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Sample records for hottest type iin

  1. Modeling Type IIn Supernova Light Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Rosa, Janie; Roming, Peter; Fryer, Chris

    2016-01-01

    We present near-by Type IIn supernovae observed with Swift's Ultraviolet/Optical Telescope (UVOT). Based on the diversity of optical light curve properties, this Type II subclass is commonly referred to as heterogeneous. At the time of discovery, our IIn sample is ~ 2 magnitudes brighter at ultraviolet wavelengths than at optical wavelengths, and ultraviolet brightness decays faster than the optical brightness. We use a semi-analytical supernova (SN) model to better understand our IIn observations, and focus on matching specific observed light curves features, i.e peak luminosity and decay rate. The SN models are used to study the effects of initial SN conditions on early light curves, and to show the extent of the "uniqueness" problem in SN light curves. We gratefully acknowledge the contributions from members of the Swift UVOT team, the NASA astrophysics archival data analysis program, and the NASA Swift guest investigator program.

  2. Investigating the X-ray Emission from Type IIn Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwarkadas, V.

    2017-10-01

    Type IIn supernovae (SNe) are characterized by narrow lines on a broad base in the optical spectrum. A wide diversity in their lightcurves, and in SNe that exhibit IIn features, has greatly complicated the task of identifying their progenitors. IIns have the highest X-ray luminosity of all SNe, generally exceeding 10^{40} ergs s^{-1} at early times, and 10^{38} ergs s^{-1} after several thousand days, and are observable in X-rays decades after explosion. Many of the lightcurves tend to fall off rather steeply at late times, although one interesting case displayed a rising light curve for several thousand days. These characteristics, along with their high luminosities at other wavelengths, imply initial expansion in a very dense medium. At later times the densities decrease faster than expected for expansion in a steady wind. Their X-ray spectra generally show distinct lines, suggesting thermal emission. In this presentation we will show the lightcurves of all IIns that have been observed in X-rays, and compare their lightcurves and spectra to those of other SNe. We summarize the known properties of the X-ray emission from Type IIn SNe, and explore the implications for the SN environment, progenitor mass-loss and the identity of the progenitors.

  3. A Sample of Light Curves of Type II-n and other Unclassified Supernova

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mock, Justin; Martin, J. C.; Hambsch, F.; Strickland, W.; Cason, A.

    2014-01-01

    It has long been speculated that there is a connection between supernova impostors and Type II-n supernovae. The modern Type II-n spectroscopic classification overlaps a great deal with Zwicky’s “Type V” supernovae, which includes several impostors. In late 2012, SN 2009ip, a known impostor, may have exploded as a Type II-n supernova. The decline from that event exhibited unusual fluctuations in brightness that are not evident in other Type II-n light curves. We present the light curves of several more recent Type II-n supernova and compare them with other published samples.

  4. Multi-wavelength observations of the enduring type IIn Supernovae 2005ip and 2006jd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stritzinger, Maximilian; Taddia, Francesco; Fransson, Claes

    2012-01-01

    extend from UV to mid-infrared wavelengths, and like SN 2005ip, are compared to reported X-ray measurements to understand the nature of the progenitor. Both objects display a number of similarities with the 1988Z-like subclass of SN IIn including (1) remarkably similar early-and late-phase optical......We present an observational study of the Type IIn supernovae (SNe IIn) 2005ip and 2006jd. Broadband UV, optical, and near-IR photometry, and visual-wavelength spectroscopy of SN 2005ip complement and extend upon published observations to 6.5 years past discovery. Our observations of SN 2006jd...

  5. Point-source and diffuse high-energy neutrino emission from Type IIn supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petropoulou, M.; Coenders, S.; Vasilopoulos, G.; Kamble, A.; Sironi, L.

    2017-09-01

    Type IIn supernovae (SNe), a rare subclass of core collapse SNe, explode in dense circumstellar media that have been modified by the SNe progenitors at their last evolutionary stages. The interaction of the freely expanding SN ejecta with the circumstellar medium gives rise to a shock wave propagating in the dense SN environment, which may accelerate protons to multi-PeV energies. Inelastic proton-proton collisions between the shock-accelerated protons and those of the circumstellar medium lead to multimessenger signatures. Here, we evaluate the possible neutrino signal of Type IIn SNe and compare with IceCube observations. We employ a Monte Carlo method for the calculation of the diffuse neutrino emission from the SN IIn class to account for the spread in their properties. The cumulative neutrino emission is found to be ˜10 per cent of the observed IceCube neutrino flux above 60 TeV. Type IIn SNe would be the dominant component of the diffuse astrophysical flux, only if 4 per cent of all core collapse SNe were of this type and 20-30 per cent of the shock energy was channeled to accelerated protons. Lower values of the acceleration efficiency are accessible by the observation of a single Type IIn SN as a neutrino point source with IceCube using up-going muon neutrinos. Such an identification is possible in the first year following the SN shock breakout for sources within 20 Mpc.

  6. A Study of Massive Star Evolution and Mass Loss With Multi-Wavelength Observations of Type IIn Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Ori; Skrutskie, Michael; Chevalier, Roger; Smith, Nathan; Chandra, Poonam; Filippenko, Alex

    2012-12-01

    Type IIn supernovae (SNe IIn) are a rare (list of subclasses, suggesting multiple progenitors may be responsible. Multi-wavelength observations, spanning the X-ray to the infrared (IR) to the radio regime, can probe various aspects of shock interaction and dust formation associated with the dense CSM for months to years after the radioactive emission fades. Such diagnostics probe the progenitor mass-loss history, CSM characteristics, and even the elusive SN shock breakout. Given the required coordination amongst space-based and large ground-based telescopes, however, existing data sets are sparse and insufficient. Here we submit a joint Spitzer/Chandra proposal to trace the mass-loss history of SNe IIn with a thorough, coordinated, multi-wavelength approach. With guaranteed time on Keck and JVLA already at our disposal and an aligned team of SNe IIn experts spanning all wavelengths, now is the time for such a program.

  7. On luminous blue variables as the progenitors of core-collapse supernovae, especially Type IIn supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwarkadas, V. V.

    2011-04-01

    Luminous blue variable (LBV) stars are very massive, luminous, unstable stars that suffer frequent eruptions. In the last few years, these stars have been proposed as the direct progenitors of some core-collapse supernovae (SNe), particularly Type IIn SNe, in conflict with stellar evolution theory. In this paper we investigate various scenarios wherein LBV stars have been suggested as the immediate progenitors of SNe. Many of these suggestions stem from the fact that the SNe appear to be expanding in a high-density medium, which has been interpreted as resulting from a wind with a high mass-loss rate. Others arise due to perceived similarities between the SN characteristics and those of LBVs. Only in the case of SN 2005gl do we find a valid possibility for an LBV-like progenitor. Other scenarios encounter various levels of difficulty. The evidence that points to LBVs as direct core-collapse SNe progenitors is far from convincing. High mass-loss rates are often deduced by making assumptions regarding the wind parameters, which are contradicted by the results themselves. A high density need not necessarily imply a high wind mass-loss rate: wind shocks sweeping up the surrounding medium may give a high-density shell with a low associated wind mass-loss rate. High densities may also arise due to wind clumps, or due to a previous LBV phase before the SN explodes as a WolfRayet (WR) star. Some Type IIn SNe appear to signify more a phase in the life of an SN than a class of SNe, and may arise from more than one type of progenitor. A WR phase that lasts for a few thousand years or less could be one of the more probable progenitors of Type IIns, and channels for creating short-lived WR phases are briefly discussed.

  8. The Role of Shocks in the Appearance and Aftermath of Stellar Mergers and Type IIn Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Brian

    2017-08-01

    HST has played a crucial role in elucidating the environments, progenitors, explosions, and late-time behavior of Type IIn supernovae (SNe) and binary star mergers (also known as common envelope events). Although shock interaction plays a dominant role in the dynamics and appearance of these events, the details of this process and the nature of the mass loss leading up to the core collapse or dynamical stage of the merger, remain poorly understood. Mounting evidence suggests that the pre-explosion mass loss geometry is a disk or equatorially-concentrated outflow. We will perform the first multi-dimensional radiation hydrodynamical simulations of the shock interaction between the fast ejecta from the SN explosion/dynamical merger and a slower equatorially-focused outflow representing the earlier phase of mass loss. Our calculations will quantify the geometry of the ejecta and make detailed predictions for the shock-powered emission. In combination with an analytic model to be developed in parallel, we will translate the light curves and spectral information on a large sample of IIn SNe and stellar mergers into probes of their mass loss history. We will address whether the combination of hydrogen recombination and shock-powered emission can explain the common double-peaked nature of the light curves of stellar mergers. By accounting self-consistently for the role of radiative shock compression on the ejecta density structure, and thus on the global geometry and microphysical properties of dust grains formed, we will also address the late-time appearance of IIn SNe and stellar mergers observed by HST and JWST.

  9. Two-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics simulations of superluminous interacting supernovae of Type IIn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlasis, Alkiviadis; Dessart, Luc; Audit, Edouard

    2016-05-01

    Some interacting supernovae (SNe) of Type IIn show a sizeable continuum polarization suggestive of a large-scale asymmetry in the circumstellar medium (CSM) and/or the SN ejecta. Here, we extend the recent work of Dessart et al. on superluminous SNe IIn and perform axially-symmetric (I.e. 2D) multigroup radiation hydrodynamics simulations to explore the impact of an imposed large-scale density asymmetry. When the CSM is asymmetric, the latitudinal variation of the radial optical depth τ introduces a strong flux redistribution from the higher density CSM regions, where the shock luminosity is larger, towards the lower density CSM regions where photons escape more freely - this redistribution ceases when τ ≲ 1. Along directions where the CSM density is larger, the shock deceleration is stronger and its progression slower, producing a non-spherical cold-dense shell (CDS). For an oblate CSM density distribution, the photosphere (CDS) has an oblate (prolate) morphology when τ ≳ 1. When the CSM is symmetric and the ejecta asymmetric, the flux redistribution within the CSM now tends to damp the latitudinal variation of the luminosity at the shock. It then requires a larger ejecta asymmetry to produce a sizeable latitudinal variation in the emergent flux. When the interaction is between a SN ejecta and a relic disc, the luminosity boost at early times scales with the disc opening angle - forming a superluminous SN IIn this way requires an unrealistically thick disc. In contrast, interaction with a disc of modest thickness/mass can yield a power that rivals radioactive decay of a standard SN II at nebular times.

  10. The bumpy light curve of Type IIn supernova iPTF13z over 3 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyholm, A.; Sollerman, J.; Taddia, F.; Fremling, C.; Moriya, T. J.; Ofek, E. O.; Gal-Yam, A.; De Cia, A.; Roy, R.; Kasliwal, M. M.; Cao, Y.; Nugent, P. E.; Masci, F. J.

    2017-08-01

    A core-collapse (CC) supernova (SN) of Type IIn is dominated by the interaction of SN ejecta with the circumstellar medium (CSM). Some SNe IIn (e.g. SN 2006jd) have episodes of re-brightening ("bumps") in their light curves. We present iPTF13z, a Type IIn SN discovered on 2013 February 1 by the intermediate Palomar Transient Factory (iPTF). This SN showed at least five bumps in its declining light curve between 130 and 750 days after discovery. We analyse this peculiar behaviour and try to infer the properties of the CSM, of the SN explosion, and the nature of the progenitor star. We obtained multi-band optical photometry for over 1000 days after discovery with the P48 and P60 telescopes at Palomar Observatory. We obtained low-resolution optical spectra during the same period. We did an archival search for progenitor outbursts. We analyse the photometry and the spectra, and compare iPTF13z to other SNe IIn. In particular we derive absolute magnitudes, colours, a pseudo-bolometric light curve, and the velocities of the different components of the spectral lines. A simple analytical model is used to estimate the properties of the CSM. iPTF13z had a light curve peaking at Mr ≲ - 18.3 mag. The five bumps during its decline phase had amplitudes ranging from 0.4 to 0.9 mag and durations between 20 and 120 days. The most prominent bumps appeared in all the different optical bands, when covered. The spectra of this SN showed typical SN IIn characteristics, with emission lines of Hα (with broad component FWHM 103 - 104 km s-1 and narrow component FWHM 102 km s-1) and He i, but also with Fe ii, Ca ii, Na i D and Hβ P Cygni profiles (with velocities of 103km s-1). A pre-explosion outburst was identified lasting ≳ 50 days, with Mr ≈ - 15 mag around 210 days before discovery. Large, variable progenitor mass-loss rates (≳0.01M⊙ yr-1) and CSM densities (≳10-16 g cm-3) are derived. The SN was hosted by a metal-poor dwarf galaxy at redshift z = 0.0328. We suggest that

  11. PROPERTIES OF NEWLY FORMED DUST GRAINS IN THE LUMINOUS TYPE IIn SUPERNOVA 2010jl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeda, K.; Nozawa, T.; Folatelli, G.; Moriya, T. J.; Nomoto, K.; Bersten, M.; Quimby, R. [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), Todai Institutes for Advanced Study, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Sahu, D. K.; Anupama, G. C. [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Koramangala, Bangalore 560 034 (India); Minowa, Y.; Pyo, T.-S. [Subaru Telescope, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 650 North A' ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Motohara, K.; Kitagawa, Y. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Tokyo, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0015 (Japan); Ueno, I.; Kawabata, K. S.; Yamanaka, M. [Hiroshima Astrophysical Science Center, Hiroshima University, 1-3-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Kozasa, T. [Department of Cosmosciences, Graduate School of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan); Iye, M., E-mail: keiichi.maeda@ipmu.jp [National Astronomical Observatory, Mitaka, Tokyo (Japan)

    2013-10-10

    Supernovae (SNe) have been proposed to be the main production sites of dust grains in the universe. However, our knowledge of their importance to dust production is limited by observationally poor constraints on the nature and amount of dust particles produced by individual SNe. In this paper, we present a spectrum covering optical through near-Infrared (NIR) light of the luminous Type IIn supernova 2010jl around one and a half years after the explosion. This unique data set reveals multiple signatures of newly formed dust particles. The NIR portion of the spectrum provides a rare example where thermal emission from newly formed hot dust grains is clearly detected. We determine the main population of the dust species to be carbon grains at a temperature of ∼1350-1450 K at this epoch. The mass of the dust grains is derived to be ∼(7.5-8.5) × 10{sup –4} M{sub ☉}. Hydrogen emission lines show wavelength-dependent absorption, which provides a good estimate of the typical size of the newly formed dust grains (∼< 0.1 μm, and most likely ∼< 0.01 μm). We believe the dust grains were formed in a dense cooling shell as a result of a strong SN-circumstellar media (CSM) interaction. The dust grains occupy ∼10% of the emitting volume, suggesting an inhomogeneous, clumpy structure. The average CSM density must be ∼> 3 × 10{sup 7} cm{sup –3}, corresponding to a mass loss rate of ∼> 0.02 M{sub ☉} yr{sup –1} (for a mass loss wind velocity of ∼100 km s{sup –1}). This strongly supports a scenario in which SN 2010jl and probably other luminous SNe IIn are powered by strong interactions within very dense CSM, perhaps created by Luminous-Blue-Variable-like eruptions within the last century before the explosion.

  12. Optical and IR observations of SN 2013L, a Type IIn Supernova surrounded by asymmetric CSM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Jennifer E.; Smith, Nathan; McCully, Curtis; Fox, Ori D.; Valenti, S.; Howell, D. A.

    2017-11-01

    We present optical and near-IR photometry and spectroscopy of SN 2013L for the first 4 yr post-explosion. SN 2013L was a moderately luminous (Mr = -19.0) Type IIn supernova (SN) that showed signs of strong shock interaction with the circumstellar medium (CSM). The CSM interaction was equal to or stronger to SN 1988Z for the first 200 d and is observed at all epochs after explosion. Optical spectra revealed multicomponent hydrogen lines appearing by day 33 and persisting and slowly evolving over the next few years. By day 1509, the H α emission was still strong and exhibiting multiple peaks, hinting that the CSM was in a disc or torus around the SN. SN 2013L is part of a growing subset of SNe IIn that shows both strong CSM interaction signatures and the underlying broad lines from the SN ejecta photosphere. The presence of a blue H α emission bump and a lack of a red peak does not appear to be due to dust obscuration since an identical profile is seen in Pa β. Instead this suggests a high concentration of material on the near-side of the SN or a disc inclination of roughly edge-on and hints that SN 2013L was part of a massive interactive binary system. Narrow H α P-Cygni lines that persist through the entirety of the observations measure a progenitor outflow speed of 80-130 km s-1, speeds normally associated with extreme red supergiants, yellow hypergiants, or luminous blue variable winds. This progenitor scenario is also consistent with an inferred progenitor mass-loss rate of 0.3-8.0 × 10-3 M⊙ yr-1.

  13. Systematic Blueshift of Line Profiles in the Type IIn Supernova 2010jl: Evidence for Post-shock Dust Formation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nathan; Silverman, Jeffrey M.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Cooper, Michael C.; Matheson, Thomas; Bian, Fuyan; Weiner, Benjamin J.; Comerford, Julia M.

    2012-01-01

    Type IIn supernovae (SNe) show spectral evidence for strong interaction between their blast wave and dense circumstellar material (CSM) around the progenitor star. SN 2010jl was the brightest core-collapse supernova in 2010, and it was a Type IIn explosion with strong CSM interaction. Andrews et al. recently reported evidence for an infrared (IR) excess in SN 2010jl, indicating either new dust formation or the heating of CSM dust in an IR echo. Here we report multi-epoch spectra of SN 2010jl that reveal the tell-tale signature of new dust formation: emission-line profiles becoming systematically more blueshifted as the red side of the line is blocked by increasing extinction. The effect is seen clearly in the intermediate-width (400-4000 km s-1) component of Hα beginning roughly 30 days after explosion. Moreover, we present near-IR spectra demonstrating that the asymmetry in the hydrogen-line profiles is wavelength dependent, appearing more pronounced at shorter wavelengths. This evidence suggests that new dust grains had formed quickly in the post-shock shell of SN 2010jl arising from CSM interaction. Since the observed dust temperature has been attributed to an IR echo and not to new dust, either (1) IR excess emission at λ sensitive tracer of new dust formation in SNe, or (2) some assumptions about expected dust temperatures might require further study. Lastly, we discuss one possible mechanism other than dust that might lead to increasingly blueshifted line profiles in SNe IIn, although the wavelength dependence of the asymmetry argues against this hypothesis in the case of SN 2010jl.

  14. TWO DISTINCT-ABSORPTION X-RAY COMPONENTS FROM TYPE IIn SUPERNOVAE: EVIDENCE FOR ASPHERICITY IN THE CIRCUMSTELLAR MEDIUM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsuda, Satoru; Tsuboi, Yohko [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Chuo University, 1-13-27 Kasuga, Bunkyo, Tokyo 112-8551 (Japan); Maeda, Keiichi [Department of Astronomy, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Bamba, Aya [Department of Physics, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Terada, Yukikatsu [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Saitama University, 255 Shimo-Ohkubo, Sakura, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan); Fukazawa, Yasushi; Kawabata, Koji; Ohno, Masanori [Department of Physical Science, Hiroshima University, 1-3-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Sugawara, Yasuharu [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Immler, Stefan, E-mail: katsuda@phys.chuo-u.ac.jp [Astrophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 2077 (United States)

    2016-12-01

    We present multi-epoch X-ray spectral observations of three Type IIn supernovae (SNe), SN 2005kd, SN 2006jd, and SN 2010jl, acquired with Chandra , XMM-Newton , Suzaku , and Swift . Previous extensive X-ray studies of SN 2010jl have revealed that X-ray spectra are dominated by thermal emission, which likely arises from a hot plasma heated by a forward shock propagating into a massive circumstellar medium (CSM). Interestingly, an additional soft X-ray component was required to reproduce the spectra at a period of ∼1–2 years after the SN explosion. Although this component is likely associated with the SN, its origin remained an open question. We find a similar, additional soft X-ray component from the other two SNe IIn as well. Given this finding, we present a new interpretation for the origin of this component; it is thermal emission from a forward shock essentially identical to the hard X-ray component, but directly reaches us from a void of the dense CSM. Namely, the hard and soft components are responsible for the heavily and moderately absorbed components, respectively. The co-existence of the two components with distinct absorptions as well as the delayed emergence of the moderately absorbed X-ray component could be evidence for asphericity of the CSM. We show that the X-ray spectral evolution can be qualitatively explained by considering a torus-like geometry for the dense CSM. Based on our X-ray spectral analyses, we estimate the radius of the torus-like CSM to be on the order of ∼5 × 10{sup 16} cm.

  15. HIGH-DENSITY CIRCUMSTELLAR INTERACTION IN THE LUMINOUS TYPE IIn SN 2010jl: THE FIRST 1100 DAYS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fransson, Claes; Ergon, Mattias; Sollerman, Jesper [Oskar Klein Centre, Department of Astronomy, Stockholm University, AlbaNova, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Challis, Peter J.; Kirshner, Robert P.; Marion, G. H.; Milisavljevic, Dan; Friedman, Andrew S.; Chornock, Ryan; Czekala, Ian; Soderberg, Alicia [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Chevalier, Roger A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); France, Kevin [CASA, University of Colorado, 593UCB Boulder, CO 80309-0593 (United States); Smith, Nathan [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Bufano, Filomena [Departamento de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Andres Bello, Avda. Republica 252, Santiago (Chile); Kangas, Tuomas [Tuorla Observatory, University of Turku, Väisäläntie 20 FI-21500 Piikkiö (Finland); Larsson, Josefin [KTH, Department of Physics, and the Oskar Klein Centre, AlbaNova, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Mattila, Seppo [Finnish Centre for Astronomy with ESO (FINCA), University of Turku, Väisäläntie 20 FI-21500 Piikkiö (Finland); Benetti, Stefano [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dellOsservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy)

    2014-12-20

    Hubble Space Telescope and ground-based observations of the Type IIn supernova (SN) 2010jl are analyzed, including photometry and spectroscopy in the ultraviolet, optical, and near-IR bands, 26-1128 days after first detection. At maximum, the bolometric luminosity was ∼3 × 10{sup 43} erg s{sup –1} and even at 850 days exceeds 10{sup 42} erg s{sup –1}. A near-IR excess, dominating after 400 days, probably originates in dust in the circumstellar medium (CSM). The total radiated energy is ≳ 6.5 × 10{sup 50} erg, excluding the dust component. The spectral lines can be separated into one broad component that is due to electron scattering and one narrow with expansion velocity ∼100 km s{sup –1} from the CSM. The broad component is initially symmetric around zero velocity but becomes blueshifted after ∼50 days, while remaining symmetric about a shifted centroid velocity. Dust absorption in the ejecta is unlikely to explain the line shifts, and we attribute the shift instead to acceleration by the SN radiation. From the optical lines and the X-ray and dust properties, there is strong evidence for large-scale asymmetries in the CSM. The ultraviolet lines indicate CNO processing in the progenitor, while the optical shows a number of narrow coronal lines excited by the X-rays. The bolometric light curve is consistent with a radiative shock in an r {sup –2} CSM with a mass-loss rate of M-dot ∼0.1  M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}. The total mass lost is ≳ 3 M {sub ☉}. These properties are consistent with the SN expanding into a CSM characteristic of a luminous blue variable progenitor with a bipolar geometry. The apparent absence of nuclear processing is attributed to a CSM that is still opaque to electron scattering.

  16. The Rise and Peak of the Luminous Type IIn SN 2017hcc/ATLAS17lsn from ASAS-SN and Swift UVOT Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, J. L.; Chen, Ping; Dong, Subo; Shappee, B. J.; Seibert, M.; Bersier, D.; Holoien, T. W.-S.; Kochanek, C. S.; Stanek, K. Z.; Thompson, T. A.

    2017-12-01

    We present observations of the rise and peak of the Type IIn supernova SN 2017hcc/ATLAS17lsn obtained by the All-Sky Automated Survey for Supernovae (ASAS-SN) and Swift UVOT. The light curve of SN 2017hcc/ATLAS17lsn peaks at $V\\simeq 13.7$ mag, which from the estimated redshift of the host galaxy ($z=0.0168$, $D\\simeq 73$ Mpc) implies an absolute peak magnitude $M_{V,peak} \\simeq -20.7$ mag. The near-UV to optical spectral energy distribution of SN 2017hcc/ATLAS17lsn from Swift UVOT is consistent with a hot, but cooling blackbody with $\\rm T_{bb}\\simeq 16500$ K on Oct. 28.4 and $\\rm T_{bb} \\simeq 11700$ K on Nov. 19.6. The estimated peak bolometric luminosity $L_{bol, peak}\\simeq 1.3\\times 10^{44}$ erg s$^{-1}$ makes SN2017hcc/ATLAS17lsn one of the most luminous Type IIn supernovae studied to date. From the bolometric light curve we constrain the risetime to be $\\sim 27$ days and the total radiated energy of the event to date is $4\\times 10^{50}$ erg.

  17. THE DETECTION OF A SN IIn IN OPTICAL FOLLOW-UP OBSERVATIONS OF ICECUBE NEUTRINO EVENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aartsen, M. G.; Abraham, K.; Ackermann, M.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Ahrens, M.; Altmann, D.; Anderson, T.; Archinger, M.; Arguelles, C.; Arlen, T. C.; Auffenberg, J.; Bai, X.; Barwick, S. W.; Baum, V.; Bay, R.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker Tjus, J.; Becker, K.-H. [Astrophysics Research Centre, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast, BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Collaboration: IceCube Collaboration; for the PTF Collaboration; for the Swift Collaboration; for the Pan-STARRS1 Science Consortium; and others

    2015-09-20

    The IceCube neutrino observatory pursues a follow-up program selecting interesting neutrino events in real-time and issuing alerts for electromagnetic follow-up observations. In 2012 March, the most significant neutrino alert during the first three years of operation was issued by IceCube. In the follow-up observations performed by the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF), a Type IIn supernova (SN IIn) PTF12csy was found 0.°2 away from the neutrino alert direction, with an error radius of 0.°54. It has a redshift of z = 0.0684, corresponding to a luminosity distance of about 300 Mpc and the Pan-STARRS1 survey shows that its explosion time was at least 158 days (in host galaxy rest frame) before the neutrino alert, so that a causal connection is unlikely. The a posteriori significance of the chance detection of both the neutrinos and the SN at any epoch is 2.2σ within IceCube's 2011/12 data acquisition season. Also, a complementary neutrino analysis reveals no long-term signal over the course of one year. Therefore, we consider the SN detection coincidental and the neutrinos uncorrelated to the SN. However, the SN is unusual and interesting by itself: it is luminous and energetic, bearing strong resemblance to the SN IIn 2010jl, and shows signs of interaction of the SN ejecta with a dense circumstellar medium. High-energy neutrino emission is expected in models of diffusive shock acceleration, but at a low, non-detectable level for this specific SN. In this paper, we describe the SN PTF12csy and present both the neutrino and electromagnetic data, as well as their analysis.

  18. A sultry afternoon in a naturally ventilated office during the hottest summer on record

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Conradie, Dirk

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article is about the experience of discomfort, applicable physics and some possible corrective actions in a very hot naturally ventilated office on the CSIR campus during the hottest summer in Pretoria on record, as reported by South African...

  19. The hottest lavas of the Phanerozoic and the survival of deep Archean reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazel, Esteban; Trela, Jarek; More, Lowell; Alex, Sobolev; Bizimis, Michael; Jicha, Brian

    2017-04-01

    The mantle plume hypothesis is widely accepted for the formation of large igneous provinces and many modern day hotspot volcanoes. Petrologic models suggest that plume-derived melts originate at high mantle temperatures (>1500 °C) relative to those generated at ambient mid-ocean ridge conditions ( 1350 °C). Earth's mantle has also cooled during its history due to heat loss and decrease in radioactive heat production, thus the temperatures of modern day basalts are substantially lower than those produced during the Archean (>2.5 Ga), as recorded by komatiites (>1700 °C). We discovered that the 90 Ma Galapagos-related Tortugal Suite accreted in Costa Rica not only record mantle potential temperatures as high as ancient Archean komatiites ( 1800 °C), but we also collected the highest olivine-spinel crystallization temperatures ever reported in the literature (1600 °C). Therefore, to the best of our knowledge, this suite represents the record of the hottest lavas of the Phanerozoic. These type of magmas occurred more frequently during the Archean due to overall higher ambient mantle temperatures, yet our data suggest that anomalously hot, isolated domains still exist in the deep portions of the planet that have survived billions of years of mantle convection and cooling. This finding is in line with the recent results that showed that early-formed 182W/184W mantle heterogeneities, produced during the first 50 million years of planetary accretion, survived to present time and has been sampled by mantle plumes. Our finding supports the existence of primitive Archean reservoirs, although in most plumes cooler ambient mantle entrainment probably dilutes its temperature signature.

  20. Variability of average SUV from several hottest voxels is lower than that of SUVmax and SUVpeak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laffon, E. [CHU de Bordeaux, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Hopital du Haut-Leveque, Pessac (France); Universite de Bordeaux 2, Centre de Recherche Cardio-Thoracique, Bordeaux (France); INSERM U 1045, Centre de Recherche Cardio-Thoracique, Bordeaux (France); Lamare, F.; Clermont, H. de [CHU de Bordeaux, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Hopital du Haut-Leveque, Pessac (France); Burger, I.A. [University Hospital of Zurich, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department Medical Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Marthan, R. [Universite de Bordeaux 2, Centre de Recherche Cardio-Thoracique, Bordeaux (France); INSERM U 1045, Centre de Recherche Cardio-Thoracique, Bordeaux (France)

    2014-08-15

    To assess variability of the average standard uptake value (SUV) computed by varying the number of hottest voxels within an {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose ({sup 18}F-FDG)-positive lesion. This SUV metric was compared with the maximal SUV (SUV{sub max}: the hottest voxel) and peak SUV (SUV{sub peak}: SUV{sub max} and its 26 neighbouring voxels). Twelve lung cancer patients (20 lesions) were analysed using PET dynamic acquisition involving ten successive 2.5-min frames. In each frame and lesion, average SUV obtained from the N = 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 or 30 hottest voxels (SUV{sub max-N}){sub ,} SUV{sub max} and SUV{sub peak} were assessed. The relative standard deviations (SDrs) from ten frames were calculated for each SUV metric and lesion, yielding the mean relative SD from 20 lesions for each SUV metric (SDr{sub N}, SDr{sub max} and SDr{sub peak}), and hence relative measurement error and repeatability (MEr-R). For each N, SDr{sub N} was significantly lower than SDr{sub max} and SDr{sub peak}. SDr{sub N} correlated strongly with N: 6.471 x N{sup -0.103} (r = 0.994; P < 0.01). MEr-R of SUV{sub max-30} was 8.94-12.63 % (95 % CL), versus 13.86-19.59 % and 13.41-18.95 % for SUV{sub max} and SUV{sub peak} respectively. Variability of SUV{sub max-N} is significantly lower than for SUV{sub max} and SUV{sub peak}. Further prospective studies should be performed to determine the optimal total hottest volume, as voxel volume may depend on the PET system. (orig.)

  1. Predicting the Impact of Urban Green Areas on Microclimate Changes of Mashhad Residential Areas during the Hottest Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    zahra karimian

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: With regard to two adverse climatic phenomena of urban heat islands and global warming that has been leading to increase temperature in many cities in the world, providing human thermal comfort especially in large cities with hot and dry climates, during the hottest periods of the year is crucial. Mainly vegetation with three methods: shading, evapotranspiration and wind breaking can affect micro-climate. The aim of this study was to asses and simulate the impact of existing and proposed vegetation on the human thermal comfort and micro climate changes in some residential areas of Mashhad during the hottest periods of the year by using a modeling and computer simulation approach. Materials and Methods: This research was performed in the Ghasemabad residential area, Andisheh and Hesabi blocks, and in the hottest period of the year 2012 in Mashhad. Recorded data in the residential sites along with observed data from Mashhad weather station that included temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction. Soil data (soil temperature and humidity, soil\\ type, plant data (plant type, plant height, leaf area index and building data (inner temperature in the building, height and area buildings as input data were used in the ENVI-met model. Both two sites, Andishe and Hesabi residential blocks, with vegetation (different trees and bushes plants, for example Acacia, ash, sycamore, mulberry, chinaberry, barberry, boxwood and Cotoneaster that all of them are tolerant and semi-tolerant to drought about 20% were simulated. Regarding the area of simulating, 3 receptors were considered in per sites. Simulation was commenced from 6 AM and continued until 18 pm, but just data of 11-15 hours were analysed (the hours of peak traffic. Results and Discussion: Analysis of outputs data revealed that the temperature of two residential sites in all three receptors during the study were almost the same. In general, the maximum temperature difference

  2. Capsaicinoids in the hottest pepper Bhut Jolokia and its antioxidant and antiinflammatory activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yunbao; Nair, Muraleedharan G

    2010-01-01

    Hot peppers are known for medicinally important capsaicinoids. Bhut Jolokia, Capsicum chinense/Capsicum frutescens, is the hottest pepper in the world. However, its bioactivity and quantity of heat principles are not reported. We have now quantified capsaicin (C) and dihydrocapsaicin (DHC) in Bhut Jolokia and compared it with commonly consumed hot peppers, Jalapeno (Capsicum annuum) and Scotch Bonnet (Capsicum chinense). The concentration of C and DHC in Bhut Jolokia was 5.36%, which is about 338 and 18 times greater than in Scotch Bonnet and Jalapeno, respectively. We have also isolated capsaicin (C) and dihydrocapsaicin (DHC) in pure form and determined lipid peroxidation (LPO) and cyclooxygenase (COX-1 and -2) enzymes inhibitory concentrations. This is the first report of the quantification of C and DHC in Bhut Jolokia, comparison of capsaicinoids content in Bhut Jolokia with Jalapeno and Scotch Bonnet hot peppers and the COX and LPO inhibitory activities of C and DHC.

  3. Tracking the Teletherms: The spatiotemporal dynamics of the hottest and coldest days of the year

    CERN Document Server

    Dodds, Peter Sheridan; Reagan, Andrew J; Danforth, Christopher M

    2015-01-01

    Instabilities and long term shifts in seasons, whether induced by natural drivers or human activities, pose great disruptive threats to ecological, agricultural, and social systems. Here, we propose, quantify, and explore two fundamental markers of seasonal variations: the Summer and Winter Teletherms---the on-average annual dates of the hottest and coldest days of the year. We analyse daily temperature extremes recorded at 1218 stations across the contiguous United States from 1853--2012 to obtain estimates of the Teletherms, and to characterize their spatial and temporal dynamics. We observe substantial regional variation with the Summer Teletherm falling up to 90 days after the Summer Solstice, and 50 days for the Winter Teletherm after the Winter Solstice, and that in many locations, the Teletherm is better described as one or more sequences of dates---the Teletherm Period. We show Teletherm temporal dynamics are substantive with clear and in some cases dramatic changes moving across broad regions, sugges...

  4. Microbial life in Bourlyashchy, the hottest thermal pool of Uzon Caldera, Kamchatka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernyh, Nikolay A; Mardanov, Andrey V; Gumerov, Vadim M; Miroshnichenko, Margarita L; Lebedinsky, Alexander V; Merkel, Alexander Y; Crowe, Douglas; Pimenov, Nikolay V; Rusanov, Igor I; Ravin, Nikolay V; Moran, Mary Ann; Bonch-Osmolovskaya, Elizaveta A

    2015-11-01

    Bourlyashchy is the largest and hottest pool in the Uzon Caldera, located in the territory of Kronotsky Nature Reserve, Kamchatka, Russia, with sediment surface temperatures at the margins ranging from 86 to 97 °C, and pH from 6.0 to 7.0. The microbial communities of the pool water and sediments were studied comprehensively from 2005 to 2014. Radioisotopic tracer studies revealed the processes of inorganic carbon assimilation, sulfate reduction, lithotrophic methanogenesis and potentially very active process of acetate oxidation to CO2. The total number of microbial cells in water was different in different years ranging from 5.2 to 7.0 × 10(6); in sediments, it changed from year to year between 6.3 × 10(6) and 1.75 × 10(8), increasing with a decrease in temperature. FISH with Archaea- and Bacteria-specific probes showed that the share of Bacteria differed with year, changing from 34 to 71%. According to 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing data, lithoautotrophs (Aquificales and Thermoproteales) predominated in water samples, while in sediments they shared the niche with organotrophic Crenarchaeota, Korarchaeota, and bacteria of the genus Caldimicrobium (phylum Thermodesulfobacteria). The majority of organisms in water belonged to cultivated orders of prokaryotes; the only large uncultured group was that representing a novel order in class Thermoprotei. In sediments, unclassified Aquificeae comprised a significant part of the bacterial population. Thus, we showed that the hottest of the terrestrial hot pools studied contains numerous and active microbial populations where Bacteria represent a significant part of the microbial community, and planktonic and sediment populations differ in both composition and function.

  5. Deepest and hottest hydrothermal activity in the Okinawa Trough: the Yokosuka site at Yaeyama Knoll

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Junichi; Kawagucci, Shinsuke; Makabe, Akiko; Takahashi, Ayu; Kitada, Kazuya; Torimoto, Junji; Matsui, Yohei; Tasumi, Eiji; Shibuya, Takazo; Nakamura, Kentaro; Horai, Shunsuke; Sato, Shun; Ishibashi, Jun-ichiro; Kanzaki, Hayato; Nakagawa, Satoshi; Hirai, Miho; Takaki, Yoshihiro; Okino, Kyoko; Watanabe, Hiromi Kayama; Kumagai, Hidenori; Chen, Chong

    2017-12-01

    Since the initial discovery of hydrothermal vents in 1977, these `extreme' chemosynthetic systems have been a focus of interdisciplinary research. The Okinawa Trough (OT), located in the semi-enclosed East China Sea between the Eurasian continent and the Ryukyu arc, hosts more than 20 known vent sites but all within a relatively narrow depth range (600-1880 m). Depth is a significant factor in determining fluid temperature and chemistry, as well as biological composition. However, due to the narrow depth range of known sites, the actual influence of depth here has been poorly resolved. Here, the Yokosuka site (2190 m), the first OT vent exceeding 2000 m depth is reported. A highly active hydrothermal vent site centred around four active vent chimneys reaching 364°C in temperature, it is the hottest in the OT. Notable Cl depletion (130 mM) and both high H2 and CH4 concentrations (approx. 10 mM) probably result from subcritical phase separation and thermal decomposition of sedimentary organic matter. Microbiota and fauna were generally similar to other sites in the OT, although with some different characteristics. In terms of microbiota, the H2-rich vent fluids in Neuschwanstein chimney resulted in the dominance of hydrogenotrophic chemolithoautotrophs such as Thioreductor and Desulfobacterium. For fauna, the dominance of the deep-sea mussel Bathymodiolus aduloides is surprising given other nearby vent sites are usually dominated by B. platifrons and/or B. japonicus, and a sponge field in the periphery dominated by Poecilosclerida is unusual for OT vents. Our insights from the Yokosuka site implies that although the distribution of animal species may be linked to depth, the constraint is perhaps not water pressure and resulting chemical properties of the vent fluid but instead physical properties of the surrounding seawater. The potential significance of these preliminary results and prospect for future research on this unique site are discussed.

  6. Lactic acid bacteria: inhibition of angiotensin converting enzyme <i>in vitro and <i>in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglsang, Anders; Rattray, Fergal; Nilsson, Dan

    2003-01-01

    A total of 26 strains of wild-type lactic acid bacteria, mainly belonging to Lactococcus lactis and Lactobacillus helveticus , were assayed in vitro for their ability to produce a milk fermentate with inhibitory activity towards angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE). It was clear that the test stra...

  7. SN 2009kn - the twin of the Type IIn supernova 1994W

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kankare, E.; Ergon, M.; Bufano, F.

    2012-01-01

    on SN 2009kn offers the possibility to test these models, in the case of both SN 2009kn and SN 1994W. We associate the narrow P Cygni lines with a swept-up shell composed of circumstellar matter and SN ejecta. The broad emission line wings, seen during the plateau phase, arise from internal electron...... scattering in this shell. The slope of the light curve after the post-plateau drop is fairly consistent with that expected from the radioactive decay of 56Co, suggesting an SN origin for SN 2009kn. Assuming radioactivity to be the main source powering the light curve of SN 2009kn in the tail phase, we infer...

  8. The Candidate Progenitor of the Type IIn SN 2010jl Is Not an Optically Luminous Star

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, Ori D. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Dyk, Schuyler D. Van [IPAC/Caltech, Mailcode 100-22, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Dwek, Eli [Astrophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Mail Code 665, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Smith, Nathan; Andrews, Jennifer [Steward Observatory, 933 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Filippenko, Alexei V.; Kelly, Patrick L.; Shivvers, Isaac [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Arendt, Richard G. [CRESST/UMBC/GSFC Code 665, NASA/GSFC, Greenbelt MD, 20771 (United States); Foley, Ryan J. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Miller, Adam A., E-mail: ofox@stsci.edu [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, MS 169-506, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2017-02-20

    A blue source in pre-explosion Hubble Space Telescope ( HST )/Wide-Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) images falls within the 5 σ astrometric error circle (∼0.″24) derived from post-explosion ground-based imaging of SN 2010jl. At the time the ground-based astrometry was published, however, the SN had not faded sufficiently for post-explosion HST follow-up observations to determine a more precise astrometric solution and/or confirm if the pre-explosion source had disappeared, both of which are necessary to ultimately disentangle the possible progenitor scenarios. Here we present HST /WFC3 imaging of the SN 2010jl field obtained in 2014, 2015, and 2016 when the SN had faded sufficiently to allow for new constraints on the progenitor. The SN, which is still detected in the new images, is offset by 0.″061 ± 0.″008 (15 ± 2 pc) from the underlying and extended source of emission that contributes at least partially, if not entirely, to the blue source previously suggested as the candidate progenitor in the WFPC2 data. This point alone rules out the possibility that the blue source in the pre-explosion images is the exploding star, but may instead suggest an association with a young (<5–6 Myr) cluster and still argues for a massive (>30 M {sub ⊙}) progenitor. We obtain new upper limits on the flux from a single star at the SN position in the pre-explosion WFPC2 and Spitzer /IRAC images that may ultimately be used to constrain the progenitor properties.

  9. The Candidate Progenitor of the Type IIn SN 2010jl Is Not an Optically Luminous Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Ori D.; Van Dyk, Schuyler D.; Dwek, Eli; Smith, Nathan; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Andrews, Jennifer; Arendt, Richard G.; Foley, Ryan J.; Kelly, Patrick L.; Miller, Adam; hide

    2017-01-01

    A blue source in pre-explosion Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/Wide-Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) images falls within the 5 Sigma astrometric error circle (approx. 0." 24) derived from post-explosion ground-based imaging of SN 2010jl. At the time the ground-based astrometry was published, however, the SN had not faded sufficiently forpost-explosion HST follow-up observations to determine a more precise astrometric solution and/or confirm if the pre-explosion source had disappeared, both of which are necessary to ultimately disentangle the possible progenitor scenarios. Here we present HST/WFC3 imaging of the SN 2010jl field obtained in 2014, 2015, and 2016 when the SN had faded sufficiently to allow for new constraints on the progenitor. The SN, which is still detected in the new images, is offset by 0."061(+/-) 0."008 (15 +/- 2 pc) from the underlying and extended source ofemission that contributes at least partially, if not entirely, to the blue source previously suggested as the candidate progenitor in the WFPC2 data. This point alone rules out the possibility that the blue source in the pre-explosion images is the exploding star, but may instead suggest an association with a young (less than 56 Myr) cluster and still argues for a massive (greater than 30 solar mass) progenitor. We obtain new upper limits on the flux from a single star at the SN position in the pre-explosion WFPC2 and Spitzer/IRAC images that may ultimately be used to constrain the progenitor properties.

  10. Applying Collaborative Learning and Quality Improvement to Public Health: Lessons from the Collaborative Improvement and Innovation Network (CoIIN) to Reduce Infant Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghandour, Reem M; Flaherty, Katherine; Hirai, Ashley; Lee, Vanessa; Walker, Deborah Klein; Lu, Michael C

    2017-06-01

    Infant mortality remains a significant public health problem in the U.S. The Collaborative Improvement & Innovation Network (CoIIN) model is an innovative approach, using the science of quality improvement and collaborative learning, which was applied across 13 Southern states in Public Health Regions IV and VI to reduce infant mortality and improve birth outcomes. We provide an in-depth discussion of the history, development, implementation, and adaptation of the model based on the experience of the original CoIIN organizers and participants. In addition to the political genesis and functional components of the initiative, 8 key lessons related to staffing, planning, and implementing future CoIINs are described in detail. This paper reports the findings from a process evaluation of the model. Data on the states' progress toward reducing infant mortality and improving birth outcomes were collected through a survey in the final months of a 24-month implementation period, as well as through ongoing team communications. The peer-to-peer exchange and platform for collaborative learning, as well as the sharing of data across the states, were major strengths and form the foundation for future CoIIN efforts. A lasting legacy of the initiative is the unique application and sharing of provisional "real time" data to inform "real time" decision-making. The CoIIN model of collaborative learning, QI, and innovation offers a promising approach to strengthening partnerships within and across states, bolstering data systems to inform and track progress more rapidly, and ultimately accelerating improvement toward healthier communities, States, and the Nation as a whole.

  11. Capsaicinoids, amino acid and fatty acid profiles in different fruit components of the world hottest Naga king chilli (Capsicum chinense Jacq).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananthan, R; Subhash, K; Longvah, T

    2018-01-01

    The world hottest Naga king chilli is cultivated and consumed in Northeast India. Capsaicinoids, amino acids and fatty acids were studied in fruit and fruit components of Naga king chilli. Capsaicinoid content was increased in each ripening stage and maximum level was observed at red color fruits. Total protein and fat content of placenta was 19.41 and 20.36% respectively. Capsaicinoids of placenta (7.35±2.241%) was higher followed by seed (3.83±1.358%) and pericarp (2.91±0.667%). Similarly, essential amino acid content was also higher in placenta compared to other components. Amino acid score ranged from 37 to 38 with cystine and methionine as limiting amino acid. Low level of palmitic, stearic and α-linolenic acid and very high level of linoleic acid were found in seeds. Total polyunsaturates of seeds were higher followed by whole fruit. Naga king chilli is unique due to its high capsaicinoid content and it offers potential crop for the future exploitation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of fasting for Ramadan on kidney graft function during the hottest month of the year (August) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qurashi, Salem; Tamimi, Abdulrahman; Jaradat, Maha; Al Sayyari, Abulla

    2012-12-01

    To assess the effect of fasting Ramadan during the hottest month of the year in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. This prospective cohort study was performed at the King Fahd National Guard Hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. We used the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula to estimate the glomerular filtration rate in renal transplant patients who fasted and did not fast before and after Ramadan. There were 43 fasters and 37 nonfasters of comparable ages, with fasters having longer posttransplant times compared with nonfasters (P = .0001). The 2 groups had similar mean estimated glomerular filtration rates before Ramadan: 75.6 ± 29.2 and 65.9 ± 25.9 mL/min (P = .1) and similar mean estimated glomerular filtration rates 6 months after Ramadan: 77.2 ± 29.7 and 64.1 ± 29 mL/min (P = .21). Mean changes in the estimated glomerular filtration rate were similar in the 2 groups: -1.5 ± 10.9 and -2.8 ± 19.3 (P = .7) as was the percentage change (-0.2.2 ± 13.4 and 1.8 ± 15.9; P = .4). In the fasting group, serum creatinine and estimated glomerular filtration rate were similar before and 6 months after Ramadan: 105.1 ± 55 and 105.14 ± 61 μmol/L (P = 1.0) and 75.6 ± 29 and 72.2 ± 29.7 mL/min (P = .36). No significant changes were observed in the nonfasting group. No significant differences were detected regarding fasting in the estimated glomerular filtration rate before and 6 months after Ramadan in the 3 groups with the low, moderate, and high glomerular filtration rates at baseline. Fasting for Ramadan in August does not adversely affect graft function at a mean follow-up of 7.6 ± 1.3 months.

  13. Radii and Mass-loss Rates of Type IIb Supernova Progenitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouchi, Ryoma; Maeda, Keiichi

    2017-05-01

    Several Type IIb supernovae (SNe IIb) have been extensively studied, both in terms of the progenitor radius and the mass-loss rate in the final centuries before the explosion. While the sample is still limited, evidence has been accumulating that the final mass-loss rate tends to be larger for a more extended progenitor, with the difference exceeding an order of magnitude between the more and less extended progenitors. The high mass-loss rates inferred for the more extended progenitors are not readily explained by a prescription commonly used for a single stellar wind. In this paper, we calculate a grid of binary evolution models. We show that the observational relation in the progenitor radii and mass-loss rates may be a consequence of non-conservative mass transfer in the final phase of progenitor evolution without fine tuning. Further, we find a possible link between SNe IIb and SNe IIn. The binary scenario for SNe IIb inevitably leads to a population of SN progenitors surrounded by dense circumstellar matter (CSM) due to extensive mass loss (\\dot{M}≳ {10}-4 {M}⊙ {{yr}}-1) in the binary origin. About 4% of all observed SNe IIn are predicted to have dense CSM, produced by binary non-conservative mass transfer, whose observed characteristics are distinguishable from SNe IIn from other scenarios. Indeed, such SNe may be observationally dominated by systems experiencing huge mass loss in the final 103 yr, leading to luminous SNe IIn or initially bright SNe IIP or IIL with characteristics of SNe IIn in their early spectra.

  14. The 10 Hottest Technologies in Telecom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Patrick

    1996-01-01

    Synthesizes opinions of experts regarding technologies deemed most likely to enter the telecommunications mainstream by 1998, including: (1) the Java programming language; (2) voice- over frame relay; (3) virtual local area networks (LANs); (4) cable modems; (5) gigabit LANs; (6) Internet appliances; (7) personal satellite phones; (8) intranets;…

  15. Evaluación de diferentes concentraciones de algunos reguladores de crecimiento en la multiplicación y enraizamiento <i>in vitro de Limonium var. Misty blue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chamorro Albeiro Hernán

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Se evaluaron diferentes concentraciones de reguladores de crecimiento en las fases de multiplicación y enraizamiento <i>in vitro de Limonium var. Misty blue, las cuales son bajas en esta especie. Se trabajó con material <i>in vitro donado por la Empresa La Plazoleta Ltda. Se evaluaron diferentes tipos y concentraciones de citoquininas (kinetina, KIN; 6-bencilaminopurina, BAP; y thidiazuron, TDZ en la fase de multiplicación y dos tipos de auxinas (ácido indolacético, AIA; y ácido indolbutírico, AIB a diferentes concentraciones en la fase de enraizamiento in vitro. En la fase de multiplicación los mejores resultados fueron obtenidos con el uso del medio de cultivo MS (Murashige y Skoog, 1962 suplementado con KIN o BAP a 0,5 mg· L-1 durante un período de cuatro (4 semanas. Se encontró que concentraciones altas de las citoquininas evaluadas en este trabajo inducen desdiferenciación celular y reducen la tasa de multiplicación, especialmente el TDZ a 0,1 mg· L-1. En la fase de enraizamiento <i>in vitro se obtuvieron buenos resultados manteniendo las plántulas por un período de tres (3 semanas en medio MS (1962 suplementado con AIB en concentraciones entre 0,5 y 1,0 mg· L-1, lo cual consiguió un sistema radical adecuado para su posterior endurecimiento. En presencia de AIA no se formaron raíces en ninguna de las concentraciones evaluadas.

  16. Activation of Neuropeptide Y Receptors Modulates Retinal Ganglion Cell Physiology and Exerts Neuroprotective Actions <i>In Vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, João; Elvas, Filipe; Brudzewsky, Dan

    2015-01-01

    agonist, increased the initial burst response of OFF-type RGCs, although no effect was observed on RGC spontaneous spiking activity. The Y1 receptor activation was also able to directly modulate RGC responses by attenuating the NMDA-induced increase in RGC spiking activity. These results suggest that Y1...

  17. <i>In silico assessment of genetic variation in KCNA5 reveals multiple mechanisms of human atrial arrhythmogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colman, Michael A; Ni, Haibo; Liang, Bo

    2017-01-01

    investigated at the cellular level. In tissue, we assessed the effects of the mutations on the vulnerability to unidirectional conduction patterns and dynamics of re-entrant excitation waves. Gain-of-function mutations shortened the action potential duration in single cells, and stabilised and accelerated re......A recent experimental study investigating patients with lone atrial fibrillation identified six novel mutations in the KCNA5 gene. The mutants exhibited both gain- and loss-of-function of the atrial specific ultra-rapid delayed rectifier K+ current, IKur. The aim of this study is to elucidate...... and quantify the functional impact of these KCNA5 mutations on atrial electrical activity. A multi-scale model of the human atria was updated to incorporate detailed experimental data on IKur from both wild-type and mutants. The effects of the mutations on human atrial action potential and rate dependence were...

  18. The research of the hot spot temperature of the dry-type reactor winding based on the inversed-heat conduction model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Wenqing; Luo, Hanwu; Li, Wenpeng; Cao, Yongdong; Ye, Ligang; Guo, Kai; Ding, Renjie; Wang, Yongqiang

    2017-10-01

    There is an important significance for the design and the life time evaluation of the dry-type reactor based on the hot-spot temperature. At present the methods of obtaining the reactor's hot-spot temperature are as follows: direct measurement and numerical calculation. Direct measurement can obtain winding hot spot temperature through the optical fiber temperature sensor or thermocouple; the numerical calculation mostly uses the finite element or finite difference method. This paper establishes the inversed-heat transfer calculation model of high and low voltage winding using the high-precision infrared sensor to acquire the temperature of the high voltage winding. Through calculation the temperature distribution of the low voltage winding has been obtained and the hottest spot temperature of the winding is much closed to the result obtained by the IEEE model in a certain range. It provides a new method for the acquisition of the hottest spot temperature of the dry-type reactor.

  19. QUINOA (CHENOPODIUM QUINOA WILLD: DIGESTIBILIDADE <i>IN VITRO, DESENVOLVIMENTO E ANÁLISE SENSORIAL DE PREPARAÇÕES DESTINADAS A PACIENTES CELÍACOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. A. CASTRO

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available

    A quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd é um pseudocereal isento de glúten, oriundo dos Andes, onde tem sido cultivado há milhares de anos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver e avaliar sensorialmente algumas preparações contendo quinoa em grãos, flocos e farinha, destinadas ao paciente celíaco, e determinar a digestibilidade <i>in vitro de sua proteína, submetida ou não ao tratamento térmico. As amostras foram avaliadas sensorialmente através de um teste de aceitação utilizando a escala hedônica nominal de 9 pontos. O método utilizado na análise da digestibilidade protéica <i>in vitro foi o da queda de pH após 10 minutos, com a adição das enzimas tripsina e pancreatina às amostras de quinoa, tratadas e não tratadas termicamente. Das sete preparações testadas, seis foram bem aceitas, já que apresentaram um Índice de Aceitabilidade maior que 70%. Os flocos e grãos de quinoa, após serem testados termicamente, tiveram sua digestibilidade otimizada. Portanto, a quinoa e seus derivados podem ser considerados uma boa opção para a alimentação dos indivíduos portadores da doença celíaca.

  20. Investigation of a possible outbreak of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii i>in Odense, Denmark using PFGE, MLST and whole-genome-based SNPs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammerum, Anette M.; Hansen, Frank; Skov, Marianne N.

    2015-01-01

    carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii were detected at Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark. These isolates were typed by PFGE, with ApaI and SmaI, respectively, and subjected to WGS. The WGS data were used for in silico extraction of MLST types using two different schemes, resistance genes and SNPs......, to which 31 publicly available A. baumannii genomes were added. RESULTS: Using ApaI, the eight isolates had four different PFGE profiles, which were further differentiated using SmaI, separating one of the profiles into two distinct PFGE types. Five ST2 (Pasteur MLST) OXA-23-producing isolates, two ST1 OXA...

  1. Mega starbirth cluster is biggest, brightest and hottest ever seen

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-10-01

    Artist’s impression of the Lynx Arc hi-res Size hi-res: 4519 kb Credits: European Space Agency, NASA and Robert A.E. Fosbury (European Space Agency/Space Telescope-European Coordinating Facility, Germany) Artist’s impression of the Lynx Arc This illustration shows an artist’s impression of the so-called Lynx arc, a newly identified distant super-cluster that contains a million blue-white stars twice as hot as similar stars in our Milky Way galaxy. The Lynx arc is one million times brighter than the well-known Orion Nebula, a nearby prototypical ‘starbirth’ region visible with small telescopes. The stars in the Lynx arc are more than twice as hot as the Orion Nebula’s central stars, with surface temperatures up to 80 000°C. Though there are much bigger and brighter star-forming regions than the Orion Nebula in our local Universe, none are as bright as the Lynx arc, nor do they contain such large numbers of hot stars. The stars are so hot that a very large fraction of their light is emitted in the ultraviolet that makes the gas glow with the green and red colours illustrated here. The so-called Lynx Arc is one million times brighter than the well-known Orion Nebula, a nearby prototypical 'starbirth' region visible with small telescopes. The newly identified super-cluster contains a million blue-white stars that are twice as hot as similar stars in our Milky Way galaxy. It is a rarely glimpsed example of the early days of the Universe where furious firestorms of starbirth blazed across the skies. The spectacular cluster's opulence is dimmed when seen from Earth only by the fact that it is 12 000 million light years away. The discovery of this unique and tantalising object was the result of a systematic study of distant clusters of galaxies carried out with major X-ray, optical and infrared telescopes, including the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, ROSAT and the Keck Telescopes. Bob Fosbury, of the European Space Agency's Space Telescope-European Coordinating Facility in Germany, and a team of international co-authors report the discovery in the 20 October 2003 issue of the Astrophysical Journal. The mega-cluster of stars appears as a puzzling red arc behind a distant galaxy cluster 5400 million light-years away in the northern constellation of Lynx. The arc is the stretched and magnified image of a mysterious celestial object about 12 000 million light-years away (at a redshift of 3.36), far beyond the cluster of galaxies. This means that the remote source existed when the Universe was less than 2000 million years old. Fosbury and colleagues first tried to identify the arc by analysing the light from the object, but the team was not able to recognise the pattern of colours in the spectral signature of the remote object. While looking for matches with the colour spectrum, Fosbury realised that the light was related to that of the nearby Orion Nebula, a star-forming region in our own Milky Way. However where the Orion Nebula is powered by only four hot and bright blue stars, the Lynx Arc must contain around a million such stars! Furthermore, the spectrum shows that the stars in the Lynx Arc are more than twice as hot as the Orion Nebula's central stars, with surface temperatures up to 80 000°C. Though there are much bigger and brighter star-forming regions than the Orion Nebula in our local Universe, none are as bright as the Lynx Arc, nor do they contain such large numbers of hot stars. Even the most massive, normal nearby stars are no hotter than around 40 000°C. However, stars forming from the original, pristine gas in the early Universe can be more massive and consequently much hotter - perhaps up to 120 000°C. The earliest stars may have been as much as several hundred solar masses, but the chemical make-up of the Universe today prevents stars from forming beyond about 100 solar masses. Such 'primordial' super-hot stars are thought to be the first luminous objects to condense after the Big Bang cooled. Astronomers believe that these first 'monster' stars formed considerably earlier than the Lynx Arc - up to 1800 million years earlier. "This remarkable object is the closest we have come so far to seeing what such primordial objects might look like when our telescopes become powerful enough to see them," says Fosbury. The desire to find and study the first luminous objects in the Universe is the main scientific drive behind the construction of the NASA/ESA/CSA James Webb Space Telescope, scheduled for launch in 2011. Notes for editors The team is composed of R. A. E. Fosbury (European Space Agency/Space Telescope-European Coordinating Facility, Germany), M. Villar-Martín and A. Humphrey (University of Hertfordshire, UK), M. Lombardi and P. Rosati (European Southern Observatory, Germany), D. Stern (Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics, USA), R. N. Hook (ST-ECF/STScI, USA), B. P. Holden and S. A. Stanford (University of California, USA), G. K. Squires (SIRTF Science Center, USA), M. Rauch (The Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, USA) and W. L. W. Sargent (California Institute of Technology, USA). For broadcasters, animations of the discovery, interviews and general Hubble Space Telescope background footage are available from the ESA Television Service, see http://television.esa.int, and from http://www.spacetelescope.org/video/heic0312_vnr.html

  2. European Atlantic: the hottest oil spill hotspot worldwide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez Vieites, D.; Nieto-Roman, S.; Palanca, A.; Ferrer, X.; Vences, M.

    2004-01-01

    Oil spills caused by maritime transport of petroleum products are still an important source of ocean pollution, especially in main production areas and along major transport routes. We here provide a historical and geographic analysis of the major oil spills (>700 tonnes) since 1960. Spills were

  3. Molecular characterization of 'Bhut Jolokia' the hottest chilli

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-08-14

    Aug 14, 2012 ... Pungency, the unique characteristics of this genus, .... The nuclear ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene complex is a ... 2.2 DNA Extraction. Fresh fruits and shoot tips were used for isolation of total cellular DNA from different accessions of 'Bhut Jolokia' and also from C. frutescens and C. chinense with the use of ...

  4. Sunrayce 93: The hottest new sport on campus. Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-01

    The solar powered electric vehicle race began in Arlington, Texas on June 20, 1993 and finished 7 days later in Minneapolis, Minnesota. Thirty four teams from Universities across the United States and Puerto Rico completed the race out of thirty six entries. The race demonstrated the viability of sunlight powered vehicles as the better average daily speeds were in excess of 50 miles an hour. Even in the rain, most average speeds were in excess of 15 miles an hour. Analyzed results, photographs, and project details are included. (GHH)

  5. Molecular characterization ofBhut Jolokia'the hottest chilli

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Although a compensatory base change (CBC) in the ITS2 region was not observed between the closely related species of C. frutescens and C. chinense when compared with Bhut Jolokia; phylogenetic analysis using ITS1, 5.8S and ITS2 sequences indicated a distinct clade for all the accessions of 'Bhut Joloikia', while C.

  6. The Hottest Hot Jupiters May Host Atmospheric Dynamos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, T. M. [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom); McElwaine, J. N. [Planetary Science Institute, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Hot Jupiters have proven themselves to be a rich class of exoplanets that test our theories of planetary evolution and atmospheric dynamics under extreme conditions. Here, we present three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations and analytic results that demonstrate that a dynamo can be maintained in the thin, stably stratified atmosphere of a hot Jupiter, independent of the presumed deep-seated dynamo. This dynamo is maintained by conductivity variations arising from strong asymmetric heating from the planets’ host star. The presence of a dynamo significantly increases the surface magnetic field strength and alters the overall planetary magnetic field geometry, possibly affecting star–planet magnetic interactions.

  7. Intraoperative and postoperative complications of laser <i>in situ keratomileusis flap creation using intralase femtosecond laser and mechanical microkeratomes

    OpenAIRE

    Espandar Ladan; Meyer Jay

    2010-01-01

    An essential step of laser in situ keratomileusis surgery is corneal flap creation, Femtosecond (FS)-assisted or mechanical microkeratome. Each type has rare intraoperative and postoperative complication rates. Several recent studies have identified risk factors and guidelines to help manage these complications. Fortunately, studies have shown no loss of best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) after the management of intraoperative and postoperative complications in IntraLase FS and mechanical mi...

  8. Directional Carrier Transfer in Strongly Coupled Binary Nanocrystal Superlattice Films Formed by Assembly and <i>in Situ Ligand Exchange at a Liquid–Air Interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Yaoting; Li, Siming; Gogotsi, Natalie; Zhao, Tianshuo; Fleury, Blaise; Kagan, Cherie R.; Murray, Christopher B.; Baxter, Jason B.

    2017-02-16

    Two species of monodisperse nanocrystals (NCs) can self-assemble into a variety of complex 2D and 3D periodic structures, or binary NC superlattice (BNSL) films, based on the relative number and size of the NCs. BNSL films offer great promise for both fundamental scientific studies and optoelectronic applications; however, the utility of as-assembled structures has been limited by the insulating ligands that originate from the synthesis of NCs. Here we report the application of an in situ ligand exchange strategy at a liquid–air interface to replace the long synthesis ligands with short ligands while preserving the long-range order of BNSL films. This approach is demonstrated for BNSL structures consisting of PbSe NCs of different size combinations and ligands of interest for photovoltaic devices, infrared detectors, and light-emitting diodes. To confirm enhanced coupling introduced by ligand exchange, we show ultrafast (~1 ps) directional carrier transfer across the type-I heterojunction formed by NCs of different sizes within ligand-exchanged BNSL films. In conclusion, this approach shows the potential promise of functional BNSL films, where the local and long-range energy landscape and electronic coupling can be adjusted by tuning NC composition, size, and interparticle spacing.

  9. A Modified P1 Moiety Enhances <i>in vitro Antiviral Activity against Various Multi-Drug-Resistant HIV-1 Variants and <i>in vitro CNS Penetration Properties of a Novel Nonpeptidic Protease Inhibitor, GRL-10413

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amano, Masayuki; Salcedo-Gómez, Pedro Miguel; Zhao, Rui; Yedidi, Ravikiran S.; Das, Debananda; Bulut, Haydar; Delino, Nicole S.; Sheri, Venkata Reddy; Ghosh, Arun K.; Mitsuya, Hiroaki (Kumamoto); (NIH); (Purdue)

    2016-09-12

    We here report that GRL-10413, a novel non-peptidic HIV-1 protease inhibitor (PI) containing a modified P1 moiety and a sulfonamide isostere, is highly active against laboratory HIV-1 strains and primary clinical isolates (EC50: 0.00035 - 0.0018 μM) with minimal cytotoxicity (CC50: 35.7 μM). GRL-10413 blocked the infectivity and replication of HIV-1NL4-3variants selected by up to 5 μM concentrations of atazanavir, lopinavir, or amprenavir (EC50: 0.0021 - 0.0023 μM). GRL-10413 also maintained its strong antiviral activity against multi-drug-resistant clinical HIV-1 variants isolated from patients, who no longer responded to various antiviral regimens after long-term antiretroviral therapy. The development of resistance against GRL-10413 was significantly delayed compared to that of APV. In addition, GRL-10413 showed a favorable central nervous system (CNS) penetration property as assessed with anin vitroblood brain barrier (BBB) reconstruction system. Analysis of the crystal structure of HIV-1 protease in complex with GRL-10413 demonstrated that the modified P1 moiety of GRL-10413 has a greater hydrophobic surface area and makes greater van der Waals contacts with active-site amino acids of protease than in the case of darunavir. Moreover, the chlorine substituent in the P1 moiety interacts with protease in two distinct configurations. The present data demonstrate that GRL-10413 has desirable features for treating patients infected with wild-type and/or multi-drug-resistant HIV-1 variants with favorable CNS-penetration capability and that the newly modified P1-moiety may confer desirable features in designing novel anti-HIV-1 PIs.

  10. Type Ibn Supernovae Show Photometric Homogeneity and Spectral Diversity at Maximum Light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosseinzadeh, Griffin; Arcavi, Iair; McCully, Curtis; Howell, D. Andrew [Las Cumbres Observatory, 6740 Cortona Dr Ste 102, Goleta, CA 93117-5575 (United States); Valenti, Stefano [Department of Physics, University of California, 1 Shields Ave, Davis, CA 95616-5270 (United States); Johansson, Joel [Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, Weizmann Institute of Science, 76100 Rehovot (Israel); Sollerman, Jesper; Fremling, Christoffer; Karamehmetoglu, Emir [Oskar Klein Centre, Department of Astronomy, Stockholm University, Albanova University Centre, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Pastorello, Andrea; Benetti, Stefano; Elias-Rosa, Nancy [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Cao, Yi; Duggan, Gina; Horesh, Assaf [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Mail Code 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Cenko, S. Bradley [Astrophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Mail Code 661, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Clubb, Kelsey I.; Filippenko, Alexei V. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Corsi, Alessandra [Department of Physics, Texas Tech University, Box 41051, Lubbock, TX 79409-1051 (United States); Fox, Ori D., E-mail: griffin@lco.global [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Dr, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); and others

    2017-02-20

    Type Ibn supernovae (SNe) are a small yet intriguing class of explosions whose spectra are characterized by low-velocity helium emission lines with little to no evidence for hydrogen. The prevailing theory has been that these are the core-collapse explosions of very massive stars embedded in helium-rich circumstellar material (CSM). We report optical observations of six new SNe Ibn: PTF11rfh, PTF12ldy, iPTF14aki, iPTF15ul, SN 2015G, and iPTF15akq. This brings the sample size of such objects in the literature to 22. We also report new data, including a near-infrared spectrum, on the Type Ibn SN 2015U. In order to characterize the class as a whole, we analyze the photometric and spectroscopic properties of the full Type Ibn sample. We find that, despite the expectation that CSM interaction would generate a heterogeneous set of light curves, as seen in SNe IIn, most Type Ibn light curves are quite similar in shape, declining at rates around 0.1 mag day{sup −1} during the first month after maximum light, with a few significant exceptions. Early spectra of SNe Ibn come in at least two varieties, one that shows narrow P Cygni lines and another dominated by broader emission lines, both around maximum light, which may be an indication of differences in the state of the progenitor system at the time of explosion. Alternatively, the spectral diversity could arise from viewing-angle effects or merely from a lack of early spectroscopic coverage. Together, the relative light curve homogeneity and narrow spectral features suggest that the CSM consists of a spatially confined shell of helium surrounded by a less dense extended wind.

  11. Modeling Type II-P/II-L Supernovae Interacting with Recent Episodic Mass Ejections from Their Presupernova Stars with MESA and SNEC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sanskriti; Ray, Alak

    2017-12-01

    We show how dense, compact, discrete shells of circumstellar gas immediately outside of red supergiants affect the optical light curves of Type II-P/II-L supernovae (SNe), using the example of SN 2013ej. Earlier efforts in the literature had used an artificial circumstellar medium (CSM) stitched to the surface of an evolved star that had not gone through a phase of late-stage heavy mass loss, which, in essence, is the original source of the CSM. In contrast, we allow enhanced mass-loss rate from the modeled star during the 16O and 28Si burning stages and construct the CSM from the resulting mass-loss history in a self-consistent way. Once such evolved pre-SN stars are exploded, we find that the models with early interaction between the shock and the dense CSM reproduce light curves far better than those without that mass loss and, hence, having no nearby dense CSM. The required explosion energy for the progenitors with a dense CSM is reduced by almost a factor of two compared to those without the CSM. Our model, with a more realistic CSM profile and presupernova and explosion parameters, fits observed data much better throughout the rise, plateau, and radioactive tail phases as compared to previous studies. This points to an intermediate class of supernovae between Type II-P/II-L and Type II-n SNe with the characteristics of simultaneous UV and optical peak, slow decline after peak, and a longer plateau.

  12. The multifaceted Type II-L supernova 2014G from pre-maximum to nebular phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terreran, G.; Jerkstrand, A.; Benetti, S.; Smartt, S. J.; Ochner, P.; Tomasella, L.; Howell, D. A.; Morales-Garoffolo, A.; Harutyunyan, A.; Kankare, E.; Arcavi, I.; Cappellaro, E.; Elias-Rosa, N.; Hosseinzadeh, G.; Kangas, T.; Pastorello, A.; Tartaglia, L.; Turatto, M.; Valenti, S.; Wiggins, P.; Yuan, F.

    2016-10-01

    We present multiband ultraviolet, optical, and near-infrared photometry, along with visual-wavelength spectroscopy, of supernova (SN) 2014G in the nearby galaxy NGC 3448 (25 Mpc). The early-phase spectra show strong emission lines of the high ionization species He II/N IV/C IV during the first 2-3 d after explosion, traces of a metal-rich circumstellar material (CSM) probably due to pre-explosion mass-loss events. These disappear by day 9 and the spectral evolution then continues matching that of normal Type II SNe. The post-maximum light curve declines at a rate typical of Type II-L class. The extensive photometric coverage tracks the drop from the photospheric stage and constrains the radioactive tail, with a steeper decline rate than that expected from the 56Co decay if γ-rays are fully trapped by the ejecta. We report the appearance of an unusual feature on the blue side of H α after 100 d, which evolves to appear as a flat spectral feature linking H α and the [O I] doublet. This may be due to interaction of the ejecta with a strongly asymmetric, and possibly bipolar CSM. Finally, we report two deep spectra at ˜190 and 340 d after explosion, the latter being arguably one of the latest spectra for a Type II-L SN. By modelling the spectral region around the [Ca II], we find a supersolar Ni/Fe production. The strength of the [O I] λλ6300,6363 doublet, compared with synthetic nebular spectra, suggests a progenitor with a zero-age main-sequence mass between 15 and 19 M⊙.

  13. Type inference for correspondence types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüttel, Hans; Gordon, Andy; Hansen, Rene Rydhof

    2009-01-01

    We present a correspondence type/effect system for authenticity in a π-calculus with polarized channels, dependent pair types and effect terms and show how one may, given a process P and an a priori type environment E, generate constraints that are formulae in the Alternating Least Fixed......-Point (ALFP) logic. We then show how a reasonable model of the generated constraints yields a type/effect assignment such that P becomes well-typed with respect to E if and only if this is possible. The formulae generated satisfy a finite model property; a system of constraints is satisfiable if and only...... if it has a finite model. As a consequence, we obtain the result that type/effect inference in our system is polynomial-time decidable....

  14. Blood Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... maternity. Learn About Blood Blood Facts and Statistics Blood Components Whole Blood and Red Blood Cells Platelets Plasma ... About Blood Blood Facts and Statistics Blood Types Blood Components What Happens to Donated Blood Blood and Diversity ...

  15. A radially accessible tubular <i>in situ X-ray cell for spatially resolved operando scattering and spectroscopic studies of electrochemical energy storage devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hao; Allan, Phoebe K.; Borkiewicz, Olaf J.; Kurtz, Charles; Grey, Clare P.; Chapman, Karena W.; Chupas, Peter J.

    2016-09-16

    A tubularoperandoelectrochemical cell has been developed to allow spatially resolved X-ray scattering and spectroscopic measurements of individual cell components, or regions thereof, during device operation. These measurements are enabled by the tubular cell geometry, wherein the X-ray-transparent tube walls allow radial access for the incident and scattered/transmitted X-ray beam; by probing different depths within the electrode stack, the transformation of different components or regions can be resolved. The cell is compatible with a variety of synchrotron-based scattering, absorption and imaging methodologies. The reliability of the electrochemical cell and the quality of the resulting X-ray scattering and spectroscopic data are demonstrated for two types of energy storage: the evolution of the distribution of the state of charge of an Li-ion battery electrode during cycling is documented using X-ray powder diffraction, and the redistribution of ions between two porous carbon electrodes in an electrochemical double-layer capacitor is documented using X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy.

  16. Comparison of the sensitivity and specificity of real-time PCR and <i>in situ hybridization in HPV16 and 18 detection in archival cervical cancer specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Biesaga

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the correlation between real-time PCR (RT-PCR treated as a reference method and in situ hybridization with tyramide amplification system (ISH-TSA in the detection of HPV16 and 18 infection and the assessment of viral genome status. The study was performed on cervical cancer biopsies fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin and embedded in paraffin obtained from 85 women. TaqMan-based 5’exonuclease RT-PCR with type-specific primers was used to assess HPV16 and 18 infections and genome status. Viral infection and genome status was also assessed by ISH-TSA. RT-PCR revealed 76 (89.4%, and ISH-TSA 81 (95.3% cancers with HPV16 and 18 infections. The ISH-TSA sensitivity and specificity were: 96.1% and 11.1% compared to RT-PCR. The difference between these techniques in HPV detection was significant (p = 0.000. Among 76 HPV16/18 positive cancers in RT-PCR, there were 30 (39.5% with integrated and 46 (60.5% with mixed viral genome form. According to ISH-TSA, there were 39 (51.3% samples with integrated and 37 with mixed form (48.7%. The sensitivity and specificity of ISH-TSA in genome status assessment were 70.0% and 60.9%, respectively. The difference between RT-PCR and ISH-TSA in genome state detection was not statistically significant (p = 0.391. These results suggest that ISH-TSA shows insufficient specificity in HPV detection for use in clinical practice. However, this assay could be applied for viral genome status assessment.

  17. Type Tricks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Sofie

    2017-01-01

    Type Tricks’ is about typographical rules and the underlying structure of the work process in the design of new typefaces. In that way, it is both a reference book and a user manual. In an illustrative format, it presents the different stages of type design in an easily accessible manner. Being...... their time at school. It’s the perfect reference book. The book contains a number of essential tricks that designers need to know and understand. The typographic guidelines are difficult to remember, but with this book you don’t have to remember every single one of them....

  18. Klebsiella Typing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, D S; Skov, R; Benedí, J.V.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) typing and O:K-serotyping of Klebsiella in two different epidemiological settings. METHODS: One hundred and four bacteremia isolates without known epidemiological relation and 47 isolates from an outbreak in a neonatal intensive care...

  19. "Hottest Brand, Coolest Pedagogy": Approaches to Corporate Branding in Singapore's Higher Education Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Carl Jon Way

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the corporate branding efforts of Singapore's publicly funded higher education institutions within a context of neoliberal marketization. Adopting a discourse-analytic perspective, it examines the kind of branding approaches employed by Singapore's universities and polytechnics, and how these approaches are realized…

  20. FUSE Observations of LMC and SMC 03-4 Stars: Physical Parameters of the Hottest Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudrtizki, Rolf-Peter

    2004-01-01

    The goal of the project is to analyze the spectra of the most massive stars in our neighbor Galaxies, to determine the physical parameters of temperature, mass, gravity, and Luminosity, together with the stellar wind properties. For this purpose, FUSE spectra, HST spectra (uv and optical) and high quality optical spectra obtained with ground-based telescopes need to be analyzed wing modern NLTE model atmosphere techniques. The combination of the use of spectra from different wavelength regions is a fundamental aspect of the project. Each spectral domain adds complementary important to the process of the spectral analysis. In this way the comparison of stellar properties between galaxies of different metallicity will become more significant.

  1. Using the Hottest Particles in the Universe to Probe Icy Solar System Worlds Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed instrument, which uses experimental techniques adapted from high energy physics, is a passive receiver of a naturally occurring signal generated by...

  2. Discussion of the “Hottest Year on Record” in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parker Albert

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The global temperature trends provided by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology are artificially exaggerated due to subjective and unidirectional adjustments of recorded values. The present paper aims to promote the use of the raw stations’ data corrected only for urban heat island formation. The longer temperature records of Australia exhibit significant oscillations with a strong quasi-60 years’ signature of downward phases 1880 to 1910, 1940 to 1970 and 2000 to present, and upwards phases 1910 to 1940 and 1970 to 2000. A longer oscillation with downward phase until 1910 and an upwards phase afterwards is also detected. The warming since 1910 occurred at a nearly constant rate. Over the full length of the long Australian records since the end of the 1800s, there is no sign of warming or increased occurrence of extreme events. The monthly highest and mean maximum temperatures do not exhibit any positive trend. The differences between monthly highest and lowest, or monthly mean maximum and mean minimum temperatures, are all reducing because of urban heat island formation.

  3. The hottest lavas of the Phanerozoic and the survival of deep Archaean reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trela, Jarek; Gazel, Esteban; Sobolev, Alexander V.; Moore, Lowell; Bizimis, Michael; Jicha, Brian; Batanova, Valentina G.

    2017-06-01

    Large igneous provinces and some hotspot volcanoes are thought to form above thermochemical anomalies known as mantle plumes. Petrologic investigations that support this model suggest that plume-derived melts originated at high mantle temperatures (greater than 1,500 °C) relative to those generated at ambient mid-ocean ridge conditions (about 1,350 °C). Earth's mantle has also cooled appreciably during its history and the temperatures of modern mantle derived melts are substantially lower than those produced during the Archaean (2.5 to 4.0 billion years ago), as recorded by komatiites (greater than 1,700 °C). Here we use geochemical analyses of the Tortugal lava suite to show that these Galapagos-Plume-related lavas, which formed 89 million years ago, record mantle temperatures as high as Archaean komatiites and about 400 °C hotter than the modern ambient mantle. These results are also supported by highly magnesian olivine phenocrysts and Al-in-olivine crystallization temperatures of 1,570 +/- 20 °C. As mantle plumes are chemically and thermally heterogeneous, we interpret these rocks as the result of melting the hot core of the plume head that produced the Caribbean large igneous province. Our results imply that a mantle reservoir as hot as those responsible for some Archaean lavas has survived eons of convection in the deep Earth and is still being tapped by mantle plumes.

  4. X-ray emission from SN 2012ca: A Type Ia-CSM supernova explosion in a dense surrounding medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochenek, Christopher D.; Dwarkadas, Vikram V.; Silverman, Jeffrey M.; Fox, Ori D.; Chevalier, Roger A.; Smith, Nathan; Filippenko, Alexei V.

    2018-01-01

    X-ray emission is one of the signposts of circumstellar interaction in supernovae (SNe), but until now, it has been observed only in core-collapse SNe. The level of thermal X-ray emission is a direct measure of the density of the circumstellar medium (CSM), and the absence of X-ray emission from Type Ia SNe has been interpreted as a sign of a very low density CSM. In this paper, we report late-time (500-800 d after discovery) X-ray detections of SN 2012ca in Chandra data. The presence of hydrogen in the initial spectrum led to a classification of Type Ia-CSM, ostensibly making it the first SN Ia detected with X-rays. Our analysis of the X-ray data favours an asymmetric medium, with a high-density component which supplies the X-ray emission. The data suggest a number density >108 cm-3 in the higher density medium, which is consistent with the large observed Balmer decrement if it arises from collisional excitation. This is high compared to most core-collapse SNe, but it may be consistent with densities suggested for some Type IIn or superluminous SNe. If SN 2012ca is a thermonuclear SN, the large CSM density could imply clumps in the wind, or a dense torus or disc, consistent with the single-degenerate channel. A remote possibility for a core-degenerate channel involves a white dwarf merging with the degenerate core of an asymptotic giant branch star shortly before the explosion, leading to a common envelope around the SN.

  5. <i>In vitro production of bovine embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroebech, L.; Mazzoni, Gianluca; Pedersen, Hanne Skovsgaard

    2015-01-01

    be improved, and aspects related to the oocyte donor, oocyte maturation and the recipients are addressed in the following. Also, some of the future aspects of genomic selection and systems biology are addressed with particular focus on the Brazilian-Danish collaboration in the so-called GIFT-project.......In vitro production (IVP) of bovine embryos has become a widespread technology implemented in cattle breeding and production. The implementation of genomic selection and systems biology adds great dimensions to the impact of bovine IVP. The physical procedures included in the IVP process can still...

  6. IIn vitro antifungal evaluation of various plant extracts against early ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antifungal activities of 27 plant extracts were tested against Alternaria solani (E. & M.) Jones and Grout using radial growth technique. While all tested plant extracts produced some antifungal activities, the results revealed that Circium arvense, Humulus lupulus, Lauris nobilis and Salvia officinalis showed significant ...

  7. Types of hormone therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your doctor for regular checkups when taking HT. Alternative Names HRT- types; Estrogen replacement therapy - types; ERT- types of hormone therapy; Hormone replacement therapy - types; Menopause - types of hormone therapy; HT - types; Menopausal hormone ...

  8. SN 185 and its Remnant RCW 86: A Type Ia Explosion within a Bubble?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkowski, Kazimierz; Blair, William; Ghavamian, Parviz; Long, Knox; Raymond, John; Reynolds, Stephen; Rho, Jeonghee; Williams, Brian; Winkler, P. Frank

    2008-03-01

    The bright guest star of AD185 is the earliest recorded historical supernova (SN), but its remnant has only recently been firmly identified with RCW 86 with help of X-rays and very high energy (VHE) Gamma-rays. RCW 86 is unlike any other historical SN, implicating a Type Ia explosion within a wind-blown bubble. X-ray synchrotron emission and VHE Gamma-rays are produced by relativistic particles accelerated in fast (several thousand km/s) shocks that are present in RCW 86, while slower radiative and nonradiative shocks are driven into the dusty shell swept up by the SN progenitor. We propose Spitzer observations of RCW 86, that will allow us to determine dust properties and physical conditions within both slow and fast shocks. We will determine shock densities in the whole remnant using MIPS imaging at 24 and 70 microns. This will allow us to finally determine whether VHE emission arises from relativistic electrons or from cosmic ray protons accelerated by the SN shock. We will also determine how acceleration of synchrotron-emitting electrons to TeV energies depends on the shock density. We propose IRS spectral mapping in two very different regions of the remnant to perform a more detailed and sensitive study of dust emission and dust destruction under differing plasma conditions, and of line emission produced by radiative shocks. This will also verify the results of the imaging observations, and will allow for quantitative comparison with models for dust emission and destruction in SN shocks. We request imaging with IRAC in the brightest region of the remnant to map emission from the hottest, transiently heated small grains, and to determine their destruction rates. Physical properties and dust content within the shell swept up by the RCW 86 progenitor will help us to constrain the pre-SN evolution of a Type Ia progenitor, a significant step toward understanding of progenitors of thermonuclear explosions.

  9. Typed Operational Semantics for Dependent Record Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangyue Feng

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Typed operational semantics is a method developed by H. Goguen to prove meta-theoretic properties of type systems. This paper studies the metatheory of a type system with dependent record types, using the approach of typed operational semantics. In particular, the metatheoretical properties we have proved include strong normalisation, Church-Rosser and subject reduction.

  10. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... In Honor Become a Member En Español Type 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community Meal Planning ... Basics Home Symptoms Diagnosis America's Diabetes Challenge Type 1 Type 2 Facts About Type 2 Enroll in ...

  11. Plant Functional Types for Land Surface Modelling in South Ecuador - Spatial Delineation, Sensitivity and Parameter Determination

    OpenAIRE

    Göttlicher, Dietrich

    2011-01-01

    Global biodiversity is threatened by climate and land cover change. The research unit "Biodiversity and Sustainable Management of a Megadiverse Mountain Ecosystem in South Ecuador" (FOR 816) funded by the German research council (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, DFG) is working in one of the hottest hotspots of biodiversity of the world. In this region the pressure from the local population on the environment is severe resulting ...

  12. Refining types using type guards in TypeScript

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wolff, Ivo Gabe; Hage, J.

    2017-01-01

    We discuss two adaptations of the implementation of type guards and narrowing in the TypeScript compiler. The first is an improvement on the original syntax-directed implementation, and has now replaced the original one in the TypeScript compiler. It is specifically suited for the scenario in which

  13. Guarded dependent type theory with coinductive types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bizjak, Aleš; Grathwohl, Hans Bugge; Clouston, Ranald

    2015-01-01

    We present guarded dependent type theory, gDTT, an extensional dependent type theory with a later' modality and clock quantifiers for programming and proving with guarded recursive and coinductive types. The later modality is used to ensure the productivity of recursive definitions in a modular...... functor rules for the later modality considered in earlier work, and are crucial for programming and proving with dependent types. We show soundness of the type theory with respect to a denotational model....

  14. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Facts About Type 2 Type 2 diabetes is the ... 2, In this section Diabetes Basics Type 2 Facts About Type 2 Recently Diagnosed Treatment and Care ...

  15. Refinement Types for TypeScript

    OpenAIRE

    Vekris, Panagiotis; Cosman, Benjamin; Jhala, Ranjit

    2016-01-01

    We present Refined TypeScript (RSC), a lightweight refinement type system for TypeScript, that enables static verification of higher-order, imperative programs. We develop a formal core of RSC that delineates the interaction between refinement types and mutability. Next, we extend the core to account for the imperative and dynamic features of TypeScript. Finally, we evaluate RSC on a set of real world benchmarks, including parts of the Octane benchmarks, D3, Transducers, and the TypeScript co...

  16. Facts about Type 2

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    Full Text Available ... Alert Day Diabetes Basics Home Symptoms Diagnosis America's Diabetes Challenge Type 1 Type 2 Facts About Type 2 Enroll in ... Where Do I Begin With Type2? Living With Type 1 Diabetes Enroll in the Living WIth Type 2 Diabetes ...

  17. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Where Do I Begin With Type2? Living With Type 1 Diabetes Enroll in the Living WIth Type 2 Diabetes ... Low-Calorie Sweeteners Sugar and Desserts Fitness Exercise & Type 1 Diabetes Get Started Safely Get And Stay Fit Types ...

  18. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Patient Education Materials — Taking Care of Type 2 Diabetes This two-page introduction to type 2 diabetes is in ... Forecast® magazine: lp-type-2, In this section Diabetes Basics Type 2 Facts About Type 2 Recently Diagnosed Treatment and ...

  19. Type Inference with Inequalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff

    1991-01-01

    Type inference can be phrased as constraint-solving over types. We consider an implicitly typed language equipped with recursive types, multiple inheritance, 1st order parametric polymorphism, and assignments. Type correctness is expressed as satisfiability of a possibly infinite collection...

  20. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a Member Donate Now! One Time Monthly In Memory In Honor Become a Member En Español Type 1 Type ... Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower ...

  1. Types of Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... basics Types of physical activity Types of physical activity Not sure what kinds of physical activity you should do? Well, you need three main types of activity . They are aerobic (sometimes called "cardio"), muscle-strengthening , ...

  2. Guarded Cubical Type Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkedal, Lars; Bizjak, Aleš; Clouston, Ranald

    2016-01-01

    terms. CTT provides a computational interpretation of functional extensionality, enjoys canonicity for the natural numbers type, and is conjectured to support decidable type-checking. Our new type theory, guarded cubical type theory (GCTT), provides a computational interpretation of extensionality......This paper improves the treatment of equality in guarded dependent type theory (GDTT), by combining it with cubical type theory (CTT). GDTT is an extensional type theory with guarded recursive types, which are useful for building models of program logics, and for programming and reasoning...... with coinductive types. We wish to implement GDTT with decidable type checking, while still supporting non-trivial equality proofs that reason about the extensions of guarded recursive constructions. CTT is a variation of Martin-L\\"of type theory in which the identity type is replaced by abstract paths between...

  3. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ways to Give Close Are You at Risk? Home Prevention Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type ... To Know Your Risk Alert Day Diabetes Basics Home Symptoms Diagnosis America's Diabetes Challenge Type 1 Type ...

  4. Facts about Type 2

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    Full Text Available ... Type 2 About Us Online Community Meal Planning Sign In Search: Search More Sites Search ≡ Are You ... Your Risk Alert Day Diabetes Basics Home Symptoms Diagnosis America's Diabetes Challenge Type 1 Type 2 Facts ...

  5. Types of Blood Donations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cell Plasma Platelets Red Cells What blood donation type is best for me? **If you do not ... a whole blood donation is recommended** Blood Donation Types: Volunteer Donations The standard or most common type ...

  6. Types of Breast Pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health and Consumer Devices Consumer Products Breast Pumps Types of Breast Pumps Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... a nipple and used for feeding a baby. Types of Breast Pumps There are three basic types ...

  7. Type 1 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insulin-dependent diabetes; Juvenile onset diabetes; Diabetes - type 1; High blood sugar - type 1 diabetes ... Type 1 diabetes can occur at any age. It is most often diagnosed in children, adolescents, or young adults. Insulin is ...

  8. Types of Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Dental Problems Diabetes & Sexual & Urologic Problems What is Diabetes? Diabetes is a disease that occurs when your ... is serious. What are the different types of diabetes? The most common types of diabetes are type ...

  9. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Forecast® magazine: lp-type-2, In this section Diabetes Basics Type 2 Facts About Type 2 Recently Diagnosed Treatment and Care Blood Glucose Control Complications Medication Doctors, ...

  10. Facts about Type 2

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    Full Text Available ... a Member Donate Now! One Time Monthly In Memory In Honor Become a Member En Español Type 1 Type ... Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High ...

  11. Facts about Type 2

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    Full Text Available ... En Español Type 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community Meal Planning Sign In Search: Search More ... Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower ...

  12. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Nutrient Content Claims Understanding Carbohydrates Types of Carbohydrates Carbohydrate Counting Make Your Carbs Count Glycemic Index Low-Calorie Sweeteners Sugar and Desserts Fitness Exercise & Type 1 Diabetes Get Started Safely Get And Stay Fit Types ...

  13. Concrete Types for TypeScript

    OpenAIRE

    Richards, Gregor; Zappa Nardelli, Francesco; Vitek, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Typescript extends JavaScript with optional type annotations that are, by design, unsound and, that the Typescript compiler discards as it emits code. This design point preserves programming idioms developers are familiar with, and allows them to leave their legacy code unchanged, while offering a measure of static error checking in parts of the program that have type annotations. We present an alternative design for TypeScript, one where it is possible to support the same degree of dynamism,...

  14. Types and Automata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff; Meineche Smidt, Erik

    A hierarchical type system for imperative programming languages gives rise to various computational problems, such as type equivalence, type ordering, etc. We present a particular class of finite automata which are shown to be isomorphic to type equations. All the relevant type concepts turn out...... to have well-known automata analogues, such as language equality, language inclusion, etc. This provides optimal or best known algorithms for the type system, by a process of translating type equations to automata, solving the analogous problem, and translating the result back to type equations. Apart...... from suggesting an implementation, this connection lends a certain naturality to our type system. We also introduce a very general form of extended (recursive) type equations which are explained in terms of (monotone) alternating automata. Since types are simply equationally defined trees...

  15. Guarded Cubical Type Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkedal, Lars; Bizjak, Aleš; Clouston, Ranald

    2016-01-01

    types. This further expands the foundations of CTT as a basis for formalisation in mathematics and computer science. We present examples to demonstrate the expressivity of our type theory, all of which have been checked using a prototype type-checker implementation, and present semantics in a presheaf......This paper improves the treatment of equality in guarded dependent type theory (GDTT), by combining it with cubical type theory (CTT). GDTT is an extensional type theory with guarded recursive types, which are useful for building models of program logics, and for programming and reasoning...... with coinductive types. We wish to implement GDTT with decidable type-checking, while still supporting non-trivial equality proofs that reason about the extensions of guarded recursive constructions. CTT is a variation of Martin-L\\"of type theory in which the identity type is replaced by abstract paths between...

  16. Type I Versus Type II Endometrial Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noer, Mette Calundann; Antonsen, Sofie Leisby; Ottesen, Bent

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Two distinct types of endometrial carcinoma (EC) with different etiology, tumor characteristics, and prognosis are recognized. We investigated if the prognostic impact of comorbidity varies between these 2 types of EC. Furthermore, we studied if the recently developed ovarian cancer...

  17. Lightening Global Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-chun Chen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Global session types prevent participants from waiting for never coming messages. Some interactions take place just for the purpose of informing receivers that some message will never arrive or the session is terminated. By decomposing a big global type into several light global types, one can avoid such kind of redundant interactions. Lightening global types gives us cleaner global types, which keep all necessary communications. This work proposes a framework which allows to easily decompose global types into light global types, preserving the interaction sequences of the original ones but for redundant interactions.

  18. Type checking with open type functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrijvers, Tom; Jones, Simon Peyton; Chakravarty, Manual

    2008-01-01

    We report on an extension of Haskell with open type-level functions and equality constraints that unifies earlier work on GADTs, functional dependencies, and associated types. The contribution of the paper is that we identify and characterise the key technical challenge of entailment checking......; and we give a novel, decidable, sound, and complete algorithm to solve it, together with some practically-important variants. Our system is implemented in GHC, and is already in active use....

  19. Type Systems for Bigraphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsborg, Ebbe; Hildebrandt, Thomas; Sangiorgi, Davide

    We propose a novel and uniform approach to type systems for (process) calculi, which roughly pushes the challenge of designing type systems and proving properties about them to the meta-model of bigraphs. Concretely, we propose to define type systems for the term language for bigraphs, which...... of controls and a set of reaction rules, collectively a bigraphical reactive system (BRS). Possible advantages of developing bigraphical type systems include: a deeper understanding of a type system itself and its properties; transfer of the type systems to the concrete family of calculi that the BRS models......; and the possibility of modularly adapting the type systems to extensions of the BRS (with new controls). As proof of concept we present a model of a pi-calculus, develop an i/o-type system with subtyping on this model, prove crucial properties (including subject reduction) for this type system, and transfer...

  20. Multiparty Asynchronous Session Types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Honda, Kohei; Yoshida, Nobuko; Carbone, Marco

    2016-01-01

    . This work extends the foregoing theories of binary session types to multiparty, asynchronous sessions, which often arise in practical communication-centered applications. Presented as a typed calculus for mobile processes, the theory introduces a new notion of types in which interactions involving multiple......Communication is a central elements in software development. As a potential typed foundation for structured communication-centered programming, session types have been studied over the past decade for a wide range of process calculi and programming languages, focusing on binary (two-party) sessions...... peers are directly abstracted as a global scenario. Global types retain the friendly type syntax of binary session types while specifying dependencies and capturing complex causal chains of multiparty asynchronous interactions. A global type plays the role of a shared agreement among communication peers...

  1. The Smallest Drops of the Hottest Matter? New Investigations at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (493rd Brookhaven Lecture)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sickles, Anne [BNL Physics Department

    2014-03-19

    Pool sharks at the billiards hall know that sometimes you aim to rocket the cue ball for a head-on collision, and other times, a mere glance will do. Physicists need to know more than a thing or two about collision geometry too, as they sift through data from the billions of ions that smash together at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). Determining whether ions crash head-on or just glance is crucial for the physicists analyzing data to study quark-gluon plasma—the ultra-hot, "perfect" liquid of quarks and gluons that existed more than 13 billion years ago, before the first protons and neutrons formed. For these physicists, collision geometry data provides insights about quark-gluon plasma's extremely low viscosity and other unusual properties, which are essential for understanding more about the "strong force" that holds together the nucleus, protons, and neutrons of every atom in the universe. Dr. Sickles explains how physicists use data collected at house-sized detectors like PHENIX and STAR to determine what happens before, during, and after individual particle collisions among billions at RHIC. She also explains how the ability to collide different "species" of nuclei at RHIC—including protons and gold ions today and possibly more with a proposed future electron-ion collider upgrade (eRHIC)—enables physicists to probe deeper into the mysteries of quark-gluon plasma and the strong force.

  2. FUSE observations of PG1342+444: new insights into the nature of the hottest DA white dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barstow, M. A.; Good, S. A.; Holberg, J. B.; Burleigh, M. R.; Bannister, N. P.; Hubeny, I.; Napiwotzki, R.

    2002-02-01

    We present Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) observations of the very hot (Teff~60000K) DA white dwarf PG1342+444, describing our data reduction and analysis techniques. The spectrum reveals a number of photospheric absorption lines from high ionization species along with numerous interstellar features. The photospheric detections include the 1031.9- and 1037.0-Å OVI lines which are seen for the first time in a hot DA atmosphere and are usually associated with the much hotter PG1159 stars and so-called OVI central stars of planetary nebulae. Estimates of the stellar effective temperature made independently using both the Balmer and Lyman series lines are in disagreement (Teff~67000 and ~54000K respectively), when taking into account just the statistical uncertainties in the analyses. However, the presence of weak absorption from the CIII multiplet near 1176Å, which is predicted to be much stronger if the star were as cool as the Lyman measurement suggests, leads us to favour the higher temperature. PG1342+444 appears to have enhanced C, Fe and Ni abundances in its atmosphere compared with all the other G191-B2B-like DA white dwarfs, which might affect the temperature structure of the atmosphere if not homogeneously distributed, as assumed in this study.

  3. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Index Low-Calorie Sweeteners Sugar and Desserts Fitness Exercise & Type 1 Diabetes Get Started Safely Get And Stay Fit Types of Activity Weight Loss Assess Your Lifestyle Getting Started Food Choices In ...

  4. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Student Resources History of Diabetes Resources for School Projects How to Reference Our Site Diabetes Basics Myths ... to later on. Some groups have a higher risk for developing type 2 diabetes than others. Type ...

  5. Types of Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A A Share Plus on Google Plus Alzheimer's & Dementia alz.org | IHaveAlz Overview What Is Dementia Types ... local chapter Join our online community Types of Dementia Dementia is a general term for loss of ...

  6. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Nutrient Content Claims Understanding Carbohydrates Types of Carbohydrates Carbohydrate Counting Make Your Carbs Count Glycemic Index Low-Calorie Sweeteners Sugar and Desserts Fitness Exercise & Type 1 Diabetes Get Started Safely Get And ...

  7. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Professional Books Patient Access to Research Student Resources History of Diabetes Resources for School Projects How to Reference ... Basics Symptoms Type 1 Type 2 Gestational Myths Statistics Common ... of Events Local Offices Volunteer Opportunities Signature Events Camps ...

  8. Facts about Type 2

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    Full Text Available ... Living with Diabetes Home Recently Diagnosed Where Do I Begin With Type2? Living With Type 1 Diabetes ... Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal Planning What Can I Eat? Making Healthy Food Choices Diabetes Superfoods Non- ...

  9. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Enroll in the Living WIth Type 2 Diabetes Program Gestational What is Gestational Diabetes? How to Treat ... Enroll in the Living WIth Type 2 Diabetes Program In It Together We Can Help Center for ...

  10. Facts about Type 2

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    Full Text Available ... Your Risk Risk Test Alert Day Prediabetes My Health Advisor Tools to Know Your Risk Diabetes Basics Symptoms Type 1 Type 2 Gestational Myths Statistics Common Terms Genetics Living With Diabetes ...

  11. Types of Ulcerative Colitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Colitis? > Types of Ulcerative Colitis Types of Ulcerative Colitis Email Print + Share If you are diagnosed with ... abdomen may occur in active disease. Left-sided Colitis Continuous inflammation that begins at the rectum and ...

  12. Facts about Type 2

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    Full Text Available ... Medicaid & CHIP For Parents & Kids Safe at School Everyday Life Children and Type 2 Diabetes Know Your ... Index Low-Calorie Sweeteners Sugar and Desserts Fitness Exercise & Type 1 Diabetes Get Started Safely Get And ...

  13. Types of Anesthesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Your Parents - or Other Adults Types of Anesthesia KidsHealth > For Teens > Types of Anesthesia Print A ... I Get? en español Tipos de anestesia About Anesthesia Anesthesia is broken down into three main categories: ...

  14. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Know Your Risk Alert Day Diabetes Basics Home Symptoms Diagnosis America's Diabetes Challenge Type 1 Type 2 Facts ... Online Community Site Menu Are You at Risk? Diagnosis Lower Your Risk Risk Test Alert Day Prediabetes ...

  15. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Americans/Pacific Islanders, as well as the aged population. Patient Education Materials — Taking Care of Type 2 ... 1 Type 2 Gestational Myths Statistics Common Terms Genetics Living With Diabetes Recently Diagnosed Treatment & Care Complications ...

  16. Preventing Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Problems Diabetes & Sexual & Urologic Problems Preventing Type 2 Diabetes Perhaps you have learned that you have a ... I lower my chances of developing type 2 diabetes? Research such as the Diabetes Prevention Program shows ...

  17. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Fit Types of Activity Weight Loss Assess Your Lifestyle Getting Started Food Choices In My Community Home ... glucose levels normal. Type 2 is treated with lifestyle changes, oral medications (pills), and insulin. When glucose ...

  18. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... People Working to Stop Diabetes Common Terms Diabetes Statistics Infographics Living with Diabetes Home Recently Diagnosed Where ... Basics Symptoms Type 1 Type 2 Gestational Myths Statistics Common Terms Genetics Living With Diabetes Recently Diagnosed ...

  19. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to Know Your Risk Diabetes Basics Symptoms Type 1 Type 2 Gestational Myths Statistics Common Terms Genetics Living With Diabetes Recently Diagnosed Treatment & Care Complications Health Insurance For Parents & Kids Know ...

  20. Type 1 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... develop in adults. Despite active research, type 1 diabetes has no cure. Treatment focuses on managing blood sugar levels with insulin, diet and lifestyle to prevent complications. Symptoms Type 1 diabetes signs and symptoms can appear relatively suddenly and ...

  1. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... diagnosed. Diabetes causes more deaths a year than breast cancer and AIDS combined. Your gift today will help ... Basics Symptoms Type 1 Type 2 Gestational Myths Statistics Common Terms Genetics Living With Diabetes Recently Diagnosed ...

  2. Type 2 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... diabetes; Oral hypoglycemic - type 2 diabetes; High blood sugar - type 2 diabetes ... mmol/L) 2 hours after drinking a special sugar drink. Diabetes screening is recommended for: Overweight children who have ...

  3. Different Types of Lupus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Twitter Facebook Pinterest Email Print Different types of lupus Lupus Foundation of America September 18, 2017 Resource ... lupus. Learn more about each type below. Systemic lupus erythematosus Systemic lupus is the most common form ...

  4. Types of Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stem Cell Glossary Search Toggle Nav Types of Stem Cells Stem cells are the foundation from which all ... Learn About Stem Cells > Types of Stem Cells Stem cells Stem cells are the foundation for every organ ...

  5. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Español Type 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community Meal Planning Sign In Search: Search More Sites ... Basics Living with Diabetes Food & Fitness In My Community Advocacy Research & Practice Ways to Give Close Are ...

  6. Unlocking Personality Type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tieger, Paul D.

    2002-01-01

    This article examines some of the intricacies of personality types and their effect on career choices. Proposes that knowing students' Myers-Briggs personality types can help school counselors guide them down the right career path. (GCP)

  7. Dynamically typed languages

    OpenAIRE

    Tratt, Laurence

    2009-01-01

    Dynamically typed languages such as Python and Ruby have experienced a rapid grown in popularity in recent times. However, there is much confusion as to what makes these languages interesting relative to statically typed languages, and little knowledge of their rich history. In this chapter I explore the general topic of dynamically typed languages, how they differ from statically typed languages, their history, and their defining features.

  8. Diabetes, Type 1

    OpenAIRE

    Riazi, Afsane; Bradley, Clare

    2000-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of the role of psychological stress in Type 1 diabetes. Studies relating to stress and Type 1 diabetes onset and control, as well as the evidence relating to stress management training in people with Type 1 diabetes are discussed.

  9. Diabetes Type 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetes means your blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels are too high. With type 2 diabetes, the more common type, your body does not ... You have a higher risk of type 2 diabetes if you are older, have obesity, have a ...

  10. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Risk Diabetes Basics Symptoms Type 1 Type 2 Gestational Myths Statistics Common Terms Genetics Living With Diabetes Recently Diagnosed Treatment & Care Complications Health Insurance For Parents & Kids Know Your ... Type 2 Diabetes Program Food & Fitness Food Recipes Planning Meals ...

  11. Type 1 Diabetes Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contact Us Donate Events More Type 1 Diabetes Facts Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease ... of T1D The Complexity of Diagnosing T1D T1D Facts Insulin Types and Usage T1D Treatments Sign up ...

  12. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home Prevention Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight ... About Type 2 Enroll in the Living WIth Type 2 Diabetes Program Gestational What is Gestational Diabetes? How to ...

  13. Osteogenesis imperfecta type V

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rauch, Frank; Moffatt, Pierre; Cheung, Moira

    2013-01-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) type V is an autosomal dominant bone fragility disorder that we had described a decade ago. Recent research has shown that OI type V is caused by a recurrent c.-14C>T mutation in IFITM5. In the present study, we assessed all patients diagnosed with OI type V at our in...

  14. Time Lapse Spectropolarimetry: Constraining the Nature and Progenitors of Interacting CCSNe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huk, Leah

    2017-11-01

    SNe of Type IIn are among the brightest supernova explosions due to strong circumstellar interaction. Examining the geometric and optical properties of the circumstellar material (CSM) can help to identify the progenitors of individual IIn SNe. Polarimetry is the optimal method for constraining CSM characteristics, as polarimetric signals both depend upon and preserve geometric information from unresolved sources. I present the results of fitting an ensemble of simulated polarized Hα emission-line profiles of interacting SNe, created using a three-dimensional Monte Carlo radiative transfer code called SLIP, to the multi-epoch observed polarized spectra of the Type IIn SN 1997eg. Further study of this model ensemble will allow us to investigate relationships among SNe IIn based on viewing angle and consider how the category should be subdivided based on physical properties of the CSM and/or progenitor.

  15. Tension Type Headache: Evaluation of Chronic Type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer Karadaş

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Tension type headache(TTH which is a primary headache has episodic and chronic forms. Episodic TTH (ETTH can also be frequent-type and non-frequent-type. According to population-based studies, annual prevalence rates are 38.3% for ETTH and 2.2% for chronic TTH (CTTH. Patients can shift between the sub-groups of TTH. In particular, patients with ETTH are at risk of developing CTTH. Peripheral and central nociceptive mechanism are thought to be responsible in occurrence of TTH. Psychiatric disorders are frequently associated with TTH. Although basic and combined analgesics are used in acute treatment and antidepresants are used in prophylaxis, new treatment modalities are needed.

  16. Improving Precision of Types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Johnni

    mixing of unrelated types. Secondly, we present an improvement of the type checking algorithm in Java which enables the compiler to detect and ease the use of a common programming idiom called guarded casts. Thirdly, we present an improvement of the precision with which classes generated by a parser......Types in programming languages provide a powerful tool for the programmer to document the code so that a large aspect of the intent can not only be presented to fellow programmers but also be checked automatically by compilers. The precision with which types model the behavior of programs...... is crucial to the quality of these automated checks, and in this thesis we present three different improvements to the precision of types in three different aspects of the Java programming language. First we show how to extend the type system in Java with a new type which enables the detection of unintended...

  17. Guarded Type Promotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Johnni

    2011-01-01

    In Java, explicit casts are ubiquitous since they bridge the gap between compile-time and runtime type safety. Since casts potentially throw a ClassCastException, many programmers use a defensive programming style of guarded casts. In this programming style casts are protected by a preceding...... in a Java 6 compiler. Through our extensive testing of real-life code we show that guarded casts account for approximately one fourth of all casts and that Guarded Type Promotion can eliminate the need for 95 percent of these guarded casts....... conditional using the instanceof operator and thus the cast type is redundantly mentioned twice. We propose a new typing rule for Java called Guarded Type Promotion aimed at eliminating the need for the explicit casts when guarded. This new typing rule is backward compatible and has been fully implemented...

  18. Types of biological variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayya, Shreemathi S; Monteiro, Ashma D; Ganapathy, Sachit

    2017-06-01

    Identification and description of variables used in any study is a necessary component in biomedical research. Statistical analyses rely on the type of variables that are involved in the study. In this short article, we introduce the different types of biological variables. A researcher has to be familiar with the type of variable he/she is dealing with in his/her research to decide about appropriate graphs/diagrams, summary measures and statistical analysis.

  19. Mastering TypeScript

    CERN Document Server

    Rozentals, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    Whether you are a JavaScript developer aiming to learn TypeScript, or an experienced TypeScript developer wanting to take your skills to the next level, this book is for you. From basic to advanced language constructs, test-driven development, and object-oriented techniques, you will learn how to get the most out of the TypeScript language.

  20. Type II universal spacetimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hervik, S.; Málek, T.; Pravda, V.; Pravdová, A.

    2015-12-01

    We study type II universal metrics of the Lorentzian signature. These metrics simultaneously solve vacuum field equations of all theories of gravitation with the Lagrangian being a polynomial curvature invariant constructed from the metric, the Riemann tensor and its covariant derivatives of an arbitrary order. We provide examples of type II universal metrics for all composite number dimensions. On the other hand, we have no examples for prime number dimensions and we prove the non-existence of type II universal spacetimes in five dimensions. We also present type II vacuum solutions of selected classes of gravitational theories, such as Lovelock, quadratic and L({{Riemann}}) gravities.

  1. TypeScript revealed

    CERN Document Server

    Maharry, Dan

    2013-01-01

    TypeScript Revealed is a quick 100-page guide to Anders Hejlsberg's new take on JavaScript. With this brief, fast-paced introduction to TypeScript, .NET, Web and Windows 8 application developers who are already familiar with JavaScript will easily get up to speed with TypeScript and decide whether or not to start incorporating it into their own development. TypeScript is 'JavaScript for Application-scale development'; a superset of JavaScript that brings to it an additional object-oriented-like syntax familiar to .NET programmers that compiles down into simple, clean JavaScript that any browse

  2. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Nutrient Content Claims Understanding Carbohydrates Types of Carbohydrates Carbohydrate Counting Make Your Carbs Count Glycemic Index Low-Calorie Sweeteners Sugar and Desserts Fitness Exercise & ...

  3. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... most common form of diabetes. In type 2 diabetes, your body does not use insulin properly. This is called ... Help Enroll in the Living WIth Type 2 Diabetes Program Food & Fitness Food Recipes Planning Meals What Can I Eat Weight Loss Fitness In My Community Calendar of Events ...

  4. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Diabetes This two-page introduction to type 2 diabetes is in PDF format so you can download it, print it, and hand it out to patients. You can also download the Spanish version. Last Reviewed: ... magazine: lp-type-2, . In this section ...

  5. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Type 2 Diabetes Program donate en -- #GiveForDiabetes - givefordiabetes.html #GiveForDiabetes Every 21 seconds, someone is diagnosed with ... Donate Today We Can Help - we-can-help.html Chat Online Chat Closed engagement en -- Free Type ...

  6. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Donate Today! Become a Member Donate Now! One Time Monthly In Memory In Honor Become a Member En Español Type 1 Type 2 About Us ... Month® American Diabetes Association Alert Day® Become a Member Advocacy Home Take Action Advocacy Priorities 2018 State ...

  7. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Americans/Pacific Islanders, as well as the aged population. Patient Education Materials — Taking Care of Type 2 Diabetes This two-page introduction to type 2 diabetes is in PDF format so you can download it, print it, ...

  8. Facts about Type 2

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    Full Text Available ... Research Leaders World's Largest Diabetes Meeting Recent Advances Type 1 Research Highlights Research Excellence Honorees How We Fund Research ... steps you take Help change the conversation about type 2 diabetes. ... With Us Register for diabetes news, research and food & fitness tips. Email: Sign Up Thank ...

  9. Facts about Type 2

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    Full Text Available ... Membership Please Join Us in the Fight for a Cure Your tax-deductible gift today can fund ... A A Listen En Español Facts About Type 2 Type 2 diabetes is the most common form ...

  10. Facts about Type 2

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    Full Text Available ... 2383) Give by Mail Close www.diabetes.org > Diabetes Basics > Type 2 Share: Print Page Text Size: A A A ... 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes. In type 2 diabetes, your body does not use insulin properly. ...

  11. Facts about Type 2

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    Full Text Available ... blood glucose levels may hurt your eyes, kidneys, nerves or heart. Some people with type 2 can ... type 2 diabetes. Shopdiabetes.org: Your Stress-Free System for Family Dinners! - 2017-03-book-oclock-scramble. ...

  12. Flash-Type Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshak, William J.

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the significant progress made in the flash-type discrimination algorithm development. The contents include: 1) Highlights of Progress for GLM-R3 Flash-Type discrimination Algorithm Development; 2) Maximum Group Area (MGA) Data; 3) Retrieval Errors from Simulations; and 4) Preliminary Global-scale Retrieval.

  13. Diabetes Type 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetes means your blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels are too high. With type 1 diabetes, your pancreas does not make insulin. Insulin is ... kidneys, nerves, and gums and teeth. Type 1 diabetes happens most often in children and young adults ...

  14. Beyond Type D personality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelle, Aline J; Pedersen, Susanne S.; Szabó, Balázs M

    2009-01-01

    Type D personality has been associated with impaired health status in chronic heart failure (CHF), but other psychological factors may also be important.......Type D personality has been associated with impaired health status in chronic heart failure (CHF), but other psychological factors may also be important....

  15. Types of Foreign Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    Foreign aid is given for many purposes and different intentions, yet most studies treat aid flows as a unitary concept. This paper uses factor analysis to separate aid flows into different types. The main types can be interpreted as aid for economic purposes, social purposes, and reconstruction...

  16. Facts about Type 2

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    Full Text Available ... Count Glycemic Index Low-Calorie Sweeteners Sugar and Desserts Fitness Exercise & Type 1 Diabetes Get Started Safely Get And Stay Fit Types of Activity Weight Loss Assess Your Lifestyle Getting Started Food Choices In My Community Home Find Your Local ...

  17. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Donate Today! Become a Member Donate Now! One Time Monthly In Memory In Honor Become a Member En Español Type 1 Type 2 About Us ... Month® American Diabetes Association Alert Day® Become a Member Advocacy Home Take Action Advocacy Priorities State Priorities ...

  18. Typing polymorphic recursion

    OpenAIRE

    Figueiredo, Lucília Camarão de; Camarão, Carlos

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses some advantages of supporting polymorphic recursión in programming languages and describes a decidable type inference algorithm for typing polymorphic and possibly mutually recursive definitions, using Haskell to provide an executable high level specification of the algorithm.

  19. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Donate Today! Become a Member Donate Now! One Time Monthly In Memory In Honor Become a Member En Español Type 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community Meal Planning Sign In Search: Search More Sites Search ≡ Are You At Risk? Diabetes Basics Living with Diabetes ...

  20. Action Type Deontic Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Martin Mose

    2014-01-01

    are evaluated with respect to the benchmark cases. After that follows an informal introduction to the ideas behind the formal semantics, focussing on the distinction between action types and action tokens. Then the syntax and semantics of Action Type Deontic Logic is presented and it is shown to meet...

  1. Blood-type distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Beom Jun; Myeong Lee, Dong; Hun Lee, Sung; Gim, Wan-Suk

    2007-01-01

    We statistically verify the Hardy-Weinberg principle in genetics by investigating the independence of ABO-blood types of married couples. The allelic frequencies derived from the phenotypic frequencies in ethnic groups via the Hardy-Weinberg principle are used to define a genetic distance (called the blood distance in this work) between two groups. The blood distances are compared with the geographic distances, and then used to construct a network of ethnic groups. We also investigate the relationship between the ABO blood types and the human personalities, gauged by the Myers-Briggs-type indicator (MBTI) psychological test. The statistical χ2-test reveals the independence between the blood types and MBTI results with an exception of type B males. A psychological implication is discussed.

  2. Personality types of entrepreneurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Günter F; Gappisch, Cathrin

    2005-06-01

    85 German entrepreneurs were psychometrically assessed on 12 primary trait characteristics. The sample consisted of 49 men and 36 women whose mean age was 45.6 yr. (SD= 10.3). Occupational domains were production (40%) and services (60%). The mean duration of entrepreneurship within these domains was 13.1 yr. (SD=9.3). By factor analysis five personality types of entrepreneurs could be identified: Creative Acquisitor, Controlled Perseverator, Distant Achiever, Rational Manager, and Egocentric Agitator. These types correspond with types found in research by Miner and with the Myer-Briggs Indicator. In addition, correlations between general type potential and both job and life satisfaction of entrepreneurs were found. The results are discussed with regard to intercultural stability of personality types and implications for research and application.

  3. Types Of Christian Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Petroman

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Christian tourism is asub-type of tourism where pilgrims travel alone or in group as missionaries orpilgrims or to spend their free time to recollect; it attracts a large numberof travellers. Christian tourism can be practiced by religious young people,missionaries, participants to religious convents, amateurs of religiouscruises, religious camps, visitors of religious attractions, religiousadventurers. Christian tourism can be considered a sub-type of religioustourism because of the large number of people involved in this type of tourismworldwide. Christian tourism as a sub-category of religious tourism coversthree main sub-types: traditional pilgrimage practiced by most world religions,missionary travel to different areas in the world, and confessional voyage. Thestructure of hospitality industry is common to all types of tourism but, fortraditional pilgrimage, there must be special places for the pilgrims to sleep,eat and pray, because they belong, in most cases, to the medium-income touristcategory.

  4. Diabetes mellitus type 1

    OpenAIRE

    Tøraasen, Lisa Vangen; Al-Sultan, Zainab

    2014-01-01

    Hvert år blir rundt 600 nordmenn diagnostisert med sykdommen diabetes type 1, og Norge er et av landene i verden med størst andel av barnediabetes. I dag er det 15 000- 20 000 personer i Norge som har diabetes type 1, og antall barn som får diabetes har fordoblet seg de siste 30 årene (Diabetesforbundet, 2014). Problemstillingen vår gikk ut på hvordan sykepleiere kan veilede og undervise ungdom med nyoppdaget diabetes type på sykehus. Ut i fra litteraturstudiet har vi arbeidet oss frem for å ...

  5. Diabetes mellitus type 1

    OpenAIRE

    Tøraasen, Lisa Vangen; Al-Sultan, Zainab

    2014-01-01

    Bacheloroppgave i sykepleie, 2014 Hvert år blir rundt 600 nordmenn diagnostisert med sykdommen diabetes type 1, og Norge er et av landene i verden med størst andel av barnediabetes. I dag er det 15 000- 20 000 personer i Norge som har diabetes type 1, og antall barn som får diabetes har fordoblet seg de siste 30 årene (Diabetesforbundet, 2014). Problemstillingen vår gikk ut på hvordan sykepleiere kan veilede og undervise ungdom med nyoppdaget diabetes type på sykehus. Ut i fra litteraturst...

  6. Type 2 diabetes models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Dorte Xenia

    2012-01-01

    This chapter deals with type 2 diabetes in vivo models and techniques suitable for testing new anti-diabetic compounds. In particular, the testing of TRP antagonist for beneficial effects against type 2 diabetes is considered. There are many choices of both in vitro techniques and in vivo models......, impaired glucose tolerance, impaired insulin secretion, and insulin resistance in vivo and should, thus, be sufficient to demonstrate preclinical proof of concept of a TRP antagonist in type 2 diabetes in rodents. The experiments are suggestions and could be replaced or supplemented by others....

  7. Griscelli syndrome type-3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bela J Shah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Griscelli syndrome (GS is a rare autosomal recessive multisystem disorder of pigmentary dilution of skin, silver gray hair, variable immunodeficiency, neurological impairment, and abnormal accumulation of melanosomes in melanocytes. GS type 3 is characterized by hypomelanosis with no immunological and neurological manifestation. Prognosis is very good in type 3 GS and usually require no active intervention, as opposed to type 1 and 2 where early diagnosis and treatment plays a crucial role in patient's survival. The characteristic phenotypic appearance, especially the pigment dilution of the patient's hair, is emphasized here.

  8. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High ... You at Risk? Diagnosis Lower Your Risk Risk Test Alert Day Prediabetes My Health Advisor Tools to ...

  9. Facts about Type 2

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    Full Text Available ... Eye Complications Neuropathy Foot Complications DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up ... high blood glucose levels may hurt your eyes, kidneys, nerves or heart. Some people with type 2 ...

  10. Facts about Type 2

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    Full Text Available ... Safely Get And Stay Fit Types of Activity Weight Loss Assess Your Lifestyle Getting Started Food Choices ... Food Recipes Planning Meals What Can I Eat Weight Loss Fitness In My Community Calendar of Events ...

  11. Facts about Type 2

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    Full Text Available ... form of diabetes. In type 2 diabetes, your body does not use insulin properly. This is called insulin resistance. At first, the ... Loss Fitness In My Community Calendar of Events ...

  12. Facts about Type 2

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    Full Text Available ... Safely Get And Stay Fit Types of Activity Weight Loss Assess Your Lifestyle Getting Started Food Choices In ... Food Recipes Planning Meals What Can I Eat Weight Loss Fitness In My Community Calendar of Events Local ...

  13. Facts about Type 2

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    Full Text Available ... More Sites Search ≡ Are You At Risk? Diabetes Basics Living with Diabetes Food & Fitness In My Community ... Tools To Know Your Risk Alert Day Diabetes Basics Home Symptoms Diagnosis America's Diabetes Challenge Type 1 ...

  14. Facts about Type 2

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    Full Text Available ... You at Risk? Home Prevention Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower ... EXPO Volunteer Opportunities Sponsorship and Exhibit Opportunities Camp Learning at Camp Find a Camp Fundraising Events Step ...

  15. Facts about Type 2

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    Full Text Available ... Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Oral Health & Hygiene Women A1C Insulin Pregnancy 8 Tips ... normal. Type 2 is treated with lifestyle changes, oral medications (pills), and insulin. When glucose builds up ...

  16. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Index Low-Calorie Sweeteners Sugar and Desserts Fitness Exercise & Type 1 Diabetes Get Started Safely Get And ... Diabetes causes more deaths a year than breast cancer and AIDS combined. Your gift today will help ...

  17. Facts about Type 2

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    Full Text Available ... Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal Planning What Can I ... levels may hurt your eyes, kidneys, nerves or heart. Some people with type 2 can control their ...

  18. Facts about Type 2

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    Full Text Available ... diagnosed. Diabetes causes more deaths a year than breast cancer and AIDS combined. Your gift today will help ... medications or insulin to help you meet your target blood glucose levels. Type 2 usually gets worse ...

  19. Facts about Type 2

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    Full Text Available ... In type 2 diabetes, your body does not use insulin properly. This is called insulin resistance. At ... 1995-2017. American Diabetes Association. All rights reserved. Use of this website constitutes acceptance of our Terms ...

  20. Facts about Type 2

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    Full Text Available ... Type 2 Diabetes Program In It Together We Can Help Center for Information Legal Assistance Success Stories ... with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal Planning What Can I Eat? Making Healthy Food Choices Diabetes Superfoods ...

  1. Facts about Type 2

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    Full Text Available ... Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To ... Started Safely Get And Stay Fit Types of Activity Weight Loss Assess Your Lifestyle Getting Started Food ...

  2. Facts about Type 2

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    Full Text Available ... to Give Close Are You at Risk? Home Prevention Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 ... Dinners! A year of delicious meals to help prevent and manage diabetes. Ways to Give: Dress Up ...

  3. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Life Children and Type 2 Diabetes Know Your Rights Employment Discrimination Health Care Professionals Law Enforcement Driver's ... going into cells, it can cause two problems: Right away, your cells may be starved for energy. ...

  4. Facts about Type 2

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    Full Text Available ... page introduction to type 2 diabetes is in PDF format so you can download it, print it, ... With Us Register for diabetes news, research and food & fitness tips. Email: Sign Up Thank you for ...

  5. Facts about Type 2

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    Full Text Available ... Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To Know Your Risk Alert Day Diabetes Basics Home Symptoms Diagnosis America's ...

  6. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Dairy Food Tips Eating Out Quick Meal Ideas Snacks Nutrient Content Claims Understanding Carbohydrates Types of Carbohydrates ... 5% back to the Association. Shopdiabetes.org: Your Stress-Free System for Family Dinners! - 2017-03-book- ...

  7. Facts about Type 2

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    Full Text Available ... Index Low-Calorie Sweeteners Sugar and Desserts Fitness Exercise & Type 1 Diabetes Get Started Safely Get And ... State Priorities Federal Priorities Advocacy Accomplishments Legal Advocacy Health Disparities Hometown Advocacy Easy Advocacy Checklists for Association ...

  8. Facts about Type 2

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    Full Text Available ... Diabetes causes more deaths a year than breast cancer and AIDS combined. Your gift today will help ... Pacific Islanders, as well as the aged population. Patient Education Materials — Taking Care of Type 2 Diabetes ...

  9. Facts about Type 2

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    Full Text Available ... Wellness Lives Here Awareness Programs Hispanic Heritage Month African American Programs Latino Programs Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians and ... others. Type 2 diabetes is more common in African Americans, Latinos, Native Americans, and Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders, ...

  10. Facts about Type 2

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    Full Text Available ... Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To Know Your Risk Alert Day Diabetes Basics Home Symptoms Diagnosis America's Diabetes Challenge Type ...

  11. Facts about Type 2

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    Full Text Available ... and Pacific Islanders American Indian/Alaska Native Programs Older Adults Family Link Diabetes EXPO Upcoming Diabetes EXPOs ... Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders, as well as the aged population. Patient Education Materials — Taking Care of Type ...

  12. Recommended Types of Sunglasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eyes? Recommended Types of Sunglasses Leer en Español: Tipos Recomendados de Anteojos de Sol Dec. 12, 2015 ... is linked to cataracts and eye growths, including cancer. UVB radiation is considered more dangerous to the ...

  13. Facts about Type 2

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    Full Text Available ... Children and Type 2 Diabetes Know Your Rights Employment Discrimination Health Care Professionals Law Enforcement Driver's License ... About Us Who We Are Careers Contact Us Policies Corporate Support Newsroom Press Releases For Professionals En ...

  14. Facts about Type 2

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    Full Text Available ... Type 2 Diabetes Know Your Rights Employment Discrimination Health Care Professionals Law Enforcement Driver's License For Lawyers Food & Fitness Home Food MyFoodAdvisor Recipes Association Cookbook Recipes ...

  15. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Professionals Professional Books Patient Access to Research Student Resources History of Diabetes Resources for School Projects ... make enough insulin to keep your blood glucose levels normal. Type 2 is treated with lifestyle changes, ...

  16. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 2 Diabetes Program Gestational What is Gestational Diabetes? How to Treat Gestational Diabetes Genetics of Diabetes Diabetes ... Advances Type 1 Research Highlights Research Excellence Honorees How We Fund Research Funding the Next Generation of ...

  17. Facts about Type 2

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    Full Text Available ... the Living WIth Type 2 Diabetes Program In It Together We Can Help Center for Information Legal ... Tour de Cure Women's Series Destination Races Do-It-Yourself Fundraising Become a Volunteer American Diabetes Month® ...

  18. Facts about Type 2

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    Full Text Available ... Health Insurance Update The Health Insurance Marketplace Health Insurance From an Employer Options for the Uninsured Medicare Medicaid & CHIP For Parents & Kids Safe at School Everyday Life Children and Type 2 Diabetes Know Your Rights ...

  19. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... seconds someone new is diagnosed. Diabetes causes more deaths a year than breast cancer and AIDS combined. ... as well as the aged population. Patient Education Materials — Taking Care of Type 2 Diabetes This two- ...

  20. Types of Hearing Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumer Devices Consumer Products Hearing Aids Types of Hearing Aids Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... are some features for hearing aids? What are hearing aids? Hearing aids are sound-amplifying devices designed ...

  1. Facts about Type 2

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    Full Text Available ... to Give Close Are You at Risk? Home Prevention Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 ... Dinners! A year of delicious meals to help prevent and manage diabetes. Healthy Recipes: Build a Better ...

  2. Facts about Type 2

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    Full Text Available ... Get And Stay Fit Types of Activity Weight Loss Assess Your Lifestyle Getting Started Food Choices In ... Recipes Planning Meals What Can I Eat Weight Loss Fitness In My Community Calendar of Events Local ...

  3. Facts about Type 2

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    Full Text Available ... Doctors, Nurses & More Oral Health & Hygiene Women A1C Insulin Pregnancy 8 Tips for Caregivers Health Insurance Health ... type 2 diabetes, your body does not use insulin properly. This is called insulin resistance. At first, ...

  4. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a Member Donate Now! One Time Monthly In Memory In Honor Become a Member En Español Type ... time Give monthly Give in honor Give in memory Donate Now Why Give? Nearly 30 million battle ...

  5. Making Type Inference Practical

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff; Oxhøj, Nicholas; Palsberg, Jens

    1992-01-01

    We present the implementation of a type inference algorithm for untyped object-oriented programs with inheritance, assignments, and late binding. The algorithm significantly improves our previous one, presented at OOPSLA'91, since it can handle collection classes, such as List, in a useful way. Abo......, the complexity has been dramatically improved, from exponential time to low polynomial time. The implementation uses the techniques of incremental graph construction and constraint template instantiation to avoid representing intermediate results, doing superfluous work, and recomputing type information....... Experiments indicate that the implementation type checks as much as 100 lines pr. second. This results in a mature product, on which a number of tools can be based, for example a safety tool, an image compression tool, a code optimization tool, and an annotation tool. This may make type inference for object...

  6. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Oral Health & Hygiene Women A1C Insulin Pregnancy ... and Care Blood Glucose Control Complications Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Enroll in the Living With Type 2 ...

  7. Facts about Type 2

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    Full Text Available ... and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High ... excused. 86 million Americans have prediabetes. Take the test. Know where you stand. More from diabetes.org ...

  8. Type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Anders; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm

    2001-01-01

    Prediction of Type 1 diabetes at individual level is relevant for any possible intervention before clinical disease develops. Currently available markers of Type 1 diabetes include genetic specificities and immune markers, in addition to a positive family history. This chapter reviews the measures...... and methods of importance in predicting Type 1 diabetes. Based on numerical examples it is demonstrated that available markers have a low level of performance, even when combined. Even so, combined marker information may allow for the identification of the large majority of the general population who...... is at very low disease risk. The impact at population level of predicting Type 1 diabetes varies between societies because the performance of markers depends on levels of disease risk and distribution of markers within a population. The incorporation of the influence of non-genetic etiological factors may...

  9. Description of vegetation types

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document provides descriptions of five vegetation types found in Iowa- oak savannah, mature hardwoods, floodplain woods, scrub woods, and riparian woods. Oak...

  10. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Type 2 About Us Online Community Meal Planning Sign In Search: Search More Sites Search ≡ Are You ... diabetes news, research and food & fitness tips. Email: Sign Up Thank you for signing up ' + ' '); $('.survey-form'). ...

  11. Tissue types (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are 4 basic types of tissue: connective tissue, epithelial tissue, muscle tissue, and nervous tissue. Connective tissue supports ... binds them together (bone, blood, and lymph tissues). Epithelial tissue provides a covering (skin, the linings of the ...

  12. Facts about Type 2

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    Full Text Available ... of Diabetes Research & Practice Home We Are Research Leaders World's Largest Diabetes Meeting Recent Advances Type 1 ... year of delicious meals to help prevent and manage diabetes. Ways to Give: Dress Up Your Donations - ...

  13. Facts about Type 2

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    Full Text Available ... WIth Type 2 Diabetes Program In It Together We Can Help Center for Information Legal Assistance Success Stories ... Offer. Double your impact to save lives. Donate We Can Help - we-can-help.html Chat Online Chat ...

  14. Facts about Type 2

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    Full Text Available ... Facebook Twitter Pinterest Youtube Instagram Diabetes Stops Here Blog Online Community Site Menu Are You at Risk? ... in the Living WIth Type 2 Diabetes Program Food & Fitness Food Recipes Planning Meals What Can I ...

  15. Facts about Type 2

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    Full Text Available ... of Diabetes Research & Practice Home We Are Research Leaders World's Largest Diabetes Meeting Recent Advances Type 1 ... Call to Congress Research & Practice We Are Research Leaders We Support Your Doctor Student Resources Patient Access ...

  16. Additional Types of Neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Camp Fundraising Events Step Out Walk to Stop Diabetes Tour de Cure Father of the Year Stop Diabetes at School ... Forecast Stop Diabetes Step Out: Walk to Stop Diabetes Tour de Cure Living With Type 2 Diabetes Recipes for Healthy ...

  17. Facts about Type 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Camp Fundraising Events Step Out Walk to Stop Diabetes Tour de Cure Father of the Year Stop Diabetes at School ... Forecast Stop Diabetes Step Out: Walk to Stop Diabetes Tour de Cure Living With Type 2 Diabetes Recipes for Healthy ...

  18. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... not use insulin properly. This is called insulin resistance. At first, the pancreas makes extra insulin to ... as well as the aged population. Patient Education Materials — Taking Care of Type 2 Diabetes This two- ...

  19. Facts about Type 2

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    Full Text Available ... www.diabetes.org > Diabetes Basics > Type 2 Share: Print Page Text Size: A A A Listen En ... in PDF format so you can download it, print it, and hand it out to patients. You ...

  20. Types of Funerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Funeral Terms and Contact Information Related Items Every family is different, and not everyone wants the same type of funeral. Funeral practices are influenced by religious and cultural traditions, costs, and personal preferences. These factors help determine ...

  1. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of Diabetes Diabetes Myths A Day in the Life of Diabetes Famous People Working to Stop Diabetes ... CHIP For Parents & Kids Safe at School Everyday Life Children and Type 2 Diabetes Know Your Rights ...

  2. Facts about Type 2

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    Full Text Available ... Basics Living with Diabetes Food & Fitness In My Community Advocacy Research & Practice Ways to Give Close Are You at Risk? Home Prevention Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower ...

  3. Facts about Type 2

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    Full Text Available ... Diagnosed Treatment and Care Blood Glucose Control Complications Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Enroll in the Living With Type 2 Diabetes Program donate en -- Match – Donate Now - match-donate- ...

  4. Facts about Type 2

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    Full Text Available ... is Gestational Diabetes? How to Treat Gestational Diabetes Genetics of Diabetes Diabetes Myths A Day in the ... 1 Type 2 Gestational Myths Statistics Common Terms Genetics Living With Diabetes Recently Diagnosed Treatment & Care Complications ...

  5. Facts about Type 2

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    Full Text Available ... or heart. Some people with type 2 can control their blood glucose with healthy eating and being ... 2 Recently Diagnosed Treatment and Care Blood Glucose Control Complications Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Enroll in the ...

  6. Facts about Type 2

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    Full Text Available ... Medicare Medicaid & CHIP For Parents & Kids Safe at School Everyday Life Children and Type 2 Diabetes Know ... Cure Father of the Year Stop Diabetes at School Tour de Cure Women's Series Destination Races Do- ...

  7. Facts about Type 2

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    Full Text Available ... make enough insulin to keep your blood glucose levels normal. Type 2 is treated with lifestyle changes, ... starved for energy. Over time, high blood glucose levels may hurt your eyes, kidneys, nerves or heart. ...

  8. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to Give Close Are You at Risk? Home Prevention Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 ... Dinners! A year of delicious meals to help prevent and manage diabetes. Ask the Experts: Learn to ...

  9. Facts about Type 2

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    Full Text Available ... Diabetes Research & Practice Home We Are Research Leaders World's Largest Diabetes Meeting Recent Advances Type 1 Research ... new is diagnosed. Diabetes causes more deaths a year than breast cancer and AIDS combined. Your gift ...

  10. Facts about Type 2

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    Full Text Available ... Type 2 Diabetes Know Your Rights Employment Discrimination Health Care Professionals Law Enforcement Driver's License For Lawyers Food & ... Terms Genetics Living With Diabetes Recently Diagnosed Treatment & Care Complications Health Insurance For Parents & Kids Know Your Rights We ...

  11. Facts about Type 2

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    Full Text Available ... and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health ...

  12. Type 1 diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Atkinson, Mark A; Eisenbarth, George S; Michels, Aaron W

    2013-01-01

    Over the past decade, knowledge of the pathogenesis and natural history of type 1 diabetes has grown substantially, particularly with regard to disease prediction and heterogeneity, pancreatic pathology, and epidemiology. Technological improvements in insulin pumps and continuous glucose monitors help patients with type 1 diabetes manage the challenge of lifelong insulin administration. Agents that show promise for averting debilitating disease-associated complications have also been identifi...

  13. Type E botulism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, B Zane

    2010-11-01

    There are seven known serotypes of botulism, designated A through G; almost all human cases of botulism are caused by types A, B, and E. Botulism type E is the predominant serotype causing disease associated with native Arctic foods. In the circumpolar regions of the world, the coastal soils are rich in botulism type E, and consumption of fish and marine animals in these areas are the sources of clusters of botulism. Unlike spores of type A and B, botulism type E can withstand freezing down to 3.5°C. Alaskan native fermentation of fish heads, fish eggs, and beaver tail allow proper anaerobic conditions for botulinum toxin to be elaborated from Clostridium botulinum. The consumption of whale meat, "muktuk" has also been associated with outbreaks of botulism in Alaska and the Canadian Arctic. Elsewhere in the Arctic regions, type E botulism has been associated with Norwegian "rakfisk" prepared by a process similar to fermented Alaskan foods. Outbreaks in Egypt with the salted gray mullet "faseikh", in Israel and New York linked to salted uneviscerated whitefish "kapchunka", in Iran from eating "ashbal" an uncooked salmon, and in Japan with "izushi" a traditional fermented fish preserved in rice have occurred. Importation of vacuum-packed whitefish from Alaska and Canada has also been associated with sporadic cases of botulism type E in Europe. In March 2010, the Center for Disease Control and Prevention released the heptavalent antitoxin (H-BAT) for use in the USA, under an Investigational New Drug program, as the preferred treatment for food-borne botulism, including type E, which had not been covered by the bivalent antitoxin, the prior approved antitoxin product in the USA.

  14. Type extension trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaeger, Manfred

    2006-01-01

    We introduce type extension trees as a formal representation language for complex combinatorial features of relational data. Based on a very simple syntax this language provides a unified framework for expressing features as diverse as embedded subgraphs on the one hand, and marginal counts of at...... of attribute values on the other. We show by various examples how many existing relational data mining techniques can be expressed as the problem of constructing a type extension tree and a discriminant function....

  15. Neurofibromatosis type 2

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, D; Sainio, M; Baser, M

    2000-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 2 is an often devastating autosomal dominant disorder which, until relatively recently, was confused with its more common namesake neurofibromatosis type 1. Subjects who inherit a mutated allele of the NF2 gene inevitably develop schwannomas, affecting particularly the superior vestibular branch of the 8th cranial nerve, usually bilaterally. Meningiomas and other benign central nervous system tumours such as ependymomas are other common features. Much of the morbidity f...

  16. Compound 21 prevents endothelial inflammation and leukocyte adhesion <i>in vitro and <i>in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sampson, Amanda K; Irvine, Jennifer C; Shihata, Waled A

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The angiotensin AT2 (AT2R) is upregulated in disease states such as atherosclerosis; with blockade of the AT2R shown to exacerbate plaque formation. Direct stimulation of the AT2R has been shown to be anti-atherogenic but the mechanisms and pathways involved remain unknown. PURPOSE...... TNFα and IL-6 mRNA expression in M1 macrophages. The effects of C21 on TNFα-induced endothelial activation were abolished in the presence of the AT2R antagonist PD 123319 confirming the effects of C21 are AT2R-mediated. In addition, we observed high fat diet (HFD)-induced leukocyte adhesion...

  17. OTUB1 de-ubiquitinating enzyme promotes prostate cancer cell invasion <i>in vitro and tumorigenesis <i>in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iglesias-Gato, Diego; Chuan, Yin-Choy; Jiang, Ning

    2015-01-01

    BackgroundUbiquitination is a highly dynamic and reversible process with a central role in cell homeostasis. Deregulation of several deubiquitinating enzymes has been linked to tumor development but their specific role in prostate cancer progression remains unexplored.MethodsRNAi screening was us...

  18. Development, Hatching, and Intestinal Establishment of Trichuris suis, - <i>in vivo and <i>in vitro Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejzagic, Nermina

    Trichuris suis, the pig whipworm is a nematode parasite located in the large intestine of pigs. Embryonated eggs of T. suis (T. suis ova = TSO) constitute the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) in a new medicinal product, which is currently tested in human clinical trials as a potential...... treatment against several immune-mediated disease. In order to ensure that TSO can induce the immunomodulatory effect (pharmaceutical potency) and ultimately the treatment effect, the contained eggs need to be biologically potent. Biological potency refers to the ability of eggs to hatch (measurement......, and accurate measure to test the establishment of T. suis larvae (Manuscript 1), where both male and female pigs (3-4 months old) can be used in the assessment of TSO’s biological potency (Manuscript 4). For large-scale, in-process testing of TSO batches where a test result is needed in matter of ho rs...

  19. Type 4 cardiorenal syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro da Silva, Ana Luísa; Vaz da Silva, Manuel Joaquim

    2016-11-01

    The Acute Dialysis Quality Initiative consensus conference proposed a classification of cardiorenal syndrome (CRS), aiming for a better delineation of each subtype. Although the exact pathophysiology of type 4 CRS is not completely understood, the mechanisms involved are probably multifactorial. There is growing evidence that oxidative stress is a major connector in the development and progression of type 4 CRS. Giving its complexity, poor prognosis and increasing incidence, type 4 CRS is becoming a significant public health problem. Patients with chronic kidney disease are particularly predisposed to cardiac dysfunction, due to the high prevalence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors in this population, but the contribution of risk factors specific to chronic kidney disease should also be taken into account. Much remains to be elucidated about type 4 CRS: despite progress over the last decade, there are still significant questions regarding its pathophysiology and there is as yet no specific therapy. A better understanding of the mechanisms involved may provide potential targets for intervention. The present review will provide a brief description of the definition, epidemiology, diagnosis, prognosis, biomarkers and management strategies of type 4 CRS, and the pathophysiological mechanisms and risk factors presumably involved in its development will be particularly highlighted. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Congenital fiber type disproportion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissiedu, Juliana; Prayson, Richard A

    2016-04-01

    Type I muscle fiber atrophy in childhood can be encountered in a variety of neuromuscular disorders. Congenital fiber type disproportion (CFTD) is one such condition which presents as a nonprogressive muscle weakness. The diagnosis is often made after excluding other differential diagnostic considerations. We present a 2-year-9-month-old full term boy who presented at 2 months with an inability to turn his head to the right. Over the next couple of years, he showed signs of muscle weakness, broad based gait and a positive Gower's sign. He had normal levels of creatine kinase and normal electromyography. A biopsy of the vastus lateralis showed a marked variation in muscle fiber type. The adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-ase stains highlighted a marked type I muscle atrophy with rare scattered atrophic type II muscle fibers. No abnormalities were observed on the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) or cytochrome oxidase stained sections. Ragged red fibers were not present on the trichrome stain. Abnormalities of glycogen or lipid deposition were not observed on the periodic acid-Schiff or Oil-Red-O stains. Immunostaining for muscular dystrophy associated proteins showed normal staining. Ultrastructural examination showed a normal arrangement of myofilaments, and a normal number and morphology for mitochondria. A diagnosis of CFTD was made after excluding other causes of type I atrophy including congenital myopathy. The lack of specific clinical and genetic disorder associated with CFTD suggests that it is a spectrum of a disease process and represents a diagnosis of exclusion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Brauer type embedding problems

    CERN Document Server

    Ledet, Arne

    2005-01-01

    This monograph is concerned with Galois theoretical embedding problems of so-called Brauer type with a focus on 2-groups and on finding explicit criteria for solvability and explicit constructions of the solutions. The advantage of considering Brauer type embedding problems is their comparatively simple condition for solvability in the form of an obstruction in the Brauer group of the ground field. This book presupposes knowledge of classical Galois theory and the attendant algebra. Before considering questions of reducing the embedding problems and reformulating the solvability criteria, the

  2. Type Inference for Session Types in the Pi-Calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graversen, Eva Fajstrup; Harbo, Jacob Buchreitz; Huttel, Hans

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present a direct algorithm for session type inference for the π-calculus. Type inference for session types has previously been achieved by either imposing limitations and restriction on the π-calculus, or by reducing the type inference problem to that for linear types. Our approach...

  3. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Are You At Risk? Diabetes Basics Living with Diabetes Food & Fitness In My Community Advocacy Research & Practice Ways to ... Help Enroll in the Living WIth Type 2 Diabetes Program Food & Fitness Food Recipes Planning Meals What Can I Eat ...

  4. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... type 2 diabetes. Shopdiabetes.org: Your Stress-Free System for Family Dinners! - 2017-03-book-oclock-scramble.html Shopdiabetes.org Your Stress-Free System for Family Dinners! A year of delicious meals ...

  5. Plaque Type Eryrhema Nodosum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radha Mittal

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available Three young females developed plaque type erythema nodosum. The underlying causes in them were tuberculosis chest, recurrent furunculosis and malaria respectively. All the three cases were under treatment at the time of development of erythema nodosum plaques and the onset was acute.

  6. Tension-type headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Lars; Jensen, Rigmor

    2009-01-01

    The substantial societal and individual burdens associated with tension-type headache (TTH) constitute a previously overlooked major public health issue. TTH is prevalent, affecting up to 78% of the general population, and 3% suffer from chronic TTH. Pericranial myofascial nociception probably...

  7. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community Meal Planning Sign In Search: Search More Sites Search ≡ Are ... Fitness Home Food MyFoodAdvisor Recipes Association Cookbook Recipes Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten ...

  8. [DISEASES AND ITS TYPES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona, Manuel Domínguez

    2014-01-01

    With this conference, I intend to define what is the disease and its types explaining the criteria for classification according to different points of view, as the etiologic, teleological, social impact, spatial and temporal distribution, production mechanisms, risk factors, which affects organs, etc. As there are diseases that do not exist dedicate a final chapter of this dissertation to develop them.

  9. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Diabetes causes more deaths a year than breast cancer and AIDS combined. Your gift today will help us get closer to ... normal. Type 2 is treated with lifestyle changes, oral medications (pills), and insulin. When glucose builds up ...

  10. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders, as well as the aged population. Patient Education Materials — Taking Care of Type ... Diabetes Association Alert Day® Advocacy Take Action Advocacy Priorities News & Events The Cost of Diabetes Advocate Toolkit ...

  11. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Last Edited: October 27, 2015 Articles from Diabetes Forecast® magazine: lp-type-2, . In this section Diabetes ... Use and Privacy Policy « American Diabetes Association Diabetes Forecast Stop Diabetes Step Out: Walk to Stop Diabetes ...

  12. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To ... Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy ... Desserts Fitness Exercise & Type 1 Diabetes Get Started Safely Get And ...

  13. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... you may need to later on. Some groups have a higher risk for developing type 2 diabetes ... Online Chat Closed engagement en -- So…Do You Have Prediabetes? - 2017-01-ad-council.html So…Do ...

  14. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Right away, your cells may be starved for energy. Over time, high blood glucose levels may hurt your eyes, kidneys, nerves or heart. Some people with type 2 can control their blood glucose with healthy eating and being active. But, your doctor may need ...

  15. Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... growth and obesity — increases the risk of diabetes. Complications Type 2 diabetes can be easy to ignore, especially in the ... can help prevent these complications. Although long-term complications of diabetes develop gradually, they can eventually be disabling or ...

  16. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Diabetes causes more deaths a year than breast cancer and AIDS combined. Your gift today will help us get closer to curing ... Type 2 is treated with lifestyle changes, oral medications (pills), and insulin. When glucose builds up ...

  17. Type 1 Diabetes Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) Back Close What Is Diabetes? Causes of T1D The Complexity of Diagnosing T1D T1D ... about Insulin and T1D Learn More What Is Diabetes? Causes of T1D The Complexity of Diagnosing T1D T1D ...

  18. [C4 type photosynthesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozak, Anna; Wasilewska, Wioleta; Buczyńska, Alicja; Romanowska, Elzbieta

    2012-01-01

    C4 photosynthesis includes several anatomical and biochemical modifications that allow plants to concentrate CO2 at the site of Rubisco. The photorespiratory pathway is repressed in C4 plants, since the rates of photosynthesis and biomass production are increased. This is an adaptation to high light intensities, high temperatures and dryness. C4 plants contain two distinct types of photosynthetic cells, mesophyll and bundle sheath. The processes of assimilation and reduction of CO2 are separated spatiality and catayzed by two different enzymes. Only the bundle sheath chloroplasts perform the reactions of the Calvin-Benson cycle with the help of the Rubisco enzyme present exclusively in this cell type. The primary CO2 fixation occurs in mesophyll cells through the action of the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase. The light-dependent reactions of the photosynthesis occur exclusively in the latter cell type. These differences in photochemistry lead to distinct redox profiles in both types of cells. C4 plants are divided into three biochemical subtypes on the basis of differences in the mechanisms of decarboxylation of the C4 acids. C4 plants will provide the main source of food for humans and animals in the nearest decade.

  19. Gesture Types for Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on the different gesture types employed by twenty-three Year 10 students as they endeavoured to explain their understanding of rate of change associated with the functions resulting from two different computer simulations. These gestures also have application to revealing students' understanding of functions. However,…

  20. Types of Heart Block

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... defects. Acquired heart block is more common than congenital heart block. Damage to the heart muscle or its electrical system causes acquired heart block. Diseases, surgery, or medicines can cause this damage. The three types of heart block are first degree, second degree, ...

  1. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Oral Health & Hygiene Women A1C Insulin Pregnancy 8 Tips for ... But, your doctor may need to also prescribe oral medications or insulin to help you meet your target blood glucose levels. Type 2 usually gets worse ... Health Advisor Tools to Know Your Risk Diabetes Basics ...

  2. TypeScript essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Nance, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    The book introduces the TypeScript language and its features to anyone looking to develop rich web applications. Whether you are new to web development or are an experienced engineer with strong JavaScript skills, this book will get you writing code quickly. A basic understanding of JavaScript and its language features are necessary for this book.

  3. Types of Timberland Ownership

    Science.gov (United States)

    William C. Siegel

    1999-01-01

    The form of ownership in which you hold your woodland is important from a tax standpoint. Further, if your forest property is structured as a business, the type of business organization chosen also has significant tax implications. Additionally, non-tax factors bear on choosing an ownership and/or business format. These include forest management goals, size of the...

  4. Types of Blood Donations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a Successful Donation Donation FAQs Types of Donations Power Red Platelets Plasma Autologous and Directed First Time Donors The Fear of Needles LGBTQ+ Donors Blood Donor Community SleevesUp Games Facebook Avatars and Badges Banners eCards Leaders Save Lives High school and college students can ...

  5. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... first, you may need to later on. Some groups have a higher risk for developing type 2 ... function (data) { $('#survey-errors').remove(); $('.survey-form .form-group .survey-alert-wrap').remove(); if (data.submitSurveyResponse.success == ' ...

  6. Type 1 narcolepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Degn, Matilda; Kornum, Birgitte Rahbek

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 narcolepsy is a sleep disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness with unintentional sleep attacks and cataplexy. The disorder is caused by a loss of hypocretinergic neurons in the brain. The specific loss of these neurons in narcolepsy is thought to result from an autoimmune...

  7. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Camp Fundraising Events Step Out Walk to Stop Diabetes Tour de Cure Father of the Year Stop Diabetes at School ... Forecast Stop Diabetes Step Out: Walk to Stop Diabetes Tour de Cure Living With Type 2 Diabetes Recipes for Healthy ...

  8. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Diabetes causes more deaths a year than breast cancer and AIDS combined. Your gift today will help us get closer ... time, high blood glucose levels may hurt your eyes, kidneys, nerves or heart. Some people with type 2 ...

  9. Compositional data types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahr, Patrick; Hvitved, Tom

    2011-01-01

    -cut fusion style deforestation which yields considerable speedups. We demonstrate our framework in the setting of compiler construction, and moreover, we compare compositional data types with generic programming techniques and show that both are comparable in run-time performance and expressivity while our...

  10. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... donate en -- Match – Donate Now - match-donate-now.html Match – Donate Now Make your year-end donation ... Donate Today We Can Help - we-can-help.html Chat Online Chat Closed engagement en -- Free Type ...

  11. Teaching to the Type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Maggie

    2008-01-01

    Before she became an art teacher, the author relates that she worked at a graphic design agency and there she learned to fully appreciate typefaces and how they influence messages. In the years that she taught middle school art, the author has incorporated some basics of type design into her graphics unit, along with calligraphy, printmaking, and…

  12. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... My Community Advocacy Research & Practice Ways to Give Close Are You at Risk? Home Prevention Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor ...

  13. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... conversation about type 2 diabetes. Shopdiabetes.org: Your Stress-Free System for Family Dinners! - 2017-03-book-oclock-scramble.html Shopdiabetes.org Your Stress-Free System for Family Dinners! A year of ...

  14. Glutaric Acidemia Type 1

    OpenAIRE

    Hedlund, Gary L.; Longo, Nicola; Pasquali, Marzia

    2006-01-01

    Glutaric acidemias comprise different disorders resulting in an increased urinary excretion of glutaric acid. Glutaric acidemia type 1 (GA-1) is an autosomal recessive disorder of lysine, hydroxylysine, and tryptophan metabolism caused by deficiency of glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase. It results in the accumulation of 3-hydroxyglutaric and glutaric acid. Affected patients can present with brain atrophy and macrocephaly and with acute dystonia secondary to striatal degeneration in most cases trigge...

  15. Conditional Belief Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-19

    1994) and Heifetz and Mongin (2001). The axioms in such languages are analogous to the axioms on set-theoretic operators. However, the modal logic...Fagin and Halpern, 1994) that allows the description of expectations, by introducing a strong inference rule ( Heifetz and Mongin, 2001), or by...502. Heifetz , A. and P. Mongin (2001), “Probability logic for type spaces,” Games and Economic Behavior, 35, 31–53. Keynes, J. M. (1921), A Treatise

  16. Type Families with Class, Type Classes with Family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serrano, Alejandro; Hage, Jurriaan; Bahr, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Type classes and type families are key ingredients in Haskell programming. Type classes were introduced to deal with ad-hoc polymorphism, although with the introduction of functional dependencies, their use expanded to type-level programming. Type families also allow encoding type-level functions......, now as rewrite rules. This paper looks at the interplay of type classes and type families, and how to deal with shortcomings in both of them. Furthermore, we show how to use families to simulate classes at the type level. However, type families alone are not enough for simulating a central feature...... of type classes: elaboration, that is, generating code from the derivation of a rewriting. We look at ways to solve this problem in current Haskell, and propose an extension to allow elaboration during the rewriting phase....

  17. Relative rates of biosynthesis of collagen type I, type V and type VI in calf cornea.

    OpenAIRE

    Kern, P.; Menasche, M.; Robert, L

    1991-01-01

    The biosynthesis of type I, type V and type VI collagens was studied by incubation of calf corneas in vitro with [3H]proline as a marker. Pepsin-solubilized collagen types were isolated by salt fractionation and quantified by SDS/PAGE. Expressed as proportions of the total hydroxyproline solubilized, corneal stroma comprised 75% type I, 8% type V and 17% type VI collagen. The rates of [3H]proline incorporation, linear up to 24 h for each collagen type, were highest for type VI collagen and lo...

  18. Composing and decomposing data types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahr, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    data types and to define extensible functions on data types in an ad hoc manner. The implementation makes essential use of closed type families in Haskell. The use of closed type families instead of type classes comes with a set of trade-offs, which we review in detail. Finally, we show that our......Wouter Swierstra's data types à la carte is a technique to modularise data type definitions in Haskell. We give an alternative implementation of data types à la carte that offers more flexibility in composing and decomposing data types. To achieve this, we refine the subtyping constraint, which...... is at the centre of data types à la carte. On the one hand this refinement is more general, allowing subtypings that intuitively should hold but were not derivable beforehand. This aspect of our implementation removes previous restrictions on how data types can be combined. On the other hand our refinement is more...

  19. Type-2 Fuzzy Curve Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesah, R. S.; Zakaria, R.; Wahab, A. F.; Talibe, A.

    2017-09-01

    The paper discusses about the formulation of type-2 fuzzy curve model. The generalization is carried out due to the existence of complex uncertainty which cannot be represented with classical type-1 fuzzy set. Hence, type-2 fuzzy set is proposed to define this type of complex uncertainty. Based on the complex uncertainty of data, fuzzy set theory type-2 with fuzzy number type-2 concept is used to represent the data with complex uncertainty. This process re-defines the data as type-2 fuzzy data which is also the result obtained by generalizing type-1 fuzzy data. Therefore, B-spline function is chosen to show the development of type-2 B-spline curve model via generalization. It is then followed by a number of processes, i.e. fuzzification, reduction and defuzzification are defined to model type-2 fuzzy B-spline curve to obtain a crisp type-2 fuzzy curve.

  20. Diabetes Mellitus Type 1

    OpenAIRE

    Trydal, Kari

    2015-01-01

    Hvert år får rundt 300 barn og 600 voksne diabetes mellitus type 1, og til sammen har rundt 28 000 personer denne sykdommen i Norge i dag. Det er en kronisk metabolsk sykdom, med en absolutt insulinmangel. Gjennom litteratur og forskning er det vist, at for å forebygge senkomplikasjoner, trenger pasienten informasjon, undervisning og praktisk veiledning når det gjelder medisinering, kosthold og fysisk aktivitet, og motivering til å mestre sykdommen. I praksis vil sykepleier spille en aktiv ro...

  1. Representing Session Types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bock, Peter Brottveit; Murawska, Agata; Bruni, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we propose a logical foundation of processes and their focused normal forms. We use a linear meta-language based on substructural operational semantics to describe focused forms of processes, and compare them to standard π-calculus processes with their respective operational semanti....... The overall goal of this research is to understand how to reason about processes, multiparty communication and global types, and how to mechanize properties such as deadlock freeness and liveness. We are also interested in establishing the limitations of this approach....

  2. Laryngeal cleft type 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo de Assis Pereira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The clinical itinerary and the institution of conservative therapy in a case of laryngeal cleft type 1 refers to a child born by cesarean section, Apgar 9 and 10, a history of placental nd abruption in the 2 month of pregnancy, with respiratory nd distress on the 2 day of life and difficulty in breast feeding mothers. Presented evidence of aspiration pneumonia. The videodeglutogram showed aspiration of large amounts of material contrasted during swallowing. In bronchoscopy was visualized formation of threadlike small slit making the diagnosis of laryngeal cleft. We then decided, by institution of conservative treatment with enteral nutrition training and thickened with swallowing.

  3. Type 1 autoimmune pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zen Yoh

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Before the concept of autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP was established, this form of pancreatitis had been recognized as lymphoplasmacytic sclerosing pancreatitis or non-alcoholic duct destructive chronic pancreatitis based on unique histological features. With the discovery in 2001 that serum IgG4 concentrations are specifically elevated in AIP patients, this emerging entity has been more widely accepted. Classical cases of AIP are now called type 1 as another distinct subtype (type 2 AIP has been identified. Type 1 AIP, which accounts for 2% of chronic pancreatitis cases, predominantly affects adult males. Patients usually present with obstructive jaundice due to enlargement of the pancreatic head or thickening of the lower bile duct wall. Pancreatic cancer is the leading differential diagnosis for which serological, imaging, and histological examinations need to be considered. Serologically, an elevated level of IgG4 is the most sensitive and specific finding. Imaging features include irregular narrowing of the pancreatic duct, diffuse or focal enlargement of the pancreas, a peri-pancreatic capsule-like rim, and enhancement at the late phase of contrast-enhanced images. Biopsy or surgical specimens show diffuse lymphoplasmacytic infiltration containing many IgG4+ plasma cells, storiform fibrosis, and obliterative phlebitis. A dramatic response to steroid therapy is another characteristic, and serological or radiological effects are normally identified within the first 2 or 3 weeks. Type 1 AIP is estimated as a pancreatic manifestation of systemic IgG4-related disease based on the fact that synchronous or metachronous lesions can develop in multiple organs (e.g. bile duct, salivary/lacrimal glands, retroperitoneum, artery, lung, and kidney and those lesions are histologically identical irrespective of the organ of origin. Several potential autoantigens have been identified so far. A Th2-dominant immune reaction and the activation of

  4. Spinocerebellar ataxia type 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jean-Jacques

    2012-01-01

    Spinocerebellar ataxia type 7 (SCA7) is associated with progressive blindness, dominant transmission, and marked anticipation. SCA7 represents one of the polyglutamine expansion diseases with increase of CAG repeats. The gene maps to chromosome 3p12-p21.1. Normal values of CAG repeats range from 4 to 18. The SCA7 gene encodes a protein of largely unknown function, called ataxin-7. SCA7 is reported in many countries and ethnic groups. Its phenotypic expression depends on the number of expanded repeats. The infantile phenotype is very severe, with more than 100 repeats. The classic type has 50 to 55 repeats and is characterized by a combination of visual and ataxic disturbances lasting for 20-40 years.When the number of CAG repeats is between 36 and 43, the evolution is much slower, with few or no retinal abnormalities. A CAG repeat number from 18 to 35 is asymptomatic but predisposes to the development of the disorder when expanding to the pathological range through transmission. The diagnosis is made by molecular genetics. The neuropathology of the disorder includes atrophy of the spinocerebellar pathways, pyramidal tracts, and motor nuclei in the brainstem and spinal cord, a cone-rod sytrophy of the retina, and ataxin-7 immunoreactive neuronal intranuclear inclusions. The neuropathological features vary as a function of the number of CAG repeats. Present research deals mainly with the study of ataxin-7 in transfected neural cells and transgenic mouse models. 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Session Types at the Mirror

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Padovani

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We (redefine session types as projections of process behaviors with respect to the communication channels they use. In this setting, we give session types a semantics based on fair testing. The outcome is a unified theory of behavioral types that shares common aspects with conversation types and that encompass features of both dyadic and multi-party session types. The point of view we provide sheds light on the nature of session types and gives us a chance to reason about them in a framework where every notion, from well-typedness to the subtyping relation between session types, is semantically -rather than syntactically- grounded.

  6. Efficient Type Representation in TAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Juan

    2009-01-01

    Certifying compilers generate proofs for low-level code that guarantee safety properties of the code. Type information is an essential part of safety proofs. But the size of type information remains a concern for certifying compilers in practice. This paper demonstrates type representation techniques in a large-scale compiler that achieves both concise type information and efficient type checking. In our 200,000-line certifying compiler, the size of type information is about 36% of the size of pure code and data for our benchmarks, the best result to the best of our knowledge. The type checking time is about 2% of the compilation time.

  7. Type 1 Tyrosinaemia

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mannion, MA

    2016-06-01

    Tyrosinaemia type 1 (TYR1, OMIM# 276700) is a rare autosomal recessive disease that results from an enzyme defect that leads to a deficiency in fumarylacetoacetase (FAH)1. We present 3 cases of TYR1 in the Irish population over a 9 year period, the only cases known to have been diagnosed in Ireland since 1989. The common presenting symptom was hypoglycaemia and the diagnosis was made by the identification of the pathognomonic biomarker succinylacetone on urine organic acid analysis. We discuss the clinical presentation, biochemical and genetic results including one novel mutation. We also highlight the importance of early initiation of Nitisinone (NTBC), which reduces the complications of TYR1 and the incidence of liver transplantation in this population2.

  8. Type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    DeFronzo, Ralph A; Ferrannini, Ele; Groop, Leif

    2015-01-01

    comorbidities), owing to hyperglycaemia and individual components of the insulin resistance (metabolic) syndrome. Environmental factors (for example, obesity, an unhealthy diet and physical inactivity) and genetic factors contribute to the multiple pathophysiological disturbances that are responsible...... for impaired glucose homeostasis in T2DM. Insulin resistance and impaired insulin secretion remain the core defects in T2DM, but at least six other pathophysiological abnormalities contribute to the dysregulation of glucose metabolism. The multiple pathogenetic disturbances present in T2DM dictate......Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is an expanding global health problem, closely linked to the epidemic of obesity. Individuals with T2DM are at high risk for both microvascular complications (including retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy) and macrovascular complications (such as cardiovascular...

  9. Enteroendocrine cell types revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelstoft, Maja S; Egerod, Kristoffer Lihme; Lund, Mari L

    2013-01-01

    The GI-tract is profoundly involved in the control of metabolism through peptide hormones secreted from enteroendocrine cells scattered throughout the gut mucosa. A large number of recently generated transgenic reporter mice have allowed for direct characterization of biochemical and cell...... biological properties of these previously highly elusive enteroendocrine cells. In particular the surprisingly broad co-expression of six functionally related hormones in the intestinal enteroendocrine cells indicates that it should be possible to control not only the hormone secretion but also the type...... and number of enteroendocrine cells. However, this will require a more deep understanding of the factors controlling differentiation, gene expression and specification of the enteroendocrine cells during their weekly renewal from progenitor cells in the crypts of the mucosa....

  10. Mechanoluminescent Contact Type Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Yefremov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanoluminescent sensing elements convert mechanical stress into optical radiation. Advantages of such sensors are the ability to generate an optical signal, solid-state, simple structure, and resistance to electromagnetic interference. Mechanoluminescent sensor implementations can possess the concentrated and distributed sensitivity, thereby allowing us to detect the field of mechanical stresses distributed across the area and in volume. Most modern semiconductor photo-detectors can detect mechanoluminescent radiation, so there are no difficulties to provide its detection when designing the mechanoluminescent sensing devices. Mechanoluminescent substances have especial sensitivity to shock loads, and this effect can be used to create a fuse the structure of which includes a target contact type sensor with a photosensitive actuator. The paper briefly describes the theoretical basics of mechanoluminiscence: a light signal emerges from the interaction of crystalline phosphor luminescence centers with electrically charged dislocations, moving due to the deformation of the crystal. A mathematical model of the mechanoluminescent conversion is represented as a functional interaction between parameters of the mechanical shock excitation and the sensor light emission. Examples of computing the optical mechanoluminescent output signal depending on the duration and peak level of impulse load are given. It is shown that the luminous flux, generated by mechanoluminescent sensing element when there is an ammunition-target collision causes the current emerging in photo-detector (photodiode that is sufficient for a typical actuator of the fuse train to operate. The potential possibility to create a contact target type sensor based on the light-sensitive mechanoluminescent sensor was proved by the calculation and simulation results.

  11. Type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsarou, Anastasia; Gudbjörnsdottir, Soffia; Rawshani, Araz; Dabelea, Dana; Bonifacio, Ezio; Anderson, Barbara J; Jacobsen, Laura M; Schatz, Desmond A; Lernmark, Åke

    2017-03-30

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), also known as autoimmune diabetes, is a chronic disease characterized by insulin deficiency due to pancreatic β-cell loss and leads to hyperglycaemia. Although the age of symptomatic onset is usually during childhood or adolescence, symptoms can sometimes develop much later. Although the aetiology of T1DM is not completely understood, the pathogenesis of the disease is thought to involve T cell-mediated destruction of β-cells. Islet-targeting autoantibodies that target insulin, 65 kDa glutamic acid decarboxylase, insulinoma-associated protein 2 and zinc transporter 8 - all of which are proteins associated with secretory granules in β-cells - are biomarkers of T1DM-associated autoimmunity that are found months to years before symptom onset, and can be used to identify and study individuals who are at risk of developing T1DM. The type of autoantibody that appears first depends on the environmental trigger and on genetic factors. The pathogenesis of T1DM can be divided into three stages depending on the absence or presence of hyperglycaemia and hyperglycaemia-associated symptoms (such as polyuria and thirst). A cure is not available, and patients depend on lifelong insulin injections; novel approaches to insulin treatment, such as insulin pumps, continuous glucose monitoring and hybrid closed-loop systems, are in development. Although intensive glycaemic control has reduced the incidence of microvascular and macrovascular complications, the majority of patients with T1DM are still developing these complications. Major research efforts are needed to achieve early diagnosis, prevent β-cell loss and develop better treatment options to improve the quality of life and prognosis of those affected.

  12. Object-Oriented Type Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff; Palsberg, Jens

    Object-Oriented Type Systems Jens Palsberg and Michael I. Schwartzbach Aarhus University, Denmark Type systems are required to ensure reliability and efficiency of software. For object-oriented languages, typing is an especially challenging problem because of inheritance, assignment, and late...... binding. Existing languages employ different type systems, and it can be difficult to compare, evaluate and improve them, since there is currently no uniform theory for such languages. This book provides such a theory. The authors review the type systems of Simula, Smalltalk, C++ and Eiffel and present...... a type system that generalizes and explains them. The theory is based on an idealized object-oriented language called BOPL (Basic Object Programming Language), containing common features of the above languages. A type system, type inference algorithm, and typings of inheritance and genericity...

  13. Object-Oriented Type Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff; Palsberg, Jens

    a type system that generalizes and explains them. The theory is based on an idealized object-oriented language called BOPL (Basic Object Programming Language), containing common features of the above languages. A type system, type inference algorithm, and typings of inheritance and genericity...... binding. Existing languages employ different type systems, and it can be difficult to compare, evaluate and improve them, since there is currently no uniform theory for such languages. This book provides such a theory. The authors review the type systems of Simula, Smalltalk, C++ and Eiffel and present......Object-Oriented Type Systems Jens Palsberg and Michael I. Schwartzbach Aarhus University, Denmark Type systems are required to ensure reliability and efficiency of software. For object-oriented languages, typing is an especially challenging problem because of inheritance, assignment, and late...

  14. Low-frequency dynamical response of confined water in normal and supercooled regions obtained by IINS

    CERN Document Server

    Crupi, V; Migliardo, P; Venuti, V; Dianoux, A J

    2002-01-01

    We analyzed incoherent inelastic neutron scattering spectra of water confined in a nanoporous Gelsil matrix, with very small pore diameter (26 A). The study is addressed to the evolution of the one-phonon amplitude-weighted proton vibrational density of states, Z(omega), when the water loses its peculiar bulk properties and originates a new structural environment due to its surface interactions. (orig.)

  15. <i>In situ diagnostics of the crystal-growth process through neutron imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tremsin, Anton S.; Makowska, Malgorzata Grazyna; Perrodin, Didier

    2016-01-01

    .g. while growing single crystals). The processing equipment, in this case furnaces, and the scintillator materials are opaque to conventional X-ray interrogation techniques. The distribution of the europium activator within a BaBrCl:Eu scintillator (0.1 and 0.5% nominal doping concentrations per mole......, as limited by the resolution of the present experiments). It is also demonstrated that the dopant concentration can be quantified even for very low concentration levels (∼ 0.1%) in 10 mm thick samples. The interface between the solid and liquid phases can also be imaged, provided there is a sufficient change...

  16. <i>In vivo charge injection limits increased after 'unsafe' stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meijs, Suzan; Sørensen, Søren; Rechendorff, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    was not observed with any of the stimulation protocols and no tissue damage was observed for the 20 mA – 200 Hz stimulation group. This indicates that the ‘safe potential window’ may not be applicable in vivo, as no damage was done stimulating with 20 mA at 200 Hz, while damage was done using the same current...

  17. DNA damage markers in dermal fibroblasts <i>in vitro reflect chronological donor age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waaijer, Mariëtte E C; Croco, Eleonora; Westendorp, Rudi G J

    2016-01-01

    The aging process is accompanied by an accumulation of cellular damage, which compromises the viability and function of cells and tissues. We aim to further explore the association between in vitro DNA damage markers and the chronological age of the donor, as well as long-lived family membership...

  18. <i>In situ/Operando studies of electrocatalysts using hard X-ray spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lassalle-Kaiser, Benedikt [Synchrotron SOLEIL, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Gul, Sheraz [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Molecular Biophysics and Integrated Bioimaging Div.; Kern, Jan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Molecular Biophysics and Integrated Bioimaging Div.; SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States). Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS); Yachandra, Vittal K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Molecular Biophysics and Integrated Bioimaging Div.; Yano, Junko [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Molecular Biophysics and Integrated Bioimaging Div.

    2017-05-02

    This review focuses on the use of X-ray absorption and emission spectroscopy techniques using hard X-rays to study electrocatalysts under in situ/operando conditions. The importance and the versatility of methods in the study of electrodes in contact with the electrolytes are described, when they are being cycled through the catalytic potentials during the progress of the oxygen-evolution, oxygen reduction and hydrogen evolution reactions. The catalytic oxygen evolution reaction is illustrated with examples using three oxides, Co, Ni and Mn, and two sulfides, Mo and Co. These are used as examples for the hydrogen evolution reaction. A bimetallic, bifunctional oxygen evolving and oxygen reducing Ni/Mn oxide is also presented. The various advantages and constraints in the use of these techniques and the future outlook are discussed.

  19. <i>In silico Support for Eschenmoser’s Glyoxylate Scenario

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jakob Lykke; Flamm, Christoph; Merkle, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    contribution, Albert Eschenmoser emphasised the importance of catalytic and autocatalytic cycles in establishing such abiotic synthesis pathways. The accumulation of intermediate products furthermore provides additional catalysts that allow pathways to change over time. We show here that generative models...... of chemical spaces based on graph grammars make it possible to study such phenomena in a systematic manner. In addition to reproducing the key steps of Eschenmoser’s hypothesis paper, we discovered previously unexplored potentially autocatalytic pathways from HCN to glyoxylate. A cascade of autocatalytic...... to the exponential growth of possible molecules and reactions between them. Here, in particular, the combinatorial complexity of the HCN polymerisation and hydrolysation networks forms the computational bottleneck. As a consequence, guidance of the computational exploration by chemical experience is indispensable....

  20. Bioavailability and <i>in vivo metabolism of intact glucosinolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jens Christian; Frandsen, Heidi Blok; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2016-01-01

    Health benefits associated with consumption of cruciferous vegetables have received considerable attention with a hitherto focus on the role and bioactivity of glucosinolate degradation products. We investigated the in vivo metabolism of intact glucosinolates by following their fate in digesta...

  1. <i>In silico optimization of critical currents in superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimmel, Gregory; Sadovskyy, Ivan A.; Glatz, Andreas

    2017-07-01

    For many technological applications of superconductors the performance of a material is determined by the highest current it can carry losslessly-the critical current. In turn, the critical current can be controlled by adding nonsuperconducting defects in the superconductor matrix. Here we report on systematic comparison of different local and global optimization strategies to predict optimal structures of pinning centers leading to the highest possible critical currents. We demonstrate performance of these methods for a superconductor with randomly placed spherical, elliptical, and columnar defects.

  2. Need for In Operando Characterization of Electrochemical Interface Features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traulsen, Marie Lund; Chatzichristodoulou, Christodoulos; Hansen, Karin Vels

    2015-01-01

    The problems of understanding the electrode reaction kinetics and in particular the degradation of the kinetics destroying the electrode performance, is briefly described. This is followed by an analysis of information that is needed and which knowledge may be acquired by available in operando...

  3. First-Trimester <i>In Utero Exposure to Methylphenidate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dideriksen, Dorthe; Pottegård, Anton; Hallas, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    Methylphenidate is a centrally acting sympathomimetic used for the treatment of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents and for narcolepsy in adults. Despite the growing use among adult women, no reliable data on the prevalence of use during pregnancy have been...

  4. The Perception of the Academics and Students Regarding the Entrepreneurial Education Iin Economic Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Gabriel Nistoreanu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The XXI century has brought radical transformations in the ways of organising the society as a whole and particularly of the academic world. It is known that the higher learning institutions have constantly positioned themselves among the sustainable institutions of the civilisation, fact due in large amount to their flexibility, but also to their power of anticipation, transformation, and innovation. The role of education in society, but especially of entrepreneurial education is in a constant state of change, and must be correlated with social requirements that keep evolving. The knowledge based economy focuses on continuous development of human education and their entrepreneurial capabilities. The modern economy needs specialists with entrepreneurial attitudes, and universities must assume an important role of providers of potential entrepreneurs. This requirement is also valid for the university community from the Bucharest University of Economic Studies; the purpose of this work was to find the perception of teachers and students in regards to using the professional competences through business education.

  5. Tumor markers in finding recurrent disease iin colorectal cancer: a diagnostic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verberne, Charlotte; de Jong, W.H.; Grossmann, Irene

    2013-01-01

    Aim: In the search for evidence-based follow-up of patients after resection for colorectal cancer, numerous tumor markers have been proposed. This review has evaluated these markers and comments on the diagnostic accuracy in finding recurrent disease in relation to Carcino-Embryonic Antigen (CEA......). Methods: A comprehensive literature review (1985- 2010) was performed by two independent reviewers. Sensitivity and specificity of markers mentioned in the articles were checked by recalculation. A validated quality score system was used to estimate study quality. Results: Seventeen studies focusing...... on eight different markers were included. Three markers were shown to have comparable or better accuracy than CEA: TPA, CA 242 and CA 72-4 in at least one study. These three markers, from four independent studies, showed a tu- mor marker sensitivity of > 60% in combination with an outperformance of CEA...

  6. Extended release matrix tablets of Stavudine: Formulation and <i>in vitro evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Saravanakumar M; Venkateswaramurthy N; Dhachinamoorthi D; Perumal P

    2010-01-01

    During the past two decades, there has been a steady increase in both the number of antiretroviral medications and the number of possible regimens available to manage human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). But still, regimen fails due to some reasons such as toxicity, adverse effects, and consequent difficulties with patient adherence. Stavudine is the Food and Drug Administration approved drug for clinical use for the treatment of HIV infection, AI...

  7. Genetic predisposition to ductal carcinoma <i>in situ of the breast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petridis, Christos; Brook, Mark N; Shah, Vandna

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is a non-invasive form of breast cancer. It is often associated with invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC), and is considered to be a non-obligate precursor of IDC. It is not clear to what extent these two forms of cancer share low-risk susceptibility loci, o...

  8. Engineering a Polyketide Synthase for <i>In Vitro Production of Adipic Acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagen, A; Poust, S; De Rond, T; Fortman, JL; Katz, L; Petzold, CJ; Keasling, JD

    2015-10-26

    Polyketides have enormous structural diversity, yet polyketide synthases (PKSs) have thus far been engineered to produce only drug candidates or derivatives thereof. Thousands of other molecules, including commodity and specialty chemicals, could be synthesized using PKSs if composing hybrid PKSs from well-characterized parts derived from natural PKSs was more efficient. Here, using modern mass spectrometry techniques as an essential part of the design–build–test cycle, we engineered a chimeric PKS to enable production one of the most widely used commodity chemicals, adipic acid. To accomplish this, we introduced heterologous reductive domains from various PKS clusters into the borrelidin PKS’ first extension module, which we previously showed produces a 3-hydroxy-adipoyl intermediate when coincubated with the loading module and a succinyl-CoA starter unit. Acyl-ACP intermediate analysis revealed an unexpected bottleneck at the dehydration step, which was overcome by introduction of a carboxyacyl-processing dehydratase domain. Appending a thioesterase to the hybrid PKS enabled the production of free adipic acid. Using acyl-intermediate based techniques to “debug” PKSs as described here, it should one day be possible to engineer chimeric PKSs to produce a variety of existing commodity and specialty chemicals, as well as thousands of chemicals that are difficult to produce from petroleum feedstocks using traditional synthetic chemistry.

  9. PAMAM dendrimer with 4-carbomethoxypyrrolidone - <i>In vitro assessment of neurotoxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janaszewska, Anna; Studzian, Maciej; Petersen, Johannes Fabritius

    2015-01-01

    Cytotoxicity of cationic amino-terminated PAMAM dendrimer and modified PAMAM-pyrrolidone dendrimer was compared. LDH assay and cell visualization technique were employed. Mouse embryonic hippocampal cells (mHippoE-18) were used. The experiments were performed in FBS-deprived medium. Pyrrolidone...

  10. An <i>in vitro Method for Predicting Inhalation Toxicity of Impregnation Spray Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørli, Jorid B.; Hansen, Jitka S.; Nørgaard, Asger Wisti

    2015-01-01

    Impregnation spray products are used for making surfaces water and dirt repellent. The products are composed of one or more active film-forming components dissolved or suspended in an appropriate solvent mixture. Exposure to impregnation spray products may cause respiratory distress and new cases...... of the inhalation toxicity of impregnation spray products and thus may reduce the need for animal testing....... of this study was to evaluate whether disruption of the pulmonary surfactant film can be used as a predictor of the toxic effects in vivo. Nine impregnation products with various chemical compositions were selected for testing and the main constituents of each product, e.g., solvents, co-solvents and film...... and in vivo. The true positive rate of the in vitro method was 100%, i.e. the test could correctly identify all products with toxic effects in vivo, the true negative rate was 40%. Investigation of inhibition of the pulmonary surfactant system, e.g. by capillary surfactometry, was found useful for evaluation...

  11. <i>In Situ Molecular Imaging of the Biofilm and Its Matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Yuanzhao; Zhou, Yufan; Yao, Juan; Szymanski, Craig J.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Shi, Liang; Cao, B.; Zhu, Zihua; Yu, Xiao-Ying

    2016-11-15

    Molecular mapping of live biofilms at submicron resolution presents a grand challenge. Here, we present the first chemical mapping results of biofilm extracellular polymeric sub-stance (EPS) components in biofilms using correlative imaging be-tween super resolution florescence microscopy and liquid time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). Shewanella oneidensis is used as a model organism. Heavy metal anions chro-mate (Cr2O72-) consisting of chromium Cr (VI) was a model envi-ronmental stressor used to treat the biofilms. Of particular interest, biologically relevant water clusters have been first observed in the biofilms. Characteristic fragments of biofilm matrix components such as proteins, polysaccharides, and lipids can be spatially im-aged. Furthermore, characteristic fatty acids (e.g., palmitic acid), quinolone signal, and riboflavin fragments are found to respond af-ter the biofilm is treated with Cr (VI), leading to biofilm dispersion. Significant changes in water clusters and quorum sensing signals indicative of intercellular communication in the aqueous environ-ment are observed, suggesting that they might result in fatty acid synthesis and inhibit riboflavin production. The Cr (VI) reduction seems to follow the Mtr pathway leading to Cr (III) formation. Our approach potentially opens a new avenue for mechanistic insight of microbial community processes and communications using in situ imaging mass spectrometry and superresolution optical micros-copy.

  12. <i>In situ ingestion of microfibres by meiofauna from sandy beaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gusmão, Felipe; Di Domenico, Maikon; Amaral, A. Cecilia Z.

    2016-01-01

    Microfibres are widespread contaminants in marine environments across the globe. Detecting in situ ingestion of microfibres by small marine organisms is necessary to understand their potential accumulation in marine food webs and their role in marine pollution. We have examined the gut contents o...

  13. Session Types at the Mirror

    OpenAIRE

    Luca Padovani

    2009-01-01

    We (re)define session types as projections of process behaviors with respect to the communication channels they use. In this setting, we give session types a semantics based on fair testing. The outcome is a unified theory of behavioral types that shares common aspects with conversation types and that encompass features of both dyadic and multi-party session types. The point of view we provide sheds light on the nature of session types and gives us a chance to reason about them in a framework...

  14. Effects of Cooling Fluid Flow Rate on the Critical Heat Flux and Flow Stability in the Plate Fuel Type 2 MW TRIGA Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. P. Rahardjo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The conversion program of the 2 MW TRIGA reactor in Bandung consisted of the replacement of cylindrical fuel (produced by General Atomic with plate fuel (produced by BATAN. The replacement led into the change of core cooling process from upward natural convection type to downward forced convection type, and resulted in different thermohydraulic safety criteria, such as critical heat flux (CHF limit, boiling limit, and cooling fluid flow stability. In this paper, a thermohydraulic safety analysis of the converted TRIGA reactor is presented by considering the Dynamic Nucleate Boiling Ratio (DNBR criterion, Onset Nucleate Boiling Ratio (ONBR limit, and cooling fluid flow stability at various cooling fluid flow rate.The numerical analyses were performed using the HEATHYD program on the hottest channels of reactor core.The combination of heat transfer and fluid flow analysis were conducted for reactor operation at 2 MW with 20 fuel element bundles and four control rod bundles. Incoming fluid flow to the cooling channel was fixed at 44.5 °C temperature and 1.9970 bar pressure, and its flow rate was varied from 1.25 to 3.5 m3/h. By inputting these values, as well as the total power of fuel elements per bundle, the wall temperature distribution of the plate fuel element, cooling fluid temperature distribution, and pressure losses in the channels were obtained for the analysis of CHF limit, boiling limit, and flow stability. It was shown that no boiling occurred for the cooling fluid flow rate range of 2.4 to 3.5 m3/h, and even at the cooling fluid flow rate of 1.25 m3/h where some bubbles occurred, the DNBR was higher than the critical limit (more than 23 while the flow stability criterion in some channels were slightly less than 1 (unstable. At the cooling fluid flow rate of 1.4 m3/h, however, the flow became stable in all channel. [Type I cryoglobulinemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höffkes, H G; Weber, F; Helmchen, U; Friedmann, B; Kribben, A; Uppenkamp, M; Philipp, T

    1995-07-14

    For 2 years a 52-year-old man had repeated bouts of purpura, arthralgia and fever. He was known to have abnormal monoclonal gammaglobulins, type IgG-lambda and vasculitis when he had another bout with acute renal failure and necrotizing ulcers in the legs. Several laboratory tests were abnormal: erythrocyte sedimentation rate (122 mm), haemoglobin level (9.1 g/dl), white cell count (32,000/microliters), platelet count (562,000/microliters), creatinine level (4.1 mg/dl) and liver enzyme activities. He also had proteinuria (4.5 g daily) and nephritic urinary sediments. The immunoglobulin was subtype IgG3, and a cryoglobulinaemia was also present. Total complement level (CH 50) was not measurable. Bone marrow aspirate revealed plasmocytoma infiltration, and renal biopsy demonstrated necrotizing arteritis, as well as granular subendothelial deposits of IgG and complement. After three plasma separations and initiation of the first treatment cycle with a four-day infusion of vincristine, doxorubicin and dexamethasone the creatinine concentration fell to within the normal range and the necroses healed slowly. No cryoglobulin activity has been demonstrable over the past 24 months.

  15. Tornado type wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Cheng-Ting

    1984-01-01

    A tornado type wind turbine has a vertically disposed wind collecting tower with spaced apart inner and outer walls and a central bore. The upper end of the tower is open while the lower end of the structure is in communication with a wind intake chamber. An opening in the wind chamber is positioned over a turbine which is in driving communication with an electrical generator. An opening between the inner and outer walls at the lower end of the tower permits radially flowing air to enter the space between the inner and outer walls while a vertically disposed opening in the wind collecting tower permits tangentially flowing air to enter the central bore. A porous portion of the inner wall permits the radially flowing air to interact with the tangentially flowing air so as to create an intensified vortex flow which exits out of the top opening of the tower so as to create a low pressure core and thus draw air through the opening of the wind intake chamber so as to drive the turbine.

  16. Neurofibromatosis Type II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Kasiri Ghahi

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2 is an inherited disease which is mainly characterized by the development of multiple schwannomas and meningiomas.  Incidence of the disease is about 1 in 60,000. Affected individuals inevitably develop schwannomas, typically affecting both auditory-vestibular nerve which lead in hearing loss and deafness. The majority of patients present with hearing loss, which is usually unilateral at onset and may be accompanied or preceded by tinnitus. Vestibular schwannomas may also cause dizziness or imbalance as a first symptom. Nausea, vomiting or true vertigo are rare symptoms, except in late-stage disease. NF II is caused by a defect in the gene that normally gives rise to a product called Merlin or Schwannomin, located on chromosome 22. Diagnosis is based on clinical and neuroimaging studies. Presymptomatic genetic testing is an integral part of the management of NF2 families. Prenatal diagnosis and pre-implantation genetic diagnosis is possible.

  17. Organ Type and Waiting Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Child Adjust Camps Resources LIVING DONATION Facts Types Being a Living Donor About the Operation Financing Living Donation Home / Before The Transplant / About Organ Allocation / Organ Type & Waiting Time Organ Facts Heart ...

  18. Object-Oriented Type Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff; Palsberg, Jens

    a type system that generalizes and explains them. The theory is based on an idealized object-oriented language called BOPL (Basic Object Programming Language), containing common features of the above languages. A type system, type inference algorithm, and typings of inheritance and genericity...... are provided for BOPL. Throughout, the results are related to the languages on which BOPL is based. This text offers advanced undergraduates and professional software developers a sound understanding of the key aspects of object-oriented type systems. All algorithms are implemented in a freely available......Object-Oriented Type Systems Jens Palsberg and Michael I. Schwartzbach Aarhus University, Denmark Type systems are required to ensure reliability and efficiency of software. For object-oriented languages, typing is an especially challenging problem because of inheritance, assignment, and late...

  19. Object-Oriented Type Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff; Palsberg, Jens

    are provided for BOPL. Throughout, the results are related to the languages on which BOPL is based. This text offers advanced undergraduates and professional software developers a sound understanding of the key aspects of object-oriented type systems. All algorithms are implemented in a freely available......Object-Oriented Type Systems Jens Palsberg and Michael I. Schwartzbach Aarhus University, Denmark Type systems are required to ensure reliability and efficiency of software. For object-oriented languages, typing is an especially challenging problem because of inheritance, assignment, and late...... a type system that generalizes and explains them. The theory is based on an idealized object-oriented language called BOPL (Basic Object Programming Language), containing common features of the above languages. A type system, type inference algorithm, and typings of inheritance and genericity...

  1. Treatise on intuitionistic type theory

    CERN Document Server

    Granström, Johan Georg

    2011-01-01

    Intuitionistic type theory can be described, somewhat boldly, as a fulfillment of the dream of a universal language for science.  In particular, intuitionistic type theory is a foundation for mathematics and a programming language.

  2. Types of health care providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Types of health care providers URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001933.htm Types of health care providers To ...

  3. Object-Oriented Type Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff; Palsberg, Jens

    a type system that generalizes and explains them. The theory is based on an idealized object-oriented language called BOPL (Basic Object Programming Language), containing common features of the above languages. A type system, type inference algorithm, and typings of inheritance and genericity......Object-Oriented Type Systems Jens Palsberg and Michael I. Schwartzbach Aarhus University, Denmark Type systems are required to ensure reliability and efficiency of software. For object-oriented languages, typing is an especially challenging problem because of inheritance, assignment, and late...... are provided for BOPL. Throughout, the results are related to the languages on which BOPL is based. This text offers advanced undergraduates and professional software developers a sound understanding of the key aspects of object-oriented type systems. All algorithms are implemented in a freely available...

  4. Comparison of Thermal Stress during Short-Circuit in Different Types of 1.2 kV SiC Transistors Based on Experiments and Simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Sadik, Diane-Perle; Colmenares, Juan; Lim, Jang-Kwon; Bakowski, Mietek; Nee, Hans-Peter

    2016-01-01

    The temperature evolution during a short-circuit in the die of three different Silicon Carbide1200-V power devices is presented. A transient thermal simulation was performed based on the reconstructedstructure of commercially available devices. The location of the hottest point in the device iscompared. Finally, the analysis supports the necessity to turn off short-circuit events rapidly in orderto protect the device after a fault. QC 20170530

  5. Lectin typing of Campylobacter concisus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabenhus, Rune Munck; Hynes, Sean O; Permin, Henrik

    2002-01-01

    A total of 44 clinical isolates and the type strain of the putative pathogen Campylobacter concisus were grouped based on their reactions with plant lectins. The optimized lectin typing system used C. concisus strains proteolytically pretreated and subsequently typed by using a panel of four...... lectins. The system grouped all 45 strains into 13 lectin reaction patterns, leaving no strain untypeable due to autoagglutination. Lectin types were both stable and reproducible....

  6. Type inference for COBOL systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. van Deursen (Arie); L.M.F. Moonen (Leon)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractTypes are a good starting point for various software reengineering tasks. Unfortunately, programs requiring reengineering most desperately are written in languages without an adequate type system (such as COBOL). To solve this problem, we propose a method of automated type inference

  7. Case 22:Type II diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetes mellitus is characterized by elevated blood glucose levels. It is composed of two types depending on the pathogenesis. Type I diabetes is characterized by insulin deficiency and usually has its onset during childhood or teenage years. This is also called ketosis-prone diabetes. Type II diab...

  8. Exploring legacy systems using types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. van Deursen (Arie); L.M.F. Moonen (Leon)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractWe show how hypertext-based program understanding tools can achieve new levels of abstraction by using inferred type information for cases where the subject software system is written in a weakly typed language. We propose TypeExplorer, a tool for browsing COBOL legacy systems based on

  9. Magnetoelastic Generator Type Transducer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Efremov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Some issues relating to usage of magnetoelectric generator type transducers as the means of measuring intense dynamic loads and as a sensitive element of fuse contact target sensor (CTS are considered. Particular attention is paid to the magnetoanisotropic transducer (MAT, the principle of operation of which is based on the change of the magnetic field form caused by the applied mechanical load leading to the appearance of EMF in the output winding. The MAT, especially monolithic, has such advantages as high strength, reliability, endurance and design simplicity.The functional transducer schemes have been analyzed and for the first time it was shown that there is a possibility of using a version with only one output winding arranged in the magnetic conductor made of magnetically soft material such as structural steel. A mathematical model of transducer is proposed showing that the input signal formed by the external load is proportional to its derivative. With a sufficiently large time constant of the electric circuit and the implementation of a number of additional conditions the transducer may function as an integrator. By that it becomes possible to measure the parameters of dynamic processes having the duration of a few to tens of microseconds. Unlike the traditional transducers such as piezoelectric the output signal is not “masked” by the natural oscillations.The mechanism of the generator effect was considered leading to the “piezomagnetodynamic” model, which includes a number of phenomenological parameters. Some corresponding experimentally derived hysteresis curves are presented. Their vertical shift quantifies the generator effect and does not depend on the intensity of the magnetic field.As an example of practical application of the MAT some results of evaluation of the dynamic force characteristic of the heading part of a piezoelectric fuse are presented. The MAT was also used for the evaluation of back effects of the bullet

  10. Type II Supernova Light Curves and Spectra from the CfA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicken, Malcolm; Friedman, Andrew S.; Blondin, Stephane; Challis, Peter; Berlind, Perry; Calkins, Mike; Esquerdo, Gil; Matheson, Thomas; Modjaz, Maryam; Rest, Armin; Kirshner, Robert P.

    2017-11-01

    We present multiband photometry of 60 spectroscopically confirmed supernovae (SNe): 39 SNe II/IIP, 19 IIn, 1 IIb, and 1 that was originally classified as a IIn but later as a Ibn. Of these, 46 have only optical photometry, 6 have only near-infrared (NIR) photometry, and 8 have both optical and NIR. The median redshift of the sample is 0.016. We also present 195 optical spectra for 48 of the 60 SN. There are 26 optical and 2 NIR light curves of SNe II/IIP with redshifts z> 0.01, some of which may give rise to useful distances for cosmological applications. All photometry was obtained between 2000 and 2011 at the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory (FLWO), via the 1.2 m and 1.3 m PAIRITEL telescopes for the optical and NIR, respectively. Each SN was observed in a subset of the u\\prime {UBVRIr}\\prime I\\prime {{JHK}}s bands. There are a total of 2932 optical and 816 NIR light curve points. Optical spectra were obtained using the FLWO 1.5 m Tillinghast telescope with the FAST spectrograph and the MMT Telescope with the Blue Channel Spectrograph. Our photometry is in reasonable agreement with select samples from the literature: two-thirds of our star sequences have average V offsets within ±0.02 mag and roughly three-quarters of our light curves have average differences within ±0.04 mag. The data from this work and the literature will provide insight into SN II explosions, help with developing methods for photometric SN classification, and contribute to their use as cosmological distance indicators.

  11. Typing is writing: Linguistic properties modulate typing execution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinet, Svetlana; Ziegler, Johannes C; Alario, F-Xavier

    2016-12-01

    Typing is becoming our preferred way of writing. Perhaps because of the relative recency of this change, very few studies have investigated typing from a psycholinguistic perspective. In addition, and despite obvious similarities between typing and handwriting, typing research has remained rather disconnected from handwriting research. The current study aimed at bridging this gap by evaluating how typing is affected by a number of psycholinguistic variables defined at the word, syllable, and letter levels. In a writing-to-dictation task, we assessed typing performance by measuring response accuracy, onset latencies - an index of response preparation and initiation - and interkeystroke intervals (IKIs) - an index of response execution processes. The lexical and sublexical factors revealed a composite pattern of effects. Lexical frequency improved response latencies and accuracy, while bigram frequency speeded up IKIs. Sound-spelling consistency improved latencies, but had an inhibitory effect on IKI. IKIs were also longer at syllable boundaries. Together, our findings can be fit within a framework for typed production that combines the previously developed theories of spelling and typing execution. At their interface, we highlight the need for an intermediate hierarchical stage, perhaps in the form of a graphemic buffer for typing.

  12. Object-Oriented Type Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff; Palsberg, Jens

    are provided for BOPL. Throughout, the results are related to the languages on which BOPL is based. This text offers advanced undergraduates and professional software developers a sound understanding of the key aspects of object-oriented type systems. All algorithms are implemented in a freely available......Object-Oriented Type Systems Jens Palsberg and Michael I. Schwartzbach Aarhus University, Denmark Type systems are required to ensure reliability and efficiency of software. For object-oriented languages, typing is an especially challenging problem because of inheritance, assignment, and late...... binding. Existing languages employ different type systems, and it can be difficult to compare, evaluate and improve them, since there is currently no uniform theory for such languages. This book provides such a theory. The authors review the type systems of Simula, Smalltalk, C++ and Eiffel and present...

  13. Early onset type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bo, A; Thomsen, R W; Nielsen, J S

    2017-01-01

    was more frequent and meeting physical activity recommendations less likely in persons with early-onset type 2 DM. CONCLUSIONS: We found a clear age-gradient, with increasing prevalence of clinical and behavioural risk factors the younger the onset age of type 2 DM. Younger persons with early-onset type 2......AIM: To examine the association between early onset of type 2 diabetes (DM) and clinical and behavioural risk factors for later diabetes complications. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 5115 persons with incident type 2 DM enrolled during 2010-2015 in the Danish Centre for Strategic...... Research in Type 2 Diabetes-cohort. We compared risk factors at time of diagnosis among those diagnosed at ≤45 years (early-onset) with diagnosis age 46-55, 56-65 (average-onset = reference), 66-75, and >75 years (late-onset). Prevalence ratios (PRs) were computed using Poisson regression. RESULTS: Poor...

  14. Object-Oriented Type Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff; Palsberg, Jens

    Object-Oriented Type Systems Jens Palsberg and Michael I. Schwartzbach Aarhus University, Denmark Type systems are required to ensure reliability and efficiency of software. For object-oriented languages, typing is an especially challenging problem because of inheritance, assignment, and late...... are provided for BOPL. Throughout, the results are related to the languages on which BOPL is based. This text offers advanced undergraduates and professional software developers a sound understanding of the key aspects of object-oriented type systems. All algorithms are implemented in a freely available...... binding. Existing languages employ different type systems, and it can be difficult to compare, evaluate and improve them, since there is currently no uniform theory for such languages. This book provides such a theory. The authors review the type systems of Simula, Smalltalk, C++ and Eiffel and present...

  15. Types for BioAmbients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Capecchi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The BioAmbients calculus is a process algebra suitable for representing compartmentalization, molecular localization and movements between compartments. In this paper we enrich this calculus with a static type system classifying each ambient with group types specifying the kind of compartments in which the ambient can stay. The type system ensures that, in a well-typed process, ambients cannot be nested in a way that violates the type hierarchy. Exploiting the information given by the group types, we also extend the operational semantics of BioAmbients with rules signalling errors that may derive from undesired ambients' moves (i.e. merging incompatible tissues. Thus, the signal of errors can help the modeller to detect and locate unwanted situations that may arise in a biological system, and give practical hints on how to avoid the undesired behaviour.

  16. Object-Oriented Type Inference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff; Palsberg, Jens

    1991-01-01

    We present a new approach to inferring types in untyped object-oriented programs with inheritance, assignments, and late binding. It guarantees that all messages are understood, annotates the program with type information, allows polymorphic methods, and can be used as the basis of an op-timizing......-timizing compiler. Types are finite sets of classes and subtyping is set inclusion. Using a trace graph, our algorithm constructs a set of conditional type constraints and computes the least solution by least fixed-point derivation....

  17. Management of type IIb dyslipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Hidenori; Ishibashi, Shun; Bujo, Hideaki; Hayashi, Toshio; Yokoyama, Shinji; Oikawa, Shinichi; Kobayashi, Junji; Shirai, Kohji; Ota, Takao; Yamashita, Shizuya; Gotoda, Takanari; Harada-Shiba, Mariko; Sone, Hirohito; Eto, Masaaki; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Yamada, Nobuhiro

    2012-01-01

    Although the Japan Atherosclerosis Society guideline for the diagnosis and prevention of atherosclerosis cardiovascular diseases for the Japanese population provides targets for low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol to prevent cardiovascular disease in patients with dyslipidemia, there is no guideline specifically targeting the treatment of type IIb dyslipidemia, which is one of the most common types of dyslipidemia, along with type IIa and type IV dyslipidemia. Type IIb dyslipidemia is important because it sometimes accompanies atherogenic lipid profiles, such as small, dense LDL, remnants, low HDL cholesterolemia. It is also associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, and chronic kidney disease (CKD), and most patients with familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCHL) show this phenotype; therefore, it is assumed that patients with type IIb dyslipidemia have a high risk for cardiovascular disease. Thus, the management of type IIb dyslipidemia is very important for the prevention of cardiovascular disease, so we have attempted to provide a guideline for the management of type IIb dyslipidemia.

  18. Type-safe pattern combinators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rhiger, Morten

    2009-01-01

    Macros still haven't made their way into typed higher-order programming languages such as Haskell and Standard ML. Therefore, to extend the expressiveness of Haskell or Standard ML, one must express new linguistic features in terms of functions that fit within the static type systems of these lan......Macros still haven't made their way into typed higher-order programming languages such as Haskell and Standard ML. Therefore, to extend the expressiveness of Haskell or Standard ML, one must express new linguistic features in terms of functions that fit within the static type systems...

  19. Florence Nightingale: her personality type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossey, Barbara M

    2010-03-01

    This article casts new and refreshing light on Florence Nightingale's life and work by examining her personality type. Using the theory-based Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), the author examines Nightingale's personality type and reveals that she was an introverted-intuitive-thinking-judging type. The merit of using the MBTI is that it allows us to more clearly understand three major areas of Nightingale's life that have been partially unacknowledged or misunderstood: her spiritual development as a practicing mystic, her management of her chronic illness to maintain her prodigious work output, and her chosen strategies to transform her visionary ideas into new health care and social realities.

  20. Equations of the mixed type

    CERN Document Server

    Bitsadze, A V

    1963-01-01

    Equations of the Mixed Type compiles a series of lectures on certain fundamental questions in the theory of equations of mixed type. This book investigates the series of problems concerning linear partial differential equations of the second order in two variables, and possessing the property that the type of the equation changes either on the boundary of or inside the considered domain. Topics covered include general remarks on linear partial differential equations of mixed type; study of the solutions of second order hyperbolic equations with initial conditions given along the lines of parab

  1. A Type System for Tom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Kirchner

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Extending a given language with new dedicated features is a general and quite used approach to make the programming language more adapted to problems. Being closer to the application, this leads to less programming flaws and easier maintenance. But of course one would still like to perform program analysis on these kinds of extended languages, in particular type checking and inference. In this case one has to make the typing of the extended features compatible with the ones in the starting language. The Tom programming language is a typical example of such a situation as it consists of an extension of Java that adds pattern matching, more particularly associative pattern matching, and reduction strategies. This paper presents a type system with subtyping for Tom, that is compatible with Java's type system, and that performs both type checking and type inference. We propose an algorithm that checks if all patterns of a Tom program are well-typed. In addition, we propose an algorithm based on equality and subtyping constraints that infers types of variables occurring in a pattern. Both algorithms are exemplified and the proposed type system is showed to be sound and complete.

  2. Safety Analysis versus Type Inference with Partial Types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff; Palsberg, Jens

    1992-01-01

    Safety analysis is an algorithm for determining if a term in an untyped lambda calculus with constants is safe, i.e., if it does not cause an error during evaluation. This ambition is also shared by algorithms for type inference. Safety analysis and type inference are based on rather different...... perspectives, however. Safety analysis is global in that it can only analyze a complete program. In contrast, type inference is local in that it can analyze pieces of a program in isolation. In this paper we prove that safety analysis is sound, relative to both a strict and a lazy operational semantics. We...... also prove that safety analysis accepts strictly more safe lambda terms than does type inference for simple types. The latter result demonstrates that global program analysis can be more precise than local ones....

  3. Types of subtalar joint facets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Min-Ho; Choi, Byoung Young; Lee, Ji Yong; Han, Chang Sung; Lee, Jin Suk; Yang, Young Chul; Cho, Byung Pil

    2015-08-01

    Articular facets of the clinical subtalar joint (CSTJ) were analyzed using a total of 118 (right 57, left 61) dry, paired calcanei and tali from 68 Korean adult cadavers. The CSTJ facets were classified into the following three types depending on their continuity: type A, all three facets are separated; type B, the anterior and middle facets are partially connected; and type C, the anterior and middle facets are fused to form a single facet. The continuity between the anterior and middle facets was represented by the degree of separation (DS), which ranged between 2.00 (type A) and 1.00 (type C). Type A was most common (39.0 %) in calcanei and rarest (11.0 %) in tali. Matching of calcaneus-talus pairs yielded five combined types: A-A (11.0 %), A-B (28.0 %), B-B (18.6 %), B-C (13.6 %), and C-C (28.8 %). The mean DS was slightly greater in calcanei (1.53) than in tali (1.32), and decreased in the order of types A-A, A-B, B-B, B-C, and C-C. The intersecting angles between the anterior and middle facets, which are related to the mobility of the CSTJ, were inversely related to the DS. These findings indicate that the anterior and middle facets are fused more frequently in tali than in calcanei, and combinations of different CSTJ facet types (A-B, B-C) exist over 40 % of feet. Our results indicate that types with a smaller DS (such as B-C and C-C) are relatively mobile but less stable compared to those with a greater DS (such as A-A and A-B).

  4. Brauer algebras of type B

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, A.M.; Liu, S.

    2015-01-01

    For each n ≥ 1, we define an algebra having many properties that one might expect to hold for a Brauer algebra of type Bn. It is defined by means of a presentation by generators and relations. We show that this algebra is a subalgebra of the Brauer algebra of type Dn+1 and point out a cellular

  5. Diabetes Type 1 - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Diabetes Type 1 URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Diabetes Type 1 - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  6. Linear contextual modal type theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schack-Nielsen, Anders; Schürmann, Carsten

    Abstract. When one implements a logical framework based on linear type theory, for example the Celf system [?], one is immediately con- fronted with questions about their equational theory and how to deal with logic variables. In this paper, we propose linear contextual modal type theory that gives...

  7. Type 1 Diabetes and Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farabi, Sarah S

    2016-02-01

    IN BRIEF In people with type 1 diabetes, sleep may be disrupted as a result of both behavioral and physiological aspects of diabetes and its management. This sleep disruption may negatively affect disease progression and development of complications. This review highlights key research findings regarding sleep in people with type 1 diabetes.

  8. Type 1 Diabetes and Sleep

    OpenAIRE

    Farabi, Sarah S.

    2016-01-01

    IN BRIEF In people with type 1 diabetes, sleep may be disrupted as a result of both behavioral and physiological aspects of diabetes and its management. This sleep disruption may negatively affect disease progression and development of complications. This review highlights key research findings regarding sleep in people with type 1 diabetes.

  9. Type-Directed Partial Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier

    1998-01-01

    Type-directed partial evaluation uses a normalization function to achieve partial evaluation. These lecture notes review its background, foundations, practice, and applications. Of specific interest is the modular technique of offline and online type-directed partial evaluation in Standard ML of ...

  10. Type studies in Basidiomycetes. X

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Singer, R.

    1961-01-01

    For the first time a systematic study of the types and authentic specimens of agarics and boletes preserved in the Persoon Herbarium has been carried out. Some aspects of the possibilities of type analysis with regard to specimens over 130 year old are discussed. 137 species were analyzed. The

  11. Classification of Building Object Types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj Asbjørn

    2011-01-01

    be managed by software applications and on the basis of building models. Classification systems with taxonomies of building object types have many application opportunities but can still be beneficial in data exchange between building construction partners. However, this will be performed by new methods...... and in strong connection with databases holding a wide range of object types....

  12. of Nigerian Type 2 diabetic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    degrees of generalized and central/abdominal fat, implying a greater risk of developing Type 2 DM in view of the relationship between body fat distribution and insulin resistance. Long term prospective studies are needed to define anthropometric indices predictive of the development of Type 2 DM, as well as its relation to ...

  13. Interpretations of Recursive Type Definitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff

    1992-01-01

    A system of hierarchical imperative types is extended to allow infinite values. The general structure of value assignments to types in the context of a hierarchy is considered, and it is shown that both a minimal and a maximal value assignment exist. We give two different characterizations of int...

  14. Type-Directed Partial Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier

    1998-01-01

    Type-directed partial evaluation uses a normalization function to achieve partial evaluation. These lecture notes review its background, foundations, practice, and applications. Of specific interest is the modular technique of offline and online type-directed partial evaluation in Standard ML...

  15. Types of Managed Care Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Involved in Your Community Healthy Children > Family Life > Medical Home > Health Insurance > Types of Managed Care Plans Family Life Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Types of Managed Care Plans Page Content Article Body ​Managed care plans have agreements with certain ...

  16. Intersection Types and Related Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Parys

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We present a new approach to the following meta-problem: given a quantitative property of trees, design a type system such that the desired property for the tree generated by an infinitary ground lambda-term corresponds to some property of a derivation of a type for this lambda-term, in this type system. Our approach is presented in the particular case of the language finiteness problem for nondeterministic higher-order recursion schemes (HORSes: given a nondeterministic HORS, decide whether the set of all finite trees generated by this HORS is finite. We give a type system such that the HORS can generate a tree of an arbitrarily large finite size if and only if in the type system we can obtain derivations that are arbitrarily large, in an appropriate sense; the latter condition can be easily decided.

  17. How hottest geometries and adsorptive parameters influence the SER(R)S spectra of Methylene Blue molecules adsorbed on nanocolloidal gold particles of varied sizes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Sannak Dutta; Ghosh, Manash; Chowdhury, Joydeep

    2015-12-05

    The SER(R)S spectra of Methylene Blue (MB) molecule adsorbed on gold nanocolloidal particles (AuNCs) have been investigated. The adsorptive parameters of the molecule adsorbed on AuNCs have been evaluated with the aid of Fluorescence Spectroscopy study. Fluorescence spectroscopic studies have been further applied to understand the concentration of probe molecule actually adsorbed on AuNC surfaces. Gigantic enhancements ∼10(6)-10(16) orders of magnitude have been recorded for the enhanced Raman bands in the SER(R)S spectra. Three-dimensional Finite Difference Time Domain (3D-FDTD) simulations studies have been carried out to predict the distributions of electric fields around the possible nanoaggregated hot geometries considered to be responsible for the huge enhancements of SER(R)S bands of the MB molecule. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Definitions of histocompatibility typing terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Eduardo; Heslop, Helen; Fernandez-Vina, Marcelo; Taves, Cynthia; Wagenknecht, Dawn R; Eisenbrey, A Bradley; Fischer, Gottfried; Poulton, Kay; Wacker, Kara; Hurley, Carolyn Katovich; Noreen, Harriet; Sacchi, Nicoletta

    2011-12-01

    Histocompatibility testing for stem cell and solid organ transplantation has become increasingly complex as newly discovered HLA alleles are described. HLA typing assignments reported by laboratories are used by physicians and donor registries for matching donors and recipients. To communicate effectively, a common language for histocompatibility terms should be established. In early 2010, representatives from Clinical, Registry, and Histocompatibility organizations joined together as the Harmonization of Histocompatibility Typing Terms Working Group to define a consensual language for laboratories, physicians, and registries to communicate histocompatibility typing information. The Working Group defined terms for HLA typing resolution, HLA matching, and a format for reporting HLA assignments. In addition, definitions of verification typing and extended typing were addressed. The original draft of the Definitions of Histocompatibility Typing Terms was disseminated to colleagues from each organization to gain feedback and create a collaborative document. Commentary gathered during this 90-day review period were discussed and implemented for preparation of this report. Histocompatibility testing continues to evolve; thus, the definitions agreed on today probably will require refinement and perhaps additional terminology in the future.

  19. P-type gallium nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, M.; Newman, N.; Fu, T.; Ross, J.; Chan, J.

    1997-08-12

    Several methods have been found to make p-type gallium nitride. P-type gallium nitride has long been sought for electronic devices. N-type gallium nitride is readily available. Discovery of p-type gallium nitride and the methods for making it will enable its use in ultraviolet and blue light-emitting diodes and lasers. pGaN will further enable blue photocathode elements to be made. Molecular beam epitaxy on substrates held at the proper temperatures, assisted by a nitrogen beam of the proper energy produced several types of p-type GaN with hole concentrations of about 5{times}10{sup 11} /cm{sup 3} and hole mobilities of about 500 cm{sup 2} /V-sec, measured at 250 K. P-type GaN can be formed of unintentionally-doped material or can be doped with magnesium by diffusion, ion implantation, or co-evaporation. When applicable, the nitrogen can be substituted with other group III elements such as Al. 9 figs.

  20. Wild type measles virus attenuation independent of type I IFN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horvat Branka

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Measles virus attenuation has been historically performed by adaptation to cell culture. The current dogma is that attenuated virus strains induce more type I IFN and are more resistant to IFN-induced protection than wild type (wt. Results The adaptation of a measles virus isolate (G954-PBL by 13 passages in Vero cells induced a strong attenuation of this strain in vivo. The adapted virus (G954-V13 differs from its parental strain by only 5 amino acids (4 in P/V/C and 1 in the M gene. While a vaccine strain, Edmonston Zagreb, could replicate equally well in various primate cells, both G954 strains exhibited restriction to the specific cell type used initially for their propagation. Surprisingly, we observed that both G954 strains induced type I IFN, the wt strain inducing even more than the attenuated ones, particularly in human plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells. Type I IFN-induced protection from the infection of both G954 strains depended on the cell type analyzed, being less efficient in the cells used to grow the viral strain. Conclusion Thus, mutations in M and P/V/C proteins can critically affect MV pathogenicity, cellular tropism and lead to virus attenuation without interfering with the α/β IFN system.

  1. CT findings of muscular dystrophy; Limb girdle type (LG), myotonic type (MYD) and Duchenne type (DMD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saitoh, Hiroshi (Tokushima Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1991-07-01

    CT scans of muscles in patients with limb girdle type (LG), myotonic type (MYD) and Duchenne type (DMD) dystrophies were obtained at five different body levels: the neck, L3 vertebral body, pelvic girdle, thigh and lower leg. CT numbers, cross sectional areas (CSA) and %CSA of muscle or fat were evaluated in each muscle. The characteristic CT patterns for each type of muscular dystrophy were obtained. Compared with DMD, the gracilis and soleus were more severely damaged in LG and the biceps femoris remained relatively preserved among the hamstrings. In addition, the multifidus of the neck and sternocleidomastoid also were more severely damaged in MYD. This study suggests that CT scan will be useful in the differential diagnosis of these types of muscular dystrophy as well as in planning appropriate rehabilitation and detecting damaged muscles. (author).

  2. Multi-Wavelength Light Curve of SN 2014G

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, John C.; Betzler, Alberto; Barrett, Douglas; Cason, Andy; Eenmäe, Tõnis; Kneip, Raymond; Martignoni, Massimiliano

    2014-06-01

    SN 2014G received an initial spectral classification of Type IIn (CBET 3787) as a blue continuum with some sharp emission. Later spectra (ATEL 5935) showed that it is more likely it is a Type II-L. We present multi-band photometry for this object from the peak until approximately 100 days after.

  3. Modalities in homotopy type theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijke, Egbert; Shulman, Michael; Spitters, Bas

    2017-01-01

    Univalent homotopy type theory (HoTT) may be seen as a language for the category of ∞-groupoids. It is being developed as a new foundation for mathematics and as an internal language for (elementary) higher toposes. We develop the theory of factorization systems, reflective subuniverses......, and modalities in homotopy type theory, including their construction using a "localization" higher inductive type. This produces in particular the (n-connected, n-truncated) factorization system as well as internal presentations of subtoposes, through lex modalities. We also develop the semantics...

  4. Type Inference of Turbo Pascal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Ole Ildsgaard; Schwartzbach, Michael I; Askari, Hosein

    1995-01-01

    Type inference is generally thought of as being an exclusive property of the functional programming paradigm. We argue that such a feature may be of significant benefit for also standard imperative languages. We present a working tool (available by WWW) providing these benefits for a full version...... of Turbo Pascal. It has the form of a preprocessor that analyzes programs in which the type annotations are only partial or even absent. The resulting program has full type annotations, will be accepted by the standard Turbo Pascal compiler, and has polymorphic use of procedures resolved by means of code...

  5. User Types in Online Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion IVAN

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Online applications are presented in the context of information society. Online applications characteristics are analyzed. Quality characteristics are presented in relation to online applications users. Types of users for AVIO application are presented. Use cases for AVIO application are identified. The limitations of AVIO application are defined. Types of users in online applications are identified. The threedimensional matrix of access to the online application resources is built. The user type-oriented database is structured. Access management of the fields related to the database tables is analyzed. The classification of online applications users is done.

  6. Florence Nightingale. Her personality type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossey, B M

    1998-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to cast new and refreshing light on Florence Nightingale's life and work by examining her personality type. Using the theory-based Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), the author examines Nightingale's personality type and reveals that she was an introverted-intuitive-thinking-judging (INTJ) type. The merit of using the MBTI is that it allows us to more clearly understand three major areas of Nightingale's life that have been partially unacknowledged or misunderstood: her spiritual development as a practicing mystic, her management of her chronic illness to maintain her prodigious work output, and her chosen strategies to transform her visionary ideas into new health care and social realities.

  7. Allegheny County Soil Type Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains soil type and soil classification, by area. Additional info at: http://mcdc.cas.psu.edu/datawiz.htm;...

  8. Forest Cover Types - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer portrays general forest cover types for the United States. Data were derived from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) composite images...

  9. UX Ori-Type Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinin, V.

    2017-06-01

    The brief review of the properties of the UX Ori type stars is presented. A special attention is given to the results of the Crimean program of the multi-year photometric and polarimetric observations of these stars.

  10. Distinguishing among electron injection types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feynman, J.

    1987-01-01

    Three types of electron injections taking place in the near-earth region of the magnetotail have been distinguished previously using SCATHA particle and field data. Defining characteristics are given here for each type of event, and the positions of the magnetosphere where they are expected to occur are discussed. These three event types can be difficult to distinguish in data sets that are more limited than the SCATHA set that carried instruments detecting magnetic fields and charged particles over an energy range from eVs to MeVs. It is suggested that determining the magnetospheric regions at which each of these event types occurs will considerably clarify the phenomenological description of substorms available for theoretical analysis.

  11. Lepromatous leprosy of histoid type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annigeri S

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Histoid leprosy is a variant of lepromatous leprosy, which develops as a result of resistance to dapsone monotherapy. Here we report two cases of lepromatous leprosy of histoid type, one with typical and another with atypical presentations.

  12. Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Camp Fundraising Events Step Out Walk to Stop Diabetes Tour de Cure Father of the Year Stop Diabetes at School ... Forecast Stop Diabetes Step Out: Walk to Stop Diabetes Tour de Cure Living With Type 2 Diabetes Recipes for Healthy ...

  13. Living with Type 1 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Camp Fundraising Events Step Out Walk to Stop Diabetes Tour de Cure Father of the Year Stop Diabetes at School ... Forecast Stop Diabetes Step Out: Walk to Stop Diabetes Tour de Cure Living With Type 2 Diabetes Recipes for Healthy ...

  14. Pneumococcal Disease: Types of Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Many different bacteria, viruses, and even fungi can cause pneumonia. Pneumococcus is one of the most common causes of severe pneumonia. Besides pneumonia, pneumococcus can cause other types of ...

  15. [Sport and type 1 diabetes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büsser, C; Meyer, P; Philippe, J; Jornayvaz, F R

    2013-06-05

    Physical activity is recognised to be an efficient measure in improving glycemic control in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. This evidence is lacking in type I diabetes but type 1I diabetics benefit from the same advantages like the general population. For many type I diabetics, especially younger patients, sport represents an important modality in the treatment of their disease but also of their quality of life. However, this is often a challenge for the patient as well as for the physician regarding the metabolic consequences (hypo- but also hyperglycemia) which can appear in relation with physical activity. There are existing general recommendations concerning the intake of carbohydrates and the reduction of insulin doses but those have to be adapted individually for each patient and depend significantly on different sports and on the intensity of sport.

  16. Exercise and Type 2 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Colberg, Sheri R.; Sigal, Ronald J.; Fernhall, Bo; Regensteiner, Judith G.; Blissmer, Bryan J.; Rubin, Richard R.; Chasan-Taber, Lisa; Albright, Ann L.; Braun, Barry

    2010-01-01

    Although physical activity (PA) is a key element in the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes, many with this chronic disease do not become or remain regularly active. High-quality studies establishing the importance of exercise and fitness in diabetes were lacking until recently, but it is now well established that participation in regular PA improves blood glucose control and can prevent or delay type 2 diabetes, along with positively affecting lipids, blood pressure, cardiovascular ...

  17. Recent advances in autoimmune pancreatitis: type 1 and type 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamisawa, Terumi; Chari, Suresh T; Lerch, Markus M; Kim, Myung-Hwan; Gress, Thomas M; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2013-09-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is a form of chronic pancreatitis characterised clinically by frequent presentation with obstructive jaundice, histologically by a lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate with fibrosis, and therapeutically by a dramatic response to steroids. When so defined, AIP can be sub-classified into two subtypes, 1 and 2. Recent international consensus diagnostic criteria for AIP have been developed for diagnosis of both forms of AIP. Type 1 AIP is the pancreatic manifestation of a multiorgan disease, recently named IgG4-related disease. Little is known about the pathogenesis of either form of AIP. Despite frequent association of type 1 AIP with elevated serum IgG4 levels and infiltration with IgG4-positive plasma cells, it is unlikely that IgG4 plays a pathogenic role in AIP. Type 1 AIP responds to steroids, but there needs to be consensus on treatment regimens for induction and therapeutic end points. Relapses are common, but can be reduced by long-term use of low-dose steroids. Recent reports suggest that immunomodulators (azathioprine, 6-mercaptopurine and mycophenolate mofetil), as well biological agents (the antibody to CD20, rituximab) may have a role in maintaining remission in relapsing type 1 AIP. Future studies should clarify the best management options for treatment of relapses and maintenance of remission. Type 2 AIP is a pancreas-specific disorder not associated with IgG4. It presents in younger individuals equally with obstructive jaundice and pancreatitis. The inflammatory process responds to steroid therapy; relapses are uncommon. The clinical spectrum and long-term outcomes of medically treated type 2 AIP are still being evaluated.

  18. Completeness in Hybrid Type Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Areces, Carlos; Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Huertas, Antonia

    2014-01-01

    found in propositional and first-order hybrid logic, and (as is usual inhybrid logic) we automatically obtain a wide range of completeness results for stronger logics and languages. Our approach is deliberately low-tech. We don’t, for example, make use of Montague’s intensional type s, or Fitting......We show that basic hybridization (adding nominals and @ operators) makes it possible to give straightforward Henkin-style completeness proofs even when the modal logic being hybridized is higher-order. The key ideas are to add nominals as expressions of type t, and to extend to arbitrary types...... the way we interpret @i in propositional and first-order hybrid logic. This means: interpret @iαa , where αa is an expression of any type a , as an expression of type a that rigidly returns the value that αa receives at the i-world. The axiomatization and completeness proofs are generalizations of those...

  19. Different collagen types define two types of idiopathic epiretinal membranes

    OpenAIRE

    Kritzenberger, Michaela; Junglas, Benjamin; Framme, Carsten; Helbig, Horst; Gabel, Veit-Peter; Fuchshofer, Rudolf; Tamm, Ernst R; Hillenkamp, Jost

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Aims: To identify differences in extracellular matrix contents between idiopathic epiretinal membranes (IEM) of cellophane macular reflex (CMRM) or preretinal macular fibrosis (PMFM) type. Methods and results: IEM were analyzed by light and quantitative transmission electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry, and Western blotting. Substantial differences between CMRM and PMFM were observed regarding the nature of extracellular fibrils. In CMRM, the fibrils were thin with...

  20. Boston type I keratoprosthesis: Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Fernanda Pedreira; Sousa, Luciene Barbosa de; Oliveira, Lauro Augusto de

    2012-01-01

    Regardless of significant progress in the field of corneal transplantation to treat corneal opacification, some cases of corneal blindness still present a poor prognosis for conventional penetrating keratoplasty. In patients with repeated graft failure and/or with severe ocular surface disease, the Boston type I keratoprosthesis (type I BKPro) has become a viable option. Modifications in its design and postoperative management have improved the long-term outcomes of visual acuity, retention, and postoperative infection rates. These advances made the type I BKPro be considered a safe alternative for visual rehabilitation in many patients with corneal pathologies. However, postoperative handle of chronic comorbidities, such as glaucoma, is still critical for preserving the visual gains achieved with BKPro.

  1. Boston type I keratoprosthesis: Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Pedreira Magalhães

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Regardless of significant progress in the field of corneal transplantation to treat corneal opacification, some cases of corneal blindness still present a poor prognosis for conventional penetrating keratoplasty. In patients with repeated graft failure and/or with severe ocular surface disease, the Boston type I keratoprosthesis (type I BKPro has become a viable option. Modifications in its design and postoperative management have improved the long-term outcomes of visual acuity, retention, and postoperative infection rates. These advances made the type I BKPro be considered a safe alternative for visual rehabilitation in many patients with corneal pathologies. However, postoperative handle of chronic comorbidities, such as glaucoma, is still critical for preserving the visual gains achieved with BKPro.

  2. Glucagon and type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Asger; Bagger, Jonatan I; Christensen, Mikkel

    2014-01-01

    In normal physiology, glucagon from pancreatic alpha cells plays an important role in maintaining glucose homeostasis via its regulatory effect on hepatic glucose production. Patients with type 2 diabetes suffer from fasting and postprandial hyperglucagonemia, which stimulate hepatic glucose...... production and, thus, contribute to the hyperglycemia characterizing these patients. Although this has been known for years, research focusing on alpha cell (patho)physiology has historically been dwarfed by research on beta cells and insulin. Today the mechanisms behind type 2 diabetic hyperglucagonemia...... or antagonization of the glucagon receptor constitutes potentially effective treatment strategies for patients with type 2 diabetes. In this review, we focus on the regulation of glucagon secretion by the incretin hormones glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and GIP. Furthermore, potential advantages and limitations...

  3. Bianchi-type string cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Batakis, N A

    1995-01-01

    Bianchi-type string cosmology involves generalizations of the FRW backgrounds with three transitive spacelike Killing symmetries, but without any a priori assumption of isotropy in the 3D sections of homogeneity. With emphasis on those cases with diagonal metrics and vanishing cosmological constant which which have not been previously examined in the literature, the present findings allow an overview and the classification of all Bianchi-type backgrounds. These string solutions (at least to lowest order in alpha prime) offer prototypes for the study of spatial anisotropy and its impact on the dynamics of the early universe.

  4. Operational Semantics of Termination Types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    1996-01-01

    and algebraic data types. The well-founded orderings are defined by pattern matching against the definition of the algebraic data types. We prove that the analysis is semantically sound with respect to a big-step (or natural) operational semantics. We compare our approach based on operational semantics to one...... based on denotational semantics and we identify the need for extending the semantic universe with low constructs whose sole purpose is to facilitate the proof. For dealing with partial correctness it suffices to consider approximations that are less defined than the desired fixed points; for dealing...

  5. Type-2 fuzzy granular models

    CERN Document Server

    Sanchez, Mauricio A; Castro, Juan R

    2017-01-01

    In this book, a series of granular algorithms are proposed. A nature inspired granular algorithm based on Newtonian gravitational forces is proposed. A series of methods for the formation of higher-type information granules represented by Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Sets are also shown, via multiple approaches, such as Coefficient of Variation, principle of justifiable granularity, uncertainty-based information concept, and numerical evidence based. And a fuzzy granular application comparison is given as to demonstrate the differences in how uncertainty affects the performance of fuzzy information granules.

  6. Five types of organizational strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensen, Elmer Fly

    2014-01-01

    Models in the strategy field defining the strategy concept emphasize schools of thought or strategy perspectives, but not how to define the idiosyncratic composition of an organization’s strategy content. Based on a literature review in which meanings have been attached to the concept, this paper...... presents a new model including five types of organizational strategy. The model emphasizes that key influencers may make heterogeneous contributions to an organization’s strategy and also that significant effects may result from interaction between types of strategy....

  7. Operator inequalities of Jensen type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moslehian M. S.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We present some generalized Jensen type operator inequalities involving sequences of self-adjoint operators. Among other things, we prove that if f : [0;1 → ℝ is a continuous convex function with f(0 ≤ 0, then

  8. Fibre typing of intrafusal fibres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornell, Lars-Eric; Carlsson, Lena; Eriksson, Per-Olof; Liu, Jing-Xia; Österlund, Catharina; Stål, Per; Pedrosa-Domellöf, Fatima

    2015-01-01

    The first descriptions of muscle spindles with intrafusal fibres containing striated myofibrils and nervous elements were given approximately 150 years ago. It took, however, another 100 years to establish the presence of two types of intrafusal muscle fibres: nuclear bag and nuclear chain fibres. The present paper highlights primarily the contribution of Robert Banks in fibre typing of intrafusal fibres: the confirmation of the principle of two types of nuclear bag fibres in mammalian spindles and the variation in occurrence of a dense M-band along the fibres. Furthermore, this paper summarizes how studies from the Umeå University group (Laboratory of Muscle Biology in the Department of Integrative Medical Biology) on fibre typing and the structure and composition of M-bands have contributed to the current understanding of muscle spindle complexity in adult humans as well as to muscle spindle development and effects of ageing. The variable molecular composition of the intrafusal sarcomeres with respect to myosin heavy chains and M-band proteins gives new perspectives on the role of the intrafusal myofibrils as stretch-activated sensors influencing tension/stiffness and signalling to nuclei. PMID:26179023

  9. Bianchi type I string cosmologies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    if a proper initial condition, viz., inflation is imposed on the very early universe. Various types of inflationary cosmologies are being considered and the string cosmology is one. It is generally believed that the very early universe underwent phase transitions, which gave rise to topologically stable structures; of particular ...

  10. Dissecting Types of Professional Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blau, Peter M.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Shows how differences among types of professional schools can be explained on the basis of systematic research, using empirical data on a large sample of professional schools and analytical properties of the professions for which the schools provide training. (Author/CK)

  11. Invariant Classification of Gait Types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fihl, Preben; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a method of classifying human gait in an invariant manner based on silhouette comparison. A database of artificially generated silhouettes is created representing the three main types of gait, i.e. walking, jogging, and running. Silhouettes generated from different camera angles...

  12. Update on type 2 diabetes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-02-23

    Feb 23, 2009 ... better outcomes, such as enhanced quality of life, and reductions in morbidity, largely due to microvascular complications, and premature mortality, primarily due to macrovascular disease. This article focuses on recent developments in the management of type 2 diabetes; specifically, the legacy effect and ...

  13. Tension type headaches: a review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acetaminophen (paracetamol) 500-1 000 mg and aspirin 500-. 1 000 mg, have been demonstrated to be an effective first-line treatment for episodic tension-type headaches in most placebo- controlled trials. 23,24 Fast absorptive formulations of the latter are preferred for rapidity of action.25 It is worth noting that these.

  14. Update on type 2 diabetes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-02-23

    Feb 23, 2009 ... randomised to diet or metformin therapy. In this, the originally described benefits on myocardial infarction and death from any cause in the metformin-treated group persisted at follow-up (33%, p=0.005, and 27%, p=0.002 respectively). In type 1 diabetics too, the appearance of a delayed benefit of earlier ...

  15. mixed type partial differential equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Denche

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study a mixed problem with integral boundary conditions for a high order partial differential equation of mixed type. We prove the existence and uniqueness of the solution. The proof is based on energy inequality, and on the density of the range of the operator generated by the considered problem.

  16. Types of Cancer Teens Get

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with a prosthesis (pronounced: pros-THEE-sis), or artificial limb. Most teens with a prosthesis are able to return to normal activities, even sports. Most people develop side effects, ... within the muscles in the trunk, arms, or legs. The types of treatment used and ...

  17. Headache (chronic tension-type).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Anita; Silver, Nicholas

    2009-07-22

    Chronic tension-type headache (CTTH) is a disorder that evolves from episodic tension-type headache, with daily or very frequent episodes of headache lasting minutes to days. It affects 4.1% of the general population in the USA, and is more prevalent in women (up to 65% of cases). We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of drug treatments for chronic tension-type headache? What are the effects of non-drug treatments for chronic tension-type headache? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to March 2007 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). We found 50 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: acupuncture; amitriptyline; analgesics; anticonvulsant drugs; benzodiazepines; botulinum toxin; chiropractic and osteopathic manipulations; cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT); Indian head massage; mirtazapine; relaxation and electromyographic biofeedback; selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressants (SSRIs); and tricyclic antidepressants (other than amitriptyline).

  18. Personality and personal network type

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doeven-Eggens, Lilian; De Fruyt, Filip; Hendriks, A. A. Jolijn; Bosker, Roel J.; Van der Werf, Margaretha P. C.

    2008-01-01

    The association between personality and personal relationships is mostly studied within dyadic relationships. We examined these variables within the context of personal network types. We used Latent Class Analysis to identify groups Of Students with similar role relationships with three focal

  19. Standard types of regulation loops; Chaines de regulation types

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertrand, M. [ENSAM, Centre d`Enseignement et de Recherche de Lille, 59 - Lille (France)

    1997-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to give help in the analysis of industrial regulation problems using different types of real installations. The increasing complexity of industrial systems requires the use of a decomposition-recomposition procedure using a scheme with different blocs. Examples are given to help the non-specialist users in the mastery of essential choices and in the distinction between operational and material separations. The examples concern: the heating loop of a central heating installation, the sensors and actuators of industrial systems (the temperature regulation of a tubular furnace, the electro-hydraulic positioning systems used in machine tools, forming, aeronautics etc.., the regulation of a mixing system for hot and cold fluids, and the regulation of a fluidizing system. The usual types of regulation loops are presented with the different steps of the resolution of a regulation problem. (J.S.) 7 refs.

  20. An Imperative Type Hierarchy with Partial Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff; Schmidt, Erik Meineche

    1989-01-01

    A type hierarchy for a programming language defines an ordering on the types such that any application for small types may be reused for all larger types. The imperative facet makes this non-trivial; the straight-forward definitions will yield an inconsistent system. We introduce a new type...... constructor, the partial product, and show how to define a consistent hierarchy in the context of fully recursive types. A simple polymorphism is derived by introducing a notion of placeholder types. By extending the partial product types to include structural invariants we obtain a particularly appropriate...... notation for defining recursive types, that is superior to traditional type sums and products. We show how the ordering on types extends to an ordering on types with invariants. We allow the use of least upper bounds in type definitions and show how to compute upper bounds of invariants....

  1. Core-Collapse Supernovae and Gamma-Ray Bursts in TMT Era SB ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WFOS-TMT kind of instrument to obtain rest-frame far-UV emission-line detec- tions, spectral properties and inferred kinematics of z > 2 Type IIn SNe and host galaxies. The rest-frame far-UV light would be red-shifted to optical wavelengths for 2 < z < 6 SNe and enables photometric detection in existing, and future, deep.

  2. Life history types and strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boel, Mikkel

    strategies and types in migratory freshwater fish, using brown trout and alewife as study organisms. Firstly, we investigated underlying mechanisms of resident and migratory life history strategies of salmonids, using indicators for nutritional status, stress, tissue damage and smoltification. Secondly......, avian predation pressure on the groups with different life history strategies was explored in their respective habitats. Thirdly, we demonstrated that the life history type of alewives, through regulation of zooplankton availability, influence the ontogeny of concurrent largemouth bass. Finally, a field...... study approach was used to evaluate the effect of PIT tagging on body condition of brown trout. Within a salmonid population several life history strategies can be found, each of which involves variations in migration and residency. Migratory life history strategies are often viewed as an adaptive...

  3. Type IV Wind Turbine Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anca Daniela; Margaris, Ioannis D.

    project to be incorporated in the wind power plant level. This document describes the Type 4 wind turbine simulation model, implemented in the EaseWind project. The implemented wind turbine model is one of the initial necessary steps toward integrating new control services in the wind power plant level....... In the project, this wind turbine model will be further incorporated in a wind power plant model together with the implementation in the wind power control level of the new control functionalities (inertial response, synchronising power and power system damping). For this purpose an aggregate wind power plant...... (WPP) will be considered. The aggregate WPP model, which will be based on the upscaling of the individual wind turbine model on the electrical part, will make use of an equivalent wind speed. The implemented model follows the basic structure of the generic standard Type 4 wind turbine model proposed...

  4. Phacomatosis pigmentovascularis of cesioflammea type*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal, Delky Johanna Villarreal; Leal, Fabiano

    2016-01-01

    Phacomatosis pigmentovascularis is a rare syndrome, defined as the simultaneous presence of vascular nevus and melanocytic nevus in the same patient. We report the case of a 53-year-old woman presented with dermal melanosis and extensive vascular nevus, which match the typical manifestations of phakomatosis pigmetovascularis of cesioflammea type, according to Happle's classification. The rare occurrence of this genodermatosis and the clinical exuberance of the skin lesions motivated this case report. PMID:28300894

  5. Screening for type 2 diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Rutten, G E H M

    1999-01-01

    Summary and comment: Original articles: Diabetic patients detected by population-based stepwise screening already have a diabetic cardiovascular risk profile. Spijkerman AMW, Adriaanse MC, Dekker JM, Nijpels G, Stehouwer CDA, Bouter LM, Heine RJ. Diabetes Care 2002; 25(10): 1784–9. Screening for Type 2 diabetes — should it be now? Borch-Johnsen K, Lauritzen T, Glümer C, Sandbæk A. Diabetic Med 2003; 20(3): 175–81.

  6. Repair Types, Procedures - Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    New Jersey, USA. Repair Types, Procedures – Part I RTO-EN-AVT-156 9 - 19 [5] Drieker R, Botello C, MacBeth S, and Grody J, “Aircraft Battle... MacBeth S, and Grody J, “Aircraft Battle Damage Assessment and Repair (ABDAR), Vol. III: Field Test Report,” AFRL-HE-WP-TR-2002-0039, July 2000. [8

  7. Genetics of Type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mette Korre; Pedersen, Casper-Emil Tingskov; Moltke, Ida

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) affects millions of people worldwide. Improving the understanding of the underlying mechanisms and ultimately improving the treatment strategies are, thus, of great interest. To achieve this, identification of genetic variation predisposing to T2D is important. A large number...... of complex disease variants and describe their contributions to the understanding of the genetics of T2D. © 2016, Springer Science+Business Media New York....

  8. Pavement Marking Types and Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-07-01

    7540-01-280-5500 Standard Form 298 (Rev 2-89) Prescr:bed by ANSI Sid 139-18 298- 102 PREFACF This project was sponsored by the Headquarters, US Army...they are the cost and performance standard used to compare all other marking types. 17. There are several methods that may be employed to classify...rubber base which is usually a chlorinated rubber, drying oil varnish or modified alkyd known as oleoresin , and water based materials (US Department

  9. HLA typing in actinic prurigo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, D P; Lane, P R; Irvine, J; Martel, M J; Hogan, D J

    1990-06-01

    Thirty-two actinic prurigo patients of Cree ancestry underwent human lymphocyte antigen (HLA) typing and were compared with 32 control subjects of Cree ancestry. We found a significantly increased frequency of HLA-A24 and Cw4 antigens and a significant decrease in the frequency of the A3 antigen in actinic prurigo patients. These HLA associations may be helpful in determining whether actinic prurigo is a distinct disease or a variant of polymorphous light eruption.

  10. Session Types in Abelian Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoichi Hirai

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available There was a PhD student who says "I found a pair of wooden shoes. I put a coin in the left and a key in the right. Next morning, I found those objects in the opposite shoes." We do not claim existence of such shoes, but propose a similar programming abstraction in the context of typed lambda calculi. The result, which we call the Amida calculus, extends Abramsky's linear lambda calculus LF and characterizes Abelian logic.

  11. Productive vocabulary across discourse types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergadiotis, Gerasimos; Wright, Heather Harris; Capilouto, Gilson J

    2011-01-10

    AIMS: The goals of the study were (a) to examine the effect of discourse type on lexical diversity by testing whether there are significant differences among language samples elicited using four discourse tasks (procedures, eventcasts, story telling, and recounts); and (b) to assess the extent to which age influences lexical diversity when different types of discourse are elicited. METHODS #ENTITYSTARTX00026; PROCEDURES: A total of 86 cognitively healthy adults participated in the study and comprised two groups - young adults (20-29 years old) and older adults (70-89 years old). Participants completed the discourse tasks and their language samples were analysed using dedicated software (voc-D) to obtain estimates of their lexical diversity. OUTCOMES #ENTITYSTARTX00026; RESULTS: A mixed 2 × 4 ANOVA was conducted and followed by an investigation of simple main effects. A lexical diversity hierarchy was established that was similar for both age groups. The study also uncovered age-related differences that were evident when the stimuli were verbally presented but were eliminated when the language samples were elicited using pictorial stimuli. CONCLUSIONS: Results indicated that lexical diversity is one of the microlinguistic indices that are influenced by discourse type and age, a finding that carries important methodological implications. Future investigations are warranted to explore the patterns of lexical diversity in individuals with neurogenic language disorders and assess the clinical utility of measures of lexical diversity.

  12. Exercise and Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colberg, Sheri R.; Sigal, Ronald J.; Fernhall, Bo; Regensteiner, Judith G.; Blissmer, Bryan J.; Rubin, Richard R.; Chasan-Taber, Lisa; Albright, Ann L.; Braun, Barry

    2010-01-01

    Although physical activity (PA) is a key element in the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes, many with this chronic disease do not become or remain regularly active. High-quality studies establishing the importance of exercise and fitness in diabetes were lacking until recently, but it is now well established that participation in regular PA improves blood glucose control and can prevent or delay type 2 diabetes, along with positively affecting lipids, blood pressure, cardiovascular events, mortality, and quality of life. Structured interventions combining PA and modest weight loss have been shown to lower type 2 diabetes risk by up to 58% in high-risk populations. Most benefits of PA on diabetes management are realized through acute and chronic improvements in insulin action, accomplished with both aerobic and resistance training. The benefits of physical training are discussed, along with recommendations for varying activities, PA-associated blood glucose management, diabetes prevention, gestational diabetes mellitus, and safe and effective practices for PA with diabetes-related complications. PMID:21115758

  13. Boiling vapour-type fluids from the Nifonea vent field (New Hebrides Back-Arc, Vanuatu, SW Pacific): Geochemistry of an early-stage, post-eruptive hydrothermal system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Katja; Garbe-Schönberg, Dieter; Hannington, Mark D.; Anderson, Melissa O.; Bühring, Benjamin; Haase, Karsten; Haruel, Christy; Lupton, John; Koschinsky, Andrea

    2017-06-01

    In 2013, high-temperature vent fluids were sampled in the Nifonea vent field. This field is located within the caldera of a large shield-type volcano of the Vate Trough, a young extensional rift in the New Hebrides back-arc. Hydrothermal venting occurs as clear and black smoker fluids with temperatures up to 368 °C, the hottest temperatures measured so far in the western Pacific. The physico-chemical conditions place the fluids within the two-phase field of NaCl-H2O, and venting is dominated by vapour phase fluids with Cl concentrations as low as 25 mM. The fluid composition, which differs between the individual vent sites, is interpreted to reflect the specific geochemical fluid signature of a hydrothermal system in its initial, post-eruptive stage. The strong Cl depletion is accompanied by low alkali/Cl ratios compared to more evolved hydrothermal systems, and very high Fe/Cl ratios. The concentrations of REY (180 nM) and As (21 μM) in the most Cl-depleted fluid are among the highest reported so far for submarine hydrothermal fluids, whereas the inter-element REY fractionation is only minor. The fluid signature, which has been described here for the first time in a back-arc setting, is controlled by fast fluid passage through basaltic volcanic rocks, with extremely high water-rock ratios and only limited water-rock exchange, phase separation and segregation, and (at least) two-component fluid mixing. Metals and metalloids are unexpectedly mobile in the vapour phase fluids, and the strong enrichments of Fe, REY, and As highlight the metal transport capacity of low-salinity, low-density vapours at the specific physico-chemical conditions at Nifonea. One possible scenario is that the fluids boiled before the separated vapour phase continued to react with fresh glassy lavas. The mobilization of metals is likely to occur by leaching from fresh glass and grain boundaries and is supported by the high water/rock ratios. The enrichment of B and As is further controlled

  14. A Data Type for Efficient Representation of Other Data Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Mark

    2008-01-01

    A self-organizing, monomorphic data type denoted a sequence has been conceived to address certain concerns that arise in programming parallel computers. A sequence in the present sense can be regarded abstractly as a vector, set, bag, queue, or other construct. Heretofore, in programming a parallel computer, it has been necessary for the programmer to state explicitly, at the outset, what parts of the program and the underlying data structures must be represented in parallel form. Not only is this requirement not optimal from the perspective of implementation; it entails an additional requirement that the programmer have intimate understanding of the underlying parallel structure. The present sequence data type overcomes both the implementation and parallel structure obstacles. In so doing, the sequence data type provides unified means by which the programmer can represent a data structure for natural and automatic decomposition to a parallel computing architecture. Sequences exhibit the behavioral and structural characteristics of vectors, but the underlying representations are automatically synthesized from combinations of programmers advice and execution use metrics. Sequences can vary bidirectionally between sparseness and density, making them excellent choices for many kinds of algorithms. The novelty and benefit of this behavior lies in the fact that it can relieve programmers of the details of implementations. The creation of a sequence enables decoupling of a conceptual representation from an implementation. The underlying representation of a sequence is a hybrid of representations composed of vectors, linked lists, connected blocks, and hash tables. The internal structure of a sequence can automatically change from time to time on the basis of how it is being used. Those portions of a sequence where elements have not been added or removed can be as efficient as vectors. As elements are inserted and removed in a given portion, then different methods are

  15. Genetics Home Reference: type 1 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions Type 1 diabetes Type 1 diabetes Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Type 1 diabetes is a disorder characterized by abnormally high blood ...

  16. Genetics Home Reference: mucopolysaccharidosis type I

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions mucopolysaccharidosis type I mucopolysaccharidosis type I Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I) is a condition that affects many ...

  17. Genetics Home Reference: trichorhinophalangeal syndrome type I

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conditions trichorhinophalangeal syndrome type I trichorhinophalangeal syndrome type I Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... the expand/collapse boxes. Description Trichorhinophalangeal syndrome type I (TRPS I) is a condition that causes bone ...

  18. Take Steps to Prevent Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... En español Take Steps to Prevent Type 2 Diabetes Browse Sections The Basics Overview Types of Diabetes ... 1 of 9 sections The Basics: Types of Diabetes What is diabetes? Diabetes means you have glucose ( ...

  19. Foundations of Session Types and Behavioural Contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huttel, Hans; Lanese, Ivan; Vasconcelos, Vasco

    2016-01-01

    Behavioural type systems, usually associated to concurrent or distributed computations, encompass concepts such as interfaces, communication protocols, and contracts, in addition to the traditional input/output operations. The behavioural type of a software component specifies its expected patterns...... of interaction using expressive type languages, so types can be used to determine automatically whether the component interacts correctly with other components. Two related important notions of behavioural types are those of session types and behavioural contracts. This article surveys the main accomplishments...

  20. New type A dissection after acute type B aortic dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton-Ouw, Kristofer M; Sandhu, Harleen K; Leake, Samuel S; Miller, Charles C; Afifi, Rana O; Azizzadeh, Ali; Estrera, Anthony L; Safi, Hazim J

    2017-08-17

    Aortic dissection is a dynamic process that can progress both proximal and distal to the initial entry tear. We sought to determine associations for development of proximal progression or new type A aortic dissection (NTAD) after acute type B dissection (ATBD) and its effect on survival of the patient. We reviewed all cases of acute aortic dissection that we managed from 1999 to 2014. Univariate and bivariate analyses were performed to identify correlates of NTAD. Multivariable regression and proportional hazards regression analysis was done to determine the effect of dissection progression on long-term survival. Among 477 cases of ATBD managed, 19 (4.0%) patients developed NTAD during a median follow-up of 4.1 (interquartile range, 1.4-7.7) years. Median time from diagnosis of ATBD to NTAD was 124 (interquartile range, 23-1201) days. Baseline predictors for development of NTAD at initial ATBD admission included bicuspid aortic valve (P = .006) and age natural history of ATBD is such that there is a persistent risk of NTAD, with the highest risk in the first 6 months. Factors associated with NTAD include bicuspid aortic valve and young age. Thoracic endovascular aortic repair did not have a large effect on risk. Timely diagnosis and repair of NTAD are associated with good survival rates. Lifelong surveillance is warranted in all cases of descending thoracic aortic dissection regardless of initial treatment modality. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Recent Concepts of Ovarian Carcinogenesis: Type I and Type II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masafumi Koshiyama

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Type I ovarian tumors, where precursor lesions in the ovary have clearly been described, include endometrioid, clear cell, mucinous, low grade serous, and transitional cell carcinomas, while type II tumors, where such lesions have not been described clearly and tumors may develop de novo from the tubal and/or ovarian surface epithelium, comprise high grade serous carcinomas, undifferentiated carcinomas, and carcinosarcomas. The carcinogenesis of endometrioid and clear cell carcinoma (CCC arising from endometriotic cysts is significantly influenced by the free iron concentration, which is associated with cancer development through the induction of persistent oxidative stress. A subset of mucinous carcinomas develop in association with ovarian teratomas; however, the majority of these tumors do not harbor any teratomatous component. Other theories of their origin include mucinous metaplasia of surface epithelial inclusions, endometriosis, and Brenner tumors. Low grade serous carcinomas are thought to evolve in a stepwise fashion from benign serous cystadenoma to a serous borderline tumor (SBT. With regard to high grade serous carcinoma, the serous tubal intraepithelial carcinomas (STICs of the junction of the fallopian tube epithelium with the mesothelium of the tubal serosa, termed the “tubal peritoneal junction” (TPJ, undergo malignant transformation due to their location, and metastasize to the nearby ovary and surrounding pelvic peritoneum. Other theories of their origin include the ovarian hilum cells.

  2. A Simple Solution to Type Specialization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier

    1998-01-01

    Partial evaluation specializes terms, but traditionally this specialization does not apply to the type of these terms. As a result, specializing, e.g., an interpreter written in a typed language, which requires a “universal” type to encode expressible values, yields residual programs with type tags...... all over. Neil Jones has stated that getting rid of these type tags was an open problem, despite possible solutions such as Torben Mogensen's “constructor specialization.” To solve this problem, John Hughes has proposed a new paradigm for partial evaluation, “Type Specialization”, based on type...... inference instead of being based on symbolic interpretation. Type Specialization is very elegant in principle but it also appears non-trivial in practice. Stating the problem in terms of types instead of in terms of type encodings suggests a very simple type-directed solution, namely, to use a projection...

  3. A simple solution to type specialization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier

    1998-01-01

    Partial evaluation specializes terms, but traditionally this specialization does not apply to the type of these terms. As a result, specializing, e.g., an interpreter written in a typed language, which requires a “universal” type to encode expressible values, yields residual programs with type tags...... all over. Neil Jones has stated that getting rid of these type tags was an open problem, despite possible solutions such as Torben Mogensen's “constructor specialization.” To solve this problem, John Hughes has proposed a new paradigm for partial evaluation, “Type Specialization”, based on type...... inference instead of being based on symbolic interpretation. Type Specialization is very elegant in principle but it also appears non-trivial in practice. Stating the problem in terms of types instead of in terms of type encodings suggests a very simple type-directed solution, namely, to use a projection...

  4. Wheel-type magnetic refrigerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, J.A.

    1982-01-20

    The disclosure is directed to a wheel-type magnetic refrigerator capable of cooling over a large temperature range. Ferromagnetic or paramagnetic porous materials are layered circumferentially according to their Curie temperature. The innermost layer has the lowest Curie temperature and the outermost layer has the highest Curie temperature. The wheel is rotated through a magnetic field perpendicular to the axis of the wheel and parallel to its direction of rotation. A fluid is pumped through portions of the layers using inner and outer manifolds to achieve refrigeration of a thermal load.

  5. Barn og diabetes type 1

    OpenAIRE

    Ramstad, Marte Elise; Sagbakken, Sina Bekkelund

    2017-01-01

    Bacheloroppgave sykepleie, 2017 Bakgrunn: Vi har valgt denne problemstillingen fordi diabetes type 1 er svært utbredt hos barn i Norge. Videre har vi lite erfaringer med barn og ønsket å lære mer om denne pasientgruppen. Vi ønsket videre å se på hvordan vi kan undervise og veilede for å gi god og hensiktsmessig sykepleie til barn og deres familier. Hensikt: Finne ut hvordan sykepleier kan fremme egenomsorg hos barn med diabetes gjennom veiledning og undervisning. Dette er noe som sykepl...

  6. [Femicides: concepts, types and scenarios].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneghel, Stela Nazareth; Portella, Ana Paula

    2017-09-01

    This text is a theoretical essay that discusses the concepts, types and scenarios of feminicides, and presents some proposals for the prevention of these premature, unjust and avoidable deaths. The text revisits the original concept of femicide proposed by Diana Russell and Jane Caputti and shows new and old scenarios where these crimes occur. It points to patriarchy, understood as being a hierarchical system of power between men and women, as one of the main determinants of these deaths. It ends by presenting actions and proposals to prevent and combat these gender crimes.

  7. Gulf and Dilmun Type seals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Steffen

    2011-01-01

    From around 2100 BC a glyptic tradition emerges in the Arabian Gulf, which is dependant on the well-established schools of the Indus Valley seal cutters. These circular hybrids of classic Harappan seals rapidly became popular amongst the merchants of Dilmun, centered on Bahrain Island. At first...... these Gulf Type‘ seals drew heavily on Indus Valley iconography and Indus script was occasionally employed in a pidgin-like manner. While the earliest circular seals incorporate features from Mesopotamian glyptic only to a lesser extent, this becomes a more important source of inspiration for later Dilmun...... Type seals....

  8. Type B Hepatitis in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tabarestani

    1977-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B surface antigen CHBsAg was found in 1% of controls, 2.1% of professional blood donors, 2.0% of leprosy patients and 76.1% of acute hepatitis in Tehran and Mashhad, Iran. All HBsAg positive samples also possessed antibody to the hepatitis B core antigen and all were subtype ayw. Type B hepatitis and the HBsAg state aloe frequent in Iran, but most must be accounted for by u nonparenter- al" or "rnapparent'' parenteral exposure.

  9. Infrastructure: concept, types and value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander E. Lantsov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Researches of influence of infrastructure on the economic growth and development of the countries gained currency. However the majority of authors drop the problem of definition of accurate concept of studied object and its criteria out. In the given article various approaches in the definition of «infrastructure» concept, criterion and the characteristics of infrastructure distinguishing it from other capital assets are presented. Such types of infrastructure, as personal, institutional, material, production, social, etc. are considered. Author’s definition of infrastructure is given.

  10. Craniometadiaphyseal dysplasia, wormian bone type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santolaya, J M; Hall, C M; García-Miñaur, S; Delgado, A

    1998-05-18

    We report on a 4-year-old boy with craniometadiaphyseal dysplasia (CMDD), wormian bone type. Component manifestations include a large head with prominent forehead, skull changes showing multiple wormian bones, wide long tubular bones without the usual metaphyseal flare, wide and short tubular bones without the normal diaphyseal constriction, and wide ribs and clavicles. In addition to these findings, the propositus, his brother, his father, and a paternal aunt all have parietal protuberances, which seem not related to CMDD. Parental consanguineity supports the autosomal recessive transmission of the condition.

  11. Moment Distributions of Phase Type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladt, Mogens; Nielsen, Bo Friis

    In this paper we prove that the class of distributions on the positive reals with a rational Laplace transform, also known as matrix-exponential distributions, is closed under formation of moment distributions. In particular, the results are hence valid for the well known class of phase-type dist......In this paper we prove that the class of distributions on the positive reals with a rational Laplace transform, also known as matrix-exponential distributions, is closed under formation of moment distributions. In particular, the results are hence valid for the well known class of phase...

  12. Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Type 1 versus Type 2 Trigeminal Neuralgias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ching-Jen; Paisan, Gabriella; Buell, Thomas J; Knapp, Kristen; Ding, Dale; Xu, Zhiyuan; Raper, Daniel M; Taylor, Davis G; Dallapiazza, Robert F; Lee, Cheng-Chia; Sheehan, Jason P

    2017-12-01

    It remains unclear whether stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) offers the same benefit for patients with type 2 trigeminal neuralgia (TN2) as for those with type 1 trigeminal neuralgia (TN1). The objective of this study is to compare the outcomes of patients with TN1 and TN2 after SRS. SRS outcomes of patients with trigeminal neuralgia treated at a single center from 1994 to 2016 were analyzed. Patients with TN1 were matched to those with TN2 in a 1:1 ratio based on sex, age, pretreatment Barrow Neurological Institute (BNI) pain score, previous treatment, previous facial numbness, and maximum dose. The primary outcome was defined as a BNI pain score of ≤3. The matched TN1 and TN2 cohorts each comprised 56 patients. There were no differences in BNI pain scores at last follow-up, new/worse facial numbness, or pain recurrence, or time to recurrence. Time to initial pain relief after SRS was longer for patients with TN2 (5.4 vs. 4.4 months; P = 0.0016). Actuarial initial pain relief rates were 75%, 90%, and 90% for TN1 and 47%, 77%, and 87% for TN2 at 5, 10, and 15 months, respectively. Actuarial pain relief maintenance rates were 72%, 67%, and 52% for TN1 and 53%, 32%, and 32% for TN2 at 1, 2, and 3 years, respectively. SRS offers similar rates of initial pain relief, pain score distribution, pain recurrence, and time to pain recurrence between patients with TN1 and TN2. The time to initial pain relief was longer for patients with TN2. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Types of Leader in Organisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Aurelian Bârgău

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Besides leading theories of people in one way or another from different angles reveal the types of leaders who can meet in business management literature contains classifications of management styles, which take into account different criteria or viewpoints. The word “leadership‟ has been used in various aspects of human endeavor such as politics, businesses, academics, social works, etc. Previous views about leadership show it as personal ability. The individual leader traits depend not only on personal abilities and his characteristics, but in special on the characteristics of the situation and environment in which he finds himself. People could become members of an organization in other to achieve certain personal objectives, the extent to which they are active members depends on how they are convinced that their membership will enable them to achieve their predetermined objectives. The leader will support an organization if he believes that through it his personal objectives and goals could be met otherwise the person’s interest will decline. The type leader or style of leading in an organization is one of the factors that play significant role in enhancing or retarding the interest and commitment of the individuals in the organization.

  14. Rapid typing of Coxiella burnetii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidie M Hornstra

    Full Text Available Coxiella burnetii has the potential to cause serious disease and is highly prevalent in the environment. Despite this, epidemiological data are sparse and isolate collections are typically small, rare, and difficult to share among laboratories as this pathogen is governed by select agent rules and fastidious to culture. With the advent of whole genome sequencing, some of this knowledge gap has been overcome by the development of genotyping schemes, however many of these methods are cumbersome and not readily transferable between institutions. As comparisons of the few existing collections can dramatically increase our knowledge of the evolution and phylogeography of the species, we aimed to facilitate such comparisons by extracting SNP signatures from past genotyping efforts and then incorporated these signatures into assays that quickly and easily define genotypes and phylogenetic groups. We found 91 polymorphisms (SNPs and indels among multispacer sequence typing (MST loci and designed 14 SNP-based assays that could be used to type samples based on previously established phylogenetic groups. These assays are rapid, inexpensive, real-time PCR assays whose results are unambiguous. Data from these assays allowed us to assign 43 previously untyped isolates to established genotypes and genomic groups. Furthermore, genotyping results based on assays from the signatures provided here are easily transferred between institutions, readily interpreted phylogenetically and simple to adapt to new genotyping technologies.

  15. Molecular Typing of Borrelia burgdorferi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guiqing; Liveris, Dionysios; Mukherjee, Priyanka; Jungnick, Sabrina; Margos, Gabriele; Schwartz, Ira

    2015-01-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato is a group of spirochetes belonging to the genus Borrelia in the family of Spirochaetaceae. The spirochete is transmitted between reservoirs and hosts by ticks of the family Ixodidae. Infection with B. burgdorferi in humans causes Lyme disease or Lyme borreliosis. Currently, 20 Lyme disease-associated Borrelia species and more than 20 relapsing fever-associated Borrelia species have been described. Identification and differentiation of different Borrelia species and strains is largely dependent on analyses of their genetic characteristics. A variety of molecular techniques have been described for Borrelia isolate speciation, molecular epidemiology, and pathogenicity studies. In this unit, we focus on three basic protocols, PCR-RFLP-based typing of the rrs-rrlA and rrfA-rrlB ribosomal spacer, ospC typing, and MLST. These protocols can be employed alone or in combination for characterization of B. burgdorferi isolates or directly on uncultivated organisms in ticks, mammalian host reservoirs, and human clinical specimens. PMID:25082003

  16. Autoimmune Polyglandular Syndrome Type 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vedeswari C Ponranjini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Autoimmune Polyglandular Syndrome (APS Type 1 is a rare hereditary disorder that damages organs in the body. This disease entity is the result of a mutation in the AIRE gene. It is characterized by three classic clinical features - hypoparathyroidism, Addison′s disease, and chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis. For a patient to be diagnosed as having APS Type 1 syndrome at least two of these features needs to be present. The third entity may develop as the disease progresses. We report a case of a 35-year-old female patient with a history of seizure from the age of 11 years, who was managed with anticonvulsant drugs. With worsening of the seizure episodes, patient was diagnosed to have hypoparathyroidism together with the manifestations of oral candidiasis, nails dystrophy, enamel hypoplasia, and hypogonadism. A diagnosis of APS-1 was considered. The facility for genetic analysis of the AIRE gene mutation was not accessible, as the test costs were prohibitive and not affordable for the patient. Patient management was directed to treating individual disease components. However, cerebral and dental changes were irreversible.

  17. Personality types in academic medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallick, M M; Cambre, K M

    1999-07-01

    Based on Swiss physician-scholar Carl G. Jung's theory of psychological types proposed in the 1920s, Kathleen Cook Briggs and her daughter Isabel Briggs Myers developed the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) three decades later. They applied Jung's dynamic theory to determine how persons take in information, make decisions, and communicate thoughts and feelings. Medical students were of special interest to their research and much has been written since then about the use of the MBTI in medicine. In this study, results of MBTIs administered to 1797 freshmen students at Louisiana State University School of Medicine--New Orleans from 1988 to 1998 are compared with those reported by the MBTI developers and others over the years and throughout the United States. Findings indicate some noteworthy shifts in the psychological profile of medical students over time and among schools that may be due to changes in the delivery of health care, the increase in technology in the practice of medicine, and the dramatic increase of women in medicine.

  18. Microseismic sources of rotational type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasternak, Elena; Dyskin, Arcady; He, Junxian

    2017-04-01

    Traditionally the sources of seismic and microseismic events are related to shear fractures. The analysis of the seismic moment tensors of the sources associated with rock fracturing and hydraulic fracturing in the laboratory experiments and in-situ reveals that while there exist tensile and compressive sources, the shear sources prevail. The appearance of multiple shear sources, accompanied rock fracturing contradicts the results of the direct experiments suggesting that the rock as well as other materials not exhibiting clear plastic flow fail in tension. This contradiction is conventionally resolved by assuming the presence of multiple pre-existing shear fractures (faults or microfaults) whose sudden sliding provides microseismic events of shear type. We consider alternative mechanisms associated with bending of links between rotating particles and fragments of geomaterial and bending of bridges connecting opposite sides of hydraulic fractures. In both cases the fracturing is caused by the action of moments (or moment stresses) leading to bending, while at microscale the failure is associated with tensile microstresses leading to formation of tensile microcracks. In other words, at microscale the moment-related failure is failure in tension, as routinely observed in materials even in compression. It is easy to demonstrate that from a distance the sources of rotational type are equivalent to a standard double couple, similar to the one associated with shear fracturing. In other words what is currently interpreted as shear microseismic sources can in fact be rotational sources. This calls for new methods of detecting and interpreting microseismic sources; some possible methods are discussed.

  19. 7 CFR 51.2734 - Spanish type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spanish type. 51.2734 Section 51.2734 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Shelled Spanish Type Peanuts Definitions § 51.2734 Spanish type. Spanish type means peanuts of varieties which belong to the Spanish classification group and which are free from kernels of...

  20. 14 CFR 21.31 - Type design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Type design. 21.31 Section 21.31... PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Type Certificates § 21.31 Type design. The type design consists of— (a) The... configuration and the design features of the product shown to comply with the requirements of that part of this...

  1. 46 CFR 164.015-2 - Types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Types. 164.015-2 Section 164.015-2 Shipping COAST GUARD... APPROVAL MATERIALS Plastic Foam, Unicellular, Buoyant, Sheet and Molded Shape § 164.015-2 Types. (a..., polymer or copolymer plastic foam shall be of three types as follows: Type A—for life preservers, buoyant...

  2. Psychological Types of Academically Gifted Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Tracy L.; Neumeister, Kristie L. Speirs; Cassady, Jerrell C.

    2007-01-01

    This study provides descriptive information about the psychological types of a sample of 931 gifted adolescents who attended a public residential academy. Psychological types are assessed with the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). The MBTI reports on four pairs of personality types: Extraversion/Introversion (E/I), Sensing/Intuition (S/N),…

  3. Types and concept analysis for legacy systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Kuipers (Tobias); L.M.F. Moonen (Leon)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractWe combine type inference and concept analysis in order to gain insight into legacy software systems. Type inference for Cobol yields the types for variables and program parameters. These types are used to perform mathematical concept analysis on legacy systems. We have developed

  4. Polymorphic Endpoint Types for Copyless Message Passing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana Bono

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available We present PolySing#, a calculus that models process interaction based on copyless message passing, in the style of Singularity OS. We equip the calculus with a type system that accommodates polymorphic endpoint types, which are a variant of polymorphic session types, and we show that well-typed processes are free from faults, leaks, and communication errors. The type system is essentially linear, although linearity alone may leave room for scenarios where well-typed processes leak memory. We identify a condition on endpoint types that prevents these leaks from occurring.

  5. Quantum games as quantum types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delbecque, Yannick

    In this thesis, we present a new model for higher-order quantum programming languages. The proposed model is an adaptation of the probabilistic game semantics developed by Danos and Harmer [DH02]: we expand it with quantum strategies which enable one to represent quantum states and quantum operations. Some of the basic properties of these strategies are established and then used to construct denotational semantics for three quantum programming languages. The first of these languages is a formalisation of the measurement calculus proposed by Danos et al. [DKP07]. The other two are new: they are higher-order quantum programming languages. Previous attempts to define a denotational semantics for higher-order quantum programming languages have failed. We identify some of the key reasons for this and base the design of our higher-order languages on these observations. The game semantics proposed in this thesis is the first denotational semantics for a lambda-calculus equipped with quantum types and with extra operations which allow one to program quantum algorithms. The results presented validate the two different approaches used in the design of these two new higher-order languages: a first one where quantum states are used through references and a second one where they are introduced as constants in the language. The quantum strategies presented in this thesis allow one to understand the constraints that must be imposed on quantum type systems with higher-order types. The most significant constraint is the fact that abstraction over part of the tensor product of many unknown quantum states must not be allowed. Quantum strategies are a new mathematical model which describes the interaction between classical and quantum data using system-environment dialogues. The interactions between the different parts of a quantum system are described using the rich structure generated by composition of strategies. This approach has enough generality to be put in relation with other

  6. Termination of dependently typed rewrite rules

    OpenAIRE

    Jouannaud, Jean-Pierre; Li, Jian-Qi

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Our interest is in automated termination proofs of higher-order rewrite rules in presence of dependent types modulo a theory T on base types. We first describe an original transformation to a type discipline without type dependencies which preserves non-termination. Since the user must reason on expressions of the transformed language, we then introduce an extension of the computability path ordering CPO for comparing dependently typed expressions named DCPO. Using the...

  7. What causes type 1 diabetes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buschard, Karsten

    2011-01-01

    To study type 1 diabetes (T1D), excellent animal models exist, both spontaneously diabetic and virus-induced. Based on knowledge from these, this review focuses on the environmental factors leading to T1D, concentrated into four areas which are: (1) The thymus-dependent immune system: T1D is a T...... the T1D process, even if initiated by virus. Theoretically, the risk from immunotherapy elicits a higher frequency of malignancy. (2) The activity of the beta cells: Resting beta cells display less antigenicity and are less sensitive to immune destruction. Beta-cell rest can be induced by giving insulin...... externally in metabolic doses or by administering potassium-channel openers. Both procedures prevent T1D in animal models, whereas no good human data exist due to the risk of hypoglycemia. (3) NKT cells: According to the hygiene hypothesis, stimulation of NKT cells by non-pathogen microbes gives rise to less...

  8. Progenitors of Supernovae Type Ia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toonen, S.; Nelemans, G.; Bours, M.; Portegies Zwart, S.; Claeys, J.; Mennekens, N.; Ruiter, A.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the significance of Type Ia supernovae (SNeIa) in many fields in astrophysics, SNeIa lack a theoretical explanation. The standard scenarios involve thermonuclear explosions of carbon/oxygen white dwarfs approaching the Chandrasekhar mass; either by accretion from a companion or by a merger of two white dwarfs. We investigate the contribution from both channels to the SNIa rate with the binary population synthesis (BPS) code SeBa in order to constrain binary processes such as the mass retention efficiency of WD accretion and common envelope evolution. We determine the theoretical rates and delay time distribution of SNIa progenitors and in particular study how assumptions affect the predicted rates.

  9. Familial colorectal cancer type X

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dominguez-Valentin, Mev; Therkildsen, Christina; Da Silva, Sabrina

    2015-01-01

    Heredity is a major cause of colorectal cancer, but although several rare high-risk syndromes have been linked to disease-predisposing mutations, the genetic mechanisms are undetermined in the majority of families suspected of hereditary cancer. We review the clinical presentation, histopathologi...... features, and the genetic and epigenetic profiles of the familial colorectal cancer type X (FCCTX) syndrome with the aim to delineate tumor characteristics that may contribute to refined diagnostics and optimized tumor prevention.......Heredity is a major cause of colorectal cancer, but although several rare high-risk syndromes have been linked to disease-predisposing mutations, the genetic mechanisms are undetermined in the majority of families suspected of hereditary cancer. We review the clinical presentation, histopathologic...

  10. Exercise and type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karstoft, Kristian; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with metabolic dysregulation and chronic inflammation, and regular exercise may provide a strong stimulus for improving both. In this review, we first discuss the link between inflammation and metabolism. Next, we give an update on the clinical...... metabolic effects of exercise in T2DM patients with special focus on which parameters to consider for optimizing metabolic improvements. We then discuss the mechanisms whereby exercise exerts its anti-inflammatory and related metabolic effects. Evidence exists that interleukin (IL)-1β is involved...... in pancreatic β-cell damage, whereas tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α appears to be a key molecule in peripheral insulin resistance. Mechanistic studies in humans suggest that moderate acute elevations in IL-6, as provoked by exercise, exert direct anti-inflammatory effects by an inhibition of TNF...

  11. Saxagliptin for type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chacra

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Antonio R Chacra, MDDiabetes Center, Federal University of São Paulo, BrazilAbstract: Saxagliptin (Onglyza™ is a potent, selective, once-daily dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4 inhibitor indicated for improving glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D. By blocking DPP-4, saxagliptin increases and prolongs the effects of incretins, a group of peptide hormones released by intestinal cells after meals, which stimulate glucose-dependent insulin secretion to lower blood glucose. In controlled clinical trials, saxagliptin administered as monotherapy or in combination with metformin, glyburide, or a thiazolidinedione improved glycemic control in a clinically significant manner, reflected by significant decreases in glycated hemoglobin (monotherapy, -0.5%; add-on to metformin, thiazolidinedione, or sulfonylurea, -0.6% to 0.9%; initial combination with metformin, -2.5%, fasting plasma glucose, and postprandial glucose compared with controls. Additionally, saxagliptin improved β-cell function, reflected as increases in homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-2β. Saxagliptin was generally well tolerated; it did not increase hypoglycemia compared with controls, and was weight neutral. A meta-analysis of Phase II and III trials showed that saxagliptin did not increase the risk of major cardiovascular events. Professional organizations have updated their guidelines for T2D to include a DPP-4 inhibitor as an early treatment option—either as initial therapy in combination with metformin, or as add-on therapy for patients whose glycemia is inadequately controlled by a single oral antidiabetic drug.Keywords: saxagliptin, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4 inhibitor, type 2 diabetes

  12. [New insulin types in type 1 diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesa, Jordi

    2015-07-20

    Since its discovery almost a century ago, insulin remains the mainstay of treatment of patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Although progress in the synthesis of new formulations has been remarkable, the physiological profile of insulin is still different from that observed with preparations available nowadays. In the last decade, the introduction into clinical practice of insulin analogues has allowed significantly improvement in glycemic control and has facilitated the spread of basal/bolus patterns, the most physiological ones until now. Despite the benefits of basal analogues, glycemia often varies considerably when used as a single daily injection and this is why new molecules have been further investigated. Improvement has been achieved especially in terms of duration and rate of hypoglycemia, the main limiting factor of intensive therapy. This article reviews the available data concerning the new basal insulin analogues, degludec, pegylated lispro and glargine U300, and new formulations currently under development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. A Typeful Integration of SQL into Curry

    OpenAIRE

    Hanus, Michael; Krone, Julia

    2017-01-01

    We present an extension of the declarative programming language Curry to support the access to data stored in relational databases via SQL. Since Curry is statically typed, our emphasis on this SQL integration is on type safety. Our extension respects the type system of Curry so that run-time errors due to ill-typed data are avoided. This is obtained by preprocessing SQL statements at compile time and translating them into type-safe database access operations. As a consequence, the type ch...

  14. Puberty and type 1 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Subhankar

    2015-01-01

    Various data on type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) have showed that the incidence of T1DM peaks at puberty. However, diabetes control and complications could be adversely affected by the physiological changes of puberty. In early years of insulin therapy, severe growth retardation with pubertal delay, like in Mauriac syndrome, have been reported. Insulin and leptin are metabolic factors, circulating in the periphery, which participate in the hypothalamic control of metabolism and reproduction. Insulin may be an important regulator of leptin in humans. Increased levels of advanced glycation end products suppress activation of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) pulse generator, resulting in pubertal delay. Glycemic control deteriorates during puberty as the lean body mass doubles mainly over a period of 25 years, which increases insulin requirement. There is also an increase in insulin resistance over the period of puberty. In normal individuals, fasting and postprandial insulin concentrations reach a peak in both sexes in mid to late puberty. Puberty, at all stages, has the worst insulin resistance. It has been observed that an excessive GH secretion in T1DM during puberty has significant effects on ketogenesis. Adolescent T1DM tends to decompensate very rapidly and develop ketoacidosis when the late night insulin dose is omitted. Adolescence is a critical developmental phase that presents unique challenges and opportunities to individuals with diabetes, their families and their healthcare providers. PMID:25941652

  15. Instream Physical Habitat Modelling Types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conallin, John; Boegh, Eva; Krogsgaard, Jørgen

    2010-01-01

    The introduction of the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) is providing member state water resource managers with significant challenges in relation to meeting the deadline for 'Good Ecological Status' by 2015. Overall, instream physical habitat modelling approaches have advantages and disadvanta......The introduction of the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) is providing member state water resource managers with significant challenges in relation to meeting the deadline for 'Good Ecological Status' by 2015. Overall, instream physical habitat modelling approaches have advantages...... physical habitat models. In parametric and non-parametric regression models, model assumptions are often not satisfied and the models are difficult to transfer to other regions. Research-based methods such as the artificial neural networks and individual-based modelling have promising potential as water......-friendly and have flexible data needs. They can easily be implemented in new regions using expert information or different types of local data. Furthermore, they are easily presentable to stakeholders and have the potential to be applied over large spatial scales. Integral care must be taken in the use...

  16. Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodish, Maya

    2013-01-01

    Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN2) is an autosomal-dominant cancer syndrome characterized by variable penetrance of medullary thyroid carcinoma(MTC), pheochromocytoma (PHEO), and primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). MEN2 consists of two clinical subtypes, MEN2A and MEN2B. Familial medullary thyroid cancer is now viewed as a phenotypic variant of MEN2A with decreased penetrance for PHEO and PHPT rather than a distinct entity. All subtypes are caused by gain-of-function mutations of the RET proto-oncogene. Genotype-phenotype correlations exist that help predict the presence of other associated endocrine neoplasms as well as the timing of thyroid cancer development. Recognition of the clinical entity in individuals and families at risk of harboring a germline RET mutation is crucial for the management and prevention of associated malignancies. Recent guidelines released by the American Thyroid Association regarding the management of MTC will be summarized in this chapter. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Capacitor-type micrometeoroid detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wortman, J. J.; Griffis, D. P.; Bryan, S. R.; Kinard, W.

    1986-01-01

    The metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) capacitor micrometeroid detector consists of a thin dielectric capacitor fabricated on a silicon wafer. In operation, the device is charged to a voltage level sufficiently near breakdown that micrometeoroid impacts will cause dielectric deformation or heating and subsequent arc-over at the point of impact. Each detector is capable of recording multiple impacts because of the self-healing characteristics of the device. Support instrumentation requirements consist of a voltage source and pulse counters that monitor the pulse of recharging current following every impact. An investigation has been conducted in which 0.5 to 5 micron diameter carbonized iron spheres traveling at velocities of 4 to 10 Km/sec were impacted on to detectors with either a dielectric thickness of 0.4 or 1.0 micron. This study demonstrated that an ion microprobe tuned to sufficiently high resolution can detect Fe remaining on the detector after the impact. Furthermore, it is also possible to resolve Fe ion images free of mass interferences from Si, for example, giving its spatial distribution after impact. Specifically this technique has shown that significant amounts of impacting particles remain in the crater and near it which can be analyzed for isotopic content. Further testing and calibration could lead to quantitive analysis. This study has shown that the capacitor type micrometeroid detector is capable of not only time and flux measurements but can also be used for isotopic analysis.

  18. Puberty and type 1 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhankar Chowdhury

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Various data on type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM have showed that the incidence of T1DM peaks at puberty. However, diabetes control and complications could be adversely affected by the physiological changes of puberty. In early years of insulin therapy, severe growth retardation with pubertal delay, like in Mauriac syndrome, have been reported. Insulin and leptin are metabolic factors, circulating in the periphery, which participate in the hypothalamic control of metabolism and reproduction. Insulin may be an important regulator of leptin in humans. Increased levels of advanced glycation end products suppress activation of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH pulse generator, resulting in pubertal delay. Glycemic control deteriorates during puberty as the lean body mass doubles mainly over a period of 25 years, which increases insulin requirement. There is also an increase in insulin resistance over the period of puberty. In normal individuals, fasting and postprandial insulin concentrations reach a peak in both sexes in mid to late puberty. Puberty, at all stages, has the worst insulin resistance. It has been observed that an excessive GH secretion in T1DM during puberty has significant effects on ketogenesis. Adolescent T1DM tends to decompensate very rapidly and develop ketoacidosis when the late night insulin dose is omitted. Adolescence is a critical developmental phase that presents unique challenges and opportunities to individuals with diabetes, their families and their healthcare providers.

  19. Sugar and Type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lean, Michael E J; Te Morenga, Lisa

    2016-12-01

    Consumption of sugar, specifically sugar-sweetened beverages, has been widely held responsible by the media for the global rise in Type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Systematic reviews and dietary guidelines relating dietary sugars to T2DM. Weight gain and T2DM incidence are associated with diet and lifestyle patterns characterized by high consumptions of any sweetened beverages. High sugar intakes impair risk factors for macrovascular complications of T2DM. Much of the association between sugars and T2DM is eliminated by adjusting data for body mass index (BMI). However, BMI adjustment does not fully account for adiposity (r 2 =0.65-0.75). Excess sugar can promote weight gain, thus T2DM, through extra calories, but has no unique diabetogenic effect at physiological levels. Ethical concerns about caffeine added to sweetened beverages, undetectable by consumers, to increase consumption. Evidence needed for limiting dietary sugar below 10% energy intake. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Swift-Hohenberg-type model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oza, Anand; Dunkel, Joern

    Recent experiments from the Zvonimir Dogic Lab (Brandeis University) demonstrated that ATP-driven microtubule-kinesin bundles can self-assemble into two-dimensional active liquid crystals that exhibit a rich creation and annihilation dynamics of topological defects, reminiscent of particle-pair production processes in quantum systems. This remarkable discovery has sparked considerable theoretical and experimental interest. Here, we present and validate a minimal continuum theory for this new class of active matter systems by modifying the classical Landau-de Gennes theory for liquid crystals, obtaining a tensorial Swift-Hohenberg-type PDE. We simulate the resulting model numerically and develop an algorithm for tracking topological defects. We find that the resulting model agrees quantitatively with recently published data and predicts a regime of antipolar defect ordering. Ordered states go unstable as the activity parameter is increased, yet the chaotic defect dynamics still exhibit local antipolar ordering. Generally, our results suggest that complex nonequilibrium pattern-formation phenomena might be predictable from a few fundamental symmetry-breaking and scale-selection principles.

  1. Brittle type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertuzzi, Federico; Verzaro, Roberto; Provenzano, Vincenzo; Ricordi, Camillo

    2007-01-01

    A small group of patients affected by type 1 diabetes mellitus is characterized by a severe instability of glycemic values with frequent and unpredictable hypoglycemic and/or ketoacidosis episodes which cannot be explained by errors of patients or diabetologists. The quality of life of these patients is dramatically compromised in particular because of the frequency of acute events, hospital recoveries and precocious appearance of chronic complications. This clinical condition has been defined as "brittle diabetes". A precise quantification of these patients is difficult because diagnostic criteria are still not well defined and it is often difficult to verify errors of patients in terms of inappropriate conduct with the pathology. Even more than the other kinds of diabetes, therapy is based on education, glycemic control, intensive therapy and strict interaction between physicians and patients. The introduction of insulin analogous, with either ultra-fast and ultra-slow action and the use of subcutaneous insulin pumps have significantly increased the possibility of treating the most of these cases. However, there is a minority of patients resistant to the therapy. In similar cases, pancreas or islet transplantation represents an effective therapeutic option entailing good expected outcomes. The main limiting factor of beta cell function replacement by transplantation is so far represented by the potentially severe side effects of the immunosuppression therapy necessary to avoid graft rejection and recurrence of autoimmunity.

  2. Intersection Type Systems and Explicit Substitutions Calculi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Daniel Lima; Ayala-Rincón, Mauricio; Kamareddine, Fairouz

    The λ-calculus with de Bruijn indices, called λ dB , assembles each α-class of λ-terms into a unique term, using indices instead of variable names. Intersection types provide finitary type polymorphism satisfying important properties like principal typing, which allows the type system to include features such as data abstraction (modularity) and separate compilation. To be closer to computation and to simplify the formalisation of the atomic operations involved in β-contractions, several explicit substitution calculi were developed most of which are written with de Bruijn indices. Although untyped and simply types versions of explicit substitution calculi are well investigated, versions with more elaborate type systems (e.g., with intersection types) are not. In previous work, we presented a version for λ dB of an intersection type system originally introduced to characterise principal typings for β-normal forms and provided the characterisation for this version. In this work we introduce intersection type systems for two explicit substitution calculi: the λσ and the λs e . These type system are based on a type system for λ dB and satisfy the basic property of subject reduction, which guarantees the preservation of types during computations.

  3. Nanocalorimeter platform for <i>in situ specific heat measurements and x-ray diffraction at low temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willa, K. [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439, USA; Diao, Z. [Department of Physics, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden; Laboratory of Mathematics, Physics and Electrical Engineering, Halmstad University, P.O. Box 823, SE-301 18 Halmstad, Sweden; Campanini, D. [Department of Physics, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden; Welp, U. [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439, USA; Divan, R. [Center for Nanoscale Materials, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439, USA; Hudl, M. [Department of Physics, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden; Islam, Z. [X-ray Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439, USA; Kwok, W. -K. [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439, USA; Rydh, A. [Department of Physics, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden

    2017-12-01

    Recent advances in electronics and nanofabrication have enabled membrane-based nanocalorimetry for measurements of the specific heat of microgram-sized samples. We have integrated a nanocalorimeter platform into a 4.5 T split-pair vertical-field magnet to allow for the simultaneous measurement of the specific heat and x-ray scattering in magnetic fields and at temperatures as low as 4 K. This multi-modal approach empowers researchers to directly correlate scattering experiments with insights from thermodynamic properties including structural, electronic, orbital, and magnetic phase transitions. The use of a nanocalorimeter sample platform enables numerous technical advantages: precise measurement and control of the sample temperature, quantification of beam heating effects, fast and precise positioning of the sample in the x-ray beam, and fast acquisition of x-ray scans over a wide temperature range without the need for time-consuming re-centering and re-alignment. Furthermore, on an YBa2Cu3O7-delta crystal and a copper foil, we demonstrate a novel approach to x-ray absorption spectroscopy by monitoring the change in sample temperature as a function of incident photon energy. Finally, we illustrate the new insights that can be gained from in situ structural and thermodynamic measurements by investigating the superheated state occurring at the first-order magneto-elastic phase transition of Fe2P, a material that is of interest for magnetocaloric applications.

  4. Comparison of the effectiveness of sterilizing endodontic files by 4 different methods: An <i>in vitro study

    OpenAIRE

    Venkatasubramanian R; Jayanthi,; Das U; Bhatnagar S

    2010-01-01

    Sterilization is the best method to counter the threats of microorganisms. The purpose of sterilization in the field of health care is to prevent the spread of infectious diseases. In dentistry, it primarily relates to processing reusable instruments to prevent cross-infection. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of 4 methods of sterilizing endodontic instruments: Autoclaving, carbon dioxide laser sterilization, chemical sterilization (with glutaraldehyde) and glass-bead ste...

  5. Acid-Base Buffering Properties of Five Legumes and Selected Food <i>in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Maher M. Al-Dabbas; Khalid Al-Ismail; Ruba A. Taleb; Salam Ibrahim

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: in vitro acid-Buffering Capacity (BC) values of 5% (dry matter) aqueous homogenized suspension of five legumes (broad bean, lentils, chickpea, kidney bean and lupine) and of selected antacid home preparations (cow's milk, almond, peanut, licorice, carob and lettuce stem) were investigated within and among samples from their respective initial pH until pH was decreased to 1.5. BC was the highest for cow's milk, carob, licorice and lettuce stem (BC values 1.65-1.97), intermed...

  6. Production systems and reproductive performances of Camelus dromedarius i>in Somali regional state, eastern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Simenew Keskes; Mohamed Ibrahim; Tesfaye Sisay Tessema; Berhan Tamir; Fekadu Regassa; Tesfu Kassa; Fufa Dawo

    2013-01-01

    Across-sectional questionnaire survey and focused group discussions were conducted to characterize camel production systems and to evaluate reproductive performances of camels at their natural pastoralist management systems of Somali region. A total of 100 households were included in the study during the period of October 2012 to March 2013. About 98% of Somali pastoralists preferred camels as their first choice over other livestock species and mainly kept in the society for milk and meat pro...

  7. <i>In vivo autofluorescence characteristics of pre- and post-treated oral submucous fibrosis: A pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Vedeswari C; Jayachandran S; Ganesan S.

    2009-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: To compare the autofluorescence spectra of oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) with normal mucosa, the autofluorescence spectra of OSF before and after treatment with intralesional dexamethasone and hyaluronidase, the clinical improvement following treatment with the changes in autofluorescence spectra and to prove that autofluorescence spectroscopy is a good method for diagnosis and assessment of treatment effectiveness in OSF. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted...

  8. Non-alcoholic beverages, unknown influence on cell proliferation – an [i]in vitro[/i] study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Nowacki

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective. The aim of the presented study was to check differences between ‘Diet’ and ‘non-Diet’ soft drinks on cell proliferation. Materials and methods. Coca Cola and Pepsi Cola of different origin and their dietetic versions were examined at concentrations of 2% and 4%. Fructose and glucose as well as medium alone (control were examined. Results. Cell number was higher in media supplemented with soft drinks, compared to control. Proliferation depended on the soft drink concentration and its origin, but not on sugar and calorific content. Conclusions. An unknown factor is responsible for the increase in proliferation.

  9. Activation of persistent Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus i>in mares with subclinical endometritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Morten Rønn; Skive, Bolette; Christoffersen, Mette

    2015-01-01

    Endometritis in horses caused by Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus (S. zooepidemicus) may be underdiagnosed due to traditional diagnostic methods lacking sensitivity and specificity. We serendipitously identified a bacterial growth medium (bActivate) that appeared capable of inducing gr...

  10. <i>In situ hydrogen dynamics in a hot spring microbial mat during a diel cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Revsbech, Niels Peter; Trampe, Erik Christian Løvbjerg; Lichtenberg, Mads

    2016-01-01

    Microbes can produce molecular hydrogen (H2) via fermentation, dinitrogen fixation, or direct photolysis, yet the H2 dynamics in cyanobacterial communities has only been explored in a few natural systems and mostly in the laboratory. In this study, we investigated the diel in situ H2 dynamics...... in a hot spring microbial mat, where various ecotypes of unicellular cyanobacteria (Synechococcus sp.) are the only oxygenic phototrophs. In the evening, H2 accumulated rapidly after the onset of darkness, reaching peak values of up to 30 mol H2 liter1 at about 1-mm depth below the mat surface, slowly...... that nitrogenase activity was an important source of H2 during the morning. This is in accordance with earlier findings of a distinct early morning peak in N2 fixation and expression of Synechococcus nitrogenase genes in mat samples from the same location. Fermentation might have contributed to the formation of H2...

  11. Identification of Metabolic Pathways Essential for Fitness of Salmonella Typhimurium <i>In Vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelsbak, Lotte; Hartman, Hassan; Schroll, Casper

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial infections remain a threat to human and animal health worldwide, and there is an urgent need to find novel targets for intervention. In the current study we used a computer model of the metabolic network of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and identified pairs of reactions (cut...... in vitro but was attenuated during infection showing that polyamines are essential for virulence apparently in a growth independent manner. The serA/glyA cut-set was found to be growth attenuated as predicted by the model. However, not only the double mutant, but also the glyA mutant, were found...

  12. <i>In situ examination of Lactobacillus brevis after exposure to an oxidizing disinfectant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Yu; Knøchel, Susanne; Siegumfeldt, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    -growing individual cells do not stain with a membrane impermanent dye (Propidium iodide), which indicates that PAA may not destroy the plasma membrane. In conclusion, the developed microscopic analysis of individual cells on MRS agar can provides faster results and more details of cell physiology compared...

  13. Dental pulp stem cell therapy in ischaemic stroke: exploring the neuroprotective and -regenerative effects <i>in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Kemps, Hannelore

    2017-01-01

    Ischaemic stroke can be defined as a neurological deficit of vascular origin. The disease is a major cause of disability and is ranked as the second leading cause of death. Current therapies are unable to sufficiently improve functional outcome in patients. Stem cell therapy is considered as a promising treatment strategy that aims to reduce neuronal damage and stimulate host repair. The goal of this study is to characterize the neuroprotective and neuroregenerative effects of dental pulp ste...

  14. Capillary based Li-air batteries for <i>in situ synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm, Mie Møller; Johnsen, Rune E.; Younesi, Reza

    2015-01-01

    For Li-air batteries to reach their full potential as energy storage system, a complete understanding of the conditions and reactions in the battery during operation is needed. To follow the reactions in situ a capillary-based Li-O2 battery has been developed for synchrotron-based in situ X...

  15. <i>In Situ Real-Time Radiographic Study of Thin Film Formation Inside Rotating Hollow Spheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, Tom; Walton, Christopher C.; Dawedeit, Christoph; Biener, Monika M.; Kim, Sung Ho; Willey, Trevor M.; Xiao, Xianghui; van Buuren, Anthony; Hamza, Alex V.; Biener, Juergen

    2016-02-03

    Hollow spheres with uniform coatings on the inner surface have applications in optical devices, time- or site controlled drug release, heat storage devices, and target fabrication for inertial confinement fusion experiments. The fabrication of uniform coatings, which is often critical for the application performance, requires precise understanding and control over the coating process and its parameters. Here, we report on in-situ real-time radiography experiments that provide critical spatio-temporal information about the distribution of fluids inside hollow spheres during uniaxial rotation. Image analysis and computer fluid dynamics simulations were used to explore the effect of liquid viscosity and rotational velocity on the film uniformity. The data were then used to demonstrate the fabrication of uniform sol-gel chemistry derived porous polymer films inside 2mm inner diameter diamond shells.

  16. Acute mTOR inhibition induces insulin resistance and alters substrate utilization <i>in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleinert, Maximilian; Sylow, Lykke; Fazakerley, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    , but not rapamycin reduced insulin-stimulated glucose uptake into incubated muscles, despite normal GLUT4 translocation in muscle cells. AZD8055 inhibited glycolysis in MEF cells. Abrogation of mTORC2 activity by SIN1 deletion impaired glycolysis and AZD8055 had no effect in SIN1 KO MEFs. Re-expression of wildtype...... SIN1 rescued glycolysis. Glucose intolerance following AZD8055 administration was absent in mice lacking the mTORC2 subunit Rictor in muscle, and in vivo glucose uptake into Rictor-deficient muscle was reduced despite normal Akt activity. Taken together, acute mTOR inhibition is detrimental to glucose...

  17. Synthesis of mesoporous zeolite catalysts by <i>in situ formation of carbon template over nickel nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildstrøm, Jacob Oskar; Kegnæs, Marina; Hytoft, Glen

    2016-01-01

    A novel synthesis procedure for the preparation of the hierarchical zeolite materials with MFI structure based on the carbon templating method with in situ generated carbon template is presented in this study. Through chemical vapour deposition of coke on nickel nanoparticles supported on silica ...... and cracking of n-octane is chosen as a model test reaction and the mesoporous zeolite catalyst is found to exhibit higher activity than the conventional catalyst....

  18. Identification of Gene Transcription Start Sites and Enhancers Responding to Pulmonary Carbon Nanotube Exposure <i>in Vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bornholdt, Jette; Saber, Anne Thoustrup; Lilje, Bait

    2017-01-01

    Increased use of nanomaterials in industry, medicine, and consumer products has raised concerns over their toxicity. To ensure safe use of nanomaterials, understanding their biological effects at the molecular level is crucial. In particular, the regulatory mechanisms responsible for the cascade...... for known genes, and the number of alternative transcription start sites used in a given gene was correlated with overall Mitsui-7 response. Strikingly, genes that were up-regulated after Mitsui-7 exposure only through their main annotated transcription start site were linked to inflammatory and defense...... genes. Overall, our study provides the location and activity of Mitsui-7-induced enhancers and transcription start sites, providing a useful resource for targeted experiments elucidating the biological effects of nanomaterials and the identification of biomarkers for early detection of MWCNT...

  19. <i>In vivo assembly of DNA-fragments in the moss, Physcomitrella patens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    King, Brian Christopher; Vavitsas, Konstantinos; Ikram, Nur Kusaira Binti Khairul

    2016-01-01

    Direct assembly of multiple linear DNA fragments via homologous recombination, a phenomenon known as in vivo assembly or transformation associated recombination, is used in biotechnology to assemble DNA constructs ranging in size from a few kilobases to full synthetic microbial genomes. It has al...... of high-value therapeutics. These proof-of-principle experiments pave the way for more complex and increasingly flexible approaches for large-scale metabolic engineering in plant biotechnology.......Direct assembly of multiple linear DNA fragments via homologous recombination, a phenomenon known as in vivo assembly or transformation associated recombination, is used in biotechnology to assemble DNA constructs ranging in size from a few kilobases to full synthetic microbial genomes. It has also...... enabled the complete replacement of eukaryotic chromosomes with heterologous DNA. The moss Physcomitrella patens, a non-vascular and spore producing land plant (Bryophyte), has a well-established capacity for homologous recombination. Here, we demonstrate the in vivo assembly of multiple DNA fragments...

  20. <i>In situ non-destructive measurement of biofilm thickness and topology in an interferometric optical microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larimer, Curtis [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Battelle for the USDOE, PO Box 999, MSIN P7-50 Richland WA 99354 USA; Suter, Jonathan D. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Battelle for the USDOE, PO Box 999, MSIN P7-50 Richland WA 99354 USA; Bonheyo, George [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Battelle for the USDOE, PO Box 999, MSIN P7-50 Richland WA 99354 USA; Addleman, Raymond Shane [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Battelle for the USDOE, PO Box 999, MSIN P7-50 Richland WA 99354 USA

    2016-03-15

    Biofilms are ubiquitous and deleteriously impact a wide range of industrial processes, medical and dental health issues, and environmental problems such as transport of invasive species and the fuel efficiency of ocean going vessels. Biofilms are difficult to characterize when fully hydrated, especially in a non-destructive manner, because of their soft structure and water-like bulk properties. Herein we describe a non-destructive high resolution method of measuring and monitoring the thickness and topology of live biofilms of using white light interferometric optical microscopy. Using this technique, surface morphology, surface roughness, and biofilm thickness can be measured non-destructively and with high resolution as a function of time without disruption of the biofilm activity and processes. The thickness and surface topology of a P. putida biofilm were monitored growing from initial colonization to a mature biofilm. Typical bacterial growth curves were observed. Increase in surface roughness was a leading indicator of biofilm growth.

  1. Foundations of Session Types and Behavioural Contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huttel, Hans; Lanese, Ivan; Vasconcelos, Vasco

    2016-01-01

    Behavioural type systems, usually associated to concurrent or distributed computations, encompass concepts such as interfaces, communication protocols, and contracts, in addition to the traditional input/output operations. The behavioural type of a software component specifies its expected patterns...

  2. Genetics Home Reference: type 2 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What's Your Risk? KidsHealth from Nemours The Genetic Landscape of Diabetes (2004) Type 2 Diabetes Knowledge Portal ... ancestry meta-analysis provides insight into the genetic architecture of type 2 diabetes susceptibility. Nat Genet. 2014 ...

  3. Gardasil 9 Protects against Additional HPV Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    A summary of results from a large randomized clinical trial that shows a new human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine effectively prevented infection and disease caused by seven HPV types that cause cancer and two HPV types that cause genital warts.

  4. Verifying design patterns in Hoare Type Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Kasper; Buisse, Alexandre; Birkedal, Lars

    In this technical report we document our experiments formally verifying three design patterns in Hoare Type Theory.......In this technical report we document our experiments formally verifying three design patterns in Hoare Type Theory....

  5. Genetics Home Reference: spinocerebellar ataxia type 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Email Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions SCA1 Spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 Printable PDF Open All Close All ... to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 ( SCA1 ) is a condition characterized by ...

  6. Genetics Home Reference: spinocerebellar ataxia type 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Email Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions SCA2 Spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 Printable PDF Open All Close All ... to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 ( SCA2 ) is a condition characterized by ...

  7. Genetics Home Reference: spinocerebellar ataxia type 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Email Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions SCA3 Spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 Printable PDF Open All Close All ... to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 ( SCA3 ) is a condition characterized by ...

  8. Genetics Home Reference: spinocerebellar ataxia type 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Email Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions SCA6 Spinocerebellar ataxia type 6 Printable PDF Open All Close All ... to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Spinocerebellar ataxia type 6 ( SCA6 ) is a condition characterized by ...

  9. Insulin requirements in type 1 diabetic pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, Nicoline; Ringholm, Lene; Stage, Edna

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the insulin requirements in women with type 1 diabetes during twin pregnancy compared with singleton pregnancy.......To evaluate the insulin requirements in women with type 1 diabetes during twin pregnancy compared with singleton pregnancy....

  10. Medication Treatment of Different Types of Alcoholism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnson, Bankole A

    2010-01-01

    .... Subtyping alcoholism in adults into an early-onset type, with chronic symptoms and a strong biological predisposition to the disease, and a late-onset type, typically brought on by psychosocial...

  11. Diabetes Type 2 Is Serious But Manageable

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Type 2 Diabetes Diabetes Type 2 Is Serious But Manageable Past Issues / ... t have to knock yourself out to prevent diabetes. The key is: small steps that lead to ...

  12. Revisiting Parametric Types and Virtual Classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anders Bach; Ernst, Erik

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a conceptually oriented updated view on the relationship between parametric types and virtual classes. The traditional view is that parametric types excel at structurally oriented composition and decomposition, and virtual classes excel at specifying mutually recursive families...

  13. Who Needs Ten-Finger Typing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Holly

    1984-01-01

    Issues related to the teaching of typing are discussed, focusing on the need for typing skills when using computers. Also compares use of the "QWERTY" to the Dvorak keyboards, considering the advantages and disadvantages of each. (JN)

  14. Type Soundness in the Dart Programming Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strocco, Fabio

    Many mainstream programming languages are dynamically typed. This allows for rapid software development and programming flexibility because it gives programmers the freedom to use powerful programming patterns that are not allowed in statically typed programming languages. Nevertheless......, this freedom does not come without drawbacks: static bugs detection, IDE support, and compiler optimization techniques are harder to implement. In the last decades, the research literature and mainstream programming languages have been aiming to reach a trade-off between statically typed and dynamically typed...... languages. We investigate the trade-off, focusing on the area of optional typing, which allows programmers to choose when to use static type checking in parts of pro- grams. Our primary focus is Dart, an optionally typed programming language with a type system that is unsound by design. What makes Dart...

  15. Ketosis prone type 2 diabetes (KPD)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Concha L, Luciana; Durruty A, Pilar; García de Los Ríos A, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Ketosis prone type 2 diabetes (KPD) is presently a well-defined clinical entity, characterized by a debut with severe hyperglycemia and ketoacidosis similar to the presenting form of Type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1...

  16. Improving settlement type classification of aerial images

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mdakane, L

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available (multitemporal imagery) tend to exhibit pronounced viewing- and illumination geometry effects, which result in a poor generalization performance in settlement type classification tasks. The study investigated the influence of contrast in settlement type...

  17. Convection in Type 2 supernovae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Douglas Scott [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    1993-10-15

    Results are presented here from several two dimensional numerical calculations of events in Type II supernovae. A new 2-D hydrodynamics and neutrino transport code has been used to compute the effect on the supernova explosion mechanism of convection between the neutrinosphere and the shock. This convection is referred to as exterior convection to distinguish it from convection beneath the neutrinosphere. The model equations and initial and boundary conditions are presented along with the simulation results. The 2-D code was used to compute an exterior convective velocity to compare with the convective model of the Mayle and Wilson 1-D code. Results are presented from several runs with varying sizes of initial perturbation, as well as a case with no initial perturbation but including the effects of rotation. The M&W code does not produce an explosion using the 2-D convective velocity. Exterior convection enhances the outward propagation of the shock, but not enough to ensure a successful explosion. Analytic estimates of the growth rate of the neutron finger instability axe presented. It is shown that this instability can occur beneath the neutrinosphere of the proto-neutron star in a supernova explosion with a growth time of ~ 3 microseconds. The behavior of the high entropy bubble that forms between the shock and the neutrinosphere in one dimensional calculations of supernova is investigated. It has been speculated that this bubble is a site for γ-process generation of heavy elements. Two dimensional calculations are presented of the time evolution of the hot bubble and the surrounding stellar material. Unlike one dimensional calculations, the 2D code fails to achieve high entropies in the bubble. When run in a spherically symmetric mode the 2-D code reaches entropies of ~ 200. When convection is allowed, the bubble reaches ~60 then the bubble begins to move upward into the cooler, denser material above it.

  18. Sacrifical sites, types and function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Örnulv Vorren

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available Much has been written and said about Saami mythology and pre-Christian religion. There is, however, considerably less documentation of concrete cultural elements in scholarly descriptions. These investigations are considered important not only because they aim to provide documentation that can be used for studies of Saami mythology and pre-Christian religion. They also provide material that can throw light on the function of the holy places in a social context through analysis of their origin, their connections with certain families and persons, their associations with the siidas, their location within the areas where the Saamis from these siidas gained their livelihood, etc. The materials collected about the sacrificial sites also play an important role in studying the course of events leading up to the differentiation of Saami hunting and gathering culture. A question that has frequently arisen in the course of this work is with what powers or deities the different sacrificial sites were associated. This is naturally connected with their origin and their form. This, in turn, is reflected in the traditions and legends recounted concerning them. It is also reflected in their location in the physical environment and in the kinds of offerings that have been found. In the materials so far collected it is possible to distinguish between about eight different types of sacrificial site and holy mountain or fell according to their form and location: holy fells, rock formations, stone boulders, holes, cracks in fells, springs, lakes, ring-shaped sacrificial sites. Missionaries were urged to destroy the offering sites.

  19. TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA CARBON FOOTPRINTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, R. C.; Nugent, P. [Computational Cosmology Center, Computational Research Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road MS 50B-4206, Berkeley, CA 94611 (United States); Aldering, G.; Aragon, C.; Bailey, S.; Childress, M.; Fakhouri, H. K.; Hsiao, E. Y.; Loken, S. [Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Antilogus, P.; Bongard, S.; Canto, A. [Laboratoire de Physique Nucleaire et des Hautes Energies, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie Paris 6, Universite Paris Diderot Paris 7, CNRS-IN2P3, 4 place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Baltay, C. [Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06250-8121 (United States); Buton, C.; Kerschhaggl, M.; Kowalski, M.; Paech, K. [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Bonn, Nussallee 12, 53115 Bonn (Germany); Chotard, N.; Copin, Y.; Gangler, E. [Universite de Lyon, F-69622 Lyon (France); and others

    2011-12-10

    We present convincing evidence of unburned carbon at photospheric velocities in new observations of five Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) obtained by the Nearby Supernova Factory. These SNe are identified by examining 346 spectra from 124 SNe obtained before +2.5 days relative to maximum. Detections are based on the presence of relatively strong C II {lambda}6580 absorption 'notches' in multiple spectra of each SN, aided by automated fitting with the SYNAPPS code. Four of the five SNe in question are otherwise spectroscopically unremarkable, with ions and ejection velocities typical of SNe Ia, but spectra of the fifth exhibit high-velocity (v > 20, 000 km s{sup -1}) Si II and Ca II features. On the other hand, the light curve properties are preferentially grouped, strongly suggesting a connection between carbon-positivity and broadband light curve/color behavior: three of the five have relatively narrow light curves but also blue colors and a fourth may be a dust-reddened member of this family. Accounting for signal to noise and phase, we estimate that 22{sup +10}{sub -6%} of SNe Ia exhibit spectroscopic C II signatures as late as -5 days with respect to maximum. We place these new objects in the context of previously recognized carbon-positive SNe Ia and consider reasonable scenarios seeking to explain a physical connection between light curve properties and the presence of photospheric carbon. We also examine the detailed evolution of the detected carbon signatures and the surrounding wavelength regions to shed light on the distribution of carbon in the ejecta. Our ability to reconstruct the C II {lambda}6580 feature in detail under the assumption of purely spherical symmetry casts doubt on a 'carbon blobs' hypothesis, but does not rule out all asymmetric models. A low volume filling factor for carbon, combined with line-of-sight effects, seems unlikely to explain the scarcity of detected carbon in SNe Ia by itself.

  20. Dependent Types for JavaScript

    OpenAIRE

    Chugh, Ravi; Herman, David; Jhala, Ranjit

    2011-01-01

    We present Dependent JavaScript (DJS), a statically-typed dialect of the imperative, object-oriented, dynamic language. DJS supports the particularly challenging features such as run-time type-tests, higher-order functions, extensible objects, prototype inheritance, and arrays through a combination of nested refinement types, strong updates to the heap, and heap unrolling to precisely track prototype hierarchies. With our implementation of DJS, we demonstrate that the type system is expressiv...