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Sample records for howler monkey alouatta

  1. Cranial shape variation in adult howler monkeys (Alouatta seniculus).

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    Fiorenza, Luca; Bruner, Emiliano

    2017-12-05

    Howler monkeys (genus Alouatta) display a distinctive cranial architecture characterized by airorhynchy (or retroflexion of the facial skeleton on the cranial base), a small braincase, and a posteriorly oriented foramen magnum. This configuration has been associated with distinct factors including a high folivory diet, locomotion, and the presence of a specialized vocal tract characterized by large hyoid bone. However, the morphological relationships between the facial and neurocranial blocks in Alouatta have been scarcely investigated. In this study we quantitatively analyzed the cranial shape variation in Alouatta seniculus, to evaluate possible influences and constraints in face and braincase associated with airorhynchy. We also considered the structural role of the pteric area within the cranial functional matrix. We applied landmark-based analysis and multivariate statistics to 31 adult crania, computing shape analyses based on 3D coordinates registration as well as the analysis of the Euclidean distance matrix to investigate patterns of intraspecific morphological variability. Our results suggest that allometry is the main source of variation involved in shaping cranial morphology in howlers, influencing the degree of facial proportions and braincase flattening, and generating the main sexual differences. Larger individuals are characterized by a higher degree of airorhynchy, neurocranial flattening, and expansion of the zygomatic arch. Allometric variations influence the skull as a whole, without distinct patterns for face and braincase, which behave as an integrated morphological unit. A preliminary survey on the pteric pattern suggests that the morphology of this area may be the result of variations in the vertical growth rates between face and braincase. Future studies should be dedicated to the ontogenetic series and focus on airorhynchy in terms of differential growth among distinct cranial districts. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Nutrition and foraging strategies of the black howler monkey (Alouatta pigra) in Palenque National Park, Mexico.

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    Amato, Katherine R; Garber, Paul A

    2014-08-01

    Food resources consumed by primates vary markedly in nutritional content. As a result, foragers must develop a feeding strategy to select resources that balance energy and macronutrient intake and reduce the consumption of fiber and toxins. In this study, we collected data on dietary patterns, rates of food consumption, and weight of food items consumed and combined them with published values of the nutritional content of Neotropical foods to estimate energy and nutrient intake during a 10-month period in two groups (N=16 individuals) of black howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra) inhabiting Palenque National Park, Mexico. Although howler monkeys are generally assumed to exploit a leaf-dominated diet and be energy-limited, our results indicated that black howlers met their estimated energy requirements, consuming an average of 0.58 MJ of overall energy per metabolic body mass per day. The howlers also surpassed protein requirements by consuming an average of 8.2 g of protein per metabolic body mass per day. The amount of time they spent resting was not correlated with the amount of leaves or fruit in the diet or with overall energy intake. Therefore, despite consuming a leaf-heavy diet during some months of the year, black howlers do not appear to be energy-limited. Additionally, the howlers maintained a relatively consistent level of average daily protein energy intake regardless of diet composition, while non-protein energy intake varied in response to the amount of ripe fruits consumed. Although our use of published nutritional data introduces error, these findings suggest that black howler feeding ecology is more similar to other fruit-eating atelines than previously suspected, and several common assumptions regarding howler behavior and feeding ecology need to be reexamined. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Molecular characterization of trypanosomatid infections in wild howler monkeys (Alouatta caraya in northeastern Argentina

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    Mariela Florencia Martínez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi by vectors is confined to the Americas, and the infection circulates in at least two broadly defined transmission cycles occurring in domestic and sylvatic habitats. This study sought to detect and characterize infection by T. cruzi and other trypanosomes using PCR strategies in blood samples from free-ranging howler monkeys, Alouatta caraya, in the northeastern Argentina. Blood samples were collected at four sites with variable levels of habitat modification by human activity. PCR was conducted using primers for kinetoplast DNA, satellite DNA and ribosomal DNA of the trypanosomatid parasites. Ribosomal and satellite DNA fragments were sequenced to identify the trypanosomatid species and to characterize the discrete typing units (DTUs of T. cruzi. Overall, 46% (50/109 of the howlers were positive according to the kDNA-PCR assay, but only 7 of the howlers were positive according to the SatDNA-PCR protocol. We sequenced the amplicons of the satellite DNA obtained from five specimens, and the sequences were 99% and 100% similar to T. cruzi. A sequence typical of DTU T. cruzi I was found in one howler monkey from the “remote” site, while sequences compatible with DTUs II, V, and VI were found in howlers from the “remote”, “rural” and “village” sites. We detected 96% positive samples for RibDNA-PCR, 9 of which were sequenced and displayed 99% identity with Trypanosoma minasense, while none showed identity with T. cruzi. The results demonstrated the presence of T. cruzi and a species closely related to T. minasense in blood samples from free-ranging A. caraya, belonging to different T. cruzi DTUs circulating in these howler monkey populations. The results obtained in this study could help evaluate the role of A. caraya as a reservoir of T. cruzi in regions where Chagas disease is hyper-endemic and where the human-wildlife interface is increasing.

  4. New Entamoeba group in howler monkeys (Alouatta spp.) associated with parasites of reptiles.

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    Villanueva-García, Claudia; Gordillo-Chávez, Elías José; Baños-Ojeda, Carlos; Rendón-Franco, Emilio; Muñoz-García, Claudia Irais; Carrero, Julio César; Córdoba-Aguilar, Alex; Maravilla, Pablo; Galian, José; Martínez-Hernández, Fernando; Villalobos, Guiehdani

    2017-08-01

    Our knowledge of the parasite species present in wildlife hosts is incomplete. Protozoans such as amoebae of the genus Entamoeba infect a large variety of vertebrate species, including NHPs. However, traditionally, their identification has been accomplished through microscopic evaluation; therefore, amoeba species have not always been identified correctly. We searched for Entamoeba spp. using a fragment of the small subunit rDNA in free-ranging howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata and A. pigra) from southeast Mexico. One hundred fifty five samples were collected, with 46 from A. palliata and 109 from A. pigra and 8 of the total samples were positive. We detected a new clade of Entamoeba, which was separated from other described species but closer to E. insolita, as well as an unnamed sequence typically found in iguana species with low shared identity values (<90%). We designated this new clade as conditional lineage 8 (CL8) and we have shown that members of this group are not exclusive to reptiles.

  5. A demographic history of a population of howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata living in a fragmented landscape in Mexico

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    Jurgi Cristóbal Azkarate

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Long-term field studies are critical for our understanding of animal life history and the processes driving changes in demography. Here, we present long-term demographic data for the northernmost population of mantled howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata residing in a highly anthropogenically fragmented landscape in Los Tuxtlas, Mexico. We carried out 454 monthly group visits to 10 groups of mantled howler monkeys between 2000 and 2011. The population remained relatively stable over the 11-year study period, with an overall increase in the total number of individuals. Birth rates and inter-birth intervals were comparable to those of howler monkeys at non-fragmented sites, suggesting that living in a fragmented landscape did not affect the reproductive output of our study population. Moreover, despite the landscape, dispersal events were commonplace, including many secondary dispersals (individuals emigrating from groups that they had previously immigrated into. Finally, we found a marked effect of seasonality on the dynamics of our study population. In particular, the period of lowest temperatures and resource scarcity between November and March was associated with higher mortality and reproductive inhibition, while the period of resource abundance between April and May was associated with the majority of conceptions and weaning of offspring. This, in turn, could be influencing dispersal patterns in our study area, as male howler monkeys seem to time some of their immigrations into new groups to coincide with the start of the period of higher fertility, while females preferentially joined new groups several months before the onset of this period. These data have important implications for the conservation and management of howler monkeys in fragmented landscapes, as well as for our understanding of the effect of seasonality over howler monkey dispersal, reproduction and survival.

  6. Gastrointestinal parasites of Howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata) inhabiting the fragmented landscape of the Santa Marta mountain range, Veracruz, Mexico.

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    Valdespino, Carolina; Rico-Hernández, Guillermo; Mandujano, Salvador

    2010-06-01

    In recent years populations of howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata) in southeastern Mexico have decreased substantially due to the transformation and loss of natural habitats. This is especially evident in the Santa Marta mountain range, Veracruz, Mexico where several studies have evaluated the impact of fragmentation on howler monkey populations in order to propose management programs for their conservation. The conditions generated by fragmentation likely change the rates of parasitic infection and could decrease howler survival. In this study, gastrointestinal parasite species richness, prevalence, and egg density of infection were determined in howler groups inhabiting five forest fragments at the Santa Marta mountain range. Two hundred and seventy-eight fresh fecal samples were collected between October 2002 and April 2003. Three parasite species were found during the dry and the wet season in all forest fragments sampled: one unidentified species of Eimeriidae; Trypanoxyuris minutus (Oxyuridae); and Controrchis biliophilus (Dicrocoeliidae). Both the prevalence of T. minutus and infection density for all parasites differed between seasons and fragments (the largest fragment consistently differed from other fragments). Host density, distance to the nearest town, fragment size, fragment shape, and total basal area of food trees explained parasite prevalence, but each species had a different pattern. Although parasite richness was lower, prevalence and density were higher than values reported for howlers in conserved forests. These results suggest that the establishment of biological corridors and animal translocation programs must take into account the parasite ecology of each fragment to avoid higher infection rates and preclude potential consequent mortality.

  7. Geographical distribution of the red howler monkey (Alouatta seniculus) and yellow fever in Colombia.

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    Piedrahita-Cortés, Juan; Soler-Tovar, Diego

    2016-02-11

    Colombia is a country with an important diversity of non-human primates, of which the red howler monkey (Alouatta seniculus) stands out because of its distribution and the role it plays in the occurrence of yellow fever.  To describe the geographic co-occurrence of Alouatta seniculus and the reported presence of yellow fever.  We conducted a descriptive study. The reported presence of yellow fever in Colombia was obtained from the reports and bulletins issued by the Instituto Nacional de Salud, and the study by Segura, et al. (2013). The occurrence of A. seniculus was determined based on the data from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility and the Colombian Biodiversity Information System. A map of the occurrence was developed using the DIVA-GIS program, and the ecological niche model under current conditions was created with the Maxent program.  The departments with the highest occurrence of A. seniculus were Antioquia, Meta and Casanare; 69.5% of the departments with reported history of yellow fever had co-occurrence with A. seniculus. The ecological niche model showed that Antioquia, Bolívar, La Guajira, Magdalena, Meta, Santander, Norte de Santander and Vichada had geographical portions with a probability rate nearing to 0.9 (90%).  In 69.5% of the departments with a history of yellow fever there was co-occurrence with A. seniculus, which is relevant because non-human primates play a well-known role as natural reservoirs of the virus, and they might contribute to the occurrence of the yellow fever, which makes them very useful as sentinels.

  8. Modeling the impacts of hunting on the population dynamics of red howler monkeys (Alouatta seniculus)

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    Wiederholt, Ruscena; Fernandez-Duque, Eduardo; Diefenbach, Duane R.; Rudran, Rasanayagam

    2010-01-01

    Overexploitation of wildlife populations occurs across the humid tropics and is a significant threat to the long-term survival of large-bodied primates. To investigate the impacts of hunting on primates and ways to mitigate them, we developed a spatially explicit, individual-based model for a landscape that included hunted and un-hunted areas. We used the large-bodied neotropical red howler monkey (Alouatta seniculus) as our case study species because its life history characteristics make it vulnerable to hunting. We modeled the influence of different rates of harvest and proportions of landscape dedicated to un-hunted reserves on population persistence, population size, social dynamics, and hunting yields of red howler monkeys. In most scenarios, the un-hunted populations maintained a constant density regardless of hunting pressure elsewhere, and allowed the overall population to persist. Therefore, the overall population was quite resilient to extinction; only in scenarios without any un-hunted areas did the population go extinct. However, the total and hunted populations did experience large declines over 100 years under moderate and high hunting pressure. In addition, when reserve area decreased, population losses and losses per unit area increased disproportionately. Furthermore, hunting disrupted the social structure of troops. The number of male turnovers and infanticides increased in hunted populations, while birth rates decreased and exacerbated population losses due to hunting. Finally, our results indicated that when more than 55% of the landscape was harvested at high (30%) rates, hunting yields, as measured by kilograms of biomass, were less than those obtained from moderate harvest rates. Additionally, hunting yields, expressed as the number of individuals hunted/year/km2, increased in proximity to un-hunted areas, and suggested that dispersal from un-hunted areas may have contributed to hunting sustainability. These results indicate that un

  9. Observation of parturition in the Mexican mantled howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata) on the Island of Agaltepec, Veracruz State, Mexico.

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    Duarte Dias, Pedro Américo

    2005-01-01

    We observed a birth in a group of Mexican mantled howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata) living under semi-free-ranging conditions on Agaltepec Island, Catemaco, Veracruz, Mexico. Although we could not quantify contractions, we were able to record a complete description of the sequence of events that resulted in a successful birth. Nine minutes passed from the release of the amniotic fluid to the total emergence of the infant. Although all group members were resting relatively close to the female when the birth occurred, none approached her until the postpartum period. Only then did several individuals briefly inspect the newborn and then resume their foraging activities. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Cascading impacts of anthropogenically driven habitat loss: deforestation, flooding, and possible lead poisoning in howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra).

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    Serio-Silva, Juan Carlos; Olguín, Eugenia J; Garcia-Feria, Luis; Tapia-Fierro, Karla; Chapman, Colin A

    2015-01-01

    To construct informed conservation plans, researchers must go beyond understanding readily apparent threats such as habitat loss and bush-meat hunting. They must predict subtle and cascading effects of anthropogenic environmental modifications. This study considered a potential cascading effect of deforestation on the howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra) of Balancán, Mexico. Deforestation intensifies flooding. Thus, we predicted that increased flooding of the Usumacinta River, which creates large bodies of water that slowly evaporate, would produce increased lead content in the soils and plants, resulting in lead exposure in the howler monkeys. The average lead levels were 18.18 ± 6.76 ppm in the soils and 5.85 ± 4.37 ppm in the plants. However, the average lead content of the hair of 13 captured howler monkeys was 24.12 ± 5.84 ppm. The lead levels in the animals were correlated with 2 of 15 blood traits (lactate dehydrogenase and total bilirubin) previously documented to be associated with exposure to lead. Our research illustrates the urgent need to set reference values indicating when adverse impacts of high environmental lead levels occur, whether anthropogenic or natural, and the need to evaluate possible cascading effects of deforestation on primates.

  11. The effects of plant nutritional chemistry on food selection of Mexican black howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra): The role of lipids.

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    Righini, Nicoletta; Garber, Paul A; Rothman, Jessica M

    2017-04-01

    Understanding the nutritional basis of food selection is fundamental to evaluate dietary patterns and foraging strategies in primates. This research describes the phytochemical composition of the foods consumed by two groups of Mexican black howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra) during a 15-month field study, and examines how plant nutritional chemistry affected food choice. Based on indices of selectivity that reflected seasonal changes in the amount of different phenophases of the most consumed plant species and their availability in the environment, we found that, in general, howlers did not preferentially select food items based on their concentrations of protein, sugar, energy, or their protein-to-fiber ratio. During only one season of the year, the nortes (October-January), there was evidence for selectivity. During this period, selectivity indices correlated positively with the lipid content of foods ingested. However, a strategy of selecting fruits high in lipids (21-41% dry matter) coincided with the consumption of a leaf-based diet (based on estimates of the dry weight of food ingested), suggesting that during this season howlers interchanged lipids with sugars to obtain energy and possibly to balance the higher protein intake obtained by the increased leaf consumption. Overall, these data did not support the prediction that food choice in this howler population was strongly correlated with particular nutrients, and suggest that balancing a suite of nutrients by consuming plants that vary widely in their composition may be an important strategy for howler monkeys. Am. J. Primatol. 79:e22524, 2017. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Demographic survey of black howler monkey (Alouatta pigra) in the Lachuá Eco-region in Alta Verapaz, Guatemala.

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    Rosales-Meda, Marleny; Estrada, Alejandro; López, Jorge E

    2008-03-01

    Guatemala harbors three species of primates (Alouatta palliata, Alouatta pigra and Ateles geoffroyi), but the distribution and state of conservation of populations of these species are poorly documented. In the case of A. pigra, populations have been studied recently and documented in several sites in Mexico and Belize, and only in one site in Guatemala (Tikal National Park). In this study, we report first-time population data for A. pigra existing in the Lachuá Eco-region in northwestern Guatemala. Surveys were conducted between September 2002 and April 2003 in the northern portion (32 km2) of the Lachuá National Park (LLNP; 145 km2) and in a fragmented landscape north of the protected area. In this latter area we surveyed a large forest fragment (17.14 km2), "Nueve Cerros", and 26 small forest fragments that ranged in size from 0.01 to 3.9 km2. Surveys resulted in a total count of 414 howler monkeys of which 403 belonged to 80 mixed-sex groups, four were solitary males, two were solitary females and five were found in two male groups. Standardized sampling effort among sites indicated 16.7 monkeys/100 survey hours at LLNP, 35.8 individuals/100 survey hours at "Nueve Cerros" and 71.0+/-62.2 individuals/100 survey hours in the forest fragments. Mean group size varied from 4.07 individuals at LLNP to 5.19 individuals in the forest fragments. Conservation problems for the black howler population surveyed are discussed, along with possible conservation scenarios.

  13. Clarifying the Cryptic Host Specificity of Blastocystis spp. Isolates from Alouatta palliata and A. pigra Howler Monkeys.

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    Claudia Villanueva-Garcia

    Full Text Available Although the presence of cryptic host specificity has been documented in Blastocystis, differences in infection rates and high genetic polymorphism within and between populations of some subtypes (ST have impeded the clarification of the generalist or specialist specificity of this parasite. We assessed the genetic variability and host specificity of Blastocystis spp. in wild howler monkeys from two rainforest areas in the southeastern region of Mexico. Fecal samples of 225 Alouatta palliata (59 and A. pigra (166 monkeys, belonging to 16 sylvatic sites, were analyzed for infection with Blastocystis ST using a region of the small subunit rDNA (SSUrDNA gene as a marker. Phylogenetic and genetic diversity analyses were performed according to the geographic areas where the monkeys were found. Blastocystis ST2 was the most abundant (91.9%, followed by ST1 and ST8 with 4.6% and 3.5%, respectively; no association between Blastocystis ST and Alouatta species was observed. SSUrDNA sequences in GenBank from human and non-human primates (NHP were used as ST references and included in population analyses. The haplotype network trees exhibited different distributions: ST1 showed a generalist profile since several haplotypes from different animals were homogeneously distributed with few mutational changes. For ST2, a major dispersion center grouped the Mexican samples, and high mutational differences were observed between NHP. Furthermore, nucleotide and haplotype diversity values, as well as migration and genetic differentiation indexes, showed contrasting values for ST1 and ST2. These data suggest that ST1 populations are only minimally differentiated, while ST2 populations in humans are highly differentiated from those of NHP. The host generalist and specialist specificities exhibited by ST1 and ST2 Blastocystis populations indicate distinct adaptation processes. Because ST1 exhibits a generalist profile, this haplotype can be considered a metapopulation

  14. Clarifying the Cryptic Host Specificity of Blastocystis spp. Isolates from Alouatta palliata and A. pigra Howler Monkeys.

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    Villanueva-Garcia, Claudia; Gordillo-Chavez, Elias Jose; Lopez-Escamilla, Eduardo; Rendon-Franco, Emilio; Muñoz-Garcia, Claudia Irais; Gama, Lilia; Martinez-Flores, Williams Arony; Gonzalez-Rodriguez, Nayeli; Romero-Valdovinos, Mirza; Diaz-Lopez, Hilda; Galian, Jose; Villalobos, Guiehdani; Maravilla, Pablo; Martinez-Hernandez, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    Although the presence of cryptic host specificity has been documented in Blastocystis, differences in infection rates and high genetic polymorphism within and between populations of some subtypes (ST) have impeded the clarification of the generalist or specialist specificity of this parasite. We assessed the genetic variability and host specificity of Blastocystis spp. in wild howler monkeys from two rainforest areas in the southeastern region of Mexico. Fecal samples of 225 Alouatta palliata (59) and A. pigra (166) monkeys, belonging to 16 sylvatic sites, were analyzed for infection with Blastocystis ST using a region of the small subunit rDNA (SSUrDNA) gene as a marker. Phylogenetic and genetic diversity analyses were performed according to the geographic areas where the monkeys were found. Blastocystis ST2 was the most abundant (91.9%), followed by ST1 and ST8 with 4.6% and 3.5%, respectively; no association between Blastocystis ST and Alouatta species was observed. SSUrDNA sequences in GenBank from human and non-human primates (NHP) were used as ST references and included in population analyses. The haplotype network trees exhibited different distributions: ST1 showed a generalist profile since several haplotypes from different animals were homogeneously distributed with few mutational changes. For ST2, a major dispersion center grouped the Mexican samples, and high mutational differences were observed between NHP. Furthermore, nucleotide and haplotype diversity values, as well as migration and genetic differentiation indexes, showed contrasting values for ST1 and ST2. These data suggest that ST1 populations are only minimally differentiated, while ST2 populations in humans are highly differentiated from those of NHP. The host generalist and specialist specificities exhibited by ST1 and ST2 Blastocystis populations indicate distinct adaptation processes. Because ST1 exhibits a generalist profile, this haplotype can be considered a metapopulation; in contrast

  15. Phylogenetic relationships among Brazilian howler monkeys, genus Alouatta (Platyrrhini, Atelidae, based on g1-globin pseudogene sequences

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    Carla Maria Meireles

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available The genus Alouatta (howler monkeys is the most widely distributed of New World primates, and has been arranged in three species groups: the Central American Alouatta palliata group and the South American Alouatta seniculus and Alouatta caraya groups. While the latter is monotypic, the A. seniculus group encompasses at least three species (A. seniculus, A. belzebul and A. fusca. In the present study, approximately 600 base pairs of the g1-globin pseudogene were sequenced in the four Brazilian species (A. seniculus, A. belzebul, A. fusca and A. caraya. Maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood methods yielded phylogenetic trees with the same arrangement: {A. caraya [A. seniculus (A. fusca, A. belzebul]}. The most parsimonious tree had bootstrap values greater than 82% for all groupings, and strength of grouping values of at least 2, supporting the sister clade of A. fusca and A. belzebul. The study also confirmed the presence of a 150-base pair Alu insertion element and a 1.8-kb deletion in the g1-globin pseudogene in A. fusca, features found previously in the remaining three species. The cladistic classification based on molecular data agrees with those of morphological studies, with the monospecific A. caraya group being clearly differentiated from the A. seniculus group.Os guaribas, do gênero Alouatta, que são os primatas do Novo Mundo com maior distribuição geográfica, têm sido colocados em três grupos de espécies: o grupo Alouatta palliata da América central, e os grupos sulamericanos Alouatta seniculus e Alouatta caraya. Este último é monotípico, mas o grupo A. seniculus inclui pelo menos três espécies (A. seniculus, A. belzebul e A. fusca. Neste estudo, foram seqüenciados aproximadamente 600 pares de base do pseudogene globina g1 nas quatro espécies brasileiras (A. seniculus, A. belzebul, A. fusca e A. caraya. Os métodos de máxima parcimônia e máxima verossimilhança produziram árvores filogenéticas com o mesmo arranjo

  16. The relative effects of reproductive condition, stress, and seasonality on patterns of parasitism in wild female black howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra).

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    Martínez-Mota, Rodolfo; Garber, Paul A; Palme, Rupert; Gillespie, Thomas R

    2017-08-01

    Parasitic infections in wildlife are shaped by host-related traits including individual reproductive condition. It has been argued that female primates are more susceptible to infectious diseases during pregnancy due to short-term changes in immune function that result in reduced ability to combat infections. Likewise, lactation, which is the most energetically expensive state, may affect immunity and infection risk due to tradeoffs between milk production and maintenance of immune function. Here, we examine the degree to which parasite prevalence and parasite richness are affected by female reproductive condition and stress levels in wild female black howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra). Over the course of one year, we collected fresh fecal samples from 15 adult females belonging to seven black howler groups living in Escárcega, Mexico. Fecal samples were used for parasitological analysis and for measuring fecal glucocorticoid metabolites (i.e., stress biomarker). We found that the prevalence of intestinal parasites and parasite richness did not differ among non-pregnant, pregnant, and lactating females. Fecal glucocorticoid metabolite levels increased significantly during pregnancy and during the first month of lactation, and positively predicted the probability of Controrchis biliophilus infection. Parasite prevalence and richness decreased during the months of increased rainfall. We conclude that reproductive physiology has limited consequences on intestinal parasitic infection risk in female black howler monkeys and that seasonal environmental fluctuations have greater effects. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Primatology in southern Brazil: a transdisciplinary approach to the conservation of the brown-howler-monkey Alouatta guariba clamitans (Primates, Atelidae

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    Leandro Jerusalinsky

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Human interventions in natural environments are the main cause of biodiversity loss worldwide. The situation is not different in southern Brazil, home of five primate species. Although some earlier studies exist, studies on the primates of this region began to be consistently carried out in the 1980s and have continued since then. In addition to important initiatives to study and protect the highly endangered Leontopithecus caissara Lorrini & Persson, 1990 and Brachyteles arachnoides E. Geoffroy, 1806, other species, including locally threatened ones, have been the focus of research, management, and protection initiatives. Since 1993, the urban monkeys program (PMU, Programa Macacos Urbanos has surveyed the distribution and assessed threats to populations of Alouatta guariba clamitans (Cabrera, 1940 in Porto Alegre and vicinity. PMU has developed conservation strategies on four fronts: (1 scientific research on biology and ecology, providing basic knowledge to support all other activities of the group; (2 conservation education, which emphasizes educational presentations and long-term projects in schools near howler populations, based on the flagship species approach; (3 management, analyzing conflicts involving howlers and human communities, focusing on mitigating these problems and on appropriate relocation of injured or at-risk individuals; and finally, (4 Public Policies aimed at reducing and/or preventing the impact of urban expansion, contributing to create protected areas and to strengthen environmental laws. These different approaches have contributed to protect howler monkey populations over the short term, indicating that working collectively and acting on diversified and interrelated fronts are essential to achieve conservation goals. The synergistic results of these approaches and their relationship to the prospects for primatology in southern Brazil are presented in this review.

  18. Feeding selectivity by mantled howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata) in relation to leaf secondary chemistry in Hymenaea courbaril.

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    Welker, B J; König, W; Pietsch, M; Adams, R P

    2007-06-01

    This study is a quantitative examination of primate feeding selectivity in relation to secondary chemistry within a single plant species, Hymenaea courbaril. It provides the first evidence that sesquiterpenes may act as feeding deterrents in mantled howler monkeys. A free-ranging group of mantled howler monkeys at the study site of Sector Santa Rosa, Area de Conservacion Guanacaste, Costa Rica were observed for the 2-month period of H. courbaril leaf flush in 1999. Tree characteristic data and leaf specimens were collected from 22 focal trees. Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry were used to estimate relative percentages of sesquiterpenes in leaf specimens. The monkeys fed only on the youngest leaves and only from particular trees. Whereas leaf stage selectivity was likely governed by tannin content and structural carbohydrates in younger and older leaf stages, respectively, differential tree use may be related to variability in sesquiterpene content. There is evidence that alpha-copaene may have played a role in interindividual tree use, and that cyperene may also be implicated. However, there is no reported evidence of antiherbivore activity for cyperene.

  19. Activity patterns and diet of the howler monkey Alouatta belzebul in areas of logged and unlogged forest in Eastern Amazonia

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    Pinto, A. C. B.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This work compared the activity patterns and diet of a group of Alouatta belzebul in areas of logged and unlogged forest in eastern Amazonia. An instantaneous scan sampling procedure was used for the behavioral study (9.3 ± 1.9 complete observation days/month from February to November 2000. Fruit availability was estimated monthly. Activity budgets were not significantly different between sites. Rest was the predominant activity in both sites (53.6 % and 48.7 %, respectively. Average daily path length was 683.5 ± 215.1 m (n = 93, and the home range was 17.8 ha, including 7 ha in unlogged forest and 10.8 ha in the logged forest. Neither fruit availability nor diet varied significantly between sites. The diet was predominantly folivorous (43.4 % and 46.6 % in unlogged and logged forest, respectively and frugivorous (43.9 % and 42.8 %. The spatial use by the group was positively related to fruit sources. This study documented the ability of a ranging group of A. belzebul to survive in a habitat influenced by reduced impact logging without dramatically influencing its activity patterns and diet

  20. When top-down becomes bottom up: behaviour of hyperdense howler monkeys (Alouatta seniculus trapped on a 0.6 ha island.

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    Gabriela Orihuela

    Full Text Available Predators are a ubiquitous presence in most natural environments. Opportunities to contrast the behaviour of a species in the presence and absence of predators are thus rare. Here we report on the behaviour of howler monkey groups living under radically different conditions on two land-bridge islands in Lago Guri, Venezuela. One group of 6 adults inhabited a 190-ha island (Danto where they were exposed to multiple potential predators. This group, the control, occupied a home range of 23 ha and contested access to food resources with neighbouring groups in typical fashion. The second group, containing 6 adults, was isolated on a remote, predator-free 0.6 ha islet (Iguana offering limited food resources. Howlers living on the large island moved, fed and rested in a coherent group, frequently engaged in affiliative activities, rarely displayed agonistic behaviour and maintained intergroup spacing through howling. In contrast, the howlers on Iguana showed repulsion, as individuals spent most of their time spaced widely around the perimeter of the island. Iguana howlers rarely engaged in affiliative behaviour, often chased or fought with one another and were not observed to howl. These behaviors are interpreted as adjustments to the unrelenting deprivation associated with bottom-up limitation in a predator-free environment.

  1. Estudo florístico de segmentos de Mata Atlântica em Parelheiros, São Paulo, SP, para soltura de bugio-ruivo Alouatta clamitans (Cabrera, 1940. Floristic survey of Atlantic Rain Forest in the District of Parelheiros, São Paulo, southeastern Brazil, for reintroduction of the Brown Howler Monkey, Alouatta clamitans (Cabrera, 1940

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    Ricardo José Francischetti GARCIA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A fim de minimizar os efeitos da pressão da urbanização sobre bugios-ruivos, Alouatta clamitans (Cabrera, 1940, a Divisão de Fauna em parceria com o Herbário Municipal realiza, desde 1996, o Programa de Reintrodução de Bugios, com o objetivo de viabilizar o retorno à vida livre dos indivíduos aptos. Entre várias áreas prospectadas para possível soltura de bugios-ruivos, o Sítio Roda d’Água, distrito de Parelheiros, município de São Paulo, foi selecionado para realização do presente estudo. Todos os componentes da mata, em uma área de 89,9 hectares, foram amostrados para avaliação da disponibilidade de alimentos. Foram registradas 251 espécies vasculares, sendo 13 pteridófitas, uma gimnosperma e 237 angiospermas. O material testemunho está depositado no Herbário Municipal. Na área estudada foram registradas duas espécies ameaçadas e quatro quase ameaçadas. As espécies dos componentes arbóreo-arbustivo e epifítico, que constituem o hábitat preferencial dos bugios-ruivos, correspondem a 73,7% do total levantado. Dentro deste grupo de espécies, 17,8% já foram registradas como fontes alimentares para a espécie-alvo. Dentre as espécies já referidas na dieta de bugios-ruivos, registradas na área de estudo, todas apresentam distribuição geográfica ampla. Desta forma, a área estudada foi considerada apropriada para a soltura de bugios-ruivos, quanto à disponibilidade de recursos para alimentação. In order to minimize the urbanization pressure effects over Brown Howler Monkeys, Alouatta clamitans (Cabrera, 1940, the Fauna Division in partnership with the Municipal Herbarium carries out a Brown Howler Monkey Reintroduction Program since 1996, with the aim of enabling the return of fit individuals to the wild. Among several areas prospected for possible reintroduction of the Brown Howler Monkey, Roda d’Água Ranch, District of Parelheiros, City of São Paulo, was selected to carry out this study. All

  2. Effects of habitat fragmentation and disturbance on howler monkeys: a review.

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    Arroyo-Rodríguez, Víctor; Dias, Pedro Américo D

    2010-01-01

    We examined the literature on the effects of habitat fragmentation and disturbance on howler monkeys (genus Alouatta) to (1) identify different threats that may affect howlers in fragmented landscapes; (2) review specific predictions developed in fragmentation theory and (3) identify the empirical evidence supporting these predictions. Although howlers are known for their ability to persist in both conserved and disturbed conditions, we found evidence that they are negatively affected by high levels of habitat loss, fragmentation and degradation. Patch size appears to be the main factor constraining populations in fragmented habitats, probably because patch size is positively related to food availability, and negatively related to anthropogenic pressures, physiological stress and parasite loads. Patch isolation is not a strong predictor of either patch occupancy or population size in howlers, a result that may be related to the ability of howlers to move among forest patches. Thus, we propose that it is probable that habitat loss has larger consistent negative effects on howler populations than habitat fragmentation per se. In general, food availability decreases with patch size, not only due to habitat loss, but also because the density of big trees, plant species richness and howlers' home range size are lower in smaller patches, where howlers' population densities are commonly higher. However, it is unclear which vegetation attributes have the biggest influence on howler populations. Similarly, our knowledge is still limited concerning the effects of postfragmentation threats (e.g. hunting and logging) on howlers living in forest patches, and how several endogenous threats (e.g. genetic diversity, physiological stress, and parasitism) affect the distribution, population structure and persistence of howlers. More long-term studies with comparable methods are necessary to quantify some of the patterns discussed in this review, and determine through meta

  3. Epizootic amebiasis outbreak in wild black howler monkeys (Alouatta caraya in a wildlife facility during captivity prior to translocation - Recommendations to wildlife management programs

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    Alexander Genoy-Puerto

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Óbitos por infecções causadas por protozoários intestinais são indesejáveis para programas de manejo de fauna, exigidos no âmbito do licenciamento ambiental e que demandam a captura e quarentena de primatas não humanos. Exames coproparasitológicos, necroscópicos, microbiológicos e moleculares foram utilizados para a confirmação do diagnóstico de uma severa enterite necrótica que levou a óbito três fêmeas e dois machos de Alouatta (A. caraya capturados e mantidos em quarentena prévia à translocação. Exames coproparasitológicos revelaram a presença de cistos de Entamoeba (E. histolytica/dispar (5/5, Entamoeba (E. coli (5/5 e Giardia (G. duodenalis (1/5. A avaliação necroscópica revelou áreas de necrose multifocal severa na mucosa e submucosa intestinal. A análise microscópica revelou a presença de estruturas morfologicamente compatíveis com trofozoítos do gênero Entamoeba spp. em todos os indivíduos examinados. Além disso, G. duodenalis (1/5 foi demonstrada pela técnica de Nested PCR. Sugere-se que quando for necessário o cativeiro temporário de primatas, deverão ser adotados protocolos de manejo adequados buscando a destinação imediata dos animais, de moto a mitigar os efeitos negativos do estresse e reduzir o risco da ocorrência de infecções.

  4. Patterns of subgrouping and spatial affiliation in a community of mantled howling monkeys (Alouatta palliata).

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    Bezanson, Michelle; Garber, Paul A; Murphy, John T; Premo, L S

    2008-03-01

    Studies of social affiliation and social spacing offer important insight into the dynamics of subgroup formation and social strategies in living primates. Among the 11 species in the genus Alouatta, mantled howlers (A. palliata) are the only species to consistently form large, stable social groups composed of several adult males and several adult females. In this study, we examine patterns of subgrouping, activity, and partner preferences in a troop of 26-29 wild mantled howling monkeys (including 12-13 marked individuals) inhabiting Isla de Ometepe, Nicaragua. During two study seasons in 2000 and 2001, we simultaneously monitored the size, composition, and activities of individuals in two to three different subgroups. A half-weight association index was used to calculate partner preferences and patterns of spatial association. Results indicate that our howler study troop fragmented into subgroups of 1-20 with subgroups averaging five and six individuals. Subgroup size and membership reflected individual patterns of social affiliation and social tolerance, and in general remained consistent across activities and from year to year. We also found evidence of cliques or social networks of three to four individuals embedded within larger subgroups. A small number of adult males appeared to play an important social role as the nucleus of clique formation. We argue that the persistence of strong male-male and male-female partner preferences in mantled howlers helps to explain the stability of relatively large multimale-multifemale groups.

  5. Feeding Strategies of Brown Howler Monkeys in Response to Variations in Food Availability.

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    Chaves, Óscar M; Bicca-Marques, Júlio César

    2016-01-01

    Primates display varying degrees of behavioral flexibility that allow them to adjust their diet to temporal changes in food availability. This trait might be critical for the survival of folivorous-frugivorous species inhabiting small forest fragments, where the availability of food resources tends to be lower than in large fragments and continuous forests. However, the scarcity of studies addressing this issue hampers our understanding of the adaptive behaviors that favor the survival of these primates in low-quality habitats. We conducted a 36-mo study testing the hypothesis that brown howler monkeys (Alouatta guariba clamitans) are able to adjust their diet in response to local and seasonal changes in resource availability. We compared the diet of six free-ranging groups inhabiting three small (90 ha) Atlantic forest fragments in southern Brazil and estimated the temporal availability of their top food species (i.e., those species that together contribute ≥80% of total feeding records). We found that brown howlers exploited similarly rich diets in small (45, 54, and 57 plant species) and large (48, 51, and 56 species) fragments. However, intermonth diet similarity was higher for groups in small fragments, where howlers also fed on plant items from nine alien species. Fruits and leaves were the most consumed plant items in both small (42% and 49% of feeding records, respectively) and large (51% and 41%, respectively) fragments. The consumption of young leaves was higher in small than in large fragments, whereas the consumption of other plant items did not show a pattern related to fragment size. Regarding the contribution of growth forms as food sources, only the exploitation of palms showed a pattern related to fragment size. Palms contributed more to the diet of groups inhabiting large fragments. The availability of seasonal food items-ripe fruits and young leaves-influenced their consumption in both habitat types. Therefore, brown howlers cope with local and

  6. Feeding Strategies of Brown Howler Monkeys in Response to Variations in Food Availability.

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    Óscar M Chaves

    Full Text Available Primates display varying degrees of behavioral flexibility that allow them to adjust their diet to temporal changes in food availability. This trait might be critical for the survival of folivorous-frugivorous species inhabiting small forest fragments, where the availability of food resources tends to be lower than in large fragments and continuous forests. However, the scarcity of studies addressing this issue hampers our understanding of the adaptive behaviors that favor the survival of these primates in low-quality habitats. We conducted a 36-mo study testing the hypothesis that brown howler monkeys (Alouatta guariba clamitans are able to adjust their diet in response to local and seasonal changes in resource availability. We compared the diet of six free-ranging groups inhabiting three small (90 ha Atlantic forest fragments in southern Brazil and estimated the temporal availability of their top food species (i.e., those species that together contribute ≥80% of total feeding records. We found that brown howlers exploited similarly rich diets in small (45, 54, and 57 plant species and large (48, 51, and 56 species fragments. However, intermonth diet similarity was higher for groups in small fragments, where howlers also fed on plant items from nine alien species. Fruits and leaves were the most consumed plant items in both small (42% and 49% of feeding records, respectively and large (51% and 41%, respectively fragments. The consumption of young leaves was higher in small than in large fragments, whereas the consumption of other plant items did not show a pattern related to fragment size. Regarding the contribution of growth forms as food sources, only the exploitation of palms showed a pattern related to fragment size. Palms contributed more to the diet of groups inhabiting large fragments. The availability of seasonal food items-ripe fruits and young leaves-influenced their consumption in both habitat types. Therefore, brown howlers cope

  7. Associação de cetamina S(+ e midazolam pelo método convencional de cálculo e pela extrapolação alométrica em bugios-ruivo (Alouatta guariba clamitans: resposta clínica e cardiorrespiratória S(+ ketamine and midazolam association by the conventional method of calculation and allometric extrapolation in red howler monkeys (Alouatta guariba clamitans: clinical and cardiopulmonary response

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    Joana Aurora Braun Chagas

    2010-02-01

    calculation (weight dose and allometric extrapolation. Twelve healthy red howler monkeys (Alouatta guariba clamitans, average weight 4.84±0.97kg, male and female, were used for this study. After a 12-hour period of food restriction and 6 hours of water restriction, the animals were physically restraint and the following parameters were measured: heart rate (HR, respiratory rate (RR, capillary refill time (CRT, rectal temperature (RT, non invasive systolic arterial pressure (NISAP and arterial blood gases analysis. The animals were distributed into two groups: CG (Conventional Group, n=6, in which the animals received S(+ ketamine (5mg kg-1 and midazolam (0.5mg kg-1, by intramuscular (IM injection; and AG (Allometry Group, n=6, in which the animals also received S(+ ketamine and midazolan IM, but the doses were calculated by allometric extrapolation. Parameters were evaluated at the following moments: M5, M10, M20 and M30 (5, 10, 20 and 30 minutes after IM injection, respectively. Muscle relaxation, pedal and caudal reflexes, interdigital pinch, recumbency time, sedation's quality and duration, and recovery time and its quality were also evaluated. The AG had a faster time for recumbency, higher period and quality of sedation, and a significantly reduction on HR and SAP from M5 to M30 when compared to CG. It was concluded that allometric extrapolation presented a better muscle relaxation and sedation without significant cardiorespiratory depression.

  8. Behavioral and physiological responses to subgroup size and number of people in howler monkeys inhabiting a forest fragment used for nature-based tourism.

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    Aguilar-Melo, Adriana R; Andresen, Ellen; Cristóbal-Azkarate, Jurgi; Arroyo-Rodríguez, Victor; Chavira, Roberto; Schondube, Jorge; Serio-Silva, Juan Carlos; Cuarón, Alfredo D

    2013-11-01

    Animals' responses to potentially threatening factors can provide important information for their conservation. Group size and human presence are potentially threatening factors to primates inhabiting small reserves used for recreation. We tested these hypotheses by evaluating behavioral and physiological responses in two groups of mantled howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata mexicana) at the "Centro Ecológico y Recreativo El Zapotal", a recreational forest reserve and zoo located in the Mexican state of Chiapas. Both groups presented fission-fusion dynamics, splitting into foraging subgroups which varied in size among, but not within days. Neither subgroup size nor number of people had an effect on fecal cortisol. Out of 16 behavioral response variables tested, the studied factors had effects on six: four were affected by subgroup size and two were affected by number of people. With increasing subgroup size, monkeys increased daily path lengths, rested less, increased foraging effort, and used more plant individuals for feeding. As the number of people increased, monkeys spent more time in lower-quality habitat, and less time engaged in social interactions. Although fecal cortisol levels were not affected by the factors studied, one of the monkey groups had almost twice the level of cortisol compared to the other group. The group with higher cortisol levels also spent significantly more time in the lower-quality habitat, compared to the other group. Our results suggest that particular behavioral adjustments might allow howler monkeys at El Zapotal to avoid physiological stress due to subgroup size and number of people. However, the fact that one of the monkey groups is showing increased cortisol levels may be interpreted as a warning sign, indicating that an adjustment threshold is being reached, at least for part of the howler monkey population in this forest fragment. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Secondary transfer of adult mantled howlers (Alouatta palliata) on Hacienda La Pacifica, Costa Rica: 1975-2009.

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    Clarke, Margaret R; Glander, Kenneth E

    2010-07-01

    Natal emigration by male and female mantled howlers (Alouatta palliata), and subsequent immigration into breeding groups, is well documented for the free-ranging population on Hacienda La Pacifica, Costa Rica, but secondary transfer was considered rare (Glander in Int J Primatol 3:415-436, 1992). Population surveys in 1998 and 2006 caused us to question our assumptions and to re-evaluate our long-term data set from a post hoc perspective. We first identified all animals observed or captured as adults in more than one non-natal group anywhere in the population. We then systematically analyzed joining or leaving by adults in seven groups tracked for various times from 1975 to 2005 for patterns suggesting secondary transfer. Fourteen adults (nine females, five males) were found in two different non-natal groups as adults. In addition, one male and one female that became dominant and reproduced in their natal group later transferred to a second group, and one female was known to be a tertiary transfer. Data from the seven tracked social groups indicate that 35% of all the males and 29% of all the females were potential secondary transfers. In these groups, males leaving or joining was not associated with group size or absolute number of females. Females leaving or joining was not associated with group size or absolute number of males, but females left groups with more females and joined groups with fewer females. Both sexes left groups with unfavorable sex ratios for their sex and joined groups with sex ratios more favorable for their sex. Since a favorable sex ratio is associated with reproductive success in other howler populations, this suggests secondary transfer as a reproductive strategy. Other factors could also influence secondary transfer.

  10. Plasmodium simium/Plasmodium vivax infections in southern brown howler monkeys from the Atlantic Forest

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    Daniela Camargos Costa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Blood infection by the simian parasite, Plasmodium simium, was identified in captive (n = 45, 4.4% and in wild Alouatta clamitans monkeys (n = 20, 35% from the Atlantic Forest of southern Brazil. A single malaria infection was symptomatic and the monkey presented clinical and haematological alterations. A high frequency of Plasmodium vivax-specific antibodies was detected among these monkeys, with 87% of the monkeys testing positive against P. vivax antigens. These findings highlight the possibility of malaria as a zoonosis in the remaining Atlantic Forest and its impact on the epidemiology of the disease.

  11. Yellow fever outbreak affecting Alouatta populations in southern Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul State), 2008-2009.

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    de Almeida, Marco Antônio Barreto; Dos Santos, Edmilson; da Cruz Cardoso, Jader; da Fonseca, Daltro Fernandes; Noll, Carlos Alberto; Silveira, Vivian Regina; Maeda, Adriana Yurika; de Souza, Renato Pereira; Kanamura, Cristina; Brasil, Roosecelis Araújo

    2012-01-01

    The natural transmission cycle of Yellow Fever (YF) involves tree hole breeding mosquitoes and a wide array of nonhuman primates (NHP), including monkeys and apes. Some Neotropical monkeys (howler monkeys, genus Alouatta) develop fatal YF virus (YFV) infections similar to those reported in humans, even with minimum exposure to the infection. Epizootics in wild primates may be indicating YFV circulation, and the surveillance of such outbreaks in wildlife is an important tool to help prevent human infection. In 2001, surveillance activities successfully identified YF-related death in a black-and-gold howler monkey (Alouatta caraya), Rio Grande do Sul State (RGS) in southern Brazil, and the YFV was isolated from a species of forest-dwelling mosquito (Haemagogus leucocelaenus). These findings led the State Secretariat of Health to initiate a monitoring program for YF and other 18 arboviral infections in Alouatta monkeys. The monitoring program included monkey captures, reporting of monkey casualties by municipalities, and subsequent investigations. If monkey carcasses were found in forests, samples were collected in a standardized manner and this practice resulted in increased reporting of outbreaks. In October 2008, a single howler monkey in a northwestern RGS municipality was confirmed to have died from YF. From October 2008 to June 2009, 2,013 monkey deaths were reported (830 A. caraya and 1,183 A. guariba clamitans). Viruses isolation in blood, viscera, and/or immunohistochemistry led to the detection of YF in 204 of 297 (69%) (154 A. g. clamitans and 50 A. caraya) dead Alouatta monkeys tested. The number of municipalities with confirmed YFV circulation in howlers increased from 2 to 67 and 21 confirmed human cases occurred. This surveillance system was successful in identifying the largest YF outbreak affecting wild NHP ever recorded. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Primates living outside protected habitats are more stressed: the case of black howler monkeys in the Yucatán Peninsula.

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    Ariadna Rangel-Negrín

    Full Text Available The non-invasive monitoring of glucocorticoid hormones allows for the assessment of the physiological effects of anthropogenic disturbances on wildlife. Variation in glucocorticoid levels of the same species between protected and unprotect areas seldom has been measured, and the available evidence suggests that this relationship may depend on species-specific habitat requirements and biology. In the present study we focused on black howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra, a canopy-dwelling primate species, as a case study to evaluate the physiological consequences of living in unprotected areas, and relate them with intragroup competition and competition with extragroup individuals. From February 2006 to September 2007 we collected 371 fecal samples from 21 adults belonging to five groups (two from protected and three from unprotected areas in Campeche, Mexico. We recorded agonistic interactions within groups and encounters with other groups (1,200 h of behavioral observations, and determined fecal glucocorticoid metabolite (FGM concentrations with radioimmunoassays. We used linear mixed models and Akaike's information criterion to choose the best model explaining variation in FGM concentrations between protected and unprotected areas calculated from five categorical variables: habitat type (protected vs. unprotected, participation in agonistic interactions, intergroup encounters, sex and female reproductive state, and season. The best model included habitat type, the interaction between habitat type and agonism, and the interaction between habitat type and season. FGM concentrations were higher in unprotected habitats, particularly when individuals were involved in agonistic interactions; seasonal variation in FGM concentrations was only detected in protected habitats. High FGM concentrations in black howler monkeys living in unprotected habitats are associated with increased within-group food competition and probably associated with exposure to

  13. Foraging habits of Alouatta palliata mexicana in three forest fragments.

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    Asensio, Norberto; Cristobal-Azkarate, Jurgi; Dias, Pedro Américo D; Vea, Joaquim J; Rodríguez-Luna, Ernesto

    2007-01-01

    The activity patterns and diet of howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata mexicana) were studied in 3 forest fragments in south-eastern Mexico: Playa Escondida (PLA), Agaltepec Island (AGA) and Arroyo Liza (LIZ). Intersite differences offered the opportunity to investigate the foraging adaptations of howler monkeys in response to population and habitat size. In the largest fragment (PLA), the howlers' diet was based on high-quality items (fruit and young leaves). In AGA, where the density of howlers was the highest, their diet was mostly folivorous with a marked exploitation of uncommon food items such as vines, lianas, shrubs and herbs. The dietary differences in AGA were accompanied by more time spent travelling and less time spent resting. Although LIZ was the smallest fragment and had a high howler density, the small group size and the use of energy-minimizing strategies (less time spent travelling and more time spent resting) probably allowed howlers to maintain a frugivorous diet. (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Two cases of polydactyly in wild brown howler monkeys (Alouatta guariba clamitans).

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    da Silva, Moira Ansolch; Steinberg, Eliana R; Paskulin, Giorgio A; Teixeira, Fábio dos Santos; Jesus, Anamélia de Souza; Mudry, Marta D; Bicca-Marques, Júlio César

    2016-02-01

    We report the first two cases of polydactyly in an atelid species: (i) a wild ca. 16-week-old infant female presenting seven digits in both feet and other bone malformations and (ii) a wild newborn male presenting six digits in both feet with the extra digit fused to the hallux. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. The role of sex and age in the architecture of intrapopulation howler monkey-plant networks in continuous and fragmented rain forests

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    Julieta Benitez-Malvido

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the structure of intrapopulation howler monkey-plant interactions by focusing on the plant species consumed by different sex and age classes in continuous and fragmented forests in southern Mexico. For this we used network analysis to evaluate the impact of fragmentation on howler population traits and on resource availability and food choice. A total of 37 tree and liana species and seven plant items (bark, immature fruits, flowers, mature fruits, immature leaves, mature leaves and petioles were consumed, but their relative consumption varied according to sex and age classes and habitat type. Overall, adult females consumed the greatest number of plant species and items while infants and juveniles the lowest. For both continuous and fragmented forests, we found a nested diet for howler monkey-plant networks: diets of more selective monkeys represent subsets of the diets of other individuals. Nestedness was likely due to the high selectivity of early life stages in specific food plants and items, which contrasts with the generalized foraging behaviour of adults. Information on the extent to which different plant species and primate populations depend on such interactions in different habitats will help to make accurate predictions about the potential impact of disturbances on plant-animal interaction networks.

  16. Detection of the mosquito-borne flaviviruses, West Nile, Dengue, Saint Louis Encephalitis, Ilheus, Bussuquara, and Yellow Fever in free-ranging black howlers (Alouatta caraya) of Northeastern Argentina.

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    Morales, María A; Fabbri, Cintia M; Zunino, Gabriel E; Kowalewski, Martín M; Luppo, Victoria C; Enría, Delia A; Levis, Silvana C; Calderón, Gladys E

    2017-02-01

    Several medically important mosquito-borne flaviviruses have been detected in Argentina in recent years: Dengue (DENV), St. Louis encephalitis (SLEV), West Nile (WNV) and Yellow Fever (YFV) viruses. Evidence of Bussuquara virus (BSQV) and Ilheus virus (ILHV) activity were found, but they have not been associated with human disease. Non-human primates can act as important hosts in the natural cycle of flaviviruses and serological studies can lead to improved understanding of virus circulation dynamics and host susceptibility. From July-August 2010, we conducted serological and molecular surveys in free-ranging black howlers (Alouatta caraya) captured in northeastern Argentina. We used 90% plaque-reduction neutralization tests (PRNT90) to analyze 108 serum samples for antibodies to WNV, SLEV, YFV, DENV (serotypes 1and 3), ILHV, and BSQV. Virus genome detection was performed using generic reverse transcription (RT)-nested PCR to identify flaviviruses in 51 antibody-negative animals. Seventy animals had antibodies for one or more flaviviruses for a total antibody prevalence of 64.8% (70/108). Monotypic (13/70, 19%) and heterotypic (27/70, 39%) patterns were differentiated. Specific neutralizing antibodies against WNV, SLEV, DENV-1, DENV-3, ILHV, and BSQV were found. Unexpectedly, the highest flavivirus antibody prevalence detected was to WNV with 9 (8.33%) monotypic responses. All samples tested by (RT)-nested PCR were negative for viral genome. This is the first detection of WNV-specific antibodies in black howlers from Argentina and the first report in free-ranging non-human primates from Latin-American countries. Given that no animals had specific neutralizing antibodies to YFV, our results suggest that the study population remains susceptible to YFV. Monitoring of these agents should be strengthened to detect the establishment of sylvatic cycles of flaviviruses in America and evaluate risks to wildlife and human health.

  17. Detection of the mosquito-borne flaviviruses, West Nile, Dengue, Saint Louis Encephalitis, Ilheus, Bussuquara, and Yellow Fever in free-ranging black howlers (Alouatta caraya of Northeastern Argentina.

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    María A Morales

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Several medically important mosquito-borne flaviviruses have been detected in Argentina in recent years: Dengue (DENV, St. Louis encephalitis (SLEV, West Nile (WNV and Yellow Fever (YFV viruses. Evidence of Bussuquara virus (BSQV and Ilheus virus (ILHV activity were found, but they have not been associated with human disease. Non-human primates can act as important hosts in the natural cycle of flaviviruses and serological studies can lead to improved understanding of virus circulation dynamics and host susceptibility. From July-August 2010, we conducted serological and molecular surveys in free-ranging black howlers (Alouatta caraya captured in northeastern Argentina. We used 90% plaque-reduction neutralization tests (PRNT90 to analyze 108 serum samples for antibodies to WNV, SLEV, YFV, DENV (serotypes 1and 3, ILHV, and BSQV. Virus genome detection was performed using generic reverse transcription (RT-nested PCR to identify flaviviruses in 51 antibody-negative animals. Seventy animals had antibodies for one or more flaviviruses for a total antibody prevalence of 64.8% (70/108. Monotypic (13/70, 19% and heterotypic (27/70, 39% patterns were differentiated. Specific neutralizing antibodies against WNV, SLEV, DENV-1, DENV-3, ILHV, and BSQV were found. Unexpectedly, the highest flavivirus antibody prevalence detected was to WNV with 9 (8.33% monotypic responses. All samples tested by (RT-nested PCR were negative for viral genome. This is the first detection of WNV-specific antibodies in black howlers from Argentina and the first report in free-ranging non-human primates from Latin-American countries. Given that no animals had specific neutralizing antibodies to YFV, our results suggest that the study population remains susceptible to YFV. Monitoring of these agents should be strengthened to detect the establishment of sylvatic cycles of flaviviruses in America and evaluate risks to wildlife and human health.

  18. Parturition and potential infanticide in free-ranging Alouatta guariba clamitans.

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    Martins, Valeska; Chaves, Óscar M; Neves, Mariana Beal; Bicca-Marques, Júlio César

    2015-04-01

    Parturition is a key process of mammalian reproduction that is rarely documented in New World monkeys because it often occurs at night. However, diurnal births have been recorded in several species. In howler monkeys (Alouatta spp.) they have often been observed during prolonged resting periods. Similarly, infanticide is a behavior observed quite infrequently. Infanticide in howler monkeys is often inferred from infant deaths or disappearances after group takeovers by nonresident male(s). Here we report the first observation of parturition and birth-related behaviors in the brown howler monkey (Alouatta guariba clamitans) and the likely attack on the infant that caused its death. The mother was a multiparous female that lived in a ca. 3-ha Atlantic forest fragment in southern Brazil with nine group mates. The behavior ("all occurrences") sampling method was used to record birth-related behaviors and social interactions. The parturition occurred during the day of 27 October 2013 during a feeding session. The female showed no sign of contraction or birth delivery posture. Parturition began apparently after matrix rupture and release of the amniotic fluid. Expulsion of the newborn occurred between 1 and 3 min later (the exact moment of delivery was not observed). Then, the female held and licked the newborn and began to ingest the placenta and the umbilical cord. The other group members continued feeding and had no interaction with the parturient during the preparturition and parturition events. The infant died ca. 35 days later as a consequence of injuries to his forehead and face, potentially caused by a conspecific bite. Because the adult and subadult males chased the female in the day that the infant's wounds were detected, we believe that one of them might have been the aggressor. We discuss this putative case of infanticide in light of the potential motivation of each male.

  19. Differential distribution of sperm subpopulations and incidence of pleiomorphisms in ejaculates of captive howling monkeys ( Alouatta caraya)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, R. R.; Carvalho, F. M.; Muniz, J. A. P. C.; Leal, C. L. V.; García-Herreros, M.

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an objective method to determine the incidence of pleiomorphisms and its influence on the distribution of sperm morphometric subpopulations in ejaculates of howling monkeys ( Alouatta caraya) by using a combination of computerized analysis system (ASMA) and principal component analysis (PCA) methods. Ejaculates were collected by electroejaculation methods on a regular basis from five individuals maintained under identical captive environmental, nutritional, and management conditions. Each sperm head was measured for dimensional parameters (Area [ A, (square micrometers)], Perimeter [ P, (micrometers)], Length [ L, (micrometers)], and Width [ W, (micrometers)]) and shape-derived parameters (Ellipticity [( L/ W)], Elongation [( L - W)/( L + W)], and Rugosity [(4л A/ P 2)]). PCA revealed two principal components explaining more than the 96 % of the variance. Clustering methods and discriminant analyzes were performed and seven separate subpopulations were identified. There were differences ( P < 0.001) in the distribution of the seven subpopulations as well as in the incidence of abnormal pleiomorphisms (58.6 %, 49.8 %, 35.1 %, 66.4 %, and 55.1 %, P < 0.05) among the five donors tested. Our results indicated that differences among individuals related to the incidence of pleiomorphisms, and sperm subpopulational structure was not related to the captivity conditions or the sperm collection method, since all individuals were studied under identical conditions. In conclusion, the combination of ASMA and PCA is a useful clinical diagnostic resource for detecting deficiencies in sperm morphology and sperm subpopulations in A. caraya ejaculates that could be used in ex situ conservation programs of threatened species in Alouatta genus or even other endangered neotropical primate species.

  20. Alouatta trichromatic color vision: cone spectra and physiological responses studied with microspectrophotometry and single unit retinal electrophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Luiz Carlos L; Saito, Cézar A; da Silva Filho, Manoel; Kremers, Jan; Bowmaker, James K; Lee, Barry B

    2014-01-01

    The howler monkeys (Alouatta sp.) are the only New World primates to exhibit routine trichromacy. Both males and females have three cone photopigments. However, in contrast to Old World monkeys, Alouatta has a locus control region upstream of each opsin gene on the X-chromosome and this might influence the retinal organization underlying its color vision. Post-mortem microspectrophotometry (MSP) was performed on the retinae of two male Alouatta to obtain rod and cone spectral sensitivities. The MSP data were consistent with only a single opsin being expressed in each cone and electrophysiological data were consistent with this primate expressing full trichromacy. To study the physiological organization of the retina underlying Alouatta trichromacy, we recorded from retinal ganglion cells of the same animals used for MSP measurements with a variety of achromatic and chromatic stimulus protocols. We found MC cells and PC cells in the Alouatta retina with similar properties to those previously found in the retina of other trichromatic primates. MC cells showed strong phasic responses to luminance changes and little response to chromatic pulses. PC cells showed strong tonic response to chromatic changes and small tonic response to luminance changes. Responses to other stimulus protocols (flicker photometry; changing the relative phase of red and green modulated lights; temporal modulation transfer functions) were also similar to those recorded in other trichromatic primates. MC cells also showed a pronounced frequency double response to chromatic modulation, and with luminance modulation response saturation accompanied by a phase advance between 10-20 Hz, characteristic of a contrast gain mechanism. This indicates a very similar retinal organization to Old-World monkeys. Cone-specific opsin expression in the presence of a locus control region for each opsin may call into question the hypothesis that this region exclusively controls opsin expression.

  1. Alouatta trichromatic color vision: cone spectra and physiological responses studied with microspectrophotometry and single unit retinal electrophysiology.

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    Luiz Carlos L Silveira

    Full Text Available The howler monkeys (Alouatta sp. are the only New World primates to exhibit routine trichromacy. Both males and females have three cone photopigments. However, in contrast to Old World monkeys, Alouatta has a locus control region upstream of each opsin gene on the X-chromosome and this might influence the retinal organization underlying its color vision. Post-mortem microspectrophotometry (MSP was performed on the retinae of two male Alouatta to obtain rod and cone spectral sensitivities. The MSP data were consistent with only a single opsin being expressed in each cone and electrophysiological data were consistent with this primate expressing full trichromacy. To study the physiological organization of the retina underlying Alouatta trichromacy, we recorded from retinal ganglion cells of the same animals used for MSP measurements with a variety of achromatic and chromatic stimulus protocols. We found MC cells and PC cells in the Alouatta retina with similar properties to those previously found in the retina of other trichromatic primates. MC cells showed strong phasic responses to luminance changes and little response to chromatic pulses. PC cells showed strong tonic response to chromatic changes and small tonic response to luminance changes. Responses to other stimulus protocols (flicker photometry; changing the relative phase of red and green modulated lights; temporal modulation transfer functions were also similar to those recorded in other trichromatic primates. MC cells also showed a pronounced frequency double response to chromatic modulation, and with luminance modulation response saturation accompanied by a phase advance between 10-20 Hz, characteristic of a contrast gain mechanism. This indicates a very similar retinal organization to Old-World monkeys. Cone-specific opsin expression in the presence of a locus control region for each opsin may call into question the hypothesis that this region exclusively controls opsin expression.

  2. Predation on Alouatta guariba clamitans Cabrera (Primates, Atelidae by Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus (Carnivora, Felidae Predação em Alouatta guariba clamitans Cabrera (Primates, Atelidae por Leopardus pordalis (Linnaeus (Carnivora, Felidae

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    João M. D. Miranda

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available There are a few studies about predation on primates. Howler monkeys, being relatively large animals, were believed to be preyed on successfully only by medium to large-sized carnivores and large birds of prey. Our study took place at Chácara Payquerê, which is situated in the municipality of Balsa Nova, State of Paraná, Southern Brazil. Fingers and nails from Alouatta guariba clamitans Cabrera, 1940 were founded in two faecal samples from Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus, 1758. With our documentation large howler monkey remains in faeces, the possibility of ocelot being a potential predator of all Neotropical primates should be taken into consideration.São poucos os estudos sobre a predação de primatas. Sendo os bugios animais relativamente grandes, acredita-se que somente médios e grandes carnívoros e grandes rapineiros possam lograr sucesso em sua predação. O estudo foi realizado na Chácara Payquerê, situada no município de Balsa Nova, Estado do Paraná, sul do Brasil. Dedos e unhas de Alouatta guariba clamitans Cabrera, 1940 foram encontradas em duas amostras fecais de Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus, 1758 que foram coletadas. Com este registro de grande primata em fezes, a possibilidade de a jaguatirica ser um potencial predador de todos os primatas neotropicais pode ser levada em consideração.

  3. Predicted and verified distributions of Ateles geoffroyi and Alouatta palliata in Oaxaca, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Martínez, Teresita; Rico-Gray, Víctor; Martínez-Meyer, Enrique

    2008-07-01

    Primate conservation requires a better knowledge of the distributions and statuses of populations in both large areas of habitat and in areas for which we currently have no information. We focused on spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) and howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata) in the state of Oaxaca, Mexico. This Mexican state has protected large tracts of forest, and has historical records for both primates, although very little is known about them. To update our knowledge of the distributions of these primates and identify potential areas in which they are present, we modeled their geographic distributions by characterizing their ecological niches using the genetic algorithm for rule-set production (GARP), performed interviews and carried out field surveys. The predicted distributions, surveys and interviews indicate that the distributions of these primates are restricted to northeastern Oaxaca. The results suggest that spider monkeys occupy a wider area and elevational range than howler monkeys. Throughout that range there is a wide variety of suitable habitats for these primates. Most of the sites where monkeys were recorded in the field are not officially protected and there was evidence of hunting and habitat destruction. It is important to improve protection, economic alternatives and environmental education as we move towards an integral solution for the conservation of these species. Validation of the GARP model was done for A. geoffroyi, since we had obtained enough field data for this species; this validation indicated that the predicted distribution of the species was statistically better than expected by chance. Hence, ecological niche modeling is a useful approach when performing an initial assessment to identify distribution patterns, detecting suitable areas for future exploration, and for conservation planning. Our findings provide an improved basis for primate conservation and productive fieldwork in Oaxaca.

  4. Comparison of the diet of Alouatta caraya (Primates: Atelidae between a riparian island and mainland on the Upper Parana River, southern Brazil Comparação da dieta de Alouatta caraya (Primates: Atelidae em mata ciliar insular e continental na região do Alto rio Paraná, Sul do Brasil

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    Gabriela Ludwig

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Howler monkeys (Alouatta Lacèpéde, 1799 are folivores-frugivores with flexible diets depending on conditions. Here, we compare the diets of Alouatta caraya (Humboldt, 1812 in two riparian forests (island and mainland, in Porto Rico region, Upper Paraná River, Southern Brazil. Howlers were followed from October 2004 to September 2005 in the riparian forest of a 1,050 ha island and in the continuous riparian forest on the mainland (left bank of the river. The "scan sampling" method with instantaneous samples every 15 minutes was used. Besides vines, diet breadth was similar: 17 species consumed on the island versus 16 species on the mainland. Both consumed leaves followed by fruits more than any other food type (leaves: island - 65%, mainland - 49%, fruits: island - 24%, mainland - 46%. Even though the plant Cecropia pachystachya Trécul is less abundant in the mainland it was the item most consumed in both locations all year long, which suggests its importance for the howlers. Diet also varied both seasonally and between the island and mainland, apparently following changes in local abundance of each item and due to plant phenologies.Os bugios (Alouatta Lacèpéde, 1799 são primatas folívoros-frugívoros que podem adaptar suas dietas dependendo das condições do ambiente. O presente trabalho compara a dieta de grupos de Alouatta caraya (Humboldt, 1812 presentes em matas ciliares estruturalmente diferentes (ilha e continente, na região de Porto Rico, Alto rio Paraná, sul do Brasil. Os bugios-pretos foram seguidos de outubro de 2004 a setembro de 2005 em mata ciliar de uma ilha fluvial de 1050 ha e em mata ciliar contínua da margem esquerda do rio. Foi utilizado o método "scan sampling" em amostragens instantâneas com intervalos de 15 minutos. Além das lianas, 17 espécies foram consumidas na ilha versus 16 espécies no continente. Ambos os grupos consumiram mais folhas seguido de frutos do que qualquer outro tipo de alimento (folhas

  5. ESTATUS DE LA POBLACIÓN DE MONOS AULLADORES ROJOS EN EL CAÑÓN DEL BARBAS, FRAGMENTO MONTANO, CORDILLERA CENTRAL, Colombia Status of the red howler monkeys population in the Barbas canion, montane fragment, central mountains, Colombia

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    Jorge Mario Londoño

    Full Text Available Los bosques de montaña en Colombia han sufrido fuerte degradación por causas antrópicas y en la actualidad la mayoría son remanentes aislados e inmersos en hábitat antropogénicos. Los aulladores rojos han persistido en estas condiciones pero poco se conoce sobre su biología y respuesta a la alteración de su ambiente. Durante cinco meses en el 2005, evaluamos densidad y estatus poblacional de esta especie en la cuenca del río Barbas (Departamentos de Quindío y Risaralda, fragmento aislado de bosque montano bajo de 790 ha . Estimamos la densidad empleando censos por transectos lineales repetidos. Adicionalmente seguimos tropas de aulladores y evaluamos variables de vegetación teniendo en cuenta los requerimientos ecológicos de la especie. Estimamos una densidad de 11.7±6 grupos y 132.1±68 individuos/km2, superior a la usualmente reportada en bosques continuos. Esta alta densidad probablemente se deba al aislamiento del fragmento, que limita las posibilidades de dispersión de los aulladores. El tamaño promedio por tropa fue 11.3±2.5 individuos, con más de cinco machos y siete hembras adultas, y de uno a cuatro inmaduros. En general el bosque ofrece buena disponibilidad de recursos estructurales y alimenticios para los aulladores. Esta población no se encuentra amenazada en la actualidad por actividades antrópicas. El fragmento ha sido recientemente protegido bajo la figura de Parque Regional Natural y se adelantan corredores de conexión con otros remanentes cercanos. Sin embargo, esta población de aulladores se encuentra aislada de otras poblaciones y por tanto es urgente desarrollar medidas de manejo del paisaje para atenuar los efectos del aislamiento.The montane forests in Colombia have suffered strong degradation due to human activities; currently, most of them are remnants isolated and immersed in anthropogenic habitats. The red howler monkeys have persisted in these conditions but little is known on their biology and

  6. Parásitos intestinales en monos congo Alouatta palliata (Primates: Cebidae de Costa Rica

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    Misael Chinchilla Carmona

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron las heces de 102 monos de la especie Alouatta palliata (monos aulladores o congos de las siguientes regiones de Costa Rica. Valle Central: San Ramón (Alajuela; Pacífico Central: Isla Chira y Parque Manuel Antonio (Puntarenas; Pacífico Norte: Palo Verde, Playa Potrero, Nicoya (Guanacaste y Caribe: Cahuita (Limón. Los animales capturados fueron anestesiados con dardos conteniendo Telazol®. La mayoría defecaron espontáneamente o se les estimulaba a defecar. Las muestras se estudiaron en el laboratorio en forma directa en solución salina (0.85% y una solución de yodo o teñidas con hematoxilina para identificar los parásitos correspondientes. El material fue cultivado en el medio de Dobell para determinar la presencia de amebas y flagelados. Se encontraron helmintos de los géneros Trypanoxyuris, Strongyloides y Controrchis y protozoarios de los géneros Endolimax, Entamoeba, Trichomonas y Giardia. Los porcentajes de infección por protozoarios oscilaron entre 16.7% y 80% y se encontraron helmintos en un 3.4% a un 80% de los animales de acuerdo con la zona estudiada. No se encontraron diferencias importantes de parasitosis relacionadas con el sexo pero si existió mayor infección en los animales más jóvenes. Se establece la relación entre los índices de infección y algunos parámetros tales como las áreas estudiadas, el peso de los animales y el contacto con el ser humano.Intestinal parasites in howler monkeys Alouatta palliata (Primates: Cebidae of Costa Rica. Fecal samples of 102 howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata from several sites of Costa Rica were studied for intestinal parasites. The zones studied were: Central Valley (San Ramón, Alajuela, Central Pacific (Chomes and Manuel Antonio National Park, Puntarenas, North Pacific (Palo Verde Park and Playa Potrero, Guanacaste, Chira Island in the Nicoya Gulf and Caribean area (Cahuita, Limón. Animals were anesthetized with dards containing Telazol in order to collect

  7. Seasonality, richness and prevalence of intestinal parasites of three neotropical primates (Alouatta seniculus, Ateles hybridus and Cebus versicolor in a fragmented forest in Colombia

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    Silvia Rondón

    2017-12-01

    of intestinal parasites infecting wild neotropical primates and provides novel information on the patterns of intestinal parasites in primate communities exposed to anthropogenic disturbance. Keywords: Faecal smears, Fragmented forest, Intestinal parasites, Howler monkeys, Spider monkeys, Capuchin monkeys

  8. Interspecific Infanticide and Infant-Directed Aggression by Spider Monkeys (Ateles hybridus) in a Fragmented Forest in Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimbach, Rebecca; Pardo-Martinez, Alejandra; Montes-Rojas, Andres; Di Fiore, Anthony; Link, Andres

    2012-01-01

    Interspecific aggression amongst nonhuman primates is rarely observed and has been mostly related to scenarios of resource competition. Interspecific infanticide is even rarer, and both the ultimate and proximate socio-ecological factors explaining this behavior are still unclear. We report two cases of interspecific infanticide and five cases of interspecific infant-directed aggression occurring in a well-habituated primate community living in a fragmented landscape in Colombia. All cases were initiated by male brown spider monkeys (Ateles hybridus) and were directed toward infants of either red howler monkeys (Alouatta seniculus: n = 6 cases) or white-fronted capuchins (Cebus albifrons: n = 1 case). One individual, a subadult spider monkey male, was involved in all but one case of interspecific infanticide or aggression. Other adult spider monkeys participated in interspecific aggression that did not escalate into potentially lethal encounters. We suggest that competition for food resources and space in a primate community living in high population densities and restricted to a forest fragment of ca. 65 ha might partly be driving the observed patterns of interspecific aggression. On the other hand, the fact that all but one case of interspecific infanticide and aggression involved the only subadult male spider monkey suggests this behavior might either be pathological or constitute a particular case of redirected aggression. Even if the underlying principles behind interspecific aggression and infanticide are poorly understood, they represent an important factor influencing the demographic trends of the primate community at this study site. Am. J. Primatol. 74:990–997, 2012. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:22767357

  9. Hematological parameters and the variations resulting from stress of Alouatta caraya during a wildlife rescue program in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Sarmiento, Angélica María; Zwarg, Ticiana; Fernandes-Santos, Renata Carolina; Guimarães-Luiz, Thaís; Genoy-Puerto, Alexander; Matushima, Eliana Reiko

    2015-03-01

    Deforestation and habitat fragmentation are major threats to the conservation status of New World primates, such as the howler monkey (Alouatta caraya) in Brazil, where vegetation destruction is often associated with projects such as Small Hydro Power Plant (SHP) construction. The resulting stress from the implementation of this type of enterprise may be a factor that influences individual susceptibility against pathogens and can determine the success or failure of mitigation measures proposed by responsible and/or requested companies by environmental agencies. To perform health monitoring and to understand physiological changes that ensued from the stress of capturing and keeping primates in captivity, we determined the blood profile of A. caraya rescued at the time of capture (N = 15) and in captivity (N = 11). Complete blood counts (CBCs) performed at the time of capture showed hematological changes compatible with acute stress, such as evident neutrophilic leukocytosis (WBCs; females = 20.48 ± 7.26; males = 18.78 ± 10.39 × 10(9) /L). In captivity, monocytosis was observed in both sexes (females = 1.34 ± 0.26; males = 0.39 ± 0.32 × 10(9) /L; U-test, P = 0.01), suggesting chronic stress. In females, there was also statistically significant eosinopenia (0.28 ± 0.10 × 10(9) /L; U-test, P = 0.01) and hematocrit increases (39.00 ± 1.41%; U-test, P = 0.01). Thus, data shows the impact of both capture related acute stress as well as captivity chronic stress, suggesting that primate management in the implementation of these projects causes significant changes in physiological parameters and, consequently, animal health. Whereas chronic stress is an inducer of immunosuppression and susceptibility to pathogen factors, monitoring hematological parameters in captive animals can act as an indicator of health status, contributing to the success of management and conservation wildlife programs. Am

  10. Mantled howler population of Hacienda La Pacifica, Costa Rica, between 1991 and 1998: effects of deforestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Margaret R; Crockett, Carolyn M; Zucker, Evan L; Zaldivar, Maria

    2002-03-01

    A survey of the mantled howler (Alouatta palliata) population on Hacienda La Pacifica, Guanacaste, Costa Rica, was done in July and August of 1998 to determine population parameters following deforestation due to major canal construction between 1990 and 1994. The survey was carried out in a manner identical to our 1991 survey and consisted of a single pass and two re-surveys of all forested areas of the farm. As canal construction effectively increased fragmentation of the habitat, we predicted decreased population and group size over this time. Results indicated that between the 1991 and 1998 survey, group size decreased but not significantly, and there were significantly fewer adult males and adult females per group. Population size, however, remained unchanged as there was an increase in animals in the immature age classes. An increase in the infant to adult female ratio suggests a stable or even expanding population, which could represent recovery from the initial disturbance of deforestation. Thus, despite changes in the forest and land use patterns, the area now appears to support the same number of howlers as found in previous surveys. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Efeitos da associação de tiletamina/zolazepam ou cetamina S(+/midazolam/tramadol para contenção química em bugios-ruivos (Allouatta guariba clamitans Effects of tiletamine/zolazepam or S(+ ketamine/midazolam/tramadol for chemical contention in red howler monkeys (Allouatta guariba clamitans

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    Pâmela Spolti

    2013-02-01

    bugios, sendo que o CEMTRA apresentou melhor sedação e miorrelaxamento.Two protocols for chemical restraint in howler-redheads were evaluated. We used 12 healthy red howler monkeys, weighing 6.4±0.4 kg, which were fasted and without water six and two hours, respectively. The animals were divided into two groups that received intramuscular injection: TZ (n=6 which received tiletamine-zolazepam (Zoletil® at a dose of 3.6mg/kg and CEMTRA (n=6 which received ketamine S (+, tramadol and midazolan (Cemtra®, pilot batch 001/10, Ouro Fino Saúde Animal Ltda, Cravinhos/SP, Brazil, comprising 100mg/ml of ketamine S (+, tramadol 20mg/ml and 10mg/ml of midazolam in dose of 1ml of the association for each 10kg of body weight, equivalent doses of 10mg/kg, 1mg/kg and 2mg/kg, respectively. Prior to administration of drugs (M0 were evaluated: heart rate (HR, respiratory rate (RR, rectal temperature (RT, capillary refill time (CRT, systolic arterial pressure (SAP, hemoglobin oxygen saturation (SpO2 , presence of salivation, degree of muscle relaxation and sedation, Bispectral index (BIS and Signal Quality BIS (SQI, interdigital pinch response and latency times, ambulation and total recovery (TRT. The parameters were reassessed M5, M10, M20, M30, M40 and M50 (5, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 minutes after drug administration. In TZ animals were more responsive to the interdigital pinch over time. The animals of CEMTRA showed a higher degree of muscle relaxation and sedation. The RR of CEMTRA was lower after administration of treatment at all times in relation to M0. Among the groups RR of CEMTRA was lower compared to the TZ in M2 and M4. The total time of sedation and recovery was 48±4 min and 150.1±42.1 for the CEMTRA and 38±7 and 73.1±20.6 for the TZ. We conclude that both formulations are safe for containing chemical howler, and the CEMTRA showed better sedation and muscle relaxant.

  12. Caracterización del cariotipo del mono aullador colorado Alouatta seniculus que habita en Colombia

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    Torres Olga María

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Presentamos cariotipos con bandas Q, G, R Y C del mono aullador colorado de Colombia, con base en el análisis de los cariotipos de 12 ejemplares cautivos y la reevaluación de los cariotipos de bandas Q de un macho y de una hembra publicados (Yunis et al. 1976. Reinterpretamos el mecanismo cromosómico de determinación del sexo y la morfología del cromosoma X de Alouatta seniculus seniculus. Los resultados indican que el cromosoma X es un metacéntrico de tamaño medio (4.85 % TCL similar al cromosoma X de otros primates de los géneros Cebus, Aotus y Ateles estudiados hasta la fecha, así como al cromosoma X humano. Además, los machos portan una translocación entre el cromosoma Y y el autosoma 3, demostrando un mecanismo cromosómico de  determinación del sexo XIXI X2X2 IXIX2 YIY2, diferente del convencional XX I XV. Todos los animales estudiados presentaron un número diploide de 44.This paper presents Q- G- R- and C-bands karyotypes ofred howler from Colombia, based on analyses of karyotypes oftwelve caught specimens besides a female and a male Q banding karyotypes (Yunis et al. 1976 reevaluated. We reappraisal X chromosome morphology and sex determination chromosome mechanism of Alouatta seniculus seniculus. This work shows X chromosome is a nearly metacentric médium sized chromosome (4.85 %TCL, similar to other primates X chromosome from Cebus, Aotus and Ateles genus up to now studied, as well as human X chromosome. Further in males, Y chromosome undergone a translocation onto autosome 3, named X1X2Y1Y2• Al! specimens studied shows 44 chromosomes diploid number.

  13. Thyroid hormone fluctuations indicate a thermoregulatory function in both a tropical (Alouatta palliata) and seasonally cold-habitat (Macaca fuscata) primate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Cynthia L; Powell, Brianna L; Williams, Susan H; Hanya, Goro; Glander, Kenneth E; Vinyard, Christopher J

    2017-11-01

    Thyroid hormones boost animals' basal metabolic rate and represent an important thermoregulatory pathway for mammals that face cold temperatures. Whereas the cold thermal pressures experienced by primates in seasonal habitats at high latitudes and elevations are often apparent, tropical habitats also display distinct wet and dry seasons with modest changes in thermal environment. We assessed seasonal and temperature-related changes in thyroid hormone levels for two primate species in disparate thermal environments, tropical mantled howlers (Alouatta palliata), and seasonally cold-habitat Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata). We collected urine and feces from animals and used ELISA to quantify levels of the thyroid hormone triiodothyronine (fT 3 ). For both species, fT 3 levels were significantly higher during the cooler season (wet/winter), consistent with a thermoregulatory role. Likewise, both species displayed greater temperature deficits (i.e., the degree to which animals warm their body temperature relative to ambient) during the cooler season, indicating greater thermoregulatory pressures during this time. Independently of season, Japanese macaques displayed increasing fT 3 levels with decreasing recently experienced maximum temperatures, but no relationship between fT 3 and recently experienced minimum temperatures. Howlers increased fT 3 levels as recently experienced minimum temperatures decreased, although demonstrated the opposite relationship with maximum temperatures. This may reflect natural thermal variation in howlers' habitat: wet seasons had cooler minimum and mean temperatures than the dry season, but similar maximum temperatures. Overall, our findings support the hypothesis that both tropical howlers and seasonally cold-habitat Japanese macaques utilize thyroid hormones as a mechanism to boost metabolism in response to thermoregulatory pressures. This implies that cool thermal pressures faced by tropical primates are sufficient to invoke an

  14. Contribuições sobre a distribuição geográfica do bugio-ruivo,Allouata guariba clamitans (Cabrera, 1940 (Primates, Atelidae, para a região Centro-Sul do estado do Paraná, Brasil / Contributions on the geographic distribution of brown Howler Monkey, Allouatta guariba clamitans (Cabrera, 1940 (Primates, Atelidae for South-Center region of Parana State, Brazil

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    Huilquer Francisco Vogel

    2010-11-01

    howler monkeys, Allouatta guariba clamitans (Cabrera, 1940, for the South Central region of Paraná State. Nine new records for this region were obtained. The records for the municipalities of Guarapuava and Mangueirinha are listed as the first time to highlight the importance of studying the geographic distribution for the conservation and management of putative areas for conservation.

  15. Mammalian gastrointestinal parasites in rainforest remnants of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-04-27

    Apr 27, 2015 ... 2.3 Parasite recovery and identification. About half of each sample was stored in the original vial for possible future examination. We used 2 g of fecal samples for parasite recovery by sucrose floatation and sedimentation techniques ..... MS and Gillepsie TR 2011 Black and gold howler monkeys. (Alouatta ...

  16. Detection of Plasmodium in faeces of the New World primate Alouatta clamitans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assis, Gabriela Maíra Pereira de; Alvarenga, Denise Anete Madureira de; Costa, Daniela Camargos; Souza, Júlio César de; Hirano, Zelinda Maria Braga; Kano, Flora Satiko; Sousa, Taís Nóbrega de; Brito, Cristiana Ferreira Alves de

    2016-09-01

    Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax have evolved with host switches between non-human primates (NHPs) and humans. Studies on the infection dynamics of Plasmodium species in NHPs will improve our understanding of the evolution of these parasites; however, such studies are hampered by the difficulty of handling animals in the field. The aim of this study was to detect genomic DNA of Plasmodium species from the faeces of New World monkeys. Faecal samples from 23 Alouatta clamitans from the Centre for Biological Research of Indaial (Santa Catarina, Brazil) were collected. Extracted DNA from faecal samples was used for molecular diagnosis of malaria by nested polymerase chain reaction. One natural infection with Plasmodium simium was identified by amplification of DNA extracted from the faeces of A. clamitans. Extracted DNA from a captive NHP was also used for parasite genotyping. The detection limit of the technique was evaluated in vitro using an artificial mixture of cultured P. falciparum in NHP faeces and determined to be 6.5 parasites/µL. Faecal samples of New World primates can be used to detect malaria infections in field surveys and also to monitor the genetic variability of parasites and dynamics of infection.

  17. Monkey Business

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwood, Christine Horvatis

    2012-01-01

    A ballerina, a gladiator, a camper, a baseball player, a surfer, and a shopper; these are just a few of the amazing monkeys that the author's seventh graders created from papier-mache. This project provided an opportunity for students to express themselves through the creation of sculptural characters based on their own interests, hobbies, and…

  18. Glucocorticoid levels in free ranging resident mantled howlers: a study of coping strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristóbal-Azkarate, Jurgi; Chavira, Roberto; Boeck, Lourdes; Rodríguez-Luna, Ernesto; Veà, Joaquím J

    2007-08-01

    A growing amount of data shows that a preference for passive-nonaggressive over active-aggressive problem solving is associated with higher levels of glucocorticoids (GC). For mantled howlers, the arrival of an adult male in a new group is a potential source of psychological stress for both resident males and females. Resident mantled howler males take an active stand and aggressively repel the entrance of solitary males, while females take a passive-nonaggressive stand. In order to study whether the relationship between coping strategies and the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis observed in other species applies to the response of resident mantled howlers to the presence of solitary males, we examine the relationship between different group and subpopulation variables and the GC levels measured in feces collected from 10 groups living in six forest fragments, in Los Tuxtlas, Mexico. The results of our study suggest that the resident mantled howler females' passive response to the presence of solitary males is accompanied by the activation of the HPA axis, whereas resident males' aggressive response is not accompanied by any changes in the HPA axis. In contrast, a previous study suggests that resident male howlers respond by increasing their testosterone levels to the presence of solitary males (Cristobal-Azkarate et al., Hormones and Behavior 2006;49 261-267). These different behavioral and hormonal responses coincide with the active and passive coping styles described for other species. The conditions in which howlers live in our study area may be favoring the interaction between solitary and resident howlers, and inducing chronically high GC levels, which in turn could negatively affect the fitness of these subpopulations.

  19. Anotaciones de la ecología alimentaria de monos aulladores negros en un fragmento con condiciones de hacinamiento (Balancán, Tabasco, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Aristizábal-Borja

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Annotations on the feeding ecology of black howler monkeys in an overcrowded fragment in Balancán, Tabasco, México. Wedescribed the feeding behavior of Central-American black howler monkey (Alouatta pigra in a fragment of less than one hectare ofhumid evergreen forest surrounded by grassland for livestock use, isolated trees and mango orchards, in the region of Balancán (Tabasco,México. Objective: To record the diet and activity of black howler monkeys in crowded conditions during the wettest month in Balancán(Tabasco, México. Methods and methods: The behavioral observations (81 h were made using the focal animal methodology withan A. pigra troop made up of three individuals (1 adult male, 1 adult female and 1 infant. Results: Feeding time represented 15.97%,rest 78% and locomotion 4.57% of total time. In the study area we recorded 14 plant species, with 10 being consumed by howlermonkeys. 55% of feeding time was devoted to the consumption of fruits, 27% to leaves, 17% to stems, and 1% to sprouts. Spondiasmombin was the tree species most consumed, with 61% of the time invested on it. Conclusion: Like other studies, we confirmed thefrugivore-folivore feeding tendency of the genus Alouatta. We provide information on the black howler monkey flexibility to live andmaintain themselves in extreme perturbation conditions, where their habitat is 0.1 ha with few tree species to use, forcing individualsto move around the ground.

  20. Consul, the Educated Monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolpas, Sidney J.; Massion, Gary R.

    2000-01-01

    Introduces a toy, the Educated Monkey, developed to help students learn multiplication tables and associated division, factoring, and addition tables and associated subtraction. Explains why the monkey works and reviews geometric, algebraic, and arithmetic concepts. (KHR)

  1. Sistemas de apareamiento en un primate neotropical (Alouatta caraya

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    Oklander, Luciana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available La socioecología de primates no humanos provee un marco para comprender la evolución de varios aspectos de la conducta de nuestros antepasados. Un aspecto relevante de la evolución de los sistemas sociales es la descripción de los sistemas de apareamiento, que dependen de una combinación de estudios genéticos y comportamentales. Los estudios genéticomoleculares, en particular los STRs han permitido dilucidar sistemas de apareamiento y detallar el éxito reproductivo de los individuos. En platirrinos es necesario desarrollar STRs específicos. En el presente trabajo se detectaron STRs para Alouatta caraya. Estos monos aulladores habitan en el Noreste de nuestro país y países limítrofes, y sus tropas pueden tener uno o varios machos adultos. Se espera que el rango del macho juegue un papel importante en el acceso a hembras. Sin embargo, en varias especies de primates las hembras son promiscuas. Varias hipótesis explicarían este comportamiento desde asegurarse la fertilización, hasta evitar el infanticidio. Los objetivos del estudio fueron determinar si las jerarquías de dominancia entre machos se reflejan en un mayor acceso a cópulas y en la paternidad de las crías. Los resultados muestran que los machos dominantes obtuvieron un mayor número de cópulas (p<0,05, aunque las hembras copularon con varios machos de su tropa y tropas vecinas. La determinación de la paternidad de las crías permitirá dilucidar el sistema de apareamiento de estos primates.

  2. A New World Monkey microsatellite (AP74 higly conserved in Primates

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    Oklander Luciana Inés

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Given their great variability, microsatellites or STRPs became the most commonly used genetic markers over the last 15 years. The analysis of these markers requires minimum quantities of DNA, allowing the use of non invasive samples, such as feces or hair. We amplified the microsatellite Ap74 in blood and hair samples in order to analyze the levels of genomic conservation among a wide range of primates including: Lemur catta, Alouatta caraya, Ateles belzebuth, Ateles chamek, Pan troglodytes, Papio sp., and Homo sapiens. In all cases we obtained amplification products that exhibited similar size both in monkeys and human (oscillating between 126 and 176 bp, except in the lemur where the detected fragment presented a size of approximately 1000 bp. The analysis of the nucleotide sequences permitted the evaluation of the molecular modifications experienced during the evolutionary process in primates.

  3. Seed source, seed traits, and frugivore habits: Implications for dispersal quality of two sympatric primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benítez-Malvido, Julieta; González-Di Pierro, Ana Ma; Lombera, Rafael; Guillén, Susana; Estrada, Alejandro

    2014-06-01

    • Premise of the study: Frugivore selection of fruits and treatment of seeds together with seed deposition site are crucial for the population dynamics of vertebrate-dispersed plants. However, frugivore species may influence dispersal quality differently even when feeding on the same fruit species and, while animals disperse some seeds, others simply fall beneath the parent plant.• Methods: In southern Mexico, we investigated to see if within-species seed traits (i.e., length, width, weight, and volume) and germination success differed according to seed source. For five tropical tree species we obtained ingested seeds from two sources, howler monkey (Alouatta pigra) and spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi) feces; and noningested seeds from two sources, the ground and tree crowns (with predispersed seeds used as control).• Key results: A principal components' analysis showed that traits of seeds ingested by howler monkeys differed from other sources while seeds ingested by spider monkeys were similar to noningested seeds. Howlers consumed on average the larger seeds in Ampelocera hottlei, Brosimum lactescens, and Dialium guianense. Both primate species consumed the smaller seeds in Spondias mombin, while no seed trait differences among seed sources were found in Spondias radlkoferi. For all five tree species, germination rate was greatest for seeds ingested by howler monkeys.• Conclusions: For the studied plant species, seed ingestion by howler monkeys confers higher dispersal quality than ingestion by spider monkeys or nondispersal. Dispersal services of both primate species, however, are not redundant and may contribute to germination heterogeneity within plant populations in tropical forests. © 2014 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  4. Morfologia do aparelho reprodutor em fêmeas de bugio marrom (Alouatta guariba clamitans)

    OpenAIRE

    Mariana Matera Veras; Maria Angélica Miglino; Zenon Silva

    2007-01-01

    Estudaram-se a morfologia externa, a topografia e a biometria do aparelho reprodutor (ovários, útero, vagina e as tubas uterinas) de seis fêmeas adultas de bugio marrom (Alouatta guariba clamitans). Notou-se que os ovários apresentaram-se grandes e elipsóides, com superfície lisa ou irregular. As tubas uterinas mostraram-se longas, convolutas e com fimbrias bem desenvolvidas e abundantes. O útero é simples e marcado por uma cérvix longa, bem desenvolvida e um fundo globoso. A vagina mostra-se...

  5. Análise do líquido cefalorraquidiano de bugio-ruivo (Alouatta guariba)

    OpenAIRE

    Tranquilim, Marcos V.; Cardoso,Guilherme S.; Heckler, Marta C T. [UNESP; Teixeira, Carlos R.; Lopes, Raimundo S.; Regina K. Takahira; Resende, Luiz A.l. [UNESP; Rogério M. Amorim

    2013-01-01

    A presente pesquisa foi realizada com o objetivo de desenvolver e adaptar técnicas diagnósticas em neurologia para primatas não humanos, da espécie Alouatta guariba Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1812 (bugio-ruivo) saudáveis e mantidos em cativeiro. Foram realizadas análises físico-químicas e citológicas do líquido cefalorraquidiano obtido na cisterna magna de oito bugios-ruivos. Para realização dos exames, todos os animais foram contidos quimicamente com associação de cetamina, xilazina e midazolam...

  6. Serological evidence for Saint Louis encephalitis virus in free-ranging New World monkeys and horses within the upper Paraná River basin region, Southern Brazil

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    Walfrido Kühl Svoboda

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Saint Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV primarily occurs in the Americas and produces disease predominantly in humans. This study investigated the serological presence of SLEV in nonhuman primates and horses from southern Brazil. Methods From June 2004 to December 2005, sera from 133 monkeys (Alouatta caraya, n=43; Sapajus nigritus, n=64; Sapajus cay, n=26 trap-captured at the Paraná River basin region and 23 blood samples from farm horses were obtained and used for the serological detection of a panel of 19 arboviruses. All samples were analyzed in a hemagglutination inhibition (HI assay; positive monkey samples were confirmed in a mouse neutralization test (MNT. Additionally, all blood samples were inoculated into C6/36 cell culture for viral isolation. Results Positive seroreactivity was only observed for SLEV. A prevalence of SLEV antibodies in sera was detected in Alouatta caraya (11.6%; 5/43, Sapajus nigritus (12.5%; 8/64, and S. cay (30.8%; 8/26 monkeys with the HI assay. Of the monkeys, 2.3% (1/42 of A. caraya, 6.3% 94/64 of S. nigritus, and 15.4% (4/26 of S. cay were positive for SLEV in the MNT. Additionally, SLEV antibodies were detected by HI in 39.1% (9/23 of the horses evaluated in this study. Arboviruses were not isolated from any blood sample. Conclusions These results confirmed the presence of SLEV in nonhuman primates and horses from southern Brazil. These findings most likely represent the first detection of this virus in nonhuman primates beyond the Amazon region. The detection of SLEV in animals within a geographical region distant from the Amazon basin suggests that there may be widespread and undiagnosed dissemination of this disease in Brazil.

  7. Rhesus monkey platelets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harbury, C.B.

    1986-03-01

    The purpose of this abstract is to describe the adenine nucleotide metabolism of Rhesus monkey platelets. Nucleotides are labelled with /sup 14/C-adenine and extracted with EDTA-ethanol (EE) and perchlorate (P). Total platelet ATP and ADP (TATP, TADP) is measured in the Holmsen Luciferase assay, and expressed in nanomoles/10/sup 8/ platelets. TR=TATP/TADP. Human platelets release 70% of their TADP, with a ratio of released ATP/ADP of 0.7. Rhesus platelets release 82% of their TADP, with a ratio of released ATP/ADP of 0.33. Thus, monkey platelets contain more ADP than human platelets. Thin layer chromatography of EE gives a metabolic ratio of 11 in human platelets and 10.5 in monkey platelets. Perchlorate extracts metabolic and actin bound ADP. The human and monkey platelets ratios were 5, indicating they contain the same proportion of actin. Thus, the extra ADP contained in monkey platelets is located in the secretory granules.

  8. Bloqueio de plexo braquial em um bugio-ruivo (Alouatta guariba: relato de caso

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    E.R. Santos

    Full Text Available RESUMO Os bloqueios regionais vêm sendo explorados e difundidos no dia a dia da medicina veterinária. O presente trabalho relata a execução do bloqueio de plexo braquial em um bugio-ruivo (Alouatta guariba submetido à amputação de três dígitos. Foi utilizada ropivacaína para o bloqueio, com o paciente sob anestesia geral, com auxílio de neuroestimulador periférico. Quatro horas após a cirurgia e cinco horas após o bloqueio, o paciente não apresentava desconforto ou evitava a manipulação do membro operado e não foram observadas complicações. O bloqueio do plexo braquial é mais comumente utilizado quando se pretende promover analgesia e relaxamento muscular do membro torácico em procedimentos cirúrgicos distais à articulação escápulo-umeral. Há carência em estudos anatômicos sobre diversos primatas, incluindo o bugio-ruivo (Alouatta guariba. Apesar da crescente expansão da clínica de animais silvestres, ainda há lacunas no que diz respeito à execução de técnicas anestésicas em diversas espécies.

  9. Population viability of Alouatta palliata (Primates: Atelidae) and Cebus capucinus (Primates: Cebidae) at Refugio de Vida Silvestre Privado Nogal, Sarapiquí, Heredia, Costa Rica

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rodríguez-Matamoros, Jorge; Villalobos-Brenes, Federico; Gutiérrez-Espeleta, Gustavo A

    2012-01-01

    .... The aim of this work was to study the effects of population fragmentation on the long term viability of Alouatta palliata and Cebus capucinus populations, at Refugio de Vida Silvestre Privado Nogal, Sarapiquí (RVSPN), Heredia...

  10. ASPM and the evolution of cerebral cortical size in a community of New World monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanea, Fernando A; Perry, George H; Gutiérrez-Espeleta, Gustavo A; Dominy, Nathaniel J

    2012-01-01

    The ASPM (abnormal spindle-like microcephaly associated) gene has been proposed as a major determinant of cerebral cortical size among primates, including humans. Yet the specific functions of ASPM and its connection to human intelligence remain controversial. This debate is limited in part by a taxonomic focus on Old World monkeys and apes. Here we expand the comparative context of ASPM sequence analyses with a study of New World monkeys, a radiation of primates in which enlarged brain size has evolved in parallel in spider monkeys (genus Ateles) and capuchins (genus Cebus). The primate community of Costa Rica is perhaps a model system because it allows for independent pairwise comparisons of smaller- and larger-brained species within two taxonomic families. Accordingly, we analyzed the complete sequence of exon 18 of ASPM in Ateles geoffroyi, Alouatta palliata, Cebus capucinus, and Saimiri oerstedii. As the analysis of multiple species in a genus improves phylogenetic reconstruction, we also analyzed eleven published sequences from other New World monkeys. Our exon-wide, lineage-specific analysis of eleven genera and the ratio of rates of nonsynonymous to synonymous substitutions (d(N)/d(S)) on ASPM revealed no detectable evidence for positive selection in the lineages leading to Ateles or Cebus, as indicated by d(N)/d(S) ratios of <1.0 (0.6502 and 0.4268, respectively). Our results suggest that a multitude of interacting genes have driven the evolution of larger brains among primates, with different genes involved in this process in different encephalized lineages, or at least with evidence for positive selection not readily apparent for the same genes in all lineages. The primate community of Costa Rica may serve as a model system for future studies that aim to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying cognitive capacity and cortical size.

  11. ASPM and the evolution of cerebral cortical size in a community of New World monkeys.

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    Fernando A Villanea

    Full Text Available The ASPM (abnormal spindle-like microcephaly associated gene has been proposed as a major determinant of cerebral cortical size among primates, including humans. Yet the specific functions of ASPM and its connection to human intelligence remain controversial. This debate is limited in part by a taxonomic focus on Old World monkeys and apes. Here we expand the comparative context of ASPM sequence analyses with a study of New World monkeys, a radiation of primates in which enlarged brain size has evolved in parallel in spider monkeys (genus Ateles and capuchins (genus Cebus. The primate community of Costa Rica is perhaps a model system because it allows for independent pairwise comparisons of smaller- and larger-brained species within two taxonomic families. Accordingly, we analyzed the complete sequence of exon 18 of ASPM in Ateles geoffroyi, Alouatta palliata, Cebus capucinus, and Saimiri oerstedii. As the analysis of multiple species in a genus improves phylogenetic reconstruction, we also analyzed eleven published sequences from other New World monkeys. Our exon-wide, lineage-specific analysis of eleven genera and the ratio of rates of nonsynonymous to synonymous substitutions (d(N/d(S on ASPM revealed no detectable evidence for positive selection in the lineages leading to Ateles or Cebus, as indicated by d(N/d(S ratios of <1.0 (0.6502 and 0.4268, respectively. Our results suggest that a multitude of interacting genes have driven the evolution of larger brains among primates, with different genes involved in this process in different encephalized lineages, or at least with evidence for positive selection not readily apparent for the same genes in all lineages. The primate community of Costa Rica may serve as a model system for future studies that aim to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying cognitive capacity and cortical size.

  12. Morfologia do aparelho reprodutor em fêmeas de bugio marrom (Alouatta guariba clamitans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Matera Veras

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Estudaram-se a morfologia externa, a topografia e a biometria do aparelho reprodutor (ovários, útero, vagina e as tubas uterinas de seis fêmeas adultas de bugio marrom (Alouatta guariba clamitans. Notou-se que os ovários apresentaram-se grandes e elipsóides, com superfície lisa ou irregular. As tubas uterinas mostraram-se longas, convolutas e com fimbrias bem desenvolvidas e abundantes. O útero é simples e marcado por uma cérvix longa, bem desenvolvida e um fundo globoso. A vagina mostra-se como um canal alongado, de paredes finas e revestido por uma mucosa com pregas longitudinais; o orifício externo da uretra é marcado por uma papila uretral bilobada.

  13. Hemoparasita em um casal de Bugios (Alouatta caraya) criados em cativeiro

    OpenAIRE

    Ortunho, Vanessa Veronese; Departamento de Biologia e Zootecnia, Unesp/ Campus de Ilha Solteira- SP; Lobo, Richard Roberto; Departamento de Biologia e Zootecnia, Unesp/ Campus de Ilha Solteira- SP; Carvalho, Gabriela de Souza Peres; Departamento de Biologia e Zootecnia, Unesp/ Campus de Ilha Solteira- SP; Reis, Vanessa Dionísio dos; Departamento de Biologia e Zootecnia, Unesp/ Campus de Ilha Solteira- SP

    2014-01-01

    O Bugio Preto (Alouatta caraya) pode ter várias doenças e uma delas é a Babesiose, causada pelo protozoário do gênero Babesia ssp., que causa principalmente a destruição dos eritrócitos. No Centro de Conservação da Fauna Silvestre (CCFS) de Ilha Solteira havia um casal de bugios que estava prostado e com hiporexia, foi feita a contenção física e química do casal de animais, pesagem (macho 4,8 kg e a fêmea 3,8 kg). Realizou-se também o exame físico, clínico e coleta de sangue da veia cefálica,...

  14. Análise do líquido cefalorraquidiano de bugio-ruivo (Alouatta guariba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos V. Tranquilim

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A presente pesquisa foi realizada com o objetivo de desenvolver e adaptar técnicas diagnósticas em neurologia para primatas não humanos, da espécie Alouatta guariba Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1812 (bugio-ruivo saudáveis e mantidos em cativeiro. Foram realizadas análises físico-químicas e citológicas do líquido cefalorraquidiano obtido na cisterna magna de oito bugios-ruivos. Para realização dos exames, todos os animais foram contidos quimicamente com associação de cetamina, xilazina e midazolam e anestesia inalatória com isoflurano. Os resultados das análises do líquido cefalorraquidiano demonstraram valores médios de proteína: 16,92mg/dL±9,84; glicose: 131,25mg/dL±106,7; pH: 8,37±0,69; células nucleadas: 0,5/mm³±0,75; hemácias: 49,37/mm³±111,76 e pressão: 7,37cm H2O±1,77. O trabalho demonstrou a segurança e a eficácia da colheita do líquido cefalorraquidiano na cisterna magna de Alouatta guariba e os valores de referência para a espécie.

  15. Simian malaria in the Brazilian Atlantic forest: first description of natural infection of capuchin monkeys (Cebinae subfamily) by Plasmodium simium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Alvarenga, Denise Anete Madureira; de Pina-Costa, Anielle; de Sousa, Taís Nóbrega; Pissinatti, Alcides; Zalis, Mariano G; Suaréz-Mutis, Martha C; Lourenço-de-Oliveira, Ricardo; Brasil, Patrícia; Daniel-Ribeiro, Cláudio Tadeu; de Brito, Cristiana Ferreira Alves

    2015-02-18

    In Brazil, two species of Plasmodium have been described infecting non-human primates, Plasmodium brasilianum and Plasmodium simium. These species are morphologically, genetically and immunologically indistinguishable from the human Plasmodium malariae and Plasmodium vivax parasites, respectively. Plasmodium simium has been observed naturally infecting monkeys of the genera Alouatta and Brachyteles in a restricted area of the Atlantic Forest in the south and southeast regions of Brazil. However, its reported geographical distribution and the diversity of its vertebrate hosts may be underestimated, since available data were largely based on analyses by microscopic examination of peripheral blood, a method with limited sensitivity, considering the potential sub-patent feature of these infections. The present study describes, for the first time, the natural infection of P. simium in capuchin monkeys from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Blood samples from 30 non-human primates belonging to nine species kept in the Primate Centre of Rio de Janeiro were collected. Fragments of spleen and liver from one dead monkey found in the neighborhoods of the Primate Centre were also analysed. Molecular diagnosis was performed by nested PCR (18SSU rRNA) and the amplified fragment was sequenced. Thirty per cent of the captive animals were infected with P. simium and/or P. brasilianum. The dead monkey tested positive for DNA of P. simium. For the first time, Cebinae primates (two specimens of genus Cebus and two of genus Sapajos) were found naturally infected by P. simium. The infection was confirmed by sequencing a small fragment of 18SSU rRNA. The results highlight the possibility of infection by P. simium in other species of non-human primates whose impact could be significant for the malaria epidemiology among non-human primates and, if it becomes clear that this P. simium is able to infect monkeys and, eventually, man, also for the maintenance of transmission of human malaria in

  16. Natural infection of Plasmodium brasilianum in humans: Man and monkey share quartan malaria parasites in the Venezuelan Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalremruata, Albert; Magris, Magda; Vivas-Martínez, Sarai; Koehler, Maike; Esen, Meral; Kempaiah, Prakasha; Jeyaraj, Sankarganesh; Perkins, Douglas Jay; Mordmüller, Benjamin; Metzger, Wolfram G

    2015-09-01

    The quartan malaria parasite Plasmodium malariae is the widest spread and best adapted human malaria parasite. The simian Plasmodium brasilianum causes quartan fever in New World monkeys and resembles P. malariae morphologically. Since the genetics of the two parasites are nearly identical, differing only in a range of mutations expected within a species, it has long been speculated that the two are the same. However, no naturally acquired infection with parasites termed as P. brasilianum has been found in humans until now. We investigated malaria cases from remote Yanomami indigenous communities of the Venezuelan Amazon and analyzed the genes coding for the circumsporozoite protein (CSP) and the small subunit of ribosomes (18S) by species-specific PCR and capillary based-DNA sequencing. Based on 18S rRNA gene sequencing, we identified 12 patients harboring malaria parasites which were 100% identical with P. brasilianum isolated from the monkey, Alouatta seniculus. Translated amino acid sequences of the CS protein gene showed identical immunodominant repeat units between quartan malaria parasites isolated from both humans and monkeys. This study reports, for the first time, naturally acquired infections in humans with parasites termed as P. brasilianum. We conclude that quartan malaria parasites are easily exchanged between humans and monkeys in Latin America. We hypothesize a lack of host specificity in mammalian hosts and consider quartan malaria to be a true anthropozoonosis. Since the name P. brasilianum suggests a malaria species distinct from P. malariae, we propose that P. brasilianum should have a nomenclatorial revision in case further research confirms our findings. The expansive reservoir of mammalian hosts discriminates quartan malaria from other Plasmodium spp. and requires particular research efforts.

  17. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Escherichia coli Strains Isolated from Alouatta spp. Feces to Essential Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Maria Lara

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the in vitro antibacterial activity of essential oils from Lippia graveolens (Mexican oregano, Origanum vulgaris (oregano, Thymus vulgaris (thyme, Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary, Cymbopogon nardus (citronella, Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass, and Eucalyptus citriodora (eucalyptus against Escherichia coli (n=22 strains isolated from Alouatta spp. feces. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC were determined for each isolate using the broth microdilution technique. Essential oils of Mexican oregano (MIC mean = 1818 μg mL−1; MBC mean = 2618 μg mL−1, thyme (MIC mean = 2618 μg mL−1; MBC mean = 2909 μg mL−1, and oregano (MIC mean = 3418 μg mL−1; MBC mean = 4800 μg mL−1 showed the best antibacterial activity, while essential oils of eucalyptus, rosemary, citronella, and lemongrass displayed no antibacterial activity at concentrations greater than or equal to 6400 μg mL−1. Our results confirm the antimicrobial potential of some essential oils, which deserve further research.

  18. Comprehensive characterization of evolutionary conserved breakpoints in four New World Monkey karyotypes compared to Chlorocebus aethiops and Homo sapiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiaobo; Supiwong, Weerayuth; Weise, Anja; Mrasek, Kristin; Kosyakova, Nadezda; Tanomtong, Alongkoad; Pinthong, Krit; Trifonov, Vladimir A; Cioffi, Marcelo de Bello; Grothmann, Pierre; Liehr, Thomas; Oliveira, Edivaldo H C de

    2015-11-01

    Comparative cytogenetic analysis in New World Monkeys (NWMs) using human multicolor banding (MCB) probe sets were not previously done. Here we report on an MCB based FISH-banding study complemented with selected locus-specific and heterochromatin specific probes in four NWMs and one Old World Monkey (OWM) species, i.e. in Alouatta caraya (ACA), Callithrix jacchus (CJA), Cebus apella (CAP), Saimiri sciureus (SSC), and Chlorocebus aethiops (CAE), respectively. 107 individual evolutionary conserved breakpoints (ECBs) among those species were identified and compared with those of other species in previous reports. Especially for chromosomal regions being syntenic to human chromosomes 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12 and 16 previously cryptic rearrangements could be observed. 50.4% (54/107) NWM-ECBs were colocalized with those of OWMs, 62.6% (62/99) NWM-ECBs were related with those of Hylobates lar (HLA) and 66.3% (71/107) NWM-ECBs corresponded with those known from other mammalians. Furthermore, human fragile sites were aligned with the ECBs found in the five studied species and interestingly 66.3% ECBs colocalized with those fragile sites (FS). Overall, this study presents detailed chromosomal maps of one OWM and four NWM species. This data will be helpful to further investigation on chromosome evolution in NWM and hominoids in general and is prerequisite for correct interpretation of future sequencing based genomic studies in those species.

  19. Comprehensive characterization of evolutionary conserved breakpoints in four New World Monkey karyotypes compared to Chlorocebus aethiops and Homo sapiens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobo Fan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Comparative cytogenetic analysis in New World Monkeys (NWMs using human multicolor banding (MCB probe sets were not previously done. Here we report on an MCB based FISH-banding study complemented with selected locus-specific and heterochromatin specific probes in four NWMs and one Old World Monkey (OWM species, i.e. in Alouatta caraya (ACA, Callithrix jacchus (CJA, Cebus apella (CAP, Saimiri sciureus (SSC, and Chlorocebus aethiops (CAE, respectively. 107 individual evolutionary conserved breakpoints (ECBs among those species were identified and compared with those of other species in previous reports. Especially for chromosomal regions being syntenic to human chromosomes 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12 and 16 previously cryptic rearrangements could be observed. 50.4% (54/107 NWM-ECBs were colocalized with those of OWMs, 62.6% (62/99 NWM-ECBs were related with those of Hylobates lar (HLA and 66.3% (71/107 NWM-ECBs corresponded with those known from other mammalians. Furthermore, human fragile sites were aligned with the ECBs found in the five studied species and interestingly 66.3% ECBs colocalized with those fragile sites (FS. Overall, this study presents detailed chromosomal maps of one OWM and four NWM species. This data will be helpful to further investigation on chromosome evolution in NWM and hominoids in general and is prerequisite for correct interpretation of future sequencing based genomic studies in those species.

  20. Through the eyes of children: Drawings as an evaluation tool for children's understanding about endangered Mexican primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franquesa-Soler, Montserrat; Serio-Silva, Juan Carlos

    2017-12-01

    This study seeks to understand children's perceptions and knowledge of endangered Mexican primates. The black howler monkey (Alouatta pigra) is a charismatic species endemic to Southern Mexico, Northern Belize, and Guatemala and is a symbol of the region that fosters a sense of local pride. Therefore, it can be considered a flagship species for the forests of Southern Mexico. We evaluated the perception and knowledge that 297 Mexican elementary school children (8-10 years old) have about black howler monkeys. Specifically, we analyzed and categorized drawings made by these children based on gender, geographic context (rural or urban), and residence within or outside of Protected Areas (PAs). Student drawings were categorized into three levels of knowledge (no familiarity, basic knowledge, and sophisticated knowledge). Common misconceptions and important landscape elements for black howler conservation were gathered from these visual representations. Children were largely unfamiliar with black howlers, despite sharing the same geographical location. Knowledge was affected by context and residence, with students living within PAs more aware of black howlers than students living outside of PAs. However, overall the children showed a deep understanding of the current forest conservation situation in Southern Mexico; meaning they could be presenting a shifting baseline syndrome. The study highlights the value of assessing children's drawings as a tool that can be used to help policy makers and educational practitioners in fine-tuning educational, environmental, and marketing programs. More importantly, it is a methodology that can be applied in future research for understanding children's perceptions and knowledge about endangered species and environmental change in deciding how to improve the effectiveness of conservation messaging. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Monkeys Match and Tally Quantities across Senses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Kerry E.; MacLean, Evan L.; Brannon, Elizabeth M.

    2008-01-01

    We report here that monkeys can actively match the number of sounds they hear to the number of shapes they see and present the first evidence that monkeys sum over sounds and sights. In Experiment 1, two monkeys were trained to choose a simultaneous array of 1-9 squares that numerically matched a sample sequence of shapes or sounds. Monkeys…

  2. Interação com os pais e o uso do espaço por um infante de Alouatta fusca (Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1812 em cativeiro Interaction with parents and use of space by an infant of Alouatta fusca (Geoffroy Saint Hilaire, 1812 in captivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Keley Silva Pereira Navarro

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Os primatas são animais que possuem elo social entre a mãe e sua prole, diferente de outras ordens de mamíferos. A sobrevivência do infante primata é completamente dependente do cuidado provido por membros de seu grupo social, particularmente do cuidado materno. O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a utilização do recinto por um infante de bugio e sua proximidade com os pais. O grupo de bugios era composto por um casal de adultos e seu filhote fêmea com quatro meses de idade. O período de observações foi de agosto a dezembro/2006, perfazendo uma média de 96 horas de esforço de amostragem. O método de observação foi o animal focal com registro instantâneo, com intervalos de 30 segundos durante uma hora por dia. O local do estudo foi o recinto de exposição da Fundação Zoo-Botânica de Belo Horizonte, com 7m de altura, 6 m de largura, 7 m de profundidade com presença de paisagismo interno. As observações revelaram um contato maior do infante com a mãe em relação ao pai e um distanciamento significativo (P Primates are social animals that have bond between mother and offspring, unlike other orders of mammals. The survival of an infant primate is completely dependent on the care provided by members of their social group, particularly maternal care. The aim of this study was to analyze the use of premises for an infant of monkey and its proximity to the parents. The group of monkeys was composed of a pair of adult female and her pup at 4 months of age. The observation period was from august to december 2006, making an average of 96 hours of sampling effort. The method of observation was the focal animal with instant record, with 30 second intervals for 1 hour per day. The study site was an exhibition space of the Zoo-Botanical Foundation of Belo Horizonte, 7 m high, 6 m wide, 7 m deep with the presence of internal landscaping. The results revealed greater contact with the infant's mother and father in relation to a

  3. Formal monkey linguistics : The debate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlenker, Philippe; Chemla, Emmanuel; Schel, Anne M.; Fuller, James; Gautier, Jean Pierre; Kuhn, Jeremy; Veselinović, Dunja; Arnold, Kate; Cäsar, Cristiane; Keenan, Sumir; Lemasson, Alban; Ouattara, Karim; Ryder, Robin; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    We explain why general techniques from formal linguistics can and should be applied to the analysis of monkey communication - in the areas of syntax and especially semantics. An informed look at our recent proposals shows that such techniques needn't rely excessively on categories of human language:

  4. Innovative use of Distributed Temperature Sensing and Meteorological Data to Understand Thermoregulation of Free-Ranging Howling Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, F. I.; Vinyard, C. J.; Williams, S. H.; Hausner, M. B.; Tyler, S. W.; Glander, K.

    2011-12-01

    Temperature fluctuations are a major driver of change in natural habitats and influence the lifestyle of all organisms because temperature impacts molecular, physiological, and behavioral processes. However, there is a lack of understanding on how temperature affects metabolism, behavior, and ecology at the organismal level. Even though physiological responses to temperature fluctuations have been well documented in laboratory conditions, it has been challenging to collect the required environmental data to study thermoregulation of free-ranging mammals such as mantled howling monkeys (Alouatta palliata). Fortunately, recent advances in fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing (DTS) now permit the observation of temperature fields in the environment at scales ranging from millimeters to kilometers. This has opened an exciting opportunity for temperature monitoring at scales that were previously not feasible. This study addresses the main limitations of previous studies of primate behavior by integrating real-time environmental data with the behavior and physiological response of free-ranging primates. In this work, we present preliminary DTS data collected in a natural habitat of howling monkeys. Fiber-optic cables were hung between the ground and an elevation of approximately 15 m within the forest canopy, providing continuous profiles of temperature without any disturbance due to the animals and habitat. These measurements were integrated with conventional meteorological data and with the ambient temperature at the location of the animal, as well as with measurements of primate's subcutaneous and core body temperatures. These data will be utilized to determine how environmental conditions relate to primate behavioral and physiological responses in time and space. The methodologies used in this study provide tools to test theories of physiological thermoregulation of other free-ranging animals.

  5. Polyspecific associations between squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) and other primates in eastern Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Tatyana; Ferrari, Stephen F; Lopes, Maria Aparecida

    2011-11-01

    One of the most common types of polyspecific association observed in Neotropical primate communities is that between squirrel monkeys (Saimiri) and capuchins (Cebus). The present study focused on association patterns in two Saimiri sciureus groups in eastern Brazilian Amazonia, between March and October, 2009. The associations were analyzed in terms of the species involved, the degree of association, and niche breadth and overlap. The study involved two S. sciureus groups (B4 and GI) on the right and left bank of the Tocantins River, respectively, within the area of the Tucuruí reservoir in southeastern Pará. Relations between species were classified as associations (individuals within 50 m and moving in the same direction), and encounters (individuals within 50 m and no coordinated movement). Group B4 was in association with Cebus apella during 100% of monitoring, and with Chiropotes satanas in 20.2%. By contrast, Group GI associated with Cebus 54.8% of the time, and with Chiropotes utahickae 2.5%. Encounters with Alouatta belzebul and Saguinus niger were recorded at both sites, with Aotus azarae and Dasyprocta prymnolopha at B4, and with Callicebus moloch, Dasyproct aleporina, Mazama gouazoubira, and Nasua nasua at GI. Overall, Saimiri had a broader niche than Cebus in terms of vertical spacing and diet, but not for substrate use. This pattern did not appear to be affected by association. While group GI spent significantly (P < 0.05) more time in association with Cebus during the wet season, group B4 associated with Chiropotes more during the dry season. Despite the higher association rates, niche overlap was greater for all variables at B4. This may reflect differences in the ranging and foraging patterns at the two sites, and the varying potential benefits of association for Saimiri. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. The influence of anthropogenic edge effects on primate populations and their habitat in a fragmented rainforest in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolt, Laura M; Schreier, Amy L; Voss, Kristofor A; Sheehan, Elizabeth A; Barrickman, Nancy L; Pryor, Nathaniel P; Barton, Matthew C

    2018-02-06

    When a forest is fragmented, this increases the amount of forest edge relative to the interior. Edge effects can lead to loss of animal and plant species and decreased plant biomass near forest edges. We examined the influence of an anthropogenic forest edge comprising cattle pasture, coconut plantations, and human settlement on the mantled howler (Alouatta palliata), white-faced capuchin (Cebus capucinus), Central American spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi), and plant populations at La Suerte Biological Research Station (LSBRS), Costa Rica. We predicted that there would be lower monkey encounter rate, mean tree species richness, and diameter at breast height (DBH) in forest edge versus interior, and that monkeys would show species-specific responses to edge based on diet, body size, and canopy height preferences. Specifically, we predicted that howler monkeys would show positive or neutral edge effects due to their flexible folivorous diet, large body size, and preference for high canopy, capuchins would show positive edge effects due to their diverse diet, small body size, and preference for low to middle canopy, and spider monkeys would show negative edge effects due their reliance on ripe fruit, large body size, and preference for high upper canopy. We conducted population and vegetation surveys along edge and interior transects at LSBRS. Contrary to predictions, total monkey encounter rate did not vary between the forest edge and forest interior. Furthermore, all three species showed neutral edge effects with no significant differences in encounter rate between forest edge and interior. Interior transects had significantly higher mean tree species richness than edge transects, and interior trees had greater DBH than edge trees, although this difference was not significant. These results suggest that forest edges negatively impact plant populations at La Suerte but that the monkeys are able to withstand these differences in vegetation.

  7. Metacognition in monkeys during an oculomotor task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middlebrooks, Paul G; Sommer, Marc A

    2011-03-01

    This study investigated whether rhesus monkeys show evidence of metacognition in a reduced, visual oculomotor task that is particularly suitable for use in fMRI and electrophysiology. The 2-stage task involved punctate visual stimulation and saccadic eye movement responses. In each trial, monkeys made a decision and then made a bet. To earn maximum reward, they had to monitor their decision and use that information to bet advantageously. Two monkeys learned to base their bets on their decisions within a few weeks. We implemented an operational definition of metacognitive behavior that relied on trial-by-trial analyses and signal detection theory. Both monkeys exhibited metacognition according to these quantitative criteria. Neither external visual cues nor potential reaction time cues explained the betting behavior; the animals seemed to rely exclusively on internal traces of their decisions. We documented the learning process of one monkey. During a 10-session transition phase, betting switched from random to a decision-based strategy. The results reinforce previous findings of metacognitive ability in monkeys and may facilitate the neurophysiological investigation of metacognitive functions. 2011 APA, all rights reserved

  8. Delay of gratification in capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) and squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, James R; Kuroshima, Hika; Fujita, Kazuo

    2010-05-01

    In two separate series of experiments four capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) and four squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) were given demonstration trials in which a human transferred six pieces of food, one by one, from out of each monkey's reach to within reach. On test trials the monkey could reach for the transferred food at any time, an action that ended the trial. Therefore, it was in the monkey's interest to allow food items to accumulate before reaching for food. No capuchin monkey showed delay of gratification in the first phase of testing. An attempt to facilitate performance by presenting a single free food item immediately before the transfer failed (Phase 2). In Phase 3, when the transferred food items increased progressively in size, two capuchins maintained delays, and frequently waited for all 6 items to accumulate. One squirrel monkey started to delay gratification in Phase 1, and another did so in Phase 3. A return to single-sized food items did not impair the monkeys' ability to delay. Short (1 s) interitem delays were generally easier to maintain than longer delays (3 or 5 s). In both species the delaying individuals bridged the delays idiosyncratically. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. Diagnosis of Leishmania infantum infection by Polymerase Chain Reaction in wild mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayara C. Lombardi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis is a chronic infectious disease caused by Leishmania infantum (synonym: Leishmania chagasi and transmitted by the sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis in Brazil. It is an endemic zoonosis in several regions of the country, including Belo Horizonte (State of Minas Gerais. In urban areas, the domestic dog is susceptible and considered the most important animal reservoir. However, L. infantum has been previously diagnosed in other species, including captive primates and canids. This study aimed to evaluate the presence of the agent DNA in captive animals as well as some free ranging animals from the Zoo-Botanical Foundation of Belo Horizonte by Polymerase Chain Reaction. Eighty one blood samples from primates, carnivores, ruminants, edentates, marsupial, and a monogastric herbivore were analyzed. Three primates Alouatta guariba (brown howler monkey, and two canids Speothos venaticus (bush dog were positive, demonstrating the importance of leishmaniasis control in endemic areas for preservation of wildlife species in captivity.

  10. An Infectious Clone of Woolly Monkey Hepatitis B Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Lanford, Robert E.; Chavez, Deborah; Barrera, Azeneth; Brasky, Kathleen M.

    2003-01-01

    Members of the Hepadnaviridae family have been isolated from birds, rodents, and primates. A new hepadnavirus isolated from the woolly monkey, a New World primate, is phylogenetically distinct from other primate isolates. An animal model has been established for woolly monkey hepatitis B virus (WMHBV) by using spider monkeys, since woolly monkeys are endangered. In this study, a greater-than-genome length construct was prepared without amplification by using covalently closed circular DNA ext...

  11. Monkey Bites among US Military Members, Afghanistan, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Katheryn A.

    2012-01-01

    Bites from Macaca mulatta monkeys, native to Afghanistan, can cause serious infections. To determine risk for US military members in Afghanistan, we reviewed records for September–December 2011. Among 126 animal bites and exposures, 10 were monkey bites. Command emphasis is vital for preventing monkey bites; provider training and bite reporting promote postexposure treatment. PMID:23017939

  12. Experimental infection of squirrel monkeys with nipah virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marianneau, Philippe; Guillaume, Vanessa; Wong, Thong; Badmanathan, Munisamy; Looi, Ren Yih; Murri, Severine; Loth, Philippe; Tordo, Noel; Wild, Fabian; Horvat, Branka; Contamin, Hugues

    2010-03-01

    We infected squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) with Nipah virus to determine the monkeys' suitability for use as primate models in preclinical testing of preventive and therapeutic treatments. Infection of squirrel monkeys through intravenous injection was followed by high death rates associated with acute neurologic and respiratory illness and viral RNA and antigen production.

  13. Basic math in monkeys and college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantlon, Jessica F; Brannon, Elizabeth M

    2007-12-01

    Adult humans possess a sophisticated repertoire of mathematical faculties. Many of these capacities are rooted in symbolic language and are therefore unlikely to be shared with nonhuman animals. However, a subset of these skills is shared with other animals, and this set is considered a cognitive vestige of our common evolutionary history. Current evidence indicates that humans and nonhuman animals share a core set of abilities for representing and comparing approximate numerosities nonverbally; however, it remains unclear whether nonhuman animals can perform approximate mental arithmetic. Here we show that monkeys can mentally add the numerical values of two sets of objects and choose a visual array that roughly corresponds to the arithmetic sum of these two sets. Furthermore, monkeys' performance during these calculations adheres to the same pattern as humans tested on the same nonverbal addition task. Our data demonstrate that nonverbal arithmetic is not unique to humans but is instead part of an evolutionarily primitive system for mathematical thinking shared by monkeys.

  14. Physiology responses of Rhesus monkeys to vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajebrahimi, Zahra; Ebrahimi, Mohammad; Alidoust, Leila; Arabian Hosseinabadi, Maedeh

    Vibration is one of the important environmental factors in space vehicles that it can induce severe physiological responses in most of the body systems such as cardiovascular, respiratory, skeletal, endocrine, and etc. This investigation was to assess the effect of different vibration frequencies on heart rate variability (HRV), electrocardiograms (ECG) and respiratory rate in Rhesus monkeys. Methods: two groups of rhesus monkey (n=16 in each group) was selected as control and intervention groups. Monkeys were held in a sitting position within a specific fixture. The animals of this experiment were vibrated on a table which oscillated right and left with sinusoidal motion. Frequency and acceleration for intervention group were between the range of 1 to 2000 Hz and +0.5 to +3 G during 36 weeks (one per week for 15 min), respectively. All of the animals passed the clinical evaluation (echocardiography, sonography, radiography and blood analysis test) before vibration test and were considered healthy and these tests repeated during and at the end of experiments. Results and discussions: Our results showed that heart and respiratory rates increased significantly in response to increased frequency from 1 to 60 Hz (p <0.05) directly with the +G level reaching a maximum (3G) within a seconds compare to controls. There were no significant differences in heart and respiratory rate from 60 t0 2000 Hz among studied groups. All monkeys passed vibration experiment successfully without any arrhythmic symptoms due to electrocardiography analysis. Conclusion: Our results indicate that vibration in low frequency can effect respiratory and cardiovascular function in rhesus monkey. Keywords: Vibration, rhesus monkey, heart rate, respiratory rate

  15. A NEW WORLD MONKEY MICROSATELLITE (AP74 HIGHLY CONSERVED IN PRIMATES AP74, un microsatélite de Monos del Nuevo Mundo altamente conservado en Primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUCIANA INÉS OKLANDER

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Given their great variability, microsatellites or STRs became the most commonly used genetic markers over the last 15 years. The analysis of these markers requires minimum quantities of DNA, allowing the use of non invasive samples, such as feces or hair. We amplified the microsatellite Ap74 in blood and hair samples in order to analyze the levels of genomic conservation among a wide range of primates including: Lemur catta, Alouatta caraya, Ateles belzebuth, Ateles chamek, Pan troglodytes, Papio sp., and Homo sapiens. In all cases we obtained amplification products that exhibited similar size both in monkeys and human (oscillating between 126 and 176 bp, except in the lemur where the detected fragment presented a size of approximately 1000 bp. The analysis of the nucleotide sequences permitted the evaluation of the molecular modifications experienced during the evolutionary process in primates.Dado su alta variabilidad, los microsatélites o STR se convirtieron en los marcadores genéticos más ampliamente utilizados en los últimos 15 años. El análisis de estos marcadores requiere una mínima cantidad de ADN, permitiendo el uso de muestras no invasivas, tales como pelos o heces. Con el objetivo de analizar niveles de conservación genómica, amplificamos el microsatélite Ap74 en muestras de pelo y sangre de un amplio rango de primates incluyendo: Lemur catta, Alouatta caraya, Ateles belzebuth, Ateles chamek, Pan troglodytes, Papio sp., y Homo sapiens. En todos los casos obtuvimos productos de amplificación que exhibieron un tamaño similar (oscilando entre 126 y 176 pb, con excepción del lémur, donde el fragmento detectado presentó un tamaño de aproximadamente 1000 pb. El análisis de las secuencias nucleotídicas nos permitió evaluar las modificaciones moleculares ocurridas durante el proceso evolutivo en primates.

  16. Nutrition of flexor tendons in monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manske, P R; Bridwell, K; Whiteside, L A; Lesker, P A

    1978-10-01

    The hydrogen washout technique was used to investigate the role of synovial diffusion versus vascular perfusion in the nutrition of monkey flexor tendons within the digital sheath. There was no significant difference in the uptake and washout of hydrogen tracer by tendons in contact with synovium but detached from the surrounding vasculature, compared to control tendons. However, there was insignificant uptake of tracer by tendons with intact vasculature, but separated from synovium. Synovial diffusion is a primary nutrient pathway of monkey flexor tendons within the digital sheath.

  17. SEROLOGICAL DETECTION OF HEPATITIS A VIRUS IN FREE-RANGING NEOTROPICAL PRIMATES (Sapajus spp., Alouatta caraya) FROM THE PARANÁ RIVER BASIN, BRAZIL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svoboda, Walfrido Kühl; Soares, Manoel do Carmo Pereira; Alves, Max Moreira; Rocha, Tatiana Carneiro; Gomes, Eliane Carneiro; Menoncin, Fabiana; Batista, Paulo Mira; Silva, Lineu Roberto da; Headley, Selwyn Arlington; Hilst, Carmen Lúcia Scortecci; Aguiar, Lucas M; Ludwig, Gabriela; Passos, Fernando de Camargo; Souza, Júlio Cesar de; Navarro, Italmar Teodorico

    2016-01-01

    Nonhuman primates are considered as the natural hosts of Hepatitis A virus (HAV), as well as other pathogens, and can serve as natural sentinels to investigate epizootics and endemic diseases that are of public health importance. During this study, blood samples were collected from 112 Neotropical primates (NTPs) (Sapajus nigritus and S. cay, n = 75; Alouatta caraya, n = 37) trap-captured at the Paraná River basin, Brazil, located between the States of Paraná and Mato Grosso do Sul. Anti-HAV IgG antibodies were detected in 4.5% (5/112) of NTPs, specifically in 6.7% (5/75) of Sapajus spp. and 0% (0/37) of A. caraya. In addition, all samples were negative for the presence of IgM anti-HAV antibodies. These results suggest that free-ranging NTPs were exposed to HAV within the geographical regions evaluated.

  18. Análise do líquido cefalorraquidiano, tomografia computadorizada craniana e angiotomografia cerebral de Alouatta guariba - Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1812 (Bugio ruivo)

    OpenAIRE

    Tranquilim, Marcos Vinicius

    2012-01-01

    A presente pesquisa foi realizada com o objetivo de desenvolver e adaptar técnicas diagnósticas em neurologia para primatas não humanos, da espécie Alouatta guariba (bugio-ruivo) saudáveis e mantidos em cativeiro. Foram realizadas análises físico-químicas em fluido cerebroespinhal, medição da pressão liquórica na cisterna magna, tomografia computadorizada de crânio e encéfalo, angiotomografia contrastada e reconstrução em três dimensões das imagens. Utilizou-se oito animais para as análises d...

  19. Three years on demography of a group of Alouatta guariba clamitans Cabrera (Primates, Atelidae: growth and fragmentation Três anos sobre a demografia de um grupo de Alouatta guariba clamitans Cabrera (Primates, Atelidae: crescimento e fragmentação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João M. D. Miranda

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in the Chácara Payquerê do Bugre, State of Paraná, Southern Brazil (25º29'52" S and 49º39'24" W and reports on the demography of a group of Alouatta guariba clamitans Cabrera, 1940 followed monthly during three years (from February, 2002 to March, 2005. The growth and subsequent fission of the group are described and argued, as well as their possible underlying causes, focusing on the population ecology and social behavior of this taxa.Este estudo foi realizado na Chácara Payquerê do Bugre, Estado do Paraná, Sul do Brasil (25º29'52" S e 49º39'24" W, registrando aspectos da demografia de um grupo de Alouatta guariba clamitans Cabrera, 1940 acompanhado mensalmente durante três anos (de fevereiro de 2002 a março de 2005. O crescimento e a subseqüente fissão do grupo são descritos e discutidos, bem como suas possíveis causas, enfocando a ecologia populacional e o comportamento social deste taxa.

  20. Tentativa de infanticídio por um macho dominante de Alouatta caraya (Humboldt (Primates, Atelidae em um infante extra-grupo devido a influência do observador Infanticide attempt by a dominant male of Alouatta caraya (Humboldt (Primates, Atelidae against an extra-group infant due to the influence of the observer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas M. Aguiar

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho relata um caso de tentativa de infanticídio por um macho residente e dominante de um grupo de Alouatta caraya (Humboldt, 1812 em um infante extra-grupo, em ilha do rio Paraná, Paraná, Brasil. O encontro do par fêmea-infante com o macho residente foi propiciado pela interferência humana. Devido às circunstâncias em que ocorreu o fato e a posição hierárquica do agressor, a hipótese de patologia social pareceu plausível na explicação do comportamento.This work reports on an infanticide attempt by a dominant resident male in a group of Alouatta caraya (Humboldt, 1812 on an extra-group infant in an Island in the Paraná river, Paraná, Brazil. The encounter of an infant-female pair with a resident male was brought about by human interference. Give the circumstances in which the event ocurred and the hierarchical position of the agressor, the social pathology hypothesis seems the most plausible explanation for such behavior.

  1. Molecular detection of Yaba monkey tumour virus from a vervet monkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helene Brettschneider

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Yaba monkey tumour virus (YMTV was first diagnosed in a colony of captive rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta in Yaba, Nigeria. It has been implicated as the cause of cutaneous nodules in wild baboons (Papio species, rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta and cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis. This article reports a case of cutaneous pox lesions caused by YMTV in a  free-ranging  adult  female  vervet  monkey  (Chlorocebus  pygerythrus  from  the  Umkomaas coastal area in South Africa. The virus was identified by molecular sequencing from fragments of the insulin metalloprotease-like protein and intracellular mature virion membrane protein as well as the DNA polymerase genes. Phylogenetic analyses of these gene regions revealed a 99% similarity of the sample to YMTV. Although human disease caused by YMTV is normally mild,  it  is  recommended  that  persons  in  contact  with  non-human  primates  in  the  area  of Umkomaas who develop cutaneous lesions should inform their doctors of the possibility of this infection. The extent and significance of the virus to human and non-human primates in South Africa are not known. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first diagnosis of YMTV in South Africa and in vervet monkeys.

  2. Analysis of prostate-specific antigen transcripts in chimpanzees, cynomolgus monkeys, baboons, and African green monkeys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James N Mubiru

    Full Text Available The function of prostate-specific antigen (PSA is to liquefy the semen coagulum so that the released sperm can fuse with the ovum. Fifteen spliced variants of the PSA gene have been reported in humans, but little is known about alternative splicing in nonhuman primates. Positive selection has been reported in sex- and reproductive-related genes from sea urchins to Drosophila to humans; however, there are few studies of adaptive evolution of the PSA gene. Here, using polymerase chain reaction (PCR product cloning and sequencing, we study PSA transcript variant heterogeneity in the prostates of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes, cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis, baboons (Papio hamadryas anubis, and African green monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops. Six PSA variants were identified in the chimpanzee prostate, but only two variants were found in cynomolgus monkeys, baboons, and African green monkeys. In the chimpanzee the full-length transcript is expressed at the same magnitude as the transcripts that retain intron 3. We have found previously unidentified splice variants of the PSA gene, some of which might be linked to disease conditions. Selection on the PSA gene was studied in 11 primate species by computational methods using the sequences reported here for African green monkey, cynomolgus monkey, baboon, and chimpanzee and other sequences available in public databases. A codon-based analysis (dN/dS of the PSA gene identified potential adaptive evolution at five residue sites (Arg45, Lys70, Gln144, Pro189, and Thr203.

  3. Relative density and distribution of Tantalus monkey ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An analysis of data was conducted using the software package DISTANCE 6.0 to determine population density estimate. Kwada, Yuwe, Jeltere and Balda are the four ranges within the reserve. Considering the number of species sighted, Tantalus monkey is widespread throughout the reserve where it was sighted in all the ...

  4. Accommodative lens refilling in rhesus monkeys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, SA; Terwee, T; Glasser, A; Wendt, M; Vilipuru, AS; van Kooten, TG; Norrby, S; Haitjema, HJ; Kooijman, AC

    PURPOSE. Accommodation can be restored to presbyopic human eyes by refilling the capsular bag with a soft polymer. This study was conducted to test whether accommodation, measurable as changes in optical refraction, can be restored with a newly developed refilling polymer in a rhesus monkey model. A

  5. OBSERVATIONS ON THE BEHAVIOUR OF VERVET MONKEYS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    If on the other hand, the predator advances on the monkeys and comes so close as to be a serious source of danger, the whispered call changes rapidly into the loud and harsh high intensity version. The mouth position is the same, with pronounced lip-retraction, but the eyes are opened wider and the body hair bristles.

  6. Nutritional and health status of woolly monkeys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ange-van Heugten, K.D.; Timmer, S.; Jansen, W.L.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2008-01-01

    Woolly monkeys (Lagothrix lagotricha and L. flavicauda) are threatened species in the wild and in captivity. Numerous zoological institutions have historically kept Lagothrix lagotricha spp., but only a few of them have succeeded in breeding populations. Therefore the majority of institutions that

  7. Agonism and dominance in female blue monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klass, Keren; Cords, Marina

    2015-12-01

    Agonistic behavior features prominently in hypotheses that explain how social variation relates to ecological factors and phylogenetic constraints. Dominance systems vary along axes of despotism, tolerance, and nepotism, and comparative studies examine cross-species patterns in these classifications. To contribute to such studies, we present a comprehensive picture of agonistic behavior and dominance relationships in wild female blue monkeys (Cercopithecus mitis), an arboreal guenon, with data from 9 groups spanning 18 years. We assessed where blue monkeys fall along despotic, tolerant, and nepotistic spectra, how their dominance system compares to other primates, primarily cercopithecines, and whether their agonistic behavior matches socioecological model predictions. Blue monkeys showed low rates of mainly low-intensity agonism and little counter-aggression. Rates increased with rank and group size. Dominance asymmetry varied at different organizational levels, being more pronounced at the level of interactions than dyad or group. Hierarchies were quite stable, had moderate-to-high linearity and directional consistency and moderate steepness. There was clear maternal rank inheritance, but inconsistent adherence to Kawamura's rules. There was little between-group variation, although hierarchy metrics showed considerable variation across group-years. Overall, blue monkeys have moderately despotic, moderately tolerant, and nepotistic dominance hierarchies. They resemble other cercopithecines in having significantly linear and steep hierarchies with a generally stable, matriline-based structure, suggesting a phylogenetic basis to this aspect of their social system. Blue monkeys most closely match Sterck et al.'s [1997] Resident-Nepotistic-Tolerant dominance category, although they do not fully conform to predictions of any one socioecological model. Our results suggest that socioecological models might better predict variation within than across clades, thereby

  8. Head Rotation Detection in Marmoset Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simhadri, Sravanthi

    Head movement is known to have the benefit of improving the accuracy of sound localization for humans and animals. Marmoset is a small bodied New World monkey species and it has become an emerging model for studying the auditory functions. This thesis aims to detect the horizontal and vertical rotation of head movement in marmoset monkeys. Experiments were conducted in a sound-attenuated acoustic chamber. Head movement of marmoset monkey was studied under various auditory and visual stimulation conditions. With increasing complexity, these conditions are (1) idle, (2) sound-alone, (3) sound and visual signals, and (4) alert signal by opening and closing of the chamber door. All of these conditions were tested with either house light on or off. Infra-red camera with a frame rate of 90 Hz was used to capture of the head movement of monkeys. To assist the signal detection, two circular markers were attached to the top of monkey head. The data analysis used an image-based marker detection scheme. Images were processed using the Computation Vision Toolbox in Matlab. The markers and their positions were detected using blob detection techniques. Based on the frame-by-frame information of marker positions, the angular position, velocity and acceleration were extracted in horizontal and vertical planes. Adaptive Otsu Thresholding, Kalman filtering and bound setting for marker properties were used to overcome a number of challenges encountered during this analysis, such as finding image segmentation threshold, continuously tracking markers during large head movement, and false alarm detection. The results show that the blob detection method together with Kalman filtering yielded better performances than other image based techniques like optical flow and SURF features .The median of the maximal head turn in the horizontal plane was in the range of 20 to 70 degrees and the median of the maximal velocity in horizontal plane was in the range of a few hundreds of degrees per

  9. Simian malaria at two sites in the Brazilian Amazon: I-The infection rates of Plasmodium brasilianum in non-human primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Lourenço-de-Oliveira

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available The parasite that causes simian malaria in the Brazilian Amazon, Plasmodium brasilianum, is infective to man. In this region, where humans live within and in close proximity to the forest, it was suspected that this parasite could be the cause of a zoonosis. A study was performed in the areas surrounding two hydroelectric plants in the Amazon, Balbina and Samuel, aiming at determining the zoonotic potential of this parasite. P. brasilianum was detected in, respectively, 15.8% and 9.9% of 126 and 252 primates belonging to seven and eight species examined from Balbina and Samuel. The highest malaria infection rates were found among the red-howler monkey Alouatta seniculus straminea (32.3%, the bearded-saki Chiropotes satanas chiropotes (50% and the spider-monkey Ateles paniscus paniscus (2[1+] from Balbina and in the squirrel-monkey Saimiri ustus (21% and the black-faced-spider-monkey Ateles paniscus chamek (28.6% from Samuel.

  10. Metabolism of lithocholic and chenodeoxycholic acids in the squirrel monkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, H.; Hamada, M.; Kato, F.

    1985-09-01

    Metabolism of lithocholic acid (LCA) and chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) was studied in the squirrel monkey to clarify the mechanism of the lack of toxicity of CDCA in this animal. Radioactive LCA was administered to squirrel monkeys with biliary fistula. Most radioactivity was excreted in the bile in the form of unsulfated lithocholyltaurine. The squirrel monkey thus differs from humans and chimpanzees, which efficiently sulfate LCA, and is similar to the rhesus monkey and baboon in that LCA is poorly sulfated. When labeled CDCA was orally administered to squirrel monkeys, less than 20% of the dosed radioactivity was recovered as LCA and its further metabolites in feces over 3 days, indicating that bacterial metabolism of CDCA into LCA is strikingly less than in other animals and in humans. It therefore appears that LCA, known as a hepatotoxic secondary bile acid, is not accumulated in the squirrel monkey, not because of its rapid turnover through sulfation, but because of the low order of its production.

  11. The first seven months of an infant of Alouatta guariba (Humboldt (Primates, Atelidae: interactions and the development of behavioral patterns Os sete primeiros meses de um infante de Alouatta guariba (Humboldt (Primates, Atelidae: interações e desenvolvimento dos padrões comportamentais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João M. D. Miranda

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of the interactions of an infant primate with its mother and the other members of its social group plays a special role in the ethology and demography of the species, with consequences for their survive and their conservation. The objective of the present study is to investigate the development of an infant of Alouatta guariba (Humboldt, 1812 in the wild, its behavior and interactions during its first seven months of age, in a remnant of Araucaria Pine Forest in Paraná State, Brazil. Using the method of instantaneous scanning with 5 min intervals, a total of 46 hours and 15 minutes of direct observation (555 individual records showed that the infant behavioral patterns during its first four months were characterized by high dependency, which decreased progressively until the appearance of typically juvenile behaviors during the remaining 3 months. The first records of feeding on solid food, tail functionality and allomaternal care were also recorded and discussed. This work contributes to an understanding of the ontogenetic development of a poorly known aspect of this species, and thus for a more understanding of the genus Alouatta Lacépède, 1799.O desenvolvimento das interações do infante primata com a mãe e demais membros do grupo social tem importância na etologia e na demografia da espécie, apresentando profundas conseqüências para sua sobrevivência e portanto, na conservação da espécie. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o desenvolvimento de um infante de Alouatta guariba (Humboldt, 1812 em vida livre, seu comportamento e interações durante os sete primeiros meses de vida, em um remanescente de Floresta Ombrófila Mista, Estado do Paraná, Brasil. Através do método de varredura instantânea com intervalo de cinco minutos, um total de 46 horas e 15 minutos de observações diretas (555 registros individuais mostraram que os padrões comportamentais do infante foram de alta dependência nos primeiros

  12. A freely-moving monkey treadmill model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Justin D.; Nuyujukian, Paul; Freifeld, Oren; Gao, Hua; Walker, Ross; Ryu, Stephen I.; Meng, Teresa H.; Murmann, Boris; Black, Michael J.; Shenoy, Krishna V.

    2014-08-01

    Objective. Motor neuroscience and brain-machine interface (BMI) design is based on examining how the brain controls voluntary movement, typically by recording neural activity and behavior from animal models. Recording technologies used with these animal models have traditionally limited the range of behaviors that can be studied, and thus the generality of science and engineering research. We aim to design a freely-moving animal model using neural and behavioral recording technologies that do not constrain movement. Approach. We have established a freely-moving rhesus monkey model employing technology that transmits neural activity from an intracortical array using a head-mounted device and records behavior through computer vision using markerless motion capture. We demonstrate the flexibility and utility of this new monkey model, including the first recordings from motor cortex while rhesus monkeys walk quadrupedally on a treadmill. Main results. Using this monkey model, we show that multi-unit threshold-crossing neural activity encodes the phase of walking and that the average firing rate of the threshold crossings covaries with the speed of individual steps. On a population level, we find that neural state-space trajectories of walking at different speeds have similar rotational dynamics in some dimensions that evolve at the step rate of walking, yet robustly separate by speed in other state-space dimensions. Significance. Freely-moving animal models may allow neuroscientists to examine a wider range of behaviors and can provide a flexible experimental paradigm for examining the neural mechanisms that underlie movement generation across behaviors and environments. For BMIs, freely-moving animal models have the potential to aid prosthetic design by examining how neural encoding changes with posture, environment and other real-world context changes. Understanding this new realm of behavior in more naturalistic settings is essential for overall progress of basic

  13. Competitive control of cognition in rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowaguchi, Mayuka; Patel, Nirali P; Bunnell, Megan E; Kralik, Jerald D

    2016-12-01

    The brain has evolved different approaches to solve problems, but the mechanisms that determine which approach to take remain unclear. One possibility is that control progresses from simpler processes, such as associative learning, to more complex ones, such as relational reasoning, when the simpler ones prove inadequate. Alternatively, control could be based on competition between the processes. To test between these possibilities, we posed the support problem to rhesus monkeys using a tool-use paradigm, in which subjects could pull an object (the tool) toward themselves to obtain an otherwise out-of-reach goal item. We initially provided one problem exemplar as a choice: for the correct option, a food item placed on the support tool; for the incorrect option, the food item placed off the tool. Perceptual cues were also correlated with outcome: e.g., red, triangular tool correct, blue, rectangular tool incorrect. Although the monkeys simply needed to touch the tool to register a response, they immediately pulled it, reflecting a relational reasoning process between themselves and another object (Rself-other), rather than an associative one between the arbitrary touch response and reward (Aresp-reward). Probe testing then showed that all four monkeys used a conjunction of perceptual features to select the correct option, reflecting an associative process between stimuli and reward (Astim-reward). We then added a second problem exemplar and subsequent testing revealed that the monkeys switched to using the on/off relationship, reflecting a relational reasoning process between two objects (Rother-other). Because behavior appeared to reflect Rself-other rather than Aresp-reward, and Astim-reward prior to Rother-other, our results suggest that cognitive processes are selected via competitive control dynamics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Trial Outcome and Associative Learning Signals in the Monkey Hippocampus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wirth, Sylvia; Avsar, Emin; Chiu, Cindy C; Sharma, Varun; Smith, Anne C; Brown, Emery; Suzuki, Wendy A

    2009-01-01

    .... To study how hippocampal neurons convey information about reward and trial outcome during new associative learning, we recorded hippocampal neurons as monkeys learned novel object-place associations...

  15. Locomotor Anatomy and Behavior of Patas Monkeys (Erythrocebus patas with Comparison to Vervet Monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne L. Zihlman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas living in African savanna woodlands and grassland habitats have a locomotor system that allows them to run fast, presumably to avoid predators. Long fore- and hindlimbs, long foot bones, short toes, and a digitigrade foot posture were proposed as anatomical correlates with speed. In addition to skeletal proportions, soft tissue and whole body proportions are important components of the locomotor system. To further distinguish patas anatomy from other Old World monkeys, a comparative study based on dissection of skin, muscle, and bone from complete individuals of patas and vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops was undertaken. Analysis reveals that small adjustments in patas skeletal proportions, relative mass of limbs and tail, and specific muscle groups promote efficient sagittal limb motion. The ability to run fast is based on a locomotor system adapted for long distance walking. The patas’ larger home range and longer daily range than those of vervets give them access to highly dispersed, nutritious foods, water, and sleeping trees. Furthermore, patas monkeys have physiological adaptations that enable them to tolerate and dissipate heat. These features all contribute to the distinct adaptation that is the patas monkeys’ basis for survival in grassland and savanna woodland areas.

  16. Monkeying around: Use of Survey Monkey as a Tool for School Social Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massat, Carol Rippey; McKay, Cassandra; Moses, Helene

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the use of an online survey tool called Survey Monkey, which can be used by school social workers and school social work educators for evaluation of practice, needs assessment, and program evaluation. Examples of questions are given. Principles of writing good survey questions are described. (Contains 2 tables and 1…

  17. Evaluation of diabetes determinants in woolly monkeys (Lagothrix lagotricha)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ange-van Heugten, K.D.; Burns, R.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Jansen, W.L.; Ferket, P.R.; Heugten, E.

    2007-01-01

    Woolly monkeys (Lagothrix lagotricha) are a threatened specie in the wild with limited successful management in captivity due to diagnosed hypertension and suspected diabetic conditions. Six woolly monkeys with known hypertension problems were tested to determine if diabetes mellitus and current

  18. Serum Chemistry concentrations of captive Woolly Monkeys (Lagothrix Lagotricha)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ange-van Heugten, K.D.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Ferket, P.; Stoskopf, M.; Heugten, van E.

    2008-01-01

    Woolly monkeys (Lagothrix sp.) are threatened species and numerous zoos have failed to sustain successful populations. The most common causes of death in captive woolly monkeys are related to pregnancy and hypertension. The objective of this retrospective study was to evaluate serum concentrations

  19. Sequential responding and planning in capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, Michael J; Parrish, Audrey E

    2012-11-01

    Previous experiments have assessed planning during sequential responding to computer generated stimuli by Old World nonhuman primates including chimpanzees and rhesus macaques. However, no such assessment has been made with a New World primate species. Capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) are an interesting test case for assessing the distribution of cognitive processes in the Order Primates because they sometimes show proficiency in tasks also mastered by apes and Old World monkeys, but in other cases fail to match the proficiency of those other species. In two experiments, eight capuchin monkeys selected five arbitrary stimuli in distinct locations on a computer monitor in a learned sequence. In Experiment 1, shift trials occurred in which the second and third stimuli were transposed when the first stimulus was selected by the animal. In Experiment 2, mask trials occurred in which all remaining stimuli were masked after the monkey selected the first stimulus. Monkeys made more mistakes on trials in which the locations of the second and third stimuli were interchanged than on trials in which locations were not interchanged, suggesting they had already planned to select a location that no longer contained the correct stimulus. When mask trials occurred, monkeys performed at levels significantly better than chance, but their performance exceeded chance levels only for the first and the second selections on a trial. These data indicate that capuchin monkeys performed very similarly to chimpanzees and rhesus monkeys and appeared to plan their selection sequences during the computerized task, but only to a limited degree.

  20. Perceptual Learning: 12-Month-Olds' Discrimination of Monkey Faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fair, Joseph; Flom, Ross; Jones, Jacob; Martin, Justin

    2012-01-01

    Six-month-olds reliably discriminate different monkey and human faces whereas 9-month-olds only discriminate different human faces. It is often falsely assumed that perceptual narrowing reflects a permanent change in perceptual abilities. In 3 experiments, ninety-six 12-month-olds' discrimination of unfamiliar monkey faces was examined. Following…

  1. Detection of arboviruses of public health interest in free-living New World primates (Sapajus spp.; Alouatta caraya captured in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Mira Batista

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction A sero-epidemiological survey was undertaken to detect the circulation of arboviruses in free-living non-human primates. Methods Blood samples were obtained from 16 non-human primates (13 Sapajus spp. and three Alouatta caraya that were captured using terrestrial traps and anesthetic darts in woodland regions in the municipalities of Campo Grande, Aquidauana, Jardim, Miranda and Corumbá in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The samples were sent to the Instituto Evandro Chagas (IEC in Ananindeua, Pará, Brazil, to detect antibodies against 19 species of arboviruses using a hemagglutination inhibition test (HI. Results Of the 16 primates investigated in the present study, five (31.2% were serologically positive for an arbovirus. Of these five, two (12.5% exhibited antibodies to the Flavivirus genus, one (6.2% exhibited a monotypic reaction to Cacipacoré virus, one (6.2% was associated with Mayaro virus, and one (6.2% was positive for Oropouche virus. Conclusions Based on the positive serology observed in the present study, it was possible to conclude that arboviruses circulate among free-living primates. The viruses in the areas studied might have been introduced by infected humans or by primates from endemic or enzootic areas. Studies of this nature, as well as efficient and continuous surveillance programs, are needed to monitor viral activities in endemic and enzootic regions.

  2. Foraging strategy of a neotropical primate: how intrinsic and extrinsic factors influence destination and residence time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plante, Sabrina; Colchero, Fernando; Calmé, Sophie

    2014-01-01

    Most animals need to actively search for food to meet energetic requirements and live in heterogeneous environments where food resources have complex spatio-temporal patterns of availability. Consequently, foraging animals need to find a balance between effort and resource allocation while accounting for intrinsic and extrinsic factors, which are often overlooked when modelling foraging behaviour. We identified the decision rules for foraging in black howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra), according to food preferences, locations of high-quality patches and previously eaten trees, phenology of food resources and hunger state. We depicted foraging in two stages: (i) the choice of the immediate next tree and (ii) the time spent on this tree. We used a recently developed model for inference of movement processes, incorporating resource selection functions into a Markov chain framework. We found that monkeys tend to move to preferred tree species at each step. However, we did not find conclusively that, at each step, monkeys direct their movements to reach high-quality patches. In fact, they were using these patches intensively, thus limiting the possibility to move towards other high-quality patches. Time spent on a tree was positively and strongly affected by the presence of preferred food items, but not by its species. We also showed that time spent on trees increased as a function of satiation state. We suggest that the strategy adopted by black howlers tends to be efficient because choosing preferred trees at each step and spending spend more time where preferred resources are available should favour energy intake and restrain movement costs. This study showcases a modelling framework that can be widely used in ecology to describe movements as a combination of multiple attraction and repulsion sources, such as mates and competitors. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2013 British Ecological Society.

  3. Molecular Detection of Plasmodium malariae/Plasmodium brasilianum in Non-Human Primates in Captivity in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes-Ramírez, Alicia; Jiménez-Soto, Mauricio; Castro, Ruth; Romero-Zuñiga, Juan José; Dolz, Gaby

    2017-01-01

    One hundred and fifty-two blood samples of non-human primates of thirteen rescue centers in Costa Rica were analyzed to determine the presence of species of Plasmodium using thick blood smears, semi-nested multiplex polymerase chain reaction (SnM-PCR) for species differentiation, cloning and sequencing for confirmation. Using thick blood smears, two samples were determined to contain the Plasmodium malariae parasite, with SnM-PCR, a total of five (3.3%) samples were positive to P. malariae, cloning and sequencing confirmed both smear samples as P. malariae. One sample amplified a larger and conserved region of 18S rDNA for the genus Plasmodium and sequencing confirmed the results obtained microscopically and through SnM-PCR tests. Sequencing and construction of a phylogenetic tree of this sample revealed that the P. malariae/P. brasilianum parasite (GenBank KU999995) found in a howler monkey (Alouatta palliata) is identical to that recently reported in humans in Costa Rica. The SnM-PCR detected P. malariae/P. brasilianum parasite in different non-human primate species in captivity and in various regions of the southern Atlantic and Pacific coast of Costa Rica. The similarity of the sequences of parasites found in humans and a monkey suggests that monkeys may be acting as reservoirs of P.malariae/P. brasilianum, for which reason it is important, to include them in control and eradication programs.

  4. Inequity responses of monkeys modified by effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wolkenten, Megan; Brosnan, Sarah F.; de Waal, Frans B. M.

    2007-01-01

    Without joint benefits, joint actions could never have evolved. Cooperative animals need to monitor closely how large a share they receive relative to their investment toward collective goals. This work documents the sensitivity to reward division in brown, or tufted, capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella). In addition to confirming previous results with a larger subject pool, this work rules out several alternative explanations and adds data on effort sensitivity. Thirteen adult monkeys exchanged tokens for rewards, showing negative reactions to receiving a less-favored reward than their partner. Because their negative reaction could not be attributed to the mere visibility of better rewards (greed hypothesis) nor to having received such rewards in the immediate past (frustration hypothesis), it must have been caused by seeing their partner obtain the better reward. Effort had a major effect in that by far the lowest level of performance in the entire study occurred in subjects required to expend a large effort while at the same time seeing their partner receive a better reward. It is unclear whether this effort–effect was based on comparisons with the partner, but it added significantly to the intensity of the inequity response. These effects are as expected if the inequity response evolved in the context of cooperative survival strategies. PMID:18000045

  5. Nuclear DNA variation in spider monkeys (Ateles).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, A C; Dubach, J M

    2001-04-01

    Phylogenetic relationships based on DNA sequence variation for the aldolase A intron V nuclear genomic region were evaluated and compared to phylogenies based on mitochondrial DNA sequence variation among spider monkeys (Ateles). Samples of Ateles ranging from Central America throughout the Amazon Basin were sequenced to determine phylogenetic relationships among geographically widely distributed populations. Analysis of nuclear DNA sequences using parsimony, maximum-likelihood, and genetic distance analyses produced similar phylogenies. Four previously proposed monophyletic species of spider monkeys were: (1) Ateles paniscus, composed of haplotypes from the northeastern Amazon Basin; (2) A. belzebuth, found in the western and southern Amazon Basin; (3) A. hybridus, located primarily along the Magdalena River valley of Colombia; and (4) A. geoffroyi, including all haplotypes found in the Choco region of South America and throughout Central America. The nuclear phylograms were analyzed based on associated bootstrap support and confidence probabilities. Support from the nuclear DNA genome was less robust than support from the mitochondrial DNA data, most likely due to a level of sequence variation, which was 90% less than that of the mitochondrial DNA genome. Nuclear DNA congruencies with mitochondrial DNA-based phylogenies, as supported by the incongruence length difference and winning sites tests, provide further support for the suggested revisions in Ateles taxonomy that are contradictory to long-held taxonomies based on pelage variation. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  6. Can Rhesus Monkey Learn Executive Attention?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Bramlett-Parker

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of data indicates that, compared to humans, rhesus monkeys perform poorly on tasks that assess executive attention, or voluntary control over selection for processing, particularly under circumstances in which attention is attracted elsewhere by competing stimulus control. In the human-cognition literature, there are hotly active debates about whether various competencies such as executive attention, working memory capacity, and fluid intelligence can be improved through training. In the current study, rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta completed an attention-training intervention including several inhibitory-control tasks (a Simon task, numerical Stroop task, global/local interference task, and a continuous performance task to determine whether generalized improvements would be observed on a version of the Attention Network Test (ANT of controlled attention, which was administered before and after the training intervention. Although the animals demonstrated inhibition of prepotent responses and improved in executive attention with practice, this improvement did not generalize to the ANT at levels consistently better than were observed for control animals. Although these findings fail to encourage the possibility that species differences in cognitive competencies can be ameliorated through training, they do advance our understanding of the competition between stimulus-control and cognitive-control in performance by nonhuman and human primates.

  7. Scleral Biomechanics in the Aging Monkey Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Michaël J. A.; Suh, J-K. Francis; Bottlang, Michael; Burgoyne, Claude F.; Downs, J. Crawford

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the age-related differences in the inhomogeneous, anisotropic, nonlinear biomechanical properties of posterior sclera from old (22.9 ± 5.3 years) and young (1.5 ± 0.7 years) rhesus monkeys. Methods The posterior scleral shell of each eye was mounted on a custom-built pressurization apparatus, then intraocular pressure (IOP) was elevated from 5 to 45 mmHg while the 3D displacements of the scleral surface were measured using speckle interferometry. Each scleral shell geometry was digitally reconstructed from data generated by a 3D digitizer (topography) and 20 MHz ultrasounds (thickness). An inverse finite element (FE) method incorporating a fiber-reinforced constitutive model was used to extract a unique set of biomechanical properties for each eye. Displacements, thickness, stress, strain, tangent modulus, structural stiffness, and preferred collagen fiber orientation were mapped for each posterior sclera. Results The model yielded 3-D deformations of posterior sclera that matched well with those observed experimentally. The posterior sclera exhibited inhomogeneous, anisotropic, nonlinear mechanical behavior. The sclera was significantly thinner (p = 0.038), and tangent modulus and structural stiffness were significantly higher in old monkeys (p biomechanics, and potentially contribute to age-related susceptibility to glaucomatous vision loss. PMID:19494203

  8. Experimental thromboembolic stroke in cynomolgus monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kito, G; Nishimura, A; Susumu, T; Nagata, R; Kuge, Y; Yokota, C; Minematsu, K

    2001-01-30

    To develop an experimental model of thromboembolic stroke without intracranial surgery, an autologous blood clot was delivered to the middle cerebral artery (MCA) via the internal carotid artery in cynomolgus monkeys. Male cynomolgus monkeys, in which a chronic catheter had been earlier implanted in the left internal carotid artery, were used. The clot was flushed into the internal carotid artery under sevofluorane anesthesia. A neurologic deficit score was assigned after MCA embolization. After 24 h, cerebral infarct size and location were determined by the TTC staining method. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) was measured prior to and after MCA embolization, using positron emission tomography (PET). After embolization, long-lasting and profound extensor hypotonia of the contralateral upper and lower limbs, and mild to severe incoordination were observed. Contralateral hemiplegia was observed over the following 24 h. In gross morphologic observation of the brain, the lesions involved mostly the caudate nucleus, putamen, globus pallidus and insular cortex. CBF was maximally reduced in the left MCA territory, but not in the right MCA territory. This model is relevant to thromboembolic stroke in human in neurologic dysfunction and histopathologic brain damage.

  9. Explicit information reduces discounting behavior in monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John ePearson

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Animals are notoriously impulsive in common laboratory experiments, preferring smaller, sooner rewards to larger, delayed rewards even when this reduces average reward rates. By contrast, the same animals often engage in natural behaviors that require extreme patience, such as food caching, stalking prey, and traveling long distances to high quality food sites. One possible explanation for this discrepancy is that standard laboratory delay discounting tasks artificially inflate impulsivity by subverting animals’ common learning strategies. To test this idea, we examined choices made by rhesus macaques in two variants of a standard delay discounting task. In the conventional variant, post-reward delays were uncued and adjusted to render total trial length constant; in the second, all delays were cued explicitly. We found that measured discounting was significantly reduced in the cued task, with discount rates well below those reported in studies using the standard uncued design. When monkeys had complete information, their decisions were more consistent with a strategy of reward rate maximization. These results indicate that monkeys, and perhaps other animals, are more patient than is normally assumed, and that laboratory measures of delay discounting may overstate impulsivity.

  10. Short poly-glutamine repeat in the androgen receptor in New World monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiramatsu, Chihiro; Paukner, Annika; Kuroshima, Hika; Fujita, Kazuo; Suomi, Stephen J; Inoue-Murayama, Miho

    2017-12-01

    The androgen receptor mediates various physiological and developmental functions and is highly conserved in mammals. Although great intraspecific length polymorphisms in poly glutamine (poly-Q) and poly glycine (poly-G) regions of the androgen receptor in humans, apes and several Old World monkeys have been reported, little is known about the characteristics of these regions in New World monkeys. In this study, we surveyed 17 species of New World monkeys and found length polymorphisms in these regions in three species (common squirrel monkeys, tufted capuchin monkeys and owl monkeys). We found that the poly-Q region in New World monkeys is relatively shorter than that in catarrhines (humans, apes and Old World monkeys). In addition, we observed that codon usage for poly-G region in New World monkeys is unique among primates. These results suggest that the length of polymorphic regions in androgen receptor genes have evolved uniquely in New World monkeys.

  11. Dissecting the mechanisms of squirrel monkey (Saimiri boliviensis) social learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, Lm; Holmes, An; Williams, LE; Brosnan, Sf

    2013-01-01

    Although the social learning abilities of monkeys have been well documented, this research has only focused on a few species. Furthermore, of those that also incorporated dissections of social learning mechanisms, the majority studied either capuchins (Cebus apella) or marmosets (Callithrix jacchus). To gain a broader understanding of how monkeys gain new skills, we tested squirrel monkeys (Saimiri boliviensis) which have never been studied in tests of social learning mechanisms. To determine whether S. boliviensis can socially learn, we ran "open diffusion" tests with monkeys housed in two social groups (N = 23). Over the course of 10 20-min sessions, the monkeys in each group observed a trained group member retrieving a mealworm from a bidirectional task (the "Slide-box"). Two thirds (67%) of these monkeys both learned how to operate the Slide-box and they also moved the door significantly more times in the direction modeled by the trained demonstrator than the alternative direction. To tease apart the underlying social learning mechanisms we ran a series of three control conditions with 35 squirrel monkeys that had no previous experience with the Slide-box. The first replicated the experimental open diffusion sessions but without the inclusion of a trained model, the second was a no-information control with dyads of monkeys, and the third was a 'ghost' display shown to individual monkeys. The first two controls tested for the importance of social support (mere presence effect) and the ghost display showed the affordances of the task to the monkeys. The monkeys showed a certain level of success in the group control (54% of subjects solved the task on one or more occasions) and paired controls (28% were successful) but none were successful in the ghost control. We propose that the squirrel monkeys' learning, observed in the experimental open diffusion tests, can be best described by a combination of social learning mechanisms in concert; in this case, those

  12. Loss of metabolites from monkey striatum during PET with FDOPA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cumming, P; Munk, O L; Doudet, D

    2001-01-01

    constants using data recorded during 240 min of FDOPA circulation in normal monkeys and in monkeys with unilateral 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) lesions. Use of the extended models increased the magnitudes of K(D)(i) and k(D)(3) in striatum; in the case of k(D)(3), variance...... of the estimate was substantially improved upon correction for metabolite loss. The rate constants for metabolite loss were higher in MPTP-lesioned monkey striatum than in normal striatum. The high correlation between individual estimates of k(Lin)(cl) and k(DA)(9) suggests that both rate constants reveal loss...

  13. Viabilidad poblacional de Alouatta palliata (Primates: Atelidae y Cebus capucinus (Primates: Cebidae en el Refugio de Vida Silvestre Privado Nogal, Sarapiquí, Heredia, Costa Rica Population viability of Alouatta palliata (Primates: Atelidae and Cebus capucinus (Primates: Cebidae at Refugio de Vida Silvestre Privado Nogal, Sarapiquí, Heredia, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Rodríguez-Matamoros

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available La destrucción del hábitat conlleva a la fragmentación de poblaciones de especies silvestres y se considera como uno de los principales factores en la extinción de especies A medida que las poblaciones se vuelven más pequeñas, surgen amenazas hacia su estabilidad y persistencia, como resultado de factores estocásticos demográficos, ambientales y genéticos. El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar los efectos de la fragmentación de poblaciones en la viabilidad de Alouatta palliata y Cebus capucinus en el Refugio de Vida Silvestre Privado Nogal (RVSPN, Sarapiquí, Heredia. Para esto se uso el programa VORTEX para correr un análisis de viabilidad de poblaciones (PVA para ambas especies. La información utilizada en el PVA proviene de la estructura demográafica de las poblaciones del RVSPN, literatura sobre la historia natural de las especies y artículos relacionados con PVA. Los resultados sugieren que tanto A. palliata como C. capucinus pueden sobrevivir en fragmentos boscosos aislados. Sin embargo, si se incorporan factores como depresión por endogamia, catástrofes o perdida de hábitat, las pequeñas poblaciones fragmentadas se vuelven inestables y aumenta el riesgo de que desaparezcan. Las poblaciones continuas fueron más robustas ante las amenazas incorporadas, por lo que se recomienda continuar con la reforestación para unir los fragmentos boscosos. Es importante darle seguimiento a las poblaciones de ambas especies y tener un manejo de su hábitat para disminuir los efectos negativos de diferentes eventos estocásticos provocados por el ambiente.Population viability of Alouatta palliata (Primates: Atelidae and Cebus capucinus (Primates: Cebidae at Refugio de Vida Silvestre Privado Nogal, Sarapiquí, Heredia, Costa Rica. Habitat destruction may cause wildlife population fragmentation and is considered an important factor in small population species extinction. As wildlife populations become smaller, threats to their stability

  14. [Population viability of Alouatta palliata (Primates: Atelidae) and Cebus capucinus (Primates: Cebidae) at Refugio de Vida Silvestre Privado Nogal, Sarapiquí, Heredia, Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Matamoros, Jorge; Villalobos-Brenes, Federico; Gutiérrez-Espeleta, Gustavo A

    2012-06-01

    Habitat destruction may cause wildlife population fragmentation and is considered an important factor in small population species extinction. As wildlife populations become smaller, threats to their stability and persistence arise as a result of demographic, environmental and genetic stochastic factors. The aim of this work was to study the effects of population fragmentation on the long term viability of Alouatta palliata and Cebus capucinus populations, at Refugio de Vida Silvestre Privado Nogal, Sarapiquí (RVSPN), Heredia. For this we used the computer software VORTEX to run a population viability analysis (PVA) for both species. The input data of the PVA were taken from the demography structure of the RVSPN, literature sources from the species and from PVA related papers. We evaluated two sets of scenarios: small fragmented populations to reflect the population current state, and one larger and continuous population, to reflect the effect of reforestation actions followed by RVSPN to connect forest fragments. Results suggest that both A. palliata and C. capucinus can survive in isolated forest fragments. However, if different factors as inbreeding depression, catastrophes or habitat loss were incorporated to the scenarios, the small fragmented populations become unstable and the risk of extinction increased for both species. Continuous and larger populations were more robust against the threats incorporated in the scenarios when compared to the current situation of smaller and fragmented populations. The best management option for both species would be to continue reforestation efforts in the area to connect forest fragments, with the result of larger and continuous populations of both species. It is important to continue the observation of both species populations, and to promote a habitat management to reduce the negative effects of stochastic environmental events.

  15. Viabilidad poblacional de Alouatta palliata (Primates: Atelidae y Cebus capucinus (Primates: Cebidae en el Refugio de Vida Silvestre Privado Nogal, Sarapiquí, Heredia, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Rodríguez-Matamoros

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available La destrucción del hábitat conlleva a la fragmentación de poblaciones de especies silvestres y se considera como uno de los principales factores en la extinción de especies A medida que las poblaciones se vuelven más pequeñas, surgen amenazas hacia su estabilidad y persistencia, como resultado de factores estocásticos demográficos, ambientales y genéticos. El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar los efectos de la fragmentación de poblaciones en la viabilidad de Alouatta palliata y Cebus capucinus en el Refugio de Vida Silvestre Privado Nogal (RVSPN, Sarapiquí, Heredia. Para esto se uso el programa VORTEX para correr un análisis de viabilidad de poblaciones (PVA para ambas especies. La información utilizada en el PVA proviene de la estructura demográafica de las poblaciones del RVSPN, literatura sobre la historia natural de las especies y artículos relacionados con PVA. Los resultados sugieren que tanto A. palliata como C. capucinus pueden sobrevivir en fragmentos boscosos aislados. Sin embargo, si se incorporan factores como depresión por endogamia, catástrofes o perdida de hábitat, las pequeñas poblaciones fragmentadas se vuelven inestables y aumenta el riesgo de que desaparezcan. Las poblaciones continuas fueron más robustas ante las amenazas incorporadas, por lo que se recomienda continuar con la reforestación para unir los fragmentos boscosos. Es importante darle seguimiento a las poblaciones de ambas especies y tener un manejo de su hábitat para disminuir los efectos negativos de diferentes eventos estocásticos provocados por el ambiente.

  16. Transplantation of adult monkey neural stem cells into a contusion spinal cord injury model in rhesus macaque monkeys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nemati, Shiva Nemati; Jabbari, Reza; Hajinasrollah, Mostafa

    2014-01-01

    , therefore, to explore the efficacy of adult monkey NSC (mNSC) in a primate SCI model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this experimental study, isolated mNSCs were analyzed by flow cytometry, immunocytochemistry, and RT-PCR. Next, BrdU-labeled cells were transplanted into a SCI model. The SCI animal model...... on Tarlov's scale and our established behavioral tests for monkeys. CONCLUSION: Our findings have indicated that mNSCs can facilitate recovery in contusion SCI models in rhesus macaque monkeys. Additional studies are necessary to determine the im- provement mechanisms after cell transplantation....

  17. Looming biases in monkey auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Joost X; Ghazanfar, Asif A

    2007-04-11

    Looming signals (signals that indicate the rapid approach of objects) are behaviorally relevant signals for all animals. Accordingly, studies in primates (including humans) reveal attentional biases for detecting and responding to looming versus receding signals in both the auditory and visual domains. We investigated the neural representation of these dynamic signals in the lateral belt auditory cortex of rhesus monkeys. By recording local field potential and multiunit spiking activity while the subjects were presented with auditory looming and receding signals, we show here that auditory cortical activity was biased in magnitude toward looming versus receding stimuli. This directional preference was not attributable to the absolute intensity of the sounds nor can it be attributed to simple adaptation, because white noise stimuli with identical amplitude envelopes did not elicit the same pattern of responses. This asymmetrical representation of looming versus receding sounds in the lateral belt auditory cortex suggests that it is an important node in the neural network correlate of looming perception.

  18. Keep children away from macaque monkeys!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bréhin, Camille; Debuisson, Cécile; Mansuy, Jean-Michel; Niphuis, Henk; Buitendijk, Hester; Mengelle, Catherine; Grouteau, Erick; Claudet, Isabelle

    2016-03-01

    To warn physicians and parents about the risk of macaque bites, we present two pediatric cases (a 4-year-old boy and a 10-year-old girl) of bites sustained while on holiday. The young boy developed febrile dermohypodermitis and was hospitalized for IV antibiotic treatment. He received an initial antirabies vaccine while still in the holiday destination. Except for local wound disinfection and antibiotic ointment, the girl did not receive any specific treatment while abroad. Both were negative for simian herpes PCR. When travelling in countries or cities with endemic simian herpes virus, parents should keep children away from monkeys. Travel agencies, pediatricians and family physicians should better inform families about the zoonotic risk. © International Society of Travel Medicine, 2016. All rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Population Density of the White-Throated Monkey ( Cercopithecus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Population Density of the White-Throated Monkey ( Cercopithecus Erythrogaster ) in ... Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and the Social Sciences ... in Okomu National Park, Edo State, Nigeria was conducted to estimate the population density.

  20. Chemical recognition of fruit ripeness in spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevo, Omer; Orts Garri, Rosa; Hernandez Salazar, Laura Teresa; Schulz, Stefan; Heymann, Eckhard W; Ayasse, Manfred; Laska, Matthias

    2015-10-06

    Primates are now known to possess well-developed olfactory sensitivity and discrimination capacities that can play a substantial role in many aspects of their interaction with conspecifics and the environment. Several studies have demonstrated that olfactory cues may be useful in fruit selection. Here, using a conditioning paradigm, we show that captive spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) display high olfactory discrimination performance between synthetic odor mixtures mimicking ripe and unripe fruits of two wild, primate-consumed, Neotropical plant species. Further, we show that spider monkeys are able to discriminate the odor of ripe fruits from odors that simulate unripe fruits that become increasingly similar to that of ripe ones. These results suggest that the ability of spider monkeys to identify ripe fruits may not depend on the presence of any individual compound that mark fruit ripeness. Further, the results demonstrate that spider monkeys are able to identify ripe fruits even when the odor signal is accompanied by a substantial degree of noise.

  1. jMonkeyEngine 3.0 cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Edén, Rickard

    2014-01-01

    If you are a jMonkey developer or a Java developer who is interested to delve further into the game making process to expand your skillset and create more technical games, then this book is perfect for you.

  2. Dissecting the mechanisms of squirrel monkey (Saimiri boliviensis social learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LM Hopper

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Although the social learning abilities of monkeys have been well documented, this research has only focused on a few species. Furthermore, of those that also incorporated dissections of social learning mechanisms, the majority studied either capuchins (Cebus apella or marmosets (Callithrix jacchus. To gain a broader understanding of how monkeys gain new skills, we tested squirrel monkeys (Saimiri boliviensis which have never been studied in tests of social learning mechanisms. To determine whether S. boliviensis can socially learn, we ran “open diffusion” tests with monkeys housed in two social groups (N = 23. Over the course of 10 20-min sessions, the monkeys in each group observed a trained group member retrieving a mealworm from a bidirectional task (the “Slide-box”. Two thirds (67% of these monkeys both learned how to operate the Slide-box and they also moved the door significantly more times in the direction modeled by the trained demonstrator than the alternative direction. To tease apart the underlying social learning mechanisms we ran a series of three control conditions with 35 squirrel monkeys that had no previous experience with the Slide-box. The first replicated the experimental open diffusion sessions but without the inclusion of a trained model, the second was a no-information control with dyads of monkeys, and the third was a ‘ghost’ display shown to individual monkeys. The first two controls tested for the importance of social support (mere presence effect and the ghost display showed the affordances of the task to the monkeys. The monkeys showed a certain level of success in the group control (54% of subjects solved the task on one or more occasions and paired controls (28% were successful but none were successful in the ghost control. We propose that the squirrel monkeys’ learning, observed in the experimental open diffusion tests, can be best described by a combination of social learning mechanisms in concert

  3. Longitudinal Analysis of Early Stage Sarcopenia in Aging Rhesus Monkeys

    OpenAIRE

    McKiernan, Susan H.; Colman, Ricki; Lopez, Marisol; Beasley, T. Mark; Weindruch, Richard; Aiken, Judd M.

    2008-01-01

    We present a longitudinal study using the rhesus monkey to determine biochemical and histological changes in vastus lateralis (VL) muscle fibers and whether these changes correlate with muscle mass loss. Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was used to determine body weight, body fat and to estimate upper leg muscle mass in twelve adult male rhesus monkeys over 12 years. Muscle mass (MM) was evaluated at years six, nine and twelve of the study. Concurrently, VL muscle biopsy samples were co...

  4. Preference transitivity and symbolic representation in capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Addessi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Can non-human animals comprehend and employ symbols? The most convincing empirical evidence comes from language-trained apes, but little is known about this ability in monkeys. Tokens can be regarded as symbols since they are inherently non-valuable objects that acquire an arbitrarily assigned value upon exchange with an experimenter. Recent evidence suggested that capuchin monkeys, which diverged from the human lineage 35 million years ago, can estimate, represent and combine token quantities. A fundamental and open question is whether monkeys can reason about symbols in ways similar to how they reason about real objects. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we examined this broad question in the context of economic choice behavior. Specifically, we assessed whether, in a symbolic context, capuchins' preferences satisfy transitivity--a fundamental trait of rational decision-making. Given three options A, B and C, transitivity holds true if A > or = B, B > or = C and A > or = C (where > or = indicates preference. In this study, we trained monkeys to exchange three types of tokens for three different foods. We then compared choices monkeys made between different types of tokens with choices monkeys made between the foods. Qualitatively, capuchins' preferences revealed by the way of tokens were similar to those measured with the actual foods. In particular, when choosing between tokens, monkeys displayed strict economic preferences and their choices satisfied transitivity. Quantitatively, however, values measured by the way of tokens differed systematically from those measured with the actual foods. In particular, for any pair of foods, the relative value of the preferred food increased when monkeys chose between the corresponding tokens. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results indicate that indeed capuchins are capable of treating tokens as symbols. However, as they do so, capuchins experience the cognitive burdens imposed by symbolic

  5. Auditory artificial grammar learning in macaque and marmoset monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Benjamin; Slater, Heather; Kikuchi, Yukiko; Milne, Alice E; Marslen-Wilson, William D; Smith, Kenny; Petkov, Christopher I

    2013-11-27

    Artificial grammars (AG) are designed to emulate aspects of the structure of language, and AG learning (AGL) paradigms can be used to study the extent of nonhuman animals' structure-learning capabilities. However, different AG structures have been used with nonhuman animals and are difficult to compare across studies and species. We developed a simple quantitative parameter space, which we used to summarize previous nonhuman animal AGL results. This was used to highlight an under-studied AG with a forward-branching structure, designed to model certain aspects of the nondeterministic nature of word transitions in natural language and animal song. We tested whether two monkey species could learn aspects of this auditory AG. After habituating the monkeys to the AG, analysis of video recordings showed that common marmosets (New World monkeys) differentiated between well formed, correct testing sequences and those violating the AG structure based primarily on simple learning strategies. By comparison, Rhesus macaques (Old World monkeys) showed evidence for deeper levels of AGL. A novel eye-tracking approach confirmed this result in the macaques and demonstrated evidence for more complex AGL. This study provides evidence for a previously unknown level of AGL complexity in Old World monkeys that seems less evident in New World monkeys, which are more distant evolutionary relatives to humans. The findings allow for the development of both marmosets and macaques as neurobiological model systems to study different aspects of AGL at the neuronal level.

  6. Secretion of phytohemagglutinin by monkey COS cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelker, T A; Florkiewicz, R Z; Chrispeels, M J

    1986-12-01

    The entire coding region of a gene, which encodes a polypeptide of phytohemagglutinin (PHA-L), obtained from a library of genomic DNA of the common bean Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Greensleeves, was introduced into the SV40 expression vector pJC119. Monkey COS1 cells were transfected with the recombinant clone and the synthesis, glycosylation, and transport of PHA-L studied and compared with the normal processes in bean cotyledons. In the bean, phytohemagglutinin is synthesized on the rough endoplasmic reticulum and transported via the Golgi complex to protein bodies, vacuole-like organelles. Phytohemagglutinin was synthesized and glycosylated at the ER and processed in the Golgi apparatus of the transfected COS1 cells. After passing the Golgi apparatus, PHA-L was slowly secreted into the culture medium (half-time of 3-6 h), a result indicating that the signals for targeting proteins beyond the Golgi apparatus in plant cells are different from those in animal cells. PHA, which is stored in protein bodies in the plant cells, is secreted by animal cells. Tunicamycin inhibited both glycosylation and secretion of PHA by the COS1 cells, a finding indicating an essential role of the oligosaccharides for transport of PHA in these cells in contrast to the situation found in bean cotyledons. PHA, secreted into the culture medium, was partially sensitive to endo H, a result indicating the presence of one high-mannose and one complex oligosaccharide chain, a situation identical to that in beans.

  7. Prefrontal neurons represent winning and losing during competitive video shooting games between monkeys

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hosokawa, Takayuki; Watanabe, Masataka

    2012-01-01

    ...) showed response sensitivity related to a competitive game. In this study, monkeys played a video shooting game, either competing with another monkey or the computer, or playing alone without a rival...

  8. Phylogeny of African monkeys based upon mitochondrial 12S rRNA sequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kuyl, A. C.; Kuiken, C. L.; Dekker, J. T.; Goudsmit, J.

    1995-01-01

    The suborder Anthropoidea of the primates has traditionally been divided in three superfamilies: the Hominoidea (apes and humans) and the Cercopithecoidea (Old World monkeys), together comprising the infraorder Catarrhini, and the Ceboidea (New World monkeys) belonging to the infraorder Platyrrhini.

  9. Fetal malformations and early embryonic gene expression response in cynomolgus monkeys maternally exposed to thalidomide

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present study was performed to determine experimental conditions for thalidomide induction of fetal malformations and to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying thalidomide teratogenicity in cynomolgus monkeys. Cynomolgus monkeys were orally administered (±)-thalidomid...

  10. Observational learning in capuchin monkeys: a video deficit effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, James R; Kuroshima, Hika; Fujita, Kazuo

    2017-07-01

    Young human children have been shown to learn less effectively from video or televised images than from real-life demonstrations. Although nonhuman primates respond to and can learn from video images, there is a lack of direct comparisons of task acquisition from video and live demonstrations. To address this gap in knowledge, we presented capuchin monkeys with video clips of a human demonstrator explicitly hiding food under one of two containers. The clips were presented at normal, faster than normal, or slower than normal speed, and then the monkeys were allowed to choose between the real containers. Even after 55 sessions and hundreds of video demonstration trials the monkeys' performances indicated no mastery of the task, and there was no effect of video speed. When given live demonstrations of the hiding act, the monkeys' performances were vastly improved. Upon subsequent return to video demonstrations, performances declined to pre-live-demonstration levels, but this time with evidence for an advantage of fast video demonstrations. Demonstration action speed may be one aspect of images that influence nonhuman primates' ability to learn from video images, an ability that in monkeys, as in young children, appears limited compared to learning from live models.

  11. Responses of squirrel monkeys to their experimentally modified mobbing calls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichtel, Claudia; Hammerschmidt, Kurt

    2003-05-01

    Previous acoustic analyses suggested emotion-correlated changes in the acoustic structure of squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus) vocalizations. Specifically, calls given in aversive contexts were characterized by an upward shift in frequencies, often accompanied by an increase in amplitude. In order to test whether changes in frequencies or amplitude are indeed relevant for conspecific listeners, playback experiments were conducted in which either frequencies or amplitude of mobbing calls were modified. Latency and first orienting response were measured in playback experiments with six adult squirrel monkeys. After broadcasting yaps with increased frequencies or amplitude, squirrel monkeys showed a longer orienting response towards the speaker than after the corresponding control stimuli. Furthermore, after broadcasting yaps with decreased frequencies or amplitude, squirrel monkeys showed a shorter orienting response towards the speaker than after the corresponding manipulated calls with higher frequencies or amplitude. These results suggest that changes in frequencies or amplitude were perceived by squirrel monkeys, indicating that the relationship between call structure and the underlying affective state of the caller agreed with the listener's assessment of the calls. However, a simultaneous increase in frequencies and amplitude did not lead to an enhanced response, compared to each single parameter. Thus, from the receiver's perspective, both call parameters may mutually replace each other.

  12. Economic choices reveal probability distortion in macaque monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauffer, William R; Lak, Armin; Bossaerts, Peter; Schultz, Wolfram

    2015-02-18

    Economic choices are largely determined by two principal elements, reward value (utility) and probability. Although nonlinear utility functions have been acknowledged for centuries, nonlinear probability weighting (probability distortion) was only recently recognized as a ubiquitous aspect of real-world choice behavior. Even when outcome probabilities are known and acknowledged, human decision makers often overweight low probability outcomes and underweight high probability outcomes. Whereas recent studies measured utility functions and their corresponding neural correlates in monkeys, it is not known whether monkeys distort probability in a manner similar to humans. Therefore, we investigated economic choices in macaque monkeys for evidence of probability distortion. We trained two monkeys to predict reward from probabilistic gambles with constant outcome values (0.5 ml or nothing). The probability of winning was conveyed using explicit visual cues (sector stimuli). Choices between the gambles revealed that the monkeys used the explicit probability information to make meaningful decisions. Using these cues, we measured probability distortion from choices between the gambles and safe rewards. Parametric modeling of the choices revealed classic probability weighting functions with inverted-S shape. Therefore, the animals overweighted low probability rewards and underweighted high probability rewards. Empirical investigation of the behavior verified that the choices were best explained by a combination of nonlinear value and nonlinear probability distortion. Together, these results suggest that probability distortion may reflect evolutionarily preserved neuronal processing. Copyright © 2015 Stauffer et al.

  13. Resistance to antibiotics of clinical relevance in the fecal microbiota of Mexican wildlife.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurgi Cristóbal-Azkarate

    Full Text Available There are a growing number of reports of antibiotic resistance (ATBR in bacteria living in wildlife. This is a cause for concern as ATBR in wildlife represents a potential public health threat. However, little is known about the factors that might determine the presence, abundance and dispersion of ATBR bacteria in wildlife. Here, we used culture and molecular methods to assess ATBR in bacteria in fecal samples from howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata, spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi, tapirs (Tapirus bairdii and felids (jaguars, Panthera onca; pumas, Puma concolor; jaguarundis, Puma yagouaroundi; and ocelots, Leopardus pardalis living freely in two regions of the Mexican state of Veracruz under different degrees of human influence. Overall, our study shows that ATBR is commonplace in bacteria isolated from wildlife in southeast Mexico. Most of the resistances were towards old and naturally occurring antibiotics, but we also observed resistances of potential clinical significance. We found that proximity to humans positively affected the presence of ATBR and that ATBR was higher in terrestrial than arboreal species. We also found evidence suggesting different terrestrial and aerial routes for the transmission of ATBR between humans and wildlife. The prevalence and potential ATBR transfer mechanisms between humans and wildlife observed in this study highlight the need for further studies to identify the factors that might determine ATBR presence, abundance and distribution.

  14. Neural Monkey: An Open-source Tool for Sequence Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helcl Jindřich

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we announce the development of Neural Monkey – an open-source neural machine translation (NMT and general sequence-to-sequence learning system built over the TensorFlow machine learning library. The system provides a high-level API tailored for fast prototyping of complex architectures with multiple sequence encoders and decoders. Models’ overall architecture is specified in easy-to-read configuration files. The long-term goal of the Neural Monkey project is to create and maintain a growing collection of implementations of recently proposed components or methods, and therefore it is designed to be easily extensible. Trained models can be deployed either for batch data processing or as a web service. In the presented paper, we describe the design of the system and introduce the reader to running experiments using Neural Monkey.

  15. ‘‘What's wrong with my monkey?''

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, I. Anna S.; Sandøe, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The birth of the first transgenic primate to have inherited a transgene from its parents opens the possibility to set up transgenic marmoset colonies, as these monkeys are small and relatively easy to keep and breed in research facilities. The prospect of transgenic marmoset models of human disease......, readily available in the way that transgenic laboratory mice are currently, prompts excitement in the scientific community; but the idea of monkeys being bred to carry diseases is also contentious. We structure an ethical analysis of the transgenic marmoset case around three questions: whether...... it is acceptable to use animals as models of human disease; whether it is acceptable to genetically modify animals; and whether these animals' being monkeys makes a difference. The analysis considers the prospect of transgenic marmoset studies coming to replace transgenic mouse studies and lesion studies...

  16. Toxicokinetics of ochratoxin A in vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stander, M A; Nieuwoudt, T W; Steyn, P S; Shephard, G S; Creppy, E E; Sewram, V

    2001-07-01

    The toxicokinetics of ochratoxin A were investigated in vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops). Three female monkeys were treated intravenously with ochratoxin A at doses, respectively, of 0.8, 1.5 and 2 mg/ kg body weight (BW). Blood and urine samples were collected over a period of 21 days. Plasma and urine extracts were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with either fluorescence or negative ion electrospray ionization mass spectrometric detection. The clearance of ochratoxin A from plasma followed a two-compartment model. The elimination half-life of ochratoxin A in the monkeys was determined to be 19-21 days and the average total body clearance was 0.22 +/- 0.07 ml/h per kg and the average apparent distribution volume of the central compartment was 59 +/- 9 ml/kg and the peripheral compartment was 59 +/- 20 ml/kg. No evidence was found for any metabolic conversion of ochratoxin A.

  17. Arteriviruses, Pegiviruses, and Lentiviruses Are Common among Wild African Monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Adam L; Lauck, Michael; Ghai, Ria R; Nelson, Chase W; Heimbruch, Katelyn; Hughes, Austin L; Goldberg, Tony L; Kuhn, Jens H; Jasinska, Anna J; Freimer, Nelson B; Apetrei, Cristian; O'Connor, David H

    2016-08-01

    Nonhuman primates (NHPs) are a historically important source of zoonotic viruses and are a gold-standard model for research on many human pathogens. However, with the exception of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) (family Retroviridae), the blood-borne viruses harbored by these animals in the wild remain incompletely characterized. Here, we report the discovery and characterization of two novel simian pegiviruses (family Flaviviridae) and two novel simian arteriviruses (family Arteriviridae) in wild African green monkeys from Zambia (malbroucks [Chlorocebus cynosuros]) and South Africa (vervet monkeys [Chlorocebus pygerythrus]). We examine several aspects of infection, including viral load, genetic diversity, evolution, and geographic distribution, as well as host factors such as age, sex, and plasma cytokines. In combination with previous efforts to characterize blood-borne RNA viruses in wild primates across sub-Saharan Africa, these discoveries demonstrate that in addition to SIV, simian pegiviruses and simian arteriviruses are widespread and prevalent among many African cercopithecoid (i.e., Old World) monkeys. Primates are an important source of viruses that infect humans and serve as an important laboratory model of human virus infection. Here, we discover two new viruses in African green monkeys from Zambia and South Africa. In combination with previous virus discovery efforts, this finding suggests that these virus types are widespread among African monkeys. Our analysis suggests that one of these virus types, the simian arteriviruses, may have the potential to jump between different primate species and cause disease. In contrast, the other virus type, the pegiviruses, are thought to reduce the disease caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in humans. However, we did not observe a similar protective effect in SIV-infected African monkeys coinfected with pegiviruses, possibly because SIV causes little to no disease in these hosts. Copyright © 2016

  18. Comparative Overview of Visuospatial Working Memory in Monkeys and Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsui, Ken-Ichiro; Oyama, Kei; Nakamura, Shinya; Iijima, Toshio

    2016-01-01

    Neural mechanisms of working memory, particularly its visuospatial aspect, have long been studied in non-human primates. On the other hand, rodents are becoming more important in systems neuroscience, as many of the innovative research methods have become available for them. There has been a question on whether primates and rodents have similar neural backgrounds for working memory. In this article, we carried out a comparative overview of the neural mechanisms of visuospatial working memory in monkeys and rats. In monkeys, a number of lesion studies indicate that the brain region most responsible for visuospatial working memory is the ventral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (vDLPFC), as the performance in the standard tests for visuospatial working memory, such as delayed response and delayed alternation tasks, are impaired by lesions in this region. Single-unit studies revealed a characteristic firing pattern in neurons in this area, a sustained delay activity. Further studies indicated that the information maintained in the working memory, such as cue location and response direction in a delayed response, is coded in the sustained delay activity. In rats, an area comparable to the monkey vDLPFC was found to be the dorsal part of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), as the delayed alternation in a T-maze is impaired by its lesion. Recently, the sustained delay activity similar to that found in monkeys has been found in the dorsal mPFC of rats performing the delayed response task. Furthermore, anatomical studies indicate that the vDLPFC in monkeys and the dorsal mPFC in rats have much in common, such as that they are both the major targets of parieto-frontal projections. Thus lines of evidence indicate that in both monkeys and rodents, the PFC plays a critical role in working memory.

  19. Pulpal Response to Intraligamentary Injection in the Cynomologus Monkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peurach, James C.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if intraligamentary injection causes qualitative histopathologic changes in the dental pulp of a Cynomologus monkey. In as much as the pulp and periapical tissues of the monkey are similar to that of humans, nonresolving damage to the pulp would contraindicate periodontal ligament injection in procedures where the tooth would not be extracted or the pulp extirpated. Periodontal ligament injection in this study did not produce any histopathological pulpal changes when compared to the pulps of uninjected teeth. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2 PMID:3859234

  20. Isolation of M. pneumoniae from monkeys (Presbitus cristata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stipkovits, L; Marantidi, A N; Dzikidze, E K; Krylova, R I; Vulvovich, J V

    1989-03-01

    Monkeys of the species Presbitus cristata died of severe interstitial pneumonia 20-60 days after their transportation. The carcases were examined for the presence of mycoplasmas. Thirty-six out of 65 samples obtained from the liver, spleen, kidney, lung, lymph nodes, pharynx, bronchi and blood of 13 monkeys contained mycoplasmas biochemically and serologically identical with M. pneumoniae. The isolated strains were able to elicit a rise in body temperature and an elevation in the number of leucocytes in blood as well as development of interstitial pneumonia, colonization of the inner organs by the mycoplasmas and a serological response in the experimentally infected guinea-pigs.

  1. A Deficit in Face-Voice Integration in Developing Vervet Monkeys Exposed to Ethanol during Gestation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zangenehpour, Shahin; Javadi, Pasha; Ervin, Frank R

    2014-01-01

    monkey model of fetal alcohol exposure (FAE) provides an unparalleled opportunity to study the neurobehavioral outcomes of prenatal ethanol exposure in a controlled experimental setting. Recent work has revealed a significant reduction of the neuronal population in the frontal lobes of these monkeys. We...... used an intersensory matching procedure to investigate audiovisual perception of socially relevant stimuli in young FAE vervet monkeys. Here we show a domain-specific deficit in audiovisual integration of socially relevant stimuli. When FAE monkeys were shown a pair of side-by-side videos of a monkey....... However, a group of normally developing monkeys exhibited a significant preference for the non-matching video. This inability to integrate and thereby discriminate audiovisual stimuli was confined to the integration of faces and voices as revealed by the monkeys' ability to match a dynamic face...

  2. The monkey in the mirror: Hardly a stranger

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Waal, Frans B. M.; Dindo, Marietta; Freeman, Cassiopeia A.; Hall, Marisa J.

    2005-01-01

    It is widely assumed that monkeys see a stranger in the mirror, whereas apes and humans recognize themselves. In this study, we question the former assumption by using a detailed comparison of how monkeys respond to mirrors versus live individuals. Eight adult female and six adult male brown capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) were exposed twice to three conditions: (i) a familiar same-sex partner, (ii) an unfamiliar same-sex partner, and (iii) a mirror. Females showed more eye contact and friendly behavior and fewer signs of anxiety in front of a mirror than they did when exposed to an unfamiliar partner. Males showed greater ambiguity, but they too reacted differently to mirrors and strangers. Discrimination between conditions was immediate, and blind coders were able to tell the difference between monkeys under the three conditions. Capuchins thus seem to recognize their reflection in the mirror as special, and they may not confuse it with an actual conspecific. Possibly, they reach a level of self–other distinction intermediate between seeing their mirror image as other and recognizing it as self. PMID:16055557

  3. Vegetarian diet in Guenon and Mangabey monkeys of Moukalaba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    php/ijbcs http://indexmedicus.afro.who.int. Vegetarian diet in Guenon and Mangabey monkeys of Moukalaba-Doudou. National Park, Gabon: Similarities and Differences. Lilian Brice MANGAMA-KOUMBA1,2*, Ghislain Wilfried EBANG ELLA1,2,.

  4. Distribution And Conservation Of The Patas Monkey Erythrocebus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    From December 2003 through May 2004, a survey was conducted on patas monkeys Erythrocebus patas in Kenya to determine the historic distribution, current distribution, conservation status, and threats. Patas were found in Laikipia District, Busia, West-Pokot, Turkana, Makueni and Taita Taveta Districts. Historically ...

  5. Survey of De Brazza's monkey ( Cercopithecus neglectus Schlegel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Censuses of De Brazza's monkey Cercopithecus neglectus were conducted in the Tororo District of eastern Uganda and in Trans-Nzoia and West Pokot Districts of Western Kenya to determine the status of this species and its habitat. The species had not been reported in eastern Uganda since 1958, and a previous census ...

  6. Long-term persistence of de Brazza's Monkey ( Cercopithecus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Here we report on population trends of de Brazza's monkey (Cercopithecus neglectus) over 20 years in Kenya's Kisere Forest, a biologically-rich moist forest remnant under intense anthropogenic pressure. We found that although abundance of this shy primate did not change across four censuses, group composition ...

  7. Phylogenetic tests of a Cercopithecus monkey hybrid reveal X ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A captive Cercopithecus nictitans × C. cephus male was examined at loci on the X- and Y-chromosomes as a test of previously described phylogenetic methods for identifying hybrid Cercopithecus monkeys. The results confirm the reliability of such assays, indicating that they can be of immediate utility for studies of wild ...

  8. Toxoplasmosis in a colony of New World monkeys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietz, H.H.; Henriksen, P.; Bille-Hansen, Vivi

    1997-01-01

    In a colony of New World monkeys five tamarins (Saguinus oedipus, Saguinus labiatus and Leontopithecus rosal. rosal.), three marmosets (Callithrix jacchus and Callithrix pygmaea) and one saki (Pithecia pithecia) died suddenly. The colony comprised 16 marmosets, 10 tamarins and three sakis. The ma...

  9. Polioencephalomalacia secondary to hypernatremia in squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macri, S M Cummings; Masek-Hammerman, K; Crowell, A M; Fenn, M S; Knight, H L; Westmoreland, S V; Miller, A D

    2014-05-01

    Squirrel monkeys (Saimiri spp) are one of the most consistently used New World primates in biomedical research and are increasingly being used in neuroscience research, including models of drug abuse and addiction. Spontaneous neurologic disease in the squirrel monkey is uncommonly reported but includes various infectious diseases as well as cerebral amyloidosis. Hypernatremia is an extremely serious condition of hyperosmolarity that occurs as a result of water loss, adipsia, or excess sodium intake. Neurologic effects of hypernatremia reflect the cellular dehydration produced by the shift of water from the intracellular fluid space into the hypertonic extracellular fluid space. Severe hypernatremia may result in cerebrocortical laminar necrosis (polioencephalomalacia) in human patients as well as in a number of domestic species, including pigs, poultry, and ruminants. We report the clinical, histopathologic, and immunohistochemical findings of polioencephalomalacia in 13 squirrel monkeys. Polioencephalomalacia in these animals was associated with hypernatremia that was confirmed by serum levels of sodium greater than 180 mmol/L (reference range, 134.0-154.0 mmol/L [mEq/L]). All animals had concurrent diseases or experimental manipulation that predisposed to adipsia. Immunohistochemical investigation using antibodies to neuronal nuclei (NeuN), CNPase, Iba-1, and CD31 revealed necrosis of predominantly cerebral cortical layers 3, 4, and 5 characterized by neuronal degeneration and loss, oligodendrocytic loss, microglial proliferation, and vascular reactivity. The squirrel monkey is exquisitely sensitive to hyperosmolar metabolic disruption and it is associated with laminar cortical necrosis.

  10. Paratuberculosis (Johne’s Disease) in the Monkey (Macaca Mulatta),

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johne’s disease or paratuberculosis is caused by the acid-fast organism Mycobacterium paratuberculosis and is known to affect cattle, sheep and goats...IT HAS A PROLONGED COURSE CHARACTERIZED BY DIARRHEA, EMACIATION, AND EVENTUALLY DEATH. The recognition of paratuberculosis in the monkey provides

  11. Food and Feeding Habits of Mona Monkey Cercopithecus Mona in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The feeding habits of mona monkey Cercopithecus mona in Ayede/Isan forest reserve, Ayede, Ekiti State, Nigeria were studied for six months. Direct observation was used in the data collection. The study area was visited two days per week between 0600-1100hours and 1600-1800hours for the six months in the forest ...

  12. Servants, Managers and Monkeys: New Perspectives on Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buskey, Frederick C.

    2014-01-01

    In this article the author questions whether the understanding of teaching and leading is the same today as it was last year? The chances are that the concept of what it means to be a teacher and a leader has changed. After describing three leadership types: servants, managers, and monkeys, Buskey suggest several things that are needed to improve…

  13. Evaluating the habitat of the critically endangered Kipunji monkey ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most primates are threatened by tropical forest loss. One population of the critically endangered kipunji monkey Rungwecebus kipunji occurs in a restricted part of one forest in southern Tanzania. This restricted range is something of an enigma. We collated woody vegetation data to assess habitat quality in and around the ...

  14. Concurent fatal helminthosis and balantidosis in red monkey ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fresh fecal specimen from a moribund red monkey (Erythrocebus patas) from the zoological garden, University of Ibadan with a history of dysentery was examined. Ova of Trichuris spp., Enterobius spp, Ancylostoma spp. and Strongyloides spp., as well as Balantidium spp oocysts were found. Post mortem, findings revealed ...

  15. GLP-1 receptor localization in monkey and human tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pyke, Charles; Heller, R Scott; Kirk, Rikke Kaae

    2014-01-01

    and increase heart rate. Using a new monoclonal antibody for immunohistochemistry, we detected GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) in important target organs in humans and monkeys. In the pancreas, GLP-1R was predominantly localized in β-cells with a markedly weaker expression in acinar cells. Pancreatic ductal epithelial...

  16. 54 relative density and distribution of tantalus monkey

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tersor

    In Jeltere ecological habitat for the species survival is under threats. ... range of forest habitats with different levels of human activity, which is ideal for investigating anthropogenic influence on primate abundance and distribution. METHODS .... Table 3: Populations structure of Tantalus monkey in Sambisa game reserve.

  17. The distribution of Mona monkeys ( Cercopithecus mona , schreber ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relatively, high occurrences were observed at the sites behind the Church and Mosque, and the Faculty of Environmental Sciences between 09:01 12:00 h. Mona populations were significantly different (P<0.05) between the study sites. Mona monkey habitat restoration, proper forest management and law enforcement ...

  18. 54 relative density and distribution of tantalus monkey

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tersor

    Tantalus monkey (Cercopithecus tantalus) was reported as widely abundant primate species in Sambisa Game. Reserve. In order to provide information ... density and he found a negative relationship with minimum density. By contrast, Eeley and .... A comprehensive computer software package Microsoft excel (Ms excel) ...

  19. The Monkey Kid: A Personal Glimpse into the Cultural Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita M. Andrew

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Wang, Xiao-Yen (Director/Writer, 'The Monkey Kid '(1995. San Francisco, Calif.: Beijing–San Francisco Film Group. Also released in France by Les Films du Parodoxe under the title, 'La Mome Singe '(1997. 95 minutes. Mandarin Chinese with English subtitles.

  20. New insights into samango monkey speciation in South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desiré L Dalton

    Full Text Available The samango monkey is South Africa's only exclusively forest dwelling primate and represents the southernmost extent of the range of arboreal guenons in Africa. The main threats to South Africa's forests and thus to the samango are linked to increasing land-use pressure and increasing demands for forest resources, resulting in deforestation, degradation and further fragmentation of irreplaceable habitats. The species belongs to the highly polytypic Cercopithecus nictitans group which is sometimes divided into two species C. mitis and C. albogularis. The number of subspecies of C. albogularis is also under debate and is based only on differences in pelage colouration and thus far no genetic research has been undertaken on South African samango monkey populations. In this study we aim to further clarify the number of samango monkey subspecies, as well as their respective distributions in South Africa by combining molecular, morphometric and pelage data. Overall, our study provides the most comprehensive view to date into the taxonomic description of samango monkeys in South Africa. Our data supports the identification of three distinct genetic entities namely; C. a. labiatus, C. a. erythrarchus and C. a. schwarzi and argues for separate conservation management of the distinct genetic entities defined by this study.

  1. Vegetarian diet in Guenon and Mangabey monkeys of Moukalaba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    habitats and his characteristics in primatology. Today it is considered as a sanctuary of western lowland gorillas, with an abundance and high density of apes (Takenoshita and. Yamagiwa, 2008; Nakashima et al., 2013b). Also, there are two main groups of. Cercopithecines monkeys (Mangabeys and. Guenons) and a lack ...

  2. Call Combinations in Monkeys: Compositional or Idiomatic Expressions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Kate; Zuberbuhler, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Syntax is widely considered the feature that most decisively sets human language apart from other natural communication systems. Animal vocalisations are generally considered to be holistic with few examples of utterances meaning something other than the sum of their parts. Previously, we have shown that male putty-nosed monkeys produce call…

  3. Normal thoracic radiographic appearance of the cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Xie

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis has been increasingly used as a non-human primate model in biomedical research. As establishing baseline thoracic radiography for the cynomolgus monkey is essential, we tested the hypothesis that age and sex may affect the thoracic radiography parameters of this species. METHODS: Here, 697 healthy cynomolgus monkeys were segregated by sex and age (three age groups: 25-36 months, 37-48 months, 49-60 months. The lung length (LL, maximal interior thoracic depth (TD, maximal interior thoracic breadth (TBr, cardiac silhouette breadth (CBr, cardiothoracic ratio (CR, right and left costophrenic angles (RCA and LCA, and right hilar height ratio (R-HHR were assessed by chest film. Statistical analysis was applied to examine the effect of age, sex, and age × sex interactions. RESULTS: Significant effects by age were shown for LL, TD, TBr, CBr, and CR. Significant effects by sex were found for TD, TBr, CBr, CR, and R-HHR. Significant effects by age × sex were observed for TD, TBr, CBr, and CR. Both TD and TBr increased with age in both sexes, and both were significantly higher in males than in females in the group aged 49-60 months. CBr increased with age and was significantly higher in males than in females across all age groups. CR declined with age and was significantly higher in males than females across all age groups, and CR was similar or slightly higher relative to those previously found in other non-human primate species. As to the other parameters with no significant sex nor age-related differences, the R-HHR was greater than 1.00, and the angulation of bilateral costophrenic angles were sharp. CONCLUSIONS: The thoracic radiographic parameters for the healthy cynomolgus monkey presented here should prove useful in veterinary practice, research involving non-human primate models of respiratory or cardiovascular disorders, and morphological studies on cynomolgus monkeys.

  4. Modeling depression in adult female cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willard, Stephanie L; Shively, Carol A

    2012-06-01

    Depressive disorders are prevalent, costly, and poorly understood. Male rodents in stress paradigms are most commonly used as animal models, despite the two-fold increased prevalence of depression in women and sex differences in response to stress. Although these models have provided valuable insights, new models are needed to move the field forward. Social stress-associated behavioral depression in adult female cynomolgus macaques closely resembles human depression in physiological, neurobiological, and behavioral characteristics, including reduced body mass, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis perturbations, autonomic dysfunction, increased cardiovascular disease risk, reduced hippocampal volume, altered serotonergic function, decreased activity levels, and increased mortality. In addition, behaviorally depressed monkeys also have low ovarian steroid concentrations, even though they continue to have menstrual cycles. Although this type of ovarian dysfunction has not been reported in depressed women and is difficult to identify, it may be the key to understanding the high prevalence of depression in women. Depressive behavior in female cynomolgus monkeys is naturally occurring and not induced by experimental manipulation. Different social environmental challenges, including isolation vs. subordination, may elicit the depression-like response in some animals and not others. Similarly, social subordination is stressful and depressive behavior is more common in socially subordinate monkeys. Yet, not all subordinates exhibit behavioral depression, suggesting individual differences in sensitivity to specific environmental stressors and enhanced risk of behavioral depression in some individuals. The behavior and neurobiology of subordinates is distinctly different than that of behaviorally depressed monkeys, which affords the opportunity to differentiate between stressed and depressed states. Thus, behaviorally depressed monkeys exhibit numerous physiological

  5. Plasmodium simium, a Plasmodium vivax-related malaria parasite: genetic variability of Duffy binding protein II and the Duffy antigen/receptor for chemokines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Camargos Costa

    Full Text Available Plasmodium simium is a parasite from New World monkeys that is most closely related to the human malaria parasite Plasmodium vivax; it also naturally infects humans. The blood-stage infection of P. vivax depends on Duffy binding protein II (PvDBPII and its cognate receptor on erythrocytes, the Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines (hDARC, but there is no information on the P. simium erythrocytic invasion pathway. The genes encoding P. simium DBP (PsDBPII and simian DARC (sDARC were sequenced from Southern brown howler monkeys (Alouatta guariba clamitans naturally infected with P. simium because P. simium may also depend on the DBPII/DARC interaction. The sequences of DBP binding domains from P. vivax and P. simium were highly similar. However, the genetic variability of PsDBPII was lower than that of PvDBPII. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that these genes were strictly related and clustered in the same clade of the evolutionary tree. DARC from A. clamitans was also sequenced and contained three new non-synonymous substitutions. None of these substitutions were located in the N-terminal domain of DARC, which interacts directly with DBPII. The interaction between sDARC and PvDBPII was evaluated using a cytoadherence assay of COS7 cells expressing PvDBPII on their surfaces. Inhibitory binding assays in vitro demonstrated that antibodies from monkey sera blocked the interaction between COS-7 cells expressing PvDBPII and hDARC-positive erythrocytes. Taken together, phylogenetic analyses reinforced the hypothesis that the host switch from humans to monkeys may have occurred very recently in evolution, which sheds light on the evolutionary history of new world plasmodia. Further invasion studies would confirm whether P. simium depends on DBP/DARC to trigger internalization into red blood cells.

  6. Plasmodium simium, a Plasmodium vivax-related malaria parasite: genetic variability of Duffy binding protein II and the Duffy antigen/receptor for chemokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargos Costa, Daniela; Pereira de Assis, Gabriela Maíra; de Souza Silva, Flávia Alessandra; Araújo, Flávia Carolina; de Souza Junior, Júlio César; Braga Hirano, Zelinda Maria; Satiko Kano, Flora; Nóbrega de Sousa, Taís; Carvalho, Luzia Helena; Ferreira Alves de Brito, Cristiana

    2015-01-01

    Plasmodium simium is a parasite from New World monkeys that is most closely related to the human malaria parasite Plasmodium vivax; it also naturally infects humans. The blood-stage infection of P. vivax depends on Duffy binding protein II (PvDBPII) and its cognate receptor on erythrocytes, the Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines (hDARC), but there is no information on the P. simium erythrocytic invasion pathway. The genes encoding P. simium DBP (PsDBPII) and simian DARC (sDARC) were sequenced from Southern brown howler monkeys (Alouatta guariba clamitans) naturally infected with P. simium because P. simium may also depend on the DBPII/DARC interaction. The sequences of DBP binding domains from P. vivax and P. simium were highly similar. However, the genetic variability of PsDBPII was lower than that of PvDBPII. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that these genes were strictly related and clustered in the same clade of the evolutionary tree. DARC from A. clamitans was also sequenced and contained three new non-synonymous substitutions. None of these substitutions were located in the N-terminal domain of DARC, which interacts directly with DBPII. The interaction between sDARC and PvDBPII was evaluated using a cytoadherence assay of COS7 cells expressing PvDBPII on their surfaces. Inhibitory binding assays in vitro demonstrated that antibodies from monkey sera blocked the interaction between COS-7 cells expressing PvDBPII and hDARC-positive erythrocytes. Taken together, phylogenetic analyses reinforced the hypothesis that the host switch from humans to monkeys may have occurred very recently in evolution, which sheds light on the evolutionary history of new world plasmodia. Further invasion studies would confirm whether P. simium depends on DBP/DARC to trigger internalization into red blood cells.

  7. Rhesus monkeys see who they hear: spontaneous cross-modal memory for familiar conspecifics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikuma Adachi

    Full Text Available Rhesus monkeys gather much of their knowledge of the social world through visual input and may preferentially represent this knowledge in the visual modality. Recognition of familiar faces is clearly advantageous, and the flexibility and utility of primate social memory would be greatly enhanced if visual memories could be accessed cross-modally either by visual or auditory stimulation. Such cross-modal access to visual memory would facilitate flexible retrieval of the knowledge necessary for adaptive social behavior. We tested whether rhesus monkeys have cross-modal access to visual memory for familiar conspecifics using a delayed matching-to-sample procedure. Monkeys learned visual matching of video clips of familiar individuals to photographs of those individuals, and generalized performance to novel videos. In crossmodal probe trials, coo-calls were played during the memory interval. The calls were either from the monkey just seen in the sample video clip or from a different familiar monkey. Even though the monkeys were trained exclusively in visual matching, the calls influenced choice by causing an increase in the proportion of errors to the picture of the monkey whose voice was heard on incongruent trials. This result demonstrates spontaneous cross-modal recognition. It also shows that viewing videos of familiar monkeys activates naturally formed memories of real monkeys, validating the use of video stimuli in studies of social cognition in monkeys.

  8. Ultraestrutura comparativa da língua do sagui-de-tufo-preto (Callithrix penicillata e do bugio-preto (Alouatta caraya em diferentes faixas etárias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cayo Y. Nitta

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Para a análise e descrição comparativa da morfologia da língua e de suas papilas, bem como a distribuição destas, foram utilizados três animais de faixas etárias distintas (filhote, jovem, adulto, de duas espécies de primatas, Callithrix penicillata (sagui-de-tufo-preto e Alouatta caraya (bugio-preto, ambas sendo observadas através da microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Os animais da espécie Callithrix penicillata eram procedentes de um criadouro comercial de animais selvagens em Atibaia/SP e vieram a óbito por causas naturais, e os da espécie Alouatta caraya eram provenientes do acervo do Laboratório de Anatomia Macroscópica da Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia da Universidade de São Paulo (FMVZ-USP. Com o material analisado e a técnica empregada pôde-se constatar que as línguas dos saguis-de-tufo-preto e dos bugios-pretos analisadas apresentavam papilas linguais similares às descritas para outras espécies de primatas. As línguas possuíam diferenças morfológicas, principalmente para alguns tipos de papilas linguais, em detrimento do avançar da idade dos animais. De forma geral, foram observados quatro tipos de papilas linguais, sendo estas: filiforme, fungiforme, valada e folhada. As línguas dos bugio-pretos apresentavam características de animais com dietas herbívoras. Possuindo desta forma papilas filiformes com formatos variados (coroa, lança, multifilamentar, de acordo com as regiões da língua, e também robustas papilas, principalmente na proeminência lingual. Já as línguas dos saguis-de-tufo-preto possuíam características de animais onívoros. Com papilas filiformes em formato de coroa, grandes quantidades de papilas fungiformes e desenvolvidas papilas folhadas. Observou-se que as modificações das papilas linguais que ocorrem nos animais após o nascimento apresentaram correlação com a mudança nos tipos de alimentos consumidos. Sendo presumível então concluir que as dietas possuem

  9. Non-random walks in monkeys and humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Denis; Crofoot, Margaret C.; Walsh, Peter D.

    2012-01-01

    Principles of self-organization play an increasingly central role in models of human activity. Notably, individual human displacements exhibit strongly recurrent patterns that are characterized by scaling laws and can be mechanistically modelled as self-attracting walks. Recurrence is not, however, unique to human displacements. Here we report that the mobility patterns of wild capuchin monkeys are not random walks, and they exhibit recurrence properties similar to those of cell phone users, suggesting spatial cognition mechanisms shared with humans. We also show that the highly uneven visitation patterns within monkey home ranges are not entirely self-generated but are forced by spatio-temporal habitat heterogeneities. If models of human mobility are to become useful tools for predictive purposes, they will need to consider the interaction between memory and environmental heterogeneities. PMID:22031731

  10. Monkeying with the Goodness-of-Fit Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Marsaglia

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The familiar Σ(OBS - EXP 2/EXP goodness-of-fit measure is commonly used to test whether an observed sequence came from the realization of n independent identically distributed (iid discrete random variables. It can be quite effective for testing for identical distribution, but is not suited for assessing independence, as it pays no attention to the order in which output values are received. This note reviews a way to adjust or tamper, that is, monkey-with the classical test to make it test for independence as well as identical distribution--in short, to test for both the i's in iid, using monkey tests similar to those in the Diehard Battery of Tests of Randomness (Marsaglia 1995.

  11. Present and potential distribution of Snub-nosed Monkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nüchel, Jonas; Bøcher, Peder Klith; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    are the Snub-nosed Monkeys (Rhinopithecus), a temperate-subtropical East Asian genus. We use species distribution modeling to assess the following question of key relevancy for conservation management of Rhinopithecus; 1. Which climatic factors determine the present distribution of Rhinopithecus within...... Southeast Asia? 2. By also considering historical records on now extirpated populations, we then assess the extent to which Rhinopithecus today live in an anthropogenically truncated niche space. 3. To form a basis for selecting areas for reintroduction, based on (1)-(2) we then estimate the potential...... distribution of Rhinopithecus within the region, considering climate, habitat availability and the locations of nature reserves. Keywords: biodiversity, biogeography, conservation, China, snub-nosed monkey, rhinopithecus, primates, species distribution modeling...

  12. Spontaneous epithelioid hemangiosarcoma in a rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Takayuki; Gray, Tasha L; Gatto, Nicholas T; Forest, Thomas; Machotka, Sam V; Troth, Sean P; Prahalada, Srinivasa

    2014-08-01

    Epithelioid hemangiosarcoma is a rare malignant endothelial neoplasia with a unique, predominantly epithelioid morphology. A 4-y-old rhesus monkey from our laboratory had multiple neoplastic nodules in a digit, limb skin, hindlimb muscle, and visceral organs including lung, heart, and brain. The nodules were composed of pleomorphic, polygonal, epithelioid, neoplastic cells that were arranged in sheets, nests, and cords and supported by variably dense fibrovascular connective tissue. The morphologic features of this tumor were predominantly epithelioid. However, some regions contained cystic spaces, clefts, and channel-like structures, all of which were lined with morphologically distinct neoplastic endothelial cells. These neoplastic cells, with or without epithelioid morphology, were positive immunohistochemically for CD31, factor VIII-related antigen, and vimentin. The presence of multiple metastatic nodules, high mitotic rate, and extensive Ki67-positive staining were consistent with malignancy. This report is the first description of epithelioid hemangiosarcoma in a rhesus monkey.

  13. Differential Cellular Tropism of Lentivirus and Adeno-Associated Virus in the Brain of Cynomolgus Monkey

    OpenAIRE

    An, Heeyoung; Cho, Doo-Wan; Lee, Seung Eun; Yang, Young-Su; Han, Su-Cheol; Lee, C. Justin

    2016-01-01

    Many researchers are using viruses to deliver genes of interest into the brains of laboratory animals. However, certain target brain cells are not easily infected by viruses. Moreover, the differential tropism of different viruses in monkey brain is not well established. We investigated the cellular tropism of lentivirus and adeno-associated virus (AAV) toward neuron and glia in the brain of cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascularis). Lentivirus and AAV were injected into putamen of the monkey br...

  14. Photochemical injury to the foveomacula of the monkey eye following argon blue-green panretinal photocoagulation.

    OpenAIRE

    Parver, L M

    2000-01-01

    PURPOSE: Visual loss following panretinal photocoagulation was found in the Diabetic Retinopathy and the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Studies. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that light scattered in the monkey eye during a procedure designed to mimic a clinical panretinal photocoagulation (PRP) can produce a photochemical injury to the foveomacula. METHODS: Ten eyes of 5 adult cynomologous monkeys underwent a PRP using an argon blue-green laser. Three eyes in 2 monkeys ...

  15. Musculoplasty for mastoid cavity obliteration in the capucine monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald, P J

    1975-01-01

    In a series of musculoplasty in 12 ears in the capucine monkey the mastoid cavity was successfully obliterated in the early follow-up months, but showed no obliteration at one year. A control using a bovine collagen preparation showed similar results. Musculoplasty appears to carry the dual risk of burying residual cholesteatomatous disease by virtue of atrophy and shrinkage of the muscle flap, and reformation of the mastoid cavity.

  16. White Matter Neurons in Young Adult and Aged Rhesus Monkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzad eMortazavi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In humans and non-human primates (NHP, white matter neurons (WMNs persist beyond early development. Their functional importance is largely unknown, but they have both corticothalamic and corticocortical connectivity and at least one subpopulation has been implicated in vascular regulation and sleep. Several other studies have reported that the density of WMNs in humans is altered in neuropathological or psychiatric conditions. The present investigation evaluates and compares the density of superficial and deep WMNs in frontal (FR, temporal (TE, and parietal (Par association regions of four young adult and four aged male rhesus monkeys. A major aim was to determine whether there was age-related neuronal loss, as might be expected given the substantial age-related changes known to occur in the surrounding white matter environment. Neurons were visualized by immunocytochemistry for Neu-N in coronal tissue sections (30μm thickness, and neuronal density was assessed by systematic random sampling. Per 0.16mm2 sampling box, this yielded about 40 neurons in the superficial WM and 10 in the deep WM. Consistent with multiple studies of cell density in the cortical gray matter of normal brains, neither the superficial nor deep WM populations showed statistically significant age-related neuronal loss, although we observed a moderate decrease with age for the deep WMNs in the frontal region. Morphometric analyses, in contrast, showed significant age effects in soma size and circularity. In specific, superficial WMNs were larger in FR and Par WM regions of the young monkeys; but in the TE, these were larger in the older monkeys. An age effect was also observed for soma circularity: superficial WMNs were more circular in FR and Par of the older monkeys. This second, morphometric result raises the question of whether other age-related morphological, connectivity, or molecular changes occur in the WMNs. These could have multiple impacts, given the wide range of

  17. Biological Rhythms and Temperature Regulation in Rhesus Monkeys During Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Charles A. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    This program examined the influence of microgravity on temperature regulation and circadian timekeeping systems in Rhesus monkeys. Animals flown on the Soviet Biosatellite COSMOS 2229 were exposed to 11 2/3 days of microgravity. The circadian patterns temperature regulation, heart rate and activity were monitored constantly. This experiment has extended previous observations from COSMOS 1514 and 2044, as well as provided insights into the physiological mechanisms that produce these changes.

  18. Discriminative stimulus effects of nalbuphine in rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerak, L R; France, C P

    1996-02-01

    Three rhesus monkeys discriminated between 0.178 mg/kg of nalbuphine and saline while responding under a fixed-ratio 5 schedule of stimulus-shock termination. Nalbuphine produced dose-related increases in drug-lever responding with > or = 90% of responses occurring on the drug lever at doses larger than 0.1 mg/kg. The duration of action of the discriminative stimulus effects of nalbuphine was less than 5.25 hr. Rank order potency of compounds that substituted for the nalbuphine discriminative stimulus (i.e., > or = 90% responding on the nalbuphine lever) in all three subjects was fentanyl > butorphanol > methadone > morphine. Compounds that did not substitute completely in all monkeys included the kappa agonists ethylketocyclazocine, enadoline, spiradoline and U-50,488 and the nonopioids cocaine, d-amphetamine, clonidine, ketamine and phencyclidine. Naltrexone antagonized the discriminative stimulus effects of nalbuphine, shifting the nalbuphine dose-effect curve in a manner that was consistent with mu receptor mediation. Results from the current study demonstrate that, in rhesus monkeys, the discriminative stimulus effects of nalbuphine are mediated by mu opioid receptors. Although there is evidence suggesting that nalbuphine has kappa agonist effects (e.g., subjective effects in humans), results from several studies, including the current study, strongly suggest that in rhesus monkeys nalbuphine does not exert agonist actions at kappa receptors. Moreover, these data indicate that differences in behavioral effects between nalbuphine and prototypic mu opioids (e.g., morphine) probably result from differences in activity (e.g., efficacy) at mu receptors rather than any kappa agonist actions of nalbuphine.

  19. Behavioral effects of 6-methylene naltrexone (nalmefene) in rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, C P; Gerak, L R

    1994-09-01

    Nalmefene [17-N-cyclopropylmethyl-3,14-beta-dihydroxy-4,5-alpha-epoxy-6- methylenemorphinan hydrochloride (also NIH 10365)], a 6-methylene derivative of naltrexone, was compared to naltrexone for its behavioral effects in rhesus monkeys. Nalmefene had opioid antagonist actions under all conditions, having a potency similar to that of naltrexone. In morphine-treated monkeys, discriminating between 0.01 mg/kg of naltrexone and saline, nalmefene substituted completely for naltrexone at doses larger than 0.001 mg/kg. The onset of discriminative stimulus effects was similar for nalmefene and naltrexone. A dose of 0.032 mg/kg of either antagonist occasioned > or = 90% naltrexone-level responding beginning 6 to 8 min after s.c. administration; the effects of this dose of either antagonist persisted for more than 1 hr. Like the parent compound naltrexone, nalmefene also antagonized the discriminative stimulus effects of opioid agonists. Nalmefene prevented the discriminative stimulus effects of morphine in monkeys acutely deprived of morphine and antagonized the discriminative stimulus effects of nalbuphine in a separate group of monkeys discriminating between nalbuphine and saline. At the dose of naltrexone and nalmefene that produced an equivalent antagonism of morphine when the antagonist was administered 0.25 hr before morphine (0.01 mg/kg), the duration of antagonist action was 6 hr, respectively. Nalmefene also attenuated the antinociceptive effects of the mu agonist alfentanil and the kappa agonist CI-977 [5R-(5,7,8-beta)-N-methyl- N-[7-(1-pyrrolidinyl)1-oxaspiro[4,5]dec-8-yl]-4-benzofuranaceta mide], being 55 times more potent in attenuating the antinociceptive effects of alfentanil as compared to Cl-977.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Changes in Somatosensory Responsiveness in Behaving Monkeys and Human Sub

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-08-30

    MONITORING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUOf1BE(S) Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology University of Tennessee, Memphis Sa. NAME OF PERFORMING ORGANIZATION 6b...and monkeys make ballistic movements more quickly (50-100 msec) in response to vibratory as compared to visual signals. Human subjects also make...quickly (50-100 msec) in response to vibratory as compared to visual signals. Subjects also make movements more quickly to a visual target if, in addition

  1. Individual differences in rhesus monkeys' demand for drugs of abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koffarnus, Mikhail N; Hall, Amy; Winger, Gail

    2012-09-01

    A relatively small percentage of humans who are exposed to drugs of abuse eventually become addicted to or dependent on those drugs. These individual differences in likelihood of developing drug addiction may reflect behavioral, neurobiological or genetic correlates of drug addiction and are therefore important to model. Behavioral economic measures of demand establish functions whose overall elasticity (rate of decrease in consumption as price increases) reflects the reinforcing effectiveness of various stimuli, including drugs. Using these demand functions, we determined the reinforcing effectiveness of five drugs of abuse (cocaine, remifentanil, ketamine, methohexital and ethanol) in 10 rhesus monkeys with histories of intravenous drug-taking. There was a continuum of reinforcing effectiveness across the five drugs, with cocaine and remifentanil showing the most reinforcing effectiveness. There was also a continuum of sensitivity of the monkeys; two of the 10 animals, in particular, showed greater demand for the drugs than did the remaining eight monkeys. In addition, monkeys that demonstrated greater demand for one drug tended to show greater demand for all drugs but did not show a similar relatively greater demand for sucrose pellets. These findings suggest that the tendency to find drugs to be reinforcing is a general one, not restricted to particular drugs and also, that a minority of animals show a substantially enhanced sensitivity to the reinforcing effects of drugs. The possibility that differences in responsiveness to the reinforcing effects of drugs may form the basis of individual differences in drug-taking in humans should be considered. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction Biology © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  2. The visual motion detectors underlying ocular following responses in monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Kenichiro; Matsuura, Kiyoto; Taki, Masakatsu; Tabata, Hiromitsu; Inaba, Naoko; Kawano, Kenji; Miles, Frederick A.

    2008-01-01

    Psychophysical evidence indicates that visual motion can be sensed by low-level (energy-based) and high-level (feature-based) mechanisms. The present experiments were undertaken to determine which of these mechanisms mediates the initial ocular following response (OFR) that can be elicited at ultra-short latencies by sudden motion of large-field images. We used the methodology of Sheliga, Chen, FitzGibbon and Miles (Initial ocular following in humans: a response to first-order motion energy. Vision Research, In press), who studied the initial OFRs of humans, to study the initial OFRs of monkeys. Accordingly, we applied horizontal motion to 1) vertical square-wave gratings lacking the fundamental (“missing fundamental stimulus”), and 2) vertical grating patterns consisting of the sum of two sinusoids of frequency 3f and 4f, which created a repeating pattern with beat frequency, f. Both visual stimuli share a critical property: when subject to ¼-wavelength steps, their overall pattern (feature) shifts in the direction of the steps, whereas their major Fourier component shifts in the reverse direction (because of spatial aliasing). We found that the initial OFRs of monkeys to these stimuli, like those of humans, were always in the opposite direction to the ¼-wavelength shifts, i.e., in the direction of the major Fourier component, consistent with detection by (low-level) oriented spatio-temporal filters as in the well-known energy model of motion analysis. Our data indicate that the motion detectors mediating the initial OFR have quantitatively similar properties in monkeys and humans, suggesting that monkeys provide a good animal model for the human OFR. PMID:16356529

  3. Phosphorylcholine and phosphorylethanolamine in human and rhesus monkey lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jernigan, H M; Zigler, J S

    1989-11-01

    Phosphorylcholine (P-choline) and phosphorylethanolamine (P-ethanolamine) are important precursors of phospholipids. The metabolism and concentration of P-choline has been shown to change in animal models of cataract, especially in oxidatively or osmotically stressed rat lenses. The concentrations of P-choline and P-ethanolamine were determined in monkey lenses and in normal and cataractous human lenses, and the rate of synthesis of P-choline was determined in human and monkey lenses. The concentration of P-choline in 53 clear human lenses was 0.94 mM (+/- 0.31 S.D.) and was relatively unaffected by age, eye bank storage, or freezing. There was a 70% decrease in P-choline in brown cataracts but no significant change from normal in non-brown cataracts. The concentration of P-ethanolamine in human lenses was 0.45 mM (+/- 0.26 S.D.), and it appeared to decrease during frozen storage of lenses and in cataracts. The concentrations of P-choline and P-ethanolamine in 12 rhesus monkey lenses were 1.51 mM (+/- 0.27 S.D.) and 0.75 mM (+/- 0.14 S.D.), respectively. The rate of synthesis of P-choline in monkey lenses incubated with [3H]choline was 8 nmol hr-1 g-1 wet weight in 1 mM choline. Adult human lenses incubated in 1 mM choline synthesized P-choline at a rate of 23 nmol hr-1 g-1 (+/- 6 S.D.). This limited capacity for P-choline synthesis in primate lenses may contribute to the lower P-choline concentration relative to rat lenses, which contain 11 mM P-choline and can synthesize P-choline at an apparent maximum rate of 130 nmol hr-1 g-1.

  4. Do rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) perceive illusory motion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrillo, Christian; Gori, Simone; Beran, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    During the last decade, visual illusions have been used repeatedly to understand similarities and differences of visual perception of human and non-human animals. However, nearly all studies have focused only on illusions not related to motion perception and, to date, it is unknown whether non-human primates perceive any kind of motion illusion. In the present study we investigated whether rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) perceived one of the most popular motion illusions in humans, the Rotating Snake illusion (RSI). To this purpose, we set up four experiments. In Experiment 1 subjects initially were trained to discriminate static vs. dynamic arrays. Once reaching the learning criterion, they underwent probe trials in which we presented the RSI and a control stimulus identical in overall configuration with the exception that the order of the luminance sequence was changed in a way that no apparent motion is perceived by humans. The overall performance of monkeys indicated that they spontaneously classified RSI as a dynamic array. Subsequently, we tested adult humans in the same task with the aim of directly comparing the performance of human and non-human primates (Experiment 2). In Experiment 3 we found that monkeys can be successfully trained to discriminate between the RSI and a control stimulus. Experiment 4 showed that a simple change in luminance sequence in the two arrays could not explain the performance reported in Exp. 3. These results suggest that some rhesus monkeys display a human-like perception of this motion illusion, raising the possibility that the neurocognitive systems underlying motion perception may be similar between human and non-human primates. PMID:25812828

  5. Discriminative stimulus and antinociceptive effects of dihydroetorphine in rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerak, Lisa R; Gauthier, Cheryl R A; France, Charles R A P

    2003-04-01

    Although dihydroetorphine has micro opioid agonist activity there is evidence to suggest that it is not identical to that of morphine. This study compared dihydroetorphine to other opioids under behavioral conditions that are sensitive to micro opioid agonism. The acute effects of dihydroetorphine, etorphine and morphine were evaluated using two procedures. In one procedure, monkeys received 3.2 mg/kg per day of morphine and discriminated naltrexone from saline while responding under a fixed-ratio 5 schedule of stimulus shock termination. In addition, a warm-water, tail-withdrawal procedure was used in untreated monkeys. When acutely deprived of morphine, monkeys responded on the naltrexone lever, and this effect was reversed by dihydroetorphine, etorphine and morphine. Each agonist produced the maximum (20-s latency) antinociceptive effect in 50 degrees C water. Naltrexone antagonized the discriminative stimulus and antinociceptive effects of dihydroetorphine and etorphine, although Schild analyses yielded large variability in slopes and pA(2) values. Naltrexone reversed established effects of dihydroetorphine and morphine in both procedures and pretreatment with dihydroetorphine (2, 6 or 24 h) did not alter the discriminative stimulus effects of morphine. Taken together, these data support the notion that dihydroetorphine is a micro agonist with a short duration of action; however, variability in antagonism of dihydroetorphine and morphine might be a manifestation of differences that have been reported for these drugs at the cellular level.

  6. Antinociceptive and respiratory effects of nalbuphine in rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerak, L R; Butelman, E R; Woods, J H; France, C P

    1994-11-01

    Antinociceptive and respiratory effects of nalbuphine and other opioids were studied in rhesus monkeys. In a thermal, tail withdrawal assay, the kappa agonist enadoline and the mu agonists alfentanil and fentanyl produced maximum antinociceptive effects in all subjects and over a wide range of temperatures, whereas nalbuphine produced antinociceptive effects in only some subjects and only when the water temperature was < or = 50 degrees C. Naltrexone antagonized the antinociceptive effects of nalbuphine, alfentanil and enadoline; however, the magnitude of antagonism was not equal among agonists. In subjects that did not show an antinociceptive response to nalbuphine, nalbuphine (3.2-10.0 mg/kg) antagonized the antinociceptive effects of fentanyl but not enadoline. The irreversible opioid antagonist clocinnamox produced a parallel shift to the right in the nalbuphine dose-effect curve 1 hr after administration and decreased the maximum effect produced by nalbuphine 24 and 48 hr after administration. Nalbuphine had modest respiratory-depressant effects in monkeys breathing air and attenuated hyperventilation produced by 5% CO2. In contrast, alfentanil had marked respiratory-depressant effects in monkeys breathing air or 5% CO2 in air and these effects were antagonized by nalbuphine. Taken together, these results suggest nalbuphine has low efficacy at mu opioid receptors; however, quantitative differences between alfentanil and nalbuphine indicate a second (non-enadoline sensitive) receptor might also be important for the antinociceptive effects of nalbuphine.

  7. Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) hear rising frequency sounds as looming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazanfar, Asif A; Maier, Joost X

    2009-08-01

    Rising sound intensity provides an important cue for the detection of looming objects. Studies with humans indirectly suggest that rising pitch can also signal a looming object. This link between rising intensity and rising frequency is puzzling because no physical rise in frequency occurs when a sound source approaches. Putative explanations include (a) the idea that the loudness of sound depends on its frequency, (b) the frequent co-occurrence of rising intensity with rising frequency in vocalizations generates an association between the 2 features, and (c) auditory neurons process amplitude- and frequency-modulated sounds similarly. If these hypotheses are valid, then rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta)--which share some homologies in the vocal production apparatus and auditory system--should also associate rising frequency with rising intensity, and thus should perceive rising frequency as a looming sound source. A head-turning assay and a preferential-looking paradigm revealed that monkeys show an attentional bias toward rising versus falling frequency sounds and link the former to visual looming signals. This suggests that monkeys hear a rising frequency sound as a looming sound source even though, in the real world, no such link exists. 2009 APA, all rights reserved

  8. Capuchin monkeys do not show human-like pricing effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catapano, Rhia; Buttrick, Nicholas; Widness, Jane; Goldstein, Robin; Santos, Laurie R

    2014-01-01

    Recent work in judgment and decision-making has shown that a good's price can have irrational effects on people's preferences. People tend to prefer goods that cost more money and assume that such expensive goods will be more effective, even in cases where the price of the good is itself arbitrary. Although much work has documented the existence of these pricing effects, unfortunately little work has addressed where these price effects come from in the first place. Here we use a comparative approach to distinguish between different accounts of this bias and to explore the origins of these effects. Specifically, we test whether brown capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) are also susceptible to pricing effects within the context of an experimentally trained token economy. Using a capuchin population previously trained in a token market, we explored whether monkeys used price as an indicator of value across four experiments. Although monkeys demonstrated an understanding of which goods had which prices (consistently shifting preferences to cheaper goods when prices were increased), we observed no evidence that such price information affected their valuation of different kinds of goods. These results suggest that human pricing effects may involve more sophisticated human-unique cognitive capacities, such as an understanding of market forces and signaling.

  9. Electrons at the monkey saddle: A multicritical Lifshitz point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtyk, A.; Goldstein, G.; Chamon, C.

    2017-01-01

    We consider two-dimensional interacting electrons at a monkey saddle with dispersion ∝px3-3 pxpy2 . Such a dispersion naturally arises at the multicritical Lifshitz point when three Van Hove saddles merge in an elliptical umbilic elementary catastrophe, which we show can be realized in biased bilayer graphene. A multicritical Lifshitz point of this kind can be identified by its signature Landau level behavior Em∝(Bm ) 3 /2 and related oscillations in thermodynamic and transport properties, such as de Haas-Van Alphen and Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations, whose period triples as the system crosses the singularity. We show, in the case of a single monkey saddle, that the noninteracting electron fixed point is unstable to interactions under the renormalization-group flow, developing either a superconducting instability or non-Fermi-liquid features. Biased bilayer graphene, where there are two non-nested monkey saddles at the K and K' points, exhibits an interplay of competing many-body instabilities, namely, s -wave superconductivity, ferromagnetism, and spin- and charge-density waves.

  10. Capuchin monkeys do not show human-like pricing effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catapano, Rhia; Buttrick, Nicholas; Widness, Jane; Goldstein, Robin; Santos, Laurie R.

    2014-01-01

    Recent work in judgment and decision-making has shown that a good's price can have irrational effects on people's preferences. People tend to prefer goods that cost more money and assume that such expensive goods will be more effective, even in cases where the price of the good is itself arbitrary. Although much work has documented the existence of these pricing effects, unfortunately little work has addressed where these price effects come from in the first place. Here we use a comparative approach to distinguish between different accounts of this bias and to explore the origins of these effects. Specifically, we test whether brown capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) are also susceptible to pricing effects within the context of an experimentally trained token economy. Using a capuchin population previously trained in a token market, we explored whether monkeys used price as an indicator of value across four experiments. Although monkeys demonstrated an understanding of which goods had which prices (consistently shifting preferences to cheaper goods when prices were increased), we observed no evidence that such price information affected their valuation of different kinds of goods. These results suggest that human pricing effects may involve more sophisticated human-unique cognitive capacities, such as an understanding of market forces and signaling. PMID:25520677

  11. Cognitive performance of juvenile monkeys after chronic fluoxetine treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari S. Golub

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Potential long term effects on brain development are a concern when drugs are used to treat depression and anxiety in childhood. In this study, male juvenile rhesus monkeys (three-four years of age were dosed with fluoxetine or vehicle (N = 16/group for two years. Histomorphometric examination of cortical dendritic spines conducted after euthanasia at one year postdosing (N = 8/group suggested a trend toward greater dendritic spine synapse density in prefrontal cortex of the fluoxetine-treated monkeys. During dosing, subjects were trained for automated cognitive testing, and evaluated with a test of sustained attention. After dosing was discontinued, sustained attention, recognition memory and cognitive flexibility were evaluated. Sustained attention was affected by fluoxetine, both during and after dosing, as indexed by omission errors. Response accuracy was not affected by fluoxetine in post-dosing recognition memory and cognitive flexibility tests, but formerly fluoxetine-treated monkeys compared to vehicle controls had more missed trial initiations and choices during testing. Drug treatment also interacted with genetic and environmental variables: MAOA genotype (high- and low transcription rate polymorphisms and testing location (upper or lower tier of cages. Altered development of top-down cortical regulation of effortful attention may be relevant to this pattern of cognitive test performance after juvenile fluoxetine treatment.

  12. Epigenetic changes with dietary soy in cynomolgus monkeys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy D Howard

    Full Text Available Nutritional interventions are important alternatives for reducing the prevalence of many chronic diseases. Soy is a good source of protein that contains isoflavones, including genistein and daidzein, and may alter the risk of obesity, Type 2 diabetes, osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease, and reproductive cancers. We have shown previously in nonhuman primates that soy protein containing isoflavones leads to improved body weight, insulin sensitivity, lipid profiles, and atherosclerosis compared to protein without soy isoflavones (casein, and does not increase the risk of cancer. Since genistein has been shown to alter DNA methylation, we compared the methylation profiles of cynomolgus monkeys, from multiple tissues, eating two high-fat, typical American diets (TAD with similar macronutrient contents, with or without soy protein. DNA methylation status was successfully determined for 80.6% of the probes in at least one tissue using Illumina's HumanMethylation27 BeadChip. Overall methylation increased in liver and muscle tissue when monkeys switched from the TAD-soy to the TAD-casein diets. Genes involved in epigenetic processes, specifically homeobox genes (HOXA5, HOXA11, and HOXB1, and ABCG5 were among those that changed between diets. These data support the use of the HumanMethylation27 BeadChip in cynomolgus monkeys and identify epigenetic changes associated with dietary interventions with soy protein that may potentially affect the etiology of complex diseases.

  13. Epigenetic changes with dietary soy in cynomolgus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Timothy D; Ho, Shuk-Mei; Zhang, Li; Chen, Jing; Cui, Wei; Slager, Rebecca; Gray, Stanton; Hawkins, Gregory A; Medvedovic, Mario; Wagner, Janice D

    2011-01-01

    Nutritional interventions are important alternatives for reducing the prevalence of many chronic diseases. Soy is a good source of protein that contains isoflavones, including genistein and daidzein, and may alter the risk of obesity, Type 2 diabetes, osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease, and reproductive cancers. We have shown previously in nonhuman primates that soy protein containing isoflavones leads to improved body weight, insulin sensitivity, lipid profiles, and atherosclerosis compared to protein without soy isoflavones (casein), and does not increase the risk of cancer. Since genistein has been shown to alter DNA methylation, we compared the methylation profiles of cynomolgus monkeys, from multiple tissues, eating two high-fat, typical American diets (TAD) with similar macronutrient contents, with or without soy protein. DNA methylation status was successfully determined for 80.6% of the probes in at least one tissue using Illumina's HumanMethylation27 BeadChip. Overall methylation increased in liver and muscle tissue when monkeys switched from the TAD-soy to the TAD-casein diets. Genes involved in epigenetic processes, specifically homeobox genes (HOXA5, HOXA11, and HOXB1), and ABCG5 were among those that changed between diets. These data support the use of the HumanMethylation27 BeadChip in cynomolgus monkeys and identify epigenetic changes associated with dietary interventions with soy protein that may potentially affect the etiology of complex diseases.

  14. Encoding of reward expectation by monkey anterior insular neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuhiki, Takashi; Richmond, Barry J; Shidara, Munetaka

    2012-06-01

    The insula, a cortical brain region that is known to encode information about autonomic, visceral, and olfactory functions, has recently been shown to encode information during reward-seeking tasks in both single neuronal recording and functional magnetic resonance imaging studies. To examine the reward-related activation, we recorded from 170 single neurons in anterior insula of 2 monkeys during a multitrial reward schedule task, where the monkeys had to complete a schedule of 1, 2, 3, or 4 trials to earn a reward. In one block of trials a visual cue indicated whether a reward would or would not be delivered in the current trial after the monkey successfully detected that a red spot turned green, and in other blocks the visual cue was random with respect to reward delivery. Over one-quarter of 131 responsive neurons were activated when the current trial would (certain or uncertain) be rewarded if performed correctly. These same neurons failed to respond in trials that were certain, as indicated by the cue, to be unrewarded. Another group of neurons responded when the reward was delivered, similar to results reported previously. The dynamics of population activity in anterior insula also showed strong signals related to knowing when a reward is coming. The most parsimonious explanation is that this activity codes for a type of expected outcome, where the expectation encompasses both certain and uncertain rewards.

  15. Capuchin monkeys do not show human-like pricing effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhia eCatapano

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent work in judgment and decision-making has shown that a good’s price can have irrational effects on people’s preferences. People tend to prefer goods that cost more money and assume that such expensive goods will be more effective, even in cases where the price of the good is itself arbitrary. Although much work has documented the existence of these pricing effects, unfortunately little work has addressed where these price effects come from in the first place. Here we use a comparative approach to distinguish between different accounts of this bias and to explore the origins of these effects. Specifically, we test whether brown capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella are also susceptible to pricing effects within the context of an experimentally trained token economy. Using a capuchin population previously trained in a token market, we explored whether monkeys used price as an indicator of value across four experiments. Although monkeys demonstrated an understanding of which goods had which prices (consistently shifting preferences to cheaper goods when prices were increased, we observed no evidence that such price information affected their valuation of different kinds of goods. These results suggest that human price effects may involve more sophisticated human-unique cognitive capacities, such as an understanding of market forces and signaling.

  16. Real-time dopamine measurement in awake monkeys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik W Schluter

    Full Text Available Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV is often used to measure real-time dopamine (DA concentrations in awake, behaving rodents. Extending this technique to work in monkeys would provide a platform for advanced behavioral studies and a primate model for preclinical research. The present study demonstrates the feasibility of DA recordings in two awake monkeys (Macaca mulatta using a mixture of techniques adapted from rodent, primate and brain slice work. We developed a long carbon fiber electrode to operate in the larger primate brain. This electrode was lowered into the striatum each day using a recording chamber and a detachable micromanipulator system. A manipulator also moved one or more tungsten stimulating electrodes into either the nearby striatum or the ventral tegmental area/substantia nigra pars compacta (VTA/SNc. We developed an electrical stimulation controller to reduce artifacts during electrical stimulation. We also introduce a stimulation-based methodology for estimating distances between electrodes in the brain. Dopamine responses within the striatum were evoked by either stimulation of the striatum near the FSCV electrode, or stimulation within the VTA/SNc. Unexpected juice rewards also evoked dopamine responses in the ventral striatum. Thus, we demonstrate that robust dopamine responses can be recorded from awake, behaving primates with FSCV. In addition, we describe how a stimulation technique borrowed from the neuroprosthetics field can activate the distributed monkey midbrain dopamine system in a way that mimics rodent VTA stimulation.

  17. Sex and Status Sell to Monkeys: Social Advertising Creates Brand Preferences in Rhesus Macaques

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    M Yavuz Acikalin; Karli Watson; Gavan Fitzsimons; Michael Platt

    2015-01-01

      Innate evolutionary mechanisms may influence consumer response to advertising. We demonstrate that exposure to sex- and status-based advertising campaigns elicit brand preferences in rhesus monkeys...

  18. Selection of river crossing location and sleeping site by proboscis monkeys (Nasalis larvatus) in Sabah, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Ikki; Tuuga, Augustine; Akiyama, Yoshihiro; Higashi, Seigo

    2008-11-01

    From May 2005-2006, selections of river crossing locations and sleeping sites used by a one-male group (BE-Group) of proboscis monkeys (Nasalis larvatus) were investigated along the Menanggul River, tributary of the Kinabatangan River, Sabah, Malaysia. The frequency of river crossings for focal monkeys in the BE-Group was significantly higher at locations with narrow branch-to-bank distances. Branch-to-bank distances were defined as the distances between the longest tree branches extending over the river and the bank of river on each side. This was measured in areas crossed by the monkeys. The focal monkeys used locations with a higher probability of successful river crossings that did not require jumping into the water and swimming across than those that did. The frequency of sleeping site usage by the BE-Group was positively correlated with the frequency of using river crossing locations by the focal monkeys. Previous reports on predation of proboscis monkeys indicate that clouded leopards (Neofelis diardi) and crocodilians (Tomistoma schlegeli and Crocodylus porosus) may be the major terrestrial and aquatic predators of these monkeys. The selection of river crossing locations by proboscis monkeys may be influenced both by the threat of these predators and the location of suitable and protected sleeping sites. Finally, sleeping sites locations that offer arboreal escape routes may protect proboscis monkeys from leopard attack. Copyright 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Do you see what I see? A comparative investigation of the Delboeuf illusion in humans (Homo sapiens), rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), and capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, Audrey E; Brosnan, Sarah F; Beran, Michael J

    2015-10-01

    Studying visual illusions is critical to understanding typical visual perception. We investigated whether rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) perceived the Delboeuf illusion in a similar manner as human adults (Homo sapiens). To test this, in Experiment 1, we presented monkeys and humans with a relative discrimination task that required subjects to choose the larger of 2 central dots that were sometimes encircled by concentric rings. As predicted, humans demonstrated evidence of the Delboeuf illusion, overestimating central dots when small rings surrounded them and underestimating the size of central dots when large rings surrounded them. However, monkeys did not show evidence of the illusion. To rule out an alternate explanation, in Experiment 2, we presented all species with an absolute classification task that required them to classify a central dot as "small" or "large." We presented a range of ring sizes to determine whether the Delboeuf illusion would occur for any dot-to-ring ratios. Here, we found evidence of the Delboeuf illusion in all 3 species. Humans and monkeys underestimated central dot size to a progressively greater degree with progressively larger rings. The Delboeuf illusion now has been extended to include capuchin monkeys and rhesus monkeys, and through such comparative investigations we can better evaluate hypotheses regarding illusion perception among nonhuman animals. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. The monkey puzzle: a systematic review of studies of stress, social hierarchies, and heart disease in monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petticrew, Mark; Davey Smith, George

    2012-01-01

    It is often suggested that psychosocial factors, such as stress, or one's social position, may play an important role in producing social gradients in human disease. Evidence in favour of this model of health inequalities has relied, in part, on studies of the health effects of the natural social hierarchies found among non-human primates. This study aimed to assess the strength of this evidence. A systematic review was carried out to identify all studies of psychosocial factors and coronary artery disease (CAD) in non-human primates. We searched databases (MEDLINE, PsycInfo, EMBASE, and Primatelit from inception to November 2010) to identify experimental and observational studies of the impact of social reorganisation, social instability, and disruption of dominance hierarchies on primate CAD outcomes. We also handsearched bibliographies and examined the citations to those studies in public health articles. Fourteen studies were found which presented evidence on CAD and social status and/or psychosocial stress. These suggested that the association between social status and disease may be sex-specific: in female monkeys dominant status may be protective, with subordinate females having a greater extent of atherosclerosis. In male monkeys the reverse may be the case. Overall, non-human primate studies present only limited evidence for an association between social status and CAD, Despite this, there is selective citation of individual non-human primate studies in reviews and commentaries relating to human disease aetiology. Such generalisation of data from monkey studies to human societies does not appear warranted.

  1. Antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) and eradication regimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, Tetsufumi; Aoki, Wataru; Mizuno, Takashi; Wakazono, Kuniko; Ohno, Junki; Nakai, Tsunehiro; Nomiya, Takao; Fujii, Miki; Fusegawa, Keiichi; Kinoshita, Kazuya; Hamada, Takakazu; Ikeda, Yoshinori

    2017-02-01

    Campylobacter spp. are zoonotic pathogens, however, knowledge about their presence and antimicrobial resistance in nonhuman primates is limited. Our animal facility purchased cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) from various Asian countries: China, Cambodia, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Vietnam. Colonization by Campylobacter spp. was investigated in 238 of the monkeys from 2009 to 2012 and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was carried out for these isolates. Furthermore, we eradicated these pathogens from these monkeys. Campylobacter spp. were isolated from 47 monkeys from three specific countries: China, Cambodia, and Indonesia, with respective isolation rates of 15%, 36%, and 67%. Two monkeys, which were each infected with Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli, showed clinical symptoms of diarrhea and bloody feces. In total, 41 isolates of C. coli and 17 isolates of C. jejuni were detected. Antimicrobial susceptibility varied: in the monkeys from China, erythromycin (ERY)-, tetracycline (TET)-, and ciprofloxacin-resistant C. coli, in the monkeys from Cambodia, amoxicillin-intermediate, TET- and ciprofloxacin-resistant C. coli and amoxicillin- and ciprofloxacin-resistant C. jejuni, and in the monkeys from Indonesia, ciprofloxacin-resistant C. coli and TET- and ciprofloxacin-resistant C. jejuni were common (>75%). Multiresistant isolates of C. coli were found in monkeys from all countries and multiresistant isolates of C. jejuni were found in monkeys from Indonesia. The eradication rate with azithromycin was comparable to that with gentamicin (GEN) by oral administration, and was higher than those with amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (AMC) and chloramphenicol (CHL). From the perspective of zoonosis, we should acknowledge multiresistant Campylobacter spp. isolated from the monkeys as a serious warning. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Local Ecological Knowledge about Endangered Primates in a Rural Community in Paraíba, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres Junior, Emanuel Ubaldino; Valença-Montenegro, Mônica Mafra; Castro, Carla Soraia Soares de

    2016-01-01

    The study of local ecological knowledge (LEK) fosters a better understanding of the relationship between humans and the environment. We assessed respondents' ecological knowledge of primates in a rural community located near the Atlantic Forest remnants in the state of Paraíba, Brazil. Populations of Alouatta belzebul (red-handed howler monkeys), Sapajus flavius (blonde capuchins), and Callithrix jacchus (the common marmoset) inhabit the region. We conducted 200 semi-structured interviews and applied thematic content analysis, with weighting, to the responses to quantify the LEK. Respondents showed a low LEK, despite the community's proximity to forest remnants. However, the LEK was significantly higher among men, as well as among those who had a greater degree of contact with the primates. Age did not influence LEK. The studied community apparently does not intensively exploit the forest resources nor does it economically depend on primates, which may explain these individuals' low levels of knowledge about these animals. Such data may support future studies, as well as environmental education and action plans, especially for A. belzebul and S. flavius, both of which are endangered species and targets of the National Action Plan for the Conservation of the Primates of the Northeast. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Natural infection by endoparasites among free-living wild animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holsback, Luciane; Cardoso, Mauro José Lahm; Fagnani, Rafael; Patelli, Thaís Helena Constantino

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the frequency of occurrence and variety of intestinal parasites among free-living wild animals. Fecal samples from wild mammals and birds at rehabilitation centers in the states of Mato Grosso do Sul and São Paulo were analyzed by sedimentation and flotation-centrifugation methods. Parasite eggs, oocysts, cysts and/or trophozoites were found in 71% of the samples. Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts were detected in fecal samples from oncillas (Leopardus tigrinus) and scaly-headed parrots (Pionus maximiliani). Giardia cysts were identified in the feces of a gray brocket (Mazama gouazoubira). Among the most common parasites found, there were eggs from Toxocara cati, Toxascaris leonina and Ancylostoma tubaeforme, and from Cestoda. Several Enterobius sp. eggs were found in the feces of red howler monkeys (Alouatta seniculus). It can be concluded from this study that despite the small number of samples, the diversity of parasites found was noteworthy. Additional information about parasite endofauna in wild animals is needed, since their presence might suggest that there could be proximity to and interactions with domestic animals and/or humans. In addition, further studies on parasites from free-living wild animals are of prime importance for understanding the intensity of anthropic changes in wild environments.

  4. Genome analysis of yellow fever virus of the ongoing outbreak in Brazil reveals polymorphisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrna C Bonaldo

    Full Text Available The current yellow fever outbreak in Brazil is the most severe one in the country in recent times. It has rapidly spread to areas where YF virus (YFV activity has not been observed for more than 70 years and vaccine coverage is almost null. Here, we sequenced the whole YFV genome of two naturally infected howler-monkeys (Alouatta clamitans obtained from the Municipality of Domingos Martins, state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. These two ongoing-outbreak genome sequences are identical. They clustered in the 1E sub-clade (South America genotype I along with the Brazilian and Venezuelan strains recently characterised from infections in humans and non-human primates that have been described in the last 20 years. However, we detected eight unique amino acid changes in the viral proteins, including the structural capsid protein (one change, and the components of the viral replicase complex, the NS3 (two changes and NS5 (five changes proteins, that could impact the capacity of viral infection in vertebrate and/or invertebrate hosts and spreading of the ongoing outbreak.

  5. The effect of environmental enrichment on the behavior of captive tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Kirsten R; Mikkelsen, L F; Hau, J

    2010-01-01

    The authors provided different forms of environmental enrichment to six old laboratory male tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) and studied the behavior of the monkeys during a baseline period and during three enrichment periods. Each observation period lasted 5 d, with an interval of 6 d betw...

  6. Nutritional analysis and intervention in the captive woolly monkey (Lagothric lagotricha)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ange-van Heugten, K.D.

    2008-01-01

    Woolly monkeys (Lagothrix ssp.) are a threatened species in the wild and are extremely difficult to breed and successfully maintain in captivity. The majority of health complications in woolly monkeys (WM) may be of nutritional origin. The objectives of this thesis were to: 1) determine the current

  7. Hemopoietic stem cells in rhesus monkeys : surface antigens, radiosensitivity, and responses to GM-CSF

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J. Wielenga (Jenne)

    1990-01-01

    textabstractRhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were bred at the Primate Center TNO, Rijswijk, The Netherlands!. Both male and female animals were used for the experiments. The monkeys weighed 2.5-4 kg and were 2-4 years old at the time of the experiment. They were all typed for RhLA-A, -B and -DR

  8. No effects of dioxin singly on limb malformations in macaque monkeys through epidemiological and treated studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asaoka, Kazuo; Iida, Hiroko [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Primate Research Insitute, Dept. of Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry; Watanabe, Kunio [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Primate Research Institute, Field Research Center; Goda, Hiroshi [Towa Kagaku Co., Ltd. (Japan); Ihara, Toshio; Nagata, Ryoichi [Shin Nippon Biomedical Laboratories, Ltd. (Japan). Safety Research Facility; Yasuda, Mineo [Hiroshima International Univ. (Japan). Fac. of Health Sciences, Dept. of Clinical Engineering; Kubata, Shunichiro [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Life Science, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences

    2004-09-15

    Human populations exposed with highly dioxin were suspected to be caused immunological dysfunctions, carcinogenesis, and developmental and reproductive dysfunctions. Because of species resemblances, the dioxin effects have been investigating using monkeys as a model for assessment of dioxin exposure on human health. Since 1957 the limb malformations of monkeys in Japan have been reported. The higher frequency of them was found in provisional groups of monkeys who were given the same kind of food for human. The chromosomal abnormalities are excluded from the factor for the congenital limb malformations that are still producing in Japan. In this study, the relations between dioxin and the limb malformations of macaque monkeys were estimated by the epidemiological and administered researches. The dioxin levels in monkeys were measured at two districts that one has the provisional groups including monkeys with limb malformations and the other has breeding groups never seeing the malformations for a long time. TEQ was calculated by the levels of dioxin isomers in the monkeys and the values show no difference between the two places and between the individuals with and without the limb malformations. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) was administered via subcutaneous to pregnant rhesus monkeys from the day 20 of gestation to the day 90 after birth. The exposed babies, including the offspring and died in neonatal, had observed normal limbs in the range of 30-300 ng TCDD /kg of body weight.

  9. Fecal and Salivary Cortisol Concentrations in Woolly (Lagothrix ssp. and Spider Monkeys (Ateles spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly D. Ange-van Heugten

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Detrimental physiological effects due to stressors can contribute to the low captive success of primates. The objective of this research was to investigate the potential impact of diet composition on cortisol concentrations in feces and saliva in woolly (n=27 and spider monkeys (n=61. The research was conducted in three studies: the first investigated spider monkeys in the United States, the second investigated spider monkeys within Europe, and the third investigated woolly monkeys within Europe. Fecal cortisol in spider monkeys in US zoos varied (P=.07 from 30 to 66 ng/g. The zoo with the highest fecal cortisol also had the highest salivary cortisol (P≤.05. For European zoos, fecal cortisol differed between zoos for both spider and woolly monkeys (P≤.05. Spider monkeys had higher fecal cortisol than woolly monkeys (P≤.05. Zoos with the highest dietary carbohydrates, sugars, glucose, and fruit had the highest cortisol. Cortisol was highest for zoos that did not meet crude protein requirements and fed the lowest percentage of complete feeds and crude fiber. Differences among zoos in housing and diets may increase animal stress. The lifespan and reproductive success of captive primates could improve if stressors are reduced and dietary nutrients optimized.

  10. Adequate mothering by partially isolated rhesus monkeys after observation of maternal care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dienske, H.; Vreeswijk, W. van; Koning, H.

    1980-01-01

    13 laboratory-born female monkeys were allowed to remain with their mothers for about 4 mo and were subsequently singly caged in rooms where they were able to see other monkeys. Ss that did not see mothers caring for their infants neglected their own firstborn. In contrast, Ss that were allowed to

  11. Assessing significant (> 30%) alopecia as a possible biomarker for stress in captive rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Melinda A.; Menard, Mark T.; El-Mallah, Saif N.; Rosenberg, Kendra; Lutz, Corrine K.; Worlein, Julie; Coleman, Kris; Meyer, Jerrold S.

    2016-01-01

    Hair loss is common in macaque colonies. Very little is known about the relationship between psychological stress and hair loss. We initially examined alopecia and hair cortisol concentrations in 198 (89 male) rhesus macaques from three primate centers and demonstrated replicability of our previous finding that extensive alopecia (> 30% hair loss) is associated with increased chronic cortisol concentrations and significantly affected by facility. A subset of these monkeys (142 of which 67 were males) were sampled twice approximately 8 months apart allowing us to examine the hypotheses that gaining hair should be associated with decreases in cortisol concentrations and vice versa. Hair loss was digitally scored using ImageJ software for the first sample. Then visual assessment was used to examine the second sample, resulting in 3 categories of coat condition: 1) monkeys that remained fully haired, 2) monkeys that remained alopecic (with more than 30% hair loss), or 3) monkeys that showed more than a 15% increase in hair. The sample size for the group that lost hair was too small to be analyzed. Consistent with our hypothesis, monkeys that gained hair showed a significant reduction in hair cortisol concentrations but this effect only held for females. Coat condition changed little across sampling periods with only 25 (11 male) monkeys showing a greater than 15% gain of hair. Twenty (7 male) monkeys remained alopecic, whereas 97 (49 males) remained fully haired. Hair cortisol was highly correlated across samples for the monkeys that retained their status (remained alopecic or retained their hair). PMID:27008590

  12. Aging, dominance history, and social behavior in Java-monkeys (Macaca fascicularis)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gispen, W.H.; Veenema, H.C.; Spruijt, B.M.; Vanhooff, J.A.R.A.M.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the dominance history of socially housed Java-monkeys on the aging process. In monkeys, social subordinance is generally associated with elevated levels of cortisol, which, in turn, have been suggested to influence cognitive decline. As

  13. Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Physiology and Cognitive Control of Behavior in Stress Inoculated Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Karen J.; Buckmaster, Christine L.; Lindley, Steven E.; Schatzberg, Alan F.; Lyons, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Monkeys exposed to stress inoculation protocols early in life subsequently exhibit diminished neurobiological responses to moderate psychological stressors and enhanced cognitive control of behavior during juvenile development compared to non-inoculated monkeys. The present experiments extended these findings and revealed that stress inoculated…

  14. Fixational Saccades and Their Relation to Fixation Instability in Strabismic Monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyaya, Suraj; Pullela, Mythri; Ramachandran, Santoshi; Adade, Samuel; Joshi, Anand C; Das, Vallabh E

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate the contribution of fixational saccades toward fixation instability in strabismic monkeys. Binocular eye movements were measured as six experimental monkeys (five strabismic monkeys and one monkey with downbeat nystagmus) and one normal monkey fixated targets of two shapes (Optotype, Disk) and two sizes (0.5°, 2°) during monocular and binocular viewing. Fixational saccades were detected using an unsupervised clustering algorithm. When compared with the normal monkey, amplitude and frequency of fixational saccades in both the viewing and nonviewing eye were greater in 3 of 5 strabismic monkeys (1-way ANOVA on ranks P saccades was largely due to quick phases of ongoing nystagmus. Fixational saccade amplitude was increased significantly (3-way ANOVA; P saccade amplitude and the Bivariate Contour Ellipse Area (BCEA) was nonlinear, showing saturation of saccade amplitude. Fixation instability in depth was significantly greater in strabismic monkeys (vergence BCEA: 0.63 deg2-2.15 deg2) compared with the normal animal (vergence BCEA: 0.15 deg2; P saccades. Target parameter effects on fixational saccades are similar to previous findings of target effects on BCEA.

  15. Recognizing Facial Cues: Individual Discrimination by Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, Lisa A.; Winslow, James T.; Hopkins, William D.; de Waal, Frans B. M.

    2007-01-01

    Faces are one of the most salient classes of stimuli involved in social communication. Three experiments compared face-recognition abilities in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). In the face-matching task, the chimpanzees matched identical photographs of conspecifics' faces on Trial 1, and the rhesus monkeys did the same after 4 generalization trials. In the individual-recognition task, the chimpanzees matched 2 different photographs of the same individual after 2 trials, and the rhesus monkeys generalized in fewer than 6 trials. The feature-masking task showed that the eyes were the most important cue for individual recognition. Thus, chimpanzees and rhesus monkeys are able to use facial cues to discriminate unfamiliar conspecifics. Although the rhesus monkeys required many trials to learn the tasks, this is not evidence that faces are not as important social stimuli for them as for the chimpanzees. PMID:10739311

  16. Memory of ordinal number categories in macaque monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlov, Tanya; Amit, Daniel J; Yakovlev, Volodya; Zohary, Ehud; Hochstein, Shaul

    2006-03-01

    What mechanism underlies serial order memory? Studying preverbal serial memory shows that macaque monkeys reproducing a sequence of items can acquire knowledge of item ordinal position. In our previous experiment, macaques were repeatedly presented with image lists (first shown sequentially and then simultaneously on a touch screen together with a distractor chosen randomly from other lists). The task was to touch list images in the correct order. The monkeys' natural tendency was to categorize images by their ordinal position or number because their most common error was touching the distractor when it had the same ordinal number (in its own list) as the correct image. Item-to-item associations were used to complete the categorization strategy. Proposing a dynamic image-salience hypothesis for serial recall (based on category-to-image influence and a salience computation for identifying touch targets), we now study the category label characteristics in the context of this hypothesis. We found that these category labels are absolute, ordinal-number-based categories (first, second, etc.), not relative memorized as relative distance from the beginning and the end of the list, and not based on fixed ranking of reward contingency/image familiarity. Even isolated from item-item associations, the categories demonstrate category tuning (as well as the corresponding overlap of adjacent ordinal number codes). Moreover, monkeys choose images by proximity of their category to the current touch number, irrespective of the accuracy of the preceding choice. Category tuning itself is symmetric relative to correct ordinal position, but is skewed by other factors (reward, etc.). Tuning width increases with list length, with a concurrent increased use of item-to-item associations for determining touch order.

  17. Intranasal oxytocin enhances socially-reinforced learning in rhesus monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa A Parr

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available There are currently no drugs approved for the treatment of social deficits associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASD. One hypothesis for these deficits is that individuals with ASD lack the motivation to attend to social cues because those cues are not implicitly rewarding. Therefore, any drug that could enhance the rewarding quality of social stimuli could have a profound impact on the treatment of ASD, and other social disorders. Oxytocin (OT is a neuropeptide that has been effective in enhancing social cognition and social reward in humans. The present study examined the ability of OT to selectively enhance learning after social compared to nonsocial reward in rhesus monkeys, an important species for modeling the neurobiology of social behavior in humans. Monkeys were required to learn an implicit visual matching task after receiving either intranasal (IN OT or Placebo (saline. Correct trials were rewarded with the presentation of positive and negative social (play faces/threat faces or nonsocial (banana/cage locks stimuli, plus food. Incorrect trials were not rewarded. Results demonstrated a strong effect of socially-reinforced learning, monkeys’ performed significantly better when reinforced with social versus nonsocial stimuli. Additionally, socially-reinforced learning was significantly better and occurred faster after IN-OT compared to placebo treatment. Performance in the IN-OT, but not Placebo, condition was also significantly better when the reinforcement stimuli were emotionally positive compared to negative facial expressions. These data support the hypothesis that OT may function to enhance prosocial behavior in primates by increasing the rewarding quality of emotionally positive, social compared to emotionally negative or nonsocial images. These data also support the use of the rhesus monkey as a model for exploring the neurobiological basis of social behavior and its impairment.

  18. Delay discounting of food and remifentanil in rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, David R; Gerak, Lisa R; France, Charles P

    2013-09-01

    Drug abuse can be conceptualized as choice between drug and nondrug reinforcers in which drug choice is excessive; factors impacting drug taking can be examined using procedures in which subjects choose between drug and an alternative reinforcer. This experiment examined the effects of delayed reinforcement on choice between food and the mu-opioid receptor agonist remifentanil. Rhesus monkeys responded under a concurrent fixed-ratio 5, fixed-ratio 5 schedule in which responding on one lever delivered one food pellet and responding on another lever delivered an i.v. infusion. With no delay, monkeys responded predominantly for food rather than saline or small doses of remifentanil; as the dose of remifentanil increased (0.1-1.0 μg/kg/infusion), monkeys responded more for drug. Delaying delivery (30-240 s) of 0.32 and not 1.0 μg/kg/infusion of remifentanil (food delivered immediately) decreased responding for drug and increased responding for food, resulting in a rightward shift in the remifentanil dose-effect curve. Delaying delivery of food (60-240 s) when doses of remifentanil smaller than 0.32 μg/kg/infusion (but not saline) were available decreased responding for food and increased responding for drug, resulting in a leftward shift in the remifentanil dose-effect curve. These results provide evidence that delaying the delivery of a mu-opioid receptor agonist reduces its potency as a positive reinforcer; more importantly, delaying the delivery of an alternative nondrug reinforcer (e.g., food) enhances the reinforcing potency of the agonist. Thus, understanding the factors that control substance abuse requires examination of contingencies for both drug and nondrug reinforcers.

  19. Functional imaging reveals numerous fields in the monkey auditory cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher I Petkov

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Anatomical studies propose that the primate auditory cortex contains more fields than have actually been functionally confirmed or described. Spatially resolved functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI with carefully designed acoustical stimulation could be ideally suited to extend our understanding of the processing within these fields. However, after numerous experiments in humans, many auditory fields remain poorly characterized. Imaging the macaque monkey is of particular interest as these species have a richer set of anatomical and neurophysiological data to clarify the source of the imaged activity. We functionally mapped the auditory cortex of behaving and of anesthetized macaque monkeys with high resolution fMRI. By optimizing our imaging and stimulation procedures, we obtained robust activity throughout auditory cortex using tonal and band-passed noise sounds. Then, by varying the frequency content of the sounds, spatially specific activity patterns were observed over this region. As a result, the activity patterns could be assigned to many auditory cortical fields, including those whose functional properties were previously undescribed. The results provide an extensive functional tessellation of the macaque auditory cortex and suggest that 11 fields contain neurons tuned for the frequency of sounds. This study provides functional support for a model where three fields in primary auditory cortex are surrounded by eight neighboring "belt" fields in non-primary auditory cortex. The findings can now guide neurophysiological recordings in the monkey to expand our understanding of the processing within these fields. Additionally, this work will improve fMRI investigations of the human auditory cortex.

  20. Traditions in Spider Monkeys Are Biased towards the Social Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santorelli, Claire J.; Schaffner, Colleen M.; Campbell, Christina J.; Notman, Hugh; Pavelka, Mary S.; Weghorst, Jennifer A.; Aureli, Filippo

    2011-01-01

    Cross-site comparison studies of behavioral variation can provide evidence for traditions in wild species once ecological and genetic factors are excluded as causes for cross-site differences. These studies ensure behavior variants are considered within the context of a species' ecology and evolutionary adaptations. We examined wide-scale geographic variation in the behavior of spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) across five long-term field sites in Central America using a well established ethnographic cross-site survey method. Spider monkeys possess a relatively rare social system with a high degree of fission-fusion dynamics, also typical of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and humans (Homo sapiens). From the initial 62 behaviors surveyed 65% failed to meet the necessary criteria for traditions. The remaining 22 behaviors showed cross-site variation in occurrence ranging from absent through to customary, representing to our knowledge, the first documented cases of traditions in this taxon and only the second case of multiple traditions in a New World monkey species. Of the 22 behavioral variants recorded across all sites, on average 57% occurred in the social domain, 19% in food-related domains and 24% in other domains. This social bias contrasts with the food-related bias reported in great ape cross-site comparison studies and has implications for the evolution of human culture. No pattern of geographical radiation was found in relation to distance across sites. Our findings promote A. geoffroyi as a model species to investigate traditions with field and captive based experiments and emphasize the importance of the social domain for the study of animal traditions. PMID:21373196

  1. Functional organization of monkey brain for abstract operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obayashi, Shigeru; Matsumoto, Ryohei; Suhara, Tetsuya; Nagai, Yuji; Iriki, Atsushi; Maeda, Jun

    2007-04-01

    When humans manipulate a control device under operational rules, with the goal of indirectly controlling a remote tool to achieve a desired outcome, they may rely on the power of internal representation to organize individual moves of the controller and tool into a set of sequences by mapping the motor space among hand, controller and tool. We recently used functional brain imaging (PET) to investigate activations in monkey brain associated with joystick-controlled remote operation of a shovel to obtain food. Activated areas included the prefrontal cortex, posterior parietal cortex and cerebellum, regardless of the rules relating movements of the joystick to those of the shovel (Obayashi et al., 2004). If those areas are engaged in the mental manipulation of internal representation, then we should expect brain activity in the same regions during any similar remote operation, even with different controllers and/or operational rules. To address the above hypothesis in the current study, we used PET to measure regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) of two monkeys during a task in which they were required to control a shovel remotely (to fetch a food pellet) by manipulating dual dials. Compared to unplanned movement of the dials, the active dual-dial operation was associated with robust activation of the prefrontal cortex, higher-order motor cortex, posterior parietal cortex and cerebellum, quite similar to that observed during remote operation with a joystick. The present study suggests that monkeys might be able to organize abstract sequential operations according to learned rules, and perhaps indeed to have insight into the nature of the causal relationships, implying the existence of a relatively sophisticated system of internal representation in the absence of language. The fact that the present results are consistent with our previous PET studies strengthens the view that the underlying mechanism for implicit manipulation of internal representations may involve a

  2. Short parietal lobe connections of the human and monkey brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Catani, Marco; Robertsson, Naianna; Beyh, Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    The parietal lobe has a unique place in the human brain. Anatomically, it is at the crossroad between the frontal, occipital, and temporal lobes, thus providing a middle ground for multimodal sensory integration. Functionally, it supports higher cognitive functions that are characteristic...... in the medial and lateral aspects of the parietal lobe were identified in both species. A tract connecting the medial parietal cortex to the lateral inferior parietal cortex was observed in the monkey brain only. Our findings suggest a consistent pattern of intralobar parietal connections between humans...

  3. Coding of Border Ownership in Monkey Visual Cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Hong; Friedman, Howard S.; von der Heydt, Rüdiger

    2000-01-01

    Areas V1 and V2 of the visual cortex have traditionally been conceived as stages of local feature representations. We investigated whether neural responses carry information about how local features belong to objects. Single-cell activity was recorded in areas V1, V2, and V4 of awake behaving monkeys. Displays were used in which the same local feature (contrast edge or line) could be presented as part of different figures. For example, the same light–dark edge could be the left side of a dark...

  4. [Heart functions in monkeys during a 2-week antiorthostatic hypokinesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krotov, V. P.; Convertino, V.; Korol'kov, V. I.; Latham, R.; Trambovetskii, E. V.; Fanton, J.; Crisman, R.; Truzhennikov, A. N.; Evert, D.; Nosovskii, A. M.; hide

    1996-01-01

    Dynamics of the left heart ventricular muscle contractility and compliance was studied in 4 monkeys in the head down position (antiorthostatic hypokinesia) with the body angle 10 during 2 weeks. Functional tests on a tilt table and under two conditions of centrifuge rotation were performed prior to and after the antiorthostatic hypokinesia. No changes in the left heart ventricular muscle contractility was found. However, the sensitivity level of the baroreflex control decreased. Compliance of the left heart myocardial fibre increased in the first hours and days of the antiorthostatic hypokinesia.

  5. Latanoprost-Eluting Contact Lenses in Glaucomatous Monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciolino, Joseph B; Ross, Amy E; Tulsan, Rehka; Watts, Amy C; Wang, Rong-Fang; Zurakowski, David; Serle, Janet B; Kohane, Daniel S

    2016-10-01

    To assess the ability of latanoprost-eluting contact lenses to lower the intraocular pressure (IOP) of glaucomatous eyes of cynomolgus monkeys. Preclinical efficacy study of 3 treatment arms in a crossover design. Female cynomolgus monkeys with glaucoma induced in 1 eye by repeated argon laser trabeculoplasty. Latanoprost-eluting low-dose contact lenses (CLLO) and high-dose contact lenses (CLHI) were produced by encapsulating a thin latanoprost-polymer film within the periphery of a methafilcon hydrogel, which was lathed into a contact lens. We assessed the IOP-lowering effect of CLLO, CLHI, or daily latanoprost ophthalmic solution in the same monkeys. Each monkey consecutively received 1 week of continuous-wear CLLO, 3 weeks without treatment, 5 days of latanoprost drops, 3 weeks without treatment, and 1 week of continuous-wear CLHI. On 2 consecutive days before initiation of each study arm, the IOP was measured hourly over 7 consecutive hours to establish the baseline IOP. Two-tailed Student t tests and repeated-measures analysis of variance were used for statistical analysis. Intraocular pressure. Latanoprost ophthalmic solution resulted in IOP reduction of 5.4±1.0 mmHg on day 3 and peak IOP reduction of 6.6±1.3 mmHg on day 5. The CLLO reduced IOP by 6.3±1.0, 6.7±0.3, and 6.7±0.3 mmHg on days 3, 5, and 8, respectively. The CLHI lowered IOP by 10.5±1.4, 11.1±4.0, and 10.0±2.5 mmHg on days 3, 5, and 8, respectively. For the CLLO and CLHI, the IOP was statistically significantly reduced compared with the untreated baseline at most time points measured. The CLHI demonstrated greater IOP reduction than latanoprost ophthalmic solution on day 3 (P = 0.001) and day 5 (P = 0.015), and at several time points on day 8 (P contact lenses is at least as effective as delivery with daily latanoprost ophthalmic solution. More research is needed to determine the optimal continuous-release dose that would be well tolerated and maximally effective. Contact lens drug

  6. Viral vector-based reversible neuronal inactivation and behavioral manipulation in the macaque monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Kristina J; Callaway, Edward M; Krauzlis, Richard J

    2012-01-01

    Viral vectors are promising tools for the dissection of neural circuits. In principle, they can manipulate neurons at a level of specificity not otherwise achievable. While many studies have used viral vector-based approaches in the rodent brain, only a few have employed this technique in the non-human primate, despite the importance of this animal model for neuroscience research. Here, we report evidence that a viral vector-based approach can be used to manipulate a monkey's behavior in a task. For this purpose, we used the allatostatin receptor/allatostatin (AlstR/AL) system, which has previously been shown to allow inactivation of neurons in vivo. The AlstR was expressed in neurons in monkey V1 by injection of an adeno-associated virus 1 (AAV1) vector. Two monkeys were trained in a detection task, in which they had to make a saccade to a faint peripheral target. Injection of AL caused a retinotopic deficit in the detection task in one monkey. Specifically, the monkey showed marked impairment for detection targets placed at the visual field location represented at the virus injection site, but not for targets shown elsewhere. We confirmed that these deficits indeed were due to the interaction of AlstR and AL by injecting saline, or AL at a V1 location without AlstR expression. Post-mortem histology confirmed AlstR expression in this monkey. We failed to replicate the behavioral results in a second monkey, as AL injection did not impair the second monkey's performance in the detection task. However, post-mortem histology revealed a very low level of AlstR expression in this monkey. Our results demonstrate that viral vector-based approaches can produce effects strong enough to influence a monkey's performance in a behavioral task, supporting the further development of this approach for studying how neuronal circuits control complex behaviors in non-human primates.

  7. Behavioral Determinants of Cannabinoid Self-Administration in Old World Monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, William S; Martin, Thomas J; Nader, Michael A

    2017-06-01

    Reinforcing effects of Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the primary active ingredient in marijuana, as assessed with self-administration (SA), has only been established in New World primates (squirrel monkeys). The objective of this study was to investigate some experimental factors that may enhance intravenous SA of THC and the cannabinoid receptor (CBR) agonist CP 55 940 in Old World monkeys (rhesus and cynomolgus), a species that has been used extensively in biomedical research. In one experiment, male rhesus monkeys (N=9) were trained to respond under a fixed-ratio 10 schedule of food presentation. The effects of CP 55 940 (1.0-10 μg/kg, i.v.) and THC (3.0-300 μg/kg, i.v.) on food-maintained responding and body temperature were determined in these subjects prior to giving them access to self-administer each drug. Both drugs dose-dependently decreased food-maintained responding. CP 55 940 (0.001-3.0 μg/kg) functioned as a reinforcer in three monkeys, whereas THC (0.01-10 μg/kg) did not have reinforcing effects in any subject. CP 55 940 was least potent to decrease food-maintained responding in the monkeys in which CP 55 940 functioned as a reinforcer. Next, THC was administered daily to monkeys until tolerance developed to rate-decreasing effects. When THC SA was reexamined, it functioned as a reinforcer in three monkeys. In a group of cocaine-experienced male cynomolgus monkeys (N=4), THC SA was examined under a second-order schedule of reinforcement; THC functioned as reinforcer in two monkeys. These data suggest that SA of CBR agonists may be relatively independent of their rate-decreasing effects in Old World monkeys. Understanding individual differences in vulnerability to THC SA may lead to novel treatment strategies for marijuana abuse.

  8. Looking ahead? Computerized maze task performance by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella), and human children (Homo sapiens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, Michael J; Parrish, Audrey E; Futch, Sara E; Evans, Theodore A; Perdue, Bonnie M

    2015-05-01

    Human and nonhuman primates are not mentally constrained to the present. They can remember the past and-at least to an extent-anticipate the future. Anticipation of the future ranges from long-term prospection such as planning for retirement to more short-term future-oriented cognition such as planning a route through a maze. Here we tested a great ape species (chimpanzees), an Old World monkey species (rhesus macaques), a New World monkey species (capuchin monkeys), and human children on a computerized maze task. All subjects had to move a cursor through a maze to reach a goal at the bottom of the screen. For best performance on the task, subjects had to "plan ahead" to the end of the maze to move the cursor in the correct direction, avoid traps, and reverse directions if necessary. Mazes varied in difficulty. Chimpanzees were better than both monkey species, and monkeys showed a particular deficit when moving away from the goal or changing directions was required. Children showed a similar pattern to monkeys regarding the effects of reversals and moves away from the goal, but their overall performance in terms of correct maze completion was similar to the chimpanzees. The results highlight similarities as well as differences in planning across species and the role that inhibitory control may play in future-oriented cognition in primates. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Differential habitat utilization by patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas) and tantalus monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops tantalus) living sympatrically in northern Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, N

    1999-11-01

    In order to obtain reliable evidence for differences in habitat preferences between two closely related savanna-dwelling primate species, namely, patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas) and tantalus monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops tantalus), I collected data on vegetation and patterns of range use concurrently at a single study site, Kala Maloue, Cameroon, in a similar manner for a group of each species. Kala Maloue consisted of 64% grassland mostly dominated by Gramineae spp. and the rest was woodland. Tantalus monkeys showed preference for woodland, especially gallery forest, much more than did the patas irrespective of the season. Moreover, patas preferentially established their home range in grassland in the wet season. Interspecific and seasonal differences in habitat preferences could be interpreted on the basis of interspecific and seasonal differences in preferences for main food. In dry season, tantalus utilized water-containing areas at a frequency closely in proportion to the availability of such areas while the patas utilized water-containing areas more frequently than expected. This is because tantalus established a smaller home range along the river where water was never completely depleted throughout the dry season. Both the patas and the tantalus preferred woodland to grassland as sleeping sites possibly owing to predation avoidance. Both the daily travel distance per group weight and the home range size per group weight were greater for patas than for tantalus partly because of higher preference for grassland with low habitat quality in the case of patas. It is suggested, however, that high locomotive ability enabled patas to effectively utilize small and widely dispersed items of food such as grasshoppers and to explore areas with high availability of food and water and with preferable sleeping sites.

  10. Monkey Viperin Restricts Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Replication.

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    Jianyu Fang

    Full Text Available Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV is an important pathogen which causes huge economic damage globally in the swine industry. Current vaccination strategies provide only limited protection against PRRSV infection. Viperin is an interferon (IFN stimulated protein that inhibits some virus infections via IFN-dependent or IFN-independent pathways. However, the role of viperin in PRRSV infection is not well understood. In this study, we cloned the full-length monkey viperin (mViperin complementary DNA (cDNA from IFN-α-treated African green monkey Marc-145 cells. It was found that the mViperin is up-regulated following PRRSV infection in Marc-145 cells along with elevated IRF-1 gene levels. IFN-α induced mViperin expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner and strongly inhibits PRRSV replication in Marc-145 cells. Overexpression of mViperin suppresses PRRSV replication by blocking the early steps of PRRSV entry and genome replication and translation but not inhibiting assembly and release. And mViperin co-localized with PRRSV GP5 and N protein, but only interacted with N protein in distinct cytoplasmic loci. Furthermore, it was found that the 13-16 amino acids of mViperin were essential for inhibiting PRRSV replication, by disrupting the distribution of mViperin protein from the granular distribution to a homogeneous distribution in the cytoplasm. These results could be helpful in the future development of novel antiviral therapies against PRRSV infection.

  11. Prediction suppression and surprise enhancement in monkey inferotemporal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Suchitra; Meyer, Travis; Olson, Carl R

    2017-07-01

    Exposing monkeys, over the course of days and weeks, to pairs of images presented in fixed sequence, so that each leading image becomes a predictor for the corresponding trailing image, affects neuronal visual responsiveness in area TE. At the end of the training period, neurons respond relatively weakly to a trailing image when it appears in a trained sequence and, thus, confirms prediction, whereas they respond relatively strongly to the same image when it appears in an untrained sequence and, thus, violates prediction. This effect could arise from prediction suppression (reduced firing in response to the occurrence of a probable event) or surprise enhancement (elevated firing in response to the omission of a probable event). To identify its cause, we compared firing under the prediction-confirming and prediction-violating conditions to firing under a prediction-neutral condition. The results provide strong evidence for prediction suppression and limited evidence for surprise enhancement.NEW & NOTEWORTHY In predictive coding models of the visual system, neurons carry signed prediction error signals. We show here that monkey inferotemporal neurons exhibit prediction-modulated firing, as posited by these models, but that the signal is unsigned. The response to a prediction-confirming image is suppressed, and the response to a prediction-violating image may be enhanced. These results are better explained by a model in which the visual system emphasizes unpredicted events than by a predictive coding model. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  12. Color discrimination in the tufted capuchin monkey, Sapajus spp.

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    Paulo Roney Kilpp Goulart

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated the efficacy of an adapted version of the Mollon-Reffin test for the behavioral investigation of color vision in capuchin monkeys. Ten tufted capuchin monkeys (Sapajus spp., formerly referred to as Cebus apella had their DNA analyzed and were characterized as the following: one trichromat female, seven deuteranope dichromats (six males and one female, and two protanope males, one of which was identified as an "ML protanope." For their behavioral characterization, all of the subjects were tested at three regions of the Commission International de l'Eclairage (CIE 1976 u'v' diagram, with each test consisting of 20 chromatic variation vectors that were radially distributed around the chromaticity point set as the test background. The phenotypes inferred from the behavioral data were in complete agreement with those predicted from the genetic analysis, with the threshold distribution clearly differentiating between trichromats and dichromats and the estimated confusion lines characteristically converging for deuteranopes and the "classic" protanope. The discrimination pattern of the ML protanope was intermediate between protan and deutan, with confusion lines horizontally oriented and parallel to each other. The observed phenotypic differentiation confirmed the efficacy of the Mollon-Reffin test paradigm as a useful tool for evaluating color discrimination in nonhuman primates. Especially noteworthy was the demonstration of behavioral segregation between the "classic" and "ML" protanopes, suggesting identifiable behavioral consequences of even slight variations in the spectral sensitivity of M/L photopigments in dichromats.

  13. Color Discrimination in the Tufted Capuchin Monkey, Sapajus spp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulart, Paulo Roney Kilpp; Bonci, Daniela Maria Oliveira; Galvão, Olavo de Faria; Silveira, Luiz Carlos de Lima; Ventura, Dora Fix

    2013-01-01

    The present study evaluated the efficacy of an adapted version of the Mollon-Reffin test for the behavioral investigation of color vision in capuchin monkeys. Ten tufted capuchin monkeys (Sapajus spp., formerly referred to as Cebus apella) had their DNA analyzed and were characterized as the following: one trichromat female, seven deuteranope dichromats (six males and one female), and two protanope males, one of which was identified as an “ML protanope.” For their behavioral characterization, all of the subjects were tested at three regions of the Commission International de l'Eclairage (CIE) 1976 u′v′ diagram, with each test consisting of 20 chromatic variation vectors that were radially distributed around the chromaticity point set as the test background. The phenotypes inferred from the behavioral data were in complete agreement with those predicted from the genetic analysis, with the threshold distribution clearly differentiating between trichromats and dichromats and the estimated confusion lines characteristically converging for deuteranopes and the “classic” protanope. The discrimination pattern of the ML protanope was intermediate between protan and deutan, with confusion lines horizontally oriented and parallel to each other. The observed phenotypic differentiation confirmed the efficacy of the Mollon-Reffin test paradigm as a useful tool for evaluating color discrimination in nonhuman primates. Especially noteworthy was the demonstration of behavioral segregation between the “classic” and “ML” protanopes, suggesting identifiable behavioral consequences of even slight variations in the spectral sensitivity of M/L photopigments in dichromats. PMID:23620819

  14. Meaningful gesture in monkeys? Investigating whether mandrills create social culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark E Laidre

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human societies exhibit a rich array of gestures with cultural origins. Often these gestures are found exclusively in local populations, where their meaning has been crafted by a community into a shared convention. In nonhuman primates like African monkeys, little evidence exists for such culturally-conventionalized gestures. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here I report a striking gesture unique to a single community of mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx among nineteen studied across North America, Africa, and Europe. The gesture was found within a community of 23 mandrills where individuals old and young, female and male covered their eyes with their hands for periods which could exceed 30 min, often while simultaneously raising their elbow prominently into the air. This 'Eye covering' gesture has been performed within the community for a decade, enduring deaths, removals, and births, and it persists into the present. Differential responses to Eye covering versus controls suggested that the gesture might have a locally-respected meaning, potentially functioning over a distance to inhibit interruptions as a 'do not disturb' sign operates. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The creation of this gesture by monkeys suggests that the ability to cultivate shared meanings using novel manual acts may be distributed more broadly beyond the human species. Although logistically difficult with primates, the translocation of gesturers between communities remains critical to experimentally establishing the possible cultural origin and transmission of nonhuman gestures.

  15. Fluoxetine Administration in Juvenile Monkeys: Implications for Pharmacotherapy in Children

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    Mari S. Golub

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Fluoxetine therapy has been approved for children with major depressive disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder for over 14 years and has expanded to other childhood behavior disorders. As use increases, more detail on fluoxetine effects during juvenile brain development can help maintain safe and effective use of this therapy. Here, a narrative review is provided of previously published findings from a large nonhuman primate project. Fluoxetine was administered to juvenile male rhesus monkeys for an extended period (2 years prior to puberty. Compared to controls, treated monkeys showed sleep disruption, facilitated social interaction, greater impulsivity, and impaired sustained attention during treatment. No effects on growth were seen. Metabolomics assays characterized a distinctive response to fluoxetine and demonstrated individual differences that were related to the impulsivity measure. Fluoxetine interactions with monoamine oxidase A polymorphisms that influenced behavior and metabolomics markers were an important, previously unrecognized finding of our studies. After treatment was discontinued, some behavioral effects persisted, but short-term memory and cognitive flexibility testing did not show drug effects. This detailed experimental work can contribute to clinical research and continued safe and effective fluoxetine pharmacotherapy in children.

  16. LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT. The developmental dynamics of marmoset monkey vocal production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, D Y; Fenley, A R; Teramoto, Y; Narayanan, D Z; Borjon, J I; Holmes, P; Ghazanfar, A A

    2015-08-14

    Human vocal development occurs through two parallel interactive processes that transform infant cries into more mature vocalizations, such as cooing sounds and babbling. First, natural categories of sounds change as the vocal apparatus matures. Second, parental vocal feedback sensitizes infants to certain features of those sounds, and the sounds are modified accordingly. Paradoxically, our closest living ancestors, nonhuman primates, are thought to undergo few or no production-related acoustic changes during development, and any such changes are thought to be impervious to social feedback. Using early and dense sampling, quantitative tracking of acoustic changes, and biomechanical modeling, we showed that vocalizations in infant marmoset monkeys undergo dramatic changes that cannot be solely attributed to simple consequences of growth. Using parental interaction experiments, we found that contingent parental feedback influences the rate of vocal development. These findings overturn decades-old ideas about primate vocalizations and show that marmoset monkeys are a compelling model system for early vocal development in humans. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  17. Are monkeys able to plan for future exchange?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourjade, Marie; Thierry, Bernard; Call, Josep; Dufour, Valérie

    2012-09-01

    Whether or not non-human animals can plan for the future is a hotly debated issue. We investigate this question further and use a planning-to-exchange task to study future planning in the cooperative domain in two species of monkeys: the brown capuchin (Cebus apella) and the Tonkean macaque (Macaca tonkeana). The rationale required subjects to plan for a future opportunity to exchange tokens for food by collecting tokens several minutes in advance. Subjects who successfully planned for the exchange task were expected to select suitable tokens during a collection period (5/10 min), save them for a fixed period of time (20/30 min), then take them into an adjacent compartment and exchange them for food with an experimenter. Monkeys mostly failed to transport tokens when entering the testing compartment; hence, they do not seem able to plan for a future exchange with a human partner. Three subjects did however manage to solve the task several times, albeit at very low rates. They brought the correct version of three possible token types, but rarely transported more than one suitable token at a time. Given that the frequency of token manipulation predicted transport, success might have occurred by chance. This was not the case, however, since in most cases subjects were not already holding the token in their hands before they entered the testing compartment. Instead, these results may reflect subjects' strengths and weaknesses in their time-related comprehension of the task.

  18. Contextual factors explain risk-seeking preferences in rhesus monkeys

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    Sarah eHeilbronner

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to humans and most other animals, rhesus macaques strongly prefer risky rewards to safe ones with similar expected value. Why macaques prefer risk while other animals typically avoid it remains puzzling and challenges the idea that monkeys provide a model for human economic behavior. Here we argue that monkeys’ risk-seeking preferences are neither mysterious nor unique. Risk-seeking in macaques is possibly induced by specific elements of the tasks that have been used to measure their risk preferences. The most important of these elements are (1 very small stakes, (2 serially repeated gambles with short delays between trials, and (3 task parameters that are learned through experience, not described verbally. Together, we hypothesize that these features will readily induce risk-seeking in monkeys, humans, and rats. Thus, elements of task design that are often ignored when comparing studies of risk attitudes can easily overwhelm basal risk preferences. More broadly, these results highlight the fundamental importance of understanding the psychological basis of economic decisions in interpreting preference data and corresponding neural measures.

  19. Aeromonas simiae sp. nov., isolated from monkey faeces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harf-Monteil, Colette; Flèche, Anne Le; Riegel, Philippe; Prévost, Gilles; Bermond, Delphine; Grimont, Patrick A D; Monteil, Henri

    2004-03-01

    Two Aeromonas strains, IBS S6874(T) and IBS S6652, were isolated from the faeces of two healthy monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) from Mauritius that were kept in quarantine in the Centre for Primatology, Strasbourg, France. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the two isolates formed an unknown genetic lineage within the genus Aeromonas. The two isolates had nearly identical sequences (0.1 % nucleotide substitution) that were related closely to those of recognized Aeromonas species (1.7-3.5 % nucleotide substitution). DNA-DNA hybridization showed that strains IBS S6874(T) and IBS S6652 had high DNA-DNA similarity (89 %) to each other and a low level of DNA-DNA similarity to closely related taxa (18 % relatedness to Aeromonas trota and 16 % relatedness to Aeromonas schubertii). Phenotypically, the two monkey isolates differed from most previously described mesophilic Aeromonas species by their lack of haemolysis on sheep-blood agar and inability to produce indole, gas from glucose or acid from mannitol. They differed from the most closely related species, A. schubertii, by their ability to produce acid from D-cellobiose and D-sucrose and by their pyrazinamidase activity. The name Aeromonas simiae sp. nov. is proposed for these isolates; strain IBS S6874(T) (=CIP 107798(T)=CCUG 47378(T)) is the type strain.

  20. Development of sensitivity to visual texture modulation in macaque monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shamayleh, Yasmine; Movshon, J Anthony; Kiorpes, Lynne

    2010-09-10

    In human and non-human primates, higher form vision matures substantially later than spatial acuity and contrast sensitivity, as revealed by performance on such tasks as figure-ground segregation and contour integration. Our goal was to understand whether delayed maturation on these tasks was intrinsically form-dependent or, rather, related to the nature of spatial integration necessary for extracting task-relevant cues. We used an intermediate-level form task that did not call for extensive spatial integration. We trained monkeys (6-201 weeks) to discriminate the orientation of pattern modulation in a two-alternative forced choice paradigm. We presented two families of form patterns, defined by texture or contrast variations, and luminance-defined patterns for comparison. Infant monkeys could discriminate texture- and contrast-defined form as early as 6 weeks; sensitivity improved up to 40 weeks. Surprisingly, sensitivity for texture- and contrast-defined form matured earlier than for luminance-defined form. These results suggest that intermediate-level form vision develops in concert with basic spatial vision rather than following sequentially. Comparison with earlier results reveals that different aspects of form vision develop over different time courses, with processes that depend on comparing local image content maturing earlier than those requiring "global" linking of multiple visual elements across a larger spatial extent.

  1. A yellow fever epizootic in Zika Forest, Uganda, during 1972: Part 2: Monkey serology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirya, B G; Okia, N O

    1977-01-01

    During the 1972 yellow fever epizootic in Zika Forest, Uganda, sera from 21 monkeys shot in a number of forests around the Entebbe area were tested for the presence of a number of arbovirus antibodies. All sera were tested for antibodies against Chikungunya (CHIK), O'nyong-nyong (ONN), Zika, yellow fever (YF) West Nile (WN) and Wesselsbron (WESS) by the haemagglutination-inhibition (HI) test. Because of the crossreaction within the flaviviruses (group B arboviruses) mouse protection test (PT) was also carried out on the sera against YF, WESS and Zika viruses. Serological studies carried out on monkey sera from different parts of Uganda, including the Entebbe area, during 1968 gave results which reflected a surprisingly low rate of YF immune monkeys (3%) throughout the country compared with the rate of over 40% immune monkeys obtained by Haddow et al. in 1951. 40% of the monkey sera collected during 1972 were immune to YF by the PT. Since no YF virus had been isolated between 1968 and 1972 the results indicate strongly that the monkeys in the Entebbe area were involved in the epizootic of 1972. No sick or dead monkeys were found in all the forests checked around Entebbe area during the epizootic. This indicates that the animal-to-animal cycle of the equatorial African forests involved the mild endemic infection characteristic of a virus in its natural habitat and infecting its natural host.

  2. Sporadic premature aging in a Japanese monkey: a primate model for progeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takao Oishi

    Full Text Available In our institute, we have recently found a child Japanese monkey who is characterized by deep wrinkles of the skin and cataract of bilateral eyes. Numbers of analyses were performed to identify symptoms representing different aspects of aging. In this monkey, the cell cycle of fibroblasts at early passage was significantly extended as compared to a normal control. Moreover, both the appearance of senescent cells and the deficiency in DNA repair were observed. Also, pathological examination showed that this monkey has poikiloderma with superficial telangiectasia, and biochemical assay confirmed that levels of HbA1c and urinary hyaluronan were higher than those of other (child, adult, and aged monkey groups. Of particular interest was that our MRI analysis revealed expansion of the cerebral sulci and lateral ventricles probably due to shrinkage of the cerebral cortex and the hippocampus. In addition, the conduction velocity of a peripheral sensory but not motor nerve was lower than in adult and child monkeys, and as low as in aged monkeys. However, we could not detect any individual-unique mutations of known genes responsible for major progeroid syndromes. The present results indicate that the monkey suffers from a kind of progeria that is not necessarily typical to human progeroid syndromes.

  3. Lactobacillus and Pediococcus species richness and relative abundance in the vagina of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravett, Michael G; Jin, Ling; Pavlova, Sylvia I; Tao, Lin

    2012-06-01

    The rhesus monkey is an important animal model to study human vaginal health to which lactic acid bacteria play a significant role. However, the vaginal lactic acid bacterial species richness and relative abundance in rhesus monkeys is largely unknown. Vaginal swab samples were aseptically obtained from 200 reproductive-aged female rhesus monkeys. Following Rogosa agar plating, single bacterial colonies representing different morphotypes were isolated and analyzed for whole-cell protein profile, species-specific polymerase chain reaction, and 16S rRNA gene sequence.   A total of 510 Lactobacillus strains of 17 species and one Pediococcus acidilactici were identified. The most abundant species was Lactobacillus reuteri, which colonized the vaginas of 86% monkeys. Lactobacillus johnsonii was the second most abundant species, which colonized 36% of monkeys. The majority of monkeys were colonized by multiple Lactobacillus species. The vaginas of rhesus monkeys are frequently colonized by multiple Lactobacillus species, dominated by L. reuteri. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  4. Isolation and amino acid sequences of squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciurea) insulin and glucagon

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    Yu, Jinghua (Veterans Administration Medical Center, Bronx, NY (United States)); Eng, J.; Yalow, R.S. (Veterans Administration Medical Center, Bronx, NY (United States) City Univ. of New York, NY (United States))

    1990-12-01

    It was reported two decades ago that insulin was not detectable in the glucose-stimulated state in Saimiri sciurea, the New World squirrel monkey, by a radioimmunoassay system developed with guinea pig anti-pork insulin antibody and labeled park insulin. With the same system, reasonable levels were observed in rhesus monkeys and chimpanzees. This suggested that New World monkeys, like the New World hystricomorph rodents such as the guinea pig and the coypu, might have insulins whose sequences differ markedly from those of Old World mammals. In this report the authors describe the purification and amino acid sequences of squirrel monkey insulin and glucagon. They demonstrate that the substitutions at B29, B27, A2, A4, and A17 of squirrel monkey insulin are identical with those previously found in another New World primate, the owl monkey (Aotus trivirgatus). The immunologic cross-reactivity of this insulin in their immunoassay system is only a few percent of that of human insulin. It appears that the peptides of the New World monkeys have diverged less from those of the Old World mammals than have those of the New World hystricomorph rodents. The striking improvements in peptide purification and sequencing have the potential for adding new information concerning the evolutionary divergence of species.

  5. Reproduction and sera embryotoxicity after immunization of monkeys with the laminin peptides YIGSR, RGD, and IKVAV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, B J; Klein, N W; Conrad, S H; Ruppenthal, G C; Sackett, G P; Weeks, B S; Kleinman, H K

    1995-01-01

    Monkeys with excellent reproductive histories were immunized with the laminin peptides YIGSR, RGD, IKVAV, and YD, a control sequence with no known biological function. Sera from the YIGSR-immunized monkey became toxic, causing neural tube defects in whole rat embryo cultures, and this monkey experienced fetal loss after immunization. Sera from the RGD-immunized monkey also became embryotoxic in culture after immunization, but this monkey appeared to become infertile as she failed to initiate a pregnancy for at least 2 years after immunization. In contrast, embryos cultured on sera from the IKVAV- or YD-immunized monkeys were predominantly normal and both monkeys completed successful pregnancies. Antibody levels to the respective peptides or to laminin were not predictive of embryotoxicity, but antibody binding to homogenized yolk sacs as well as to yolk sacs of cultured embryos was associated with sera embryotoxicity and reproductive outcomes in vivo. These observations suggested that the laminin sequences YIGSR and RGD may play a role in immune-mediated reproductive failure by reacting directly with embryonic tissue and could provide a basis for identifying individuals at risk for both spontaneous abortion and infertility. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:7624326

  6. Sex differences in rhesus monkey toy preferences parallel those of children.

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    Hassett, Janice M; Siebert, Erin R; Wallen, Kim

    2008-08-01

    Sex differences in toy preferences in children are marked, with boys expressing stronger and more rigid toy preferences than girls, whose preferences are more flexible. Socialization processes, parents, or peers encouraging play with gender-specific toys are thought to be the primary force shaping sex differences in toy preference. A contrast in view is that toy preferences reflect biologically-determined preferences for specific activities facilitated by specific toys. Sex differences in juvenile activities, such as rough-and-tumble play, peer preferences, and infant interest, share similarities in humans and monkeys. Thus if activity preferences shape toy preferences, male and female monkeys may show toy preferences similar to those seen in boys and girls. We compared the interactions of 34 rhesus monkeys, living within a 135 monkey troop, with human wheeled toys and plush toys. Male monkeys, like boys, showed consistent and strong preferences for wheeled toys, while female monkeys, like girls, showed greater variability in preferences. Thus, the magnitude of preference for wheeled over plush toys differed significantly between males and females. The similarities to human findings demonstrate that such preferences can develop without explicit gendered socialization. We offer the hypothesis that toy preferences reflect hormonally influenced behavioral and cognitive biases which are sculpted by social processes into the sex differences seen in monkeys and humans.

  7. Lack of prosociality in great apes, capuchin monkeys and spider monkeys: convergent evidence from two different food distribution tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amici, Federica; Visalberghi, Elisabetta; Call, Josep

    2014-10-22

    Prosociality can be defined as any behaviour performed to alleviate the needs of others or to improve their welfare. Prosociality has probably played an essential role in the evolution of cooperative behaviour and several studies have already investigated it in primates to understand the evolutionary origins of human prosociality. Two main tasks have been used to test prosociality in a food context. In the Platforms task, subjects can prosocially provide food to a partner by selecting a prosocial platform over a selfish one. In the Tokens task, subjects can prosocially provide food to a partner by selecting a prosocial token over a selfish one. As these tasks have provided mixed results, we used both tasks to test prosociality in great apes, capuchin monkeys and spider monkeys. Our results provided no compelling evidence of prosociality in a food context in any of the species tested. Additionally, our study revealed serious limitations of the Tokens task as it has been previously used. These results highlight the importance of controlling for confounding variables and of using multiple tasks to address inconsistencies present in the literature. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  8. Social Status in Monkeys: Effects of Social Confrontation on Brain Function and Cocaine Self-Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Robert W; Czoty, Paul W; Porrino, Linda J; Nader, Michael A

    2017-04-01

    Individual differences in response to social stress and environmental enrichment may contribute to variability in response to behavioral and pharmacological treatments for drug addiction. In monkeys, social status influences the reinforcing effects of cocaine and the effects of some drugs on cocaine self-administration. In this study, we used male cynomolgus macaques (n=15) living in established social groups to examine the effects of social confrontation on the reinforcing effects of cocaine using a food-drug choice procedure. On the test day, a dominant or subordinate monkey was removed from his homecage and placed into another social pen; 30 min later he was studied in a cocaine-food choice paradigm. For the group, following social confrontation, sensitivity to cocaine reinforcement was significantly greater in subordinate monkeys compared with dominant animals. Examining individual-subject data revealed that for the majority of monkeys (9/15), serving as an intruder in another social group affected cocaine self-administration and these effects were dependent on the social rank of the monkey. For subordinate monkeys, sensitivity to the reinforcing effects of cocaine increased while sensitivity decreased in dominant monkeys. To investigate potential mechanisms mediating these effects, brain glucose metabolism was studied in a subset of monkeys (n=8) using [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose ([18F]FDG) with positron emission tomography. Dominant and subordinate monkeys displayed distinctly different patterns of brain glucose metabolism in their homecage, including areas associated with vigilance and stress/anxiety, respectively, and during social confrontation. These data demonstrate that, depending on an individual's social status, the same social experience can have divergent effects on brain function and cocaine self-administration. These phenotypic differences in response to social conditions support a personalized treatment approach to cocaine addiction.

  9. Interactions between Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol and mu opioid receptor agonists in rhesus monkeys: discrimination and antinociception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun-Xu; McMahon, Lance R; Gerak, Lisa R; Becker, Ginger L; France, Charles P

    2008-08-01

    Opioid receptor agonists can enhance some effects of cannabinoid receptor agonists, and cannabinoid receptor agonists can enhance some effects of opioid receptor agonists; however, the generality of these interactions is not established. This study examined interactions between the discriminative stimulus and antinociceptive effects of mu opioid receptor agonists and Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in rhesus monkeys. Neither heroin nor morphine (intravenous (i.v.) or subcutaneous (s.c.)) altered the discriminative stimulus effects of THC in monkeys (n = 5) discriminating 0.1 mg/kg THC i.v. In contrast, THC (s.c.) markedly attenuated the discriminative stimulus effect of morphine and heroin in nondependent monkeys (n = 4) discriminating 1.78 mg/kg morphine s.c. Doses of THC that attenuated the discriminative stimulus effects of morphine in nondependent monkeys failed to modify the discriminative stimulus effects of morphine in morphine-dependent (5.6 mg/kg/12 h) monkeys (n = 4) discriminating 0.0178 mg/kg naltrexone s.c. THC also failed to modify the discriminative stimulus effects of naltrexone in morphine-dependent monkeys or the effects of midazolam in monkeys (n = 4) discriminating 0.32 mg/kg midazolam s.c. Doses of THC (s.c.) that attenuated the discriminative stimulus effects of morphine in nondependent monkeys enhanced the antinociceptive effects of morphine (s.c.) in nondependent monkeys. While mu receptor agonists did not alter the discriminative stimulus effects of THC, THC altered the effects of mu receptor agonists in a context-dependent manner. That the same doses of THC enhance, attenuate, or do not affect morphine, depending on the condition, suggests that attenuation of morphine by THC can result from perceptual masking rather than common pharmacodynamic mechanisms or pharmacokinetic interactions.

  10. Pharmacokinetics of the cephalosporin SM-1652 in mice, rats, rabbits, dogs, and rhesus monkeys.

    OpenAIRE

    Matsui, H; Yano, K; Okuda, T

    1982-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of SM-1652 were studied in mice, rats, rabbits, dogs, and rhesus monkeys. The plasma half-lives of SM-1652, administered intravenously at a dose of 20 mg/kg, were 11.0 min in mice, 26.0 min in rats, 65.8 min in rabbits, 72.6 min in dogs, and 150.9 min in monkeys. The 24-h urinary excretion of SM-1652 was 30 to 35% of the dose in mice and rats, 70 to 75% in rabbits and dogs, and 45% in monkeys. Biliary excretion of the antibiotic over a 24-h period was 60 and 19% in rats a...

  11. Drusenoid maculopathy in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta): Effects of age and gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivert, Lena; Landauer, Noelle; Mattison, Julie A; Ingram, Donald K; Neuringer, Martha

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To compare drusenoid maculopathy in monkeys with human age-related macular degeneration and evaluate the influence of age, gender and caloric restriction. Methods Examination by indirect ophthalmoscopy, slit lamp biomicroscopy and fundus photography, including in some cases fluorescein angiography, was performed on 61 male and 60 female rhesus macaques of ages 10-39 years. Fifty-four of the monkeys were maintained on a calorically restricted diet (approximately 30% lower than control levels) and 67 on an approximately ad libitum diet for 2-19 years, with all other environmental factors held constant. Maculopathies were graded on a 5-point scale and the effects of age, sex, and diet on prevalence and severity were examined. The retinas of 6 monkeys with macular drusen, 19-28 years old, were examined histologically. Results Rhesus monkeys showed a high prevalence (61 %) of drusenoid maculopathy. The prevalence and severity of the maculopathy increased with age (p =0.012). Fully half of all monkeys aged 10-12 years had some detectable degree of drusen. This high prevalence in young adulthood indicates that drusen develop much earlier in rhesus monkeys than in humans, who develop early maculopathy most rapidly at 50-60 years of age, even when correcting for the 3-fold difference in lifespan. No neovascularization or geographic atrophy was found. Females had a higher prevalence and severity than males (p=0.019). Calorically restricted monkeys had a slightly lower prevalence and severity at 10-12 years than controls, but the difference was not statistically significant. This is an on-going project and differences between the caloric restricted and ad-lib groups may emerge as the animals age. Some monkeys developed severe maculopathy in their 20s with others unaffected in their 30s. The histology of drusen resembled those in human retina. Conclusion Drusenoid maculopathy is common in rhesus monkeys even in young adult life. Half of the rhesus monkeys examined have

  12. Photoacoustic detection of functional responses in the motor cortex of awake behaving monkey during forelimb movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Janggun; Zhang, Hongyu; Cheney, Paul D.; Yang, Xinmai

    2012-11-01

    Photoacoustic (PA) imaging was applied to detect the neuronal activity in the motor cortex of an awake, behaving monkey during forelimb movement. An adult macaque monkey was trained to perform a reach-to-grasp task while PA images were acquired through a 30-mm diameter implanted cranial chamber. Increased PA signal amplitude results from an increase in regional blood volume and is interpreted as increased neuronal activity. Additionally, depth-resolved PA signals enabled the study of functional responses in deep cortical areas. The results demonstrate the feasibility of utilizing PA imaging for studies of functional activation of cerebral cortex in awake monkeys performing behavioral tasks.

  13. [Epizootic hepatitis A among African green monkeys kept in a vivarium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andzhaparidze, A G; Karetnyĭ, Iu V; Korzaia, L I; Balaian, M S; Titova, I P

    1989-01-01

    The results of observations on the pattern of spread of hepatitis A virus and immune response to it in African green monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops) kept in the animal house are presented. The infection in the monkeys was found to be characterized by all virological, serological, and biochemical parameters inherent in hepatitis A virus. The results indicated that hepatitis A in monkeys may run both asymptomatic and clinically manifest course, and the spread of infection in the animal house sequentially involves most seronegative animals into the epidemic process.

  14. Cardiac arrhythmias induced by chloral hydrate in rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Pengfei; Song, Haibo; Yang, Pingliang; Xie, Huiqi; Kang, Y James

    2011-06-01

    Chloral hydrate has been long used as a safe sedative and hypnotic drug in humans. However, reports on its cardiovascular adverse effects have been published from time to time. The present study was undertaken to use Rhesus monkeys as a model to define the dose regiment of chloral hydrate at which cardiac arrhythmias can be induced and the consequences of the cardiac events. Male Rhesus monkeys of 2-3 years old were intravenously infused with chloral hydrate starting at 50 mg/kg with an increasing increment of 25 mg/kg until the occurrence of cardiac arrhythmias. In addition, a traditional up-and-down dosing procedure was applied to define a single dose level at which cardiac arrhythmias can be induced. The data obtained showed that when the sequentially escaladed dose reached 125 mg/kg, cardiac arrhythmias occurred in all monkeys tested. The single effective dose to cause cardiac arrhythmias calculated from the crossover analysis was 143 ± 4 mg/kg. This value would be equivalent to 68.6 ± 1.9 mg/kg for children and 46.4 ± 1.3 mg/kg for adults in humans. Under either multiple or single dose condition, cardiac arrhythmias did not occur before 40 min after the onset of anesthesia induced by chloral hydrate. Cardiac arrhythmias were recovered without help at the end of the anesthesia in most cases, but also continued after the regain of consciousness in some cases. The cardiac arrhythmias were accompanied with compromised cardiac function including suppressed fractional shortening and ejection fraction. This study thus suggests that cautions need to be taken when chloral hydrate is used above certain levels and beyond a certain period of anesthesia, and cardiac arrhythmias induced by chloral hydrate need to be closely monitored because compromised cardiac function may occur simultaneously. In addition, patients with cardiac arrhythmias induced by chloral hydrate should be monitored even after they are recovered from the anesthesia.

  15. Peripapillary Scleral Thickness in Perfusion-Fixed Normal Monkey Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, J. Crawford; Blidner, Richard A.; Bellezza, Anthony J.; Thompson, Hilary W.; Hart, Richard T.; Burgoyne, Claude F.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To characterize the thickness of the peripapillary sclera in perfusion-fixed normal monkey eyes so as to build accurate computational models of intraocular pressure (IOP)-related stress and strain within these tissues. Methods Nine rhesus monkeys were perfusion fixed, each with one normal eye set to an IOP of 10 mm Hg by manometer. A 6-mm-diameter specimen containing the optic nerve head and peripapillary sclera was trephined from each scleral shell and cut into 4-μm serial sagittal sections across the scleral canal opening, either horizontally (four eyes) or vertically (five eyes). The thickness of the peripapillary sclera was measured on every 24th section at 100-μm intervals from the posterior scleral canal opening (PSCO) to the peripheral edge of the specimen. The data were pooled by quadrant (superior, inferior, nasal, and temporal), regions within each quadrant, and distance from the PSCO, overall and for individual eyes, and subjected to analysis of variance. Results In terms of distance from the PSCO, the peripapillary sclera was thinnest nearest the PSCO (201 μm, nasal; 201 μm, temporal; 240 μm, inferior; 249 μm, superior), thickened progressively to a maximum in the midperiphery approximately 600 to 1000 μm from the PSCO (326 μm, nasal; 415 μm, superior; 420 μm, temporal; 422 μm, inferior), and thinned again peripherally in all quadrants. The peripapillary sclera was thinner in the nasal quadrant when compared with the other quadrants superiorly, inferiorly, and temporally (central region means of 291 μm, nasal; 369 μm, superior; 372 μm, inferior; and 369 μm, temporal; P < 0.0001). Conclusions In the normal monkey eye, peripapillary scleral thickness varies significantly with distance from the posterior scleral canal opening and is thinner in the nasal quadrant than in the other quadrants. These differences are substantial and are likely to affect the magnitude of IOP-related stress and strain within these tissues for a given level

  16. Statistical learning of visual transitions in monkey inferotemporal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Travis; Olson, Carl R

    2011-11-29

    One of the most fundamental functions of the brain is to predict upcoming events on the basis of the recent past. A closely related function is to signal when a prediction has been violated. The identity of the brain regions that mediate these functions is not known. We set out to determine whether they are implemented at the level of single neurons in the visual system. We gave monkeys prolonged exposure to pairs of images presented in fixed sequence so that each leading image became a strong predictor for the corresponding trailing image. We then monitored the responses of neurons in the inferotemporal cortex to image sequences that obeyed or violated the transitional rules imposed during training. Inferotemporal neurons exhibited a transitional surprise effect, responding much more strongly to unpredicted transitions than to predicted transitions. Thus, neurons even in the visual system make experience-based predictions and react when they fail.

  17. Dyscoria associated with herpesvirus infection in owl monkeys (Aotus nancymae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gozalo, Alfonso S.; Montoya, Enrique J.; Weller, Richard E.

    2008-08-16

    Abstract Dyscoria was observed in a female owl monkey and her two offspring. A third offspring was found dead with necrohemorrhagic encephalitis. Two males paired with the female died, one of which showed oral ulcers at necropsy. Histologic examination of the oral ulcers revealed syncytia and eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies in epithelial cells. Ocular examination revealed posterior synechia associated with the dyscoria in all three animals. Serum samples from the female and her offspring were positive for Herpesvirus simplex antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The clinical history, gross and microscopic lesions, and serology results suggests a herpesviral etiology, possibly, H. simplex or H. saimiri-1. This report underscores the risks associated with introducing animals into breeding or research colonies that were previously kept as pets or those from unknown origin that could carry asymptomatic pathogenic Herpesvirus infections. In addition, herpesviral infection should be considered among the differential diagnoses if dyscoria is observed in nonhuman primates.

  18. Temporal discounting and inter-temporal choice in rhesus monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaewon Hwang

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Humans and animals are more likely to take an action leading to an immediate reward than actions with delayed rewards of similar magnitudes. Although such devaluation of delayed rewards has been almost universally described by hyperbolic discount functions, the rate of this temporal discounting varies substantially among different animal species. This might be in part due to the differences in how the information about reward is presented to decision makers. In previous animal studies, reward delays or magnitudes were gradually adjusted across trials, so the animals learned the properties of future rewards from the rewards they waited for and consumed previously. In contrast, verbal cues have been used commonly in human studies. In the present study, rhesus monkeys were trained in a novel inter-temporal choice task in which the magnitude and delay of reward were indicated symbolically using visual cues and varied randomly across trials. We found that monkeys could extract the information about reward delays from visual symbols regardless of the number of symbols used to indicate the delay. The rate of temporal discounting observed in the present study was comparable to the previous estimates in other mammals, and the animal’s choice behavior was largely consistent with hyperbolic discounting. Our results also suggest that the rate of temporal discounting might be influenced by contextual factors, such as the novelty of the task. The flexibility furnished by this new inter-temporal choice task might be useful for future neurobiological investigations on inter-temporal choice in non-human primates.

  19. Video-task acquisition in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): a comparative analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, W. D.; Washburn, D. A.; Hyatt, C. W.; Rumbaugh, D. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    This study describes video-task acquisition in two nonhuman primate species. The subjects were seven rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and seven chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). All subjects were trained to manipulate a joystick which controlled a cursor displayed on a computer monitor. Two criterion levels were used: one based on conceptual knowledge of the task and one based on motor performance. Chimpanzees and rhesus monkeys attained criterion in a comparable number of trials using a conceptually based criterion. However, using a criterion based on motor performance, chimpanzees reached criterion significantly faster than rhesus monkeys. Analysis of error patterns and latency indicated that the rhesus monkeys had a larger asymmetry in response bias and were significantly slower in responding than the chimpanzees. The results are discussed in terms of the relation between object manipulation skills and video-task acquisition.

  20. Prevalence of Balantidium coli Infection in Bred Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta in Guangxi, southern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Long Li

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Balantidium coli infects humans, primates and pigs, causing serious diarrhea and dysentery. Little information on the prevalence of B. coli in primates is available in China. This investigation was conducted to determine the prevalence of B. coli infection in bred rhesus monkeys in Guangxi Zhuang Nationality Autonomous Region (GZNAR, southern China.A total of 120 fecal samples were collected from rhesus monkeys bred in cages in GZNAR and B. coli cysts and/or trophozoites were examined microscopically after sedimentation with water in May 2013.(64.2% samples were tested positive. The prevalence was 65% (39/60 and 63.3% (38/60 in female and male monkeys, respectively. 80% (48/60 cages in this nonhuman primate center were positive for B. coli.The present survey revealed high circulation of B. coli in bred rhesus monkeys in GZNAR, which poses potential threats to animal and human health.

  1. Prevalence of Balantidium coli Infection in Bred Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta) in Guangxi, southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hai Long; Li, Qian; Dong, Ling; Li, Juan; Zou, Feng Cai; Zhang, Li

    2014-03-01

    Balantidium coli infects humans, primates and pigs, causing serious diarrhea and dysentery. Little information on the prevalence of B. coli in primates is available in China. This investigation was conducted to determine the prevalence of B. coli infection in bred rhesus monkeys in Guangxi Zhuang Nationality Autonomous Region (GZNAR), southern China. A total of 120 fecal samples were collected from rhesus monkeys bred in cages in GZNAR and B. coli cysts and/or trophozoites were examined microscopically after sedimentation with water in May 2013. (64.2%) samples were tested positive. The prevalence was 65% (39/60) and 63.3% (38/60) in female and male monkeys, respectively. 80% (48/60) cages in this nonhuman primate center were positive for B. coli. The present survey revealed high circulation of B. coli in bred rhesus monkeys in GZNAR, which poses potential threats to animal and human health.

  2. Effects of a novel fentanyl derivative on drug discrimination and learning in rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerak, L R; Moerschbaecher, J M; Bagley, J R; Brockunier, L L; France, C P

    1999-10-01

    Three monkeys discriminated 1.78 mg/kg of mirfentanil while responding under a fixed-ratio 5 schedule of stimulus-shock termination. Two mirfentanil derivatives, OHM3295 and OHM10579, substituted for mirfentanil in all subjects. However, other drugs produced variable effects among monkeys; for example, mu and kappa opioid agonists and clonidine substituted for mirfentanil on some occasions in two monkeys. Cocaine, amphetamine, and ketamine did not substitute in any subject. Opioid antagonists did not attenuate the effects of mirfentanil. In monkeys responding under a repeated acquisition and performance procedure, errors increased only during the acquisition phase at doses of mirfentanil that decreased response rates. Thus, unlike fentanyl, the discriminative stimulus effects of mirfentanil do not appear to be mediated exclusively through opioid receptors. Finally, mirfentanil does not appear to disrupt complex behavioral processes.

  3. Effects of Head-down Tilt on Nerve Conduction in Rhesus Monkeys

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bo Sun Xiao-Yun Zhang Li-Zhi Liu Zhao-Hui Chen Zhong-Quan Dai Xu-Sheng Huang

    2017-01-01

    ...) comprises an experimental model used to simulate the space flight environment. This study investigated nerve conduction characteristics of rhesus monkeys before and alter prolonged exposure to H DT. Methods...

  4. Genetic diversity and distinctiveness of the proboscis monkeys (Nasalis larvatus) of the Klias Peninsula, Sabah, Malaysia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Munshi-South, Jason; Bernard, Henry

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we sequenced a partial segment of the mitochondrial control region from 21 proboscis monkeys of the Klias peninsula, the last large population remaining on the west coast of Sabah, Malaysia...

  5. Reduction on OFF-responses of Electroretinogram in Monkeys with Long-term High Intraocular Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke-Gao Liu

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: Reduced OFF-responses are recorded in monkeys with high IOP when dysfunction of photoreceptor is involved. The reduced OFF-responses to long-flash stimulus show evidence of anomalous retinal circuitry in glaucomatous retinopathy.

  6. Protective efficacy of multiple vaccine platforms against Zika virus challenge in rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbink, Peter; Larocca, Rafael A; De La Barrera, Rafael A; Bricault, Christine A; Moseley, Edward T; Boyd, Michael; Kirilova, Marinela; Li, Zhenfeng; Ng'ang'a, David; Nanayakkara, Ovini; Nityanandam, Ramya; Mercado, Noe B; Borducchi, Erica N; Agarwal, Arshi; Brinkman, Amanda L; Cabral, Crystal; Chandrashekar, Abishek; Giglio, Patricia B; Jetton, David; Jimenez, Jessica; Lee, Benjamin C; Mojta, Shanell; Molloy, Katherine; Shetty, Mayuri; Neubauer, George H; Stephenson, Kathryn E; Peron, Jean Pierre S; Zanotto, Paolo M de A; Misamore, Johnathan; Finneyfrock, Brad; Lewis, Mark G; Alter, Galit; Modjarrad, Kayvon; Jarman, Richard G; Eckels, Kenneth H; Michael, Nelson L; Thomas, Stephen J; Barouch, Dan H

    2016-09-09

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is responsible for a major ongoing epidemic in the Americas and has been causally associated with fetal microcephaly. The development of a safe and effective ZIKV vaccine is therefore an urgent global health priority. Here we demonstrate that three different vaccine platforms protect against ZIKV challenge in rhesus monkeys. A purified inactivated virus vaccine induced ZIKV-specific neutralizing antibodies and completely protected monkeys against ZIKV strains from both Brazil and Puerto Rico. Purified immunoglobulin from vaccinated monkeys also conferred passive protection in adoptive transfer studies. A plasmid DNA vaccine and a single-shot recombinant rhesus adenovirus serotype 52 vector vaccine, both expressing ZIKV premembrane and envelope, also elicited neutralizing antibodies and completely protected monkeys against ZIKV challenge. These data support the rapid clinical development of ZIKV vaccines for humans. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  7. Limited Susceptibility of Cynomolgus Monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) to Leprosy after Experimental Administration of Mycobacterium leprae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Gerald P.; Dela Cruz, Eduardo C.; Abalos, Rodolfo M.; Tan, Esterlina V.; Fajardo, Tranquilino T.; Villahermosa, Laarni G.; Cellona, Roland V.; Balagon, Maria V.; White, Valerie A.; Saunderson, Paul R.; Walsh, Douglas S.

    2012-01-01

    Cynomolgus monkeys are a useful model for human tuberculosis, but susceptibility to M. leprae is unknown. A cynomolgus model of leprosy could increase understanding of pathogenesis—importantly, neuritis and nerve-damaging reactions. We administered viable Mycobacterium leprae to 24 cynomolgus monkeys by three routes, with a median follow-up period of 6 years (range = 1–19 years) involving biopsies, nasal smears, antiphenolic glycolipid-1 (PGL-1) antibody serology, and lepromin skin testing. Most developed evanescent papules at intradermal M. leprae inoculation sites that, on biopsy, showed a robust cellular immune response akin to a lepromin skin test reaction; many produced PGL-1 antibodies. At necropsy, four monkeys, without cutaneous or gross neurological signs of leprosy but with elevated PGL-1 antibodies, including three with nasal smears (+) for acid fast bacilli (AFB), showed histological features, including AFB, suggestive of leprosy at several sites. Overall, however, cynomolgus monkeys seem minimally susceptible to leprosy after experimental M. leprae administration. PMID:22855766

  8. Evaluating self-generated decisions in frontal pole cortex of monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimoto, Satoshi; Genovesio, Aldo; Wise, Steven P

    2010-01-01

    The frontal pole cortex (FPC) expanded markedly during human evolution, but its function remains uncertain in both monkeys and humans. Accordingly, we examined single-cell activity in this area. On every trial, monkeys decided between two response targets on the basis of a 'stay' or 'shift' cue. Feedback followed at a fixed delay. FPC cells did not encode the monkeys' decisions when they were made, but did so later on, as feedback approached. This finding indicates that the FPC is involved in monitoring or evaluating decisions. Using a control task and delayed feedback, we found that decision coding lasted until feedback only when the monkeys combined working memory with sensory cues to 'self-generate' decisions, as opposed to when they simply followed trial-by-trial instructions. A role in monitoring or evaluating self-generated decisions could account for FPC's expansion during human evolution.

  9. Discriminative stimulus effects of flumazenil in untreated and in diazepam-treated rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerak, L R; France, C P

    1999-10-01

    Long-term use of benzodiazepine agonists can have adverse effects (e.g., development of dependence), thereby limiting their clinical usefulness. The goal of the current study was to examine the discriminative stimulus effects of flumazenil in untreated and diazepam-treated monkeys to determine whether this type of procedure could be used to examine benzodiazepine dependence. Flumazenil (0.32 mg/kg s.c.) was established as a discriminative stimulus in eight monkeys receiving 5.6 mg/kg/day of diazepam (p.o.); four responded under a fixed ratio (FR)5 schedule of stimulus-shock termination (SST) and four responded under a FR5 schedule of food presentation. For comparison, 1.0 mg/kg flumazenil (s.c.) was established as a discriminative stimulus in four untreated monkeys responding under a FR5 schedule of SST. Flumazenil dose-dependently increased responding on the flumazenil-appropriate lever in all monkeys. In diazepam-treated monkeys, Ro 15-4513, ethyl beta-carboline-3-carboxylate and bretazenil substituted for flumazenil with pentylenetetrazole substituting in some monkeys; other drugs failed to substitute for flumazenil. Acute administration of 10.0 mg/kg diazepam (s.c.) shifted the flumazenil dose-effect curve threefold to the right of the control dose-effect curve. Temporary suspension of diazepam treatment produced a time-related increase in flumazenil-lever responding that was reversed by diazepam. In untreated monkeys, midazolam substituted for flumazenil, with other drugs, including those with primary mechanisms of action at non-gamma-aminobutyric acid(A) receptors, substituting in some monkeys. Ro 15-4513 did not substitute in any untreated monkey. The flumazenil discriminative stimulus appears to be pharmacologically selective in treated monkeys with only negative and low efficacy positive modulators substituting for flumazenil; in contrast, a variety of drugs substitute for flumazenil in untreated monkeys. This apparent difference in selectivity suggests

  10. Nástroje pro náhodné testování (Monkey testing)

    OpenAIRE

    Espinoza, Victor

    2010-01-01

    This bachelor thesis focuses on explaining the term Monkey testing and its usage in a field of software development. The first chapter presents principal ideas about testing and we get familiar with testing in general. In the next part we familiarize with particular types of testing and with the role of testing during software development. Following part of this thesis introduces test automation its advantages and risks. Next chapter is about monkey testing which may be considered as a subgro...

  11. The effects of fur rubbing on the social behavior of tufted capuchin monkeys

    OpenAIRE

    Paukner, Annika; Suomi, Stephen J.

    2008-01-01

    Fur rubbing has often been attributed a social as well as a medicinal function in capuchin monkeys, yet to date there have been no studies investigating the effects of fur rubbing on subsequent group dynamics. Here we report for the first time how social group cohesion is affected by fur rubbing in tufted capuchin monkeys. Fifteen captive capuchins were each observed 6 times for 45 minutes, three times following the provision of materials typically used for fur rubbing (onion) and three times...

  12. Foraging density for squirrel monkey Saimiri sciureus in two forests in Puerto Lopez - Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Astwood R, Jorge; Rodríguez P, José; Rodríguez-C, Karen

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACTObjective. Forest remnants were analyzed to determine the density of squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) and the degree of alteration of the forest, by selecting areas for the conservation and maintenance of the species in natural environments. Materials and methods. Linear transects were conducted on two wooden fragments, “La Reforma” and “Campo Hermoso” farms (Puerto Lopez, Meta, Colombia), recording sightings of squirrel monkeys and identifying the tree species used by the primates...

  13. Chlorpheniramine as a Prophylaxis to Radiation-Induced Performance Decrement in the Monkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effectiveness of the antihistamine chlorpheniramine maleate in preventing the early performance decrement in monkeys following a supralethal dose... chlorpheniramine and were performance tested 24 hours prior to irradiation. These five animals and 10 additional animals were then injected with 10 mg of... chlorpheniramine at 60 minutes and at 30 minutes before irradiation. The monkeys were tested and their performance was recorded for 2 hours following a 4000

  14. Investigation of anti-motion sickness drugs in the squirrel monkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, B. S.; Money, K. E.; Kohl, R. L.; Kinter, L. B.

    1992-01-01

    Early attempts to develop an animal model for anti-motion sickness drugs, using dogs and cats; were unsuccessful. Dogs did not show a beneficial effect of scopolamine (probably the best single anti-motion sickness drug for humans thus far) and the findings in cats were not definitive. The authors have developed an animal model using the squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus) of the Bolivian phenotype. Unrestrained monkeys in a small lucite cage were tested in an apparatus that induces motion sickness by combining vertical oscillation and horizontal rotation in a visually unrestricted laboratory environment. Signs of motion sickness were scored using a rating scale. Ten susceptible monkeys (weighing 800-1000 g) were given a total of five tests each, to establish the baseline susceptibility level. Based on the anticholinergic activity of scopolamine, the sensitivity of squirrel monkey to scopolamine was investigated, and the appropriate dose of scopolamine for this species was determined. Then various anti-motion sickness preparations were administered in subsequent tests: 100 ug scopolamine per monkey; 140 ug dexedrine; 50 ug scopolamine plus 70 ug dexedrine; 100 ug scopolamine plus 140 ug dexedrine; 3 mg promethazine; 3 mg promethazine plus 3 mg ephedrine. All these preparations were significantly effective in preventing motion sickness in the monkeys. Ephedrine, by itself, which is marginally effective in humans, was ineffective in the monkeys at the doses tried (0.3-6.0 mg). The squirrel monkey appears to be a good animal model for antimotion sickness drugs. Peripherally acting antihistamines such as astemizole and terfenadine were found to be ineffective, whereas flunarizine, and an arginine vasopressin V1 antagonist, showed significant activity in preventing motion sickness.

  15. What do Diana monkeys know about the focus of attention of a conspecific?

    OpenAIRE

    Scerif, Gaia; Gómez, Juan Carlos; Byrne, RW

    2004-01-01

    Converging experimental and observational evidence suggests that some non-human primates are able to co-orient with shifts in visual attention, both of conspecifics and humans. However, the underlying cognitive mechanisms involved are unclear. To investigate attention-following in Diana monkeys (Cercopithecus diana diana), we used photographs of familiar conspecifics orienting towards one of two locations. A subject monkey was shown a photograph, and shortly afterwards a toy appeared at one l...

  16. Induction of arthritis in monkeys by immunization with type II collagen

    OpenAIRE

    1988-01-01

    Immunization of two cynomolugus and three rhesus monkeys with purified type II collagen resulted in the development of polyarthritis. Arthritis first became clinically apparent 7 wk after primary immunization and persisted for 16 mo. Radiologic examination of the limbs demonstrated soft tissue swelling with severe joint destruction including loss of cartilage and bone. Involved joints eventually became ankylosed with permanent loss of some motion. All of the monkeys developed a response to th...

  17. Sleep patterns in male juvenile monkeys influenced by gestational iron deprivation and MAOA genotype

    OpenAIRE

    Golub, Mari S.; Hogrefe, Casey E.

    2014-01-01

    Individual differences in sleep patterns of children may have developmental origins. Here, two factors known to influence behavioral development, monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) genotype and prenatal iron deficiency, were examined for their influences on sleep in juvenile rhesus monkeys. Sleep was assessed based on a threshold for inactivity as recorded by activity monitors. Pregnant monkeys were fed diets containing either 100 ppm Fe (iron sufficient) or 10 ppm Fe (iron deficient). At 3-4 months ...

  18. Clinical biochemical aspects of glutaminase toxicity in rabbits and Rhesus monkeys.

    OpenAIRE

    Hambleton, P.; Benbough, J. E.; Baskerville, A.; Harris-Smith, P. W.

    1980-01-01

    Treatment with a chemically modified glutaminase was lethal to rabbits and Rhesus monkeys at all but the lowest doses. Changes in the serum levels of triglycerides, glucose, creatinine, urea, cholesterol and protein and in the activities of some serum enzymes were the probable result of the development of lesions in liver, kidney and intestine observed at necropsy. Treatment with unmodified glutaminase induced similar changes in rabbits but not in Rhesus monkeys.

  19. Synchronized practice helps bearded capuchin monkeys learn to extend attention while learning a tradition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragaszy, Dorothy M; Eshchar, Yonat; Visalberghi, Elisabetta; Resende, Briseida; Laity, Kellie; Izar, Patrícia

    2017-07-24

    Culture extends biology in that the setting of development shapes the traditions that individuals learn, and over time, traditions evolve as occasional variations are learned by others. In humans, interactions with others impact the development of cognitive processes, such as sustained attention, that shape how individuals learn as well as what they learn. Thus, learning itself is impacted by culture. Here, we explore how social partners might shape the development of psychological processes impacting learning a tradition. We studied bearded capuchin monkeys learning a traditional tool-using skill, cracking nuts using stone hammers. Young monkeys practice components of cracking nuts with stones for years before achieving proficiency. We examined the time course of young monkeys' activity with nuts before, during, and following others' cracking nuts. Results demonstrate that the onset of others' cracking nuts immediately prompts young monkeys to start handling and percussing nuts, and they continue these activities while others are cracking. When others stop cracking nuts, young monkeys sustain the uncommon actions of percussing and striking nuts for shorter periods than the more common actions of handling nuts. We conclude that nut-cracking by adults can promote the development of sustained attention for the critical but less common actions that young monkeys must practice to learn this traditional skill. This work suggests that in nonhuman species, as in humans, socially specified settings of development impact learning processes as well as learning outcomes. Nonhumans, like humans, may be culturally variable learners.

  20. Molecular characterization of Helicobacter pylori strains isolated from cynomolgus monkeys (M. fascicularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, Sonia Q; Kimbason, Tara; Reindel, James; Dubois, Andre

    2005-06-15

    We recently reported the occurrence of natural infection with H. pylori in a group of cynomolgus monkeys with chronic active gastritis and gastric erosions. The goal of the present study was to characterize and to compare strains isolated from animals originating from two different geographical areas. Gross and microscopic pathology determined at the time of necropsy was similar in all animals. H. pylori were isolated from specimens harvested in five monkeys (four from Vietnam and one from the Philippines) with gastritis. Isolates from monkeys bred in Vietnam had a similar DNA fingerprint pattern, which was distinct from that of isolates from a monkey bred in the Philippines. All strains were of the s1a vacA subtype, but all the 'Vietnamese' strains were cagA+ and all but one were iceA1 whereas the 'Philippino' strains were cagA- and iceA2. The sequences of the 16S rRNA of the Vietnamese and Philippino strains shared 98% homology and both clustered with H. pylori sequences present in the NCBI database. In conclusion, cynomolgus monkeys can be naturally colonized by H. pylori, and the strains isolated from these animals appear to vary according to the geographical origin, thus indicating probable infection prior to importation. Since some of the cynomolgus monkeys developed antral erosions during natural infection, we propose that this animal model may be used to investigate the role of H. pylori in ulcerogenesis.

  1. Strategies for the production of genetically identical monkeys by embryo splitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paprocki AM

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Genetically identical rhesus monkeys would have tremendous utility as models for the study of human disease and would be particularly valuable for vaccine trials and tissue transplantation studies where immune function is important. While advances in nuclear transfer technology may someday enable monkeys to be cloned with some efficiency, embryo splitting may be a more realistic approach to creating pairs of genetically identical monkeys. Although several different approaches to embryo splitting, including blastocyst bisection and blastomere separation, have been used successfully in rodents and domestic species for production of pairs and sets of identical offspring, efforts to create monozygotic twins in rhesus monkeys using these approaches have not met with similar success. Aggregation of split embryos with other types of blastomeres, such as tetraploid and developmentally asynchronous blastomeres, that could potentially increase their cell numbers and developmental competence without contributing to term development has been investigated as an alternative approach to creating monozygotic twin monkeys. The major challenges encountered with respect to the efficient production of monozygotic twins in rhesus monkeys and potential strategies to overcome these challenges are discussed.

  2. Behavioral efficacy of diazepam against nerve agent exposure in rhesus monkeys. (Reannouncement with new availability information)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, C.A.; Larsen, T.; Finger, A.V.; Solana, R.P.; McMaster, S.B.

    1991-12-31

    The possibility that nerve agents will be used on the battlefield is real. The traditional therapy against nerve agent exposure consists of pyridostigmine pretreatment and atropine-pralidoxime chloride therapy administered after nerve agent exposure. This therapy regimen is extremely effective in preventing mortality in laboratory animals exposed to multilethal concentrations of nerve agent, yet these animals often display convulsions, brain damage, and behavioral incapacitation. We report here that the addition of diazepam to the traditional therapy for nerve agent (soman) exposure not only decreases the incidence of convulsions, but also attenuates the cognitive impairments of rhesus monkeys trained on a Serial Probe Recognition (SPR) task. Monkeys which received diazepam treatment required only 6 days before their performance on the SPR task returned to presoman exposure levels, compared to nondiazepamtreated monkeys which required 15 days. Moreover, only 1 out of the 5 monkeys which received diazepain treatment suffered tonic-clonic convulsions; in contrast all 5 monkeys which did not receive diazepam treatment experienced severe convulsive episodes. These results suggest that diazepam would be an excellent adjunct to traditional nerve agent therapy to facilitate behavioral recovery from nerve agent intoxication that might be encountered by US military personnel on the battlefield or accidental organophosphate poisoning encountered in industrial or agricultural accidents. Serial probe recognition task, diazepam, nerve agents, soman convulsions, rhesus monkeys, cognition, organophosphate.

  3. Establishment of reference values for complete blood count and blood gases in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Shunya; Koie, Hiroshi; Kanayama, Kiichi; Katakai, Yuko; Ito-Fujishiro, Yasuyo; Sankai, Tadashi; Yasutomi, Yasuhiro; Ageyama, Naohide

    2017-05-18

    Cynomolgus monkeys are closely related to humans phylogenetically, and this has resulted in their widespread use as a preclinical model. Hematological data with regard to these monkeys are thus important. Although reference values for blood components and sex hormones have been established for cynomolgus monkeys, those for arterial blood gases have not. The arterial blood gases quickly reflect respiratory and circulatory dynamics, and are thus useful for animal management and safe general anesthesia and surgical operations. Furthermore, since O2 is transported by RBC, CBC and blood gases are closely related. The present study aimed to establish reference values for arterial blood gases and CBC in cynomolgus monkeys over a wide age range. Blood gases and CBC of arterial blood, collected from 41 female and 21 male anesthetized monkeys, were measured. Age correlated with RBC, HGB and HCT in the CBC. Values differed significantly between males and females in pCO2, CO2 concentration, MCV and MCH. The pH of blood was equivalent to that of humans and pCO2 was more stable, whereas MCV and MCH were lower than those in humans. Erythrocytes were smaller and less pigmented than in other Macaca species. Several relationships between gender and age, and blood gases and CBC were identified in cynomolgus monkeys. In conclusion, these reference values will be useful as markers for veterinary applications and in the care and maintenance of these animals.

  4. Videos of conspecifics elicit interactive looking patterns and facial expressions in monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosher, Clayton P; Zimmerman, Prisca E; Gothard, Katalin M

    2011-08-01

    A broader understanding of the neural basis of social behavior in primates requires the use of species-specific stimuli that elicit spontaneous, but reproducible and tractable behaviors. In this context of natural behaviors, individual variation can further inform about the factors that influence social interactions. To approximate natural social interactions similar to those documented by field studies, we used unedited video footage to induce in viewer monkeys spontaneous facial expressions and looking patterns in the laboratory setting. Three adult male monkeys (Macaca mulatta), previously behaviorally and genetically (5-HTTLPR) characterized, were monitored while they watched 10 s video segments depicting unfamiliar monkeys (movie monkeys) displaying affiliative, neutral, and aggressive behaviors. The gaze and head orientation of the movie monkeys alternated between "averted" and "directed" at the viewer. The viewers were not reinforced for watching the movies, thus their looking patterns indicated their interest and social engagement with the stimuli. The behavior of the movie monkey accounted for differences in the looking patterns and facial expressions displayed by the viewers. We also found multiple significant differences in the behavior of the viewers that correlated with their interest in these stimuli. These socially relevant dynamic stimuli elicited spontaneous social behaviors, such as eye-contact induced reciprocation of facial expression, gaze aversion, and gaze following, that were previously not observed in response to static images. This approach opens a unique opportunity to understanding the mechanisms that trigger spontaneous social behaviors in humans and nonhuman primates. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. PENGARUH PERSEPSI EKOWISATA TERHADAP TINGKAT KEPUASAN WISATAWAN DI MONKEY FOREST UBUD, BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Via Reza Efrida

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate (1 the ecotourism perception of tourists visiting Monkey Forest Ubud; (2 the visitor satisfaction level on Monkey Forest Ubud attraction; and (3 the influence of ecotourism perception on visitor satisfaction level at Monkey Forest Ubud. The result of this research carried out descriptive statistic by using an importance-performance analysis (IPA and inferential statistic by using a simple linear regression analysis. The technique of determining sample size is incidental sampling technique by distributing questionnaires to 170 tourists visiting Monkey Forest Ubud. The result showed that tourists which visit Monkey Forest Ubud strongly agree on the implementation of ecotourism concept. On the other hand, the calculation results of concordance rate showed 89.59% which means that the overall tourist is satisfied with the Monkey Forest Ubud attraction. Moreover, based on the hypothesis testing by using t-test statistical significance showed that there is a significant influence of independent variable (perception of ecotourism on the dependent variable (tourist satisfaction.

  6. Optimized total body irradiation for induction of renal allograft tolerance through mixed chimerism in cynomolgus monkeys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimikawa, Masaaki; Kawai, Tatsuo; Ota, Kazuo [Tokyo Women`s Medical Coll. (Japan)

    1996-12-01

    We previously demonstrated that a nonmyeloablative preparative regimen can induce mixed chimerism and renal allograft tolerance between MHC-disparate non-human primates. The basic regimen includes anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG), total body irradiation (TBI, 300 cGy), thymic irradiation (TI, 700 cGy), splenectomy, donor bone marrow (DBM) infusion, and posttransplant cyclosporine therapy (CYA, discontinued after 4 weeks). To evaluate the importance and to minimize the toxicity of irradiation, kidney allografts were transplanted with various manipulations of the irradiation protocol. Monkeys treated with the basic protocol without TBI and TI did not develop chimerism or long-term allograft survival. In monkeys treated with the full protocol, all six monkeys treated with two fractionated dose of 150 cGy developed chimerism and five monkeys appeared tolerant. In contrast, only two of the four monkeys treated with fractionated doses of 125 cGy developed chimerism and only one monkey survived long term. The degree of lymphocyte depletion in all recipients was proportional to the TBI dose. The fractionated TBI regimen of 150 cGy appears to be the most consistently effective regimen for establishing donor bone marrow cell engraftment and allograft tolerance. (author)

  7. Naturally transmitted herpesvirus papio-2 infection in a black and white colobus monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troan, Brigid V; Perelygina, Ludmila; Patrusheva, Irina; Wettere, Arnaud J van; Hilliard, Julia K; Loomis, Michael R; Voe, Ryan S De

    2007-12-15

    A 6.5-year-old female eastern black and white colobus monkey (Colobus guereza) was evaluated after acute onset of ataxia and inappetence. The monkey was ataxic and lethargic, but no other abnormalities were detected via physical examination, radiography, or clinicopathologic analyses. During the next 2 days, the monkey's clinical condition deteriorated, and its WBC count decreased dramatically. Cytologic examination of a CSF sample revealed marked lymphohistiocytic inflammation. Despite supportive care, the monkey became apneic; after 20 hours of mechanical ventilation, fatal cardiac arrest occurred. At necropsy, numerous petechiae were detected within the white matter tracts of the brain; microscopic lesions of multifocal necrosis and hemorrhage with intranuclear inclusions identified in the brain and adrenal glands were consistent with an acute herpesvirus infection. A specific diagnosis of herpesvirus papio-2 (HVP-2) infection was made on the basis of results of serologic testing; PCR assay of tissue specimens; live virus isolation from the lungs; and immunohistochemical identification of the virus within brain, spinal cord, and adrenal gland lesions. Via phylogenetic tree analysis, the colobus HVP-2 isolate was grouped with neuroinvasive strains of the virus. The virus was most likely transmitted to the colobus monkey through toys shared with a nearby colony of baboons (the natural host of HVP-2). To the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported case of natural transmission of HVP-2 to a nonhost species. Infection with HVP-2 should be a differential diagnosis for acute encephalopathy in primate monkeys and humans, particularly following exposure to baboons.

  8. Easy rider: monkeys learn to drive a wheelchair to navigate through a complex maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etienne, Stephanie; Guthrie, Martin; Goillandeau, Michel; Nguyen, Tho Hai; Orignac, Hugues; Gross, Christian; Boraud, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The neurological bases of spatial navigation are mainly investigated in rodents and seldom in primates. The few studies led on spatial navigation in both human and non-human primates are performed in virtual, not in real environments. This is mostly because of methodological difficulties inherent in conducting research on freely-moving monkeys in real world environments. There is some incertitude, however, regarding the extrapolation of rodent spatial navigation strategies to primates. Here we present an entirely new platform for investigating real spatial navigation in rhesus monkeys. We showed that monkeys can learn a pathway by using different strategies. In these experiments three monkeys learned to drive the wheelchair and to follow a specified route through a real maze. After learning the route, probe tests revealed that animals successively use three distinct navigation strategies based on i) the place of the reward, ii) the direction taken to obtain reward or iii) a cue indicating reward location. The strategy used depended of the options proposed and the duration of learning. This study reveals that monkeys, like rodents and humans, switch between different spatial navigation strategies with extended practice, implying well-conserved brain learning systems across different species. This new task with freely driving monkeys provides a good support for the electrophysiological and pharmacological investigation of spatial navigation in the real world by making possible electrophysiological and pharmacological investigations.

  9. Easy rider: monkeys learn to drive a wheelchair to navigate through a complex maze.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Etienne

    Full Text Available The neurological bases of spatial navigation are mainly investigated in rodents and seldom in primates. The few studies led on spatial navigation in both human and non-human primates are performed in virtual, not in real environments. This is mostly because of methodological difficulties inherent in conducting research on freely-moving monkeys in real world environments. There is some incertitude, however, regarding the extrapolation of rodent spatial navigation strategies to primates. Here we present an entirely new platform for investigating real spatial navigation in rhesus monkeys. We showed that monkeys can learn a pathway by using different strategies. In these experiments three monkeys learned to drive the wheelchair and to follow a specified route through a real maze. After learning the route, probe tests revealed that animals successively use three distinct navigation strategies based on i the place of the reward, ii the direction taken to obtain reward or iii a cue indicating reward location. The strategy used depended of the options proposed and the duration of learning. This study reveals that monkeys, like rodents and humans, switch between different spatial navigation strategies with extended practice, implying well-conserved brain learning systems across different species. This new task with freely driving monkeys provides a good support for the electrophysiological and pharmacological investigation of spatial navigation in the real world by making possible electrophysiological and pharmacological investigations.

  10. Striatal dopamine D2/3 receptor regulation by stress inoculation in squirrel monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex G. Lee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent mildly stressful situations provide opportunities to learn, practice, and improve coping in a process called stress inoculation. Stress inoculation also enhances cognitive control and response inhibition of impulsive motivated behavior. Cognitive control and motivation have been linked to striatal dopamine D2 and/or D3 receptors (DRD2/3 in rodents, monkeys, and humans. Here, we study squirrel monkeys randomized early in life to stress inoculation with or without maternal companionship and a no-stress control treatment condition. Striatal DRD2/3 availability in adulthood was measured in vivo by [11C]raclopride binding using positron emission tomography (PET. DRD2/3 availability was greater in caudate and putamen compared to ventral striatum as reported in PET studies of humans and other non-human primates. DRD2/3 availability in ventral striatum was also consistently greater in stress inoculated squirrel monkeys compared to no-stress controls. Squirrel monkeys exposed to stress inoculation in the presence of their mother did not differ from squirrel monkeys exposed to stress inoculation without maternal companionship. Similar effects in different social contexts extend the generality of our findings and together suggest that stress inoculation increases striatal DRD2/3 availability as a correlate of cognitive control in squirrel monkeys.

  11. An assessment of skin temperature gradients in a tropical primate using infrared thermography and subcutaneous implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Cynthia L; Scheidel, Caleb; Glander, Kenneth E; Williams, Susan H; Vinyard, Christopher J

    2017-01-01

    Infrared thermography has become a useful tool to assess surface temperatures of animals for thermoregulatory research. However, surface temperatures are an endpoint along the body's core-shell temperature gradient. Skin and fur are the peripheral tissues most exposed to ambient thermal conditions and are known to serve as thermosensors that initiate thermoregulatory responses. Yet relatively little is known about how surface temperatures of wild mammals measured by infrared thermography relate to subcutaneous temperatures. Moreover, this relationship may differ with the degree that fur covers the body. To assess the relationship between temperatures and temperature gradients in peripheral tissues between furred and bare areas, we collected data from wild mantled howling monkeys (Alouatta palliata) in Costa Rica. We used infrared thermography to measure surface temperatures of the furred dorsum and bare facial areas of the body, recorded concurrent subcutaneous temperatures in the dorsum, and measured ambient thermal conditions via a weather station. Temperature gradients through cutaneous tissues (subcutaneous-surface temperature) and surface temperature gradients (surface-ambient temperature) were calculated. Our results indicate that there are differences in temperatures and temperature gradients in furred versus bare areas of mantled howlers. Under natural thermal conditions experienced by wild animals, the bare facial areas were warmer than temperatures in the furred dorsum, and cutaneous temperature gradients in the face were more variable than the dorsum, consistent with these bare areas acting as thermal windows. Cutaneous temperature gradients in the dorsum were more closely linked to subcutaneous temperatures, while facial temperature gradients were more heavily influenced by ambient conditions. These findings indicate that despite the insulative properties of fur, for mantled howling monkeys surface temperatures of furred areas still demonstrate a

  12. Comparative anatomy of the arm muscles of the Japanese monkey (Macaca fuscata) with some comments on locomotor mechanics and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aversi-Ferreira, Tales Alexandre; Aversi-Ferreira, Roqueline A G M F; Bretas, Rafael Vieira; Nishimaru, Hiroshi; Nishijo, Hisao

    2016-08-01

    The anatomical literature on the genus Macaca has focused mainly on the rhesus monkey. However, some aspects in the positional behaviors of the Japanese monkey may be different from those in rhesus monkey, suggesting that the anatomical details of these species are divergent. Four thoracic limbs of Macaca fuscata adults were dissected. The arm muscles in Japanese macaques are more similar to rhesus monkeys and Papio; these characteristics are closer to those of bearded capuchins than apes, indicating more proximity of this genus to New World primates. The anatomical features observed favor quadrupedal locomotor behaviors on the ground and in arboreal environments. Japanese monkeys, rhesus monkeys, and bearded capuchins, which share more primitive characteristics in their arm muscles, present features that favor both arboreal and quadrupedal locomotor behaviors, whereas apes, mainly Pan and Gorilla, which spend more time on the ground, present more quadrupedal specializations. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Pharmacokinetic modeling: Prediction and evaluation of route dependent dosimetry of bisphenol A in monkeys with extrapolation to humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, Jeffrey W., E-mail: jeffrey.fisher@fda.hhs.gov; Twaddle, Nathan C.; Vanlandingham, Michelle; Doerge, Daniel R.

    2011-11-15

    A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was developed for bisphenol A (BPA) in adult rhesus monkeys using intravenous (iv) and oral bolus doses of 100 {mu}g d6-BPA/kg (). This calibrated PBPK adult monkey model for BPA was then evaluated against published monkey kinetic studies with BPA. Using two versions of the adult monkey model based on monkey BPA kinetic data from and , the aglycone BPA pharmacokinetics were simulated for human oral ingestion of 5 mg d16-BPA per person (Voelkel et al., 2002). Voelkel et al. were unable to detect the aglycone BPA in plasma, but were able to detect BPA metabolites. These human model predictions of the aglycone BPA in plasma were then compared to previously published PBPK model predictions obtained by simulating the Voelkel et al. kinetic study. Our BPA human model, using two parameter sets reflecting two adult monkey studies, both predicted lower aglycone levels in human serum than the previous human BPA PBPK model predictions. BPA was metabolized at all ages of monkey (PND 5 to adult) by the gut wall and liver. However, the hepatic metabolism of BPA and systemic clearance of its phase II metabolites appear to be slower in younger monkeys than adults. The use of the current non-human primate BPA model parameters provides more confidence in predicting the aglycone BPA in serum levels in humans after oral ingestion of BPA. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A bisphenol A (BPA) PBPK model for the infant and adult monkey was constructed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The hepatic metabolic rate of BPA increased with age of the monkey. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The systemic clearance rate of metabolites increased with age of the monkey. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gut wall metabolism of orally administered BPA was substantial across all ages of monkeys. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aglycone BPA plasma concentrations were predicted in humans orally given oral doses of deuterated BPA.

  14. Sixteen-year review of the population trends and mortality causes for catipve Woolly monkey Lagothrix spp

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    Ange-van Heugten, K.D.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2011-01-01

    Woolly monkeys Lagothrix spp are difficult to maintain and breed successfully. These species are threatened in the wild and conservationists need to be aware of their plight in captivity if attempts to sustain the species are ultimately required. Written survey reports, International Species Information System record analysis and Woolly monkey studbook record analysis were completed to gather data on the survivability of the Woolly monkey population in captivity from 1990 to 2005. The Woolly ...

  15. Systematic identification and evolutionary features of rhesus monkey small nucleolar RNAs

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    Chen Runsheng

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies have demonstrated that non-protein-coding RNAs (npcRNAs/ncRNAs play important roles during eukaryotic development, species evolution, and in the etiology of disease. Rhesus macaques are the most widely used primate model in both biomedical research and primate evolutionary studies. However, most reports on these animals focus on the functional roles of protein-coding sequences, whereas very little is known about macaque ncRNAs. Results In the present study, we performed the first systematic profiling of intermediate-size ncRNAs (50 to 500 nt from the rhesus monkey by constructing a cDNA library. We identified 117 rhesus monkey ncRNAs, including 80 small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs, 29 other types of known RNAs (snRNAs, Y RNA, and others, and eight unclassified ncRNAs. Comparative genomic analysis and northern blot hybridizations demonstrated that some snoRNAs were lineage- or species-specific. Paralogous sequences were found for most rhesus monkey snoRNAs, the expression of which might be attributable to extensive duplication within the rhesus monkey genome. Further investigation of snoRNA flanking sequences showed that some rhesus monkey snoRNAs are retrogenes derived from L1-mediated integration. Finally, phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that birds and primates share some snoRNAs and host genes thereof, suggesting that both the relevant host genes and the snoRNAs contained therein may be inherited from a common ancestor. However, some rhesus monkey snoRNAs hosted by non-ribosome-related genes appeared after the evolutionary divergence between birds and mammals. Conclusions We provide the first experimentally-derived catalog of rhesus monkey ncRNAs and uncover some interesting genomic and evolutionary features. These findings provide important information for future functional characterization of snoRNAs during primate evolution.

  16. Learning to cope with stress modulates anterior cingulate cortex stargazin expression in monkeys and mice.

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    Lee, Alex G; Capanzana, Roxanne; Brockhurst, Jacqueline; Cheng, Michelle Y; Buckmaster, Christine L; Absher, Devin; Schatzberg, Alan F; Lyons, David M

    2016-05-01

    Intermittent mildly stressful situations provide opportunities to learn, practice, and improve coping with gains in subsequent emotion regulation. Here we investigate the effects of learning to cope with stress on anterior cingulate cortex gene expression in monkeys and mice. Anterior cingulate cortex is involved in learning, memory, cognitive control, and emotion regulation. Monkeys and mice were randomized to either stress coping or no-stress treatment conditions. Profiles of gene expression were acquired with HumanHT-12v4.0 Expression BeadChip arrays adapted for monkeys. Three genes identified in monkeys by arrays were then assessed in mice by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Expression of a key gene (PEMT) involved in acetylcholine biosynthesis was increased in monkeys by coping but this result was not verified in mice. Another gene (SPRY2) that encodes a negative regulator of neurotrophic factor signaling was decreased in monkeys by coping but this result was only partly verified in mice. The CACNG2 gene that encodes stargazin (also called TARP gamma-2) was increased by coping in monkeys as well as mice randomized to coping with or without subsequent behavioral tests of emotionality. As evidence of coping effects distinct from repeated stress exposures per se, increased stargazin expression induced by coping correlated with diminished emotionality in mice. Stargazin modulates glutamate receptor signaling and plays a role in synaptic plasticity. Molecular mechanisms of synaptic plasticity that mediate learning and memory in the context of coping with stress may provide novel targets for new treatments of disorders in human mental health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Viral vector-based reversible neuronal inactivation and behavioral manipulation in the macaque monkey

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    Kristina Juliane Nielsen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Viral vectors are promising tools for the dissection of neural circuits. In principle, they can manipulate neurons at a level of specificity not otherwise achievable. While many studies have used viral vector-based approaches in the rodent brain, only a few have employed this technique in the non-human primate, despite the importance of this animal model for neuroscience research. Here, we report for the first time that a viral vector-based approach can be used to manipulate a monkey’s behavior in a task. For this purpose, we used the allatostatin receptor/allatostatin (AlstR/AL system, which has previously been shown to allow inactivation of neurons in vivo. The AlstR was expressed in neurons in monkey V1 by injection of an AAV1 vector. Two monkeys were trained in a detection task, in which they had to make a saccade to a faint peripheral target. Injection of AL caused a retinotopic deficit in the detection task in one monkey. Specifically, the monkey showed marked impairment for detection targets placed at the visual field location represented at the virus injection site, but not for targets shown elsewhere. We confirmed that these deficits indeed were due to the interaction of AlstR and AL by injecting saline, or AL at a V1 location without AlstR expression. Post-mortem histology confirmed AlstR expression in this monkey. We failed to replicate the behavioral results in a second monkey, as AL injection did not impair the second monkey’s performance in the detection task. However, post-mortem histology revealed a very low level of AlstR expression in this monkey. Our results demonstrate that viral vector-based approaches can produce effects strong enough to influence a monkey’s performance in a behavioral task, supporting the further development of this approach for studying how neuronal circuits control complex behaviors in non-human primates.

  18. Do primates see the solitaire illusion differently? A comparative assessment of humans (Homo sapiens), chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), and capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrillo, Christian; Parrish, Audrey E; Beran, Michael J

    2014-11-01

    An important question in comparative psychology is whether human and nonhuman animals share similar principles of perceptual organization. Despite much empirical research, no firm conclusion has been drawn. The Solitaire illusion is a numerosity illusion in humans that occurs when one misperceives the relative number of 2 types of items presented in intermingled sets. To date, no study has investigated whether nonhuman animals perceive the Solitaire illusion as humans do. Here, we compared the perception of the Solitaire illusion in human and nonhuman primates in 3 experiments. We first observed (Experiment 1) the spontaneous behavior of chimpanzees when presented with 2 arrays composed of a different number of preferred and nonpreferred food items. In probe trials, preferred items were presented in the Solitaire pattern in 2 different spatial arrangements (either clustered centrally or distributed on the perimeter). Chimpanzees did not show any misperception of quantity in the Solitaire pattern. Next, humans, chimpanzees, rhesus monkeys, and capuchin monkeys underwent the same testing of relative quantity judgments in a computerized task that also presented the Solitaire illusion (Experiments 2 and 3). Unlike humans, chimpanzees did not appear to perceive the illusion, in agreement with Experiment 1. The performance of rhesus monkeys and capuchin monkeys was also different from that of humans, but was slightly more indicative of a potential Solitaire illusion. On the whole, our results suggest a potential discontinuity in the visual mechanisms underlying the Solitaire illusion between human and nonhuman primates. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Thalamic, brainstem, and cerebellar glucose metabolism in the hemiplegic monkey

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    Shimoyama, I.; Dauth, G.W.; Gilman, S.; Frey, K.A.; Penney, J.B. Jr.

    1988-12-01

    Unilateral ablation of cerebral cortical areas 4 and 6 of Brodmann in the macaque monkey results in a contralateral hemiplegia that resolves partially with time. During the phase of dense hemiplegia, local cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (1CMRG1c) is decreased significantly in most of the thalamic nuclei ipsilateral to the ablation, and there are slight contralateral decreases. The lCMRGlc is reduced bilaterally in most of the brainstem nuclei and bilaterally in the deep cerebellar nuclei, but only in the contralateral cerebellar cortex. During the phase of partial motor recovery, lCMRGlc is incompletely restored in many of the thalamic nuclei ipsilateral to the ablation and completely restored in the contralateral nuclei. In the brainstem and deep cerebellar nuclei, poor to moderate recovery occurs bilaterally. Moderate recovery occurs in the contralateral cerebellar cortex. The findings demonstrate that a unilateral cerebral cortical lesion strongly affects lCMRGlc in the thalamus ipsilaterally and in the cerebellar cortex contralaterally, but in the brainstem bilaterally. Partial recovery of lCMRGlc accompanies the progressive motor recovery. The structures affected include those with direct, and also those with indirect, connections to the areas ablated.

  20. Handling newborn monkeys alters later exploratory, cognitive, and social behaviors.

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    Simpson, Elizabeth A; Sclafani, Valentina; Paukner, Annika; Kaburu, Stefano S K; Suomi, Stephen J; Ferrari, Pier F

    2017-08-18

    Touch is one of the first senses to develop and one of the earliest modalities for infant-caregiver communication. While studies have explored the benefits of infant touch in terms of physical health and growth, the effects of social touch on infant behavior are relatively unexplored. Here, we investigated the influence of neonatal handling on a variety of domains, including memory, novelty seeking, and social interest, in infant monkeys (Macaca mulatta; n=48) from 2 to 12 weeks of age. Neonates were randomly assigned to receive extra holding, with or without accompanying face-to-face interactions. Extra-handled infants, compared to standard-reared infants, exhibited less stress-related behavior and more locomotion around a novel environment, faster approach of novel objects, better working memory, and less fear towards a novel social partner. In sum, infants who received more tactile stimulation in the neonatal period subsequently demonstrated more advanced motor, social, and cognitive skills-particularly in contexts involving exploration of novelty-in the first three months of life. These data suggest that social touch may support behavioral development, offering promising possibilities for designing future early interventions, particularly for infants who are at heightened risk for social disorders. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Adaptive Neuroplastic Responses in Early and Late Hemispherectomized Monkeys

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    Mark W. Burke

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Behavioural recovery in children who undergo medically required hemispherectomy showcase the remarkable ability of the cerebral cortex to adapt and reorganize following insult early in life. Case study data suggest that lesions sustained early in childhood lead to better recovery compared to those that occur later in life. In these children, it is possible that neural reorganization had begun prior to surgery but was masked by the dysfunctional hemisphere. The degree of neural reorganization has been difficult to study systematically in human infants. Here we present a 20-year culmination of data on our nonhuman primate model (Chlorocebus sabeus of early-life hemispherectomy in which behavioral recovery is interpreted in light of plastic processes that lead to the anatomical reorganization of the early-damaged brain. The model presented here suggests that significant functional recovery occurs after the removal of one hemisphere in monkeys with no preexisting neurological dysfunctions. Human and primate studies suggest a critical role for subcortical and brainstem structures as well as corticospinal tracts in the neuroanatomical reorganization which result in the remarkable behavioral recovery following hemispherectomy. The non-human primate model presented here offers a unique opportunity for studying the behavioral and functional neuroanatomical reorganization that underlies developmental plasticity.

  2. Modular architectonic organization of the insula in the macaque monkey.

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    Evrard, Henry C; Logothetis, Nikos K; Craig, A D Bud

    2014-01-01

    In order to provide a framework for ongoing analyses of the neuronal connections of the insular cortex of the macaque monkey using modern high-resolution methods, we examined its anatomical organization in serial coronal sections stained alternately with Nissl and Gallyas (myelin) techniques. We observed the same 15 distinct architectonic areas in 10 brains. Within the granular, dysgranular, and agranular regions described in prior studies, we identified 4, 4, and 7 distinct areas, respectively. Across brains, these areas have consistent architectonic characteristics, and in flat map reconstructions they display a consistent topological or neighborhood arrangement, despite variations in the size of individual areas between cases. The borders between areas are generally rather sharply defined. Some areas, in particular the dysgranular areas, appear to consistently contain subtle transitions that suggest possible subareas or modules within the well-delimited areas. The presence of a distinct granular area that straddles the fundus of the superior limiting sulcus over its entire posterior-to-anterior extent is consistent with the available evidence on interoceptive thalamocortical projections, and also with the tensile anchor theory of species-specific cortical gyrification. These observations are consonant with the model of homeostatic afferent processing in the primate insula, and they suggest that discrete modules within insular cortex provide the basis for its polymodal integration of all salient activity relevant to ongoing emotional behavior. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Disparity selectivity of neurons in monkey inferior temporal cortex.

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    Uka, T; Tanaka, H; Yoshiyama, K; Kato, M; Fujita, I

    2000-07-01

    The inferior temporal cortex (IT) of the monkey, a final stage in the ventral visual pathway, has been known to process information on two-dimensional (2-D) shape, color, and texture. On the other hand, the dorsal visual pathway leading to the posterior parietal cortex has been known to process information on location in space. Likewise, neurons selective for binocular disparity, which convey information on depth, have been found mainly in areas along the dorsal visual pathway. Here, we report that many neurons in the IT are also selective for binocular disparity. We recorded extracellular activity from IT neurons and found that more than half of the neurons changed their response depending on the disparity added. The change was not attributed to monocular responses or eye movements. Most neurons selective for disparity were "near" or "far" cells; they preferred either crossed or uncrossed disparity, and only a small population was tuned to zero disparity. Disparity-selective neurons were also selective for shape. Most preferred the same type of disparity irrespective of the shape presented. Disparity preference was also invariant for the fronto-parallel translation of the stimuli in most of the neurons. Finally, nearby neurons exhibited similar disparity selectivity, suggesting the existence of a functional module for processing of binocular disparity in the IT. From the above and our recent findings, we suggest that the IT integrates shape and binocular disparity information, and plays an important role in the reconstruction of three-dimensional (3-D) surfaces.

  4. Somatostatinergic nerves in the cervical spinal cord of the monkey.

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    Burnweit, C; Forssmann, W G

    1979-08-03

    Somatostatinergic nerves in the spinal cord of the monkey were investigated utilizing immunohistochemistry with various antibodies against synthetic somatostatin. In contrast to earlier investigations, it is shown that somatostatinergic nerve endings occur in most of the areas of the grey matter of the spinal cord. The somatostatinergic axons are, however, characteristically distributed in three main regions: (1) Densely-packed endings are seen in lamina II of the substantia gelatinosa, forming a crescent-shaped pattern in the columna dorsalis. Somatostatin immunoreactivity is also seen in lamina I and in the Lissauer tract. (2) A fine network of fibers is observed around the central canal; the endings are concentrated on special cell bodies. Some single perikarya are also stained in this region. (3) A loose network of single fibers is found ending on perikarya of the columna lateralis or ventralis. The perikarya of the nerve axons, with the exception of those terminating in the columna dorsalis, have as yet not been identified. In order to better understand the somatostatinergic system of the spinal cord, these newly-detected somatostatinergic nerves must be studied and their exact pathways analyzed.

  5. Insightful problem solving and emulation in brown capuchin monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, Elizabeth; Abramo, Allison M; Karen Hambright, M; Phillips, Kimberley A

    2017-05-01

    We investigated problem solving abilities of capuchin monkeys via the "floating object problem," a task in which the subject must use creative problem solving to retrieve a favored food item from the bottom of a clear tube. Some great apes have solved this problem by adding water to raise the object to a level at which it can be easily grabbed. We presented seven capuchins with the task over eight trials (four "dry" and four "wet"). None of the subjects solved the task, indicating that no capuchin demonstrated insightful problem solving under these experimental conditions. We then investigated whether capuchins would emulate a solution to the task. Seven subjects observed a human model solve the problem by pouring water from a cup into the tube, which brought the object to the top of the tube, allowing the subject to retrieve it. Subjects were then allowed to interact freely with an unfilled tube containing the object in the presence of water and objects that could be used to solve the task. While most subjects were unable to solve the task after viewing a demonstrator solve it, one subject did so, but in a unique way. Our results are consistent with some previous results in great ape species and indicate that capuchins do not spontaneously solve the floating object problem via insight.

  6. Discriminative stimulus properties of lysergic acid diethylamide in the monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, E B

    1985-07-01

    Four monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops) were trained to discriminate 0.06 mg/kg of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) from saline in a two-key task in which correct responding was reinforced with food under a fixed ratio 32 schedule. The ED50 of LSD was 0.011 mg/kg. The nonhallucinogenic ergot, lisuride, and the hallucinogen, 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine, substituted completely for LSD (ED50 values were 0.0098 and 0.45 mg/kg, respectively). Mescaline (1-40 mg/kg), d-amphetamine (0.1-0.625 mg/kg) and apomorphine (0.1-0.5 mg/kg) did not substitute for LSD. In antagonism testing with ketanserin (1-10 mg/kg) or pirenperone (0.025 and 0.05 mg/kg), only the highest dose of pirenperone attenuated the LSD stimulus effect (to 55%). A 0.1-mg/kg dose of pirenperone produced nonresponding in three of four animals. The LSD cue was unaffected by clozapine (1 and 2 mg/kg), haloperidol (0.1 mg/kg) and pizotifen (0.6-1.8 mg/kg). The fact that lisuride does not readily cause hallucinations in humans, but yet substituted for LSD in primates, indicates that the LSD cue may not reflect the hallucinogenic properties of LSD. It is suggested that the LSD stimulus effect may depend on receptors (e.g., serotonergic) that, at the moment, are only poorly characterized.

  7. A mechanism of bone tissue loss in monkeys (BION - 11).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodionova, N. V.; Oganov, V. S.

    The elucidation of mechanisms of bone tissue loss under the spaceflight conditions remains an actual problem until now It was established that primary reactions to a mechanical stress evolve at the cellular level therefore the main attention of the researchers was aimed at studying bone tissue cells and their interactions With the use of electron microscopy we studied osteoblasts osteocytes osteoclasts and stromal cells in bioptats of the iliac bone crest from monkeys flown on board the satellite guillemotleft BION - 11 guillemotright during 2 weeks The flight samples were compared with the vivarium and simulation controls The functional state of cells was evaluated by the degree of development of organelles for specific biosyntheses rough endoplasmic reticulum Golgy complex nucleus state interrelation with a mineralized matrix The analysis of the obtained results and data of other authors Klein -- Nulend et al 2003 etc permits to suppose that the following sequence of cell interactions underlies the bone tissue loss during mechanical stress microgravity reaction of mechano-sensitive osteocytes to a mechanical stimulus consisting in enhancement of osteolytic processes in cells which results in a partial bone tissue loss along the local unloading Simultaneously the modulating signals are transmitted through a system of canals and processes towards active osteoblasts surface osteocytes and bone marrow stromal cells as well As a reply to a mechanical stimulus there occurs a reduction slowing down of proliferation

  8. Visual selectivity for heading in monkey area MST.

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    Bremmer, Frank; Kubischik, Michael; Pekel, Martin; Hoffmann, Klaus-Peter; Lappe, Markus

    2010-01-01

    The control of self-motion is supported by visual, vestibular, and proprioceptive signals. Recent research has shown how these signals interact in the monkey medio-superior temporal area (area MST) to enhance and disambiguate the perception of heading during self-motion. Area MST is a central stage for self-motion processing from optic flow, and integrates flow Weld information with vestibular self-motion and extraretinal eye movement information. Such multimodal cue integration is clearly important to solidify perception. However to understand the information processing capabilities of the brain, one must also ask how much information can be deduced from a single cue alone. This is particularly pertinent for optic flow, where controversies over its usefulness for self-motion control have existed ever since Gibson proposed his direct approach to ecological perception. In our study, we therefore, tested macaque MST neurons for their heading selectivity in highly complex flow Welds based on the purely visual mechanisms. We recorded responses of MST neurons to simple radial flow Welds and to distorted flow Welds that simulated a self-motion plus an eye movement. About half of the cells compensated for such distortion and kept the same heading selectivity in both cases. Our results strongly support the notion of an involvement of area MST in the computation of heading.

  9. Cardiovascular depressant effects of neomycin and gentamicin in rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, H R

    1975-08-01

    1. The acute cardiovascular effects of neomycin and gentamicin, representative aminoglycoside antibiotics, were examined in surgically-prepared anaesthetized rhesus monkeys. 2. Intravenous administration of 14, 28, and 56 mg/kg of neomycin consistently induced a dose-dependent depression of systemic blood pressure, cardiac output, left ventricular contractile force, maximum dF/dt of left ventricular contraction, and heart rate. Neomycin produced similar cardiovascular depressant effects when heart rate was maintained constant by electrical pacing. 3. Maximum depression of haemodynamic values usually occurred within 2 to 5 min after injection of neomycin; values then gradually returned to control levels within 20 to 30 (14 mg/kg) or 60 to 80 (56 mg/kg) minutes. 4. Injection of CaCl2 (1.35 mEq Ca2+/kg, i.v.) during the peak depressant effect of neomycin produced a rapid and maintained restoration of cardiovascular function to control levels; conversely, noradrenaline (2 mug, i.v.) of isoprenaline (0.5 mug, i.v.) produced only transient reversal of the neomycin effects. 5. Similar evidence of cardiovascular dysfunction was observed with gentamicin. 6. These findings demonstrate the direct cardiovascular depressant effects of aminoglycoside natibiotics in a higher primate species, and suggest that this adverse response is related to an alteration of calcium ion function.

  10. Exposure to sunlight reduces the risk of myopia in rhesus monkeys.

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    Yong Wang

    Full Text Available Exposure to sunlight has recently been postulated as responsible for the effect that more time spent outdoors protects children from myopia, while early life exposure to natural light was reported to be possibly related to onset of myopia during childhood. In this study, we had two aims: to determine whether increasing natural light exposure has a protective effect on hyperopic defocus-induced myopia, and to observe whether early postnatal exposure to natural light causes increased risk of refractive error in adolescence. Eight rhesus monkeys (aged 20-30 days were treated monocularly with hyperopic-defocus (-3.0D lens and divided randomly into two groups: AL group (n=4, reared under Artificial (indoor Lighting (08:00-20:00; and NL group (n=4, exposed to Natural (outdoor Light for 3 hours per day (11:00-14:00, and to indoor lighting for the rest of the light phase. After being reared with lenses for ca. 190 days, all monkeys were returned to unrestricted vision until the age of 3 years. Another eight age-matched monkeys, reared with unrestricted vision under artificial lighting since birth, were employed as controls. The ocular refraction, corneal curvature and axial dimensions were measured before lens-wearing (at 23±3 days of age, monthly during the light phase, and at the age of puberty (at 1185+3 days of age. During the lens-wearing treatment, infant monkeys in the NL group were more hyperopic than those in the AL group (F=5.726, P=0.032. Furthermore, the two eyes of most NL monkeys remained isometropic, whereas 3 of 4 AL monkeys developed myopic anisometropia more than -2.0D. At adolescence, eyes of AL monkeys showed significant myopic anisometropia compared with eyes of NL monkeys (AL vs NL: -1.66±0.87D vs -0.22±0.44D; P=0.002 and controls (AL vs Control: -1.66±0.87D vs -0.05±0.85D; P<0.0001. All differences in refraction were associated with parallel changes in axial dimensions. Our results suggest that exposure to natural outdoor

  11. Use of a Recombinant Gamma-2 Herpesvirus Vaccine Vector against Dengue Virus in Rhesus Monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischof, Georg F; Magnani, Diogo M; Ricciardi, Michael; Shin, Young C; Domingues, Aline; Bailey, Varian K; Gonzalez-Nieto, Lucas; Rakasz, Eva G; Watkins, David I; Desrosiers, Ronald C

    2017-08-15

    Research on vaccine approaches that can provide long-term protection against dengue virus infection is needed. Here we describe the construction, immunogenicity, and preliminary information on the protective capacity of recombinant, replication-competent rhesus monkey rhadinovirus (RRV), a persisting herpesvirus. One RRV construct expressed nonstructural protein 5 (NS5), while a second recombinant expressed a soluble variant of the E protein (E85) of dengue virus 2 (DENV2). Four rhesus macaques received a single vaccination with a mixture of both recombinant RRVs and were subsequently challenged 19 weeks later with 1 × 10 5 PFU of DENV2. During the vaccine phase, plasma of all vaccinated monkeys showed neutralizing activity against DENV2. Cellular immune responses against NS5 were also elicited, as evidenced by major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) tetramer staining in the one vaccinated monkey that was Mamu-A*01 positive. Unlike two of two unvaccinated controls, two of the four vaccinated monkeys showed no detectable viral RNA sequences in plasma after challenge. One of these two monkeys also showed no anamnestic increases in antibody levels following challenge and thus appeared to be protected against the acquisition of DENV2 following high-dose challenge. Continued study will be needed to evaluate the performance of herpesviral and other persisting vectors for achieving long-term protection against dengue virus infection. IMPORTANCE Continuing studies of vaccine approaches against dengue virus (DENV) infection are warranted, particularly ones that may provide long-term immunity against all four serotypes. Here we investigated whether recombinant rhesus monkey rhadinovirus (RRV) could be used as a vaccine against DENV2 infection in rhesus monkeys. Upon vaccination, all animals generated antibodies capable of neutralizing DENV2. Two of four vaccinated monkeys showed no detectable viral RNA after subsequent high-dose DENV2 challenge at 19 weeks

  12. Mental transformations of spatial stimuli in humans and in monkeys: rotation vs. translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekovarova, Tereza; Nedvidek, Jan; Klement, Daniel; Rokyta, Richard; Bures, Jan

    2013-03-01

    We studied the ability of monkeys and humans to orient in one spatial frame ("response frame") according to abstract spatial stimuli presented in another spatial frame ("stimulus frame"). The stimuli were designed as simple maps of the "response space". We studied how the transformations of these stimuli affected the performance. The subjects were trained to choose a particular position in the response frame - either on a touch screen (monkeys) or on a keyboard (humans) - according to schematic spatial stimuli presented on the stimulus screen. The monkeys responded by touching one of four circles shown in corners of a rectangle displayed on the touch screen. The correct position was signaled by the stimulus ("map") presented on the stimulus screen. The map was a complementary rectangle, but only with one circle shown ("pointer"). The position of this circle indicated the correct position in the response frame. In the first experiment we only manipulated stimuli presented on the computer screen. The "map" was originally shown in the same position and orientation as the "response pattern" but later the position and the rotation of the map on the screen were changing. Such transformations of the stimuli allow us to study the mental operations that the animals performed and how particular mental transformations mutually differed. In the second experiment we tested whether the monkeys relied more on stimuli presented on the screen or on the surrounding stable environment and objects. We compared the performance of animals in tasks with rotated virtual maps in a stable surrounding environment with the performance in tasks where we rotated the surrounding frame (computer monitor), whereas the stimuli on the screen remained stable. In the third experiment we tested human subjects in analogous tests to compare the ability and cognitive strategies of monkeys and humans in this task. We showed that the mental strategies that monkeys used for orientation in one spatial frame

  13. The Effects of Simultaneous Dual Focus Lenses on Refractive Development in Infant Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arumugam, Baskar; Hung, Li-Fang; To, Chi-ho; Holden, Brien; Smith, Earl L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. We investigated the effects of two simultaneously imposed, competing focal planes on refractive development in monkeys. Methods. Starting at 3 weeks of age and continuing until 150 ± 4 days of age, rhesus monkeys were reared with binocular dual-focus spectacle lenses. The treatment lenses had central 2-mm zones of zero power and concentric annular zones with alternating powers of +3.0 diopter [D] and plano (pL or 0 D) (n = 7; +3D/pL) or −3.0 D and plano (n = 7; −3D/pL). Retinoscopy, keratometry, and A-scan ultrasonography were performed every 2 weeks throughout the treatment period. For comparison purposes data were obtained from monkeys reared with full field (FF) +3.0 (n = 4) or −3.0 D (n = 5) lenses over both eyes and 33 control animals reared with unrestricted vision. Results. The +3 D/pL lenses slowed eye growth resulting in hyperopic refractive errors that were similar to those produced by FF+3 D lenses (+3 D/pL = +5.25 D, FF +3 D = +4.63 D; P = 0.32), but significantly more hyperopic than those observed in control monkeys (+2.50 D, P = 0.0001). One −3 D/pL monkey developed compensating axial myopia; however, in the other −3 D/pL monkeys refractive development was dominated by the zero-powered portions of the treatment lenses. The refractive errors for the −3 D/pL monkeys were more hyperopic than those in the FF −3 D monkeys (−3 D/pL = +3.13 D, FF −3D = −1.69 D; P = 0.01), but similar to those in control animals (P = 0.15). Conclusions. In the monkeys treated with dual-focus lenses, refractive development was dominated by the more anterior (i.e., relatively myopic) image plane. The results indicate that imposing relative myopic defocus over a large proportion of the retina is an effective means for slowing ocular growth. PMID:25324283

  14. Characterization of the Sweet Taste Receptor Tas1r2 from an Old World Monkey Species Rhesus Monkey and Species-Dependent Activation of the Monomeric Receptor by an Intense Sweetener Perillartine.

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    Chenggu Cai

    Full Text Available Sweet state is a basic physiological sensation of humans and other mammals which is mediated by the broadly acting sweet taste receptor-the heterodimer of Tas1r2 (taste receptor type 1 member 2 and Tas1r3 (taste receptor type 1 member 3. Various sweeteners interact with either Tas1r2 or Tas1r3 and then activate the receptor. In this study, we cloned, expressed and functionally characterized the taste receptor Tas1r2 from a species of Old World monkeys, the rhesus monkey. Paired with the human TAS1R3, it was shown that the rhesus monkey Tas1r2 could respond to natural sugars, amino acids and their derivates. Furthermore, similar to human TAS1R2, rhesus monkey Tas1r2 could respond to artificial sweeteners and sweet-tasting proteins. However, the responses induced by rhesus monkey Tas1r2 could not be inhibited by the sweet inhibitor amiloride. Moreover, we found a species-dependent activation of the Tas1r2 monomeric receptors of human, rhesus monkey and squirrel monkey but not mouse by an intense sweetener perillartine. Molecular modeling and sequence analysis indicate that the receptor has the conserved domains and ligand-specific interactive residues, which have been identified in the characterized sweet taste receptors up to now. This is the first report of the functional characterization of sweet taste receptors from an Old World monkey species.

  15. Monkeys Wait to Begin a Computer Task when Waiting Makes Their Responses More Effective

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    Theodore A. Evans

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta and capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella performed a computerized inhibitory control task modeled after an “escalating interest task” from a recent human study (Young, Webb, & Jacobs, 2011. In the original study, which utilized a first-person shooter game, human participants learned to inhibit firing their simulated weapon long enough for the weapon‟s damage potential to grow in effectiveness (up to 10 seconds in duration. In the present study, monkeys earned food pellets for eliminating arrays of target objects using a digital eraser. We assessed whether monkeys could suppress trial-initiating joystick movements long enough for the eraser to grow in size and speed, thereby making their eventual responses more effective. Monkeys of both species learned to inhibit moving the eraser for as long as 10 seconds, and they allowed the eraser to grow larger for successively larger target arrays. This study demonstrates an interesting parallel in behavioral inhibition between human and nonhuman participants and provides a method for future comparative testing of human and nonhuman test groups.

  16. Age-dependent decreases of calcium, phosphorus, sulfur, and zinc in the cardiac valves of monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menetti, Federico; Tohno, Setsuko; Tohno, Yoshiyuki; Azuma, Cho; Moriwake, Yumi; Satoh, Hiroyasu; Minami, Takeshi; Mahakkanukrauh, Pasuk; Oishi, Takao; Hayashi, Motoharu

    2005-09-01

    To elucidate compositional changes of the cardiac valves in monkey with aging, the authors investigated age-related changes of elements in the four cardiac valves of rhesus and Japanese monkeys and the relationships among elements by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The four cardiac valves of the aortic, pulmonary, mitral, and tricuspid valves were resected from 19 rhesus and 11 Japanese monkeys, ranging in age from 10 d to 33 yr. The element contents were determined by ICP-AES. It was found that the Ca, P, S, and Zn contents were high in the four cardiac valves of the monkeys below 1 yr and thereafter decreased significantly with aging, except for Ca in the mitral valve, for which no significant correlation was found between age and Ca content. The Ca and P contents did not increase in the four cardiac valves at old age. This result revealed that calcification scarcely occurred in the four cardiac valves at old age. With regard to the relationships among elements, it was found that there were significant direct correlations among the Ca, P, S, and Zn contents in all of the four cardiac valves of the monkeys, with two exceptions between P and Zn contents in both the aortic and pulmonary valves. Therefore, as Ca decreased in the four cardiac valves, P, S, and Zn decreased simultaneously in the same cardiac valves.

  17. Ventilatory effects of negative GABA(A) modulators in rhesus monkeys.

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    Gerak, L R; Estupinan, L E; France, C P

    1998-12-01

    This study examined changes in ventilation produced by negative gamma-aminobutyric acid(A) (GABA(A)) modulators in rhesus monkeys. The effects of Ro 15-4513, beta-CCE and beta-CCM were examined in four rhesus monkeys breathing air or 5% CO2 in air. When monkeys breathed CO2, minute volume (VE) and frequency (f) increased, on average, to 158 and 140% of control (air), respectively. Ro 15-4513 did not modify ventilation in monkeys breathing either gas mixture; however, beta-CCE and beta-CCM increased VE and f in monkeys breathing air to between 123 and 141% of control and had no effect on ventilation of 5% CO2. Increased ventilation produced by the negative GABA(A) modulators appeared to be maximal, because ventilation was not further enhanced when the dose was increased three-fold. Each of the three negative GABA(A) modulators reversed the decreases in ventilation produced by diazepam, suggesting that these drugs are acting at benzodiazepine receptors; however, the increased ventilation produced by beta-CCE and beta-CCM might suggest that they have more negative efficacy than Ro 15-4513. These data extend previous findings by showing that some negative GABA(A) modulators (Ro 15-4513) do not alter ventilation and further indicate that changes in ventilation can be used to evaluate efficacy differences among GABA(A) modulators.

  18. Discriminative-stimulus effects of triazolam and midazolam in rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelas, S; Gerak, L R; France, C P

    1999-02-01

    The present study characterized the discriminative-stimulus effects of triazolam and midazolam in rhesus monkeys. Six monkeys discriminated 0.1 mg/kg of triazolam from vehicle under a fixed-ratio 5 (FR 5) schedule of stimulus-shock termination (SST). Four monkeys subsequently discriminated 0.56 mg/kg of midazolam from vehicle under the same schedule of reinforcement. Benzodiazepine (BDZ) agonists midazolam and diazepam, and the barbiturate pentobarbital, substituted for triazolam, and the non-competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist ketamine did not. Triazolam, diazepam, lorazepam, flunitrazepam, as well as the barbiturates amobarbital and pentobarbital, substituted for midazolam, and ketamine did not. The BDZ antagonist flumazenil antagonized both the triazolam and midazolam discriminative stimuli. Bretazenil, a low-efficacy BDZ agonist, did not substitute for the midazolam discriminative stimulus in three of the monkeys and shifted the midazolam dose-effect curve to the right; in a fourth monkey, bretazenil substituted for midazolam and shifted the midazolam dose-effect curve to the left. Schild analyses with flumazenil or bretazenil, in combination with midazolam, yielded slopes that deviated significantly from unity. While clearly supporting the notion that BDZ agonists produce stimulus effects by acting at the gamma-aminobutyric acidA (GABA(A)) receptor complex, these data also suggest that the discriminative-stimulus effects of midazolam might be mediated by more than one BDZ receptor subtype.

  19. Functional disruption of the dystrophin gene in rhesus monkey using CRISPR/Cas9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yongchang; Zheng, Yinghui; Kang, Yu; Yang, Weili; Niu, Yuyu; Guo, Xiangyu; Tu, Zhuchi; Si, Chenyang; Wang, Hong; Xing, Ruxiao; Pu, Xiuqiong; Yang, Shang-Hsun; Li, Shihua; Ji, Weizhi; Li, Xiao-Jiang

    2015-07-01

    CRISPR/Cas9 has been used to genetically modify genomes in a variety of species, including non-human primates. Unfortunately, this new technology does cause mosaic mutations, and we do not yet know whether such mutations can functionally disrupt the targeted gene or cause the pathology seen in human disease. Addressing these issues is necessary if we are to generate large animal models of human diseases using CRISPR/Cas9. Here we used CRISPR/Cas9 to target the monkey dystrophin gene to create mutations that lead to Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), a recessive X-linked form of muscular dystrophy. Examination of the relative targeting rate revealed that Crispr/Cas9 targeting could lead to mosaic mutations in up to 87% of the dystrophin alleles in monkey muscle. Moreover, CRISPR/Cas9 induced mutations in both male and female monkeys, with the markedly depleted dystrophin and muscle degeneration seen in early DMD. Our findings indicate that CRISPR/Cas9 can efficiently generate monkey models of human diseases, regardless of inheritance patterns. The presence of degenerated muscle cells in newborn Cas9-targeted monkeys suggests that therapeutic interventions at the early disease stage may be effective at alleviating the myopathy. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Rhesus monkeys show human-like changes in gaze following across the lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, Alexandra G; Arre, Alyssa M; Platt, Michael L; Santos, Laurie R

    2016-05-11

    Gaze following, or co-orienting with others, is a foundational skill for human social behaviour. The emergence of this capacity scaffolds critical human-specific abilities such as theory of mind and language. Non-human primates also follow others' gaze, but less is known about how the cognitive mechanisms supporting this behaviour develop over the lifespan. Here we experimentally tested gaze following in 481 semi-free-ranging rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) ranging from infancy to old age. We found that monkeys began to follow gaze in infancy and this response peaked in the juvenile period-suggesting that younger monkeys were especially attuned to gaze information, like humans. After sexual maturity, monkeys exhibited human-like sex differences in gaze following, with adult females showing more gaze following than males. Finally, older monkeys showed reduced propensity to follow gaze, just as older humans do. In a second study (n = 80), we confirmed that macaques exhibit similar baseline rates of looking upwards in a control condition, regardless of age. Our findings indicate that-despite important differences in human and non-human primate life-history characteristics and typical social experiences-monkeys undergo robust ontogenetic shifts in gaze following across early development, adulthood and ageing that are strikingly similar to those of humans. © 2016 The Author(s).

  1. Physical Features of Visual Images Affect Macaque Monkey's Preference for These Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funahashi, Shintaro

    2016-01-01

    Animals exhibit different degrees of preference toward various visual stimuli. In addition, it has been shown that strongly preferred stimuli can often act as a reward. The aim of the present study was to determine what features determine the strength of the preference for visual stimuli in order to examine neural mechanisms of preference judgment. We used 50 color photographs obtained from the Flickr Material Database (FMD) as original stimuli. Four macaque monkeys performed a simple choice task, in which two stimuli selected randomly from among the 50 stimuli were simultaneously presented on a monitor and monkeys were required to choose either stimulus by eye movements. We considered that the monkeys preferred the chosen stimulus if it continued to look at the stimulus for an additional 6 s and calculated a choice ratio for each stimulus. Each monkey exhibited a different choice ratio for each of the original 50 stimuli. They tended to select clear, colorful and in-focus stimuli. Complexity and clarity were stronger determinants of preference than colorfulness. Images that included greater amounts of spatial frequency components were selected more frequently. These results indicate that particular physical features of the stimulus can affect the strength of a monkey's preference and that the complexity, clarity and colorfulness of the stimulus are important determinants of this preference. Neurophysiological studies would be needed to examine whether these features of visual stimuli produce more activation in neurons that participate in this preference judgment.

  2. Comparative analysis of field-isolate and monkey-adapted Plasmodium vivax genomes.

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    Ernest R Chan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Significant insights into the biology of Plasmodium vivax have been gained from the ability to successfully adapt human infections to non-human primates. P. vivax strains grown in monkeys serve as a renewable source of parasites for in vitro and ex vivo experimental studies and functional assays, or for studying in vivo the relapse characteristics, mosquito species compatibilities, drug susceptibility profiles or immune responses towards potential vaccine candidates. Despite the importance of these studies, little is known as to how adaptation to a different host species may influence the genome of P. vivax. In addition, it is unclear whether these monkey-adapted strains consist of a single clonal population of parasites or if they retain the multiclonal complexity commonly observed in field isolates. Here we compare the genome sequences of seven P. vivax strains adapted to New World monkeys with those of six human clinical isolates collected directly in the field. We show that the adaptation of P. vivax parasites to monkey hosts, and their subsequent propagation, did not result in significant modifications of their genome sequence and that these monkey-adapted strains recapitulate the genomic diversity of field isolates. Our analyses also reveal that these strains are not always genetically homogeneous and should be analyzed cautiously. Overall, our study provides a framework to better leverage this important research material and fully utilize this resource for improving our understanding of P. vivax biology.

  3. Learning by observation in the macaque monkey under high experimental constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isbaine, Faiçal; Demolliens, Marie; Belmalih, Abdelouahed; Brovelli, Andrea; Boussaoud, Driss

    2015-08-01

    While neuroscience research has tremendously advanced our knowledge about the neural mechanisms of individual learning, i.e. through trial-and-error, it is only recently that neuroscientists have begun to study observational learning, and thus little is known about its neural mechanisms. One limitation is that observational learning has been addressed under unconstrained experimental conditions, not compatible with neuronal recordings. This study examined observational learning in macaque monkeys under the constraining conditions of behavioral neurophysiology. Two animals sat in primate chairs facing each other, with their head fixed. A touch screen was placed face up between the chairs at arm's reach, and the monkeys were trained on an abstract visuomotor associative task. In one experiment, the monkeys alternated the roles of "actor" and "observer". The actor learned to associate visual cues with reaching targets, while the observer "watched" freely. Then, the observer was given the same cue-target associations just performed by the actor, or had to learn new, not previously observed ones. The results show that learning performance is better after observation. In experiment 2, one monkey learned from a human actor who performed the task with errors only, or with successes only in separate blocks. The monkey's gain in performance was higher after observation of errors than after successes. The findings suggest that observational learning can occur even under highly constraining conditions, and open the way for investigating the neuronal correlates of social learning using the methods of behavioral neurophysiology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) show robust evidence for memory awareness across multiple generalization tests.

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    Templer, Victoria L; Hampton, Robert R

    2012-05-01

    The possibility that memory awareness occurs in nonhuman animals has been evaluated by providing opportunity to decline memory tests. Current evidence suggests that rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) selectively decline tests when memory is weak (Hampton in Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98:5359-5362, 2001; Smith et al. in Behav Brain Sci 26:317-374, 2003). However, much of the existing research in nonhuman metacognition is subject to the criticism that, after considerable training on one test type, subjects learn to decline difficult trials based on associative learning of external test-specific contingencies rather than by evaluating the private status of memory or other cognitive states. We evaluated whether such test-specific associations could account for performance by presenting monkeys with a series of generalization tests across which no single association with external stimuli was likely to adaptively control use of the decline response. Six monkeys performed a four alternative delayed matching to location task and were significantly more accurate on trials with a decline option available than on trials without it, indicating that subjects selectively declined tests when memory was weak. Monkeys transferred appropriate use of the decline response under three conditions that assessed generalization: two tests that weakened memory and one test that enhanced memory in a novel way. Bidirectional generalization indicates that use of the decline response by monkeys is not controlled by specific external stimuli but is rather a flexible behavior based on a private assessment of memory.

  5. Capuchin Monkeys Alternate Play and Reward in a Dual Computerized Task

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    Audrey E. Parrish

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Many animals cooperate with one another to achieve outcomes that they could not obtain on their own. One form of cooperation that has received much attention but little empirical support from experimental studies is reciprocity, leaving open the question of whether animals will work to provide benefits to others. Although there is some evidence of reciprocal behavior in animals, early work in macaque monkeys showed that while they would initially work to pay another individual (who could then return the favor, they ceased doing so over time. Here, we extended this investigation of reciprocity to capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella, a species known for cooperating and providing each other with rewards in other contexts. We investigated whether capuchin monkeys would engage in a dual computer task that required alternating work by two animals, such that food rewards earned by one individual were delivered to the partner. Unlike previous research, capuchin monkeys sustained work on the task when their actions benefited only another monkey, even with progressively longer delays between the subject’s actions that rewarded the partner and the partner’s subsequent actions that rewarded the subject. A separate question was the degree to which subjects understood their actions as social. We assessed whether subjects’ behaviors were influenced by the presence or absence of a partner. Subjects behaved differently in the two conditions, indicating that future research investigating what subjects understand about their partners is warranted.

  6. Testicular Fibrous Hypoplasia in Cynomolgus Monkeys ( Macaca fascicularis): An Incidental, Congenital Lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira Bacares, Marcia E; Vemireddi, Vimala; Creasy, Dianne

    2017-06-01

    Testicular fibrous hypoplasia is an incidental lesion characterized by replacement of the testicular parenchyma by mature collagen. A retrospective survey of hematoxylin and eosin-stained testicular sections from 722 purpose-bred Asian and 90 Mauritian cynomolgus monkeys from 56 safety assessment studies conducted between 1999 and 2011 was performed. The incidence of the lesion increased markedly over time. No cases occurred between 1999 and 2004. Between 2005 and 2009, the incidence ranged between 8.1% and 11.0% of the monkeys examined and then rose to 26.1% in 2010 and 30.9% in 2011. Overall, the lesion was identified in 10.94% of Asian monkeys with the highest incidence in animals originating from China and Vietnam; severity ranged from minimal to severe and it occurred unilaterally (38.5%) and bilaterally (61.5%). In Mauritian monkeys, the lesion was predominantly minimal in severity, bilateral in distribution, and affected 6.6% of the animals examined. The lesion occurred regardless of sexual maturation status but when present in mature monkeys was often associated with cystic tubular atrophy of the seminiferous epithelium. Based on the morphological characteristics of the lesion and the unilateral/bilateral distribution, the lesion is considered to be a congenital or developmental abnormality.

  7. Owl monkey CCR5 reveals synergism between CD4 and CCR5 in HIV-1 entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahabedian, John; Sharma, Amit; Kaczmarek, Maryska E; Wilkerson, Greg K; Sawyer, Sara L; Overbaugh, Julie

    2017-12-01

    Studying HIV-1 replication in the presence of functionally related proteins from different species has helped define host determinants of HIV-1 infection. Humans and owl monkeys, but not macaques, encode a CD4 receptor that permits entry of transmissible HIV-1 variants due to a single residue difference. However, little is known about whether divergent CCR5 receptor proteins act as determinants of host-range. Here we show that both owl monkey (Aotus vociferans) CD4 and CCR5 receptors are functional for the entry of transmitted HIV-1 when paired with human versions of the other receptor. By contrast, the owl monkey CD4/CCR5 pair is generally a suboptimal receptor combination, although there is virus-specific variation in infection with owl monkey receptors. Introduction of the human residues 15Y and 16T within a sulfation motif into owl monkey CCR5 resulted in a gain of function. These findings suggest there is cross-talk between CD4 and CCR5 involving the sulfation motif. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Subsecond timing in primates: comparison of interval production between human subjects and rhesus monkeys.

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    Zarco, Wilbert; Merchant, Hugo; Prado, Luis; Mendez, Juan Carlos

    2009-12-01

    This study describes the psychometric similarities and differences in motor timing performance between 20 human subjects and three rhesus monkeys during two timing production tasks. These tasks involved tapping on a push-button to produce the same set of intervals (range of 450 to 1,000 ms), but they differed in the number of intervals produced (single vs. multiple) and the modality of the stimuli (auditory vs. visual) used to define the time intervals. The data showed that for both primate species, variability increased as a function of the length of the produced target interval across tasks, a result in accordance with the scalar property. Interestingly, the temporal performance of rhesus monkeys was equivalent to that of human subjects during both the production of single intervals and the tapping synchronization to a metronome. Overall, however, human subjects were more accurate than monkeys and showed less timing variability. This was especially true during the self-pacing phase of the multiple interval production task, a behavior that may be related to complex temporal cognition, such as speech and music execution. In addition, the well-known human bias toward auditory as opposed to visual cues for the accurate execution of time intervals was not evident in rhesus monkeys. These findings validate the rhesus monkey as an appropriate model for the study of the neural basis of time production, but also suggest that the exquisite temporal abilities of humans, which peak in speech and music performance, are not all shared with macaques.

  9. Prefrontal neurons represent winning and losing during competitive video shooting games between monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosokawa, Takayuki; Watanabe, Masataka

    2012-05-30

    Humans and animals must work to support their survival and reproductive needs. Because resources are limited in the natural environment, competition is inevitable, and competing successfully is vitally important. However, the neuronal mechanisms of competitive behavior are poorly studied. We examined whether neurons in the lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) showed response sensitivity related to a competitive game. In this study, monkeys played a video shooting game, either competing with another monkey or the computer, or playing alone without a rival. Monkeys performed more quickly and more accurately in the competitive than in the noncompetitive games, indicating that they were more motivated in the competitive than in the noncompetitive games. LPFC neurons showed differential activity between the competitive and noncompetitive games showing winning- and losing-related activity. Furthermore, activities of prefrontal neurons differed depending on whether the competition was between monkeys or between the monkey and the computer. These results indicate that LPFC neurons may play an important role in monitoring the outcome of competition and enabling animals to adapt their behavior to increase their chances of obtaining a reward in a socially interactive environment.

  10. Rimonabant-Induced Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Withdrawal in Rhesus Monkeys: Discriminative Stimulus Effects and Other Withdrawal Signs

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, Jennifer L.; McMahon, Lance R.

    2010-01-01

    Marijuana-dependent individuals report using marijuana to alleviate withdrawal, suggesting that pharmacotherapy of marijuana withdrawal could promote abstinence. To identify potential pharmacotherapies for marijuana withdrawal, this study first characterized rimonabant-induced Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) withdrawal in rhesus monkeys by using drug discrimination and directly observable signs. Second, drugs were examined for their capacity to modify cannabinoid withdrawal. Monkeys receivin...

  11. Induced Neurocysticercosis in Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta Produces Clinical Signs and Lesions Similar to Natural Disease in Man

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    N. Chowdhury

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurocysticercosis is a serious endemic zoonosis resulting in increased cases of seizure and epilepsy in humans. The genesis of clinical manifestations of the disease through experimental animal models is poorly exploited. The monkeys may prove useful for the purpose due to their behavior and cognitive responses mimicking man. In this study, neurocysticercosis was induced in two rhesus monkeys each with 12,000 and 6,000 eggs, whereas three monkeys were given placebo. The monkeys given higher dose developed hyperexcitability, epileptic seizures, muscular tremors, digital cramps at 10 DPI, and finally paralysis of limbs, followed by death on 67 DPI, whereas the monkeys given lower dose showed delayed and milder clinical signs. On necropsy, all the infected monkeys showed numerous cysticerci in the brain. Histopathologically, heavily infected monkeys revealed liquefactive necrosis and formation of irregular cystic cavities lined by atrophied parenchymal septa with remnants of neuropil of the cerebrum. In contrast, the monkeys infected with lower dose showed formation of typical foreign body granulomas characterized by central liquefaction surrounded by chronic inflammatory response. It was concluded that the inflammatory and immune response exerted by the host against cysticerci, in turn, led to histopathological lesions and the resultant clinical signs thereof.

  12. Habitat preferences, diet, feeding strategy and social organization of the black spider monkey (Ateles paniscus paniscus Linnaeus 1758) in Surinam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roosmalen, van M.G.M.

    1980-01-01

    This study describes habitat choice of the Surinam black spider monkey ( Atelespaniscuspaniscus ) and clarifies complex temporal and spatial effects of food sources on the behaviour of a group of spider monkeys in a 350 ha study area in

  13. Prevention of capsule opacification after accommodating lens refilling : Pilot study of strategies evaluated in a monkey model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, Steven A.; Terwee, Thom; Hanssen, Alex; Martin, Heiner; Langner, Soenke; Stachs, Oliver; van Kooten, Theo G.

    PURPOSE: To test 2 strategies to prevent capsule opacification after accommodating lens refilling in a rhesus monkey model. SETTING: Animal laboratory and laboratory of European university medical centers. DESIGN: Experimental study. METHODS: Six rhesus monkeys had refilling of the lens capsular

  14. Empty Sets as Part of the Numerical Continuum: Conceptual Precursors to the Zero Concept in Rhesus Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, Dustin J.; Rugani, Rosa; Brannon, Elizabeth M.

    2009-01-01

    The goal of the current research was to explore whether monkeys possess conceptual precursors necessary for understanding zero. We trained rhesus monkeys on a nonsymbolic numerical matching-to-sample task, and on a numerical ordering task. We then introduced nondifferentially reinforced trials that contained empty sets to determine whether monkeys…

  15. Anatomical and radiographic appearance of the capuchin monkey thoracic cavity (Cebus apella

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    Flávio R. Alves

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The capuchin monkey is widespread both north and south of the Legal Amazon and in the Brazilian cerrado. Ten clinically healthy capuchin monkeys were submitted to an anatomical and radiographic study of their thoracic cavities. The radiographic evaluation allowed the description of biometric values associated with the cardiac silhouette and thoracic structures. Application of the VHS (vertebral heart size method showed positive correlation (P<0.05 with depth of the thoracic cavity, as well as between the body length of vertebrae T3, T4, T5 and T6 and the cardiac length and width. The lung fields showed a diffuse interstitial pattern, more visible in the caudal lung lobes and a bronchial pattern in the middle and cranial lung lobes. The radiographic examination allowed preliminary inferences to be made concerning the syntopy of the thoracic structures and modification of the pulmonary patterns and cardiac anatomy for the capuchin monkey.

  16. The monkey selfie: copyright lessons for originality in photographs and internet jurisdiction

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    Andrés Guadamuz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In 2011, a macaque monkey used a camera belonging to British photographer David Slater in Indonesia to take a self-portrait. The selfie picture became famous worldwide after it was published in the British media. In 2014 Slater sent a removal request to Wikimedia Commons, which indicated that the picture was in the public domain because it had been taken by the monkey and animals cannot own copyright works. While most of the legal analysis so far has been centred around US law, this article takes a completely different approach. Re-assessing jurisdictional issues, I examine the case from a UK and European perspective. The monkey selfie is of importance to internet policy: it has a lot to teach us about online jurisdiction. Under current originality rules, David Slater has a good copyright claim for ownership of the picture.

  17. The Signature of Maternal Social Rank in Placenta Deoxyribonucleic Acid Methylation Profiles in Rhesus Monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massart, Renaud; Suderman, Matthew J; Nemoda, Zsofia; Sutti, Sheila; Ruggiero, Angela M; Dettmer, Amanda M; Suomi, Stephen J; Szyf, Moshe

    2017-05-01

    The effects of social status on human health can be modeled in captive cohorts of nonhuman primates. This study shows that maternal social rank is associated with broad changes in DNA methylation in placentae of rhesus monkeys (N = 10). Differentially methylated genes between social ranks are enriched in signaling pathways playing major roles in placenta physiology. Moreover, the authors found significant overlaps with genes whose expression was previously associated with social rank in adult rhesus monkeys (Tung et al., 2012) and whose methylation was associated with perinatal stress in newborn humans and rhesus monkeys (Nieratschker et al., 2014). These results are consistent with the hypothesis that system-wide epigenetic changes in multiple tissues are involved in long-term adaptations to the social environment. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  18. The calcium endocrine system of adolescent rhesus monkeys and controls before and after spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaud, Sara B.; Navidi, Meena; Deftos, Leonard; Thierry-Palmer, Myrtle; Dotsenko, Rita; Bigbee, Allison; Grindeland, Richard E.

    2002-01-01

    The calcium endocrine system of nonhuman primates can be influenced by chairing for safety and the weightless environment of spaceflight. The serum of two rhesus monkeys flown on the Bion 11 mission was assayed pre- and postflight for vitamin D metabolites, parathyroid hormone, calcitonin, parameters of calcium homeostasis, cortisol, and indexes of renal function. Results were compared with the same measures from five monkeys before and after chairing for a flight simulation study. Concentrations of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D were 72% lower after the flight than before, and more than after chairing on the ground (57%, P endocrine system were similar to the effects of chairing on the ground, but were more pronounced. Reduced intestinal calcium absorption, losses in body weight, increases in cortisol, and higher postflight blood urea nitrogen were the changes in flight monkeys that distinguished them from the flight simulation study animals.

  19. Viscoelastic Characterization of Peripapillary Sclera: Material Properties by Quadrant in Rabbit and Monkey Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, J. Crawford; Suh, J-K. Francis; Thomas, Kevin A.; Bellezza, Anthony J.; Burgoyne, Claude F.; Hart, Richard T.

    2009-01-01

    In this report we characterize the viscoelastic material properties of peripapillary sclera from the four quadrants surrounding the optic nerve head in both rabbit and monkey eyes. Scleral tensile specimens harvested from each quadrant were subjected to uniaxial stress relaxation and tensile ramp to failure tests. Linear viscoelastic theory, coupled with a spectral reduced relaxation function, was employed to characterize the viscoelastic properties of the tissues. We detected no differences in the stress-strain curves of specimens from the four quadrants surrounding the optic nerve head (ONH) below a strain of 4 percent in either the rabbit or monkey. While the peripapillary sclera from monkey eyes is significantly stiffer (both instantaneously and in equilibrium) and relaxes more slowly than that from rabbits, we detected no differences in the viscoelastic material properties (tested at strains of 0–1 percent) of sclera from the four quadrants surrounding the ONH within either species group. PMID:12661206

  20. Protective Efficacy of Adenovirus/Protein Vaccines Against SIV Challenges in Rhesus Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barouch, Dan H.; Alter, Galit; Broge, Thomas; Linde, Caitlyn; Ackerman, Margaret E.; Brown, Eric P.; Borducchi, Erica N.; Smith, Kaitlin M.; Nkolola, Joseph P.; Liu, Jinyan; Shields, Jennifer; Parenteau, Lily; Whitney, James B.; Abbink, Peter; Ng’ang’a, David M.; Seaman, Michael S.; Lavine, Christy L.; Perry, James R.; Li, Wenjun; Colantonio, Arnaud D.; Lewis, Mark G.; Chen, Bing; Wenschuh, Holger; Reimer, Ulf; Piatak, Michael; Lifson, Jeffrey D.; Handley, Scott A.; Virgin, Herbert W.; Koutsoukos, Marguerite; Lorin, Clarisse; Voss, Gerald; Weijtens, Mo; Pau, Maria G.; Schuitemaker, Hanneke

    2015-01-01

    Preclinical studies of viral vector-based HIV-1 vaccine candidates have previously shown partial protection against stringent virus challenges in rhesus monkeys. In this study, we evaluated the protective efficacy of adenovirus serotype 26 (Ad26) vector priming followed by boosting with a purified envelope (Env) glycoprotein. Rhesus monkeys primed with Ad26 vectors expressing SIVsmE543 Env/Gag/Pol antigens and boosted with AS01B-adjuvanted SIVmac32H Env gp140 demonstrated complete protection in 50% of vaccinated animals against a series of repetitive, heterologous, intrarectal SIVmac251 challenges that infected all controls. Protective efficacy correlated with the functionality of Env-specific antibody responses. Comparable protection was also observed with a similar Ad/Env vaccine against repetitive, heterologous, intrarectal SHIV-SF162P3 challenges. These data demonstrate robust protection by Ad/Env vaccines against acquisition of stringent virus challenges in rhesus monkeys. PMID:26138104

  1. Polymorphic New World monkeys with more than three M/L cone types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Gerald H.; Deegan, Jess F.

    2005-10-01

    Most New World (platyrrhine) monkeys have M/L cone photopigment polymorphisms that map directly into individual variations in visual sensitivity and color vision. We used electroretinogram flicker photometry to examine M/L cone photopigments in the New World monkey Callicebus moloch (the dusky Titi). Like other New World monkeys, this species has an M/L cone photopigment polymorphism that reflects the presence of X-chromosome opsin gene alleles. However, unlike other platyrrhines in which three M/L photopigments are typical, Callicebus has a total of five M/L cone photopigments. The peak sensitivity values for these pigments extend across the range from 530 to 562 nm. The result is an enhanced array of potential color vision phenotypes in this species.

  2. Third-party social evaluations of humans by monkeys and dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, James R; Bucher, Benoit; Chijiiwa, Hitomi; Kuroshima, Hika; Takimoto, Ayaka; Fujita, Kazuo

    2017-11-01

    Developmental psychologists are increasingly interested in young children's evaluations of individuals based on third-party interactions. Studies have shown that infants react negatively to agents who display harmful intentions toward others, and to those who behave unfairly. We describe experimental studies of capuchin monkeys' and pet dogs' differential reactions to people who are helpful or unhelpful in third-party contexts, and monkeys' responses to people who behave unfairly in exchanges of objects with a third party. We also present evidence that capuchin monkeys monitor the context of failures to help and violations of reciprocity, and that intentionality is one factor underlying their social evaluations of individuals whom they see interacting with others. We conclude by proposing some questions for studies of nonhuman species' third party-based social evaluations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. STUDIES ON ACUTE DISSEMINATED ENCEPHALOMYELITIS PRODUCED EXPERIMENTALLY IN RHESUS MONKEYS. III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabat, Elvin A.; Wolf, Abner; Bezer, Ada E.

    1948-01-01

    The factor in brain tissue which induces acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, when injected into rhesus monkeys as an emulsion with adjuvants, has been found in human, monkey, rabbit, and chicken brain but is absent from frog and fish brain. It is unaffected by fixation of the brain in formalin, by boiling, and by treatment with ultrasound. It is present in the spinal cord of 3 day old rabbits but does not appear in the rabbit cerebrum until about the 12th day of life; in this respect it parallels the laying down of myelin. Attempts to produce the encephalomyelitis passively with large quantities of serum or of cell exudates, and suspensions of cells from spleen and lymph node from monkeys with encephalomyelitis, were unsuccessful. PMID:18884901

  4. Retropositional events consolidate the branching order among New World monkey genera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterholz, Martin; Walter, Lutz; Roos, Christian

    2009-03-01

    Due to contradicting relationships obtained from various morphological and genetic studies, phylogenetic relationships among New World monkey genera are highly disputed. In the present study, we analyzed the presence/absence pattern of 128 SINE integrations in all New World monkey genera. Among them, 70 were specific for only a single genus, whereas another 18 were present in all New World monkey genera. The 40 remaining insertions were informative to elucidate phylogenetic relationships among genera. Several of them confirmed the monophyly of the three families Cebidae, Atelidae and Pitheciidae as well as of the subfamily Callithrichinae. Further markers provided evidence for a sister grouping of Cebidae and Atelidae to the exclusion of Pitheciidae as well as for relationships among genera belonging to Callithrichinae and Atelidae. Although a close affiliation of Saimiri, Aotus and Cebus to Callithrichinae was shown, the relationships among the three genera remained unresolved due to three contradicting insertions.

  5. Nuclear versus mitochondrial DNA: evidence for hybridization in colobine monkeys

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    Ziegler Thomas

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Colobine monkeys constitute a diverse group of primates with major radiations in Africa and Asia. However, phylogenetic relationships among genera are under debate, and recent molecular studies with incomplete taxon-sampling revealed discordant gene trees. To solve the evolutionary history of colobine genera and to determine causes for possible gene tree incongruences, we combined presence/absence analysis of mobile elements with autosomal, X chromosomal, Y chromosomal and mitochondrial sequence data from all recognized colobine genera. Results Gene tree topologies and divergence age estimates derived from different markers were similar, but differed in placing Piliocolobus/Procolobus and langur genera among colobines. Although insufficient data, homoplasy and incomplete lineage sorting might all have contributed to the discordance among gene trees, hybridization is favored as the main cause of the observed discordance. We propose that African colobines are paraphyletic, but might later have experienced female introgression from Piliocolobus/Procolobus into Colobus. In the late Miocene, colobines invaded Eurasia and diversified into several lineages. Among Asian colobines, Semnopithecus diverged first, indicating langur paraphyly. However, unidirectional gene flow from Semnopithecus into Trachypithecus via male introgression followed by nuclear swamping might have occurred until the earliest Pleistocene. Conclusions Overall, our study provides the most comprehensive view on colobine evolution to date and emphasizes that analyses of various molecular markers, such as mobile elements and sequence data from multiple loci, are crucial to better understand evolutionary relationships and to trace hybridization events. Our results also suggest that sex-specific dispersal patterns, promoted by a respective social organization of the species involved, can result in different hybridization scenarios.

  6. Monkeys benefit from reciprocity without the cognitive burden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchak, Malini; de Waal, Frans B. M.

    2012-01-01

    The debate about the origins of human prosociality has focused on the presence or absence of similar tendencies in other species, and, recently, attention has turned to the underlying mechanisms. We investigated whether direct reciprocity could promote prosocial behavior in brown capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella). Twelve capuchins tested in pairs could choose between two tokens, with one being “prosocial” in that it rewarded both individuals (i.e., 1/1), and the other being “selfish” in that it rewarded the chooser only (i.e., 1/0). Each monkey’s choices with a familiar partner from their own group was compared with choices when paired with a partner from a different group. Capuchins were spontaneously prosocial, selecting the prosocial option at the same rate regardless of whether they were paired with an in-group or out-group partner. This indicates that interaction outside of the experimental setting played no role. When the paradigm was changed, such that both partners alternated making choices, prosocial preference significantly increased, leading to mutualistic payoffs. As no contingency could be detected between an individual’s choice and their partner’s previous choice, and choices occurred in rapid succession, reciprocity seemed of a relatively vague nature akin to mutualism. Having the partner receive a better reward than the chooser (i.e., 1/2) during the alternating condition increased the payoffs of mutual prosociality, and prosocial choice increased accordingly. The outcome of several controls made it hard to explain these results on the basis of reward distribution or learned preferences, and rather suggested that joint action promotes prosociality, resulting in so-called attitudinal reciprocity. PMID:22949668

  7. Metatarsal torsion in monkeys, apes, humans and australopiths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drapeau, Michelle S M; Harmon, Elizabeth H

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of metatarsal torsion in apes, cercopithecoids and humans, compares australopiths with these species, and discusses their inferred foot morphology and function relative to prehensility, arboreality and the presence or absence of a longitudinal arch. Our results show that locomotor modes are reflected in metatarsal torsion values. Apes, which climb vertically with their foot inverted, have hallucal metatarsal heads that are turned toward the other toes and lateral toes that are inverted. Cercopithecoids, which tend to orient their feet in an axis more parallel to the line of motion, present signs of prehensility by having inverted 2nd metatarsals that oppose the hallux, while their two lateral-most metatarsals are strongly everted. Humans, with their rigid feet and longitudinal arches, have all toes that present their plantar surface toward the ground, resulting in hallucal and 2nd metatarsals that are relatively untwisted and the others that are strongly everted. Humans are different from all taxa only for the 2nd and 3rd metatarsal. It is hypothesized that the untwisted 2nd metatarsal reflects the lack of digit opposability of the medial foot and the strongly everted 3rd metatarsal reflects the longitudinal arch. Australopithecus afarensis was characterized by an everted lateral foot, the prerequisite for the development, but not necessarily an indicator, of a longitudinal arch. In Australopithecus africanus, torsion of fragmentary and complete 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 5th metatarsals suggest that the species did not have a foot with monkey- or ape-like prehensile capabilities and did not have a human-like longitudinal arch. In the Swartkrans remains, torsion is consistent with an unprehensile foot. The morphology of the fossils indicates that there was strong selection to orient the plantar surface of the toes facing the ground at the expense of a grasping foot and inversion ability. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Discriminative stimulus effects of pregnanolone in rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerak, Lisa R; France, Charles P

    2014-01-01

    Neuroactive steroids and benzodiazepines can positively modulate GABA by acting at distinct binding sites on synaptic GABA(A) receptors. Although these receptors are thought to mediate the behavioral effects of both benzodiazepines and neuroactive steroids, other receptors (e.g., extrasynaptic GABA(A), N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), σ₁, or 5-HT₃ receptors) might contribute to the effects of neuroactive steroids, accounting for differences among positive modulators. The current study established the neuroactive steroid pregnanolone as a discriminative stimulus to determine whether actions in addition to positive modulation of synaptic GABA(A) receptors might contribute to its discriminative stimulus effects. Four rhesus monkeys discriminated 5.6 mg/kg pregnanolone while responding under a fixed-ratio 10 schedule of stimulus-shock termination. Positive modulators acting at benzodiazepine, barbiturate, or neuroactive steroid sites produced ≥80 % pregnanolone-lever responding, whereas drugs acting primarily at receptors other than synaptic GABA(A) receptors, such as extrasynaptic GABA(A), NMDA, σ₁, and 5-HT₃ receptors, produced vehicle-lever responding. Flumazenil antagonized the benzodiazepines midazolam and flunitrazepam, with Schild analyses yielding slopes that did not deviate from unity and pA₂ values of 7.39 and 7.32, respectively. Flumazenil did not alter the discriminative stimulus effects of pregnanolone. While these results do not exclude the possibility that pregnanolone acts at receptors other than synaptic GABA(A) receptors, they indicate a primary and possibly exclusive role of synaptic GABA(A) receptors in its discriminative stimulus effects. Reported differences in the effects of benzodiazepines and neuroactive steroids are not due to differences in their actions at synaptic GABA(A) receptors.

  9. MRI Overestimates Excitotoxic Amygdala Lesion Damage in Rhesus Monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin M. Basile

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Selective, fiber-sparing excitotoxic lesions are a state-of-the-art tool for determining the causal contributions of different brain areas to behavior. For nonhuman primates especially, it is advantageous to keep subjects with high-quality lesions alive and contributing to science for many years. However, this requires the ability to estimate lesion extent accurately. Previous research has shown that in vivo T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI accurately estimates damage following selective ibotenic acid lesions of the hippocampus. Here, we show that the same does not apply to lesions of the amygdala. Across 19 hemispheres from 13 rhesus monkeys, MRI assessment consistently overestimated amygdala damage as assessed by microscopic examination of Nissl-stained histological material. Two outliers suggested a linear relation for lower damage levels, and values of unintended amygdala damage from a previous study fell directly on that regression line, demonstrating that T2 hypersignal accurately predicts damage levels below 50%. For unintended damage, MRI estimates correlated with histological assessment for entorhinal cortex, perirhinal cortex and hippocampus, though MRI significantly overestimated the extent of that damage in all structures. Nevertheless, ibotenic acid injections routinely produced extensive intentional amygdala damage with minimal unintended damage to surrounding structures, validating the general success of the technique. The field will benefit from more research into in vivo lesion assessment techniques, and additional evaluation of the accuracy of MRI assessment in different brain areas. For now, in vivo MRI assessment of ibotenic acid lesions of the amygdala can be used to confirm successful injections, but MRI estimates of lesion extent should be interpreted with caution.

  10. Levofloxacin Cures Experimental Pneumonic Plague in African Green Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Jacob D.; Brasel, Trevor L.; Barr, Edward B.; Gigliotti, Andrew P.; Koster, Frederick

    2011-01-01

    Background Yersinia pestis, the agent of plague, is considered a potential bioweapon due to rapid lethality when delivered as an aerosol. Levofloxacin was tested for primary pneumonic plague treatment in a nonhuman primate model mimicking human disease. Methods and Results Twenty-four African Green monkeys (AGMs, Chlorocebus aethiops) were challenged via head-only aerosol inhalation with 3–145 (mean = 65) 50% lethal (LD50) doses of Y. pestis strain CO92. Telemetered body temperature >39°C initiated intravenous infusions to seven 5% dextrose controls or 17 levofloxacin treated animals. Levofloxacin was administered as a “humanized” dose regimen of alternating 8 mg/kg and 2 mg/kg 30-min infusions every 24-h, continuing until animal death or 20 total infusions, followed by 14 days of observation. Fever appeared at 53–165 h and radiographs found multilobar pneumonia in all exposed animals. All control animals died of severe pneumonic plague within five days of aerosol exposure. All 16 animals infused with levofloxacin for 10 days survived. Levofloxacin treatment abolished bacteremia within 24 h in animals with confirmed pre-infusion bacteremia, and reduced tachypnea and leukocytosis but not fever during the first 2 days of infusions. Conclusion Levofloxacin cures established pneumonic plague when treatment is initiated after the onset of fever in the lethal aerosol-challenged AGM nonhuman primate model, and can be considered for treatment of other forms of plague. Levofloxacin may also be considered for primary presumptive-use, multi-agent antibiotic in bioterrorism events prior to identification of the pathogen. PMID:21347450

  11. Levofloxacin cures experimental pneumonic plague in African green monkeys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Colby Layton

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Yersinia pestis, the agent of plague, is considered a potential bioweapon due to rapid lethality when delivered as an aerosol. Levofloxacin was tested for primary pneumonic plague treatment in a nonhuman primate model mimicking human disease. METHODS AND RESULTS: Twenty-four African Green monkeys (AGMs, Chlorocebus aethiops were challenged via head-only aerosol inhalation with 3-145 (mean = 65 50% lethal (LD(50 doses of Y. pestis strain CO92. Telemetered body temperature >39 °C initiated intravenous infusions to seven 5% dextrose controls or 17 levofloxacin treated animals. Levofloxacin was administered as a "humanized" dose regimen of alternating 8 mg/kg and 2 mg/kg 30-min infusions every 24-h, continuing until animal death or 20 total infusions, followed by 14 days of observation. Fever appeared at 53-165 h and radiographs found multilobar pneumonia in all exposed animals. All control animals died of severe pneumonic plague within five days of aerosol exposure. All 16 animals infused with levofloxacin for 10 days survived. Levofloxacin treatment abolished bacteremia within 24 h in animals with confirmed pre-infusion bacteremia, and reduced tachypnea and leukocytosis but not fever during the first 2 days of infusions. CONCLUSION: Levofloxacin cures established pneumonic plague when treatment is initiated after the onset of fever in the lethal aerosol-challenged AGM nonhuman primate model, and can be considered for treatment of other forms of plague. Levofloxacin may also be considered for primary presumptive-use, multi-agent antibiotic in bioterrorism events prior to identification of the pathogen.

  12. [Monkey malaria (Plasmodium knowlesi infection) after travelling to Thailand].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroidl, Inge; Seilmaier, Michael; Berens-Riha, Nicole; Bretzel, Gisela; Wendtner, Clemens; Löscher, Thomas

    2015-05-01

    A case of malaria caused by Plasmodium knowlesi is described in a 52-year-old female German traveler after returning from Thailand. P. knowlesi is a parasite of macaques in Southeast Asia and has been recognized in recent years as an important and probably increasing cause of human malaria in some areas. At least 16 cases in international travelers have been published so far. This includes four cases imported to Germany. All German patients visited forested areas in Southern Thailand inhabited by the natural monkey host prior to their illness. Most cases diagnosed in endemic areas present as mild disease. However in some patients P. knowlesi may take a severe and life-threatening course. Diagnosis is usually is based on microscopy whereas rapid tests are not reliable. However, microscopic differentiation of P. knowlesi from other plasmodium species (eg, P. malariae, P. falciparum) is difficult, especially when parasitemia is low. Thus PCR methods are required for definite species determination. Changing endemicity as well as changing tourism patterns such as the trend towards eco-tourism might increase the risk of infection for travelers even in areas which are considered as low endemic for malaria. Malaria has to be considered in all febrile patients returning from endemic areas. In Southeast Asia this has to include Plasmodium knowlesi infection. Especially if microscopy suggests P. falciparum/P. malariae double infection, or when results indicate P. malariae but the clinical presentation differs from that of quartan malaria (eg, daily fever), diagnostic procedures for P. knowlesi should be initiated. Currently available rapid diagnostic tests are not reliable for the detection of P. knowlesi. The definite diagnosis of P. knowlesi infection usually requires PCR techniques Changing tourism patterns such as the trend towards eco-tourism might increase the risk of infection for travelers even in low prevalence areas. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Memory T Cells Are Significantly Increased in Rejecting Liver Allografts of Rhesus Monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hwajung; Kim, Hyeyoung; Lee, Sun-Kyung; Jin, Xue-Li; Kim, Tae Jin; Park, Chanho; Lee, Jae-Il; Kim, Hyo-Sin; Hong, Suk Kyun; Yoon, Kyung Chul; Ahn, Sung Woo; Lee, Kyoung-Bun; Yi, Nam-Joon; Yang, Jaeseok; Lee, Kwang-Woong; Hawthorne, Wayne J; Suh, Kyung-Suk

    2017-11-18

    The Rhesus monkey (RM) is an excellent preclinical model in kidney, heart and islet transplantation that has provided the basis for new immunosuppressive protocols for clinical studies. However, there remain relatively few liver transplantation (LT) models in nonhuman primates. In this study, we analyzed the immune cell populations of PBMCs and secondary lymphoid organs along with livers of normal rhesus monkeys and compared them to those of rejecting liver transplanted recipient's following withdrawal of immunosuppression. We undertook five allogeneic ABO compatible orthotopic LT in monkeys using five normal donor monkey livers. We collected tissues including lymph nodes, spleens, blood, recipient livers and performed flow cytometric analysis using isolated immune cells. We found that CD4 or CD8 naïve T cells were normally seen at low levels and memory T cells were seen at high levels in the liver rather than lymphoid organs or PBMC. However, regulatory cells such as CD4+FoxP-3(+)T cells and CD8+CD28- cells remained in high numbers in the liver, but not in lymph node or PBMC. The comparison of CD4/8 T sub-populations in normal and rejected livers and the various tissues showed that naïve cells were dramatically decreased in spleen, lymph node and PBMC of rejected liver transplanted monkeys, but rather memory CD4/8 T cells were increased in all tissues and PBMC. The normal liver has large numbers of CD4 Tregs, CD8+CD28- and myeloid-derived suppressor cells, which are known immunosuppressive cells occurring at much higher levels than those seen in lymph node or peripheral blood. Memory T cells are dramatically increased in rejecting liver allografts of rhesus monkeys compared to those seen in normal RM tissues. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2017 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  14. The effects of fur rubbing on the social behavior of tufted capuchin monkeys.

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    Paukner, Annika; Suomi, Stephen J

    2008-11-01

    Fur rubbing has often been attributed as a social as well as a medicinal function in capuchin monkeys, yet to date there have been no studies investigating the effects of fur rubbing on subsequent group dynamics. Here, we report for the first time how social group cohesion is affected by fur rubbing in tufted capuchin monkeys. Fifteen captive capuchins were each observed six times for 45 min, three times following the provision of materials typically used for fur rubbing (onion) and three times following control food items (apple). When compared with the apple condition, monkeys significantly increased proximity to one another in the first 15 min of the onion condition, which is when most fur rubbing took place. Moreover, monkeys were more likely to spend time in groups when fur rubbing but less likely to spend time in groups when manipulating the onion in other ways. In subsequent periods monkeys were less likely to be in proximity to one another in the onion condition compared with the apple condition. Aggression between group members was elevated whereas affiliation was decreased throughout the onion condition. In short, capuchins spent more time further apart and engaged in more aggressive acts and shorter affiliative acts following fur-rubbing bouts. It is possible that these differences in behavior could be owing to differences in how the monkeys competed for and interacted with the items presented in each condition rather than due to fur rubbing as such. Alternatively, fur rubbing with pungent materials might interfere with olfactory cues used to regulate social interactions within a group and thereby cause increased levels of aggression. Copyright 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Ranking Cognitive Flexibility in a Group Setting of Rhesus Monkeys with a Set-Shifting Procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shnitko, Tatiana A; Allen, Daicia C; Gonzales, Steven W; Walter, Nicole A R; Grant, Kathleen A

    2017-01-01

    Attentional set-shifting ability is an executive function underling cognitive flexibility in humans and animals. In humans, this function is typically observed during a single experimental session where dimensions of playing cards are used to measure flexibility in the face of changing rules for reinforcement (i.e., the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST)). In laboratory animals, particularly non-human primates, variants of the WCST involve extensive training and testing on a series of dimensional discriminations, usually in social isolation. In the present study, a novel experimental approach was used to assess attentional set-shifting simultaneously in 12 rhesus monkeys. Specifically, monkeys living in individual cages but in the same room were trained at the same time each day in a set-shifting task in the same housing environment. As opposed to the previous studies, each daily session began with a simple single-dimension discrimination regardless of the animal's performance on the previous session. A total of eight increasingly difficult, discriminations (sets) were possible in each daily 45 min session. Correct responses were reinforced under a second-order schedule of flavored food pellet delivery, and criteria for completing a set was 12 correct trials out of a running total of 15 trials. Monkeys progressed through the sets at their own pace and abilities. The results demonstrate that all 12 monkeys acquired the simple discrimination (the first set), but individual differences in the ability to progress through all eight sets were apparent. A performance index (PI) that encompassed progression through the sets, errors and session duration was calculated and used to rank each monkey's performance in relation to each other. Overall, this version of a set-shifting task results in an efficient assessment of reliable differences in cognitive flexibility in a group of monkeys.

  16. Negative Lens–Induced Myopia in Infant Monkeys: Effects of High Ambient Lighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Earl L.; Hung, Li-Fang; Arumugam, Baskar; Huang, Juan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To determine whether high light levels, which have a protective effect against form-deprivation myopia, also retard the development of lens-induced myopia in primates. Methods. Hyperopic defocus was imposed on 27 monkeys by securing −3 diopter (D) lenses in front of one eye. The lens-rearing procedures were initiated at 24 days of age and continued for periods ranging from 50 to 123 days. Fifteen of the treated monkeys were exposed to normal laboratory light levels (∼350 lux). For the other 12 lens-reared monkeys, auxiliary lighting increased the illuminance to 25,000 lux for 6 hours during the middle of the daily 12 hour light cycle. Refractive development, corneal power, and axial dimensions were assessed by retinoscopy, keratometry, and ultrasonography, respectively. Data were also obtained from 37 control monkeys, four of which were exposed to high ambient lighting. Results. In normal- and high-light-reared monkeys, hyperopic defocus accelerated vitreous chamber elongation and produced myopic shifts in refractive error. The high light regimen did not alter the degree of myopia (high light: −1.69 ± 0.84 D versus normal light: −2.08 ± 1.12 D; P = 0.40) or the rate at which the treated eyes compensated for the imposed defocus. Following lens removal, the high light monkeys recovered from the induced myopia. The recovery process was not affected by the high lighting regimen. Conclusions. In contrast to the protective effects that high ambient lighting has against form-deprivation myopia, high artificial lighting did not alter the course of compensation to imposed defocus. These results indicate that the mechanisms responsible for form-deprivation myopia and lens-induced myopia are not identical. PMID:23557736

  17. Negative lens-induced myopia in infant monkeys: effects of high ambient lighting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Earl L; Hung, Li-Fang; Arumugam, Baskar; Huang, Juan

    2013-04-26

    To determine whether high light levels, which have a protective effect against form-deprivation myopia, also retard the development of lens-induced myopia in primates. Hyperopic defocus was imposed on 27 monkeys by securing -3 diopter (D) lenses in front of one eye. The lens-rearing procedures were initiated at 24 days of age and continued for periods ranging from 50 to 123 days. Fifteen of the treated monkeys were exposed to normal laboratory light levels (∼350 lux). For the other 12 lens-reared monkeys, auxiliary lighting increased the illuminance to 25,000 lux for 6 hours during the middle of the daily 12 hour light cycle. Refractive development, corneal power, and axial dimensions were assessed by retinoscopy, keratometry, and ultrasonography, respectively. Data were also obtained from 37 control monkeys, four of which were exposed to high ambient lighting. in normal- and high-light-reared monkeys, hyperopic defocus accelerated vitreous chamber elongation and produced myopic shifts in refractive error. the high light regimen did not alter the degree of myopia (high light: -1.69 ± 0.84 D versus normal light: -2.08 ± 1.12 D; P = 0.40) or the rate at which the treated eyes compensated for the imposed defocus. Following lens removal, the high light monkeys recovered from the induced myopia. The recovery process was not affected by the high lighting regimen. In contrast to the protective effects that high ambient lighting has against form-deprivation myopia, high artificial lighting did not alter the course of compensation to imposed defocus. These results indicate that the mechanisms responsible for form-deprivation myopia and lens-induced myopia are not identical.

  18. Differential Cellular Tropism of Lentivirus and Adeno-Associated Virus in the Brain of Cynomolgus Monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Heeyoung; Cho, Doo-Wan; Lee, Seung Eun; Yang, Young-Su; Han, Su-Cheol; Lee, C Justin

    2016-02-01

    Many researchers are using viruses to deliver genes of interest into the brains of laboratory animals. However, certain target brain cells are not easily infected by viruses. Moreover, the differential tropism of different viruses in monkey brain is not well established. We investigated the cellular tropism of lentivirus and adeno-associated virus (AAV) toward neuron and glia in the brain of cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascularis). Lentivirus and AAV were injected into putamen of the monkey brain. One month after injection, monkeys were sacrificed, and then the presence of viral infection by expression of reporter fluorescence proteins was examined. Tissues were sectioned and stained with NeuN and GFAP antibodies for identifying neuronal cells or astrocytes, respectively, and viral reporter GFP-expressing cells were counted. We found that while lentivirus infected mostly astrocytes, AAV infected neurons at a higher rate than astrocytes. Moreover, astrocytes showed reactiveness when cells were infected by virus, likely due to virus-mediated neuroinflammation. The Sholl analysis was done to compare the hypertrophy of infected and uninfected astrocytes by virus. The lentivirus infected astrocytes showed negligible hypertrophy whereas AAV infected astrocytes showed significant changes in morphology, compared to uninfected astrocytes. In the brain of cynomolgus monkey, lentivirus shows tropism for astrocytes over neurons without much reactivity in astrocytes, whereas AAV shows tropism for neurons over glial cells with a significant reactivity in astrocytes. We conclude that AAV is best-suited for gene delivery to neurons, whereas lentivirus is the best choice for gene delivery to astrocytes in the brain of cynomolgus monkeys.

  19. Self-control assessments of capuchin monkeys with the rotating tray task and the accumulation task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, Michael J; Perdue, Bonnie M; Rossettie, Mattea S; James, Brielle T; Whitham, Will; Walker, Bradlyn; Futch, Sara E; Parrish, Audrey E

    2016-08-01

    Recent studies of delay of gratification in capuchin monkeys using a rotating tray (RT) task have shown improved self-control performance in these animals in comparison to the accumulation (AC) task. In this study, we investigated whether this improvement resulted from the difference in methods between the rotating tray task and previous tests, or whether it was the result of greater overall experience with delay of gratification tasks. Experiment 1 produced similar performance levels by capuchins monkeys in the RT and AC tasks when identical reward and temporal parameters were used. Experiment 2 demonstrated a similar result using reward amounts that were more similar to previous AC experiments with these monkeys. In Experiment 3, monkeys performed multiple versions of the AC task with varied reward and temporal parameters. Their self-control behavior was found to be dependent on the overall delay to reward consumption, rather than the overall reward amount ultimately consumed. These findings indicate that these capuchin monkeys' self-control capacities were more likely to have improved across studies because of the greater experience they had with delay of gratification tasks. Experiment 4 and Experiment 5 tested new, task-naïve monkeys on both tasks, finding more limited evidence of self-control, and no evidence that one task was more beneficial than the other in promoting self-control. The results of this study suggest that future testing of this kind should focus on temporal parameters and reward magnitude parameters to establish accurate measures of delay of gratification capacity and development in this species and perhaps others. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Respiratory mechanics: comparison of Beagle dogs, Göttingen minipigs and Cynomolgus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truchetti, Geoffrey; Troncy, Eric; Robichaud, Annette; Gold, Leslie; Schuessler, Thomas; Maghezzi, Said; Bassett, Leanne; Authier, Simon

    2014-01-01

    When the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) is determined by respiratory safety pharmacology, follow-up studies are warranted and may include airway resistance and compliance. Respiratory mechanics in commonly used large animal species (Beagle dogs, Cynomolgus monkeys, and Göttingen minipigs) were compared. Eighteen animals were used (3/sex/species) in an anesthetized model (propofol infusion) with pancuronium as a neuromuscular blocker. Parameters of respiratory mechanics were evaluated at baseline and at peak drug effect. Resistance (Rrs) and elastance (Ers) were measured by applying a single frequency forced oscillation (0.5 Hz) to the subject's airway opening and fitting the flow, volume and pressure data to the single compartment model of the lung. Increasing doses of intravenous (IV) methacholine were administered in all three species, as well as doubling aerosolized concentrations of the same bronchoconstrictor agent before and after inhaled albuterol. The slope of the IV methacholine dose-response curve for Rrs was similar in dogs and monkeys and both species differed from minipigs, which showed greater reactivity. At the highest IV dose tested, minipigs also reached higher levels of bronchoconstriction than the other two species. They were followed, in decreasing order, by dogs and monkeys. Albuterol induced a significant decrease in the slope of the dose-response curve only in dogs and monkeys. Scientific literature is available on respiratory mechanics in monkeys and dogs but not in minipigs. Our results suggest that minipigs were more reactive than dogs and monkeys to IV methacholine while less sensitive to inhaled albuterol. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Ecology and removal of introduced rhesus monkeys: Desecheo Island National Wildlife Refuge, Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, M A

    1989-04-01

    A field project was conducted to remove an introduced population of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) from Desecheo Island National Wildlife Refuge, Puerto Rico. A group of 57 monkeys from Cayo Santiago was released on Desecheo Island in 1966 to study processes of adaptation. Observations in 1969 and 1970 implicated the monkeys in a drastic decline of the nesting populations of brown boobies (Sula leucogaster) and red-footed boobies (Sula sula). Previous efforts at trapping and removal had been conducted in 1977, 1979, and 1981. The present removal project began in 1985 and continued through 1987. During this period, field investigations were conducted regarding ecology and behavior, simultaneous with the removal of 66 monkeys from the island. Estimates of the monkey population size have been inaccurate. The total number present on the island has been extremely difficult to determine due to the rugged terrain and the furtiveness of the monkeys. The population did increase since introduction and was composed of apparently healthy individuals, generally in excellent physical condition. The population was well adapted to the harsh environment of Desecheo Island. No permanent sources of fresh water exist on the island and feeding adaptations focused on consumption of the wood pulp of the almacigo tree (Bursera simaruba) as a result. Huge amounts of this wood pulp were consumed daily for both nutrition and as a source of moisture. Cactus and other plant species were utilized as secondary sources of moisture and nutrition, including lesser amounts of almacigo fruit and leaves. Circumstantial evidence indicates the monkeys are egg predators. Social adaptations involved dispersal into small groups to optimize foraging conditions.

  2. Development of a safer laboratory vervet monkey model for the study of human African trypanosomiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxwell Waema

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are three subspecies of Trypanosoma brucei: T. b. gambiense, T. b. rhodesiense and T. b. brucei. The first two are infectious to humans, whilst T. b. brucei is not. Identifying an animal model of T. b. brucei that mimics human African trypanosomiasis (HAT would enable researchers to study HAT without subjecting themselves to undue risks such as accidental infection. Objectives: This study assessed the sequential clinical, parasitological and haematological changes in vervet monkeys infected with T. b. brucei.Methods: Three vervet monkeys were infected with a 104 inoculum of T. b. brucei (isolate GUTat 1. Late-stage disease was induced by subcurative treatment with diminazene aceturate 28 days post-infection. The animals were treated curatively with melarsoprol upon relapse. Parasitaemia and clinical signs were monitored daily and, at weekly intervals, the monkeys’ blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF were sampled for haematology and parasitosis assessments, respectively.Results: The first-peak parasitaemia was observed between seven and nine days post-infection. Clinical signs associated with the disease included fever, dullness, pallor of mucous membranes, lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly and oedema. Late-stage signs included stiffness of joints and lethargy. The monkeys developed a disease associated with microcytic hypochromic anaemia. There was an initial decline, followed by an increase, in total white blood cell counts from early- to late-stage disease. Trypanosomes were detected in the CSF and there was a significant increase in white cell counts in the CSF during late-stage disease. Infected vervet monkeys displayed classical clinical symptoms, parasitological and haematological trends that were similar to monkeys infected withT.b. rhodesiense.Conclusion: The T. b. brucei vervet monkey model can be used for studying HAT without putting laboratory technicians and researchers at high risk of accidental infection.

  3. Reference values of hematology, biochemistry, and blood type in cynomolgus monkeys from cambodia origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kangmoo; Chang, Jaejin; Lee, Min-Jae; Wang, Seungsu; In, Kimhong; Galano-Tan, Wilhelm C; Jun, Sanghun; Cho, Kahee; Hwang, Yong-Hwa; Kim, Sung-Ju; Park, Wanje

    2016-03-01

    Cynomolgus monkeys as nonhuman primates are valuable animal models because they have a high level of human gene homology. There are many reference values for hematology and biochemistry of Cynomolgus monkeys that are needed for proper clinical diagnosis and biomedical research conduct. The body weight information and blood type are also key success factors in allogeneic or xenogeneic models. Moreover, the biological parameters could be different according to the origin of the Cynomolgus monkey. However, there are limited references provided, especially of Cambodia origin. In this study, we measured average body weight of 2,518 Cynomolgus monkeys and analyzed hematology and serum biochemistry using 119 males, and determined blood types in 642 monkeys with Cambodia origin. The average body weight of male Cynomolgus monkeys were 2.56±0.345 kg and female group was 2.43±0.330 kg at the age from 2 to 3 years. The male group showed relatively sharp increased average body weight from the 3 to 4 age period compared to the female group. In hematology and biochemistry, it was found that most of the data was similar when compared to other references even though some results showed differences. The ABO blood type result showed that type A, B, AB, and O was approximately 15.6, 33.3, 44.2, and 6.9%, respectively. The main blood type in this facility was B and AB. These biological background references of Cambodia origin could be used to provide important information to researchers who are using them in their biomedical research.

  4. Monkeys head-gaze following is fast, precise and not fully suppressible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciniak, Karolina; Dicke, Peter W.; Thier, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Human eye-gaze is a powerful stimulus, drawing the observer's attention to places and objects of interest to someone else (‘eye-gaze following’). The largely homogeneous eyes of monkeys, compromising the assessment of eye-gaze by conspecifics from larger distances, explain the absence of comparable eye-gaze following in these animals. Yet, monkeys are able to use peer head orientation to shift attention (‘head-gaze following’). How similar are monkeys' head-gaze and human eye-gaze following? To address this question, we trained rhesus monkeys to make saccades to targets, either identified by the head-gaze of demonstrator monkeys or, alternatively, identified by learned associations between the demonstrators' facial identities and the targets (gaze versus identity following). In a variant of this task that occurred at random, the instruction to follow head-gaze or identity was replaced in the course of a trial by the new rule to detect a change of luminance of one of the saccade targets. Although this change-of-rule rendered the demonstrator portraits irrelevant, they nevertheless influenced performance, reflecting a precise redistribution of spatial attention. The specific features depended on whether the initial rule was head-gaze or identity following: head-gaze caused an insuppressible shift of attention to the target gazed at by the demonstrator, whereas identity matching prompted much later shifts of attention, however, only if the initial rule had been identity following. Furthermore, shifts of attention prompted by head-gaze were spatially precise. Automaticity and swiftness, spatial precision and limited executive control characterizing monkeys' head-gaze following are key features of human eye-gaze following. This similarity supports the notion that both may rely on the same conserved neural circuitry. PMID:26446808

  5. Sterile protection against Plasmodium knowlesi in rhesus monkeys from a malaria vaccine: comparison of heterologous prime boost strategies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Jiang

    Full Text Available Using newer vaccine platforms which have been effective against malaria in rodent models, we tested five immunization regimens against Plasmodium knowlesi in rhesus monkeys. All vaccines included the same four P. knowlesi antigens: the pre-erythrocytic antigens CSP, SSP2, and erythrocytic antigens AMA1, MSP1. We used four vaccine platforms for prime or boost vaccinations: plasmids (DNA, alphavirus replicons (VRP, attenuated adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad, or attenuated poxvirus (Pox. These four platforms combined to produce five different prime/boost vaccine regimens: Pox alone, VRP/Pox, VRP/Ad, Ad/Pox, and DNA/Pox. Five rhesus monkeys were immunized with each regimen, and five Control monkeys received a mock vaccination. The time to complete vaccinations was 420 days. All monkeys were challenged twice with 100 P. knowlesi sporozoites given IV. The first challenge was given 12 days after the last vaccination, and the monkeys receiving the DNA/Pox vaccine were the best protected, with 3/5 monkeys sterilely protected and 1/5 monkeys that self-cured its parasitemia. There was no protection in monkeys that received Pox malaria vaccine alone without previous priming. The second sporozoite challenge was given 4 months after the first. All 4 monkeys that were protected in the first challenge developed malaria in the second challenge. DNA, VRP and Ad5 vaccines all primed monkeys for strong immune responses after the Pox boost. We discuss the high level but short duration of protection in this experiment and the possible benefits of the long interval between prime and boost.

  6. The Monkey game: A computerized verbal working memory task for self-reliant administration in primary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Weijer-Bergsma, Eva; Kroesbergen, Evelyn H; Jolani, Shahab; Van Luit, Johannes E H

    2016-06-01

    In two studies, the psychometric properties of an online self-reliant verbal working memory task (the Monkey game) for primary school children (6-12 years of age) were examined. In Study 1, children (n = 5,203) from 31 primary schools participated. The participants completed computerized verbal and visual-spatial working memory tasks (i.e., the Monkey game and the Lion game) and a paper-and-pencil version of Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices. Reading comprehension and math achievement test scores were obtained from the schools. First, the internal consistency of the Monkey game was examined. Second, multilevel modeling was used to examine the effects of classroom membership. Multilevel multivariate regression analysis was used to examine the Monkey game's concurrent relationship with the Lion game and its predictive relationships with reading comprehension and math achievement. Also, age-related differences in performance were examined. In Study 2, the concurrent relationships between the Monkey game and two tester-led computerized working memory tasks were further examined (n = 140). Also, the 1- and 2-year stability of the Monkey game was investigated. The Monkey game showed excellent internal consistency, good concurrent relationships with the other working memory measures, and significant age differences in performance. Performance on the Monkey game was also predictive of subsequent reading comprehension and mathematics performance, even after controlling for individual differences in intelligence. Performance on the Monkey game was influenced by classroom membership. The Monkey game is a reliable and suitable instrument for the online computerized and self-reliant assessment of verbal working memory in primary school children.

  7. A Comparative Analysis of the Endocannabinoid System in the Retina of Mice, Tree Shrews, and Monkeys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouskila, Joseph; Javadi, Pasha; Elkrief, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    is known about the distribution of the enzymes involved in the synthesis and degradation of these eCBs. We therefore examined the expression and localization of the main components of the eCB system in the retina of mice, tree shrews, and monkeys. We found that CB1R and FAAH distributions are well...... of the outer retina and in retinal neurons of the inner retina; in monkeys, CB2R is restricted to Müller cells. Finally, the expression patterns of MAGL and DAGLα are differently expressed across species. Overall, these results provide evidence that the eCB system is differently expressed in the retina...

  8. The calcium endocrine system of adolescent rhesus monkeys and controls before and after spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaud, Sara B.; Navidi, Meena; Deftos, Leonard; Thierry-Palmer, Myrtle; Dotsenko, Rita; Bigbee, Allison; Grindeland, Richard E.

    2002-01-01

    The calcium endocrine system of nonhuman primates can be influenced by chairing for safety and the weightless environment of spaceflight. The serum of two rhesus monkeys flown on the Bion 11 mission was assayed pre- and postflight for vitamin D metabolites, parathyroid hormone, calcitonin, parameters of calcium homeostasis, cortisol, and indexes of renal function. Results were compared with the same measures from five monkeys before and after chairing for a flight simulation study. Concentrations of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D were 72% lower after the flight than before, and more than after chairing on the ground (57%, P animals.

  9. Isolation of a phylogenetically distinct rabies virus from a tufted capuchin monkey (Cebus apella) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yuki; Sugimoto, Kahori; Mochizuki, Nobuyuki; Segawa, Takao; Itou, Takuya; Carvalho, Adolorata A B; Nociti, Darci P; Mello, Rosane M; Santos, Anna K R A; Ito, Fumio H; Sakai, Takeo

    2013-12-26

    A rabies virus isolate (BRmk1358 strain) was discovered from a rabid tufted capuchin monkey in Brazil. The present study determined the nucleotide sequence of the BRmk1358 strain and compared with the rabies viruses isolated from marmosets and other animals in the Americas. Phylogenetic analyses showed that the BRmk1358 strain formed a lineage distant from that of marmoset rabies virus within the Chiroptera-related rabies virus cluster. This result suggests that the source of rabies infection in the tufted capuchin monkey may have been bat, and that they have a risk to act as rabies reservoir in Brazil. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The calcium endocrine system of adolescent rhesus monkeys and controls before and after spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaud, Sara B.; Navidi, Meena; Deftos, Leonard; Thierry-Palmer, Myrtle; Dotsenko, Rita; Bigbee, Allison; Grindeland, Richard E.

    2002-01-01

    The calcium endocrine system of nonhuman primates can be influenced by chairing for safety and the weightless environment of spaceflight. The serum of two rhesus monkeys flown on the Bion 11 mission was assayed pre- and postflight for vitamin D metabolites, parathyroid hormone, calcitonin, parameters of calcium homeostasis, cortisol, and indexes of renal function. Results were compared with the same measures from five monkeys before and after chairing for a flight simulation study. Concentrations of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D were 72% lower after the flight than before, and more than after chairing on the ground (57%, P parathyroid hormone did not reach significance. Calcitonin showed modest decreases postflight (P animals.

  11. Recovery of Dengue Viruses from Tissues of Experimentally Infected Rhesus Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchette, Nyven J.; Halstead, Scott B.; Nash, Donald R.; Stenhouse, Andrew C.

    1972-01-01

    A tissue explant culture technique for the recovery of dengue virus from experimentally infected monkey tissue is described and compared with tissue culture assay of tissue triturates and co-cultivation of trypsinized cells in cell cultures. The most efficient technique was one in which minced tissue was explanted in co-culture with dengue virus-susceptible LLC-MK2 monkey kidney cells. This technique shows promise of being useful for detection of virus in autopsy material from fatal dengue hemorrhagic fever cases. PMID:4627963

  12. Auditory Association Cortex Lesions Impair Auditory Short-Term Memory in Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Michael; D'Amato, Michael R.; Rodman, Hillary R.; Gross, Charles G.

    1990-01-01

    Monkeys that were trained to perform auditory and visual short-term memory tasks (delayed matching-to-sample) received lesions of the auditory association cortex in the superior temporal gyrus. Although visual memory was completely unaffected by the lesions, auditory memory was severely impaired. Despite this impairment, all monkeys could discriminate sounds closer in frequency than those used in the auditory memory task. This result suggests that the superior temporal cortex plays a role in auditory processing and retention similar to the role the inferior temporal cortex plays in visual processing and retention.

  13. Tvorba 3D her pomocí jMonkeyEngine 3.0

    OpenAIRE

    Skála, Jakub

    2016-01-01

    The topic of this bachelor thesis is game development of three dimensional PC games using Java programming language and game engine jMonkeyEngine witch is built on Java. The goal is to present capabilities of this tool and also to determine whether the developers of the engine actually proved that Java is usable for making PC games. The first part is focused on jMonkeyEngine itself with its history and basic characteristics. Next part is the principles of working in a 3D environment a then sp...

  14. Standardized Full-Field Electroretinography in the Green Monkey (Chlorocebus sabaeus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouskila, Joseph; Javadi, Pasha; Palmour, Roberta M

    2014-01-01

    Full-field electroretinography is an objective measure of retinal function, serving as an important diagnostic clinical tool in ophthalmology for evaluating the integrity of the retina. Given the similarity between the anatomy and physiology of the human and Green Monkey eyes, this species has......). Photopic and scotopic ERG recordings were obtained by full-field stimulation over a range of 6 log units of intensity in dark-adapted or light-adapted eyes of adult Green Monkeys (Chlorocebus sabaeus). Intensity, duration, and interval of light stimuli were varied separately. Reproducible values...

  15. A NEW WORLD MONKEY MICROSATELLITE (AP74 HIGLY CONSERVED IN PRIMATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUCIANA INÉS OKLANDER

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dado su alta variabilidad, los microsatélites o STR se convirtieron en los marcadores genéticos más ampliamente utilizados en los últimos 15 años. El análisis de estos marcadores requiere una mínima cantidad de ADN, permitiendo el uso de muestras no invasivas, tales como pelos o heces. Con el objetivo de analizar niveles de conservación genómica, amplificamos el microsatélite Ap74 en muestras de pelo y sangre de un amplio rango de primates incluyendo: Lemur catta, Alouatta caraya, Ateles belzebuth, Ateles chamek, Pan troglodytes, Papio sp., y Homo sapiens. En todos los casos obtuvimos productos de amplificación que exhibieron un tamaño similar (oscilando entre 126 y 176 pb, con excepción del lémur, donde el fragmento detectado presentó un tamaño de aproxi- madamente 1000 pb. El análisis de las secuencias nucleotídicas nos permitió evaluar las modificaciones moleculares ocurridas durante el proceso evolutivo en primates.

  16. A 4-channel 3 Tesla phased array receive coil for awake rhesus monkey fMRI and diffusion MRI experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khachaturian, Mark Haig

    2010-01-01

    Awake monkey fMRI and diffusion MRI combined with conventional neuroscience techniques has the potential to study the structural and functional neural network. The majority of monkey fMRI and diffusion MRI experiments are performed with single coils which suffer from severe EPI distortions which limit resolution. By constructing phased array coils for monkey MRI studies, gains in SNR and anatomical accuracy (i.e., reduction of EPI distortions) can be achieved using parallel imaging. The major challenges associated with constructing phased array coils for monkeys are the variation in head size and space constraints. Here, we apply phased array technology to a 4-channel phased array coil capable of improving the resolution and image quality of full brain awake monkey fMRI and diffusion MRI experiments. The phased array coil is that can adapt to different rhesus monkey head sizes (ages 4-8) and fits in the limited space provided by monkey stereotactic equipment and provides SNR gains in primary visual cortex and anatomical accuracy in conjunction with parallel imaging and improves resolution in fMRI experiments by a factor of 2 (1.25 mm to 1.0 mm isotropic) and diffusion MRI experiments by a factor of 4 (1.5 mm to 0.9 mm isotropic).

  17. Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) rapidly learn to select dominant individuals in videos of artificial social interactions between unfamiliar conspecifics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, Regina; Basile, Benjamin M; Adachi, Ikuma; Suzuki, Wendy A; Wilson, Mark E; Hampton, Robert R

    2010-11-01

    Social animals, such as primates, must behave appropriately in complex social situations such as dominance interactions. Learning dominance information through trial and error would be dangerous; therefore, cognitive mechanisms for rapid learning of dominance information by observation would be adaptive. We used a set of digitally edited artificial social interactions to examine whether rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) can learn dominance relationships between unfamiliar conspecifics through observation. Our method allowed random assignment of stimulus monkeys to ranks in an artificial hierarchy, controlling for nonbehavioral cues that could indicate dominance. Subject monkeys watched videos depicting 1 stimulus monkey behaving dominantly toward another and were rewarded for selecting the dominant individual. Monkeys rapidly learned this discrimination across 5 behavior types in Experiment 1 and transferred performance to novel videos of new individuals in Experiment 2. In addition, subjects selected the dominant individual more often than expected by chance in probe videos containing no behavioral dominance information, indicating some retention of the relative dominance status of stimulus monkeys from training. Together, our results suggest that monkeys can learn dominance hierarchies through observation of third-party social interactions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Pharmacokinetics of the selective prostacyclin receptor agonist selexipag in rats, dogs and monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Tomohiko; Yamada, Tetsuhiro; Treiber, Alexander; Gnerre, Carmela; Nonaka, Kiyoko

    2018-02-01

    1. This study examined the pharmacokinetics, distribution, metabolism and excretion of the selective prostacyclin receptor agonist selexipag (NS-304; ACT-293987) and its active metabolite MRE-269 (ACT-33679). The compounds were investigated following oral and/or intravenous administration to intact rats, dogs and monkeys, and bile-duct-cannulated rats and dogs. 2. After oral administration of [14C]selexipag, selexipag was well absorbed in rats and dogs with total recoveries of over 90% of the dose, mainly in the faeces. Biliary excretion was the major elimination pathway for [14C]MRE-269 as well as [14C]selexipag, while renal elimination was of little importance. [14C]Selexipag-related radioactivity was secreted into the milk in lactating rats. 3. Plasma was analysed for total radioactivity, selexipag and MRE-269 in rats and monkeys. Selexipag was negligible in rat plasma due to extensive metabolism, and MRE-269 was present in rat and monkey plasma. A species difference was clearly evident when selexipag was incubated in rat, dog and monkey plasma. 4. Total radioactivity was rapidly distributed to tissues. The highest concentrations were found in the bile duct and liver without significant accumulation or persistence, while there was limited melanin-associated binding, penetration of the blood-brain barrier and placental transfer of drug-related materials.

  19. A retrograde double fluorescent tracing study of the levator palpebrae superioris muscle in the cynomolgus monkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VanderWerf, F.; Aramideh, M.; Ongerboer de Visser, B. W.; Baljet, B.; Speelman, J. D.; Otto, J. A.

    1997-01-01

    In the cynomolgus monkey, motoneurons innervating the levator palpebrae superioris muscle form a nucleus within the oculomotor nuclei called the central caudal nucleus. After double fluorescent neuronal retrograde tracing experiments, using fast blue and diamidino yellow as tracers in the levator

  20. [Data on intestinal parasites of lower monkeys in the Adler apery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egorova, T P

    2010-01-01

    Under captive conditions, a parasite fauna connected with the changes in ecological conditions, feeding, and mode of life is usually formed in monkeys. Species composition of the intestinal parasites has been investigated in six species of the monkeys (Macaca mulatta, M. fascicularis, M. nemestrina, Ceropithecus aethiops, Papio hamadryas, and P. anubis), which were born in the Adler apery and live there for a long time. A comparison with similar investigations carried out in the Sukhumi apery, where the climatic and keeping conditions are practically identical with those in the Adler apery, was conducted. Parasite fauna of monkeys in the Adler apery was found to include three species of Nematoda (Ascaris sp., Trichocephalus sp., and Strongyloides sp.) and two species of Protozoa (Balantidium coli and Lamblia intestinalis). In our material, Trichocephalus sp. is the dominant parasite species among helminthes, and Balantidium coli is the most frequent species of Protozoa. The commonness in the transmission of these parasites and similarity in their life cycles contribute to the forming of polyinvasions in monkeys.

  1. Metacognitive Monkeys or Associative Animals? Simple Reinforcement Learning Explains Uncertainty in Nonhuman Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Pelley, M. E.

    2012-01-01

    Monkeys will selectively and adaptively learn to avoid the most difficult trials of a perceptual discrimination learning task. Couchman, Coutinho, Beran, and Smith (2010) have recently demonstrated that this pattern of responding does not depend on animals receiving trial-by-trial feedback for their responses; it also obtains if experience of the…

  2. In-group conformity sustains different foraging traditions in capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marietta Dindo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Decades of research have revealed rich cultural repertoires encompassing multiple traditions in wild great apes, a picture crucially complemented by experimental simulations with captive apes. Studies with wild capuchin monkeys, the most encephalized simian species, have indicated a New World convergence on these cultural phenomena, involving multiple traditions and tool use. However, experimental studies to date are in conflict with such findings in concluding that capuchins, like other monkeys, show minimal capacities for social learning. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we report a new experimental approach in which the alpha male of each of two groups of capuchins was trained to open an artificial foraging device in a quite different way, using either a slide or lift action, then reunited with his group. In each group a majority of monkeys, 8 of 11 and 13 of 14, subsequently mastered the task. Seventeen of the successful 21 monkeys discovered the alternative action to that seeded in the group, performing it a median of 4 times. Nevertheless, all 21 primarily adopted the technique seeded by their group's alpha male. Median proportions of slide versus lift were 0.96 for the group seeded with slide versus 0. 01 for the group seeded with lift. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest a striking effect of social conformity in learned behavioral techniques, consistent with field reports of capuchin traditions and convergent on the only other species in which such cultural phenomena have been reported, chimpanzees and humans.

  3. A novel method for capturing and monitoring a small neotropical primate, the squirrel monkey (Saimiri collinsi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Anita I; Castro, Paulo H G; Monteiro, Frederico O B; Ruivo, Luana P; de Sousa e Silva Júnior, José

    2015-03-01

    Squirrel monkeys (genus Saimiri) are agile, arboreal primates that are seldom captured in the wild due to their small body size (forest. Captures occurred in November and December 2013. We habituated animals to feed on a large platform located in a 123.5 m(2) area enclosed by a green net (3 m high). Multiple individuals could freely enter and exit the area via four ropes affixed from surrounding trees to the platform. Once individuals were feeding inside the netted area on selected trapping days, the ropes were dropped remotely, eliminating their escape routes. We successfully trapped 21 different individuals of the social group (14 adults and 7 immatures) with this method. We conclude that this is a conceptually simple, effective method for trapping squirrel monkeys in most habitats, and possibly other small arboreal primates that live in large social groups. The present method was more effective than previous methods utilized to capture squirrel monkeys in the field, and has the advantages of: allowing for safe capture of several individuals simultaneously; enabling re-captures; releasing of animals as a group at the site of capture; use of soft netting which facilitates safe capture of the monkeys. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Monkeys Rely on Recency of Stimulus Repetition When Solving Short-Term Memory Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittig, John H., Jr.; Richmond, Barry J.

    2014-01-01

    Seven monkeys performed variants of two short-term memory tasks that others have used to differentiate between selective and nonselective memory mechanisms. The first task was to view a list of sequentially presented images and identify whether a test matched any image from the list, but not a distractor from a preceding list. Performance was best…

  5. Minor contributions of the maxillary sinus to the air-conditioning performance in macaque monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Futoshi; Hanida, Sho; Kumahata, Kiyoshi; Miyabe-Nishiwaki, Takako; Suzuki, Juri; Matsuzawa, Teruo; Nishimura, Takeshi D

    2015-08-01

    The nasal passages mainly adjust the temperature and humidity of inhaled air to reach the alveolar condition required in the lungs. By contrast to most other non-human primates, macaque monkeys are distributed widely among tropical, temperate and subarctic regions, and thus some species need to condition the inhaled air in cool and dry ambient atmospheric areas. The internal nasal anatomy is believed to have undergone adaptive modifications to improve the air-conditioning performance. Furthermore, the maxillary sinus (MS), an accessory hollow communicating with the nasal cavity, is found in macaques, whereas it is absent in most other extant Old World monkeys, including savanna monkeys. In this study, we used computational fluid dynamics simulations to simulate the airflow and heat and water exchange over the mucosal surface in the nasal passage. Using the topology models of the nasal cavity with and without the MS, we demonstrated that the MS makes little contribution to the airflow pattern and the air-conditioning performance within the nasal cavity in macaques. Instead, the inhaled air is conditioned well in the anterior portion of the nasal cavity before reaching the MS in both macaques and savanna monkeys. These findings suggest that the evolutionary modifications and coetaneous variations in the nasal anatomy are rather independent of transitions and variations in the climate and atmospheric environment found in the habitats of macaques. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  6. Evaluation of the reinforcing and discriminative stimulus effects of gamma-hydroxybutyrate in rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolverton, W L; Rowlett, J K; Winger, G; Woods, J H; Gerak, L R; France, C P

    1999-04-01

    Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a metabolite of GABA that is present in the CNS and fulfils at least some of the criteria for a neurotransmitter. Its effects are generally similar to those of CNS depressants and include ataxia, sleep and anesthesia. It has also been suggested that GHB is a drug of abuse. The present experiment was designed to evaluate GHB in procedures predictive of abuse and dependence potential in rhesus monkeys. Three monkeys were surgically prepared with indwelling silicone venous catheters and allowed to self-administer methohexital or saline in twice-daily experimental sessions. Other groups of monkeys were trained in drug discrimination paradigms to discriminate D-amphetamine (AMPH; n = 4), pentobarbital (PB; n = 3) or triazolam (n = 3) from saline. Another group was maintained on diazepam daily and trained to discriminate flumazenil from saline (n = 2). GHB (0.01-10 mg/kg per injection) maintained self-administration marginally above saline levels at one dose (3.2 or 10 mg/kg) in two of the three monkeys tested. GHB (1.0-178 mg/kg, subcutaneously (s.c.) or intragastrically (i.g.)) did not reliably substitute as a discriminative stimulus for any of the training conditions. Taken together with previous results, the present experiment suggests that GHB has, at most, low potential for abuse.

  7. Pharmacological profile of a deuterium-substituted mirfentanil derivative, OHM10579, in rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelas, S; Gerak, L R; Landers, L K; Brandt, M R; Bagley, J R; Brockunier, L L; France, C P

    1998-07-01

    The discriminative-stimulus, respiratory, and antinociceptive effects of OHM10579, an isotopic isomer of mirfentanil, were characterized in rhesus monkeys. In monkeys discriminating nalbuphine, 0.32 mg/kg of OHM10579 partially substituted for nalbuphine. In monkeys treated daily with 3.2 mg/kg of morphine and discriminating 0.01 mg/kg of naltrexone, 0.32 mg/kg of OHM10579 substituted for naltrexone. In morphine-abstinent monkeys, morphine reversed naltrexone-lever responding, an effect attenuated by OHM10579. The shift to the right in the morphine dose-effect curve was greater 2 h after 0.32 mg/kg of OHM10579 compared to 0.32 mg/kg of mirfentanil, indicating that OHM10579 has a longer duration of action than mirfentanil. In a warm-water tail-withdrawal procedure, 10 and 17.8 mg/kg of OHM10579 had antinociceptive effects that were not antagonized by naltrexone. Morphine decreased breathing in air to 48%, whereas the maximal decrease with OHM10579 was to 75% of control. OHM10579 attenuated hyperventilation induced by 5% CO2 and partially antagonized the respiratory-depressant effects of morphine. OHM10579 can be classified as a low-efficacy mu-opioid agonist with some nonopioid actions. These results indicate that the pharmacology of the mirfentanil isotope OHM10579 is similar to that of mirfentanil, but that OHM10579 might have a longer duration of action.

  8. Elucidation of the metabolic pathway of S-equol in rat, monkey and man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwen, Richard J; Nguyen, Linh; Jackson, Richard L

    2012-06-01

    S-equol is a selective estrogen receptor β (ERβ) agonist which is produced in certain individuals after ingestion of its precursor daidzein, an isoflavone present in soy. S-equol is thought to provide certain health benefits, including reduced menopausal symptoms. The metabolic profile of S-equol was determined in vivo in Sprague-Dawley rats and cynomolgus monkeys, and in vitro using hepatocytes from rat, monkey, and human. High resolution MS fragmentation patterns indicated that the major metabolite of S-equol in rat plasma and urine was the 4'-glucuronide conjugate, with lesser amounts of unconjugated S-equol, the 7-sulfate conjugate, and the 4'-glucuronide-7-sulfate diconjugate. Monkeys also showed extensive metabolism, with the major species in plasma being the 4'-glucuronide and the 7-sulfate-4'-glucuronide diconjugate; urine contained primarily the 4'-glucuronide, as seen in the rat. In vitro metabolism by hepatocytes was extensive and similar in all species, with fragmentation patterns also indicating that the 4'-glucuronide was the major metabolite. No oxidative metabolites of [(14)C] S-equol were detected in either in vivo or in vitro studies. These findings show that glucuronidation is the primary pathway for the metabolism of S-equol in rat, monkey and man, and that all metabolic routes of S-equol observed in vitro were also observed in vivo. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Colour-related oscillations in the striate cortex of awake monkeys: "reverse" observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamme, V.A.F.; Bondar, I.; Kruger, J.

    2001-01-01

    Gamma oscillations of 30-70 Hz in local electroencephalograms (EEGs) were observed in primary visual cortex (V1) of monkeys when they viewed coloured stimuli under conditions which were not part of a training paradigm. No oscillatory modulations were detected in simultaneously recorded spike trains,

  10. Histological and histomorphometrical evaluation of tissue reactions adjacent to endosteal implants in monkeys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gotfredsen, K; Rostrup, E; Hjörting-Hansen, E

    1992-01-01

    A qualitative and quantitative histological study of the initial healing response adjacent to 24 submerged and non-submerged implants placed in the lower jaws of 6 monkeys is presented. The histomorphometric analysis showed no significant differences in mineralized bone-implant contact length...

  11. Testing the Glucose Hypothesis among Capuchin Monkeys: Does Glucose Boost Self-Control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, Audrey E; Emerson, Ishara D; Rossettie, Mattea S; Beran, Michael J

    2016-08-03

    The ego-depletion hypothesis states that self-control diminishes over time and with exertion. Accordingly, the glucose hypothesis attributes this depletion of self-control resources to decreases in blood glucose levels. Research has led to mixed findings among humans and nonhuman animals, with limited evidence for such a link between glucose and self-control among closely-related nonhuman primate species, but some evidence from more distantly related species (e.g., honeybees and dogs). We tested this hypothesis in capuchin monkeys by manipulating the sugar content of a calorie-matched breakfast meal following a nocturnal fast, and then presenting each monkey with the accumulation self-control task. Monkeys were presented with food items one-by-one until the subject retrieved and ate the accumulating items, which required continual inhibition of food retrieval in the face of an increasingly desirable reward. Results indicated no relationship between self-control performance on the accumulation task and glucose ingestion levels following a fast. These results do not provide support for the glucose hypothesis of self-control among capuchin monkeys within the presented paradigm. Further research assessing self-control and its physiological correlates among closely- and distantly-related species is warranted to shed light on the mechanisms underlying self-control behavior.

  12. Social Behavior in Interacting Squirrel Monkeys with Differential Nutritional and Environmental Histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, Patricia F.

    This paper reports an observational study of the effects of handling on the social behavior of squirrel monkeys who received a protein deficient diet. After birth, experimental animals received a low-protein diet for a 6-week period. A subgroup of these animals were handled between 3 and 12 weeks of age. All of the animals interacted (in four…

  13. Dissociation of Active Working Memory and Passive Recognition in Rhesus Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basile, Benjamin M.; Hampton, Robert R.

    2013-01-01

    Active cognitive control of working memory is central in most human memory models, but behavioral evidence for such control in nonhuman primates is absent and neurophysiological evidence, while suggestive, is indirect. We present behavioral evidence that monkey memory for familiar images is under active cognitive control. Concurrent cognitive…

  14. Roll tilt psychophysics in rhesus monkeys during vestibular and visual stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Richard F; Haburcakova, Csilla; Merfeld, Daniel M

    2008-07-01

    How does the brain calculate the spatial orientation of the head relative to gravity? Psychophysical measurements are critical to investigate this question, but such measurements have been limited to humans. In non-human primates, behavioral measures have focused on vestibular-mediated eye movements, which do not reflect percepts of head orientation. We have therefore developed a method to measure tilt perception in monkeys, derived from the subjective visual vertical (SVV) task. Two rhesus monkeys were trained to align a light bar parallel to gravity and performed this task during roll tilts, centrifugation, and roll optokinetic stimulation. The monkeys accurately aligned the light bar with gravity during static roll tilts but also demonstrated small orientation-dependent misperceptions of the tilt angle analogous to those measured in humans. When the gravito-inertial force (GIF) rotated dynamically in the roll plane, SVV responses remained closely aligned with the GIF during roll tilt of the head (coplanar canal rotational cues present), lagged slightly behind the GIF during variable-radius centrifugation (no canal cues present), and shifted gradually during fixed-radius centrifugation (orthogonal yaw canal cues present). SVV responses also deviated away from the earth-vertical during roll optokinetic stimulation. These results demonstrate that rotational cues derived from the semicircular canals and visual system have prominent effects on psychophysical measurements of roll tilt in rhesus monkeys and therefore suggest that a central synthesis of graviceptive and rotational cues contributes to percepts of head orientation relative to gravity in non-human primates.

  15. Case Study: What Makes a Good Case, Revisited: The Survey Monkey Tells All

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herried, Clyde Freeman; Prud'homme-Genereux, Annie; Schiller, Nancy A.; Herreid, Ky F.; Wright, Carolyn

    2016-01-01

    This column provides original articles on innovations in case study teaching, assessment of the method, as well as case studies with teaching notes. In this month's issue the authors provide a more definitive answer to the "What Makes a Good Case?" question based on a just-completed Survey Monkey survey given to NCCSTS teachers.

  16. The Role of the Antiviral APOBEC3 Gene Family in Protecting Chimpanzees against Lentiviruses from Monkeys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Etienne

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cross-species transmissions of viruses from animals to humans are at the origin of major human pathogenic viruses. While the role of ecological and epidemiological factors in the emergence of new pathogens is well documented, the importance of host factors is often unknown. Chimpanzees are the closest relatives of humans and the animal reservoir at the origin of the human AIDS pandemic. However, despite being regularly exposed to monkey lentiviruses through hunting, chimpanzees are naturally infected by only a single simian immunodeficiency virus, SIVcpz. Here, we asked why chimpanzees appear to be protected against the successful emergence of other SIVs. In particular, we investigated the role of the chimpanzee APOBEC3 genes in providing a barrier to infection by most monkey lentiviruses. We found that most SIV Vifs, including Vif from SIVwrc infecting western-red colobus, the chimpanzee's main monkey prey in West Africa, could not antagonize chimpanzee APOBEC3G. Moreover, chimpanzee APOBEC3D, as well as APOBEC3F and APOBEC3H, provided additional protection against SIV Vif antagonism. Consequently, lentiviral replication in primary chimpanzee CD4(+ T cells was dependent on the presence of a lentiviral vif gene that could antagonize chimpanzee APOBEC3s. Finally, by identifying and functionally characterizing several APOBEC3 gene polymorphisms in both common chimpanzees and bonobos, we found that these ape populations encode APOBEC3 proteins that are uniformly resistant to antagonism by monkey lentiviruses.

  17. Two-item discrimination and Hamilton search learning in infant pigtailed macaque monkeys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ha, J.C.; Mandell, D.J.; Gray, J.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated how infant pigtailed macaque monkeys performed on two separate learning assessments, two-object discrimination/reversal and Hamilton search learning. Although the learning tasks have been tested on several species, including non-human primates, there have been no normative

  18. Fecal and Salivary Cortisol Concentrations in Woolly (Lagothrix ssp.) and Spider Monkeys (Ateles spp.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ange-van Heugten, K.D.; Heugten, van E.; Timmer, S.; Bosch, G.; Elias, A.; Whisnant, S.; Swarts, H.J.M.; Ferket, P.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2009-01-01

    Detrimental physiological effects due to stressors can contribute to the low captive success of primates. The objective of this research was to investigate the potential impact of diet composition on cortisol concentrations in feces and saliva in woolly (n=27) and spider monkeys (n=61). The research

  19. Simian Homologues of Human Gamma-2 and Betaherpesviruses in Mandrill and Drill Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacoste, Vincent; Mauclere, Philippe; Dubreuil, Guy; Lewis, John; Georges-Courbot, Marie-Claude; Rigoulet, Jacques; Petit, Thierry; Gessain, Antoine

    2000-01-01

    Recent serological and molecular surveys of different primate species allowed the characterization of several Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) homologues in macaques, African green monkeys, chimpanzees, and gorillas. Identification of these new primate rhadinoviruses revealed the existence of two distinct genogroups, called RV1 and RV2. Using a degenerate consensus primer PCR method for the herpesvirus DNA polymerase gene, the presence of KSHV homologues has been investigated in two semi-free-ranging colonies of eight drill (Mandrillus leucophaeus), five mandrill (Mandrillus sphinx), and two hybrid (Mandrillus leucophaeus-Mandrillus sphinx) monkeys, living in Cameroon and Gabon, Central Africa. This search revealed the existence of not only two distinct KSHV homologues, each one belonging to one of the two rhadinovirus genogroups, but also of two new betaherpesvirus sequences, one being close to cytomegaloviruses and the other being related to human herpesviruses 6 and 7 (HHV-6 and -7). The latter viruses are the first simian HHV-6 and -7 homologues identified to date. These data show that mandrill and drill monkeys are the hosts of at least four novel distinct herpesviruses. Moreover, mandrills, like macaques and African green monkeys, harbor also two distinct gamma-2 herpesviruses, thus strongly suggesting that a second gamma-2 herpesvirus, belonging to the RV2 genogroup, may exist in humans. PMID:11090203

  20. Normal Anatomy, Histology, and Spontaneous Pathology of the Nasal Cavity of the Cynomolgus Monkey (Macaca fascicularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamanza, Ronnie; Taylor, Ian; Gregori, Michela; Hill, Colin; Swan, Mark; Goodchild, Joel; Goodchild, Kane; Schofield, Jane; Aldous, Mark; Mowat, Vasanthi

    2016-07-01

    The evaluation of inhalation studies in monkeys is often hampered by the scarcity of published information on the relevant nasal anatomy and pathology. We examined nasal cavities of 114 control cynomolgus monkeys from 11 inhalation studies evaluated 2008 to 2013, in order to characterize and document the anatomic features and spontaneous pathology. Compared to other laboratory animals, the cynomolgus monkey has a relatively simple nose with 2 unbranched, dorsoventrally stacked turbinates, large maxillary sinuses, and a nasal septum that continues into the nasopharynx. The vomeronasal organ is absent, but nasopalatine ducts are present. Microscopically, the nasal epithelium is thicker than that in rodents, and the respiratory (RE) and transitional epithelium (TE) rest on a thick basal lamina. Generally, squamous epithelia and TE line the vestibule, RE, the main chamber and nasopharynx, olfactory epithelium, a small caudodorsal region, while TE is observed intermittently along the passages. Relatively high incidences of spontaneous pathology findings, some resembling induced lesions, were observed and included inflammation, luminal exudate, scabs, squamous and respiratory metaplasia or hyperplasia, mucous cell hyperplasia/metaplasia, and olfactory degeneration. Regions of epithelial transition were the most affected. This information is considered helpful in the histopathology evaluation and interpretation of inhalation studies in monkeys. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. The Incidence of Lymphoplasmacytic Gastritis in the Fundus and Antrum of Cynomolgus Monkey ( Macaca fascicularis ) Stomachs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeag, Sean; McInnes, Elizabeth F

    2012-12-01

    Lymphoplasmacytic gastritis is a concern for toxicological pathologists reading preclinical, non-human primate toxicity studies because subtle gastric changes which could be treatment-related may be masked and gastritis lesions may be confused with treatment-related effects and thus a gastric finding may be incorrectly assigned as a treatment-related lesion. This paper discusses the incidence of lymphoplasmacytic gastritis in cynomolgus monkeys at a contract research organization. The incidence of lymphoplasmacytic gastritis in the fundus and antrum of control cynomolgus monkeys on 18 non-gastric compound studies, was scored. The average fundus score ranged from 0.3 to 1.5 and the average antral score ranged from 0.9 to 3.5 in the cynomolgus monkey stomachs examined. The number of affected control animals in a study ranged from 0 to 5 control animals. No correlation between the route of vehicle administration and the severity or incidence of the lesions was noted. The percentage incidence of affected animals ranged from 0 to 100%. An increased incidence lymphoplasmatic gastritis from 2000 to 2004 was noted. The implications of lymphoplasmacytic gastritis in cynomolgus monkeys used for acute toxicity studies are discussed.

  2. COMPARATIVE ANATOMY OF THE VITREOUS BODY IN RHESUS-MONKEYS AND MAN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WORST, JGF; LOS, LI

    1992-01-01

    In the isolated unfixed vitreous body a structural organization can be visualized by slitlamp microscopy or by an ink-injection technique. We discuss the observations on human and rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) vitreous bodies using the ink-injection technique. Advantages and disadvantages of this

  3. Reproducibility and Variation of Diffusion Measures in the Squirrel Monkey Brain, In Vivo and Ex Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Kurt; Gao, Yurui; Stepniewska, Iwona; Choe, Ann S; Landman, Bennett A; Anderson, Adam W

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Animal models are needed to better understand the relationship between diffusion MRI (dMRI) and the underlying tissue microstructure. One promising model for validation studies is the common squirrel monkey, Saimiri sciureus. This study aims to determine (1) the reproducibility of in vivo diffusion measures both within and between subjects; (2) the agreement between in vivo and ex vivo data acquired from the same specimen and (3) normal diffusion values and their variation across brain regions. Methods Data were acquired from three healthy squirrel monkeys, each imaged twice in vivo and once ex vivo. Reproducibility of fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), and principal eigenvector (PEV) was assessed, and normal values were determined both in vivo and ex vivo. Results The calculated coefficients of variation (CVs) for both intra-subject and inter-subject MD were below 10% (low variability) while FA had a wider range of CVs, 2–14% intra-subject (moderate variability), and 3–31% inter-subject (high variability). MD in ex vivo tissue was lower than in vivo (30%–50% decrease), while FA values increased in all regions (30–39% increase). The mode of angular differences between in vivo and ex vivo PEVs was 12 degrees. Conclusion This study characterizes the diffusion properties of the squirrel monkey brain and serves as the groundwork for using the squirrel monkey, both in vivo and ex vivo, as a model for diffusion MRI studies. PMID:27587226

  4. Medial temporal lesions in monkeys impair memory on a variety of tasks sensitive to human amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zola-Morgan, S; Squire, L R

    1985-02-01

    Monkeys with conjoint bilateral lesions of the hippocampus and amygdala were impaired on four different tests of memory (delayed retention of object discriminations, concurrent discrimination, delayed response, and delayed nonmatching to sample). Because tests involving delays and distractions are known to be especially sensitive to human amnesia, in three of the tasks relatively long delay intervals between training and test trials were used, and in two tasks distraction was introduced during the delay intervals. The severity of the impairment increased with the length of the delay, and distraction markedly increased the memory impairment. For one task given on two occasions (delayed nonmatching to sample), the severity of the impairment was unchanged over a period of 1.5 years. Taken together with previous findings that skill learning is unimpaired in the same operated monkeys, the results of the present study strengthen the conclusion that monkeys with medial temporal lesions constitute an animal model of human amnesia. In addition, the four tasks used here appear to constitute a sensitive and appropriate battery that could be used in other studies of the neuroanatomy of memory functions in the monkey.

  5. Chronic lead exposure effects in the cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, W G; Singh, A; McMahon, A; Rice, D C

    1998-01-01

    Although reproductive consequences of high circulating blood lead levels (> or = 60 micrograms/dL) have been reported, potential adverse effects of chronic lead exposure in males that result in low to moderate blood lead levels (10-25 and 26-60 micrograms/dL, respectively) are unknown. Effects of chronic lead exposure to testis ultrastructure were determined in the cynomolgus monkey after oral administration of lead acetate (1500 micrograms/kg BW/day) in a vehicle in the following groups: from birth to 10 years (lifetime), postnatal day 300 to 10 years (postinfancy), and postnatal day 0-400 (infancy); monkeys in the control group received only the vehicle (95% glycerol and 5% distilled water). At age 10 years, circulating lead concentrations in lifetime and postinfancy-dosed monkeys were approximately 35 micrograms/dL, and in control and infancy animals the concentrations were exposure to lead that results in moderate blood lead concentrations induced persistent ultrastructural alterations in the cynomolgus monkey testis. Results of this study on the primate, following extrapolation to humans, could influence further refining of the impact of environmental lead contamination concentrations vis-à-vis the health of children, adults, and aged human beings.

  6. Human – monkey interaction on a University campus in Nigeria: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    2017-03-28

    Mar 28, 2017 ... frequent hunting/poaching, trade in bush meat and exotic pet ownership puts Nigeria in similar, though less precarious situations, when compared with countries in south and south east Asia and in the south Pacific Islands where monkey temples abound with more frequent and closer interactions between.

  7. How rhesus monkey infants budget their time between mothers and peers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, G.D.; Dienske, H.; Luxemburg, E.A.V.; Ribbens, L.

    1981-01-01

    Social play between two rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) infants takes place mainly when they are both not in body contact with their mothers. This suggests that social play and mother-infant body contact are potential competitors in the infants' time budgets. We investigated whether the presence of a

  8. Proteome profiling of the sperm maturation milieu in the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) epididymis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Jin, Shao-Hua; Liu, Xue-Xia; Wang, Wen-Juan; Liu, Fu-Jun

    2016-04-01

    The mammalian spermatozoon acquires its fertilising potential during transit through the epididymis, where it interacts with epididymal luminal fluid proteins (the sperm maturation milieu). In order to highlight the epididymal-specific function of the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) in sperm maturation, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of epididymal luminal fluid proteins was followed by identification by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/ Ionization Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS) or MALDI-TOF/TOF and revealed over five hundred spots, comprising 198 non-redundant proteins. Some mass spectrometric data were confirmed by western blotting identification. Some common epididymal fluid proteins were identified, such as clusterin, α-1-antitrypsin, malate dehydrogenase, L-lactate dehydrogenase B, α-1-acid glycoprotein 1 and α-mannosidase. More than 7% of all proteins were anti-oxidative, which might control oxidative stress within the male tract. When compared with bull and human epididymal luminal fluid proteins, those in the rhesus monkey had more overlap with the human, which provides evidence of a close evolutionary relationship between the rhesus monkey and man. This study provides new proteomic information on possible rhesus monkey epididymal functions and novel potential biomarkers for the noninvasive assessment of male fertility.

  9. High seroprevalence of enterovirus infections in apes and old world monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvala, Heli; McIntyre, Chloe L; Imai, Natsuko; Clasper, Lucy; Djoko, Cyrille F; LeBreton, Matthew; Vermeulen, Marion; Saville, Andrew; Mutapi, Francisca; Tamoufé, Ubald; Kiyang, John; Biblia, Tafon G; Midzi, Nicholas; Mduluza, Takafira; Pépin, Jacques; Njouom, Richard; Njoum, Richard; Smura, Teemu; Fair, Joseph N; Wolfe, Nathan D; Roivainen, Merja; Simmonds, Peter

    2012-02-01

    To estimate population exposure of apes and Old World monkeys in Africa to enteroviruses (EVs), we conducted a seroepidemiologic study of serotype-specific neutralizing antibodies against 3 EV types. Detection of species A, B, and D EVs infecting wild chimpanzees demonstrates their potential widespread circulation in primates.

  10. Evaluation of cobalt-60 energy deposit in mouse and monkey using Monte Carlo simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Sang Keun; Kim, Wook; Park, Yong Sung; Kang, Joo Hyun; Lee, Yong Jin [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, KIRAMS, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Doo Wan; Lee, Hong Soo; Han, Su Cheol [Jeonbuk Department of Inhalation Research, Korea Institute of toxicology, KRICT, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    These absorbed dose can calculated using the Monte Carlo transport code MCNP (Monte Carlo N-particle transport code). Internal radiotherapy absorbed dose was calculated using conventional software, such as OLINDA/EXM or Monte Carlo simulation. However, the OLINDA/EXM does not calculate individual absorbed dose and non-standard organ, such as tumor. While the Monte Carlo simulation can calculated non-standard organ and specific absorbed dose using individual CT image. External radiotherapy, absorbed dose can calculated by specific absorbed energy in specific organs using Monte Carlo simulation. The specific absorbed energy in each organ was difference between species or even if the same species. Since they have difference organ sizes, position, and density of organs. The aim of this study was to individually evaluated cobalt-60 energy deposit in mouse and monkey using Monte Carlo simulation. We evaluation of cobalt-60 energy deposit in mouse and monkey using Monte Carlo simulation. The absorbed energy in each organ compared with mouse heart was 54.6 fold higher than monkey absorbed energy in heart. Likewise lung was 88.4, liver was 16.0, urinary bladder was 29.4 fold higher than monkey. It means that the distance of each organs and organ mass was effects of the absorbed energy. This result may help to can calculated absorbed dose and more accuracy plan for external radiation beam therapy and internal radiotherapy.

  11. Human – monkey interaction on a University campus in Nigeria: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human – monkey interaction on a University campus in Nigeria: An avenue for zoonotic disease transmission at the human wildlife interface? ... The low level of awareness about zoonotic disease among the respondents could be ameliorated through public health awareness campaigns by health workers and ...

  12. Low levels of sarin affect the EEG in marmoset monkeys: A pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helden, H.H.P.M. van; Vanwersch, R.A.P.; Kuijpers, W.C.; Trap, H.C.; Philippens, I.H.C.; Benschop, H.P.

    2004-01-01

    The main purpose of this pilot study was to estimate the lowest observable adverse effect level (LOAEL) for the electroencephalogram (EEG) upon long-term, low-level exposure of vehicle-pretreated and pyridostigmine-pretreated marmoset monkeys to sarin vapour. This is the C·t value (t = 5 h) of

  13. Mother-Infant Interaction in Rhesus Monkeys Treated Chronically with Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golub, Mari S.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Drug-exposed mother-infant rhesus monkey pairs were similar to nontreated controls in the amount and types of activity displayed at the infant's tenth and ninetieth day of age. At about 3 months of age drug-exposed pairs increased in interaction, signaling mother-infant independence. This finding suggests that mother-infant attachment may be…

  14. Structural differences among serum IgA proteins of chimpanzee, rhesus monkey and rat origin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endo, T.; Radl, J.; Mestecky, J.

    1997-01-01

    Asparagine-linked sugar chains were quantitatively released from chimpanzee, Rhesus monkey and rat IgA proteins as oligosaccharides by hydrazinolysis, converted to radioactive oligosaccharides by reduction with NaB3H4, and separated into neutral and two acidic fractions by paper electrophoresis. The

  15. Gambling primates: reactions to a modified Iowa Gambling Task in humans, chimpanzees and capuchin monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Rebecca A.; Latzman, Robert D.; de Waal, Frans B. M.; Brosnan, Sarah F.

    2014-01-01

    Humans will, at times, act against their own economic self-interest, for example, in gambling situations. To explore the evolutionary roots of this behavior, we modified a traditional human gambling task, the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), for use with chimpanzees, capuchin monkeys and humans. We expanded the traditional task to include two additional payoff structures to fully elucidate the ways in which these primate species respond to differing reward distributions versus overall quantities of rewards, a component often missing in the existing literature. We found that while all three species respond as typical humans do in the standard IGT payoff structure, species and individual differences emerge in our new payoff structures. Specifically, when variance avoidance and reward maximization conflicted, roughly equivalent numbers of apes maximized their rewards and avoided variance, indicating that the traditional payoff structure of the IGT is insufficient to disentangle these competing strategies. Capuchin monkeys showed little consistency in their choices. To determine whether this was a true species difference or an effect of task presentation, we replicated the experiment but increased the intertrial interval. In this case, several capuchin monkeys followed a reward maximization strategy, while chimpanzees retained the same strategy they had used previously. This suggests that individual differences in strategies for interacting with variance and reward maximization are present in apes, but not in capuchin monkeys. The primate gambling task presented here is a useful methodology for disentangling strategies of variance avoidance and reward maximization. PMID:24504555

  16. Contextual Congruency Effect in Natural Scene Categorization: Different Strategies in Humans and Monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collet, Anne-Claire; Fize, Denis; VanRullen, Rufin

    2015-01-01

    Rapid visual categorization is a crucial ability for survival of many animal species, including monkeys and humans. In real conditions, objects (either animate or inanimate) are never isolated but embedded in a complex background made of multiple elements. It has been shown in humans and monkeys that the contextual background can either enhance or impair object categorization, depending on context/object congruency (for example, an animal in a natural vs. man-made environment). Moreover, a scene is not only a collection of objects; it also has global physical features (i.e phase and amplitude of Fourier spatial frequencies) which help define its gist. In our experiment, we aimed to explore and compare the contribution of the amplitude spectrum of scenes in the context-object congruency effect in monkeys and humans. We designed a rapid visual categorization task, Animal versus Non-Animal, using as contexts both real scenes photographs and noisy backgrounds built from the amplitude spectrum of real scenes but with randomized phase spectrum. We showed that even if the contextual congruency effect was comparable in both species when the context was a real scene, it differed when the foreground object was surrounded by a noisy background: in monkeys we found a similar congruency effect in both conditions, but in humans the congruency effect was absent (or even reversed) when the context was a noisy background. PMID:26207915

  17. Daily feeding rhythm in proboscis monkeys: a preliminary comparison with other non-human primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Ikki; Akiyama, Yoshihiro; Tuuga, Augustine; Bernard, Henry; Clauss, Marcus

    2014-04-01

    In non-human primates, the daily feeding rhythm, i.e., temporal fluctuation in feeding activity across the day, has been described but has rarely received much analytical interpretation, though it may play a crucial part in understanding the adaptive significance of primate foraging strategies. This study is the first to describe the detailed daily feeding rhythm in proboscis monkeys (Nasalis larvatus) based on data collected from both riverbank and inland habitats. From May 2005 to May 2006, data on feeding behavior in a group of proboscis monkeys consisting of an alpha-male, six adult females and immatures was collected via continuous focal animal sampling technique in a forest along the Menanggul River, Sabah, Malaysia. In both the male and females, the highest peak of feeding activity was in the late afternoon at 15:00-17:00, i.e., shortly before sleeping. The differences in the feeding rhythm among the seasons appeared to reflect the time spent eating fruit and/or the availability of fruit; clearer feeding peaks were detected when the monkeys spent a relevant amount of time eating fruit, but no clear peak was detected when fruit eating was less frequent. The daily feeding rhythm was not strongly influenced by daily temperature fluctuations. When comparing the daily feeding rhythm of proboscis monkeys to that of other primates, one of the most common temporal patterns detected across primates was a feeding peak in the late afternoon, although it was impossible to demonstrate this statistically because of methodological differences among studies.

  18. Capillary changes in hippocampal CA1 and CA3 areas of the aging rhesus monkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keuker, JIH; Luiten, PGM; Fuchs, E

    2000-01-01

    The rhesus monkey is considered a useful animal model for studying human aging, because non-human primates show many of the neurobiological alterations that have been reported in aging humans. Cognitive impairment that accompanies normal aging may, at least partially, originate from capillary

  19. Anti-CD45RB monoclonal antibody prolongs renal allograft survival in cynomolgus monkeys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, G.; Luke, P. P. W.; Yang, H.; Visser, L.; Sun, H.; Garcia, B.; Qian, H.; Xiang, Y.; Huang, X.; Liu, W.; Senaldi, G.; Schneider, A.; Poppema, S.; Wang, H.; Jevnikar, A. M.; Zhong, R.

    Previously, an anti-CD45RB monoclonal antibody (mAb) has been shown to induce murine allograft tolerance. The present study was performed to assess the ability of an anti-human CD45RB mAb to prevent rejection in a monkey MHC-mismatched kidney transplant model. The recipients were allocated into the

  20. Pharmacokinetics of cyclosporine in monkeys after oral and intramuscular administration : relation to efficacy in kidney allografting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurman, HJ; Slingerland, W; Mennninger, K; Ossevoort, M; Hengy, JC; Dorobek, B; Vouderscher, J; Ringers, J; Odeh, M; Jonker, Margreet

    In cynomolgus and rhesus monkeys, the dose-normalized exposure of cyclosporine administered orally as microemulsion preconcentrate (Neoral) was lower than that upon intramuscular administration. For oral administration, mean values (+/- SD) of C-max, 24-h area-under-the curve (AUC) and 24-h trough

  1. Canine distemper virus isolated from a monkey efficiently replicates on Vero cells expressing non-human primate SLAM receptors but not human SLAM receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Na; Liu, Yuxiu; Wang, Jianzhong; Xu, Weiwei; Li, Tiansong; Wang, Tiecheng; Wang, Lei; Yu, Yicong; Wang, Hualei; Zhao, Yongkun; Yang, Songtao; Gao, Yuwei; Hu, Guixue; Xia, Xianzhu

    2016-08-02

    In 2008, an outbreak of canine distemper virus (CDV) infection in monkeys was reported in China. We isolated CDV strain (subsequently named Monkey-BJ01-DV) from lung tissue obtained from a rhesus monkey that died in this outbreak. We evaluated the ability of this virus on Vero cells expressing SLAM receptors from dog, monkey and human origin, and analyzed the H gene of Monkey-BJ01-DV with other strains. The Monkey-BJ01-DV isolate replicated to the highest titer on Vero cells expressing dog-origin SLAM (10(5.2±0.2) TCID50/ml) and monkey-origin SLAM (10(5.4±0.1) TCID50/ml), but achieved markedly lower titers on human-origin SLAM cells (10(3.3±0.3) TCID50/ml). Phylogenetic analysis of the full-length H gene showed that Monkey-BJ01-DV was highly related to other CDV strains obtained during recent CDV epidemics among species of the Canidae family in China, and these Monkey strains CDV (Monkey-BJ01-DV, CYN07-dV, Monkey-KM-01) possessed a number of amino acid specific substitutions (E276V, Q392R, D435Y and I542F) compared to the H protein of CDV epidemic in other animals at the same period. Our results suggested that the monkey origin-CDV-H protein could possess specific substitutions to adapt to the new host. Monkey-BJ01-DV can efficiently use monkey- and dog-origin SLAM to infect and replicate in host cells, but further adaptation may be required for efficient replication in host cells expressing the human SLAM receptor.

  2. Preference for an Opioid/Benzodiazepine Mixture over an Opioid Alone Using a Concurrent Choice Procedure in Rhesus Monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weed, Peter F; France, Charles P; Gerak, Lisa R

    2017-07-01

    Increased abuse of opioids is contributing to an escalation in overdose deaths. Benzodiazepines are frequently abused with opioids, possibly because they increase the potency and/or effectiveness of opioids to produce reinforcing effects. This study used a concurrent-choice procedure to determine whether monkeys would choose to self-administer a mixture of the opioid remifentanil and the benzodiazepine midazolam over remifentanil alone. Initially, three monkeys could respond on one lever for saline and on a second lever for either remifentanil alone or midazolam alone. Thereafter, monkeys chose between a dose of remifentanil (0.32 µ g/kg/infusion) that did not change and a dose of remifentanil that varied across sessions; for some sessions, midazolam was combined with varying doses of remifentanil. All monkeys received more infusions of remifentanil (0.0032-0.32 µ g/kg/infusion) than saline, whereas only two monkeys responded more for midazolam than for saline. When 0.32 µ g/kg/infusion remifentanil was available on one lever and a dose of remifentanil that varied across sessions (0.1-1 µ g/kg/infusion) was available on the other lever, monkeys chose the larger dose. Combining 3.2 µ g/kg/infusion midazolam with 0.32 µ g/kg/infusion remifentanil increased responding for the mixture over 0.32 µ g/kg/infusion remifentanil alone, although monkeys chose remifentanil alone over mixtures containing smaller doses of remifentanil. When 10 µ g/kg/infusion midazolam was combined with 0.1 µ g/kg/infusion remifentanil, monkeys chose the mixture over 0.32 µ g/kg/infusion remifentanil alone. Thus, monkeys prefer some opioid/benzodiazepine mixtures to larger doses of the opioid alone, suggesting that opioid/benzodiazepine coabuse might be due to increased potency (and possibly effectiveness) of opioids to produce reinforcing effects. Copyright © 2017 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  3. Capture techniques and morphological measurements of the mona monkey (Cercopithecus mona) on the island of Grenada, West Indies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, M E; Bensen, K J

    1998-04-01

    Morphological measurements were collected from 12 wild and 12 captive mona monkeys (Cercopithecus mona) on the Caribbean island of Grenada. Mona monkeys were introduced to Grenada from Africa approximately 200 to 300 years ago during the slave trade era. Wild monkeys were captured using either 1) a baited treadle-door trap and anesthetic-filled darts fired from a blowpipe, or 2) rifle-fired anesthetic-filled darts. All wild monkeys were released back into the forest after capture and were seen with their original groups within 24 hours of release. Captive monkeys were anesthetized using blowpipe-fired darts. A Ketaset/Rompun mixture was the most effective anesthetic for wild monkeys while Ketaset alone was suitable for captive monkeys. Responses to and recovery times from both drugs varied among individuals. Data on eight linear body measurements, canine length, testicle size, and weight were collected from all monkeys. Adult monkeys were significantly sexually dimorphic across all measurements. Mean adult male weight (mean = 4.7, SD = 0.9, n = 13) was almost twice that of adult females (mean = 2.8, SD = 0.8, n = 7). No significant differences in weight or measurements were found between adult wild and captive males. Preliminary comparisons with morphometrics for African C. mona from the literature showed the upper limit of Grenada mona body length and weight to be smaller than that of African monas for both sexes. These differences may be due to genetic divergence, ecological adaptation, inter-African geographic variation, and/or small sample sizes.

  4. Heterochrony and cross-species intersensory matching by infant vervet monkeys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahin Zangenehpour

    Full Text Available Understanding the evolutionary origins of a phenotype requires understanding the relationship between ontogenetic and phylogenetic processes. Human infants have been shown to undergo a process of perceptual narrowing during their first year of life, whereby their intersensory ability to match the faces and voices of another species declines as they get older. We investigated the evolutionary origins of this behavioral phenotype by examining whether or not this developmental process occurs in non-human primates as well.We tested the ability of infant vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops, ranging in age from 23 to 65 weeks, to match the faces and voices of another non-human primate species (the rhesus monkey, Macaca mulatta. Even though the vervets had no prior exposure to rhesus monkey faces and vocalizations, our findings show that infant vervets can, in fact, recognize the correspondence between rhesus monkey faces and voices (but indicate that they do so by looking at the non-matching face for a greater proportion of overall looking time, and can do so well beyond the age of perceptual narrowing in human infants. Our results further suggest that the pattern of matching by vervet monkeys is influenced by the emotional saliency of the Face+Voice combination. That is, although they looked at the non-matching screen for Face+Voice combinations, they switched to looking at the matching screen when the Voice was replaced with a complex tone of equal duration. Furthermore, an analysis of pupillary responses revealed that their pupils showed greater dilation when looking at the matching natural face/voice combination versus the face/tone combination.Because the infant vervets in the current study exhibited cross-species intersensory matching far later in development than do human infants, our findings suggest either that intersensory perceptual narrowing does not occur in Old World monkeys or that it occurs later in development. We argue that these

  5. Development of the interpeduncular nucleus in the midbrain of Rhesus monkey and human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenn, N J; Halfon, N; Rakic, P

    1978-02-20

    The development of the interpeduncular nucleus (IPN) in primates was studied in rhesus monkey with 3H-thymidine autoradiographic, Nissl and Golgi methods and in humans in histological preparations from embryos and fetuses of different ages. Autoradiographic analysis demonstrated that the neurons of the monkey IPN underwent their final cell division between postconception day 36 (E36) and E42, which corresponds to Stages 17 through 21 of Hendrickx and Sawyer. Autoradiograms of monkeys sacrificed at various short intervals following exposure to a pulse of 3H-thymidine showed that IPN neurons were generated in the proximity of the ventricular surface near the confluence of the 3rd ventricle and cerebral aqueduct, migrated ventrally along the midline and then spread laterally after reaching the ventral midbrain, where IPN was first recognized at E45 (Stage 23). The distribution of successively generated neurons in autoradiograms revealed caudal to rostal and lateral to medial spatiotemporal gradients. Differentiation of IPN neuronal size and development of Nissl substance began in rhesus monkey only after postmitotic cells had reached their destination and seemed to be pronounced mainly through E104. However, growth of the dendrites and elaboration of their side branches as seen in Golgi impregnations progressed gradually from E81 to birth (E165) and perhaps even later. Analysis of histological preparations of a series of human embryos and fetuses was used to derive similar information indirectly, since the autoradiographic method cannot be applied to man. It was found that IPN neurons in human probably underwent their final division between Carnegie Stage 17 and 21. Similarly, as in monkey, postmitotic cells in human IPN displayed an inverted fountain pattern of cellular migration. IPN could first be delineated at Stage 23. There was evidence for both caudal to rostral and lateral to medial spatiotemporal gradients in the human, as in the monkey. Thus, in monkey and

  6. Comparison between carbachol iontophoresis and intravenous pilocarpine stimulated accommodation in anesthetized rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Mark; He, Lin; Glasser, Adrian

    2013-10-01

    Rhesus monkeys are an animal model for human accommodation and presbyopia and consistent and repeatable methods are needed to stimulate and measure accommodation in anesthetized rhesus monkeys. Accommodation has typically been pharmacologically stimulated with topical pilocarpine or carbachol iontophoresis. Intravenous (i.v.) pilocarpine has recently been shown to produce more natural, rapid and reproducible accommodative responses compared to topical pilocarpine. Here, i.v. pilocarpine was compared to carbachol iontophoresis stimulated accommodation. Experiments were performed under anaesthesia on five previously iridectomized monkeys aged 10-16 years. In three monkeys, accommodation was stimulated with carbachol iontophoresis in five successive experiments and refraction measured with a Hartinger coincidence refractometer. In separate experiments, accommodation was stimulated using a 5 mg/kg bolus of i.v. pilocarpine given over 30 s followed by a continuous infusion of 20 mg/kg/hr for 5.5 min in three successive experiments with the same monkeys as well as in single experiments with two additional monkeys. Refraction was measured continuously using photorefraction with baseline and accommodated refraction also measured with the Hartinger. In subsequent i.v. pilocarpine experiments with each monkey, accommodative changes in lens equatorial diameter were measured in real-time with video-image analysis. Maximum accommodation of three monkeys with carbachol iontophoresis (five repeats) was (mean ± SD; range) 14.0 ± 3.5; 9.9-20.3 D and with i.v. pilocarpine stimulation (three repeats) was 11.1 ± 1.1; 9.9-13.0 D. The average of the standard deviations of maximum accommodation from each monkey was 0.8 ± 0.3 D from carbachol iontophoresis and 0.3 ± 0.2 from i.v. pilocarpine. The average latency to the start of the response after carbachol iontophoresis was 2.5 ± 3.9; 0.0-12.0 min with a time constant of 12.7 ± 9.5; 2.3-29.2 min. The average

  7. A. Femoralis in the small Green Monkey(Cercopithecus aethiops sabeus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blagojević Miloš

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The small Green Monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops sabeus in large groups inhabits the African savannah. The animals delivered to us were from East Africa, that is from Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania. The length of the animal is 110 cm, and the tail itself is 50 cm long. They can often be seen in Zoos. According to data, mostly by zoo gardens, these monkeys live for about 15 to 17 years, exceptionally for 20 years. The objective of our work was to investigate a part of their cardiovascular system so in that way to contribute to a better knowledge of this animal body structure and accordingly to comparative anatomy in general. The investigation included 6 Small Green Monkeys, of both gender, 3-4 years old, body weight 2000-3000 grams, obtained from The Institute for Virusology, vaccines and serums from Belgrade. For obtaining the hindlimb arterial vascularization, after exsanguination of the animal, contrast mass of gelatin coloured with tempera was injected into the abdominal aorta. After injecting, the blood vessels were prepared and photographed. In the Small Green Monkey, femoral artery (A. femoralis is an continuation of the external iliac artery (A. iliaca externa. The branches of the femoral artery are: A. profunda femoris, A. saphena, A. genus descendens and A. caudalis femoralis. A. profunda femoris separates to A. circumflexa femoris lateralis, Ramus muscularis and A. circumflexa femoris medialis. In humans A. femoralis branches into: A. epigastrica superficialis, A. circumflexa ilium superficialis, Aa. pudendae externae, A. profunda femoris and A. genus descendens (A. descendens genus. A. profunda femoris branches into: A. circumflexa femoris lateralis, A. circumflexa femoris medialis and Aa. perforantes. In domestic animals, mammals, the branches of the femoral artery (A. femoralis are: A. circumflexa femoris lateralis, A. saphena, A. genus descendens and Aa. caudales femoris In the Small Green Monkey, humans and domestic mammals A. femoralis

  8. Processing of pro-opiomelanocortin-derived amidated joining peptide and glycine-extended precursor in monkey pituitary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, M

    1991-01-01

    The molecular forms of proopiomelanocortin (POMC) derived amidated and C-terminal glycine-extended joining peptide from monkey (Macaca mulatta) pituitary were determined. The predominant forms of joining peptide found were the low molecular peptides POMC(76-105) and POMC(76-106), respectively. Si...... sequence of monkey and human POMC extremely conserved, but also the processing patterns are similar. The monkey therefore serves as a suitable model for studying regulation of the processing of POMC and the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis in man....

  9. Similarity analysis between chromosomes of Homo sapiens and monkeys with correlation coefficient, rank correlation coefficient and cosine similarity measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Someswara Rao, Chinta; Viswanadha Raju, S

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we consider correlation coefficient, rank correlation coefficient and cosine similarity measures for evaluating similarity between Homo sapiens and monkeys. We used DNA chromosomes of genome wide genes to determine the correlation between the chromosomal content and evolutionary relationship. The similarity among the H. sapiens and monkeys is measured for a total of 210 chromosomes related to 10 species. The similarity measures of these different species show the relationship between the H. sapiens and monkey. This similarity will be helpful at theft identification, maternity identification, disease identification, etc.

  10. Sleeping site selection by proboscis monkeys (Nasalis larvatus) in West Kalimantan, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feilen, Katie L; Marshall, Andrew J

    2014-12-01

    Primates spend at least half their lives sleeping; hence, sleeping site selection can have important effects on behavior and fitness. As proboscis monkeys (Nasalis larvatus) often sleep along rivers and form bands (aggregations of one male groups) at their sleeping sites, understanding sleeping site selection may shed light on two unusual aspects of this species' socioecology: their close association with rivers and their multilevel social organization. We studied sleeping site selection by proboscis monkeys for twelve months at Sungai Tolak, West Kalimantan, Indonesia to test two main hypotheses regarding the drivers of sleeping site selection: reduction of molestation by mosquitoes and anti-predator behavior. We identified to genus and collected data on the physical structure (diameter at breast height, relative height, branch structure, and leaf coverage) of sleeping trees and available trees in three forest types. We used resource selection function models to test specific predictions derived from our two hypotheses. The monkeys preferred to sleep in large trees with few canopy connections located along rivers. The selection of large emergent trees was consistent with both of our main hypotheses: decreased molestation by mosquitoes and reduced potential entry routes for terrestrial predators. Although we are only beginning to understand how sleeping sites might influence behavior, grouping, and potential survival of this species, our study has shown that proboscis monkeys (at Sungai Tolak) have a very strong preference for large trees located near the river. As these trees are often the first to be logged by local villagers, this may exacerbate the problems of forest loss for these endangered monkeys. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Discriminative stimulus effects of flumazenil in rhesus monkeys treated chronically with chlordiazepoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, C P; Gerak, L R

    1997-03-01

    Discriminative stimulus effects of the benzodiazepine antagonist flumazenil were studied in two rhesus monkeys receiving 3.2 mg/kg/12 h of chlordiazepoxide while discriminating between vehicle and 0.056 mg/kg of flumazenil. In a drug discrimination component responding was maintained under a FR 10 schedule of stimulus-shock termination; in a non-discrimination component responding was maintained under a FR 10 schedule of food presentation. Flumazenil and Ro 15-4513 occasioned >80% flumazenil-lever responding at doses larger than 0.032 and 0.056 mg/kg, respectively. Pentylenetetrazole, ethyl-beta-carboline-3-carboxylate (betaCCE), ketamine and spiradoline failed to substitute for flumazenil although >80% drug-lever responding was observed for two of the compounds in one monkey. Flumazenil, Ro 15-4513, pentylenetetrazole, betaCCE but not ketamine or spiradoline decreased rates of responding in the food component at doses that had little effect on rates in the stimulus-shock termination component. When chlordiazepoxide injections were discontinued and saline was administered before the session, monkeys did not respond on the flumazenil lever; when flumazenil was administered under the same conditions, monkeys responded on the flumazenil lever despite not having received chlordiazepoxide for nine days. Drug stimulus control was established with flumazenil in monkeys receiving chlordiazepoxide and substitution studies suggest that this effect of flumazenil might result from antagonist actions at benzodiazepine receptors: however, lack of withdrawal-related effects after termination of chlordiazepoxide treatment precludes validation of this procedure for studying benzodiazepine dependence.

  12. Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta detect rhythmic groups in music, but not the beat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henkjan Honing

    Full Text Available It was recently shown that rhythmic entrainment, long considered a human-specific mechanism, can be demonstrated in a selected group of bird species, and, somewhat surprisingly, not in more closely related species such as nonhuman primates. This observation supports the vocal learning hypothesis that suggests rhythmic entrainment to be a by-product of the vocal learning mechanisms that are shared by several bird and mammal species, including humans, but that are only weakly developed, or missing entirely, in nonhuman primates. To test this hypothesis we measured auditory event-related potentials (ERPs in two rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta, probing a well-documented component in humans, the mismatch negativity (MMN to study rhythmic expectation. We demonstrate for the first time in rhesus monkeys that, in response to infrequent deviants in pitch that were presented in a continuous sound stream using an oddball paradigm, a comparable ERP component can be detected with negative deflections in early latencies (Experiment 1. Subsequently we tested whether rhesus monkeys can detect gaps (omissions at random positions in the sound stream; Experiment 2 and, using more complex stimuli, also the beat (omissions at the first position of a musical unit, i.e. the 'downbeat'; Experiment 3. In contrast to what has been shown in human adults and newborns (using identical stimuli and experimental paradigm, the results suggest that rhesus monkeys are not able to detect the beat in music. These findings are in support of the hypothesis that beat induction (the cognitive mechanism that supports the perception of a regular pulse from a varying rhythm is species-specific and absent in nonhuman primates. In addition, the findings support the auditory timing dissociation hypothesis, with rhesus monkeys being sensitive to rhythmic grouping (detecting the start of a rhythmic group, but not to the induced beat (detecting a regularity from a varying rhythm.

  13. Tail function during arboreal quadrupedalism in squirrel monkeys (Saimiri boliviensis) and tamarins (Saguinus oedipus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jesse W; Russo, Gabrielle A; Fellmann, Connie D; Thatikunta, Meena A; Chadwell, Brad A

    2015-10-01

    The need to maintain stability on narrow branches is often presented as a major selective force shaping primate morphology, with adaptations to facilitate grasping receiving particular attention. The functional importance of a long and mobile tail for maintaining arboreal stability has been comparatively understudied. Tails can facilitate arboreal balance by acting as either static counterbalances or dynamic inertial appendages able to modulate whole-body angular momentum. We investigate associations between tail use and inferred grasping ability in two closely related cebid platyrrhines-cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus) and black-capped squirrel monkeys (Saimiri boliviensis). Using high-speed videography of captive monkeys moving on 3.2 cm diameter poles, we specifically test the hypothesis that squirrel monkeys (characterized by grasping extremities with long digits) will be less dependent on the tail for balance than tamarins (characterized by claw-like nails, short digits, and a reduced hallux). Tamarins have relatively longer tails than squirrel monkeys, move their tails through greater angular amplitudes, at higher angular velocities, and with greater angular accelerations, suggesting dynamic use of tail to regulate whole-body angular momentum. By contrast, squirrel monkeys generally hold their tails in a comparatively stationary posture and at more depressed angles, suggesting a static counterbalancing mechanism. This study, the first empirical test of functional tradeoffs between grasping ability and tail use in arboreal primates, suggests a critical role for the tail in maintaining stability during arboreal quadrupedalism. Our findings have the potential to inform our functional understanding of tail loss during primate evolution. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Ecological factors predictive of wild spider monkey (Ateles belzebuth) foraging decisions in Yasuní, Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, Scott A

    2014-12-01

    Because fruiting trees are uncommon in tropical forests, frugivorous primates experience selective pressure to incorporate knowledge of where to find feeding trees, what to expect when they arrive there, and when they can return after depleting a tree. I investigated these abilities in wild spider monkeys (Ateles belzebuth) in Yasuní, Ecuador, by analyzing the characteristics of feeding trees that drive foraging decisions. Foraging data were derived from four 2-week follows of focal adult females, conducted between May and December 1999, during which I measured and mapped all trees in which the focal subject fed, feeding bout duration, and the number of conspecifics feeding simultaneously with the focal. Taking into account the order in which feeding trees were visited across each follow, I analyzed each foraging decision from the second week of a follow, treating all previously visited trees as options for visits. I scored each option tree in terms of nine ecological variables, including the distance from the decision to each location tree, DBH, recent feeding time and mean feeding times for the focal and other monkeys present, and the interval in hours between the foraging decision and the most recent visit to each option tree. I then examined the predictive strength of the model using logistic regression analysis, comparing characteristics of selected trees to those not selected. The overall model successfully predicted trees selected by focal monkeys (r(2)  = 0.27). Monkeys preferentially moved to nearby, large canopy trees, in which previous feeding success was high, and which were visited after an interval of 3.5 days. Interval mattered most for medium and large trees, but did not predict selection for trees trees, Yasuní spider monkeys appeared to integrate spatial, value, and temporal information when deciding where to feed. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Why are there apes? Evidence for the co-evolution of ape and monkey ecomorphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Kevin D

    2016-04-01

    Apes, members of the superfamily Hominoidea, possess a distinctive suite of anatomical and behavioral characters which appear to have evolved relatively late and relatively independently. The timing of paleontological events, extant cercopithecine and hominoid ecomorphology and other evidence suggests that many distinctive ape features evolved to facilitate harvesting ripe fruits among compliant terminal branches in tree edges. Precarious, unpredictably oriented, compliant supports in the canopy periphery require apes to maneuver using suspensory and non-sterotypical postures (i.e. postures with eccentric limb orientations or extreme joint excursions). Diet differences among extant species, extant species numbers and evidence of cercopithecoid diversification and expansion, in concert with a reciprocal decrease in hominoid species, suggest intense competition between monkeys and apes over the last 20 Ma. It may be that larger body masses allow great apes to succeed in contest competitions for highly desired food items, while the ability of monkeys to digest antifeedant-rich unripe fruits allows them to win scramble competitions. Evolutionary trends in morphology and inferred ecology suggest that as monkeys evolved to harvest fruit ever earlier in the fruiting cycle they broadened their niche to encompass first more fibrous, tannin- and toxin-rich unripe fruits and later, for some lineages, mature leaves. Early depletion of unripe fruit in the central core of the tree canopy by monkeys leaves a hollow sphere of ripening fruits, displacing antifeedant-intolerant, later-arriving apes to small-diameter, compliant terminal branches. Hylobatids, orangutans, Pan species, gorillas and the New World atelines may have each evolved suspensory behavior independently in response to local competition from an expanding population of monkeys. Genetic evidence of rapid evolution among chimpanzees suggests that adaptations to suspensory behavior, vertical climbing, knuckle

  16. Genetic consequences of seed dispersal to sleeping trees by white-bellied spider monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karubian, Jordan; Ottewell, Kym; Link, Andres; Di Fiore, Anthony

    2015-10-01

    Frugivorous animals frequently generate clumped distributions of seeds away from source trees via 'destination-based' dispersal processes. For example, use of traditional sleeping trees by white-bellied spider monkeys Ateles belzebuth generates high densities of seeds of a preferred food source, the palm Oenocarpus bataua, at these sites. Little is known about the maternal seed source diversity and population genetic metrics of seed pools encountered at these sites. Given the repeated use of sleeping trees over time, and the fluid social organization and wide ranging movements exhibited by spider monkeys, we predicted that O. bataua seed pools beneath sleeping trees would be characterized by relatively high values of maternal seed source diversity and standard metrics of genetic diversity. Contrary to these expectations, we found relatively low average maternal seed source diversity beneath each of 6 sleeping trees we studied (weighted mean α = 3.74), but considerable variation in diversity of maternal seed sources between sleeping trees (range = 1.75-10.1) and high heterogeneity in standard genetic diversity measures between sleeping trees. There was no evidence for overlap in maternal seed sources between sleeping tree sites (δ = 1.0), resulting in significant genetic differentiation (Fst = 0.055-0.319) between these sites. Observed variation between sleeping trees could not be explained by the number of individual spider monkeys whose core home ranges included a given tree, nor by distance to a central mineral lick, a focal point of spider monkey activity. These findings suggest that spider monkey seed dispersal to sleeping trees is spatially restricted, perhaps because the animals visit sleeping trees at the end of the day and therefore only disperse O. bataua fruits that they ingest late in the day. These results add to our growing appreciation of the ways frugivore behavior mechanistically shapes seed dispersal outcomes.

  17. Telemetric assessment of social and single housing: Evaluation of electrocardiographic intervals in jacketed cynomolgus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Robert A; Tichenor, Stephen D; Regalia, Douglas E; York, Kristina; Holzgrefe, Henry H

    2015-01-01

    Proactive efforts to socially house laboratory animals are a contemporary, important focus for enhancing animal welfare. Jacketing cynomolgus monkeys has been traditionally considered an exclusionary criterion for social housing based on unsubstantiated concerns that study conduct or telemetry equipment might be compromised. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of jacketing naïve, adolescent cynomolgus monkeys in different single and social housing types based on parallel comparisons of heart rate. Eight naive cynomolgus monkeys were randomized into pairs and ECG data were collected for 24h from each animal in each housing condition using a crossover design. Caging paradigms consisted of standard individual, standard pair, quaternary pair (4 linked cages), and European-style pair housing in non-sequential order varied by pair to control for possible time bias. Dosing and blood collection procedures were performed to characterize any effects of housing on ECG data during study conduct. There was no increase in the incidence of equipment damage in pair vs. individually housed animals. Further, animals in all 4 housing paradigms showed similar acclimation assessed as heart rate (mean 139-154 beats per minute), and maintained similar diurnal rhythms, with an expected slowing of the heart rate at night (aggregate lights out HR 110±4bpm compared to daytime 146±7bpm). This study demonstrates the effects of different social access and housing types on the study-naïve cynomolgus monkeys during jacketed cardiovascular telemetry data collection in a repeat-dose toxicology study design. There were no discernible effects of social housing on baseline ECG parameters collected via jacketed telemetry, and all animals maintained expected diurnal rhythms in all housing settings tested. These data demonstrate that cynomolgus monkeys can be socially housed during data collection as a standard practice, consistent with global efforts to improve study animal welfare. Copyright

  18. Lineage-specific serology confirms Brazilian Atlantic forest lion tamarins, Leontopithecus chrysomelas and Leontopithecus rosalia, as reservoir hosts of Trypanosoma cruzi II (TcII).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Charlotte L; Bhattacharyya, Tapan; Xavier, Samanta C C; Barros, Juliana H; Lima, Valdirene S; Jansen, Ana M; Miles, Michael A

    2016-11-15

    Trypanosoma cruzi, the agent of Chagas disease in humans, has a vast reservoir of mammalian hosts in the Americas, and is classified into six genetic lineages, TcI-TcVI, with a possible seventh, TcBat. Elucidating enzootic cycles of the different lineages is important for understanding the ecology of this parasite, the emergence of new outbreaks of Chagas disease and for guiding control strategies. Direct lineage identification by genotyping is hampered by limitations of parasite isolation and culture. An indirect method is to identify lineage-specific serological reactions in infected individuals; here we describe its application with sylvatic Brazilian primates. Synthetic peptides representing lineage-specific epitopes of the T. cruzi surface protein TSSA were used in ELISA with sera from Atlantic Forest Leontopithecus chrysomelas (golden-headed lion tamarin), L. rosalia (golden lion tamarin), Amazonian Sapajus libidinosus (black-striped capuchin) and Alouatta belzebul (red-handed howler monkey). The epitope common to lineages TcII, TcV and TcVI was recognised by sera from 15 of 26 L. chrysomelas and 8 of 13 L. rosalia. For 12 of these serologically identified TcII infections, the identity of the lineage infection was confirmed by genotyping T. cruzi isolates. Of the TcII/TcV/TcVI positive sera 12 of the 15 L. chrysomelas and 2 of the 8 L. rosalia also reacted with the specific epitope restricted to TcV and TcVI. Sera from one of six S. libidinous recognised the TcIV/TcIII epitopes. This lineage-specific serological surveillance has verified that Atlantic Forest primates are reservoir hosts of at least TcII, and probably TcV and TcVI, commonly associated with severe Chagas disease in the southern cone region of South America. With appropriate reagents, this novel methodology is readily applicable to a wide range of mammal species and reservoir host discovery.

  19. Primate vaginal microbiomes exhibit species specificity without universal Lactobacillus dominance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Suleyman; Yeoman, Carl J; Janga, Sarath Chandra; Thomas, Susan M; Ho, Mengfei; Leigh, Steven R; White, Bryan A; Wilson, Brenda A; Stumpf, Rebecca M

    2014-12-01

    Bacterial communities colonizing the reproductive tracts of primates (including humans) impact the health, survival and fitness of the host, and thereby the evolution of the host species. Despite their importance, we currently have a poor understanding of primate microbiomes. The composition and structure of microbial communities vary considerably depending on the host and environmental factors. We conducted comparative analyses of the primate vaginal microbiome using pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA genes of a phylogenetically broad range of primates to test for factors affecting the diversity of primate vaginal ecosystems. The nine primate species included: humans (Homo sapiens), yellow baboons (Papio cynocephalus), olive baboons (Papio anubis), lemurs (Propithecus diadema), howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra), red colobus (Piliocolobus rufomitratus), vervets (Chlorocebus aethiops), mangabeys (Cercocebus atys) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Our results indicated that all primates exhibited host-specific vaginal microbiota and that humans were distinct from other primates in both microbiome composition and diversity. In contrast to the gut microbiome, the vaginal microbiome showed limited congruence with host phylogeny, and neither captivity nor diet elicited substantial effects on the vaginal microbiomes of primates. Permutational multivariate analysis of variance and Wilcoxon tests revealed correlations among vaginal microbiota and host species-specific socioecological factors, particularly related to sexuality, including: female promiscuity, baculum length, gestation time, mating group size and neonatal birth weight. The proportion of unclassified taxa observed in nonhuman primate samples increased with phylogenetic distance from humans, indicative of the existence of previously unrecognized microbial taxa. These findings contribute to our understanding of host-microbe variation and coevolution, microbial biogeography, and disease risk, and have important

  20. Two distinct gamma-2 herpesviruses in African green monkeys: a second gamma-2 herpesvirus lineage among old world primates?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greensill, J.; Sheldon, J. A.; Renwick, N. M.; Beer, B. E.; Norley, S.; Goudsmit, J.; Schulz, T. F.

    2000-01-01

    Primate gamma-2 herpesviruses (rhadinoviruses) have so far been found in humans (Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus [KSHV], also called human herpesvirus 8), macaques (Macaca spp.) (rhesus rhadinovirus [RRV] and retroperitoneal fibromatosis herpesvirus [RFHV]), squirrel monkeys (Saimiri

  1. The muscarinic M1/M4 receptor agonist xanomeline exhibits antipsychotic-like activity in Cebus apella monkeys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Maibritt B; Fink-Jensen, Anders; Peacock, Linda

    2003-01-01

    . To this end, we investigated the effects of xanomeline on the behavior induced by D-amphetamine and (-)-apomorphine in drug-naive Cebus apella monkeys. Antipsychotic compounds antagonize amphetamine-induced motor unrest and stereotypies in this species. Xanomeline inhibited D-amphetamine-induced motor unrest...... xanomeline was tested in EPS-sensitized Cebus apella monkeys, EPS were not observed at the dose range of xanomeline used in the D-amphetamine-apomorphine combination study (0.5-3 mg/kg). However, when xanomeline was tested at 4 mg/kg, moderate dystonia was seen in two out of three monkeys. It is concluded...... that xanomeline inhibits D-amphetamine- and (-)-apomorphine-induced behavior in Cebus apella monkeys at doses that do not cause EPS. These data further substantiate that muscarinic receptor agonists may be useful in the pharmacological treatment of psychosis....

  2. Evaluation of σ-1 receptor radioligand 18F-FTC-146 in rats and squirrel monkeys using PET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    James, Michelle L; Shen, Bin; Nielsen, Carsten Haagen

    2014-01-01

    -FTC-146 was observed in rat plasma. Preliminary monkey PET/MRI studies demonstrated specific accumulation of (18)F-FTC-146 in the brain (mainly in cortical structures, cerebellum, and vermis) that could be attenuated by pretreatment with haloperidol. HPLC of monkey plasma suggested radioligand metabolism...... chromatography (HPLC). Preliminary PET/MRI of squirrel monkey brain was conducted along with HPLC assessment of (18)F-FTC-146 stability in monkey plasma and human serum. RESULTS: Biodistribution studies showed that (18)F-FTC-146 accumulated in S1R-rich rat organs, including the lungs, pancreas, spleen, and brain....... Pretreatment with known S1R compounds, haloperidol, or BD1047, before radioligand administration, significantly attenuated (18)F-FTC-146 accumulation in all rat brain regions by approximately 85% (P

  3. Primacy and recency effects in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) using a serial probe recognition task. III. A developmental analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzke, S M; Castro, C A

    1998-04-01

    In children, the recency effect emerges prior to the primacy effect. To determine whether this dissociation is also seen in nonhuman primates, we evaluated the development of the primacy and recency effect in 3 young adult (35 months) and 4 adolescent (21 months) male rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) using a six-item serial probe recognition (SPR) task. As predicted, the young adult monkeys displayed both effects, while the adolescent monkeys only displayed the recency effect. Not until after 26 months of training on the SPR task did the adolescent monkeys exhibit both the primacy and recency effect. Interference and strategy differences are discussed in terms of the results along with an interpretation of Rudy's (1992) configural association theory of cognitive development. Additional possible explanations for this developmental dissociation include the delayed maturation of the neocortical, hippocampal, and/or cholinergic systems, the latter two having been shown to be important in the expression of the primacy but not the recency effect.

  4. IOP-Lowering Effect of ONO-9054, A Novel Dual Agonist of Prostanoid EP3 and FP Receptors, in Monkeys

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yamane, Shinsaku; Karakawa, Tomohiro; Nakayama, Satoshi; Nagai, Kazufumi; Moriyuki, Kazumi; Neki, Shinichi; Suto, Fumitaka; Kambe, Tohru; Hirota, Yasushi; Kawabata, Kazuhito

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether a better IOP reduction can be observed in conscious, normotensive monkeys treated with ONO-9054, a novel dual EP3 and FP receptor agonist, compared...

  5. Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulations of Inhaled Nano- and Micro-Particle Deposition in the Rhesus Monkey Nasal Passages

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Simulations of Inhaled Nano - and Micro- Particle Deposition in the Rhesus Monkey Nasal Passages Distribution Statement A. Approved for public...old, 11.9 kg) rhesus monkey were used to predict deposition of inhaled nano - and micro- particles . Steady-state, inspiratory airflow simulations were...on the simulation data for nano - and micro- particle deposition to allow for simplified calculations of age-based nasal deposition in the rhesus

  6. MONKEY: Identifying conserved transcription-factor binding sitesin multiple alignments using a binding site-specific evolutionarymodel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moses, Alan M.; Chiang, Derek Y.; Pollard, Daniel A.; Iyer, VenkyN.; Eisen, Michael B.

    2004-10-28

    We introduce a method (MONKEY) to identify conserved transcription-factor binding sites in multispecies alignments. MONKEY employs probabilistic models of factor specificity and binding site evolution, on which basis we compute the likelihood that putative sites are conserved and assign statistical significance to each hit. Using genomes from the genus Saccharomyces, we illustrate how the significance of real sites increases with evolutionary distance and explore the relationship between conservation and function.

  7. Cyto-, myelo- and chemoarchitecture of the prefrontal cortex of the Cebus monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Rizzolo, Roelf J; De Lima, Miguel A X; Ervolino, Edilson; de Oliveira, José A; Casatti, Claudio A

    2011-01-13

    According to several lines of evidence, the great expansion observed in the primate prefrontal cortex (PfC) was accompanied by the emergence of new cortical areas during phylogenetic development. As a consequence, the structural heterogeneity noted in this region of the primate frontal lobe has been associated with diverse behavioral and cognitive functions described in human and non-human primates. A substantial part of this evidence was obtained using Old World monkeys as experimental model; while the PfC of New World monkeys has been poorly studied. In this study, the architecture of the PfC in five capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) was analyzed based on four different architectonic tools, Nissl and myelin staining, histochemistry using the lectin Wisteria floribunda agglutinin and immunohistochemistry using SMI-32 antibody. Twenty-two architectonic areas in the Cebus PfC were distinguished: areas 8v, 8d, 9d, 12l, 45, 46v, 46d, 46vr and 46dr in the lateral PfC; areas 11l, 11m, 12o, 13l, 13m, 13i, 14r and 14c in the orbitofrontal cortex, with areas 14r and 14c occupying the ventromedial corner; areas 32r, 32c, 25 and 9m in the medial PfC, and area 10 in the frontal pole. This number is significantly higher than the four cytoarchitectonic areas previously recognized in the same species. However, the number and distribution of these areas in Cebus were to a large extent similar to those described in Old World monkeys PfC in more recent studies. The present parcellation of the Cebus PfC considerably modifies the scheme initially proposed for this species but is in line with previous studies on Old World monkeys. Thus, it was observed that the remarkable anatomical similarity between the brains of genera Macaca and Cebus may extend to architectonic aspects. Since monkeys of both genera evolved independently over a long period of time facing different environmental pressures, the similarities in the architectonic maps of PfC in both genera are issues of interest

  8. Cyto-, myelo- and chemoarchitecture of the prefrontal cortex of the Cebus monkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casatti Claudio A

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background According to several lines of evidence, the great expansion observed in the primate prefrontal cortex (PfC was accompanied by the emergence of new cortical areas during phylogenetic development. As a consequence, the structural heterogeneity noted in this region of the primate frontal lobe has been associated with diverse behavioral and cognitive functions described in human and non-human primates. A substantial part of this evidence was obtained using Old World monkeys as experimental model; while the PfC of New World monkeys has been poorly studied. In this study, the architecture of the PfC in five capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella was analyzed based on four different architectonic tools, Nissl and myelin staining, histochemistry using the lectin Wisteria floribunda agglutinin and immunohistochemistry using SMI-32 antibody. Results Twenty-two architectonic areas in the Cebus PfC were distinguished: areas 8v, 8d, 9d, 12l, 45, 46v, 46d, 46vr and 46dr in the lateral PfC; areas 11l, 11m, 12o, 13l, 13m, 13i, 14r and 14c in the orbitofrontal cortex, with areas 14r and 14c occupying the ventromedial corner; areas 32r, 32c, 25 and 9m in the medial PfC, and area 10 in the frontal pole. This number is significantly higher than the four cytoarchitectonic areas previously recognized in the same species. However, the number and distribution of these areas in Cebus were to a large extent similar to those described in Old World monkeys PfC in more recent studies. Conclusions The present parcellation of the Cebus PfC considerably modifies the scheme initially proposed for this species but is in line with previous studies on Old World monkeys. Thus, it was observed that the remarkable anatomical similarity between the brains of genera Macaca and Cebus may extend to architectonic aspects. Since monkeys of both genera evolved independently over a long period of time facing different environmental pressures, the similarities in the architectonic

  9. Functional magnetic resonance imaging of awake monkeys: some approaches for improving imaging quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gang; Wang, Feng; Dillenburger, Barbara C.; Friedman, Robert M.; Chen, Li M.; Gore, John C.; Avison, Malcolm J.; Roe, Anna W.

    2011-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), at high magnetic field strength can suffer from serious degradation of image quality because of motion and physiological noise, as well as spatial distortions and signal losses due to susceptibility effects. Overcoming such limitations is essential for sensitive detection and reliable interpretation of fMRI data. These issues are particularly problematic in studies of awake animals. As part of our initial efforts to study functional brain activations in awake, behaving monkeys using fMRI at 4.7T, we have developed acquisition and analysis procedures to improve image quality with encouraging results. We evaluated the influence of two main variables on image quality. First, we show how important the level of behavioral training is for obtaining good data stability and high temporal signal-to-noise ratios. In initial sessions, our typical scan session lasted 1.5 hours, partitioned into short (movements resulting in considerable image misregistrations. After a few months of extensive behavioral training, we were able to increase the length of individual runs and the total length of each session. The monkey learned to wait until the end of a block for fluid reward, resulting in longer periods of continuous acquisition. Each additional 60 training sessions extended the duration of each session by 60 minutes, culminating, after about 140 training sessions, in sessions that last about four hours. As a result, the average translational movement decreased from over 500 μm to less than 80 μm, a displacement close to that observed in anesthetized monkeys scanned in a 7 T horizontal scanner. Another major source of distortion at high fields arises from susceptibility variations. To reduce such artifacts, we used segmented gradient-echo echo-planar imaging (EPI) sequences. Increasing the number of segments significantly decreased susceptibility artifacts and image distortion. Comparisons of images from functional runs using four

  10. Mining noise affects loud call structures and emission patterns of wild black-fronted titi monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, M H L; Kaizer, M C; Young, R J; Rodrigues, M; Sousa-Lima, R S

    2017-09-11

    Anthropogenic noise pollution is increasing and can constrain acoustic communication in animals. Our aim was to investigate if the acoustic parameters of loud calls and their diurnal pattern in the black-fronted titi monkey (Callicebus nigrifrons) are affected by noise produced by mining activity in a fragment of Atlantic Forest in Brazil. We installed two passive acoustic monitoring devices to record sound 24 h/day, 7 days every 2 months, for a year; one unit was close to an opencast mine and the other 2.5 km away from it. Both sites presented similar habitat structures and were inhabited by groups of black-fronted titi monkeys. We quantified the noise at both sites by measuring the equivalent continuous sound level every 2 months for 1 year and quantified the emission of loud calls by titi monkeys through visual inspection of the recordings. The close site presented higher ambient noise levels than the far site. The quantitative comparison of loud calls of black-fronted titi monkeys between the two sites showed less calling activity in the site close to the mine than in the site further away. Approximately 20 % of the calls detected at the site close to the mine were masked by noise from truck traffic. Loud calls were longer at the site far from the mine and the diurnal patterns of vocal activity differed in the amount of calling as well as in the timing of peak calling activity between the two sites. Our results indicate that mining noise may constrain titi monkeys' long-distance vocal communication. Loud calls occupy a similar frequency band to mining noise, and an increase in ambient noise may be triggering black-fronted titi monkeys to adjust their long-distance communication patterns to avoid masking of their calls. Given that vocalizations are an important means of social interaction in this species, there are concerns about the impact of mining noise on populations exposed to this human activity.

  11. Clustering of PCOS-like traits in naturally hyperandrogenic female rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, D H; Rayome, B H; Dumesic, D A; Lewis, K C; Edwards, A K; Wallen, K; Wilson, M E; Appt, S E; Levine, J E

    2017-04-01

    Do naturally occurring, hyperandrogenic (≥1 SD of population mean testosterone, T) female rhesus monkeys exhibit traits typical of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)? Hyperandrogenic female monkeys exhibited significantly increased serum levels of androstenedione (A4), 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP), estradiol (E2), LH, antimullerian hormone (AMH), cortisol, 11-deoxycortisol and corticosterone, as well as increased uterine endometrial thickness and evidence of reduced fertility, all traits associated with PCOS. Progress in treating women with PCOS is limited by incomplete knowledge of its pathogenesis and the absence of naturally occurring PCOS in animal models. A female macaque monkey, however, with naturally occurring hyperandrogenism, anovulation and polyfollicular ovaries, accompanied by insulin resistance, increased adiposity and endometrial hyperplasia, suggests naturally occurring origins for PCOS in nonhuman primates. As part of a larger study, circulating serum concentrations of selected pituitary, ovarian and adrenal hormones, together with fasted insulin and glucose levels, were determined in a single, morning blood sample obtained from 120 apparently healthy, ovary-intact, adult female rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) while not pregnant or nursing. The monkeys were then sedated for somatometric and ultrasonographic measurements. Female monkeys were of prime reproductive age (7.2 ± 0.1 years, mean ± SEM) and represented a typical spectrum of adult body weight (7.4 ± 0.2 kg; maximum 12.5, minimum 4.6 kg). Females were defined as having normal (n = 99) or high T levels (n = 21; ≥1 SD above the overall mean, 0.31 ng/ml). Electronic health records provided menstrual and fecundity histories. Steroid hormones were determined by tandem LC-MS-MS; AMH was measured by enzymeimmunoassay; LH, FSH and insulin were determined by radioimmunoassay; and glucose was read by glucose meter. Most analyses were limited to 80 females (60 normal T, 20 high T) in

  12. Adaptive changes in vergence eye movements induced by vergence-vestibular interaction training in monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Fumie; Akao, Teppei; Kurkin, Sergei; Fukushima, Junko; Fukushima, Kikuro

    2004-05-01

    Clear vision of objects moving in three-dimensional space near an observer is attained by a combination of smooth-pursuit and vergence eye movements. The two systems must interact with the vestibular system to maintain the image of the object on the fovea. Previous studies showed that training with smooth-pursuit vestibular interactions resulted in adaptive changes in the smooth-pursuit response. Although vergence and smooth-pursuit systems are thought to have separate neural substrates, recent studies indicate that the caudal parts of the frontal eye fields that receive vestibular inputs contain neurons that discharge in response to combinations of smooth-pursuit and vergence. This combination of discharge sensitivities suggests the possibility that adaptive changes may be induced in the vergence system by vestibular inputs during vergence-pursuit training. To explore this possibility, we examined the effects of training with conflicting vestibular and vergence tracking in four head-stabilized monkeys. Animals were rewarded for tracking a laser spot that moved towards or away from them at 1 Hz in phase with sinusoidal whole-body rotation (+/- 5 degrees) in the pitch plane; the spot moved closer when the monkey's nose moved downward. From the monkey's point of view, the spot moved sinusoidally 10-66 cm in front of them along the mid-sagittal plane, requiring symmetrical vergence eye movements of 4.8 degrees for each eye. Eye movements induced by equivalent spot motion at 0.3-1.0 Hz with or without chair rotation were examined before and after training for each session (0.5-1.0 h). Before training, pitch rotation alone in complete darkness did not induce vergence eye movements in any of the monkeys tested. Vergence tracking without chair rotation showed decreased gain and increased phase lag (re vergence target velocity) at frequencies above 0.5 Hz. After training, the vergence response during chair rotation with the spot showed significantly higher gains and

  13. Pneumocystis carinii infections in zoo animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poelma, F G

    1975-01-01

    Pneumocystis carinii was found to be present in the lungs of twenty-three zoo animals in the Netherlands. The following species were represented: red kangaroo, common tree shrew, Senegal-Galago, Demidoff's-Galago, brown howler monkey, woolly monkey, long-haired spider monkey, white-eared marmoset, chimpanzee, three-toed sloth, palm squirrel, red panda, fennec fox, tree hyrax and large-toothed hyrax.

  14. Effects of heated hydrotherapy on muscle HSP70 and glucose metabolism in old and young vervet monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, Kylie; Davis, Ashely T; Jenkins, Kurt A; Flynn, D Mickey

    2016-07-01

    Increasing heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) in aged and/or insulin-resistant animal models confers benefits to healthspan and lifespan. Heat application to increase core temperature induces HSPs in metabolically important tissues, and preliminary human and animal data suggest that heated hydrotherapy is an effective method to achieve increased HSPs. However, safety concerns exist, particularly in geriatric medicine where organ and cardiovascular disease commonly will preexist. We evaluated young vervet monkeys compared to old, insulin-resistant vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus) in their core temperatures, glucose tolerance, muscle HSP70 level, and selected safety biomarkers after 10 sessions of hot water immersions administered twice weekly. Hot water immersion robustly induced the heat shock response in muscles. We observed that heat-treated old and young monkeys have significantly higher muscle HSP70 than control monkeys and treatment was without significant adverse effects on organ or cardiovascular health. Heat therapy improved pancreatic responses to glucose challenge and tended to normalize glucose excursions. A trend for worsened blood pressure and glucose values in the control monkeys and improved values in heat-treated monkeys were seen to support further investigation into the safety and efficacy of this intervention for metabolic syndrome or diabetes in young or old persons unable to exercise.

  15. Validation of an auditory sensory reinforcement paradigm: Campbell's monkeys (Cercopithecus campbelli) do not prefer consonant over dissonant sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koda, Hiroki; Basile, Muriel; Olivier, Marion; Remeuf, Kevin; Nagumo, Sumiharu; Blois-Heulin, Catherine; Lemasson, Alban

    2013-08-01

    The central position and universality of music in human societies raises the question of its phylogenetic origin. One of the most important properties of music involves harmonic musical intervals, in response to which humans show a spontaneous preference for consonant over dissonant sounds starting from early human infancy. Comparative studies conducted with organisms at different levels of the primate lineage are needed to understand the evolutionary scenario under which this phenomenon emerged. Although previous research found no preference for consonance in a New World monkey species, the question remained opened for Old World monkeys. We used an experimental paradigm based on a sensory reinforcement procedure to test auditory preferences for consonant sounds in Campbell's monkeys (Cercopithecus campbelli campbelli), an Old World monkey species. Although a systematic preference for soft (70 dB) over loud (90 dB) control white noise was found, Campbell's monkeys showed no preference for either consonant or dissonant sounds. The preference for soft white noise validates our noninvasive experimental paradigm, which can be easily reused in any captive facility to test for auditory preferences. This would suggest that human preference for consonant sounds is not systematically shared with New and Old World monkeys. The sensitivity for harmonic musical intervals emerged probably very late in the primate lineage.

  16. Single subcutaneous dosing of cefovecin in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakker, J.; Thuesen, Line Risager; Braskamp, G.

    2011-01-01

    Cefovecin is a third-generation cephalosporin approved for antibacterial treatment with a 14-day dosing interval in dogs and cats. This antibiotic may also be useful for zoo and wildlife veterinary medicine, because of its broad spectrum and long duration of activity. The aim of the study...... wounds were determined. After administration, blood, urine, and feces were collected, and concentrations of cefovecin were determined. Further, the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) for bacteria isolated from fresh skin wounds of monkeys during a health control program were determined. The mean...... maximum plasma concentration (C(max) ) of cefovecin was 78 µg/mL and was achieved after 57 min. The mean apparent long elimination half-life (t½) was 6.6 h and excretion occurred mainly via urine. The MIC for the majority of the bacteria examined was >100 µg/mL. The PK of cefovecin in rhesus monkeys...

  17. Experience-dependent changes in the development of face preferences in infant rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, Lisa A; Murphy, Lauren; Feczko, Eric; Brooks, Jenna; Collantes, Marie; Heitz, Thomas R

    2016-12-01

    It is well known that early experience shapes the development of visual perception for faces in humans. However, the effect of experience on the development of social attention in non-human primates is unknown. In two studies, we examined the effect of cumulative social experience on developmental changes in attention to the faces of unfamiliar conspecifics or heterospecifics, and mom versus an unfamiliar female. From birth, infant rhesus monkeys preferred to look at conspecific compared to heterospecific faces, but this pattern reversed over time. In contrast, no consistent differences were found for attention to mom's face compared to an unfamiliar female. These results suggest differential roles of social experience in shaping the development of face preferences in infant monkeys. Results have important implications for establishing normative trajectories for the development of face preferences in an animal model of human social behavior. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Radiographic incidence of spinal osteopathologies in captive rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Godínez, Braulio; Ibáñez-Contreras, Alejandra; Perdigón-Castañeda, Gerardo; Galván-Montaño, Alfonso; García-Montes de Oca, Guadalupe; Zapata-Valdez, Carinthia; Tena-Betancourt, Eduardo

    2010-10-01

    Degenerative spinal disease is a leading cause of chronic disability both in humans and animals. Although widely seen as a normal occurrence of aging, degenerative spinal disease can be caused by various genetic, iatrogenic, inflammatory, and congenital factors. The objective of this study was to characterize the degenerative spine-related diseases and the age at onset in a random subpopulation of 20 captive rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta; male, 13; female, 7; age: range, 4 to 27 y; median, 18.5 y). Spinal radiographic evaluation (left lateral, right lateral, and ventrodorsal views) of the spinal column (C1 to S1) was performed, and spinal degenerative disease was scored. The incidence of osteopathology was higher in the 14- to 18-y-old group, but incidence did not differ according to sex. In the studied population, degenerative changes were present in monkeys as young as 9 y of age.

  19. Septicemic invasive Klebsiella pneumoniae infection in a cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) with severe diffused suppurative meningoencephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasuya, Kazufumi; Takayama, Kou; Bito, Makiko; Shimokubo, Natsumi; Kawashima, Ryosuke; Shibahara, Tomoyuki

    2017-07-07

    A 2-year-old male cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) showed neurological symptoms during quarantine for importation into Japan, and was euthanized due to poor prognosis. Gross anatomical examination revealed a hemorrhagic lesion around the lateral ventricle in the cerebrum. Histologically, severe diffused suppurative meningitis and ventriculitis were detected with numerous Gram-negative bacilli in the cerebrum. Immunohistochemically, the bacilli were positively stained with an antibody against Klebsiella pneumoniae. The bacterium was isolated from the liver, and it was confirmed to be K. pneumoniae by 16S rDNA sequencing. The isolate displayed a hypermucoviscosity phenotype, was positive for the rmpA and k2A genes, and demonstrated multidrug resistance. These results suggest that invasive K. pneumoniae can cause septicemic infection, characterized by severe diffused suppurative meningoencephalitis in monkeys.

  20. Quantitative genetics of costly neonatal sexual size dimorphism in squirrel monkeys (Saimiri boliviensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    BLOMQUIST, G. E.; WILLIAMS, L. E.

    2015-01-01

    Offspring size is often an intimate link between the fitness of parents and offspring. Among mammals, neonate mass is also related to adult levels of dimorphism and intrasexual competitive mating. We describe the sex-specific genetic architecture of neonate mass in captive squirrel monkeys (Saimiri boliviensis), a small Neotropical primate. Best fitting quantitative genetic models show strong maternal genetic effects with little difference between sexes offering limited opportunity for neonatal dimorphism to respond to observed or hypothetical selection. Heritabilities that are approximately zero also imply it is unlikely that neonatal dimorphism can evolve as a correlated response to selection on adult size. However, male mass is also more dependent on maternal condition (age and parity) making dimorphism plastic. Finally, we hypothesize that large maternal genetic effects reflect income breeding and tightly synchronized seasonal reproduction in squirrel monkeys, both of which require strong maternal control of offspring growth and timing of birth. PMID:23437981

  1. Pedicled Instep Flap and Tibial Nerve Reconstruction in a Cynomolgus Monkey [Macaca fascicularis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Weiss

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A male cynomolgus monkey experienced extensive soft tissue trauma to the right caudal calf area. Some weeks after complete healing of the original wounds, the monkey developed a chronic pressure sore on plantar surface of the heel of its right foot. A loss of sensitivity in the sole of the foot was hypothesized. The skin defect was closed by a medial sensate pedicled instep flap followed by counter transplantation of a full thickness graft from the interdigital webspace. The integrity of the tibial nerve was revised and reconstructed by means of the turnover flap technique. Both procedures were successful. This is an uncommon case in an exotic veterinary patient as it demonstrates a reconstructive skin flap procedure for the treatment of a chronic, denervated wound in combination with the successful reconstruction of 2.5 cm gap in the tibial nerve.

  2. Radiographic Incidence of Spinal Osteopathologies in Captive Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Godínez, Braulio; Ibáñez-Contreras, Alejandra; Perdigón-Castañeda, Gerardo; Galván-Montaño, Alfonso; de Oca, Guadalupe García-Montes; Zapata-Valdez, Carinthia; Tena-Betancourt, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    Degenerative spinal disease is a leading cause of chronic disability both in humans and animals. Although widely seen as a normal occurrence of aging, degenerative spinal disease can be caused by various genetic, iatrogenic, inflammatory, and congenital factors. The objective of this study was to characterize the degenerative spine-related diseases and the age at onset in a random subpopulation of 20 captive rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta; male, 13; female, 7; age: range, 4 to 27 y; median, 18.5 y). Spinal radiographic evaluation (left lateral, right lateral, and ventrodorsal views) of the spinal column (C1 to S1) was performed, and spinal degenerative disease was scored. The incidence of osteopathology was higher in the 14- to 18-y-old group, but incidence did not differ according to sex. In the studied population, degenerative changes were present in monkeys as young as 9 y of age. PMID:21262126

  3. The physiological effect of human grooming on the heart rate and the heart rate variability of laboratory non-human primates: a pilot study in male rhesus monkeys

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Clara Grandi; Hiroaki eIshida

    2015-01-01

    Grooming is a widespread, essential and complex behavior with social and affiliative valence in the non-human primate world. Its impact at the autonomous nervous system level has been studied during allogrooming among monkeys living in a semi-naturalistic environment. For the first time, we investigated the effect of human grooming to monkey in a typical experimental situation inside laboratory. We analyzed the autonomic response of male monkeys groomed by a familiar human (experimenter), in ...

  4. Effects of social reorganization on dopamine D2/D3 receptor availability and cocaine self-administration in male cynomolgus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czoty, P W; Gould, R W; Gage, H D; Nader, M A

    2017-09-01

    Studies have demonstrated that brain dopamine D2/D3 receptors (D2/D3R) and the reinforcing effects of cocaine can be influenced by a monkey's position in the social dominance hierarchy. In this study, we manipulated the social ranks of monkeys by reorganizing social groups and assessed effects on D2/D3R availability and cocaine self-administration. Male cynomolgus monkeys (N = 12) had been trained to self-administer cocaine under a concurrent cocaine-food reinforcement schedule. Previously, PET measures of D2/D3R availability in the caudate nucleus and putamen had been obtained with [ 18 F]fluoroclebopride during cocaine abstinence, while monkeys lived in stable social groups of four monkeys/pen. For this study, monkeys were reorganized into groups that consisted of (1) four previously dominant, (2) four previously subordinate, and (3) a mix of previously dominant and subordinate monkeys. After 3 months, D2/D3R availability was redetermined and cocaine self-administration was reexamined. D2/D3R availability significantly increased after reorganization in monkeys who were formerly subordinate, with the greatest increases observed in those that became dominant. No consistent changes in D2/D3R availability were observed in formerly dominant monkeys. Cocaine self-administration did not vary according to rank after reorganization of social groups. However, when compared to their previous cocaine self-administration data, the potency of cocaine as a reinforcer decreased in 9 of 11 monkeys. These results indicate that changing the social conditions can alter D2/D3R availability in subordinate monkeys in a manner suggestive of environmental enrichment. In most monkeys, social reorganization shifted the cocaine dose-response curve to the right, also consistent with environmental enrichment.

  5. Effects of Atropine and Azaprophen on Matching and Detection in Rhesus Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    substantially more potent than atropine for inhibiting termining whether atropine and azaprophen could be differ- carbachol-induced c,- amylase release (6. 7, 13...investigated the behavioral effects of azap- tion of daily fruit and vitamin supplements, was presented rophen and atropine in rhesus monkeys using...thank Jeffrey Witkin for helpful comments on the with results from carbachol-induced a- amylase release (6, 7, manuscript and Donald Conrad and Lisa King

  6. Conservation of the Proboscis Monkey and the Orangutan in Borneo: Comparative Issues and Economic Considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Tisdell, Clement A.; Swarna Nantha, Hemanath

    2007-01-01

    Concentrating on their presence in Borneo, the ecology and conservation of two large Southeast Asian primates, the orangutan Pongo pymaeus and the proboscis monkey Nasalis larvatus are reviewed. The former species occurs only in Borneo and Sumatra and the latter only in Borneo. The comparative threats facing these two endangered primates and their approximate numbers in the wild are put into perspective. The long-term survival of both species is adversely affected by the degradation and conve...

  7. The pharmacokinetics of lisuride hydrogen maleate in rat, rabbit and rhesus monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humpel, M; Toda, T; Oshino, N; Pommerenke, G

    1981-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of lisuride hydrogen maleate (LHM) were investigated in rat, rabbit and rhesus monkey. Experiments were designed to meet not only the requirements of drug registration but also to serve other preclinical disciplines (toxicology, pharmacology). LHM is absorbed almost completely at a dose level of 100-250 micrograms/kg. During absorption and first liver passage (FPE) LHM is metabolized. The FPE was highest in the rhesus monkey and lowest in the rat. Calculated on bioavailability during chronic tolerance studies, in the highest dose group rats were burdened with 180-fold and rhesus monkeys with 70-fold the highest human dose (parkinsonism). Total clearance values indicated the presence of extrahepatic metabolism in all animal species. Terminal half-lives of unchanged drug in plasma were in the range of a few hours. Therefore, no accumulation of unchanged drug was expected to occur following daily repeated administration in the animal species investigated. Elimination of 14C-radioactivity proceeded mainly via the liver in rat and rabbit. The rhesus monkey excreted most of the dose administered in the urine. Enterohepatic circulation of 14C-material was demonstrated in the rat. In the rat but not in the other two species a small part of the dose (about 2%) accumulated in blood cells in the form of metabolites. Unchanged lisuride is able to cross membranes very rapidly, this was shown in distribution studies (whole-body autoradiography of rat, direct measurements in rat and rabbit). Transfer of lisuride into fetuses and brain is governed by its concentration in plasma. Drug level decrease in fetuses and brain was shown to somewhat slower than in plasma. Detailed evaluation of the distribution pattern in the brain of rat and rabbit showed a high affinity of lisuride for its preferential target tissue, the pituitary.