyosi; Kato, Hisakazu

    1999-01-01

    We have repaired 3 cases of the highly contracted socket after irradiation by lining it using antral mucosa and obtained excellent results. Although this procedure requires rhinological skill to obtain the mucosa, it has an advantage leaving no visible scar at the donor site. Usually it is not difficult to obtain a sufficient quantity of the mucous membrane to line a whole socket from one antrum. Besides, it is also easy to line its surface since the shape of antral mucosa is originally in a sac form. All we have to do is making 20 mm long incision to the mucosa, putting a silicone conformer into it, and inlaying it into the graft bed. Thus, having once obtained the mucous membrane, the surgical procedure itself is a quite simple one. (author)

  8. Serotonin Immunoreactive Cells and Nerve Fibers in the Mucosa of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hydroxytryptamine) immunoreactivity in the pyloric mucosa of the rat stomach. The immunoreactive elements included the endocrine cells, mast cells and mucosal nerve fibers in the lamina propria. The immunopositive endocrine cells were oval in ...

  9. Roseomonas mucosa Isolated from Bloodstream of Pediatric Patient ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bard, J. Dien; Deville, J. G.; Summanen, P. H.; Lewinski, M. A.

    2010-01-01

    We report a case of catheter-related bacteremia associated with Roseomonas mucosa isolated from an immunocompromised pediatric patient with a history of multiple episodes of urinary tract infection and bacteremia. PMID:20534804

  10. Habitual biting of oral mucosa: A conservative treatment approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarabjot Kaur Bhatia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic biting of oral mucosa is an innocuous self inflicted injury, commonly seen in children suffering from developmental and psychological problems and has rarely been reported in normal unaffected individuals. The management strategies vary from counseling, prescription of sedatives to different prosthetic shields. The paper highlights the efficacy of a simple approach using soft mouth guard in the management of self inflicted lesions due to habitual biting of oral mucosa in two normal healthy children.

  11. Studies on nerve terminations in human mucosa and skin

    OpenAIRE

    Hilliges, Marita

    1997-01-01

    - In spite of their accessibility and important sensory function,the nervous tissue components of human oral and vaginal mucosa and skin have beensubject to very few, if any, systematic investigations. Studies on the innervationof oral tissues have mainly focused on the dental pulp, the periodontium and thegingiva, probably because of specific clinical interest, thus largely neglectingthe mucosa. Genital studies comprise only in a few cases the vagina and when thevagina is i...

  12. Changes in HPV Knowledge Among College Women from 2008 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Erika L; Vamos, Cheryl A; Griner, Stacey B; Daley, Ellen M

    2018-04-01

    The human papillomavirus (HPV) can cause anogenital cancers and genital warts; however, it can be prevented through the HPV vaccine, which has been available since 2006. While this vaccine is targeted toward 11-to-12-year-olds, 18-to-26-year-old young adult women are eligible for "catch-up" vaccination. Knowledge of HPV may impact HPV vaccine uptake among this population. The purpose of this study was to assess changes in HPV knowledge and HPV vaccine information sources among young adult college women over a 7-year period. Two independent samples (N = 223 for 2008; N = 323 for 2015) completed a 23-item knowledge scale and survey regarding HPV. Adjusted logistic regression models compared the odds of correctly answering each knowledge item between each time period. The study found that HPV knowledge increased significantly over time (p HPV transmission; there is a vaccine for women that prevents certain types of HPV; HPV can cause genital warts; HPV can be passed to a newborn at birth; and even if you do not see a wart, you can transmit HPV. Recent participants were also more likely to correctly report only women can get HPV as false. While improvements in HPV knowledge were found over time, misperceptions regarding outcomes associated with HPV persist. In order to promote HPV vaccination among this population, health literacy skills, in addition to knowledge, should be improved.

  13. Seroconversion Following Anal and Genital HPV Infection in Men: The HIM Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliano, Anna R; Viscidi, Raphael; Torres, B Nelson; Ingles, Donna J; Sudenga, Staci L; Villa, Luisa L; Baggio, Maria Luiza; Abrahamsen, Martha; Quiterio, Manuel; Salmeron, Jorge; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo

    2015-12-01

    Protection from naturally acquired human papillomavirus (HPV) antibodies may influence HPV infection across the lifespan. This study describes seroconversion rates following genital, anal, and oral HPV 6/11/16/18 infections in men and examines differences by HPV type and anatomic site. Men with HPV 6/11/16/18 infections who were seronegative for those genotypes at the time of DNA detection were selected from the HPV Infection in Men (HIM) Study. Sera specimens collected ≤36 months after detection were analyzed for HPV 6/11/16/18 antibodies using a virus-like particle-based ELISA. Time to seroconversion was separately assessed for each anatomic site, stratified by HPV type. Seroconversion to ≥1 HPV type (6/11/16/18) in this sub-cohort (N=384) varied by anatomic site, with 6.3, 18.9, and 0.0% seroconverting following anal, genital, and oral HPV infection, respectively. Regardless of anatomic site, seroconversion was highest for HPV 6 (19.3%). Overall, seroconversion was highest following anal HPV 6 infection (69.2%). HPV persistence was the only factor found to influence seroconversion. Low seroconversion rates following HPV infection leave men susceptible to recurrent infections that can progress to HPV-related cancers. This emphasizes the need for HPV vaccination in men to ensure immune protection against new HPV infections and subsequent disease.

  14. Effects of radiation on nasal mucosa of guinea pig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Mang; Hu Sunhong; Liu Yuehui

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study histopathological changes in nasal mucosa of guinea pigs following a series of irradiation. Methods: A total of 60 healthy guinea pigs were divided into two groups randomly: the irradiation group (n=30) and the control group (n=30). The animals of the irradiation group were exposed nasally to linear accelerator X-rays at 5.0 Gy once a week for three weeks. At 1 d, 1 w, 2 w, 4 w, 10 w and half year after X-irradiation five animals per one group were sacrificed randomly, at each time point. Their middle nasal turbinate mucosa was observed under optical microscope and electron microscope, and were analysed by image analysis for histopathological transformation. Results: In the irradiation group, the early histopathological transformation was acute inflammatory reaction, at the fourth week the mucosa began to repair, which ended at the sixth month. But after repaired, some parts of the repaired mucosa were lined with squamous epithelium instead of the normal nasal mucosa. The rate of the cilia-covered area was only 52.9% at the sixth month. Conclusion: The nasal mucosa injury and the squamous metaplasia could form a pathological basis of dysfunction after irradiation

  15. Comparison of Abbott RealTime High-Risk HPV and Hybrid Capture 2 Assays for Detection of HPV Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Kiwoong; Yu, Shinae; Lee, Eun Hee; Park, Hyosoon; Woo, Hee-Yeon; Kwon, Min-Jung

    2016-09-01

    Various assays for detecting high-risk human papillomavirus (HR HPV) have been introduced recently, including the Abbott RealTime High-Risk HPV assay. We sought to compare the performance of Abbott PCR to Hybrid Capture 2 for the detection of HR HPV. A total of 941 cervical swab specimens were obtained. We submitted all specimens for HR HPV detection with HC2 and Abbott PCR, and then additionally analyzed discordant and concordant positive results using restriction fragment mass polymorphism (RFMP) genotyping analysis. HC2 detected one of 13 HR HPV types in 12.3% (116/941) of cases, while Abbott PCR detected one of 14 detectable HR HPV types in 12.9% (121/941) of cases. The overall agreement rate was 97.3% with a kappa coefficient of 0.879. Discordant results between these two assays were observed in 25 cases. HC2 showed a sensitivity of 90.0% and specificity of 95.9%, while Abbott PCR showed a sensitivity of 98.0% and specificity of 96.8% when using RFMP results as the gold standard. For HPV 16/18 detection, Abbott PCR showed 95.8%/88.9% sensitivity and 99.2%/99.8% specificity, respectively. The overall coinfection rate between HPV 16, 18 and non-16/18 was 9.9% (12/121) in Abbott PCR analysis. Considering its high agreement rate with HC2, higher sensitivity/specificity compared to HC2, and ability to differentiate HPV 16/18 from other HPV types, Abbott PCR could be a reliable laboratory testing method for the screening of HPV infections. © 2016 by the Association of Clinical Scientists, Inc.

  16. HPV Vaccination of College Males: Strategizing against HPV Infection in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham-Erves, Jennifer; Talbott, Laura L.

    2015-01-01

    The disease burden of the Human Papillomavirus (HPV) among females and its associated sequelae have been widely studied by social and behavioral science researchers and medical professionals. Approved for administration to males as young as nine years old, the vaccination of males continues to spark much debate when older age groups are brought…

  17. HPV Vaccine: Access and Use in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 25 Adolescent girls whose families live below the poverty line and girls living in urban areas were more likely to be HPV UTD compared to adolescent girls whose families live above the poverty line or live in rural areas. HPV vaccination ...

  18. Perceptions of HPV Vaccine amongst UK University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Ellen; Senior, Naomi; Abdullah, Ammar; Brown, Janine; Collings, Suzanne; Racktoo, Sophie; Walpole, Sarah; Zeiton, Moez; Heffernan, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this small-scale focus group study is to explore the impact the Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) vaccine has on attitudes towards HPV, cervical cancer and sexual risk taking amongst university students in the UK. Design/methodology/approach: Participants were recruited through advertisements placed on notice boards throughout the…

  19. HPV Prevention (A Minute of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-07-07

    Human papillomavirus, or HPV, is the most common sexually transmitted infection in the U.S. and is associated with almost 39,000 cancers each year. This podcast discusses the importance of getting the HPV vaccine.  Created: 7/7/2016 by MMWR.   Date Released: 7/7/2016.

  20. HPV Prevention (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-07-07

    Human papillomavirus, or HPV, is a virus that can cause certain cancers and is the most commonly sexually transmitted infection in the U.S. In this podcast, Dr. Laura Viens discusses the importance of getting vaccinated against HPV.  Created: 7/7/2016 by MMWR.   Date Released: 7/7/2016.

  1. Men's perspectives on cancer prevention behaviors associated with HPV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    FitzGerald, Serena; Cornally, Nicola; Hegarty, Josephine

    2018-02-01

    The human papillomavirus (HPV) is associated with the diagnosis of anal, penile, and oropharyngeal cancers in men. Evidence indicates that correct condom use in addition to obtaining the HPV vaccine provides the greatest protection from HPV infections. To explore young men's beliefs and behavioral intention in relation to receiving the HPV vaccine and using a condom correctly and consistently for sexual contact. A cross-sectional study underpinned by the theory of planned behavior (TPB) was conducted with male participants (n = 359, 18-28 years) who completed an online survey. Descriptive, correlational, and hierarchical regression analyses were performed on both status variables and variables of the TPB. Subjective norms (β = 0.519, P HPV vaccine, while relationship status (β = -0.215, P HPV vaccine and 44% in intention to use a condom were explained by the TPB model. Results from this study will impact on future sexual health research, education programs, and interventions for both HPV preventative behaviors towards the elimination of HPV-related cancers in men. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Mothers' support for voluntary provision of HPV vaccine in schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadis, Jessica A; McRee, Annie-Laurie; Gottlieb, Sami L; Lee, Morgan R; Reiter, Paul L; Dittus, Patricia J; Brewer, Noel T

    2011-03-21

    HPV vaccination rates among adolescents in the United States lag behind some other developed countries, many of which routinely offer the vaccine in schools. We sought to assess mothers' willingness to have their adolescent daughters receive HPV vaccine at school. A national sample of mothers of adolescent females ages 11-14 completed our internet survey (response rate=66%). The final sample (n=496) excluded mothers who did not intend to have their daughters receive HPV vaccine in the next year. Overall, 67% of mothers who intended to vaccinate their daughters or had vaccinated their daughters reported being willing to have their daughters receive HPV vaccine at school. Mothers were more willing to allow their daughters to receive HPV vaccine in schools if they had not yet initiated the vaccine series for their daughters or resided in the Midwest or West (all pconcerns about voluntary school-based provision of HPV vaccine that mothers most frequently cited were that their daughters' doctors should keep track of her shots (64%) and that they wished to be present when their daughters were vaccinated (40%). Our study suggests that most mothers who support adolescent vaccination for HPV find school-based HPV vaccination an acceptable option. Ensuring communication of immunization records with doctors and allowing parents to be present during immunization may increase parental support. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Knowledge, practice and acceptability of HPV vaccine by mothers of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) is a sexually transmitted cause of carcinoma of the cervix. An important determinant of the success of a primary preventive strategy like HPV vaccination is the knowledge and willingness of parents to vaccinate adolescents before sexual debut. Materials and methods of study: A ...

  4. HPV Vaccine (A Minute of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Since 2006, a vaccine has been available that protects against the most frequent cancer-causing types of HPV. This podcast discusses the importance of parents talking to their children’s health care providers about getting the HPV vaccine.

  5. Analyzing discussions on twitter: Case study on HPV vaccinations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaptein, R.; Boertjes, E.; Langley, D.

    2014-01-01

    In this work we analyze the discussions on Twitter around the Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccinations. We collect a dataset consisting of tweets related to the HPV vaccinations by searching for relevant keywords, by retrieving the conversations on Twitter, and by retrieving tweets from our user

  6. Cervical HPV prevalence and genotype distribution in immunosuppressed Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roensbo, Mette T; Blaakær, Jan; Skov, Karin

    2018-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Women receiving immunosuppressive treatment due to organ transplantation are at increased risk of Human papilloma virus (HPV)-related diseases, including cervical neoplasia. This pilot study aimed to describe the cervical HPV prevalence and genotype distribution in immunosuppressed...... in 2014 had three cervical cytologies performed; one before and two after transplantation. The samples were examined for cytological abnormalities and tested for HPV using Cobas(®) HPV Test and CLART(®) HPV2 Test. RESULTS: Of 94 eligible cases we included 60 RTR and BMTR. The overall prevalence of high......-risk HPV was 15.0 (95% CI; 7.1-26.6) and the prevalence was higher among BMTR (29.4, CI; 10.3-56.0) than in RTR (9.3%, CI; 2.6-22.1) although this was not statistically significant (p=0.10). The distribution of high-risk HPV was broad with HPV 45 as the most common genotype (3.3%). The prevalences of high...

  7. HPV Vaccine (A Minute of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-07-25

    Since 2006, a vaccine has been available that protects against the most frequent cancer-causing types of HPV. This podcast discusses the importance of parents talking to their children’s health care providers about getting the HPV vaccine.  Created: 7/25/2013 by MMWR.   Date Released: 7/25/2013.

  8. HPV-Specific Immunotherapy : Key Role for Immunomodulators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Wall, Stephanie; Nijman, Hans W.; Daemen, Toos

    Cervical cancer is the second most common malignancy among women worldwide. The prime causal factor of the disease is a persistent infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) with individuals failing to mount a sufficient immune response against the virus. Despite the current success of HPV16- and

  9. Tatuagem extensa por amálgama em mucosa gêngivo-alveolar Extensive amalgam tattoo on the alveolar-gingival mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian C Galletta

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Tatuagens por amálgama são lesões pigmentadas, exógenas, de frequente ocorrência na mucosa bucal, que resultam da introdução acidental de partículas de amálgama nos tecidos moles. O diagnóstico da tatuagem por amálgama é simples, geralmente, baseado em achados clínicos, complementado pela história recente ou pregressa de remoção de restauração por amálgama. Radiografias intraorais podem ser úteis na detecção de radiopacidade, associadas à partícula de amálgama. Nos casos em que as tatuagens por amálgama não permitem diferenciação de outras lesões melanocíticas, o exame histopatológico deve ser realizado. Os autores relatam à ocorrência de lesão extensa por tatuagem de amálgama com confirmação histopatológica.Amalgam tattoos are common exogenous pigmented lesions of the oral mucosa occurring mainly by inadvertent placement of amalgam particles into soft tissues. The diagnosis of amalgam tattoo is simple, usually based on clinical findings associated with presence or history of amalgam fillings removal. Intraoral X-rays may be helpful in detecting amalgam-related radiopacity. In cases where amalgam tattoo cannot be differentiated from other causes of oral pigmentation, a biopsy should be performed. This article deals with an extensive amalgam tattoo lesion which required a biopsy for a definitive diagnosis.

  10. Need for expanded HPV genotyping for cervical screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack Cuzick

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The focus for HPV genotyping has largely been on types 16 and 18, based on their high prevalence in cervix cancer. However screening is focussed on the detection of high grade precursor lesions (CIN3 and CIN2, where other types have a greater role. While HPV16 retains its high predictive value in this context, HPV31 and especially HPV33 emerge as important types with higher positive predictive values (PPVs than HPV18. Additionally full typing indicates that types 39, 56, 59 and 68 have much lower PPVs than types 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 45, 51, 52 and 58 and they should be considered as ‘intermediate risk’ types, whereas type 66 should not be treated as having an increased risk. Available data are summarized to support this view.

  11. Formative research to shape HPV vaccine introduction strategies in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolini, Rosario M; Drake, Jennifer Kidwell; Creed-Kanashiro, Hilary M; Díaz-Otoya, Margarita M; Mosqueira-Lovón, Nelly Rocío; Penny, Mary E; Winkler, Jennifer L; LaMontagne, D Scott; Bingham, Allison

    2010-01-01

    To understand the sociocultural environment, health systems' capacities, and policy processes related to cervical cancer and HPV vaccines in order to inform HPV vaccine introduction. Mixed-method formative research using qualitative and quantitative data collection techniques. Participants included girls, parents, community leaders, health and education officials, and policymakers. Respondents, including policymakers, generally supported HPV vaccine introduction, due partly to appreciation for the benefits of vaccination and the desire to prevent cancer. Community-level concerns regarding safety and quality of services will need to be addressed. The immunization system in Peru is strong and has capacity for including the HPV vaccine. Formative research provides key insights to help shape an effective program for HPV vaccine introduction.

  12. Providers' perceptions of parental concerns about HPV vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Rebecca B; Clark, Jack A

    2013-05-01

    Parental resistance is often posited to explain low rates of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine uptake. We sought to describe providers' perceptions of parents' attitudes towards HPV vaccination. Thirty-four providers from four federally qualified community health centers participated in semi-structured interviews related to their experiences discussing HPV vaccination with low-income and minority parents. Providers found that parents were eager to prevent cancer in their daughters. Safety concerns and feeling that vaccination was unnecessary for virgins were reasons for declining vaccination. Providers found that immigrants from low-resource settings were more receptive to HPV vaccination than White middle-class parents due both to personal experience with vaccine-preventable diseases and cervical cancer and more realistic impressions of their children's sexual activity. Immigrants from low-resource settings may be particularly receptive to HPV vaccination, while White middle-class parents may be more likely to defer vaccination due to concerns about safety or sexual issues.

  13. Safety profile of the 9-valent HPV vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moreira, Edson D; Block, Stan L; Ferris, Daron G

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The overall safety profile of the 9-valent human papillomavirus (9vHPV) vaccine was evaluated across 7 Phase III studies, conducted in males and females (nonpregnant at entry), 9 to 26 years of age. METHODS: Vaccination was administered as a 3-dose regimen at day 1, and months 2 and 6....... More than 15 000 subjects received ≥1 dose of 9vHPV vaccine. In 2 of the studies, >7000 control subjects received ≥1 dose of quadrivalent HPV (qHPV) vaccine. Serious and nonserious adverse events (AEs) and new medical conditions were recorded throughout the study. Subjects testing positive...... for pregnancy at day 1 were not vaccinated; those who became pregnant after day 1 were discontinued from further vaccination until resolution of the pregnancy. Pregnancies detected after study start (n = 2950) were followed to outcome. RESULTS: The most common AEs (≥5%) experienced by 9vHPV vaccine recipients...

  14. Human papillomavirus (HPV types 16, 18, 31, 45 DNA loads and HPV-16 integration in persistent and transient infections in young women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferenczy Alex

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HPV burden is a predictor for high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cancer. The natural history of HPV load in young women being recently exposed to HPV is described in this paper. Methods A total of 636 female university students were followed for 2 years. Cervical specimens with HPV-16, -18, -31, or -45 DNA by consensus PCR were further evaluated with type-specific and β-globin real-time PCR assays. Proportional hazards regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HR of infection clearance. Generalized estimating equations assessed whether HPV loads was predictive of HPV infection at the subsequent visit. Results HPV loads were consistently higher among women Conclusions The association between HPV load and persistence is not uniform across high-risk genital genotypes. HPV-16 integration was only rarely demonstrated in young women.

  15. Parental decision making about the HPV vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Jennifer D; Othus, Megan K D; Shelton, Rachel C; Li, Yi; Norman, Nancy; Tom, Laura; del Carmen, Marcela G

    2010-09-01

    Prophylactic human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines are available, but uptake is suboptimal. Information on factors influencing parental decisions regarding vaccination will facilitate the development of successful interventions. Parents of girls ages 9 to 17 years (n = 476; cooperation rate = 67%) from a panel of U.S. households completed online surveys between September 2007 and January 2008, documenting vaccine knowledge, attitudes, and intentions. Among those aware of the vaccine, 19% had already vaccinated their daughter(s), 34% intended to, 24% were undecided, and 24% had decided against vaccination. Awareness of HPV was high but knowledge levels were suboptimal (mean 72%, SEM 0.8%). Black and Hispanic parents were significantly less likely to be aware of the vaccine compared with White parents. In multivariate analyses, compared with parents who opposed vaccination, those who had already vaccinated their daughter(s) or who intended to do so had more positive attitudes, reported fewer barriers, and were more likely to perceive that family and friends would endorse vaccination. They also reported higher levels of trust in pharmaceutical companies that produce the vaccine. Despite limited knowledge, most parents had decided to vaccinate their daughter(s). Given evidence of diminished access to information among Black and Hispanic parents, programs should focus on reaching these groups. Interventions should address parental concerns about behavioral consequences, reduce structural barriers, and promote the perception that vaccination is endorsed by significant others. Moreover, interventions may need to address mistrust of pharmaceutical companies. IMPACT STATEMENT: This study documents factors associated with parental decisions about HPV vaccination for their daughter(s) and provides direction for intervention development. (c)2010 AACR.

  16. Oropharynx HPV status and its relation to HIV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonora Maciel de Souza Vianna

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background The number of oropharyngeal lesions caused by HPV (Human papillomavirus has been increasing worldwide in the past years. In spite of the clinical relevance of HPV infection in the anogenital tract of HIV-positive patients, the relevance of oropharynx HPV infection in these patients is not clear. The aim of the present study was to detect HPV infection, and clinical and cytological changes in the oropharynx of HIV-positive patients. Methods Samples collected from the oropharynx of 100 HIV-positive patients were subjected to hybrid capture (HC, conventional and liquid-based cytology. Clinical data were also collected to investigate the relation with HPV status. Results High and low-risk types of HPV were present in 8% and 16.7% of the total sample. The mean ± sd (maximum-minimum of the relative ratio light unit (RLU/cutoff (CO was 2.94 ± 2.58 (1.09–7.87 and 1.61 ± 0.65 (1.07–2.8 for high- and low-risk-HPV, respectively. By cytology, dysplasia was not detected, but atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US were diagnosed in two samples. No clinical change, suggestive of dysplasia/cancer, was detected. Conclusion Our study was able to detect and characterize HPV infection by hybrid capture, which may represent a good tool for screening and follow-up of HPV in the studied population. The frequency and viral load of HPV were low. Neither clinical nor cytological changes suggestive of dysplasia/neoplasia were observed in oropharynx of HIV-positive patients.

  17. HPV Vaccination: Attitude and Knowledge among German Gynecologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolben, T M; Dannecker, C; Baltateanu, K; Goess, C; Starrach, T; Semmlinger, A; Ditsch, N; Gallwas, J; Mahner, S; Friese, K; Kolben, T

    2016-10-01

    Purpose: In order to achieve a higher vaccination rate, education on HPV as well as options for prophylaxis performed by doctors is of great importance. One opportunity to increase the protection against HPV would be vaccinating boys. This study evaluated attitude and knowledge among German gynecologists regarding HPV vaccination, especially in boys. Material and Methods: A questionnaire with 42 questions about demographics, attitude and knowledge about HPV and HPV vaccination was sent to members of the German Society for Gynecology and Obstetrics (DGGG). Results: 998 out of 6567 addressed gynecologists participated. Knowledge about HPV, associated diseases and possible HPV vaccines was high among participants. The attitude towards vaccination in boys as well as girls was positive. Only 8.2 % refused to vaccinate their sons whereas 2.2 % refused to do this for their daughters. However, only few gynecologists vaccinated their daughters and sons against HPV. Main reason for girls was an age outside of vaccination guidelines; for boys it was the lack of cost coverage. Conclusion: The willingness of gynecologists to perform HPV vaccination in boys is as high as for girls. However, sons of gynecologists are only rarely vaccinated against HPV. Main reason is the lack of cost coverage. Vaccinating boys could decrease the disease burden in males, as well as protect women by interrupting ways of transmission. Since the main argument against vaccination of boys is only of financial nature, the necessity of a vaccination recommendation for boys needs to be re-evaluated taking into account the cost-reduced 2-dose vaccination scheme.

  18. Parents Who Decline HPV Vaccination: Who Later Accepts and Why?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornides, Melanie L; McRee, Annie-Laurie; Gilkey, Melissa B

    2018-03-01

    Parental declination contributes to low human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination coverage among US adolescents, resulting in missed opportunities for cancer prevention. We sought to characterize parents' acceptance of HPV vaccination after declination ("secondary acceptance"). In September 2016, we conducted an online survey with a national sample of parents of children ages 11 to 17 years. For those who reported having ever declined HPV vaccination for their children (n = 494), our survey assessed whether they accepted the vaccine at a subsequent visit. We used multivariable logistic regression to assess correlates of secondary acceptance. Overall, 45% of parents reported secondary acceptance of HPV vaccination, and an additional 24% intended to vaccinate in the next 12 months. In multivariable analyses, secondary acceptance was associated with receiving follow-up counseling about HPV vaccination from a health care provider (odds ratio, 2.16; 95% confidence interval, 1.42-3.28). However, only 53% of parents overall reported receiving such counseling. Secondary acceptance was also associated with receiving a higher quality HPV vaccine recommendation from a provider during the initial discussion and greater satisfaction with provider communication, as well as higher vaccination confidence. Among the reasons for secondary acceptance, parents most commonly reported the child getting older (45%), learning more about HPV vaccine (34%), and receiving a provider recommendation (33%). Our findings suggest secondary acceptance of HPV vaccination is common, with more than two-thirds of parents in this national sample accepting or intending to accept HPV vaccination after declination. Providers should seek to motivate secondary acceptance by delivering repeated, high-quality recommendations for HPV vaccination. Copyright © 2017 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Frequency of HPV in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Abreu, Priscila Marinho; Có, Anna Clara Gregório; Azevedo, Pedro Leite; do Valle, Isabella Bittencourt; de Oliveira, Karine Gadioli; Gouvea, Sônia Alves; Cordeiro-Silva, Melissa Freitas; Louro, Iúri Drummond; de Podestá, José Roberto Vasconcelos; Lenzi, Jeferson; Sena, Agenor; Mendonça, Elismauro Francisco; von Zeidler, Sandra Lúcia Ventorin

    2018-03-27

    The prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA in cases of oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) varies widely. The aim of this study is to investigate the frequency of high-risk HPV DNA in a large Brazilian cohort of patients with oral cavity SCC. Biopsy and resected frozen and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded specimens of oral cavity SCC were available from 101 patients who were recruited at two Brazilian centres. Stringent measures with respect to case selection and prevention of sample contamination were adopted to ensure reliability of the data. Nested PCR using MY09/MY11 and GP5 + /GP6 + as well as PGMY09/11 L1 consensus primers were performed to investigate the presence of HPV DNA in the tumours. HPV-positive cases were subjected to direct sequencing. Shapiro-Wilk and Student t test were used to evaluate data normality and to compare the means, respectively. Qualitative variables were analysed by logistic regression. Our results demonstrate that the frequency of high-risk HPV types in oral cavity SCC is very low and is less than 4%. All HPV-positive cases were HPV16. In addition, our results do not show a significant association between the tumour clinical features and the risk factors (tobacco, alcohol and HPV) for oral cavity SCC. In the current study, we observed an overlapping pattern of risk factors that are related to tumour development. This, along with a low frequency of high-risk HPV DNA, supports the findings that HPV is not involved in the genesis of oral cavity SCC in Brazilian population.

  20. HPV seroconversion following anal and penile HPV infection in HIV-negative and HIV-infected MSM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, Sofie H.; Landén, Olivia; van der Klis, Fiona R. M.; van der Sande, Marianne A. B.; de Melker, Hester E.; Xiridou, Maria; van Eeden, Arne; Heijman, Titia; Speksnijder, Arjen G. C. L.; Snijders, Peter J. F.; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F.

    2014-01-01

    We assessed human papillomavirus (HPV) seroconversion following anal and penile HPV infection in HIV-negative and HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM). MSM aged ≥18 years were recruited in Amsterdam, the Netherlands (2010-2011), and followed up semiannually. Antibodies against 7 high-risk

  1. High prevalence and incidence of HPV-related anal cancer precursor lesions in HIV-positive women in the late HAART era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo-Tenorio, Carmen; de Jesus, Samantha E; Esquivias, Javier; Pasquau, Juan

    2017-12-02

    Anal cancer is one of the most common non-AIDS defining malignancies, especially in men who have sex with men and women living with HIV (WLHIV). To evaluate the prevalence and incidence of precursor lesions (high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions [HSIL]) and anal cancer in our cohort of women and to compare them to cervical lesions; to calculate the percentage of patients that acquire and clear oncogenic genotypes (HR-HPV) in the anal canal; and to determine predictive factors for anal HPV infection. Prospective-longitudinal study (May 2012-December 2016). At baseline (V1) and follow up visits, anal mucosa samples were taken in liquid medium for cytology and HPV PCR. In cases of abnormal anal cytology and/or positive HR-HPV PCR results, a high resolution anoscopy was performed. Patients were also referred to the gynaecologist. Ninety five women with an average age of 43.7years were included. At baseline, 11.6% had cervical abnormalities (4.1% CIN1, 2.2% CIN2/3, 1.1% cervical cancer), 64.3% anal abnormalities (50% LSIL/AIN1, 9.5% HSIL/AIN2/3 and 2.4% anal cancer) and 49.4% had HR-HPV genotypes. During 36months of follow up, the incidence of anal HSIL was 16×1,000 person-years; 14.8% acquired HR-HPV genotypes and 51.2% cleared them, P=.007. No patients presented CIN1/2/3/ or cervical cancer. In the multivariate analysis we found the following predictive factors for HR-HPV infection: smoking (RR: 1.55, 95%CI: 0.99-2.42), number of sexual partners >3 (RR: 1.69; 95%CI: 1.09-2.62), cervical and anal dysplasia (RR: 1.83; 95%CI: 1.26-2.67) and (RR: 1.55; 95%CI: 1.021-2.35), respectively. Despite clearance rates of anal oncogenic genotypes being higher than acquisition rates, prevalence and incidence of HSIL were still high and greater than cervical HSIL. Therefore, screening for these lesions should perhaps be offered to all WLHIV. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights

  2. HPV-related Multiphenotypic Sinonasal Carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bishop, Justin A; Andreasen, Simon; Hang, Jen-Fan

    2017-01-01

    . Immunohistochemistry for p16, c-kit, and myoepithelial cell markers (S100, actin, calponin, p63, and/or p40) was performed along with RNA in situ hybridization for HPV (type 33-specific as well as a high-risk cocktail). Fluorescence in situ hybridization studies for fusions of MYB, NFIB, and MYBL1 was performed...... gene fusions were positive. In the 38 cases with follow-up data, (mean follow-up, 42 mo) 14 recurred locally and 2 metastasized (lung, finger). There were no regional lymph node metastases, and no tumor-related deaths. HMSC is a distinct sinonasal neoplasm characterized by myoepithelial differentiation...

  3. HPV Vaccine Safety PSA (:30) (No Tag)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-01-15

    In this 30 second public service announcement, a mother talks about the importance of protecting 11-12 year-old boys and girls with HPV vaccination. No CDC tag at the end. (Una madre habla sobre la importancia de proteger a los niños y las niñas de 11 a 12 años con la vacuna contra el VPH.).  Created: 1/15/2014 by National Center for Immunizations and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 1/15/2014.

  4. Cancers Caused by HPV PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-01-15

    In this 30 second public service announcement, a mother talks about the importance of protecting 11-12 year-old boys and girls with HPV vaccination. (Una madre habla sobre la importancia de proteger a los niños y las niñas de 11 a 12 años con la vacuna contra el VPH.).  Created: 1/15/2014 by National Center for Immunizations and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 1/15/2014.

  5. Evaluation of HPV-16 and HPV-18 specific antibody measurements in saliva collected in oral rinses and merocel® sponges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Katherine H; Kemp, Troy J; Pan, Yuanji; Yang, Zhen; Giuliano, Anna R; Pinto, Ligia A

    2018-05-03

    Current Human papillomavirus (HPV) L1 VLP vaccines protect against HPV-16 and HPV-18-associated cancers, in females and males. Although correlates of protection have not been identified, HPV-specific antibodies at sites of infection are thought to be the main mechanism of protection afforded by vaccination. Oral sampling has gained increased attention as a potential alternative to serum in monitoring immunity to vaccination and understanding local immunity in oral cancers. Serum was collected via venipuncture, and saliva was collected via oral rinses and Merocel® sponges from healthy volunteers: 16 unvaccinated females, 6 females (ages 24-41) and 6 mid-adult aged males (ages 27-45) recipients of three doses of the HPV-16/18/6/11 vaccine (Gardasil®). Mid-adult male vaccine trial participants were compared to female participants. Samples were tested for anti-HPV-16 and anti-HPV-18 immunoglobulin G levels by an L1 virus-like particle-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). All vaccinated participants had detectable serum anti-HPV-16 and anti-HPV-18 antibodies. Optimal standard concentration range and sample serial dilutions for oral rinses were determined. The standard curve was not affected by the type of solution examined. Reproducibility of HPV-16 and HPV-18 antibody titers in mouthwash (overall CV  0.9) was observed for sera spiked controls in both solutions. HPV-16 and HPV-18 specific antibodies were detectable in saliva from vaccine recipients, both in mouthwash and in Merocel® sponges but levels were several logs lower than those in serum. This study confirms the application of HPV-16 and HPV-18 ELISAs currently used in sero-epidemiological studies of immunogenicity of HPV vaccines for use with oral samples. Oral samples may be a useful resource for the detection of HPV-16 and HPV-18-specific antibodies in saliva following vaccination. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Factors that Predict Parental Willingness to Have Their Children Vaccinated against HPV in a Country with Low HPV Vaccination Coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ganczak

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adolescent HPV (Human Papilloma Virus vaccination is yet to be introduced as a mandatory program in Poland. Polish literature on factors associated with adolescent HPV vaccination is scant, despite the fact that uptake is one of the poorest in the European Union. Objectives: To assess HPV awareness and identify independent predictors for parental willingness to have their children vaccinated against HPV. Methods: All parents of first grade students from three selected high schools in Zgorzelec, Poland, who participated in parent–teacher meetings at the time the study was conducted, had their children unvaccinated regarding HPV, and who gave informed consent to participate were included. There were 600 first grade students; 9 were vaccinated against HPV. This left 591 parents who met the eligibility criteria; the response rate was 76.1%. Results: Awareness of HPV was reported by 55.3% of 450 parents (mean age 42 years, 70.9% females; 85.1% expressed their willingness to vaccinate their children against HPV; 31.3% identified HPV as a sexually transmitted pathogen, and 36.2% identified it as a risk factor of cervical cancer. Multivariable logistic regression analyses indicated that being employed (OR 2.09; 95% CI: 1.10–3.86, having positive attitudes toward vaccines (OR 3.02; 95% CI: 1.34–6.49, previous information about HPV (OR 2.02; 95% CI: 1.17–3.51, and concerns about the side effects of the HPV vaccine (OR 0.60; 95% CI: 0.35–0.99 were independent predictors of parents’ willingness to vaccinate. Conclusions: Attitudes regarding their child being vaccinated against HPV were positive among Polish parents, even though awareness and knowledge of HPV in this group were low. Most of the significant factors that influenced their willingness were modifiable, such as being informed about HPV and having positive attitudes toward vaccines. Future interventions should focus specifically on vulnerable subgroups, such as unemployed

  7. Early direct and indirect impact of quadrivalent HPV (4HPV) vaccine on genital warts: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, Luciano; Vici, Patrizia; Suligoi, Barbara; Checcucci-Lisi, Giovanni; Drury, Rosybel

    2015-01-01

    Since 2007, many countries have implemented national human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination programs with the quadrivalent HPV (4HPV) vaccine that has been shown to be efficacious in clinical trials involving 25,000 subjects. Two vaccine serotypes, HPV16 and 18, are responsible for cervical cancer and other HPV-related cancers, but the impact of the 4HPV vaccine on these cancers cannot be seen immediately as there is a considerable lag between infection with HPV and cancer development. The other two serotypes, HPV6 and 11, are responsible for genital warts (GWs), which develop within a few months after infection, making GWs an early clinical endpoint for the assessment of the impact of 4HPV vaccination. We performed a systematic literature search in PubMed to identify all published studies on 4HPV vaccination, including those that assessed the impact of 4HPV vaccination programs on the incidence of GWs at a population level around the world. A total of 354 records were identified in the PubMed search. After screening and obtaining full papers for 56 publications, 16 publications presenting data on the impact or effectiveness of 4HPV vaccination on GWs were identified. These reported data on the impact or effectiveness of 4HPV in six countries [Australia (n = 6), New Zealand (n = 2), United States (n = 3), Denmark (n = 2), Germany (n = 1), and Sweden (n = 2)]. In Australia, no GWs were diagnosed in women aged <21 years who reported being vaccinated. A 92.6% reduction in GWs incidence was reported for all women in this age group, where the vaccine uptake rate (VUR) was 70% for 3 doses. The highest reductions were reported in countries with high VURs, mostly through school-based vaccination programs, although high VURs were obtained with some non-school-based programs. The results are coherent with the GWs incidence reduction reported in clinical trials and are an early indicator of what can be expected for the long-term clinical impact on vaccine-type HPV

  8. Estimating effectiveness of HPV vaccination against HPV infection from post-vaccination data in the absence of baseline data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vänskä, Simopekka; Söderlund-Strand, Anna; Uhnoo, Ingrid; Lehtinen, Matti; Dillner, Joakim

    2018-04-28

    HPV vaccination programs have been introduced in large parts of the world, but monitoring of effectiveness is not routinely performed. Many countries introduced vaccination programs without establishing the baseline of HPV prevalences. We developed and validated methods to estimate protective effectiveness (PE) of vaccination from the post-vaccination data alone using references, which are invariant under HPV vaccination. Type-specific HPV prevalence data for 15-39 year-old women were collected from the pre- and post-vaccination era in a region in southern Sweden. In a region in middle Sweden, where no baseline data had been collected, only post-vaccination data was collected. The age-specific baseline prevalence of vaccine HPV types (vtHPV, HPV 6, 11, 16, 18) were reconstructed as Beta distributions from post-vaccination data by applying the reference odds ratios between the target HPV type and non-vaccine-type HPV (nvtHPV) prevalences. Older non-vaccinated age cohorts and the southern Sweden region were used as the references. The methods for baseline reconstructions were validated by computing the Bhattacharyya coefficient (BC), a measure for divergence, between reconstructed and actual observed prevalences for vaccine HPV types in Southern Sweden, and in addition, for non-vaccine types in both regions. The PE estimates among 18-21 year-old women were validated by comparing the PE estimates that were based on the reconstructed baseline prevalences against the PE estimates based on the actual baseline prevalences. In Southern Sweden the PEs against vtHPV were 52.2% (95% CI: 44.9-58.5) using the reconstructed baseline and 49.6% (43.2-55.5) using the actual baseline, with high BC 82.7% between the reconstructed and actual baseline. In the middle Sweden region where baseline data was missing, the PE was estimated at 40.5% (31.6-48.5). Protective effectiveness of HPV vaccination can be estimated from post-vaccination data alone via reconstructing the baseline

  9. HPV and anal cancer in HIV-infected individuals: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F.; Mooij, Sofie H.; Richel, Oliver; de Vries, Henry J. C.; Prins, Jan M.

    2014-01-01

    HIV infection is one of the strongest risk factors for anal squamous cell cancer (ASCC). Most ASCC are caused by HPV, and most HPV-associated ASCC are caused by HPV-16. Anal HPV infections are very common in men who have sex with men (MSM), and nearly universal among HIV-infected MSM. High-grade

  10. HPV vaccine awareness and the association of trust in cancer information from physicians among males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Dexter L; Hernandez, Natalie D; Rollins, Latrice; Akintobi, Tabia Henry; McAllister, Calvin

    2017-05-09

    Black and Hispanic men are diagnosed with more HPV-related cancers and at later stages compared to other racial/ethnic groups. Physician communication with men about HPV vaccination may be beneficial to increasing HPV vaccinations and decreasing HPV transmission. The purpose of this study was to examine HPV and HPV vaccine awareness among men by race, and the association between trust in cancer information from physicians and ever hearing about HPV and the HPV vaccine. U.S. adult males (age 18+) were identified from the 2014 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) (n=1203). Binomial logistic regression models assessed the influences of race/ethnicity and trust of cancer information from physicians on men having heard of HPV and the HPV vaccination. Approximately 50% of the sample had never heard of HPV and 53% had never heard of the vaccine. Black men were less likely to know that HPV is sexually transmitted compared to White and Hispanic men (pcancer information compared to White and Black men (pawareness about HPV among men. Furthermore, statistically significant racial/ethnic differences were found in HPV vaccine knowledge and trust in receiving cancer information from physicians. Future interventions should include community-based approaches and improved physicians' HPV-related communication to increase knowledge and uptake of the HPV vaccine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Possible Synergistic Interactions Among Multiple HPV Genotypes in Women Suffering from Genital Neoplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajia, Massoud; Sohrabi, Amir

    2018-03-27

    Objective: Persistence of HPV infection is the true cause of cervical disorders. It is reported that competition may exist among HPV genotypes for colonization. This survey was designed to establish the multiple HPV genotype status in our community and the probability of multiple HPV infections involvement. Methods: All multiple HPV infections were selected for investigation in women suffering from genital infections referred to private laboratories in Tehran, Iran. A total of 160 multi HPV positive specimens from cervical scraping were identified by the HPV genotyping methods, "INNO-LiPA and Geno Array". Result: In present study, HPV 6 (LR), 16 (HR), 53 (pHR), 31 (HR) and 11 (LR) were included in 48.8% of detected infections as the most five dominant genotypes. HPV 16 was detected at the highest rate with genotypes 53, 31 and 52, while HPV 53 appeared linked with HPV 16, 51 and 56 in concurrent infections. It appears that HPV 16 and 53 may have significant tendencies to associate with each other rather than with other genotypes. Analysis of the data revealed there may be some synergistic interactions with a few particular genotypes such as "HPV 53". Conclusion: Multiple HPV genotypes appear more likely to be linked with development of cervical abnormalities especially in patients with genital infections. Since, there are various patterns of dominant HPV genotypes in different regions of world, more investigations of this type should be performed for careHPV programs in individual countries. Creative Commons Attribution License

  12. The impact and cost-effectiveness of nonavalent HPV vaccination in the United States: Estimates from a simplified transmission model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesson, Harrell W; Markowitz, Lauri E; Hariri, Susan; Ekwueme, Donatus U; Saraiya, Mona

    2016-06-02

    The objective of this study was to assess the incremental costs and benefits of the 9-valent HPV vaccine (9vHPV) compared with the quadrivalent HPV vaccine (4vHPV). Like 4vHPV, 9vHPV protects against HPV types 6, 11, 16, and 18. 9vHPV also protects against 5 additional HPV types 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58. We adapted a previously published model of the impact and cost-effectiveness of 4vHPV to include the 5 additional HPV types in 9vHPV. The vaccine strategies we examined were (1) 4vHPV for males and females; (2) 9vHPV for females and 4vHPV for males; and (3) 9vHPV for males and females. In the base case, 9vHPV cost $13 more per dose than 4vHPV, based on available vaccine price information. Providing 9vHPV to females compared with 4vHPV for females (assuming 4vHPV for males in both scenarios) was cost-saving regardless of whether or not cross-protection for 4vHPV was assumed. The cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained by 9vHPV for both sexes (compared with 4vHPV for both sexes) was < $0 (cost-saving) when assuming no cross-protection for 4vHPV and $8,600 when assuming cross-protection for 4vHPV. Compared with a vaccination program of 4vHPV for both sexes, a vaccination program of 9vHPV for both sexes can improve health outcomes and can be cost-saving.

  13. Leptin promotes wound healing in the oral mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeki, Hirochika; Tokuyama, Reiko; Ide, Shinji; Okubo, Mitsuru; Tadokoro, Susumu; Tezuka, Mitsuki; Tatehara, Seiko; Satomura, Kazuhito

    2014-01-01

    Leptin, a 16 kDa circulating anti-obesity hormone, exhibits many physiological properties. Recently, leptin was isolated from saliva; however, its function in the oral cavity is still unclear. In this study, we investigated the physiological role of leptin in the oral cavity by focusing on its effect on wound healing in the oral mucosa. Immunohistochemical analysis was used to examine the expression of the leptin receptor (Ob-R) in human/rabbit oral mucosa. To investigate the effect of leptin on wound healing in the oral mucosa, chemical wounds were created in rabbit oral mucosa, and leptin was topically administered to the wound. The process of wound repair was histologically observed and quantitatively analyzed by measuring the area of ulceration and the duration required for complete healing. The effect of leptin on the proliferation, differentiation and migration of human oral mucosal epithelial cells (RT7 cells) was investigated using crystal violet staining, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and a wound healing assay, respectively. Ob-R was expressed in spinous/granular cells in the epithelial tissue and vascular endothelial cells in the subepithelial connective tissue of the oral mucosa. Topical administration of leptin significantly promoted wound healing and shortened the duration required for complete healing. Histological analysis of gingival tissue beneath the ulceration showed a denser distribution of blood vessels in the leptin-treated group. Although the proliferation and differentiation of RT7 cells were not affected by leptin, the migration of these cells was accelerated in the presence of leptin. Topically administered leptin was shown to promote wound healing in the oral mucosa by accelerating epithelial cell migration and enhancing angiogenesis around the wounded area. These results strongly suggest that topical administration of leptin may be useful as a treatment to promote wound healing in the oral mucosa.

  14. A study of complexity of oral mucosa using fractal geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S R Shenoi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The oral mucosa lining the oral cavity is composed of epithelium supported by connective tissue. The shape of the epithelial-connective tissue interface has traditionally been used to describe physiological and pathological changes in the oral mucosa. Aim: The aim is to evaluate the morphometric complexity in normal, dysplastic, well-differentiated, and moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma (SCC of the oral mucosa using fractal geometry. Materials and Methods: A total of 80 periodic acid–Schiff stained histological images of four groups: normal mucosa, dysplasia, well-differentiated SCC, and moderately differentiated SCC were verified by the gold standard. These images were then subjected to fractal analysis. Statistical Analysis: ANOVA and post hoc test: Bonferroni was applied. Results: Fractal dimension (FD increases as the complexity increases from normal to dysplasia and then to SCC. Normal buccal mucosa was found to be significantly different from dysplasia and the two grades of SCC (P < 0.05. ANOVA of fractal scores of four morphometrically different groups of buccal mucosa was significantly different with F (3,76 = 23.720 and P< 0.01. However, FD of dysplasia was not significantly different from well-differentiated and moderately differentiated SCC (P = 1.000 and P = 0.382, respectively. Conclusion: This study establishes FD as a newer tool in differentiating normal tissue from dysplastic and neoplastic tissue. Fractal geometry is useful in the study of both physiological and pathological changes in the oral mucosa. A new grading system based on FD may emerge as an adjuvant aid in cancer diagnosis.

  15. La política focalizada en el programa de vacunación contra el Virus del Papiloma Humano en México: aspectos éticos Na política centrada no programa de vacinação contra o HPV no México: Suas dilema ético The policy focused on the HPV vaccination program against Human Papilloma Virus in Mexico: ethics aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirvis Janneth Torres-Poveda

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Se plantea un análisis ético de aspectos relacionados con la introducción de nuevas vacunas contra el Virus del Papiloma Humano en México, cuya política de distribución atiende a la equidad más que a la igualdad y tiene como ejes fundamentales abarcar a las personas más vulnerables y al costo más bajo posible, es decir, atiende a los principios de justicia distributiva. El esquema inicial de vacunación contra este virus en México se ha focalizado a la población femenina más marginada, la cual se concentra en las mujeres indígenas. Las estrategias de distribución de nuevas vacunas deberán tomar en consideración las características específicas en que se desenvuelven estos grupos y analizar las implicaciones éticas que tales medidas conllevan. Sin ello, una política de salud pública podría aumentar las desigualdades en materia de salud.O propósito foi fazer uma análise ética das questões relacionadas com a introdução de novas vacinas contra o Papilomavírus Humano, no México, cuja política de distribuição serve apenas para a equidade mais do que para a igualdade e tem como eixos fundamentais abrangir os mais vulneráveis e os menores custos possíveis, isto é, servindo aos princípios de justiça distributiva. O regime inicial da vacinação contra esse vírus no México tem sido focado na população feminina mais marginalizada, que incide sobre as mulheres indígenas. As estratégias de distribuição de novas vacinas devem tomar em consideração as características específicas que desses grupos e analisar as implicações éticas que tais medidas implicam, sem isso a política de saúde pública poderia aumentar as desigualdades na saúde.This article raises an ethical analysis of issues related to the introduction of new vaccines against Human Papillomavirus in Mexico, whose distribution policy attend to equity more than equality, and has as fundamental axes to cover the most vulnerable people and the lowest

  16. Impact of a quadrivalent HPV6/11/16/18 vaccine in Mexican women: public health implications for the region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Pérez, Gonzalo; Cruz-Valdez, Aurelio; Zamilpa, Laura; Aranda-Flores, Carlos; Hernández-Nevarez, Pilar; Viramontes, Jose Luis; Salgado-Hernández, Joaquín; James, Margaret; Lu, Shuang; Sattler, Carlos; Haupt, Richard M; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio

    2009-08-01

    Recognition of human papillomavirus (HPV) as a necessary cause of cervical cancer (CC) led to new perspectives for its control and the demonstration of an effective primary prevention strategy through vaccination. We undertook this study to evaluate the safety, efficacy and immunogenicity of a quadrivalent HPV6/11/16/18 vaccine in Mexican women. A total of 679 Mexican women between 18 and 23 years old participated in two Phase III double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials of a quadrivalent HPV 6/11/16/18 vaccine. Women were enrolled who tested negative for pregnancy and reported having four or less sexual partners during their lifetime. Vaccine or placebo was administered at day 1, month 2 and month 6. Among Mexican women who were naïve to the respective vaccine type at enrollment, the quadrivalent vaccine was highly efficacious, preventing 100% of HPV6/11/16/18-related cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2/3, adenocarcinoma in situ, condyloma and vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia. Statistical significance was not reached for every endpoint due to the limited sample size. Vaccination was generally well tolerated and immunogenic. To widely administer the vaccine, collaborative efforts should be coordinated among public, private and local community sectors. In light of the scarce knowledge of many health professionals with respect to the primary prevention of CC, it will be necessary to educate health providers on the advantages and specific recommendations of HPV vaccines and secondary prevention. Decision making should be based on scientific evidence, allowing health professionals to provide an organized social response that supports the universal right to health.

  17. Úlcera eosinófila de la mucosa oral Eosinophilic ulcer of oral mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C. Bencini

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available La Úlcera Eosinófila de la Mucosa Oral, es una entidad poco frecuente, pobremente descrita en la literatura mundial. Se define como una lesión benigna autolimitada que si bien puede presentarse en distintas áreas de la cavidad bucal, presenta una marcada predilección por la mucosa ventral de la lengua. Clínicamente, se presenta como una lesión ulcerada de bordes indurados y sobreelevados. Los hallazgos histopatológicos son característicos y consisten en un infiltrado mixto rico en eosinófilos, acompañado de una población de grandes células mononucleadas. Recientes artículos basados en estudios inmunohistoquimicos, permiten afirmar la presencia de grandes linfocitos atípicos CD30+ y por lo tanto, incluir esta lesión en el espectro de las entidades simuladoras de desordenes linfoproliferativos. A pesar de esto, el mecanismo etiopatogenico permanece oscuro y el trauma local juega un rol todavía no dilucidado; aunque se halla presente en la mayoría de las publicaciones, explicando el fenómeno como un mecanismo reactivo. La importancia de esta lesión, radica en su diagnostico diferencial por su semejanza clínica al carcinoma espinocelular, histoplasmosis, chancro sifilítico, Úlcera tuberculosa, carcinoma epidermoide y otras. En nuestro trabajo se revisa la literatura y se discuten la características clínicas, histopatológicas y alternativas terapéuticas, a partir del artículo de un caso clínico en una paciente joven, que luego de la biopsia escisión como método para el diagnostico de certeza, se produce una recidiva de la lesión; lo que orientó el tratamiento hacia la cirugía combinada con corticoterapia local intralesional, logrando su remisión.Eosinophilic Ulcer of the Oral Mucosa, an entity, poorly deciphers in world-wide literature. It is defined as a self-limited, benign injury that although it can appear in different areas of the buccal cavity it presents a noticeable predilection via the ventral mucosa of the

  18. Identification of multiple HPV types on spermatozoa from human sperm donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaspersen, Maja D; Larsen, Peter B; Ingerslev, Hans Jakob

    2011-01-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPV) may cause sexually transmitted disease. High-risk types of HPV are involved in the development of cervical cell dysplasia, whereas low-risk types may cause genital condyloma. Despite the association between HPV and cancer, donor sperm need not be tested for HPV...... according to European regulations. Consequently, the potential health risk of HPV transmission by donor bank sperm has not been elucidated, nor is it known how HPV is associated with sperm. The presence of 35 types of HPV was examined on DNA from semen samples of 188 Danish sperm donors using a sensitive...

  19. Reduction in HPV 16/18 prevalence in sexually active young women following the introduction of HPV immunisation in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesher, D; Soldan, K; Howell-Jones, R; Panwar, K; Manyenga, P; Jit, M; Beddows, S; Gill, O N

    2013-12-17

    Reduction in the prevalence of vaccine type HPV infection in young women is an early indication of the impact of the HPV immunisation programme and a necessary outcome if the subsequent impact on cervical cancer is to be realised. Residual vulva-vaginal swab (VVS) specimens from young women aged 16-24 years undergoing chlamydia screening in community sexual health services (formerly known as family planning clinics), general practice (GP), and youth clinics in 2010-2012 were submitted from 10 laboratories in seven regions around England. These specimens were linked to demographic and sexual behaviour data reported with the chlamydia test, anonymised, and tested for type-specific HPV DNA using a multiplex PCR and Luminex-based genotyping test. Estimated immunisation coverage was calculated and findings were compared to a baseline survey conducted prior to the introduction of HPV immunisation in 2008. A total of 4664 eligible specimens were collected and 4178 had a valid test result. The post-immunisation prevalence of HPV 16/18 infection was lowest in this youngest age group (16-18 years) and increased with age. This increase with age was a reversal of the pattern seen prior to immunisation and was inversely associated with estimates of age-specific immunisation coverage (65% for 16-18 year olds). The prevalence of HPV 16/18 infection in the post-immunisation survey was 6.5% amongst 16-18 year olds, compared to 19.1% in the similar survey conducted prior to the introduction of HPV immunisation. These findings are the first indication that the national HPV immunisation programme is successfully preventing HPV 16/18 infection in sexually active young women in England. The reductions seen suggest, for the estimated coverage, high vaccine effectiveness and some herd-protection benefits. Continued surveillance is needed to determine the effects of immunisation on non-vaccine HPV types. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Alcohol consumption and prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection among US men in the HPV in Men (HIM) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schabath, Matthew B; Thompson, Zachary J; Egan, Kathleen M; Torres, B Nelson; Nguyen, Anthony; Papenfuss, Mary R; Abrahamsen, Martha E; Giuliano, Anna R

    2015-02-01

    Moderate alcohol consumption can impair host defence against viral infections. The objective of this cross-sectional analysis was to assess the association between alcohol intake and prevalent human papillomavirus (HPV) infection among US men enrolled in the HPV in Men (HIM) study using quantitative alcohol intake measured from a Food Frequency Questionnaire. The HIM study is a prospective, multinational study of the natural history of HPV infection. For this report, we restricted our analyses to men from the US cohort (N = 1313). Samples from the corona of glans penis, penile shaft and scrotum were combined for HPV DNA testing. Self-reported alcohol intake was quantified by grams of alcohol intake per day. Multivariable prevalence ratios (mPRs) were used to assess the association between alcohol intake and HPV infections. Prevalent infections were significantly higher among men in the highest quartile of alcohol intake and multivariable models revealed that the highest quartile of alcohol intake was associated with significantly increased risks for any (mPR = 1.13; 95% CI 1.00 to 1.27) HPV types and oncogenic (mPR = 1.35; 95% CI 1.08 to 1.68) HPV types. The fourth quartile of alcohol intake was associated with elevated risks for prevalent HPV infection across all strata of number of sexual partners and among never-smokers and current smokers, but not among former smokers. These results demonstrate that high intake of alcohol is associated with an increased risk for prevalent HPV infections among men. The biological role that alcohol plays in genital HPV infection remains understudied and limited epidemiological data exist, especially among men. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  1. Focal epithelial hyperplasia by human papillomavirus (HPV)-32 misdiagnosed as HPV-16 and treated with combination of retinoids, imiquimod and quadrivalent HPV vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemigniani, Franco; Hernández-Losa, Javier; Ferrer, Berta; García-Patos, Vicente

    2015-12-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) or Heck's disease is a rare, benign and asymptomatic mucosal proliferation associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, mainly with genotypes 13 and 32. We report a florid case of FEH in an 11-year-old Haitian girl with systemic lupus erythematosus receiving immunosuppressive therapy. Cryotherapy was previously performed on numerous occasions with no results. We decided to prescribe a non-invasive and more comfortable treatment. A combination of topical retinoid and imiquimod cream was well tolerated and led to an important improvement. The evidence of infection by HPV-16 detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique, prompted us to prescribe the quadrivalent HPV vaccine (types 6, 11,16 and 18). Subsequent PCR sequencing with generic primers GP5-GP6 and further BLAST comparative analysis confirmed that genomic viral sequence in our case truly corresponded with HPV-32. This molecular misdiagnosis can be explained by the similarity between genomic sequences of both HPV-16 and -32 genotypes. At the 1-year follow up, we observed total clinical improvement and no recurrences of the disease. Complete healing in this case may correspond to a potential action of topical retinoid, imiquimod and the cross-protection mechanism of the quadrivalent HPV vaccine. © 2015 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  2. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) virion induced cancer and subfertility, two sides of the same coin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depuydt, C E; Beert, J; Bosmans, E; Salembier, G

    2016-12-01

    In the natural history of HPV infections, the HPV virions can induce two different pathways, namely the infec- tious virion producing pathway and the clonal transforming pathway. An overview is given of the burden that is associated with HPV infections that can both lead to cervical cancer and/or temporal subfertility. That HPV infections cause serious global health burden due to HPV-associated cancers is common knowledge, but that it is also responsible for a substantial part of idiopathic subfertility is greatly underestimated. The bulk of the detected HPV DNA whether in men or women is however infectious from origin. Because the dissociation between HPV viruses and HPV virions or infection and disease remains difficult for clinicians as well as for HPV detection, we propose a review of the different effects caused by the two different HPV virion induced pathways, and highlight the mechanisms that are responsible for causing transient subfertility and cancer.

  3. High frequency of multiple HPV types in cervical specimens from Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejlhede, Nina; Bonde, Jesper; Fomsgaard, Anders

    2009-01-01

    distribution among cervical specimens from more than 1000 Danish women. We also examined the HPV type distribution and the frequency of single and multiple HPV types for specimens from 113 women who underwent conization and were diagnosed with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade II or worse (CIN2+). Using...... microarray technology, we found that 49% of the HPV-positive patients were infected with multiple HPV types. Among the CIN2+ diagnosed women, this frequency was 41%. The most frequently found high-risk HPV type was HPV-16, which was found in 25% of the HPV-positive cervical specimens. Among the HPV positive...... CIN2+ diagnosed women, 48% were HPV-16 positive. Women younger than 30 years of age had a higher frequency of multiple infections (61%) than women older than 30 years (39%). We conclude that cervical infection with multiple HPV types is common among women in all age groups and among women...

  4. Impact and Cost-effectiveness of 3 Doses of 9-Valent Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine Among US Females Previously Vaccinated With 4-Valent HPV Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesson, Harrell W; Laprise, Jean-François; Brisson, Marc; Markowitz, Lauri E

    2016-06-01

    We estimated the potential impact and cost-effectiveness of providing 3-doses of nonavalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine (9vHPV) to females aged 13-18 years who had previously completed a series of quadrivalent HPV vaccine (4vHPV), a strategy we refer to as "additional 9vHPV vaccination." We used 2 distinct models: (1) the simplified model, which is among the most basic of the published dynamic HPV models, and (2) the US HPV-ADVISE model, a complex, stochastic, individual-based transmission-dynamic model. When assuming no 4vHPV cross-protection, the incremental cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained by additional 9vHPV vaccination was $146 200 in the simplified model and $108 200 in the US HPV-ADVISE model ($191 800 when assuming 4vHPV cross-protection). In 1-way sensitivity analyses in the scenario of no 4vHPV cross-protection, the simplified model results ranged from $70 300 to $182 000, and the US HPV-ADVISE model results ranged from $97 600 to $118 900. The average cost per QALY gained by additional 9vHPV vaccination exceeded $100 000 in both models. However, the results varied considerably in sensitivity and uncertainty analyses. Additional 9vHPV vaccination is likely not as efficient as many other potential HPV vaccination strategies, such as increasing primary 9vHPV vaccine coverage. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  5. Pharmacists’ Attitudes and Perceived Barriers to Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccination Services

    OpenAIRE

    Hastings, Tessa J.; Hohmann, Lindsey A.; McFarland, Stuart J.; Teeter, Benjamin S.; Westrick, Salisa C.

    2017-01-01

    Use of non-traditional settings such as community pharmacies has been suggested to increase human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination uptake and completion rates. The objectives of this study were to explore HPV vaccination services and strategies employed by pharmacies to increase HPV vaccine uptake, pharmacists’ attitudes towards the HPV vaccine, and pharmacists’ perceived barriers to providing HPV vaccination services in community pharmacies. A pre-piloted mail survey was sent to 350 randomly...

  6. Factors associated with HPV vaccination among adult women in Quebec.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiely, Marilou; Sauvageau, Chantal; Dubé, Eve; Deceuninck, Genevieve; De Wals, Philippe

    2013-07-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are the most common sexually transmitted infections in North America and are associated with cervical cancer. A publicly-funded HPV immunization program was launched in the province of Quebec, Canada, in the fall of 2008. The aim of this study was to explore factors associated with HPV immunization among young adult women not targeted by this program. A questionnaire was mailed to 2400 24-y-old women randomly selected from the Quebec provincial health insurance database and 56% responded. Factors associated with vaccination status were analyzed using a multivariate logistic regression model. Few women had received at least one dose of HPV vaccine among the 1347 respondents. Age at first sexual intercourse ≥ 20 y, participating in cervical cancer screening, higher education level, being born in Quebec and some positive beliefs about HPV were associated with vaccination. The rate of immunization in women who had to pay for the HPV vaccine was very low and was associated with characteristics that are generally associated with a lower risk for HPV infection and cervical cancer. Efforts are needed to reach at-risk adult women.

  7. Public knowledge and attitudes towards Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Charlotte Devereaux; Gera, Aradhana; Shah, Meeraj; Sharma, Amit; Powell, Judy E; Wilson, Sue

    2008-01-01

    Background Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) vaccine has undergone successful trials and has recently been approved for use for the primary prevention of cervical cancer. The aim of this study was to determine knowledge and attitudes towards HPV vaccination. Methods Semi-structured interview and questionnaire delivered in a street survey. Standardised HPV-related statements used to measure HPV knowledge and attitudes to vaccination. The setting was three different areas of Birmingham, to target a mix of social class and ethnicity. The sample population was composed of 16–54 year olds. Results A total of 420 participants were recruited. Poor knowledge of HPV and its links with cervical cancer were observed. 81% had a knowledge score of zero. Knowledge about HPV was associated with different ethnic group and socio-economic group. The majority (88%) of participants were in favour of vaccination, with 83.6% indicating that they would allow a child under their care to be vaccinated. Conclusion Initial responses to the proposed HPV vaccination within the UK public are favourable. However, knowledge levels are poor and media and health professional promotion are required to raise awareness. PMID:18947430

  8. Bogarting that joint might decrease oral HPV among cannabis users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwenger, S R

    2009-12-01

    Human papilloma virus (HPV) has many known strains, two of the most well studied perhaps being the high-risk types 16 and 18. These strains have attracted more interest because they are known to disrupt tumour-suppressor genes that control the cell cycle, rendering those genes less effective at keeping cell division in check.Within the last decade, an increase in oral hpv-linked cancers of the throat and tongue has been attributed to exposure and contraction of hpv through oral sex, most notably in younger people. An understudied and arguably equal contributor to oral hpv infection might be indirect contact with an infected person. Presented here is a brief but important perspective on the relationship between cannabis use and oral cancer. The development of oral cancer is not a result of smoking cannabis per se; rather, it is hypothesized to be a result of contracting hpv through various forms of sharing and passing joints and other smoking apparatuses. Therefore, it is hypothesized that bogarting (and not passing) joints might decrease oral hpv among cannabis smokers. Future research should therefore investigate the prevalence of oral hpv in cannabis smokers to better understand its epidemiology.

  9. Awareness of human papillomavirus after introduction of HPV vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Louise T; Nygård, Mari; Stensen, Signe

    2017-01-01

    -2005 (prevaccination survey, n=54 079, response rate 71.3%). Correlates of HPV awareness in the postvaccination survey were assessed by logistic regression. In all countries and age groups, awareness of HPV increased from the prevaccination to the postvaccination survey. In the postvaccination survey, HPV awareness......: odds ratio (OR)=0.45, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.42-0.48], being a virgin (vs. nonvirgins: OR=0.74, 95% CI: 0.66-0.83), never having used condoms (vs. ever: OR=0.62, 95% CI: 0.56-0.67), nonuse of contraception at first intercourse (vs. use: OR=0.83, 95% CI: 0.79-0.88) and daily smoking (vs. never......: OR=0.86, 95% CI: 0.80-0.92). HPV awareness in Scandinavia has increased since the introduction of HPV vaccination. However, 24-38% of Scandinavian women still have never heard of HPV. Future information efforts should target groups with low HPV awareness....

  10. HPV-specific immunotherapy: key role for immunomodulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Wall, Stephanie; Nijman, Hans W; Daemen, Toos

    2014-02-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common malignancy among women worldwide. The prime causal factor of the disease is a persistent infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) with individuals failing to mount a sufficient immune response against the virus. Despite the current success of HPV16- and 18-specific prophylactic vaccination, established HPV infections and associated neoplasia require therapeutic vaccines with the induction of cellular immunity. The sustained expression of early proteins E6 and E7 from major oncogenic HPV genotypes in cervical lesions are ideal targets for the design of immunotherapeutic strategies. These strategies, particularly subunit vaccines, may require additional help from immunomodulators to enhance HPV-specific cellular responses. This review discusses recent studies, published since 2008, relating to immunotherapeutic strategies against HPV that include immunomodulators. These immunomodulators fall within the category of toll-like receptor adjuvants for innate immune activation, adjuvants directly contributing to adaptive immunity, such as cytokines and costimulatory molecules, and those that target tumor-induced immunosuppressive mechanisms. Using a combination of these strategies with delivery-based approaches may be most beneficial for the success of therapeutic vaccines against HPV-induced neoplasia in the clinic.

  11. Examining the association between oral health and oral HPV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Thanh Cong; Markham, Christine M; Ross, Michael Wallis; Mullen, Patricia Dolan

    2013-09-01

    Oral human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the cause of 40% to 80% of oropharyngeal cancers; yet, no published study has examined the role of oral health in oral HPV infection, either independently or in conjunction with other risk factors. This study examined the relation between oral health and oral HPV infection and the interactive effects of oral health, smoking, and oral sex on oral HPV infection. Our analyses comprised 3,439 participants ages 30 to 69 years for whom data on oral HPV and oral health were available from the nationally representative 2009-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Results showed that higher unadjusted prevalence of oral HPV infection was associated with four measures of oral health, including self-rated oral health as poor-to-fair [prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.56; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.25-1.95], indicated the possibility of gum disease (PR = 1.51; 95% CI, 1.13-2.01), reported use of mouthwash to treat dental problems in the past week (PR = 1.28; 95% CI, 1.07-1.52), and higher number of teeth lost (Ptrend = 0.035). In multivariable logistic regression models, oral HPV infection had a statistically significant association with self-rated overall oral health (OR = 1.55; 95% CI, 1.15-2.09), independent of smoking and oral sex. In conclusion, poor oral health was an independent risk factor of oral HPV infection, irrespective of smoking and oral sex practices. Public health interventions may aim to promote oral hygiene and oral health as an additional measure to prevent HPV-related oral cancers.

  12. HPV vaccine acceptability in high-risk Greek men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoefer, Lea; Tsikis, Savas; Bethimoutis, George; Nicolaidou, Electra; Paparizos, Vassilios; Antoniou, Christina; Kanelleas, Antonios; Chardalias, Leonidas; Stavropoulos, Georgios-Emmanouil; Schneider, John; Charnot-Katsikas, Angella

    2018-01-02

    HPV is associated with malignancy in men, yet there is a lack of data on HPV knowledge, vaccine acceptability, and factors affecting vaccine acceptability in Greek men. This study aims to identify determinants of knowledge and willingness to vaccinate against HPV among high-risk Greek men. Men (n = 298) between the ages of 18 and 55 were enrolled from the STI and HIV clinics at "Andreas Syggros" Hospital in Athens, Greece from July-October 2015. Participants completed a survey on demographics, economic factors, sexual history, HPV knowledge, and vaccine acceptability. The majority of participants were younger than 40 (76.6%) and unmarried (84.6%). Our sample was 31.2% MSM (men who have sex with men), and 20.1% were HIV-positive. Most participants (>90%) were aware that HPV is highly prevalent in both men and women; however, fewer identified that HPV causes cancers in both sexes (68%) and that vaccination protects men and women (67%). Amongst participants, 76.7% were willing to vaccinate themselves against HPV, 71.4% an adolescent son, and 69.3% an adolescent daughter. HIV-positive men were more likely to be willing to vaccinate themselves (OR 2.83, p = .015), a son (OR 3.3, p = .015) or a daughter (3.01, p = .020). Higher income levels were associated with increased willingness to vaccinate oneself (OR 1.32, p = .027), a son (1.33, p = .032) or daughter (1.34, p = .027). Although there is a HPV knowledge gap, HPV vaccine acceptability is high despite lack of vaccine promotion to Greek men. Future studies should include lower-risk men to adequately inform public health efforts.

  13. Human papillomavirus (HPV) information needs: a theoretical framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlow, Laura A V; Wardle, Jane; Waller, Jo; Grant, Nina

    2009-01-01

    Background With the introduction of human papillomavirus (HPV) testing and vaccination in the UK, health professionals will start to receive questions about the virus from their patients. This study aimed to identify the key questions about HPV that British women will ask when considering having an HPV test or vaccination. Methods Face-to-face interviews were carried out with 21 women to discover what they wanted to know about HPV. A thematic framework approach was used to analyse the data and identify key themes in women's HPV knowledge requirements. Results Women's questions about HPV fell into six areas: identity (e.g. What are the symptoms?), cause (e.g. How do you get HPV?), timeline (e.g. How long does it last?), consequences (e.g. Does it always cause cervical cancer?) and control-cure (e.g. Can you prevent infection?). In addition, they asked procedural questions about testing and vaccination (e.g. Where do I get an HPV test?). These mapped well onto the dimensions identified in Leventhal's description of lay models of illness, called the 'Common Sense Model' (CSM). Discussion and conclusions These results indicated that the majority of the questions women asked about HPV fitted well into the CSM, which therefore provides a structure for women's information needs. The findings could help health professionals understand what questions they may be expected to answer. Framing educational materials using the CSM themes may also help health educators achieve a good fit with what the public want to know. PMID:19126314

  14. Comparison of two commercial assays for detection of human papillomavirus (HPV) in cervical scrape specimens: validation of the Roche AMPLICOR HPV test as a means to screen for HPV genotypes associated with a higher risk of cervical disorders.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ham, M.A.P.C. van; Bakkers, J.M.J.E.; Harbers, G.; Quint, W.G.V.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; Melchers, W.J.G.

    2005-01-01

    Certain high-risk (HR) human papillomavirus (HPV) types are a necessary cause for the development of cervical disorders. Women with persistent HR HPV infections have an increased risk of developing high-grade cervical lesions, compared with those who have no or low-risk HPV infections. Therefore,

  15. Estimation of the epidemiological burden of HPV-related anogenital cancers, precancerous lesions, and genital warts in women and men in Europe: Potential additional benefit of a nine-valent second generation HPV vaccine compared to first generation HPV vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Hartwig

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A second generation HPV vaccine has been developed for the prevention of anogenital cancers and precancerous lesions of the cervix, vulva, vagina, anus and of genital warts due to nine HPV types.We estimated the annual burden of these diseases attributable to the nine HPV types compared to HPV types from first generation vaccines in women and men in Europe. Material and methods: Incidence rates from the IARC database, cancer registries, the literature and Eurostat population data were used.The burden attributable to the HPV types targeted by both vaccines was estimated by applying the relative contribution of the respective HPV types from epidemiological studies. Results: In 2013, the number of new anogenital HPV-attributable cancers was 44,480 with 39,494 of these cases related to second vs. 33,285 to first generation vaccine types.Among the 284,373 to 541,621 new HPV-attributable anogenital precancerous lesions 235,364–448,423 and 135,025–256,830 were estimated to be related to second and first generation vaccine types, respectively.The annual number of new genital warts was 753,608–935,318, with 90% related to HPV6/11. Conclusions: These data demonstrate how the large public health impact that was achieved by the first generation HPV vaccines could be further increased by second generation vaccines. Keywords: HPV, Burden of disease, Cancer, Precancerous lesions, Genital warts, HPV vaccine

  16. HPV prevalence in a Mid-European oral squamous cell cancer population: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla Torre, Daniel; Burtscher, Doris; Soelder, Elisabeth; Offermanns, Vincent; Rasse, Michael; Puelacher, Wolfgang

    2018-04-29

    HPV infection has been investigated intensively regarding oropharyngeal carcinoma. However, there is still lack of knowledge about the impact of oral HPV infections concerning oral squamous cell carcinoma. The present study investigates the prevalence of oral HPV infection in such patients, identifying possible differences between HPV+ and HPV- patients. 106 consequent patients were investigated. After completion of a study questionnaire regarding risk factors, a brush smear sample was taken in each subject to identify the individual oral HPV status (overall/low risk/high risk). 35.8% of the patients were tested positive for HPV in the oral cavity (14% low risk, 28.3% high risk). Patients with oral HPV infection and high risk HPV infection were significantly younger (pHPV infection. Finally, patients with high risk oral HPV infection had experienced more tooth extractions during their lifetime. Oral HPV infections may influence the course of disease of oral squamous cell carcinoma as HPV+ patients are about 10 years younger. It seems that high alcohol consumption facilitates high risk HPV infection. It may be presumed that both alcohol consumption and high risk oral HPV infection act synergistically, explaining earlier cancer onset. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  17. [Oral mucosa reaction in patients adapting to removable dentures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iordanishvili, A K; Soldatova, L N; Pihur, O L; Mihajlova, E S; Peremyshlenko, A S; Soldatov, V S

    Oral mucosa reaction of prosthetic bed to the removable acrylic dentures was evaluated in 43 patients (12 male and 31 female) aged 56-69 years with partial and full teeth loss in one or both jaws. Patients of the first (control) group (17 patients) were not using additional tools improving fixation of the removable dentures during adaptation period, while patients of the second (main) group (26 patients) used Corega cream for dentures fixation for 30 days follow-up. Oral mucosa assessment was carried out on 3-4 and 28-30 day of dentures use by 3 end points: pain syndrome, moisture level, inflammation of a prosthetic bed. The results proved Corega cream to improve prosthetic bed mucosa condition reducing inflammatory response to polymeric materials of removable dentures basis.

  18. Speech and swallowing outcomes in buccal mucosa carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunila John

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Buccal carcinoma is one of the most common malignant neoplasms among all oral cancers in India. Understanding the role of speech language pathologists (SLPs in the domains of evaluation and management strategies of this condition is limited, especially in the Indian context. This is a case report of a young adult with recurrent squamous cell carcinoma of the buccal mucosa with no deleterious habits usually associated with buccal mucosa carcinoma. Following composite resection, pectoralis major myocutaneous flap reconstruction, he developed severe oral dysphagia and demonstrated unintelligible speech. This case report focuses on the issues of swallowing and speech deficits in buccal mucosa carcinoma that need to be addressed by SLPs, and the outcomes of speech and swallowing rehabilitation and prognostic issues.

  19. Harvesting oral mucosa for one-stage anterior urethroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Balwant Kulkarni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral mucosa has been the most popular substitute material for urethral reconstructive surgery because it is easy to harvest, is easy to access, has a concealed donor site scar, and obviates most of the problems associated with other grafts. However, the success of using oral mucosa for urethral surgery is mainly attributed to the biological properties of this tissue. Herein, the surgical steps of harvesting oral mucosa from the inner cheek are presented with an emphasis on tips and tricks to render the process easier and more reproducible and to prevent intra and post-operative complications. The following steps are emphasized: Nasal intubation, ovoid shape graft, delicate harvesting leaving the muscle intact, donor site closure and removal of submucosal tissue.

  20. Characterizing lamina propria of human gastric mucosa by multiphoton microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Y C; Yang, H Q; Zhuo, S M [Institute of Laser and Optoelectronics Technology, Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory for Photonics Technology, Key Laboratory of OptoElectronic Science and Technology for Medicine of Ministry of Education, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou 350007 (China); Chen, G; Chen, J X [Department of Pathology, Fujian Provincial Tumor Hospital, Fuzhou, 350014 (China); Yan, J, E-mail: chenjianxin@fjnu.edu.cn, E-mail: ynjun@yahoo.com [Department of Surgery, Fujian Provincial Tumor Hospital, Fuzhou, 350014 (China)

    2011-01-01

    Lamina propria (LP) of gastric mucosa plays an important role in progression of gastric cancer because of the site at where inflammatory reactions occur. Multiphoton imaging has been recently employed for microscopic examination of intact tissue. In this paper, using multiphoton microscopy (MPM) based on two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) and second harmonic generation (SHG), high resolution multiphoton microscopic images of lamina propria (LP) are obtained in normal human gastric mucosa at excitation wavelength {lambda}{sub ex} = 800 nm. The main source of tissue TPEF originated from the cells of gastric glands, and loose connective tissue, collagen, produced SHG signals. Our results demonstrated that MPM can be effective for characterizing the microstructure of LP in human gastric mucosa. The findings will be helpful for diagnosing and staging early gastric cancer in the clinics.

  1. Characterizing lamina propria of human gastric mucosa by multiphoton microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y. C.; Yang, H. Q.; Chen, G.; Zhuo, S. M.; Chen, J. X.; Yan, J.

    2011-01-01

    Lamina propria (LP) of gastric mucosa plays an important role in progression of gastric cancer because of the site at where inflammatory reactions occur. Multiphoton imaging has been recently employed for microscopic examination of intact tissue. In this paper, using multiphoton microscopy (MPM) based on two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) and second harmonic generation (SHG), high resolution multiphoton microscopic images of lamina propria (LP) are obtained in normal human gastric mucosa at excitation wavelength λex = 800 nm. The main source of tissue TPEF originated from the cells of gastric glands, and loose connective tissue, collagen, produced SHG signals. Our results demonstrated that MPM can be effective for characterizing the microstructure of LP in human gastric mucosa. The findings will be helpful for diagnosing and staging early gastric cancer in the clinics.

  2. [Oral mucosa graft urethroplasty for complicated urethral strictures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiguchi, Akio; Sumitomo, Makoto; Kanbara, Taiki; Tsujita, Yujiro; Yoshii, Takahiko; Yoshii, Hidehiko; Satoh, Akinori; Asakuma, Junichi; Ito, Keiichi; Hayakawa, Masamichi; Asano, Tomohiko

    2010-03-01

    We evaluated the efficacy and outcome of one-stage oral mucosa graft urethroplasty, which is currently the procedure of choice for treating lengthy and complicated urethral strictures not amenable to excision and primary end-to-end anastomosis. Seven patients 33 to 74 years old (mean age = 53.7) underwent one-stage oral mucosa graft urethroplasty for a stricture in either the bulbar urethra (four patients), penile urethra (two patients), or pan-anterior urethra (one patient). Three of the strictures were due to trauma, one was due to inflammation, and one was due to a failed hypospadia repair. The other two were iatrogenic. All patients had previously undergone either internal urethrotomy or repeated urethral dilation. Three patients received a tube graft, three received a ventral onlay, and one received a dorsal onlay. A free graft of oral mucosa was harvested from the inside of each patient's left cheek, and if necessary to obtain a sufficient length, the harvest was extended to include mucosa from the lower lip and the right cheek. The graft lengths ranged from 2.5 to 12 cm (mean = 4.6 cm). A urethral catheter was left in place for 3 weeks postoperatively. While no severe complications at the donor site were observed during follow-up periods ranging from 3 to 55 months (mean = 14 months), two patients who had received a tube graft developed distal anastomotic ring strictures that were managed by internal urethrotomy. The other five required no postoperative urological procedure even though one who had received a ventral onlay developed a penoscrotal fistula. Oral mucosa is an ideal urethral graft, and oral mucosa graft urethroplasty is an effective procedure for repairing complicated urethral strictures involving long portions of the urethra.

  3. [Microcirculation of the nasal mucosa during use of balloon tamponade].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinger, M; Siegert, R

    1997-03-01

    Nasal packings are commonly accepted in the treatment of severe epistaxis. Cuffed catheters are known to cause damage to the nasal mucosa most likely by interfering with tissue perfusion. In this study the effect of different pressure levels on local perfusion of septal mucosa is investigated. In 15 healthy subjects the blood flow in septal mucosa was measured by laser doppler flowmetry by positioning a cuffed epistaxis catheter into the nasal cavity with a laser probe attached to it. Increasing pressure was administered by injecting saline solution while continuously recording intraluminal pressure, perfusion, and filling volume. The local pressure affecting the septal mucosa at the moment of stalling perfusion was determined by subtracting the extranasal cuff pressure from the current intranasal cuff pressure at same inflation volumes. Microcirculation of the septal mucosa stopped when the local pressure exceeded a value of Pmean = 42 mmHg. Individual variations (n = 15) were small (s = 9 mmHg). The intraluminal cuff pressure was measured to be about ten times higher due to the retraction force of the cuff. Spontaneous oscillations of the blood flow were reduced with increasing pressure to the blood vessels. Filling volumes up to 3.2 ml were sufficient to stop perfusion. Cuffed nasal packings stop the blood flow in nasal mucosa even at low local pressures. Depending on the material characteristics of different cuffs the pressure to dilate the cuff may, however, be several times higher than the actual local pressure. This effect may cause problems in the proper use of cuffed catheters. Laser doppler flowmetry proved to be helpful in determining reproducible perfusion values.

  4. Knowledge, Awareness and Attitude on HPV, HPV Vaccine and Cervical Cancer among the College Students in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Shazia; Labani, Satyanarayana; Das, Bhudev C

    2016-01-01

    Infection of specific high risk Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) is known to cause cervical cancer and two prophylactic vaccines have been developed against two major high risk HPV types 16 and 18 for prevention of cervical cancer. Because of societal, religious and ethical issues associated with the vaccination of adolescent girls in India together with lack of awareness about HPV and HPV vaccines, no successful HPV immunization program has been employed in India. To determine knowledge, awareness and attitude of college students on HPV, HPV vaccine and cervical cancer. A questionnaire-based survey was conducted in a total of 1580 undergraduate students between the age group 16-26 years comprising 684 girls and 876 boys. Out of a total of 1580 students, girls had more knowledge about cervical cancer (82.45%, pawareness about cervical cancer (81.89%, pawareness compared to boys. Analysis of odds ratio (ORs) along with 95% CI showed older girls with 1.2 to 3 fold (pawareness campaigns to augment HPV immunization program for control of cervical cancer in India.

  5. Applying a gender lens on human papillomavirus infection: cervical cancer screening, HPV DNA testing, and HPV vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branković, Ivan; Verdonk, Petra; Klinge, Ineke

    2013-02-08

    Our aim is to provide a state-of-the-art overview of knowledge on sex (biological) and gender (sociocultural) aspects of Human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical cancer for educational purposes. Considerable disparities exist in cervical cancer incidences between different subgroups of women. We provide an outline on the crucial issues and debates based on the recent literature published in leading gender medicine journals. Intersectionality was applied in order to help categorise the knowledge. Key terms (HPV, cervical cancer) were screened in Gender Medicine, Journal of Women's Health and Women & Health from January 2005-June 2012. Additional searches were conducted for topics insufficiently mentioned, such as HPV vaccination of boys. In total, 71 publications were included (56 original papers, four reviews, six reports, three commentaries, one editorial and one policy statement). Research reveals complexity in the way various subgroups of women adhere to cervical screening. Less educated women, older women, uninsured women, homeless women, migrant women facing language barriers, women who have sex with women and obese women participate in Pap smears less frequently. A series of barriers can act to impede decisions to vaccinate against HPV. Both male and female controlled preventive methods and treatment measures should be developed in order to tackle HPV infection and different strategies are needed for different subgroups. A substantial discussion and research on alternative methods of prevention was and is lacking. In future research, sex and gender aspects of HPV-related diseases of boys and men as well as subgroup differences in HPV risk need to be addressed.

  6. Exfoliative Cytology in the Oral Mucosa of Patients with Fanconi Anaemia: A Morphometric Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angela Naval Machado

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Patients with Fanconi anaemia (FA are prone to develop squamous cell carcinomas at an early age. Exfoliative cytology can be used to detect changes to the health of the oral mucosa. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate morphometrical and morphological changes using exfoliative cytology and to analyse and quantify the proliferative activity using silver nucleolar organiser regions (AgNOR in epithelial cells of the tongue in FA patients,after haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT. Methods: Oral smears were collected from the tongues of 20 FA children and adolescents after haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (FA and 20 healthy children (C using exfoliative cytology. The smears were stained using the Papanicolaou technique and silver impregnation. The cells were morphologically analysed and the nuclear area (NA, the cytoplasmic area (CA, and the nucleusto-cytoplasm area ratio (NA/CA were calculated. Results: Mean values for the FA and C groups were: NA (71.85 and 55.21μm.; p< 0.01; CA (2127.48 and 1441.61μm.; p< 0.01; NA/CA (0.03 and 0.04; p< 0.01, respectively. A significant increase in the NA and CA for the FA group (p< 0.01 was seen, and an alteration in the NA/CA ratio. No morphological differences were found between the groups. Class I smears were predominant in both groups. No differences were found between the groups for the mean values of AgNORs per nucleus. Conclusion: This study suggests that morphological changes occurred in the oral epithelium cells of children and adolescents with Fanconi anaemia when subjected to HSCT.

  7. X-radiation effect on soluble proteins of gastric mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukhomlinov, B.F.; Chajka, Ya.P.; Fedorovich, A.N.

    1979-01-01

    Using the method of electrophoresis in agar gel soluble proteins of gastric mucosa of rats were separated into 11 fractions. Proteins posessing a proteolytic (pH 1.8) and lipase (pH 7.4) activity were localized within the second and third prealbumin fractions. Soluble proteins of gastric mucosa contain glyco- and lipoproteid complexes. Exposure of rats to 1000 R of X-rays induces quantitative redistribution within the electrophoretic spectrum of soluble proteins and a considerable disturbance of the proteolytic activity of total soluble proteins throughout the entire period of observation (from 10 min to 72h)

  8. Adherence of Helicobacter pylori to the Gastric Mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marguerite Clyne

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial adhesion to the intestinal epithelium is a critical initial step in the pathogenesis of many enteric diseases. Helicobacter pylori is a duodenal pathogen that adheres to the gastric epithelium and causes gastritis and peptic ulceration. The mechanism by which H pylori causes disease has not yet been elucidated but adherence to the gastric mucosa is thought to be an important virulence determinant of the organism. What is known about adherence of H pylori to the gastric mucosa is summarized. Topics discussed are the mechanism of H pylori adherence; in vitro and in vivo models of H pylori infection; and adherence and potential adhesins and receptors for H pylori.

  9. Estudio de la mucosa oral en pacientes que emplean colutorios

    OpenAIRE

    Marzal Gamarra, Cristina

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN 1. Recuerdo histológico de la mucosa oral La cavidad bucal, como toda cavidad orgánica que se comunica con el exterior, esta tapizada por una membrana mucosa de superficie húmeda. La humedad, que es aportada por las glándulas salivales mayores y menores, es necesaria para el mantenimiento de la estructura normal de los tejidos. 2. Colutorios y su utilización en Odontología Los colutorios son preparaciones líquidas destinadas a ser aplicadas sobre los dientes, las...

  10. Alphamimetic effects at the nasal mucosa in the MR tomogram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benammar-Englmaier, M.; Hallermeier, J.K.; Englmaier, B.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of xylometazolin spray (OTRIVEN) on the nasal mucosa was tested on persons with and without clinical signs of rhinitis and sinusitis. MRI is an excellent means to show the decongestive effect. The reaction is chiefly seen at the inferior and middle nasal concha and becomes manifest in a few minutes. No significant effect is noticeable at the maxillary sinus mucosa and infiltrated ethmoidal sinus. Generally, it is possible to show and examine the pharmacological effects that change the size and the liquid consistency of organs. (orig.) [de

  11. Psychosocial correlates of HPV vaccine acceptability in college males: A cross-sectional exploratory study

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    Ovidiu Tatar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Most college males are not immunized against the human papillomavirus (HPV and are at high risk of HPV infection. Most research of correlates of HPV vaccine acceptability in college males has assessed vaccine acceptability as a binary outcome, e.g., vaccinated or not vaccinated, without considering that some students may not even be aware that the HPV vaccine can be given to males. Our objective was to evaluate the psychosocial correlates of HPV acceptability in college males, based on multiple stages of HPV decision-making. Methods: We used an online questionnaire to collect data from college men aged 18–26 enrolled at three Canadian universities between September 2013 and April 2014. Vaccine acceptability assessment was informed by the six-stage decision-making Precaution Adoption Process Model (PAPM. We sought information on socio-demographics, health behaviors, HPV vaccine benefits and barriers, worry, susceptibility, severity related to HPV infection and social norms. HPV and HPV vaccine knowledge was measured with validated scales. Psychosocial correlates of HPV vaccine acceptability were assessed with bivariate and multivariate multinomial logistic regression. Actual and perceived HPV and HPV vaccine knowledge scores were calculated. Results: The final sample size was 428. Most male college students were unaware that the HPV vaccine could be given to males, unengaged or undecided about getting the HPV vaccine. Significant correlates of higher HPV vaccine acceptability were: increased HPV knowledge, having discussed the HPV vaccine with a healthcare provider, and social norms. Being in an exclusive sexual relationship was significantly associated with lower HPV vaccine acceptability. Students' actual HPV and HPV vaccine knowledge was low and positively correlated to their perception about their HPV knowledge. Conclusions: We provided a fine-tuned analysis of psychosocial correlates of HPV vaccine acceptability in college

  12. Human papillomavirus (HPV) persistence and HPV 31 predict the risk of recurrence in high-grade vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogani, Giorgio; Martinelli, Fabio; Ditto, Antonino; Taverna, Francesca; Lombardo, Claudia; Signorelli, Mauro; Chiappa, Valentina; Leone Roberti Maggiore, Umberto; Fontanella, Caterina; Sabatucci, Ilaria; Borghi, Chiara; Recalcati, Dario; Indini, Alice; Lorusso, Domenica; Raspagliesi, Francesco

    2017-03-01

    High-grade vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia (vaginal HSIL) represents an uncommon entity. Here, we sought to identify predictors for recurrence and risk factor for developing genital cancers after primary treatment for vaginal HSIL. Data of consecutive 5104 women who had human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA test were searched for identify women with histological confirmed vaginal HSIL. Disease-free interval and the risk of developing HPV-related gynecological cancers were assessed using Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazard models. Overall, 77 patients were included. After a mean (SD) follow-up of 69.3 (33.0) months, 11 (14%) and 4 (5%) patients experienced vaginal HSIL recurrence and the occurrence of HPV-related gynecological cancers, respectively. Via multivariate analysis factors predicting for vaginal HSIL recurrence were infection from HPV31 at diagnosis (HR: 5.0 (95%CI:1.17, 21.3); p=0.03) and persistence of HPV infection after treatment (HR: 7.0 (95%CI:1.54, 31.6); p=0.01). Additionally, patients who had LASER ablation experienced a trend toward a lower risk of recurrence in comparison to medical treatment (HR: 0.20 (95%CI:0.03, 1.09); p=0.06). Considering the occurrence of HPV-related gynecological cancers, we observed that no factors independently correlated with this risk; while, a trend towards higher risk was observed for women with HIV infection (HR:16.4 (95%CI:0.90, 300.1); p=0.06) and persistence of HPV infection (HR: 13.3 (95%CI:0.76, 230.2); p=0.07). Patients affected by vaginal HSIL experienced a relatively high risk of recurrence. Persistence of HPV after treatment and pretreatment HPV-31 infection predicts for high-grade vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia recurrence. Further investigations are warranted in order to corroborate our data. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Awareness, knowledge and beliefs about HPV, cervical cancer and HPV vaccines among nurses in Cameroon: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamai, Richard G; Ayissi, Claudine Akono; Oduwo, Geofrey O; Perlman, Stacey; Welty, Edith; Welty, Thomas; Manga, Simon; Onyango, Monica A; Ogembo, Javier Gordon

    2013-10-01

    While it is known that sub-Saharan African countries face multiple obstacles such as cost in adopting vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV), the crucial role nurses can play in implementing such programs has not been adequately examined. To investigate the knowledge and awareness of HPV, primary cause of cervical cancer and HPV vaccine among nurses working at four Cameroon Baptist Convention Health Services facilities, and to explore what factors influence nurses' willingness to inform and recommend HPV vaccine to adolescents and parents attending clinics. A structured questionnaire survey was administered to a convenience sample of nursing staff working at the four health facilities. Of 192 eligible nurses 76 (39.6%) participated in the study. There were moderately low levels of knowledge about HPV infection and prevention of cervical cancer, but a moderately high level of knowledge about HPV vaccine. Although 90.8% acknowledged that cervical cancer is directly linked to HPV infection, nearly 32% failed to identify it as a sexually transmitted infection (STI), while 43.4% believed it is an uncommon infection. Willingness to recommend the HPV vaccine was moderate, with 69.7% intentionally initiating discussions with patients about the subject. The most important factors considered when deciding to recommend the vaccine included effectiveness (56.6%) and side effects/safety (11.8%). Cost was less of a concern (6.6%), likely due to the availability of donated vaccine. Despite high awareness about HPV, more education about the virus, cervical cancer and the vaccine are required to further increase nurses' willingness to recommend the vaccine and strengthen strategies for reaching adolescents through nurses in Cameroon. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Biopower, Normalization, and HPV: A Foucauldian Analysis of the HPV Vaccine Controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engels, Kimberly S

    2016-09-01

    This article utilizes the Foucauldian concepts of biopower and normalization to give an analysis of the debate surrounding the controversial administration of the HPV vaccine to adolescents. My intention is not to solve the problem, rather to utilize a Foucauldian framework to bring various facets of the issue to light, specifically the way the vaccine contributes to strategies of power in reference to how young adults develop within relationships of power. To begin, the article provides an overview of the Foucauldian concepts of biopower and normalization, including how these two strategies of power were present in the administration of the smallpox vaccine in the 19th century. Next, information about HPV and the history of the current controversy in the United States is presented. Lastly, the article presents an analysis of the strategies of biopower and normalization present in the debate on HPV, including an emphasis on how the vaccination is similar to, and different from, 19th century smallpox vaccination. It also explores the way that mechanisms of disease control affect and are affected by individual subjects, in this case, adolescents.

  15. Prevalence and genotyping of HPV, by cervical brushing, in Irpinia area of Campania region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pia Carmen Melillo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is due to persistent genital infection with Human Papillomavirus (HPV.The purpose of this study was to evaluate prevalence of HPV in Irpinia (Campania region, Italy, distribution of different viral genotypes, correlating cytological results and virological investigations. In the period 2006-2011, were made 1080 cervical samples of women aged 18-65 years for HPV identification and genotyping. Detection of the virus was performed by Multiplex-PCR System (Seegene,Arrow and typing with INNO-LiPA HPV Genotyping Extra test (Innogenetics. Out of the 1080 tested samples, 330 (30.6% samples were positive for HPV DNA. The most frequently occurring High Risk (HR-HPV genotype in single infections was HPV16 (16.6%, followed by HPV51 (10.7%, in multiple infections HPV16 (15.7% and 31 (14.6%. The prevalence of infection, correlated with age of patients studied, is greater in the group aged 26-30 years (42.5%. HR-HPV were detected in different percent in patients with Pap test scores: 22.5% in normal Pap smear (20% HPV16, 14.5% ASCUS (47.6% HPV16, 24% LSIL (20% HPV16, 79.3% HSIL (72.7% HPV16; 9.1% HPV18 detected only in this type of cellular alteration. The high prevalence of HR-HPV in patients with ASCUS or normal Pap test, suggesting the real advantage of HPV screening test, more sensitive in selecting the actual population at risk. Based on the findings of our epidemiological study, HR-HPV screening and HPV genotyping test should be strongly advised also to the vaccinated population for the high incidence of genotypes which are not included in vaccines (67%.

  16. HPV vaccination coverage of teen girls: the influence of health care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Philip J; Stokley, Shannon; Bednarczyk, Robert A; Orenstein, Walter A; Omer, Saad B

    2016-03-18

    Between 2010 and 2014, the percentage of 13-17 year-old girls administered ≥3 doses of the human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccine ("fully vaccinated") increased by 7.7 percentage points to 39.7%, and the percentage not administered any doses of the HPV vaccine ("not immunized") decreased by 11.3 percentage points to 40.0%. To evaluate the complex interactions between parents' vaccine-related beliefs, demographic factors, and HPV immunization status. Vaccine-related parental beliefs and sociodemographic data collected by the 2010 National Immunization Survey-Teen among teen girls (n=8490) were analyzed. HPV vaccination status was determined from teens' health care provider (HCP) records. Among teen girls either unvaccinated or fully vaccinated against HPV, teen girls whose parent was positively influenced to vaccinate their teen daughter against HPV were 48.2 percentage points more likely to be fully vaccinated. Parents who reported being positively influenced to vaccinate against HPV were 28.9 percentage points more likely to report that their daughter's HCP talked about the HPV vaccine, 27.2 percentage points more likely to report that their daughter's HCP gave enough time to discuss the HPV shot, and 43.4 percentage points more likely to report that their daughter's HCP recommended the HPV vaccine (pteen girls administered 1-2 doses of the HPV vaccine, 87.0% had missed opportunities for HPV vaccine administration. Results suggest that an important pathway to achieving higher ≥3 dose HPV vaccine coverage is by increasing HPV vaccination series initiation though HCP talking to parents about the HPV vaccine, giving parents time to discuss the vaccine, and by making a strong recommendation for the HPV. Also, HPV vaccination series completion rates may be increased by eliminating missed opportunities to vaccinate against HPV and scheduling additional follow-up visits to administer missing HPV vaccine doses. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Comparison of the performance in detection of HPV infections between the high-risk HPV genotyping real time PCR and the PCR-reverse dot blot assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lahong; Dai, Yibei; Chen, Jiahuan; Hong, Liquan; Liu, Yuhua; Ke, Qiang; Chen, Yiwen; Cai, Chengsong; Liu, Xia; Chen, Zhaojun

    2018-01-01

    A new multiplex real-time PCR assay, the high-risk HPV genotyping real time PCR assay (HR HPV RT-PCR), has been developed to detect 15 high-risk HPV types with respective viral loads. In this report, a total of 684 cervical specimens from women diagnosed with vaginitis were assessed by the HR HPV RT-PCR and the PCR reaction and reverse dot blot (PCR-RDB) assays, using a PCR-sequencing method as a reference standard. A total coincidence of 97.7% between the HR HPV RT PCR and the PCR-RDB assays was determined with a Kappa value of 0.953. The HR HPV RT PCR assay had sensitivity, specificity, and concordance rates (accuracy) of 99.7%, 99.7%, and 99.7%, respectively, as confirmed by PCR-sequencing, while the PCR-RDB assay had respective rates of 98.8%, 97.1%, and 98.0%. The overall rate of HPV infection, determined by PCR-sequencing, in women diagnosed with vaginitis was 49.85%, including 36.26% of single infection and 13.6% of multiple infections. The most common infections among the 15 high-risk HPV types in women diagnosed with vaginitis were HPV-52, HPV-16, and HPV-58, with a total detection rate of 10.23%, 7.75%, and 5.85%, respectively. We conclude that the HR HPV RT PCR assay exhibits better clinical performance than the PCR-RDB assay, and is an ideal alternative method for HPV genotyping. In addition, the HR HPV RT PCR assay provides HPV DNA viral loads, and could serve as a quantitative marker in the diagnosis and treatment of single and multiple HPV infections. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. A randomized controlled trial of Human Papillomavirus (HPV testing for cervical cancer screening: trial design and preliminary results (HPV FOCAL Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Laurie W

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the HPV FOCAL trial, we will establish the efficacy of hr-HPV DNA testing as a stand-alone screening test followed by liquid based cytology (LBC triage of hr-HPV-positive women compared to LBC followed by hr-HPV triage with ≥ CIN3 as the outcome. Methods/Design HPV-FOCAL is a randomized, controlled, three-armed study over a four year period conducted in British Columbia. It will recruit 33,000 women aged 25-65 through the province's population based cervical cancer screening program. Control arm: LBC at entry and two years, and combined LBC and hr-HPV at four years among those with initial negative results and hr-HPV triage of ASCUS cases; Two Year Safety Check arm: hr-HPV at entry and LBC at two years in those with initial negative results with LBC triage of hr-HPV positives; Four Year Intervention Arm: hr-HPV at entry and combined hr-HPV and LBC at four years among those with initial negative results with LBC triage of hr-HPV positive cases Discussion To date, 6150 participants have a completed sample and epidemiologic questionnaire. Of the 2019 women enrolled in the control arm, 1908 (94.5% were cytology negative. Women aged 25-29 had the highest rates of HSIL (1.4%. In the safety arm 92.2% of women were hr-HPV negative, with the highest rate of hr-HPV positivity found in 25-29 year old women (23.5%. Similar results were obtained in the intervention arm HPV FOCAL is the first randomized trial in North America to examine hr-HPV testing as the primary screen for cervical cancer within a population-based cervical cancer screening program. Trial Registration International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number Register, ISRCTN79347302

  19. A randomized controlled trial of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) testing for cervical cancer screening: trial design and preliminary results (HPV FOCAL Trial)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogilvie, Gina S; Cook, Darrel A; Mei, Wendy; Stuart, Gavin CE; Franco, Eduardo L; Coldman, Andrew J; Niekerk, Dirk J van; Krajden, Mel; Martin, Ruth E; Ehlen, Thomas G; Ceballos, Kathy; Peacock, Stuart J; Smith, Laurie W; Kan, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    In the HPV FOCAL trial, we will establish the efficacy of hr-HPV DNA testing as a stand-alone screening test followed by liquid based cytology (LBC) triage of hr-HPV-positive women compared to LBC followed by hr-HPV triage with ≥ CIN3 as the outcome. HPV-FOCAL is a randomized, controlled, three-armed study over a four year period conducted in British Columbia. It will recruit 33,000 women aged 25-65 through the province's population based cervical cancer screening program. Control arm: LBC at entry and two years, and combined LBC and hr-HPV at four years among those with initial negative results and hr-HPV triage of ASCUS cases; Two Year Safety Check arm: hr-HPV at entry and LBC at two years in those with initial negative results with LBC triage of hr-HPV positives; Four Year Intervention Arm: hr-HPV at entry and combined hr-HPV and LBC at four years among those with initial negative results with LBC triage of hr-HPV positive cases To date, 6150 participants have a completed sample and epidemiologic questionnaire. Of the 2019 women enrolled in the control arm, 1908 (94.5%) were cytology negative. Women aged 25-29 had the highest rates of HSIL (1.4%). In the safety arm 92.2% of women were hr-HPV negative, with the highest rate of hr-HPV positivity found in 25-29 year old women (23.5%). Similar results were obtained in the intervention arm HPV FOCAL is the first randomized trial in North America to examine hr-HPV testing as the primary screen for cervical cancer within a population-based cervical cancer screening program. International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number Register, ISRCTN79347302

  20. Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) Infection and HPV Vaccination: Assessing the Level of Knowledge among Students of the University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Tirgu Mures, Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Septimiu Voidazan; Silviu-Horia Morariu; Monica Tarcea; Horațiu Moldovan; Minodora Dobreanu

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) infection, a cause in the development of cervical cancer, remains a topic of great interest. About 80% of sexually active women are at risk of acquiring an HPV infection at some point in life, the peak incidence of infection having been identified in young women. The aim of the study was to assess medical students’ knowledge and attitudes about sexually transmitted diseases, HPV infection, HPV vaccinations, and the students’ sexual behaviour. Material...

  1. Genotype-Specific Clearance of Genital Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Infections among Mothers in the Finnish Family HPV Study▿

    OpenAIRE

    Louvanto, Karolina; Syrjänen, Kari J.; Rintala, Marjut A. M.; Grénman, Seija E.; Syrjänen, Stina M.

    2010-01-01

    The majority of cervical human papillomavirus (HPV) infections in young women are transient, but whether the clearance differs among different HPV genotypes and the different factors predicting genotype-specific clearance are partly unknown. In the Finnish Family HPV Study, 131 of 252 women (mean age, 25.5 years) cleared their infection during the prospective follow-up of 6 years (median, 62.4 months; range, 1.6 to 94.5 months). Cervical scrapings collected at each visit were tested for 24 lo...

  2. Gene expression in uninvolved oral mucosa of OSCC patients facilitates identification of markers predictive of OSCC outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawadee Lohavanichbutr

    Full Text Available Oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC are among the most common cancers worldwide, with approximately 60% 5-yr survival rate. To identify potential markers for disease progression, we used Affymetrix U133 plus 2.0 arrays to examine the gene expression profiles of 167 primary tumor samples from OSCC patients, 58 uninvolved oral mucosae from OSCC patients and 45 normal oral mucosae from patients without oral cancer, all enrolled at one of the three University of Washington-affiliated medical centers between 2003 to 2008. We found 2,596 probe sets differentially expressed between 167 tumor samples and 45 normal samples. Among 2,596 probe sets, 71 were significantly and consistently up- or down-regulated in the comparison between normal samples and uninvolved oral samples and between uninvolved oral samples and tumor samples. Cox regression analyses showed that 20 of the 71 probe sets were significantly associated with progression-free survival. The risk score for each patient was calculated from coefficients of a Cox model incorporating these 20 probe sets. The hazard ratio (HR associated with each unit change in the risk score adjusting for age, gender, tumor stage, and high-risk HPV status was 2.7 (95% CI: 2.0-3.8, p = 8.8E-10. The risk scores in an independent dataset of 74 OSCC patients from the MD Anderson Cancer Center was also significantly associated with progression-free survival independent of age, gender, and tumor stage (HR 1.6, 95% CI: 1.1-2.2, p = 0.008. Gene Set Enrichment Analysis showed that the most prominent biological pathway represented by the 71 probe sets was the Integrin cell surface interactions pathway. In conclusion, we identified 71 probe sets in which dysregulation occurred in both uninvolved oral mucosal and cancer samples. Dysregulation of 20 of the 71 probe sets was associated with progression-free survival and was validated in an independent dataset.

  3. Investigação de Campylobacter fetus e Tritrichomonas foetus na mucosa prepucial de touros da região do Médio Paraíba, RJ Campylobacter fetus and Tritrichomonas foetus investigation in prepucial mucous of bulls from Médio Paraíba/RJ region, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Soares da Rocha

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Trinta e nove touros provenientes de propriedades de pecuária leiteira (n=9 e de pecuária de corte (n=30, situadas na região do Médio Paraíba, Rio de Janeiro (RJ, foram investigados para a presença de Campylobacter fetus e Tritrichomonas foetus. Para a pesquisa de Campylobacter, amostras de esmegma foram coletadas e submetidas à técnica de cultivo e isolamento e amostras de lavado prepucial ao teste de Imunofluorescência Direta (IFD. Para a pesquisa de Tritrichomonas, foi utilizada a técnica de exame direto a partir de lavado prepucial. Foi observada a presença de C. fetus em 14 amostras (35,9 %, por meio da IFD, e o isolamento de C. fetus, subespécie venerealis, foi obtido a partir de quatro amostras (10,3%. T. foetus não foi identificado nas amostras investigadas. A alta freqüência de C. fetus observada nos animais investigados sugere a presença da campilobacteriose na região do Médio Paraíba, em rebanhos com problemas reprodutivos.Thirty nine breeding bulls from dairy farms (n=9 and beef farms (n=30 located in Médio Paraíba region at Rio de Janeiro - Brazil state were investigated for the presence of Campylobacter fetus and Tritrichomonas foetus. For Campylobacter investigation, smegma samples were examined by culture and prepucial washings were examined by direct immunofluorescence technique (DIF. The prepucial washings were also examined for Tritrichomonas foetus presence by direct examination. C. fetus was identified in 14 samples (35.9 % by DIF technique and C. fetus subspecies venerealis was isolated from four samples (10.3%. T. foetus was not detected in bull samples. The high frequency of C. fetus observed in bull samples suggests the occurrence of Campylobacteriosis among herds which have reproductive problems at the Médio Paraíba region.

  4. Comparison of the immunogenicity of Cervarix(®) and Gardasil(®) human papillomavirus vaccines for oncogenic non-vaccine serotypes HPV-31, HPV-33, and HPV-45 in HIV-infected adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Lars; Tolstrup, Martin; Müller, Martin

    2014-01-01

    (®) (HPV-16/18, GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, GSK) and Gardasil(®) (HPV-6/11/16/18, Merck) have demonstrated partial cross-protection against certain oncogenic non-vaccine HPV-types. Currently, there are no available data on vaccine-induced cross-protection in men and little is known about cross......-reactive immunity after HPV-vaccination of HIV-infected individuals. In an investigator-initiated trial, we randomized 91 HIV-positive men and women to receive vaccination with Cervarix(®) or Gardasil(®). The HPV-DNA status of the participants was determined with pcr before and after immunization. Cross...

  5. Cellular immune responses to HPV-18, -31, and -53 in healthy volunteers immunized with recombinant HPV-16 L1 virus-like particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, Ligia A.; Viscidi, Raphael; Harro, Clayton D.; Kemp, Troy J.; Garcia-Pineres, Alfonso J.; Trivett, Matthew; Demuth, Franklin; Lowy, Douglas R.; Schiller, John T.; Berzofsky, Jay A.; Hildesheim, Allan

    2006-01-01

    Human papillomavirus-like particles (HPV VLP) are candidate vaccines that have shown to be efficacious in reducing infection and inducing robust antiviral immunity. Neutralizing antibodies generated by vaccination are largely type-specific, but little is known about the type-specificity of cellular immune responses to VLP vaccination. To determine whether vaccination with HPV-16 L1VLP induces cellular immunity to heterologous HPV types (HPV-18, HPV-31, and HPV-53), we examined proliferative and cytokine responses in vaccine (n = 11) and placebo (n = 5) recipients. Increased proliferative and cytokine responses to heterologous types were observed postvaccination in some individuals. The proportion of women responding to heterologous types postvaccination (36%-55%) was lower than that observed in response to HPV-16 (73%). Response to HPV-16 VLP predicted response to other types. The strongest correlations in response were observed between HPV-16 and HPV-31, consistent with their phylogenetic relatedness. In summary, PBMC from HPV-16 VLP vaccine recipients can respond to L1VLP from heterologous HPV types, suggesting the presence of conserved T cell epitopes

  6. No evidence for cross-protection of the HPV-16/18 vaccine against HPV-6/11 positivity in female STI clinic visitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woestenberg, Petra J.; King, Audrey J.; van der Sande, Marianne A. B.; Donken, Robine; Leussink, Suzan; van der Klis, Fiona R. M.; Hoebe, Christian J. P. A.; Bogaards, Johannes A.; van Benthem, Birgit H. B.; Adema, D.; Buist-Arkema, R.; Beerens, A.; Luijt, D.; Meijer, S.; Schirm, J.; Buiting, A.; Peeters, M.; Rossen, J.; Verbakel, H.; van Esch, P.; Verweij, J.; van der Eijk, A.; Huisman, R.; Kerkhof, C.; Korff, H.; Schutten, M.; Velzing, J.; Verduyn-Lunel, F.; Lakbiach, S.; van Rosmalen, P.; Schuurman, R.; Abma, D.; Adams, K.; Bruisten, S.; Linde, I.; Oostvogel, P.; Touwen, C.; Vermeulen, W.; Brink, A.; Nelissen, J.; Wolffs, P.; Duijvendijk, N.; Schneeberger, P.; Dinnissen-van Poppel, M.; Melchers, W.; Poort, Y.; Hooghiemstra, M.; Huisman, H.; Weel, J.; Stam, J.

    2017-01-01

    Data from a vaccine trial and from post-vaccine surveillance in the United Kingdom have suggested that the bivalent HPV-16/18 vaccine offers cross-protection against HPV-6/11 and protection against anogenital warts (AGW). We studied the effect of the bivalent vaccine on genital HPV-6/11 positivity

  7. No evidence for cross-protection of the HPV-16/18 vaccine against HPV-6/11 positivity in female STI clinic visitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woestenberg, Petra J.; King, Audrey J.; van der Sande, Marianne A B; Donken, Robine; Leussink, Suzan; van der Klis, Fiona R M; Hoebe, Christian J P A; Bogaards, Johannes A.; van Benthem, Birgit H B

    OBJECTIVES: Data from a vaccine trial and from post-vaccine surveillance in the United Kingdom have suggested that the bivalent HPV-16/18 vaccine offers cross-protection against HPV-6/11 and protection against anogenital warts (AGW). We studied the effect of the bivalent vaccine on genital HPV-6/11

  8. An analysis of HPV infection incidence and clearance by genotype and age in men: The HPV Infection in Men (HIM) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingles, Donna J; Lin, Hui-Yi; Fulp, William J; Sudenga, Staci L; Lu, Beibei; Schabath, Matthew B; Papenfuss, Mary R; Abrahamsen, Martha E; Salmeron, Jorge; Villa, Luisa L; Ponce, Eduardo Lazcano; Giuliano, Anna R

    2015-12-01

    Genital HPV infection in men causes benign and cancerous lesions, the incidence of which differs by age. The goal of this work was to comprehensively evaluate incidence and clearance of individual HPV genotypes among men by age group. HIV-negative men ages 18-70 with no history of anogenital cancer were recruited for the HPV Infection in Men (HIM) Study . Participants completed clinical exams and questionnaires every six months for up to ~4 years. Genital specimens underwent HPV genotyping, with associations between age and HPV assessed using Cox analyses. 4085 men were followed for a median of 48.6 months (range: 0.3-94.0). Significantly lower HPV incidence rates were observed among the oldest age group (55-70 years) for grouped high-risk (incidence rate ratio [IRR]=0.71), HPV16 (IRR=0.54), grouped low-risk (IRR=0.74), and HPV6 (IRR=0.57) infections compared to men ages 18-24. However, incidence of the grouped 9-valent HPV vaccine types remained constant across the lifespan. Likelihood of HPV6 and HPV16 clearance remained constant until age 54, then increased significantly for men ages 55-70 (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR]=1.92 and 1.65, respectively). Men remain susceptible to HPV infections throughout their lifespan, highlighting the need for prevention efforts with long-lasting duration.

  9. Human papillomavirus (HPV) perinatal transmission and risk of HPV persistence among children: Design, methods and preliminary results of the HERITAGE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trottier, Helen; Mayrand, Marie-Hélène; Coutlée, François; Monnier, Patricia; Laporte, Louise; Niyibizi, Joseph; Carceller, Ana-Maria; Fraser, William D; Brassard, Paul; Lacroix, Jacques; Francoeur, Diane; Bédard, Marie-Josée; Girard, Isabelle; Audibert, François

    2016-12-01

    Perinatal route of transmission of human papillomavirus (HPV) has been demonstrated in several small studies. We designed a large prospective cohort study (HERITAGE) to better understand perinatal HPV. The objective of this article is to present the study design and preliminary data. In the first phase of the study, we recruited 167 women in Montreal, Canada, during the first trimester of pregnancy. An additional 850 are currently being recruited in the ongoing phase. Cervicovaginal samples were obtained from mothers in the first trimester and tested for HPV DNA from 36 mucosal genotypes (and repeated in the third trimester for HPV-positive mothers). Placental samples were also taken for HPV DNA testing. Conjunctival, oral, pharyngeal and genital samples were collected for HPV DNA testing in children of HPV-positive mothers at every 3-6 months from birth until 2 years of age. Blood samples were collected in mother and children for HPV serology testing. We found a high prevalence of HPV in pregnant women (45%[95%CI:37-53%]) and in placentas (14%[8-21%]). The proportion of HPV positivity (any site) among children at birth/3-months was 11%[5-22%]. HPV was detected in children in multiple sites including the conjunctiva (5%[10-14%]). The ongoing HERITAGE cohort will help provide a better understanding of perinatal HPV. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Anticipated Regret and Omission Bias in HPV Vaccination Decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Holm

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated effects of anticipated regret on parents’ HPV vaccination intentions and effects of omission bias on HPV vaccination intentions and vaccine uptake. An online survey was completed by 851 parents of adolescent girls in Denmark, a country where HPV vaccine safety is currently...... heavily debated. Multivariate regression analyses revealed anticipated inaction regret as a significant positive predictor of vaccination intentions, and, anticipated action regret as a significant negative predictor of vaccination intentions. Multivariate analyses also revealed omission bias...... in a hypothetical vaccination vignette as a significant negative predictor of HPV vaccination intention as well as vaccine uptake. Finally, the study tested effects of anticipated regret and omission bias on evaluations of two extisting Danish pro-vaccine campaign videos. Here, the result revealed anticipated...

  11. Does HPV status influence survival after vulvar cancer?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Christina Louise; Sand, Freja Laerke; Hoffmann Frederiksen, Marie

    2018-01-01

    High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is essential in the carcinogenesis of a substantial part of anogenital and oropharyngeal cancers and has additionally been shown to be a possible predictive marker for survival, especially in oropharyngeal cancer. Studies examining the influence of HPV...... status on survival after vulvar cancer have been conflicting and limited by small study populations. Therefore, the aim of this review and meta-analysis was to examine whether HPV status influences survival after vulvar cancer, which, to our knowledge, has not been done before. We conducted a systematic...... search of PubMed, Cochrane Library and Embase to identify studies examining survival after histologically verified and HPV tested vulvar cancer. A total of 18 studies were eligible for inclusion. Study-specific and pooled HRs of the 5-year OS and DFS were calculated using a fixed effects model. The I2...

  12. The HPV vaccine - What the family practitioner needs to know

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    integration of the virus into the replicative mechanisms of the basal cells, the impact of ... vertical transmission of HPV infection and my lead to significant airway ... or excisional strategies with the intention to decrease the likelihood of invasive ...

  13. HPV Vaccine Awareness, Barriers, Intentions, and Uptake in Latina Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechuga, Julia; Vera-Cala, Lina; Martinez-Donate, Ana

    2016-02-01

    Latina women are at heightened risk of cervical cancer incidence and mortality. The human papillomavirus (HPV) is the principal cause of the majority of cervical cancer cases. A vaccine that protects against HPV was licensed in 2006. Eight years post-licensure, mixed research findings exist regarding the factors that predict vaccine uptake in Latinas. We conducted a population-based phone survey with a random sample of 296 Latinas living in a Midwestern U.S. City. Intention to vaccinate was significantly associated with health care provider recommendations, worry about side effects, knowing other parents have vaccinated, perceived severity of HPV, and worry that daughter may become sexually active following vaccination. Worry that daughter may become sexually active was the only factor related to vaccine uptake. Findings suggest that training providers to discuss the low risk of severe side effects, consequences of persistent HPV, and sexuality related concerns with Latino women may encourage vaccination.

  14. All Adventurous Women Do: HPV, Narrative, and HBO's Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Brian

    2016-01-01

    This study looks at media portrayals of sexual health through the popular HBO television show Girls. This rhetorical criticism of Girls delineates two emergent narrative themes. First, the show repeatedly discusses human papillomavirus (HPV) in terms of its severity, but it oscillates in terms of representing the degree of significance. Second, the show frames the source of infection as more important than other concerns related to HPV. Ultimately, this analysis demonstrates that Girls perpetuates a problematic narrative plot structure related to issues of HPV transmission; it also provides a largely scientifically accurate portrayal of HPV and promotes open and frank discussions of sexual health. It is argued that mediated narratives, such as Girls, might have the potential to transform social attitudes and actions and should thereby garner attention from health communication scholars and public health advocates.

  15. Effect of School-based Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccination on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    assessed girls' knowledge of cervical cancer and HPV vaccine, and their acceptance of future vaccination of ... studies involve parents and young adults. The ... vaccine was delivered during the routine Child ... and attitudes about the vaccine.

  16. Social media microblogs as an HPV vaccination forum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chupei; Gotsis, Marientina; Jordan-Marsh, Maryalice

    2013-11-01

    The 2006 US FDA approval of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine brought new hope for cancer prevention. Gardasil and Cervarix are widely available vaccines that can deter HPV infection, which causes 70% of cervical cancer. Acceptance of vaccination varies due to a lack of HPV awareness and HPV vaccine knowledge. Recent observations of the Chinese microblog "SinaWeibo" suggest a new approach to engage health professionals and consumer website bloggers. Websites that present the latest fashion, fitness or beauty news and ways to obtain "deals" have created informative blogs or online communities that appeal to female users. Some users raise health questions of their peers. Health professionals, as website bloggers, can introduce vaccine news or respond to conversations between bloggers and their followers. By transforming medical vocabulary into ordinary chat, microblogs may promote efficiency in vaccine education and communication. A web-based, interactive social media-microblog could offer an ideal platform to speed up information dissemination and increase targeted communication.

  17. Genetic susceptibility to HPV infection and cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciag P.C.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix (SCCC is one of the leading causes of death in developing countries. Infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV is the major risk factor to develop malignant lesions in the cervix. Polymorphisms of the MHC and p53 genes seem to influence the outcome of HPV infection and progression to SCCC, although controversial data have been reported. MHC are highly polymorphic genes that encode molecules involved in antigen presentation, playing a key role in immune regulation, while p53 is a tumor suppressor gene that regulates cell proliferation. The HPV E6 protein from high-risk types binds p53 and mediates its degradation by the ubiquitin pathway. The role of these polymorphisms in genetic susceptibility to HPV infection and to SCCC remains under investigation.

  18. The high-risk HPV infection and urinary system tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Wenyan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available HPV is classified into high-risk and low-risk types depending on its probability of leading to tumorigenesis. Many studies have shown that HPV infection, especially the infection caused by the high-risk type, is always related to prostate cancer, bladder cancer, penile cancer, testicular cancer, and other urinary system tumors. However, previous studies differed in sexual openness and racial genetic susceptibility of the study object, sample size, and experimental methods. Hence, the correlation between high-risk HPV infection and urinary system tumors remains controversial. The early open reading frame of the HPV genome is composed of E1–E7, among which E6 and E7 are the key transfer proteins. The combination of these proteins with oncogene and anti-oncogene may be one of the mechanisms leading to tumorigenesis.

  19. The human papillomavirus (HPV) E6 oncoproteins promotes nuclear localization of active caspase 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manzo-Merino, Joaquin; Massimi, Paola; Lizano, Marcela; Banks, Lawrence

    2014-01-01

    The HPV-16 E6 and E6 ⁎ proteins have been shown previously to be capable of regulating caspase 8 activity. We now show that the capacity of E6 to interact with caspase 8 is common to diverse HPV types, being also seen with HPV-11 E6, HPV-18 E6 and HPV-18 E6 ⁎ . Unlike most E6-interacting partners, caspase 8 does not appear to be a major proteasomal target of E6, but instead E6 appears able to stimulate caspase 8 activation, without affecting the overall apoptotic activity. This would appear to be mediated in part by the ability of the HPV E6 oncoproteins to recruit active caspase 8 to the nucleus. - Highlights: • Multiple HPV E6 oncoproteins interact with the caspase 8 DED domain. • HPV E6 stimulates activation of caspase 8. • HPV E6 promotes nuclear accumulation of caspase 8

  20. THE HPV STATUS IN BLADDER CANCER, TUMOR MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS, AND CLINICAL FEATURES OF THE DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Golovina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The data of medical records of 101 patients with urothelial bladder cancer (BC were compared with the results of laboratory detection of human papillomaviruses (HPV in the tumor tissue samples taken from these patients during transurethral resection. DNA of HPV 16, the major type of the virus responsible for the occurrence of cervical cancer, was previously detected in 38 samples; and oncogenes E6 and E7 mRNA and HPV 16 E7 oncoprotein were found in 13 of these samples. Comparison of HPV-positive and HPV-negative groups revealed that HPV-positive BC showed higher cell anaplasia than HPV-negative one; moreover, primary cancer was HPV-positive more frequently than recurrent cancer. Sex, age, muscular layer invasion did not correlate with the HPV positivity of BC. 

  1. THE HPV STATUS IN BLADDER CANCER, TUMOR MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS, AND CLINICAL FEATURES OF THE DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Golovina

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The data of medical records of 101 patients with urothelial bladder cancer (BC were compared with the results of laboratory detection of human papillomaviruses (HPV in the tumor tissue samples taken from these patients during transurethral resection. DNA of HPV 16, the major type of the virus responsible for the occurrence of cervical cancer, was previously detected in 38 samples; and oncogenes E6 and E7 mRNA and HPV 16 E7 oncoprotein were found in 13 of these samples. Comparison of HPV-positive and HPV-negative groups revealed that HPV-positive BC showed higher cell anaplasia than HPV-negative one; moreover, primary cancer was HPV-positive more frequently than recurrent cancer. Sex, age, muscular layer invasion did not correlate with the HPV positivity of BC. 

  2. The human papillomavirus (HPV) E6 oncoproteins promotes nuclear localization of active caspase 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manzo-Merino, Joaquin [Unidad de Investigación Biomédica en Cáncer, Instituto Nacional de Cancerología, México/Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. Av. San Fernando No. 22, Col. Sección XVI, Tlalpan 14080 (Mexico); Massimi, Paola [International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Padriciano 99, I-34149 Trieste (Italy); Lizano, Marcela, E-mail: lizanosoberon@gmail.com [Unidad de Investigación Biomédica en Cáncer, Instituto Nacional de Cancerología, México/Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. Av. San Fernando No. 22, Col. Sección XVI, Tlalpan 14080 (Mexico); Banks, Lawrence, E-mail: banks@icgeb.org [International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Padriciano 99, I-34149 Trieste (Italy)

    2014-02-15

    The HPV-16 E6 and E6{sup ⁎} proteins have been shown previously to be capable of regulating caspase 8 activity. We now show that the capacity of E6 to interact with caspase 8 is common to diverse HPV types, being also seen with HPV-11 E6, HPV-18 E6 and HPV-18 E6{sup ⁎}. Unlike most E6-interacting partners, caspase 8 does not appear to be a major proteasomal target of E6, but instead E6 appears able to stimulate caspase 8 activation, without affecting the overall apoptotic activity. This would appear to be mediated in part by the ability of the HPV E6 oncoproteins to recruit active caspase 8 to the nucleus. - Highlights: • Multiple HPV E6 oncoproteins interact with the caspase 8 DED domain. • HPV E6 stimulates activation of caspase 8. • HPV E6 promotes nuclear accumulation of caspase 8.

  3. Change in knowledge of women about cervix cancer, human papilloma virus (HPV) and HPV vaccination due to introduction of HPV vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donders, Gilbert G G; Bellen, Gert; Declerq, Ann; Berger, Judith; Van Den Bosch, Thierry; Riphagen, Ine; Verjans, Marcel

    2009-07-01

    Test knowledge of HPV, cervix cancer awareness and acceptance of HPV vaccination of women now and a year ago. Questionnaires were filled out by 305 women visiting four gynaecologists of the Regional Hospital Heilig Hart, Tienen, Belgium during two subsequent weeks. Fisher T or Chi(2) were used as statistical methods to compare the data with the survey of 381 women exactly one year before. Knowledge about HPV as a cause of cervix cancer and the presence of a vaccine rose from roughly 50% in 2007 to over 80% in 2008 (pwomen below 26 years had now acquired almost equivalent knowledge to older women about the virus, cervix cancer and the vaccine, but they were far less likely to accept the vaccine due to its cost, unless it would be reimbursed (OR 4.2 (1.6-11) p=0.0055). One year after introduction of the first two HPV vaccines, over 75% of women attending an ambulatory gynaecology clinic know HPV causes cervix cancer and that you can get vaccinated against it. Compared with a year earlier, young and lower educated women had dramatically improved their knowledge. However, women below 26 years are less prepared to pay the cost for vaccination if it is not reimbursed.

  4. An Examination of HPV16 Natural Immunity in Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM) in the HPV in Men (HIM) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beachler, Daniel C; Pinto, Ligia A; Kemp, Troy J; Nyitray, Alan G; Hildesheim, Allan; Viscidi, Raphael; Schussler, John; Kreimer, Aimée R; Giuliano, Anna R

    2018-04-01

    Background: Evidence suggests that natural antibodies developed after HPV16 infection may protect some women but not men against subsequent HPV16 reacquisition. Less is known whether antibodies developed following HPV16 infection are protective among men who have sex with men (MSM). Methods: Four hundred seventy-five MSM from the Human Papillomavirus Infection in Men (HIM) study were tested for serum antibodies to HPV16 L1 using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, and for anal and genital HPV16 DNA using PCR consensus primer system (PGMY 09/11). Adjusted Cox regression was used to evaluate whether baseline HPV16 seropositivity impacts subsequent genital or anal HPV16 DNA. Results: The risk of subsequent genital HPV16 [aHR = 1.05, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.66-1.68] and anal HPV16 infections among MSM (aHR = 2.34, 95% CI = 0.92-5.98) was similar or nonsignificantly higher in HPV16-seropositive than HPV16-seronegative MSM. The risk of genital HPV16 was also similar between HPV16-seronegative and HPV16-seropositive MSM in the highest tertile of HPV16 antibody levels and when restricting to those with new sex partners during follow-up ( P > 0.20). Among the 118 MSM who were HPV16 seropositive, 90% remained HPV16 seropositive up to 4 years later. When tested together, MSM with the highest antibody titers (top tertile) had similar levels to females (mean = 130.3 vs. 134.5 EU/mL, P = 0.84). Conclusions: Despite years of HPV16 seropositivity persistence and antibody titers comparable with females, this study suggested no evidence of HPV16 natural antibodies protecting against subsequent genital or anal HPV16 infection in MSM. Impact: This could help partially explain the high incidence of genital and anal HPV16 infection and related anal cancer seen in middle-aged and older MSM. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 27(4); 496-502. ©2018 AACR . ©2018 American Association for Cancer Research.

  5. Barriers, facilitators, and potential strategies for increasing HPV vaccination: A statewide assessment to inform action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen B. Cartmell

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective was to investigate how state level strategies in South Carolina could maximize HPV vaccine uptake. Design: An environmental scan identified barriers, facilitators, and strategies for improving HPV vaccination in South Carolina. Interviews were conducted with state leaders from relevant organizations such as public health agencies, medical associations, K-12 schools, universities, insurers, and cancer advocacy organizations. A thematic content analysis design was used. Digital interview files were transcribed, a data dictionary was created and data were coded using the data dictionary. Results: Thirty four interviews were conducted with state leaders. Barriers to HPV vaccination included lack of HPV awareness, lack of provider recommendation, HPV vaccine concerns, lack of access and practice-level barriers. Facilitators included momentum for improving HPV vaccination, school-entry Tdap requirement, pharmacy-based HPV vaccination, state immunization registry, HEDIS measures and HPV vaccine funding. Strategies for improving HPV vaccination fell into three categories: 1 addressing lack of awareness about the importance of HPV vaccination among the public and providers; 2 advocating for policy changes around HPV vaccine coverage, vaccine education, and pharmacy-based vaccination; and 3 coordination of efforts. Discussion: A statewide environmental scan generated a blueprint for action to be used to improve HPV vaccination in the state. Keywords: HPV, HPV vaccines, Cervical cancer, Prevention, Health systems, Barriers, Facilitators, Strategies, South Carolina

  6. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE PRESENCE OF HELICOBACTER PYLORI WITH INFLAMMATORY ENDOSCOPIC CHANGES IN GASTRODUODENAL MUCOSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Irma Cláudia Saboya; Kubrusly, Luiz Fernandao; Nassif, Paulo Afonso Nunes; Ribeiro, Patrícia Fernanda Saboya; Veras, Rodrigo de Oliveira; Neppel, Aline

    2016-01-01

    The influence of Helicobacter pylori (HP) in inflammatory disorders of the digestive mucosa has been the subject of several studies since socioeconomic, personal and environmental factors were implicated in the bacteria transmission. To correlate the inflammatory endoscopic findings with HP infection and the onset of mucosal diseases mucous of the upper digestive tract. Comparative observational study, in which were collected data from 2247 patients who underwent upper endoscopy and biopsies for HP with urease test. The patients were divided into two groups: HP+ and HP- (control) in which endoscopic findings were observed for the following changes: esophagitis, esophageal ulcer, gastritis, erosive gastritis, gastric ulcer, bulboduodenitis, bulbar ulcer and without disease. As for esophagitis, there was little disparity in the distribution favorable to HP+ group (HP+ =67.11% and HP- =69.89%) and esophageal ulcer (HP+ =0% and HP- =0, 21%). Gastritis was favorable to HP- group (HP+ =78.34% and HP- =73.63%), as well as erosive gastritis (HP+ = 67,11% and HP- = 64,55%), in bulboduodenitis (HP+ =1,87% and HP- 1,23%), in gastric ulcer (HP+ =2,14% and HP- =2,03%) and in the absence of alterations in the HP+ group (4.81%) with the HP- control group (6,30%), in which there was little disproportion in favor of HP- group, but without statistical significance. As for the bulbar ulcer (HP +=10.16% and HP- =4.48%), there was statistically significant (p=0.00001). There is no difference between HP+ and HP- groups in inflammatory changes in endoscopic gastroduodenal mucosa, except for the relationship between HP and bulbar ulcer. A influência do Helicobacter pylori (HP) nas alterações inflamatórias das mucosas digestivas tem sido objeto de vários estudos uma vez que fatores socioeconômicos, pessoais e ambientais são implicados na transmissão da bactéria, facilitando-a. Relacionar os achados inflamatórios endoscópicos com a infecção pelo HP e o aparecimento de doen

  7. Impact of HPV vaccination with Gardasil® in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacot-Guillarmod, Martine; Pasquier, Jérôme; Greub, Gilbert; Bongiovanni, Massimo; Achtari, Chahin; Sahli, Roland

    2017-12-22

    Gardasil®, a quadrivalent vaccine targeting low-risk (6, 11) and high-risk (16, 18) human papillomaviruses (HPV), has been offered to 11-14 year-old schoolgirls in Switzerland since 2008. To evaluate its success and its potential impact on cervical cancer screening, HPV genotypes were examined in 18-year-old girls five years later (sub-study 1) and in outpatients participating to cervical cancer screening before and after vaccine implementation (sub-study 2). For sub-study 1, 3726 females aged 18 in 2013 were invited to fill a questionnaire on personal demographics and HPV risk factors and to provide a self-collected cervicovaginal sample for HPV genotyping and Chlamydia trachomatis PCR. Personal data were evaluated by univariable and multivariable statistics. In sub-study 2, the proportion of the vaccine-type HPV among anogenital HPV was examined with archived genotyping data of 8039 outpatients participating to cervical cancer screening from 1999 till 2015. The yearly evolution of this proportion was evaluated by segmented logistic regression. 690 (18.5%) women participated to sub-study 1 and 327 (8.8%) provided a self-collected sample. Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis (4.6%) and demographics confirmed that the subjects were representative of sexually-active Swiss young women. Vaccine (five-year coverage: 77.5%) was preferentially accepted by contraceptive-pill users (P = 0.001) and samples were mainly provided by sexually-active subjects (P Switzerland. Our data suggest that cervical cancer screening is now entering a stage of reduced proportion of HPV16 and/or 18 in samples reported positive by cytology. In view of the high likelihood of reduced clinical specificity of cytology, primary screening modalities involving HPV testing and cytology should now be re-evaluated in Switzerland.

  8. African American Parents’ HPV Vaccination Intent and Concerns

    OpenAIRE

    Sanders Thompson, Vetta L.; Arnold, Lauren D.; Notaro, Sheri R.

    2012-01-01

    This study describes attitudes and social and environmental factors that affect African American parents’ intent to vaccinate their daughters against human papillomavirus (HPV). Thirty African American parents of daughters aged nine to 17 years and no history of HPV infection completed semi-structured interviews. Interviews addressed factors that influenced intent to vaccinate, perception of community norms related to vaccination, vaccination scenarios involving place of vaccination, and vacc...

  9. Parent perceptions of dentists' role in HPV vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazalde, Gabriela E; Gilkey, Melissa B; Kornides, Melanie L; McRee, Annie-Laurie

    2018-01-25

    Offering HPV vaccine in settings beyond the traditional medical home holds promise for increasing the currently low levels of coverage. As adolescents frequently visit dentists, dental practices may be one such alternative vaccination setting. This study assessed parent attitudes about the roles dental providers could play in HPV prevention, including vaccine provision. In September 2016, we conducted an online survey using a national sample (n = 1209) of U.S. parents of adolescent children aged 11-17. Adolescents' mean age was 14; 53% were male and 62% were non-Hispanic white. We identified correlates of parents' comfort with dentists as HPV vaccinators using multivariable logistic regression. Overall, 23% of parents reported that they would feel comfortable with their child receiving HPV vaccine from a dentist. In multivariable analyses, parents had greater odds of being comfortable if they had higher trust in their child's primary care provider (OR = 1.27, 95% CI: 0.96-1.68) and lower odds if their child was female (OR = 0.65, 95% CI: 0.50-0.86). Convenience (20%) and oral health expertise (20%) were the most commonly cited benefits of dentists administering the vaccine. Wanting their child's regular provider to administer and track vaccinations (61% and 58%, respectively), and lack of insurance coverage (30%) were the most commonly cited concerns. Parents expressed somewhat greater comfort with roles dentists might play in promoting HPV vaccination other than vaccine delivery, such as providing education. Parents in this sample had low comfort with dentists as HPV vaccinators. Findings from this study highlight potential concerns to be addressed before dental practices consider offering HPV vaccination in the future. Further research should assess dentists' perspectives and explore alternative roles for dental providers in HPV prevention efforts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. HPV infection in premalign and malign cervical lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Yetimalar

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Our aim is to detect the incidence and rate of high risk HPV-DNA in patients with cervical cancer,HGSIL,LGSIL or ASCUS and compare those findings with patients presenting with totally benign servical smears as well as to search for the factors influencing these rates. Materials and Methods: 85 patients with cytologic and histologic proven cervical carcinoma, HGSIL, LGSIL, ASCUS and 178 patients with totally benign (normal or infecton smear results as a control group who attented to Atatürk Training and Research Hospital 3rd Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics between the dates of January 2006- July 2008 were included to our study. Within these patients age, first sexual intercourse, age, smoking habit, number of sexual partners, age of menarche and contraception methods were recorded. Pap smears and smears for detection of high risk HPV were taken concurrently from cervical transformation zone and external cervical ostium and the incidence of high risk HPV-DNA were examined. Results: High risk HPV DNA rate was detected as 65.2% positive in cervical carcinoma patients in our study. High risk HPV-DNA was positive in 54.8% of patients with HGSIL while it was positive in 25% of patients with LGSIL. High risk HPV-DNA was positive in 5% of patients with benign cervical cytology results. Discussion: The positivity rates of high risk HPV-DNA results in cervical carcinoma, HGSIL, LGSIL patients and in patients with benign cervical cytologies were statistically significant. When the age of menarche and contraception method were considered the HPV-DNA positivity rates’ differences were statistically insignificant.The differences for the age of first sexual intercourse, number of sexual partners, age and smoking habits were statistically significant.

  11. Review: Non-transecting bulbar urethroplasty using buccal mucosa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Review: Non-transecting bulbar urethroplasty using buccal mucosa. S Bugeja, S Ivaz, AV Frost, DE Andrich, AR Mundy. Abstract. Augmentation urethroplasty using oral mucosal graft has become the standard surgical treatment of long bulbar strictures. In very tight strictures the urethral plate is narrowed to the extent that an ...

  12. Laser-induced fluorescence of oral mucosa cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaliashvili, Z. V.; Medoidze, T. D.; Melikishvili, Z. G.; Gogilashvili, K. T.

    2017-10-01

    The laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) spectra have been measured for cancer-infused and control mice mucosa tissues. It was established that there is quite a difference between their LIF spectral shapes. These spectral shapes are used to express the diagnostic of different states of tissues: from normal to cancer.

  13. Helicobacter pylori and histopathological changes of gastric mucosa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Helicobacter pylori and histopathological changes of gastric mucosa in Uganda population with varying prevalence of stomach cancer. ... Results: The severity of gastritis correlated with the presence of H. pylori in Ganda and Nyarwanda but not in Nkole. Intestinal metaplasia (IM) was observed in Nyarwanda and Nkole and ...

  14. Histomorphometric evaluation of small intestinal mucosa of red ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Histomorphometry of the small intestinal mucosa of the red jungle fowl (RJF) and commercial broiler breed (CBC) from day one to four months post-hatch were investigated. For the sake of comparison between these two breeds, the following parameters were included: the number of villi, villus surface area and the intestinal ...

  15. Taste buds in the palatal mucosa of snakes | Berkhoudt | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An examination of the oral mucosa of Crotalus and several Scolecophidia revealed the presence of taste buds. The taste buds in these two divergent groups of snakes are similar in appearance, and correspond to previous descriptions of gustatory organs in other reptiles. Few taste buds were present in any specimen, and ...

  16. An overview of oral mucosa condition of shisha smoker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmi Amtha

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Shisha is a water pipe that tobacco extract and fruit scented burnt using coal. It produces the smoke through the vessel and inhaled using a hose with good taste. The culture of shisha smoking is popular in Midle East country that curently has been also entering Indonesia. The side effect of shisha smoking habit is still very rare reported. Aim of this study is to describe the oral mucosa condition of shisha user. A preliminary observasional study was conducted at several sisha cafe at South Jakarta. Under informed consent, subject with habit of tobacco and shisha smoker were included. Sociodemographic data (age, gender, duration, frequency of smoking, salivary flow rate and oral mucosa changes were documented. Eighteen subjects were recruited into this study. Most of shisha smoker was also tobacco smoker. Shisha was more practiced by male at  age (15-24 years old. The oral mucosa changes such as keratosis, melanosis, leukoedema, coated tongue, gingivitis and xerostomia were found on subject with habit of tobacco smoking habit only or both shisha and tobacco smoking. In conclusion apparently the shisha smoking habit may casue oral mucosa changes almost the same with tobacco smoking habit

  17. reactive localised inflammatory hyperplasia of the oral mucosa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-02-02

    Feb 2, 2009 ... cases(0.9%) were those of denture irritation hyperplasia. The age ... reported to have recurred and all of them were gingival lesions. ... grade chronic irritations to the oral mucosa such as ..... J. Periodontal.1980; 51: 55-61. 7.

  18. Human papillomavirus load in benign HPV-associated oral lesions from HIV/AIDS individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho-Aguilar, S; Ramírez-Amador, V; Rosendo-Chalma, P; Guido-Jiménez, M; García-Carrancá, A; Anaya-Saavedra, G

    2018-03-01

    Although HPV emerged as a crucial carcinogenic and prognostic biomarker in head and neck cancer, and considering the increase in HPV-associated oral lesions (HPV-OLs) in HIV individuals, molecular information about HPV-OLs is scarce; thus, our aim was to determine viral loads in HPV-OLs from HIV/AIDS individuals. HIV/AIDS subjects with HPV-OL were included in this cross-sectional study. Following informed consent, biopsies were obtained. HPV detection and typing were carried out by PCR and sequencing (MY09/11, GP5+/6+). HPV-13 and HPV-32 loads were determined by a high-resolution melting assay. For statistical analysis, X 2 , Fisher's exact, and Mann-Whitney U tests were applied, using SPSS software (v.23). Twenty-nine HIV subjects (median age 38 years, 93% males) were included. Most were AIDS individuals (72.4%) under HAART (89.7%). Twenty-two (75.9%) participants had more than one HPV-OL (four with florid presentations), mostly multifocal epithelial hyperplasia (62%), being HPV-13 (26%) and HPV-32 (31%) the most frequent types. HPV load was higher in individuals with multiple HPV-OLs than in solitary lesions (4.9 vs. 3.2 Log 10 copies/ml, p = .090) and in HPV-32 + than in HPV-13 + (8.3 vs. 6.4 Log 10 copies/ml, p = .014). Multiple HPV-OLs showed high HPV loads, possibly indicating transcriptional activity of the virus; however, in the HIV setting, the individual and local immunological response could be the key process. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Identification of human papillomavirus (HPV) subtype in oral cancer patients through microarray technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soung Min; Kwon, Ik Jae; Myoung, Hoon; Lee, Jong Ho; Lee, Suk Keun

    2018-02-01

    Human papilloma virus (HPV) is the main source of cervical cancer. Many recent studies have revealed the prevalence and prognosis of HPV associated with oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma, but fewer reports have evaluated HPV in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and prognosis of HPV associated with OSCC according to HPV and tumor types. We used a DNA chip kit (MY-HPV chip kit ® , Mygene Co., Korea) to detect high-risk HPV subtypes (16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 54, 56, 58) and low-risk subtypes (6, 11, 34, 40, 42, 43, 44) among 187 patients. The prevalence was determined by Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests, and the prognosis was calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method and the log-rank test. The overall prevalence of HPV in OSCC was 7.0% for all HPV positives and 4.3% for high-risk HPV positives. The prevalence of HPV was significantly higher in individuals under 65 years old and in those with tumors in the tongue and gum regions. The prognosis did not differ between the HPV-positive and -negative groups. Although the prevalence of HPV-positive cases in OSCC was low (7.0, 4.3%) and the prognosis did not depend on HPV positivity, HPV-associated OSCC should be considered in the evaluation and treatment of oral cancer patients. In addition, separating high- and low-risk groups based on the HPV status of other body parts might not be appropriate. The DNA microarray method can accurately detect known HPV subtypes simultaneously, but has limitations in detecting new subtypes. Vaccines can also be used to prevent HPV-associated OSCC in patients, so further studies on the prognosis and efficacy of vaccines should be undertaken.

  20. High risk HPV testing following treatment for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molloy, M; Comer, R; Rogers, P; Dowling, M; Meskell, P; Asbury, K; O'Leary, M

    2016-11-01

    To determine the results of combined cytology and high-risk human papilloma virus (HR HPV) tests at 6 and 18 months postcolposcopy treatment at one Irish colposcopy centre. All women who attended the centre's colposcopy smear clinic for a co-test 6 months (initial test) posttreatment were included in the audit (n = 251). The results revealed negative HR HPV for 79 % (n = 198) of women tested 6 months after treatment and positive results for 21 % (n = 53). HR HPV testing was more sensitive than cytology and led to early detection of residual disease. No women with negative HR HPV had high-grade cytology. HR HPV is more sensitive than cytology for detection of persistent CIN. However, 19 women with positive HR HPV had normal colposcopy with no persistent CIN detected. A national cost-benefit analysis is recommended to determine the value of the second co-test.

  1. Managing uncertainty: healthcare professionals' meanings regarding the HPV vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorova, Irina; Alexandrova-Karamanova, Anna; Panayotova, Yulia; Dimitrova, Elitsa; Kotzeva, Tatyana

    2014-02-01

    New preventive technologies such as vaccines offer insight into psychological, social, and cultural landscapes. Providers have a key role in parents' decisions for vaccinating their children. Yet, perspectives from providers regarding the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, or vaccination in general, are rarely sought Our objective in this paper is to understand how the HPV vaccine is perceived by health care providers and the multiple contextual meanings it elicits. We conducted interviews with 20 health care professionals in Bulgaria about their attitudes and practices related to HPV vaccination and their recommendations for policies. The verbatim-transcribed interviews were analyzed through narrative analysis, with a special focus on language. We illustrate providers' contradictory and contextualized constructions of the vaccine and the narrative strategies they use to manage any uncertainty it elicits. These include being advocates and missionaries for preventive health, confirming their trust in the medical profession and professional organizations, challenging patients' concerns with rational explanations, normalizing the risk of medical innovations, and avoiding the sexual nature of HPV transmission. The introduction of a vaccine to prevent HPV infection, and by implication, possibly cervical and other cancers, created hope, and at the same time, intensified confusion and uncertainty. Providers have been frustrated for years with the rising mortality from cervical cancer in Bulgaria, and their perceived powerlessness in affecting this. HPV vaccination, on the other hand, seems relatively simple and "taming uncertainty" positions them as instrumental in limiting (or even eliminating) morbidity and mortality in future generations.

  2. [HPV Vaccination Program - The History and Recent Progress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Hiroyuki

    2017-09-01

    Four years have passed since HPV vaccination "crisis" occurred in June 2013. In Japan,a publicly funded HPV vaccination program for adolescent females aged 12-16 years began in December 2010. However,the Japanese government withdrew its recommendation for HPV vaccination in June, 2013 because news reports on potential adverse effects of HPV vaccines without any medical evidence appeared repeatedly. The vaccination coverage among adolescent females decreased quickly from around 70%in females born between 1994 and 1999 to only 1%in females born since 2001 over the country. The suspension of recommendation for vaccination has continued to the present,though there is no scientific or epidemiologic evidence to demonstrate the causal linkage between post-vaccination symptoms and the HPV vaccines. Very recently,an ecological investigation reported that similar symptoms also occur in unvaccinated adolescents in Japan. Medical organizations in Japan are also calling for a resumption of the HPV vaccination program. Now,the resumption of the recommendation needs a political judgment.

  3. hpvPDB: An Online Proteome Reserve for Human Papillomavirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish Kumar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Human papillomavirus (HPV infection is the leading cause of cancer mortality among women worldwide. The molecular understanding of HPV proteins has significant connotation for understanding their intrusion in the host and designing novel protein vaccines and anti-viral agents, etc. Genomic, proteomic, structural, and disease-related information on HPV is available on the web; yet, with trivial annotations and more so, it is not well customized for data analysis, host-pathogen interaction, strain-disease association, drug designing, and sequence analysis, etc. We attempted to design an online reserve with comprehensive information on HPV for the end users desiring the same. The Human Papillomavirus Proteome Database (hpvPDB domiciles proteomic and genomic information on 150 HPV strains sequenced to date. Simultaneous easy expandability and retrieval of the strain-specific data, with a provision for sequence analysis and exploration potential of predicted structures, and easy access for curation and annotation through a range of search options at one platform are a few of its important features. Affluent information in this reserve could be of help for researchers involved in structural virology, cancer research, drug discovery, and vaccine design.

  4. Safety of the HPV Bivalent and Quadrivalent Vaccines During Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forinash, Alicia B; Yancey, Abigail M; Pitlick, Jamie M; Myles, Thomas D

    2011-02-01

    To evaluate the safety of the human papillomavirus (HPV) bivalent and quadrivalent vaccines in pregnancy. PubMed (1966-August 2010) was searched using the terms human papillomavirus, human papillomavirus vaccine, and pregnancy. References were reviewed for relevant information. All studies including humans that were published in English with data describing HPV vaccine administration in pregnancy were evaluated. Two combined analyses of 7 Phase 3 efficacy trials have retrospectively evaluated the safety of unintentional administration of either the bivalent (n = 1786) or quadrivalent (n = 2085) HPV vaccine during pregnancy. In addition, postmarketing pregnancy registry surveillance data (prospective, n = 787; retrospective, n = 76) for the quadrivalent HPV vaccine have been published. However, only 279 pregnancies from the studies and 90 pregnancies from the registry occurred within 30 days of receiving the vaccination. Overall, the vaccine does not appear to be associated with an increased risk of spontaneous abortion, fetal malformations, or adverse pregnancy outcomes beyond that found in the general population. Although the data are limited, neither HPV vaccine appears to be associated with an increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. However, limitations of the data include small patient populations, minimal to no adjustments for factors known to influence pregnancy outcomes or malformations, and the majority of the available pregnancy data are from retrospective analysis of Phase 3 efficacy trials. Neither HPV vaccine should be routinely administered during pregnancy. If a pregnancy occurs midseries, the remaining vaccines should be given after pregnancy completion. Further studies are required to determine actual risk. © 2011 SAGE Publications.

  5. Os papilomavírus humanos – HPV: carcinogênese e imunogênese - doi: 10.5102/ucs.v1i1.503

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geni N. N. de Lima Camara

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Há estimativas de que cerca de 20% dos casos de câncer em humanos estão associados com alguns grupos de vírus, entre eles o dos papilomavírus humanos. O carcinoma cervical é, provavelmente um dos melhores exemplos de como uma infecção viral pode levar ao câncer. Quando ocorre a integração do genoma do HPV no DNA da célula, há a ruptura do gene E2. Esse gene inibe a expressão dos genes E6 e E7. A proteína E6 atua degradando a proteína celular supressora de tumor, p53, já E7 se liga à proteína pRb (proteína de susceptibilidade ao retinoblastoma, que deixa de regular negativamente o ciclo celular de G1 para S. Além disso, outra proteína viral, a E5, parece atuar sinergeticamente com o fator de crescimento epidérmico. A proteína L1 HPV, quando expressa em diversos sistemas, é capaz de organizar-se em partículas icosaédricas, semelhantes ao capsídeo viral (VLPs, mas sem o DNA do vírus. Essa propriedade da L1 possibilitou o avanço do conhecimento da imunogênese na infecção por HPV e a perspectiva de desenvolver vacinas contra esse vírus. As VLPs são altamente imunogênicas e quando injetadas em coelhos induzem a produção de títulos elevados de anticorpos tipo-específicos. A escolha dos tipos de HPV que serão usados para a produção de VLPs depende, ainda, do conhecimento da prevalência dos diversos genotipos em diferentes populações sintomáticas e assintomáticas. Estudos sorológicos em mulheres infectadas com HPV-16, indicaram soropositividade para anticorpos contra as proteínas do capsídeo viral deste genoptipo em 50% a 60% das mulheres pesquisadas.

  6. Suppression of Innate Immune Response by Primary Human Keratinocytes Expressing HPV-16 E6 and E7

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Guess, Jennifer L

    2005-01-01

    Human papillomavims (HPV) types infect the skin and mucosal epithelium. Lesions resulting from HPV infection can linger for months or years suggesting that HPV - presence goes unnoticed by the host immune system...

  7. Outsmart HPV: Acceptability and short-term effects of a web-based HPV vaccination intervention for young adult gay and bisexual men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRee, Annie-Laurie; Shoben, Abigail; Bauermeister, Jose A; Katz, Mira L; Paskett, Electra D; Reiter, Paul L

    2018-01-10

    Effective interventions to promote human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination are needed, particularly among populations at increased risk of HPV-related disease. We developed and pilot tested a web-based intervention, Outsmart HPV, to promote HPV vaccination among young gay and bisexual men (YGBM). In 2016, we recruited a national sample (n = 150) of YGBM ages 18-25 in the United States who had not received any doses of HPV vaccine. Participants were randomized to receive either standard HPV vaccination information (control) or population-targeted, individually-tailored content (Outsmart HPV intervention). We assessed between group differences in HPV vaccination attitudes and beliefs immediately following the intervention using multiple linear regression. There were no differences in HPV vaccination attitudes, beliefs and intentions between groups at baseline. Compared to participants in the control group, intervention participants reported: greater perception that men who have sex with men are at higher risk for anal cancer relative to other men (b = 0.34); greater HPV vaccination self-efficacy (b = 0.15); and fewer perceived harms of HPV vaccine (b = -0.34) on posttest surveys (all p HPV intervention (all > 4.4 on a 5-point scale). Findings from this study provide preliminary support for a brief, tailored web-based intervention in improving HPV vaccination attitudes and beliefs among YGBM. An important next step is to determine the effects of Outsmart HPV on HPV vaccine uptake. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT02835755. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Expression profile of microRNA-146a along HPV-induced multistep carcinogenesis: a study in HPV16 transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Rita; Santos, Joana M O; Fernandes, Mara; Dias, Francisca; Sousa, Hugo; Ribeiro, Joana; Bastos, Margarida M S M; Oliveira, Paula A; Carmo, Diogo; Casaca, Fátima; Silva, Sandra; Medeiros, Rui; Gil da Costa, Rui M

    2018-02-01

    Persistent human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is associated with the development of certain types of cancer and the dysregulation of microRNAs has been implicated in HPV-associated carcinogenesis. This is the case of microRNA-146a (miR-146a), which is thought to regulate tumor-associated inflammation. We sought to investigate the expression levels of miR-146a during HPV16-mediated carcinogenesis using skin samples from K14-HPV16 transgenic mice which develop the consecutive phases of the carcinogenesis process. Female transgenic (HPV +/- ) and wild-type (HPV -/- ) mice were sacrificed at 24-26 weeks-old or 28-30 weeks-old. Chest and ear skin samples from HPV +/- and HPV -/- mice were histologically classified and used for microRNA extraction and quantification by qPCR. Chest skin samples from 24 to 26 weeks-old HPV +/- mice presented diffuse epidermal hyperplasia and only 22.5% showed multifocal dysplasia, while at 28-30 weeks-old all (100.0%) HPV +/- animals showed epidermal dysplasia. All HPV +/- ear skin samples showed carcinoma in situ (CIS). MiR-146a expression levels were higher in HPV +/- compared to HPV -/- mice (p = 0.006). There was also an increase in miR-146a expression in dysplastic skin lesions compared with hyperplasic lesions (p = 0.011). Samples showing CIS had a significant decrease in miR-146a expression when compared to samples showing epidermal hyperplasia (p = 0.018) and epidermal dysplasia (p = 0.009). These results suggest that HPV16 induces the overexpression of miR-146a in the initial stages of carcinogenesis (hyperplasia and dysplasia), whereas decreases its expression at later stages (CIS). Taken together, these data implicate and suggest different roles of miR-146a in HPV-mediated carcinogenesis.

  9. Presença do papilomavirus humano em lesões malignas de mucosa oral Presence of human papillomavirus in malignant oral lesions

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    Christiane Pienna Soares

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a prevalência do papilomavírus humano 6/11 e 16/18 em pacientes, com lesões orais clínicamente diagnosticadas como leucoplasias, atendidas na Faculdade de Odontologia de Araraquara, UNESP, Brasil. Após a inclusão em parafina, os cortes corados com H&E, foram selecionadas 30 biópsias e separadas em 3 grupos: lesões sem displasia (n=10, lesões com diferentes graus de displasia (n=10 e carcinoma espinocelular invasivo(n=10. As lesões que apresentaram displasia epitelial foram classificadas de acordo com os critérios histopatológicos propostos por Van Der Waal. As lesões foram investigadas para a presença de HPV por hibridização in situ com sondas biotiniladas de amplo espectro, 6/11 e 16/18. HPV 16/18 foi detectado em 20% (n=2 das biópsias com displasia severa. A presença de HPV 16/18 em lesões malignas sugere sua importância como fator de risco na carcinogênese oral.The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of human papillomavirus 6/11 and 16/18 in patients, with oral lesions clinically diagnosed as leucoplakia, attending the School of Dentistry, University of São Paulo State/UNESP, Brazil. After paraffin embedded process, in the sections staining with H&E, 30 biopsies were screened and separated on 3 groups: 10 oral lesions without dysplasia, 10 with dysplasia, and 10 with invasive squamous cell carcinoma. The lesions with dysplasia were classified in agreement with Van Der Wall's histopathological standard method. Oral lesions were investigated for the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV by in situ hybridization with wide-spectrum, 6/11 and 16/18 biotinylated probes. HPV 16/18 was found in 20% (n=2 of the leucoplakia with severe-degree dysplasia. The presence of HPV 16/18 in malignant lesions suggests its importance as a risk factor for oral carcinogenesis.

  10. The potential role of HPV vaccination in the prevention of infectious complications of pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Ulla; Jøergensen, Jan Stener; Mogensen, Ole

    2014-01-01

    There is now incontrovertible evidence that HPV is the cause of almost all cases of genital warts, cervical dysplasia and cervical cancer. Moreover the current review of the recent literature on HPV in relation to pregnancy found strong indications that HPV plays an important role in adverse...... outcomes of pregnancy. HPV may contribute to infertility and may increase the risk of miscarriage. Recent studies indicate a significant rate of vertical transmission of HPV between mother and child but whether the mode of delivery makes a difference to the risk of transmission remains unknown. HPV...

  11. DNA of HPV and antibodies toward the protein E7 of HPV 16 as prediction factors in women with cervical cancer submitted to radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bravo, Maria Mercedes; Combita R, Alba Lucia; Molano L, Monica; Gonzalez Florez, Hector; Orozco D, Oscar

    2002-01-01

    The effects of HPV infection on intrinsic tumor cell sensitivity to radiation therapy (RT) are not clear. Antibodies to HPV16-E7 protein are consistently detected in cervical cancer patients, the changes in the levels of these antibodies after RT thus may have prognostic implications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibodies to HPV16-E7 protein and the HPV status in cervical cancer patients before and after RT and to correlate these with clinic pathological parameters. Antibodies to peptide E7 and HPV DNA status before and after RT could have prognosis significance for patients with locally advanced uterine cervical carcinoma

  12. Conhecimento e atitude de usuários do SUS sobre o HPV e as vacinas disponíveis no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Duarte Osis

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO : Analisar o conhecimento de homens e mulheres acerca do HPV e das vacinas e sua intenção de serem vacinados e de vacinarem seus filhos adolescentes. MÉTODOS : Estudo descritivo, de corte transversal, com 286 mulheres (18 a 49 anos e 252 homens (18 a 60 anos, usuários de cinco unidades básicas de saúde e duas policlínicas do Sistema Único de Saúde, em Campinas, SP, em 2011. Foi realizada entrevista estruturada. Realizou-se análise bivariada e regressão de Poisson para identificar variáveis associadas ao conhecimento sobre HPV e vacinas e à intenção de vacinação. RESULTADOS : Quase 40,0% dos entrevistados referiram ter ouvido falar do HPV e 28,9% mencionaram informações adequadas; a principal fonte de informação foi a mídia (41,7%; 8,6% tinham ouvido falar das vacinas. Depois de informados da existência das vacinas, cerca de 94,0% dos participantes disseram que se vacinariam e/ou vacinariam filhos adolescentes se as vacinas estivessem disponíveis na rede pública de saúde. Escolaridade > 8 anos e ser do sexo feminino estiveram independentemente associados a ter ouvido falar do HPV e das vacinas e a ter conhecimento adequado sobre o vírus. Maior idade associou-se a ter ouvido falar das vacinas. Não houve variáveis associadas à intenção de vacinação. CONCLUSÕES : Os resultados reforçam a necessidade de haver intervenções educativas na população para prover informação adequada sobre o HPV e sobre medidas de prevenção.

  13. Validation of methylation biomarkers that distinguish normal colon mucosa from cancer patients from normal colon mucosa of patients without cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesaroni, Matteo; Powell, Jasmine; Sapienza, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    We have validated differences in DNA methylation levels of candidate genes previously reported to discriminate between normal colon mucosa of colon cancer patients and normal colon mucosa of individuals without cancer. Here, we report that CpG sites in 16 of the 30 candidate genes selected show significant differences in mean methylation level in normal colon mucosa of 24 cancer patients and 24 controls. A support vector machine trained on these data and data for an additional 66 CpGs yielded an 18-gene signature, composed of 10 of the validated candidate genes plus eight additional candidates. This model exhibited 96% sensitivity and 100% specificity in a 40-sample training set and classified all eight samples in the test set correctly. Moreover, we found a moderate-strong correlation (Pearson coefficients r=0.253-0.722) between methylation levels in colon mucosa and methylation levels in peripheral blood for seven of the 18 genes in the support vector model. These seven genes, alone, classified 44 of the 48 patients in the validation set correctly and five CpGs selected from only two of the seven genes classified 41 of the 48 patients in the discovery set correctly. These results suggest that methylation biomarkers may be developed that will, at minimum, serve as useful objective and quantitative diagnostic complements to colonoscopy as a cancer-screening tool. These data also suggest that it may be possible to monitor biomarker methylation levels in tissues collected much less invasively than by colonoscopy. PMID:24806665

  14. Teenagers' knowledge about HPV infection and HPV vaccination in the first year of the public vaccination programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopracordevole, F; Cigolot, F; Gardonio, V; Di Giuseppe, J; Boselli, F; Ciavattini, A

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess teens' knowledge of HPV infection and vaccination one year after the initiation of the public vaccination programme and information campaign on the disease and the opportunity of vaccination. Between 15 May and 15 June 2009, a survey was carried out on 1,105 teenagers attending high schools in a town in the northeast of Italy by means of an anonymous and unannounced questionnaire covering the knowledge of HPV infection, transmission, prevention, vaccination and post-vaccination behaviours. Only 75% of teens knew what HPV infection is (92% of girls vs 51% of boys, p teens aware of HPV vaccination, 7.6% of girls and 21.8% of boys believe that it can prevent AIDS (p Teens' knowledge about HPV infection and vaccination remains insufficient, despite a broad information campaign. Erroneous information may increase risky sexual behaviours. Without complete information about HPV infection and vaccination and information about other sexually-transmitted diseases, the latter might become difficult to control among teenagers, while some misunderstandings about the usefulness of secondary prevention might linger.

  15. Detection of oral HPV infection - Comparison of two different specimen collection methods and two HPV detection methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Marjorie M A; Hartel, Gunter; Whiteman, David C; Antonsson, Annika

    2018-04-01

    Very little is known about the natural history of oral HPV infection. Several different methods exist to collect oral specimens and detect HPV, but their respective performance characteristics are unknown. We compared two different methods for oral specimen collection (oral saline rinse and commercial saliva kit) from 96 individuals and then analyzed the samples for HPV by two different PCR detection methods (single GP5+/6+ PCR and nested MY09/11 and GP5+/6+ PCR). For the oral rinse samples, the oral HPV prevalence was 10.4% (GP+ PCR; 10% repeatability) vs 11.5% (nested PCR method; 100% repeatability). For the commercial saliva kit samples, the prevalences were 3.1% vs 16.7% with the GP+ PCR vs the nested PCR method (repeatability 100% for both detection methods). Overall the agreement was fair or poor between samples and methods (kappa 0.06-0.36). Standardizing methods of oral sample collection and HPV detection would ensure comparability between future oral HPV studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The role of inflammation in HPV infection of the Oesophagus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schäfer, Georgia; Kabanda, Siti; Rooyen, Beverly van; Marušič, Martina Bergant; Banks, Lawrence; Parker, M Iqbal

    2013-01-01

    Several human cancers are known to be associated with inflammation and/or viral infections. However, the influence of tumour-related inflammation on viral uptake is largely unknown. In this study we used oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) as a model system since this type of cancer is associated with chronic irritation, inflammation and viral infections. Although still debated, the most important viral infection seems to be with Human Papillomavirus (HPV). The present study focused on a possible correlation between inflammation, OSCC development and the influence of HPV infection. A total of 114 OSCC biopsies and corresponding normal tissue were collected at Groote Schuur Hospital and Tygerberg Hospital, Cape Town (South Africa), that were subjected to RNA and DNA isolation. RNA samples were analysed by quantitative Light Cycler RT-PCR for the expression of selected genes involved in inflammation and infection, while conventional PCR was performed on the DNA samples to assess the presence of integrated viral DNA. Further, an in vitro infection assay using HPV pseudovirions was established to study the influence of inflammation on viral infectivity using selected cell lines. HPV DNA was found in about 9% of OSCC patients, comprising predominantly the oncogenic type HPV18. The inflammatory markers IL6 and IL8 as well as the potential HPV receptor ITGA6 were significantly elevated while IL12A was downregulated in the tumour tissues. However, none of these genes were expressed in a virus-dependent manner. When inflammation was mimicked with various inflammatory stimulants such as benzo-α-pyrene, lipopolysaccharide and peptidoglycan in oesophageal epithelial cell lines in vitro, HPV18 pseudovirion uptake was enhanced only in the benzo-α-pyrene treated cells. Interestingly, HPV pseudovirion infectivity was independent of the presence of the ITGA6 receptor on the surface of the tested cells. This study showed that although the carcinogen benzo

  17. Population-based prevalence, type- and age-specific distribution of HPV in women before introduction of an HPV-vaccination program in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Susanne K.; Breugelmans, Gabrielle; Munk, Christian

    2008-01-01

    /11. Prevalence of high-risk HPV types increased from 19.2% in women with normal cytology to 100% in women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (CIN3)/cervical cancer. HPV 16 was the most prevalent type (6.0% of all women), and was also the most prevalent in women with HSIL (35.1%) and CIN3 (53......-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion and 1.6% had high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL). The HPV prevalence was 26.4% with a peak in women 20-24 years (50.2%) and then decreased without a second peak in older women. Among the youngest women (15-19 years), 14% had HPV 16/18 and 16% had HPV 6.......2%). Other common HPV types in women with CIN3 included HPV 52, 51, 31, 33 and 18. HPV 16/18 alone was present in 23% of CIN3 lesions and 67% of cervical cancers, and HPV 16/18 together with other high-risk HPV types was present in 41% of CIN3 lesions. This suggests that an efficacious HPV 16/18 vaccine...

  18. MZC Gel Inhibits SHIV-RT and HSV-2 in Macaque Vaginal Mucosa and SHIV-RT in Rectal Mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calenda, Giulia; Villegas, Guillermo; Barnable, Patrick; Litterst, Claudia; Levendosky, Keith; Gettie, Agegnehu; Cooney, Michael L; Blanchard, James; Fernández-Romero, José A; Zydowsky, Thomas M; Teleshova, Natalia

    2017-03-01

    The Population Council's microbicide gel MZC (also known as PC-1005) containing MIV-150 and zinc acetate dihydrate (ZA) in carrageenan (CG) has shown promise as a broad-spectrum microbicide against HIV, herpes simplex virus (HSV), and human papillomavirus. Previous data show antiviral activity against these viruses in cell-based assays, prevention of vaginal and rectal simian-human immunodeficiency virus reverse transcriptase (SHIV-RT) infection, and reduction of vaginal HSV shedding in rhesus macaques and also excellent antiviral activity against HSV and human papillomavirus in murine models. Recently, we demonstrated that MZC is safe and effective against SHIV-RT in macaque vaginal explants. Here we established models of ex vivo SHIV-RT/HSV-2 coinfection of vaginal mucosa and SHIV-RT infection of rectal mucosa in macaques (challenge of rectal mucosa with HSV-2 did not result in reproducible tissue infection), evaluated antiviral activity of MZC, and compared quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay readouts for monitoring SHIV-RT infection. MZC (at nontoxic dilutions) significantly inhibited SHIV-RT in vaginal and rectal mucosas and HSV-2 in vaginal mucosa when present during viral challenge. Analysis of SHIV-RT infection and MZC activity by 1-step simian immunodeficiency virus gag quantitative RT-PCR and p27 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay demonstrated similar virus growth dynamics and MZC activity by both methods and higher sensitivity of quantitative RT-PCR. Our data provide more evidence that MZC is a promising dual compartment multipurpose prevention technology candidate.

  19. HPV infection and P16 expression in oral and oropharyngeal cancer in Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adilbay, Dauren; Adilbayev, Galim; Kidirbayeva, Gulzhan; Shipilova, Viktoria; Sadyk, Zhanat; Koyanbekova, Gulsum; Sokolenko, Ekaterina; Klozar, Jan

    2018-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is an important etiologic factor in different cancers of anogenital region and also in a fraction of head and neck cancers (HNC) particularly oropharyngeal tumors. The HPV16 genotype associated with the majority of HPV-related head and neck carcinomas. Th incidence of oropharyngeal cancer is increasing in many countries, and the rate of HPV positive tumors is about 70% in Europe and North America. Little known about the prevalence of HPV in HNC in Central Asia. It's a prospective analysis of patients with verified oral or oropharyngeal cancer. Sociodemographic and clinical data obtained on admission to treatment. The diagnosis of HPV positivity assessed by both the P16 expression on immunohistochemistry(IHC) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)with HPV DNA detection and HR HPV type determination. Seventy six patients with oral and oropharyngeal cancer tested for HPV. Forteen cases were positive for HPV by PCR and 15 cases by P16 IHC. Of the 35 oropharyngeal tumors, nine were HPV DNA and p16 IHC positive, giving the rate of 25.7%. Of the 41 oral tumors, five were HPV DNA and six p16 IHC positive, giving the rate of 12.2%. It is the first study mapping prevalence of HPV positivity in oral and oropharyngeal cancer in the Central Asian region. The rate of HPV positivity was higher in oropharyngeal than in oral cancer, the nonsmokers were significantly more frequent in the HPV positive group and HPV 16 was the most frequent type. However, the HPV positivity rates are lower than referred in the western world.

  20. Surgical staging identified false HPV-negative cases in a large series of invasive cervical cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petry, Karl Ulrich; Liebrich, Clemens; Luyten, Alexander; Zander, Martina; Iftner, Thomas

    2017-12-01

    We examined a large series of biopsy-proven invasive cervical cancers with surgical staging and HPV re-testing to estimate the relevance of HPV-negative cervical cancers in a Caucasian population. We prospectively collected smears from 371 patients with a biopsy-proven diagnosis of cervical cancer for HC2 testing of high-risk HPV (HR-HPV). In HC2-negative cases, smears and paraffin embedded tissue blocks underwent additional HPV genotyping. HC2 tests showed 31/371 cases (8.8%) had negative findings. Surgical staging showed that 21/31 HC2-negative cases (68%) were not cervical cancer. Overall, 340/350 cases of primary cervical cancer confirmed by surgical staging tested HC2 positive (97.2%). Non-high-risk HPV subtypes were detected in five cases (one HPV-53, one HPV-70, and three HPV-73) and high-risk subtypes in four patients with HC2-negative cervical cancer (two HPV 16 and two HPV-18). The remaining case, a primary undifferentiated carcinoma of the uterine cervix, tested negative for HPV-DNA with all tests. The main explanation for HPV-negative cervical cancer was a false diagnosis, followed by cancers associated with non-HR-HPV types, and false-negative HR-HPV results. Truly HPV negative seem to be very rare in Caucasian populations. Retrospective analyses without surgical staging may overestimate the proportion of HPV negative cervical cancers. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Are the Two Human Papillomavirus Vaccines Really Similar? A Systematic Review of Available Evidence: Efficacy of the Two Vaccines against HPV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Di Mario

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. When the bivalent and the quadrivalent HPV vaccines were marketed they were presented as having comparable efficacy against cervical cancer. Differences between the vaccines are HPV types included and formulation of the adjuvant. Method. A systematic review was conducted to assess the efficacy of the two vaccines against cervical cancer. Outcomes considered were CIN2+, CIN3+, and AIS. Results. Nine reports (38,419 women were included. At enrolment mean age of women was 20 years, 90% had negative cytology, and 80% were seronegative and/or DNA negative for HPV 16 or 18 (naïve women. In the TVC-naïve, VE against CIN2+ was 58% (95% CI: 35, 72; heterogeneity was detected, VE being 65% (95% CI: 54, 74 for the bivalent and 43% (95% CI: 23, 57 for the quadrivalent. VE against CIN3+ was 78% (95% CI: <0, 97; heterogeneity was substantial, VE being 93% (95% CI: 77, 98 for the bivalent and 43% (95% CI: 12, 63 for the quadrivalent. VE in the TVC was much lower. No sufficient data were available on AIS. Conclusions. In naïve girls bivalent vaccine shows higher efficacy, even if the number of events detected is low. In women already infected the benefit of the vaccination seems negligible.

  2. HPV type infection in different anogenital sites among HIV-positive Brazilian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donadi Eduardo Antonio

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To evaluate the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV types, and risk factors for HPV positivity across cervix, vagina and anus, we conducted a study among 138 women with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. Goal Compare the prevalence of different HPV types and the risk factors for HPV positivity in three sites. Results The most frequently detected HPV types in all sites were, in decreasing order, HPV16, 53, 18, 61 and 81. Agreement between the cervix and vagina was good (kappa 0.60 – 0.80 for HPV16 and 53 and excellent (Kappa > 0.80 for HPV18 and 61. HPV positivity was inversely associated with age for all combinations including the anal site. Conclusion In HIV positive women, HPV18 is the most spread HPV type found in combinations of anal and genital sites. The relationship of anal to genital infection has implications for the development of anal malignancies. Thus, the efficacy of the current HPV vaccine may be considered not only for the cervix, but also for prevention of HPV18 anal infection among immunossuppressed individuals.

  3. Serous otitis media and immunological reactions in the middle ear mucosa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Baan, S.; Seldenrijk, C. A.; Henzen-Logmans, S. C.; Drexhage, H. A.

    1988-01-01

    An immunohistochemical study was performed on the middle ear mucosa of 21 children with chronic serous otitis media (SOM). In 86% of the patients a highly organized lymphatic tissue was found in the middle ear mucosa which can be regarded as part of the mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT).

  4. Chimeric L2-Based Virus-Like Particle (VLP Vaccines Targeting Cutaneous Human Papillomaviruses (HPV.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Huber

    Full Text Available Common cutaneous human papillomavirus (HPV types induce skin warts, whereas species beta HPV are implicated, together with UV-radiation, in the development of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC in immunosuppressed patients. Licensed HPV vaccines contain virus-like particles (VLP self-assembled from L1 major capsid proteins that provide type-restricted protection against mucosal HPV infections causing cervical and other ano-genital and oro-pharyngeal carcinomas and warts (condylomas, but do not target heterologous HPV. Experimental papillomavirus vaccines have been designed based on L2 minor capsid proteins that contain type-common neutralization epitopes, to broaden protection to heterologous mucosal and cutaneous HPV types. Repetitive display of the HPV16 L2 cross-neutralization epitope RG1 (amino acids (aa 17-36 on the surface of HPV16 L1 VLP has greatly enhanced immunogenicity of the L2 peptide. To more directly target cutaneous HPV, L1 fusion proteins were designed that incorporate the RG1 homolog of beta HPV17, the beta HPV5 L2 peptide aa53-72, or the common cutaneous HPV4 RG1 homolog, inserted into DE surface loops of HPV1, 5, 16 or 18 L1 VLP scaffolds. Baculovirus expressed chimeric proteins self-assembled into VLP and VLP-raised NZW rabbit immune sera were evaluated by ELISA and L1- and L2-based pseudovirion (PsV neutralizing assays, including 12 novel beta PsV types. Chimeric VLP displaying the HPV17 RG1 epitope, but not the HPV5L2 aa53-72 epitope, induced cross-neutralizing humoral immune responses to beta HPV. In vivo cross-protection was evaluated by passive serum transfer in a murine PsV challenge model. Immune sera to HPV16L1-17RG1 VLP (cross- protected against beta HPV5/20/24/38/96/16 (but not type 76, while antisera to HPV5L1-17RG1 VLP cross-protected against HPV20/24/96 only, and sera to HPV1L1-4RG1 VLP cross-protected against HPV4 challenge. In conclusion, RG1-based VLP are promising next generation vaccine candidates to target

  5. An evaluation of clinical performance of FTA cards for HPV 16/18 detection using cobas 4800 HPV Test compared to dry swab and liquid medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Li; Lin, Chunqing; Li, Li; Wang, Margaret; Cui, Jianfeng; Feng, Ruimei; Liu, Bin; Wu, Zeni; Lian, Jia; Liao, Guangdong; Chen, Wen; Qiao, Youlin

    2017-09-01

    Effective dry storage and transport media as an alternative to conventional liquid-based medium would facilitate the accessibility of women in the low-resource settings to human papillomavirus (HPV)- based cervical cancer screening. To evaluate analytical and clinical performance of indicating FTA™ Elute Cartridge (FTA card) for the detection of HPV16/18 and cervical precancerous lesions and cancer compared to dry swab and liquid medium. Ninety patients with abnormal cytology and/or HPV infection were included for analysis. Three specimens of cervical exfoliated cells from each woman were randomly collected by FTA card, dry swab or liquid-based medium prior to colposcopy examination. The subsequent HPV DNA tests were performed on cobas 4800 HPV platform. High-risk HPV (hrHPV) positivity rate was 63.3%, 62.2% and 65.6% for samples collected by FTA card, dry swab and liquid medium, respectively. The overall agreements and kappa values for the detection of hrHPV, HPV 16 and HPV 18 between FTA card and liquid-based medium were 88.9% (κ=0.76), 97.8% (κ=0.94) and 100% (κ=1.0),respectively; between FTA card and dry swab were 92.1% (κ=0.83), 94.5% (κ=0.87) and 100% (κ=1.0), respectively. The performances of hrHPV tested by FTA card, dry swab, and liquid-based medium for detecting CIN2+ were comparable in terms of the sensitivity and specificity. The specificity of detection of CIN2+ by HPV16/18 increased by approximately 40% compared to hrHPV for any medium albeit at cost of a moderate loss of sensitivity. Dry medium might offer an alternative to conventional liquid-based medium in the HPV-based cervical cancer screening program especially in low-resource settings but still needs further evaluation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. HPV vaccination and sexual behavior in a community college sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, Erica; Glenn, Beth A; Bastani, Roshan

    2013-12-01

    Many US parents are concerned that vaccinating daughters against human papillomavirus (HPV) will communicate implicit approval for sexual activity and be associated with early or risky sexual behavior (Scarinci et al. in J Womens Health 16(8):1224-1233, 2007; Schuler et al. in Sex Transm Infect 87:349-353, 2011). The aims of this study were to understand (a) whether the HPV vaccine was associated with risky sexual behavior among a diverse sample of female adolescents and young adults, and (b) to better understand the chronology of HPV vaccination and sexual behavior. An anonymous web-based survey was used to collect data from 114 female community college students. T test and Chi square analyses were used to compare vaccinated and unvaccinated groups on age at first intercourse and proportion who had ever had sexual intercourse. Linear multiple regression was used to predict frequency of condom use and number of sexual partners in the past year, using vaccination status and demographic factors as predictors. About 38% reported receiving at least one dose of the HPV vaccine. Many of those vaccinated (45%) received the vaccine after having initiated sexual activity. The proportion of women who were sexually experienced did not differ by HPV vaccine status, nor did age at first intercourse, number of partners in the past year, or frequency of condom use. Current findings suggest that HPV vaccination is not associated with riskier sexual activity for the young women in this sample. Adolescents and their parents may benefit from education about the need to receive the HPV vaccine before onset of sexual activity.

  7. Protein and non-protein sulfhydryls and disulfides in gastric mucosa and liver after gastrotoxic chemicals and sucralfate: possible new targets of pharmacologic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Lajos; Nagata, Miki; Szabo, Sandor

    2007-04-14

    To investigate the role of major non-protein and protein sulfhydryls and disulfides in chemically induced gastric hemorrhagic mucosal lesions (HML) and the mechanism of gastroprotective effect of sucralfate. Rats were given 1 mL of 75% ethanol, 25% NaCl, 0.6 mol/L HCl, 0.2 mol/L NaOH or 1% ammonia solutions intragastrically (i.g.) and sacrificed 1, 3, 6 or 12 min later. Total (reduced and oxidized) glutathione (GSH + GSSG), glutathione disulfide (GSSG), protein free sulfhydryls (PSH), protein-glutathione mixed disulfides (PSSG) and protein cystine disulfides (PSSP) were measured in gastric mucosa and liver. Reduced glutathione (GSH) was depleted in the gastric mucosa after ethanol, HCl or NaCl exposure, while oxidized glutathione (GSSG) concentrations increased, except by HCl and NaOH exposure. Decreased levels of PSH after exposure to ethanol were observed, NaCl or NaOH while the total protein disulfides were increased. Ratios of reduced to oxidized glutathione or sulfhydrils to disulfides were decreased by all chemicals. No changes in thiol homeostasis were detected in the liver after i.g. abbreviation should be spelled out the first time here administration of ethanol. Sucralfate increased the concentrations of GSH and PSH and prevented the ethanol-induced changes in gastric mucosal thiol concentrations. Our modified methods are now suitable for direct measurements of major protein and non-protein thiols/disulfides in the gastric mucosa or liver. A common element in the pathogenesis of chemically induced HML and in the mechanism of gastroprotective drugs seems to be the decreased ratios of reduced and oxidized glutathione as well as protein sulfhydryls and disulfides.

  8. Protein and non-protein sulfhydryls and disulfides in gastric mucosa and liver after gastrotoxic chemicals and sucralfate: Possible new targets of pharmacologic agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lajos Nagy; Miki Nagata; Sandor Szabo

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the role of major non-protein and protein sulfhydryls and disulfides in chemically induced gastric hemorrhagic mucosal lesions (HML) and the mechanism of gastroprotective effect of sucralfate.METHODS: Rats were given 1 mL of 75% ethanol, 25%NaCl, 0.6 mol/L HCI, 0.2 mol/L NaOH or 1% ammonia solutions intragastrically (i.g.) and sacrificed 1, 3, 6 or 12 min later. Total (reduced and oxidized) glutathione (GSH + GSSG), glutathione disulfide (GSSG), protein free sulfhydryls (PSH), protein-glutathione mixed disulfides (PSSG) and protein cystine disulfides (PSSP) were measured in gastric mucosa and liver.RESULTS: Reduced glutathione (GSH) was depleted in the gastric mucosa after ethanol, HCI or NaCl exposure,while oxidized glutathione (GSSG) concentrations increased, except by HCI and NaOH exposure. Decreased levels of PSH after exposure to ethanol were observed,NaCl or NaOH while the total protein disulfides were increased. Ratios of reduced to oxidized glutathione or sulfhydrils to disulfides were decreased by all chemicals.No changes in thiol homeostasis were detected in the liver after i.g. abbreviation should be spelled out the first time here administration of ethanol. Sucralfate increased the concentrations of GSH and PSH and prevented the ethanol-induced changes in gastric mucosal thiol concentrations.CONCLUSION: Our modified methods are now suitable for direct measurements of major protein and nonprotein thiols/disulfides in the gastric mucosa or liver.A common element in the pathogenesis of chemically induced HML and in the mechanism of gastroprotective drugs seems to be the decreased ratios of reduced and oxidized glutathione as well as protein sulfhydryls and disulfides.

  9. Infecção pelo Papiloma Vírus Humano (HPV: incertezas e desafios Infección por el Virus Papiloma Humano (HPV: inseguridad y desafios Infection by Human Papilomavirus (HPV: doubts and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Teixeira Queiroz

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se de um estudo com mulheres portadoras de HPV, que busca identificar o nível de conhecimento, os sentimentos e as expectativas das mulheres portadoras de HPV frente ao diagnóstico da doença e a interferência da patologia nas relações conjugais. Pesquisa exploratória, realizado no Centro de Treinamento em Atenção Primária situado na Escola de Saúde Pública do Ceará. Foram entrevistadas 20 mulheres com diagnóstico de HPV. A análise das falas referentes ao nível de conhecimento da doença e as formas de prevenção revelaram que todas as mulheres portadoras do HPV tinham consciência da forma de transmissão e da gravidade da doença. Foram analisados os sentimentos vivenciados frente à descoberta da patologia e à mudança no relacionamento após o diagnóstico da doença, havendo-se construído duas temáticas: A primeira referente às reações emocionais, de onde emergiram as categorias: 1 medo e preocupação; 2 tristeza e impotência diante da cura; 3 surpresa; 4 traição, culpa, raiva e 5 indiferença diante dos resultados; e a segunda relativa às repercussões no relacionamento que permitiram a distribuição nas categorias: 1 descontinuidade da relação com mudança de atitude do casal, 2 separação, 3 sem interferência na relação e 4 negação diante da doença. Consideramos que o nível de conhecimento, os sentimentos e as expectativas das mulheres revelados neste estudo reforçam que abordar as DST nos últimos anos tem sido um desafio para os profissionais de saúde. Muito há de se fazer para alcançar uma mudança de comportamento social que garanta o exercício de uma sexualidade seguraSe trata de un estudio con mujeres portadoras de HPV, que busca identificar el nivel de conocimiento, los sentimientos y las expectativas de las mujeres portadoras de VPH frente al diagnóstico de la enfermedad y la interferencia de la patología en las relaciones conyugales. Investigación de tipo explorat

  10. Integrative analyses reveal novel strategies in HPV11,-16 and-45 early infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaczkowski, Bogumil; Rossing, Maria; Andersen, Ditte

    2012-01-01

    of genes not previously implicated in HPV biology, such as the PSG family and ANKRD1, and of genes implicated in the biology of other viruses, e. g. MX1, IFI44 and DDX60. Carcinogenesis-related genes, e. g. ABL2, MGLL and CYR61, were upregulated by high-risk HPV16 and -45. The integrative analysis revealed...... the suppression of DNA repair by HPV11 and -16, and downregulation of cytoskeleton genes by all HPV types. Various signalling pathways were affected by the HPVs: IL-2 by HPV11; JAK-STAT by HPV16; and TGF-beta, NOTCH and tyrosine kinase signalling by HPV45. This study uncovered novel strategies employed by HPV...... to establish infection and promote uncontrolled growth....

  11. Immunological response to quadrivalent HPV vaccine in treatment of recurrent respiratory papillomatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjon Pian Gi, Robin E A; San Giorgi, Michel R M; Pawlita, Michael; Michel, Angelika; van Hemel, Bettien M; Schuuring, Ed M D; van den Heuvel, Edwin R; van der Laan, Bernard F A M; Dikkers, Frederik G

    2016-10-01

    Aim of this study was to explore influence of the quadrivalent HPV vaccine (Gardasil(®)) on the immune status of recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) patients. In retrospective observational study, six RRP patients who received the quadrivalent HPV vaccine and whose HPV seroreactivity was measured were included. Multiplex HPV Serology was used to determine HPV-specific antibodies pre- and post-vaccination. Surgical interventions and patient records were analyzed. Five HPV6 and 1 HPV11 infected patient were included. Mean antibody reactivity against the associated HPV type rose from 1125 median fluorescence intensity (MFI) pre-vaccination to 4690 MFI post-vaccination (p immunological increase can cause decrease in number of surgeries.

  12. Knowledge, Practice and Acceptability of HPV Vaccine by Mothers of Adolescent Girls in Ilorin, Nigeria

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    Kikelomo T. Adesina

    2018-03-01

    Conclusion: There is poor knowledge of HPV and practice of vaccination among mothers in llorin. Willingness of mothers to vaccinate their daughters is suboptimal. Mother's knowledge is an important determinant of HPV vaccination of adolescents.

  13. THE ROLE OF INTERFERON ALPHA-2b IN REDUCING OF VIRAL LOAD IN HPV INFECTED WOMEN

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    Кристина Владимировна Марочко

    2017-05-01

    Conclusion. Mono-infection was prevalent among HPV infected women HPV 16 is the most frequently detected hrHPV. The use of the drug interferon alfa-2b in the study group, contributed to viral load reduction.

  14. HPV-11 variability, persistence and progression to genital warts in men: the HIM study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Díaz, Ema; Sereday, Karen A; Ferreira, Silvaneide; Sirak, Bradley; Sobrinho, João Simão; Baggio, Maria Luiza; Galan, Lenice; Silva, Roberto C; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Giuliano, Anna R; Villa, Luisa L; Sichero, Laura

    2017-09-01

    HPV-11 and HPV-6 are the etiological agents of about 90 % of genital warts (GWs). The intra-typic variability of HPV-11 and its association with infection persistence and GW development remains undetermined. Here, HPV infection in men (HIM) participants who had an HPV-11 genital swab and/or GW, preceded or not by a normal skin genital swab were analysed. Genomic variants were characterized by PCR-sequencing and classified within lineages (A, B) and sublineages (A1, A2, A3, A4). HPV-11 A2 variants were the most frequently detected in the genital swab samples from controls and in both genital swabs and GW samples from cases. The same HPV-11 variant was detected in the GW sample and its preceding genital swab. There was a lack of association between any particular HPV-11 variant and the increased risk for GW development.

  15. HPV type-related chromosomal profiles in high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia

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    Bierkens Mariska

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The development of cervical cancer and its high-grade precursor lesions (Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia grade 2/3 [CIN2/3] result from a persistent infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV types and the accumulation of (epigenetic host cell aberrations. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated variable CIN2/3 and cancer risks between different hrHPV types. Recent genomic profiling studies revealed substantial heterogeneity in the chromosomal aberrations detected in morphologically indistinguishable CIN2/3 suggestive of varying cancer risk. The current study aimed to investigate whether CIN2/3 with different hrHPV types vary with respect to their chromosomal profiles, both in terms of the number of aberrations and chromosomal loci affected. Methods Chromosomal profiles were determined of 43 p16INK4a-immunopositive CIN2/3 of women with long-term hrHPV infection (≥ 5 years. Sixteen lesions harboured HPV16, 3 HPV18, 14 HPV31, 1 HPV33, 4 HPV45, 1 HPV51, 2 HPV52 and 2 HPV58. Results Unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis of the chromosomal profiles revealed two major clusters, characterised by either few or multiple chromosomal aberrations, respectively. A majority of 87.5% of lesions with HPV16 were in the cluster with relatively few aberrations, whereas no such unbalanced distribution was seen for lesions harbouring other hrHPV types. Analysis of the two most prevalent types (HPV16 and HPV31 in this data set revealed a three-fold increase in the number of losses in lesions with HPV31 compared to HPV16-positive lesions. In particular, losses at chromosomes 2q, 4p, 4q, 6p, 6q, 8q & 17p and gain at 1p & 1q were significantly more frequent in HPV31-positive lesions (FDR Conclusions Chromosomal aberrations in CIN2/3 are at least in part related to the hrHPV type present. The relatively low number of chromosomal aberrations observed in HPV16-positive CIN2/3 suggests that the development of these lesions is

  16. Two Cases of Bacteremia Due to Roseomonas mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yu Kyung; Moon, Jung Suk; Song, Kyung Eun; Lee, Won Kil

    2016-07-01

    Roseomonas is a genus of pink-pigmented nonfermentative bacilli. These slow-growing, gram-negative cocobacilli form pink-colored colonies on sheep blood agar. They differ from other pink-pigmented nonfermenters, including Methylobacterium, in morphology, biochemical characteristics, and DNA sequence. Roseomonas strains are rarely isolated in clinical laboratories; therefore, we report two cases in order to improve our ability to identify these pathogens. We isolated two strains of Roseomonas mucosa from the venous blood cultures of two patients, an 84-yr-old woman with common bile duct obstruction and a 17-yr-old male with acute myeloid leukemia who had an indwelling central-venous catheter for chemotherapy. The isolated strains were confirmed as R. mucosa by 16S rRNA sequencing.

  17. Genotipagem de HPV e imunorreatividade da ciclina D1 em adenocarcinoma de colo do útero

    OpenAIRE

    Back, Simony dos Reis Segovia da Silva [UNESP

    2013-01-01

    A incidência do adenocarcinoma do colo do útero (AC) está aumentando em muitos países. A associação entre a infecção pelo Papillomavirus Humano (HPV) e o AC ainda permanece incerta. A imunoistoquímica pode auxiliar no diagnóstico nos casos duvidosos, pois algumas condições benignas reativas podem mimetizar processos neoplásicos. Marcadores como bcl-2, Ki-67 e proteína p16INK4A (p16) já foram descritos para ajudar nas dúvidas relacionadas ao epitélio glandular cervical. Trabalhos recentes demo...

  18. Educating Normal Breast Mucosa to Prevent Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    immune system to maintain epithelial integrity. In this study our goal was to study the immune subsets associated with breast mucosa and develop the...into the mammary gland. Specific Aim 3: Determine an optimal oral vaccine approach able to minimize hyperplasia . 5 287 288 289 290 291 292...colonization, but also regulating homeostasis of the epithelial layer. As a part of the mucosal immune system, the mammary gland may have characteristic

  19. Histopathological findings in the oral mucosa of celiac patients

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    Elena Bardellini

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Celiac disease (CD is an immune-mediated enteropathy triggered by the ingestion of gluten in genetically susceptible subjects. Although the small intestinal mucosa is the main site of the gut's involvement in CD, other mucosal surfaces belonging to the gastrointestinal tract and the gut-associated lymphoid tissue are known to be affected. Aim: Assuming that the oral mucosa could reflect the histopathological inflammatory alterations of the intestine in CD patients, this study wishes to assess the pattern of T-cell subsets in the oral mucosa of young adults with CD. Methods: A group of 37 patients (age range 20-38 years; female: male ratio 28:9 with CD were enrolled. Out of 37 patients, 19 patients (group A followed a gluten free diet (GFD -2 patients from less than one year; 6 patients between 1 and 5 years; 11 patients more than 5 years- while 18 patients (group B were still untreated. Fifteen healthy volunteers (age range 18-35 years, female: Male ratio 11:4 served as controls for the CD patients. Ethical approval for the research was granted by the Ethics Committee. Biopsy specimens were taken from normal looking oral mucosa. The immunohistochemical investigation was performed with monoclonal antibodies to CD3, CD4, CD8, and γδ-chains T cell receptor (TCR. Results: The T-lymphocytic inflammatory infiltrate was significantly (p < 0.0001 increased in group B (both compared with group A and with the control group. Conclusion: This study confirms the oral cavity to be a site of involvement of CD and its possible diagnostic potentiality in this disease.

  20. Abundance of Enterobacteriaceae in the colon mucosa in diverticular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linninge, Caroline; Roth, Bodil; Erlanson-Albertsson, Charlotte; Molin, Göran; Toth, Ervin; Ohlsson, Bodil

    2018-02-15

    To compare gut bacterial diversity and amount of Enterobacteriaceae in colonic mucosa between patients with and without diverticular disease (DD). Patients in a stable clinical condition with planned elective colonoscopy were included. Blood samples and colon mucosa biopsies were collected at the colonoscopy. Study questionnaires including questions about gastrointestinal symptoms were completed by the patients and physicians. DNA from mucosa samples was isolated and the amount of Enterobacteriaceae was estimated using PCR assay. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism was applied to assess microbial diversity. Diversity was estimated by calculations of richness (number of terminal restriction fragments) and Shannon-Wiener and Simpson's indices. A total of 51 patients were included, 16 patients with DD [68 (62-76) years] and 35 controls [62 (40-74) years] without any diverticula. Patients with DD had significantly higher levels of Enterobacteriaceae than those without DD ( P = 0.043), and there was an inverse relationship between the amount of Enterobacteriaceae and the Simpson's index (rs = -0.361, P = 0.033) and the Shannon-Wiener index (rs = -0.299, P = 0.081). The Simpson's index ( P = 0.383), Shannon-Wiener index ( P = 0.401) or number of restrictions fragments ( P = 0.776) did not differ between DD and controls. The majority of patients experienced gastrointestinal symptoms, and 22 patients (43.1%) fulfilled the criteria for irritable bowel syndrome, with no difference between the groups ( P = 0.212). Demography, socioeconomic status, lifestyle habits, inflammatory biomarkers, or symptoms were not related to the amount of Enterobacteriaceae or bacterial diversity. Patients with DD had higher amount of Enterobacteriaceae in the colon mucosa compared to patients without diverticula.

  1. Oral mucosa tissue response to titanium cover screws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmedo, Daniel G; Paparella, María L; Spielberg, Martín; Brandizzi, Daniel; Guglielmotti, María B; Cabrini, Rómulo L

    2012-08-01

    Titanium is the most widely used metal in dental implantology. The release of particles from metal structures into the biologic milieu may be the result of electrochemical processes (corrosion) and/or mechanical disruption during insertion, abutment connection, or removal of failing implants. The aim of the present study is to evaluate tissue response of human oral mucosa adjacent to titanium cover screws. One hundred fifty-three biopsies of the supra-implant oral mucosa adjacent to the cover screw of submerged dental implants were analyzed. Histologic studies were performed to analyze epithelial and connective tissue as well as the presence of metal particles, which were identified using microchemical analysis. Langerhans cells, macrophages, and T lymphocytes were studied using immunohistochemical techniques. The surface of the cover screws was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Forty-one percent of mucosa biopsies exhibited metal particles in different layers of the section thickness. Particle number and size varied greatly among specimens. Immunohistochemical study confirmed the presence of macrophages and T lymphocytes associated with the metal particles. Microchemical analysis revealed the presence of titanium in the particles. On SEM analysis, the surface of the screws exhibited depressions and irregularities. The biologic effects seen in the mucosa in contact with the cover screws might be associated with the presence of titanium or other elements, such as aluminum or vanadium. The potential long-term biologic effects of particles on soft tissues adjacent to metallic devices should be further investigated because these effects might affect the clinical outcome of the implant.

  2. Untersuchungen zur Regeneration des Hinterendes bei Anaitides mucosa (Polychaeta, Phyllodocidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röhrkasten, A.

    1983-06-01

    Caudal regeneration was investigated in decerebrate Anaitides mucosa and in brain-intact individuals. Both groups show an identical capacity to regenerate lost caudal segments. Furthermore there is no difference in males and females. Low temperature (5 °C) inhibits the regeneration of caudal segments, but it is necessary for normal oogenesis. Under conditions of high temperature (15 °C), caudal regeneration is very extensive. At the same time degeneration of most oocytes occurs.

  3. Paraneoplastic disorders of hair, nails, oral mucosa and pigmentation

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    Ayşe Kavak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this section, paraneoplastic entites of hair, nail, oral mucosa and pigmentation changes have been discussed. Some skin findings are “strong” indicator of a malignancy whereas others are not. Readers will encounter some “coincidental” or “common” entities as well as more “severe” changes for a paraneoplastic sign. In addition, it is crucial that some paraneoplastic lesions may predict for a recurrence of malignancy.

  4. Anal HPV infection in HIV-positive men who have sex with men from China.

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    Lei Gao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Anal HPV infection, which contributes to the development of anal warts and anal cancer, is well known to be common among men who have sex with men (MSM, especially among those HIV positives. However, HIV and anal HPV co-infection among MSM has not been addressed in China. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Beijing and Tianjin, China. Study participants were recruited using multiple methods with the collaboration of local volunteer organizations. Blood and anal swabs were collected for HIV-1 serological test and HPV genotyping. RESULTS: A total of 602 MSM were recruited and laboratory data were available for 578 of them (96.0%. HIV and anal HPV prevalence were 8.5% and 62.1%, respectively. And 48 MSM (8.3% were found to be co-infected. The HPV genotypes identified most frequently were HPV06 (19.6%, HPV16 (13.0%, HPV52 (8.5% and HPV11 (7.6%. Different modes of HPV genotypes distribution were observed with respect to HIV status. A strong dose-response relationship was found between HIV seropositivity and multiplicity of HPV genotypes (p<0.001, which is consistent with the observation that anal HPV infection was an independent predictor for HIV infection. CONCLUSIONS: A high prevalence of HIV and anal HPV co-infection was observed in the MSM community in Beijing and Tianjin, China. Anal HPV infection was found to be independently associated with increased HIV seropositivity, which suggests the application of HPV vaccine might be a potential strategy to reduce the acquisition of HIV infection though controlling the prevalence of HPV.

  5. Prevalence of type-specific HPV among female university students from northern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira, Rodrigo Covre; Monteiro, Jeniffer do Socorro Valente; Manso, Est?fane Primo; dos Santos, Maria Renata Mendon?a; Tsutsumi, Mihoko Yamamoto; Ishikawa, Edna Aoba Yassui; Ferrari, Stephen Francis; Lima, Karla Val?ria Batista; de Sousa, Ma?sa Silva

    2015-01-01

    Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is associated with cervical cancer, the most frequent cancer in women from northern Brazil. Assessment of the short-term impact of HPV vaccination depends on the availability of data on the prevalence of type-specific HPV in young women in the pre-immunization period, although these data are currently unavailable for the study region. The aim of this study was to estimate the distribution of all mucosal HPV genotypes, including low- and high-ris...

  6. [HPV vaccination: active offer in an Italian region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terracciano, Elisa; D'Alò, Gian Loreto; Aquilani, Silvia; Aversa, Anna Maria; Bartolomei, Giuseppina; Calenda, Maria Gabriella; Catapano, Raffaele; Compagno, Silvio; Della Rovere, Piera; Fraioli, Angelo; Ieraci, Roberto; Reggiani, Daniela; Sgricia, Stefano; Spadea, Antonietta; Zaratti, Laura; Franco, Elisabetta

    2017-01-01

    Human Papillomavirus is responsible for 4.8% of cancers, and is the main cause of cervical cancer. Cervical cancer can be reduced by mean of secondary prevention (PAP-test, HPV-DNA test), while through primary prevention (anti-HPV vaccine) the incidence of other HPV-attributable cancers can also be reduced. In Italy, anti-HPV vaccination is part of the immunization schedule in girls since 2008, and in 2017 it was extended to boys. However, vaccine coverage is decreasing nationwide. This study aims to examine anti-HPV vaccination practices in Health care services of Lazio Region, Italy. Questionnaires were sent or administered directly to those in charge of vaccinations. Data, collected from 11/12 (92%) Lazio Local Health Units and from 116 vaccination centers, show a remarkable diversity in the offer: 41% of the centers open only 1-2 days/week, 42% only in the morning, and only 7% are open on Saturday. Vaccination is available by reservation only in 62% of the centers, while vaccines are not administered to ≥18 years subjects in 33%; 93% of the centers call actively the girls in the target cohort, while 70% and 94% recall the patients who had not received the first or the second dose of vaccine, respectively. Collaboration with family physicians and/or pediatricians was declared by 80% of the centers. Vaccine coverage could probably be improved by addressing the highlighted critical issues and applying best practices widely.

  7. Epidemiology and costs of HPV infection: review of the evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Bamfi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available HPV infection is a well-established cause of both benign and malign diseases. The HPV 16 and 18 genotypes are most commonly associated with cervical cancer whereas the HPV 6 and 11 genotypes are most commonly associated with anogenital warts. In Italy are currently approved two types of vaccine: Gardasil® is a tetravalent HPV 6, 11, 16 and 18 vaccine that prevents cervix cancer and genital warts, Cervarix® is a bivalent HPV 16 and 18 genotype vaccine that protects against cervical cancer and pre cancer forms. Aim of present study was to collect the available epidemiological data and the impact on the Italian National Health Service (NHS budget of genital warts pathology. In Italy 40,000 genital warts cases per year could be estimated in the female population. The management cost in charge of Italian NHS for the female pathology is evaluated around 7 millions €. Comparing the available evidence NHS costs for genital wart pathology represent 3-4% of the total amount for prevention and treatment of cervix cancer.

  8. HPV epigenetic mechanisms related to Oropharyngeal and Cervix cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Domenico, Marina; Giovane, Giancarlo; Kouidhi, Soumaya; Iorio, Rosamaria; Romano, Maurizio; De Francesco, Francesco; Feola, Antonia; Siciliano, Camilla; Califano, Luigi; Giordano, Antonio

    2017-03-31

    Human Papilloma Virus infection is very frequent in humans and is mainly transmitted sexually. The majority of infections are transient and asymptomatic, however, if the infection persists, it can occur with a variety of injuries to skin and mucous membranes, depending on the type of HPV involved. Some types of HPV are classified as high oncogenic risk as associated with the onset of cancer. The tumors most commonly associated with HPV are cervical and oropharyngeal cancer, epigenetic mechanisms related to HPV infection include methylation changes to host and viral DNA and chromatin modification in host species. This review is focused about epigenethic mechanism, such as MiRNAs expression, related to cervix and oral cancer. Specifically it discuss about molecular markers associated to a more aggressive phenotype. In this way we will analyze genes involved in meiotic sinaptonemal complex, transcriptional factors, of orthokeratins, sinaptogirin, they are all expressed in cancer in a way not more dependent on cell differentiation but HPV-dependent.

  9. Vaginosis-associated bacteria and its association with HPV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Morelos, Pablo; Bandala, Cindy; Jiménez-Tenorio, Julián; Valdespino-Zavala, Mariana; Rodríguez-Esquivel, Miriam; Gama-Ríos, Reyna Anaid; Bandera, Artfy; Mendoza-Rodríguez, Mónica; Taniguchi, Keiko; Marrero-Rodríguez, Daniel; López-Romero, Ricardo; Ramón-Gallegos, Eva; Salcedo, Mauricio

    2018-03-12

    Cervical cancer is an important health problem in our country. It is known that there are several risk factors for this neoplasm, and it has been suggested that cervical microbiome alterations could play a role in the development and progress of cancer. Bacterial vaginosis associated bacteria such as Atopobium vaginae and Gardnerella vaginalis has been suggested as potential risk factor for cervical lesions and cervical cancer. DNA from 177 cervical scraping samples was studied: 104 belonged to women without cytological or colposcopic alterations and 73 samples from precursor lesions with previous human papillomavirus (HPV) infection history. All samples were screened for Atopobium vaginae, Gardnerella vaginalis and HPV by PCR. High HPV prevalence was found in precursor samples, and 30% of samples without lesions were positive for HPV. Virtually all samples contained sequences of both bacteria, and interestingly, there was not HPV association observed; these results could suggest that these microorganisms could be part of the cervical microbiome in Mexican population. The results obtained indicate that the bacteria analysed could be part of normal biome in Mexican women, suggesting a potential reconsideration of the pathogen role of these microorganisms. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. The production of the oral mucosa of antiendomysial and anti-tissue-transglutaminase antibodies in patients with celiac disease: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compilato, Domenico; Campisi, Giuseppina; Pastore, Luca; Carroccio, Antonio

    2010-12-14

    verify whether the oral mucosa is colonized by lymphocytes activated in the intestine or if gluten could stimulate naïve lymphocytes directly in the oral mucosa. This would have important implications for the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of CD.

  11. The Production of the Oral Mucosa of Antiendomysial and Anti—Tissue-Transglutaminase Antibodies in Patients with Celiac Disease: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Compilato

    2010-01-01

    evaluated in order to verify whether the oral mucosa is colonized by lymphocytes activated in the intestine or if gluten could stimulate naïve lymphocytes directly in the oral mucosa. This would have important implications for the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of CD.

  12. Keratocyst of the buccal mucosa: is it odontogenic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ide, Fumio; Kikuchi, Kentaro; Miyazaki, Yuji; Mishima, Kenji; Saito, Ichiro; Kusama, Kaoru

    2010-11-01

    Odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) of the buccal mucosa, the diagnosis of which is based on subjective histologic evaluation, is a controversial entity of questionable existence. This report describes 2 rare cases of parakeratinized cyst arising from the buccal mucosa. Case 1 was a 60-year-old man with a 3-cm cyst and case 2 was a 16-year-old boy with a microcyst incidentally discovered on histology. Both lesions were essentially identical in histologic appearance and immunophenotype to intraosseous and gingival OKC, but they were clearly different from orthokeratinized odontogenic cysts and buccal mucosal epidermoid cysts. Step sections failed to reveal any kind of odontogenic tissue or skin adnexa in the cyst wall. These microscopic characteristics reflexively lead to the diagnosis of OKC, if the extragingival occurrence in the buccal mucosa cannot be considered. An alternative nonodontogenic origin includes a keratocyst of the skin, ie, an unusual mucosal presentation of cutaneous keratocyst. Because its true nature, either odontogenic or epidermal, cannot be conclusively proven at this time, we propose a more descriptive and noncommittal term, "mucosal keratocyst," for a particular cyst in a buccal location that is morphologically indistinguishable from OKC. Copyright © 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Interaction of Mycobacterium tuberculosis with human respiratory mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, A M; Chadwick, M V; Nicholson, A G; Dewar, A; Groger, R K; Brown, E J; Ratliff, T L; Wilson, R

    2002-01-01

    Endobronchial infection is associated with pulmonary tuberculosis in the majority of cases. We have investigated the adherence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to the human respiratory mucosa. Organ cultures constructed with human tissue were infected with M. tuberculosis in the presence or absence of mycobacterial fibronectin attachment cell surface proteins and examined by scanning electron microscopy. M. tuberculosis adhered mainly to extracellular matrix (ECM) in areas of mucosal damage, but not to ciliated mucosa, intact extruded cells, basement membrane or collagen fibres. Bacteria also adhered to fibrous but not globular mucus and occasionally to healthy unciliated mucosa, open tight junctions and to extruded cells that had degenerated, exposing their contents. There was a significant reduction (pprotein (FAP) and M. bovis antigen 85B protein, in a concentration dependent manner. The combined effect of FAP and antigen 85B protein was significantly greater than either protein alone. Bacterial adherence to fibrous mucus was not influenced by fibronectin. We conclude that M. tuberculosis adheres to ECM in areas of mucosal damage at least in part via FAP and antigen 85B protein.

  14. School Nurses' Professional Practice in the HPV Vaccine Decision-Making Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Brittany L.; Ashwood, Daniel; Richardson, George B.

    2016-01-01

    Because U.S. human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination rates remain low, we evaluated school nurses' knowledge, attitudes, perceptions of their role as opinion leaders, self-efficacy, intention, and professional practice regarding the HPV vaccine and determined if these variables influenced thei