WorldWideScience

Sample records for household products

  1. Household Products Database: Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Products Manufacturers Ingredients About the Database FAQ Product ... control bulbs carpenter ants caterpillars crabgrass control deer dogs dogs/cats fertilizer w/insecticide fertilizer w/weed ...

  2. Household Products Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your bathroom, and on the shelves in your laundry room? Learn more about what's in these products, ... MD 20894 National Institutes of Health , Health & Human Services Customer Service: tehip@teh.nlm.nih.gov Last ...

  3. The Determinants of Agricultural Productivity and Rural Household ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rahel

    Key Words: Labor productivity, Land productivity; Rural household income, Rural ... household labor ratio of rural household farmers, given fixed level of inputs ... because households are rarely practicing dominated by a subsistence.

  4. Capitalization of Local Products through Agro- Household

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Ciolac

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In every household there are many family activities that provide the necessary income or living foods. Some activities are related to cultivation of land, others for breeding other means services provided by the vilagers. The products of the own household must cover 40% of meals offered to tourists. These products are produced by the householder work in their household, the tourist having the opportunity to observe how the products are produced and participate effectively in this production. Specific rural household products can be recovered through tourism by both indirect and direct ways. Both variants can generate increased profitability and interest of the tourist business activity and impose a sense of satisfaction for quality benefit, issues that may be, in turn, assumptions favorable to the extension of this work.

  5. Optimal taxation with household production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleven, Henrik Jacobsen; Richter, Wolfram F.; Sørensen, Peter Birch

    2000-01-01

    on consumer services even if such services are complements to leisure. Second, we find that when services and other goods are equally substitutable for leisure, so that uniform commodity taxation would be optimal in the absence of home production, the optimal tax structure will certainly involve a relatively......This paper suggests that the optimal tax system should favour market-produced services which are close substitutes for home-produced services. First, we modify the classical Corlett-Hague rule for optimal commodity taxation by showing that it may be optimal to impose a relatively low tax rate...... low tax rate on consumer services...

  6. Farm Households Food Production and Households' Food Security ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Food is an important basic human need for survival, growth, and good health. Most rural households in Tanzania, Kahama district inclusive produce the food they consume. Despite this reality, a number of households in the district suffer from food insecurity. However, there are inequalities across the districtfs ecological ...

  7. Consumers' perceptions of biocidal products in households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieck, Stefanie; Olsson, Oliver; Kümmerer, Klaus

    2018-03-01

    Biocidal products are commonly used in households and can pose a risk to human health and the environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate consumers' use and understanding of biocidal products in order to identify starting points for minimising their exposure to these products and reducing possible emissions to the environment. In a case study, standardised questionnaires were used to interview consumers in 133 households in three neighbourhoods in Northern Germany, representing the urban-rural typologies in Europe: predominantly urban, intermediate and predominantly rural regions. The questions focussed on the comprehension of the term 'biocide', pest control habits, sources of information, risk perception of different product groups and possible emission reduction measures. Only 21% of the respondents understood the term 'biocide' correctly, whereas 29% thought of 'something that had to do with organic pest control', and 28% were not able to think of a possible meaning. The risk perception of biocidal products compared to plant protection products varied depending on the living conditions. In the urban neighbourhood, biocidal products were perceived as more dangerous than in the rural area. The main pests to be fought were ants, mould and fruit fly. The results of the study indicate that there is a considerable difference between the types of biocidal products that interviewees claimed to own and those that they actually did have in their households. Most notably, respondents did not realise that they owned surface disinfectants. This result indicates that consumers often seem not to be aware of using specific biocidal products. Also, this shows the limitations of collecting data on products owned with only one method, as the results from products inventories of the households deviate from the data collected in interviews. Our results show that the term 'biocide' is not fully understood by many people. To communicate possible risks of biocidal products

  8. Farm Households Food Production and Households' Food Security ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    insecurity existed among households in the study areas based on the recommended average DEC/AE, of 2200 kcal and ... An International Journal of Basic and Applied Research. 41 ... population, for example, eating of less preferred foods.

  9. Chemicals in Household Products: Problems with Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glegg, Gillian A.; Richards, Jonathan P.

    2007-12-01

    The success of a regulatory regime in decreasing point-source emissions of some harmful chemicals has highlighted the significance of other sources. A growing number of potentially harmful chemicals have been incorporated into an expanding range of domestic household products and are sold worldwide. Tighter regulation has been proposed, and the European Commission has introduced the Regulation on the Registration, Evaluation, and Authorisation of Chemicals to address this concern. However, it is clear that in addition to the regulation, there is a potential to effect change through retailer and consumer attitudes and behaviours. Interviews were conducted with 7 key stakeholder groups to identify critical issues, which were then explored using a public survey questionnaire (1,008 respondents) and 8 subsequent focus groups. The findings demonstrated that the issue of chemicals in products is of concern to consumers for reasons of personal health rather than environmental protection. Key obstacles to the wider purchase of “green-alternative” products included perceived high cost and poor performance, lack of availability of products, and poor information concerning such products. Although improved regulation was seen as part of the solution, consumers must also play a role. It was clear from this study that consumers are not currently able to make informed choices about the chemicals they use but that they would be receptive to moving toward a more sustainable use of chemicals in the future if empowered to do so.

  10. Frequency and longitudinal trends of household care product use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Rebecca E.; Bennett, Deborah H.; Tancredi, Daniel J.; Wu, Xiangmei (May); Ritz, Beate; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

    2012-08-01

    The use of household cleaning products and air fresheners exposes people to a variety of chemicals, including some that have been shown to be irritants, potential carcinogens and endocrine disrupting compounds. In addition, some react with ambient ozone infiltrating to the indoor environment to form potentially toxic secondary pollutants. Although realistic estimates of usage patterns are necessary for modeling potential exposures in risk assessments, few studies have documented cleaning habits and product usage to characterize how they vary between households and over time. In addition, understanding within-household temporal variability of use is important to assess the reliability of exposure questionnaires used in epidemiological surveys and improve the cost-efficiency of data collection. In the SUPERB (Study of Use of Products and Exposure-Related Behavior) study, frequencies of use of eight types of household cleaning products and air fresheners and the performance of different types of cleaning tasks are collected in three annual telephone and six quarterly web-based surveys. All-purpose and glass cleaners were the products most frequently used among all products surveyed. Use frequencies differed by demographic and other household characteristics for some products. Product usage was internally consistent, with over 75% of pairwise cross-sectional correlations between product types statistically significantly different from zero. In addition, each product type was correlated with at least one cleaning habit. Frequency of cleaning product use and performing cleaning tasks did not vary by season. An examination of intra-household variability showed moderately to highly consistent usage patterns over time, with lower temporal consistency observed among products used more frequently, such as all-purpose cleaners. Frequency of household care product usage was consistent enough that in epidemiologic studies, participants can be classified, for example, into three

  11. Consumption patterns and intra-household roles in the production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Consumption patterns and intra-household roles in the production, processing and marketing of soyabeans in the Northern Agricultural Zone of Benue State, Nigeria. AE Agwu, J Ellah, E Ekweagwu, JC Iwuchukwu ...

  12. Role of Household Members in Kolanut Production and Marketing in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    E M IGBOKWE

    Keyword: Household roles, kolanut, production, marketing ..... management system (i.e. they manage their kola farm by themselves), while 1.2% of ... obvious because land preparation is a tedious operation, hence not many women.

  13. Productivity of goats and their contribution to household food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Productivity of goats and their contribution to household food security in high potential areas of East Africa: A case of Mgeta, Tanzania. ... milk and meat, manure is also an important by-product for farmers in this area, and is used to fertilize ... particularly in developing countries, livestock remains a desired source of food for

  14. The determinants of agricultural productivity and rural household ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper aims at investigating the determinants of agricultural productivity and rural household income in Ethiopia. Three econometric models namely: Pooled ordinary least square (POLS), fixed effects (FE) and random effects (RE) model were used to examine the relationship between productivity and income; using ...

  15. Stochastic Production Frontier Models to Explore Constraints on Household Travel Expenditures Considering Household Income Classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofyan M. Saleh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the variation of household travel expenditure frontiers (HTEFs prior to CC reform in Jakarta. This study incorporates the variation of household income classes into the modeling of HTEFs and investigates the degree to which various determinants influence levels of HTEF. The HTEF is defined as an unseen maximum (capacity amount of money that a certain income class is willing to dedicate to their travel. A stochastic production frontier is applied to model and explore upper bound household travel expenditure (HTE. Using a comprehensive household travel survey (HTS in Jakarta in 2004, the observed HTE spending in a month is treated as an exogenous variable. The estimation results obtained using three proposed models, for low, medium and high income classes, show that HTEFs are significantly associated with life stage structure attributes, socio-demographics and life environment factors such as professional activity engagements, which is disclosed to be varied across income classes. Finding further reveals that considerable differences in average of HTEFs across models. This finding calls for the formulation of policies that consider the needs to be addressed for low and medium income groups in order to promote more equity policy thereby leading to more acceptable CC reform.

  16. Competition in the household heat product markets in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linden, Mikael; Peltola-Ojala, Paeivi

    2005-01-01

    In the article the market of household heat products is defined independently. The market consists mainly of electricity, district heating, light fuel oil, and wood. Geographically household heat product markets are limited to the area which is covered by the local district heating network. We test indirectly whether this market definition is valid, i.e. do different household heat products act as substitutes to each other. However, the substitution may quite often be limited since the local district heat supplier is the only supplier on the area and also electricity companies have high market shares in the area they are located. The amount of competitors even in these enlarged markets is low. Also the local district heating network gives a technological potential to non-competitive product specific pricing. Thus, a relevant case exists where the district heating company can determine the price of its product without constraints from other firms and heat products. We test empirically whether the local prices of district heating are affected by the local heat product market shares of district heating companies. We use panel data which consists of 75 district heating companies in years 1996 - 2002. The data includes market share, joint production, district heating tariffs, production scale, and raw material input cost variables. The results obtained from different estimations indicate clearly that competitive case is not the prevailing one in the Finnish district heating pricing. The market shares of district heating companies had a positive effect on the district heating prices. The result also does not support the hypothesis that different household heat products belong to same heat product markets. (Author)

  17. Role of Household Members in Kolanut Production and Marketing in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed roles of household members in kolanut production and marketing in Ekiti State, Nigeria. Multistage sampling procedure was used in selecting 80 kolanut farmers. Data were collected from the respondents using structured interview schedule. Data were presented and analyzed using frequency counts, ...

  18. Nontimber Forest Products in the Rural Household Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erin O. Sills; Sharachchandra Lele; Thomas P. Holmes; Subhrendu K. Pattanayak

    2003-01-01

    Among the multiple outputs of forests, the category labeled nontimber forest products, or NTFPs, has drawn increased policy and research attention during the past 20 years. NTFPs have become recognized for their importance in the livelihoods of the many relatively poor households who live in or near forests, especially in the tropics. Policy concern about NTFPs takes...

  19. The Economic Value of Habits in Household Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bejan, Ioana; Jensen, Carsten Lynge; Andersen, Laura Mørch

    to adjust habits relevant for these activities. We utilize smart-metered hourly power consumption to unobtrusively measure treatment effects. We find that preventing habits from being adjusted reduces consumer surplus by 76% suggesting a substantial economic value of habits.......People are prone to habits but how important are they for economic outcomes? In a randomized field experiment we compare two treatments with identical economic incentives to adjust a range of household production activities. Treatments only differ in the extent to which they allow households...

  20. Usage pattern of personal care products in California households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiangmei May; Bennett, Deborah H; Ritz, Beate; Cassady, Diana L; Lee, Kiyoung; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

    2010-11-01

    Given the concern over the potential for health risks associated with certain ingredients (e.g., phthalates) in personal care products, usage patterns of ∼30 types of personal care products (e.g., shampoo, sunscreen, fragrance, etc.) were collected in 604 California households through a telephone interview. Preferences in selecting products, e.g., scented or unscented, aerosol, and brand loyalty, were also investigated. Participants were recruited in three age groups, children (mostly preschoolers), their parents, and adults age 55 or older. Use frequencies of various product types varied by sex, age group, race, education, and climatic region. Product use by parent and child from the same household were correlated. Use frequencies of products in the same class (e.g., skincare) were moderately correlated, which may impact aggregate exposures. Use frequencies observed in this study were generally in the same range as those reported in the EPA Exposure Factor Handbook, but we found differences for some individual products. Our study provides additional data on population-based usage patterns of a large collection of commonly used personal care products pertaining to several age groups and socio-demographic strata. This information will be valuable for exposure and risk assessments. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Household demand elasticities for meat products in Uruguay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanfranco, B. A.; Rava, C.

    2014-06-01

    This article analyzed the demand for meats at household level over the past decade in Uruguay, a country that exhibits a very high per capita consumption of these products. In particular, the consumption of beef is one of the highest in the world and only comparable to Argentina. The analysis involved a two-step estimation of an incomplete system of censored demand equations using household data from the last available national income and expenditure survey (2005/06). Thirteen meat products were included in the analysis: six broad beef products (de boned hindquarter cuts, bone-in hindquarter cuts, ground beef, rib plate, bone-in forequarter cuts, and other beef cuts), four products from other meats (sheep, pork, poultry, and fish), and three generic mixed-meat products. A complete set of short-term income, own-price and cross-price elasticities were computed and reported along with their 90% confidence intervals (CI). The results were consistent with both economic theory and empirical evidence as well as with the expected behavior, considering the relevance of these products, particularly beef, in the diet of Uruguayan consumers. All meat items were necessary goods and evidenced income-inelastic responses, which was expected given their high consumption level. All meats behaved as normal goods although exhibiting different reactions to changes in price. In general, beef cuts were more price elastic than other more broadly defined products. The more specific and dis aggregated the meat product the higher its corresponding direct price elasticity. The complement/substitute relationships found in this study were highly depended on the specific product combinations. (Author)

  2. Household demand elasticities for meat products in Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno A. Lanfranco

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzed the demand for meats at household level over the past decade in Uruguay, a country that exhibits a very high per capita consumption of these products. In particular, the consumption of beef is one of the highest in the world and only comparable to Argentina. The analysis involved a two-step estimation of an incomplete system of censored demand equations using household data from the last available national income and expenditure survey (2005/06. Thirteen meat products were included in the analysis: six broad beef products (deboned hindquarter cuts, bone-in hindquarter cuts, ground beef, rib plate, bone-in forequarter cuts, and other beef cuts, four products from other meats (sheep, pork, poultry, and fish, and three generic mixed-meat products. A complete set of short-term income, own-price and cross-price elasticities were computed and reported along with their 90% confidence intervals (CI. The results were consistent with both economic theory and empirical evidence as well as with the expected behavior, considering the relevance of these products, particularly beef, in the diet of Uruguayan consumers. All meat items were necessary goods and evidenced income-inelastic responses, which was expected given their high consumption level. All meats behaved as normal goods although exhibiting different reactions to changes in price. In general, beef cuts were more price elastic than other more broadly defined products. The more specific and disaggregated the meat product the higher its corresponding direct price elasticity. The complement/substitute relationships found in this study were highly depended on the specific product combinations.

  3. Optimal taxation of married couples with household production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreiner, Claus Thustrup; Kleven, Henrik Jacobsen

    2007-01-01

    of commodity taxes, efficient taxation requires joint taxation of the family. In the presence of restricted commodity taxation, the income tax should compensate for the erroneous commodity taxes. In this case, individual taxation is typically optimal, but not necessarily with a higher rate on primary earners......The literature suggests that the concern for economic efficiency calls for individual-based taxation of married couples with a higher rate on the primary earner. This paper reconsiders the choice of tax unit in the Becker model of household production. In the absence of restrictions on the use...

  4. Crop production and soil nutrient management : an economic analysis of households in Western and Central Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salasya, B.

    2005-01-01

    The study examines how a combination of socio-economic and household factors influences farm household decisions on soil nutrient management and on crop production in two regions of Kenya (Kiambu and Vihiga). It further examines how these decisions impact on household objectives and on productivity.

  5. Productivity and household welfare impact of technology adoption: Micro-level evidence from rural Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mekonnen Melesse, Tigist

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluates the potential impact of improved agricultural technologies on smallholders’ crop productivity and welfare. We use household-level data from Ethiopian Rural Household Survey collected by IFPRI in 1989-2009. The survey covers around 1500 rural households drawn from four regions

  6. Revenue impact on the demand of Slovak households for meat and meat products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľubica Kubicová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Global economical crisis was felt in the differences in the incomes of the households and their food consumption. In the paper are analyzed the changing patterns in the structure of demand for meat and the impact on total expenditure on meat and meat products in the households of employees, households of self-employed persons and households of pensioners. When examining the sensitivity of demand to changes in consumer meat prices in different social groups of households was estimated own-price elasticity of demand, as well as cross-price elasticity.

  7. Adolescents' Contribution to Household Production: Male and Female Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanik, Margaret Mietus; Stafford, Kathryn

    1985-01-01

    Develops a model to predict the contribution adolescent males and females make to household work, based upon family characteristics, human capital of the adolescent, geographic location, and societal expectations. Adolescent females worked longer than males, regardless of birth order. Time use for household work was largely unaffected by family…

  8. The influence of crop production and socioeconomic factors on seasonal household dietary diversity in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somé, Jérôme W; Jones, Andrew D

    2018-01-01

    Households in low-income settings are vulnerable to seasonal changes in dietary diversity because of fluctuations in food availability and access. We assessed seasonal differences in household dietary diversity in Burkina Faso, and determined the extent to which household socioeconomic status and crop production diversity modify changes in dietary diversity across seasons, using data from the nationally representative 2014 Burkina Faso Continuous Multisectoral Survey (EMC). A household dietary diversity score based on nine food groups was created from household food consumption data collected during four rounds of the 2014 EMC. Plot-level crop production data, and data on household assets and education were used to create variables on crop diversity and household socioeconomic status, respectively. Analyses included data for 10,790 households for which food consumption data were available for at least one round. Accounting for repeated measurements and controlling for the complex survey design and confounding covariates using a weighted multi-level model, household dietary diversity was significantly higher during both lean seasons periods, and higher still during the harvest season as compared to the post-harvest season (mean: post-harvest: 4.76 (SE 0.04); beginning of lean: 5.13 (SE 0.05); end of lean: 5.21 (SE 0.05); harvest: 5.72 (SE 0.04)), but was not different between the beginning and the end of lean season. Seasonal differences in household dietary diversity were greater among households with higher food expenditures, greater crop production, and greater monetary value of crops sale (P<0.05). Seasonal changes in household dietary diversity in Burkina Faso may reflect nutritional differences among agricultural households, and may be modified both by households' socioeconomic status and agricultural characteristics.

  9. 78 FR 53479 - Certain Laundry and Household Cleaning Products and Related Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-29

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Inv. No. 337-TA-891] Certain Laundry and Household Cleaning Products and Related Packaging AGENCY: U.S. International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice... certain laundry and household cleaning products and packaging thereof by reason of trademark infringement...

  10. Toward Hazardless Waste: A Guide for Safe Use and Disposal of Hazardous Household Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toteff, Sally; Zehner, Cheri

    This guide is designed to help individuals make responsible decisions about safe use and disposal of household products. It consists of eight sections dealing with: (1) hazardous chemicals in the home, how hazaradous products become hazardous waste, and whether a hazardous waste problem exists in Puget Sound; (2) which household wastes are…

  11. Household production and consumption over the life cycle: National Time Transfer Accounts in 14 European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Vargha

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: While the importance of unpaid household labour is recognised in total economic output, little is known about the demographics of household production and consumption. Objective: Our goal is to give a comprehensive estimation on the value of household production and its consumption by age and gender and analyse nonmarket economic transfers in 14 European countries based on publicly available harmonised data. Methods: We introduce a novel imputation method of harmonised European time use (HETUS data to the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC in order to assign time spent on home production to consumers in households and estimate time transfers. Moreover, monetary values are attributed to household production activities using data on earnings from the Structure of Earnings Survey (SES. Results: We show that the nonmarket economic life cycle of men differs from that of women. The gender gap in household production is not evenly distributed over the life cycle. Women of working age contribute the most in net terms, while the main beneficiaries of household goods and services are children and to a lesser extent adult men. These patterns are similar across countries, with variations in the gender- and age-specific levels of home production and consumption. Conclusions: In Europe, in the national economy, intergenerational flows are important in sustaining both childhood and old age. In contrast, in the household economy, intergenerational transfers flow mostly towards children. Contribution: We add a new focus to the research on household production: While keeping the gender aspect, we demonstrate the importance of the life cycle component in household production.

  12. Household use of insecticide consumer products in a dengue endemic area in México

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loroño-Pino, María Alba; Chan-Dzul, Yamili N.; Zapata-Gil, Rocio; Carrillo-Solís, Claudia; Uitz-Mena, Ana; García-Rejón, Julián E.; Keefe, Thomas J.; Beaty, Barry J.; Eisen, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate household use of insecticide consumer products to kill mosquitoes and other insect pests, as well as the expenditures for using these products, in a dengue endemic area in México. Methods A questionnaire was administered to 441 households in Mérida City or other communities in Yucatán State to assess household use of insecticide consumer products. Results Most (86.6%) households took action to kill insect pests with consumer products. Among those households, the most commonly used product types were insecticide aerosol spray cans (73.6%), electric plug-in insecticide emitters (37.4%), and mosquito coils (28.3%). Mosquitoes were targeted by 89.7% of households using insecticide aerosol spray cans and >99% of households using electric plug-in insecticide emitters or mosquito coils. During the part of the year when a given product type was used, the frequency of use was daily or every 2 days in most of the households for insecticide aerosol spray cans (61.4%), electric plug-in insecticide emitters (76.2%), and mosquito coils (82.1%). For all products used to kill insect pests, the median annual estimated expenditure per household that took action was 408 Mexican pesos ($MXN), which corresponded to ∼31 $U.S. These numbers are suggestive of an annual market in excess of 75 million $MXN (>5.7 million $U.S.) for Mérida City alone. Conclusion Mosquitoes threaten human health and are major nuisances in homes in the study area in México. Households were found to have taken vigorous action to kill mosquitoes and other insect pests and spent substantial amounts of money on insecticide consumer products. PMID:25040259

  13. Simple Methods for Production of Nanoscale Metal Oxide Films from Household Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Dean J.; Baliss, Michelle S.; Hinman, Jordan J.; Ziegenhorn, John W.; Andrews, Mark J.; Stevenson, Keith J.

    2013-01-01

    Production of thin metal oxide films was recently explored as part of an outreach program with a goal of producing nanoscale structures with household items. Household items coated with various metals or titanium compounds can be heated to produce colorful films with nanoscale thicknesses. As part of a materials chemistry laboratory experiment…

  14. Cattle production on small holder farms in East Java, Indonesia : I. Household and farming characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winarto, P.S.; Leegwater, P.H.; Zemmelink, G.; Ibrahim, M.N.M.

    2000-01-01

    A general household survey was carried out in the village of Sonoageng in East Java, Indonesia with the aim to assess their socio-economic status, and the crop and livestock production system prevailing in the area. Of the households interviewed (164), 52re landless, 35␘wn land or have a combination

  15. Household use of insecticide consumer products in a dengue-endemic area in México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loroño-Pino, María Alba; Chan-Dzul, Yamili N; Zapata-Gil, Rocio; Carrillo-Solís, Claudia; Uitz-Mena, Ana; García-Rejón, Julián E; Keefe, Thomas J; Beaty, Barry J; Eisen, Lars

    2014-10-01

    To evaluate the household use of insecticide consumer products to kill mosquitoes and other insect pests, as well as the expenditures for using these products, in a dengue-endemic area of México. A questionnaire was administered to 441 households in Mérida City and other communities in Yucatán to assess household use of insecticide consumer products. A total of 86.6% of surveyed households took action to kill insect pests with consumer products. The most commonly used product types were insecticide aerosol spray cans (73.6%), electric plug-in insecticide emitters (37.4%) and mosquito coils (28.3%). Mosquitoes were targeted by 89.7% of households using insecticide aerosol spray cans and >99% of households using electric plug-in insecticide emitters or mosquito coils. Products were used daily or every 2 days in most of the households for insecticide aerosol spray cans (61.4%), electric plug-in insecticide emitters (76.2%) and mosquito coils (82.1%). For all products used to kill insect pests, the median annual estimated expenditure per household that took action was 408 Mexican pesos ($MXN), which corresponded to approximately 31 $US. These numbers are suggestive of an annual market in excess of 75 million $MXN (>5.7 million $US) for Mérida City alone. Mosquitoes threaten human health and are major nuisances in homes in the study area in México. Households were found to have taken vigorous action to kill mosquitoes and other insect pests and spent substantial amounts of money on insecticide consumer products. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Consumption patterns and intra-household roles in the production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-02-18

    Feb 18, 2009 ... cost of hiring tractors, high cost of fertilizers and other agro-chemicals and lack of finance. This study recommended the provision of institutional loans and credit facilities to encourage farmers to produce more soyabeans. .... households, while crops with mean scores of 2.5 or above were taken to be of high ...

  17. Toxicants in Consumer Products. Household Hazardous Waste Disposal Project. Metro Toxicant Program No. 1B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgley, Susan M.

    Four general product classes (pesticides, paint products, household cleaners, and automotive products) are reviewed in this document. Each product class is described, and several aspects of the problem associated with product use or disposal are examined, including estimates of volumes used and environmental impacts. Technical data on the specific…

  18. Assessing Nutritional Differences in Household Level Production and Consumption in African Villages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markey, K.; Palm, C.; Wood, S.

    2015-12-01

    Studies of agriculture often focus on yields and calories, but overlook the production of diverse nutrients needed for human health. Nutritional production is particularly important in low-income countries, where foods produced correspond largely to those consumed. Through an analysis of crops, livestock, and animal products, this study aims to quantify the nutritional differences between household-level production and consumption in the Millennium Village at Bonsaaso, Ghana. By converting food items into their nutritional components it became clear that certain nutritional disparities existed between the two categories. In Bonsasso, 64-78% of households exhibited deficiencies in the consumption of Calcium, Fat, and/or Vitamin A despite less than 30% of households showing deficiencies on the production side. To better understand these differences, k-means clustering analysis was performed, placing households into groups characterized by nutritional means. By comparing the households in these groupings, it was clear that clusters formed around certain nutritional deficiencies. The socioeconomic characteristics of these groupings were then studied for correlations, concentrating on number of people at the household, sex and age of household head, and dependency ratio. It was found that clusters with high dependency ratios (the number of working persons in the household to non-working persons) exhibited a large variety of, and often drastic, nutritional deficiencies. In fact, the cluster with the highest average dependency ratio exhibited deficiencies in every nutrient. In light of these findings, regional policies may look to target households with a large number of dependents, and package nutrients for household distribution based on the characteristics of these clusters.

  19. Ultra-Processed Food Products and Obesity in Brazilian Households (2008–2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canella, Daniela Silva; Levy, Renata Bertazzi; Martins, Ana Paula Bortoletto; Claro, Rafael Moreira; Moubarac, Jean-Claude; Baraldi, Larissa Galastri; Cannon, Geoffrey; Monteiro, Carlos Augusto

    2014-01-01

    Background Production and consumption of industrially processed food and drink products have risen in parallel with the global increase in overweight and obesity and related chronic non-communicable diseases. The objective of this study was to analyze the relationship between household availability of processed and ultra-processed products and the prevalence of excess weight (overweight plus obesity) and obesity in Brazil. Methods The study was based on data from the 2008–2009 Household Budget Survey involving a probabilistic sample of 55,970 Brazilian households. The units of study were household aggregates (strata), geographically and socioeconomically homogeneous. Multiple linear regression models were used to assess the relationship between the availability of processed and ultra-processed products and the average of Body Mass Index (BMI) and the percentage of individuals with excess weight and obesity in the strata, controlling for potential confounders (socio-demographic characteristics, percentage of expenditure on eating out of home, and dietary energy other than that provided by processed and ultra-processed products). Predictive values for prevalence of excess weight and obesity were estimated according to quartiles of the household availability of dietary energy from processed and ultra-processed products. Results The mean contribution of processed and ultra-processed products to total dietary energy availability ranged from 15.4% (lower quartile) to 39.4% (upper quartile). Adjusted linear regression coefficients indicated that household availability of ultra-processed products was positively associated with both the average BMI and the prevalence of excess weight and obesity, whereas processed products were not associated with these outcomes. In addition, people in the upper quartile of household consumption of ultra-processed products, compared with those in the lower quartile, were 37% more likely to be obese. Conclusion Greater household

  20. Ultra-processed food products and obesity in Brazilian households (2008-2009.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Silva Canella

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Production and consumption of industrially processed food and drink products have risen in parallel with the global increase in overweight and obesity and related chronic non-communicable diseases. The objective of this study was to analyze the relationship between household availability of processed and ultra-processed products and the prevalence of excess weight (overweight plus obesity and obesity in Brazil. METHODS: The study was based on data from the 2008-2009 Household Budget Survey involving a probabilistic sample of 55,970 Brazilian households. The units of study were household aggregates (strata, geographically and socioeconomically homogeneous. Multiple linear regression models were used to assess the relationship between the availability of processed and ultra-processed products and the average of Body Mass Index (BMI and the percentage of individuals with excess weight and obesity in the strata, controlling for potential confounders (socio-demographic characteristics, percentage of expenditure on eating out of home, and dietary energy other than that provided by processed and ultra-processed products. Predictive values for prevalence of excess weight and obesity were estimated according to quartiles of the household availability of dietary energy from processed and ultra-processed products. RESULTS: The mean contribution of processed and ultra-processed products to total dietary energy availability ranged from 15.4% (lower quartile to 39.4% (upper quartile. Adjusted linear regression coefficients indicated that household availability of ultra-processed products was positively associated with both the average BMI and the prevalence of excess weight and obesity, whereas processed products were not associated with these outcomes. In addition, people in the upper quartile of household consumption of ultra-processed products, compared with those in the lower quartile, were 37% more likely to be obese. CONCLUSION: Greater

  1. Ultra-processed food products and obesity in Brazilian households (2008-2009).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canella, Daniela Silva; Levy, Renata Bertazzi; Martins, Ana Paula Bortoletto; Claro, Rafael Moreira; Moubarac, Jean-Claude; Baraldi, Larissa Galastri; Cannon, Geoffrey; Monteiro, Carlos Augusto

    2014-01-01

    Production and consumption of industrially processed food and drink products have risen in parallel with the global increase in overweight and obesity and related chronic non-communicable diseases. The objective of this study was to analyze the relationship between household availability of processed and ultra-processed products and the prevalence of excess weight (overweight plus obesity) and obesity in Brazil. The study was based on data from the 2008-2009 Household Budget Survey involving a probabilistic sample of 55,970 Brazilian households. The units of study were household aggregates (strata), geographically and socioeconomically homogeneous. Multiple linear regression models were used to assess the relationship between the availability of processed and ultra-processed products and the average of Body Mass Index (BMI) and the percentage of individuals with excess weight and obesity in the strata, controlling for potential confounders (socio-demographic characteristics, percentage of expenditure on eating out of home, and dietary energy other than that provided by processed and ultra-processed products). Predictive values for prevalence of excess weight and obesity were estimated according to quartiles of the household availability of dietary energy from processed and ultra-processed products. The mean contribution of processed and ultra-processed products to total dietary energy availability ranged from 15.4% (lower quartile) to 39.4% (upper quartile). Adjusted linear regression coefficients indicated that household availability of ultra-processed products was positively associated with both the average BMI and the prevalence of excess weight and obesity, whereas processed products were not associated with these outcomes. In addition, people in the upper quartile of household consumption of ultra-processed products, compared with those in the lower quartile, were 37% more likely to be obese. Greater household availability of ultra-processed food products in

  2. Symptoms of mothers and infants related to total volatile organic compounds in household products

    OpenAIRE

    Farrow, A; Taylor, H; Northstone, K; Golding, J

    2003-01-01

    The authors sought to determine whether reported symptoms of mothers and infants were associated significantly with the use of household products that raised indoor levels of total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs). Data collected from 170 homes within the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC: a large birth cohort of more than 10,000) had determined which household products were associated with the highest levels of TVOCs. The latter data were collected over a period that ...

  3. Measurement and human exposure assessment of brominated flame retardants in household products from South China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Shejun [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Ma Yunjuan [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Zhuhai Environmental Moniorting Center, Zhuhai 519000 (China); Wang Jing; Tian Mi [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Luo Xiaojun [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Chen Da [Department of Environmental and Aquatic Animal Health, Virginia Institute of Marine Science, College of William and Mary, Gloucester Point, VA 23062 (United States); Mai Bixian, E-mail: nancymai@gig.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2010-04-15

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) were examined in household products in the Pearl River Delta, South China, including electronic appliances, furniture and upholstery, car interiors, and raw materials for electronics. The concentrations of PBDEs derived from penta-BDE mixture were much lower (<111 ng/g) than those for octa- and deca-BDE commercially derived PBDEs, with maximum values of 15,107 and 1,603,343 ng/g, respectively, in all the household products. Our findings suggest the recycling of old electronic products and their reuse might be also a potential important source of discontinued PBDEs to the environment. DBDPE was found in 20.0% of all the samples, ranging from 311 to 268,230 ng/g. PBDE congener profiles in both the household products and raw materials suggest that some less brominated BDEs in the environment may be derived from the decomposition of higher brominated PBDEs in PBDE-containing products in process of the manufacturing, use and/or recycling. Human exposure to PBDEs from household products via inhalation ranged from 175 to 612 pg/kg bw day, accounting for a small proportion of the total daily exposure via indoor inhalation. Despite the low deleterious risk associated with household products with regard to PBDEs, they are of special concern because of the relatively higher exposures observed for young children and further work is required.

  4. Measurement and human exposure assessment of brominated flame retardants in household products from South China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Shejun; Ma Yunjuan; Wang Jing; Tian Mi; Luo Xiaojun; Chen Da; Mai Bixian

    2010-01-01

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) were examined in household products in the Pearl River Delta, South China, including electronic appliances, furniture and upholstery, car interiors, and raw materials for electronics. The concentrations of PBDEs derived from penta-BDE mixture were much lower (<111 ng/g) than those for octa- and deca-BDE commercially derived PBDEs, with maximum values of 15,107 and 1,603,343 ng/g, respectively, in all the household products. Our findings suggest the recycling of old electronic products and their reuse might be also a potential important source of discontinued PBDEs to the environment. DBDPE was found in 20.0% of all the samples, ranging from 311 to 268,230 ng/g. PBDE congener profiles in both the household products and raw materials suggest that some less brominated BDEs in the environment may be derived from the decomposition of higher brominated PBDEs in PBDE-containing products in process of the manufacturing, use and/or recycling. Human exposure to PBDEs from household products via inhalation ranged from 175 to 612 pg/kg bw day, accounting for a small proportion of the total daily exposure via indoor inhalation. Despite the low deleterious risk associated with household products with regard to PBDEs, they are of special concern because of the relatively higher exposures observed for young children and further work is required.

  5. Product System Design – to Household Massage Design as An Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Huabin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Explain what is the system design and the applications of System design in the product design process. Using The whole idea and systems design methods to analyze the design of household hand massage,Use a chart image to explain that Household hand massage products in the influence of user and the environment, the influence of large system environment for the product. The use of components of the system to anatomy product design. Each system components has a link between and mutual correlation.

  6. Choice of foods: Allocation of time and money, household production and market services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonke, Jens

    1992-01-01

    of meals as a case of household production with four kinds of input: the food products bought, the time used for shopping, cooking, and washing up, ho capital like kitchen appliances, and human capital like cooking skills. Maximum welfare will result when these inputs are optimised given the household...... somewhat in the same period, the overall disposable time for households has been going down. At the same time, incomes have been rising. Rational economic behaviour would imply that households react to these changed constraints by employing time-saving and time-buying strategies in meal preparation. 4......'s constraints of disposable income and disposable time. 3. In recent decades, women's participation in the labour market has increased significantly, with non-employed women becoming employed part-time, and part-time employed women becoming employed full-time. Even though men's working time has decreased...

  7. Household Production and Environmental Kuznets Curves. Examining the Desirability and Feasibility of Substitution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfaff, Alexander S.P.; Chaudhuri, S. [Department of International and Public Affairs, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Nye, Howard L.M. [Department of Economics, Columbia University SIPA, New York, NY 10027 (United States)

    2004-02-01

    This paper provides a theoretical explanation for the widely debated empirical finding of 'Environmental Kuznets Curves', i.e., U-shaped relationships between per-capita income and indicators of environmental quality. We present a household-production model in which the degradation of environmental quality is a by-product of household activities. Households can not directly purchase environmental quality, but can reduce degradation by substituting more expensive cleaner inputs to production for less costly dirty inputs. If environmental quality is a normal good, one expects substitution towards the less polluting inputs, so that increases in income will increase the quality of the environment. It is shown that this only holds for middle income households. Poorer households spend all income on dirty inputs. When they buy more, as income rises, the pollution also rises. they do not want to substitute, as this would reduce consumption of non-environmental services for environmental amenities that are already abundant. Thus, as income rises from low to middle levels, a U shape can result. Yet an N shape might eventually result, as richer households spend all income on clean inputs. Further substitution possibilities are exhausted. Thus as income rises again pollution rises and environmental quality falls.

  8. Consumer preferences for household water treatment products in Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulos, Christine; Yang, Jui-Chen; Patil, Sumeet R; Pattanayak, Subhrendu; Wood, Siri; Goodyear, Lorelei; Gonzalez, Juan Marcos

    2012-08-01

    Over 5 billion people worldwide are exposed to unsafe water. Given the obstacles to ensuring sustainable improvements in water supply infrastructure and the unhygienic handling of water after collection, household water treatment and storage (HWTS) products have been viewed as important mechanisms for increasing access to safe water. Although studies have shown that HWTS technologies can reduce the likelihood of diarrheal illness by about 30%, levels of adoption and continued use remain low. An understanding of household preferences for HWTS products can be used to create demand through effective product positioning and social marketing, and ultimately improve and ensure commercial sustainability and scalability of these products. However, there has been little systematic research on consumer preferences for HWTS products. This paper reports the results of the first state-of-the-art conjoint analysis study of HWTS products. In 2008, we conducted a conjoint analysis survey of a representative sample of households in Andhra Pradesh (AP), India to elicit and quantify household preferences for commercial HWTS products. Controlling for attribute non-attendance in an error components mixed logit model, the study results indicate that the most important features to respondents, in terms of the effect on utility, were the type of product, followed by the extent to which the product removes pathogens, the retail outlet and, the time required to treat 10 L. Holding all other product attributes constant, filters were preferred to combination products and chemical additives. Department stores and weekly markets were the most favorable sales outlets, followed by mobile salespeople. In general, households do not prefer to purchase HWTS products at local shops. Our results can inform the types of products and sales outlets that are likely to be successful in commercial HWTS markets in AP, as well as the influence of different pricing and financing strategies on product demand

  9. Preservatives in Personal Hygiene and Cosmetic Products, Topical Medications, and Household Cleaners in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor-Nieto, María Antonia; Alcántara-Nicolás, Francisco; Melgar-Molero, Virginia; Pérez-Mesonero, Raquel; Vergara-Sánchez, Aránzazu; Martín-Fuentes, Adriana; González-Muñoz, Patricia; de Eusebio-Murillo, Ester

    2017-10-01

    Preservatives are added to cosmetic, household cleaning, and other industrial products to prevent the growth of microorganisms. Unfortunately, exposure to these substances can cause sensitization. Between January and June 2015, we analyzed the ingredients of 2300 products commercially available in Spain to identify the frequency of a wide variety of preservatives in different product categories. We analyzed 1093 skin care and cosmetic products sold exclusively in pharmacies (dermocosmetics), 458 household cleaning and personal hygiene and cosmetic products sold in supermarkets, 636 topical medications, and 113 cosmetic products sold in a herbal shop. Phenoxyethanol, citric acid, sodium benzoate, and potassium sorbate were very common in all the cosmetic product categories. Parabens were present in 16.1% of dermocosmetic products, 14.45% of cosmetic products available in supermarkets, 0.88% of cosmetic products available in the herbal shop, 5.18% of topical medications, and in none of the cleaning products. Isothiazolinones were identified in 2.56% of dermocosmetic products, 18% of cosmetic products in supermarkets, 7.9% of cosmetic products in the herbal shop, 63.63% of household cleaners, and in none of the topical medications. Formaldehyde releasers were detected in 5.76% of dermocosmetic products, 6.42% of cosmetic products sold in supermarkets, 7.96% of cosmetic products sold in the herbal shop, 3.93% of topical medications, and 16.74% of household cleaners. Evaluation of the presence of preservatives in everyday products allows us to indirectly estimate exposure levels to each one. Measures restricting the use of the most problematic preservatives need to be strengthened. Copyright © 2017 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Agricultural productivity, household poverty and migration in the Indian Sundarban Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rituparna Hajra

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Deltas are highly sensitive to erosion, flooding, and salinization with consequential agricultural productivity losses and out-migration, which is a preferred adaptive measure for the inhabitants of deltaic islands. This study investigates the associations between agricultural productivity decrease, household poverty and the probability of out-migration in the Indian Sundarban Delta (ISD. Using newly collected survey data from randomly selected households within the ISD, we analysed these relationships by means of descriptive statistics and regression modeling. Results suggest the significant positive association between a decrease in agricultural productivity and out-migration. The results further show that ceteris paribus, out-migration is negatively associated with household poverty, which is likely to be explained by the effect of remittances. The results yield important policy implications at the local level and can contribute to the progress towards sustainable livelihoods in these deltaic islands.

  11. Measuring forest and wild product contributions to household welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakkegaard, Riyong Kim; Hogarth, Nicholas J.; Bong, Indah Waty

    2017-01-01

    in the lowest bracket. Consumption of forest products and importance as a coping strategy was higher in the most upstream village, where sale of forest products in times of shock was more marked in the most downstream village (where forest coping strategies were also least important). The Forestry Modules...

  12. Health Risk Assessment on Hazardous Ingredients in Household Deodorizing Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minjin Lee

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The inhalation of a water aerosol from a humidifier containing disinfectants has led to serious lung injuries in Korea. To promote the safe use of products, the Korean government enacted regulations on the chemicals in various consumer products that could have adverse health effects. Given the concern over the potential health risks associated with the hazardous ingredients in deodorizing consumer products, 17 ingredients were analyzed and assessed according to their health risk on 3 groups by the application type in 47 deodorizing products. The risk assessment study followed a stepwise procedure (e.g., collecting toxicological information, hazard identification/exposure assessment, and screening and detailed assessment for inhalation and dermal routes. The worst-case scenario and maximum concentration determined by the product purpose and application type were used as the screening assessment. In a detailed assessment, the 75th exposure factor values were used to estimate the assumed reasonable exposure to ingredients. The exposed concentrations of seven ingredients were calculated. Due to limitation of toxicity information, butylated hydroxyl toluene for a consumer’s exposure via the dermal route only was conducted for a detailed assessment. This study showed that the assessed ingredients have no health risks at their maximum concentrations in deodorizing products. This approach can be used to establish guidelines for ingredients that may pose inhalation and dermal hazards.

  13. Health Risk Assessment on Hazardous Ingredients in Household Deodorizing Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Minjin; Kim, Joo-Hyon; Lee, Daeyeop; Kim, Jaewoo; Lim, Hyunwoo; Seo, Jungkwan; Park, Young-Kwon

    2018-01-01

    The inhalation of a water aerosol from a humidifier containing disinfectants has led to serious lung injuries in Korea. To promote the safe use of products, the Korean government enacted regulations on the chemicals in various consumer products that could have adverse health effects. Given the concern over the potential health risks associated with the hazardous ingredients in deodorizing consumer products, 17 ingredients were analyzed and assessed according to their health risk on 3 groups by the application type in 47 deodorizing products. The risk assessment study followed a stepwise procedure (e.g., collecting toxicological information, hazard identification/exposure assessment, and screening and detailed assessment for inhalation and dermal routes). The worst-case scenario and maximum concentration determined by the product purpose and application type were used as the screening assessment. In a detailed assessment, the 75th exposure factor values were used to estimate the assumed reasonable exposure to ingredients. The exposed concentrations of seven ingredients were calculated. Due to limitation of toxicity information, butylated hydroxyl toluene for a consumer’s exposure via the dermal route only was conducted for a detailed assessment. This study showed that the assessed ingredients have no health risks at their maximum concentrations in deodorizing products. This approach can be used to establish guidelines for ingredients that may pose inhalation and dermal hazards. PMID:29652814

  14. Measurement and human exposure assessment of brominated flame retardants in household products from South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, She-Jun; Ma, Yun-Juan; Wang, Jing; Tian, Mi; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Chen, Da; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2010-04-15

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) were examined in household products in the Pearl River Delta, South China, including electronic appliances, furniture and upholstery, car interiors, and raw materials for electronics. The concentrations of PBDEs derived from penta-BDE mixture were much lower (electronic products and their reuse might be also a potential important source of discontinued PBDEs to the environment. DBDPE was found in 20.0% of all the samples, ranging from 311 to 268,230 ng/g. PBDE congener profiles in both the household products and raw materials suggest that some less brominated BDEs in the environment may be derived from the decomposition of higher brominated PBDEs in PBDE-containing products in process of the manufacturing, use and/or recycling. Human exposure to PBDEs from household products via inhalation ranged from 175 to 612 pg/kg bw day, accounting for a small proportion of the total daily exposure via indoor inhalation. Despite the low deleterious risk associated with household products with regard to PBDEs, they are of special concern because of the relatively higher exposures observed for young children and further work is required. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Improving productivity and welfare among workers of small and household textile and garment units in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay RODE

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Global Production System has changed remarkably over the period of time. In order to cope up with the change in the nature and type of production, the small and household garment and textile units are employing the younger and skilled labor force. The workers in these units are employed on the contract, causal and temporary basis. They are not given the different benefits as applicable to the large scale unit workers. Such workers are employed more hours and weekly holidays are not given to them. The small and household units are simply maximizing their interest and profit. Such capitalist nature of productive activities makes the labor worse. They are given less wages and classified as unskilled workers. Workers are not given proper training and security of work by these units. Their access to productive assets and standard of living is low as compare to the large unit’s workers. In order to improve the workers conditions, minimum wage should be given to all workers in small and household units. Such units must maintain their annual records of transactions. Small and household units must send their workers for compulsory training. Work place environment, minimum hours of work are required to regulate in these sectors. Immediate steps will have positive impact on workers earning and standard of living. It will help for further productivity enhancement.

  16. Enhancement and Optimization Mechanisms of Biogas Production for Rural Household Energy in Developing Countries: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yitayal Addis Alemayehu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic digestion is common but vital process used for biogas and fertilizer production as well as one method for waste treatment. The process is currently used in developing countries primarily for biogas production in the household level of rural people. The aim of this review is to indicate possible ways of including rural households who own less than four heads of cattle for the biogas programs in developing countries. The review provides different research out puts on using biogas substrates other than cow dung or its mix through different enhancement and optimization mechanisms. Many biodegradable materials have been studied for alternative methane production. Therefore, these substrates could be used for production by addressing the optimum conditions for each factor and each processes for enhanced and optimized biogas production.

  17. Microcredit to women and its contribution to production and household food security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Namayengo, Mayanja Muyonga Faith

    2017-01-01

    The contents of this dissertation are based on a quantitative and qualitative survey that was conducted to assess the contribution of microcredit access of women to production and household food security status, and the factors associated with enterprise performance and food security outcomes. In

  18. Wheat straw, household waste and hay as a source of lignocellulosic biomass for bioethanol and biogas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomczak, Anna; Bruch, Magdalena; Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2010-01-01

    To meet the increasing need for bioenergy three lignocellulosic materials: raw hay, pretreated wheat straw and pretreated household waste were considered for the production of bioethanol and biogas. Several mixtures of household waste supplemented with different fractions of wheat straw and hay...... in fermentation process with Saccharomyces cerevisiae were investigated. Wheat straw and household wastes were pretreated using IBUS technology, patented by Dong Energy, which includes milling, stem explosion treatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. Methane production was investigated using stillages, the effluents...... from bioethanol fermentation experiment. Previous trial of biogas production from above mentioned household wastes was enclosed....

  19. Children's recognition of dangerous household products: child development and poisoning risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwebel, David C; Wells, Hayley; Johnston, Anna

    2015-03-01

    Preliterate children may be poisoned because they fail to distinguish safe versus hazardous household products. Study 1: A total of 228 children aged 18-54 months completed four tasks assessing ability to recognize product safety. Study 2: A total of 68 children aged 17-31 months chose products to drink from pairs of dangerous versus beverage bottles. Study 3: A total of 119 children aged 18-42 months sorted 12 objects into toys, things you can drink, and things that are bad/dangerous. Left alone, children frequently touched dangerous household products. Children frequently misidentified poisonous products as safe. Some developmental trends emerged. The following packaging features apparently helped children recognize danger: black bottle color; opaque packaging; salient symbols like insects; lack of pointy spouts; squared, not round, bottles; and metal, not plastic, containers. Developing cognition helps preliterate children distinguish safe from dangerous household products. Multiple aspects of product packaging may reduce child poisoning risk if implemented by industry or policy. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Ancillary services and optimal household energy management with photovoltaic production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clastres, C.; Ha Pham, T.T.; Wurtz, F.; Bacha, S.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a project designed to increase the monetary value of photovoltaic (PV) solar production for residential applications. To contribute to developing new functionalities for this type of PV system and an efficient control system for optimising its operation, this article explains how the proposed system could contract to provide ancillary services, particularly the supply of active power services. This provision of service by a PV-based system for domestic applications, not currently available, has prompted a market design proposal related to the distribution system. The mathematical model for calculating the system's optimal operation (sources, load and exchanges of power with the grid) results in a linear mix integer optimisation problem in which the objective is to maximise the profits achieved by taking part in the electricity market. Our approach is illustrated in a case study. PV producers could gain by taking part in the markets for balancing power or ancillary services despite the negative impact on profit of several types of uncertainty, notably the intermittent nature of the PV source.

  1. The Effect of China’s New Circular Collective Forest Tenure Reform on Household Non-Timber Forest Product Production in Natural Forest Protection Project Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Ren

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of China’s natural forest protection project (Protection Project in 1998 changed households’ forestry production modes in project regions, and China’s new circular collective forest tenure reform (Tenure Reform has been implemented since 2003 with the goal of motivating household forestry production and increasing household income from forests. Policymakers expect that Tenure Reform could also stimulate households to engage in non-timber forest products (NTFPs production in Protection Project regions. However, only a few studies have investigated the effect of Tenure Reform on household NTFP production in Protection Project regions. To fill this gap, we built an integrative conceptual framework and estimated a corresponding structural equation model (SEM using survey data from 932 households in Protection Project regions in southwestern China. In our research framework, there are four factors, including household characteristics, labour and social capital, forestland characteristics, and the Tenure Reform, affecting household NTFP production. The results substantiate that Tenure Reform has had a significant positive effect on household NTFP production. Additionally, household and forestland characteristics have promoted household NTFP production, but quantitatively less than Tenure Reform. This report can be used to inform the government that future investment in Tenure Reform still needs to be enhanced, and policy enforcement still needs to be strengthened.

  2. The use of household cleaning products during pregnancy and lower respiratory tract infections and wheezing during early life.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casas, L.; Zock, J.P.; Carsin, A.E.; Fernández-Somoano, A.; Esplugues, A.; Santa-Marina, L.; Tardón, A.; Ballester, F.; Basterrechea, M.; Sunyer, J.

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of household use of cleaning products during pregnancy on infant wheezing and lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI). In four prospective Spanish birth cohorts (n = 2,292), pregnant women reported the use of household cleaning products. When infants were 12-18 months old,

  3. Heart Rate Variability in Association with Frequent Use of Household Sprays and Scented Products in SAPALDIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Martin; Schaffner, Emmanuel; Barthélémy, Jean-Claude; Carballo, David; Gaspoz, Jean-Michel; Rochat, Thierry; Schindler, Christian; Schwartz, Joel; Zock, Jan-Paul; Künzli, Nino; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Team, SAPALDIA

    2012-01-01

    Background: Household cleaning products are associated with adverse respiratory health outcomes, but the cardiovascular health effects are largely unknown. Objective: We determined if long-term use of household sprays and scented products at home was associated with reduced heart rate variability (HRV), a marker of autonomic cardiac dysfunction. Methods: We recorded 24-hr electrocardiograms in a cross-sectional survey of 581 Swiss adults, ≥ 50 years of age, who answered a detailed questionnaire regarding their use of household cleaning products in their homes. The adjusted average percent changes in standard deviation of all normal-to-normal intervals in 24 hr (24-hr SDNN) and total power (TP) were estimated in multiple linear regression in association with frequency [air freshening sprays, and scented products. Results: Decreases in 24-hr SDNN and TP were observed with frequent use of all product types, but the strongest reductions were associated with air freshening sprays. Compared with unexposed participants, we found that using air freshening sprays 4–7 days/week was associated with 11% [95% confidence interval (CI): –20%, –2%] and 29% (95% CI: –46%, –8%) decreases in 24-hr SDNN and TP, respectively. Inverse associations of 24-SDNN and TP with increased use of cleaning sprays, air freshening sprays, and scented products were observed mainly in participants with obstructive lung disease (p < 0.05 for interactions). Conclusions: In predominantly older adult women, long-term frequent use of household spray and scented products was associated with reduced HRV, which suggests an increased risk of cardiovascular health hazards. People with preexisting pulmonary conditions may be more susceptible. PMID:22538298

  4. Frequent use of household cleaning products is associated with rhinitis in Chinese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xudong; Lao, Xiang Qian; Wong, Claudie Chiu-Yi; Tan, Lixing; Zhang, Zilong; Wong, Tze Wai; Tse, Lap-Ah; Lau, Arthur P S; Yu, Ignatius T S

    2016-09-01

    Despite the popular use of household cleaning products worldwide, there is no published study investigating the health effects of these products on rhinitis in children. We sought to investigate the household use of cleaning products and rhinitis patterns in Chinese children. A total of 2299 children were recruited from 21 primary schools with wide geographic coverage in Hong Kong. Self-administered questionnaires were completed by parents/guardians to collect detailed information on respiratory symptoms and household use of 14 types of chemical cleaning products, as well as clean water. Students were categorized into 4 mutually exclusive rhinitis patterns (never, occasional, frequent, and persistent). The total chemical burden (TCB) score was used as the exposure indicator by calculating the total time of exposure to the 14 cleaning products. Multinomial logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between rhinitis patterns and the use of household cleaning products. Every 10-unit increment of TCB score was associated with an increase in the odds of occasional (odds ratio [OR], 1.21; 95% CI, 1.05-1.41), frequent (OR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.13-1.60), and persistent (OR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.01-1.56) rhinitis after adjustment for a wide range of potential confounders. Compared with the children within the lowest tertile of TCB scores, the adjusted ORs of occasional, frequent, and persistent rhinitis in children within the highest tertile were 1.29 (95% CI, 1.01-1.65), 1.97 (95% CI, 1.40-2.76), and 1.67 (95% CI, 1.10-2.54), respectively. Frequent use of chemical cleaning products at home is associated with an increase in the odds of rhinitis in Chinese primary school children. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Utilization of household food waste for the production of ethanol at high dry material content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsakas, Leonidas; Kekos, Dimitris; Loizidou, Maria; Christakopoulos, Paul

    2014-01-08

    Environmental issues and shortage of fossil fuels have turned the public interest to the utilization of renewable, environmentally friendly fuels, such as ethanol. In order to minimize the competition between fuels and food production, researchers are focusing their efforts to the utilization of wastes and by-products as raw materials for the production of ethanol. household food wastes are being produced in great quantities in European Union and their handling can be a challenge. Moreover, their disposal can cause severe environmental issues (for example emission of greenhouse gasses). On the other hand, they contain significant amounts of sugars (both soluble and insoluble) and they can be used as raw material for the production of ethanol. Household food wastes were utilized as raw material for the production of ethanol at high dry material consistencies. A distinct liquefaction/saccharification step has been included to the process, which rapidly reduced the viscosity of the high solid content substrate, resulting in better mixing of the fermenting microorganism. This step had a positive effect in both ethanol production and productivity, leading to a significant increase in both values, which was up to 40.81% and 4.46 fold, respectively. Remaining solids (residue) after fermentation at 45% w/v dry material (which contained also the unhydrolyzed fraction of cellulose), were subjected to a hydrothermal pretreatment in order to be utilized as raw material for a subsequent ethanol fermentation. This led to an increase of 13.16% in the ethanol production levels achieving a final ethanol yield of 107.58 g/kg dry material. In conclusion, the ability of utilizing household food waste for the production of ethanol at elevated dry material content has been demonstrated. A separate liquefaction/saccharification process can increase both ethanol production and productivity. Finally, subsequent fermentation of the remaining solids could lead to an increase of the overall

  6. Hazard of household cleaning products: a study undertaken by the UK National Poisons Information Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Hayley; Moyns, Emma; Bateman, D Nicholas; Thomas, Simon H L; Thompson, John P; Vale, J Allister

    2012-09-01

    To ascertain the reported toxicity of current United Kingdom (UK) household products following the launch of new products, such as liquid detergent capsules, and the manufacture of more concentrated formulations. Between 1 March 2008 and 30 April 2009 the UK National Poisons Information Service (NPIS) collected prospectively 5939 telephone enquiries relating to household products, approximately 10% of all telephone enquiries received over this period. The majority of enquiries (n = 3893; 65.5%) concerned children 5 years of age or less and were received predominantly from hospitals (n = 1905; 32.1%), general practitioners (n = 1768; 29.8%) and NHS Direct/NHS 24 (n = 1694; 28.5%). The majority of exposures occurred at home (n = 5795; 97.6%); most exposures were accidental (n = 5561; 93.6%). Liquid detergent capsules were most commonly involved (n = 647), followed by bleaches (n = 481), air fresheners (n = 429), multipurpose cleaners (n = 408), dishwasher products (n = 399) and descalers (n = 397). Exposure to household products occurred mainly as a result of ingestion (n = 4616; 75.8%), with eye contact (n = 513; 8.4%), inhalation (n = 420; 6.9%) and skin contact (n = 187; 3.1%) being less common; 5.1% (n = 313) of enquiries involved multiple routes of exposure. The most commonly reported features were vomiting (ingestion), pain (eye contact), dyspnoea (inhalation) and burns (skin contact). In 5840 of 5939 enquiries the Poisoning Severity Score (PSS) was known. The majority of patients (n = 4117; 70.5%) were asymptomatic (PSS 0), 28.0% (n = 1638) developed minor features (PSS 1), 1.3% (75 patients) developed moderate features (PSS 2) and 0.15% (nine patients) developed serious features (PSS 3). Four of these nine patients made a complete recovery, two died from exposure to drain cleaner and PVC solvent cleaner; the outcome in three was unknown. In the UK, advice from the NPIS is sought commonly regarding household products, but such exposures only rarely result in

  7. N.3142 National Assembly law proposition aiming to help the purchasing of households facing the petroleum products prices increase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This text presents the problem of the households purchasing facing the increase of the petroleum products. It recalls the government policy, and criticizes the french government gap in favor of the households. In the second part it proposes to replace the ''floating TIPP'' and to reallocate a part of the exceptional incomes of the petroleum companies. (A.L.B.)

  8. Skin sensitisation to fragrance ingredients: is there a role for household cleaning/maintenance products?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basketter, David A; Lemoine, Sylvie; McFadden, John P

    2015-01-01

    The induction of contact allergy to fragrance ingredients and the consequent risk of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) present a human health concern that cannot be ignored. The problem arises when exposure exceeds safe levels, but the source(s) of exposure which lead to induction often remain unclear. This contrasts with the elicitation of ACD, where the eczema frequently can be traced to specific source(s) of skin exposure. Cosmetic products are often implicated, both for induction and elicitation. However, other products contain fragrance ingredients, including household cleaning products. In this paper, the risk assessment concerning the ability of these products to induce fragrance contact allergy is considered and the clinical evidence for the induction and/or elicitation of ACD is reviewed. It can be concluded that the risk of the induction of fragrance contact allergy from household cleaning products is low. Especially where more potent fragrance allergens are used in higher exposure products, the aggregated exposure from such products can augment the risk for the elicitation of ACD. This supports the need to manage this risk via the provision of information to consumers.

  9. Hydrogen and methane production from household solid waste in the two-stage fermentation process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lui, D.; Liu, D.; Zeng, Raymond Jianxiong

    2006-01-01

    A two-stage process combined hydrogen and methane production from household solid waste was demonstrated working successfully. The yield of 43 mL H-2/g volatile solid (VS) added was generated in the first hydrogen production stage and the methane production in the second stage was 500 mL CH4/g VS...... added. This figure was 21% higher than the methane yield from the one-stage process, which was run as control. Sparging of the hydrogen reactor with methane gas resulted in doubling of the hydrogen production. PH was observed as a key factor affecting fermentation pathway in hydrogen production stage....... Furthermore, this study also provided direct evidence in the dynamic fermentation process that, hydrogen production increase was reflected by acetate to butyrate ratio increase in liquid phase. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  10. Illness, death, and macronutrients: adequacy of rural Mozambican household production of macronutrients in the face of HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Cynthia; Massingue, Jaquelino

    2007-06-01

    As the public sector and civil society develop intervention programs to deal with the HIV/ AIDS epidemic, there has been an increasing emphasis on the relationship between nutrition and the disease. Drug interventions may be ineffective, and the progression from HIV infection to full-blown AIDS may be accelerated without adequate nutrition. Mozambique is still fighting an increasing prevalence rate of HIV including in rural areas. Rural households in Mozambique rely heavily on their own agricultural production for the basic macronutrients. To evaluate the extent to which household agricultural production of basic staples meets overall household needs for major macronutrients, comparing households affected and not directly affected by HIV/ AIDS and other major illnesses over two time periods. Methods. This research analyzes nationally representative panel data from rural household surveys conducted in 2002 and 2005 to evaluate whether households that have suffered the chronic illness or illness-related death of prime-age adult members (15 to 49 years of age) are more vulnerable to macronutrient gaps. Households in the South and in the North with a male illness or death in 2002 produced significantly less macronutrients from crops in 2005 than nonaffected households. These households also had significantly lower income per adult equivalent. Mortality or illness from HIV/AIDS affects the ability of agricultural households dependent on own-food production to produce macronutrients. Interventions to improve access to food may be needed for affected households, particularly in light of their inability to recover over time. More analysis is needed to understand income sources, crop diversification, and access to macronutrients through the market.

  11. EFFECT OF COMMERCIALIZATION ON PRODUCTIVE CAPACITY AMONG CASSAVA PRODUCING HOUSEHOLDS IN IKWUANO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF ABIA STATE, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogbonnaya Ukeh OTEH

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated factors affecting commercialization of cassava producing household in Ikwuano Local Government Area, Abia State, Nigeria. It specifically examined the socio-economic characteristics of cassava household; determine commercialization index and analyzed factors that influence commercialization among cassava producing households. The study employed purposive sampling technique in the selection of 120 respondents from one local government area (LGA based on characteristics of interest, nearness and other related features. The selection was done from 6 communities at the rate of 20 respondents per community. Analytically, descriptive statistics, household commercialization index (HCI, and multiple regression analysis were used. The results showed that the mean age of the cassava producing household was about 40 years with a mean farming experience of 14 years. They are mostly married with an average of 5 persons per households. The result further revealed that only a few households (less than 2% have very high commercialization orientation, which exposes the level of farming in the area. With respect to determinants of factors that influence commercialization, value of output, farm size, sex, nearness to market, membership of cooperative and farming experience were significant and found to exhibit varying degree. The study therefore recommends that support policies that sustain and improve the productivity among farming household especially land tenure policy issues, greater incentives policies for farmers in the rural areas; linkages between farm households and the markets; increase access and exchange of information on markets.

  12. Need for certification of household water treatment products: examples from Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Anna; Pierre-Louis, Jocelyne; Joseph, Flaurine; Sylvain, Ginelove; Patrick, Molly; Lantagne, Daniele

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate four household water treatment (HWT) products currently seeking approval for distribution in Haiti, through the application of a recently-developed national HWT product certification process. Four chemical treatment products were evaluated against the certification process validation stage by verifying international product certifications confirming treatment efficacy and reviewing laboratory efficacy data against WHO HWT microbiological performance targets; and against the approval stage by confirming product composition, evaluating treated water chemical content against national and international drinking water quality guidelines and reviewing packaging for dosing ability and usage directions in Creole. None of the four evaluated products fulfilled validation or approval stage requirements. None was certified by an international agency as efficacious for drinking water treatment, and none had data demonstrating its ability to meet WHO HWT performance targets. All product sample compositions differed from labelled composition by >20%, and no packaging included complete usage directions in Creole. Product manufacturers provided information that was inapplicable, did not demonstrate product efficacy, and was insufficient to ensure safe product use. Capacity building is needed with country regulatory agencies to objectively evaluate HWT products. Products should be internationally assessed against WHO performance targets and also locally approved, considering language, culture and usability, to ensure effective HWT. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Symptoms of mothers and infants related to total volatile organic compounds in household products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrow, Alexandra; Taylor, Hazel; Northstone, Kate; Golding, Jean

    2003-10-01

    The authors sought to determine whether reported symptoms of mothers and infants were associated significantly with the use of household products that raised indoor levels of total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs). Data collected from 170 homes within the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC: a large birth cohort of more than 10,000) had determined which household products were associated with the highest levels of TVOCs. The latter data were collected over a period that approximated 6 mo of pregnancy and the infants' first 6 mo of life. This paper presents (a) the mothers' self-reports of the use of these products in their homes and (b) self-reported medical symptoms of mothers and infants postnatally. Higher TVOC levels were associated with air freshener and aerosol use. Infant diarrhea and earache were statistically significantly associated with air freshener use, and diarrhea and vomiting were significantly associated with aerosol use. Headache experienced by mothers 8 mo after birth was significantly associated with the use of air fresheners and aerosols; maternal depression was significantly associated with the use of air fresheners. The results of the study suggest a link between the use of products that raise indoor levels of TVOCs and an increased risk of certain symptoms among infants and their mothers.

  14. Household-level dynamics of food waste production and related beliefs, attitudes, and behaviours in Guelph, Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parizeau, Kate; Massow, Mike von; Martin, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We combined household waste stream weights with survey data. • We examine relationships between waste and food-related practices and beliefs. • Families and large households produced more total waste, but less waste per capita. • Food awareness and waste awareness were related to reduced food waste. • Convenience lifestyles were differentially associated with food waste. - Abstract: It has been estimated that Canadians waste $27 billion of food annually, and that half of that waste occurs at the household level (Gooch et al., 2010). There are social, environmental, and economic implications for this scale of food waste, and source separation of organic waste is an increasingly common municipal intervention. There is relatively little research that assesses the dynamics of household food waste (particularly in Canada). The purpose of this study is to combine observations of organic, recyclable, and garbage waste production rates to survey results of food waste-related beliefs, attitudes, and behaviours at the household level in the mid-sized municipality of Guelph, Ontario. Waste weights and surveys were obtained from 68 households in the summer of 2013. The results of this study indicate multiple relationships between food waste production and household shopping practices, food preparation behaviours, household waste management practices, and food-related attitudes, beliefs, and lifestyles. Notably, we observed that food awareness, waste awareness, family lifestyles, and convenience lifestyles were related to food waste production. We conclude that it is important to understand the diversity of factors that can influence food wasting behaviours at the household level in order to design waste management systems and policies to reduce food waste

  15. Household-level dynamics of food waste production and related beliefs, attitudes, and behaviours in Guelph, Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parizeau, Kate, E-mail: kate.parizeau@uoguelph.ca [Department of Geography, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON (Canada); Massow, Mike von [School of Hospitality, Food, and Tourism Management, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON (Canada); Martin, Ralph [Plant Agriculture Department, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON (Canada)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • We combined household waste stream weights with survey data. • We examine relationships between waste and food-related practices and beliefs. • Families and large households produced more total waste, but less waste per capita. • Food awareness and waste awareness were related to reduced food waste. • Convenience lifestyles were differentially associated with food waste. - Abstract: It has been estimated that Canadians waste $27 billion of food annually, and that half of that waste occurs at the household level (Gooch et al., 2010). There are social, environmental, and economic implications for this scale of food waste, and source separation of organic waste is an increasingly common municipal intervention. There is relatively little research that assesses the dynamics of household food waste (particularly in Canada). The purpose of this study is to combine observations of organic, recyclable, and garbage waste production rates to survey results of food waste-related beliefs, attitudes, and behaviours at the household level in the mid-sized municipality of Guelph, Ontario. Waste weights and surveys were obtained from 68 households in the summer of 2013. The results of this study indicate multiple relationships between food waste production and household shopping practices, food preparation behaviours, household waste management practices, and food-related attitudes, beliefs, and lifestyles. Notably, we observed that food awareness, waste awareness, family lifestyles, and convenience lifestyles were related to food waste production. We conclude that it is important to understand the diversity of factors that can influence food wasting behaviours at the household level in order to design waste management systems and policies to reduce food waste.

  16. In vitro effects of household products on Calliphoridae larvae development: implication for forensic entomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubernon, Cindy; Devigne, Cedric; Hedouin, Valery; Gosset, Didier; Charabidze, Damien

    2015-01-01

    Several parameters can delay the first arrival of flies on a corpse and the subsequent development of the larvae. This study focuses on the development of Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae) (Meigen, 1826) on household chemical-contaminated substrates. bleach, perfume, hydrochloric acid, caustic soda, insecticide, mosquito repellent, and gasoline in quantities consistent with an amount that could possibly be spilled on a corpse were mixed with beef liver to simulate contaminated fleshes. Larvae were bred at 25 °C on these media until emergence. Four developmental parameters were followed: survival rates, development times, sex ratios, and adult sizes. Hydrochloric acid, insecticide, and gasoline killed all larvae. In low quantities, caustic soda and mosquito repellent increased the development time and decreased the adult size. However, high quantities of these chemicals killed all larvae. Lastly, bleach and perfume did not affect the survival rate and barely impacted the development time or adult size. These results demonstrate common household products spilled on a corpse can strongly affect the development of Calliphoridae larvae. The effects of such products should be considered in forensic entomology cases. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  17. Product carbon footprint assessment supporting the green supply chain construction in household appliance manufacturers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianhua; Sun, Liang; Guo, Huiting

    2017-11-01

    Supply chain carbon emission is one of the factors considered in the green supply chain management. A method was designed to support the green supply chain measures based on the carbon footprint assessment for products. A research for 3 typical household appliances carbon footprint assessment was conducted to explore using product carbon footprint assessment method to guide the green supply chain management of the manufacturers. The result could reflect the differences directions on green supply chain management of manufacturers of washing machine, air conditioner and microwave, respectively That is, the washing machine manufacturer should pay attention to the low carbon activities in upstream suppliers in highest priority, and also the promotion of product energy efficiency. The air conditioner manufacturer should pay attention to the product energy efficiency increasing in highest priority, and the improvement of refrigerant to decrease its GWP. And the microwave manufacture could only focus on the energy efficiency increasing because it contributes most of the carbon emission to its carbon footprint. Besides, the representativeness of product and the applicability of the method were also discussed. As the manufacturer could master the technical information on raw material and components of its products to conduct the product carbon footprint assessment, this method could help the manufacturer to identify the effective green supply chain measures in the preliminary stage.

  18. Predicting hunter behavior of indigenous communities in the Ecuadorian Amazon: insights from a household production model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique de la Montaña

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Many indigenous communities living in the Amazon rely on hunting and fishing to meet the majority of their protein needs. Despite the importance of these practices, few studies from the region have analyzed the socioeconomic drivers of hunting and fishing at the household level. We propose a household production model to assess the effect of key economic parameters on hunting and fishing in small indigenous communities located in the Ecuadorian Amazon, whose principal source of protein is derived from hunting and fishing. The model was validated using empirical data from two communities that reflect different levels of market integration and forest conservation. Demand and supply functions were generated from household data gathered over 19 months. Elasticities were derived to determine the sensitivity of the decision to engage in hunting to exogenous parameters such as off-farm wages, hunting costs, bushmeat price, penalties for the illegal sale of bushmeat, and biological characteristics of the game species. After calibrating the model, we simulated changes in the key economic parameters. The parameter that most directly affected hunting activity in both communities was off-farm wages. Simulating a 10% wage increase resulted in a 16-20% reduction in harvested biomass, while a 50% increase diminished harvested biomass by > 50%. Model simulations revealed that bushmeat price and penalties for illegal trade also had important effects on hunter behavior in terms of amount of bushmeat sold, but not in terms of total harvest. As a tool for understanding hunters' economic decision-making, the model provides a basis for developing strategies that promote sustainable hunting and wildlife conservation while protecting indigenous livelihoods.

  19. Anaerobic treatment of wastewater from the household and personal products industry in a hybrid bioreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. Araujo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The anaerobic treatment of wastewater from the household and personal products industry was studied using a 16.3 L hybrid reactor (UASB and biofilter. The top of the UASB reactor was filled with coconut shells to act as the support material for the biofilter. The wastewater was characterized in terms of pH (1.0 - 12.0, COD (1,000 - 5,000 mg/L, BOD5 (700 - 1,500 mg/L, chloride (55 - 850 mg/L, ammonia nitrogen (0.4 - 0.9 mg/L, total Kjeldahl nitrogen (22.1 - 34.0 mg/L, phosphorus (2.0 - 2.5 mg/L, anionic surfactants (100 - 600 mg/L, turbidity (115 - 300 NTU and total suspended solids (450 - 1,440 mg/L. The bioreactor was operated continuously for 120 days at room temperature (26 ± 5ºC with hydraulic retention times of 50, 40 and 60 h. COD and BOD removals and biogas production were evaluated in order to analyze process efficiency. The average removal efficiencies for COD (77%, 72% and 80% and BOD5 (approximately 90% were obtained with HRTs of 50, 40 and 60 h, respectively. The average specific biogas production was 0.32 L/g COD (at standard temperature and pressure for the three experimental runs. These data indicate good reactor efficiency and suggest the possibility of using this system to treat wastewater generated by the household and personal products industry.

  20. Household anaerobic digester for bioenergy production in developing countries: opportunities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surendra, K C; Takara, Devin; Jasinski, Jonas; Khanal, Samir Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Access to clean and affordable energy is vital for advancing development objectives, particularly in rural areas of developing countries. There are some three billion people in these regions, however, who lack consistent access to energy and rely on traditional solid fuels such as firewood, cattle manure, and crop residues for meeting cooking and heating needs. Excessive use of such highly polluting resources creates serious environmental, social and public health issues. In this context, household digesters (which convert readily available feedstocks such as cattle manure, human excreta, and crop residues into biogas) have the potential to play a significant role in supplying methane as a clean, renewable energy resource for remote geographies. In addition to bioenergy production, the slurry generated from anaerobic digestion is rich in nutrients and can improve the physical, chemical, and biological attributes of soil when applied to agricultural land. This type of approach has the potential to significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions while simultaneously improving the quality of life. Despite a long history of research and innovation for the development and optimization of household digesters, little is known and has been reported for the application of these systems in decentralized communities. The primary purpose of this paper seeks to review the dearth of literature pertaining to small-scale anaerobic digesters in remote geographies and in regions where much of the world's population reside.

  1. The use and interpretation of in vitro data in regulatory toxicology: cosmetics, toiletries and household products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indans, Ian

    2002-02-28

    There is currently a drive to eliminate animal testing for cosmetics, toiletries and household products; indeed, the European Union Cosmetics Directive aims to prohibit the use of experimental animals for the testing of finished cosmetic products after 2002. At present, national prohibitions are in place in the UK, Germany, Austria and the Netherlands, for the testing of finished cosmetic products and cosmetic ingredients. In the USA animal testing for certain types of finished products is mandatory. Against this background, the currently available regulatory in vitro tests comprise methods for eye irritation, skin corrosivity, genotoxicity, dermal penetration and photoirritation. The draft updates to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development guidelines for eye and skin irritation advocate the use of in vitro or ex vivo methods prior to the commencement of animal studies. At present, testing for these endpoints cannot be completed in vitro, but potentially corrosive substances and products can be classified without the need for animal studies. Regulatory genotoxicity testing can be completed using only in vitro methods, provided that a clear negative outcome is obtained for each test. Data from dermal penetration studies may be used to refine risk assessments. Current developments in areas such as skin sensitisation and skin irritation promise that in the reasonably near future such information may be generated without the use of animals.

  2. Choice of foods: Allocation of time and money, household production and market services ­ Part II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonke, Jens

    1993-01-01

    Executive summary: 1. This is the second report on a study investigating how demand for food products with varying degrees of convenience depends on disposable income and disposable time. 2. Both absolute and relative expenditures on convenient food decrease with disposable time and increase...... in Denmark. This contrasts with Sweden, where higher education leads to more expenditure on fast food. This may indicate a slower pace of modernisation of eating habits in Denmark than in Sweden. 6. Ownership of microwave ovens and dishwashers means more expenditure on fast meals. Ownership of a freezer...... means reduced expenses on most kinds of foodstuffs, possibly due to obtaining quantity discounts. 7. Ownership of household appliances and hiring domestic help decreases the probability of eating out. 8. Singles spend money on meals away from home more frequently than couples, whereas the spending...

  3. Chemical pneumonitis and subsequent reactive airways dysfunction syndrome after a single exposure to a household product: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Imran

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Household products are usually safe to use. Adverse events arising from their use are mostly reported in patients with pre-existing atopy or pulmonary problems and usually only after a prolonged exposure to such products. We report the case of a patient with no prior problems who developed significant side effects from a single exposure to a domestic product. Case presentation A 43-year-old Caucasian American man, previously in good health, used a domestic aerosol product called 'Stand N' Seal "Spray-On" Grout Sealer' in an enclosed room in his house. The product contained n-butyl acetate ( Conclusion A household product may still prove unsafe to use even after it has gone through vigorous testing and approval processes. Even healthy individuals are susceptible to adverse outcomes after a brief exposure. Extra precautions should be taken when using any chemical product at home.

  4. Secondary organic aerosol from ozone-initiated reactions with terpene-rich household products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, Beverly; Coleman, Beverly K.; Lunden, Melissa M.; Destaillats, Hugo; Nazaroff, William W.

    2008-01-01

    We analyzed secondary organic aerosol (SOA) data from a series of small-chamber experiments in which terpene-rich vapors from household products were combined with ozone under conditions analogous to product use indoors. Reagents were introduced into a continuously ventilated 198 L chamber at steady rates. Consistently, at the time of ozone introduction, nucleation occurred exhibiting behavior similar to atmospheric events. The initial nucleation burst and growth was followed by a period in which approximately stable particle levels were established reflecting a balance between new particle formation, condensational growth, and removal by ventilation. Airborne particles were measured with a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS, 10 to 400 nm) in every experiment and with an optical particle counter (OPC, 0.1 to 2.0 ?m) in a subset. Parameters for a three-mode lognormal fit to the size distribution at steady state were determined for each experiment. Increasing the supply ozone level increased the steady-state mass concentration and yield of SOA from each product tested. Decreasing the air-exchange rate increased the yield. The steady-state fine-particle mass concentration (PM1.1) ranged from 10 to> 300 mu g m-3 and yields ranged from 5percent to 37percent. Steady-state nucleation rates and SOA mass formation rates were on the order of 10 cm-3 s-1 and 10 mu g m-3 min-1, respectively.

  5. Light-induced nitrous acid (HONO) production from NO2 heterogeneous reactions on household chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Alvarez, Elena; Sörgel, Matthias; Gligorovski, Sasho; Bassil, Sabina; Bartolomei, Vincent; Coulomb, Bruno; Zetzsch, Cornelius; Wortham, Henri

    2014-10-01

    Nitrous acid (HONO) can be generated in various indoor environments directly during combustion processes or indirectly via heterogeneous NO2 reactions with water adsorbed layers on diverse surfaces. Indoors not only the concentrations of NO2 are higher but the surface to volume (S/V) ratios are larger and therefore the potential of HONO production is significantly elevated compared to outdoors. It has been claimed that the UV solar light is largely attenuated indoors. Here, we show that solar light (λ > 340 nm) penetrates indoors and can influence the heterogeneous reactions of gas-phase NO2 with various household surfaces. The NO2 to HONO conversion mediated by light on surfaces covered with domestic chemicals has been determined at atmospherically relevant conditions i.e. 50 ppb NO2 and 50% RH. The formation rates of HONO were enhanced in presence of light for all the studied surfaces and are determined in the following order: 1.3·109 molecules cm-2 s-1 for borosilicate glass, 1.7·109 molecules cm-2 s-1 for bathroom cleaner, 1.0·1010 molecules cm-2 s-1 on alkaline detergent (floor cleaner), 1.3·1010 molecules cm-2 s-1 for white wall paint and 2.7·1010 molecules cm-2 s-1 for lacquer. These results highlight the potential of household chemicals, used for cleaning purposes to generate HONO indoors through light-enhanced NO2 heterogeneous reactions. The results obtained have been applied to predict the timely evolution of HONO in a real indoor environment using a dynamic mass balance model. A steady state mixing ratio of HONO has been estimated at 1.6 ppb assuming a contribution from glass, paint and lacquer and considering the photolysis of HONO as the most important loss process.

  6. Effects of the 2003 CAP Reform on Investments of Dutch Dairy Farms Simulations with a Household Production Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peerlings, J.H.M.; Ooms, D.L.

    2005-01-01

    This paper develops a non-separable household production model capable of analyzing the effects of the 2003 CAP reform, and especially EU farm payments, on individual Dutch dairy farms. Model results show that the 2003 CAP reform farm payments do not fully compensate the income loss caused by the

  7. CREDIT RATIONING OF FARM HOUSEHOLDS AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE IN THE RURAL AREAS OF CENTRAL SULAWESI, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunung Nuryartono

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false st1\\:*{behavior:url(#ieooui } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The agricultural sector provides the highest contribution to economic development in the Central Sulawesi Province, Indonesia. On average, the share of agriculture in the Product Domestic Regional Bruto (GRDP is more than 40% (2003. However, poverty is a widespread problem found in this area, as indicated by almost 46% of the total household are categorized as poor and most of them are farmers. Smallholders and poor farmers may perpetually be trapped in poverty due to lack of finance needed to undertake productive investment. This is indicated by lower rate of advance agricultural technology adoption, which results the productivity of some agricultural products in this area is lower compared to the national average.This paper addresses the question of whether greater access of financial services increase agricultural production. Specific research question addressed are as follow: (1 How many household have access to formal credit markets? (2 How many households are credit constrained? (3 What factors influence that households are credit constrained? (4 How does credit rationing influences agricultural production?As many studies have shown, many rural households lack access to either formal or informal credit institutions. In the rural areas of Central Sulawesi Province, particularly in the vicinity of the Lore Lindu National Park only 21.5% of the household have access to formal credits. The results also show that under certain conditions, only 18.1% of the households are not

  8. [Estimation of Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) productivity in households and public spaces in a dengue endemic city in Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcalá, Lucas; Quintero, Juliana; González-Uribe, Catalina; Brochero, Helena

    2015-01-01

    Aedes aegypti is a vector for the dengue virus in Colombia. Its productivity can be estimated using pupal counts. To determine Ae. aegypti productivity in households and public spaces in Girardot (Colombia) during both wet and dry seasons. The amount of Ae. aegypti pupae was evaluated in 20 randomly selected clusters in Girardot, each consisting of 100 households and public spaces. Inspections were performed during the rainy (February-May, 2011), and dry (August-September, 2011) seasons. House, container, Breteau, person and hectare pupae indices were estimated. During the rainy season households contributed 94% to the total number of pupae (n=7,098) while only 6% (n=482) were found in public spaces. In the dry season, 98% (n=9,138) of pupae were found in households and 2% (n=223), in public spaces. Low water-storage tanks and tanks for washing purposes provided >87% of pupae in households, whereas jars, tires and sinks contained most pupae in public spaces. High pupal densities were observed in public spaces during the rainy season and in streets and schools in the dry season. There were no significant differences in the index per person (rainy season=1.0; dry season=1.3) or per hectare (rainy season=0.96, dry season=0.45) between seasons. High Ae. aegypti pupal densities were found inside households in low water-storage tanks and tanks for washing purposes during both the dry and rainy seasons. Public spaces provided more aquatic habitats during the rainy season. Vector control strategies targeting these containers could allow a more rational use of resources and increase efficiency.

  9. EPHECT III: Health risk assessment of exposure to household consumer products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trantallidi, M; Dimitroulopoulou, C; Wolkoff, P; Kephalopoulos, S; Carrer, P

    2015-12-01

    In the framework of the EU EPHECT project (Emissions, Exposure Patterns and Health Effects of Consumer Products in the EU), irritative and respiratory effects were assessed in relation to acute (30-min) and long-term (24-h) inhalation exposure to key and emerging indoor air pollutants emitted during household use of selected consumer products. A detailed Health Risk Assessment (HRA) was performed for five selected pollutants of respiratory health relevance, namely acrolein, formaldehyde, naphthalene, d-limonene and α-pinene. For each pollutant, the Critical Exposure Limit (CEL) was compared to indoor air concentrations and exposure estimates for the use of 15 selected consumer products by two population groups (housekeepers and retired people) in the four geographical regions of Europe (North, West, South, East), which were derived previously based on microenvironmental modelling. For the present HRA, health-based CELs were derived for certain compounds in case indoor air quality guidelines were not available by the World Health Organization for end-points relevant to the current study. For each pollutant, the highest indoor air concentrations in each microenvironment and exposure estimates across home microenvironments during the day were lower than the corresponding acute and long-term CELs. However, considerable contributions, especially to acute exposures, were obtained in some cases, such as formaldehyde emissions resulting from single product use of a floor cleaning agent (82% CEL), a candle (10% CEL) and an electric air freshener (17% CEL). Regarding multiple product use, the case of 30-min formaldehyde exposure reaching 34% CEL when eight product classes were used across home microenvironments, i.e. all-purpose/kitchen/floor cleaning agents, furniture/floor polish, combustible/electric air fresheners, and perfume, needs to be highlighted. Such estimated values should be evaluated with caution, as these may be attributed to the exposure scenarios

  10. Conception of a heat storage system for household applications. Category: New product innovations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Thomas [Leuphana Univ. Lueneburg (Germany); Rammelberg, Holger U.; Roennebeck, Thomas [and others

    2012-07-01

    Almost 90% of the energy consumption of private households in Germany is used for heating. Thus, an efficient, sustainable and reliable heat management is one of the main challenges in the future. Heat storage will become a key technology when considering the daily, weekly, seasonal and unpredictable fluctuations of energy production with renewables. The storage of heat is much more volume- and energy-efficient as well as more economical than electricity storage. However, transport of heat over long distances is coupled with high losses, compared with electricity transport. Therefore, we propose the use of micro CHP in combination with volume-efficient and nearly loss-free heat storage to counteract electricity fluctuations. Focus of this contribution the conception of the large-scale project ''Thermal Battery'', funded by the European Union and the Federal State of Lower Saxony. The underlying principle is the utilization of reversible thermochemical reactions, such as dehydration and rehydration of salt hydrates for heat storage. The main goal is the development of a prototypical storage tank, which is capable of storing 80 kWh of heat with a system volume of less than 1 m{sup 3}. Importantly, the Vattenfall New Energy Services as a collaboration partner will support the development of an application-oriented heat storage device. This project is being carried out by an interdisciplinary team of engineers, chemists, physicists and environmental scientists.

  11. The amenity value of the climate. The household production function approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maddison, David

    2003-01-01

    A basic assumption of the hedonic technique is that there are no barriers to mobility that prevent prices changing to reflect the net benefits of a given location. But climate variables are undeviating over relatively large distances and the absence of a common language coupled with the existence of political boundaries may prevent the net advantages associated with a particular region from being eliminated. Apart from in a handful of countries, methods alternative to the hedonic approach may therefore be required to estimate the amenity value of climate. Adopting the household production function approach this paper undertakes a systematic examination of the role played by climate in determining consumption patters using data from 88 different countries. Given certain assumptions the paper then proceeds to calculate the constant utility change in the cost of living for a 2.5C increase in globally averaged mean temperature. It is determined that high latitude countries benefit from limited climate change whereas low latitude countries suffer significant losses

  12. Vigilance in industry: cosmetics and household cleaning products. Balance sheet of case report from 2005 to 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornfeld-Lecanu, S; Zajaczkowski, F; Dubourg, S; Martin, L; Lefort, S; Siest, S

    2010-12-01

    Unlike medicinal products, cosmetics are not subject to marketing authorization in France. Nevertheless, the Agence Francaise de Sécurité Sanitaire des Produits de Santé (AFSSAPS; French Agency for the Safety of Healthcare Products) has been working on the development of a cosmetovigilance system for several years, with the aim of establishing standard procedures for collecting adverse reactions to cosmetics from the manufacturers. To assess the incidence of skin reactions to cosmetics or household products. Unilever established its own 'vigilance' standard system in France in late 2003. This report describes the experience acquired from 2005 to 2007. Case reports were collected in compliance with a standard procedure. The cases were then analysed by the consultant dermatologist in accordance with a pharmacovigilance-based method (chronological criteria, clinical criteria, possible rechallenge test, patch tests). During the period 2005 to 2007, a total of 102,689 consumers contacted the consumer department, including 842 (0.82%) who reported skin reactions. After analysis of the collected data, 0.144 skin reaction cases per million units sold were found to be attributable to cosmetic or household products. The implementation of a structured vigilance system in the cosmetics and household products industry is an efficient tool for manufacturers, both for information purposes and for product improvement, as well as meeting the transparency requirements of health authorities and consumers. © 2010 The Author(s). Journal compilation © 2010 British Association of Dermatologists.

  13. Investigation of Household Hazardous Waste Production in Amirkola, Iran, in 2012-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdoliman Amouei

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: It is extremely important to recognize the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of this type of waste before any planning on them due to the lack of the prepared program in the field of household hazardous waste (HHW management in the country. This research has been done in Babol, Iran, in order to achieve this important goal. Materials and Methods: The cross-sectional study was carried out on the basis of cluster samplingamong150families of Amirkola, Iran, to determine the per capita and percentage of different types of HHW. Training items in the form of pamphlets and special disposal bags were given to the families for being familiar with the types of waste and collection the waste, respectively. Statistical analysis was performed with the use of SPSS version19 and to signify of mean data was used with one-way analysis of variance. Results: Average production of HHW was 75.6 kg a day, which contained almost 0.3% of municipal waste. The most important types of hazardous waste, including cleaners (60%, drugs (15.5%, toxic materials and chemicals (9.5%, electronics (8%, cosmetics (6.5%, sharp objects (1%, and pesticides (0.5%. Conclusion: This study showed that a high percentage of the amount of hazardous waste was allocated to the cleaners and medicines respectively. In this respect, the families were trained in order to reduce HHW in the source, to separate and recycle them. Moreover, it is also recommended to collect, transport and dispose of in accordance with health regulations.

  14. Food crop production, nutrient availability, and nutrient intakes in Bangladesh: exploring the agriculture-nutrition nexus with the 2010 Household Income and Expenditure Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, John L

    2014-12-01

    Systematic collection of national agricultural data has been neglected in many low- and middle-income countries for the past 20 years. Commonly conducted nationally representative household surveys collect substantial quantities of highly underutilized food crop production data. To demonstrate the potential usefulness of commonly available household survey databases for analyzing the agriculture-nutrition nexus. Using household data from the 2010 Bangladesh Household Income and Expenditure Survey, the role and significance of crop selection, area planted, yield, nutrient production, and the disposition of 34 food crops in affecting the adequacy of farming households' nutrient availability and nutrient intake status are explored. The adequacy of each farming household's available energy, vitamin A, calcium, iron, and zinc and households' apparent intakes and intake adequacies are estimated. Each household's total apparent nutrient intake adequacies are estimated, taking into account the amount of each crop that households consume from their own production, together with food purchased or obtained from other sources. Even though rice contains relatively small amounts of micronutrients, has relatively low nutrient density, and is a relatively poor source of nutrients compared with what other crops can produce on a given tract of land, because so much rice is produced in Bangladesh, it is the source of 90% of the total available energy, 85% of the zinc, 67% of the calcium, and 55% of the iron produced by the agricultural sector. The domination of agriculture and diet by rice is a major constraint to improving nutrition in Bangladesh. Simple examples of how minor changes in the five most common cropping patterns could improve farming households' nutritional status are provided. Household surveys' agricultural modules can provide a useful tool for better understanding national nutrient production realities and possibilities.

  15. Arsenic removal by discontinuous ZVI two steps system for drinking water production at household scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casentini, Barbara; Falcione, Fabiano Teo; Amalfitano, Stefano; Fazi, Stefano; Rossetti, Simona

    2016-12-01

    Different countries in Europe still suffer of elevated arsenic (As) concentration in groundwaters used for human consumption. In the case of households not connected to the distribution system, decentralized water supply systems, such as Point of Use (POU) and Point of Entry (POE), offer a direct benefit for the consumers. Field scale ex-situ treatment systems based on metallic iron (ZVI) are already available for the production of reduced volumes of drinking water in remote areas (village scale). To address drinking water needs at larger scale, we designed a pilot unit able to produce an elevated daily volume of water for human consumption. We tested the long-term As removal efficiency of a two steps ZVI treatment unit for the production of 400 L/day clean water based on the combination of ZVI corrosion process with sedimentation and retention of freshly formed Fe precipitates. The system treated 100 μg/L As(V)-contaminated oxic groundwater in a discontinuous operation mode at a flow rate of 1 L/min for 31 days. Final removal was 77-96% and the most performing step was aeration/sedimentation (A/S) tank with a 60-94% efficiency. Arsenic in the outflow slightly exceeded the drinking water limit of 10 μg/L only after 6000 L treated and Fe concentration was always below 0.2 mg/L. Under proposed operating conditions ZVI passivation readily occurred and, as a consequence, Fe production sharply decreased. Arsenic mobility attached to particulate was 13-60% after ZVI column and 37-100% after A/S tank. Uniform amorphous cluster of Fe nanoparticles (100 nm) formed during aeration drove As removal process with an adsorption capacity corresponding to 20.5 mg As /g Fe . Research studies often focus only on chemico-physical aspects disregarding the importance of biological processes that may co-occur and interfere with ZVI corrosion, As removal and safe water production. We explored the microbial transport dynamics by flow cytometry, proved as a suitable tool to

  16. FTC advertising substantiation program. Household products manufacturers. Documentation of Toshiba America, Inc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    The report contains documentation in support of claims that the Toshiba Microwave Oven can cook any and all types of food satisfactorily with a 75% savings in energy usage and cost, regardless of the size of a household. (Portions of this document are not fully legible) (Color illustrations reproduced in black and white)

  17. FTC advertising substantiation program. Household products manufacturers. Documentation of Hakuhodo Advertising America, Inc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    The report contains documentation in support of claims that the Toshiba Microwave Oven can cook any and all types of food satisfactorily with a 75% savings in energy usage and cost, regardless of the size of a household. (Portions of this document are not fully legible)

  18. UTILIZATION OF SECONDARY COMBUSTIBLE POWER RESOURCES FOR PRODUCTION OF MUNICIPAL AND HOUSEHOLD FUEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Berezovsky

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows an advantage to utilize secondary power resources (lignin, wastes of fine coal with its dressing, sawdust in mixture with local types of fuel (peat in order to fulfill power supply purpose, namely: obtaining hot water in boilers of small capacity and obtaining household fuel.

  19. Wives' Relative Income Production and Household Male Dominance: Examining Violence among Asian American Enduring Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Grace H.; Tucker, M. Belinda; Takeuchi, David

    2008-01-01

    This study integrates relative resource theory and cultural perspectives on husband-to-wife authority to examine male-to-female physical violence reported by Asian American wives in the National Latino and Asian American Survey. Findings indicated that the association between marital violence and male household dominance is complicated by women's…

  20. Brucellosis in cattle and micro-scale spatial variability of pastoral household income from dairy production in south western Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nina, Pius Mbuya; Mugisha, Samuel; Leirs, Herwig; Basuta, Gilbert Isabirye; Van Damme, Patrick

    2017-11-01

    Brucellosis in cattle and humans has received world-wide research attention as a neglected and re-emerging zoonotic disease with many routes of transmission. Studies of brucellosis in Uganda have emphasized occupational exposures and also revealed variations in prevalence levels by region and cattle production systems. To date, research linking pastoralist household income from dairy production to brucellosis and its transmission risk pathways do not exist in Uganda. We assessed whether spatial differences in unit milk prices can be explained by brucellosis prevalence in cattle along a distance gradient from Lake Mburo National Park in Uganda. Semi-structured interviews administered to 366 randomly selected household heads were supplemented with serological data on brucellosis in cattle. Statistical analysis included Pearson correlation test, multiple regression and analysis of variance (ANOVA) using SPSS version 17. Serological results showed that 44% of cattle blood samples were sero-positive for brucellosis. The results obtained from interviews put the statistical mean of household reported cattle abortions at 5.39 (5.08-5.70 at 95% CI, n=366). Post-hoc analysis of variance revealed that both sero-positive cattle and reported cattle abortions significantly were much lower when moving outwards from the park boundary (pbrucellosis management practices at the nexus of wildlife and livestock in Uganda. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The use of household cleaning products during pregnancy and lower respiratory tract infections and wheezing during early life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Lidia; Zock, Jan Paul; Carsin, Anne Elie; Fernandez-Somoano, Ana; Esplugues, Ana; Santa-Marina, Loreto; Tardón, Adonina; Ballester, Ferran; Basterrechea, Mikel; Sunyer, Jordi

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate the effects of household use of cleaning products during pregnancy on infant wheezing and lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI). In four prospective Spanish birth cohorts (n = 2,292), pregnant women reported the use of household cleaning products. When infants were 12-18 months old, current cleaning product use and infant's wheezing and LRTI were reported. Cohort-specific associations between the use of specific products and respiratory outcomes were evaluated using multivariable regression analyses and estimates were combined using random-effects meta-analyses. The period prevalence of LRTI was higher when sprays (combined odds ratio (OR) = 1.29; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.04-1.59) or air fresheners (OR = 1.29; CI 1.03-1.63) were used during pregnancy. The odds of wheezing increased with spray (OR = 1.37; CI 1.10-1.69) and solvent (OR = 1.30; CI 1.03-1.62) use. The associations between spray and air freshener use during pregnancy and both outcomes remained apparent when these products were not used after pregnancy. Nevertheless, the estimates were higher when post-natal exposure was included. The use of cleaning sprays, air fresheners and solvents during pregnancy may increase the risk of wheezing and infections in the offspring.

  2. Rural household fuel production and consumption in Ethiopia: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mekonnen, A.

    1997-01-01

    Community forestry in Ethiopia have been implemented using the top-down approach which may have contributed to the failure of most of these projects. The community plantations practically belonged to the government and the labour contribution of the local communities in the establishment of the plantations was mainly in exchange for wages paid in kind (food-for-work) largely financed by the United Nations/World Food Program (UN-WFP). We use the contingent valuation method to examine the determinants of the value of community forestry in rural Ethiopia, when the plantations are established, managed and used by the communities themselves. The value elicitation format used is discrete question with open-ended follow-up which is closer to the market scenario our respondents are familiar with compared, for example, to the single discrete choice format. Unlike most other studies, we use a Tobit model with sample selection in the empirical analysis of the bid function to look into the effect of excluding invalid responses (protest zeros, outliers and missing bids) from the analysis. We find that exclusion of invalid responses would lead to sample selection bias. One implication of such a bias is that mean WTP values computed using data that does not include households with invalid responses should be adjusted downwards before they are used for benefit aggregation. The analysis of the bid function shows that household size, household income, distance of homestead to proposed place of plantation, number of trees owned and sex of household head are significant variables that explain willingness to pay. We also find that there are significant differences in willingness to pay across sites 50 refs, 4 tabs

  3. Rural household fuel production and consumption in Ethiopia: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mekonnen, A.

    1997-11-01

    Community forestry in Ethiopia have been implemented using the top-down approach which may have contributed to the failure of most of these projects. The community plantations practically belonged to the government and the labour contribution of the local communities in the establishment of the plantations was mainly in exchange for wages paid in kind (food-for-work) largely financed by the United Nations/World Food Program (UN-WFP). We use the contingent valuation method to examine the determinants of the value of community forestry in rural Ethiopia, when the plantations are established, managed and used by the communities themselves. The value elicitation format used is discrete question with open-ended follow-up which is closer to the market scenario our respondents are familiar with compared, for example, to the single discrete choice format. Unlike most other studies, we use a Tobit model with sample selection in the empirical analysis of the bid function to look into the effect of excluding invalid responses (protest zeros, outliers and missing bids) from the analysis. We find that exclusion of invalid responses would lead to sample selection bias. One implication of such a bias is that mean WTP values computed using data that does not include households with invalid responses should be adjusted downwards before they are used for benefit aggregation. The analysis of the bid function shows that household size, household income, distance of homestead to proposed place of plantation, number of trees owned and sex of household head are significant variables that explain willingness to pay. We also find that there are significant differences in willingness to pay across sites 50 refs, 4 tabs

  4. Three essays on the production and investment decisions of households living in rural India

    OpenAIRE

    Gehrke, Esther

    2016-01-01

    In order to end poverty by 2030, the declared goal of the United Nations, a better understanding is needed which policies help poor households to escape poverty and how to end its inter-generational transmission. Since the Millennium Declaration in September 2000, and the adoption of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), the delivery of basic social services, such as education, health, water supply and sanitation, has become the central focus of international development assistance. ...

  5. Household Scribes and the Production of Literary Manuscripts in Early Modern England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcy L. North

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In early modern English households, literate servants such as tutors, chaplains, stewards, secretaries, and ladies in waiting were well positioned to assist their employers in the assembly and copying of verse miscellanies, anthologies, and other literary manuscripts. Looking at several literary manuscripts, some with known servant contributions and others that suggest the participation of household retainers, the essay explores the likelihood that literate servants often performed scribal tasks above and beyond their formal job descriptions, even serving as scribe for their employers’ hobbies and leisure activities. Although copying was an arduous task, servants appear to have viewed these duties not simply as part of their job but also as gift exchanges, as appeals for promotion or patronage, and as a means by which they might gain access to manuscript literature and literary circles. Studies of early modern letter writing have called attention to many of the copy tasks of literate household servants, but the integral role of literate servants in the collection, copying, and preservation of literary manuscripts deserves much more attention.

  6. Rural household biomass fuel production and consumption in Ethiopia: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mekonnen, A. [Addis Ababa Univ. (Ethiopia). Dept. of Economics and Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden)

    1999-04-01

    Over 90 percent of energy consumption in Ethiopia comes from biomass fuels and this pattern is a major cause of land degradation and deforestation in the country. This paper examines biomass fuel collection and consumption behaviour of a sample of rural households in Ethiopia. We use a non-separable agricultural household model to take into account imperfections in, or absence of, markets for fuel and labour used in collection. The method of instrumental variables (2SLS) is used in the estimation of demand functions to take care of endogeneity of virtual (shadow) fuel prices and wages. Negative own-price elasticities indicate advantages of forest policies that can reduce fuel collection time and make more time available for other activities. The results also suggest that fuel choice and mix are influenced by scarcity which indicate a possibility of policy interventions directed at reducing the relative price of wood and encouraging increased dung use as fertilizer and hence reduced land degradation. While income elasticities of demand give indications of increasing viability of such interventions with growth, the absence of evidence of substitutability and the effects of household resource endowment indicate the importance of cooking habits and culture 36 refs, 3 tabs

  7. Socio-ecological costs of Amazon nut and timber production at community household forests in the Bolivian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano, Marlene; Mohren, Frits; Ascarrunz, Nataly; Dressler, Wolfram; Peña-Claros, Marielos

    2017-01-01

    The Bolivian Amazon holds a complex configuration of people and forested landscapes in which communities hold secure tenure rights over a rich ecosystem offering a range of livelihood income opportunities. A large share of this income is derived from Amazon nut (Bertholletia excelsa). Many communities also have long-standing experience with community timber management plans. However, livelihood needs and desires for better living conditions may continue to place these resources under considerable stress as income needs and opportunities intensify and diversify. We aim to identify the socioeconomic and biophysical factors determining the income from forests, husbandry, off-farm and two keystone forest products (i.e., Amazon nut and timber) in the Bolivian Amazon region. We used structural equation modelling tools to account for the complex inter-relationships between socioeconomic and biophysical factors in predicting each source of income. The potential exists to increase incomes from existing livelihood activities in ways that reduce dependency upon forest resources. For example, changes in off-farm income sources can act to increase or decrease forest incomes. Market accessibility, social, financial, and natural and physical assets determined the amount of income community households could derive from Amazon nut and timber. Factors related to community households' local ecological knowledge, such as the number of non-timber forest products harvested and the number of management practices applied to enhance Amazon nut production, defined the amount of income these households could derive from Amazon nut and timber, respectively. The (inter) relationships found among socioeconomic and biophysical factors over income shed light on ways to improve forest-dependent livelihoods in the Bolivian Amazon. We believe that our analysis could be applicable to other contexts throughout the tropics as well.

  8. 9708 INTRAHOUSEHOLD ALLOCATION, HOUSEHOLD HEADSHIP ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mimi

    agricultural production, education, healthcare and other household needs [17]. ... to various assets within the household depends on age, gender and power ..... Omilola B Patterns and Trends of Child and Maternal Nutrition Inequalities in.

  9. Indoor Secondary Pollutants from Household Product Emissions inthe Presence of Ozone: A Bench-Scale Chamber Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Destaillats, Hugo; Lunden, Melissa M.; Singer, Brett C.; Coleman,Beverly K.; Hodgson, Alfred T.; Weschler, Charles J.; Nazaroff, William W.

    2005-10-01

    Ozone-driven chemistry is a major source of indoor secondary pollutants of health concern. This study investigates secondary air pollutants formed from reactions between constituents of household products and ozone. Gas-phase product emissions were introduced along with ozone at constant rates into a 198-L Teflon-lined reaction chamber. Gas-phase concentrations of reactive terpenoids and oxidation products were measured. Formaldehyde was a predominant oxidation byproduct for the three studied products, with yields under most conditions of 20-30% with respect to ozone consumed. Acetaldehyde, acetone, glycolaldehyde, formic acid and acetic acid were each also detected for two or three of the products. Immediately upon mixing of reactants, a scanning mobility particle sizer detected particle nucleation events that were followed by a significant degree of ultrafine particle growth. The production of secondary gaseous pollutants and particles depended primarily on the ozone level and was influenced by other parameters such as the air-exchange rate. Hydroxyl radical concentrations in the range 0.04-200 x 10{sup 5} molecules cm{sup -3} were measured. OH concentrations were observed to vary strongly with residual ozone level in the chamber, which was in the range 1-25 ppb, as is consistent with expectations from a simplified kinetic model. In a separate test, we exposed the dry residue of two products to ozone in the chamber and observed the formation of gas-phase and particle-phase secondary oxidation products.

  10. Household Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, John

    2006-01-01

    The welfare benefits of financial markets depend in large part on how effectively households use these markets. The study of household finance is challenging because household behavior is difficult to measure accurately, and because households face constraints that are not captured by textbook models, including fixed costs, uninsurable income risk, borrowing constraints, and contracts that are non-neutral with respect to inflation. Evidence on participation, diversification, and the exercise ...

  11. Human and Environmental Toxicity of Sodium Lauryl Sulfate (SLS): Evidence for Safe Use in Household Cleaning Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondi, Cara Am; Marks, Julia L; Wroblewski, Lauren B; Raatikainen, Heidi S; Lenox, Shannon R; Gebhardt, Kay E

    2015-01-01

    Environmental chemical exposure is a major concern for consumers of packaged goods. The complexity of chemical nomenclature and wide availability of scientific research provide detailed information but lends itself to misinterpretation by the lay person. For the surfactant sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), this has resulted in a misunderstanding of the environmental health impact of the chemical and statements in the media that are not scientifically supported. This review demonstrates how scientific works can be misinterpreted and used in a manner that was not intended by the authors, while simultaneously providing insight into the true environmental health impact of SLS. SLS is an anionic surfactant commonly used in consumer household cleaning products. For decades, this chemical has been developing a negative reputation with consumers because of inaccurate interpretations of the scientific literature and confusion between SLS and chemicals with similar names. Here, we review the human and environmental toxicity profiles of SLS and demonstrate that it is safe for use in consumer household cleaning products.

  12. Life cycle assessment of biogas production in small-scale household digesters in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vu, T.K.V.; Vu, D.Q.; Jensen, Lars Stoumann

    2015-01-01

    to transport, and the loss of biogas as a result of cracks and the intentional release of excess biogas. In this study, life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology was used to assess the environmental impacts associated with biogas digesters in Vietnam. Handling 1,000 kg of liquid manure and 100 kg of solid manure......Small-scale household digesters have been promoted across Asia as a sustainable way of handling manure. The major advantages are that they produce biogas and reduce odor. However their disadvantages include the low recycling of nutrients, because digestate is dilute and therefore difficult...... in a system with a biogas digester reduced the impact potential from 4.4 kg carbon dioxide (CO 2) equivalents to 3.2 kg CO2 equivalents compared with traditional manure management. However, this advantage could easily be compromised if digester construction is considered in the LCA or in situations where...

  13. Microbiological Hazards of Household Toilets: Droplet Production and the Fate of Residual Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerba, Charles P.; Wallis, Craig; Melnick, Joseph L.

    1975-01-01

    Large numbers of bacteria and viruses when seeded into household toilets were shown to remain in the bowl after flushing, and even continual flushing could not remove a persistent fraction. This was found to be due to the adsorption of the organisms to the porcelain surfaces of the bowl, with gradual elution occurring after each flush. Droplets produced by flushing toilets were found to harbor both bacteria and viruses which had been seeded. The detection of bacteria and viruses falling out onto surfaces in bathrooms after flushing indicated that they remain airborne long enough to settle on surface throughout the bathroom. Thus, there is a possibility that a person may acquire an infection from an aerosol produced by a toilet. PMID:169732

  14. [Carbon balance of household production system in the transition zone from the Loess Plateau to the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chao Chao; Gao, Xiao Ye; Hou, Fu Jiang

    2017-10-01

    The transition zone from the Loess Plateau to the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is one of the regions with most dramatic changes in agricultural production mode and most sensitive response to the carbon balance effect. This paper analyzed the carbon balance of the agriculture system along the altitude gradient in Tongwei, Weiyuan and Xiahe counties. The results showed that with the increase of altitude, the carbon emission, carbon fixation and carbon sink capacity of crops per unit area decreased accordingly, while the average carbon emission, carbon fixation and carbon source capacity of each household in livestock system increased. The integrated crop-livestock production system changed from carbon sink to carbon source. The average carbon emission of each household rose with altitude, but the carbon fixation was the opposite. The change of percentage ofhousehold in the transition zone from the Loess Plateau to the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau with carbon balance could be fitted with Logistic equation. In the crop system of Tongwei, Weiyuan and Xiahe with the altitude increase, carbon emission at the inflection point where the household percentage accounted for 50.0% was 1491, 857 and 376 kg CE·household -1 , and carbon fixation was 6187, 3872 and 778 kg CE·household -1 , respectively. For the livestock system, carbon emission was 2218, 3725 and 49511 kg CE·household -1 , and carbon fixation was 138, 230 and 2706 kg CE·household -1 , respectively. For the integrated crop-livestock system, carbon emission was 3615, 4583 and 49918 kg CE·household -1 , and carbon fixation was 6289, 4113 and 3819 kg CE·household -1 , respectively, which could be the key point for the regulation of regional carbon balance.

  15. Technical assistance and seasonality in the diet and production of dairy herds in household agriculture of Western Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Cesar dos Reis Tinini

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to characterize the food sources, as well as the composition and quality of milk obtained from household farms of western Paraná State (Brazil with and without technical assistance during the different seasons. For such, 24 properties were selected, 12 of which only received assistance and technical support. Four milk samples were taken (summer, autumn, winter and spring to assess the physicochemical composition, somatic cell count and total bacterial count and feed supplied to the animals to assess the chemical composition (crude protein, ash, dry matter and neutral detergent fiber. The data were analyzed in a completely randomized design with a 2 × 4 factorial arrangement; the first factor was the presence and absence of technical assistance and the second factor was the four seasons of the year. Due to the dairy tradition of properties in the region, technical assistance had no significant effects on the health and nutritional quality of food, the number of animals, the production, or total bacterial count, which suffered oscillations only depending on the seasons of the year. However, the presence of assistance contributed to reducing somatic cell counts of milk produced and marketed. The technical assistance does not affect the quality of forages and concentrates used or the milk composition; however, it improves the sanitary quality of the milk produced throughout the four seasons of the year in household farms of western Paraná.

  16. Comparison of household consumption and regional production approaches to assess urban energy use and implications for policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baynes, Timothy; Lenzen, Manfred; Steinberger, Julia K.; Bai Xuemei

    2011-01-01

    Assessment of urban energy use may proceed by a number of methods. Here we derive an energy account from local statistics, and compare them with an input output (IO) analysis as applied to Melbourne, Australia. These approaches highlight different aspects of urban energy use and comparable outputs are presented together to assess consistency, to identify complementarities and discuss the insight each approach brings to understanding urban energy. The IO method captures the direct and embodied primary energy requirements of local household expenditure (235.8 GJ/capita/year) while the regional assessment more directly accounts for local production activity (258.1 GJ/capita/year). The parity of these results is unexpected for a developed city with a strong tertiary sector. Sectoral detail reveals differences between the primary energy required by Melbourne's economic structure and that ultimately required through the full supply chain relating to household expenditure. This is accompanied by an IO analysis of the geography of Melbourne's 'energy catchment'. It is suggested that the IO consumption and regional production approaches have particular relevance to policies aimed at consumption behaviour and economic (re)structuring, respectively. Their complementarity further suggests that a combined analysis would be valuable in understanding urban energy futures and economic transitions elsewhere. - Highlights: → We compare an IO approach and a regional assessment of an urban energy use case. → Unusually, regional assessment of the primary energy use exceeds that from IO. → Sectoral and geographical detail reveals the urban consumption/production character. → We discuss the relative merits and policy utility of the different methods. → A combined approach is recommended for urban energy and economic transitions.

  17. Life Cycle Assessment of Biogas Production in Small-scale Household Digesters in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. K. V. Vu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Small-scale household digesters have been promoted across Asia as a sustainable way of handling manure. The major advantages are that they produce biogas and reduce odor. However their disadvantages include the low recycling of nutrients, because digestate is dilute and therefore difficult to transport, and the loss of biogas as a result of cracks and the intentional release of excess biogas. In this study, life cycle assessment (LCA methodology was used to assess the environmental impacts associated with biogas digesters in Vietnam. Handling 1,000 kg of liquid manure and 100 kg of solid manure in a system with a biogas digester reduced the impact potential from 4.4 kg carbon dioxide (CO2 equivalents to 3.2 kg CO2 equivalents compared with traditional manure management. However, this advantage could easily be compromised if digester construction is considered in the LCA or in situations where there is an excess of biogas which is intentionally released. A sensitivity analysis showed that biogas digesters could be a means of reducing global warming if methane emissions can be kept low. In terms of eutrophication, farms with biogas digesters had 3 to 4 times greater impacts. In order to make biogas digesters sustainable, methods for recycling digestates are urgently required.

  18. Skin sensitisation quantitative risk assessment (QRA) based on aggregate dermal exposure to methylisothiazolinone in personal care and household cleaning products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezendam, J; Bokkers, B G H; Bil, W; Delmaar, J E

    2018-02-01

    Contact allergy to preservatives is an important public health problem. Ideally, new substances should be evaluated for the risk on skin sensitisation before market entry, for example by using a quantitative risk assessment (QRA) as developed for fragrances. As a proof-of-concept, this QRA was applied to the preservative methylisothiazolinone (MI), a common cause of contact allergy. MI is used in different consumer products, including personal care products (PCPs) and household cleaning products (HCPs). Aggregate exposure to MI in PCPs and HCPs was therefore assessed with the Probabilistic Aggregated Consumer Exposure Model (PACEM). Two exposure scenarios were evaluated: scenario 1 calculated aggregate exposure on actual MI product concentrations before the restricted use in PCPs and scenario 2 calculated aggregate exposure using the restrictions for MI in PCPs. The QRA for MI showed that in scenarios 1 and 2, the proportion of the population at risk for skin sensitisation is 0.7% and 0.5%, respectively. The restricted use of MI in PCPs does not seem very effective in lowering the risk on skin sensitization. To conclude, it is important to consider aggregate exposure from the most important consumer products into consideration in the risk assessment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Biomass availability, energy consumption and biochar production in rural households of Western Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres-Rojas, Dorisel; Lehmann, Johannes; Hobbs, Peter; Joseph, Stephen; Neufeldt, Henry

    2011-01-01

    Pyrolytic cook stoves in smallholder farms may require different biomass supply than traditional bioenergy approaches. Therefore, we carried out an on-farm assessment of the energy consumption for food preparation, the biomass availability relevant to conventional and pyrolytic cook stoves, and the potential biochar generation in rural households of western Kenya. Biomass availability for pyrolysis varied widely from 0.7 to 12.4 Mg ha -1 y -1 with an average of 4.3 Mg ha -1 y -1 , across all 50 studied farms. Farms with high soil fertility that were recently converted to agriculture from forest had the highest variability (CV = 83%), which was a result of the wide range of farm sizes and feedstock types in the farms. Biomass variability was two times lower for farms with low than high soil fertility (CV = 37%). The reduction in variability is a direct consequence of the soil quality, coupled with farm size and feedstock type. The total wood energy available in the farms (5.3 GJ capita -1 y -1 ) was not sufficient to meet the current cooking energy needs using conventional combustion stoves, but may be sufficient for improved combustion stoves depending on their energy efficiency. However, the biomass that is usable in pyrolytic cook stoves including crop residues, shrub and tree litter can provide 17.2 GJ capita -1 y -1 of energy for cooking, which is well above the current average cooking energy consumption of 10.5 GJ capita -1 y -1 . The introduction of a first-generation pyrolytic cook stove reduced wood energy consumption by 27% while producing an average of 0.46 Mg ha -1 y -1 of biochar. -- Highlights: → Total energy from wood fuel available on smallholder farms in Western Kenya was not sufficient to meet current cooking energy needs using conventional combustion stoves, but may be sufficient for improved combustion stoves. → Feedstock options acceptable to pyrolysis cook stoves which includes crop residues, exceeded the energy needs required for daily

  20. Syngas obtained by microwave pyrolysis of household wastes as feedstock for polyhydroxyalkanoate production in Rhodospirillum rubrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revelles, Olga; Beneroso, Daniel; Menéndez, J Angel; Arenillas, Ana; García, J Luis; Prieto, M Auxiliadora

    2017-11-01

    The massive production of urban and agricultural wastes has promoted a clear need for alternative processes of disposal and waste management. The potential use of municipal solid wastes (MSW) as feedstock for the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) by a process known as syngas fermentation is considered herein as an attractive bio-economic strategy to reduce these wastes. In this work, we have evaluated the potential of Rhodospirillum rubrum as microbial cell factory for the synthesis of PHA from syngas produced by microwave pyrolysis of the MSW organic fraction from a European city (Seville). Growth rate, uptake rate, biomass yield and PHA production from syngas in R. rubrum have been analysed. The results revealed the strong robustness of this syngas fermentation where the purity of the syngas is not a critical constraint for PHA production. Microwave-induced pyrolysis is a tangible alternative to standard pyrolysis, because it can reduce cost in terms of energy and time as well as increase syngas production, providing a satisfactory PHA yield. © 2016 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  1. Some probiotic characteristics of a fermented milk product based on microbiota of "Tibetan kefir grains" cultivated in Ukrainian household.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukhtyn, Mykola; Vichko, Olena; Horyuk, Yulia; Shved, Olga; Novikov, Volodymyr

    2018-01-01

    The article describes some probiotic properties of fermented product made of natural association of Tibetan kefir grains cultivated in Ukrainian household (UTKG); also, the effect of UTKG microbiota on the growth of pathogenic microbiota and sensitivity to antibiotics was studied. It was found that the test-cultures of oppurtunistic pathogens ( Staphylococcus aureus , Bacillus mesentericus , and Mycobacterium luteum ) were sensitive; bacteriostatic zone of the test-culture ranged from 21 to 25 mm, and highly sensitive ( Proteus vulgaris and Aspergillus niger ) b acteriostatic zone exceeded 25 mm to probiotic bacteria of fermented product. UTKG microbiota is also moderately sensitive to multiple antibiotics that allows defining the obtained fermented milk product as functional with therapeutic properties. During the study of the influence of different NaCl and bile concentrations on acid-activity of UTKG it was found that active acid formation occurred at the concentrations up to 4% NaCl in cultivation medium (boiled milk) and at 20% bile and 0.45% phenol. It proves microbial association to be capable of withstanding adverse gastrointestinal conditions and continue developing.

  2. Household production of sorghum beer in Benin: technological and socio-economic aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kayodé, A.P.P.; Hounhouigan, J.D.; Nout, M.J.R.; Niehof, A.

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated the sorghum brewing microenterprises in Benin with emphasis on the beer quality, the social significance of the product as well as the income generated. Tchoukoutou, the Benin opaque sorghum beer, has important social functions as it fosters the cooperative spirit and remains an

  3. Household nutrition and income impacts of using dairy technologies in mixed crop-livestock production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gunte, Kebebe

    2017-01-01

    Technologies like improved breeds of dairy cows and improved forages have the potential to significantly increase dairy cow productivity and farmers' profits in developing countries. However, adoption of such technologies has been low in Ethiopia, despite numerous efforts to disseminate the

  4. Critical parameters in the production of ceramic pot filters for household water treatment in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soppe, A I A; Heijman, S G J; Gensburger, I; Shantz, A; van Halem, D; Kroesbergen, J; Wubbels, G H; Smeets, P W M H

    2015-06-01

    The need to improve the access to safe water is generally recognized for the benefit of public health in developing countries. This study's objective was to identify critical parameters which are essential for improving the performance of ceramic pot filters (CPFs) as a point-of-use water treatment system. Defining critical production parameters was also relevant to confirm that CPFs with high-flow rates may have the same disinfection capacity as pots with normal flow rates. A pilot unit was built in Cambodia to produce CPFs under controlled and constant conditions. Pots were manufactured from a mixture of clay, laterite and rice husk in a small-scale, gas-fired, temperature-controlled kiln and tested for flow rate, removal efficiency of bacteria and material strength. Flow rate can be increased by increasing pore sizes and by increasing porosity. Pore sizes were increased by using larger rice husk particles and porosity was increased with larger proportions of rice husk in the clay mixture. The main conclusions: larger pore size decreases the removal efficiency of bacteria; higher porosity does not affect the removal efficiency of bacteria, but does influence the strength of pots; flow rates of CPFs can be raised to 10-20 L/hour without a significant decrease in bacterial removal efficiency.

  5. Evaluation of Alternative Methods for Testing the Bioefficacy of Household Ambient Insecticide Products Against Aedes albopictus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassini, Rudi; Scremin, Mara; Contiero, Barbara; Drago, Andrea; Vettorato, Christian; Marcer, Federica; di Regalbono, Antonio Frangipane

    2016-06-01

    Ambient insecticides are receiving increasing attention in many developed countries because of their value in reducing mosquito nuisance. As required by the European Union Biocidal Products Regulation 528/2012, these devices require appropriate testing of their efficacy, which is based on estimating the knockdown and mortality rates of free-flying (free) mosquitoes in a test room. However, evaluations using free mosquitoes present many complexities. The performances of 6 alternative methods with mosquitoes held in 2 different cage designs (steel wire and gauze/plastic) with and without an operating fan for air circulation were monitored in a test room through a closed-circuit television system and were compared with the currently recommended method using free mosquitoes. Results for caged mosquitoes without a fan showed a clearly delayed knockdown effect, whereas outcomes for caged mosquitoes with a fan recorded higher mortality at 24 h, compared to free mosquitoes. Among the 6 methods, cages made of gauze and plastic operating with fan wind speed at 2.5-2.8 m/sec was the only method without a significant difference in results for free mosquitoes, and therefore appears as the best alternative to assess knockdown by ambient insecticides accurately.

  6. Discriminant validity, responsiveness and reliability of the arthritis-specific Work Productivity Survey assessing workplace and household productivity in patients with psoriatic arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The novel arthritis-specific Work Productivity Survey (WPS) was developed to estimate patient productivity limitations associated with arthritis within and outside the home, which is an unmet need in psoriatic arthritis (PsA). The WPS has been validated in rheumatoid arthritis. This report assesses the discriminant validity, responsiveness and reliability of the WPS in adult-onset PsA. Methods Psychometric properties were assessed using data from the RAPID-PsA trial (NCT01087788) investigating certolizumab pegol (CZP) efficacy and safety in PsA. WPS was completed at baseline and every 4 weeks until Week 24. Validity was evaluated at baseline via known-groups defined using first and third quartiles of patients’ Disease Activity Score 28 based on C-reactive protein (DAS28(CRP)), Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index (HAQ-DI), Short Form-36 (SF-36) items and PsA Quality of Life (PsAQoL) scores. Responsiveness and reliability were assessed by comparing WPS mean changes at Week 12 in American College of Rheumatology 20% improvement criteria (ACR20) or HAQ-DI Minimal Clinically Important Difference (MCID) 0.3 responders versus non-responders, as well as using standardized response means (SRM). All comparisons were conducted on the observed cases in the Randomized Set, regardless of the randomization group, using a non-parametric bootstrap-t method. Results Compared with patients with a better health state, patients with a worse health state had on average 2 to 6 times more household work days lost, more days with reduced household productivity, more days missed of family/social/leisure activities, more days with outside help hired and a significantly higher interference of arthritis per month. Among employed patients, those with a worse health state had 2 to 4 times more workplace days lost, more days with patient workplace productivity reduced, and a significantly higher interference of arthritis on patient workplace productivity versus

  7. DGT Passive Sampling for Quantitative in Situ Measurements of Compounds from Household and Personal Care Products in Waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Li, Yanying; Chen, Chang-Er; Sweetman, Andrew J; Zhang, Hao; Jones, Kevin C

    2017-11-21

    Widespread use of organic chemicals in household and personal care products (HPCPs) and their discharge into aquatic systems means reliable, robust techniques to monitor environmental concentrations are needed. The passive sampling approach of diffusive gradients in thin-films (DGT) is developed here and demonstrated to provide in situ quantitative and time-weighted average (TWA) measurement of these chemicals in waters. The novel technique is developed for HPCPs, including preservatives, antioxidants and disinfectants, by evaluating the performance of different binding agents. Ultrasonic extraction of binding gels in acetonitrile gave good and consistent recoveries for all test chemicals. Uptake by DGT with HLB (hydrophilic-lipophilic-balanced) as the binding agent was relatively independent of pH (3.5-9.5), ionic strength (0.001-0.1 M) and dissolved organic matter (0-20 mg L -1 ), making it suitable for applications across a wide range of environments. Deployment time and diffusion layer thickness dependence experiments confirmed DGT accumulated chemicals masses are consistent with theoretical predictions. The technique was further tested and applied in the influent and effluent of a wastewater treatment plant. Results were compared with conventional grab-sampling and 24-h-composited samples from autosamplers. DGT provided TWA concentrations over up to 18 days deployment, with minimal effects from biofouling or the diffusive boundary layer. The field application demonstrated advantages of the DGT technique: it gives in situ analyte preconcentration in a simple matrix, with more quantitative measurement of the HPCP analytes.

  8. Antibacterials in Household Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and residue build-up has resulted in detectable contamination of the environment—the consequences of which are not yet fully understood. It has been recovered from lake sediment, rivers, streams, wastewater, seawater, and has been found in ...

  9. Household Products Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This database links over 4,000 consumer brands to health effects from Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) provided by the manufacturers and allows scientists and...

  10. Rural Households

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Ole

    2013-01-01

    dependency on state institutions under the Vietnamese transition to a market society. It discusses present poverty definitions and measures by comparing survey data with the formal economic categorization of rural households. Both the overall characteristics of rural society and qualitative data indicate...... that the reforms have set in motion a process by which a mix of new opportunities and increasing pressures creates new winners and losers. Second, the chapter draws attention to the nature of interactions between households, local communities and the Vietnamese state. This shows both potentials and limitations...

  11. Biohydrogen production from household solid waste (HSW) at extreme-thermophilic temperature (70 degrees C) - Influence of pH and acetate concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Dawei; Min, Booki; Angelidaki, Irini

    2008-01-01

    Hydrogen production from household solid waste (HSW) was performed via dark fermentation by using an extreme-thermophilic mixed culture, and the effect of pH and acetate on the biohydrogen production was investigated. The highest hydrogen production yield was 257 +/- 25 mL/gVS(added) at the optimum...... pH of 7.0. Acetate was proved to be inhibiting the dark fermentation process at neutral pH, which indicates that the inhibition was caused by total acetate concentration not by undissociated acetate. Initial inhibition was detected at acetate concentration of 50 mM, while the hydrogen fermentation...

  12. Household food production is positively associated with dietary diversity and intake of nutrient-dense foods for older preschool children in poorer families: Results from a nationally-representative survey in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulmi, Prajula; Masters, William A; Ghosh, Shibani; Namirembe, Grace; Rajbhandary, Ruchita; Manohar, Swetha; Shrestha, Binod; West, Keith P; Webb, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Nutrition-sensitive interventions supporting enhanced household food production have potential to improve child dietary quality. However, heterogeneity in market access may cause systematic differences in program effectiveness depending on household wealth and child age. Identifying these effect modifiers can help development agencies specify and target their interventions. This study investigates mediating effects of household wealth and child age on links between farm production and child diets, as measured by production and intake of nutrient-dense food groups. Two rounds (2013 and 2014) of nationally representative survey data (n = 5,978 observations) were used to measure production and children's dietary intake, as well as a household wealth index and control variables, including breastfeeding. Novel steps used include measuring production diversity in terms of both species grown and food groups grown, as well as testing for mediating effects of family wealth and age of child. We find significant associations between child dietary diversity and agricultural diversity in terms of diversity of food groups and of species grown, especially for older children in poorer households, and particularly for fruits and vegetables, dairy and eggs. With each additional food group produced, log-odds of meeting minimum dietary diversity score (≥4) increase by 0.25 (p = 0.01) for children aged 24-59 months. For younger children aged 18-23 months there is a similar effect size but only in the poorest two quintiles of household wealth, and for infants 6-18 months we find no correlation between production and intake in most models. Child dietary intake is associated with the composition of farm production, most evident among older preschool children and in poorer households. To improve the nutrition of infants, other interventions are needed; and for relatively wealthier households, own farm production may displace market purchases, which could attenuate the impact of household

  13. Household food production is positively associated with dietary diversity and intake of nutrient-dense foods for older preschool children in poorer families: Results from a nationally-representative survey in Nepal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prajula Mulmi

    Full Text Available Nutrition-sensitive interventions supporting enhanced household food production have potential to improve child dietary quality. However, heterogeneity in market access may cause systematic differences in program effectiveness depending on household wealth and child age. Identifying these effect modifiers can help development agencies specify and target their interventions.This study investigates mediating effects of household wealth and child age on links between farm production and child diets, as measured by production and intake of nutrient-dense food groups.Two rounds (2013 and 2014 of nationally representative survey data (n = 5,978 observations were used to measure production and children's dietary intake, as well as a household wealth index and control variables, including breastfeeding. Novel steps used include measuring production diversity in terms of both species grown and food groups grown, as well as testing for mediating effects of family wealth and age of child.We find significant associations between child dietary diversity and agricultural diversity in terms of diversity of food groups and of species grown, especially for older children in poorer households, and particularly for fruits and vegetables, dairy and eggs. With each additional food group produced, log-odds of meeting minimum dietary diversity score (≥4 increase by 0.25 (p = 0.01 for children aged 24-59 months. For younger children aged 18-23 months there is a similar effect size but only in the poorest two quintiles of household wealth, and for infants 6-18 months we find no correlation between production and intake in most models.Child dietary intake is associated with the composition of farm production, most evident among older preschool children and in poorer households. To improve the nutrition of infants, other interventions are needed; and for relatively wealthier households, own farm production may displace market purchases, which could attenuate the impact

  14. Changing role of non-timber forest products (NTFP) in rural household economy: the case of Sinharaja World Heritage site in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senaratne, Athula; Abeygunawardena, Piyasena; Jayatilake, Wijaya

    2003-11-01

    This paper examines the modified patterns of utilizing non-timber forest products (NTFP) and associated behavioral changes around tropical forest areas in the context of conservation-related objectives and other commercially driven objectives. Our study introduces a conceptual framework based on the household production theory and tests empirically the hypotheses drawn at Sinharaja World Heritage in Sri Lanka. The results show that conditions introduced by forest conservation programs and the spread of small-scale commercial tea cultivation are transforming the economy around Sinharaja. The process is an economically rational one where resident communities decide upon their actions based on the opportunity cost of time involved with NTFP in the absence of observable prices. Although the process, overall, has led to a decline in the role of NTFP in the household economy, its impact over different NTFP are not uniform, leaving sustained demand for certain NTFP. This situation calls for a multifaceted approach in forest management programs to address the various household needs fulfilled by NTFP-based activities.

  15. Household Chemical Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Content Home Be Informed Household Chemical Emergencies Household Chemical Emergencies Although the risk of a chemical accident ... reduce the risk of injury. Before a Household Chemical Emergency It is critical to store household chemicals ...

  16. EPHECT I: European household survey on domestic use of consumer products and development of worst-case scenarios for daily use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitroulopoulou, C; Lucica, E; Johnson, A; Ashmore, M R; Sakellaris, I; Stranger, M; Goelen, E

    2015-12-01

    Consumer products are frequently and regularly used in the domestic environment. Realistic estimates for product use are required for exposure modelling and health risk assessment. This paper provides significant data that can be used as input for such modelling studies. A European survey was conducted, within the framework of the DG Sanco-funded EPHECT project, on the household use of 15 consumer products. These products are all-purpose cleaners, kitchen cleaners, floor cleaners, glass and window cleaners, bathroom cleaners, furniture and floor polish products, combustible air fresheners, spray air fresheners, electric air fresheners, passive air fresheners, coating products for leather and textiles, hair styling products, spray deodorants and perfumes. The analysis of the results from the household survey (1st phase) focused on identifying consumer behaviour patterns (selection criteria, frequency of use, quantities, period of use and ventilation conditions during product use). This can provide valuable input to modelling studies, as this information is not reported in the open literature. The above results were further analysed (2nd phase), to provide the basis for the development of 'most representative worst-case scenarios' regarding the use of the 15 products by home-based population groups (housekeepers and retired people), in four geographical regions in Europe. These scenarios will be used for the exposure and health risk assessment within the EPHECT project. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first time that daily worst-case scenarios are presented in the scientific published literature concerning the use of a wide range of 15 consumer products across Europe. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Household water treatment systems: A solution to the production of safe drinking water by the low-income communities of Southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwabi, J. K.; Adeyemo, F. E.; Mahlangu, T. O.; Mamba, B. B.; Brouckaert, B. M.; Swartz, C. D.; Offringa, G.; Mpenyana-Monyatsi, L.; Momba, M. N. B.

    One of the United Nations Millennium Development Goals is to reduce to half by 2015 the number of people, worldwide, who lack access to safe water. Due to the numerous deaths and illnesses caused by waterborne pathogens, various household water treatment devices and safe storage technologies have been developed to treat and manage water at the household level. The new approaches that are continually being examined need to be durable, lower in overall cost and more effective in the removal of the contaminants. In this study, an extensive literature survey was conducted to regroup various household treatment devices that are suitable for the inexpensive treatment of water on a household basis. The survey has resulted in the selection of four household treatment devices: the biosand filter (BSF), bucket filter (BF), ceramic candle filter (CCF) and the silver-impregnated porous pot filter (SIPP). The first three filters were manufactured in a Tshwane University of Technology workshop, using modified designs reported in literature. The SIPP filter is a product of the Tshwane University of Technology. The performance of the four filters was evaluated in terms of flow rate, physicochemical contaminant (turbidity, fluorides, phosphates, chlorophyll a, magnesium, calcium and nitrates) and microbial contaminant ( Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholerae, Salmonella typhimurium, Shigella dysenteriae) removals. The flow rates obtained during the study period were within the recommended limits (171 l/h, 167 l/h, 6.4 l/h and 3.5 l/h for the BSF, BF, CCF and SIPP, respectively). Using standard methods, the results of the preliminary laboratory and field studies with spiked and environmental water samples indicated that all filters decreased the concentrations of contaminants in test water sources. The most efficiently removed chemical contaminant in spiked water was fluoride (99.9%) and the poorest removal efficiency was noted for magnesium (26-56%). A higher performance in chemical

  18. Household Savings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Browning, Martin; Lusardi, Annamaria

    suggested in the informal saving literature can be captured in the standard optimizing model. Particular attention is given to recent work on the precautionary motive and its implications for saving and consumption behavior. We also discuss the "behavioral" or "psychological" approach that eschews the use......In this survey, we review the recent theoretical and empirical literature on household saving and consumption. The discussion is structured around a list of motives for saving and how well the standard theory captures these motives. We show that almost all of the motives for saving that have been...

  19. Comparison of the effects of conditional food and cash transfers of the Ethiopian Productive Safety Net Program on household food security and dietary diversity in the face of rising food prices: ways forward for a more nutrition-sensitive program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baye, Kaleab; Retta, Negussie; Abuye, Cherinet

    2014-09-01

    In light of the continuing rise in food prices during and after the 2008 world food crisis, whether food and cash transfers are equally effective in improving food security and diet quality is debatable. To compare the effects of conditional food and cash transfers of the Ethiopian Productive Safety Net Program (PSNP) on household food security and dietary diversity. Data on household dietary diversity, child anthropometry, food security, and preference of transfer modalities (food, cash, or mixed) were generated from a cross-sectional survey of 195 PSNP beneficiary households (67 receiving food and 128 receiving cash) in Hawella Tulla District, Sidama, southern Ethiopia. Most beneficiaries (96%) reported food shortages, and 47% reported food shortages that exceeded 3 months. Households receiving cash had better household dietary diversity scores (p = .02) and higher consumption of oils and fats (p = .003) and vitamin A-rich foods (p = .002). Compared with households receiving food, households receiving cash were more affected by increases in food prices that forced them to reduce their number of daily meals (p diversity than households receiving food, a result suggesting that cash transfers may be more effective. However, the continuing rise infood prices may offset these benefits unless cash transfers are index-linked to food price fluctuations.

  20. Emissions from small-scale energy production using co-combustion of biofuel and the dry fraction of household waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedman, Björn; Burvall, Jan; Nilsson, Calle; Marklund, Stellan

    2005-01-01

    In sparsely populated rural areas, recycling of household waste might not always be the most environmentally advantageous solution due to the total amount of transport involved. In this study, an alternative approach to recycling has been tested using efficient small-scale biofuel boilers for co-combustion of biofuel and high-energy waste. The dry combustible fraction of source-sorted household waste was mixed with the energy crop reed canary-grass (Phalaris Arundinacea L.), and combusted in both a 5-kW pilot scale reactor and a biofuel boiler with 140-180 kW output capacity, in the form of pellets and briquettes, respectively. The chlorine content of the waste fraction was 0.2%, most of which originated from plastics. The HCl emissions exceeded levels stipulated in new EU-directives, but levels of equal magnitude were also generated from combustion of the pure biofuel. Addition of waste to the biofuel did not give any apparent increase in emissions of organic compounds. Dioxin levels were close to stipulated limits. With further refinement of combustion equipment, small-scale co-combustion systems have the potential to comply with emission regulations.

  1. Emissions from small-scale energy production using co-combustion of biofuel and the dry fraction of household waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedman, Bjoern; Burvall, Jan; Nilsson, Calle; Marklund, Stellan

    2005-01-01

    In sparsely populated rural areas, recycling of household waste might not always be the most environmentally advantageous solution due to the total amount of transport involved. In this study, an alternative approach to recycling has been tested using efficient small-scale biofuel boilers for co-combustion of biofuel and high-energy waste. The dry combustible fraction of source-sorted household waste was mixed with the energy crop reed canary-grass (Phalaris Arundinacea L.), and combusted in both a 5-kW pilot scale reactor and a biofuel boiler with 140-180 kW output capacity, in the form of pellets and briquettes, respectively. The chlorine content of the waste fraction was 0.2%, most of which originated from plastics. The HCl emissions exceeded levels stipulated in new EU-directives, but levels of equal magnitude were also generated from combustion of the pure biofuel. Addition of waste to the biofuel did not give any apparent increase in emissions of organic compounds. Dioxin levels were close to stipulated limits. With further refinement of combustion equipment, small-scale co-combustion systems have the potential to comply with emission regulations

  2. [Examination of analytical method for triphenyltin (TPT) and tributyltin (TBT) to revise the official methods based on "Act on the Control of Household Products Containing Harmful Substances"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Tsuyoshi; Isama, Kazuo; Nakashima, Harunobu; Yoshida, Jin; Ooshima, Tomoko; Ohno, Hiroyuki; Uemura, Hitoshi; Shioda, Hiroko; Kikuchi, Yoko; Matsuoka, Atsuko; Nishimura, Tetsuji

    2012-01-01

    The use of triphenyltin (TPT) and tributyltin (TBT) in some household products is banned by "Act on the Control of Household Products Containing Harmful Substances" in Japan. To revise the official analytical method, the method for detecting these organotin compounds was examined in six laboratories using a textile product, water-based adhesive, oil-based paint, which contained known amounts of TPT and TBT (0.1, 1.0, 10 μg/g). TPT and TBT were measured by GC-MS after ethyl-derivation with sodium tetraethylborate. The TBT recoveries in the samples were 70-120%. The TPT recoveries in the water-based adhesive samples were 80-110%, while its concentrations in the textile product and oil-based paint samples decreased because of dephenylation during storage. However, the precision of the method examined was satisfactory because most coefficients of variation for TPT and TBT in the samples were less than 10%. Furthermore, the revised method was able to detect concentrations lower than the officially regulated value. However, the sample matrix and the condition of analytical instrument might affect the estimated TPT and TBT concentrations. Therefore, the revised method may not be suitable for quantitative tests; rather, it can be employed to judge the acceptable levels of these organotin compounds by comparing the values of control sample containing regulated amounts of TPT and TBT with those for an unknown sample, with deuterated TPT and TBT as surrogate substances. It is desirable that TPT in textile and oil-based paint samples are analyzed immediately after the samples obtained because of the decomposition of TPT.

  3. Household Income Composition and Household Goods

    OpenAIRE

    Voynov, Ivan

    2005-01-01

    The paper focuses on the change in household income composition and the factors that determine it. The results bring additional knowledge about household poverty dynamics. Based on the collective approach to the family and the cooperative game theory it is constructed theoretical model of household income composition change. The change in income composition is a result from bargaining between household members in attempt to defend the most suitable for them income source. Decisive influence i...

  4. Homestead food production model contributes to improved household food security and nutrition status of young children and women in poor populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Talukder

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available Micronutrient malnutrition is a serious public health problem among women and children in Bangladesh, Cambodia, Nepal and the Philippines. Helen Keller International has been implementing homestead food production (HFP programs (coupled with nutrition education in these countries to increase and ensure year-round availability and intake of micronutrient-rich foods in poor households, particularly among women and children.  Between 2003 and 2007, the HFP program was implemented among ~30,000 households in these four countries. Data collected from representative samples taken for evaluations of HFP programs in these countries illustrated the benefit of the program for households. Data were collected through interviews with households in villages that had the HFP program and from control households in non-HFP program villages. Blood samples collected from ~1000 children aged 6-59 months and ~1200 non-pregnant women before and after program implementation were analyzed for hemoglobin. The review showed that the HFP program significantly improved dietary diversification. The combined data from all four countries showed improved animal food consumption among program households, with liver consumption increasing from 24% at baseline to 46% at endline and the median number of eggs consumed by families per week increasing from 2 to 5.  The sale of HFP products also improved household income. Anemia prevalence among children in program households decreased in all the countries; however, the decrease was only significant in Bangladesh and the Philippines.  Although anemia prevalence also decreased among control households in three countries, the magnitude of change was higher in program households compared with control households.Les carences en micronutriments représentent un grave problème de santé publique chez les femmes et les enfants au Bangladesh, au Cambodge, au Népal et aux Philippines. Helen Keller International met en œuvre dans ces pays

  5. Effect of influenza-like illness and other wintertime respiratory illnesses on worker productivity: The child and household influenza-illness and employee function (CHIEF) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Liisa A; Rousculp, Matthew D; Johnston, Stephen S; Mahadevia, Parthiv J; Nichol, Kristin L

    2010-07-12

    Acute respiratory illnesses (ARI), comprising influenza-like illness (ILI) and other wintertime respiratory illnesses (ORI), impose substantial health and economic burdens on the United States. Little is known about the impact of ILI among household members (HHM), particularly children, on employees' productivity. To quantify the impact of employee and HHM-ILI and ARI on employee productivity, a prospective, observational cohort study was conducted among employees from three large US companies. Employees who had at least one child living at home (N=2013) completed a monthly survey during the 2007-2008 influenza season, reporting the number of days missed from work and hours of presenteeism due to: (1) personal ILI, (2) HHM-ILI, and (3) personal and HHM-ARI. Employee ILI ranged from 4.8% (April) to 13.5% (February). Employees reporting ILI reported more absences than employees not reporting ILI (72% vs 30%, respectively; Pemployees surveyed had at least one child with an ILI; these employees missed more days of work due to HHM illness than employees without an ARI-ill child (0.9 days vs 0.3 days, respectively; PEmployees with ILI were less productive, on average, for 4.8h each day that they worked while sick, 2.5h of which was attributable to ILI. HHM illnesses accounted for 17.7% (1389/7868 days) of employee absenteeism, over half of which was due to HHM-ARI. ILI causes a significant amount of employee absence. Household members, particularly children, comprise a sizable proportion of general illness and injury-related employee absences. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation of the efficacy of an appeasing pheromone diffuser product vs placebo for management of feline aggression in multi-cat households: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePorter, Theresa L; Bledsoe, David L; Beck, Alexandra; Ollivier, Elodie

    2018-05-01

    Objectives Aggression and social tension among housemate cats is common and puts cats at risk of injury or relinquishment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a new pheromone product in reducing aggression between housemate cats. Methods A new pheromone product (Feliway Friends) containing a proprietary cat-appeasing pheromone was evaluated for efficacy in reducing aggression between housemate cats via a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot trial of 45 multi-cat households (pheromone [n = 20], placebo [n = 25]) reporting aggression for at least 2 weeks. Each household had 2-5 cats. Participants attended an educational training meeting on day (D) -7 and the veterinary behaviorist described behaviors to be monitored for 7 weeks using the Oakland Feline Social Interaction Scale (OFSIS), which assessed the frequency and intensity of 12 representative aggressive interactions. Participants were also provided with instructions for handling aggressive events, including classical conditioning, redirection by positive reinforcement and not punishing or startling the cat for aggressive displays. Punishment techniques were strongly discouraged. Plug-in diffusers with the pheromone product or placebo were utilized from D0-D28. Participants completed a daily diary of aggressive events and weekly OFSIS assessments through to D42. Results Evolution of the OFSIS-Aggression score according to treatment group in the full analysis set population revealed a significant effect on time and treatment group. The OFSIS-Aggression score decreased over time from D0-D28 in both groups (time factor P = 0.0001) with a significant difference in favor of the verum P = 0.06); similar results were found considering the D0-D42 period (time factor P = 0.0001 [D0] and P = 0.04 [D42]). Conclusions and relevance The OFSIS provided a quantifiable measure of the frequency and intensity of 12 inter-cat interactions reflecting conflict between cats. The cat

  7. Essays on household time allocation decisions in a collective household model

    OpenAIRE

    Silvennoinen, Heidi

    2008-01-01

    This thesis considers the consequences of traditional division of labour in households in a setting where spouses are allowed to have distinct preferences. This approach leads to different results compared to the traditional unitary approach and is better equipped to take into consideration gender related issues of household decision making. The thesis consists of three theoretical essays where the household production theory is applied in the collective household model. The first essay ...

  8. Material Implications of Rural Electrification—A Methodological Framework to Assess In-Use Stocks of Off-Grid Solar Products and EEE in Rural Households in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Batteiger

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available “Universal access to electricity” is proclaimed as the seventh sustainable development goal (SDG 7 of the United Nations (UN Sustainable Development Goals list. The achievement of this goal will result in a rapid diffusion of energy technologies that would in turn increase materials stocks, subsequently increase the raw material demand as well as the arising waste flows. This study describes a methodological framework to assess in-use stocks of off-grid solar products and electrical and electronic equipment (EEE for rural communities in developing countries. The methodology is based on energy-access data. Furthermore, the specifics of the characteristics of off-grid solar products are discussed. The methodology is applied to rural Bangladesh and its solar home system (SHS program. By the end of 2016, around 4.1 million SHSs were installed. This type of access to electricity has a significant impact on the in-use stocks, as households add the comparatively heavy SHSs to their in-use stocks. In-use stocks of EEE, in general, are low. Off-grid solar products are lighter than standard EEE, and fewer products types are available. These findings will help to better understand material stocks and future waste flows in the given context and will support the adaption of recycling infrastructures.

  9. Life cycle assessment of coupling household biogas production to agricultural industry: A case study of biogas-linked persimmon cultivation and processing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Bin; Chen, Shaoqing

    2013-01-01

    Biogas plant construction has been boosted in rural China not only due to the immediate merit from biogas production but also the succeeding benefit from by-product utilization in agro-industry, both of which are significant strategies to address energy shortage and global warming issues. However, little work has been done to evaluate the coupling of biogas projects to traditional agrosystems from a life-cycle perspective, which is most important in process and system optimization in different senses. By taking persimmon cultivation and processing with supports from a household biogas plant as a case study, this study conducts a life cycle assessment of coupling biogas production to agro-industry in terms of energy, environmental and economic performance. The results suggest that each production stage following the biogas/digestate utilization chain (biogas operation-persimmon cultivation-product processing) is beneficial across all three aspects. However, a tradeoff only exists in utilizing digestate as top-dressing and employing biogas utilization as engine fuel, while biogas application in fresh-keeping and digestate reuse as base fertilizer fails to increase either energy production or greenhouse gas mitigation. The coupled system can be hopefully optimized through increasing fermentation efficiency and joint operation of biogas digesters. -- Highlights: •Biogas/digestate utilization is overall beneficial in all production stages. •Each bioresource application may not be profitable in all respects. •Tradeoffs in using biogas and digestate vary among different utilization ways. •Multi-user operation and fermentation efficiency elevation optimize system

  10. Co-Production Performance Evaluation of a Novel Solar Combi System for Simultaneous Pure Water and Hot Water Supply in Urban Households of UAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nutakki Tirumala Uday Kumar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Water is the most desirable and sparse resource in Gulf cooperation council (GCC region. Utilization of point-of-use (POU water treatment devices has been gaining huge market recently due to increase in knowledge of urban population on health related issues over contaminants in decentralized water distribution networks. However, there is no foolproof way of knowing whether the treated water is free of contaminants harmful for drinking and hence reliance on certified bottled water has increased worldwide. The bottling process right from treatment to delivery is highly unsustainable due to huge energy demand along the supply chain. As a step towards sustainability, we investigated various ways of coupling of membrane distillation (MD process with solar domestic heaters for co-production of domestic heat and pure water. Performance dynamics of various integration techniques have been evaluated and appropriate configuration has been identified for real scale application. A solar combi MD (SCMD system is experimentally tested for single household application for production 20 L/day of pure water and 250 L/day of hot water simultaneously without any auxiliary heating device. The efficiency of co-production system is compared with individual operation of solar heaters and solar membrane distillation.

  11. Effect of production variables on microbiological removal in locally-produced ceramic filters for household water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantagne, Daniele; Klarman, Molly; Mayer, Ally; Preston, Kelsey; Napotnik, Julie; Jellison, Kristen

    2010-06-01

    Diarrhoeal diseases cause an estimated 1.87 million child deaths per year. Point-of-use filtration using locally made ceramic filters improves microbiological quality of stored drinking water and prevents diarrhoeal disease. Scaling-up ceramic filtration is inhibited by lack of universal quality control standards. We investigated filter production variables to determine their affect on microbiological removal during 5-6 weeks of simulated normal use. Decreases in the clay:sawdust ratio and changes in the burnable decreased effectiveness of the filter. Method of silver application and shape of filter did not impact filter effectiveness. A maximum flow rate of 1.7 l(-hr) was established as a potential quality control measure for one particular filter to ensure 99% (2- log(10)) removal of total coliforms. Further research is indicated to determine additional production variables associated with filter effectiveness and develop standardized filter production procedures prior to scaling-up.

  12. Life cycle greenhouse gas emission assessment of major petroleum oil products for transport and household sectors in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, Amit; Vishwanathan, Saritha; Avashia, Vidhee

    2013-01-01

    Energy security concerns due to high oil import dependence and climate change concerns due to related greenhouse gas emissions are important policy discussions in India. Could life cycle assessment (LCA) of petroleum oil products provide inputs to crude oil sourcing and domestic oil pricing policies to address the two concerns? This paper presents a baseline study on LCA of petroleum products in India from Well to Storage depending on the oil source, type of refinery, product and the selected destinations. The LCA based GHG emissions are found to be higher by 4–12 per cent than GHG emissions from direct fuel consumption alone for LPG, 7–10 per cent for Gasoline, 3–9 per cent for Diesel and 4–10 per cent for Kerosene based on various supply chain routes supplying oil to six largest cities in India. Overall the energy used in oil exploration, refinery and transportation in the LCA have a share of 72–77 per cent, 11–15 per cent and 6–8 per cent, respectively. The paper proposes imposing a relative carbon cess for various oil products in different Indian cities. States could accommodate this additional carbon cess by reducing their respective state taxes without increasing the final delivery price to the consumers. - Highlights: ► LCA emissions are found to be higher by 4–12 per cent than direct fuel consumption emissions. ► Energy used in oil exploration, refinery and transportation in the LCA have a share of 72–77 per cent, 11–15 per cent and 6–8 per cent, respectively. ► Corresponding GHG emission shares are 60–66 per cent, 23–27 per cent and 5–8 per cent, respectively. ► The source of crude oil matters. E and P energy consumption is found highest for African countries. ► Differential carbon cess could be imposed without changing final delivery price to consumers

  13. Smallholder farmer’s perceived effects of climate change on crop production and household livelihoods in rural Limpopo province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubisi Nomcebo R.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the perceived effects of climate change on crop production and household livelihoods of smallholder farmers in Mopani and Vhembe district, South Africa. Data was collected through a questionnaire administered to 150 smallholder farmers. The questionnaires were complemented by 8 focus group discussions and secondary data. Multinomial logit regression model was used to analyse the factors influencing smallholder farmers’ choice of climate change adaptation strategies. The study findings revealed that subsistence farmers perceived prolonged droughts (56.4% as the main shock stressing crop production. Droughts often lead to low crop yield and high crop failure (73.3%. In response to the prevailing climatic conditions different gender adopted different strategies, 41% of female farmers adapted by changing planting dates, while male farmers employed crop variety and diversification (35% and mixed cropping (15%. The smallholder farmers were vulnerable with limited adaptive capacity to withstand climate change due to compromised social, human, physical, natural and financial assets. The results showed that smallholder farmers tend to adapt better when they have access to extension officers (P<0.01. Therefore, it is important for the government to strengthen the relationship between smallholder farmers and extension officers for better climate change adaptation.

  14. Family and household demography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willekens, F.J.C.; Zeng, Yi

    2009-01-01

    Households are groups of people that co-reside and share some resources. Families are households of related individuals. Household and family demography is the study of these primary social groups or social units, and in particular of group membership and the relationships between members of the

  15. Household consumption and environment. 2011 edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This report presents and comments numerous data and indicators concerning the constraints and impacts on the environment related to household consumption and behaviour. After a presentation of context indicators (household number and size, household consumption expenses) and of some global indicators (water and carbon footprint of household consumption), several specific aspects are addressed: housing (electric and electronic equipment, water, space and energy consumption, renewable energies, CO 2 emissions), transport (general statistics on travels, CO 2 and pollutant emissions related to motor cars), food (water print and carbon print related to household food, consumption of bio-agriculture products and of conditioned beverages), and wastes (production and composition, electronic and electric equipment wastes, waste treatment)

  16. Effects of socio-demographic characteristics and household water management on Aedes aegypti production in suburban and rural villages in Laos and Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Vannavong, Nanthasane; Seidu, Razak; Stenstr?m, Thor-Axel; Dada, Nsa; Overgaard, Hans J

    2017-01-01

    Background Dengue fever is a mosquito-borne disease accounting for 50–100 million annual cases globally. Laos and Thailand are countries in south-east Asia where the disease is endemic in both urban and rural areas. Household water storage containers, which are favourable breeding sites for dengue mosquitoes, are common in these areas, due to intermittent or limited access to water supply. This study assessed the effect of household water management and socio-demographic risk factors on A...

  17. Household Products Database: Personal Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... styling/sculpting haircolor hand cleaner hand cleaner, antibacterial hand sanitizer highlights holding spray insect repellent intimacy itch relief jewelry cleaner kids leather/fabric waterproofing legs lice shampoo lip ... hand cream semi-permanent shampoo shampoo & conditioner combo shampoo & ...

  18. 7 CFR 2902.48 - General purpose household cleaners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General purpose household cleaners. 2902.48 Section... PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 2902.48 General purpose household cleaners. (a) Definition. Products designed... procurement preference for qualifying biobased general purpose household cleaners. By that date, Federal...

  19. Towards sustainable household energy use in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wal, J; Moll, H.C.

    2001-01-01

    Households consume direct energy, using natural gas, heating oil, gasoline and electricity, and consume indirect energy, the energy related to the production of goods and the delivery of services for the households. Past trends and present-day household energy use (direct and indirect) are analysed

  20. Household size and composition as correlates of child labour in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We provide a comprehensive overview of the household factors and residential dynamics through which child labour evolves. Our findings demonstrate the usefulness of the household production theory in explaining the socio-economic ramifications and household context of child labour. Our findings indicate that although ...

  1. Households' portfolio choices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hochgürtel, S.

    1998-01-01

    This thesis presents four topics on households' portfolio choices. Empirically, households do not hold well-diversified wealth portfolios. In particular, they refrain from putting their savings into risky assets. We explore several ways that might help explaining this observation. Using Dutch

  2. Household financial behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brounen, Dirk; Koedijk, Kees; Pownall, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Greater personal responsibility toward financial decision-making is being advocated on a global basis. Individuals and households are encouraged to take a more active approach to personal finance. In this paper, we examine behavioral factors, which lead households toward savings and financial

  3. Household food waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wahlen, S.; Winkel, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Food waste is debated not only in the light of sustainable consumption in research and policy, but also in the broader public. This article focuses on food waste in household contexts, what is widely believed the end of the food chain. However, household food waste is far more complex and intricate

  4. Essays in household finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Djordjevic, Ljubica

    2015-01-01

    Household finance is a young and vibrant research field that continuously attracts public attention. There may be very few matters that people care so much about as their personal finance. Recent rise of academic interest in household finance is to a great extent due to households’ more active role

  5. A compilation of life cycle studies for six household detergent product categories in Europe: the basis for product-specific A.I.S.E. Charter Advanced Sustainability Profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golsteijn, Laura; Menkveld, Rimousky; King, Henry; Schneider, Christine; Schowanek, Diederik; Nissen, Sascha

    2015-01-01

    A.I.S.E., the International Association for Soaps, Detergents and Maintenance Products, launched the 'A.I.S.E. Charter for Sustainable Cleaning' in Europe in 2005 to promote sustainability in the cleaning and maintenance products industry. This Charter is a proactive programme for translating the concept of sustainable innovation into reality and actions. Per product category, life cycle assessments (LCA) are used to set sustainability criteria that are ambitious, but also achievable by all market players. This paper presents and discusses LCAs of six household detergent product categories conducted for the Charter, i.e.: manual dishwashing detergents, powder and tablet laundry detergents, window glass trigger spray cleaners, bathroom trigger spray cleaners, acid toilet cleaners, and bleach toilet cleaners. Relevant impact categories are identified, as well as the life cycle stages with the largest contribution to the environmental impact. It was concluded that the variables that mainly drive the results (i.e. the environmental hotspots) for manual dishwashing detergents and laundry detergents were the water temperature, water consumption (for manual dishwashing detergents), product dosage (for laundry detergents), and the choice and amount of surfactant. By contrast, for bathroom trigger sprays, acid and bleach toilet cleaners, the driving factors were plastic packaging, transportation to retailer, and specific ingredients. Additionally, the type of surfactant was important for bleach toilet cleaners. For window glass trigger sprays, the driving factors were the plastic packaging and the type of surfactant, and the other ingredients were of less importance. A.I.S.E. used the results of the studies to establish sustainability criteria, the so-called 'Charter Advanced Sustainability Profiles', which led to improvements in the marketplace.

  6. Household Wealth in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yu; Jin, Yongai

    2015-01-01

    With new nationwide longitudinal survey data now available from the China Family Panel Studies (CFPS), we study the level, distribution, and composition of household wealth in contemporary China. We find that the wealth Gini coefficient of China was 0.73 in 2012. The richest 1 percent owned more than one-third of the total national household wealth, while the poorest 25 percent owned less than 2 percent. Housing assets, which accounted for over 70 percent, were the largest component of household wealth. Finally, the urban-rural divide and regional disparities played important roles in household wealth distribution, and institutional factors significantly affected household wealth holdings, wealth growth rate, and wealth mobility. PMID:26435882

  7. Promoting household energy conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steg, Linda

    2008-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that households must change their behaviour to reduce the problems caused by increasing levels of fossil energy use. Strategies for behaviour change will be more effective if they target the most important causes of the behaviour in question. Therefore, this paper first discusses the factors influencing household energy use. Three barriers to fossil fuel energy conservation are discussed: insufficient knowledge of effective ways to reduce household energy use, the low priority and high costs of energy savings, and the lack of feasible alternatives. Next, the paper elaborates on the effectiveness and acceptability of strategies aimed to promote household energy savings. Informational strategies aimed at changing individuals' knowledge, perceptions, cognitions, motivations and norms, as well as structural strategies aimed at changing the context in which decisions are made, are discussed. This paper focuses on the psychological literature on household energy conservation, which mostly examined the effects of informational strategies. Finally, this paper lists important topics for future research

  8. Using Mole Ratios of Electrolytic Products of Water for Analysis of Household Vinegar: An Experiment for the Undergraduate Physical Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabke, Rajeev B.; Gebeyehu, Zewdu

    2012-01-01

    A simple 3-h physical chemistry undergraduate experiment for the quantitative analysis of acetic acid in household vinegar is presented. The laboratory experiment combines titration concept with electrolysis and an application of the gas laws. A vinegar sample was placed in the cathode compartment of the electrolysis cell. Electrolysis of water…

  9. Disentangling determinants of insecticide use to manage production, food security, and health risks in Cambodia and Vietnam: evidence from household surveys and risk-assessment experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang, PhD

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Insect pest problems are among the main causes of crop yield losses in global agriculture. Insecticides protect households from food-security and income shocks, but can induce human health and environmental risks. Semi-subsistence farm households (SSFHs, which farm for both consumption and market, make decisions about crop management and output allocation to maximise food consumption, income, and health outcomes, depending on their risk preferences and other household and community characteristics. In this study, we aimed to disentangle the determinants of insecticide use by SSFHs and identify whether health consideration has had any effect on insecticide use. Methods: In this econometric analysis, we used field data collected from household surveys and risk-assessment experiments in 2014 in Cambodia and Vietnam to analyse insecticide use among more than 1000 SSFHs. Findings: We found that crops (except for rice whose outputs were used to a greater degree for consumption were less likely to be sprayed with insecticides or were sprayed fewer times. Health-conscious households (as indicated by the use of modern-fuel cooking stoves and reported concern over food safety as a main reason for maintaining home gardens consistently refrained from spraying, but this tendency diminished as output allocation shifted toward commercial use, suggesting a possible moral-hazard phenomenon. Farmers were more likely to apply insecticides to crops of high food security or dietary importance, such as rice, although the difference between fresh produce and grain produce in risk of insecticide residue exposure might also have contributed to the difference in insecticide use between rice and non-rice crops. The two samples from Cambodia and Vietnam had similarities regarding the deterring effect of health consideration and differences in other factors affecting insecticide use, such as risk preference, landholding size, household head's education level

  10. Household medical waste disposal policy in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett-Itzhaki, Zohar; Berman, Tamar; Grotto, Itamar; Schwartzberg, Eyal

    2016-01-01

    Large amounts of expired and unused medications accumulate in households. This potentially exposes the public to hazards due to uncontrolled use of medications. Most of the expired or unused medications that accumulate in households (household medical waste) is thrown to the garbage or flushed down to the sewage, potentially contaminating waste-water, water resources and even drinking water. There is evidence that pharmaceutical active ingredients reach the environment, including food, however the risk to public health from low level exposure to pharmaceuticals in the environment is currently unknown. In Israel, there is no legislation regarding household medical waste collection and disposal. Furthermore, only less than 14 % of Israelis return unused medications to Health Maintenance Organization (HMO) pharmacies. In this study, we investigated world-wide approaches and programs for household medical waste collection and disposal. In many countries around the world there are programs for household medical waste collection. In many countries there is legislation to address the issue of household medical waste, and this waste is collected in hospitals, clinics, law enforcement agencies and pharmacies. Furthermore, in many countries, medication producers and pharmacies pay for the collection and destruction of household medical waste, following the "polluter pays" principle. Several approaches and methods should be considered in Israel: (a) legislation and regulation to enable a variety of institutes to collect household medical waste (b) implementing the "polluter pays" principle and enforcing medical products manufactures to pay for the collection and destruction of household medical waste. (c) Raising awareness of patients, pharmacists, and other medical health providers regarding the health and environmental risks in accumulation of drugs and throwing them to the garbage, sink or toilet. (d) Adding specific instructions regarding disposal of the drug, in the

  11. Effects of socio-demographic characteristics and household water management on Aedes aegypti production in suburban and rural villages in Laos and Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannavong, Nanthasane; Seidu, Razak; Stenström, Thor-Axel; Dada, Nsa; Overgaard, Hans J

    2017-04-04

    Dengue fever is a mosquito-borne disease accounting for 50-100 million annual cases globally. Laos and Thailand are countries in south-east Asia where the disease is endemic in both urban and rural areas. Household water storage containers, which are favourable breeding sites for dengue mosquitoes, are common in these areas, due to intermittent or limited access to water supply. This study assessed the effect of household water management and socio-demographic risk factors on Aedes aegypti infestation of water storage containers. A cross-sectional survey of 239 households in Laos (124 suburban and 115 rural), and 248 households in Thailand (127 suburban and 121 rural) was conducted. Entomological surveys alongside semi-structured interviews and observations were conducted to obtain information on Ae. aegypti infestation, socio-demographic factors and water management. Zero-inflated negative binomial regression models were used to assess risk factors associated with Ae. aegypti pupal infestation. Household water management rather than socio-demographic factors were more likely to be associated with the infestation of water containers with Ae. aegypti pupae. Factors that was significantly associated with Ae. aegypti infestation were tanks, less frequent cleaning of containers, containers without lids, and containers located outdoors or in toilets/bathrooms. Associations between Ae. aegypti pupae infestation, household water management, and socio-demographic factors were found, with risk factors for Ae. aegypti infestation being specific to each study setting. Most of the containers did not have lids, larvicides, such as temephos was seldom used, and containers were not cleaned regularly; factors are facilitating dengue vector proliferation. It is recommended that, in Lao villages, health messages should promote proper use and maintenance of tightly fitted lids, and temephos in tanks, which were the most infested containers. Recommendations for Thailand are that small

  12. Essays in Household Finance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanspal, Tobin

    This Ph.D. thesis, entitled Essays in Household Finance, analyzes the determinants and implications of investment biases, personal experiences in financial markets, and financing disruptions on households, individual investors, and entrepreneurs and small business owners. The first essay...... on risk taking is the potential bias resulting from inertia and inattention, which has been shown to be endemic in household finance. If individuals are inert or inattentive, it is difficult to establish whether changes in risk taking are caused by personal experiences or whether the change in risk taking...

  13. Household hazardous waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjelsted, Lotte; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2007-01-01

    .) comprised 15-25% and foreign items comprised 10-20%. Water-based paint was the dominant part of the paint waste. The chemical composition of the paint waste and the paint-like waste was characterized by an analysis of 27 substances in seven waste fractions. The content of critical substances was tow......'Paint waste', a part of the 'household hazardous waste', amounting to approximately 5 tonnes was collected from recycling stations in two Danish cities. Sorting and analyses of the waste showed paint waste comprised approximately 65% of the mass, paint-like waste (cleaners, fillers, etc...... and the paint waste was less contaminated with heavy metals than was the ordinary household waste. This may suggest that households no longer need to source-segregate their paint if the household waste is incinerated, since the presence of a small quantity of solvent-based paint will not be harmful when...

  14. Household electricity demand profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Larsen, Olena Kalyanova

    2016-01-01

    Highlights •A 1-min resolution household electricity load model is presented. •Model adapts a bottom-up approach with single appliance as the main building block. •Load profiles are used to analyse the flexibility potential of household appliances. •Load profiles can be applied in other domains, .......g. building energy simulations. •The demand level of houses with different number of occupants is well captured....

  15. Evaluation and optimization of a method for pretreatment of sorted household wastes for biogas production; Utvaerdering och optimering av metod foer foerbehandling av kaellsorterat hushaallsavfall till biogasproduktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohn, Irene (NSR AB, Helsingborg (Sweden)); Carlsson, My (AnoxKaldnes AB, Lund (Sweden)); Eriksson, Ylva; Holmstroem, David (Lund Univ., Lund (Sweden))

    2010-04-15

    At NSR in Helsingborg, Sweden, organic household waste is digested and converted into biogas and bio-fertiliser. The incoming waste contains a small fraction of non-sorted waste such as plastics, metal and paper. These materials, especially plastics, can cause operational problems in the digester and pollution of the bio-fertiliser. In order to separate these particles from the digestion substrate, the waste requires pre-treatment. For two years, a screw press has been applied for pre-treating the waste at NSR. In the pre-treatment process, food waste is grounded and mixed with water to form a slurry. The slurry is separated into a dry fraction (reject) and a liquid fraction in the press. The liquid fraction is the digestion substrate and is sent to the digester while the reject is sent to combustion. Though, the separation in the screw press is not complete and thus organic, easily degradable matter ends up in the reject. In order to evaluate the efficiency in the screw press and to estimate the loss of easily degradable matter (and thus loss of methane), an assessment of the mass- and energy balances was carried out. The composition of the in- and outgoing fractions was analysed with the purpose of determining the distribution of organic material in the two outgoing fractions. The methane potential in the liquid fraction was compared with the methane potential in the slurry so as to estimate the loss of methane. The results of the mass balances showed that 63 % of the organic material that enters the screw press ends up in the liquid fraction and 37 % ends up in the reject. One ton of waste that enters the pre-treatment facility will eventually result in 1.5 tons of liquid and 0.2 tons of reject. Analysis of the composition was carried out in the slurry, the liquid fraction and the reject. These analyses showed that the liquid fraction contains a higher concentration of easily degradable matter such as fat and protein than the reject. In the incoming material, as

  16. Increasing Household Protein Consumption Through Minilivestock ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mini-livestock production can be a major contributor of a more balanced diet for both rural and urban settlements. The attributes of mini-livestock gives it the potential of increasing household protein consumption as well as being a source of income. Mini-livestock production can be practiced in rural and urban settlements ...

  17. Improved Design of Anaerobic Digesters for Household Biogas Production in Indonesia: One Cow, One Digester, and One Hour of Cooking per Day

    OpenAIRE

    Usack, Joseph G.; Wiratni, Wiratni; Angenent, Largus T.

    2014-01-01

    A government-sponsored initiative in Indonesia to design and implement low-cost anaerobic digestion systems resulted in 21 full-scale systems with the aim to satisfy the cooking fuel demands of rural households owning at least one cow. The full-scale design consisted of a 0.3 m diameter PVC pipe, which was operated as a conventional plug-flow system. The system generated enough methane to power a cooking stove for ∼ 1 h. However, eventual clogging from solids accumulation inside the bioreacto...

  18. Sharing family and household:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Ida Wentzel

    Keynote: Family relationships are normatively assumed to be characterized by ‘sharing’, such as living together in the same home, occupying the same place, sharing stuff, blood and biology, spending special and ordinary time together, and consequently creating shared biographical experiences....... In that way, families are thrown into togetherness. At the same time, we see families in varying forms where 'sharing' is lived and contested differently. In Denmark, many children live in nuclear families, and many live in different variations of more than one household. For those who share household...... and family, 'sharing' will be a basic condition. No matter what, they should share life circumstances, more stories, more places and spaces, more households families with both kin and non-kin. This keynote addresses the particular of children’s experiences of living apart and/or living together in sharing...

  19. The global household: toward a feminist postcapitalist international political economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safri, Maliha; Graham, Julie

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this article is to introduce a new category into international political economy-the global household-and to begin to widen the focus of international political economy to include nonmarket transactions and noncapitalist production. As an economic institution composed of transnational extended families and codwellers (including international migrants and family members left behind in countries of origin), the global household is engaged in coordinating international migration, sending and receiving billions of dollars in remittances, and organizing and conducting market- and non-market-oriented production on an international scale. We first trace the discursive antecedents of the global household concept to theories of the household as a site of noncapitalist production and to feminist ethnographies of transnational families. In order to demonstrate the potential significance and effect of this newly recognized institution, we estimate the aggregate population of global households, the size and distribution of remittances, and the magnitude and sectoral scope of global household production. We then examine the implications of the global household concept for three areas of inquiry: globalization, economic development, and the household politics of economic transformation. Finally, we briefly explore the possibilities for research and activism opened up by a feminist, postcapitalist international political economy centered on the global household.

  20. UK Household Portfolios

    OpenAIRE

    Banks, James; Smith, Sarah

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed analysis of the composition of household portfolios, using both aggregate and micro-data. Among the key findings are that: Most household wealth is held in the form of housing and pensions. Over time, there has been a shift away from housing towards financial assets, driven largely by the growth in life and pension funds. Liquid financial wealth (excluding life and pension funds) is not predominantly held in risky form. By far the most commonly held asset is an ...

  1. Evaluation of TNF-α, IL-10 and IL-6 Cytokine Production and Their Correlation with Genotype Variants amongst Tuberculosis Patients and Their Household Contacts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavanya Joshi

    Full Text Available Household contacts of diagnostically established tuberculosis (TB patients are highly susceptible to disease development. It is surmised that cytokines perhaps play a synergistic and a prognostic role in the activation of the otherwise latent infection in these house hold contacts. Evaluation of the cytokines and any of their inherent polymorphisms might provide a useful diagnostic tool in evaluating the immune regulation and the progression of the disease. The cytokines thus released in a paracrine manner in serum may also provide an indirect measure of the cytokine function.The present study was aimed to evaluate the levels of TNF-α, IL-10 & IL-6 cytokines and their correlation with genotype variants amongst tuberculosis patients and their household contacts.The cytokine levels were estimated in serum by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and their polymorphisms were studied by amplification refractory mutation system polymerase chain reaction (ARMs PCR in active pulmonary tuberculosis patients (APTB = 150, household contacts (HHC = 190, and healthy controls (HC = 150.The median values of TNF-α cytokine were significantly high among APTB and HHC compared to HCs (P< 0.0001 and 0.0001. IL-6 levels also were elevated among APTB compared to HHC and HC, and a significant difference was observed between APTB and HHC at P<0.0001; APTB & HC at P< 0.04; HHC & HC at P< 0.01. The IL-10 levels were low in APTB compared to HHC and HCs and no significant difference was observed. TNF-α/IL-10 ratio was significant and indicated Th1 predominance in APTB and HHC. IL-6/IL-10 showed pronounced Th1 expression in APTB and Th2 in HHC and HC. The ROC analysis indicated that both IL-10 and IL-6 can be used to decide the risk of exposed individual to a disease. The results of multivariate analysis indicate that IL-10 (-1082 GA genotype was significantly associated with p<0.028 in APTB. No significant association was observed between genotypes, other serum

  2. Households at Grasshopper Pueblo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, J. Jefferson; Whittlesey, Stephanie M.

    1982-01-01

    Describes the archaeological reconstruction of domestic life in Grasshopper, Arizona, a mogollon pueblo community which began around 1300 A.D. Categories of space and domestic activities are discussed. An analysis of variations in the patterns of household types within the pueblo is included. (AM)

  3. Households at Pella, Jordan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walmsley, Alan George

    2007-01-01

    about the layout of buildings and the contextual origin of the many domestic objects recovered permit a full reconstruction of life in the household, especially the use of space. Generally, the upstairs area served as the primary living quarters, whereas the ground floor was used to house valuable...... domestic animals and for light workshop activities....

  4. Reporting 1998 - households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohm, Jostein

    1998-01-01

    The report summarises the results from an investigation among households in the seven counties which participates in the project ''Sustainable local communities'' - Fredrikstad, Flora, Hurum, Kristiansand, Roeros, Stavanger and Steigen. The study contained the fields of environmental involvement and motivation, transportation, energy utilisation, purchases, waste management and communication with the local project leadership

  5. Food acquisition and intra-household consumption patterns: a study of low and middle income urban households in Delhi, India

    OpenAIRE

    MR Pradhan; FC Taylor; S Agrawal; D Prabhakaran; S Ebrahim

    2013-01-01

    Background: Food habits and choices in India are shifting due to many factors: changing food markets, fast urbanization, food price inflation, uncertain food production and unequal distribution during the past decade. This study aims to explore food acquisition and intra-household consumption patterns in urban low and middle income (LMI) households in Delhi. Methods: Twenty households were randomly selected from the Center for Cardio-metabolic Risk Reduction in South Asia (CARRS) surveillance...

  6. Food acquisition and intra-household consumption patterns: a study of low and middle income urban households in Delhi, India

    OpenAIRE

    MR Pradhan .; F C Taylor; S Agrawal; D Prabhakaran; S Ebrahim

    2013-01-01

    Background: Food habits and choices in India are shifting due to many factors: changing food markets, fast urbanization, food price inflation, uncertain food production and unequal distribution during the past decade. This study aims to explore food acquisition and intra-household consumption patterns in urban low and middle income (LMI) households in Delhi. Methods: Twenty households were randomly selected from the Center for Cardio-metabolic Risk Reduction in South Asia (CARRS) surveillance...

  7. Small-scale power production for sustainable development. Households', Utilities' and Retailers' experiences from the market for small-scale solar panels and wind turbines; Smaaskalig elproduktion foer en haallbar utveckling. Hushaalls, energibolags och aaterfoersaeljares erfarenheter av marknaden foer smaaskaliga solpaneler och vindturbiner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palm, Jenny; Tengvard, Maria

    2009-06-15

    In this report, a special form of small scale renewable solutions marketed towards Swedish households is targeted. During the autumn 2008 the Swedish companies 'Egen El i Stockholm AB' ('Egen El') and 'Home Energy' launched a concept with small scale wind turbines and solar cells that the households connect to the electricity socket so that the own produced electricity can be used directly. The purpose with this report is to analyze how users, retailers and grid companies look upon such small scale production of electricity and discuss what institutional effects own produced energy could have on the electricity market. The main research method used was in-depth interviews. We conducted interviews with representatives of eight retail companies, five grid companies, the industry organization Swedenergy, IKEA Greentech, and 20 households. A main conclusion is that the market concerning households small scale production of electricity is still immature. Though, the media attention that Egen El relieved during spring 2008 has made more households aware of the concept and householders increased interest in the concept is also recognized by other retailers and amongst the grid companies. According to the retailers, it is still hard to make a living from selling these kind of products to household. Nevertheless, they are optimistic and believe that the changes in regulations concerning small scale production of electricity and IKEA's investment in PVs will improve the situation. The grid companies, too, have a positive outlook. Though, they stress a number of problems that could occur with many households producing their own electricity. This is mainly related to security and whether the grid will be able to handle this produced electricity. As for the households, environmental concerns supply the main motive for adopting PVs or micro wind power generation. In some cases, the adopting households have an extensively ecological lifestyle

  8. FOOD ACQUISITION AND INTRA-HOUSEHOLD CONSUMPTION PATTERNS: A STUDY OF LOW AND MIDDLE INCOME URBAN HOUSEHOLDS IN DELHI, INDIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Mr; Taylor, Fc; Agrawal, S; Prabhakaran, D; Ebrahim, S

    2013-12-01

    Food habits and choices in India are shifting due to many factors: changing food markets, fast urbanization, food price inflation, uncertain food production and unequal distribution during the past decade. This study aims to explore food acquisition and intra-household consumption patterns in urban low and middle income (LMI) households in Delhi. Twenty households were randomly selected from the Center for Cardio-metabolic Risk Reduction in South Asia (CARRS) surveillance study. Data were derived from 20 questionnaires administered to women responsible for food preparation, four key-informant-interviews, and 20 in-depth interviews with household heads during September-November 2011. STATA and ATLAS.ti software were used for data analysis. Half of the households spent at least two-thirds of their income on food. The major expenditures were on vegetables (22% of total food expenditure), milk and milk products (16%), and cereal and related products (15%). Income, food prices, food preferences, and seasonal variation influenced food expenditure. Adults usually ate two to three times a day while children ate more frequently. Eating sequence was based on the work pattern within the household and cultural beliefs. Contrary to previous evidence, there was no gender bias in intra-household food distribution. Women considered food acquisition, preparation and distribution part of their self-worth and played a major role in food related issues in the household. Women's key roles in food acquisition, preparation and intra household food consumption should be considered in formulating food policies and programs.

  9. Sustainable reverse logistics for household plastic waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bing, X.

    2014-01-01

    Summary of the thesis titled “Sustainable Reverse Logistics for Household Plastic Waste”

    PhD Candidate: Xiaoyun Bing

    Recycled plastic can be used in the manufacturing of plastic products to reduce the use of virgin plastics material. The cost of recycled plastics is usually lower

  10. Household Hazardous Waste: Everyone's Problem--Everyone's Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evenson, Linda

    1985-01-01

    Examines the household hazardous waste problem, addressing several areas related to regulation, disposal, and control. Also gives a list of safer alternatives for household cleaners/disinfectants, paint products, and pesticides. Indicates that individuals can collectively make a difference in public exposure by changing purchases and practices.…

  11. Households and the Welfare State

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo Ventura

    2012-01-01

    Consider the following facts. First, with dramatic changes in the household and family structure in every major industrialized country during the last couple of decades, today's households are very far from traditional breadwinner husband and housekeeper wife paradigm. Second, average households face significant uninsurable idiosyncratic risk and countries differ significantly on their social insurance expenditure. Third, since mid 1980s, household income inequality has been rising, generatin...

  12. Improved Design of Anaerobic Digesters for Household Biogas Production in Indonesia: One Cow, One Digester, and One Hour of Cooking per Day

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph G. Usack

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A government-sponsored initiative in Indonesia to design and implement low-cost anaerobic digestion systems resulted in 21 full-scale systems with the aim to satisfy the cooking fuel demands of rural households owning at least one cow. The full-scale design consisted of a 0.3 m diameter PVC pipe, which was operated as a conventional plug-flow system. The system generated enough methane to power a cooking stove for ∼1 h. However, eventual clogging from solids accumulation inside the bioreactor proved to be a major drawback. Here, we improved the digester configuration to remedy clogging while maintaining system performance. Controlled experiments were performed using four 9-L laboratory-scale digesters operated at a temperature of 27±1°C, a volatile solids loading rate of 2.0 g VS·L−1·day−1, and a 21-day hydraulic retention time. Two of the digesters were replicates of the original design (control digesters, while the other two digesters included internal mixing or effluent recycle (experimental digesters. The performance of each digester was compared based on methane yields, VS removal efficiencies, and steady-state solids concentrations during an operating period of 311 days. Statistical analyses revealed that internal mixing and effluent recycling resulted in reduced solids accumulation compared to the controls without diminishing methane yields or solids removal efficiencies.

  13. Improved design of anaerobic digesters for household biogas production in indonesia: one cow, one digester, and one hour of cooking per day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usack, Joseph G; Wiratni, Wiratni; Angenent, Largus T

    2014-01-01

    A government-sponsored initiative in Indonesia to design and implement low-cost anaerobic digestion systems resulted in 21 full-scale systems with the aim to satisfy the cooking fuel demands of rural households owning at least one cow. The full-scale design consisted of a 0.3 m diameter PVC pipe, which was operated as a conventional plug-flow system. The system generated enough methane to power a cooking stove for ∼ 1 h. However, eventual clogging from solids accumulation inside the bioreactor proved to be a major drawback. Here, we improved the digester configuration to remedy clogging while maintaining system performance. Controlled experiments were performed using four 9-L laboratory-scale digesters operated at a temperature of 27 ± 1 °C, a volatile solids loading rate of 2.0 g VS · L(-1) · day(-1), and a 21-day hydraulic retention time. Two of the digesters were replicates of the original design (control digesters), while the other two digesters included internal mixing or effluent recycle (experimental digesters). The performance of each digester was compared based on methane yields, VS removal efficiencies, and steady-state solids concentrations during an operating period of 311 days. Statistical analyses revealed that internal mixing and effluent recycling resulted in reduced solids accumulation compared to the controls without diminishing methane yields or solids removal efficiencies.

  14. Economics of household technology adoption in developing countries: evidence from solar technology adoption in rural India

    OpenAIRE

    Aklin, M.; Bayer, P.; Harish, S.P.; Urpelainen, J.

    2018-01-01

    Innovation is one of the most important drivers of economic development. Even in developing countries, households have access to a wide array of new technologies. However, factors affecting households’ technology adoption decisions remain poorly understood. Using data on solar microgrid adoption from rural India, we investigate the determinants of household technology adoption. We offer all households identical solar products to avoid bias from product differentiation. Households pay a monthl...

  15. Household energy consumption attitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, P

    1976-05-01

    This report contains a summary of the results of a study of household attitudes to energy use and conservation while the author was a member of staff at Massey University. During 1975 seven batches of a mail questionnaire were sent out to a random sample of people drawn from the 1974 Local Body Electoral Rolls. Valid replies were obtained from just under 60% of the 17,500 households to which the forms were sent. The study was undertaken for the simple reason that all energy demand depends on people and yet very little information seemed to be available which showed what people thought about the energy situation and how they felt about the need for conservation. The way people evaluate their energy needs represents a focal element in the energy system as it is this appraisal which results in their demand for energy. The impact of household attitudes goes far beyond the relative share of the energy market taken by the domestic sector, however, as the same people are involved in the demand from all other sectors.

  16. The Household Registration System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Although longitudinal experimental community health research is crucial to testing hypotheses about the demographic impact of health technologies, longitudinal demographic research field stations are rare, owing to the complexity and high cost of developing requisite computer software systems. This paper describes the Household Registration System (HRS, a software package that has been used for the rapid development of eleven surveillance systems in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. Features of the HRS automate software generation for a family of surveillance applications, obviating the need for new and complex computer software systems for each new longitudinal demographic study.

  17. Effects of pH and hydraulic retention time on hydrogen production versus methanogenesis during anaerobic fermentation of organic household solid waste under extreme-thermophilic temperature (70ºC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Dawei; Zeng, Raymond Jianxiong; Angelidaki, Irini

    2008-01-01

    Two continuously stirred tank reactors were operated with household solid waste at 70°C, for hydrogen and methane production. The individual effect of hydraulic retention time (HRT as 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6 days) at pH 7 or pH (5, 5.5, 6, 6.5, 7) at 3-day HRT was investigated on the hydrogen production...... versus methanogenesis. It was found that at pH 7, the maximum hydrogen yield was 107 mL-H2/g VSadded (volatile solid added) but no stable hydrogen production was obtained as after some time methanogenesis was initiated at all tested HRTs. This demonstrated that sludge retention time alone was not enough...... for washing out the methanogens at pH 7 under extreme-thermophilic conditions. Oppositely, we showed that keeping the pH level at 5.5 was enough to inhibit methane and produce hydrogen stably at 3-day HRT. However, the maximum stable hydrogen yield was low at 21 mL-H2/g VSadded. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2008...

  18. The determinants for the adoption of compost from household waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... compost from household waste for crop production by farmers living nearby Yaoundé, ... International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences ... The descriptive results show that 14 factors mostly affect the compost adoption by farmers.

  19. Analysis of food demand among rural households in Kwara State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of food demand among rural households in Kwara State, North Central ... Nigerian Journal of Technological Research ... Contrary to the law of demand, this study shows that the demand for animal products and fats/oil increased with ...

  20. Exploration on the Recycling Mechanism of Waste Household Appliances and Electronic Products in China%我国废旧家电电子产品回收处理机制探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐少艺

    2012-01-01

    我国因人口众多,电子电器产品的实际拥有量非常大,当这些产品被淘汰或换代时,产品废弃的数量同样巨大。如何有效地进行废旧电器电子的资源化回收处理,已经成为当前关系到我国经济、社会和环境可持续发展及我国再生资源回收利用面临的一个新课题。分析了我国废旧家电电子产品回收处理现状及存在问题,提出建立相关的法律、法规、市场机制及出台积极的经济政策,同时利用经济政策和利益驱动刺激回收市场发展,并加大绿色技术投入,使得废旧家电回收利用规模化发展。%Our country has a large population, electronic appliances products with the actual ownership is very big, when these products are eliminated or generation, the number of waste products also great. How to effectively carry out of waste electrical and electronic resources recycling processing, already became current relates our country economy, society and the environment sustainable development and our country renewable resource recycling faces a new topic. This article has analyzed our country waste household appliances and electronic products recycling status and problems, proposed the establishment of relevant laws, regulations, the market mechanism and the introduction of active economic policy, while the use of economic policy and interest drive stimulus recycling market development, and increase the green technology investment, the scale development of waste house-hold appliances recycling.

  1. Influence of household demographic and socio-economic factors on household expenditure on tobacco in six New Independent States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gotsadze George

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To identify demographic and socio-economic factors that are associated with household expenditure on tobacco in Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russian Federation, and Tajikistan. Methods Secondary analysis of the data available through the World Bank Living Standards Monitoring Survey conducted in aforementioned countries in 1995–2000. The role of different variables (e.g. mean age of household members, household area of residence, household size, share of adult males, share of members with high education in determining household expenditure on tobacco (defined as tobacco expenditure share out of total monthly HH consumption was assessed by using multiple regression analysis. Results Significant differences were found between mean expenditure on tobacco between rich and poor – in absolute terms the rich spend significantly more compared with the poor. Poor households devote significantly higher shares of their monthly HH consumption for tobacco products. Shares of adult males were significantly associated with the share of household consumption devoted for tobacco. There was a significant negative association between shares of persons with tertiary education within the HH and shares of monthly household consumption devoted for tobacco products. The correlation between household expenditures on tobacco and alcohol was found to be positive, rather weak, but statistically significant. Conclusion Given the high levels of poverty and high rates of smoking in the New Independent States, these findings have important policy implications. They indicate that the impact and opportunity costs of smoking on household finances are more significant for the poor than for the rich. Any reductions in smoking prevalence within poor households could have a positive economic impact.

  2. Is production intensification likely to make farm households food-adequate? A simple food availability analysis across smallholder farming systems from East and West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ritzema, R.S.; Frelat, R.; Douxchamps, S.; Silvestri, S.; Rufino, M.C.; Herrero, M.; Giller, K.E.; López-ridaura, S.; Teufel, N.; Paul, B.K.; Wijk, Van M.T.

    2017-01-01

    Despite considerable development investment, food insecurity remains prevalent throughout East and West Africa. The concept of ‘sustainable intensification’ of agricultural production has been promoted as a means to meet growing food needs in these regions. However, inadequate attention has been

  3. Empowering end-users in the energy transition : An exploration of products and services to support changes in household energy management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geelen, D.V.

    2014-01-01

    Current discourse on smart grid deployment expects residential end users to play a more active role as co-providers in the electric power system. Their electricity consumption and production is considered a resource for balancing supply and demand in an electric power system with distributed

  4. Expectation Returns and Households' Decision in the Schooling of Their Children in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shahzad; Lurhathaiopath, Puangkaew; Matsushita, Shusuke

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to study households' expectations for their children's academic performance in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Education has a significant role in increasing the productivity and income level of an individual in a society. Household education, income, distance from school, gender discrimination within household and cost of education…

  5. The household responsibility system and social change in rural Guizhou, China: applying a cohort approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yuan, J.

    2010-01-01

    Since the introduction of the Household Responsibility System (HRS) in 1978, Chinese rural households have experienced many changes. The HRS allows farming households to organize their own agricultural production on contracted lands, enabling them to work more efficiently and get more benefits

  6. Collective labor supply of native Dutch and immigrant households in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Klaveren, C.; van Praag, B.; Maassen van den Brink, H.

    2009-01-01

    We estimate a collective time allocation model, where Dutch, Surinamese/Antillean and Turkish households behave as if both spouses maximize a household utility function. We assume that paid labor and housework are the endogenous choice variables and furthermore consider household production.

  7. Efficient Intra-Household Allocations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Browning, Martin

    demands must satisfy a symmetry and rank condition on the Slutsky matrix. We also present some further results on the effects on demands of variables that do nor modify preferences but that do affect how decisions are made. We apply our theory to a series of surveys of household expendityres from Canada......The neo-classical theory of demand applies to individuals yet in empirical work it is usually taken as valid for households with many members. This paper explores what the theory of individuals implies for households with many members. This paper explores what the theory of individuals implies...... for households which have more than one member. We make minimal assumptions about how the individual members of the household resolve conflicts. All we assume is that however decisions are made, outcomes are efficient. We refer to this as the collective setting. We show that in the collective setting household...

  8. Time-Saving Innovations, Time Allocation, and Energy Use: Evidence from Canadian Households

    OpenAIRE

    Brencic, Vera; Young, Denise

    2009-01-01

    Time and energy are major inputs into the production of household goods and services. The introduction of time-saving innovations allows households to change their activity patterns and to reallocate their time across competing activities. As a result, the market penetration of time-saving technologies for general household use is expected to have a two-fold impact on energy use in the residential sector. Firstly, increased use of time-saving technologies for basic household chores (cooking, ...

  9. HOUSEHOLD NUCLEATION, DEPENDENCY AND CHILD HEALTH OUTCOMES IN GHANA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annim, Samuel Kobina; Awusabo-Asare, Kofi; Amo-Adjei, Joshua

    2015-09-01

    This study uses three key anthropometric measures of nutritional status among children (stunting, wasting and underweight) to explore the dual effects of household composition and dependency on nutritional outcomes of under-five children in Ghana. The objective is to examine changes in household living arrangements of under-five children to explore the interaction of dependency and nucleation on child health outcomes. The concept of nucleation refers to the changing structure and composition of household living arrangements, from highly extended with its associated socioeconomic system of production and reproduction, social behaviour and values, towards single-family households - especially the nuclear family, containing a husband and wife and their children alone. A negative relationship between levels of dependency, as measured by the number of children in the household, and child health outcomes is premised on the grounds that high dependency depletes resources, both tangible and intangible, to the disadvantage of young children. Data were drawn from the last four rounds of the Ghana Demographic and Health Surveys (GDHSs), from 1993 to 2008, for the first objective - to explore changes in household composition. For the second objective, the study used data from the 2008 GDHS. The results show that, over time, households in Ghana have been changing towards nucleation. The main finding is that in households with the same number of dependent children, in nucleated households children under age 5 have better health outcomes compared with children under age 5 in non-nucleated households. The results also indicate that the effect of dependency on child health outcomes is mediated by household nucleation and wealth status and that, as such, high levels of dependency do not necessarily translate into negative health outcomes for children under age 5, based on anthropometric measures.

  10. Smart Energy Management for Households

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja van Dam

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research presented in this thesis was to infer design-related insights and guidelines to improve the use and effectiveness of home energy management systems (HEMS. This was done through an empirical evaluation of the longitudinal effectiveness of these devices and an exploration of factors that influence their use and effectiveness. Three case studies executed with three different HEMS in households, a life cycle assessment (LCA on those three HEMS, as well as a reflection on the challenges of both researching and implementing HEMS in existing housing gave a comprehensive picture of the opportunities and barriers for HEMS. The research revealed five typical use patterns that emerged amongst households. It also revealed average energy savings of 7.8%, which however decreased in the follow-up that was conducted, and factors that may influence the use and effectiveness of HEMS. Nonetheless, the LCA calculations divulged that the HEMS can achieve net energy savings when taking their embedded energy into account. Problem statement The goal of reducing the energy consumption of existing housing formed the basis for this research. There are many facets to this energy consumption, including the characteristics of the house, its appliances, and the behaviours of its inhabitants. Because of this complexity, addressing only one of these facets is not effective in substantially reducing the overall energy consumption of households. This called for an interdisciplinary approach, merging the domains of design for sustainability, sustainable housing transformation and environmental psychology. In this thesis, HEMS were chosen as the intervention to address the various elements that contribute to household energy consumption, thereby functioning as a pivot. By giving feedback and/or helping manage consumption they can assist households in changing their behaviour and help save energy. However, in analysing literature on HEMS, four critique points

  11. User Behavior Assessment of Household Electric Usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Budi Mulyono

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Energy resilience is one of the famous issues among researchers and practitioners in energy sector. With enabling new technologies in power engineering for smart grid such as distributed generation, distributed storage, and intelligent information and management, each household community can establish a resilience energy production, distribution, and consumption. A household in smart grid system behaves as a customer and producer at the same time. This condition enabled them to reduce the power shortage in the peak hours, reduce CO2 pollution using renewable electricity, and minimizing electricity usage by changing life style. In developing countries, the amount of electricity supply is less than its demand. Most of the demand comes from the household that has peak load on nighttime. Keywords: User behavior, Game theory, Smart grid, Heating and cooling appliances, Energy resilientdoi:10.12695/ajtm.2013.6.2.1 How to cite this article:Mulyono, N. B. (2013. User Behavior Assessment of Household Electric Usage. The Asian Journal of Technology Management 6 (2: 65-71. Print ISSN: 1978-6956; Online ISSN: 2089-791X. doi:10.12695/ajtm.2013.6.2.1  

  12. Survey of household energy use (SHEU) : summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-12-15

    A survey was conducted to gather information on energy use and the factors affecting energy use in households residing in houses and residential buildings with fewer than 5 storeys. Dwelling characteristics, usage of appliances, and energy efficiency and consumption data were collected. An overview of the main findings were presented in this summary and included details of thermal envelopes; residential heating, air-conditioning and ventilation; household appliances; hot water; lighting; and Energy Star systems and appliances. The survey covered over 11 million households in all 10 Canadian provinces. Data were collected through computer-assisted personal interviews with owners, renters, landlords and property managers. It was observed that the average heated area of a Canadian dwelling was 1321 square feet, and that dwellings constructed after 1979 were larger and more energy efficient than previous dwellings. The majority of households located west of Quebec used natural gas, whereas the majority of Quebec households used electricity. Households in the Atlantic region used both electricity and oil. Penetration rates for high efficiency furnaces using natural gas, propane or oil furnaces was 62 per cent among dwellings built between 1990-2003. It was noted that more basements, attics, crawlspaces and garages are now being insulated. An increasing number of households use both a main and a secondary refrigerator. Nearly 25 per cent of households used 3 or more televisions. The use of central and window/room air-conditioners has increased, with Ontario households accounting for more than 60 per cent of all air-conditioning systems. Nearly 25 per cent of light bulbs were energy-efficient bulbs. It was also observed that Energy Star products have had a high penetration since the inception of the Energy Star initiative. However, a significant number of households were not aware if their products were Energy Star qualified. tabs., figs.

  13. Female relative wages, household specialization and fertility

    OpenAIRE

    Siegel, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Falling fertility rates have often been linked to rising female wages. However, over the last 40 years the US total fertility rate has been rather stable while female wages have continued to grow. Over the same period, women's hours spent on housework have declined, but men's have increased. I propose a model in which households are not perfectly specialized, but both men and women contribute to home production. As the gender wage gap narrows, the time allocations of men and women converge, a...

  14. Changing Age and Household Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højbjerg Jacobsen, Rasmus; Hougaard Jensen, Svend E.

    2014-01-01

    finances by almost 1% of GDP on the yearly budget. While the net fiscal effect of changing household structures is minor, the gross effects are substantial. In a future characterized by population ageing, public finances may be adversely affected by changes in both age and household structures, thus...

  15. Feedback on household electricity consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønhøj, Alice; Thøgersen, John

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present results from a project aiming to develop a new feedback technology to support sustainable living in private households. Against the backdrop of a review of the relevant literature and based on qualitative family interviews and registration of the households' electricity ...

  16. The Impact of Green Water Management Strategies on Household-Level Agricultural Water Productivity in a Semi-Arid Region: A Survey-based Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afton Clarke-Sather

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the effect of policies that encourage farmers to shift to crops with higher water productivity (CWP on the farm-level CWP of agricultural systems in a semi-arid region of western China. We combine survey results of farmers’ historical cropping decisions from a 2010 survey with estimates of CWP from agronomic experiments analogous to actual cultivation practices in the region to model CWP at the farm level and understand changes driven by shifting crops. Policies designed to replace subsistence agricultural systems with two cash crops; potatoes and maize; resulted in an increase in the CWP of semi-arid agricultural systems of approximately 30% between the years 1990–2010. This change was driven by shifting to crops that have a peak water demand that occurs in the portions of the growing season with the highest rainfall. The results of this article illustrate the potential of shifts in cropping patterns to increase the CWP of agricultural systems in semi-arid regions.

  17. Economic aspects of provision country household with food

    OpenAIRE

    Brunšek, Urška

    2016-01-01

    Food provides us satisfaction for our basic needs. We can buy or produce food, which is healthy and safe. Production of food can provide satisfaction for food for household or local population, such food is also easy to get. The purpose of diploma is to determinate if household save money with producing food and how much is it. I have analysed self providing rural household.. I collected information about quantity and sort of produced food and gained prices on the current market. This way ...

  18. Agricultural use of household compost in Brazzaville market gardening belt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matondo, H.

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available After the finalization of the household filth processing through aerobic fermentation or compostage, which allowed us to get an organic tool, so important in the plant production, the following communication studies the fertilising values of compost from household filth and raw wastes. Conducted in the fields, the study has revelead being successful with positive effects of the burying of compost upon the output of gardenmarket cultivation (in the Brazzaville poor soil. More over, the direct burying of household filth go along with depressive effects mainly on short-cycle vegetative cultivation.

  19. Argentine Beef Demand and Household Choices of Retail Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Rossini

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Household choices of outlet retail channels in beef purchases depend on several characteristics related to the quality of the product, convenience and ease of purchase, and economic factors such as price, income and payment methods. The aim of this paper is to study the influence of demographic and socio-economic attributes in the choice made by argentine consumers using a Multinominal Logit Model. The results show that the total number of purchases, the type of household, payment methods, and gender and schooling years of household head are the most relevant variables in the sample.

  20. Food acquisition and intra-household consumption patterns: a study of low and middle income urban households in Delhi, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR Pradhan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Food habits and choices in India are shifting due to many factors: changing food markets, fast urbanization, food price inflation, uncertain food production and unequal distribution during the past decade. This study aims to explore food acquisition and intra-household consumption patterns in urban low and middle income (LMI households in Delhi. Methods: Twenty households were randomly selected from the Center for Cardio-metabolic Risk Reduction in South Asia (CARRS surveillance study. Data were derived from 20 questionnaires administered to women responsible for food preparation, four key-informant-interviews, and 20 in-depth interviews with household heads during September-November 2011. STATA and ATLAS.ti software were used for data analysis. Results: Half of the households spent at least two-thirds of their income on food. The major expenditures were on vegetables (22% of total food expenditure, milk and milk products (16%, and cereal and related products (15%. Income, food prices, food preferences, and seasonal variation influenced food expenditure. Adults usually ate two to three times a day while children ate more frequently. Eating sequence was based on the work pattern within the household and cultural beliefs. Contrary to previous evidence, there was no gender bias in intra-household food distribution. Women considered food acquisition, preparation and distribution part of their self-worth and played a major role in food related issues in the household. Conclusion: Women’s key roles in food acquisition, preparation and intra household food consumption should be considered in formulating food policies and programs. 

  1. Food acquisition and intra-household consumption patterns: a study of low and middle income urban households in Delhi, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR Pradhan .

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Food habits and choices in India are shifting due to many factors: changing food markets, fast urbanization, food price inflation, uncertain food production and unequal distribution during the past decade. This study aims to explore food acquisition and intra-household consumption patterns in urban low and middle income (LMI households in Delhi. Methods: Twenty households were randomly selected from the Center for Cardio-metabolic Risk Reduction in South Asia (CARRS surveillance study. Data were derived from 20 questionnaires administered to women responsible for food preparation, four key-informant-interviews, and 20 in-depth interviews with household heads during September-November 2011. STATA and ATLAS.ti software were used for data analysis. Results: Half of the households spent at least two-thirds of their income on food. The major expenditures were on vegetables (22% of total food expenditure, milk and milk products (16%, and cereal and related products (15%. Income, food prices, food preferences, and seasonal variation influenced food expenditure. Adults usually ate two to three times a day while children ate more frequently. Eating sequence was based on the work pattern within the household and cultural beliefs. Contrary to previous evidence, there was no gender bias in intra-household food distribution. Women considered food acquisition, preparation and distribution part of their self-worth and played a major role in food related issues in the household. Conclusion: Women’s key roles in food acquisition, preparation and intra household food consumption should be considered in formulating food policies and programs.  

  2. Household costs of leprosy reactions (ENL in rural India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Chandler

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL is a common immune-mediated complication of lepromatous (LL and borderline lepromatous (BL leprosy. Most patients experience chronic or multiple acute ENL over many years during an economically active period of their lives. Understanding the economic burden of ENL is essential to provide effective patient support, yet this area has not been investigated.Ninety-one patients with LL or BL leprosy attending a leprosy hospital in Purulia district of West Bengal, India, were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Cases (n = 53 were identified as those who had one or more episodes of ENL within the last 3 years. Controls (n = 38 had LL or BL leprosy but no history of ENL. Data were collected on household income, direct and indirect costs, and coping strategies.The total household cost was Rs 1543 per month or 27.9% (IQR 13.2-52.6 of monthly household income for cases, and Rs 237 per month or 4.9% (IQR 1.7-13.4 of monthly household income for controls. Indirect costs accounted for 65% of total household costs for cases. Direct costs accounted for the remaining 35% of household costs, and resulted almost entirely from treatment-seeking in the private sector. Total household costs exceeded 40% of household income for 37.7% of cases (n = 20 and 2.6% of controls (n = 1 [1 USD = 59 INR].Households affected by ENL face significant economic burden and are at risk of being pushed further into poverty. Health policy should acknowledge the importance of private sector provision and the significant contribution to total household costs of lost productivity (indirect cost. Further work is needed to explore this area and identify solutions.

  3. A woman's place: household labour allocation in rural Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neitzert, M

    1994-01-01

    This article synthesizes the literature on household labor allocation. The review reveals that development policies impacting on the labor market favor men over women. Male favoritism also occurs in household decision-making. Data from the 1988 Rural Labor Force Survey were used to examine rural household labor allocation in 1988 and the extent of female and male participation in home and market production and the degree of labor market discrimination against women. It is argued that the standard neoclassical model of economics does not recognize the unequal bargaining power of each member of the household in arriving at a solution to the joint welfare maximization problem. Women's position is expected to worsen during economic development. Women will have less than full participation in the labor market. Women's distinct role in household welfare provision is often disregarded. Development policy mainly focuses on market activities where women hold few positions. Labor allocation in the empirical analysis pertains to the mean hours per week in farm activities, household activities, schooling, and paid or unpaid non-farm work. Findings indicate that average earnings were lower for females than males and that returns to education and training were higher for males than females. Wage discrimination accounted for 30-66% of the earnings gap between rural men and women. Women faced discrimination on their returns to human capital and occupational choices. The concentration of women in low-paying jobs accounted for 21% of the wage gap. Women's lower education accounted for over 10%. Findings suggest that Kenyan households respond to market incentives. Women worked longer hours than men and contributed more to household welfare. Policy should focus on models of household provisioning and not on a joint utility function. Policy should encourage households to revise labor allocation strategies.

  4. Growth Convergence and Spending Efficiency among Filipino Households

    OpenAIRE

    Erniel B. Barrios

    2007-01-01

    A growth model is used in the context of Sala-i-Martin’s definition of conditional convergence to assess the household income dynamics in segmented groups at the provincial level in the Philippines. There is a direct relationship between spending efficiency and income growth convergence across income groups. The lower income convergence rate among low income households can be attributed to their relatively less efficient access to the factors of production. The study provides tools in identif...

  5. Determinants of household choice of breakfast cereals: healthy or unhealthy?

    OpenAIRE

    Golub, Alla A.; Binkley, James K.

    2005-01-01

    We studied consumer demand for more and less healthy breakfast cereals. Using ACNielsen Homescan database and USDA food nutrition data, we developed three cereal nutrition indexes for each household in the data. In addition to the standard demographic characteristics of households and prices, we included variables representing differences between private labels and national brands. We found that the structure of the industry, through its effect on the product mix produced, affects consumer ch...

  6. Household vehicles energy consumption 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    Household Vehicles Energy Consumption 1994 reports on the results of the 1994 Residential Transportation Energy Consumption Survey (RTECS). The RTECS is a national sample survey that has been conducted every 3 years since 1985. For the 1994 survey, more than 3,000 households that own or use some 6,000 vehicles provided information to describe vehicle stock, vehicle-miles traveled, energy end-use consumption, and energy expenditures for personal vehicles. The survey results represent the characteristics of the 84.9 million households that used or had access to vehicles in 1994 nationwide. (An additional 12 million households neither owned or had access to vehicles during the survey year.) To be included in then RTECS survey, vehicles must be either owned or used by household members on a regular basis for personal transportation, or owned by a company rather than a household, but kept at home, regularly available for the use of household members. Most vehicles included in the RTECS are classified as {open_quotes}light-duty vehicles{close_quotes} (weighing less than 8,500 pounds). However, the RTECS also includes a very small number of {open_quotes}other{close_quotes} vehicles, such as motor homes and larger trucks that are available for personal use.

  7. Comparative Analysis of Households' Socioeconomic and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study analysed the socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of ... In order to improve households' food security status in both rural and urban areas, ... as reduction in household size through birth control, and increase in household ...

  8. Household Classification Using Smart Meter Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carroll Paula

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a project conducted in conjunction with the Central Statistics Office of Ireland in response to a planned national rollout of smart electricity metering in Ireland. We investigate how this new data source might be used for the purpose of official statistics production. This study specifically looks at the question of determining household composition from electricity smart meter data using both Neural Networks (a supervised machine learning approach and Elastic Net Logistic regression. An overview of both classification techniques is given. Results for both approaches are presented with analysis. We find that the smart meter data alone is limited in its capability to distinguish between household categories but that it does provide some useful insights.

  9. Determinants of household energy consumption in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekholm, Tommi; Krey, Volker; Pachauri, Shonali; Riahi, Keywan

    2010-01-01

    Improving access to affordable modern energy is critical to improving living standards in the developing world. Rural households in India, in particular, are almost entirely reliant on traditional biomass for their basic cooking energy needs. This has adverse effects on their health and productivity, and also causes environmental degradation. This study presents a new generic modelling approach, with a focus on cooking fuel choices, and explores response strategies for energy poverty eradication in India. The modelling approach analyzes the determinants of fuel consumption choices for heterogeneous household groups, incorporating the effect of income distributions and traditionally more intangible factors such as preferences and private discount rates. The methodology is used to develop alternate future scenarios that explore how different policy mechanisms such as fuel subsidies and micro-financing can enhance the diffusion of modern, more efficient, energy sources in India.

  10. Determinants of household energy consumption in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekholm, Tommi [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1000, FIN-02044 VTT (Finland); TKK Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo (Finland); Krey, Volker; Pachauri, Shonali; Riahi, Keywan [International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg (Austria)

    2010-10-15

    Improving access to affordable modern energy is critical to improving living standards in the developing world. Rural households in India, in particular, are almost entirely reliant on traditional biomass for their basic cooking energy needs. This has adverse effects on their health and productivity, and also causes environmental degradation. This study presents a new generic modelling approach, with a focus on cooking fuel choices, and explores response strategies for energy poverty eradication in India. The modelling approach analyzes the determinants of fuel consumption choices for heterogeneous household groups, incorporating the effect of income distributions and traditionally more intangible factors such as preferences and private discount rates. The methodology is used to develop alternate future scenarios that explore how different policy mechanisms such as fuel subsidies and micro-financing can enhance the diffusion of modern, more efficient, energy sources in India. (author)

  11. Household Behavior with Respect to Meat Consumption: Differences between Households with and without Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria, Merlino Valentina; Danielle, Borra; Tibor, Verduna; Stefano, Massaglia

    2017-10-31

    Meat consumers around the world are increasingly paying attention to product quality and safety, and are starting to reduce their meat consumption, especially with regard to red meat. This trend is prevalent in households with children who prefer health-certified meat products. Our study compares meat consumption habits in households with and without children or adolescences (0-18 years). A structured questionnaire was distributed to 401 retail purchasers at 12 different points of sales of meat in the Piedmont region in northwest Italy. Socio-demographic variables and quantitative-qualitative meat consumption habits of retail purchasers were investigated. One part of the questionnaire analyzed the relative importance of 12 meat choice purchasing attributes by employing the Best-Worst scaling methodology, a type of choice experiment. Our research found that households without children (subset B) have higher weekly meat consumption habits than those with children (subset A). Alternatively, the households with children (subset A) have a diet characterized by a greater variety of protein sources, such as legumes and fish. Both of the considered subsets preferred trusted butchers for meat buying, with supermarkets as a second choice. However, only consumers of subset A bought meat from farm butchers. Our team performed a consumer analysis to identify meat consumption patterns in the two considered subsets. Simultaneously, a Best-Worst analysis evidenced several choice attributes with different relevance for the two investigated samples segmentation in three clusters of purchase.

  12. Household Behavior with Respect to Meat Consumption: Differences between Households with and without Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merlino Valentina Maria

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Meat consumers around the world are increasingly paying attention to product quality and safety, and are starting to reduce their meat consumption, especially with regard to red meat. This trend is prevalent in households with children who prefer health-certified meat products. Our study compares meat consumption habits in households with and without children or adolescences (0–18 years. A structured questionnaire was distributed to 401 retail purchasers at 12 different points of sales of meat in the Piedmont region in northwest Italy. Socio-demographic variables and quantitative-qualitative meat consumption habits of retail purchasers were investigated. One part of the questionnaire analyzed the relative importance of 12 meat choice purchasing attributes by employing the Best-Worst scaling methodology, a type of choice experiment. Our research found that households without children (subset B have higher weekly meat consumption habits than those with children (subset A. Alternatively, the households with children (subset A have a diet characterized by a greater variety of protein sources, such as legumes and fish. Both of the considered subsets preferred trusted butchers for meat buying, with supermarkets as a second choice. However, only consumers of subset A bought meat from farm butchers. Our team performed a consumer analysis to identify meat consumption patterns in the two considered subsets. Simultaneously, a Best-Worst analysis evidenced several choice attributes with different relevance for the two investigated samples segmentation in three clusters of purchase.

  13. An Agent Based Model of Household Water Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clinton J. Andrews

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Households consume a significant fraction of total potable water production. Strategies to improve the efficiency of water use tend to emphasize technological interventions to reduce or shift water demand. Behavioral water use reduction strategies can also play an important role, but a flexible framework for exploring the “what-ifs” has not been available. This paper introduces such a framework, presenting an agent-based model of household water-consuming behavior. The model simulates hourly water-using activities of household members within a rich technological and behavioral context, calibrated with appropriate data. Illustrative experiments compare the resulting water usage of U.S. and Dutch households and their associated water-using technologies, different household types (singles, families with children, and retired couples, different water metering regimes, and educational campaigns. All else equal, Dutch and metered households use less water. Retired households use more water because they are more often at home. Water-saving educational campaigns are effective for the part of the population that is receptive. Important interactions among these factors, both technological and behavioral, highlight the value of this framework for integrated analysis of the human-technology-water system.

  14. Household Consumption of Food-Away-From-Home: Total Expenditure and by Type of Food Facility

    OpenAIRE

    Vicki A. McCracken; Jon A. Brandt

    1987-01-01

    Consistent with prior expectations based on household production theory, household income, time value, size and composition, and the environment in which production and consumption occurred were all important determinants of total household expenditures on food-away-from-home. However, the importance of these factors varied by type of food facility: conventional restaurants, fast-food facilities, and other commercial establishments. Decomposition of the tobit elasticities indicated the differ...

  15. THE IMPACT OF CREDIT AND CAPITAL SUPPORTS ON ECONOMIC BEHAVIOR OF FARM HOUSEHOLDS: A HOUSEHOLD ECONOMIC APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardus Bala de Rosari

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed at analysing the demand and allocation of credit and capital supports by farm household and impact on production, consumption, and investment. The research was conducted in East Nusa Tenggara Timur (ENT Province, one of targeted region of credit and capital supports policy of the government. Data collection was conducted from April to June 2013 by sampling for 178 households of farmers in Kupang District and Timor Tengah Selatan (TTS District. The result of this research showed that the allocation of credit and capital supports caused increaseof cattle production, consumption expenditure, and investment. The usage of credit and capital supports was depend on economical situation of the household itself. The decision of farm household on using credit and capital supports had impact on overall economical behavior of household, i.e. production, consumption and investment behavior. The transmission use was reciprocally interacted. Finally, the policy of credit and capital supports scheme for farmers should be adjusted with the context of farm household economics.

  16. Household composition and psychological health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joensen, Lene Eide; Willaing, Ingrid; Holt, Richard I G

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: 1) To explore the effect of household composition on the psychological health of adults with diabetes by comparing those living with other adult(s) including a partner with those living with neither partner nor other adult(s); 2) to examine potential mediation of social support...... in the association between household composition and psychological health. METHODS: The study is part of the DAWN2 study conducted in 17 countries. The population comprised 8596 people with diabetes (PWD). Multiple regression models (linear and binary) were applied. RESULTS: People living with 'other adult...... to the other household composition groups. The association between household composition and psychological health was not mediated by diabetes-specific social support. CONCLUSIONS: The study indicates the psychological vulnerability of respondents living without a partner but with other adult(s). Appropriate...

  17. Car use within the household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Borger, Bruno; Mulalic, Ismir; Rouwendal, Jan

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we study the demand for car kilometres in two-car households, focusing on the substitution between cars in response to fuel price changes. We use a large sample of detailed Danish data on two-car households to estimate—for each car owned by the household—own and cross-price effects...... of increases in fuel costs per kilometre. The empirical results show that failure to capture substitution between cars within the household can result in substantial misspecification biases. Ignoring substitution, we estimate fuel price elasticities of –0.81 and -0.65 for the primary and secondary cars...... efficient car, finding partial support for the underlying hypothesis. More importantly, the results of this extended model emphasize the importance of behavioural differences related to the position of the most fuel efficient car in the household, suggesting that households’ fuel efficiency choices...

  18. Sale of electricity to households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2011-01-01

    The Company Slovenske elektrarne (SE) Predaj has after two years of presence in the market expanded their business activities to the households segment. The first customers can be particularly employees of Slovenske elektrarne. This chance will be provided to them starting from 1 October of this year. 'The electricity supplies for households will only be supplementary segment of sales at SE Predaj Company. We will still focus mainly at businesses with higher consumption,' says director of the Company Mr. Stanislav Reguli. (author)

  19. Does fertility decrease household consumption?

    OpenAIRE

    Jungho Kim; Henriette Engelhardt; Alexia Fürnkranz-Prskawetz; Arnstein Aassve

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical analysis of the relationship between fertility and a direct measure of poverty for Indonesia, a country, which has experienced unprecedented economic growth and sharp fertility declines over recent decades. It focuses on illustrating the sensitivity of the effect of fertility on household consumption with respect to the equivalence scale by applying the propensity score matching method. The analysis suggests that a newborn child decreases household consumption...

  20. Consumption Profiles for Future Households

    OpenAIRE

    Blikø, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    Over the last few years there has been a change in energy consumption in Norwegian households. New houses are far better insulated, have high demands for efficient energy carriers and new installations that affect the electricity consumption. Today, most of the electricity in a Norwegian household is used for space heating, but this demand is expected to be reduced in the future, mainly because the need for space heating is reduced as a result of stricter demands for isolation. Electricity co...

  1. Pro-environmental Behaviour of Households in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Prášilová

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Apart from the positive effects, which are reflected in the relative improvement of the quality of life, the way households satisfy their needs has a direct impact on many environmental problems. Among them are global climatic changes, air, soil and water pollution, excessive usage of natural resources and loss of biodiversity. Sustainable consumption belongs to the key elements of global movement for sustainable development. It can be characterized as consumer behaviour which satisfies the needs of current and future generations. Czech households influence the environment every day by doing their shopping, consuming and using various kinds of products and services, the way they spend their leisure time, by commuting to work and travelling in general and, last but not the least, by producing waste. Both the location and the size of the household significantly influence the environment as well. 30 to 40% of environmental problems are caused by households. Thus, pro-environmental movements warn of the necessity to eliminate negative impacts of households’ behaviour. This paper analyses development tendencies of relevant indicators of household operations which have impact on the environment. The attention is paid primarily to consumption of electrical energy, water and food by households, usage of personal means of transport and production of communal waste. Time series statistical methods were used when assessing development tendencies.

  2. Ubiquitous Monitoring of Electrical Household Appliances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloret, Jaime; Macías, Elsa; Suárez, Alvaro; Lacuesta, Raquel

    2012-01-01

    The number of appliances at home is increasing continuously, mainly because they make our lives easier. Currently, technology is integrated in all objects of our daily life. TCP/IP let us monitor our home in real time and check ubiquitously if something is happening at home. Bearing in mind this idea, we have developed a low-cost system, which can be used in any type of electrical household appliance that takes information from the appliance and posts the information to the Twitter Social network. Several sensors placed in the household appliances gather the sensed data and send them wired or wirelessly, depending on the case, using small and cheap devices to a gateway located in the home. This gateway takes decisions, based on the received data, and sends notifications to Twitter. We have developed a software application that takes the values and decides when to issue an alarm to the registered users (Twitter friends of our smart home). The performance of our system has been measured taking into account the home network (using IEEE 802.3u and IEEE 802.11g) and the data publishing in Twitter. As a result, we have generated an original product and service for any electrical household appliance, regardless of the model and manufacturer, that helps home users improve their quality of life. The paper also shows that there is no system with the same innovative features like the ones presented in this paper. PMID:23202205

  3. Ubiquitous monitoring of electrical household appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloret, Jaime; Macías, Elsa; Suárez, Alvaro; Lacuesta, Raquel

    2012-11-07

    The number of appliances at home is increasing continuously, mainly because they make our lives easier. Currently, technology is integrated in all objects of our daily life. TCP/IP let us monitor our home in real time and check ubiquitously if something is happening at home. Bearing in mind this idea, we have developed a low-cost system, which can be used in any type of electrical household appliance that takes information from the appliance and posts the information to the Twitter Social network. Several sensors placed in the household appliances gather the sensed data and send them wired or wirelessly, depending on the case, using small and cheap devices to a gateway located in the home. This gateway takes decisions, based on the received data, and sends notifications to Twitter. We have developed a software application that takes the values and decides when to issue an alarm to the registered users (Twitter friends of our smart home). The performance of our system has been measured taking into account the home network (using IEEE 802.3u and IEEE 802.11g) and the data publishing in Twitter. As a result, we have generated an original product and service for any electrical household appliance, regardless of the model and manufacturer, that helps home users improve their quality of life. The paper also shows that there is no system with the same innovative features like the ones presented in this paper.

  4. Pattern of livelihood and household food security among rural dwellers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-12-01

    Dec 1, 2009 ... among rural dwellers: Case of women pastoralists in ... The study of the pattern of livelihood and household food security among rural ... production, storage or trade but also and perhaps more ... overall rural development and poverty eradication, ... panying pressures to raise productivity and efficiency and.

  5. Poverty alleviation aspects of successful improved household stoves programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Programmes to improve household wood and charcoal stove efficiencies have been launched throughout the developing world over the past 20 years. Their main driver has been to reduce environmental degradation resulting from the removal of trees for charcoal and fuel wood production. In addition, health benefits arise from the reduction or removal of smoke in people's homes. Unfortunately, many programmes have failed to establish sustainable improved stove production - primarily through lack of sufficient attention to consumer tastes and market dynamics. This project, carried out in Kenya, Ethiopia and Uganda, has identified key success factors for sustainable stove production and supply by determining the poverty impacts of successful, commercially-based, improved household biomass stove programmes on producers, consumers and others associated with the household fuel and stove supply and end-use business. (author)

  6. Household food security and nutritional status of vulnerable groups in Kenya : a seasonal study among low income smallholder rural households

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kigutha, H.N.

    1994-01-01

    Climatic seasonality is now recognized as being a constraint to agricultural production and to household food security in many countries within the tropical regions of the world. This study investigated the extent to which a unimodal climatic pattern affects food production and food

  7. Age bias, but no gender bias, in the intra-household resource allocation for health care in rural Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauerborn, R; Berman, P; Nougtara, A

    1996-10-01

    Household survey data, time allocation data, and qualitative interviews were used to examine whether households allocate their resources for health care differently between age and gender groups. Households allocated significantly fewer resources to the health care of sick children compared to that of sick adults. In contrast there were no such differences with regard to gender. The underlying household rationale is to concentrate its resources spent for health care on productive members rather than to spread them equitably among all its sick members. While children are not productive, women were shown to contribute as much to household production as men, hence their health is valued equally with that of men. Unless we understand intra-household biases in resource allocation, policies will be undermined. Further research is needed to test the hypothesis for the households' preference of production maintenance over health maximization.

  8. Power factor regulation for household usage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daud, Nik Ghazali Nik; Hashim, Fakroul Ridzuan; Tarmizi, Muhammad Haziq Ahmad

    2018-02-01

    Power factor regulator technology has recently drawn attention to the consumer and to power generation company in order for consumers to use electricity efficiently. Controlling of power factor for efficient usage can reduce the production of power in fulfilment demands hence reducing the greenhouse effect. This paper presents the design method of power factor controller for household usage. There are several methods to improve the power factor. The power factor controller used by this method is by using capacitors. Total harmonic distortion also has become a major problem for the reliability of the electrical appliances and techniques to control it will be discussed.

  9. Essays in Household Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Cox, Natalie Cox

    2017-01-01

    The use of technology by firms is changing the way insurance and lending markets function. I study the financial technology, or "fin-tech'', industry, which is characterized by a growing number of online lenders who use data on educational, employment, and financial outcomes to quickly assess the risk of prospective borrowers and offer individualized loan terms. In many ways, their financial "innovations'' can be thought of as movements towards more personalized products: interest rates that ...

  10. Time-saving innovations, time allocation, and energy use. Evidence from Canadian households

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brencic, Vera; Young, Denise [University of Alberta, 8-14 HM Tory, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2009-09-15

    Time and energy are major inputs into the production of household goods and services. As a result, the market penetration of time-saving technologies for general household use is expected to affect both a household's (1) allocation of time across home production and leisure activities; and (2) energy use. For example, with a household's adoption of a microwave or a dishwasher, cooking food and washing dishes will require less time, and therefore in-home meal preparation may increase. Households with microwaves or dishwashers may also opt to spend more time undertaking other production activities, inside or outside the home, or engage in more leisure (watching TV, reading, exercising). To the extent that time is reallocated from less to more energy-intensive activities in the home, residential energy use will increase as households adopt appliances that embody time-saving technology. Furthermore, an adoption of time-saving technologies for basic household chores, such as meal preparation and laundry, can impact energy use due to the fact that many time-saving technologies are more energy intensive than alternative technologies that require larger time commitments. In this paper, we use the Canadian Survey of Household Energy Use data from 2003 to examine the extent to which ownership of products that embody time-saving innovations affects time allocation and energy use at the household level. (author)

  11. Household electricity and gas consumption for heating homes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Jaehoon; Seob Kim, Chang; Lee, Jongsu

    2011-01-01

    Energy consumption has been drastically changed because of energy source depletion, price fluctuations, development and penetration of alternative energy sources, and government policies. Household energy sources are interrelated, and energy price and household characteristics, such as income level and dwelling size, affect the usage. To supply energy consistently and achieve a balance between production and consumption, stakeholders must understand consumer energy-consumption behavior. Therefore, this study identifies household heating energy usage patterns and the substitutive and/or complementary relationships between electricity and gas. Based on a multiple discrete-continuous extreme value model, household utility structure is identified from data on gas-heating usage. Results show greater utility and the smallest satiation values for gas boilers than for electric heaters and electric heating beds. The effects of consumer socioeconomic and environmental characteristics on the choice of heating energy sources were analyzed. Also, for further comparison, the respondents were split into high and low categories for income, heating degree days, dwelling size, and gas usage. Gas was found to be the most economical heating choice for households. - Research highlights: → This study investigates household electricity and gas consumption behavior for heating. → It also studied the relationship between two energy sources. → A research framework is suggested by combining the CDA and the MDCEV models. → It provides quantitative data that might be used for designing efficient energy policies.

  12. The household responsibility system and social change in rural Guizhou, China: applying a cohort approach

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, J.

    2010-01-01

    Since the introduction of the Household Responsibility System (HRS) in 1978, Chinese rural households have experienced many changes. The HRS allows farming households to organize their own agricultural production on contracted lands, enabling them to work more efficiently and get more benefits compared to during the collective era. Since the market liberation, the number of enterprises that can absorb the surplus labour has increased, and many men migrate to earn cash. This entails changes in...

  13. Financial planning for young households

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Marie Boiden; Weissensteiner, Alex; Poulsen, Rolf

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the financial planning problems of young households whose main decisions are how to finance the purchase of a house (liabilities) and how to allocate investments in pension savings schemes (assets). The problems are solved using a multi-stage stochastic programming model where...

  14. Family Issues in Multigenerational Households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinauer, Leslie L; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Studied issues faced by multigenerational families and their implications for family therapy. Major factors in multigenerational households included dependency, sibling relationships, depression, and demanding and egocentric behavior. Factors to consider during family therapy include respite care, age, interdependence, dignity, provision of care,…

  15. Household Arthropod Allergens in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Kyoung Yong

    2009-01-01

    Arthropods are important in human health, which can transmit pathogens to humans, parasitize, or produce important allergens. Allergy prevalence becomes higher in Korea recently as well as other developed countries in contrast to a decrease of infectious diseases. Allergic diseases caused by household arthropods have increased dramatically during the last few decades since human beings spend more their time for indoor activities in modernized life style. Household arthropods are one of the most common causes of allergic diseases. Biological characterization of household arthropods and researches on their allergens will provide better understanding of the pathogenesis of allergic diseases and suggest new therapeutic ways. Therefore, studies on arthropods of allergenic importance can be considered one of the major research areas in medical arthropodology and parasitology. Here, the biology of several household arthropods, including house dust mites and cockroaches, the 2 most well known arthropods living indoor together with humans worldwide, and characteristics of their allergens, especially the research activities on these allergens performed in Korea, are summarized. PMID:19885330

  16. Inflation differentials among Czech households

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janský, Petr; Hait, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 1 (2016), s. 71-84 ISSN 1210-0455 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR(CZ) TD020188 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : households * inflation * inflation differentials Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.710, year: 2016

  17. Household Portfolios in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alessie, R.J.M.; Hochgürtel, S.; van Soest, A.H.O.

    2000-01-01

    We describe and analyse the portfolio structure of Dutch households using micro panel data from the CentER Savings Survey, 1993-1998.The data allows for a distinction between many types of assets.Moreover, we have information on mortgage debt, consumer debt, etc.We analyse the composition of

  18. Household Fertilizers Use and Soil Fertility Management Practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Household Fertilizers Use and Soil Fertility Management Practices in Vegetable Crops Production: The Case of Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia. ... rate, which could leads to pollution of the environment from over dose application and from runoff in to the water bodies and leaching in to the ground water with economic loss.

  19. Education, Employment and Household Dynamics: Brazilian Migrants in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Paul

    2013-01-01

    By treating the household as a primary unit of analysis and social production, this article considers the mutually influential ways in which migrant families shape the educational pathways and experiences of Brazilian children living in Japan. Through an ethnographic exploration of relations between parents, children and their working siblings I…

  20. Efficient Intra-household Allocations and Distribution Factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Browning, Martin; Bourguignon, François; Chiappori, Pierre-André

    and general test of the Pareto efficiency hypothesis, which is consistent with all possible assumptions on the private or public nature of goods, all possible consumption externalities between household members, and all types of interdependent individual preferences and domestic production technology...

  1. Analysis of the energy requirement for household consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vringer, Kees

    2005-01-01

    Humans in households use energy for their activities. This use is both direct, for example electricity and natural gas, but also indirect, for the production, transport and trade of other goods and services. The main objective of this thesis is to gain insight into the energy requirement associated

  2. Agricultural extension, technology adoption and household food security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santos Rocha, Jozimo

    2017-01-01

    In this thesis, I use experimental and quasi-experimental data from 25 villages and a total of 1,105 farmers from eastern DRC to investigate the relationship among agricultural training, the adoption of agricultural technologies, crop productivity, and household food insecurity and dietary

  3. A Picture of Subsidized Households 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Picture of Subsidized Households describes the nearly 5 million households living in HUD-subsidized housing in the United States for the year 2009. Picture 2009...

  4. problems in spinning in kolfe house-hold utencil factory abstract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kolfe House-Hold Utensil Factory in Addis Ababa, is producing different types of utensils for house-hold use from commercial aluminium. Deep drawing or/and spinning are the methods used for shaping this metal to desired shape and size, though some small parts are cast too. One of their products is kettle, which is.

  5. Farm household allocative efficiency : a multi-dimensional perspective on labour use in Western Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamau, M.

    2007-01-01

    The economy in western Kenya, like most of the other regions in Kenya is agriculture based with smallholder farm households forming the bulk of the population. While all smallholder households engage in agricultural production to meet their food and cash needs, income earned outside the farm forms a

  6. Characterization of household food waste in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edjabou, Vincent Maklawe Essonanawe; Petersen, C.; Scheutz, Charlotte

    This paper presents a methodology and the results of compositional analysis of food waste from Danish families living in single-family houses. Residual household waste was sampled and manually sorted from 211 single-family houses in the suburb of Copenhagen. The main fractions contributing...... to the household food waste were avoidable vegetable food waste and non-avoidable vegetable food waste. Statistical analysis found a positive linear relationship between household size and the amount of the household food waste....

  7. Household energy and consumption and expenditures, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this supplement to the Household Energy Consumption and Expenditures 1990 report is to provide information on the use of energy in residential housing units, specifically at the four Census regions and nine Census division levels. This report includes household energy consumption, expenditures, and prices for natural gas, electricity, fuel oil, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), and kerosene as well as household wood consumption. For national-level data, see the main report, Household Energy Consumption and Expenditures 1990

  8. Household Consumption, Investment and Life Insurance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruhn, Kenneth; Steffensen, Mogens

    2011-01-01

    This paper develops a continuous-time Markov model for utility optimization of households. The household optimizes expected future utility from consumption by controlling consumption, investments and purchase of lifeinsurance for each person in the household. The optimal controls are investigated...... in the special case of a two-person household, and we present graphics illustrating how differences between the two persons affect the controls....

  9. The carbon footprint of Greek households (1995–2012)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markaki, M.; Belegri-Roboli, A.; Sarafidis, U.; Mirasgedis, S.

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this paper is twofold: i) to investigate the carbon footprint of Greek households throughout the period 1995–2012, in order to identify the main socio-economic factors that affect GHG emissions, and ii) to evaluate the effectiveness of the implemented policies to tackle climate change. In this, a consumption-based emissions inventory approach is applied. The analysis is based on an environmentally-extended input-output model including direct CO_2 emissions from households, indirect CO_2 emissions from electricity consumption and indirect CO_2 emissions from energy used in the production of goods and services purchased by households, domestic or imported. Statistical analysis and appropriate regression models were developed in order to identify the main factors influencing the carbon footprint of Greek households. The results indicate that the observed trends during the period 1995–2008 can be attributed to the effect of high economic growth. This trend is partially counterbalanced by favorable weather conditions and the implementation of greenhouse mitigation policies and measures mainly in the supply side. Since 2008 the shrinking household income is the dominant driver. In addition, the effectiveness of energy conservation policies and measures in place is rather low, while the effect of imports is limited. - Highlights: • The factors influencing the carbon footprint of Greek households have been analyzed. • The analysis is based on consumption-based GHG inventories. • High economic growth resulted in carbon footprint increases during 1995–2008. • Carbon footprint reduction after 2008 is attributed to shrinking of household income. • Mitigation measures in power and manufacturing sectors reduced carbon footprint.

  10. Energy-microfinance intervention for low income households in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, P. Sharath Chandra

    In India, limited energy access and energy inequity hamper the lives of low income households. Traditional fuels such as firewood and dung cake account for 84 percent and 32 percent of the rural and urban household cooking energy (NSSO, 2007). With 412 million people without access to electricity in 2005, India hosts the world's largest such population (IEA, 2007). But, low income households still spend 9 - 11.7 percent1 of their incomes on inefficient forms of energy while wealthy households spend less than 5 percent on better energy products (Saghir, 2005). Renewable energy technologies coupled with innovative financial products can address the energy access problem facing the low income households in India (MacLean & Siegel, 2007; REEEP, 2009). Nevertheless, the low income households continue to face low access to mainstream finance for purchasing renewable energy technology at terms that meet their monthly energy related expenditure (ESMAP, 2004a; SEEP, 2008a) and low or no access to energy services (Ailawadi & Bhattacharyya, 2006; Modi et. al., 2006). The lack of energy-finance options has left the marginalized population with little means to break the dependence on traditional fuels. This dissertation proposes an energy microfinance intervention to address the present situation. It designed a loan product dedicated to the purchase of renewable energy technologies while taking into account the low and irregular cash flows of the low income households. The arguments presented in this dissertation are based on a six-month pilot project using this product designed and developed by the author in conjunction with a microfinance institution and its low income clients and Energy Service Companies in the state of Karnataka. Finding the right stakeholders and establishing a joint agreement, obtaining grant money for conducting the technology dissemination workshops and forming a clear procedure for commissioning the project, are the key lessons learnt from this study

  11. Division of household tasks and financial management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antonides, G.

    2011-01-01

    Both the standard economic model and bargaining theory make predictions about financial management and the division of household labor between household partners. Using a large Internet survey, we have tested several predictions about task divisions reported by Dutch household partners. The division

  12. 7 CFR 273.1 - Household concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Household concept. 273.1 Section 273.1 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM CERTIFICATION OF ELIGIBLE HOUSEHOLDS § 273.1 Household concept...

  13. Size of households and income disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznets, S

    1981-01-01

    The author examines "the relation between differentials in size of households, (preponderantly family households including one-person units) and disparities in income per household, per person, or per some version of consuming unit." The analysis is based on data for the United States, the Federal Republic of Germany, Israel, Taiwan, the Philippines, and Thailand. excerpt

  14. Spending time and money within the household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Browning, Martin; Gørtz, Mette

    We consider theoretically and empirically the allocation of time and money within the household. The novelty of our empirical work is that we have a survey which provides information on both time use and the allocation of some goods within the household, for the same households. We can consider...

  15. Intrahousehold allocation, household headship and nutrition of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper aims to establish whether there is a significant difference in nutritional status of children in male-headed households, de jure female-headed households and de facto female-headed households. The study uses a sample of 199 children aged 6 to 60 months, of mothers in reproductive age, derived from 499 ...

  16. Environmental impact of household activity in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Choliz, Julio; Duarte, Rosa; Mainar, Alfredo [Department of Economic Analysis University of Zaragoza Gran Via 2, 50005, Zaragoza (Spain)

    2007-04-20

    The objective of this paper is to analyse the environmental impacts of the Spanish economy by way of water and atmospheric pollution on the basis of a Spanish Accounting Matrix for 1999. Only households were taken as an exogenous account. The pollution measures are estimated for seven categories of pollution: three atmospheric pollutants (CO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} and SO{sub x}) and four indicators for water (waste water, nitrogen, metals and biological oxygen demand (BOD)). The environmental data base was obtained from the Spanish Statistical Institute. The analysis reveals that pollution in Spain is closely linked to food production, energy, extractive industries and paper manufacturing. We show that services, taken as a whole, are major polluters, though this is due to the volume of household expenditure they represent rather than their pollution potential as such. We also show that the Spanish economy avoids a great deal of pollution by importing inputs, which pollute where they are produced. Finally, the study also provides per capita pollution values for the aforementioned seven pollutants. (author)

  17. Rural household incomes and land grabbing in Cambodia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiao, Xi; Smith-Hall, Carsten; Theilade, Ida

    2015-01-01

    This paper empirically quantifies environmentally augmented rural household incomes in Cambodia and analyzes how economic land concessions (ELCs) affect such incomes. Data is derived from a structured survey of 600 randomly selected households in 15 villages in three study sites in Cambodia, where...... local livelihoods are highly reliant on access to land and natural resources, supported by qualitative data from focus group discussions. Gini coefficient decomposition, multiple regression models, and propensity score matching (PSM) models were employed to analyze the composition of income portfolios......, determinants of major income sources, and the impacts of land grabbing on incomes. Results documented high reliance on environmental income (32–35% of total household income) and farm income (51–53%) across income quartiles; demonstrated the variation in product composition across quartiles...

  18. The energy requirement of holidays and household reduction options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van den Berg, M.; Vringer, K.

    1999-12-01

    Like all consumer products and services, holidays require energy. The aim of this study is to give insight to the energy consumption for holidays of Dutch households and to suggest options to reduce this energy demand. To examine the energy consumption for holidays, nine holiday packages are composed, each representing a large group of Dutch vacationers. The packages describe the destination, means of transport, duration, accommodation and number of vacationers. The average energy requirement for the accommodation and transport for long summer holidays is 12.5 GJ per Dutch household, excluding the energy requirement for food and activities. About 10% of the Dutch households, the ones that travel by plane to their holiday destination, consume 70% of the total amount of energy all households require for holiday purposes. This is mainly due to the distance travelled, rather than to the chosen means of transport. If the travelled distances will be reduced by 50% and all nights are spent in a tent, the average household energy requirement would be 6.1 GJ, a reduction of more than 50%. 36 refs

  19. Cassava Market Participation Decisions of Producing Households in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enete, AA.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cassava is a basic staple and a major source of farm income for the people of sub-Saharan Africa. Efficiency in cassava marketing therefore becomes a very important determinant of both consumer's living cost and producer's income. At the farmer's level, which is the beginning of the marketing chain, food must produced in reasonable quantity to attract enough market participants that will make for efficient distribution. The use of food price policy to stimulate short-run marketed surplus of producing households has often been questioned. This is because some households are deficit producers who purchase crops they also produce. Increasing producer prices will therefore have adverse distributional effects on food buying, while bypassing autarkic households. An alternative would therefore be to find non-price strategic variables that motivate farm households to participate in commodity markets. This is the objective of this paper. The paper is based on primary data collected within the framework by the collaborative study of cassava in Africa (COSCA. Good market access conditions, improved market information especially on prices, the production of granules instead of dried roots or pastes increased market participation for sellers, while rising grain prices, younger and less educated heads of households encouraged participation for buyers.

  20. Household pesticide usage in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, E P; Keefe, T J; Wheeler, H W; Mounce, L; Helwic, L; Applehans, F; Goes, E; Goes, T; Mihlan, G; Rench, J; Taylor, D K

    1981-01-01

    A total of 10,000 U.S. households in 25 standard metropolitan statistical areas and 25 counties were included in the United States. More than 8,200 households granted an interview. Nine of every ten households in the United States used some types of pesticide in their house, garden, or yard. Households in the southeastern United States used the most pesticides. Although more than 500 different pesticide formulations were used by the sampled households, 15 pesticides accounted for 65.5% of all pesticides reported in this study. Thirteen of these 15 pesticides were insecticides, one was a herbicide, and one was a rodenticide.

  1. Exploring sustainability transitions in households: insights from real-life experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baedeker, Carolin; Buhl, Johannes; Greiff, Kathrin; Hasselkuß, Marco; Liedtke, Christa; Lukas, Melanie

    2016-04-01

    Societal transformation towards sustainable consumption and production, especially in urban areas, is a key challenge. The design and implementation of sustainable product service systems (PSS) might be the initial point, in which private households play a major role. The Sustainable LivingLab research infrastructure was developed as an experimental setting for investigating consumption and production patterns in private households, especially to explore socio-technical innovations which are helpful to guide sustainability transitions. The suggested presentation describes results of several real-life experiments conducted in German households, e.g. the project SusLabNRW (North-Rhine Westphalia as part of the European SusLabNWE-Project), the EnerTransRuhr project as well as the PATHWAYS project that explore patterns of action, time use, social practices and the related resource use in private households. The presentation gives an overview of the employed methods and analysed data (qualitative interviews, social network analysis, survey on household activities and inventories and a sustainability assessment (resource profiles - MIPS household analysis). Households' resource consumption was calculated in all fields of activity to analyse social practices' impact. The presentation illustrates how aggregated data can inform scenario analysis and concludes with an outlook onto transition pathways at household level and socio-technical innovations in the fields of housing, nutrition and mobility.

  2. Women's Role in the Agricultural Household: Bargaining and Human Capital

    OpenAIRE

    Schultz, T. Paul

    1999-01-01

    This paper reviews the methods and empirical findings from economic analyses of women's contribution to social welfare and the determinants of their human capital. To understand better women's roles in agricultural households, three themes have gained prominence in the economics literature. First is the conceptualization of the unified family as coordinator of production and consumption over the lifecycle. Second is the role of separability of production and consumption decisions in the agric...

  3. Urban household energy consumption in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pongsapich, Amara; Wongsekiarttirat, Wathana (Chulalongkorn Univ., Bangkok (Thailand). Social Research Inst.)

    1994-05-01

    This study was aimed at developing a better understanding of urban household energy consumption in Thailand through a series of in-depth household energy surveys. Households in urban areas used electricity, LPG, charcoal and fuelwood. Traditional biomass fuels such as husk and dung, as well as kerosene, were essentially not used in urban households. Nearly all households used electricity and most households used LPG. Some households used more than one fuel for cooking, particularly LPG and charcoal. There was a great difference in electricity used between the households in Bangkok and other urban areas. Most households in the study areas used LPG stove or burners for cooking. But charcoal stoves were also used by many households for specific culinary purposes. Electric rice-cookers are widely used for convenience. The study suggests that the number of households using charcoal stoves will decrease gradually and fuelwood use will disappear. Saturation rates for refrigerators and colour television sets were very high and air conditioners were common in Bangkok. Some users may be unaware of the benefits of LPG as a cooking fuel. To improve indoor air quality and cooking safety and reduce pressures on forests from commercial fuelwood use, measures to promote LPG should be undertaken. The government should also provide information about efficient appliances and electricity conservation. (Author)

  4. Household demographic determinants of Ebola epidemic risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Ben

    2016-03-07

    A salient characteristic of Ebola, and some other infectious diseases such as Tuberculosis, is intense transmission among small groups of cohabitants and relatively limited indiscriminate transmission in the wider population. Here we consider a mathematical model for an Ebola epidemic in a population structured into households of equal size. We show that household size, a fundamental demographic unit, is a critical factor that determines the vulnerability of a community to epidemics, and the effort required to control them. Our analysis is based on the household reproduction number, but we also consider the basic reproduction number, intrinsic growth rate and final epidemic size. We show that, when other epidemiological parameters are kept the same, all of these quantifications of epidemic growth and size are increased by larger households and more intense within-household transmission. We go on to model epidemic control by case detection and isolation followed by household quarantine. We show that, if household quarantine is ineffective, the critical probability with which cases must be detected to halt an epidemic increases significantly with each increment in household size and may be a very challenging target for communities composed of large households. Effective quarantine may, however, mitigate the detrimental impact of large household sizes. We conclude that communities composed of large households are fundamentally more vulnerable to epidemics of infectious diseases primarily transmitted by close contact, and any assessment of control strategies for these epidemics should take into account the demographic structure of the population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Under-reported income of Russian households

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaroslav Murashov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the proposed paper, an attempt is made to estimate the proportion of unstated income for Russian households based on micro data. An overview of microeconomic approaches to estimating the scale of under-reported income is provided. These approaches are weakly represented in the national literature, so their strengths and weaknesses are also analyzed. A theoretical model of household consumer behavior is described that allows the size of under-reported income to be estimated. The structure of household incomes and expenditures is studied based on an RLMS sample for 2012. The model is estimated using household subsamples based on the type of household and household income. The estimation technique utilizes regression variables and random effects. The resulting subsample estimates were applied to the general population and compared with those obtained by other researchers using alternative methods and other data. A comparison is made to estimates of under-reported income developed for British households.

  6. Determinants of edible oil choice by households in Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindaraj, Gurrappa Naidu; Suryaprakash, Satrasala

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the major determinants that influence the choice of edible oils by households across geographical zones in Tamil Nadu state, India. The primary data from 1,000 sample households were collected using a structured pre-tested questionnaire. Multinomial logit model was fitted for determining the factors. The results revealed that education, income, and households with a history of health problems were the important determinants that influenced the choice of low-saturated-fat oils, whereas the larger size households and weaker section households preferred low-priced palm oil. Income and education levels in Tamil Nadu state surged ahead in recent years. In consonance to these changes the nontraditional low-saturated fat containing sunflower oil demand will increase in many folds in coming years. Hence, besides traditional oils, sunflower oil production has to be stepped up on "mission mode" through appropriate production programs to meet the present and future edible oil demand domestically.

  7. Recent trend in family households in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Z; Guo, L

    1997-01-01

    This study examined trends in household size and age structure in Beijing, China, in 1995. Data were reliably obtained from the 1% sample survey of China. Findings indicate that the average size of a family household was 3.15 persons, that is, 0.050 persons fewer than the 3.20 from the 1990 Census. Children aged 0-14 years in each household averaged 0.04 fewer children during 1990-95. 80% of the decline in household size was due to decreases in the number of children. The percentage of single-family and single-person households declined. Three-person households were the only size group that increased (23.2-40.7%). The household headship (HH) rate for males increased dramatically between the ages of 20 and 30 years and stabilized after 35 years. The HH rate for women grew slowly and continuously until age 50 years and then stabilized. The gender gap in HH appeared at an early age and remained thereafter. The HH rate declined at older ages. The HH rate in Beijing, compared to the national rate, suggests relative gender equity in Beijing. As a child ages, the percentage of three-generation households declines and the percentage of two-generation households rises. As a child becomes an adult, the percentages of single-person households and single-couple households increase. Single-couple households decreased among the middle-aged. 67.4% of the elderly lived in two- or three-generation households. 31.4% of elderly lived in single-person/couple households. The percentage of elderly living with their children declined by 2 points during 1990-95.

  8. Rural household energy consumption pattern in the disregarded villages of Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miah, Md. Danesh; Kabir, Rashel Rana Mohammad Sirajul; Koike, Masao; Akther, Shalina; Shin, Man Yong

    2010-01-01

    Energy is one of the most important ingredients required to alleviate poverty and realize socio-economic and human development, which is directly interconnected to the prominence of life in rural areas. An extensive survey on household energy consumption pattern interrelating socio-economic and demographic factors was carried out in the disregarded villages of Bangladesh using stratified random sampling technique of 120 households. This paper focuses on household energy consumption, various combinations of fuels and their expenditure in the study area. Biomass, kerosene, electricity, LPG and candle were found as the energy carrier used in the rural households in this study. The study shows that 92% households use biomass, 28% LPG, 89% kerosene, 78% electricity and 27% candle as fuel types. It was found that 56% households collected biomass from their own homesteads and/or agricultural lands. Bamboo, branches, cow dung, firewood, rice husk, leaves and twigs and straw were found as the biomass for household energy use. Average monthly household expenditure for total energy was US$ 9.67 (SE, 0.31) per month while the total monthly income of the household was US$ 123 (SE, 2.53). The ratio of the total monthly energy expenditure to the total monthly income was 7.86%. The study will be helpful to understand the energy consumption system and its expenditure in the rural areas of Bangladesh and to the policy formulation for energy production, consumption and utilization.

  9. Rural household energy consumption pattern in the disregarded villages of Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miah, Md. Danesh [Institute of Forestry and Environmental Sciences, University of Chittagong, Chittagong 4331 (Bangladesh); Forest Policy Laboratory, Shinshu University, 8304 Minamimminowa, Nagano-ken 399-4598 (Japan); Kabir, Rashel Rana Mohammad Sirajul [Institute of Forestry and Environmental Sciences, University of Chittagong, Chittagong 4331 (Bangladesh); Koike, Masao; Akther, Shalina [Forest Policy Laboratory, Shinshu University, 8304 Minamimminowa, Nagano-ken 399-4598 (Japan); Yong Shin, Man [Department of Forest Science, Kookmin University, Seoul (Korea)

    2010-02-15

    Energy is one of the most important ingredients required to alleviate poverty and realize socio-economic and human development, which is directly interconnected to the prominence of life in rural areas. An extensive survey on household energy consumption pattern interrelating socio-economic and demographic factors was carried out in the disregarded villages of Bangladesh using stratified random sampling technique of 120 households. This paper focuses on household energy consumption, various combinations of fuels and their expenditure in the study area. Biomass, kerosene, electricity, LPG and candle were found as the energy carrier used in the rural households in this study. The study shows that 92% households use biomass, 28% LPG, 89% kerosene, 78% electricity and 27% candle as fuel types. It was found that 56% households collected biomass from their own homesteads and/or agricultural lands. Bamboo, branches, cow dung, firewood, rice husk, leaves and twigs and straw were found as the biomass for household energy use. Average monthly household expenditure for total energy was US$ 9.67 (SE, 0.31) per month while the total monthly income of the household was US$ 123 (SE, 2.53). The ratio of the total monthly energy expenditure to the total monthly income was 7.86%. The study will be helpful to understand the energy consumption system and its expenditure in the rural areas of Bangladesh and to the policy formulation for energy production, consumption and utilization. (author)

  10. Effect of health expenses on household capabilities and resource allocation in a rural commune in Vietnam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Thuy Nguyen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Significant health expenses can force households to reduce consumption of items required for daily living and long-term well-being, depriving them of the capability to lead economically stable and healthy lives. Previous studies of out-of-pocket (OOP and other health expenses have typically characterized them as "catastrophic" in terms of a threshold level or percentage of household income. We aim to re-conceptualize the impact of health expenses on household "flourishing" in terms of "basic capabilities." METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a 2008 survey covering 697 households, on consumption patterns and health treatments for the previous 12 months. We compare consumption patterns between households with and without inpatient treatment, and between households with different levels of outpatient treatment, for the entire study sample as well as among different income quartiles. We find that compared to households without inpatient treatment and with lower levels of outpatient treatment, households with inpatient treatment and higher levels of outpatient treatment reduced investments in basic capabilities, as evidenced by decreased consumption of food, education and production means. The lowest income quartile showed the most significant decrease. No quartile with inpatient or high-level outpatient treatment was immune to reductions. CONCLUSIONS: The effects of health expenses on consumption patterns might well create or exacerbate poverty and poor health, particularly for low income households. We define health expenditures as catastrophic by their reductions of basic capabilities. Health policy should reform the OOP system that causes this economic and social burden.

  11. The householders' guide to radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-06-01

    This guide is a follow-up to the leaflet Radon in Houses which was issued previously by the Department of the Environment. It is intended for people who live in areas with high levels of radon. It is written particularly for householders whose homes have already been tested and found to have an appreciable level of radon. It explains what radon is, how it gets into houses and what the effects on health may be. It also outlines some of the ways of reducing the level of radon and gives guidance both on how to get the work done and likely costs. (author)

  12. Incense and Joss Stick Making in Small Household Factories, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Siripanich

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Incense and joss stick are generally used in the world. Most products were made in small household factories. There are many environmental and occupational hazards in these factories. Objective: To evaluate the workplace environmental and occupational hazards in small household incense and joss stick factories in Roi-Et, Thailand. Methods: Nine small household factories in rural areas of Roi-Et, Thailand, were studied. Dust concentration and small aerosol particles were counted through real time exposure monitoring. The inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES was used for quantitative measurement of heavy metal residue in incense products. Results: Several heavy metals were found in dissolved dye and joss sticks. Those included barium, manganese, and lead. Rolling and shaking processes produced the highest concentration of dust and aerosols. Only 3.9 % of female workers used personal protection equipment. Conclusion: Dust and chemicals were major threats in small household incense and joss stick factories in Thailand. Increasing awareness towards using personal protection equipment and emphasis on elimination of environmental workplace hazards should be considered to help the workers of this industry.

  13. Household air pollution and the sustainable development goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amegah, Adeladza Kofi; Jaakkola, Jouni J K

    2016-03-01

    Globally, 41% of households, over 2.8 billion people, rely on solid fuels (coal and biomass) for cooking and heating. In developing countries in Asia and sub-Saharan Africa where these fuels are predominantly used, women who are customarily responsible for cooking, and their young children, are most exposed to the resulting air pollution. Solid fuels are still in widespread use and it appears that intervention efforts are not keeping pace with population growth in developing countries. Here we pinpoint the challenges and identify opportunities for addressing household air pollution while mitigating global climate change and promoting the sustainable development goals. We recommend the following actions: implementation of the WHO indoor air quality guidelines on household fuel combustion; effective promotion and dissemination of improved cookstoves through formation of country alliances for clean cookstoves; expansion of liquefied petroleum gas production facilities and distribution networks; harnessing renewable energy potential; promotion of biogas production at both household and community level; ensuring improved ventilation of homes through education and enforcement of building standards; and exploiting opportunities in the health and other sectors for changing health-damaging cooking behaviour.

  14. CE APPROVAL IN ELECTRICAL HOUSEHOLD APPLIANCES AND A CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazmi EKREN

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the reason for rapidly developing technology, increasing competition medium, and awareness of the consumers, nowadays, the exigency of production with good quality has gained more and more significance. Certification of the quality and safety of the products to the consumers is compulsory in terms of producers. There are some documents to certify safety of the products. One of them is CE certificate. In this paper, basic information about CE mark is given and CE standards and tests required for electrical household appliances are mentioned. As an application, one of an electrical household appliance, toaster grill is treated and examined. To obtain CE certificate for toaster grill, required tests are made according to EN60335-2-9 and CE certificate is obtained.

  15. Household economic modelsof gill net fishermen at Madura strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primyastanto, M.

    2018-04-01

    The purposes of this research was to analyze household economic models of gill net fishermen at Madura strait. 30 families of gillnet fishermenwere used for purposive sampling. Data analysis used descriptive qualitative and quantitative (regression analysis). Quantitative descriptive analysis was used to analyze research and compare to factors that affecting household economic models of gill net fishermen family. Research results showed tha thousehold economic models of gill net fishermen at Madura strait was production value level or fishermen revenue at sea was strongly influenced byp roduction asset production, education level, fuel, and work flow. Work flow rate of fishermen families affected by asset production, non fisheries workflow and number of male workforce. Non fishing income level was strongly influenced by non-fishery business assets, number of family members owned andnon-fishing work flow. Spending levels of gill net fishermen at Madura strait was affected by fishing income, non-fishing income, fishermen wife education and fishermen family members.

  16. Potential for circular economy in household WEEE management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parajuly, Keshav; Wenzel, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    for reuse and recycling – the two key pathways promoted by CE – for waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) management. We empirically characterize household WEEE stream in order to explore a) the remaining functionality and reuse potential of end-of-life (EoL) products based on the current market...... conditions, and b) the recycling potential of EoL products based on their material compositions and existing WEEE treatment chain. For this, a total of 4704 kg WEEE within the collection fractions of ‘small appliances’ and ‘monitors’ was collected in 16 collection cages from eight civic amenity sites...... as well as from material recovery were estimated. With 22% and 7% of fully functional products in the fractions ‘small appliances’ and ‘monitors’ respectively, our results suggest resale value up to €247 per cage of the collected household WEEE. The existing WEEE management system, which focuses only...

  17. Urban Household Characteristics and Dietary Diversity: An Analysis of Food Security in Accra, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codjoe, Samuel Nii Ardey; Okutu, David; Abu, Mumuni

    2016-06-01

    The world's population is increasingly becoming urbanized. If the current urban growth rate is to continue, new and unprecedented challenges for food security will be inevitable. Dietary diversity has been used to ascertain food security status albeit at the multicountry and country levels. Thus, household-level studies in urban settings, particularly in sub-Sahara African, are few. Yet, it is imperative that assessments of food security are undertaken particularly in urban settings, due to the projected fast rate of urbanization and the challenges of attaining food security. To examine household characteristics and dietary diversity. The study uses data from 452 households from the second round of the Regional Institute for Population Studies (RIPS) EDULINK urban poverty and health study. Bivariate and multivariate analyses are undertaken. Mean dietary diversity for all households is 6.8. Vegetables have the highest diversity, followed by cereal-based and grain products. Household characteristics that have statistically significant associations with dietary diversity include sex and level of education of household head, household wealth quintile, and source of food. There is high dietary diversity in the study communities of Accra but low consumption of foods rich in micronutrient, such as fruits and milk/dairy products. The study brings to fore issues related to resource-disadvantaged entities of the urban system, namely, females, poor households, and the non-educated who have food insecurity problems. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. Analysis of rice policy based on presidential instruction on household food security: simultaneous equation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sembiring, S. A.

    2018-02-01

    The objective of this research is to analyze the impacts of rice policy on the household food security. The research used cross section data, were collected from 74 respondent as determined by purposive sampling in Sei Rejo villages, the Sub District of Sei Rampah, Serdang Bedagai District in the Province of North Sumatera. Rice policy model specification uses the simultaneous equations consisting of 6 structural equations and 6 identity equations which was estimated using Two Stages Least Squares (2SLS) method. The results show that the effectiveness of government purchase price of dried harvest paddy gave a positive impact on paddy planted area and lead to an increase paddy production and an increase of the rice production gave a positive impact on household rice availability and household rice surplus, and the increase of household rice surplus gave the quantity of Raskin decrease, whereas the increase of fertilizers gave a negative impact on paddy planted area and lead to decrease paddy production and to decrease in rice production was followed by an decrease in household rice availability and household rice surplus, and the decrease of household rice surplus gave the quantity of Raskin increase.

  19. Household energy transition in Hong Kong

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hills, Peter (Hong Kong Univ. (Hong Kong). Centre of Urban Planning and Environmental Management)

    1994-05-01

    A household energy survey in Hong Kong confirmed that domestic energy consumption is dominated by modern fuels. Household spending on fuels typically amounts to less than 3% of monthly income. Delivered energy use per household per month averages 1.77 GJ and per capita use 0.37 GJ. Electricity accounts for more than half of fuel expenditure and energy use. Patterns of fuel choice and use are quite consistent across income levels, although electricity use rises with higher household incomes. Many households use a combination of kerosene, gas and electricity (rice cookers) for cooking, which appears to reflect culinary practices more than fuel prices, perceived safety or availability. Electrical appliance saturation is high already, and air conditioning use is growing rapidly. Household electricity consumption may increase substantially during the 1990s as higher comfort levels lead to increased heating and cooling demand and space standards in public housing units improve. (Author)

  20. Incomes and expenses of the households

    OpenAIRE

    Mirosław Gorczyca

    2007-01-01

    An analysis of the statistical spectrum of the incomes and expenses of the Polish households leads to the conclusion that the disposable incomes only slightly surpass the expenses of the households and, for a significant part of the households, are lower. There is a growing economic polarization of the society whose considerable part lives on incomes below the social minimum and even below the minimum of existence. The society, as a whole, only to a small extent enjoys the fruits of the econo...

  1. ANALYSIS OF FOOD SECURITY STATUS OF FARMING HOUSEHOLDS IN THE FOREST BELT OF THE CENTRAL REGION OF GHANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John K.M. Kuwornu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study seeks to examine the Food Security Status of Farming Households in the Forest Belt of the Central Region of Ghana. A multistage sampling technique was used to select the respondents that were interviewed. In all 134 farming households were interviewed but 120 were selected for analysis after removing the questionnaires which were not properly administered. The households were selected from eight communities in two districts. Food consumption data of 851 individuals in 120 households were used for the analysis. The study reveals that the majority of the farming households (60% were found to be food insecure. Further, the Binary Logit Model results reveal that an increase in household's income, having access to credit as well as increase in the quantity of own farm production improve the food security status of farming households in the Forest Belt of the Central Region of Ghana. However, holding all other factors constant, increases in non-working member of households worsens the food security status of farming households. Most of the food insecurity coping strategies adopted by household's are not severe and can only be used to avert the impact of food insecurity on a temporal basis. These results have policy implications for Food Security Status of Farming Households in developing countries.

  2. Household energy consumption and expenditures, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report, Household Energy Consumption and Expenditures 1990, is based upon data from the 1990 Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS). Focusing on energy end-use consumption and expenditures of households, the 1990 RECS is the eighth in a series conducted since 1978 by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). Over 5,000 households were surveyed, providing information on their housing units, housing characteristics, energy consumption and expenditures, stock of energy-consuming appliances, and energy-related behavior. The information provided represents the characteristics and energy consumption of 94 million households nationwide

  3. Householder transformations and optimal linear combinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decell, H. P., Jr.; Smiley, W., III

    1974-01-01

    Several theorems related to the Householder transformation and separability criteria are proven. Orthogonal transformations, topology, divergence, mathematical matrices, and group theory are discussed.

  4. Adapting agriculture to climate change in Kenya: household strategies and determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Elizabeth; Ringler, Claudia; Okoba, Barrack; Roncoli, Carla; Silvestri, Silvia; Herrero, Mario

    2013-01-15

    Countries in Sub-Saharan Africa are particularly vulnerable to climate change, given dependence on agricultural production and limited adaptive capacity. Based on farm household and Participatory Rural Appraisal data collected from districts in various agroecological zones in Kenya, this paper examines farmers' perceptions of climate change, ongoing adaptation measures, and factors influencing farmers' decisions to adapt. The results show that households face considerable challenges in adapting to climate change. While many households have made small adjustments to their farming practices in response to climate change (in particular, changing planting decisions), few households are able to make more costly investments, for example in agroforestry or irrigation, although there is a desire to invest in such measures. This emphasizes the need for greater investments in rural and agricultural development to support the ability of households to make strategic, long-term decisions that affect their future well-being. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Energy end use statistics and estimations in the Polish household sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilecki, R.

    1997-01-01

    The energy statistics in Poland was in the past concentrated on energy production and industrial consumption, but little information was available on the households energy consumption. This data unavailability was an important barrier for the various analyses and forecasting of the energy balance developments. In the recent years some successful attempts were made to acquire a wider and more reliable picture of household energy consumption. The households surveys were made and some existing data were analyzed and verified. The better and more detailed picture of households energy use was in this way constructed. The breakdown of energy consumption by end-use categories (space heating, water heating, cooking, electrical appliances) was quite reliably estimated. Important international cooperation and guidance was used in the course of Polish households energy consumption research. (author). 6 refs

  6. Energy end use statistics and estimations in the Polish household sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilecki, R [Energy Information Centre, Warsaw (Poland)

    1997-09-01

    The energy statistics in Poland was in the past concentrated on energy production and industrial consumption, but little information was available on the households energy consumption. This data unavailability was an important barrier for the various analyses and forecasting of the energy balance developments. In the recent years some successful attempts were made to acquire a wider and more reliable picture of household energy consumption. The households surveys were made and some existing data were analyzed and verified. The better and more detailed picture of households energy use was in this way constructed. The breakdown of energy consumption by end-use categories (space heating, water heating, cooking, electrical appliances) was quite reliably estimated. Important international cooperation and guidance was used in the course of Polish households energy consumption research. (author). 6 refs.

  7. Agrobiodiversity, Rural Transformations and Household Experiences of Globalised Change: A Case Study from Southern Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Turner

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines reconfigurations of household economies and agrobiodiversity through the experiences and responses of rural households to local manifestations of globalisation and environmental change in the Central Valley of Tarija, Bolivia, from the 1950s to the present. Research participant narratives from seven study communities document a widely experienced regional shift from rain-fed agriculture and pastured livestock production for household consumption to market-oriented production of regionally-specialised commodities. Particularly important to this reconfiguration are changing land access and use regimes, household responses to changing opportunities, discourses and social requirements related with ‘modernising lifestyles’, market integration and dependence, changing environmental and ecological conditions, and greater availability of consumer goods and technologies. We analyse how these processes have combined to reconfigure the range of livelihood possibilities available to rural households, or their ‘landscapes of possibility’, in ways that favour transition to specialised commodity production. Patterns of change in household agrobiodiversity use, however, are entwined with threads of persistence, underscoring the contingent nature of rural transitions and the role of local agency and creativity in responding to and sometimes shaping how globalisation unfolds. Examining rural transition through the experiences of households in particular contexts over time offers insights for development policy and practice to support producers’ ability to respond to globalisation and environmental change in ways they see as desirable and beneficial to their livelihoods and wellbeing.

  8. Dietary patterns and household food insecurity in rural populations of Kilosa district, Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius Edward Ntwenya

    Full Text Available Few studies have investigated the relationship between dietary pattern and household food insecurity. The objective of the present analysis was to describe the food consumption patterns and to relate these with the prevalence of food insecurity in the context of a rural community.Three hundred and seven (307 randomly selected households in Kilosa district participated in the study. Data were collected during the rainy season (February-May and post harvest season (September-October in the year 2011. Food consumption pattern was determined using a 24-h dietary recall method. Food insecurity data were based on the 30 day recall experience to food insecurity in the household. Factor analysis method using Principal Components extraction function was used to derive the dietary patterns and correlation analysis was used to establish the existing relationship between household food insecurity and dietary patterns factor score.Four food consumption patterns namely (I Meat and milk; (II Pulses, legumes, nuts and cooking oils; (III fish (and other sea foods, roots and tubers; (IV Cereals, vegetables and fruits consumption patterns were identified during harvest season. Dietary patterns identified during the rainy season were as follows: (I Fruits, cooking oils, fats, roots and tubers (II Eggs, meat, milk and milk products (III Fish, other sea foods, vegetables, roots and tubers and (IV Pulses, legumes, nuts, cereals and vegetables. Household food insecurity was 80% and 69% during rainy and harvest-seasons, respectively (P = 0.01. Household food insecurity access scale score was negatively correlated with the factor scores on household dietary diversity.Food consumption patterns and food insecurity varied by seasons with worst scenarios most prevalent during the rainy season. The risk for inadequate dietary diversity was higher among food insecure households compared to food secure households. Effort geared at alleviating household food insecurity could

  9. Determinants of dietary diversity and the potential role of men in improving household nutrition in Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justus Ochieng

    Full Text Available Good nutrition is a prerequisite for a healthy and active life, especially for agriculture-dependent households. However, diets in most households in Tanzania lack diversity because the intake of meat, poultry, fish, and vegetables and fruits is low. This study estimates factors influencing dietary diversity of the household, children under five years, and women using primary survey data. It qualitatively assesses male dietary patterns and men's potential role in improving the nutritional status of the entire household. The findings show that the most consumed foods within the household are cereals, vegetables, oils and fats, spices, condiments and beverages. Children (d = 0.4; p<0.05 and women (d = 0.5; p<0.01 in female-headed households have low dietary diversity compared to those in male-headed households. Women and children access less diverse diets since 46% and 26%, achieved minimum dietary diversity respectively. Production of vegetables (coef. 0.34; p<0.05 play an important role in improving the dietary diversity of women. Gender (coef. 0.05; p<0.10 and education of the household head (coef. 0.02; p<0.01, food preparation and nutrition training (coef. 0.10; p<0.05 are important factors influencing dietary diversity of the members of a household. Results suggest that there is a need to support community-based programs to provide information on food and the importance of vegetables, their preparation, consumption and utilization to address food and nutrition challenges. Men can contribute towards improving household nutrition security by reducing consumption of food away from the home, especially during periods of food shortages. We recommend the use of complementary quantitative research to determine the patterns and dynamics of men's dietary diversity and compare it with that of other household members.

  10. Greenhouse gas emissions accounting of urban residential consumption: a household survey based approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Lin

    Full Text Available Devising policies for a low carbon city requires a careful understanding of the characteristics of urban residential lifestyle and consumption. The production-based accounting approach based on top-down statistical data has a limited ability to reflect the total greenhouse gas (GHG emissions from residential consumption. In this paper, we present a survey-based GHG emissions accounting methodology for urban residential consumption, and apply it in Xiamen City, a rapidly urbanizing coastal city in southeast China. Based on this, the main influencing factors determining residential GHG emissions at the household and community scale are identified, and the typical profiles of low, medium and high GHG emission households and communities are identified. Up to 70% of household GHG emissions are from regional and national activities that support household consumption including the supply of energy and building materials, while 17% are from urban level basic services and supplies such as sewage treatment and solid waste management, and only 13% are direct emissions from household consumption. Housing area and household size are the two main factors determining GHG emissions from residential consumption at the household scale, while average housing area and building height were the main factors at the community scale. Our results show a large disparity in GHG emissions profiles among different households, with high GHG emissions households emitting about five times more than low GHG emissions households. Emissions from high GHG emissions communities are about twice as high as from low GHG emissions communities. Our findings can contribute to better tailored and targeted policies aimed at reducing household GHG emissions, and developing low GHG emissions residential communities in China.

  11. Greenhouse Gas Emissions Accounting of Urban Residential Consumption: A Household Survey Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tao; Yu, Yunjun; Bai, Xuemei; Feng, Ling; Wang, Jin

    2013-01-01

    Devising policies for a low carbon city requires a careful understanding of the characteristics of urban residential lifestyle and consumption. The production-based accounting approach based on top-down statistical data has a limited ability to reflect the total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from residential consumption. In this paper, we present a survey-based GHG emissions accounting methodology for urban residential consumption, and apply it in Xiamen City, a rapidly urbanizing coastal city in southeast China. Based on this, the main influencing factors determining residential GHG emissions at the household and community scale are identified, and the typical profiles of low, medium and high GHG emission households and communities are identified. Up to 70% of household GHG emissions are from regional and national activities that support household consumption including the supply of energy and building materials, while 17% are from urban level basic services and supplies such as sewage treatment and solid waste management, and only 13% are direct emissions from household consumption. Housing area and household size are the two main factors determining GHG emissions from residential consumption at the household scale, while average housing area and building height were the main factors at the community scale. Our results show a large disparity in GHG emissions profiles among different households, with high GHG emissions households emitting about five times more than low GHG emissions households. Emissions from high GHG emissions communities are about twice as high as from low GHG emissions communities. Our findings can contribute to better tailored and targeted policies aimed at reducing household GHG emissions, and developing low GHG emissions residential communities in China. PMID:23405187

  12. House prices and household mobility in the Netherlands : Empirical analyses of financial characteristics of the household

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steegmans, J.W.A.M.

    2017-01-01

    The dissertation studies the role of financial household characteristics in the determination of house prices and household mobility in the Dutch owner-occupied housing market. We investigate how various financial characteristics -- in particular income, wealth, housing equity, and prospective

  13. National Alcohol Survey of households in Trinidad and Tobago (NASHTT: Alcohol use in households

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.G. Maharaj

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine the patterns of alcohol use among households in Trinidad and Tobago (T&T and to estimate the association between alcohol use and negative psychological, social, or physical events experienced by the household. Methods A convenience sample of 1837 households across T&T. We identified bivariate correlates of alcohol use, and heavy episodic drinking using chi-square and t-test analyses and used multivariable logistic regression to estimate adjusted associations between household alcohol use and experiences within the past 12 months adjusted for sociodemographic covariates. Results One thousand five hundred two households had complete data for all variables (82% response rate. Nearly two thirds (64% of households included alcohol users; 57% of household that consumed alcohol also reported heavy episodic drinking. Households that reported alcohol consumption were significantly more likely to report illnesses within the households, relationship problems, and behavioral and antisocial problems with children. Among households where a member was employed, those who consumed alcohol were nearly twice as likely (OR = 1.98; 95% confidence interval (CI 1.03, 3.82 to have a household member call in sick to work and 2.9 times as likely (OR = 2.9; CI 1.19, 7.04 to have a household member suffer work related problems compared with households who reported not consuming alcohol. Conclusions Approximately two thirds of households in T&T reported using alcohol. These households were more likely to report psychological, physical, and social problems. These findings would support efforts to enforce current policies, laws, and regulations as well as new strategies to reduce the impact of harmful alcohol consumption on households in T&T.

  14. Catastrophic Health Expenditure and Household Impoverishment: a case of NCDs prevalence in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Mwai

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and problem: Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs have become one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in Kenya. Their claim on financial and time resources adversely affects household welfare. Health care cost for NCDs in Kenya is predominantly paid by households as OOP. Health expenditure on NCD stands at 6.2% of Total Health Expenditure which is 0.4 % of the total gross domestic product of the country. This expenditure scenario could have implications on household welfare through catastrophic expenditure in Kenya. Most studies done on catastrophic expenditure in Kenya have not looked at the effect of NCD on poverty. Methodology: The paper has investigated the determinants of catastrophic health spending in a household with special focus on the NCDs. It has also investigated the effect of catastrophic expenditure on household welfare.A National household level survey data on expenditure and utilization is used. Controlling for endogeneity, the results revealed that NCDs and communicable diseases contribute significantly to the likelihood of a household incurring catastrophic expenditure. Results: Although all types of sicknesses have negative effects on household welfare, NCDs have more severe impacts on impoverishment. Policy wise, government and development partners should put in place a health financing plan entailing health insurance and resource pooling as a mean towards social protection. Key words:  Non-Communicable Diseases (NCD, Catastrophic Health Expenditure, endogeneity Impoverishment

  15. Explaining food insecurity among indigenous households of the Sierra Tarahumara in the Mexican state of Chihuahua

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordero-Ahiman, O.V.; Santellano-Estrada, E.; Garrido, A.

    2017-01-01

    Numerous studies have analyzed the factors that determine food security and explored the problem from regional or national points of view. However, there has been less research targeting an understanding of the food security problem at the household level in specific rural locations like indigenous communities. Indigenous groups are recognized as priority groups in Mexico, because they live in a situation of poverty. For this reason, the objective of this research was to investigate the determinants of food insecurity among the indigenous communities of the Sierra Tarahumara in Mexico. We used the Latin American and Caribbean Household Food Security Measurement Scale (ELCSA). This scale is useful for measuring food insecurity levels in households. A questionnaire was administered to 123 households. We employed the method based on Cronbach's alpha to measure internal consistency, which was 0.96. In addition, we estimated the main determinants of household food insecurity using both ordered logit model and binomial logit model. We found that approximately 59.35% of households were living in a situation of severe food insecurity. The two predictive models applied suggest that: i) income is the most important determinant of access to food; ii) increased maize production improves food security; iii) farmers consume their seed stocks in times of food scarcity, and iv) households are food insecure when the householders are in casual employment. Akaike's information criterion and the Bayesian information criterion suggest that the goodness of fit to the data was better for the ordered logit model.

  16. Explaining food insecurity among indigenous households of the Sierra Tarahumara in the Mexican state of Chihuahua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordero-Ahiman, O.V.; Santellano-Estrada, E.; Garrido, A.

    2017-09-01

    Numerous studies have analyzed the factors that determine food security and explored the problem from regional or national points of view. However, there has been less research targeting an understanding of the food security problem at the household level in specific rural locations like indigenous communities. Indigenous groups are recognized as priority groups in Mexico, because they live in a situation of poverty. For this reason, the objective of this research was to investigate the determinants of food insecurity among the indigenous communities of the Sierra Tarahumara in Mexico. We used the Latin American and Caribbean Household Food Security Measurement Scale (ELCSA). This scale is useful for measuring food insecurity levels in households. A questionnaire was administered to 123 households. We employed the method based on Cronbach's alpha to measure internal consistency, which was 0.96. In addition, we estimated the main determinants of household food insecurity using both ordered logit model and binomial logit model. We found that approximately 59.35% of households were living in a situation of severe food insecurity. The two predictive models applied suggest that: i) income is the most important determinant of access to food; ii) increased maize production improves food security; iii) farmers consume their seed stocks in times of food scarcity, and iv) households are food insecure when the householders are in casual employment. Akaike's information criterion and the Bayesian information criterion suggest that the goodness of fit to the data was better for the ordered logit model.

  17. Households and food security: lessons from food secure households in East Africa.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silvestri, Silvia; Douxchamps, Sabine; Kristjanson, Patti; Förch, Wiebke; Radeny, Maren; Mutie, Lanetta; Quiros, F.C.; Herrero, M.; Ndungu, Anthony; Claessens, L.F.G.

    2015-01-01

    Background
    What are the key factors that contribute to household-level food security? What lessons can we learn from food secure households? What agricultural options and management strategies are likely to benefit female-headed households in particular? This paper addresses these questions

  18. Household hazardous waste in municipal landfills: contaminants in leachate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slack, R.J.; Gronow, J.R.; Voulvoulis, N.

    2005-01-01

    Household hazardous waste (HHW) includes waste from a number of household products such as paint, garden pesticides, pharmaceuticals, photographic chemicals, certain detergents, personal care products, fluorescent tubes, waste oil, heavy metal-containing batteries, wood treated with dangerous substances, waste electronic and electrical equipment and discarded CFC-containing equipment. Data on the amounts of HHW discarded are very limited and are hampered by insufficient definitions of what constitutes HHW. Consequently, the risks associated with the disposal of HHW to landfill have not been fully elucidated. This work has focused on the assessment of data concerning the presence of hazardous chemicals in leachates as evidence of the disposal of HHW in municipal landfills. Evidence is sought from a number of sources on the occurrence in landfill leachates of hazardous components (heavy metals and xenobiotic organic compounds [XOC]) from household products and the possible disposal-to-emissions pathways occurring within landfills. This review demonstrates that a broad range of xenobiotic compounds occurring in leachate can be linked to HHW but further work is required to assess whether such compounds pose a risk to the environment and human health as a result of leakage/seepage or through treatment and discharge

  19. Micro Econometric Modelling of Household Energy Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth-Petersen, Søren

    2002-01-01

    Presents a micro econometric analysis of household electricity and natural gas demand for Danish households observed in 1996. Dependence between demand for gas and demand for electricity; Separability of demand for gas from demand for electricity; Relation between energy consumption and the age...

  20. Characterization of household waste in Greenland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisted, Rasmus; Christensen, Thomas H.

    2011-01-01

    The composition of household waste in Greenland was investigated for the first time. About 2 tonnes of household waste was sampled as every 7th bag collected during 1 week along the scheduled collection routes in Sisimiut, the second largest town in Greenland with about 5400 inhabitants. The collection bags were sorted manually into 10 material fractions. The household waste composition consisted primarily of biowaste (43%) and the combustible fraction (30%), including anything combustible that did not belong to other clean fractions as paper, cardboard and plastic. Paper (8%) (dominated by magazine type paper) and glass (7%) were other important material fractions of the household waste. The remaining approximately 10% constituted of steel (1.5%), aluminum (0.5%), plastic (2.4%), wood (1.0%), non-combustible waste (1.8%) and household hazardous waste (1.2%). The high content of biowaste and the low content of paper make Greenlandic waste much different from Danish household waste. The moisture content, calorific value and chemical composition (55 elements, of which 22 were below detection limits) were determined for each material fraction. These characteristics were similar to what has been found for material fractions in Danish household waste. The chemical composition and the calorific value of the plastic fraction revealed that this fraction was not clean but contained a lot of biowaste. The established waste composition is useful in assessing alternative waste management schemes for household waste in Greenland.

  1. Household fuels, direct combustion, public perception, fuel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2005-07-10

    Jul 10, 2005 ... household energy needs and should b e c onsidered as a v ia b le alternativ e sour c e o f energy w hen energy p olic ... consumption is dominated by industries and house- ..... support the predictions of household economics,.

  2. Steps to design a household energy game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fijnheer, J.D.L.; van Oostendorp, H.

    2016-01-01

    Research where gamification is used to influence household energy consumption is an emerging field. This paper reviews the design and effectiveness of ten games that aim to influence household energy consumption and presents a novel gamification approach in which real world activities are

  3. Gamification in a Prototype Household Energy Game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fijnheer, J.D.L.; van Oostendorp, H.; Veltkamp, R.C.

    2016-01-01

    Research where gamification is used to influence household energy consumption is an emerging field. This paper reviews design features of the prototype Powersaver Game. The aim of this game is to influence household energy consumption in the long-term. The evaluation of the design of the prototype,

  4. Households' willingness to pay for public housing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ommeren, J.; van der Vlist, A.J.

    2016-01-01

    In the presence of price controls, nonmarket housing allocation mechanisms such as queueing prevent households from revealing their marginal willingness to pay for housing through market prices. We derive the households' marginal willingness to pay using the intuitive idea that the length of the

  5. Supplementary household water sources to augment potable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper addresses on-site supplementary household water sources with a focus on groundwater abstraction, rainwater harvesting and greywater reuse as available non-potable water sources to residential consumers. An end-use model is presented and used to assess the theoretical impact of household water sources ...

  6. Religion, economic attitudes, and household finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renneboog, L.D.R.; Spaenjers, C.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the differences in economic attitudes and financial decisions between religious and non-religious households. Using Dutch survey data, we find that religious households consider themselves more trusting, and have a stronger bequest motive and a longer planning horizon. Furthermore,

  7. Spending Time and Money within the Household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Browning, Martin; Gørtz, Mette

    2012-01-01

    We consider, both theoretically and empirically, the allocation of time and money within the household. The research question is whether a married person who enjoys more leisure than their partner also receives more consumption (which seems to indicate the outcome of power within the household...

  8. Passenger transport and household activity patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj

    1997-01-01

    Review of Danish passenger transport patterns and analysis of energy consumption, emissions and safety impacts for selected typical households' travelling......Review of Danish passenger transport patterns and analysis of energy consumption, emissions and safety impacts for selected typical households' travelling...

  9. Power in Households: Disentangling Bargaining Power

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Mabsout (Ramzi); I.P. van Staveren (Irene)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction Within the household bargaining literature, bargaining power is generally understood in terms of economic resources, such as income or assets. Empirical analyses of women’s bargaining power in households in developed and developing countries find that, in general, higher

  10. Formal demography of families and households

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willekens, F.J.; van Imhoff, E.; Wright, James D.

    2015-01-01

    ‘Family and household demography’ differs from traditional demography in that it explicitly recognizes and studies relationships between individuals. Formal demography focuses on the definition and measurement of families and households, and modeling of types, number, and composition of families and

  11. Characterization of household waste in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eisted, Rasmus; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    The composition of household waste in Greenland was investigated for the first time. About 2tonnes of household waste was sampled as every 7th bag collected during 1week along the scheduled collection routes in Sisimiut, the second largest town in Greenland with about 5400 inhabitants....... The collection bags were sorted manually into 10 material fractions. The household waste composition consisted primarily of biowaste (43%) and the combustible fraction (30%), including anything combustible that did not belong to other clean fractions as paper, cardboard and plastic. Paper (8%) (dominated...... by magazine type paper) and glass (7%) were other important material fractions of the household waste. The remaining approximately 10% constituted of steel (1.5%), aluminum (0.5%), plastic (2.4%), wood (1.0%), non-combustible waste (1.8%) and household hazardous waste (1.2%). The high content of biowaste...

  12. [Characterization of Mexican households with food insecurity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundo-Rosas, Verónica; Méndez-Gómez Humarán, Ignacio; Shamah-Levy, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    To describe the sociodemographic and health characteristics associated with food insecurity (FI) in Mexican households. The study included information about 40 809 households from the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2012. The Latin American and Caribbean Scale Food Safety (ELCSA) was used to categorize households in terms of food insecurity. Classification and regression trees were used to identify the most significant characteristics in households with high prevalence of FI. The characteristics associated with higher prevalence of FI in homes were: lowest quintiles of welfare status, lack of education or walking or moving disability of household head, and not receiving money from social programmes, pension or remittances. Monitoring of the factors that favor the presence of FI is required to detect social groups being excluded from the right to food.

  13. Wood fuels consumption in households in Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glavonjić Branko D.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of researching wood fuels consumption in households in Montenegro in the heating season 2011/2012. The research was conducted in the period October-November 2012 on the sample of 5% of the total number of households which stated to use solid fuels for heating purposes in the 2011 census. Results of the conducted researches on the presence and amounts of fuels consumed in households in Montenegro showed that total firewood consumption in the heating season 2011/2012 (both urban and rural households was 703,571 m3. Wood consumption is the lowest in the households in the municipalities in the coastal zone, it is somewhat higher in central zone and the highest in the zone on the north of Montenegro. Average wood consumption in households in the coastal zone municipalities is 3.79 m3, in the central zone it is 5.02 m3 and on the north of Montenegro it is 6.74 m3/household. Observed on the level of Montenegro, average firewood consumption per household was 5.49 m3 and as such it best represents relatively low consumption level in the coastal zone and high consumption level on the north of Montenegro. Compared to the neighboring countries, average firewood consumption per household in Montenegro in the amount of 5.49 m3 is significantly lower than the average consumption in Serbia which is 7.3 m3/household as well as in Slovenia in the amount of 6.5 m3.

  14. Comparison of the characteristics of fire and non-fire households in the 2004-2005 survey of fire department-attended and unattended fires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Michael A

    2012-06-01

    Comparison of characteristics of fire with non-fire households to determine factors differentially associated with fire households (fire risk factors). National household telephone survey in 2004-2005 by the US Consumer Product Safety Commission with 916 fire households and a comparison sample of 2161 non-fire households. There were an estimated 7.4 million fires (96.6% not reported to fire departments) with 130,000 injuries. Bivariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression analyses to assess differences in household characteristics. Significant factors associated with fire households were renting vs. owning (OR 1.988 pfire households with non-cooking fires (OR 1.383 p=0.0011). Single family houses were associated with non-fire households in the bivariate analysis but not in the multivariate analyses. Renting, household members under 18 years old and smokers are risk factors for unattended fires, similar to the literature for fatal and injury fires. Differences included household members over 65 years old (associated with non-fire households), college/postgraduate education (associated with fire households) and lack of significance of income. Preventing cooking fires (64% of survey incidents), smoking prevention efforts and fire prevention education for families with young children have the potential for reducing unattended fires and injuries.

  15. Analysis of factors influencing decision making of Czech households when purchasing clothes and footwear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Toufarová

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses buying behaviour of Czech households on the market with footwear and cloths. It aims at factors influ, encing this behaviour, e.g. price, brand, quality, product attributes, habits, price reductions, advertisement, innovation and word-of-mauth. Primary data were obtained via survey of 727 Czech households by staff of the Department of Marketing and Trade, Mendel University of Agriculture and Forestry Brno. The paper provides results of correlation analysis and factor analysis. When making purchase decisions, households identify attributes and parameters of clothes and footwear as the most important factor. Due to factor analysis, factors were reduced into four comprehensive groups.

  16. The energy market research of 1991. Method of segmenting households into ''life style groups''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ljones, A.; Doorman, G.

    1992-09-01

    The report discusses a method of classifying households into life style groups based on the individuals' needs, wishes and attitudes. Seven such groups have been defined based on nation-wide research among 1022 households in 1991. These groups are described with respect to a number of factors of attitude, housing conditions, socio-economic characteristics, use of media etc. This way of segmenting the households may give the power companies a better understanding of what kind of ''products'' and services their customers would like to have and how to market them efficiently. 5 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs

  17. Household air pollution and personal exposure to nitrated and oxygenated polycyclic aromatics (PAHs) in rural households: Influence of household cooking energies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y; Du, W; Shen, G; Zhuo, S; Zhu, X; Shen, H; Huang, Y; Su, S; Lin, N; Pei, L; Zheng, X; Wu, J; Duan, Y; Wang, X; Liu, W; Wong, M; Tao, S

    2017-01-01

    Residential solid fuels are widely consumed in rural China, contributing to severe household air pollution for many products of incomplete combustion, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their polar derivatives. In this study, concentrations of nitrated and oxygenated PAH derivatives (nPAHs and oPAHs) for household and personal air were measured and analyzed for influencing factors like smoking and cooking energy type. Concentrations of nPAHs and oPAHs in kitchens were higher than those in living rooms and in outdoor air. Exposure levels measured by personal samplers were lower than levels in indoor air, but higher than outdoor air levels. With increasing molecular weight, individual compounds tended to be more commonly partitioned to particulate matter (PM); moreover, higher molecular weight nPAHs and oPAHs were preferentially found in finer particles, suggesting a potential for increased health risks. Smoking behavior raised the concentrations of nPAHs and oPAHs in personal air significantly. People who cooked food also had higher personal exposures. Cooking and smoking have a significant interaction effect on personal exposure. Concentrations in kitchens and personal exposure to nPAHs and oPAHs for households using wood and peat were significantly higher than for those using electricity and liquid petroleum gas (LPG). © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Incarceration and Household Asset Ownership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, Kristin; Schneider, Daniel

    2016-12-01

    A considerable literature documents the deleterious economic consequences of incarceration. However, little is known about the consequences of incarceration for household assets-a distinct indicator of economic well-being that may be especially valuable to the survival of low-income families-or about the spillover economic consequences of incarceration for families. In this article, we use longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study to examine how incarceration is associated with asset ownership among formerly incarcerated men and their romantic partners. Results, which pay careful attention to the social forces that select individuals into incarceration, show that incarceration is negatively associated with ownership of a bank account, vehicle, and home among men and that these consequences for asset ownership extend to the romantic partners of these men. These associations are concentrated among men who previously held assets. Results also show that post-incarceration changes in romantic relationships are an important pathway by which even short-term incarceration depletes assets.

  19. Household food insecurity and child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeer, Kammi K; Piperata, Barbara A

    2017-04-01

    Food insecurity, the lack of consistent access to sufficient quality and quantity of food, affects an estimated 800 million people around the world. Although household food insecurity is generally associated with poor child nutrition and health in the USA, we know less about household food insecurity and child health in developing countries. Particularly lacking is research assessing how associations between household food insecurity and children's health outcomes may differ by child age and among children beyond age 5 years in low-income settings. We use data from a population-based sample of households with children ages 3-11 years (N = 431) in León, Nicaragua to consider how household food insecurity is associated with three measures of child health: illness, anaemia and low height-for-age. Our results provide new evidence that even mild household food insecurity is detrimental to children's health; and that child age conditions the associations between household food insecurity and child health. We find that food insecurity is especially harmful to health during early childhood, but continues to have significant associations with health into middle childhood (up to ages 7-8 years). We discuss the potential implications of these results for future child health research and policies in low-income countries. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Sources of household salt in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jooste, Pieter L

    2005-01-01

    Marketing of non-iodized salt through unconventional distribution channels is one of the factors weakening the national salt iodization program in South Africa. The aim of this study was therefore to quantify the various sources of household salt, and to relate this information to socio-economic status. Questionnaire information was collected by personal interview during home visits from a multistage, cluster, probability sample of 2164 adults representative of the adult population. Nationally 77.7% of households obtained their table salt from the typical food shops distributing iodized salt. However, in the nine different provinces between 8 and 37.3% of households used unconventional sources, distributing mainly non-iodized salt, to obtain their household salt. These alternative sources include distributors of agricultural salt, small general dealer shops called spaza shops, in peri-urban and rural townships, street vendors and salt saches placed in the packaging of maize meal bags. Country-wide around 30% of low socio-economic households obtained their salt from unconventional sources compared to less than 5% in high socio-economic households, emphasizing the vulnerability of low socio-economic groups to the use of non-iodized salt. Intervention strategies should mobilize all role players involved in unconventional marketing channels of household salt to provide only iodized salt to consumers, as required by law.

  1. ASSESSMENT OF HOUSEHOLD CARBON FOOTPRINT REDUCTION POTENTIALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, Klaas Jan; Homan, Greg; Brown, Rich; Worrell, Ernst; Masanet, Eric

    2009-04-15

    The term ?household carbon footprint? refers to the total annual carbon emissions associated with household consumption of energy, goods, and services. In this project, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory developed a carbon footprint modeling framework that characterizes the key underlying technologies and processes that contribute to household carbon footprints in California and the United States. The approach breaks down the carbon footprint by 35 different household fuel end uses and 32 different supply chain fuel end uses. This level of end use detail allows energy and policy analysts to better understand the underlying technologies and processes contributing to the carbon footprint of California households. The modeling framework was applied to estimate the annual home energy and supply chain carbon footprints of a prototypical California household. A preliminary assessment of parameter uncertainty associated with key model input data was also conducted. To illustrate the policy-relevance of this modeling framework, a case study was conducted that analyzed the achievable carbon footprint reductions associated with the adoption of energy efficient household and supply chain technologies.

  2. Determinants of Vulnerability to Livelihood Insecurity at Household ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    Household Economic Approach of measuring vulnerability. The Household ... external and internal sides as proposed by Conway and Chambers (1989): ... education and occupation of the household head, dependency ratio, exposure.

  3. households' choices of healthcare services in the north west region

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    model. Households' characteristics such as sex and age of household heads, marital status of household heads and .... Based Financing (PBF) of healthcare in the North .... return from this capital in both market and non- ... Healthy Life Style.

  4. Information content of household-stratified epidemics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.M. Kinyanjui

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Household structure is a key driver of many infectious diseases, as well as a natural target for interventions such as vaccination programs. Many theoretical and conceptual advances on household-stratified epidemic models are relatively recent, but have successfully managed to increase the applicability of such models to practical problems. To be of maximum realism and hence benefit, they require parameterisation from epidemiological data, and while household-stratified final size data has been the traditional source, increasingly time-series infection data from households are becoming available. This paper is concerned with the design of studies aimed at collecting time-series epidemic data in order to maximize the amount of information available to calibrate household models. A design decision involves a trade-off between the number of households to enrol and the sampling frequency. Two commonly used epidemiological study designs are considered: cross-sectional, where different households are sampled at every time point, and cohort, where the same households are followed over the course of the study period. The search for an optimal design uses Bayesian computationally intensive methods to explore the joint parameter-design space combined with the Shannon entropy of the posteriors to estimate the amount of information in each design. For the cross-sectional design, the amount of information increases with the sampling intensity, i.e., the designs with the highest number of time points have the most information. On the other hand, the cohort design often exhibits a trade-off between the number of households sampled and the intensity of follow-up. Our results broadly support the choices made in existing epidemiological data collection studies. Prospective problem-specific use of our computational methods can bring significant benefits in guiding future study designs.

  5. Information content of household-stratified epidemics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinyanjui, T M; Pellis, L; House, T

    2016-09-01

    Household structure is a key driver of many infectious diseases, as well as a natural target for interventions such as vaccination programs. Many theoretical and conceptual advances on household-stratified epidemic models are relatively recent, but have successfully managed to increase the applicability of such models to practical problems. To be of maximum realism and hence benefit, they require parameterisation from epidemiological data, and while household-stratified final size data has been the traditional source, increasingly time-series infection data from households are becoming available. This paper is concerned with the design of studies aimed at collecting time-series epidemic data in order to maximize the amount of information available to calibrate household models. A design decision involves a trade-off between the number of households to enrol and the sampling frequency. Two commonly used epidemiological study designs are considered: cross-sectional, where different households are sampled at every time point, and cohort, where the same households are followed over the course of the study period. The search for an optimal design uses Bayesian computationally intensive methods to explore the joint parameter-design space combined with the Shannon entropy of the posteriors to estimate the amount of information in each design. For the cross-sectional design, the amount of information increases with the sampling intensity, i.e., the designs with the highest number of time points have the most information. On the other hand, the cohort design often exhibits a trade-off between the number of households sampled and the intensity of follow-up. Our results broadly support the choices made in existing epidemiological data collection studies. Prospective problem-specific use of our computational methods can bring significant benefits in guiding future study designs. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Household location choices: implications for biodiversity conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, M Nils; Chen, Xiaodong; Liu, Jianguo

    2008-08-01

    Successful conservation efforts require understanding human behaviors that directly affect biodiversity. Choice of household location represents an observable behavior that has direct effects on biodiversity conservation, but no one has examined the sociocultural predictors of this choice relative to its environmental impacts. We conducted a case study of the Teton Valley of Idaho and Wyoming (U.S.A.) that (1) explored relationships between sociodemographic variables, environmental attitudes, and the environmental impact of household location choices, (2) assessed the potential for small household sizes in natural areas to multiply the environmental impacts of household location decisions, and (3) evaluated how length of residency predicted the environmental attitudes of people living in natural areas. We collected sociodemographic data, spatial coordinates, and land-cover information in a survey of 416 households drawn from a random sample of Teton Valley residents (95% compliance rate). Immigrants (respondents not born in the study area) with the lowest education levels and least environmentally oriented attitudes lived in previously established residential areas in disproportionately high numbers, and older and more educated immigrants with the most environmentally oriented attitudes lived in natural areas in disproportionately high numbers. Income was not a significant predictor of household location decisions. Those living in natural areas had more environmental impact per person because of the location and because small households (educated, and potentially growing more environmentally oriented, these patterns are troubling for biodiversity conservation. Our results demonstrate a need for environmentalists to make household location decisions that reflect their environmental attitudes and future research to address how interactions between education level, environmental attitudes, population aging, and household location choices influence biodiversity

  7. Barriers to Household Risk Management: Evidence from India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Shawn; Giné, Xavier; Tobacman, Jeremy; Townsend, Robert; Topalova, Petia; Vickery, James

    2012-01-01

    Why do many households remain exposed to large exogenous sources of non-systematic income risk? We use a series of randomized field experiments in rural India to test the importance of price and non-price factors in the adoption of an innovative rainfall insurance product. Demand is significantly price sensitive, but widespread take-up would not be achieved even if the product offered a payout ratio comparable to U.S. insurance contracts. We present evidence suggesting that lack of trust, liquidity constraints and limited salience are significant non-price frictions that constrain demand. We suggest contract design improvements to mitigate these frictions. PMID:24765234

  8. Barriers to Household Risk Management: Evidence from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Shawn; Giné, Xavier; Tobacman, Jeremy; Townsend, Robert; Topalova, Petia; Vickery, James

    2013-01-01

    Why do many households remain exposed to large exogenous sources of non-systematic income risk? We use a series of randomized field experiments in rural India to test the importance of price and non-price factors in the adoption of an innovative rainfall insurance product. Demand is significantly price sensitive, but widespread take-up would not be achieved even if the product offered a payout ratio comparable to U.S. insurance contracts. We present evidence suggesting that lack of trust, liquidity constraints and limited salience are significant non-price frictions that constrain demand. We suggest contract design improvements to mitigate these frictions.

  9. Ethylene Glycol, Hazardous Substance in the Household

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Patočka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethylene glycol is a colorless, odorless, sweet-tasting but poisonous type of alcohol found in many household products. The major use of ethylene glycol is as an antifreeze in, for example, automobiles, in air conditioning systems, in de-icing fluid for windshields, and else. People sometimes drink ethylene glycol mistakenly or on purpose as a substitute for alcohol. Ethylene glycol is toxic, and its drinking should be considered a medical emergency. The major danger from ethylene glycol is following ingestion. Due to its sweet taste, peoples and occasionally animals will sometimes consume large quantities of it if given access to antifreeze. While ethylene glycol itself has a relatively low degree of toxicity, its metabolites are responsible for extensive cellular damage to various tissues, especially the kidneys. This injury is caused by the metabolites, glycolic and oxalic acid and their respective salts, through crystal formation and possibly other mechanisms. Toxic metabolites of ethylene glycol can damage the brain, liver, kidneys, and lungs. The poisoning causes disturbances in the metabolism pathways, including metabolic acidosis. The disturbances may be severe enough to cause profound shock, organ failure, and death. Ethylene glycol is a common poisoning requiring antidotal treatment.

  10. To promote adoption of household health technologies, think beyond health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Mark C; Warner, Christina; Platt, Lauren; Slaski, Alexander; Gupta, Rajesh; Miller, Grant

    2013-10-01

    Health risks from poor malaria control, unsafe water, and indoor air pollution are responsible for an important share of the global disease burden-and they can be addressed by efficacious household health technologies that have existed for decades. However, coverage rates of these products among populations at risk remain disappointingly low. We conducted a review of the medical and public health literatures and found that health considerations alone are rarely sufficient motivation for households to adopt and use these technologies. In light of these findings, we argue that health education and persuasion campaigns by themselves are unlikely to be adequate. Instead, health policymakers and professionals must understand what users value beyond health and possibly reengineer health technologies with these concerns in mind.

  11. Future Changes in Age and Household Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højbjerg Jacobsen, Rasmus; Hougaard Jensen, Svend E.

    2014-01-01

    Using stochastic forecasting techniques, this paper assesses the consequences for public finances of changes in age and household structures in Denmark over the period 2008–2037. Focusing on components of welfare provisions and tax payments with noticeable differences across age and household...... status, we show that, based on a point forecast, the fiscal impact of changes in household structures amounts to an annual negative effect of 0.5% of GDP, and the effect of changes in age structures is forecast to worsen the public budget by 3.7% of GDP per year. While being subject to a considerable...

  12. Raising household saving: does financial education work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, William G; Harris, Benjamin H; Levine, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    This article highlights the prevalence and economic outcomes of financial illiteracy among American households, and reviews previous research that examines how improving financial literacy affects household saving. Analysis of the research literature suggests that previous financial literacy efforts have yielded mixed results. Evidence suggests that interventions provided for employees in the workplace have helped increase household saving, but estimates of the magnitude of the impact vary widely. For financial education initiatives targeted to other groups, the evidence is much more ambiguous, suggesting a need for more econometrically rigorous evaluations.

  13. Substitution between cars within the household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Borger, Bruno; Mulalic, Ismir; Rouwendal, Jan

    The purpose of this paper is to study to what extent two-car households substitute the use of their less fuel efficient car by the use of their more fuel efficient car after an increase in fuel prices. Based on a simple theoretical framework we use a large sample of detailed Danish data on two-car...... households to estimate, for each car owned by the household, own and cross-price effects of increases in fuel costs per kilometer. The empirical results point at important substitution effects, so that models that estimate responses to fuel prices on the implicit or explicit assumption of one car per...

  14. Household energy demand. Empirical studies concerning Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dargay, J; Lundin, A

    1978-06-01

    This paper investigates the effects of energy policy on households in Sweden and provides the material necessary for evaluation of current and proposed energy-conservation measures. Emphasis is placed on the impact of enery taxation or price changes on household demand for electricity, heating oil, and gasoline and the consequences of such measures for income distribution. The results of the Swedish studies of household demand for heating oil and gasoline indicate that price changes can have a considerable long run impact on fuel utilization. In the short run, price responsiveness is notably reduced, but it is nevertheless of consequence for energy demand.

  15. Individual and Household Willingness to Pay for Public Goods

    OpenAIRE

    John Quiggin

    1998-01-01

    The issue of whether willingness to pay (WTP) for the benefits generated by a public good should be elicited on an individual or on a household basis is addressed. Differences between individual and household WTP may arise when members of the household are mutually altruistic. It is shown that, for general specifications of altruism, household WTP is less than the sum of household members' individual WTP. Implications for the choice between household and individual measures of WTP are conside...

  16. Household hazardous waste quantification, characterization and management in China's cities: a case study of Suzhou.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Binxian; Zhu, Weimo; Wang, Haikun; Zhang, Rongrong; Liu, Miaomiao; Chen, Yangqing; Wu, Yi; Yang, Xiayu; He, Sheng; Cheng, Rong; Yang, Jie; Bi, Jun

    2014-11-01

    A four-stage systematic tracking survey of 240 households was conducted from the summer of 2011 to the spring of 2012 in a Chinese city of Suzhou to determine the characteristics of household hazardous waste (HHW) generated by the city. Factor analysis and a regression model were used to study the major driving forces of HHW generation. The results indicate that the rate of HHW generation was 6.16 (0.16-31.74, 95% CI) g/person/day, which accounted for 2.23% of the household solid waste stream. The major waste categories contributing to total HHW were home cleaning products (21.33%), medicines (17.67%) and personal care products (15.19%). Packaging and containers (one-way) and products (single-use) accounted for over 80% of total HHW generation, implying a considerable potential to mitigate HHW generation by changing the packaging design and materials used by manufacturing enterprises. Strong correlations were observed between HHW generation (g/person/day) and the driving forces group of "household structure" and "consumer preferences" (among which the educational level of the household financial manager has the greatest impact). Furthermore, the HHW generation stream in Suzhou suggested the influence of another set of variables, such as local customs and culture, consumption patterns, and urban residential life-style. This study emphasizes that HHW should be categorized at its source (residential households) as an important step toward controlling the HHW hazards of Chinese cities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Correlates of Intra-Household ITN Use in Liberia: A Multilevel Analysis of Household Survey Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babalola, Stella; Ricotta, Emily; Awantang, Grace; Lewicky, Nan; Koenker, Hannah; Toso, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Malaria is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Liberia. At the same time, insecticide-treated net (ITN) ownership and use remain low. Access is a key determinant of ITN use but it is not the only one; prior studies have identified factors that affect the use of ITNs in households with at least one ITN. These factors operate at the individual, household, and community levels. However, studies have generally not assessed the psychosocial or ideational determinants of ITN use. Using 2014 household survey data, this manuscript examines the socio-demographic, ideational, household, and community factors associated with household member use of ITNs in Liberia. Multilevel modeling was used to assess fixed effects at the individual, household, and community levels, and random effects at the household and cluster levels. The data showed significant residual clustering at the household level, indicating that there were unmeasured factors operating at this level that are associated with ITN use. The association of age with ITN use was moderated by sex such that men, older children, and teenagers were less likely to sleep under an ITN compared to women and children under five years old. Female caregivers' perceived severity of malaria, perceived self-efficacy to detect a complicated case of malaria, and exposure to the "Take Cover" communication campaign were positively associated with ITN use by members of her household. The association with household size was negative, while the relationship with the number of ITNs was positive. Programs should seek to achieve universal coverage (that is, one ITN for every two household members) and promote the notion that everyone needs to sleep under an ITN every night. Programs should also seek to strengthen perceived severity of malaria and educate intended audience groups on the signs of malaria complications. Given the significance of residual clustering at the household level, interventions that engage men as heads of

  18. METHODOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE SEGMENTATION OF HOUSEHOLD ENERGY CONSUMERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim Alexandru

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, the World has shown increased concern for climate change and energy security. The emergence of these issues has pushed many nations to pursue the development of clean domestic electricity production via renewable energy (RE technologies. However, RE also comes with a higher production and investment cost, compared to most conventional fossil fuel based technologies. In order to analyse exactly how Romanian electricity consumers feel about the advantages and the disadvantages of RE, we have decided to perform a comprehensive study, which will constitute the core of a doctoral thesis regarding the Romanian energy sector and household consumers’ willingness to pay for the positive attributes of RE. The current paper represents one step toward achieving the objectives of the above mentioned research, specifically dealing with the issue of segmenting household energy consumers given the context of the Romanian energy sector. It is an argumentative literature review, which seeks to critically assess the methodology used for customer segmentation in general and for household energy users in particular. Building on the experience of previous studies, the paper aims to determine the most adequate segmentation procedure given the context and the objectives of the overall doctoral research. After assessing the advantages and disadvantages of various methodologies, a psychographic segmentation of household consumers based on general life practices is chosen, mainly because it provides more insights into consumers compared to traditional socio-demographic segmentation by focusing on lifestyles and not external characteristics, but it is also realistically implementable compared to more complex procedures such as the standard AIO. However, the life practice scale developed by Axsen et al. (2012 will need to be properly adapted to the specific objectives of the study and to the context of the Romanian energy sector. All modifications

  19. Food Poverty Profile in Settled Pastrol Households of Lowland Marsabit: Evidence from Micro Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyamori, B.

    2002-01-01

    Frequent and severe droughts experienced in ASALs push pastoralists out of the traditional livestock monoculture, which together with the growing human population lead to increasing settlement. Unlike nomads who access traditional livestock foods at all times, settled households have limited access, which does not guarantee their food security. To achieve the food security the settled households supplement limited livestock foods with market foods. High demand for market foods increases demand for money and since pastoral communities have limited income-generating opportunities, many households are relegated to below food poverty line. Most studies on food security in ASALs focus on livestock productivity without considering that settled households depend, to a small extent, on livestock foods. Since settled households experience a lot of socio-economic changes,their food security status needs to be appropriately evaluated. The aim of this study t is to establish the food poverty profile of the settled households and recommend appropriate measures for attaining food security in the settled households

  20. Building and household X-factors and energy consumption at the residential sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estiri, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Energy use in residential buildings is one of the major sources of greenhouse gas emission production from cities. Using microdata from the 2009 Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS), this study applies structural equation modeling to analyze the direct, indirect, and total impacts of household and building characteristics on residential energy consumption. Results demonstrate that the direct impact of household characteristics on residential energy consumption is significantly smaller than the corresponding impact from the buildings. However, accounting for the indirect impact of household characteristics on energy consumption, through choice of the housing unit characteristics, the total impact of households on energy consumption is just slightly smaller than that of buildings. Outcomes of this paper call for smart policies to incorporate housing choice processes in managing residential energy consumption. - Highlights: • Households indirectly influence residential energy use through housing choice. • Households' total impact on energy use is comparable to that of buildings. • Understanding households' indirect impact will enhance residential energy policy. • Smart energy policies are needed to target both direct and indirect effects

  1. Perceived and geographic food access and food security status among households with children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaoguang; Liese, Angela D; Bell, Bethany A; Martini, Lauren; Hibbert, James; Draper, Carrie; Burke, Michael P; Jones, Sonya J

    2016-10-01

    To examine the association of both perceived and geographic neighbourhood food access with food security status among households with children. This was a cross-sectional study in which participants' perceptions of neighbourhood food access were assessed by a standard survey instrument, and geographic food access was evaluated by distance to the nearest supermarket. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to examine the associations. The Midlands Family Study included 544 households with children in eight counties in South Carolina, USA. Food security status among participants was classified into three categories: food secure (FS), food insecure (FI) and very low food security among children (VLFS-C). Compared with FS households, VLFS-C households had lower odds of reporting easy access to adequate food shopping. VLFS-C households also had lower odds of reporting neighbourhood access to affordable fruits and vegetables compared with FS households and reported worse selection of fruits and vegetables, quality of fruits and vegetables, and selection of low-fat products. FI households had lower odds of reporting fewer opportunities to purchase fast food. None of the geographic access measures was significantly associated with food security status. Caregivers with children who experienced hunger perceived that they had less access to healthy affordable food in their community, even though grocery stores were present. Approaches to improve perceived access to healthy affordable food should be considered as part of the overall approach to improving food security and eliminating child hunger.

  2. Perceived and Geographic Food Access and Food Security Status among Households with Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaoguang; Liese, Angela D.; Bell, Bethany; Martini, Lauren; Hibbert, James; Draper, Carrie; Jones, Sonya J.

    2017-01-01

    Objective To examine the association of both perceived and geographic neighborhood food access with food security status among households with children. Design This was a cross-sectional study in which participants’ perceptions of neighborhood food access were assessed by a standard survey instrument, and geographic food access was evaluated by distance to the nearest supermarket. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to examine the associations. Subjects The Midlands Family Study included 544 households with children in eight counties in South Carolina. Food security status among participants was classified into three categories: food secure (FS), food insecure (FI) and very low food security among children (VLFS-C). Results Compared to FS households, VLFS-C households had lower odds of reporting easy access to adequate food shopping. VLFS-C households also had lower odds of reporting neighborhood access to affordable fruits and vegetables compared to FS households and reported worse selection of fruits and vegetables, quality of fruits and vegetables and selection of low-fat products. FI households had lower odds of reporting fewer opportunities to purchase fast food. None of the geographic access measures was significantly associated with food security status. Conclusions Caregivers with children that experienced hunger perceived that they had less access to healthy affordably food in their community, even though grocery stores were present. Approaches to improve perceived access to healthy affordable food should be considered as part of the overall approach to improving food security and eliminating child hunger. PMID:27133939

  3. Radiopacity of household deodorizers, air fresheners, and moth repellents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolf, A D; Saperstein, A; Zawin, J; Cappock, R; Sue, Y J

    1993-01-01

    Household deodorizers and moth repellents are common agents implicated in many childhood poisonings. Their ingredients usually include either paradichlorobenzene or naphthalene compressed into a solid ball or another shape, sometimes with added essential oils and fragrances. Because medically naphthalene is a more important toxin than paradichlorobenzene, with hematologic and nervous system effects, clinicians often seek to discern which product has been ingested. We discovered fortuitously that a mothball swallowed by a retarded adult was radiopaque, and so designed an in vitro experiment to study the radiopacity of a variety of household deodorizers and products. Of 10 products screened for radiopacity by two radiologists, those containing paradichlorobenzene were consistently strongly radiopaque; those containing naphthalene were radiolucent. A third alternative ingredient which is used in some toilet bowl deodorizers, cetrimonium bromide, was also radiopaque. Radiopacity of paradichlorobenzene or cetrimonium bromide-containing products did not dissipate with time. We speculate that the halogen within the chemical structure of these compounds accounts for their radiopacity. We conclude that paradichlorobenzene-containing commercial products can be distinguished clinically from those containing naphthalene by the performance of an abdominal radiograph.

  4. Climate Change, Household Vulnerability and Smart Agriculture

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Marina

    The cost benefits analysis was the main technique used to evaluate alternative adaptation strategies. .... Figure 7 Different vulnerability levels of households from Lambani and Alice . ...... practices and the maintenance of surface residues.

  5. Substitution between cars within the household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Borger, Bruno; Mulalic, Ismir; Rouwendal, Jan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we study the demand for car kilometres in two-car households, focusing on the substitution between cars of different fuel efficiency in response to fuel price changes. We use a large sample of detailed Danish data on two-car households to estimate – for each car owned by the household...... – own and cross-price effects of increases in fuel costs per kilometre. The empirical results show that failure to capture substitution between cars within the household can result in substantial misspecification biases. Ignoring substitution, the basic model yielded fuel price elasticities of 0.......98 and 1.41 for the primary and secondary cars, respectively. Accounting for substitution effects, these figures reduce to, respectively, 0.32 and 0.45. Consistent with substitution behaviour, we find that the fuel price elasticity of fuel demand exceeds the elasticity of kilometre demands with respect...

  6. Substitution between Cars within the Household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Borger, Bruno; Mulalic, Ismir; Rouwendal, Jan

    In this paper we study the demand for car kilometres in two-car households, focusing on the substitution between cars in response to fuel price changes. We use a large sample of detailed Danish data on two-car households to estimate—for each car owned by the household—own and cross-price effects...... of increases in fuel costs per kilometre. The empirical results show that failure to capture substitution between cars within the household can result in substantial misspecification biases. Ignoring substitution, we estimate fuel price elasticities of –0.81 and -0.65 for the primary and secondary cars...... efficient car, finding partial support for the underlying hypothesis. More importantly, the results of this extended model emphasize the importance of behavioural differences related to the position of the most fuel efficient car in the household, suggesting that households’ fuel efficiency choices...

  7. Household wealth and child health in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalasani, Satvika; Rutstein, Shea

    2014-03-01

    Using data from the Indian National Family Health Surveys (1992-93, 1998-99, 2005-06), this study examined how the relationship between household wealth and child health evolved during a time of significant economic change in India. The main predictor was an innovative measure of household wealth that captures changes in wealth over time. Discrete-time logistic models (with community fixed effects) were used to examine mortality and malnutrition outcomes: infant, child, and under-5 mortality; stunting, wasting, and being underweight. Analysis was conducted at the national, urban/rural, and regional levels, separately for boys and girls. The results indicate that the relationship between household wealth and under-5 mortality weakened over time but this result was dominated by infant mortality. The relationship between wealth and child mortality stayed strong for girls. The relationship between household wealth and malnutrition became stronger over time for boys and particularly for girls, in urban and (especially) rural areas.

  8. Community mobilization and household level waste management ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    A baseline household survey was conducted and entomological and sociological surveys were carried out .... Research methods ... including the objectives and the methodology were .... tained both quantitative and qualitative assessments.

  9. Household energy consumption and expenditures 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-05

    This presents information about household end-use consumption of energy and expenditures for that energy. These data were collected in the 1993 Residential Energy Consumption Survey; more than 7,000 households were surveyed for information on their housing units, energy consumption and expenditures, stock of energy-consuming appliances, and energy-related behavior. The information represents all households nationwide (97 million). Key findings: National residential energy consumption was 10.0 quadrillion Btu in 1993, a 9% increase over 1990. Weather has a significant effect on energy consumption. Consumption of electricity for appliances is increasing. Houses that use electricity for space heating have lower overall energy expenditures than households that heat with other fuels. RECS collected data for the 4 most populous states: CA, FL, NY, TX.

  10. FOOD DEMAND PATTERNS IN GHANAIAN URBAN HOUSEHOLDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard SAKYIAMAH

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analysed food consumption patterns in Ghanaian urban households by comparing food commodity budget shares and estimating price and expenditure elasticities for eleven food commodity groups across different income groups. The Linear Approximation Almost Ideal Demand System (LA/AIDS was applied to the data. Demand for most of the food commodity groups was found to be elastic. The study concluded that generally, across income groups, food commodities respond negatively to changes in food prices and that cereals/bread, roots/tubers, vegetables, meat and fish will remain an important component of urban household food expenditure. Generally, household demographic characteristics such as age, gender and household size had significant effects on urban food demand patterns.

  11. Bangladesh Integrated Household Survey (BIHS) 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — This dataset is the second round of Bangladesh Integrated Household Survey (BIHS). The BIHS is the only nationally representative survey in Bangladesh that collects...

  12. Macroeconomic Expectations of Households and Professional Forecasters

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher D Carroll

    2002-01-01

    Economists have long emphasized the importance of expectations in determining macroeconomic outcomes Yet there has been almost no recent effort to model actual empirical expectations data; instead macroeconomists usually simply assume expectations are rational This paper shows that while empirical household expectations are not rational in the usual sense expectational dynamics are well captured by a model in which households' views derive from news reports of the views of professional foreca...

  13. Revealing household characteristics from smart meter data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckel, Christian; Sadamori, Leyna; Staake, Thorsten; Santini, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Utilities are currently deploying smart electricity meters in millions of households worldwide to collect fine-grained electricity consumption data. We present an approach to automatically analyzing this data to enable personalized and scalable energy efficiency programs for private households. In particular, we develop and evaluate a system that uses supervised machine learning techniques to automatically estimate specific “characteristics” of a household from its electricity consumption. The characteristics are related to a household's socio-economic status, its dwelling, or its appliance stock. We evaluate our approach by analyzing smart meter data collected from 4232 households in Ireland at a 30-min granularity over a period of 1.5 years. Our analysis shows that revealing characteristics from smart meter data is feasible, as our method achieves an accuracy of more than 70% over all households for many of the characteristics and even exceeds 80% for some of the characteristics. The findings are applicable to all smart metering systems without making changes to the measurement infrastructure. The inferred knowledge paves the way for targeted energy efficiency programs and other services that benefit from improved customer insights. On the basis of these promising results, the paper discusses the potential for utilities as well as policy and privacy implications. - Highlights: • Many household characteristics can be automatically inferred from smart meter data. • We develop a system to infer employment status and number of occupants, for instance. • We evaluate our system analyzing data collected from 4232 households in Ireland. • The insights enable personalized and scalable efficiency campaigns for utilities. • Energy efficiency measures must be complemented by privacy protection

  14. Power in Households: Disentangling Bargaining Power

    OpenAIRE

    Mabsout, Ramzi; Staveren, Irene

    2009-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction Within the household bargaining literature, bargaining power is generally understood in terms of economic resources, such as income or assets. Empirical analyses of women’s bargaining power in households in developed and developing countries find that, in general, higher female incomes lead to higher bargaining power, which in turn tends to increase women’s relative wellbeing (Quisumbing, 2003). For assets, the empirical literature comes up with similar results, indic...

  15. Sodium Reduction in US Households' Packaged Food and Beverage Purchases, 2000 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poti, Jennifer M; Dunford, Elizabeth K; Popkin, Barry M

    2017-07-01

    Initiatives to reduce sodium in packaged foods have been launched in the United States, yet corresponding changes in the amount of sodium that US households obtain from packaged foods have not been evaluated, to our knowledge. To assess 15-year changes in the amount of sodium that US households acquire from packaged food purchases, the sodium content of purchases, and the proportion of households that have purchases with optimal sodium density. Longitudinal study of US households in the 2000 to 2014 Nielsen Homescan Consumer Panel, a population-based sample of households that used barcode scanners to record all packaged foods purchased throughout the year. Time-varying brand- and product-specific nutrition information was used for 1 490 141 products. Sociodemographic-adjusted changes in mean sodium per capita (mg/d) and sodium content (mg/100 g), overall and for top food group sources of sodium, and the proportion of households that have total purchases with sodium density of 1.1 mg/kcal or less. In a nationwide sample of 172 042 US households (754 608 year-level observations), the amount of sodium that households acquired from packaged food and beverage purchases decreased significantly between 2000 and 2014 by 396 mg/d (95% CI, -407 to -385 mg/d) per capita. The sodium content of households' packaged food purchases decreased significantly during this 15-year period by 49 mg/100 g (95% CI, -50 to -48 mg/100 g), a 12.0% decline; decreases began in 2005 and continued through 2014. Moreover, the sodium content of households' purchases decreased significantly for all top food sources of sodium between 2000 and 2014, including declines of more than 100 mg/100 g for condiments, sauces, and dips (-114 mg/100 g; 95% CI, -117 to -111 mg/100 g) and salty snacks (-142 mg/100 g; 95% CI, -144 to -141 mg/100 g). However, in all years, less than 2% of US households had packaged food and beverage purchases with sodium density of 1.1 mg/kcal or less. In this nationwide

  16. Domestic energy use and householders' energy behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yohanis, Yigzaw Goshu

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses domestic energy use and energy behaviour. It shows some improvement in domestic energy consumption and adoption of good energy practice. The survey conducted indicated that 35% of homes could improve their energy efficiency by improved tank insulation. In the last 5 years condensing boilers have been installed only in 3% of homes, indicating that householders are unaware of their advantages. Although 88% of surveyed homes had purchased a major appliance in the last 2 years, only 16% had any idea of the energy rating of their new appliances. Use of energy saving light bulbs is predominant in kitchens compared to other rooms. 70–80% of householders undertook some kind of day-to-day energy efficiency measures. 20–35% of householders would like to invest in energy-saving measures but found cost to be a key barrier. Approximately 84% of those surveyed were unaware of the energy rating of their household appliances. Price and brand were the most important factors determining the purchase of a new appliance. Significant energy-saving could be achieved by providing appropriate information to the general public regarding temperature control, efficiency of appliances and energy-saving heating systems. - Highlights: ▶ Good practice in household energy use is being adopted but actual use is rising. ▶ Cost is dominant in energy related decisions purchasing of household appliances. ▶ Energy behaviour is improving but level of awareness needs more work.

  17. Income differentiation of households in the CR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Stávková

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Czech Republic has recently experienced phases of economic growth and periods of economic crisis, this fact affects the standard of living and household behaviour and affects the formation of life-style. This paper deals with the income situation of households. The main source of data is EU SILC survey from the years 2005 to 2008.The result of the enquiry and processing of primary data is information about the average income per household member, the poverty level and the number of households at risk of poverty. For the formulation of income differentiation is used Gini coefficient. Attention is paid to factors that affect income inequality (the number of household members, social group, age. Information, about the income situation of households, is amended by following indicators of material deprivation. The paper also analyses the impact of social transfers on income inequality. The analysis and subsequent solving of the problem of income inequality may be contributed with further analysis of empirical data of this type.

  18. Household energy requirement and value patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vringer, Kees; Aalbers, Theo; Blok, Kornelis

    2007-01-01

    For an effective consumer energy policy, it is important to know why some households require more energy than others. The aim of the study described here was to examine whether there is a relationship between the total household energy requirement, on one hand, and value patterns, the motivation to save energy or the problem perception of climate change, on the other. To examine these relationships, we held a consumer survey among 2304 respondent households. We did not find significant differences in the energy requirement of groups of households with different value patterns, taking into account the differences in the socio-economic situation of households. Only for the 'motivation to save energy' we did find that the least motivated group requires 10 GJ more energy than the average and most motivated groups; this is about 4% of the total household energy requirement. This means that a self-regulating energy policy, solely based on the fact that a strategy of internalising environmental responsibility will not be effective in saving energy. There are indications that a social dilemma is one of the reasons why people's consumption patterns do not conform to their value patterns, problem perception or motivation to save energy

  19. How do household characteristics affect appliance usage? Application of conditional demand analysis to Japanese household data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Shigeru

    2016-01-01

    Although both appliance ownership and usage patterns determine residential electricity consumption, it is less known how households actually use their appliances. In this study, we conduct conditional demand analyses to break down total household electricity consumption into a set of demand functions for electricity usage, across 12 appliance categories. We then examine how the socioeconomic characteristics of the households explain their appliance usage. Analysis of micro-level data from the Nation Survey of Family and Expenditure in Japan reveals that the family and income structure of households affect appliance usage. Specifically, we find that the presence of teenagers increases both air conditioner and dishwasher use, labor income and nonlabor income affect microwave usage in different ways, air conditioner usage decreases as the wife's income increases, and microwave usage decreases as the husband's income increases. Furthermore, we find that households use more electricity with new personal computers than old ones; this implies that the replacement of old personal computers increases electricity consumption. - Highlights: •We conduct conditional demand analyses to study household appliance usage. •Micro-level data from the National Survey of Family and Expenditure in Japan are analyzed. •We show how household characteristics determine appliance usage. •High-income households use specific appliances less intensively than low-income households. •The replacement of old TVs and PCs lead to greater electricity consumption.

  20. Estimating household food waste in Denmark:case study of single family households

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edjabou, Vincent Maklawe Essonanawe; Petersen, C.; Scheutz, Charlotte

    and determine potential improvements. In Denmark, although many sorting campaigns involving household waste has been conducted, little attention has been placed on food waste. Comparison of recent studies made for examples in Austria, and the UK suggests that quantity and material composition of food waste vary...... waste and non-avoidable vegetable food waste. Furthermore, avoidable vegetable and animal food waste were the primary source of household food waste. Statistical analysis found a positive linear relationship between household size and the amount of the household food waste suggesting the amount...

  1. Impact of agricultural intensification on poverty alleviation among rural farm households in Imo state Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iheke, O.R.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was on the impact of agricultural intensification on poverty alleviation among rural farm households in Imo State Nigeria. Multi-stage random sampling and purposive sampling technique was used in choosing the samples used for the study. Data collections were by the use of structured questionnaire and interview schedules and data analysis involved the computation per capital household food expenditure and mean per capita household expenditure so as to draw the poverty line and hence derive the poverty status of the respondents, regression analysis as well as computation of the Chow’s statistic. The results of data analysis revealed that poverty is more pronounced with the farm households that are not practicing agricultural intensification. The significant factors influencing the poverty level of the farmers practicing agricultural intensification were sex of household head, years of formal education, assets endowment, and income; while for the farmers not practicing intensification, household size, years of formal education, assets endowment, and income were the significant factors influencing their poverty level. For the two households, age, years of formal education, assets endowment, and income were the significant factors influencing their poverty level. Education, income and the dummy variable indicating intensification status were the significant factors influencing their poverty level for the entire household with a dummy introduced. The Chow’s test revealed that agricultual intensification has a positive and significant impact on poverty reduction. Therefore, creation of awareness and persuading rural farming households to practice more of intensified agriculture would lead increase in productivity and income with a multiplier effect on poverty reduction.

  2. Growing up without parents: socialisation and gender relations in orphaned-child-headed households in rural Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis-Chizororo, Monica

    2010-01-01

    The most distressing consequences of the HIV/AIDS pandemic's impact on children has been the development of child-headed households (CHHs). Child 'only' households challenge notions of the ideal home, family, and 'normal' childhood, as well as undermining international attempts to institute children's rights. The development of these households raises practical questions about how the children will cope without parental guidance during their childhood and how this experience will affect their adulthood. Drawing on ethnographic research with five child heads and their siblings, this article explores how orphaned children living in 'child only' households organise themselves in terms of household domestic and paid work roles, explores the socialisation of children by children and the negotiation of teenage girls' movement. Further, it examines whether the orphaned children are in some way attempting to 'mimic' previously existing family/household gender relations after parental death. The study showed that all members in the CHHs irrespective of age and gender are an integral part of household labour including food production. Although there is masculinisation of domestic chores in boys 'only' households, roles are distributed by age. On the other hand, households with a gender mix tended to follow traditional gender norms. Conflict often arose when boys controlled teenage girls' movement and sexuality. There is a need for further research on CHHs to better understand orphans' experiences, and to inform policy interventions.

  3. Behavior Intention towards the Adoption of Innovative Household Sanitary Ware: A Case Study of Jakarta, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar Adhiutama

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study tried to describe the behavior intention factors related to adopt the innovative bidet toilet seats in the households. The increase of the middle class population in Indonesia creates a new demand for adopting innovative products to enhance lifestyles. There were many electronic home appliance products have been easily adopted in Jakarta households, however there has been low adoption for electronic bidet toilet seats in household bathrooms. This study aims to identify and analyse the critical factors involved in adopting these seats in households and to explore the relative significance of each of these factors. It reports the results of empirical tests conducted regarding the non users’ adoption of these seats, based on the extended Theory of Planned Behavior. This study was administrated to 115 participants in Jakarta. Descriptive statistic, correlation analysis and multiple regressions were performed to determine the important factors. The results indicate that intention, voluntariness, observability, water usage and age are positively influence the adoption of the seats in urban households in Jakarta. Keywords: behavior adoption, electronic bidet toilet seats, urban households, jakarta

  4. Economic importance of oleoresin (Dipterocarpus alatus) to forest-adjacent households in Cambodia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrmose, Anne-Mette Hüls; Turreira Garcia, Nerea; Theilade, Ida

    2017-01-01

    interviewed and 100 resin trees were measured to examine factors affecting resin productivity. Forest-adjacent households were highly dependent on resin extraction for cash income. Households spent an average of 105 days annually on resin extraction. The mean annual household gross-income derived from liquid...... resin was USD 3,236. Solid resin contributed only a small part of household incomes except for the most remote and isolated village, Spong, in which solid resin contributed significantly to the gross-income. Resin trees yielded an average of 18 liters of oleoresin per year according to interview......The genus Dipterocarpus is the main source of marketable liquid oleoresin, which is important as a source of income for forest communities in Southeast Asia. However, deforestation and illegal as well as legal logging pose a threat to resin yielding species (Dipterocarpus spp.). There is still more...

  5. Ubiquitous Monitoring of Electrical Household Appliances 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Lacuesta

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The number of appliances at home is increasing continuously, mainly because they make our lives easier. Currently, technology is integrated in all objects of our daily life. TCP/IP let us monitor our home in real time and check ubiquitously if something is happening at home. Bearing in mind this idea, we have developed a low-cost system, which can be used in any type of electrical household appliance that takes information from the appliance and posts the information to the Twitter Social network. Several sensors placed in the household appliances gather the sensed data and send them wired or wirelessly, depending on the case, using small and cheap devices to a gateway located in the home. This gateway takes decisions, based on the received data, and sends notifications to Twitter. We have developed a software application that takes the values and decides when to issue an alarm to the registered users (Twitter friends of our smart home. The performance of our system has been measured taking into account the home network (using IEEE 802.3u and IEEE 802.11g and the data publishing in Twitter. As a result, we have generated an original product and service for any electrical household appliance, regardless of the model and manufacturer, that helps home users improve their quality of life. The paper also shows that there is no system with the same innovative features like the ones presented in this paper.

  6. Organic saffron position in the future household consumption basket and effective structures (Case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadreza Shahpouri

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Considering the importance of planning at the production level, it is necessary to identify the consumer's future behavior towards organic products. Thus, using seemingly unrelated regression and data of 2012 for 200 households in mashhad, in the present study we have tried to determine the future share of these products in the household's basket and also survey the effective factors on this share in organic saffron. The results showed that households in mashhad tend to allocate an average of 34 percent of their future consumption basket for organic saffron. The regression results illustrated that while children below 10 years old in the households, willingness to pay the price differential compared with non-organic products and organic labeling positively affected the willingness to pay for organic products, environmental concerns variables created by non-organic products had a negative effect on their willingness. Considering the research results, helping to raise people's awareness about food through different educational and advertising approaches, providing a mechanism to label organic products and assessing the strengths and weaknesses of producing and distributing the organic products are provided as suggestions.

  7. Household income and earnings losses among 6,396 persons with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Frederick; Michaud, Kaleb; Choi, Hyon K; Williams, Rhys

    2005-10-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) causes disability and reduced productivity. There are no large quantitative studies of earnings and productivity losses in patients with clinical RA, and no studies of household income losses. We describe methods for obtaining earnings and household income losses that are applicable to working as well as nonworking RA patients, and we perform such studies using these methods. We estimated cross-sectional expected annual earnings and household income losses in 6,649 persons with RA from Current Populations Survey (CPS) and O*NET (Occupational Information Network) data, and we estimated expected household income and earnings losses based on demographic characteristics after adjustment to Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form 36 (SF-36) population norms (internal method). Workplace productivity was measured by the Work Limitations Questionnaire (WLQ). 27.9% of patients aged Productivity losses were 6% based on work limitations identified by the WLQ. Household income loss (percentage loss) including transfer payments was USD 6,287 (11.8%) for all patients, USD 4,247 (6.9%) for employed patients, and USD 7,374 (14.8%) for nonworking patients. Among nonworking nondisabled patients aged status, education, age, ethnicity, and marital status. Income loss is predicted by the HAQ, HAQ-II, Modified HAQ, and SF-36.

  8. Marketing Household Water Treatment: Willingness to Pay Results from an Experiment in Rural Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalise G. Blum

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite increasing availability of household water treatment products, demand in developing countries remains low. Willingness to pay for water treatment products and factors that affect demand are not well understood. In this study, we estimate willingness to pay for WaterGuard, a dilute chlorine solution for point-of-use water treatment, using actual purchase decisions at randomly assigned prices. Secondly, we identify household characteristics that are correlated with the purchase decision. Among a sample of 854 respondents from 107 villages in rural Kenya, we find that mean willingness to pay is approximately 80% of the market price. Although only 35% of sample households purchased WaterGuard at the market price, 67% of those offered a 50% discount purchased the product. A marketing message emphasizing child health did not have a significant effect on purchase behavior, overall or among the subset of households with children under five. These findings suggest that rural Kenyans are willing to pay for WaterGuard at low prices but are very sensitive to increasing price. Households with young children that could benefit the most from use of WaterGuard do not appear to be more likely to purchase the product, and a marketing message designed to target this population was ineffective.

  9. A SUPPORTING AID FOR BEEF CATTLE INVESTMENT OF FARM HOUSEHOLD IN CENTRAL JAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ekowati

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted to analyze some factors influencing production, income, farmhousehold consumption and investment of farm household beef cattle in Central Java. Five districts werepurposively chosen for research location based on the number of beef cattle population, namelyRembang, Blora, Grobogan, Boyolali and Wonogiri. Forty respondents of each district were chosenrandomly using quota sampling. Data were analyzed through Simultaneous Regression and estimated byTwo Stage Least Square (TSLS. The results showed that independent variables were simultaneouslysignificant to dependent variables (production, income, farm household consumption and investmentwith the Probability F test 0.0000 and adjusted R2 were 91%; 89%; 96%; 62%, respectively. Thesimulation’s analysis of agribusiness implementation consisted of 1 decreasing 15% of service perconception, 2 increasing of beef cattle breed and number of beef cattle 15% respectively, 3 raising ofprice of rice and number of household member 15% respectively and 4 increasing of income and priceof beef cattle 10% respectively influenced to farm household consumption and investment 0.446% and5.14%, respectively, meanwhile production and income did not change. The research can be concludedthat the independent variables simultaneously significant influenced to production, income, farmhousehold consumption and beef cattle investment. The simulation of changing usage of input factor andprice significantly influenced to farm household consumption and beef cattle investment.

  10. The natural gas - alternative decision for households consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manoilova, T.; Tzaleva, E.; Boshnakova, V.

    2002-01-01

    Some expectations for households future fuel and energy consumption changes have been presented. The main reasons, motivating the households gasification implementation and its influence over the sectors energy consumption have been analysed. Some improvements of household consumption structure expectation are developed with the view to environment harmful emissions decrease. An example of household natural gas consumption structure by processes is developed. (authors)

  11. Financial accounting as a method of household finance capacity valuation

    OpenAIRE

    A. B. Untanov

    2017-01-01

    The article presents existing household finance capacity investigations. Comparison conducting allowed to determinate collisions and flaws of previous works. That substantiates to find a new approach in household finance capacity valuation necessity. The article contains theoretical research of household finance fundamental categories. In particular, it notes significant difference between domestic and foreign experience of household finance determination. Although emphasizing key similaritie...

  12. Determinants of Food Security Status of Maize-Based Farming Households in Southern Guinea Savannah Area of Oyo State, Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwayemisi Abidemi Onasanya

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Nigeria is one of the countries in sub-Saharan Africa with insufficient food and high food import bill, which have debilitating effects on the productive capacity of the citizens. Maize is the most important cereal after rice and its production contributes immensely to food availability on the tables of many Nigerians. This study examined the contribution of maize production to household food security status of rural maize-farming households in the southern guinea savannah of Oyo state, Nigeria. A multistage sampling procedure was used to select 200 farm households and the data were analysed using descriptive statistics, recommended daily calorie requirement (RDCR approach, Logit model. Results showed that about three-quarters of the households were food secure and were able to meet the recommended calorie intake of 2260Kcal per capita per day. The shortfall index (P which measures the extent of deviation from the food security line, indicated that the food secure households exceeded the RDCR by 65%, while the food insecure households fell short of the RDCR by 31%. The logit model showed that maize output, gender, primary occupation of the farmer, farm size and farming experience had a positive influence on food security status while age had a negative influence on the food security status of maize-based farming households in the Southern Guinea Savannah of Oyo State, Nigeria. This suggests need for specific support to improve maize production

  13. Trends in added sugars from packaged beverages available and purchased by US households, 2007-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Shu Wen; Ostrowski, Jessica D; Li, Kuo-Ping

    2017-07-01

    Background: The US Food and Drug Administration's updated nutrition labeling requirements will include added sugars starting in July 2018, but no measure currently exists to identify the added sugar content of products and what it represents among purchases. Beverages are one of the first targets for reducing added sugar consumption, and hence are the focus here. Objective: Our goal was to estimate trends in added sugars in nonalcoholic packaged beverage products available in the United States and to estimate amounts of added sugars obtained from these beverages given the purchases of US households overall and by subpopulations. Design: On the basis of nutrition label data from multiple sources, we used a stepwise approach to derive the added sugar content of 160,713 beverage products recorded as purchased by US households in 2007-2012 (345,193 observations from 110,539 unique households). We estimated the amounts of added sugars obtained from packaged beverages US households reported buying in 2007-2008, 2009-2010, and 2011-2012, overall and by subpopulations based on household composition, race/ethnicity, and income. The key outcomes are added sugars in terms of per capita grams per day and the percentage of calories from packaged beverages. Results: Packaged beverages alone account for per capita consumption of 12 g/d of added sugars purchased by US households in 2007-2012, representing 32-48% of calories from packaged beverages. Whereas the absolute amount of added sugars from beverages has not changed meaningfully over time, the relative contribution of added sugars to calories from beverages has increased. Non-Hispanic black households and low-income households obtain both higher absolute and relative amounts of added sugars from beverages than non-Hispanic white households and high-income households (all P beverages at both the product level and the population level in the United States and can be used for comparisons after the revised nutrition labels are

  14. Household Transmission of Vibrio cholerae in Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan D Sugimoto

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio cholerae infections cluster in households. This study's objective was to quantify the relative contribution of direct, within-household exposure (for example, via contamination of household food, water, or surfaces to endemic cholera transmission. Quantifying the relative contribution of direct exposure is important for planning effective prevention and control measures.Symptom histories and multiple blood and fecal specimens were prospectively collected from household members of hospital-ascertained cholera cases in Bangladesh from 2001-2006. We estimated the probabilities of cholera transmission through 1 direct exposure within the household and 2 contact with community-based sources of infection. The natural history of cholera infection and covariate effects on transmission were considered. Significant direct transmission (p-value<0.0001 occurred among 1414 members of 364 households. Fecal shedding of O1 El Tor Ogawa was associated with a 4.9% (95% confidence interval: 0.9%-22.8% risk of infection among household contacts through direct exposure during an 11-day infectious period (mean length. The estimated 11-day risk of O1 El Tor Ogawa infection through exposure to community-based sources was 2.5% (0.8%-8.0%. The corresponding estimated risks for O1 El Tor Inaba and O139 infection were 3.7% (0.7%-16.6% and 8.2% (2.1%-27.1% through direct exposure, and 3.4% (1.7%-6.7% and 2.0% (0.5%-7.3% through community-based exposure. Children under 5 years-old were at elevated risk of infection. Limitations of the study may have led to an underestimation of the true risk of cholera infection. For instance, available covariate data may have incompletely characterized levels of pre-existing immunity to cholera infection. Transmission via direct exposure occurring outside of the household was not considered.Direct exposure contributes substantially to endemic transmission of symptomatic cholera in an urban setting. We provide the first estimate of

  15. Household activity-travel behavior : implementation of within-household interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anggraini, R.

    2009-01-01

    Although the importance of households as a decision making unit has been recognized in seminal work in activity-based analysis of transport demand, most comprehensivemodels have relied on individual activity-travel patterns. The transformation of thesemodels to household level models and the

  16. Household vulnerability to climate change: examining perceptions of households of flood risks in Georgetown and Paramaribo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linnekamp, F.; Koedam, A.; Baud, I.S.A.

    2011-01-01

    The article examines household perceptions of flooding as part of climate change in two low elevation coastal zone cities in the Caribbean. The research examines differences in vulnerability of households as the combined results of socio-economic inequalities in entitlements and exposure to natural

  17. Agricultural Trade Liberalisation and Growth in Income of Rural Household in Bangladesh: A Quintile-Growth Approach to the Analysis of Distributional Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayal Talukder

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The study has investigated the growth in income of rural households in Bangladesh with a view to analysing distributional consequences in the post-liberalisation era. Using data from secondary sources, it has applied a quintile-growth approach by dividing each group of households into five income clusters (quintiles to analyse the incidence of growth in real income. It has found that although all groups of rural households experienced a moderate to high increase in real income, non-farm households experienced a larger increase than farm households due to a large reduction in consumer price. Farm households gained from the increase in productivity but experienced losses from producer price reduction. The two opposite forces – increase in productivity and reduction in producer price – offset the effects of each other, thereby affecting the income growth of farm households. Amongst the farm households, large and medium farmers gained the most and small farmers gained the least from the growth in real income, indicating that rich households experienced a much higher increase in real income than poor households – thereby adversely affecting the distribution of income and widening the income gap between rich and poor households. These findings demonstrated that while agricultural trade liberalisation benefited rural households generally, the benefits were not distributed equally and in fact, inequality increased amongst rural households. This study argues that the growth in real income of rural household was not pro-poor during 1985- 86 to 2005. This study suggests that agricultural trade liberalisation contributed to higher growth in the rural economy but it contributed to greater inequality in income distribution amongst the rich and poor income groups (quintiles. Government should reduce inequality through policy interventions with income transfer from the rich to the poor.

  18. HOUSEHOLD EXPENDITURE IN RESPONSE TO NATURAL DISASTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eny Sulistyaningrum

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Natural disasters have increased in their frequency, and the intensity of their destruction over the last ten years in Indonesia. Households usually respond to these difficulties by cutting their consump-tion, especially for non-essential goods. Arguably natural disasters are exogenous events, so this paper uses the exogenous variation from natural disasters as a natural experiment design to estimate the effect of disasters on household expenditure. When a certain group is exposed to the causal variable of interest, such as a disaster, and other groups are not, the Difference In Difference model (DID can be used for estimation. Using a micro level survey data set from the Indonesian Family Life Survey (IFLS which covers approximately 83 percent of the Indonesian population within the survey area, this paper examines the effects of natural disasters on household expenditure. This paper also examines whether there are any different impacts from different types of disasters. The finding is there are no significant effects of disasters on total household expenditure for households living in disaster regions, whether they are affected directly or not by the disaster.

  19. Overcoming the energy efficiency gap in India's household sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, B.S.

    2003-01-01

    Energy efficiency generates substantial financial savings while simultaneously improving environmental quality. Despite these benefits, developing countries like India are missing out on energy efficiency opportunities and instead concentrating on increased energy production. This paper identifies the efficient technologies in the household sector in India, and details their benefits to the consumer as well as to the society. It identifies the barriers that prevent the government from achieving its energy efficiency goals, analyses programs that addresses these barriers, and explores the creation of an institutional mechanism

  20. Improvements in productivity at paid work and within the household, and increased participation in daily activities after 24 weeks of certolizumab pegol treatment of patients with psoriatic arthritis: results of a phase 3 double-blind randomised placebo-controlled study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanaugh, A; Gladman, D; van der Heijde, D; Purcaru, O; Mease, P

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the effect of certolizumab pegol (CZP) on productivity outside and within the home, and on participation in family, social and leisure activities in adult patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA). Methods RAPID-PsA (NCT01087788) is a phase 3, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. 409 patients with active PsA were randomised 1:1:1 to placebo, CZP 200 mg every 2 weeks (Q2W) or CZP 400 mg every 4 weeks (Q4W). The arthritis-specific Work Productivity Survey (WPS) assessed the impact of PsA on paid work and household productivity, and participation in social activities during the preceding month. WPS responses were compared between treatment arms using a non-parametric bootstrap-t method. Results At baseline, 56.6%, 60.1% and 61.5% of placebo, CZP 200 mg Q2W and CZP 400 mg Q4W patients were employed. By week 24, employed CZP patients reported an average of 1.0–1.8 and 3.0–3.9 fewer days of absenteeism and presenteeism, respectively, per month compared with 1.0 and 0.3 fewer days for placebo patients (pproductivity or days lost for participation in family, social and leisure activities. Improvements with CZP were seen as early as week 4 and continued to week 24. Conclusions CZP treatment significantly improved productivity at paid work and within the home, and resulted in greater participation in social activities for PsA patients. Trial registration number NCT01087788. PMID:24942382

  1. Exploring the link between household debt and income inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fasianos, Apostolos; Raza, Hamid; Kinsella, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between household debt and income inequality in the USA, allowing for asymmetry, using data over the period 1913–2008. We find evidence of an asymmetric cointegration between household debt and inequality for different regimes. Our results indicate household debt...... only responds to positive changes in income inequality, while there is no evidence of falling inequality significantly affecting household debt. The presence of this asymmetry provides further empirical insights into the emerging literature on household debt and inequality....

  2. Production and Productivity Effects of Informal Contract Farming in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper uses data from a 2001 household survey of small-scale farming households in Kirinyaga District, Kenya to explore production effects of informal credit contracts in French bean farming where formal markets for surplus production are seemingly shallow and imperfect. Specifically, it examines whether informal ...

  3. The effects of China's Sloping Land Conversion Program on agricultural households

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhen; Henningsen, Arne

    2016-01-01

    In the late 1990s, China aimed to mitigate environmental degradation from agricultural production activities by introducing the world's largest "Payments for Environmental Services" program: the Sloping Land Conversion Program (SLCP). We develop a microeconomic Agricultural Household Model, which...... nonfarm labor supply and total consumption in some regions, these effects could not be observed in others. The recent reduction of the SLCP compensation payment rates generally had negligible effects on agricultural production and off-farm work and only very small effects on household consumption....

  4. Stock Market Expectations of Dutch Households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurd, Michael; van Rooij, Maarten; Winter, Joachim

    2011-04-01

    Despite its importance for the analysis of life-cycle behavior and, in particular, retirement planning, stock ownership by private households is poorly understood. Among other approaches to investigate this puzzle, recent research has started to elicit private households' expectations of stock market returns. This paper reports findings from a study that collected data over a two-year period both on households' stock market expectations (subjective probabilities of gains or losses) and on whether they own stocks. We document substantial heterogeneity in financial market expectations. Expectations are correlated with stock ownership. Over the two years of our data, stock market prices increased, and expectations of future stock market price changes also increased, lending support to the view that expectations are influenced by recent stock gains or losses.

  5. Electricity savings in households with everyday IT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kibsgaard, Kaj; Larsen, Anders; leth, Søren

    This paper analyzes the effect of supplying online feedback by SMS-text messages and email about electricity consumption on the level of total household electricity consumption. An experiment was conducted where 1,452 households were randomly allocated to three experimental groups and two control...... groups. Feedback was supplied throughout 2007 to members of the experiment groups who accepted the invitation, and data on consumption of electricity for 2006 and 2007 collected for all participants and control group members. 30% of the households invited to receive feedback accepted the invitation....... The estimated effects of the feedback on consumption of electricity are estimated to be in the range of 2-3%. The feedback technology is cheap to implement and therefore likely to be cost-effective...

  6. Household food waste in Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerris, Mickey; Gaiani, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    such as climate change and unjust distribution of food resources, needs to be based on an appreciative and relational understanding of nature and food and not only on economic and moralizing arguments. This is done by drawing on an ecocentric perspective where food is seen as one of the areas where new narratives......This study focuses on food waste generated by households in four Nordic countries: Finland, Denmark, Norway, and Sweden. Based on existing literature we present (A) comparable data on amounts and monetary value of food waste; (B) explanations for food waste at household level; (C) a number...... of public and private initiatives at national levels aiming to reduce food waste; and (D) a discussion of ethical issues related to food waste with a focus on possible contributions from ecocentric ethics. We argue that reduction of food waste at household level, which has an impact on issues...

  7. Household's use of information and communication technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Ole; Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten; Røpke, Inge

    2009-01-01

    of theories of domestication of technologies, it is argued that aspects such as consumers' creativity in technology use and their non-adaption are relevant aspects to include in policy and regulation discussions on how to limit the escalating electricity consumption from household ICT use.......Increasing consumption of electricity due to a growing number of information and communication technology (ICT) appliances in households is a major challenge to reducing energy consumption. Several studies have predicted escalating ICT-related energy consumption, but relatively little has been said...... and done about possible initiatives to curb this increase. This paper presents results of a research project focusing on how dynamics of consumption influence household energy consumption on ICT. Results of the project include scenarios on how electricity consumption on ICT is expected to grow, suggesting...

  8. Household batteries: Evaluation of collection methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seeberger, D.A.

    1992-12-31

    While it is difficult to prove that a specific material is causing contamination in a landfill, tests have been conducted at waste-to-energy facilities that indicate that household batteries contribute significant amounts of heavy metals to both air emissions and ash residue. Hennepin County, MN, used a dual approach for developing and implementing a special household battery collection. Alternative collection methods were examined; test collections were conducted. The second phase examined operating and disposal policy issues. This report describes the results of the grant project, moving from a broad examination of the construction and content of batteries, to a description of the pilot collection programs, and ending with a discussion of variables affecting the cost and operation of a comprehensive battery collection program. Three out-of-state companies (PA, NY) were found that accept spent batteries; difficulties in reclaiming household batteries are discussed.

  9. Household batteries: Evaluation of collection methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seeberger, D.A.

    1992-01-01

    While it is difficult to prove that a specific material is causing contamination in a landfill, tests have been conducted at waste-to-energy facilities that indicate that household batteries contribute significant amounts of heavy metals to both air emissions and ash residue. Hennepin County, MN, used a dual approach for developing and implementing a special household battery collection. Alternative collection methods were examined; test collections were conducted. The second phase examined operating and disposal policy issues. This report describes the results of the grant project, moving from a broad examination of the construction and content of batteries, to a description of the pilot collection programs, and ending with a discussion of variables affecting the cost and operation of a comprehensive battery collection program. Three out-of-state companies (PA, NY) were found that accept spent batteries; difficulties in reclaiming household batteries are discussed.

  10. Organic household waste - incineration or recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The Danish Environmental Protection Agency has carried out a cost benefit analysis of the consequences of increasing recycling of organic household waste. In the cost benefit analysis both the economic consequences for the affected parties and the welfare-economic consequences for the society as a whole have been investigated. In the welfare-economic analysis the value of the environmental effects has been included. The analysis shows that it is more expensive for the society to recycle organic household waste by anaerobic digestion or central composting than by incineration. Incineration is the cheapest solution for the society, while central composting is the most expensive. Furthermore, technical studies have shown that there are only small environmental benefits connected with anaerobic digestion of organic waste compared with incineration of the waste. The primary reason for recycling being more expensive than incineration is the necessary, but cost-intensive, dual collection of the household waste. Treatment itself is cheaper for recycling compared to incinerating. (BA)

  11. Livelihood Cycle and Vulnerability of Rural Households to Climate Change and Hazards in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, G. M. Monirul

    2017-05-01

    Rural riverine households in Bangladesh are confronted with many climate-driven hazards, including riverbank erosion, which results in loss of productive land and other natural resources of the riverine households, and thus threatens their livelihoods and food security. This study assesses the main drivers of vulnerability and livelihood cycle of vulnerable riparian households in Bangladesh. The study utilises the IPCC framework of vulnerability and develops a weighted approach by employing the livelihood vulnerability index and the climate vulnerability index. The results reveal that the livelihood vulnerability index and the climate vulnerability index differ across locations, however, a high index value for both measures indicates the households' high livelihood vulnerability to climate change and hazards. The main drivers that influence the vulnerability dimensions are livelihood strategies and access to food, water and health facilities. These hazard-prone households are also vulnerable due to their existing low livelihood status that leads to a vicious cycle of poverty. The findings of this study are crucial for policymakers to formulate and implement effective strategies and programs to minimise vulnerability and to enhance the local adaptation processes in order to improve such households' livelihood across Bangladesh.

  12. Measuring the Return on Household Enterprise: What Matters Most for Whom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samphantharak, Krislert; Townsend, Robert M

    2012-05-01

    Return on assets (ROA) from household enterprise is crucial for understanding the well-being and productivity of households in developing economies. Yet the definition and measurement of household enterprise ROA remain inconsistent or unclear. We illustrate potential measurement problems with examples from various actual surveys. We then take advantage of a detailed integrated household survey to perform a robustness analysis, acting as if we had gathered less data than was actually the case, to see what matters and for whom. The three issues that matter most for accurate measurement of household enterprise ROA are the choice of accrual versus cash basis of income, the treatment of household's own labor in enterprise income, and the treatment of non-factor income. Also, this sensitivity matters most for a relatively poor region dominated by crop cultivation relative to a richer region with non-farm enterprises. Though the choice between accrued income and cash income matters less when the frequency of the data declines, there remains high sensitivity in longer-term and annualized data. We conclude the paper by providing recommendations on how to improve the survey questionnaires for more accurate measurement in field research.

  13. Household energy and climate mitigation policies: Investigating energy practices in the housing sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaffrin, André; Reibling, Nadine

    2015-01-01

    One central aim of climate change mitigation in the European Union is to reduce energy consumption in the housing sector. In order to ensure effectiveness of policies targeting household energy conservation, it is important to investigate existing energy practices of different social groups. This article describes and explains energy practices in three leading states in environmental politics, technological innovation, and support for renewable energy production: Denmark, Austria, and the United Kingdom. Based on a longitudinal analysis of housing utility costs from the European Community Statistics on Income and Living Conditions we show that income plays a central role in households' energy practices. While high-income households have higher overall energy consumption, low-income groups spend a larger share of their income on utility costs. The variation of energy consumption across income groups is related to household characteristics, characteristics of the dwellings, and cross-national differences in the housing sector. - Highlights: • We explain energy practices in Denmark, Austria, and the United Kingdom. • We show that income plays a central role in households’ energy practices. • High-income households have higher overall energy consumption. • Low-income groups spend a larger share of their income on utility costs. • Consumption depends on the household, dwelling and the housing sector

  14. Livelihood Cycle and Vulnerability of Rural Households to Climate Change and Hazards in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, G M Monirul

    2017-05-01

    Rural riverine households in Bangladesh are confronted with many climate-driven hazards, including riverbank erosion, which results in loss of productive land and other natural resources of the riverine households, and thus threatens their livelihoods and food security. This study assesses the main drivers of vulnerability and livelihood cycle of vulnerable riparian households in Bangladesh. The study utilises the IPCC framework of vulnerability and develops a weighted approach by employing the livelihood vulnerability index and the climate vulnerability index. The results reveal that the livelihood vulnerability index and the climate vulnerability index differ across locations, however, a high index value for both measures indicates the households' high livelihood vulnerability to climate change and hazards. The main drivers that influence the vulnerability dimensions are livelihood strategies and access to food, water and health facilities. These hazard-prone households are also vulnerable due to their existing low livelihood status that leads to a vicious cycle of poverty. The findings of this study are crucial for policymakers to formulate and implement effective strategies and programs to minimise vulnerability and to enhance the local adaptation processes in order to improve such households' livelihood across Bangladesh.

  15. [Livelihood status assessment of farmers and herdsmen's households based on participatory appraisal: a case in Taipusi Banner of Inner Mongolia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wen; Xu, Zhu; Shi, Shang-li; Tian, Qing-song; Wang, Hui-ping; Liu, Jian-li

    2011-10-01

    Participatory appraisal method was adopted to investigate the recent livelihood status of different type farmers and herdsmen's households in the Taipusi Banner of Inner Mongolia agriculture- animal husbandry ecotone, aimed to understand their livelihood strategies and restricting factors and to search for the ways to improve their living standards. The households dealing with pure agricultural production had smaller family size, with older age-structure and lower educational level, and their simple livelihood strategies brought about larger vulnerability and risk. To introduce and expand non-agricultural activities would be the important way to promote the livelihood diversification and to reduce the livelihood risks of these households. The households dealing with pure animal husbandry took grazing as the main subsistence, and their production activities were greatly restrained by the pasture vulnerability. To develop environment-friendly and high-yielding agriculture and animal husbandry would be the effective way to solve the livelihood problems of these households and to protect the ecological environment. The households dealing with both agricultural production and business or dealing with both animal husbandry and business generally had larger family size, with younger age- structure, higher diversity in labor division, larger proportion of non-farming activities, and better living standards. Especially for the households dealing with both animal husbandry and business, their income was much higher.

  16. Indoor household pesticides: hazardous waste concern or not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, J M; Guiney, P D; Howard, P H; Aronson, D B; Gray, D A

    2000-01-01

    Many indoor household pesticides are efficient and useful tools for a variety of functions necessary to maintain clean, sanitary, and pleasant homes and institutional facilities, and to provide significant public health benefits. They do so by incorporating active ingredients and formulation technology that have not been associated with significant environmental impact in use or when disposed in landfills. Chemical and environmental fate properties, toxicological characteristics, and use patterns of indoor household pesticides that distinguish them from other categories of pesticides which have been associated with environmental contamination should be recognized when HHW policy is debated and established by governmental agencies. Most indoor household pesticides as defined here should not be considered hazardous waste or HHW because those relatively few containers, often no longer full, that have been disposed with MSW over the years have not been associated with environmental contamination. The tiny amounts of those product residues that will reach MSW landfills have been shown, in general, not to have chemical or environmental fate characteristics that would make them susceptible to leaching. Those that do have the potential to leach based on these characteristics, in most cases, do not represent a threat to human health based on toxicological considerations. However, compounds such as propoxur, which are very mobile and relatively persistent in soil and in addition have been associated with significant potential health effects, may be targeted by the screening process as described here and could be selected for further investigation as candidates for special waste management status (such as HHW). Our analysis and recommendations have not been extended to the many types of lawn and garden pesticides that are commonly used by homeowners and are frequently brought to HHW programs. However, their potential for groundwater contamination could also be judged using

  17. Simulation models for household consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costanzo, Giuseppe Tommaso

    2011-01-01

    In many countries in the EU and in the United States, coil and nuclear plants provide the majority of energy production [2, 3], while peak absorption is matched by regulation plants and power exchange between grids. Throughout the last two decades, factors, such as increased global energy demand,...... are thermal and electrical storages, whose internal temperature or state of charge (SOC) is to be kept within specific comfort bounds. Alternatively, also PV plants can offer flexibility as soon as the controlling inverters are capable of controlling the power output......., speculation of fossil fuels, and global warming have generated a high interest in renewable energy sources. Nevertheless, energy sources, such as wind and solar power, have an intrinsic variability that can seriously affect the power grid stability if they account for a high percentage of the total generation...... as the capability of a device or cluster of devices to change the power consumption or production in time and magnitude. This behavior can be granted by local controllers or supervisory controllers who are able to operate under the direct or indirect control paradigm [5]. Typical devices that offer flexibility...

  18. Targeting antibiotics to households for trachoma control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isobel M Blake

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Mass drug administration (MDA is part of the current trachoma control strategy, but it can be costly and results in many uninfected individuals receiving treatment. Here we explore whether alternative, targeted approaches are effective antibiotic-sparing strategies.We analysed data on the prevalence of ocular infection with Chlamydia trachomatis and of active trachoma disease among 4,436 individuals from two communities in The Gambia (West Africa and two communities in Tanzania (East Africa. An age- and household-structured mathematical model of transmission was fitted to these data using maximum likelihood. The presence of active inflammatory disease as a marker of infection in a household was, in general, significantly more sensitive (between 79% [95%CI: 60%-92%] and 86% [71%-95%] across the four communities than as a marker of infection in an individual (24% [16%-33%]-66% [56%-76%]. Model simulations, under the best fit models for each community, showed that targeting treatment to households has the potential to be as effective as and significantly more cost-effective than mass treatment when antibiotics are not donated. The cost (2007US$ per incident infection averted ranged from 1.5 to 3.1 for MDA, from 1.0 to 1.7 for household-targeted treatment assuming equivalent coverage, and from 0.4 to 1.7 if household visits increased treatment coverage to 100% in selected households. Assuming antibiotics were donated, MDA was predicted to be more cost-effective unless opportunity costs incurred by individuals collecting antibiotics were included or household visits improved treatment uptake. Limiting MDA to children was not as effective in reducing infection as the other aforementioned distribution strategies.Our model suggests that targeting antibiotics to households with active trachoma has the potential to be a cost-effective trachoma control measure, but further work is required to assess if costs can be reduced and to what extent the approach

  19. Childbirth in aristocratic households of Heian Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreeva, Anna

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on childbirth in Japan's aristocratic households during the Heian period (794-1185). Drawing on various sources, including court diaries, visual sources, literary records, and Japan's first medical collection, with its assortment of gynaecological and obstetric prescriptions, as well as Buddhist and other ritual texts, this short excursion into the cultural history of childbirth offers an insight into how childbirth was experienced and managed in Heian Japan. In particular, it addresses the variety of ideas, knowledge systems and professionals involved in framing and supporting the process of childbirth in elite households. In so doing, it casts light on the complex background of early Japanese medicine and healthcare for women.

  20. Energy consumption characteristics of Guatemalan households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansilla, C.; Moscoso, M.R.

    1991-01-01

    The sectoral consumption pattern in Guatemala has shown that the residential sector is the major energy consumer. It accounts for 68.9 per cent of total consumption, followed by the transportation sector with 16.6 per cent, and the industrial sector with 9.3 per cent. Because of the importance of the household sector in the national energy balance, the Energy Planning Project carried out a nationwide household survey in 1985 to estimate energy-use patterns. This paper focusses on the findings from the analysis of the 2,500 forms completed during that survey. 4 figs, 1 tab

  1. Recent advances of pyrethroids for household use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ujihara, Kazuya; Mori, Tatsuya; Matsuo, Noritada

    2012-01-01

    Development of pyrethroids for household use and recent advances in the syntheses of (1R)-trans-chrysanthemic acid, the acid moiety of most of the household pyrethroids, are reviewed. As another important acid moiety, we discovered norchrysanthemic acid to have a significant vapor action at room temperature when esterified with fluorobenzyl alcohols. In particular, 2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-4-methoxymethylbenzyl (1R)-trans-norchrysanthemate (metofluthrin) exhibits the highest potency in mosquito coil formulations as well as the vapor action at room temperature against various mosquitoes. Structure-activity relationships of norchrysanthemic acid esters and synthetic studies of norchrysanthemic acid are discussed.

  2. Individual welfare analysis for collective households

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cherchye, Laurens; Cosaert, Sam; de Rock, Bram

    We propose novel tools for the analysis of individual welfare on the basis of aggregate household demand behavior. The method assumes a collective model of household consumption with the public and private nature of goods specified by the empirical analyst. A main distinguishing feature of our......-to-pay for public consumption (i.e. Lindahl prices). The method is easy to use in practice and yields informative empirical results, which we demonstrate through a simulation analysis and an empirical application to labor supply data....

  3. Household and Small Business Across the Disciplines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoletta Stame

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Households, which are seen as income pooling units (Wallerstein, Martin, Dickinson 1982, play a crucial role in the world-system analysis. Individuals enjoy income that accrues to their households, a unit embedded in a network of different social relationships among people, kin or not kin, living under the same roof or sharing some important living function. Thus, social relations are seen as ways of obtaining different types of income (wages, rent, pro?t, social exchange, gifts and ways of ensuring different welfare services.

  4. Household waste prevention--a review of evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Jayne; Giorgi, Sara; Sharp, Veronica; Strange, Kit; Wilson, David C; Blakey, Nick

    2010-03-01

    This paper reports a synthesis of policy-relevant evidence on household waste prevention, based on a UK portfolio of primary research and a broad international review. Waste prevention was defined as strict avoidance, reduction at source (e.g. home composting) and reuse (for the product's original purpose) - recycling was excluded. A major focus was on consumers. Waste prevention is not one but many behaviours; the review revealed a general hierarchy in their popularity, from donating goods to charity at the top; through small reuse behaviours around the home; to activities involving changes in consumption habits at the bottom; one estimate is that 60% of the public does at least one of these activities, some of the time. Barriers to engaging householders include both modern consumer culture and a genuine confusion that waste prevention is equivalent to recycling. The public can be engaged through local or national campaigns, with a wide range of interventions and communications approaches available. On the products and services side, the primary opportunity within the scope of the review was identified as increasing reuse. The barriers included operational difficulties (funding, capacity, logistics) and consumer attitudes towards second-hand goods. The main opportunities are to ensure more strategic planning for reuse by local authorities and better co-ordination and joint working with the third sector. The review examined the impact or potential of various policy measures designed to influence household behaviour directly or the products and services provided to them. Overall, the international evidence suggests that waste prevention benefits will be derived from a 'package' of measures, including, for example, prevention targets, producer responsibility, householder charging, funding for pilot projects, collaboration between the public, private and third sectors, and public intervention campaigns. UK evidence suggests that the greatest tonnage diversions can be

  5. [Agro-household livelihood vulnerability and influence factors of ethnic villages under different geomorphology backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wen Wen; Liu, Xiao Peng; Pei, Yin Bao; An, Qiong; Li, Yong Hong

    2016-04-22

    The vulnerability and influence factors of agro-household livelihood in Haiyuan County, Ningxia were empirically analyzed utilizing set pair analysis and obstacle degree model, based on field survey data of impoverished agro-households in 2014. Results showed that vulnerability of agro-household livelihood in Haiyuan County was high in general while it exhibited geomorphological and ethnical differences. Vulnerability of agro-households livelihood in plain areas, valleys and intermountain depression areas were lower than that in earth-rock areas, loess ridge areas and moderately high mountain landform areas. Moreover, vulnerability of agro-household livelihood was higher in mixed Hui and Han ethnic villages than in mono Hui or Han ethnic villages. The villagers' lacking of necessities and the stress of sensitive external geographical environment were considered to be the fundamental reasons of vulnerability of agro-household livelihood. The unreasonable livelihood structure and the unvariant livelihood strategy caused the long-term accumulation of livelihood vulnerabi-lity. The nature of the local environment, which was not easy to change, decreased the accessibility of poverty alleviation resources. Building a clear village water rights allocation system, the implementation of counterpart-assistance to educate impoverished families, increasing investment in improving the diversities of means of living, developing the chains of comprehensive commodity market among villages, were necessary to improve the response capability of agro-household livelihood. The management of vulnerability of agro-household livelihood should put the 'Extending Roads to Every Village Project' on a more prominent position in the 'Extending Radio and TV Broadcasting Coverage to Every Village Project'. Furthermore, the combination of meteorological disaster prevention and insurance enterprise disaster reduction should be sought, and the agricultural production insurance system should be

  6. Evaluation of Musculoskeletal Disorders in Household Appliances Manufacturing Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aioob Ghanbary

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Work-related musculoskeletal disorders are the most prevalent work-related disorders and injuries and being the main cause of disability. This study was conducted to assessment of the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders in worker company household appliances production. Posture analysis was evaluated by OWAS method and prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders by Nordic questionnaire. With evaluating musculoskeletal disorders among company household appliances production can intervention action to reduce musculoskeletal disorders was carried out. This cross-sectional study was performed on 100 workers of the appliance manufacturing industry. These Individuals were included 15 persons from foam injection workshop, 17 persons from molding workshop, 17 operators of presses, 17 persons from packaging, 17 person from cutting unit and 17 operators of rivet. The Nordic questionnaire was completed by Individuals for the organs of arm, back, leg and wrist and Posture analysis was performed by OWAS method. The data were analyzed using Spss software version 18 and descriptive statistics and Anova test. Nordic questionnaire results revealed that highest disorders were observed in the arm (25%, back (22% and leg (21%. Also Anova test showed that was observed a significant correlation respectively between age and work experience with the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders (p<0.02 (p<0.01. The results showed based on the level of risk OWAS for each job respectively, the highest level of risk associated with foam injection unit, packaging and cutting unit (risk level 4 and the lowest level of risk associated with molding workshop unit (risk level 2.The results of this study showed that household appliances Manufacturing workers due to the nature of their jobs are at risk of musculoskeletal disorders and Ergonomic interventions to do such as workstation redesign, reduced working hours, cycle of rest-work development.

  7. Food waste from Danish households: Generation and composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edjabou, Maklawe Essonanawe; Petersen, Claus; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable solutions for reducing food waste require a good understanding of food waste generation and composition, including avoidable and unavoidable food waste. We analysed 12 tonnes of residual household waste collected from 1474 households, without source segregation of organic waste. Food...... waste was divided into six fractions according to avoidability, suitability for home-composting and whether or not it was cooked, prepared or had been served within the household. The results showed that the residual household waste generation rate was 434 ± 18 kg per household per year, of which 183...... ± 10 kg per year was food waste. Unavoidable food waste amounted to 80 ± 6 kg per household per year, and avoidable food waste was 103 ± 9 kg per household per year. Food waste mass was influenced significantly by the number of occupants per household (household size) and the housing type. The results...

  8. Distributional impacts of carbon pricing: A general equilibrium approach with micro-data for households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rausch, Sebastian; Metcalf, Gilbert E.; Reilly, John M.

    2011-01-01

    Many policies to limit greenhouse gas emissions have at their core efforts to put a price on carbon emissions. Carbon pricing impacts households both by raising the cost of carbon intensive products and by changing factor prices. A complete analysis requires taking both effects into account. The impact of carbon pricing is determined by heterogeneity in household spending patterns across income groups as well as heterogeneity in factor income patterns across income groups. It is also affected by precise formulation of the policy (how is the revenue from carbon pricing distributed) as well as the treatment of other government policies (e.g. the treatment of transfer payments). What is often neglected in analyses of policy is the heterogeneity of impacts across households even within income or regional groups. In this paper, we incorporate 15,588 households from the U.S. Consumer and Expenditure Survey data as individual agents in a comparative-static general equilibrium framework. These households are represented within the MIT USREP model, a detailed general equilibrium model of the U.S. economy. In particular, we categorize households by full household income (factor income as well as transfer income) and apply various measures of lifetime income to distinguish households that are temporarily low-income (e.g., retired households drawing down their financial assets) from permanently low-income households. We also provide detailed within-group distributional measures of burden impacts from various policy scenarios. - Highlights: → We develop a simulation model with 15,588 households to study the distributional impacts of carbon pricing in the US. → Sources side impacts have typically been ignored in the literature biasing studies towards finding carbon pricing to be regressive. → Our general equilibrium framework allows us to capture uses and sources side impacts from carbon pricing. → We find that variation in impacts within broad socioeconomic groups may

  9. The distribution of economic impacts among rural households: A general equilibrium evaluation of regional water policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wernstedt, K.

    1991-01-01

    This study focuses on the relative distribution among urban and rural household income classes on the economic impacts of two water-related policies in the Columbia River Basin in the northwestern US. The two policies involve: (1) strategies to improve downstream anadromous fish migrations currently hindered by hydropower operations; and (2) proposals to transfer water from irrigation to hydropower generation. A regional input-output model traces the economic effects of the initial demand and price changes through the entire region. The model incorporates price changes in both a short-run (all endogenous prices are fixed) and a longer-run framework based on a Cobb-Douglas representation (all prices can vary). The analysis suggests that the construction of facilities to enhance fish migration and the physical transport of fish have opposite relative effects. The former benefits rural households, while the latter benefits urban households. Electricity price increases resulting from altered hydropower operations harm middle-income rural households, in the short-run. In the longer-run, electricity price increases seem to favor relatively all rural households. Changes associated with the water transfer policy also include electricity price alterations, as well as price and demand changes for agricultural products. Rural households benefit relative to urban households from agricultural product final demand increases, and tend to lose relatively with agricultural price and demand decreases. The inclusion of secondary impacts allows decision makers to asses the income effects of a project across a wider segment of the population, while the incorporation of short-and longer-run economic frameworks allows policy makers to assess both immediate and future income changes

  10. Household portfolios and implicit risk aversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bucciol, A.; Miniaci, R.

    2008-01-01

    We derive from a sample of US households the distribution of the risk aversion implicit in their portfolio choice. Our estimate minimizes the distance between the certainty equivalent return generated with observed portfolios and portfolios that are optimal in a mean-variance framework. Taking into

  11. Prospects and Constraints of Household Irrigation Practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Constraints and prospects of hand dug wells related to household irrigation were assessed in Hayelom watershed (~1045 ha), by evaluating groundwater suitability for irrigation, soil quality and impact of intervention. 181 hand dug wells have come into existence in the watershed due to intervention and benefiting about ...

  12. Essays in banking and household finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diepstraten, Maaike

    2018-01-01

    The thesis consists of four chapters in banking and household finance. The first chapter examines the joint impact of bank size and scope on banks’ exposure to systemic risk. It shows that the dark side of diversification dominates for small banks, whereas the bright side effects of diversification

  13. Household and kin provisioning by Hadza men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Brian M; Marlowe, Frank W

    2013-09-01

    We use data collected among Hadza hunter-gatherers between 2005 and 2009 to examine hypotheses about the causes and consequences of men's foraging and food sharing. We find that Hadza men foraged for a range of food types, including fruit, honey, small animals, and large game. Large game were shared not like common goods, but in ways that significantly advantaged producers' households. Food sharing and consumption data show that men channeled the foods they produced to their wives, children, and their consanguineal and affinal kin living in other households. On average, single men brought food to camp on 28% of days, married men without children at home on 31% of days, and married men with children at home on 42% of days. Married men brought fruit, the least widely shared resource, to camp significantly more often than single men. A model of the relationship between hunting success and household food consumption indicates that the best hunters provided 3-4 times the amount of food to their families than median or poor hunters. These new data fill important gaps in our knowledge of the subsistence economy of the Hadza and uphold predictions derived from the household and kin provisioning hypotheses. Key evidence and assumptions backing prior claims that Hadza hunting is largely a form of status competition were not replicated in our study. In light of this, family provisioning is a more viable explanation for why good hunters are preferred as husbands and have higher fertility than others.

  14. Human Capital Diversification within the Household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lilleør, Helene Bie

    Lack of primary schooling among rural children in developing countries is often attributed to credit constraints and household demand for child labour, implying that direct and indirect costs of schooling are high. Surprisingly few studies have considered the importance of parents' expected returns...

  15. Domestic abuse in the household of God

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p1243322

    long term effects of my father's physical, verbal, emotional and financial abuse of my mother along ... are astonishingly similar to my childhood experiences in an abusive household ..... An over labelling of any type of negative affectivity as anger is likely. Self- ... divorce has physical abuse as its root cause. More difficult to ...

  16. Cassava household expenditure and anthropometric indices of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In an attempt to verify the myth associated with cassava, that high consumption causes malnutrition, anthropometric measurements of 445 preschool children aged 0 - 5 years in 90 randomly selected farm households of cassava growing areas of Imo State were undertaken. Growth deviations (Z – scores) were calculated ...

  17. Household energy isn't all stoves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clancy, Joy S.

    1998-01-01

    When people talk about 'household energy', most people automatically think of stoves. A lot of attention has been paid to improving stoves to make them more energy efficient and to reduce their pollution. This is one side of the 'stoves' approach, whilst others look at the 'supply' side of the

  18. HOUSEHOLDS WILLINGNESS TO PAY FOR IMPROVED WATER ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    None

    Maun, as a tourist centre and the North-West District headquarters is the centre of many .... the above parameters were the main determinant for WTP for private water ... For individuals who were sharing, that was treated as two households. .... The majority (73.9 percent) reported that they experience water shortages all year.

  19. Steps to Design a Household Energy Game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Dirk Fijnheer

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Research where gamification is used to influence household energy consumption is an emerging field. This paper reviews the design and effectiveness of ten games that aim to influence household energy consumption and presents a novel gamification approach in which real world activities are implemented in a game design. From the review suggestions for the design of a new game have been identified, such as including real life missions in order to optimize the transfer between the game world and the real world, feedback from monitoring the electricity meter, the presence of a strong storyline, personalized game characters, social interaction, etc. Based on this comparative analysis, the new game 'Powersaver Game' focused on reducing energy consumption has been designed and its prototype is described. In the next stage of iterative design, end-users evaluated the match between in-game scenes and household energy saving activities. This considerate user-centered design process should allow us to build a serious game that is potentially effective in reducing household energy consumption. 

  20. Industrialization and Household Complexity in Rural Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavely, William

    1990-01-01

    In 274 Taiwanese townships, farm household complexity in 1960 and 1970 was positively related to the proportion of the labor force in nonagricultural occupations. The close proximity of industry to family farms in Taiwan has reduced rural to urban migration usually associated with industrialization. Contains 46 references. (Author/SV)

  1. A semiparametric model of household gasoline demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wadud, Zia [Department of Civil Engineering, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka 1000 (Bangladesh); Noland, Robert B. [Alan M. Voorhees Transportation Center, Edward J. Bloustein School of Planning and Public Policy, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ 08901 (United States); Graham, Daniel J. [Centre for Transport Studies, Dept of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Imperial College London, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2010-01-15

    Gasoline demand studies typically generate a single price and income elasticity for a country. It is however possible that these elasticities may differ among various socio-economic groups. At the same time, parametric gasoline demand models may not be flexible enough to capture the changes in price elasticities with different levels of income. This paper models US gasoline demand using more flexible semiparametric techniques, accommodating the possibility of differences in responses among households. The econometric model employs a non-parametric bivariate smoothing for price and income and a parametric representation of other explanatory variables. Possible heterogeneity in price and income elasticities is modelled through interacting price and income with demographic variables. Results show that price responses do vary with demographic variables such as income, multiple vehicle holding, presence of multiple wage earners or rural or urban residential locations. Households' responses to a price change decrease with higher income. Multiple vehicle and multiple earner households also show higher sensitivity to a price change. Households located in urban areas reduce consumption more than those in rural areas in response to an increase in price. Comparison of the flexible semiparametric model with a parametric translog model, however, reveals no significant differences between results, and the parametric models have the advantage of lower computational requirements and better interpretability. (author)

  2. Inattention and Inertia in Household Finance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Campbell, John Y.; Meisner Nielsen, Kasper

    This paper studies inattention to mortgage refinancing incentives among Danish households. Danish data are particularly suitable for this purpose because there are minimal barriers to refinancing, yet many borrowers fail to refinance optimally, and the characteristics of these borrowers can be ac...

  3. Essays in environmental policy and household economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Motavasseli, Ali

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation addresses several issues regarding the consequences of environmental policy and its optimal level, as well as household's decisions on energy consumption and labor supply. In chapter two, a theoretical analysis investigates whether fossil fuel taxation or a consumption cap is

  4. Multivariate Analysis of Household Decision Making, Contraceptive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    contraceptives and fertility behaviour of ever-married men in Nigeria. ... exposure. The study concluded that women empowerment in decision ... through the prevention of unwanted and unplanned births is one of the most effective .... visitors who slept in the household the previous night before the survey) were eligible ...

  5. Household Water Treatments in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smieja, Joanne A.

    2011-01-01

    Household water treatments (HWT) can help provide clean water to millions of people worldwide who do not have access to safe water. This article describes four common HWT used in developing countries and the pertinent chemistry involved. The intent of this article is to inform both high school and college chemical educators and chemistry students…

  6. Revealed preference tests for collective household behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cherchye, L.J.H.; de Rock, B.; Vermeulen, F.M.P.; Verriest, E.; Molina, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    This chapter contains a state of the art of revealed preference tests for consistency of observed household behavior with Pareto efficiency. These tests are entirely nonparametric, since they do not require any assumptions regarding the parametric form of individual preferences or the intrahousehold

  7. Economic Nature of Monetary Funds of Households

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Vladimirovich Glukhov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In a market economy, household is characterized by the situation in which its members become owners of their tangible and intangible assets or are only declared to be them. Many provisions of the macroeconomy could change significantly if the issues of household and family finances were paid as much attention as economic problems of the state and entities. Finance households are an economic basis for the state and for business entities of different ownership forms, because they are managed by people who are part of families representing the interests of certain individuals. The issues of formation and distribution of Russian households’ intra-cash assets, including shadow ones, are now one of the most topical issues, not only in theory but also in practice of economic science. And at the same time these issues remain virtually unexplored. Social risk of intra-family shadow funds consists in the fact that the models of economic behavior acquired by the individual in the household are transferred to an external social field, and implemented according to the occupied power status. Shadow monetary funds created in the household represent part of the money which is derived from the family budget, and they imply the existence of latent side of financial relations among its members. The purpose of this article is studying the mеchanisms of decision-making on the establishment of both collective and individual monetary funds within the family budget, including the shadow funds (so-called “zanachkа” of individuals, not accounted for in the family budget.

  8. [Health services access survey for Colombian households].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrivillaga, Marcela; Aristizabal, Juan Carlos; Pérez, Mauricio; Estrada, Victoria Eugenia

    The aim of this study was to design and validate a health services access survey for households in Colombia to provide a methodological tool that allows the country to accumulate evidence of real-life access conditions experienced by the Colombian population. A validation study with experts and a pilot study were performed. It was conducted in the municipality of Jamundi, located in the department of Valle del Cauca, Colombia. Probabilistic, multistage and stratified cluster sampling was carried out. The final sample was 215 households. The survey was composed of 63 questions divided into five modules: socio-demographic profile of the head of the household or adult informant, household socioeconomic profile, access to preventive services, access to curative and rehabilitative services and household out of pocket expenditure. In descriptive terms, the promotion of preventive services only reached 44%; the use of these services was always highest among children younger than one year old and up to the age of ten. The perceived need for emergency medical care and hospitalisation was between 82% and 85%, but 36% perceived the quality of care to be low or very low. Delays were experienced in medical visits with GPs and specialists. The designed survey is valid, relevant and representative of access to health services in Colombia. Empirically, the pilot showed institutional weaknesses in a municipality of the country, indicating that health coverage does not in practice mean real and effective access to health services. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Household income differences in food sources and food items purchased.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Simone A; Wall, Melanie; Mitchell, Nathan R

    2010-10-26

    The present study examined income-related household food purchases among a sample of 90 households from the community. Annotated food purchase receipts were collected for a four-week period by the primary household shopper. Receipt food source and foods items were classified into specific categories, and food quantities in ounces were recorded by research staff. For home sources, a limited number of food/beverage categories were recorded. For eating out sources, all food/beverage items were recorded. Median monthly per person dollars spent and per person ounces purchased were computed. Food sources and food categories were examined by household income tertile. A community-based sample of 90 households. Higher income households spent significantly more dollars per person per month from both home and eating out sources compared with lower income households ($163 versus $100, p income households, higher income households spent significantly more home source dollars on both fruits/vegetables (21.5 versus 10.2, p income households (45% versus 26%, p sources, lower income households spent a significantly greater percent of dollars per person at carry out places (54% versus 37%, p income differences were observed for dollars spent at discount grocery stores, small grocery stores or convenience stores. Higher income households spent more money on both healthy and less healthy foods from a wide range of sources. Lower income households spent a larger proportion of their eating out dollars at carry out places, and a larger proportion of their home beverage purchases were sugar sweetened beverages.

  10. The household energy transition in India and China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pachauri, Shonali; Jiang, Leiwen

    2008-01-01

    Both India and China are countries in energy transition. This paper compares the household energy transitions in these nations through the analysis of both aggregate statistics and nationally representative household surveys. The two countries differ sharply in several respects. Residential energy consumption in China is twice that in India, in aggregate terms. In addition, Chinese households have almost universal access to electricity, while in India almost half of rural households and 10% of urban households still lack access. On aggregate, urban households in China also derive a larger share of their total energy from liquid fuels and grids (77%) as compared to urban Indian households (65%). Yet, at every income level, Indians derive a slightly larger fraction of their total household energy needs from liquid and grid sources of energy than Chinese with comparable incomes. Despite these differences, trends in energy use and the factors influencing a transition to modern energy in both nations are similar. Compared with rural households, urban households in both nations consume a disproportionately large share of commercial energy and are much further along in the transition to modern energy. However, total energy consumption in rural households exceeds that in urban households, because of a continued dependence on inefficient solid fuels, which contribute to over 85% of rural household energy needs in both countries. In addition to urbanisation, key drivers of the transition in both nations include income, energy prices, energy access and local fuel availability. (author)

  11. The social forms of household production: An analysis of its construction from classification models for the Pampean case. Rojas, 2002 Las formas sociales de producción familiar: Un análisis de su construcción a partir de los modelos de clasificación para el caso pampeano. Rojas 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Oscar de Martinelli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes an approach to social forms of household production, theoretical reflection on articulating the dimensions of interest comprising the proposed definition and identification of different subtypes farm, within the category of family farm. Also review a number of factors are considered when explaining and / or define the family nature of family production units, then move through an exercise of estimating the importance of different family subtypes. From this exercise, we will look closer to the debate on the obstacles to the development of capitalism in agriculture on the basis of the data obtained. The article is based on census data reprocessing original National Agricultural Census of 2002, on the application if the Buenos Aires de Rojas.En este artículo proponemos un abordaje de las formas sociales de producción familiar, articulando la reflexión teórica sobre las dimensiones de interés que comprenden su definición y la propuesta de identificación de distintos subtipos agrarios, dentro de la categoría de explotación familiar. Asimismo revisamos una serie de factores que suelen considerarse al momento de explicar y/o definir el carácter familiar de las unidades productivas familiares, para luego avanzar a través de un ejercicio de estimación de la importancia de los distintos subtipos familiares.A partir de este ejercicio, buscaremos acercarnos al debate sobre los obstáculos al desarrollo del capitalismo en el agro a la luz de los datos obtenidos. El artículo se basa en el reprocesamiento de los datos censales originales del Censo Agropecuario Nacional del año 2002, tomando como caso de aplicación el partido bonaerense de Rojas.

  12. Rural household income mobility in transitional China: Evidence from China Household Income Project

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Sui

    2015-01-01

    Based on China Household Income Project rural data, this paper aims to study the changes of rural household income mobility in transitional China. The results show that with the economic reform and development, income mobility between 2007 and 2009 was much stronger than before. Regarding the structure of income mobility, the 'exchange mobility' is generally the major source, followed by the 'growth mobility'. The comparison with income inequality indicated that the low degree of mobility is ...

  13. Incarceration in the household: academic outcomes of adolescents with an incarcerated household member.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Emily Bever; Loper, Ann Booker

    2012-11-01

    The United States has the highest incarceration rate in the world, yet there is relatively little information on how the removal of these adults from households impacts the youth who are left behind. This study used a child-centered lens to examine the impact of incarceration on the school outcomes of youth who resided with a family member or family associate who was incarcerated prior to the youth's 18th birthday. We used data from 11 waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth: Child and Young Adult (n = 3,338, 53 % female). Initial analyses indicated that youth who experienced a household members' incarceration evidenced more socioeconomic challenges, more frequent home adversities, and lower cognitive skills relative to youth who did not experience a household members' incarceration. Results also revealed that youth who had experienced a household member's incarceration were more likely to report extended absence from school and were less likely to graduate from high school relative to those youth who did not experience a household members' incarceration. Counter to our hypotheses, results revealed the incarceration of an extended family member being in the household was the only relation significantly associated with worse school outcomes. Plausibly, families who allow non-immediate criminally involved individuals to reside in the household are experiencing a more pervasive chaotic home environment than those with a parent or sibling incarcerated. Our study suggests that efforts to address the needs of children with incarcerated parents need to be widened to those who experience the loss of any household member due to incarceration.

  14. Household Factors Associated with Self-Harm in Johannesburg, South African Urban-Poor Households.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisha Naicker

    Full Text Available Low and middle income countries bear the majority burden of self-harm, yet there is a paucity of evidence detailing risk-factors for self-harm in these populations. This study aims to identify environmental, socio-economic and demographic household-level risk factors for self-harm in five impoverished urban communities in Johannesburg, South Africa.Annual serial cross-sectional surveys were undertaken in five impoverished urban communities in Johannesburg for the Health, Environment and Development (HEAD study. Logistic regression analysis using the HEAD study data (2006-2011 was conducted to identify household-level risk factors associated with self-harm (defined as a self-reported case of a fatal or non-fatal suicide attempt within the household during the preceding year. Stepwise multivariate logistic regression analysis was employed to identify factors associated with self-harm.A total of 2 795 household interviews were conducted from 2006 to 2011. There was no significant trend in self-harm over time. Results from the final model showed that self-harm was significantly associated with households exposed to a violent crime during the past year (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR 5.72; 95% CI 1.64-19.97; that have a member suffering from a chronic medical condition (AOR 8.95; 95% 2.39-33.56 and households exposed to indoor smoking (AOR 4.39; CI 95% 1.14-16.47.This study provides evidence on household risk factors of self-harm in settings of urban poverty and has highlighted the potential for a more cost-effective approach to identifying those at risk of self-harm based on household level factors.

  15. Household Income Strategies and Natural Disasters: Dynamic Livelihoods in Rural Nicaragua

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den M.M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper assesses the impact of hurricane Mitch on livelihood strategies of rural households in Nicaragua. Through destruction or distress sales of productive assets, a hurricane or another natural hazard could induce people with relatively remunerative livelihoods to choose more defensive

  16. Application of shape changing smart materials in household appliances : A fragmented and inconsistent uptake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bin Kassim, A.; Horvath, I.; Gerritsen, B.H.M.

    2014-01-01

    Shape changing smart materials (SCSM) have a wide range of applications, supporting product functions through material features. Surprisingly, their application in consumer durables such as household appliances is not as expected. This phenomenon could be related to a possible SCSM knowledge gap

  17. Household factors influencing participation in bird feeding activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Zoe G.; Fuller, Richard A.; Dallimer, Martin

    2012-01-01

    whether and how the socioeconomic background of a household influences participation in food provision for wild birds, the most popular and widespread form of human-wildlife interaction. A majority of households feed birds (64% across rural and urban areas in England, and 53% within five British study...... cities). House type, household size and the age of the head of the household were all important predictors of bird feeding, whereas gross annual household income, the occupation of the head of the household, and whether the house is owned or rented were not. In both surveys, the prevalence of bird...... a week. The proportion of households regularly feeding birds was positively related to the age of the head of the household, but declined with gross annual income. As concerns grow about the lack of engagement between people and the natural environment, such findings are important if conservation...

  18. Assessment of expenditure on food among urban households and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... on food among urban households and it's implication for food security: Evidence from ... of the sample for the study involved a three-stage sampling technique. ... of enhancing their income to improve the household and economic conditions.

  19. TRANSFER EFFICIENCIES OF PESTICIDES FROM HOUSEHOLD FLOORING SURFACES TO FOODS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The transfer of pesticides from household surfaces to foods was measured to determine if excess dietary exposure potentially occurs when children's foods contact contaminated surfaces prior to being. Three common household surfaces (ceramic tile, hardwood flooring, and carpet) w...

  20. Impact of Weather Index Insurance on Household Demand for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EJBE

    confidence about the compensation for expected loss from future weather condition .... found in western zone of Tigray, where the dominant crops are barley and teff. ... (such as age and sex of the household head, schooling level of household.

  1. Gender-specific constraints affecting technology use and household ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gender-specific constraints affecting technology use and household food security in western ... African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... on household food security among smallholders in Western Province of Kenya.

  2. Linking smallholder agriculture and water to household food security ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Linking smallholder agriculture and water to household food security and nutrition. ... Promoting household food security and reducing malnutrition rates of a growing population with the same amount of water is ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  3. Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spring, Martin; Johnes, Geraint; Hald, Kim Sundtoft

    Productivity is increasingly critical for developed economies. It has always been important: as Paul Krugman puts it, “Productivity isn’t everything, but in the long run it is almost everything. A country’s ability to improve its standard of living over time depends almost entirely on its ability...... to raise its output per worker”(Krugman, 1994). Analyses of productivity have, by and large, been the preserve of economists. Operations Management (OM) is rooted in a similar concern for the efficient use of scarce resources; Management Accounting (MA) is concerned with the institutionalised measurement...... and management of productivity. Yet the three perspectives are rarely connected. This paper is a sketch of a literature review seeking to identify, contrast and reconcile these three perspectives. In so doing, it aims to strengthen the connections between policy and managerial analyses of productivity....

  4. Determinants of Household Poverty: Empirical Evidence from Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Majeed, Muhammad Tariq; Malik, Muhammad Nauman

    2014-01-01

    This study examines household characteristics and personal characteristics of the household head as the determinants of poverty in Pakistan. The study decomposes education of the household into different levels: primary, middle, matriculation, intermediate, bachelors and higher studies and finds evidence that poverty is greatest among the less literate households and declines as education level increases. The role of remittances appeared significant in reducing probability of being poor and t...

  5. The existence and persistence of household financial hardship

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, S.; Ghosh, P.; Taylor, K.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the existence and persistence of financial hardship at the household level using data from the British Household Panel Survey. Our modelling strategy makes three important contributions to the existing literature on household finances. Firstly, we model nine different types of household financial problems within a joint framework, allowing for correlation in the random effects across the nine equations. Secondly, we develop a dynamic framework in order to model the persistence ...

  6. Simultaneous determination of household and market-oriented activities of women in rural Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderman, H; Chishti, S

    1991-01-01

    Researchers applied data from the 1985-1986 Labour Force Survey in Pakistan to a model which focused on household composition variables and human assets such as education to examine determinants of female labor force participation in the framework of their labor on other productive tasks in the household in rural areas. Monthly household labor decreased by 1.8 days for each additional adult woman in the household and by 1.4 days for each 10-15 year old girl. On the other hand, an extra teenage boy added as much to each woman's workload as did an additional 5-9 year old child (.37 days). Each additional 6 year old child increased the workload 1.3 days/month and this did not include child care activities. Women who had attended primary school worked in the household 1.4 days less than those who did not attend any school. Moreover those who attended school beyond primary school worked in the household 3.7 days less than those who did not attend any school. both of these differences were statistically significant. Yet educated women worked more outside the house than uneducated women (1.2 days for those with primary education and 2.4 days for those with post primary education). The government should promote increased female school participation by increasing its investment in schooling to lower the costs to households. Further it could provide opportunities for educated women to be employed in their own communities. Thus they can envision education in their private interest (both in social and financial terms). If these efforts are not done, however, demand and supply considerations may continue to restrain schooling for females.

  7. Priority economic sector and household income in Indonesia (an analysis of input output)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subanti, S.; Mulyanto; Hakim, A. R.; Mafruhah, I.; Hakim, I. M.

    2018-03-01

    This purpose of study aims to identify the roles of priority economic sectors on household incomes in Indonesia. Analyse in this paper used nine economic sectors, that representing result of classification from input output table. This study found that (1) priority economic sector are manufacturing sector & trade hotel and restaurant; (2) sector that have looking forward orientation included agriculture, mining & quarrying, and financial ownership & business services; and (3) electricity, gas, and water supply sector give the biggest impact to household income in Indonesia. The suggestion that policies aimed at increasing productivity and raising skills while encouraging individual participation in the formal labour market are essential.

  8. Household chemicals and personal care products as sources for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    More than 190 individual components were identified by GC-MS. Identified substances were grouped into eight substance classes based on their application and their concentrations were semi-quantitatively assessed. Several fragrances like citronellol, hexyl cinnamic aldehyde and menthol as well as some preservatives, ...

  9. Household market participation and stunting in preschool children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-03-26

    Mar 26, 2011 ... by George Mason University (USA) and the Malawi National Health ... Only two participating households had electricity. None of the households had running water in the home. Although HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome .... households.3 Tobacco is Malawi's largest export, accounting for 6%.

  10. Factors Influencing Household Solid Waste Management in Urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main objective of this study was to determine factors that influence household solid waste management practices in urban Nyeri Municipality. Descriptive cross- sectional ... Results from the survey showed that 26.2% of households practiced correct methods of household solid waste management. The percentage of ...

  11. 50 CFR 36.36 - Sled dogs and household pets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sled dogs and household pets. 36.36... Sled dogs and household pets. The general trespass provisions of 50 CFR 26.21 shall not apply to household pets and sled, work, or pack dogs under the direct control of their owners or handlers, but such...

  12. Household Expenditures on Private Tutoring: Emerging Evidence from Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenayathulla, Husaina Banu

    2013-01-01

    Private tutoring has been a burgeoning phenomenon in Malaysia for decades. This study examines the determinants of private tutoring expenditures in Malaysia using the 2004/2005 Household Expenditures Survey and applies hurdle regression models to the data. The results indicate that total household expenditures, household head's level of education,…

  13. Taxation and the household saving rate: evidence from OECD countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vito Tanzi

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes anew the relationship between taxation and the household saving rate. On the basis of standard savings and tax revenue data from a sample of OECD countries, it provides compelling empirical evidence of a powerful impact of taxes on household savings. In particular, income taxes are shown to affect negatively the household saving rate much more than consumption taxes.

  14. Microfinance Programs in Uganda: An Analysis of Household ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper identifies a model of low-income household participation in microfinance credit programs and the effects on investment behavior from repeated access to these institutions using evidence from household survey data. The primary focus is on changes in household investment behavior, not the assessment of ...

  15. Breakup of New Orleans Households after Hurricane Katrina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendall, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    Theory and evidence on disaster-induced population displacement have focused on individual and population-subgroup characteristics. Less is known about impacts on households. I estimate excess incidence of household breakup resulting from Hurricane Katrina by comparing a probability sample of pre-Katrina New Orleans resident adult household heads…

  16. Retirement adequacy goals for South African households | Butler ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Actuarial Journal ... Household wealth–earnings ratio goals were estimated to be between 10,5 and 18,2 times annual salary depending on retirement age, household composition, income, location, age, education, household income distribution, home ownership and salary support. Considering current ...

  17. Food waste from Danish households: Generation and composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edjabou, Maklawe Essonanawe; Petersen, Claus; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    waste was divided into six fractions according to avoidability, suitability for home-composting and whether or not it was cooked, prepared or had been served within the household. The results showed that the residual household waste generation rate was 434 ± 18 kg per household per year, of which 183...

  18. Market participation among rice producing households in Abia state ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Estimates of the determinants of market participation among households in the study area showed that the coefficients of household size, output, farm size, extension contact, distance from farm to market, membership of societies were significant in influencing market participation among rice producing households. Among ...

  19. Household time allocation model based on a group utility function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, J.; Borgers, A.W.J.; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    2002-01-01

    Existing activity-based models typically assume an individual decision-making process. In household decision-making, however, interaction exists among household members and their activities during the allocation of the members' limited time. This paper, therefore, attempts to develop a new household

  20. Distributions of households by size: differences and trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznets, S

    1982-01-01

    "This article deals with the distributions of households by size, that is, by number of persons, as they are observed in international comparisons, and for fewer countries, over time." The contribution of differentials in household size to inequality in income distribution among persons and households is discussed. Data are for both developed and developing countries. excerpt

  1. Household burden of chronic diseases in Ghana | Togoe | Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: The relatively high direct cost of illness among households with person(s) living with NCDs and the associated high indirect burden of illness places undue stress on households. Research requires better measurement of the indirect burden with focus on the household. These findings suggest the necessity of ...

  2. Determinants of food security among cocoa producing households ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was set out to analyse the determinants of food security among the cocoa producing households in Abia state, Nigeria. The specific objectives are to: determine the food security status of the households and estimate the determinants of food security among the cocoa producing households in the study area.

  3. Determinants of Household Socio-economic Status in an Urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-05-01

    May 1, 2016 ... tended to correspond with high income status of the households. ... figures to describe household socio-economic status remains a gap that ... Accra because it is skills, knowledge and the abilities which enable ... the city) that people rely on to achieve their livelihood objectives. ..... Gender of household.

  4. The dynamics of Chinese rural households' participation in labor markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brosig, S.; Glauben, T.; Herzfeld, T.; Rozelle, S.; Wang, X.

    2007-01-01

    The work is devoted to the dynamics of labor market participation of Chinese rural households. Based on a theoretical farm household framework the choice between four distinct labor market participation states is empirically analyzed. Using household data over the period 1995¿2002 from the province

  5. INDIGENOUS HOUSEHOLDS, REMITTANCES AND LIFE QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio César Cruz Islas

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Mexican migration to other countries, primarily United States, is a phenomenon that has been studied from different approaches. It is an important flow of people who, for decades, has left Mexico in search of employment opportunities and higher income. This is due to the weakness of opportunities structure present in Mexico, predominantly in rural areas, as well as budget constraints that prevent households to improve their living conditions. Remittances from other countries, in turn, are an alternative for families to address the lack of employment opportunities and income in their homeland, as well as life-deficit conditions. To see how remittances impact on living conditions of indigenous population, in this paper we analyze living conditions of indigenous households.

  6. Bacterial Zoonoses Transmitted by Household Pets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damborg, Peter Panduro; Broens, E.M.; Chomel, B.B.

    2016-01-01

    The close contact between household pets and people offers favourable conditions for bacterial transmission. In this article, the aetiology, prevalence, transmission, impact on human health and preventative measures are summarized for selected bacterial zoonoses transmissible by household pets. Six...... zoonoses representing distinct transmission routes were selected arbitrarily based on the available information on incidence and severity of pet-associated disease caused by zoonotic bacteria: bite infections and cat scratch disease (physical injuries), psittacosis (inhalation), leptospirosis (contact...... with urine), and campylobacteriosis and salmonellosis (faecal–oral ingestion). Antimicrobial resistance was also included due to the recent emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria of zoonotic potential in dogs and cats. There is a general lack of data on pathogen prevalence in the relevant pet population...

  7. Wood, Energy and Households. Perspectives on Rural Kenya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, C; Ensminger, J; O' Keefe, P [eds.

    1984-01-01

    The studies in this volume reflect a wide diversity of disciplinary backgrounds and interests among the contributors. Ecology, economics, geography, history and anthropology are all presented. The studies themselves, however, have a number of foci in common. All to some extent employ a household-level analysis and almost all of the studies derive some measure of household woodfuel use and analyze factors which determine the supply and demand for wood and other fuels. Many of the studies deal at some length with the availability of woodfuel, and specifically, the amount of time spent in procurement. As fuelwood is still in many areas available for gathering at no cash cost, its real cost is usually the value of women's labour spent in its collecting, and this has been discussed in many of the papers. Where woodfuel has become a commercial product, its pricing and availability on the market are also discussed. In all areas wood supply has competing demands, most commonly for building purpose. In many cases kerosene is now being used for light in place of open fires and torches inside houses. A number of the studies discuss the availability, cost, use and effects of such substitution on national balance of payments. Not surprisingly, most studies find a relationship between the availability of woodfuel and the level of use. Many also relate usage to changing diet.

  8. Rural Household Demographics, Livelihoods and the Environment

    OpenAIRE

    de Sherbinin, Alex; VanWey, Leah; McSweeney, Kendra; Aggarwal, Rimjhim; Barbieri, Alisson; Henry, Sabina; Hunter, Lori M.; Twine, Wayne

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews and synthesizes findings from scholarly work on linkages among rural household demographics, livelihoods and the environment. Using the livelihood approach as an organizing framework, we examine evidence on the multiple pathways linking environmental variables and the following demographic variables: fertility, migration, morbidity and mortality, and lifecycles. Although the review draws on studies from the entire developing world, we find the majority of micro-level studie...

  9. THE DETERMINANTS OF HOUSEHOLD DEBT DEFAULT

    OpenAIRE

    ALFARO, RODRIGO; GALLARDO, NATALIA

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we study household debt default behavior in Chile using survey data. Previous research in this area suggests financial and personal variables help estimate individual and group probabilities of default. We study mortgage and consumer default separately, as the default decisions and overall borrower behavior are different for each type of debt. Our study finds that income and income-related variables are the only significant and robust variables that explain default for both typ...

  10. Occurrence of Legionella in UK household showers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Samuel; Stevenson, David; Bennett, Allan; Walker, Jimmy

    2017-04-01

    Household water systems have been proposed as a source of sporadic, community acquired Legionnaires' disease. Showers represent a frequently used aerosol generating device in the domestic setting yet little is known about the occurrence of Legionella spp. in these systems. This study has investigated the prevalence of Legionella spp. by culture and qPCR in UK household showers. Ninety nine showers from 82 separate properties in the South of England were sampled. Clinically relevant Legionella spp. were isolated by culture in 8% of shower water samples representing 6% of households. Legionella pneumophila sg1 ST59 was isolated from two showers in one property and air sampling demonstrated its presence in the aerosol state. A further 31% of showers were positive by Legionella spp. qPCR. By multi-variable binomial regression modelling Legionella spp. qPCR positivity was associated with the age of the property (p=0.02), the age of the shower (p=0.01) and the frequency of use (p=0.09). The concentration of Legionella spp. detected by qPCR was shown to decrease with increased frequency of use (p=0.04) and more frequent showerhead cleaning (p=0.05). There was no association between Legionella spp. qPCR positivity and the cold water supply or the showerhead material (p=0.65 and p=0.71, respectively). Household showers may be important reservoirs of clinically significant Legionella and should be considered in source investigations. Simple public health advice may help to mitigate the risk of Legionella exposure in the domestic shower environment. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Intra-Household Allocation of Parental Leave

    OpenAIRE

    Gobbi, Paula Eugenia; Parys, Juliane; Schwerhoff, Gregor

    2015-01-01

    We introduce childcare sharing in a collective model of household behavior to investigate which factors make spouses increase or decrease their share of parental leave. The concern about future consumption motivates parents to invest in their human capital and to limit their leave duration. Using relative income and the age difference between spouses as distribution factors, we cannot reject Pareto efficiency in childcare sharing. Higher relative incomes and larger age differences shift the c...

  12. An Empirical Investigation of Household Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Vicky Barham; Rose Anne Devlin

    2003-01-01

    Using a Canadian micro data set, this paper uses econometric techniques to investigate the impact of public goods and public policy on the decisions to marry and divorce. Among other things, we find that public goods (home ownership, presence of children in the home, shiftwork) have a clear impact on the probability of divorce. From a policy perspective, we examine how the introduction of the 1997 Child Support Guidelines affects household formation and dissolution. While their impact on marr...

  13. Child Benefit Payments and Household Wealth Accumulation

    OpenAIRE

    Melvin Stephens Jr.; Takashi Unayama

    2014-01-01

    Using the life-cycle/permanent income hypothesis, we theoretically and empirically assess the impact of child benefit payments on household wealth accumulation. Consistent with the predictions of the model, we find that higher cumulative benefits received increase current assets, higher future benefit payments lower asset holding, and that these effects systematically vary over the life-cycle. We find different wealth responses to child benefit payments for liquidity constrained and unconstra...

  14. Avaliação das intoxicações por domissanitários em uma cidade do Nordeste do Brasil Evaluación de las intoxicaciones por productos domésticos en una ciudad del Nordeste de Brasil Poisoning with household cleaning products in a city in Northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerson Bragagnoli

    2013-05-01

    ía niños (30,1% y mujeres (55,21%, expuestos a un producto accidentalmente (55,4% y por vía oral (82%. Con estos datos, se concluye que la intoxicación por productos de uso doméstico en la región debe ser tratada con acciones específicas para la prevención y el control, como la evaluación de la facilidad del acceso a venenos agrícolas para alcanzar los objetivos establecidos por el Plan Nacional de Salud.This study analyzes toxic exposures to household cleaning products based on data from the Center for Notification and Treatment of Poisoning (CEATOX in Campina Grande, Paraíba State, Brazil, from 2007 to 2010. The data were collected from the reporting forms from the Information System on Notifiable Diseases (SINAN, analyzed with SPSS (Version 17. Chemical identification was performed in urine samples using high-resolution chromatography techniques (GC-MS and HPLC-UV. Six hundred and sixty cases of poisoning were reported, with pesticides as the principal causal agents (42.2%. Poisoning with household cleaning products occurred mainly in children (30.1% and/or females (55.21% who were exposed to the product accidentally (55.4% by the oral route (82%. These data indicate that poisoning with household cleaning products in Campina Grande should be treated with specific prevention and control measures, including evaluation of ease of access to pesticides, in order to reach the goals set by the Brazilian National Health Plan for 2012-2015.

  15. Radioactivity of household water in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salonen, L.; Saxen, R.

    1991-01-01

    A nationwide study on artificial and natural radioactivity in household water has been under way in Finland since the 1960s. The occurrence of artificial radionuclides in the surface water of drainage basins has been monitored extensively. The proportion of household water derived from surface waters in Finland is currently 48 %, but its usage is decreasing whereas that of groundwater is increasing at an annual rate of 1 - 2 %. The natural radioactivity of household water has been studied in almost all of the waters distributed by public waterworks and in 5400 private ground water wells. The downward trend in 90 Sr, 137 Cs and 3 H concentrations in surface water continued from the middle 1960s until the Chernobyl accident. After the accident ten different radionuclides were detected in surface waters, but only 137 Cs made a minor contribution the radiation dose. The maximum effective dose via ingestion of water was about 0.001 mSv in 1986, and considerably lower in the following years

  16. Household hazardous waste management: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglezakis, Vassilis J; Moustakas, Konstantinos

    2015-03-01

    This paper deals with the waste stream of household hazardous waste (HHW) presenting existing management systems, legislation overview and other relevant quantitative and qualitative information. European Union legislation and international management schemes are summarized and presented in a concise manner by the use of diagrams in order to provide crucial information on HHW. Furthermore, sources and types, numerical figures about generation, collection and relevant management costs are within the scope of the present paper. The review shows that the term used to refer to hazardous waste generated in households is not clearly defined in legislation, while there is absence of specific acts regulating the management of HHW. The lack of obligation to segregate HHW from the household waste and the different terminology used makes it difficult to determine the quantities and composition of this waste stream, while its generation amount is relatively small and, therefore, is commonly overlooked in waste statistics. The paper aims to cover the gap in the related literature on a subject that is included within the crucial waste management challenges at world level, considering that HHW can also have impact on other waste streams by altering the redox conditions or causing direct reactions with other non hazardous waste substances. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Household cereal crop harvest and children's nutritional status in rural Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belesova, Kristine; Gasparrini, Antonio; Sié, Ali; Sauerborn, Rainer; Wilkinson, Paul

    2017-06-20

    Reduction of child undernutrition is one of the Sustainable Development Goals for 2030. Achievement of this goal may be made more difficult in some settings by climate change through adverse impact on agricultural productivity. However, there is only limited quantitative evidence on the link between household crop harvests and child nutrition. We examined this link in a largely subsistence farming population in rural Burkina Faso. Data on the middle-upper arm circumference (MUAC) of 975 children ≤5 years of age, household crop yields, and other parameters were obtained from the Nouna Health and Demographic Surveillance System. Multilevel modelling was used to assess the relationship between MUAC and the household crop harvest in the year 2009 estimated in terms of kilocalories per adult equivalent per day (kcal/ae/d). Fourteen percent of children had a MUAC change.

  18. Relating the environmental impact of consumption to household expenditures. An input-output analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerkhof, Annemarie C.; Nonhebel, Sanderine; Moll, Henri C.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we evaluate the relationships between household expenditures and the environmental impact categories climate change, acidification, eutrophication and smog formation, by combining household expenditures with environmentally extended input-output analysis. Expenditure elasticities are examined with regression analysis, and are compared and interpreted on the basis of insight at the product level. With data from the Netherlands in the year 2000, we find that environmental impact increases with increasing household expenditures, although the degree to which the environmental impact increases differs per impact category. Climate change and eutrophication increase less than proportionally with increasing expenditures. Acidification increases nearly proportionally with increasing expenditures, whereas smog formation increases more than proportionally. It appears that the mix of necessities and luxuries to which an environmental impact is related is essential in explaining the relationship. (author)

  19. Community trust and household health: A spatially-based approach with evidence from rural Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarychta, Alan

    2015-12-01

    What is the relationship between community trust and household health? Scholars working to understand the effects of trust and social capital on human health tend to focus on individual characteristics or social environments, frequently without integrating these two dimensions. In light of this, the present paper makes contributions in both conceptualization and measurement. First, I develop a spatially-based approach for operationalizing community trust as the product of individual orientation and social environment. This approach highlights the need for a household to trust its neighbors and for those neighbors to reciprocate trust in order to constitute the psychological and material mechanisms critical for linking social context to individual health. Second, I illustrate the utility of this measure by evaluating the relationship between community trust and self-rated health status using an original population census survey from 2009 to 2010 for two municipalities in western Honduras (approximately 2800 households with a response rate of 94.9%). I implement spatial regression analysis and show that there is a positive and substantively meaningful relationship between community trust and household health; households that are trusting and surrounded by similarly trusting neighbors report better health status, while those in uncertain or mutually distrusting environments report worse health. The theory and results presented here suggest an important link between trust and social capital at the community level, which is particularly salient for rural regions in developing countries where health resources are scarce and community-based interventions are common. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Staple Food Self-Sufficiency of Farmers Household Level in The Great Solo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darsono

    2017-04-01

    Analysis of food security level of household is a novelty of measurement standards which usually includes regional and national levels. With household approach is expected to provide the basis of sharp food policy formulation. The purpose of this study are to identify the condition of self-sufficiency in staple foods, and to find the main factors affecting the dynamics of self-sufficiency in staple foods on farm household level in Great Solo. Using primary data from 50 farmers in the sample and secondary data in Great Solo (Surakarta city, Boyolali, Sukoharjo, Karanganyar, Wonogiri, Sragen and Klaten). Compiled panel data were analyzed with linear probability regression models to produce a good model. The results showed that farm households in Great Solo has a surplus of staple food (rice) with an average consumption rate of 96.8 kg/capita/year. This number is lower than the national rate of 136.7 kg/capita/year. The main factors affecting the level of food self-sufficiency in the farmer household level are: rice production, rice consumption, land tenure, and number of family members. Key recommendations from this study are; improvement scale of the land cultivation for rice farming and non-rice diversification consumption.