Alosaimi, Fahad D.; Alyahya, Haifa; Alshahwan, Hatem; Mahyijari, Nawal Al; Shaik, Shaffi A.
Objectives: To investigate the prevalence and correlates of smartphone addiction among university students in Saudi Arabia. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between September 2014 and March 2015. An electronic self administered questionnaire and the problematic use of mobile phones (PUMP) Scale were used. Results: Out of 2367 study subjects, 27.2% stated that they spent more than 8 hours per day using their smartphones....
This study investigates the level of existence of organized retail crime in supermarkets of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The store managers, security managers and general employees were asked about the types of retail crimes occur in the stores. Three independent variables were related to the report of organized retail theft. The independent variables are: 1) the supermarket profile (volume, location, standard and type of the store), 2) the social physical environment of the store (maintenance, clea...
Ibrahim Al Alwan
Full Text Available Background The ages of onset of pubertal characteristics are influenced by genetic, geographic, dietary and socioeconomic factors; however, due to lack of country-specific norms, clinicians in Saudi Arabia use Western estimates as standards of reference for local children. Aims The aim of the Riyadh Puberty Study was to provide data on pubertal development to determine the average age of onset of pubertal characteristics among Saudi boys. Methods Cross-sectional study among male school children in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, in 2006, 542 schoolboys, aged 6 to 16 years old, from diverse socioeconomic levels were selected into the sample using a cluster sample design. Tanner stages were ascertained during physical examination by pediatric endocrine consultants, and also trained pediatric residents and fellows. Results The mean age (standard deviation at Tanner Stages 2, 3, 4, and 5 for pubic hair development of Saudi boys was 11.4 (1.6, 13.3 (1.3, 14.4 (1.0 and 15.1 (0.8 years old, respectively. For gonadal development, the mean age (standard deviation at stages 2, 3, 4, and 5 were 11.4 (1.5, 13.3 (1.2, 14.3 (1.1 and 15.0 (0.9 years old, respectively. Conclusion The ages of onset of pubertal characteristics, based on gonadal development, among Saudi boys are comparable to those reported in Western populations.
Alghamdi, Abdulrahman S.; Aleissa, Khalid A.
The influences on indoor radon concentrations in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia survey was carried out for 786 dwellings. The measurements were obtained by using a passive integrating ionization system with an E-Perm ® Electret ion chamber. Radon levels ranged from 1 to 195 Bq m −3 , with a mean value of 24.68 Bq m −3 , the geometric mean and the geometric standard deviation are 21 and 2 respectively. 98.5% of the results were below the action level recommended by WHO of 100 Bq.m −3 . The results were found to vary substantially due to types of houses and rooms, ventilation, seasons and building materials. Radon concentrations were higher in houses with no ventilation systems, and central air conditioners, and were relatively lower in well ventilated houses with red bricks and water air conditioners. - Highlights: • Limited information about indoor radon in Riyadh. • Several factors influence Radon level were investigated in 786 dwellings in Riyadh over one year. • Some results are over the action level and are advised to improve their ventilation systems
Alosaimi, Fahad D; Alyahya, Haifa; Alshahwan, Hatem; Al Mahyijari, Nawal; Shaik, Shaik A
To investigate the prevalence and correlates of smartphone addiction among university students in Saudi Arabia. This cross-sectional study was conducted in King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between September 2014 and March 2015. An electronic self administered questionnaire and the problematic use of mobile phones (PUMP) Scale were used. Out of 2367 study subjects, 27.2% stated that they spent more than 8 hours per day using their smartphones. Seventy-five percent used at least 4 applications per day, primarily for social networking and watching news. As a consequence of using the smartphones, at least 43% had decrease sleeping hours, and experienced a lack of energy the next day, 30% had a more unhealthy lifestyle (ate more fast food, gained weight, and exercised less), and 25% reported that their academic achievement been adversely affected. There are statistically significant positive relationships among the 4 study variables, consequences of smartphone use (negative lifestyle, poor academic achievement), number of hours per day spent using smartphones, years of study, and number of applications used, and the outcome variable score on the PUMP. The mean values of the PUMP scale were 60.8 with a median of 60. University students in Saudi Arabia are at risk of addiction to smartphones; a phenomenon that is associated with negative effects on sleep, levels of energy, eating habits, weight, exercise, and academic performance.
Hatim O. Sharif
Full Text Available Riyadh, the capital of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, has experienced unusual levels of urbanization in the past few decades, making it one of the fastest growing cities in the world. This paper examines flood hazards in the rapidly urbanizing catchment of Al-Aysen in Riyadh. Remote sensing and geographic information system techniques were employed to obtain and prepare input data for hydrologic and hydraulic models, with the former based on the very popular curve number approach. Due to the limited nature of the rainfall data, observations from two rain gauges in the vicinity of the catchment were used to estimate design storms. The hydrologic model was run in a semi-distributed mode by dividing the catchment into many sub-catchments. The impact of urbanization on run-off volume and peak discharge resulting from different storms was investigated, with various urbanization scenarios simulated. Flood hazard zones and affected streets were also identified through hydrologic/hydraulic model simulation. The mismatch between administrative and catchment boundaries can create problems in flood risk management for similar cities since hydrologic processes and flood hazards are based on the hydrologic connectivity. Since flooding events impact the road network and create driving hazards, governmental decision-makers must take the necessary precautions to protect drivers in these situations.
Al dakeel, Taghreed M.; Almannie, Mohamed A.
The general school district of Riyadh is one of largest in the country of (45) school districts in Saudi Arabia. The school districts play an important roles in the development of education, therefore the objective of the study is to examine the roles of the management in the school districts to see if it is achieving competitive advantage. After…
Al Saud, Al Johara Fahad
Saudi Arabia is one of the countries that encounter the issue of bilingualism due to the spread of private schools that offer programs in different languages. This research is an attempt to investigate the impact of bilingualism on the creative capabilities (Fluency, Flexibility, Originality, Details) of kindergarten children in Riyadh. It aims at…
Conclusion: Nail-biting habit was highly prevalent among preschool children in Riyadh, followed by mouth breathing, thumb sucking, and teeth clenching. Malocclusion was the main factor related to the habits of thumb sucking and pacifier sucking. Respiratory and tonsils problems were related to mouth breathing. Teeth clenching was highly related to the presence of carious teeth.
Alquaiz, ALJohara M; Almuneef, Maha; Kazi, Ambreen; Almeneessier, Aljohara
Intimate partner violence is a worldwide public health problem. The objectives of this study were to measure the prevalence and types of domestic violence, and to explore the association between social determinants (sociodemographic factors, husband-related factors, and social support) and violence against women by their intimate partner (husband). We conducted a cross-sectional survey in 18 randomly selected primary health care centers and 13 private institutions (teaching institutes, government offices, social welfare organizations) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Female data collectors took interview from 1,883 married Saudi females aged 30 to 75 years. Interviews included sociodemographic information, reproductive health variables, and social support questionnaire. Violence was measured using modified Intimate Partner Violence Against Women questionnaire developed by the World Health Organization. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted. The lifetime prevalence for any type of violence was 43.0% ( n = 810). The most frequent type was controlling behavior (36.8%), followed by emotional violence (22%), sexual violence (12.7%), and physical violence (9.0%). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that the following were associated with greater odds of reporting domestic violence: younger age 30 to 40 years (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.9, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [1.3, 3.0]), 41 to 50 years (aOR = 1.6, 95% CI = [1.1, 2.5]); lack of emotional support (aOR = 1.7, 95% CI = [1.2, 2.5]); lack of tangible support (aOR = 1.4, 95% CI = [1.1, 1.9]); and perceived poor self-health (aOR = 1.7, 95% CI = [1.0, 3.0]), husbands' poor health (aOR = 1.9, 95% CI = [1.2, 2.0]), and polygamy (aOR = 1.6, 95% CI = [1.5, 2.6]). Domestic violence occurs frequently in Saudi Arabia. Both social conditions and social relations are significantly associated with domestic violence against Saudi women. Furthermore, improvement in implementation of the local policies
Shubayr, Nasser Ali M.
The threat of nuclear attack will remain imminent in an ever-advancing society. Saudi Arabia is not immune to this threat. This dissertation establishes planning guidance for response to a nuclear attack on Riyadh, the capital of Saudi Arabia, based on a hypothetical scenario of a nuclear detonation. A case scenario of a one-megaton thermonuclear bomb detonated at ground level over Riyadh is used to support the thesis. Previous nuclear tests and the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombings have been used to present possible effects on Riyadh. US planning guidance and lessons learned from the Chernobyl and Fukushima nuclear plants accidents have been used to develop the emergency response guidance. The planning guidance outlines a rapid response to the nuclear detonation. Four damage zones have been identified; severe damage zone, moderate damage zone, light damage zone and dangerous fallout zone. Actions that are recommended, and those that should be avoided, have been determined for each zone. Shelter/ evacuation evaluation for blast-affected and fallout-affected areas is the basis for the recommendation that shelter in place is the best decision for the first hours to days after the attack. Guidelines for medical care response and population monitoring and decontamination are included to reduce the early and long-term effects of the attack. Recommendations to the Saudi Arabian authorities have been made to facilitate suitable preparedness and response for such an event.
Saad, R R; el-Gindy, A A
30 species belonging to 18 genera were isolated from floor dust of 30 homes in Riyadh. Out of them 16 species and 10 genera were isolated from dust of air conditioners of the same homes. The most common genera in floor dust were Aspergillus, Penicillium and Cladosporium. Aspergillus repens, A. amstelodami, A. versicolor, A. fumigatus, Penicillium purpurogenum, P. crustosum, Cladosporium cladosporoides and C. herbarum were frequently isolated. The most abundant genera in air conditioner dust were Aspergillus and Penicillium. Aspergillus fumigatus, A. ochraceus, A. terreus, Penicillium oxalicium and P. crustosum were most frequent species.
Al Fayez, Hanan; Lappin, Julia; Murray, Robin; Boydell, Jane
Recent studies of 'duration of untreated psychosis' (DUP) indicate that some patients remain untreated in the community for some time. Considerable emphasis has been placed on reducing the DUP. However, most studies investigating DUP have been conducted in Western countries, where well-developed primary care systems are available. This study aims to describe DUP and its association with both demographic factors and pathways to care in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A retrospective study of 421 new case records of all Saudi schizophrenia patients over a 2-year period in six governmental hospitals in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The median DUP was 1.41 years (interquartile range 0.35-2.81 years). The longest time to contact was 9.86 years but 90% had a DUP shorter than 5 years. Older age at onset, single marital status and higher educational level were associated with shorter DUP. Long DUP was associated with help seeking from traditional healers. In Saudi Arabia, it usually takes longer for patients to seek help from psychiatric services after their first psychosis onset than it does in Western countries. The results suggest that the DUP is influenced by both demographic factors and pathways to care. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Amal Hatem Alkhaldi
Full Text Available Global competition in the international business environment has pushed companies to achieve competitive advantage through mergers, acquisitions and through locating their subsidiaries in less developed counties for cost effectiveness. Consequently, the competitive pressure has increased the significance of human resource management (HRM in multinational companies (MNCs, and MNCs have recognised the significance of the transfer HRM process across borders. This study examines the transfer of HRM policies and practices of US MNCs to their subsidiaries in Saudi Arabia. The aim of the study is to determine the extent to which US MNCs transfer HRM policies and practices from their Headquarters to their subsidiaries in Saudi Arabia; and identify the factors that facilitate and inhibit HRM transfer. The paper is based on an investigation of the interaction between home-country and host-country effects in determining HRM policies and practices in MNCs in the context of the Middle East. The study adopts a mixed methods approach of documentary analysis, focus group interviews of employees and in depth interviews of key informants in four subsidiaries of US owned international hotel chains located in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
Rowe, D.R. (D.R. Rowe Engineering Services, Inc., Bowling Green, KY (United States)); Al-Dhowalia, K.H.; Mansour, M.E. (King Saud Univ., Riyadh (Saudi Arabia))
The objective of this study was to evaluate the nitric oxide and nitrogen oxide concentrations indoors and outdoors at three sites in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Results show that the outdoor and indoor concentrations for NO were at least 270 and 16 times the reported average worldwide NO concentrations, respectively. The NO(sub 2) concentrations were about 14 times reported outdoor worldwide levels; however, NO(sub 2) concentrations indoors were generally below those reported in the literature. The data presented, in combination with information presented in previous articles, will provide a valuable background database for use in dispersion models to determine the effect of the Kuwaiti oil well fires on the air quality of Riyadh.
Tekeli, Ahmet Emre; Fouli, Hesham
Floods are among the most common disasters harming humanity. In particular, flash floods cause hazards to life, property and any type of structures. Arid and semi-arid regions are equally prone to flash floods like regions with abundant rainfall. Despite rareness of intensive and frequent rainfall events over Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA); an arid/semi-arid region, occasional flash floods occur and result in large amounts of damaging surface runoff. The flooding of 16 November, 2013 in Riyadh; the capital city of KSA, resulted in killing some people and led to much property damage. The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) Real Time (RT) data (3B42RT) are used herein for flash flood forecasting. 3B42RT detected high-intensity rainfall events matching with the distribution of observed floods over KSA. A flood early warning system based on exceedance of threshold limits on 3B42RT data is proposed for Riyadh. Three different indexes: Constant Threshold (CT), Cumulative Distribution Functions (CDF) and Riyadh Flood Precipitation Index (RFPI) are developed using 14-year 3B42RT data from 2000 to 2013. RFPI and CDF with 90% captured the three major flooding events that occurred in February 2005, May 2010 and November 2013 in Riyadh. CT with 3 mm/h intensity indicated the 2013 flooding, but missed those of 2005 and 2010. The methodology implemented herein is a first-step simple and accurate way for flash flood forecasting over Riyadh. The simplicity of the methodology enables its applicability for the TRMM follow-on missions like Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission.
Abdel-Azeem S. Abdel-Baki
Full Text Available Nosema sp. is recorded in Saudi Arabia for the first time, in adult Apis mellifera collected from apiaries in Riyadh city. Samples of 100 workers were collected and examined for the infection with Nosema sp. 5% of the bees were found positively infected with Nosema sp. Spores were oval to elliptical shaped and measuring 6.4 (5.0–7.0 μm in length, 3.4 (3.0–4.5 μm in width. The conclusive identification of the present Nosema species will preclude until further ultrastructure and molecular studies. The present study concluded that intensive surveys are prerequisite to identify the species of Nosema and to estimate their distribution and prevalence in different regions of Saudi Arabia.
Kotb, Amgad A; Hammouda, Ehab F; Tabbara, Khalid F
To determine the major causes of eye diseases leading to visual loss and blindness among children attending a school for the blind in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A total of 217 school children with visual disabilities attending a school for the blind in Riyadh were included. All children were brought to The Eye Center, Riyadh, and had complete ophthalmologic examinations including visual acuity testing, biomicroscopy, ophthalmoscopy, tonometry and laboratory investigations. In addition, some patients were subjected to electroretinography (ERG), electrooculography (EOG), measurement of visual evoked potentials (VEP), and laboratory work-up for congenital disorders. There were 117 male students with an age range of 6-19 years and a mean age of 16 years. In addition, there were 100 females with an age range of 6-18 years and a mean age of 12 years. Of the 217 children, 194 (89%) were blind from genetically determined diseases or congenital disorders and 23 (11%) were blind from acquired diseases. The major causes of bilateral blindness in children were retinal degeneration, congenital glaucoma, and optic atrophy. The most common acquired causes of childhood blindness were infections and trauma. The etiological pattern of childhood blindness in Saudi Arabia has changed from microbial keratitis to genetically determined diseases of the retina and optic nerve. Currently, the most common causes of childhood blindness are genetically determined causes. Consanguineous marriages may account for the autosomal recessive disorders. Public education programs should include information for the prevention of trauma and genetic counseling. Eye examinations for preschool and school children are mandatory for the prevention and cure of blinding disorders.
Alsanea, Mohammd; Masuadi, Emad; Hazwani, Tarek
Child restraint system (CRS) is designed to protect children from injury during motor vehicle crash (MVC). However, there is no regulation or enforcement of CRS use in Saudi Arabia. This study estimated the prevalence of CRS use and identified patterns of child transportation in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. In this cross-sectional study, a self-administered questionnaire was distributed across Riyadh targeting families who drove with children aged less than 5 years. The questionnaire inquired about CRS availability, patterns of child transportation if a CRS was unavailable, seat belt use by the driver and adult passengers, and the perception of CRS. Of 385 respondents, only 36.6% reported the availability of a CRS (95% CI: 31.8-41.7%), with only half of those reported consistent use 74 (52.2%). Nearly 30% of all children aged less than 5 years were restrained during car journeys. Sitting on the lap of an adult passenger on the front seat was the most common pattern of child transportation (54.5%). Approximately 13.5% of respondents were involved in an MVC while driving with children; 63.5% of these children were unprotected by any safety system. Seat belt use by drivers was low, with only 15.3% reporting constant use. The prevalence of CRS use in Riyadh is low, and safety practices are seldom used by drivers and passengers. In addition to legal enforcement of CRS use, implementation of a child transportation policy with age-appropriate height and weight specifications is imperative.
Full Text Available Child restraint system (CRS is designed to protect children from injury during motor vehicle crash (MVC. However, there is no regulation or enforcement of CRS use in Saudi Arabia. This study estimated the prevalence of CRS use and identified patterns of child transportation in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.In this cross-sectional study, a self-administered questionnaire was distributed across Riyadh targeting families who drove with children aged less than 5 years. The questionnaire inquired about CRS availability, patterns of child transportation if a CRS was unavailable, seat belt use by the driver and adult passengers, and the perception of CRS.Of 385 respondents, only 36.6% reported the availability of a CRS (95% CI: 31.8-41.7%, with only half of those reported consistent use 74 (52.2%. Nearly 30% of all children aged less than 5 years were restrained during car journeys. Sitting on the lap of an adult passenger on the front seat was the most common pattern of child transportation (54.5%. Approximately 13.5% of respondents were involved in an MVC while driving with children; 63.5% of these children were unprotected by any safety system. Seat belt use by drivers was low, with only 15.3% reporting constant use.The prevalence of CRS use in Riyadh is low, and safety practices are seldom used by drivers and passengers. In addition to legal enforcement of CRS use, implementation of a child transportation policy with age-appropriate height and weight specifications is imperative.
Mandil, Ahmed; Yamani, Mohammad; BinSaeed, Abdulaziz; Ahmad, Shaffi; Younis, Afnan; Al-Mutlaq, Ahmad; Al-Baqmy, Omar; Al-Rajhi, Abdulaziz
AIM: This study aimed at assessing prevailing patterns and risk factors of tobacco consumption among clients, food handlers and employers of food facilities, in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. METHODS: A cross-sectional approach to a representative sample of food facilities in Riyadh was used. A sample of 3000 participants included clients (75%); food handlers/hospitality workers (20 %) and employers (5 %). Participants were reached at restaurants, food courts or cafes. A modified version of the WHO-CDC-Global Youth Tobacco Survey questionnaire was used for data collection. RESULTS: The prevalence of tobacco use at food facilities was found to be 40.3 %, of which 74% were customers, 18.8% were food handlers and 7.2% were managers. The consumption of tobacco was higher at restaurants (39.9%), but lowest at food courts of shopping malls. Water pipe (55.3%) was the main consumption type, followed by cigarettes (42.6%) and chewing tobacco (2.1%). Multivariate analysis showed that gender (male), marital status (single), and type of food facility (Estaraha and café/coffee shop) were independent risk factors associated with tobacco use at food facilities. CONCLUSION: Tobacco use is very common in food facilities in Riyadh as reflected by results of our study, especially among single males Saudis. We should build on success encountered in banning smoking in airports, airplanes, shopping malls, market places, educational institutions and healthcare facilities, extending the ban to include food facilities as well. This is important for the health of non-smokers as well as smokers themselves. PMID:24987478
ALFaris, Nora A; Al-Tamimi, Jozaa Z; Al-Jobair, Moneera O; Al-Shwaiyat, Naseem M
Background : Saudi Arabia has passed through lifestyle changes toward unhealthy dietary patterns such as high fast food consumption. Adolescents and young adults, particularly girls, are the main groups exposed to and affected by these adverse eating behaviors. Objective : The aim of this study was to examine the trends of fast food consumption among adolescent and young adult Saudi girls living in Riyadh, and to compare between them. Design : In a cross-sectional survey, 127 adolescent Saudi girls (13-18 years) and 69 young adult Saudi girls (19-29 years) were randomly recruited to participate in this study. Weight, height, waist circumference, and hip circumference were measured using standardized methods. Twenty-four-hour diet recall and a face-to-face interview food questionnaire were performed. Results : Most of the participants had adequate intake of protein, riboflavin, iron, and sodium, but exhibited low intake for several other nutrients. Among study participants, 95.4% consume restaurants' fast food and 79.1% eat fast food at least once weekly. Burgers and carbonated soft drinks were the main kinds of fast food meals and beverages usually eaten by girls. Adolescent girls who usually ate large portion sizes of fast food had significantly higher mean waist circumference and hip circumference. Participants eat fast food primarily for enjoying the delicious taste, followed by convenience. Restaurants' hygiene and safety standards were the main concern regarding fast food for 62.2% of girls. Finally, international restaurants were preferable by participants to buy fast food compared with local restaurants (70.9% vs. 29.1%). Conclusion : Our findings provide evidence on the high prevalence of fast food consumption among Saudi girls, suggesting an urgent need for community-based nutrition interventions that consider the trends of fast food consumption and targeted eating behaviors of adolescent and young adult girls.
ALFaris, Nora A.; Al-Tamimi, Jozaa Z.; Al-Jobair, Moneera O.; Al-Shwaiyat, Naseem M.
Background Saudi Arabia has passed through lifestyle changes toward unhealthy dietary patterns such as high fast food consumption. Adolescents and young adults, particularly girls, are the main groups exposed to and affected by these adverse eating behaviors. Objective The aim of this study was to examine the trends of fast food consumption among adolescent and young adult Saudi girls living in Riyadh, and to compare between them. Design In a cross-sectional survey, 127 adolescent Saudi girls (13–18 years) and 69 young adult Saudi girls (19–29 years) were randomly recruited to participate in this study. Weight, height, waist circumference, and hip circumference were measured using standardized methods. Twenty-four-hour diet recall and a face-to-face interview food questionnaire were performed. Results Most of the participants had adequate intake of protein, riboflavin, iron, and sodium, but exhibited low intake for several other nutrients. Among study participants, 95.4% consume restaurants’ fast food and 79.1% eat fast food at least once weekly. Burgers and carbonated soft drinks were the main kinds of fast food meals and beverages usually eaten by girls. Adolescent girls who usually ate large portion sizes of fast food had significantly higher mean waist circumference and hip circumference. Participants eat fast food primarily for enjoying the delicious taste, followed by convenience. Restaurants’ hygiene and safety standards were the main concern regarding fast food for 62.2% of girls. Finally, international restaurants were preferable by participants to buy fast food compared with local restaurants (70.9% vs. 29.1%). Conclusion Our findings provide evidence on the high prevalence of fast food consumption among Saudi girls, suggesting an urgent need for community-based nutrition interventions that consider the trends of fast food consumption and targeted eating behaviors of adolescent and young adult girls. PMID:25792229
Nora A. ALFaris
Full Text Available Background: Saudi Arabia has passed through lifestyle changes toward unhealthy dietary patterns such as high fast food consumption. Adolescents and young adults, particularly girls, are the main groups exposed to and affected by these adverse eating behaviors. Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the trends of fast food consumption among adolescent and young adult Saudi girls living in Riyadh, and to compare between them. Design: In a cross-sectional survey, 127 adolescent Saudi girls (13–18 years and 69 young adult Saudi girls (19–29 years were randomly recruited to participate in this study. Weight, height, waist circumference, and hip circumference were measured using standardized methods. Twenty-four-hour diet recall and a face-to-face interview food questionnaire were performed. Results: Most of the participants had adequate intake of protein, riboflavin, iron, and sodium, but exhibited low intake for several other nutrients. Among study participants, 95.4% consume restaurants’ fast food and 79.1% eat fast food at least once weekly. Burgers and carbonated soft drinks were the main kinds of fast food meals and beverages usually eaten by girls. Adolescent girls who usually ate large portion sizes of fast food had significantly higher mean waist circumference and hip circumference. Participants eat fast food primarily for enjoying the delicious taste, followed by convenience. Restaurants’ hygiene and safety standards were the main concern regarding fast food for 62.2% of girls. Finally, international restaurants were preferable by participants to buy fast food compared with local restaurants (70.9% vs. 29.1%. Conclusion: Our findings provide evidence on the high prevalence of fast food consumption among Saudi girls, suggesting an urgent need for community-based nutrition interventions that consider the trends of fast food consumption and targeted eating behaviors of adolescent and young adult girls.
Full Text Available Background: Advertising is a crucial component of pharmaceutical industry promotion. Research indicates that information on advertisement materials might be inadequate, inaccurate, biased, and misleading. Objective: To analyse and critically assess the information presented in print pharmaceutical advertisements in Saudi Arabia.Methods: Pharmaceutical advertisements were collected from 280 community pharmacies in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. The advertisements were evaluated using criteria derived from the Saudi Food and Drug Authority (SFDA regulation, the World Health Organization (WHO ethical medicinal drug promotion criteria, and other principles reported in similar studies. The data were extracted independently by two of the researchers using a standardized assessment form. Results: One hundred eighty five printed advertisements were included in the final sample. Approximately half of the advertisements (n = 94, 51% were for over-the-counter (OTC medications, and 71 (38% were for prescription-only medication. Information such as the name of active ingredients was available in 168 (90.8% advertisements, therapeutic uses were mentioned in 156 (98.7% of analysed advertisements. Safety information related to side effects, precautions, and major interactions were stated in 53 (28.5%, 58 (31%, and 33 (16.5% advertisements, respectively. Only 119 advertisements (64% provided references for information presented. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that print advertisements do not convey all the information necessary for safe prescribing. These results have implications for the regulation of drug advertising and the continuing education of pharmacists.
Bin Abdulhak, Aref A; Altannir, Mohamad A; Almansor, Mohammed A; Almohaya, Mohammed S; Onazi, Atallah S; Marei, Mohammed A; Aldossary, Oweida F; Obeidat, Sadek A; Obeidat, Mustafa A; Riaz, Muhammad S; Tleyjeh, Imad M
Antibiotics sales without medical prescriptions are increasingly recognized as sources of antimicrobial misuse that can exacerbate the global burden of antibiotic resistance. We aimed to determine the percentage of pharmacies who sell antibiotics without medical prescriptions, examining the potential associated risks of such practice in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, by simulation of different clinical scenarios. A cross sectional study of a quasi-random sample of pharmacies stratified by the five regions of Riyadh. Each pharmacy was visited once by two investigators who simulated having a relative with a specific clinical illness (sore throat, acute bronchitis, otitis media, acute sinusitis, diarrhea, and urinary tract infection (UTI) in childbearing aged women). A total of 327 pharmacies were visited. Antibiotics were dispensed without a medical prescription in 244 (77.6%) of 327, of which 231 (95%) were dispensed without a patient request. Simulated cases of sore throat and diarrhea resulted in an antibiotic being dispensed in (90%) of encounters, followed by UTI (75%), acute bronchitis (73%), otitis media (51%) and acute sinusitis (40%). Metronidazole (89%) and ciprofloxacin (86%) were commonly given for diarrhea and UTI, respectively, whereas amoxicillin/clavulanate was dispensed (51%) for the other simulated cases. None of the pharmacists asked about antibiotic allergy history or provided information about drug interactions. Only 23% asked about pregnancy status when dispensing antibiotics for UTI-simulated cases. We observed that an antibiotic could be obtained in Riyadh without a medical prescription or an evidence-based indication with associated potential clinical risks. Strict enforcement and adherence to existing regulations are warranted.
Obeidat Sadek A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Antibiotics sales without medical prescriptions are increasingly recognized as sources of antimicrobial misuse that can exacerbate the global burden of antibiotic resistance. We aimed to determine the percentage of pharmacies who sell antibiotics without medical prescriptions, examining the potential associated risks of such practice in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, by simulation of different clinical scenarios. Methods A cross sectional study of a quasi-random sample of pharmacies stratified by the five regions of Riyadh. Each pharmacy was visited once by two investigators who simulated having a relative with a specific clinical illness (sore throat, acute bronchitis, otitis media, acute sinusitis, diarrhea, and urinary tract infection (UTI in childbearing aged women. Results A total of 327 pharmacies were visited. Antibiotics were dispensed without a medical prescription in 244 (77.6% of 327, of which 231 (95% were dispensed without a patient request. Simulated cases of sore throat and diarrhea resulted in an antibiotic being dispensed in (90% of encounters, followed by UTI (75%, acute bronchitis (73%, otitis media (51% and acute sinusitis (40%. Metronidazole (89% and ciprofloxacin (86% were commonly given for diarrhea and UTI, respectively, whereas amoxicillin/clavulanate was dispensed (51% for the other simulated cases. None of the pharmacists asked about antibiotic allergy history or provided information about drug interactions. Only 23% asked about pregnancy status when dispensing antibiotics for UTI-simulated cases. Conclusions We observed that an antibiotic could be obtained in Riyadh without a medical prescription or an evidence-based indication with associated potential clinical risks. Strict enforcement and adherence to existing regulations are warranted.
Full Text Available A survey of phytopathogenic fungi and Oomyceteswas conducted in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia duringOctober 2008 – May 2009. Total of 223 samples were collectedfrom four regions; Al-Kharj, Oyaynah, Old Diriyah, and Al Amariyah. Isolation was done using Potato Dextrose Agar(PDA. Infected parts were cut then sterilized in chlorox(10%, then were put in petridish that contain PDA andincubated at 25-27 °C. A total twelve genera of fungi andsingle genera of Oomycetes were isolated from the infectedplants and identifi ed as Fusarium spp., Alternaria spp.,Helmintosphorium (Bipolaris spp., Sclerotium spp., Rhizoctoniaspp., Cladosporium spp., Mauginiella scattae, Erysiphe spp.,Leveillula spp., Macrophomina phaseolina, Ustilago spp.,Ulocladium spp., and Phytium spp.
Al-Quaiz, Al-Joharah M; Raheel, Hafsa M
To determine the frequency, experiences and correlates of sexual violence among female adolescents in Riyadh city, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2 schools in Riyadh city for adolescent females starting from January 2008 for 3 months. Five classes with 25 students in each were randomly selected from intermediate and secondary grade of each school. Four hundred and nineteen students were included. A self-answering questionnaire was distributed and collected after 15 minutes by 3 research assistants. Forty-two adolescent students (10%) were exposed to sexual violence. Only 31% of the students were taught how to react to sexual violence. Students whose order was > or = 5th among siblings and who had unsupportive parents in discussing sexual issues were more exposed to sexual violence (chi2=4.02, p=0.044, chi2=4.24, p=0.039). Being > or = 5th in order among siblings and having unsupportive parents in discussing sexual issues were correlates for exposure to sexual violence.
Full Text Available Background: Tobacco consumption is associated with considerable negative impact on health. Health professionals, including future doctors, should have a leading role in combating smoking in the community. Objectives: The aims of the study were to assess the prevalence of smoking among medical students of newly established medical colleges in Riyadh city, the capital of Saudi Arabia, as well as to assess students′ attitude, practice and their knowledge on the risk factors of tobacco consumption. Methods: A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study of students from two medical colleges in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia was carried out. The questionnaire used was anonymous, self-administered and developed mainly from Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS. Results: A total of 215 students participated in this study. Forty students (19% indicated that they smoke tobacco at the time of the study. All of them were males, which raise the prevalence among male students to 24%. Tobacco smoking was practiced by males more than females (P value < 0.0001 and by senior more than junior students (< 0.0001. About 94% of the study sample indicated that smoking could cause serious illnesses. About 90% of the students indicated that they would advice their patients to quit smoking in the future and 88% thought that smoking should be banned in public areas. Forty-four students (20% thought that smoking has some beneficial effects, mainly as a coping strategy for stress alleviation. Conclusion: Despite good knowledge about the hazards of tobacco consumption, about 25% of the medical students in this study continue to smoke. The main reported reasons should be addressed urgently by policy-makers. Special efforts should be taken to educate medical students on the effective strategies in managing stress during their study as they thought that tobacco smoking could be used as a coping strategy to face such a stress.
The purpose of this paper is to identify factors influencing performance of hospital nurses in Riyadh Region, Saudi Arabia. Specific objectives were to estimate self-reported performance, and determine whether differences in employee demographics, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment, influenced performance. In total, 15 hospitals were randomly selected. The questionnaire was sent to all nurses (1,834) in these facilities and 923 nurses responded. Statistical analysis included correlation, t-test, and regression analysis. The study finds that job performance is positively correlated with organizational commitment, job satisfaction and personal and professional variables. Both job satisfaction and organizational commitment are strong predictors of nurses' performance. Job performance is positively related to some personal factors, including years of experience, nationality, gender, and marital status. Level of education is negatively related to performance. The findings of this study have a limited generalisability due to the fact that all measures used are based on self-reports. Future research may be directed to other objective measures of performance. Emphasis should be placed on effective supervision, empowerment, and a better reward system. Cultural diversity is a reality for most health organizations in Saudi Arabia; therefore, they need to adopt effective human resources strategies that aim to improve commitment and retention of qualified workers, and build a high performance organizational culture based on empowerment, open communication, and appreciation of impact of national culture on work attitudes. This study fulfills a research gap in the area of nursing performance, and its relationship with work attitudes in Saudi Arabia. The paper also highlights the impact of national culture on job performance and work attitude among nurses in Saudi Arabia, and other countries facing the issue of multi-national work force.
Salih, Mustafa A M; Murshid, Waleed R; Mohamed, Ashry Gad; Ignacio, Lena C; de Jesus, Julie E; Baabbad, Rubana; El Bushra, Hassan M
Both genetic and non-genetic environmental factors are involved in the etiology of neural tube defects (NTD) which affect 0.5-2/1000 pregnancies worldwide. This study aimed to explore the risk factors for the development of NTD in Saudi population, and highlight identifiable and preventable causes. Similar studies are scarce in similar populations ofthe Arabian Peninsula and North Africa. This is an unmatched concurrent case-control study including NTD cases born at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh during a 4-year period (2002-2006). The case-control study included 25 cases and 125 controls (case: control ratio of 1:5). Years of formal education, employment, household environment (including availability of air conditioning) and rate of parental consanguinity did not differ between mothers of cases and controls. Significantly higher proportion of mothers of cases had history of stillbirth compared to control mothers (16% vs 4.1%, P=0.02). Also family history of hydrocephalus and congenital anomalies were more prevalent in cases than controls (P values=0.0000 and 0.003, respectively). There was significant protective effect of periconceptional folic acid consumption both prior to conception (OR 0.02, 95% CI 0.00-0.07) and during the first 6 weeks of conception (OR 0.13, 95% CI 0.04-0.39). Further research, including a larger cohort, is required to enable ascertainment of gene-nutrient and gene environment interactions associated with NTD in Saudi Arabia.
Full Text Available Abdullah Mohammed Al-Bedah1, Naseem Akhtar Qureshi21Arabian Center for Tobacco Control, 2General Administration for Medical Research and Mental Health and Social Services, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaBackground: Tobacco use is a major public health problem, and its prevalence is globally increasing, especially among children and adolescents.Objective: The Global Youth Tobacco Survey aimed to explore the epidemiological trends and risk factors of tobacco smoking among intermediate school boys in Riyadh region of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.Method: A two-stage cluster sample design was used to produce a representative sample of male students from selected schools. The participants (n = 1830 self recorded their responses on the Global Youth Tobacco Survey questionnaire.Results: Lifetime prevalence of cigarette smoking was 35%, while 13% of students currently used other tobacco products. About 16% of students currently smoked at home, and 84% of students bought cigarettes without any refusal from storekeepers. Thirty-one percent and 39% of students were exposed to secondhand tobacco smoke inside and outside the house, respectively, which was definitely or probably harmful to health as opined by 87% of participants, and 74% voiced to ban smoking from public places. Among current smokers, 69% intended (without attempt to quit and 63% attempted (but failed to quit during the past year. Almost an equal number of students saw antismoking and prosmoking media messages in the last month, and 28% of students were offered free cigarettes by a tobacco company representative. In schools, more than 50% of students were taught about the dangers of cigarette smoking in the last year. Smoking by parents, older brothers, and close friends, watching prosmoking cigarette advertisements, free offer of cigarettes by tobacco company representatives, perception of smoking being not harmful, and continuing smoking which can be easily quit significantly
Alosaimi, Fahad Dakheel; Altuwirqi, Maram Hani; Bukhari, Mujahid; Abotalib, Zeinab; BinSaleh, Saleh
No study has assessed psychiatric disorders among infertile men and women seeking fertility treatment in Saudi Arabia. Therefore, we sought to measure the rate of psychiatric disorders in this population. This was a cross-sectional observational study among patients attending infertility clinics at three referral hospitals in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, between January 2013 and September 2014. 406 patients (206 women and 200 men) participated in the study. The approved Arabic version of the MINI tool was used to assess 18 common psychiatric illnesses. The response rate was 81%. Of the men surveyed, only 4.5% self-reported having a psychiatric disorder. Of the women surveyed, only 10.2% reported having a psychiatric disorder. However, using the MINI scale, psychiatric illness was documented in 30% of males and 36.9% of females. The most common diagnoses for both genders were depression (21.7%) and anxiety (21.2%). Significantly more females than males exhibited suicidality and depression. In contrast, significantly more males than females had bipolar disorders and substance-related disorders. A low monthly income among male and female participants and polygamy among female participants were significantly associated with psychiatric disorders. This study shows that a higher prevalence of psychiatric disorders, particularly depression and anxiety, among infertile men and women in Saudi Arabia is associated with lower income and polygamy. This study highlights the importance of integrated care for alleviating the psychological burden of this unfortunate population and improving outcomes and quality of life. This study also encourages follow-up studies that aim to further understand the complex relationship between fertility and psychological well-being.
Sales, Ibrahim; Aljadhey, Hisham; Albogami, Yasser; Mahmoud, Mansour A
Purpose: To assess the general public awareness and perception about Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs) reporting and pharmacovigilance. Method: A cross-sectional study conducted on June 2012 during awareness campaign held in two malls in Riyadh city for two days. A self-administered questionnaire consisting of three parts was distributed to the attendees who accepted to participate in the study. Results: A total of 204 questionnaires were collected with a response rate of 68%. Twenty-three percent could correctly define ADRs. Only 13(15.7%) of responders were familiar with the term "Pharmacovigilance" and only 78.6% were aware about the Saudi Pharmacovigilance Center. Sixty-seventy percent indicated that their physicians or pharmacists don't actively encourage them to report ADRs that may occur when they take their medications. The majority of responders (73.2%) believed that the medical team, rather than consumers, should report ADRs. When asked why patients do not report ADRs, 19.1(48.5%) believed that patients do not know whether the ADR is from the medication or not, 18.1(46.1%) stated that the reason was because patients don't know about the Pharmacovigilance Center, 16(40.7%) think that patients don't know about the importance of ADRs reporting, and 14(36.3%) responded that patients probably don't know how to report ADRs. Conclusion: The general public in Saudi Arabia are not aware about ADRs reporting and the pharmacovigilance system. The Saudi Food and Drug Authorities (FDA) need to put more efforts to increasing public awareness about the importance of ADRs reporting process and the importance of pharmacovigilance system in promoting patient safety.
Ikonen, Anne Leena; Eklund Karlsson, Leena; Andersen, Pernille Tanggaard
(from SDU to Princess Nourah University - PNU) in Bachelor level education in 2013-17. The SDU BSc in Public Health curriculum was adjusted into a BSc in Health Education and Promotion and BSc in Epidemiology Programmes to fit into the Saudi context and culture and education needs. Training the PNU......Abstract title: Training of trainers in active learning methods at the Princess Nourah Bint Abdul Rahman University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Students’ learning outcome of teaching activity/course presented: University of Southern Denmark (SDU) conducted a cross-cultural knowledge transfer project...
Alwakeel, Suaad S
This study was conducted to determine the microbial and inhabitant of household environment in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Overall, a total of 180 samples were collected and analyzed for fungal growth, 160 house samples were obtained on BAP medium and PDA medium. The Eastern Riyadh region turned out with the highest fungal isolates with 15/61 (24.6%). Among the most common fungal isolates from bedroom carpets were Aspergillus niger (21.6%), Alternaria sp. (15.7%), Aspergillus flavus (15.7%) Candida sp. (11.8%), Cladosporium sp. (9.8%) and Rhizopus sp. (9.8%). Other fungal isolates from bedroom carpets included Penicillium sp (5.9%)., Cunninghamella sp.(3.9%), Rhodotorula sp.(3.9%) and Aspergillus terreus (1.9%) Overall relative densities from all specimens obtained from household carpets, bedroom walls and carpet stores showed Alternaria spp. as the most common fungal isolate (55.3%) followed by Aspergillus niger (29%), Aspergillus flavus (19.3%), Rhizopus spp. (9.7%) and Penicillium spp. (7.0%). Other fungal isolates such as Candida spp., Cladosporium spp., Cunninghamella spp., Rhodotorula spp. and Aspergillus terreus had less than 6% overall relative density. From 40 carpet specimens collected for microbial analysis, 20 (50%) showed bacterial growth. Bacillus spp. was the most common isolated organism (35%) followed by Staphylococcus epidermidis (10%), Epiococcus spp. (10%), Corynebacterium spp. (10%) and Bacillus polymyxa (10%). Other bacterial isolates included Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacteroides spp., Clostridium spp. and Staphylococcus aureus .The presence of these fungal and microbial pathogens poses risk for individuals. When possible, floor carpeting in homes should be minimized or avoided since this serves as habitats for opportunistic fungi and infectious agents that pose harm to one's health. (author)
Amal Hatem Alkhaldi
Full Text Available Global competition in the international business environment has pushed companies to achieve competitive advantage through mergers, acquisitions and through locating their subsidiaries in less developed counties for cost effectiveness. Consequently, the competitive pressure has increased the significance of human resource management (HRM in multinational companies (MNCs, and MNCs have recognised the significance of the transfer HRM process across borders. This study examines the transfer of HRM policies and practices of US MNCs to their subsidiaries in Saudi Arabia. The aim of the study is to determine the extent to which US MNCs transfer HRM policies and practices from their Headquarters to their subsidiaries in Saudi Arabia; and identify the factors that facilitate and inhibit HRM transfer. The paper is based on an investigation of the interaction between home-country and host-country effects in determining HRM policies and practices in MNCs in the context of the Middle East. The study adopts a mixed methods approach of documentary analysis, focus group interviews of employees and in depth interviews of key informants in four subsidiaries of US owned international hotel chains located in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.Keywords: Home country, host country, human resource managem transfer,Institutional theory, culture conditions.
Bian, Qijing; Alharbi, Badr; Shareef, Mohammed M.; Husain, Tahir; Pasha, Mohammad J.; Atwood, Samuel A.; Kreidenweis, Sonia M.
Knowledge of the sources of carbonaceous aerosol affecting air quality in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, is limited but needed for the development of pollution control strategies. We conducted sampling of PM2.5 from April to September 2012 at various sites in the city and used a thermo-optical semi-continuous method to quantify the organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) concentrations. The average OC and EC concentrations were 4.7 ± 4.4 and 2.1 ± 2.5 µg m-3, respectively, during this period. Both OC and EC concentrations had strong diurnal variations, with peaks at 06:00-08:00 LT and 20:00-22:00 LT, attributed to the combined effect of increased vehicle emissions during rush hour and the shallow boundary layer in the early morning and at night. This finding suggested a significant influence of local vehicular emissions on OC and EC. The OC / EC ratio in primary emissions was estimated to be 1.01, close to documented values for diesel emissions. Estimated primary organic carbon (POC) and secondary organic carbon (SOC) concentrations were comparable, with average concentrations of 2.0 ± 2.4 and 2.8 ± 3.4 µg m-3, respectively.We also collected 24 h samples of PM10 onto quartz microfiber filters and analyzed these for an array of metals by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). Total OC was correlated with Ca (R2 of 0.63), suggesting that OC precursors and Ca may have similar sources, and the possibility that they underwent similar atmospheric processing. In addition to a ubiquitous dust source, Ca is emitted during desalting processes in the numerous refineries in the region and from cement kilns, suggesting these sources may also contribute to observed OC concentrations in Riyadh. Concentration weighted trajectory (CWT) analysis showed that high OC and EC concentrations were associated with air masses arriving from the Persian Gulf and the region around Baghdad, locations with high densities of oil fields and refineries as well as a
Hesham I Al-Khashan
Full Text Available Background and Aim: Health reforms that tend to increase the participation of clients in decision-making requires them to be health-literate; hence, the importance of health education. However, not much research has been done to investigate the differences in health education needs according to demographic characteristics of the clients. The aim of this study was to find out any possible gender differences there may be in health education needs and preferences. Subjects and Methods : This cross-sectional study was conducted at Riyadh Military Hospital, Saudi Arabia, on a convenience sample of adult Saudis attending its clinics. Data was collected from April 2009 to May 2010 using a self-administered questionnaire covering demographic data, history and needs of health education, methods, and preferred educator. Results: Of the 1300 forms distributed, 977 were returned completed (75.2% response. Most men (74.0% and women (77.9% had had health education, but more women reported that it had been helpful (P = 0.014. More men mentioned health education needs relating to primary prevention (P = 0.027, and unhealthy practices (P = 0.003, and considered the different language a barrier (P = 0.002 even after adjustment for age and education. The one-to-one method was the most preferred health education method for men (72.7% and women (67.9%. More women preferred group health education (P = 0.02 after adjustment for age and education. Significantly more men preferred pharmacists and dietitians as health educators. Conclusion: The results point to a few significant differences between men and women regarding their health education needs, barriers, and preferences. These must be taken into consideration when planning health education programs.
Almutairi, Khalid M
This study aims to determine the level of satisfaction of patients who visit primary healthcare centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The investigation was a cross-sectional study conducted in twenty randomly selected primary healthcare centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia from October to December 2014. A descriptive data analysis was performed. Eligible participants had visited at least one of the selected primary healthcare centers within the past 12 months. A total of 1741 participants completed the survey, providing a response rate of 87 % (43 % male, 57 % female). The highest satisfaction rates were in the following areas: comprehensiveness and coordination 76.2 % (95 % CI 74.8 ± 77.5), communication 72.7 % (95 % CI 71.3 ± 74) and attitude of staff 73.4 % (95 % CI 72.1 ± 74.8) The areas of greatest concern expressed by the participants were the length of the wait and the quality of the facility 55.4 % (95 % CI 53.3 ± 57.5), 50.5 % (95 % CI 48.3 ± 52.7), respectively. The majority of the patients attending primary healthcare centers in Riyadh showed high levels of satisfaction; however, there are still some factors that need to be considered and improved upon. These include the accessibility of primary healthcare centers as well as waiting time of patients. The results of the current study showed relative improvement in other factors such as comprehensiveness and coordination, communication and attitude of staff. The level of satisfaction of patients and stakeholders shows the progress of the quality of care in healthcare facilities in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
Al-Jobair, Asma M; Baidas, Laila F; Al-Hamid, Anfal A; Al-Qahtani, Sara G; Al-Najjar, Amani T; Al-Kawari, Huda M
To assess and compare the severity of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment need among young Saudis receiving free treatment at public dental practices versus those paying for treatment at private practices. This retrospective study evaluated the records of 300 patients (179 females, 121 males; age 13-21 years) treated at orthodontic clinics from 2013 through 2015. The public sample was selected from orthodontic clinics at the College of Dentistry, King Saud University (KSU); the private sample was selected from five private orthodontic clinics in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The records were examined for the severity of malocclusion and for orthodontic treatment need using the Dental Health Component of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need. The prevalence of each occlusal discrepancy and the Dental Health Component grade were recorded. The severity of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment need were compared between practice types, age groups, and sexes with the chi-square test. Displacement, increased overjet, and Class II and III malocclusion were the most common orthodontic problems in this study. Patients attending public clinics at KSU generally had more severe malocclusion than the patients attending private clinics. Seventy-seven percent of orthodontically treated patients at KSU clinics were in great need of treatment, compared with 58.5% of patients treated at private clinics ( P =0.003). Among the patients with great treatment need, approximately 62% of male patients and 70% of patients ≤16 years of age were treated at KSU clinics, compared with 38% and 48%, respectively, treated at private clinics ( P orthodontic treatment at public clinics at KSU had more severe malocclusion with greater need of orthodontic treatment than the patients paying for treatment at private clinics.
Alwakeel, Suaad S.
A randomized sampling of 50 households in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia was conducted to determine microbial and Aspergillus spp contaminants in domestic kitchens between May and June 2006. Samples were taken from open air in the kitchen and from used kitchen sponges. Inoculation procedures were varied from direct inoculation of the sponge into the medium to dilution of a cut portion of the sponge. A total of 200 samples were taken from which, 700 culture plates were done (BAP and Nutrient agar). Identification by the API system of identification (Analytical Profile Index, BioMerieux) revealed Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterobacter cloacae, Diphtheroids and Bacillus cereus, Aspergillus spp. was isolated and identified microscopically. Among the isolates, Staphylococcus epidermidis , Staphylococcus aureus was isolated in 90% of the plates followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (83%) , Klebsiella pneumonia ; Bacillus cereus (63%).and Aspergillus spp (15%) These opportunistic pathogens may be harmful especially in immunocompromised hosts. In this setting, there is a constant risk of contamination and transfer to willing hosts, thus appropriate measures should be implemented such as the use of disposable sponges. (author)
El-Shobokshy, Mohammad S.; Al-Saedi, Yaseen G.
During the last two decades, the urban areas in the city of Riyadh—the capital of Saudi Arabia—were increasing at an exceptionally high rate through a series of development plans. The major plans had been completed by the end of 1982. Some other big utility projects were started and completed during 1987. As a consequence, the air quality has deteriorated markedly and air pollution episodes recorded during these activities showed that particulates were present in the atmosphere at high concentrations. Later in January 1991 the Gulf war started and the firing of the oil fields in Kuwait soon followed. It was estimated that soot particulates were emitted at a rate of 600 ton d -1 along with high rates of other gases. This event has led to significant air quality and visibility problems. Direct normal solar radiation has been measured during the summer months of July and August which were characterized by very dry and cloudless weather for the period between 1982 and 1992. A year-to-year trend of the transmittance of direct normal solar irradiance was then determined. The atmospheric fine aerosol (oil field fires in Kuwait were passing over Riyadh are presented. The reduction in solar irradiation reflects the intensity of dark smoke at a distance of 500 km from Kuwait.
Al-Turki, Yousef A.; Al-Fraih, Yasser S.; Jalalay, Jalal B.; Al-Maghlouth, Ibrahim A.; Al-Rashoudi, Fahad H.; Al-Otaibi, Azzam F.; Al-Thnayan, Anas A.; Trabzoni, Abdulmohsin I.; Al-Shaykh, Abdulaziz S.
Objective was to assess the knowledge and attitudes towards cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) among the students of King Saud University. This study was a cross sectional survey among King Saud University students, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, which took place on December 17-20, 2006. The data was collected from self-administered questionnaires prepared in Arabic. The questionnaires were distributed to all 15 colleges of the university. Out of a study sample of 2250 students, 31% did not have prior CPR information. Of those with previous knowledge, 85% feel that it is inadequate. The most common sources of information were television and movies. The 12.7% of individuals encountered a situation that required the use of CPR. However, 14% of them performed it. This was mostly due to lack of knowledge (42.8%). Eighty-eight percent of students would like to learn how to perform CPR. Out of all King Saud University students, 45% believe that CPR training should be a graduation requirement. It was found that overall attitude towards CPR was positive. However, the knowledge on the topic was insufficient. Thus, more focus should be placed on the improvement of CPR skills. In addition, more studies are needed to assess knowledge and attitudes towards CPR in the community. (author)
Secondary school girls, ages 15 - 19 yrs were surveyed to find out the coping strategies they used when stressed. Adolescents, who are affected with stress and depression early in life, suffer from depression throughout their lives especially if they are utilizing improper ways to cope with it. A cross sectional school based survey among 1028 adolescent girls was conducted among the secondary schools in Riyadh city,Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. About 25% stated that they cry, 19% listen to music, 15% start eating a lot, 12% sit alone/isolate themselves, 11% pray/read the Quran, 10% get into a verbal argument or a fight. Only a few, 3% exercise, and 2% stated that they find someone to discuss and talk to. Majority of the adolescent girls in our survey, rely on emotion related coping mechanisms rather than problem solving mechanisms. This can cause long term implications in these adolescents as there is an increased probability to develop depression later on in life. Policy makers need to implement strategies for early identification of stress and depression. Talking to friends and family can serve as an effective way to cope with stress.
Al-Jurayyan N, Nasir A; Mohamed, Sarar H; Al Otaibi, Hessah M; Al Issa, Sharifah T; Omer, Hala G
Longitudinal growth assessment is essential in child care. Short stature can be promptly recognized only with accurate measurements of growth and critical analysis of growth data. The objective of this study was to determine the pattern of short stature among patients referred to an endocrine pediatric clinic, King Khalid University Hospital (KKUH), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia and to ascertain the aetiological profile of short stature. This is a retrospective review of patients referred to a pediatric endocrine clinic with short stature during the period January 1990 and December 2009. After a proper detailed medical history, growth analysis and physical examination, followed by a radiological (bone age) and laboratory screening (complete blood count and thyroid function). Growth hormone stimulation tests were performed when indicated. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the pituitary was performed when necessary. As well, celiac screening and small bowel biopsy were performed when appropriate. During the period under review, hundred and ten patients were evaluated for short stature. Their age ranged from 2 years and six months to 4 years. The male to female ratio was 1.3:1. The commonest etiology was genetic short stature found in 57 (51.8%) patients, while in the other 53 (48.2%) patients, variable endocrine and nutritional causes were noted. Short stature was a common referral. A wide variety of etiological diagnosis was noticed with genetic short stature being the commonest. A wide variety of endocrine causes were evident, with growth hormone deficiency, as a results of different etiologies, being the commonest.
Waleed A. Al Rashed
Full Text Available Aim. The current study aimed to evaluate the knowledge of eye disease and awareness of eye care among the Saudi adults and to explore existing eye-related misconceptions in the community. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Riyadh city during May and June 2016. A self-administered anonymous online questionnaire was used to explore the most common misconceptions related to eye diseases and eye care. Results. Out of 1000 individuals, only 711 (71.1% participant responses were received. The participants’ acceptable knowledge (score ≥50% was high about the eye problem in diabetes (88.6%, ocular trauma (81.2%, and other general eye diseases (91.3%, whereas low about refractive errors (63%, pediatric eye problems (51.5%, and glaucoma (14.8%. The variation in knowledge about specific ocular morbidities was significant (p<0.001. The majority of participants reported sources of information about the common eye diseases and eye care encountered from the community, internet-based resources, and social media. Conclusions. The majority of the participants had awareness about the common eye diseases, whereas low percentage of participant’s awareness about specific condition of eye diseases. Public eye health awareness should be more focused on social media and the internet to be able to cover the younger individuals of the community.
Chang, Jonghwa; Lee, Wonjae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
N GNP reactor plant adopted a Rank in steam cycle for early deployment and for reducing R and D risk and cost. Original plant design is based on a wet cooling tower with wet bulb temperature of 34 .deg. C. This cooling environment may be sufficient for most area in North America. However, we should consider air temperature of 45 .deg. C and no available cooling water for any site near Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A plausible option in such arid area is using an air-cooled condenser(ACC) which is widely used in a combined cycle plant in arid region. ACC is also suitable for freezing area such as northern territory or high elevation remote area. We have studied impact of the cooling method on the power generation efficiency and the annual average power production referencing N GNP steam turbine. Even though condenser split is assumed to be the same between ACC and wet cooling tower, large difference in air temperature and wet bulb temperature makes large efficiency loss in the ACC. The ACC efficiency is lower than that of the wet cooling tower by 1.12%. To make up this loss, we proposed the variable steam extraction rates operation. An air cooled condenser is a practical.
Full Text Available Knowledge of the sources of carbonaceous aerosol affecting air quality in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, is limited but needed for the development of pollution control strategies. We conducted sampling of PM2.5 from April to September 2012 at various sites in the city and used a thermo-optical semi-continuous method to quantify the organic carbon (OC and elemental carbon (EC concentrations. The average OC and EC concentrations were 4.7 ± 4.4 and 2.1 ± 2.5 µg m−3, respectively, during this period. Both OC and EC concentrations had strong diurnal variations, with peaks at 06:00–08:00 LT and 20:00–22:00 LT, attributed to the combined effect of increased vehicle emissions during rush hour and the shallow boundary layer in the early morning and at night. This finding suggested a significant influence of local vehicular emissions on OC and EC. The OC ∕ EC ratio in primary emissions was estimated to be 1.01, close to documented values for diesel emissions. Estimated primary organic carbon (POC and secondary organic carbon (SOC concentrations were comparable, with average concentrations of 2.0 ± 2.4 and 2.8 ± 3.4 µg m−3, respectively.We also collected 24 h samples of PM10 onto quartz microfiber filters and analyzed these for an array of metals by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES. Total OC was correlated with Ca (R2 of 0.63, suggesting that OC precursors and Ca may have similar sources, and the possibility that they underwent similar atmospheric processing. In addition to a ubiquitous dust source, Ca is emitted during desalting processes in the numerous refineries in the region and from cement kilns, suggesting these sources may also contribute to observed OC concentrations in Riyadh. Concentration weighted trajectory (CWT analysis showed that high OC and EC concentrations were associated with air masses arriving from the Persian Gulf and the region around Baghdad, locations with
Mohammed S. Alhussaini
Full Text Available Background: Candida species are important hospital-acquired pathogens in infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU. This study was performed in the NICU of Saudi Arabian Hospital, Riyadh region, KSA to analyze patterns of neonatal Candida colonization as well as to determine the potential risk factors.Methods: Weekly surveillance fungal cultures of anal area, oral cavity, umbilicus and ear canal of neonates were performed from birth until their discharge from the hospital. Colonization was analyzed for timing, site, species, birth weight and gestational age. Potential environmental reservoirs and hands of health care workers (HCWs were also cultured monthly for fungi. Antifungal susceptibility of the identified isolates was also determined.Results: One hundred subjects have been recruited in this study. The overall colonization rate was 51%. Early colonization was found in 27 (27% neonates whereas 24 (24% neonates were lately colonized during their stay in NICU. Colonization was more in preterm neonates than in full and post term. Perianal area and oral cavity were the most frequent colonized sites. C. albicans was the main spp. (58.8% isolated from the neonates followed by C. tropicalis (17.6%, C. glabrata (15.6%, and C. krusei (2%. Of the 51 isolated Candida spp., 68.6% were sensitive to fluconazole, 80% to itraconazole and 64.7% to ketoconazole, while only 33% were sensitive to amphotericin B.Conclusion: Candida has emerged as a common cause of infections in infants admitted to NICU, and C. albicans is the most commonly isolated candidal species. Neonatal infections caused by non- albicans species occur at a later age during their stay in NICU.
Al-Gahtany, Abdulrahman Mohammed
The purpose of this study was to describe the present status of geography education in boys' intermediate schools in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia as perceived by geography teachers and supervisors; that is, to investigate the objectives, content, methods of teaching, tools and resources that are available and used in classrooms, evaluation techniques, and problems encountered in the teaching of geography. To collect data from this representative sample population, a questionnaire was developed by the researcher specifically for this study. Questionnaire data was collected from 19 social studies supervisors and 213 geography teachers. Percentages, frequencies, means, and standard deviations were computed for each questionnaire item. Chi Square tests were applied to determine if any significant differences could be identified between the observed and expected responses of supervisors and teachers. Major findings of the study indicated that both supervisors and teachers tend to strongly support the identified geography objectives. Most teachers and supervisors also indicated that the current geography curriculum contains enough information about Saudi Arabia, the Arabic world, and the Islamic world. In addition, the also indicated that geography content promotes a sense of patriotism and cultural pride. Responses indicated that educators see deficiencies in the content: it does not focus sufficiently on current events nor on developing student skills such as research and technical skills like drawing maps. Lecture and discussion are the most commonly used strategies in the teaching of geography. Field trips, role-playing, scientific competitions, scientific games, solving problems, and individual learning are less commonly used. Teaching tools most commonly used are wall maps and earth globes, whereas the use of geographical transparencies, models, and instruments is not common. Most of the teachers do lot use computers in their teaching. Evaluation techniques depend
AlWakeel, Suaad S
This study aimed to determine the bacterial species colonizing the nasal and oropharyngeal mucosa of fuel workers in Central Riyadh, Saudi Arabia on a microbiological and molecular level. Throat and nasal swab samples were obtained from 29 fuel station attendants in the period of time extending from March to May 2014 in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Microbiological identification techniques were utilized to identify the bacterial species isolated. Antibiotic sensitivity was assessed for each of the bacterial isolates. Molecular identification techniques based on PCR analysis of specific genomic sequences was conducted and was the basis on which phylogeny representation was done for 10 randomly selected samples of the isolates. Blood was drawn and a complete blood count was conducted to note the hematological indices for each of the study participants. Nineteen bacterial species were isolated from both the nasal cavity and the oropharynx including Streptococcus thoraltensis , alpha-hemolytic streptococci, Staphylococcus hominis , coagulase-negative staphylococci, Leuconostoc mesenteroides , Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae and several others. We found 100% sensitivity of the isolates to ciprofloxacin, cefuroxime and gentamicin. Whereas cefotaxime and azithromycin posted sensitivities of 85.7% and 91.4%, respectively. Low sensitivities (fuel products may be a contributing factor to bacterial colonization of the respiratory tract in fuel workers.
Adolescents who suffer from depression early in life, have an increase in suicidal tendency, anxiety, conduct disorders, substance abuse, and continue to be depressed, later on in life. This study was conducted to identify the prevalence and correlates of depression among adolescent girls in Riyadh city in order to carry out early intervention. A cross-sectional, school-based survey was conducted among 1028 adolescent girls aged 15-19 years in secondary schools of Riyadh city. Riyadh was divided into clusters and within each cluster, both public and private schools were enrolled. From the selected schools students from grade 10-12 were surveyed. Survey was conducted using a structured questionnaire including the beck depression inventory-II, and questions exploring the correlates of depression. About 30% of participants were found to be depressed. Depression was more prevalent among female adolescents whose household income was Saudi Riyal/month (odds ratio [OR] 2.17, confidence interval [CI] 0.97-6.84), did not have a good relationship with peers and family members (OR 4.63, CI 2.56-8.41), lived with single parent or alone (OR 1.77, CI 0.97-3.23), been emotionally abused (OR 3.45, CI 2.56-8.41), and those who had been subjected to physical violence, at least once (OR 3.34, CI 1.89-5.91). Strategies need to be developed to identify early signs and symptoms of depression among Saudi female adolescents. Training can be given to groups of students to help their peers, and also to the teachers to identify, and help students identify early signs of depression and provide them with better-coping strategies to combat progression of depression and anxiety among such adolescents.
Alghabiwi, Reem; Palianopoulou, Maria; Eklund Karlsson, Leena
-efficacy in self-managing chronic disease in 253 female patients aged 18-55 years from six primary care clinics in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The data were collected using two standard questionnaires (PDRQ-9 and SEMCD) and analysis was performed using the Kruskal-Wallis test (SPSS Software). Our findings showed...
Aly, M M; Abu Alsoud, N M; Elrobh, M S; Al Johani, S M; Balkhy, H H
The prevalence of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in Saudi Arabia and their resistance genetic mechanisms are yet to be identified. We studied the prevalence and genetic diversity of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase genes, particularly the PER-1 gene, among carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii strains from patients at a tertiary care hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia between 2006 and 2014. Fresh subcultured samples were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Total genomic DNA was extracted from each isolate and further used for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) genotyping, sequence-based typing (SBT) of PER-1 and OXA-51-like gene, and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) of positive isolates. Randomly selected clinical isolates (n = 100) were subjected to MLST. A total of 503 isolates were characterized as multidrug-resistant (MDR) using the MIC. Isolates were further PCR tested for bla -TEM and bla -PER-1 resistance genes (n = 503). The genotyping results showed that 68/503 (14 %) isolates were positive to bla TEM. The genotyping results of PER-1-like genes showed that 384/503 (76.3 %) were positive among MDR Acinetobacter isolates. Based on SBT, the majority of these isolates were clustered into three main groups including isolates harboring PER-1: AB11 (bla -PER-1 ), isolate AB16 (bla -PER-1 ), and, finally, the plasmid pAB154 (bla -PER-7 ). Remarkably, many isolates were concealing the PER-1 gene and harboring the TEM resistance genes as well. MLST results for selected isolates (n = 100) identified four main sequence types (STs: 2, 19, 20, and 25) and four novel isolates (ST 486-489). We report 76.3 % prevalence of the PER-1 resistance gene among Acinetobacter clinical isolates from Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Further work is needed to explore the clinical risks and patient outcome with such resistance related to healthcare-associated infections and investigate the genetic and molecular mechanisms that confer the MDR
Al-Mohrej, Omar A; Al-Ayedh, Noura K; Masuadi, Emad M; Al-Kenani, Nader S
Anatomy instructors adopt individual teaching methods and strategies to convey anatomical information to medical students for learning. Students also exhibit their own individual learning preferences. Instructional methods preferences vary between both instructors and students across different institutions. In attempt to bridge the gap between teaching methods and the students' learning preferences, this study aimed to identify students' learning methods and different strategies of studying anatomy in two different Saudi medical schools in Riyadh. A cross-sectional study, conducted in Saudi Arabia in April 2015, utilized a three-section questionnaire, which was distributed to a consecutive sample of 883 medical students to explore their methods and strategies in learning and teaching anatomy in two separate institutions in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Medical students' learning styles and preferences were found to be predominantly affected by different cultural backgrounds, gender, and level of study. Many students found it easier to understand and remember anatomy components using study aids. In addition, almost half of the students felt confident to ask their teachers questions after class. The study also showed that more than half of the students found it easier to study by concentrating on a particular part of the body rather than systems. Students' methods of learning were distributed equally between memorizing facts and learning by hands-on dissection. In addition, the study showed that two thirds of the students felt satisfied with their learning method and believed it was well suited for anatomy. There is no single teaching method which proves beneficial; instructors should be flexible in their teaching in order to optimize students' academic achievements.
Full Text Available Background: Physical inactivity increases the risk of several chronic, non-communicable diseases which ultimately reduces life expectancy. Recently, major lifestyle changes in Saudi Arabia due to economic growth, globalization, and modernization resulted in physical inactivity and low level of physical fitness. Health care professionals can play an important role in developing awareness about physical fitness among people. However, little is known about the impact of current health promotion practices of Saudi healthcare providers. This cross-sectional study evaluates Saudi primary healthcare providers’ attitudes, knowledge, and awareness associated with advising patients about physical activity during routine consultations. Methods: A quantitative survey on 803 respondents who comprised of general physicians, nurses, nurse assistants, dieticians and health educators in five districts of Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia was conducted using convenience sampling method. Results: The data showed that most of the primary care staffs are quite enthusiastic in promoting physical activity among the patients and revealed that they routinely discussed and advised about the benefits of physical fitness. However, there are some factors acting as barriers for promoting physical activity, such as i lack of time, ii lack of educational materials for patients, iii lack of proper training and protocols for health care professionals, iv lack of patient cooperation, and v lack of financial incentive. Conclusion: Proper strategies should be developed to motivate primary health care professionals, so that they can effectively encourage the general population to be more active physically. Hence, there is an urgent need to integrate physical activity promotion in to practice consultation in Saudi Arabia. In addition, more efforts are required from the policy makers and health professionals to gather sufficient knowledge about current physical activity recommendations.
Abdullah M.N. AlBedah
Full Text Available Objectives: Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM iswell established world wide. The present work is aimed at studying the knowledge, attitude and practice of CAM by the people of Riyadh region, Saudi Arabia.Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive household survey studyof the people living in Riyadh city, as well as the surrounding governorates. A multistage random sample was taken from1st January to the end of March 2010, with a total number of 518 participants. Data were collected using a pre-designed questionnaire through direct interview. The data was collected based on socio-demography, as well as knowledge, attitude and practice of CAM.Results: Participants were nearly sex-matched, consisting of approximately 70�0Saudi and 30�0non-Saudis. About 89�0ofthe participants had some knowledge of CAM. Mass media e.g.(T.V., newspapers and radio and family, relatives and friends represented the main sources of CAM knowledge, (46.5�0and46.3�0respectively. Nearly 85�0of participants or one of their family members has used some form of CAM before, and the most common users of CAM practices were females, housewives, and illiterate subjects (or those who could just read and write, as well as participants aged 60 years and above. Medical herbs (58.89� prayer (54� honey and bee products (54� hijama (35.71�nd cauterization or medical massage therapy (22�20were thecommonly used CAM practices. Most participants agreed that there are needs for; CAM practices (93.8� regulations for CAM(94.9� health education (96.6� specialized centers (94.8�20and CAM clinics (92.7� While only 8.3�0of participants usually discussed CAM with their physicians.Conclusion: There is a high prevalence and increased public interest in CAM use in the Riyadh region. There is a positiv eattitude towards CAM, yet most participants are reluctant to share and discuss CAM information with their physicians.
Almajhdi Fahad N
Full Text Available Abstract Background Although human parainfluenza type 2 (HPIV-2 virus is an important respiratory pathogen, a little is known about strains circulating in Saudi Arabia. Findings Among 180 nasopharyngeal aspirates collected from suspected cases in Riyadh, only one sample (0.56% was confirmed HPIV-2 positive by nested RT-PCR. The sample that was designated Riyadh 105/2009 was used for sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the most variable virus gene; the haemagglutinin-neuramindase (HN. Comparison of HN gene of Riyadh 105/2009 strain and the relevant sequences available in GenBank revealed a strong relationship with Oklahoma-94-2009 strain. Phylogenetic analysis indicated four different clusters of HPIV-2 strains (G1-4. Twenty-three amino acid substitutions were recorded for Riyadh 105/2009, from which four are unique. The majority of substitutions (n=18 had changed their amino acids characteristics. By analyzing the effect of the recorded substitutions on the protein function using SIFT program, only two located at positions 360 and 571 were predicted to be deleterious. Conclusions The presented changes of Riyadh 105/2009 strain may possess potential effect on the protein structure and/or function level. This is the first report that describes partial characterization of Saudi HPIV-2 strain.
Al-Ayedh, Hassan Ibn Yahiya
Trapping efficiency of seven different colored sticky traps (Green, Fluorescent yellow, Orange, Pink, red, White and Yellow) was evaluated in some solanacea plants, tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum), eggplant (Solanum Magellan) and sweet pepper (Capsicum spp.) crops, for whitefly (Bemis ia airlifting), leaf miners (Liriomyza trifolii), thrips (Thrips tabaci) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The traps were placed at four different heights (0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 m above the ground). The experiment was laid out in a Completely Randomized Block Design (CRBD) with four replications during autumn 2001, spring and autumn 2002. Significantly high insect populations were trapped on Fluorescent yellow, yellow and green colored sticky traps. No significant differences were witnessed between mean numbers of various insects caught on sticky traps placed at different heights but more insects were trapped at 0.5 - 1.5m. (author)
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of the tuberculosis (TB mobile teams on treatment outcomes in Riyadh Region by comparing patients who received treatment under mobile teams and those who did not, from 2013 to 2015. This was a retrospective descriptive study using National TB Control and Prevention Program data from 2013 to 2015 from Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Descriptive analyses were used to summarize characteristics of TB case-patients served by mobile teams and those who were not served. The χ2 test measured the significant differences between mobile-served and non-mobile-served case-patients. Exposure was whether or not the TB case-patient was under the care of the mobile team; the outcome of interest was whether or not treatment was successful, defined as treatment completed and cured. We found that the ratio of treatment success among mobile team case-patients was 1.28 greater than among those not served by mobile teams. The χ2 test showed a statistically significant finding (probability ratio = 1.28; 95% confidence interval = 1.21–1.35, p < 0.01. Mobile teams increased the treatment success rate to 92%, compared to 71.77% among those not served by mobile teams. This study shows that community mobilization of mobile teams is an effective strategy to enhance TB treatment, reduced mortality and loss to follow-up and improve TB treatment outcomes. Keywords: Directly observed therapy, Mobile teams, Saudi Arabia, Tuberculosis
Al-Sadoon, Mohammed K.
The present investigation is a retrospective review of snake bites in Riyadh province over the period (2005–2010). A total of 1019 cases of bites admitted to the Ministry of Health medical centers in Riyadh province were analyzed on the basis of age, sex, time of bite and its site on the body, outcome of treatment, antiserum dose and type of snake. Bites occurred throughout the six years with the highest frequency in 2005 and least in 2006 where most of the bite cases were mild and all evolved to cure except four patients who died following the administration of antivenom during 24 h after snake bite. Most of the patients were males (81.7%) and the most attacked age was within the range of 11–30 years (51.5%). All the bites were mainly in the exposed limbs and the most frequently bitten anatomical regions were the lower limbs (427 cases, 41.9%), principally the feet. The study incriminates Cerastes cerastes gasperettii in most of the bites indicating it as the snake of medical importance in Riyadh province. Also, the study indicates low degree of threat in spite of high rate of snake bites as a result of the availability of the medical facilities and the antivenin use in medical centers in Riyadh province. PMID:25737653
Allala, Saeb; Alzubairi, Sharefa
The current study is an attempt to identify social shyness among mothers of children with disabilities based on (Disability type, mother's academic qualification, and family's economic level) in Riyadh. Thus, Social Shyness Scale was prepared of (28) paragraphs according to five-point Likert Scale. The reliability coefficient of the scale rated…
Barnawi, Fatima Hamza
Domestic violence (DV) against women can negatively affect the physical, mental, sexual, and reproductive health of the women as well as the well-being of their children. The objective was to estimate among Saudi women the prevalence of different types of DV, to identify its associated risk factors, and to determine the immediate victims' reactions to such violence. A cross-sectional study was carried between March and July, 2011. Self-administrated questionnaire was administered to ever-married Saudi women attending Al-Wazarat primary health care center, in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Out of the 720 women studied, 144 (20%) reported exposure to DV over the last year. The most common DV types were emotional (69%), social (34%), economic (26%), physical (20%), and sexual violence (10%). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, the following characteristics were independently associated with DV: younger women age, longer duration of marriage, higher women education, lower husband education, working husbands, military occupation, fewer children, husbands with multiple wives, smoking husbands, aggressive husbands, presence of chronic disease in women or husbands, and non-sufficient family income. The most common impacts of DV on women were medical or behavioral problems (72%) and psychiatric problems (58%). The most common reactions to DV were seeking separation (56%) and doing nothing (41%). More than 90% of children of abused women suffered psychological or behavioral problems. In conclusion, DV against Saudi women is considerable and the response is generally passive. Promoting a culture non-tolerant to DV and providing accessible, effective, and trustful social services to abused women are critically needed. © The Author(s) 2015.
Almegbel, Faisal Yousef; Alotaibi, Ibrahim Muthyib; Alhusain, Faisal Ahmed; Masuadi, Emad M; Al Sulami, Salma Lafyan; Aloushan, Amairah Fahad; Almuqbil, Bashayer Ibrahim
Approximately 28% to 35% of people aged 65 and over fall each year. The consequent injuries of falls are considered a major public health problem. Falls account for more than half of injury-related hospitalisations among old people. The aim of this study was to measure a 1-year period prevalence of falling among old people in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. In addition, this study described the most common risk factors and consequent injuries of falls. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in Riyadh, using a convenient sampling. The targeted population were Saudi citizens who were 60 years or above. Over a 6-month period, 1182 individuals were sampled (545 men and 637 women). The 1-year prevalence of falling among old Saudis (>=60 years) was 49.9%. Our results show that 74% of the participants who experienced falls had postfall injuries. Old participants who were uneducated and those with middle school certification were associated with falls (adjusted OR (aOR) 1.72; 95% CI 1.15 to 2.56, aOR 1.81; 95% CI 1.15 to 2.85, respectively). Those who live in rented houses had a higher risk of falls. Interestingly, having a caregiver was significantly associated with more falls (aOR 1.39; 95% CI 1.08 to 1.79). However, not using any medications was significantly related to fewer falls. In addition, old individuals using walking aids were more likely to fall than those who did not. Participants who mentioned 'not having stressors were associated with less frequent falls (aOR 0.62; 95% CI 0.39 to 0.97). Cerebrovascular accidents were strongly associated with falls with an estimated OR of 2.75 (95% CI 1.18 to 6.43). Moreover, osteoporosis, poor vision and back pain were found to be predictors for falls among the elderly. 49.9% of elderly Saudis had experienced one or more falls during a 12-month period. Several preventable risk factors could be addressed by routine geriatric assessment. Research on the impact of these risk factors is needed. © Article author(s) (or their
Alrukban, Mohammed O; Albadr, Badr O; Almansour, Mohammed; Sami, Waqas; Alshuil, Mussab; Aldebaib, Abulrahman; Algannam, Tamim; Alhafaf, Faisal; Almohanna, Abdulaziz; Alfifi, Tariq; Alshehri, Abdullah; Alshahrani, Muhannad
Breaking bad news is one of the most stressful and difficult things a physician has to do. Good communication skills are required in order to ensure that bad news is delivered in a humane but effective way. This study was designed to explore the preferences and attitude of the Saudi population toward receiving bad news. Second, it was to identify the associations between preferences, attitudes, and sociodemographic characteristics. This was a cross-sectional study conducted during the month of April 2009 in Riyadh. Data were collected from 1013 adult Saudis. Stratified random sampling technique was used through a self-administered questionnaire. In this study, 474 (46.8%) were males and 539 (53.2%) were females. Almost two-third of the participants preferred to be the first to receive the bad news. A majority of the participants 695 (68.6%) preferred to be told the bad news at a private place, whereas, 441 (43.5%) preferred to be told by the head of the medical team. Moreover, almost half of the participants would like the one who breaks the bad news to remain with them to give them some more information about the disease. Significant associations were observed between participants' perception and attitude with age, marital status, gender, and education (P bad news is received. Understanding what is important in the process of breaking bad news may help in determining how best to perform this challenging task.
Almajwal, Ali M
Nurses are the largest group of direct health providers and can serve as role models for their patients. In this cross sectional study we assessed the relationship among physical activity and barriers, shift duty, elevated BMI, and selected eating habits among 362 non-Saudi female nurses in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Results showed that 46.7% were either overweight or obese. Marital status, shift duty, education level, and BMI were significant predictors of physical activity. Weather was the most frequently reported barrier to physical activity (88.3%), followed by a lack of transportation (82.6%), and a lack of time (81.3%). Nurses who worked shift duty had significantly (p = 0.004) higher BMIs compared with day shift nurses. Nurses who rarely ate breakfast (p = 0.004) and meals (p = 0.001) and often eat fast food (p = 0.001) were more likely to be overweight or obese. Nurses should be encouraged for a better healthy lifestyles.
Alrukban, Mohammed O.; Albadr, Badr O.; Almansour, Mohammed; Sami, Waqas; Alshuil, Mussab; Aldebaib, Abulrahman; Algannam, Tamim; Alhafaf, Faisal; Almohanna, Abdulaziz; Alfifi, Tariq; Alshehri, Abdullah; Alshahrani, Muhannad
Background: Breaking bad news is one of the most stressful and difficult things a physician has to do. Good communication skills are required in order to ensure that bad news is delivered in a humane but effective way. Objectives: This study was designed to explore the preferences and attitude of the Saudi population toward receiving bad news. Second, it was to identify the associations between preferences, attitudes, and sociodemographic characteristics. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted during the month of April 2009 in Riyadh. Data were collected from 1013 adult Saudis. Stratified random sampling technique was used through a self-administered questionnaire. Results: In this study, 474 (46.8%) were males and 539 (53.2%) were females. Almost two-third of the participants preferred to be the first to receive the bad news. A majority of the participants 695 (68.6%) preferred to be told the bad news at a private place, whereas, 441 (43.5%) preferred to be told by the head of the medical team. Moreover, almost half of the participants would like the one who breaks the bad news to remain with them to give them some more information about the disease. Significant associations were observed between participants' perception and attitude with age, marital status, gender, and education (P bad news is received. Understanding what is important in the process of breaking bad news may help in determining how best to perform this challenging task. PMID:24987276
Mosher, Cynthia; Sarkar, Abdullah; Hashem, Alaa AbouBakr; Hamadah, Reem E; Alhoulan, Asma; AlMakadma, Yosra A; Khan, Tehreem A; Al-Hamdani, Abdurahman K; Senok, Abiola
The Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) is a practice guideline for healthcare providers to promote breastfeeding and increase breastfeeding rates. This study aimed to examine reported experiences and views on breastfeeding of women using prenatal and postnatal services, and opinions of staff, in the context of the BFHI programme in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Prospective cohort study. This prospective, longitudinal study was conducted from December 2013 to September 2015 at two healthcare facilities (BFHI and non-BFHI) in Riyadh Saudi Arabia. Women 36-40 weeks gestation receiving antenatal care at the hospitals were enrolled. Questionnaires were administered prenatally, at 1, 3 and 6 months postnatal and to the administrator and maternity staff. We recruited 277 women with an estimated 80% response rate. 156 (BFHI=78/139, non-BFHI=78/138, 56%) participants completed all questionnaires. Most BFHI-hospital participants (77.9%, n=8 for this question) acknowledged seeing the breast feeding policy compared to 23.5% (n=23) at the non-BFHI-hospital (p<0.01). Breast feeding education and encouragement was higher at the BFHI-hospital (93.3%) compared to the non-BFHI-hospital (48.2%; p<0.01). At postpartum discharge, 51% (n=53) of mothers in the BFHI-hospital were breast feeding exclusively versus 29.6% (n=29) at the non-BFHI-hospital. Where formula feed was introduced, women in the BFHI-hospital more often practiced mixed feeding rather than exclusive formula feeding with some switching from mixed feeding to exclusive breast feeding between 3 and 6 months postpartum. Exclusive breast feeding rates declined in both hospitals at 3 and 6 months postpartum with lack of community services for lactation being a major reason. Although BFHI-hospital staff (n=9) were more conversant with BFHI principles, defects in adherence to the BFHI 10 Steps were identified. This is the first study assessing the effectiveness of BFHI implementation in Saudi Arabia. Although women
Full Text Available Background: Emergency department nurses are continuously exposed to violence on the job. Objectives: This study sought to identify the prevalence and pattern of workplace violence and the consequences of violence on nurses working in emergency departments in Riyadh. Design: Cross-sectional survey conducted from April to May 2015. Setting: Emergency departments of three hospitals in Riyadh. Participants: Nurses participated voluntarily and anonymously. Methods: Nurses were recruited by advertisement. A self-administered questionnaire with 23 items was given to participants by a head nurse. Violent acts were classified as physical or nonphysical. Descriptive statistics are presented and statistical comparisons were made to evaluate differences by gender, nationality, age, experience and other demographic variables. Results: Of 150 questionnaires distributed, 121 were returned (80.6%. One hundred were females (82.6% and 71 (58.7% had worked in nursing for less than or equal to 5 years. Most participants (n=108, 89.3% had experienced a violent incident in the past 12 months. Eighty (80/108, 74.1% of those who had experienced violence had experienced verbal abuse and 20 (20/108, 18.5% had faced verbal and physical violence during the past year. The type of violence was associated with gender and educational level. Patients (89/108, 82.4% and their relatives (70/108, 64.8% were the most common instigators of violence. Most nurses (78/108, 72.3% expressed dissatisfaction with the manner in which incidents were handled. Conclusion: Workplace violence was pervasive in the emergency departments of these three hospitals in Riyadh. The data are consistent with other reports of workplace violence in emergency departments in Saudi Arabia and in other countries. Recommendations: Suitable strategies to deal with the issue include establishing workplace violence management teams and creating appropriate rules and regulations thatÂ can improve workplace safety
Albawardi, Nada M; Jradi, Hoda; Al-Hazzaa, Hazzaa M
Physical inactivity is among the leading risk factors for non-communicable diseases. Saudi Arabia has just begun to address physical inactivity as recent studies have shown an alarming prevalence of insufficiently physically active adults. Saudi women are identified as among the most overweight/obese and least active worldwide. With an increase in the number of women in office based jobs, the risk of physical inactivity is likely to increase. Identifying the level and correlates for high BMI and physical inactivity in Saudi women will help to plan more effective public health strategies. The aim of this study is to assess the level of physical activity, inactivity and body mass index among Saudi women working in office based jobs in Riyadh city and identify the correlates for overweight, obesity and low physical activity. A cross- sectional study was conducted on 420 Saudi women aged 18 to 58 years working in office based jobs in eight worksites in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Body mass index was determined using weight and height measurements and physical activity was assessed based on a validated self-administered questionnaire. The majority of the subjects were overweight or obese (58.3 %). Overweight/obesity was associated with increased age, lower income and with those working in the public versus private sector. More than half of the sample (52.1 %) were insufficiently physically active. Participants working seven or more hours per day and those working in private versus public sector were significantly associated with low physical activity. This study identified Saudi women working in office based jobs as a high risk group for overweight, obesity and physical inactivity. As sedentary jobs may compound the risk for obesity and physical inactivity, this may support the use of workplace health programs to reduce sitting time and promote physical activity as a viable public health initiative.
Al Tufail, M. A. [محمد عبد الله الطفيل; Al Araidh, I. A. [ابراهيم عبد الله العريض
11 honey various samples commercially available in Saudi Arabia, were subjected to chemical, toxicological and bacteriological tests. The samples were checked for As and CN, presence of pollens, and for bacteria contamination. The carbohydrate profile was analyzed with HPLC. Fe, P, Ca, K, and Mg were measured with colorimetry. Toxic metals, As, Pb, Sb, Tl, and Hg were determined with ICP-MS. The samples were investigated by GC-MS. The investigation revealed the presence of syringaldehyde, men...
Khraif, Rshood; Abdul Salam, Asharaf; Al-Mutairi, Abdullah; Elsegaey, Ibrahim
Fertility levels and their determinants in Saudi Arabia have not been studied sufficiently for formulating family policy, although some attention has been paid to rapid fertility transitions in the context of socioeconomic and cultural change. This study focused on the fertility of a particular occupational category in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia to assess determinants of fertility, measured as the number of children. The sample was drawn from the King Saud University staff - ever-married Saudi Arabian women. Results found that proximate factors (age, age at first marriage, intended number of children, length of marriage and contraceptive use) were significant in predicting fertility behaviour, whereas geographic, social and economic factors were insignificant. Thus, the fertility behaviour of this occupational group seems unique. This might be due to the special characteristics and lifestyle of this particular occupational group. The effect of the intended number of children on the actual number signified the fertility behaviour of this group of women. This, expectedly, should improve the influence of social and economic factors on fertility behaviour, in the future. Thus, advocates, policies and programmes (population and public health) at the societal and familial levels, should consider the demographic change in the social and economic context.
Abdullah M AlBedah
Full Text Available Background: Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM is a popular treatment option for many populations. The present work is aimed at studying the knowledge and attitude of health professionals in the Riyadh region, Saudi Arabia, toward CAM. Material and Methods: In this cross-sectional survey, a multistage random sample was taken from health professionals working in hospitals in Riyadh city and surrounding governorates. Data were collected through a self-administered questionnaire, from 306 health professionals working in 19 hospitals, on socio-demographic data, knowledge about CAM and their sources, and attitudes toward CAM practices. Results: Of the participants, 88.9% had some knowledge about CAM. Respondents with a doctorate degree (94.74% and 92.53% of those with a bachelor′s degree had significantly higher knowledge of CAM than subjects with a diploma, a fellowship, or a master′s degree (68.75%, 76.67%, and 85.41%, respectively, P = 0.004. Mass media represented 60.1% of sources of the knowledge of CAM followed by family, relatives, and friends (29.08% and health educational organizations (14.71%. Participants estimated that prophetic medicine including prayer, honey and bee products, medical herbs, Hijama, nutrition and nutritional supplements, cauterization, and camel milk and urine were the most commonly used CAM practices (90.5%, 85%, 76.9%, 70.6%, 61.4%, 55.9%, and 52.5%, respectively in addition to medical massage (61.8% and acupuncture (55%. One hundred and fifteen (80% physicians were ready to talk with their patients on CAM. Conclusion: The willingness to improve knowledge and create a positive attitude in health professionals toward CAM has increased. Religious practices, especially those related to prophetic medicine, are more common in the region. Health educational organizations have to play a greater role by being the source of evidence-based knowledge of CAM. Talking on CAM with patients should be improved by rooting
Ahmed I. Rushdi
Full Text Available Soil particles contain a variety of anthropogenic and natural organic components derived from many sources such as industrial and traffic fossil fuel emissions and terrestrial biota. The organic contents of soil and sand from the Arabian region have not fully characterized. Thus, samples of fine soil particles (sieved to <125 μM were collected from the Riyadh area in November 2006 (late summer and February 2007 (late winter. The samples were extracted with a mixture of dichloromethane/hexane and analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectroscopy (GCMS in order to characterize the chemical composition and sources of aliphatic hydrocarbons. The results showed that both anthropogenic and natural biogenic inputs were the major sources of the aliphatic hydrocarbons in these extracts. Vehicular emission products and discarded plastics were the major anthropogenic sources in the fine particles of the soils and ranged from 64% to 96% in November 2006 and from 70% to 92% in February 2007. Their tracers were n-alkanes, hopanes, sterane, plasticizers and UCM. Vegetation was also a major natural source of hydrocarbon compounds in samples ranging from ∼0% to18% in November 2006 and from 1% to 13% in February 2007 and included n-alkanes and triterpenoids.
Fetohy, Ebtisam M
An experimental study was conducted to assess the impact and suitability of menstrual education program (MEP) for 1st and 2nd graders at a girls' secondary school in Riyadh city. The MEP was conducted on 5 classes, through one session and one assessment. The results revealed that the mean scores of knowledge, attitude and practice of the intervention classes (1st and 2nd graders) were significantly higher than that of the control classes. Stepwise linear regression models show that the age of menarche and grade were the predictors of students' knowledge among the control group and explained 7.8% of the variation of the knowledge score. Knowledge was a predictor of students' attitude of both groups (control and intervention) (beta = 0.359, 0.300 respectively). Knowledge was also a predictor of students' menstrual practice among control group (beta = -2.12). Attitude was a predictor of students' menstrual practice for both groups (beta = 0.360, 0.252 respectively). The study recommended the replication of the same program among elementary, preparatory, and other secondary schools for improvement of students' menstrual knowledge, attitudes and practice.
Mohamed, Ashry G
To determine the extent of work-related violence against nurses in hospitals in Riyadh. Through a cross sectional approach, a self administered questionnaire was offered to 500 active-duty nurses selected randomly. In addition to the demographic characteristics, the questionnaire inquired about exposure to workplace violence, hospital and department of employment at the time of exposure, characteristics of the assailant and nurses' perception of the causes of violence. Out of 434 respondents, 93 (21.4%) were males, and 341 (78.6%) females. The mean age was 36.1 ± 7.97 years. Workplace violence was experienced by 235 (54.3%) nurses. Of these 93.2% were exposed to harsh insulting language, 32.8% to verbal threat, 28.1% to attempts of physical assault, 17.4% to sexual harassment and 16.2% to actual physical assault. Nurses working in psychiatry and emergency units had the highest rate of exposure to violence (84.3% & 62.1% respectively) Nurses perceived shortage in security personnel (82%), shortage in nursing staff (63%), language barrier (36.3%) and unrestricted movement of patients in hospitals (21.5%) as causes of their exposure to violence. improve security in hospitals by increasing the number of security officers on duty and increase the community's awareness of the problem.
Sayigh, A A.M.; El-Salem, E M.A.
The performance of seven reinforced-concrete solar stills in Saudi Arabia was compared. The stills varied with respect to the thickness of the glass cover, the cover slope, absorbent materials, and the sealing agent between the glass cover and the frame. The absorbent materials were red sand, black sand, straw, black dye, and charcoal. A still with a cover sloped at 20/sup 0/ gave the best performance. This still was tested with different absorbents, and it was found that black stone yielded the highest output with 1.5 liters/day at a yearly average efficiency of 45%.
Al Garni, Bishi; Pani, Sharat Chandra; Almaaz, Adel; Al Qeshtaini, Ehsan; Abu-Haimed, Hamad; Al Sharif, Khalid
One of the factors that dissuade patients needing tooth replacement from choosing dental implants is the prohibitive cost. Willingness to pay (WTP) is a useful tool to determine the ideal cost of an expensive procedure. The aim of this study was to study the factors that influence the willingness to pay (WTP) among patients attending a private clinic and compare them to those attending a government setup. A total of 100 patients (38 male, 62 female) who had one or more missing teeth were presented with different cost-benefit scenarios and then asked if they were willing to pay the median cost of a single implant in Riyadh city. The mean WTP price was compared using the one way-ANOVA, factors which could possibly influence patients' WTP were grouped together in a Binomial logistic regression model. Of the 100 individuals surveyed 67% said they would be willing to pay the median price for the placement of an implant. A comparison of socio-demographic factors showed that significant differences were found between gender, income groups and setting of the clinic in the mean WTP price of the patients (P difference in the mean WTP price between groups with regard to the area of the missing tooth, the patients' perception of their oral health and the their desire to want an implant (P pay the median price for an implant. Willingness to pay (WTP) is a multifactorial variable which is significantly influenced by the income of the patient, the setting of the clinic and the gender; the most significant factor being the acceptability of the implant to the patient.
Alanazi, Menyfah Q; Alqahtani, Fulwah Y; Aleanizy, Fadilah S
Urinary tract infection (UTIS) is a common infectious disease in which level of antimicrobial resistance are alarming worldwide. Therefore, this study aims to describe the prevalence and the resistance pattern of the main bacteria responsible for UTIS Escherichia coli (E. coli). Retrospective chart review for patients admitted to emergency department and diagnosed with UTIS at KAMC, in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia between January to March 2008 was performed. Antimicrobial susceptibility to ampicillin, augmentin (amoxicillin/clavulanate), cefazolin, co-trimoxazole (sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim), ciprofloxacin, and nitrofurantoin, and cefpodoxime was determined for 101 E. coli urinary isolates. Escherichia coli was the most prevalent pathogen contributing to UTIS representing 93.55, 60.24, and 45.83% of all pathogen isolated from urine culture of pediatric, adult, and elderly, respectively. High rates of resistance to ampicillin (82.76, 58, and 63.64%) and co-trimoxazole (51.72, 42, and 59.09%), among E. coli isolated from pediatric, adult and elderly respectively. Nitrofurantoin was the most active agent, followed by ciprofloxacin, augmentin and cefazolin. 22.77% of E. coli isolates exhibited multiple drug resistance (MDR). Among 66 and 49 isolates resistant to ampicillin and co-trimoxazole, respectively, 34.84 and 42.85% were MDR. In contrast, all isolates resistant to augmentin and nitrofurantoin were MRD, while 72.7 and 82.4% of isolates resistant to ciprofloxacin and cefazolin were MDR. High resistance was observed to ampicillin and co-trimoxazole which commonly used as empirical treatments for UTIS, limiting their clinical use. This necessitates continuous surveillance for resistance pattern of uropathogens against antibiotics.
Al-Ajlan, Abdulrahman S
The present study is to determine the prevalence and implication of coeliac disease (CD) among adult Saudis and compared to those with diagnosed irritable bowel syndrome. This prospective study was conducted among 980 adults. Out of that, 482 subjects (staff and students of Riyadh Health Science College) were designated as control cohorts for undetected coeliac disease. Furthermore, another contingent of 498 subjects diagnosed with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) at Prince Salman Hospital and Al-Iman General Hospital also constituted a segment of the overall initial 1020 subjects. Both cases and control were tested for serological markers of coeliac disease (tissues transglutaminase (tTGAs) and endomysial autoantibody (EMAs) and were confirmed by histopathology test. All the positive for cases of coeliac disease were screened for iron deficiency anaemia, Vitamin D deficiency, and osteoporosis and weight assessment. The percentage of coeliac disease in control subjects and patients diagnosed with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) were found to be 1.9% and 9.6% respectively, about 38% of the total coeliac disease patients are among females of middle age (20-39-years) and 16% of the males in the same age range. Whereas, 20% and 25% of all coeliac disease cases with ages of 40-59 were remarked as females and males respectively. The identical nature and overlap of symptoms of the two conditions could possibly result in misdiagnosis of coeliac diseases or over-diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome. The findings of the study might also give considerable implications of the disease in the nutritional level which is noticeable.
AlSaeed, Eyad Fawzi; Tunio, Mutahir A
We aimed to compare the dietary habits, engagement in various sports, smoking habits, marital status and other demographic characteristics, between cancer patients and healthy adults (control) at our institute, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted on 500 participants (237 cancer patients and 263 healthy adults). A well-structured questionnaire was given to these participants regarding the life style, dietary habits, and marital status through interviews. Mean age of whole cohort was 39.3 years (range: 14-85). Among the cancer patients, breast cancer was predominant (45.6%). Compared to controls, higher percentage of married (72.6% vs. 55.5%) and divorced (10.2% vs.4.2%) was noticed in cancer patients (P = 0.002). In cancer patients, majority were unemployed (housewives = 49.3%; retired = 16.0%) as compared to controls (housewives = 14.1%; retired = 2.0%) P = 0.0001. Use of computer laptops/tablets and internet surfing was significantly higher in controls as compared to cancer patients (80.3% vs. 42.2%) P = 0.0001. Similarly, cancer patients started smoking at early age and were relatively heavy smokers with P = 0.03 and P = 0.001 respectively. Cancer patients consumed < 3 cups of coffee/day as compared to control (42.4% vs. 21.5%) P = 0.02. More cancer patients got married at early age between 11-20 years (58.7% vs. 37.7%) P = 0.01. Unemployment, marital status, lack of nutritional knowledge through internet, heavy smoking, heavy coffee consumption and early age at marriage were associated with the risk of various cancers in both genders.
Abdulrahman S. Al-Ajlan
Full Text Available The present study is to determine the prevalence and implication of coeliac disease (CD among adult Saudis and compared to those with diagnosed irritable bowel syndrome. This prospective study was conducted among 980 adults. Out of that, 482 subjects (staff and students of Riyadh Health Science College were designated as control cohorts for undetected coeliac disease. Furthermore, another contingent of 498 subjects diagnosed with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS at Prince Salman Hospital and Al-Iman General Hospital also constituted a segment of the overall initial 1020 subjects. Both cases and control were tested for serological markers of coeliac disease (tissues transglutaminase (tTGAs and endomysial autoantibody (EMAs and were confirmed by histopathology test. All the positive for cases of coeliac disease were screened for iron deficiency anaemia, Vitamin D deficiency, and osteoporosis and weight assessment. The percentage of coeliac disease in control subjects and patients diagnosed with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS were found to be 1.9% and 9.6% respectively, about 38% of the total coeliac disease patients are among females of middle age (20–39-years and 16% of the males in the same age range. Whereas, 20% and 25% of all coeliac disease cases with ages of 40–59 were remarked as females and males respectively. The identical nature and overlap of symptoms of the two conditions could possibly result in misdiagnosis of coeliac diseases or over-diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome. The findings of the study might also give considerable implications of the disease in the nutritional level which is noticeable.
Saad S. Albogami
Full Text Available ARTIs have a huge impact in health systems in which 20–30% of all hospital admissions and 30–60% of practitioner visits are related to respiratory tract infections. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence, age distribution, and seasonal variation of respiratory viruses. This study was descriptive retrospective study in which all patients 14 years of age and below who presented with signs and symptoms of ARTIs between January 2013 and December 2014 and had respiratory specimen tested by direct immunofluorescence assays for viruses identification were included in the study. During that period, a total of 4611 patients who presented with ARTIs from January 2013 to December 2014 were investigated, viruses were detected in 1115 (24%. RSV was associated with 97.4% of the total viral pathogens. Viruses were detected throughout all the two years with a peak in winter; Dec (n: 265, Jan (n: 418, Feb (n: 218, and Mar (n: 109. Viral pathogens are very important cause of ARTIs in our region. RSV was the most common virus detected with the highest detection rate in children who are two years old and below. A multi-center surveillance with more sensitive detection methods like PCR may help to provide a comprehensive understanding of virus distribution in our area, which may contribute implant an effective prevention approach for each virus. Keywords: Pediatrics, Infectious diseases, Respiratory infections, Respiratory syncytial virus, Saudi Arabia
Vinodkumar Balakrishna Pillai Padmakshiamma
Full Text Available BACKGROUND Low back pain is the second most common symptom related reason for clinician visits in the United States. Up to 84 percent of adults have low back pain at some time in their lives. Low back pain poses an economic burden to society mainly in terms of the large number of work days lost by a small percentage of patients who develop chronic back pain. Lifestyle diseases are defined as those problems that evolve due to changes in lifestyle. The contributing factors are bad food habits, physical inactivity, wrong body postures, habits and personality including sleep and disturbed biological clock. Spinal disorders contribute to loss more than 20 million of productive life years. Wrong sitting and standing posture while working gives stress to backbone and leads to chronic backache. Regularly spending a lot of time in front of computer may also lead to muscular pain of neck and back. People who lift heavy weight are predisposed to disc diseases and sciatica. In this background this study was conducted to 1. Determine the obesity as a risk factor for back ache 2. Find out other factors that contribute to backache. MATERIALS AND METHODS Study Design- Case-Control Study. Study Period- April 1, 2014, to March 31, 2015. Study Site- KMCR, Al-Malaz, Riyadh, KSA. All persons coming to Orthopaedics OP during the study period with back pain both males and females for the first time constituted the cases and a person coming to orthopaedics OP without backache Exclusion criteria- Acute trauma with RTA and fall. Data was collected by self-administered structured questionnaire and personal examination and investigation evaluation. Software support- Excel, SPSS RESULTS 1 BMI with OR (odds ratio 4.85(p=0.000, 95%; CI 2.30-10.19; 2 Stress-OR=2.82(p=0.002, 95%; CI 1.45-5.50; 3 Personality-OR=2.94 (p=0.003, 95%; CI 1.45-5.96. The other factors tested having OR more than one were-1 Age, OR=1.15; 2 Exercises, OR=1.24; 3 Existences of comorbid conditions, OR=1
Fagbo, Shamsudeen F; Garbati, Musa A; Hasan, Rami; AlShahrani, Dayel; Al-Shehri, Mohamed; AlFawaz, Tariq; Hakawi, Ahmed; Wani, Tariq Ahmad; Skakni, Leila
The emergence of the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) in Saudi Arabia has intensified focus on Acute Respiratory Infections [ARIs]. This study sought to identify respiratory viruses (RVs) associated with ARIs in children presenting at a tertiary hospital. Children (aged ≤13) presenting with ARI between January 2012 and December 2013 tested for 15 RVs using the Seeplex R RV15 kit were retrospectively included. Epidemiological data was retrieved from patient records. Of the 2235 children tested, 61.5% were ≤1 year with a male: female ratio of 3:2. Viruses were detected in 1364 (61.02%) children, 233 (10.4%) having dual infections: these viruses include respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) (24%), human rhinovirus (hRV) (19.7%), adenovirus (5.7%), influenza virus (5.3%), and parainfluenzavirus-3 (4.6%). Children, aged 9-11 months, were most infected (60.9%). Lower respiratory tract infections (55.4%) were significantly more than upper respiratory tract infection (45.3%) (P < 0.001). Seasonal variation of RV was directly and inversely proportional to relative humidity and temperature, respectively, for non MERS coronaviruses (NL63, 229E, and OC43). The study confirms community-acquired RV associated with ARI in children and suggests modulating roles for abiotic factors in RV epidemiology. However, community-based studies are needed to elucidate how these factors locally influence RV epidemiology. J. Med. Virol. 89:195-201, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Turki H. Albatti
Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the study was to 1 determine the prevalence of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD among both governmental and private primary Saudi school children, 2 measure the gender difference of ADHD prevalence, and 3 determine any association between the socio-demographic characteristic of the parents of children with ADHD. Methods: This is an observational cross-sectional study of 1000 primary school children belonging to 1st, 2nd and 3rd grade. The selected students were screened by the ADHD rating scale using multistage sampling technique. The first stage was selection of 20 schools from all Riyadh regions by simple randomization. The second stage was choosing children whom serial numbers were multiples of five in each class. The ADHD rating scale was filled by both parents and teachers along with a socio-demographic questionnaire for the parents. Results: The estimated prevalence of ADHD was 3.4%. ADHD manifestations affect boys more than girls. In addition, ADHD was more frequent among children of illiterate mothers. Finally, ADHD was significantly more prevalent among first grade children. Conclusion: This epidemiological study filled the data gap of ADHD prevalence in Riyadh. The study's findings go in line with many nearby and global studies. Keywords: ADHD, Prevalence, Socio-demographics, Children, Saudi Arabia
Full Text Available Aim: To determine the impact of a school-based oral hygiene instructions program on the gingival health of children in randomly selected middle schools in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: Nine hundred and fourteen children were selected from nine schools that were randomly determined from Riyadh City public schools. After obtaining the parents′ consent, the criteria-guided enrolment of study participants yielded 457 children in the control group and 457 students in the experimental group. The intervention design was 90 days experimental period with an intermediate follow-up visit at 45 days. A calibrated examiner (HW measured the plaque index (PI and the gingival index (GI. The indices were measured at day 1, day 45 and day 90 in both the control and the experimental groups. Results were analyzed with Wilcoxon sign rank test for each index, site, and by sessions for each group to determine if the scores had increased, decreased, or remained the same between intervals. Results: Plaque and gingival scores in the control group showed a steady improvement throughout the experimental period when compared with the baseline scores. Scores in the experimental group were significantly improved at each session between baseline and session 2 (45 days and session 3 (90days respectively. Conclusions: The continued reduction of GI and PI scores at the end of the intervention observed in this pilot study suggest that a school-based oral hygiene measures program can significantly improve oral health among school children in Saudi Arabia.
Full Text Available Mohammad A Aldosari, Aljazi H Aljabaa, Fares S Al-Sehaibany, Sahar F Albarakati Department of Pediatric Dentistry and Orthodontics, College of Dentistry, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Background: Students differ in their preferred methods of acquiring, processing, and recalling new information. The aim of this study was to investigate the learning style preferences of undergraduate dental students and examine the influence of gender, Grade Point Average (GPA, and academic year levels on these preferences.Methods: The Arabic version of the visual, aural, read/write, and kinesthetic (VARK questionnaire was administered to 491 students from the first- to the fifth-year academic classes at the College of Dentistry, King Saud University. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the learning styles of the students, and Chi-square test and Fisher’s test were used to compare the learning preferences between genders and among academic years. Significance was set at a p-value of <0.05.Results: A total of 368 dental students completed the questionnaire. The multimodal learning style was preferred by 63.04% of the respondents, with the remaining 36% having a unimodal style preference. The aural (A and the kinesthetic (K styles were the most preferred unimodal styles. The most common style overall was the quadmodal (VARK style with 23.64% having this preference. These differences did not reach statistical significance (p>0.05. Females were more likely to prefer a bimodal learning style over a unimodal style (relative risk =2.37. Students with a GPA of “C” were less likely to have a bimodal or a quadmodal style preference compared to students with a GPA of “A” (relative risk =0.34 and 0.36, respectively. Second-year students were less likely to prefer a bimodal over a unimodal style compared to first-year students (relative risk =0.34.Conclusion: The quadmodal VARK style is the preferred learning method chosen by dental students
Alkharfy Khalid M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Follow-up epidemiologic studies are needed to assess trends and patterns of disease spread. No follow-up epidemiologic study has been done in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia to assess the current prevalence of major chronic, noncommunicable diseases, specifically in the urban region, where modifiable risk factors remain rampant. This study aims to fill this gap. Methods A total of 9,149 adult Saudis ages seven to eighty years (5,357 males (58.6% and 3,792 females (41.4% were randomly selected from the Riyadh Cohort Study for inclusion. Diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DMT2 and obesity were based on the World Health Organization definitions. Diagnoses of hypertension and coronary artery disease (CAD were based on the Seventh Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure and American Heart Association criteria, respectively. Results The overall crude prevalence of DMT2 was 23.1% (95% confidence interval (95% CI 20.47 to 22.15. The age-adjusted prevalence of DMT2 was 31.6%. DMT2 prevalence was significantly higher in males, with an overall age-adjusted prevalence of 34.7% (95% CI 32.6 to 35.4, than in females, who had an overall age-adjusted prevalence of 28.6% (95% CI 26.7 to 29.3 (P P Conclusion Comparisons of our findings with earlier data show that the prevalence of DMT2, hypertension and CAD in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, has alarmingly worsened. Aggressive promotion of public awareness, continued screening and early intervention are pivotal to boosting a positive response.
Rahman, M. T.
The city of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia has experienced rapid population growth and urban expansion over the past several decades. Due to such growth, the capital city faces many short and long-term social and environmental consequences. In order to monitor and mitigate some of these consequences, it is essential to examine the past changes and historical growth of the city. It is also essential to measure its urban sprawl over the past few decades. The objective of this study is to fulfil these goals. It does so by first examining the historical growth of the city of Riyadh. To do so, Landsat data over the past two and half decades are classified using a combination of supervised and unsupervised classification techniques. Based on the classification results, the study then uses Shannon's Entropy to measure the urban sprawl in the city. The results show that from 1990-2009, the urban built-up area of the city has increased by 90% in the western, south-eastern, and northern parts. The Shannon's entropy values show that the city is dispersing towards the outskirts of the city. The results from this study will assist city planners and government officials to plan, reduce, and perhaps mitigate some of the social and environmental consequences and enable the growth of the city in a sustainable manner in the near future.
Qurashi, Salem; Tamimi, Abdulrahman; Jaradat, Maha; Al Sayyari, Abulla
To assess the effect of fasting Ramadan during the hottest month of the year in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. This prospective cohort study was performed at the King Fahd National Guard Hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. We used the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula to estimate the glomerular filtration rate in renal transplant patients who fasted and did not fast before and after Ramadan. There were 43 fasters and 37 nonfasters of comparable ages, with fasters having longer posttransplant times compared with nonfasters (P = .0001). The 2 groups had similar mean estimated glomerular filtration rates before Ramadan: 75.6 ± 29.2 and 65.9 ± 25.9 mL/min (P = .1) and similar mean estimated glomerular filtration rates 6 months after Ramadan: 77.2 ± 29.7 and 64.1 ± 29 mL/min (P = .21). Mean changes in the estimated glomerular filtration rate were similar in the 2 groups: -1.5 ± 10.9 and -2.8 ± 19.3 (P = .7) as was the percentage change (-0.2.2 ± 13.4 and 1.8 ± 15.9; P = .4). In the fasting group, serum creatinine and estimated glomerular filtration rate were similar before and 6 months after Ramadan: 105.1 ± 55 and 105.14 ± 61 μmol/L (P = 1.0) and 75.6 ± 29 and 72.2 ± 29.7 mL/min (P = .36). No significant changes were observed in the nonfasting group. No significant differences were detected regarding fasting in the estimated glomerular filtration rate before and 6 months after Ramadan in the 3 groups with the low, moderate, and high glomerular filtration rates at baseline. Fasting for Ramadan in August does not adversely affect graft function at a mean follow-up of 7.6 ± 1.3 months.
Full Text Available The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA is an Islamic monarchy and was established in 1932. Saudi women first entered the medical field in 1975 and the country has since seen a steady increase in women pursuing medicine. However, there is limited data on gender related issues for women doctors practicing in Saudi Arabia. Therefore, our study objective was to assess the perception amongst peers regarding gender equality and social issues faced by women doctors in Saudi Arabia. An online anonymous cross-sectional survey was administered in English to doctors at King Khalid Hospital, affiliated to King Saud University, in Riyadh, between April and May of 2016. Of 1015 doctors, 304 (30% participated, of which 129 (42.4% were females and 231 (76% were Saudi nationals. The average age was 32.4 years (±SD: 8.7. The majority opined that there was no gender discrimination in salaries (73.7% p-value = 0.4, hospital benefits (62.2% p-value = 0.06 or entry into any field of Medicine/Pediatrics (68.4% p-value = 0.207. However, only a minority believed that there was no gender discrimination for entry into surgery (37.3% p-value = .091. A higher proportion of male doctors agreed that promotion opportunities are equal (66.3% vs 45.7%, p-value = 0.002. However, of 54 consultants, only 18 (33.3% were women. Over half of the women (52.3% reported that they never wear the face veil. Only a minority of male and female doctors (12.2% believed women doctors should wear the veil since they examine male patients. Fewer respondents believed that female doctors face harassment from male doctors (14.5% whereas 30.7% believed female doctors face harassment from male patients. More females, than males, agreed with the statement that female doctors are as committed to their careers as are males (92.2% vs 67.4%, p-value<0.0001. Of 304 participants, 210 (69.1% said that they would still choose to become a doctor with approximately equal proportions between males and females (68% vs
Baqi, Shehla; Albalbeesi, Amal; Iftikhar, Sundus; Baig-Ansari, Naila; Alanazi, Mohammad; Alanazi, Awadh
The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) is an Islamic monarchy and was established in 1932. Saudi women first entered the medical field in 1975 and the country has since seen a steady increase in women pursuing medicine. However, there is limited data on gender related issues for women doctors practicing in Saudi Arabia. Therefore, our study objective was to assess the perception amongst peers regarding gender equality and social issues faced by women doctors in Saudi Arabia. An online anonymous cross-sectional survey was administered in English to doctors at King Khalid Hospital, affiliated to King Saud University, in Riyadh, between April and May of 2016. Of 1015 doctors, 304 (30%) participated, of which 129 (42.4%) were females and 231 (76%) were Saudi nationals. The average age was 32.4 years (±SD: 8.7). The majority opined that there was no gender discrimination in salaries (73.7% p-value = 0.4), hospital benefits (62.2% p-value = 0.06) or entry into any field of Medicine/Pediatrics (68.4% p-value = 0.207). However, only a minority believed that there was no gender discrimination for entry into surgery (37.3% p-value = .091). A higher proportion of male doctors agreed that promotion opportunities are equal (66.3% vs 45.7%, p-value = 0.002). However, of 54 consultants, only 18 (33.3%) were women. Over half of the women (52.3%) reported that they never wear the face veil. Only a minority of male and female doctors (12.2%) believed women doctors should wear the veil since they examine male patients. Fewer respondents believed that female doctors face harassment from male doctors (14.5%) whereas 30.7% believed female doctors face harassment from male patients. More females, than males, agreed with the statement that female doctors are as committed to their careers as are males (92.2% vs 67.4%, p-valueequal proportions between males and females (68% vs 70.5%, p-value = 0.79). In conclusion, our survey of male and female doctors at a government university hospital in
Al-Haqwi Ali I
Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was conducted to examine the perception and views of medical students regarding the extent of alcohol and substance abuse in the community and the possible predisposing factors for this problem. Methods It is a cross-sectional study involving samples from two medical colleges in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The students who decided to participate in the study without the offer of any incentives filled an anonymous, self administered questionnaire which had been designed to meet the purpose of the study. Results Two hundred and fifteen out of three hundred and thirty students (65% response rate participated in this study. About 75% of them believe that alcohol and substance abuse is a common problem in the community. Students' views also correspond with the reported view that the problem is mainly present in young adult males. Married males and senior students perceived the problem as more serious than their other colleagues. Students perceived that alcohol was the most commonly abused drug in the community, followed by amphetamines, heroin, cannabis and cocaine. They believe that influence of friends, life stressors, tobacco smoking and curiosity are the most important predisposing factors for abuse of alcohol and other substances. According to the students' perception, the main beneficial effect of alcohol and substance abuse was stress alleviation. About 3% of the students have also indicated that they may use alcohol or some other substance in the future. Conclusion Despite scarce information on the subject and a strong religious belief in Saudi Arabia against the use of alcohol and other addictive substances, a significant majority of the medical students in Riyadh, the capital of Saudi Arabia, perceived that alcohol and substance abuse is a common problem in the community. Some students appear to perceive the seriousness of the problem less than others. Efforts are needed to educate young men and women at an early
Full Text Available Abstract: Self-medication is a widespread behavior worldwide. It is defined as the practice of self-diagnosis and drug prescription without proper professional consultation. Aim: To determine the prevalence and predictors of self-medication for oral health problems among adults living in Riyadh city. Methods: A cross-sectional study based on a structured close-ended questionnaire was distributed among adults visiting shopping malls in all different five regions of Riyadh. A two-stage sampling technique was used: cluster and simple random sampling. The questionnaire was composed of two main sections: demographic characteristics and questions assessing the behavior of self-medication. Results: The prevalence of self-medication was found to be 63.25%, with a higher prevalence among females than males. Gender and nationality were significantly associated with self-medication. Salt in hot water locally (52.57% and acetaminophen (47.43%, a type of an analgesic, were, systemically, the most frequently used. Pharmacy shops were the main source of these medicaments (66.01%. Similarly, the advice for using them was mainly given by pharmacists (53.36%. Lack of time was claimed to be the main reason for practicing self-medication (54.55% with abscess, toothache, and gingival bleeding being the main predictors. Conclusions: Self-medication was found to be a common practice among the population of Riyadh city.
Rushdi, Ahmed I; Al-Mutlaq, Khalid; Simoneit, Bernd R T
Major advances have been made in molecular marker analysis to distinguish between natural and anthropogenic organic matter inputs to the atmosphere. Resuspension of soil and sand by wind is one of the major mechanisms that produces particle dusts in the atmosphere. Soil and sand samples from the Riyadh area were collected in winter 2002, sieved to remove coarse particles and extracted with a mixture of dichloromethane and methanol (3:1, v:v). The total extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in order to characterize the contents and identify the potential sources of the organic components. The major organic compounds of these extracts were derived from natural biogenic and anthropogenic sources. Organic compounds from natural sources, mainly vegetation, were major in samples from outside the city of Riyadh and included n-alkanes, n-alkanoic acids, n- alkanols, methyl alkanoates, and sterols. Anthropogenic inputs were significant in the fine particles of soil and sand samples collected from populated areas of the city. They consisted mainly of n-alkanes, hopanes, UCM (from vehicular emissions), and plasticizers (from discarded plastics, e.g., shopping bags). Carbohydrates had high concentrations in all samples and indicate sources from decomposed cellulose fibers and/or the presence of viable microbiota such as bacteria and fungi.
Conclusions: Strategies need to be developed to identify early signs and symptoms of depression among Saudi female adolescents. Training can be given to groups of students to help their peers, and also to the teachers to identify, and help students identify early signs of depression and provide them with better-coping strategies to combat progression of depression and anxiety among such adolescents.
Alquraini, Turki A.
In Saudi Arabia, the majority of students with severe intellectual disabilities are still educated in special schools that do not meet their unique needs for interaction with their typically developing peers in public schools settings where they could improve social, communication and academic skills. One of the most significant obstacles to…
Záměrem diplomové práce je návrh hotelu ve městě Žďár nad Sázavou. Hotel je navržen pro 36 hostů. Budova je částečně podsklepená a složená ze tří částí. Tyto části mají jedno, dvě a pět nadzemních podlaží. Nosný systém je skeletový rámový s nosnými sloupy a průvlaky. Střecha je plochá. Součástí návrhu je tepelně technické posouzení a požárně bezpečnostní posouzení. The aim of the diploma thesis is design a hotel in Žďár nad Sázavou. The hotel is designed for 36 guests. The building is with...
A. A. Mustafa
Full Text Available The aim of this research is to provide some insights into the ability of the sixth year medical students and interns to recall theoretical knowledge of pharmacology. A cross-sectional study was conducted among students who graduated from three different medical schools in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A questionnaire was distributed to male and female students in 3 different colleges of medicine. The questionnaire included demographic information and ten multiple choice questions (MCQs on basic pharmacology. Out of the 161 students, there were 39 females (24% and 122 males (76%. A total of 36 (22% students studied at a traditional learning school whereas 125 (78% students studied at problem based learning (PBL schools. The students were recruited from three universities: KSU, KSAU-HS, and KFMC-COM. In general, 31 students (19% of the participants scored ≥ 7 out of 10, 77 students (48% of them obtained a correct score of (4–6 out of 10, and 53 students (33% scored less than 4. The study showed no statistically significant difference in recalling pharmacology between traditional school and problem based learning school except for those who prepared for exams. Results suggest that pharmacology is a difficult subject. Reevaluations are needed in the way of teaching pharmacology.
El-Ansary, Afaf; Warsy, Arjumand; Daghestani, Maha; Merghani, Nada M.; Al-Dbass, Abeer; Bukhari, Wadha; Al-Ojayan, Badryah; Ibrahim, Eiman M.; Al-Qahtani, Asma M.; Shafi Bhat, Ramesa
The current study aims to synthesize silver nanoparticles using Ziziphus spina Christi (ZSC) or (Sidr) aqueous leaf extract collected from Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using sidr leaves extract was successful. Production of silver nanoparticles was confirmed through UV-vis Spectrophotometer, particles size and zeta potential analysis, Infra-red spectroscopy, Scanning, and Transmission Electron Microscope (SEM and TEM). The UV-visible spectra showed that the absorption peak existed at 400 nm. SEM analysis showed that the synthesized AgNPs were spherical but in slightly aggregated form. TEM demonstrated different size range of 4-33 nm with an average size of 13. The element analysis profile showed silver signal together with oxygen, calcium, and potassium peaks which might be related to the plant structure. Biological effects of the synthesized AgNPs exhibit satisfactory inhibitory effect against ten tested microorganisms. It inhibited the growth of 5 gram-positive and five gram-negative bacteria. Moreover, AgNPs demonstrated a synergistic effect on the neurotoxicity induced in rat pups with orally administered methyl mercury (MeHg). The present study showed that AgNPs prepared from ZSC might be a promising antimicrobial agent for successful treatment of bacterial infection in intensive care units (ICU) especially in case of antibiotic resistance.
CONCLUSIONS: The study suggests that while graphic warning labels are perceived as necessary on cigarette packages the currently used messages are not clear and therefore do not serve their intended purposes. Measures should be undertaken to ensure that pictorial cigarette labels used in Saudi Arabia are culturally and ethnically appropriate and are rotated on a regular basis to ensure salience among smokers and nonsmokers alike.
Alanazi, Abdullah D; Mukbel, Rami M; Alyousif, Mohamed S; AlShehri, Zafer S; Alanazi, Ibrahim O; Al-Mohammed, Hamdan I
In the last decade, Parascaris spp. resistance to anthelmintics has been recorded in many countries. In Saudi Arabia, there are limited data available on Parascaris spp. resistance to anthelmintics. To determine the current status of ivermectin, abamectin and praziquantel combined, and fenbendazole resistance to Parascaris spp. in horses in Saudi Arabia. Three hundred and forty-one foals from eleven different farms were examined by faecal egg count (FEC). The foals were all Arab horses aged 17.2 ± 4.5 (SD) months. Ivermectin (n = 46 foals), abamectin and praziquantel combined (n = 46), and fenbendazole (n = 46) were administered on day 0 and faeces were collected on day 14. The study comprised 41 untreated foals as controls. Animals that have FEC of ≥100 eggs per gram (EPG) were used to measure anthelmintic efficacy. Parascaris spp. populations were considered susceptible when faecal egg count reduction (FECR) was ≥95% associated with a lower 95% confidence limit (LCL) >90%, suspected resistant when FECR ≤90% or LCL Saudi Arabia.
Suliman Ibrahim Alhaidari
Full Text Available Background: An important indication of a child′s well-being is evidence of having a normal growth pattern. A child′s growth pattern is influenced by multiple factors, genetic and/or environmental. From an environmental point of view, the socio-economic status of the mother plays an important role in a child′s growth during the early stages of childhood. Aim: The aim of this study was to explore the association between mothers′ educational and socio-economic status on their children′s growth in Riyadh. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in eight hospitals in Riyadh. The target population was children aged between 1 month and 7 years and their mothers visiting the vaccination clinics. The mother′s data were collected using a structured interview, and the child′s weight and height were measured and plotted on growth charts. Results: A total of 744 mothers and children were screened (392 males, 352 females. The proportion of children with weight and height under the 25 th percentile was 40% and 29%, respectively. In terms of education, the height of a higher proportion of children (33% was under the 25 th percentile if the mother had a high school education compared with 25% when the mother had a college education (P = 0.02. Private sector-employed mothers had a lower proportion of children (26% with weight below the 25 th percentile compared to mothers who were government-employed or unemployed (both 41%. Mothers living in an apartment had a significantly lower proportion of children (24% with height under the 25 th percentile compared to mothers living in a house (33% (P = 0.04. In addition, mothers living in a rented residence had a significantly lower proportion (40% of children with weight under the 25 th percentile than mothers living in owned ones (42% (P = 0.02. Conclusion: Underweight and short stature among children are associated with less educated and unemployed mothers and with mothers who live in a house. The
Alotaibi, Faihan D.; Ali, Adel A.
In mobile radio systems, path loss models are necessary for proper planning, interference estimations, frequently assignments and cell parameters which are basic for network planning process as well as Location Based Services (LBS) techniques that are not based on GPS system. Empirical models are the most adjustable models that can be suited to different types of environments. In this paper, the Lee path loss model has been tuned using Least Square (LS) algorithm to fit measured data for TETRA system operating 400 MHz in Riyadh urban and suburbs. Consequently, Lee model's parameter (L0, y) are obtained for the targeted areas. The performance of the tuned Lee model is then compared to the three most widely used empirical path loss models: Hat, ITU-R and Cost 231 Walfisch-Ikegami non line-of-sight (CWI-NLOS) path loss models. The performance criterion selected for the comparison of various empirical path loss models are the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) and goodness of fit (R2). The RMSE and R2between the actual and predicted data are calculated for various path loss models. It turned that the tuned Lee model outperforms the other empirical models. (author)
Elsayid, Mohieldin; Al Qahtani, Faris Saeed; Al Qarni, Abdulaziz Mohammed; Almajed, Faisal; Al Saqri, Faisal; Qureshi, Shoeb
Background: The Rhesus (Rh) blood group system is one of the most polymorphic and immunogenic systems known in humans, because of its immunogenicity along with ABO grouping, RhD antigen testing was made mandatory before issuing a compatible blood. At present, there are five major antigens, i.e., D, C, E, c, and e in Rh blood group system. Aims: The aim of this study is to provide essential data about the distribution of the major Rh antigens and the most common phenotype among the Saudi popul...
Abu-Mostafa, Nedal A; Al-Mejlad, Najmah J; Al-Yami, Amal S; Al-Sakhin, Fatimah Z; Al-Mudhi, Shahad A
Inappropriate use of antibiotics may lead to adverse side effects. This cross-sectional survey aimed to investigate the knowledge and attitude of female non-medical students regarding the medical and dental use of antibiotics. Four hundred validated self-administered questionnaires were distributed in Princess Norah Bint-Abdurrahman University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The questionnaire included questions about accessibility, attitude toward usage, efficacy, side effects, resistance, and usage for dental issues. Knowledge was estimated for every respondent by counting the correct answers, which were considered as points. The scores were categorized as poor, moderate, and high. Of the respondents, 77.8% answered they get antibiotics according to a doctor's prescription; however, 31% stops taking antibiotics when they feel well. Only 38.8% of respondents knew that antibiotics may cause allergic reactions while 59.8% believed the human body can be resistant to antibiotics. The percentages of answers related to dental issues were: antibiotics relieve dental pain (68.8%), antibiotics can be harmful for children's teeth (27.3%), antibiotics are best avoided in pregnancy (56.7%) and no need for antibiotics after scaling (33.8%), root canal treatment (16%), or simple extraction (40.3%). Of respondents, 68% had poor scores about antibiotics efficacy, side effects, and resistance while 86.8% had poor scores related to dental problems. This study noticed a bad attitude related to antibiotics usage, with many misconceptions and poor knowledge. Moreover, the necessity of antibiotics for treatment of dental disease or after dental procedures was totally unclear for the respondents. Community campaigns are recommended every university semester to educate students about the indications, efficacy, and side effects of antibiotics. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Alosaimi, Fahad D; Al-Sultan, Omar A; Alghamdi, Qusay A; Almohaimeed, Ibrahim K; Alqannas, Sulaiman I
To evaluate the gender-specific difference in the prevalence of depression and anxiety and the help-seeking behavior among gastroenterology outpatients. A cross-sectional study was carried out in gastroenterology clinics in 4 hospitals in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia between February and September 2013. A self-administrated questionnaire was developed and administered to patients. The Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD-7) questionnaires were used to identify depression and anxiety. A total of 438 patients completed the study questionnaire; 135 (31%) females, and 303 (69%) males. Compared with males, females had more depression symptoms (44% versus 32%, p=0.012), anxiety symptoms (34% versus 24%, p=0.036), anxiety-associated difficulty (65% versus 52%, p=0.012), but similar suicidal thoughts (14% versus 11%, p=0.347). Females had similar gastrointestinal complaints but longer duration of symptoms. In both females and males, the most common first interventions were using medications (63% versus 69%), and undergoing endoscopy (19% versus 15%), while very few patients initially used herbs or Islamic incantation `Roquia` (7% versus 8%). Compared with males, females were more likely to subsequently seek help at private clinics (23% versus 14%, p=0.014), or with a Quran therapist (11% versus 5%, p=0.012). There are clear gender-specific differences in depression and anxiety symptoms and associated perceived difficulty, but modest differences in help-seeking behavior. Female patients at the gastroenterology clinic may deserve more psychological attention to diagnose depression and anxiety and to alleviate their impact.
Hamadah, Reem; Kharraz, Razan; Alshanqity, Airabab; AlFawaz, Danah; Eshaq, Abdulaziz M; Abu-Zaid, Ahmed
Little is known about the clerkship (clinical) medical students' knowledge of hand hygiene as the single most important precautionary measure to reduce nosocomial healthcare-associated infections. The aim of this study is to explore the knowledge of, and attitudes towards, hand hygiene practices among fourth-year clerkship medical students at Alfaisal University, College of Medicine, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional, paper-based, Yes/No formatted questionnaire was administered to explore the students' knowledge of, and attitudes towards, hand hygiene practices. Data were decoded in Microsoft Excel sheet and presented as numbers and percentages. One hundred and eleven students (n=111/147) participated in the questionnaire (response rate: 76%). Although the majority of students had a fair knowledge of hand hygiene practices, a number of them had some misconceptions. Only 14% of students correctly agreed to the statement: "Traditional hand washing (water, plus regular soap) decreases the number of germs." Furthermore, only 32% of students correctly answered that "hand washing with a regular soap, instead of an antiseptic soap, is better in limiting the transmission of clostridium difficile infections". Almost all students (93%) agreed to the importance of hand hygiene education in medical curricula and its awareness in healthcare centers. Despite the importance of hand hygiene, only 13% of students reviewed the respective WHO and CDC guidelines before starting their clinical training in the teaching hospital. The students' inadequate knowledge about hand hygiene needs to be enriched by well-structured curricular and extra-curricular programs as well as more positive attitudes by healthcare workers.
Khayri, Hiba O; Muneer, Siddig E; Ahmed, Saifeldeen B; Osman, Magdi A; Babiker, Elfadil E
The study was conducted in Saudi Arabia to assess the nutritional status of primary school Sudanese pupils and explore its' correlates. Anthropometric measurements of 400 (200 males and 200 females) students of age 6-12 were taken. Their daily food intake was assessed using food frequency and 24 h recall method. Data about the socio-economic characteristics of the students' families was collected through personal interview using a questionnaire. The study revealed that 31 and 8.75 % of the respondents suffer from underweight and overweight, respectively. The respondents' average daily intake of calories and fiber was significantly lower than that of the DRI, while their intake of protein, carbohydrates, unsaturated fat, some vitamins and iron was significantly higher than that of the DRI (unbalanced meals). Apart from the family monthly income none of the hypothesized predictors of the respondents' nutritional status were found to be significantly correlated with the students' nutritional status indicators.
Imededdine Arbi Nehdi
Full Text Available Rhazya stricta (R. stricta known as Harmal is widely distributed in Saudi Arabia and throughout the Middle East. It is used as a medicinal plant in traditional cultures and the seeds are a source of unsaturated oil. In the present study, tocol (tocopherol and tocotrienol, triacylglycerol, and fatty acid compositions, pigment content, thermal behavior, and various physicochemical properties of R. stricta oil were characterized to determine the potential uses of this seed oil. Our results indicate that the oil is a rich source of bioactive molecules, including δ-tocopherol (896 mg/100 g, γ-tocopherol (148 mg/100 g and carotenoids (15.67 mg/kg. The oil content of the seeds was 13.68% and the triacylglycerols mainly consisted of linoleic acid (59.03%, and oleic acid (27.01%. The major triacylglycerols were trilinoleate, dilinoleate and monolinoleate. The ratio of unsaturated to saturated fatty acids (UFA/SFA in the oil was high (9.20. Additionally, the oil showed a high degree of thermal stability and a low melting point of approximately −25 °C. These data indicate that R. stricta seed oil, which is low in saturated fats and rich in bioactive compounds, is potentially useful in food and pharmaceutical applications.
Turki Homod Albatti
Conclusion: Self-medication is highly prevalent in Riyadh, particularly among adolescents. Easy access to pharmacies was found to be the leading cause for self-medication. The use of these drugs was associated with inappropriate drug use and the deterioration of health status. Self-medication should be closely monitored and awareness should be increased with educational programs among students.
Asi, Khaled Yousef
The present study aimed to identify the level of shyness among talented students in the city of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, and detect differences according to the variable of socio-economic level of the family. The sample consisted of (101) students, who randomly chosen from centers of talented students in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Shyness scale utilized…
Alghamdi, Abdullah S.; Yahya, Mohammed A.; Alshammari, Ghedeir M.; Osman, Magdi A.
Background Despite the prevalence of overweight and obesity and increases in associated diseases such as diabetes and heart disease in the Saudi population, no studies have addressed the spread of obesity among Saudi police officers. Therefore, the present study aimed to assess the prevalence of overweight and obesity and associations with biochemical parameters among the police in Riyadh. Method The study involved a cross-sectional survey of 160 police officers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Anthr...
Fayed, Amel A; Wahabi, Hayfaa; Mamdouh, Heba; Kotb, Reham; Esmaeil, Samia
To investigate the impact of maternal age on pregnancy outcomes with special emphasis on adolescents and older mothers and to investigate the differences in demographic profile between adolescents and older mothers. This study is a secondary analysis of pregnancy outcomes of women in Riyadh Mother and Baby cohort study according to maternal age. The study population was grouped according to maternal age into five subgroups; mothers were married when conceived with the index pregnancy. Young mothers were less likely to be illiterate, more likely to achieve higher education and be employed compared with mothers ≥ 40 years. Compared with the reference group, adolescents were more likely to have vaginal delivery (and least likely to deliver by caesarean section (CS); OR=0.6, 95% CI 0.4 to 0.9, while women ≥40 years, were more likely to deliver by CS; OR 2.9, 95% CI 2.3 to 3.7. Maternal age was a risk factor for gestational diabetes in women ≥40 years; OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.3 to 2.1. Adolescents had increased risk of preterm delivery; OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1 to 2.1 and women ≥40 years had similar risk; OR, 1.3, 95% CI 1.1 to 1.6. Adverse pregnancy outcomes show a continuum with the advancement of maternal age. Adolescents mother are more likely to have vaginal delivery; however, they are at increased risk of preterm delivery. Advanced maternal age is associated with increased risk of preterm delivery, gestational diabetes and CS. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Al Dosari, Mohammed N; Ferwana, Mazen; Abdulmajeed, Imad; Aldossari, Khaled K; Al-Zahrani, Jamaan M
To determine perceptions of parents about child abuse, and their impact on physical and emotional child abuse. Two hundred parents attending three primary health care centers (PHCCs) in Riyadh serving National Guard employes and their families, were requested to participate in this survey. Data was collected by self administered questionnaire. Five main risk factors areas/domains were explored; three were parent related (personal factors, history of parents' childhood abuse, and parental attitude toward punishment), and two were family/community effects and factors specific to the child. SPSS was used for data entry and analysis. Descriptive analysis included computation of mean, median, mode, frequencies, and percentages; Chi-square test and t -test were used to test for statistical significance, and regression analysis performed to explore relationships between child abuse and various risk factors. Thirty-four percent of the parents reported a childhood history of physical abuse. Almost 18% of the parents used physical punishment. The risk factors associated significantly with child abuse were parents' history of physical abuse, young parent, witness to domestic violence, and poor self-control. Child-related factors included a child who is difficult to control or has attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Parents who did not own a house were more likely to use physical punishment. Abusive beliefs of parent as risk factors were: physical punishment as an effective educational tool for a noisy child; parents' assent to physical punishment for children; it is difficult to differentiate between physical punishment and child abuse; parents have the right to discipline their child as they deem necessary; and there is no need for a system for the prevention of child abuse. The causes of child abuse and neglect are complex. Though detecting child abuse may be difficult in primary care practice, many risk factors can be identified early. Parents' attitudes can
Ali, Nadeem; Ibrahim Ismail, Iqbal Mohammad; Kadi, Mohammad W; Salem Ali Albar, Hussain Mohammed
Indoor settled dust particles are considered as an important source of human exposure to chemicals such as organophosphate flame retardants (PFRs). In recent decades the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) has experienced tremendous growth in population, as a result the number of masjids has also increased significantly to provide sufficient space for the public to offer prayers. The hospitality industry in KSA is also expanding to cater for the ever-increasing number of pilgrims visiting the two holy cities of the kingdom. However, limited data are available on the indoor pollution of masjids and hotels. In this study, PFRs were analyzed in the settled dust collected from various hotels and masjids of Jeddah, KSA. Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP) and tris(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCPP) were the major PFRs in masjid (median = 2490 and 2055 ngg-1) and hotel (median = 2360 and 3315 ngg-1) dust, respectively. A public health risk assessment was carried out by determining the incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR), and daily exposure via dust ingestion, inhalation, and dermal contact of PFRs. The calculated daily exposure via dust ingestion was well below the reference dose (RfD) values, and also the calculated hazardous quotient (HQ) and carcinogenic risk were well below the risk mark. However, the ILCR for PFRs was below the reference values of USEPA, which suggested that long-term exposure to these chemicals has a limited cause for concern. The study showed that the general public is exposed to PFRs in the studied microenvironments and the major exposure routes are dermal contact and ingestion.
Sarah Abdullah AlSalman
Full Text Available Context: Choosing a future speciality for medical students can be frightening as well as confusing. Identifying factors that influence medical students' future career choice is critical and can play an important role in shaping the future workforce. Aims: The study aims to determine factors associated with medical students' preference of Ophthalmology as a future career choice at King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences (KSAU-HS. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study was carried out among Saudi students of both genders who were enrolled in KSAU-HS (clinical phase during the study. Subjects and Methods: A validated questionnaire was sent through E-mail to 302 eligible students, of which 275 participated, with a response rate of (91%. Statistical Analysis Used: Descriptive analysis was carried out for all categorical variables. In addition, data were compared using Chi-square test; all tests were two-sided and P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: A total of 28 students (10.2% considered Ophthalmology as their first choice, while it was the second choice for four students (1.5%. Among all the participants, factors that attracted medical students to consider Ophthalmology as a career choice included the high income (54%, private sector opportunities (40%, part-time opportunities (40% and leisure (34%. Whereas, the difficulty of getting into the Ophthalmology Residency Programme (53% was the most important factor that pushed students away from choosing Ophthalmology. Conclusions: Multiple factors influenced the KSAU-HS medical students' choice of when choosing a future speciality. Knowing these factors can help in directing work-force to choose specialities that are currently limited in Saudi Arabia.
Al-Kusayer, T.A.; Al-Haj, A.N.
A gamma spectroscopy system was used to analyze the radionuclides in soil samples and to determine the cumulative radioactivity of terrestrial origin in the Riyadh City area. Minimal work has been done in the 1980s to measure the natural background radiation level in Saudi Arabia by using thermoluminescent dosimeters. The measurement of the natural radioactivity in the Riyadh area for the radionuclide concentration in becquerels per kilogram, the exposure rate arising from radionuclides in grays per hour, and the equivalent dose rate in sieverts per hour are the goals of this work. Soil samples were collected from 21 places in Riyadh City. Each site was sampled for two depth profiles, 0 to 5 cm and 5 to 15 cm. These measurements were taken before the Chernobyl accident, and in the absence of any measurements for that area in the past, this work can be considered in future work for a reference 137 Cs concentration in Riyadh soil to determine the 137 Cs increase in the soil after the Chernobyl accident
Tiantan Hotel Wang Ping has been named as assistant general manager of Tiantan Hotel. With a Master's degree, Wang has more than 20 years of experience in hotel management, having served as department manager, assistant general manager and vice general manager in various hospitality establishments. Wang published an article on hotel management and mar-
Al-Kahtani, N H
Health counseling before marriage can be a most worthwhile and satisfying aspect of preventive medicine. It is important in genetic diagnosis and the prevention of hereditary, sexually transmitted and other infectious diseases. To determine the acceptance of the concept of Premarital Health Counseling (PMHC), and to identify some factors, which may efect this acceptance among Saudis who attend Primary Health Care Center in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), 1417H. The present study is a cross-sectional one with a selected sample of Saudis who attended the Primary Health Care Centers in Riyadh during the year 1417H. A multistage sampling and equal allocation stratified sampling within was used to select 484 persons comprising an equal number of males and females, married and single above the age of 18 years. A pre-designed pre-tested questionnaire sheet was used to collect the required data, which were then tabulated and statistically analyzed. The study indicated that 364 (75.2%) of the study population accepted the concept of Premarital Health Counseling. PMHC was positively affected by the advancing age, experience of marriage, educational level and well-understood Islamic-health related issues. Out f those who accepted the concept, 273 (75%) agreed on the exchange of PMHC certificates between couples to be married and 152 (42%) agreed on the implementation of legislation on PMHC. Also, 298 (82%) of them wanted PMHC to be confidential and 168 (46%) agreed to the concept despite its cost. As regards the location of PMHC, most of participants who agreed to PMHC would prefer it to be given at governmental establishments. The study recommended the implementation of PMHC in Saudi Arabia, since it was accepted by the study population. However, further studies should be carried out to determine the details to be incorporated in the PMHC, their implementation and legislation on demographic basis of the Saudi community. Also, a community health education program for
To determine the pattern of skin prick test reactivity to aeroallergens in patients with asthma and rhinitis (airway allergy) residing in Riyadh region. This is a retrospective cross sectional study based on data analysis of skin prick test results of individuals with clinical diagnosis of airway allergy. Allergy skin prick test result data of 139 Saudi nationals from Riyadh region tested at King Khalid University Hospital between January 2003 and March 2004 was analyzed retrospectively. This group comprised of 53% females and 47% males, with a mean age of 27 +/- 12 years. A set of aeroallergens extracts for both indoor and outdoor allergens including fungal spores was used to test the patients. Seventy-five percent (105) of patients reacted to one or more allergen extracts. The most frequently reacting indoor allergen was house dust mite (77.8%) followed by the cat (33.6%) and cockroach (19.2%). Among the outdoor allergens Prosopis juliflora was tested positive in 72.1%, Bermuda grass in 53.8%, Chenopodium album in 47.1%, Rye grass in 36.5% and Salsola kali in 36.5%. A significant proportion of patients were also found reacting to Moulds (18.2%) and Aspergillus fumigatus (18.2%) extracts. Sensitivity to one or more aeroallergens was common in patients, indicating high level of aeroallergen sensitization in patients with airway allergy residing in Riyadh region. (author)
Abdulfattah, Azza Khalil; Badawood, Asma Saeid
The current study aims to verify the impact of children's secure attachment to their mothers on their mastery motivation in the light of the dependence on domestic workers' phenomenon in the Saudi society. To achieve the goals of the study, a random sample of Saudi children was selected from Riyadh city in Saudi Arabia, whose favorable economic…
Oil - it is what has made Saudi Arabia rich. Without this black gold, none of the country's shopping malls, luxury hotels, six-lane highways or the airconditioned comfort that keeps the terrible heat at bay would be possible. From the first deposits harvested in the early 1950s, Saudi Arabia is now the world's leading exporter of petroleum, which accounts for nearly three-quarters of government revenue. And without the wealth from oil, the huge new King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), built on hard, desert soil in less than two years, would have been impossible.
Al-Maweri, Sadeq Ali; Al-Soneidar, Walid Ahmed; Dhaifullah, Esam; Halboub, Esam Saleh; Tarakji, Bassel
More than 50 % of oral cancer cases are diagnosed at advanced stages. Public knowledge about oral cancer can help in prevention and early detection of the disease. The aim of the present study was to assess the levels of awareness and knowledge about signs and risk factors of oral cancer among dental patients in Saudi Arabia. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect information from 1410 randomly selected patients attending dental departments within public hospitals in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS software. The significance level was set at P oral cancer. Some 68.2 and 56.5 %, respectively, were able to correctly identify tobacco and alcohol as risk factors. More than two thirds of subjects had no knowledge about any signs of oral cancer. Participants with lower than university education were significantly less aware, and had much less knowledge, of the signs and risk factors of oral cancer. The knowledge regarding oral cancer among Saudi dental patients is alarmingly low. Interventions to improve public knowledge about oral cancer and attitudes towards early diagnosis and treatment are urgently indicated.
Argyle Whahol Resort Argyle Hotel Management Group (Australia) has signed an agreement with Wuxing Chuangzhan Investment Holding Company to build a five-star holiday hotel.The new project, Argyle Whahol Resort, is located in Chongzuo of southwest China’s Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. The project covers an area of 26,000 square meters with a total investment of 3 billion yuan ($473.4 million).
Alabdulkareem, Saleh Abdullah
The researcher aims to investigate Saudi science teachers' beliefs about learning and teaching issues. The sample consisted of 247 middle school teachers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The study conducted in the academic school year 2014/2015, and utilized a questionnaire and an interview that included 10% of the sample. The questionnaire targeted the…
Daghistan, Bulquees Ismail Abdul Majid
This research study aims at investigating the impact of Mind Maps on modifying the lack of attention in Arabic language class among Saudi Kindergarten children. To achieve the goals of this study the researcher used an experimental design with a random sample from AlRae'd Kindergarten's children in Riyadh -Saudi Arabia for the academic year…
AL-Hazmi, Mohammad Abdullah; Hammad, Mohammad Ahamd; AL-Shahrani, Hend Faye
The study aimed to identify the obstacles facing Saudi woman while working in a mixed work environment. The main study sample consisted of (223) from the health sector female affiliates and were divided into two groups. The first group consisted of (129) participants from the health sector and workers in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA)…
Waltermire, Bradley J.
Renewed violent attacks in Saudi Arabia against the monarchy, combined with growing concern over royal corruption has led some analysts to predict that Saudi Arabia is likely to be "the next Iran"-that Islamist revolutionaries will come to power in Riyadh. I test this theory through the lens of network analysis in order to measure the degree of state-society integration in Pahlavi Iran and Saudi Arabia. My analysis finds that a) the Saudi state is far more integrated in society through so...
the results from the random parameters model seem more reasonable. Age and nationality of the driver, excessive speed, wet road surface and dark lighting conditions and single vehicle crashes are associated with increased probability of fatal crashes. More specifically, the probability of having a fatal crash increases with the age of the driver and Saudi drivers (relative to non-Saudi drivers are associated with the probability of fatal crashes (relative to serious injury crashes. A crash involving a single vehicle is found to be more severe than a crash involving a multiple vehicles. The results from the frequency models suggest that percentage of non-Saudi found positively associated with serious injury crashes; percentage of illiterate people and the income per capita found to be positively significant with the frequency of fatal and serious injury crashes; and the increased residential, transport, and educational areas of land use is associated with the decreased level of fatal and serious injury crashes occurrences. Based on the findings, a range of countermeasures are proposed to reduce the severity and frequency of traffic crashes in Riyadh city.
Diplomová práce „Hotel Artia” je zpracována formou projektové dokumentace pro provádění stavby. Objekt hotelu je umístěn na parcele č. 443/1 v Červené Řečici. Budovu tvoří čtyřpodlažní hotelová část a jednopodlažní restaurační část. Konstrukční systém tvoří ŽB skelet. Objekt má jednoplášťovou plochou střechu a zateplení kontaktním zateplovacím systémem. The final thesis „Hotel Artia” is processed in the form design documentation for building construction. The building of hotel is located o...
Atiyat, Omar Khalil
This study aimed at measuring the level of the psychological burnout in the teachers of students that have autism symptoms in Al-Riyadh area--kingdom of Saudi Arabia. In light of variables. These variables are the gender, the teaching place, the academic qualification of the teachers, the experience of the teachers, the age of the teachers, and…
Al-Tannir, Mohamad A.; Kobrosly, Samer Y.; Al-Badr, Ahmad H.; Salloum, Nourhan A.; Altannir, Youssef M.; Sakkijha, Husam M.
Objectives To characterize sleeping habits, assess sleep disturbance prevalence, and identify associated factors among Saudi adults. Methods A total of 1720 adults were approached for this observational cross-sectional study between October 2014 and March 2015. The study took place in Riyadh, the capital of Saudi Arabia. We used a questionnaire to describe sleeping characteristics in relation to existing chronic diseases, smoking status, obesity, daily performance and sociodemographic variabl...
The Holiday Inn Beijing Focus Square Holiday Inn Beijing Focus Square is the newest and tallest international mid-scale hotel at Wangjing’s famous business hub which is within walking distance of many multinational companies and surrounded by a variety of dining and shopping outlets.
study looks at gender insecurity and violence against women in. Bombay Hotel, a locality of ... physical or psychological harm), overt conflict and its links to violence and different ... goons are involved in illicit activities such as operating alcohol and ... Women also mentioned that idle young men hang about the streetsides ...
... Riyadh and Dhahran; and Networking receptions in two cities of the trade mission. Proposed Mission... (Sipchem) complex, which will produce synthetic fibers. The planned expansion at Jubail Industrial City II.... Among Saudi Arabia's super-projects are as many as six ``economic cities,'' to be completed by the year...
Literature summarizing a study on the Saudi Arabian solar controlled environment agriculture system is presented. Specifications and performance requirements for the system components are revealed. Detailed performance and cost analyses are used to determine the optimum design. A preliminary design of an engineering field test is included. Some weather data are provided for Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. (BCS)
This paper reports on Saudi Arabia which has earmarked about $450 million to clean up Persian Gulf beaches polluted by history's worst oil spills, created during the Persian Gulf crisis. Details of the proposed cleanup measures were outlined by Saudi environmental officials at a seminar on the environment in Dubai, OPEC News Agency reported. The seminar was sponsored by the Gulf Area Oil Companies Mutual Aid Organization, an environmental cooperative agency set up by Persian Gulf governments. Meantime, a Saudi government report has outlined early efforts designed to contain the massive oil spills that hit the Saudi coast before oil could contaminate water intakes at the huge desalination plants serving Riyadh and cooling water facilities at Al Jubail
Full Text Available To assess the effects of non-communicable diseases, such as diabetes, hypertension and obesity, on the mother and the infant.A multicentre cohort study was conducted in three hospitals in the city of Riyadh in Saudi Arabia. All Saudi women and their babies who delivered in participating hospitals were eligible for recruitment. Data on socio-demographic characteristics in addition to the maternal and neonatal outcomes of pregnancy were collected. The cohort demographic profile was recorded and the prevalence of maternal conditions including gestational diabetes, pre-gestational diabetes, hypertensive disorders in pregnancy and obesity were estimated.The total number of women who delivered in participating hospitals during the study period was 16,012 of which 14,568 women participated in the study. The mean age of the participants was 29 ± 5.9 years and over 40% were university graduates. Most of the participants were housewives, 70% were high or middle income and 22% were exposed to secondhand smoke. Of the total cohort, 24% were married to a first cousin. More than 68% of the participants were either overweight or obese. The preterm delivery rate was 9%, while 1.5% of the deliveries were postdate. The stillbirth rate was 13/1000 live birth. The prevalence of gestational diabetes was 24% and that of pre-gestational diabetes was 4.3%. The preeclampsia prevalence was 1.1%. The labour induction rate was 15.5% and the cesarean section rate was 25%.Pregnant women in Saudi Arabia have a unique demographic profile. The prevalence of obesity and diabetes in pregnancy are among the highest in the world.
Nashashibi, I. A.; Shaikh, H. S.; Sarhan, O. A.
The present study was conducted to establish cephalometric norms of Saudi boys based on the Steiners analysis, and to compare the results of the present study with similar studies conducted on other racial or ethnic groups. For this purpose, fifty-five healthy Saudi boys, with a mean age of 12.04 years, were selected from different schools of Riyadh. Female Saudis were not used for this study due to social restrictions with respect to the Kingdom's customs and traditions. Selection was made on the basis of normal occlusion, balanced and pleasing profile with no obvious facial asymmetry. None of the boys have undergone orthodontic treatment prior to this study. Lateral skull cephaiograms were taken and traced using a standardized technique. Each cephalogram was traced twice with a one week interval by the authors. All angular and linear measurements were calculated to the nearest 0.5 degree and 0.5 mm, respectively. Steiners method of cephalometric analysis was used to establish cephalometric norms. The result of the study demonstrated that the Saudi boys differed from other racial and ethnic groups in some skeletal and dental measurements. Generally, the Saudi boys revealed a more protrusive maxillary apical base and double dental protrusion. (author)
AlKheraif, Abdulaziz A; Mobarak, Fahmy A
In view of the risk of infection of dental health care workers and patients, interruption of possible chains of infection is to be demanded. The objective of this study was to assess infection control practice in private dental laboratories in Riyadh City, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The study was conducted on thirty-two private dental laboratories in Riyadh City regarding infection control practiced by these laboratories. The instrument of the study consisted of ten open-ended questions that were asked from the laboratories directors. A large percentage of the surveyed laboratories (87.5 %) did not implement any infection control protocol during their practice. The mean number of impressions received per week was 16. Most of the surveyed laboratories (90.6 %) had no way of communication with the clinics regarding the disinfection procedures. The results indicated that 62.5 % of the laboratories reported that they were aware that they may get infection from non-disinfected items. Only a small percentage (6.2%) of the laboratories added disinfecting agent to pumice slurry. Wearing laboratory coats was reported by 75% of the laboratory workers. The use of gloves during work was reported by 59.3% of the laboratories while 56.2% reported the use protective eyewear. Only 21.8% of the laboratories use face masks during work. Construction of infection control manuals that contain updated and recommended guidelines to ensure aseptic practice in private dental laboratories is highly recommended. Also, a way of communication between dentists and dental technicians regarding disinfection of laboratory items should be strongly encouraged. (author)
Full Text Available In conditions of increasing global competition, demands and needs of consumers, quality and quality management have become fundamental strategic factors of achieving profitability and competitiveness on the relentless tourism market. Any serious "top" hotel management, with a defined mission, vision and goals, must define a "special policy" of improving the quality of hotel services through "structural programs of quality improvement," which have become an important factor in the hotel business. With the design, introduction and control of a "special program" of quality improvement of hotel services, hotel management can have a positive impact on increasing satisfaction of customers and human resources, increasing competitiveness and market power of the hotel, the rationalization of operating costs and enhance the reputation and value of the hotel on the demanding tourist market.
Wiseman, Alexander W.; Al-bakr, Fawziah; Davidson, Petrina M.; Bruce, Elizabeth
How does teachers' gender influence their information and communication technology-based instruction in Saudi Arabian government schools? Using unique data collected in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, in 2014, the analyses presented here show that male and female teachers in intermediate school classrooms differently use information and communication…
To determine the mean eruption time of permanent first molars, central and lateral incisors and to compare the relationship of mean eruption time with body mass index (BMI) in Saudi female primary school children from Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The mean age of children was 89.3 (SD 9.6) months ranging from 71 months to 109 months. The maxillary right first molar had the lowest mean eruption time of 77.4 (SD 3.9) months and the maxillary right lateral incisor was the last tooth to erupt with eruption time of 98.4 (SD 6.5) months. Furthermore, the mandibular incisors erupted significantly earlier than maxillary incisors. By the age of 100 months, 97% of the girls had all their first permanent molars erupted. There was no significant correlation observed between eruption times with BMI of the studied teeth except the maxillary right lateral incisor. However, an inverse relationship may exist between the eruption times and BMI. The Saudi female primary school children showed later eruption time of permanent first molars, central and lateral incisors when compared with the reported results of other national studies. Key words: Eruption time, permanent teeth, Saudi Arabia, female children. (author)
Novostavba Wellness hotelu. Objekt je částečně podsklepen. Hotel se skládá ze tří částí. Střední trakt je železobetonový skelet a má pět nadzemních podlaží. Tato část slouží jako vstupní hala a hlavní schodiště. Boční trakty mají čtyři nadzemní podlaží a jejich nosný systém je příčný stěnový, zděný, ze systému Porotherm. V suterénu se nachází zázemí hotelu a bazén. Do přízemí je umístěno restaurační zařízení. Ve druhém patře se nacházejí pokoje, posilovna a služby. V posledním patře jsou pouz...
Full Text Available Hotel crowdfunding is gaining momentum. Many of the largest real estate crowdfunding sites (such as Realty Mogul, Fundriser, Real Crowd and Prodigy Networks frequently have hotel private placements mixed in with offerings for other types of real estate. In addition, a few crowdfunding sites that specifically focus on hotel crowdfunding have been created. The first hotel crowdfunding website dedicated solely to the hospitality industry was Hotel Innvestor, although others sites have recently been created such as iCrowdHotels and Equity Roots.
Gosadi, Ibrahim M.; Alatar, Abdullah A.; Otayf, Mojahed M.; AlJahani, Dhaherah M.; Ghabbani, Hisham M.; AlRajban, Waleed A.; Alrsheed, Abdullah M.; Al-Nasser, Khalid A.
Objectives: To create a food frequency questionnaire specifically designed to capture the dietary habits of Saudis and test its validity and reliability. Methods: This investigation is a longitudinal, test-retest study conducted in King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between December 2015 and March 2016. A list of 140 food items was included in the questionnaire where a closed-ended and open-ended approach was used. Regarding past year food frequency consumption and 24 hours...
Abolfotouh, Mostafa A.; Al-Alwan, Ibrahim A.; Al-Rowaily, Mohammed A.
Aim. (i) To estimate the prevalence of the metabolic abnormalities among Saudi college students in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, and (ii) to investigate the association between different indicators of body composition and these abnormalities. Methods. A total of 501 college students participated in a cross-sectional study. Anthropometric assessments, BP measurements, and biochemical assessment were done. Metabolic abnormalities were identified. Results. Applying BMI, 21.9 % and 20.6% of students were...
El-Desouki, Mahmoud I.; Sulimani, Riyadh A.
Objective was to determine the prevalence of osteoporosis in healthy Saudi men. We randomly recruited 429 Saudi men from the community. The recruited Saudi men were subjected to an interview to reveal their lifestyle parameters, calcium intake and level of activity. Bone densitometry was assessed at lumbar spine (L-4) and the femoral neck. The dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan was carried out in the Nuclear Medicine at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia from September 2002 to December 2004. The World Health Organization definition of low bone mineral density was used. Poor oral calcium intake and low level of daily activity were noted. The overall prevalence of osteopenia for the lumbar spine in the whole group was 35.7% while osteoporosis was present in 21.4% of the subjects. In the femoral neck, osteopenia was noted in 38% and osteoporosis in 11.4%. When either lumbar spine or femoral neck osteoporosis is used for diagnosis, the prevalence of osteoporosis rises to 23.5%. Within the whole group, osteopenia and osteoporosis were more common in individuals above the age of 50 than those below 50 years old. Low bone mineral density occurs with high frequency in Saudi men. Lumbar spine appears to be affected to a higher degree. The reason for the high prevalence of osteoporosis in Saudi men is unclear. Possible underlying causes include nutritional, life style and genetic factors. (author)
The Master's Thesis is focused on the hotel marketing strategy issue. The theoretical section summarizes information about an issue of strategic situation analysis and it also involves marketing tools with focus on the hotel and spa industry. The goal of this paper is to design the situation analysis, evaluate the marketing tools used by the hotel and then summarize the results and include suggestions for the analyzed hotel. For the thesis were used literature sources as well as statistical y...
This bachelor's thesis deals with the usage of computer systems in the hotel industry. First part is focused on history, development and integration of technology into this field. Second part is dedicated to concrete products of the company Micros-Fidelio, which is the leader of hotel software market in the Czech Republic.
Aljaad, Nawal Hamad Mohamad
This study aims at identifying the role of social communication tools in education from the Saudi female students' perspectives that are studying at the college of education in King Saud University-Riyadh. This study used a survey, which was distributed to 500 female students. The results showed that 90% of respondents used social media where 95%…
Preparing special education teachers to engage in transition services is a critical part of their preparation. This study examined how special education teachers perceive their preparation for transition services in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A total of 350 teachers participated in this study. Data were analyzed using a two-way ANOVA. The findings…
Full Text Available Ibrahim G Alghamdi,1,2 Issam I Hussain,1 Mohamed S Alghamdi,3 Ahlam A Dohal,4 Mansour M Alghamdi,4 Mohammed A El-Sheemy5 1School of Life Sciences, University of Lincoln, Lincoln, UK; 2Albaha University, Al Baha city, Saudi Arabia; 3General Directorate of Health Affairs, Ministry of Health, Al Baha, 4King Fahad Specialist Hospital, Dammam, Saudi Arabia; 5Research and Development, Lincoln Hospital, United Lincolnshire Hospitals NHSTrust, Lincoln, UK Background: This study describes epidemiological data of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL diagnosed from 2001 to 2008 among Saudi men. Materials and methods: Retrospective data from all NHL cancer cases among Saudi men recorded in the Saudi Cancer Registry (SCR between January 2001 and December 2008 were used. Descriptive statistics, analysis of variance, Poisson regression, and simple linear regression were also used. Results: In total, 2,555 new cases of NHL were recorded between January 2001 and December 2008. The region of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia had the highest overall age-standardized incidence rate (ASIR at 7.8, followed by the Eastern region at 6.8, and Makkah at 6.1 per 100,000 men; however, Jazan, Hail, and Baha had the lowest average ASIRs at 2.5, 3.7, and 3.9 per 100,000 men, respectively. The incidence-rate ratio for the number of NHL cases was significantly higher in Riyadh (4.68, 95% confidence interval [CI] 4.11–5.32, followed by Makkah (4.47, 95% CI 3.94–5.07, and the Eastern region of Saudi Arabia (3.27, 95% CI 2.90–3.69 than that in the reference region of Jazan. Jouf had the highest changes in the ASIRs of NHL among Saudi men from 2001 and 2008 (5.0 per 100,000 men. Conclusion: A significant increase in the crude incidence rate and ASIR for NHL in Saudi Arabia between 2001 and 2008 was found. Riyadh, the Eastern region, and Makkah had the highest overall ASIR in Saudi Arabia. Jazan, Hail, and Baha had the lowest rates. Additionally, Riyadh, Makkah, and the Eastern region had the
Almazrou S; Alsahli H; Alwattar H; Alturki L; Alamri M
Saja Almazrou, Hind Alsahly, Huda Alwattar, Lamya Alturki, Mona Alamri Department of Clinical Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Background: Most liquid medications are packaged with administration devices, which may be used inappropriately or inaccurately, and sometimes are not used at all. Because of the importance of their proper use for children's health, this study was designed to assess Saudi mothers' experiences with measuring cup...
Al-Shaikh, Ghadeer K.; Almussaed, Eman M.; Fayed, Amel A.; Khan, Farida H.; Syed, Sadiqa B.; Al-Tamimi, Tahani N.; Elmorshedy, Hala N.
Objectives: To assess the level of knowledge regarding cervical cancer and the acceptance of the human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccine among Saudi female students in health colleges. Methods: This cross-sectional study of a convenient sample encompassed 1400 students in Health Colleges at Princess Nora Bint Abdul Rahman University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia was conducted between December 2013 and February 2014. A self-administrated questionnaire was distributed to all participants. Data collected in...
Khalil, Mutasim I., E-mail: email@example.com [King Saud University, Department of Chemistry, College of Science (Saudi Arabia)
A total of 30 clay samples were collected from the area around Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. A complete chemical analysis was carried out using different techniques. X-ray diffraction studies showed that the clay samples were mainly of the smectite group with traces of the kaolinite one. The samples studied were classified as nontronite clay minerals. One of the clay fraction has been studied by Moessbauer spectroscopy as raw clay fraction and after being fired at 950-1,000 Degree-Sign C. The Moessbauer spectra showed accessory iron compounds in the form of hematite and goethite. The structural iron contents disintegrate on firing transforming into magnetic iron oxide and a paramagnetic small particles iron oxide.
Al-Amri, F.; Saeedi, M.Y.; Al-Tahan, F.M.; Alomary, S.A.; Kassim, K.A.; Ali, A.M.; Mostafa Arafa, M.; Ibrahim, A.K.; Ali, A.M.
Background: Breast cancer is the first cancer among females in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, accounting for 27.4% of all newly diagnosed female cancers in 2010. There are several risk factors affecting the incidence of breast cancer where some factors influence the risk more than the others. Aim: We aimed to identify the different risk factors related to breast cancer among females participating in the breast-screening program in Riyadh, KSA. Methods: Based on data from phase-I of the breast-screening program, a case-control study was conducted on women living in Riyadh, KSA. A sample of 349 women (58 cases and 290 controls) was recruited to examine the different breast cancer correlates. Multivariate regression model was built to investigate the most important risk factors. Results: The mean age of cases was 48.5 ± 7.1 years. Age at marriage, number of pregnancy, age at menopause, oral contraceptive pills, breast feeding and family history of breast cancer in first-degree relative were identified as the most important correlates among the studied cohort. Conclusions: The findings of the current work suggested that age at marriage, age at menopause ≥50 years, and 1st degree family history of breast cancer were risk factors for breast cancer, while, age at menopause<50 years, number of pregnancies and practicing breast feeding were protective factors against breast cancer. There was no effect of body mass index or physical inactivity. Further studies are needed to explore the hereditary, familial and genetic background risk factors in Saudi population.
Norah Faleh Al-Mutairi
Full Text Available Introduction: Breast milk is the best natural essential nutrition to newborns and infants. However, the practice of breastfeeding (BF has declined in Saudi Arabia. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge and practice of BF with their determinants among mothers in Riyadh. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 252 mothers attending the well-baby clinics in Riyadh from March 2016 to May 2017 were selected randomly with their consent and studied by a standardized questionnaire. Results: Of the 252 women, 69.4% were 25–35 years of age and 56.7% with a bachelor degree or higher education. Nearly 75% mothers had education on BF before our study. Mixed feeding was the most preferred method (51.6% followed by artificial milk (29.4%. The most reported reason for discontinuing BF was breast milk insufficiency (37.3% and of breastfeed continuation was their perceived benefit (36.6%. Excellent knowledge was observed among 12.7%, good knowledge in 57.1%, and unsatisfactory level in 30.2% mothers. The regression model shows that high school education improved the knowledge by 10.9 points (P = 0.024 and undergraduate by 18.7 points (P value = 0.001 when compared to women who were literate. Women with parity> 5 improved knowledge score by 17.3 points (P < 0.001. Conclusion: We observed that majority (57.1% of Saudi mothers had a moderate level of knowledge on BF benefits and 19% had practiced exclusive BF. There is a need for better educational programs to increase awareness on its benefits for the health situation in the country on the long term.
Saeed, S.A.R. [King Saud University, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia). Dept. of Architecture and Building Science
This study is an attempt to define thermal comfort requirements for Friday prayer during the hot season of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. According to Islam, a Muslim should perform his prayers five times a day. The obligatory five prayers are Subuh prayer immediately before dawn, Thohor prayer in the afternoon, Assor prayer in late afternoon, Maghreb prayer immediately after sunset, and Ishaa prayer early evening. Generally, Muslims are encouraged to perform all five prayers in a mosque. Friday prayer that replaces Thohor prayer once a week, should take place in one of the main mosques of the neighbourhood. The mosque where Friday prayer could be performed is known as Friday mosque. Usually Friday prayer is attended by hundreds of worshippers and takes place in the afternoon. Since the summer of Riyadh is characterised by a very high temperature and a very low relative humidity, the indoor climate of the Friday mosque (Al-Masjed Al-Gamae) need a special study. This is the second part of a series of field investigations dealing with thermal comfort requirements in the hot-dry region of Saudi Arabia. (author)
This is the underlying idea of of the research on the coorperation agreement in management between Sofyan Hotel and Saka Hotel with the problems as follows: how about the rights and responsibilities of all parties involved in the cooperaton agreement in management between Sofyan Hotel and Saka Hotel, and how about the settlemment of the legal dispute in the cooperation agreement in management between Sofyan Hotel and Saka Hotel. The research applied the descriptive method with judicial empir...
Desmet, P.M.A.; Guiza Caicedo, D.; Van Hout, M.
Emotions experienced in response to hotel services were examined with an online questionnaire. The study resulted in 348 cases of hotel service emotions. The frequency of reported pleasant emotions was similar to the frequency of reported unpleasant emotions. Often reported pleasant emotions were
Wanko, Jeffrey J.
This article provides a historical context for the debate between Georg Cantor and Leopold Kronecker regarding the cardinality of different infinities and incorporates the short story "Welcome to the Hotel Infinity," which uses the analogy of a hotel with an infinite number of rooms to help explain this concept. Wanko makes use of this history and…
Assaf, A. George; Josiassen, Alexander; Agbola, Frank Wogbe
With the increased international competition facing hotel chains, it is essential that the next destination they enter is the most attractive option possible. The host destinations too have a keen interest in strategically positioning themselves in order to attract international hotels since...... their presence has several positive effects. Using, for the first time, actual on-location data we investigate the factors that matter most for international hotels when selecting host destinations. Specifically, we identify 23 factors that make a destination an attractive (or unattractive) location...... for international hotels. We then rank these. The results show that welcomeness, infrastructure, and crime rate are the three most important factors that influence the location of international hotels in host destinations....
Salih, Mustafa A.; Al-Jarallah, Ahmed A.; Kentab, Anal Y.; Al-Nasser, Mohammad N.; Bahakim, Hassan M.; Kurban, Khadija M.; Zahraa, Jihad N.; Nasir, Ali A.; Abdel-Gader, Abdel-Galil M.; Alorainy, Ibrahim A.; Hassan, Hamdy H.; Kabiraj, Mohammad M.; Khoja, Waleed A.
To describe the epidemiology and clinical features of stroke in a prospective and retrospective cohort of Saudi children and ascertain the causes, pathogenesis, and risk factors. The Retrospective Study Group (RSG) included children with stroke who were evaluated at the Division of Pediatric Neurology, or admitted to King Khalid University Hospital, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during the period July 1992 to February 2001. The Prospective Study Group (PSG) included those seen between February 2001 and March 2003. During the combined study periods of 10 years and 7 months, 117 children (61 males and 56 females, aged one month-12 years) were evaluated; the majority (89%) of these were Saudis. The calculated annual hospital frequency rate of stroke was 27.1/100,000 of the pediatric (1month-12 years) population The mean age at onset of the initial stroke in the 104 Saudi children was 27.1 months (SD=39.3 months) median and median was 6 months. Ischemic strokes accounted for the majority of cases (76%). Large-vessel infarcts (LVI, 51.9%) were more common than small-vessel lacunar lesions (SVLL, 19.2%). Five patients (4.8%) had combined LVI and SVLL. Intracranial hemorrhage was less common (18.2%), whereas sinovenous thrombosis was diagnosed in 6 (5.8%) patients. A major risk factor was identified in 94 of 104 (89.4%) Saudi children. Significantly more hematologic disorders and coagulopathies were identified in the PSG compared to the RSG (p=0.001), reflecting a better yield following introduction of more comprehensive hematologic and cogulation laboratory tests during the prospective study period. Hematologic disorders were the most common risk factor (46.2%); presumed perinatal ischemic cerebral injury was risk factor in 23 children (22.1) and infectious and inflammatory disorders of the circulatory system in 18 (17.3%). Congenital and genetic cerebrovascular anomalies were the underlying cause in 7 patients (6.7%) and
Mohammed A. AL-Saleh
Full Text Available In 2011–2012, sixty nine samples were collected from alfalfa plants showing viral infection symptoms in Riyadh region. Mechanical inoculation with sap prepared from two collected samples out of twenty five possitive for Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV by ELISA were produced systemic mosaic on Vigna unguiculata and Nicotiana tabacum, local lesion on Chenopodium amaranticolor and C. quinoa. Vicia faba indicator plants that induce mosaic and mottle with AMV-Sagir isolate and no infection with AMV-Wadi aldawasser isolate. Approximately 700-bp was formed by RT-PCR using AMV coat protein specific primer. Samples from infected alfalfa gave positive results, while healthy plant gave negative result using dot blot hybridization assay. The nucleotide sequences of the Saudi isolates were compared with corresponding viral nucleotide sequences reported in GenBank. The obtained results showed that the AMV from Australia, Brazil, Puglia and China had the highest similarity with AMV-Sajer isolate. While, the AMV from Spain and New Zealaland had the lowest similarity with AMV-Sajer and Wadi aldawasser isolates. The data obtained in this study has been deposited in the GenBank under the accession numbers KC434083 and KC434084 for AMV-Sajer and AMV- Wadialdawasser respectively. This is the first report regarding the gnetic make up of AMV in Saudi Arabia.
Alghamdi, Abdullah S; Yahya, Mohammed A; Alshammari, Ghedeir M; Osman, Magdi A
Despite the prevalence of overweight and obesity and increases in associated diseases such as diabetes and heart disease in the Saudi population, no studies have addressed the spread of obesity among Saudi police officers. Therefore, the present study aimed to assess the prevalence of overweight and obesity and associations with biochemical parameters among the police in Riyadh. The study involved a cross-sectional survey of 160 police officers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, lipid profiles and fasting blood sugar levels were measured for all individuals. According to the results, the average body mass index (BMI) was 27.5 ± 5.1, indicating an increase in overweight in this population and 66.9% were overweight or obese. Moreover, the mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure values were 119.5 and 79.4 mmHg, respectively, within normal limits. The mean total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), and triglyceride (TG) levels were 187.5, 43.9, 119.5 and 124.5 mg/100 ml, respectively. These BMI and biochemical findings suggest a high proportion of overweight and obese individuals in the sample population, as well as an increase in the proportion of individuals with high levels of biochemical indicators who are therefore susceptible to heart disease and diabetes. The study recommends using preventive programs to combat obesity and overweight and related diseases and conducting further studies using measures other than BMI.
NASSER, Mohamed; AL-AHMED, Azzam; SHOBRAK, Mohammed; ALDRYHIM, Yousif
The amblyceran and ischnoceran lice removed from the Indian Peafowl (Pavo cristatus L.) collected at the Riyadh bird market, and other specimens available in the King Saud University Museum of Arthropods, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, were identified. Amyrsidea minuta Emerson, a new country record, and Goniodes dissimilis Denny were found infesting the Indian Peafowl in Saudi Arabia. Goniodes dissimilis is recorded for the first time from this bird species, along with Menacanthus stramineus (Nitzs...
Al Hayek, Ayman A.; Robert, Asirvatham A.; Al Dawish, Mohamed A.; Braham, Rim B.; Goudeh, Hanouf S.; Al Sabaan, Fahad S.
Introduction The aim of this study was to explore the impact of insulin pump therapy on diabetes treatment satisfaction and glycemic control among patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) in Saudi Arabia. Methods A 6-month, prospective study was conducted among 47 patients (aged 17?24?years) with T1DM who attended the Insulin Pump Clinic at Prince Sultan Military Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, between April 2014 and November 2014. The respondents were purposively and conveniently se...
Assaf, Albert G.; Josiassen, Alexander; Oh, Haemon
Few industries are as inherently international as the hotel industry. This article sets out to investigate the impact of internationalization on performance in the hotel industry. Building on the theory of organizational learning the authors test several hypotheses regarding the shape of the inte......Few industries are as inherently international as the hotel industry. This article sets out to investigate the impact of internationalization on performance in the hotel industry. Building on the theory of organizational learning the authors test several hypotheses regarding the shape...... of the internationalization–performance relationship as well as the impact of four moderating variables. In line with the research aim and the underlying dynamism of organizational learning theory, these hypotheses are tested using a dynamic Bayesian model. The results indicate that internationalization has a U-shaped impact...
Zarkowski, Paul; Avery, David
The objective of our research was to quantify the increased risk of suicide associated with registering in local hotels/motels. Medical examiner case files of suicide in King County, Washington, were reviewed for years 2002-2004. The incidence of suicide in local residents registering in local hotels/motels was 223/100,000 which is significantly greater than the incidence of suicide in the general population of King County (11.7/100,000 p Hotel/motel guests from outside Washington had a significantly reduced incidence of suicide (3.9/100,000 p = 0.002). The study results suggest that there is an increased risk of suicide in local residents who register in local hotel rooms.
Raadioajakirjanik Lea Veelmaa lindistas "Kunstikanali" 2004. a. esimese saate Grand Hotel Viljandis. Saatekülaliseks oli maalikunstnik Andres Tolts. Toltsi kaheksa akrüülmaali on eksponeeritud hotelli fuajees ja restoranis
Soetjipto, Michael Reinhart
Hotel yang terletak di kawasan Kenjeran ini bertujuan untuk memfasilitasi para wisatawan domestik atau ataupun Internasional. Selain itu seiring dengan pengembangan kenpark yang mulai merencanakan pengembangan fasilitas hiburan serta apartemen yang dapat mendukung dari adanya hotel tersebut sebagai bangunan yang dapat melengkapi komplek tersebut. Fasilitas yang ada saat ini dan cukup ramai dikunjungi masyarakat adalah sebuah tempat ibadah orang tionghoa, banyak masyarakat yang datang untuk be...
A National Development and Research Institutes study of New York's residential hotels, housing 400 AIDS patients, found rampant criminal activity. The 113-page report, commissioned by Mayor Guiliani, found prostitution, loan sharking, extortion, and theft to be commonplace, some of it perpetrated by hotel managers and employees. The unsafe conditions force some residents to miss medical treatments or drug rehabilitation because they are afraid to leave their rooms.
Saudi Arabia is a country of the first importance because of its oil reserves (26% of the known world reserves) and its oil production: the third of the whole Opec production. This energetic gold mine finances up to 75% of the budget and assures 90% of its exports. The capacity of Saudi Arabia to refine crude oil is now comparable to that of France. Nevertheless the inflexibility of government expenditures makes foreign investors necessary to a balanced industrial development. It is expected that the Board of Trade soon presents some dispositions in order to promote and ease the opening to foreign investors. (A.C.)
. Private sector focus, privatization of state owned entities and salary cuts in the public sector were proposed. But the item that drew most attention was the plan to sell a 5 per cent stake in the oil company Saudi Aramco, the national pride of the Kingdom, which was seen by many as selling the family...
Nora A. Al-Faris
Full Text Available Vitamin D deficiency has emerged as a public health problem worldwide due to its important role in health and disease. The present work is intended to examine prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among pregnant Saudi women and related risk factors. A cross-sectional study was carried out at King Fahad Medical City in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OHD was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 160 pregnant women during the first trimester of pregnancy. Socio-demographic, lifestyle and maternal characteristics were collected and vitamin D intake was assessed using a 24-h dietary recall. Weight and height were measured using standardized methods. Vitamin D deficiency (25(OHD < 50 nmol/L and insufficiency (25(OHD = 50–74 nmol/L were reported in 50% and 43.8% of the study sample, respectively. Median serum 25(OHD concentration was 49.9 nmol/L. Adequate vitamin D intake (≥600 IU/day was reported among only 8.1% of pregnant women. Age group, educational level, sun exposure frequency and daytime and daily practice of exercise were significantly associated with vitamin D status. Overall, vitamin D deficiency was common among pregnant Saudi women in Riyadh. Steps should be taken to address the current situation, including increased sunlight exposure, consumption of fatty fish, and vitamin D supplements.
Al-Faris, Nora A
Vitamin D deficiency has emerged as a public health problem worldwide due to its important role in health and disease. The present work is intended to examine prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among pregnant Saudi women and related risk factors. A cross-sectional study was carried out at King Fahad Medical City in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 160 pregnant women during the first trimester of pregnancy. Socio-demographic, lifestyle and maternal characteristics were collected and vitamin D intake was assessed using a 24-h dietary recall. Weight and height were measured using standardized methods. Vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D L) and insufficiency (25(OH)D = 50-74 nmol/L) were reported in 50% and 43.8% of the study sample, respectively. Median serum 25(OH)D concentration was 49.9 nmol/L. Adequate vitamin D intake (≥600 IU/day) was reported among only 8.1% of pregnant women. Age group, educational level, sun exposure frequency and daytime and daily practice of exercise were significantly associated with vitamin D status. Overall, vitamin D deficiency was common among pregnant Saudi women in Riyadh. Steps should be taken to address the current situation, including increased sunlight exposure, consumption of fatty fish, and vitamin D supplements.
Alghamdi, Abdulrahman S.; Khalid, Aleissa; Ghazi, Alzeer
Full text: Building materials used for construction of houses represent a major source of indoor radon. In this investigation, indoor radon concentrations are found to vary substantially among the different building materials, ventilation, cooling and heating systems used. This paper presents the effects of these factors on the radon concentration in Riyadh city dwellings. The measurements were obtained by using a passive integrating ionization system with an E-Perm Electret ion chamber. The study covered more than 700 houses and apartments, which were selected to cover the most common type of houses. The concentration range was found to be 1.02 to 196 Bq.m -3 , with an average value of 17.5 ± 3 Bq.m -3 . The results show that the radon concentration is higher in houses where the white bricks, no ventilation systems, plastic paint and Freon air conditioners are used, but relatively lower in houses where the red bricks, window ventilation, and water air conditioner is used. (author)
Bazarbashi, Shouki; Al Eid, Haya; Minguet, Joan
Background: In order to most appropriately allocate healthcare and research funding for cancer, it is important to have accurate population-based incidence data. The Saudi Cancer Registry (SCR) provides such information, covering the time period from 1994 to the present day. The current report concerns an overview of cancer incidence statistics for Saudi Arabia in 2012. Methods: The SCR collects data from healthcare facilities throughout the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. All newly diagnosed cases of cancer are recorded, with information on site and histology. For the present report, age-standardised and age-specific incidence rates (ASR, AIR, respectively) were calculated, with attention to gender-specific and regional differences. Results: The total number of incident cases of cancer identified by the SCR in 2012 was 14,336, with 6,791 (47.5%) among males and 7,545 (52.6%) among females. Of this total, 11,034 cases (76.9%) occurred in patients of Saudi origin. For Saudi males, the overall ASR (inc. all cancer sites) was 78.1 per 100,000 people, while that for females was 86.7. Incidence varied by region, with the Eastern region and Riyadh displaying the highest ASRs for both males and females, and Hail and Jazan displaying the lowest. Incidence varied by gender, with colorectal cancer (13.3%), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL; 8.4%), and leukaemia (8.2%) being the most common types in males, and breast (25.8%), thyroid (11.7%), and colorectal cancers (9.3%) being the most common in females. Conclusions: This analysis of cancer incidence in Saudi Arabia demonstrated significant differences according to gender, age, and region of the Kingdom. The data should help ensure the most appropriate allocation of resources, with the aim of minimising the healthcare burden associated with cancer. Creative Commons Attribution License
Prajogo, Liliany; Kusnin, Ronny; Kristanti, Monika
Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui klasifikasi atribut kepuasan di Midtown Hotel Surabaya, yaitu hotel chain domestik yang berkembang di Indonesia. Data penelitian diambil dari komentar TripAdvisor sebanyak 132 komentar. Dengan melakukan teknik content analysis, penulis mengelompokan komentar menjadi 16 atribut hotel penentu kepuasan yang dapat dikategorikan menjadi enam kategori, yaitu location, physical hotel setting, value, food, service, dan room. Teknik analisa kuantitatif yang di...
Myers, D. R.; Wilcox, S. M.; Marion, W. F.; Al-Abbadi, N. M.; Mahfoodh, M.; Al-Otaibi, Z.
The Final Report for Annex II - Assessment of Solar Radiation Resources in Saudi Arabia 1998-2000 summarizes the accomplishment of work performed, results achieved, and products produced under Annex II, a project established under the Agreement for Cooperation in the Field of Renewable Energy Research and Development between the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and the United States. The report covers work and accomplishments from January 1998 to December 2000. A previous progress report, Progress Report for Annex II - Assessment of Solar Radiation Resources in Saudi Arabia 1993-1997, NREL/TP-560-29374, summarizes earlier work and technical transfer of information under the project. The work was performed in at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in Golden, Colorado, at the King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, and at selected weather stations of the Saudi Meteorological and Environmental Protection Administration (MEPA).
Full Text Available Majid Alfadhel,1 Khalid A Alhasan,2 Mohammed Alotaibi,3 Khalid Al Fakeeh41Division of Genetics, Department of Pediatrics, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Division of Nephrology Department of Pediatrics, King Saud University King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 3Department of Radiology, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 4Division of Nephrology, Department of Pediatrics, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaBackground: Primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1 is characterized by progressive renal insufficiency culminating in end-stage renal disease, and a wide range of clinical features related to systemic oxalosis in different organs. It is caused by autosomal recessive deficiency of alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase due to a defect in AGXT gene.Case report: Two brothers (one 6 months old; the other 2 years old presented with acute renal failure and urinary tract infection respectively. PH1 was confirmed by high urinary oxalate level, demonstration of oxalate crystals in bone biopsy, and pathogenic homozygous known AGXT gene mutation. Despite the same genetic background, same sex, and shared environment, the outcome of the two siblings differs widely. While one of them died earlier with end-stage renal disease and multiorgan failure caused by systemic oxalosis, the older brother is pyridoxine responsive with normal development and renal function.Conclusion: Clinicians should be aware of extreme intrafamilial variability of PH1 and international registries are needed to characterize the genotype-phenotype correlation in such disorder.Keywords: primary hyperoxaluria, oxalosis, PH1, intrafamilial variability
Full Text Available Naseem Akhtar Qureshi,1 Abdulhameed Abdullah Al-Habeeb,2 Harold G Koenig3 1General Administration for Research and Studies, 2Mental Health and Social Services, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 3Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA Background: There is evidence that mapping mental health systems (MHSs helps in planning and developing mental health care services for users, families, and other caregivers. The General Administration of Mental Health and Social Services of the Ministry of Health over the past 4 years has sought to streamline the delivery of mental health care services to health consumers in Saudi Arabia. Objective: We overview here the outcome of a survey that assessed the Saudi MHS and suggest strategic steps for its further improvement. Method: The World Health Organization Assessment Instrument for Mental Health Systems was used systematically to collect information on the Saudi MHS in 2009–2010, 4 years after a baseline assessment. Results: Several mental health care milestones, especially provision of inpatient mental health services supported by a ratified Mental Health Act, were achieved during this period. However, community mental health care services are needed to match international trends evident in developed countries. Similarly, a larger well-trained mental health workforce is needed at all levels to meet the ever-increasing demand of Saudi society. Conclusion: This updated MHS information, discussed in light of international data, will help guide further development of the MHS in Saudi Arabia in the future, and other countries in the Eastern Mediterranean region may also benefit from Saudi experience. Keywords: Saudi Arabia, mental health system, organization, legal issues, research, training
Potoček, Václav; Miatto, Filippo M; Mirhosseini, Mohammad; Magaña-Loaiza, Omar S; Liapis, Andreas C; Oi, Daniel K L; Boyd, Robert W; Jeffers, John
In 1924 David Hilbert conceived a paradoxical tale involving a hotel with an infinite number of rooms to illustrate some aspects of the mathematical notion of "infinity." In continuous-variable quantum mechanics we routinely make use of infinite state spaces: here we show that such a theoretical apparatus can accommodate an analog of Hilbert's hotel paradox. We devise a protocol that, mimicking what happens to the guests of the hotel, maps the amplitudes of an infinite eigenbasis to twice their original quantum number in a coherent and deterministic manner, producing infinitely many unoccupied levels in the process. We demonstrate the feasibility of the protocol by experimentally realizing it on the orbital angular momentum of a paraxial field. This new non-Gaussian operation may be exploited, for example, for enhancing the sensitivity of NOON states, for increasing the capacity of a channel, or for multiplexing multiple channels into a single one.
The theme of this work is reconstruction the hotel complex. The theoretical part informs readers about tourism, marketing and how to build a business plan. Analytical part shows the issue of tourism in the region and technical condition of the hotel. In the synthetic part is suggested business plan to hotel reconstruction, marketing mix for tourism and financial plan, that shows operating costs and revenues. The investment could be paid off by the 13th year since the start of the hotel service.
Анастасия Игоревна Сидоренко
Full Text Available The article analyzes the state and prospects of development of the hotel industry sector in Ukraine, aimed at a business audience that is constantly increasing; the need for the development and implementation of innovative technologies in a business hotel, because in the long term they will provide improving the service levels, the occupancy rate of the hotel rooms and competitiveness. An expediency of introducing innovative wireless LED lighting system in the rooms of business hotels is proved
Full Text Available Ibrahim G Alghamdi,1 Issam I Hussain,1 Mohamed S Alghamdi,2 Mohamed A El-Sheemy1,3 1University of Lincoln, Brayford Pool, Lincoln, UK; 2Ministry of Health, General Directorate of Health Affairs, Al-Baha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 3Research and Development, Lincoln Hospital, Lincolnshire Hospitals NHS Trust, Lincoln, UK Background: The present study reviews the epidemiological data on corpus uteri cancer among Saudi women, including its frequency, crude incidence rate, and age-standardized incidence rate (ASIR, adjusted by region and year of diagnosis. Methods: A retrospective, descriptive epidemiological analysis was conducted of all the corpus uteri cancer cases recorded in the Saudi Cancer Registry between January 2001 and December 2008. The statistical analyses were performed using descriptive statistics, analysis of variance, Poisson regression, and a simple linear model. Results: A total of 1,060 corpus uteri cancer cases were included. Women aged 60–74 years of age were most affected by the disease. The region of Riyadh in Saudi Arabia had the highest overall ASIR, at 4.4 cases per 100,000 female patients, followed by the eastern region, at 4.2, and Makkah, at 3.7. Jazan, Najran, and Qassim had the lowest average ASIRs, ranging from 0.8 to 1.4. A Poisson regression model using Jazan as the reference revealed that the corpus uteri cancer incidence rate ratio was significantly higher for the regions of Makkah, at 16.5 times (95% confidence interval [CI]: 8.0–23.0, followed by Riyadh, at 16.0 times (95% CI: 9.0–22.0, and the eastern region, at 9.9 times (95% CI: 5.6–17.6. The northern region experienced the highest changes in ASIRs of corpus uteri cancer among female Saudi patients between 2001 and 2008. Conclusion: There was a slight increase in the crude incidence rates and ASIRs for corpus uteri cancer in Saudi Arabia between 2001 and 2008. Older Saudi women were most affected by the disease. Riyadh, the eastern region, and Makkah
Risse, Manfred; Weilbächer, Nadine; Birngruber, Christoph; Verhoff, Marcel A
There are no verified statistics about deaths occurring in hotels, and only a few cases have been described in the literature. A recent case induced us to conduct a systematic search for deaths in hotels in the autopsy reports of the Institute of Legal Medicine in Giessen for the period from 1968 to 2009. This search yielded 22 evaluable cases in which persons had been found dead or had died in hotels. Data evaluated in the study were sex and age of the deceased, reason for the stay in the hotel and cause of death. Among the deaths, 18 were males and 4 females and the average age was 41 and 40 years respectively. 6 of the male guests had died from a natural and 10 from a non-natural cause. In the remaining two cases, the cause of death could not be determined, but as there was no evidence that another party had been involved, the cases were not further investigated. Of the 4 female guests, 3 had died of a natural cause; in one case, the cause of death remained unclear even after morphological and toxicological investigations. Surprisingly, a third of the men were found to be temporarily living in hotels due to social circumstances. This was not true for any of the women. Our retrospective analysis is based on a comparatively small number of deaths in what were mostly hotels in small to medium-sized towns. Interestingly, the gender ratio of 18:4 for deceased men and women was significantly higher than the usual gender ratio of 2:1 found for forensic autopsies. To be able to draw further conclusions, a greater number of cases would have to be analysed, for example by recruiting additional case files from other institutes of legal medicine. This would also open up the option of investigating possible regional variations.
Rohra, Dileep K.; Rohra, Vikram K.; Cahusac, Peter
Objectives: To compare the journal impact factor (JIF) and Eigenfactor score (ES) of Institute for Scientific Information (ISI)-indexed biomedical journals published from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) over the last 8 years. Methods: This is a retrospective study, conducted at Alfaisal University, Riyadh, KSA from January to March 2016. The Journal Citation Reports of ISI Web of Knowledge were accessed, and 6 Saudi biomedical journals were included for analysis. Results: All Saudi journals have improved their IF compared with their baseline. However, the performance of the Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Neurosciences has been exceptionally good. The biggest improvement in percent growth in JIF was seen in the Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal (approximately 887%) followed by Neurosciences (approximately 462%). Interestingly, the ES of all biomedical journals, except Saudi Journal of Gastroenterology and Saudi Medical Journal, increased over the years. The greatest growth in ES (more than 5 fold) was noted for Neurosciences and Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal. Conclusion: This study shows that the overall quality of all Saudi biomedical journals has improved in the last 8 years. PMID:27761565
This thesis studied hotel security management and examined one case hotel more closely on matters of security management. The case hotel in this research was Original Sokos Hotel Vaakuna Vaasa. The aim of the thesis was to find out how security aspects are managed and how they could be developed in the case hotel. This research was conducted to help the case hotel’s security supervisor to develop and improve security. The thesis consists of a theoretical framework and an empirical study. The ...
In April 2016 Saudi Arabia took the world by surprise with the launch of its Vision 2030 plan. The surprise was not the plan in itself, as the kingdom has since 1970 guided its development through a series of 5-year plans, but rather the radical approach to development contained in the plan. Priv...... silver. Later in 2016 the Vision 2030 plan was followed by the National Transformation Plan 2020 which is a far more detailed plan or operational plan, posting specific benchmarks and targets for the economy in order to fulfill the aims of the Vision 2030.......In April 2016 Saudi Arabia took the world by surprise with the launch of its Vision 2030 plan. The surprise was not the plan in itself, as the kingdom has since 1970 guided its development through a series of 5-year plans, but rather the radical approach to development contained in the plan...
Diana Carolina Rojas
Full Text Available Es importante conocer acerca de la historia del Hotel Bogotá Plaza. Este es el primer hotel del norte de Bogotá. La misión del hotel es permanecer en el corazón de los huéspedes y visitantes, al satisfacer sus deseos con amor, calidez, amabilidad, seguridad y servicio de excelente calidad. Desde 1996 el Bogotá Plaza Hotel ha pertenecido a Summit Hotels & Resorts. Esta es una firma que proporciona al hotel un sistema de reservas por Internet, esta alianza ha generado que el hotel sea reconocido en muchos países del mundo. Summit además se ha establecido como una organización líder en ventas, mercadeo y reservas hoteleras del mundo. Es importante asociarse con compañías destacadas así como lo hizo el Hotel Bogotá Plaza.
Full Text Available Objectives: Research activities in Saudi Arabia are promoted at the governmental and institutional levels. However, the output and quality of research conducted in the field of neurology has not yet been measured quantitatively. This study therefore aimed to analyse neurology-related publications from Saudi Arabia. Methods: This study was conducted in January 2016. A systematic search using the PubMed® search engine (National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Maryland, USA was conducted to identify all neurology-related articles published from Saudi Arabia between January 1996 and December 2015. Results: A total of 1,292 neurologyrelated publications were identified. Neurology research increased linearly with time, with most publications originating from Riyadh (67% and the university sector (≈47%. However, most neurology-related articles were published in journals which had an impact factor of <1 (55%. Conclusion: Neurology research in Saudi Arabia has increased substantially over the last 20 years. However, as most articles were published in low-impact journals, the quality of research remains inadequate and should be improved. It is important that an official research culture be established in both governmental and private universities as well as colleges and health institutions in Saudi Arabia. The formation of clinical academic departments staffed by research experts is recommended to ensure the quality of neurology research output.
Elshafie, D E; Al-Khashan, H I; Mishriky, A M
Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent in Saudi Arabia. The study objective was to compare vitamin D deficiency in Saudi married couples. This cross-sectional study was carried out in the Royal Guard primary health care center in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia on a consecutive sample of 50 Saudi married couples attending the center without complaints related to vitamin D deficiency. Data were collected through an interview questionnaire addressing the risk factors and dietary habits. Quantitative determination of total 25-hydroxy vitamin D in blood was done by Electro-Chemical Luminescence assay. Fieldwork was carried out from December 2010 to January 2011. Men had higher sun exposure (P = 0.001), more use of light clothes at home (P = 0.002) and more intake of milk (P = 0.023) and soft drinks (P = 0.001). Vitamin D was higher in men with mean difference about 9 nmol/l (P activity and the intake of milk as statistically significant positive independent predictors of vitamin D level, adjusted for factors as age, sun exposure, clothing, skin color, BMI, soft drinks and animal protein intake. Vitamin D deficiency is very high among Saudi married couples, especially wives. Female gender is an independent predictor of lower vitamin D level, in addition to sedentary lifestyle and low milk consumption. There is a need to revise the levels set for the diagnosis of vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency in the study region.
Algahtani, Hussein; Shirah, Bader; Boker, Faisal; Algamdi, Albaraa; Alkahtani, Abdulah
Research activities in Saudi Arabia are promoted at the governmental and institutional levels. However, the output and quality of research conducted in the field of neurology has not yet been measured quantitatively. This study therefore aimed to analyse neurology-related publications from Saudi Arabia. This study was conducted in January 2016. A systematic search using the PubMed ® search engine (National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Maryland, USA) was conducted to identify all neurology-related articles published from Saudi Arabia between January 1996 and December 2015. A total of 1,292 neurology-related publications were identified. Neurology research increased linearly with time, with most publications originating from Riyadh (67%) and the university sector (≈47%). However, most neurology-related articles were published in journals which had an impact factor of Saudi Arabia has increased substantially over the last 20 years. However, as most articles were published in low-impact journals, the quality of research remains inadequate and should be improved. It is important that an official research culture be established in both governmental and private universities as well as colleges and health institutions in Saudi Arabia. The formation of clinical academic departments staffed by research experts is recommended to ensure the quality of neurology research output.
Igor V. Kryuchkov
Full Text Available The article analyzes the formation of a new foreign policy strategy of Saudi Arabia in conditions of the changing situation in the Middle East after the “Arab spring” and the “nuclear deal” with Iran. It is shown in the article that the instability of domestic policy and economic problems connected with oil price drop have influence on the foreign policy of Saudi Arabia. Struggle with Iran for domination in the region becomes the basis of its policy in the Middle East. The author notes that the complication of relations with the USA also greatly influences the foreign policy of Saudi Arabia. The Kingdom condemned the nuclear program agreement of Iran. Riyadh didn’t manage to neutralize the growth of influence of Iran in Iraq, Lebanon, Syria and Yemen. Riyadh places a bet on B. Asad opponents support in the Syrian conflict aiming to strengthen its positions in the country and to dislodge Iran and Russia from it. Confrontation with Iran forced Saudi Arabia to interfere with the civil war in Yemen and to carry out a successful operation in Bahrein. The article shows the aspiration of Saudi Arabia to withhold Egypt, Jordan and a number of other countries of the region in the sphere of its foreign policy through financial aid to these countries. It is proved that the reasons of the conflict of Saudi Arabia with Iran were of economic, geopolitical and religious nature, and that Saudi Arabia aspired to strengthen its positions in the Middle East and East Africa. A great breakthrough was acquisition of two islands in the Red Sea from Egypt by Riyadh.
Dinh Quynh, Mai
The thesis covers the study of online marketing theory, a very popular trend of marketing nowadays, especially Search Engine Optimization (SEO) and Google Adwords Campaign in the analyses of the online marketing practices of three hotels from different areas and standards in Malta, namely The Bugibba Hotel, Preluna Hotel & SPA and Radisson Blu Resort Malta, St. Julian’s. From the analyses, the thesis aims at suggesting Preluna Hotel & SPA optimal online marketing practices and answering t...
Full Text Available Mostafa A Abolfotouh,1,2 Mohammed H Al-Assiri,1 Manar Al-Omani,2 Alwaleed Al Johar,3 Abdulaziz Al Hakbani,3 Ahmed S Alaskar1,2 1King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, 2King Saud bin-Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, 3College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Introduction: In Saudi Arabia, voluntary donors are the only source of blood donation. The aim of this study was to assess the level of public knowledge and attitude toward blood donation in Saudi Arabia. Methods: Using a previously validated questionnaire that comprises 38 questions to assess the levels of knowledge, attitudes, and motivations towards blood donation, 469 Saudi adults who attended different shopping malls in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia were surveyed. Multiple regression analyses were used to identify the significant predictors of blood donation, with the significance set at P<0.05. Results: Approximately half of all subjects (53.3% reported that they had previously donated blood, 39% of whom had donated more than once. The knowledge percentage mean score was 58.07%, denoting a poor level of knowledge, with only 11.9% reporting a good level of knowledge. The attitude percentage mean score towards donation was 75.45%, reflecting a neutral attitude towards donating blood, with 31.6% reporting a positive attitude. Donation was significantly more prevalent among males than females (66% versus 13.3%; P<0.001. After adjustment for confounders, a higher knowledge score (t=2.59; P=0.01, a higher attitude score (t=3.26; P=0.001, and male sex (t=10.45; P<0.001 were significant predictors of blood donation. An inability to reach the blood donation centers and a fear of anemia were the main reasons for females not donating blood (49.9% and 35.7%, respectively, whereas a lack of time was the main reason for males (59.5%. Conclusion: Prevalence of blood donation was less than satisfactory among the Saudi public, probably due to misconceptions, poor
Suaad S. AlWakeel
Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the bacterial species colonizing the nasal and oropharyngeal mucosa of fuel workers in Central Riyadh, Saudi Arabia on a microbiological and molecular level. Throat and nasal swab samples were obtained from 29 fuel station attendants in the period of time extending from March to May 2014 in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Microbiological identification techniques were utilized to identify the bacterial species isolated. Antibiotic sensitivity was assessed for each of the bacterial isolates. Molecular identification techniques based on PCR analysis of specific genomic sequences was conducted and was the basis on which phylogeny representation was done for 10 randomly selected samples of the isolates. Blood was drawn and a complete blood count was conducted to note the hematological indices for each of the study participants. Nineteen bacterial species were isolated from both the nasal cavity and the oropharynx including Streptococcus thoraltensis, alpha-hemolytic streptococci, Staphylococcus hominis, coagulase-negative staphylococci, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae and several others. We found 100% sensitivity of the isolates to ciprofloxacin, cefuroxime and gentamicin. Whereas cefotaxime and azithromycin posted sensitivities of 85.7% and 91.4%, respectively. Low sensitivities (<60% sensitivity to the antibiotics ampicillin, erythromycin, clarithromycin and norfloxacin were observed. Ninety-seven percent similarity to the microbial bank species was noted when the isolates were compared to it. Most hematological indices recorded were within the normal range. In conclusion, exposure to toxic fumes and compounds within fuel products may be a contributing factor to bacterial colonization of the respiratory tract in fuel workers.
Hotel Reforma- México Suite Presidentielle (8e. et 9e. étage) A. Living-room B. Salle á manger C. Office D. Domestique Plantas suite presidencial Corte en el eje Planta Alta en 7° piso tipo Planta Baja en 6° piso tipo
Baca, Susan; Busck, Ole Gunni
Rapporten præsenterer resultatet af en undersøgelse af, hvorledes et hotel i Nordjylland fungerer som arbejdsplads for indvandrere af overvejende ikke-vestlig oprindelse. Der fokuseres på i hvilket omfang og gennem hvilke mekanismer arbejdsmiljjøet i bred forstand, herunder forhold i ledelsen...
De reiziger die Amsterdam binnenkomt via het Centraal Station ziet rechts van het Damrak meteen een beknopte geschiedenis van de hotelbouw in Amsterdam. Op de hoek, om twee kleinere huisjes heen, staat het oudste deel van het Victoriahotel (nu Victoria Plaza Hotel), dat in 1890 zijn deuren opende.
Full Text Available Tourism and hotel business is becoming one of the leading industries of theworld. Therefore, an increased attention needs to be paid to the study oftrends in tourism because they determine the trends in hotel industry. Thepurpose of the paper is to point out the importance of hotel industry as one ofthe most important elements of development in tourist economies. The paperaims at introducing the newest trends in modern hotel industry and offering areview of the recent trends of demand and the directions of hotel industrydevelopment. The importance of hotel industry on both micro and macro, i.e.global level is increasing. Besides a series of theoretical representations andconclusions, this paper brings some concrete data and examples frompractice in hotel management.
Full Text Available The hotel consists of basement, ground floor, first floor and other blocks of different heights, in which there is a total of 80 beds. So as to take advantage of the proximity to the railway station, in front of which the hotel is situated, the gastronomy section has been planned on the ground floor. On the first floor are the living rooms and conference rooms and the main one contains the fashion shops that extend over three floors. The first basement has a discotec; and in the second are situated the storage rooms and the installations of the building. The hotel is further completed by two storeys of subterranean parking space, situated below the square in front of the railway station.Está compuesto por sótanos, planta baja, planta primera y cuerpos elevados de distintas alturas, en los que se distribuyen un total de 80 camas. Para aprovechar la proximidad de la estación de ferrocarril, en cuya plaza se halla este hotel, se ha colocado la sección de gastronomía en la planta baja. En el primer nivel se encuentran las salas de estar y de reunión, y el principal aloja las tiendas de modas, que ocupan tres alturas. El primer sótano contiene una discoteca; y en el segundo se distribuyen los almacenes e instalaciones del edificio. El hotel se completa con dos plantas de aparcamiento subterráneo situadas bajo la plaza de la estación.
Full Text Available Fahad D Alosaimi,1 Hossam S Alawad,2 Ayedh K Alamri,2 Abdullah I Saeed,2 Khalid A Aljuaydi,2 Alwaleed S Alotaibi,2 Khalid M Alotaibi,2 Eiad A Alfaris3 1Department of Psychiatry, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Psychiatry, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 3King Saud University Chair for the Development of Medical Education, Department of Family and Community Medicine, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Background: Physicians experience several work-related stressors that have been mounting up in recent decades. This study aimed to examine perceived stress and its risk factors and consequences among consultant physicians in Saudi Arabia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2014 to March 2015 among physicians who were assigned rank of consultant. The stress level was assessed using perceived stress scale (PSS.Results: A total of 582 consultants participated. The average age was 46.9±7.9 years, 71% were males, 56% were Saudi, 15% were smokers, and 68% slept ≤6 hours per night. The median PSS score was 17 (interquartile range of 14–21, which represented 44% of maximum possible PSS score. The upper tertile of PSS score (represents a high stress level was significantly associated with being younger, female, and Saudi. The majority (85% considered job environment to be stressful and ~50% attributed that to a high workload and a noncooperative administration. In the year preceding this study, half of consultants frequently contemplated or even worked toward changing their medical institutes or even moving to work outside Saudi Arabia because of perception of a stressful working environment. Over the previous year, encountering life stressors, considering job environment as stressful and experiencing passive suicidal ideation, were significantly associated with higher levels of stress
Alrajhi, M.; Hawarey, M.
The General Directorate for Surveying and Mapping (GDSM) of the Deputy Ministry for Land and Surveying (DMLS) of the Ministry of Municipal and Rural Affairs (MOMRA) in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) has the exclusive mandate to carry out aerial photography and produce large-scale detailed maps for about 220 cities and villages in the KSA. This presentation is about the comprehensive geo-spatial data creation for the Ar-Riyadh region, Central KSA, that was founded on country-wide horizontal geodetic ground control using Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) within the MOMRA's Terrestrial Reference Frame 2000 (MTRF2000) that is tied to International Terrestrial Reference Frame 2000 (ITRF2000) Epoch 2004.0, and vertical geodetic ground control using precise digital leveling in reference to Jeddah 1969 mean sea level, and included aerial photography of area 3,000 km2 at 1:5,500 scale and 10,000 km2 at 1:45,000 scale, full aerial triangulation, and production of orthophoto maps at scale of 1:10,000 (480 sheets) for 10,000 km2, with aerial photography lasting from July 2007 thru August 2007.
Outif, Ahmad M.; Hendi, Awatif A.; Al-Ghandi, Safar S.; Al-Dihan, Abdulaziz A.
Despite the fact that the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) was a pioneer in developing its bone mineral density (BMD) reference population (RP), BMD is still reported in most Saudi dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) centers according to Lebanese RP. The aim of the current work was to assess the implication of using normal ranges other than Saudi female normal range in reporting BMD of Saudi female patients (SFP). This study was conducted at the Security Forces Hospital, Riyadh, KSA. Three published Arabian female DEXA RPs were reviewed and statistically compared. The implication of using RPs other than Saudi female reference population (SFRP) in reporting SFP was assessed in 1653 patients who were reported according to SFRP, Lebanese female reference population (LFRP) and Kuwaiti female reference population (KFRP). All female patients BMD data performed between June 1995 and July 2003 were included in the study. This study was conducted at the Security Forces Hospital, Riyadh, KSA. Three published Arabian female DEXA RPs were reviewed and statistically compared. The implication of using RPs other than Saudi female reference population (SFRP) in reporting SFP was assessed in 1653 patients who were reported according to SFRP, Lebanese female reference population (LFRP) and Kuwaiti female reference population (KFRP). All female patients BMD data performed between June 1995 and July 2003 were included in the study. The current use of LFRP in reporting SFP should be discontinued and instead SFRP should be used. Further national studies are needed to reassure the Saudi RP and to resolve the differences between the current 2 SFRP at the second and fifth age decades. (author)
Widhianto, Muhammad Adib
Along with the economic growth of Medan, the hotel occupancy rate in the city field also increased. Occupancy rate of hotels in Medan in 2010 increased by 51.19% to 53.81% in 2011. At this time of international hotels have invested and set up a hotel in Indonesia. Hotel - The hotel stands with typical and individual identity of any hotel is a marker of identity as well as a differentiator from other hotels. Shangri-La Hotels and Resorts, based in Hong Kong now owns and manages ...
Chris E Cloete
Various critical success factors for hotel development are identified in this article, and incorporated into a hotel property development framework, establishing a practical ‘road map’ for successful hotel developments. The validity of the proposed hotel property development framework has been assessed by intensive direct interviews with hotel development professionals.
Rahmawityana, R.A. Dyah Ellne
Aerotropolis is a development of the concept of Aerocity, which makes the airport as the city in which there are a number of business activities. Business activities included in the development of aerotropolis area is tourism. Tourism and trade has also become one of the attraction for tourism and the needs of mainstream travelers who travel journey. Hotel Wisata Sumatera Utara is expected to become a tourist puller that makes it easy for visitors to get information about the c...
Kaminski, Michael A.; Hammad Malik, Muhammad; Setoyama, Eiichi
We report the occurrence of an Ammobaculoides-dominated assemblage in the lowermost member of the Middle Jurassic Dhruma Formation exposed west of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The new species Ammobaculoides dhrumaensis n.sp. is described from the green shale of the D1 unit (also known as the Balum Member) of the Dhruma Formation, which has been assigned an early Bajocian age based on ammonites. Our new finding constitutes the oldest reported worldwide occurrence of the agglutinated foraminiferal genus Ammobaculoides Plummer, 1932.
Allari, Rabia S; Ismaile, Samantha; Househ, Mowafa
Professional values are essential to nursing practice because they guide standards for working, provide a structure for evaluating behavior, and influence decisions making. The purpose of this study is to explore the perception of Saudi female nursing students on professional values and to assess the correlation between their perception of professional values in relation to their year of academic studies. We used a cross-sectional descriptive study where a survey was administered to 150 Saudi female nurses living in Riyadh. Results show that Saudi female nurses have a high perception of professional values relating to confidentiality, privacy, moral and legal rights, health and safety, and the work environment. Whereas Saudi nursing students have a low perception for participating in professional nursing activities, utilizing research in practice, peer review, public policy, and engaging in on-going self-evaluation. There was positive correlation between different professional values and academic years. The highest correlations were for the items related to caring and trust more than activism because nursing students at higher academic levels viewed the relationship with patients as more important than advancing health care systems through public policy, research, and professional organizations. In conclusion, nursing program administrators should put emphasis on improving the development of professional values through a role modeling approach to promote activism and professional values through the arrangement of meetings, exchange forums, and conferences with other nurses, managers, policy makers, innovators, and researchers within the nursing field.
Sinangjoyo, Nikasius Jonet
The goal of the research is describing the green hotel application program of the hotel industries in Yogyakarta, creation of competitiveness in tourism destination. Subject of the research is whole member of Indonesia Hotel & Restaurant Association, (PHRI) Yogyakarta, which classified as four and five star hotel, and have an environment document or green hotel certificate. This study is a descriptive qualitative research. The research shows that the green hotels standard application in Yogya...
Full Text Available The practice of modern hotel industry introduced to professional community the term 'lifestyle' hotel. The paper deals with the essential meaning of this term. This raises the question of the difference between the lifestyle and boutique hotels which are in practice often identified. The paper aims to resolve the basic dilemma - whether lifestyle hotel can be treated as a special type of hotel, or all types of hotels under certain conditions can fit into a group called 'lifestyle'. Closer defining of the term 'lifestyle' is a starting point for further discussion. This paper makes an attempt to overcome the uncritical use of the term 'lifestyle' in tourism and hospitality practice. Providing a clearer definition is necessary to establish standards for the typology of lifestyle hotels. These standards are primarily based on the criteria of market segmentation. Among them, psychographic criteria occupy a special place. To make lifestyle hotel more than a promotional slogan, it is necessary to confirm its market position. This means identifying specific target groups differentiated according to the main features of the lifestyle.
Nada M. Albawardi
Full Text Available Research in Saudi Arabia has revealed a shocking level of insufficiently physically active adults, particularly women. The risk of sedentary behavior will likely increase as the number of women with office-based jobs increases. The aim of this study is to determine the level of sedentary behavior, and its associated factors, among Saudi women working office-based jobs in the city of Riyadh. A cross-sectional study of 420 Saudi female employees at 8 office-based worksites were measured to determine body mass index and were given a self-administered survey to evaluate their level of physical activity and sedentary behavior. Median sitting time on work days was 690 min per day (interquartile range, IQR 541–870, with nearly half accumulated during work hours, and 575 min per day (IQR 360–780 on non-work days. Predictors of work day sitting time were level of education, number of children, and working in the private sector. Number of children, whether they were single, and whether they lived in a small home were found to predict non-work day sitting time. This study identifies Saudi women in office-based jobs as a high-risk group for sedentary behavior. There is a need to promote physical activity at worksites and reduce prolonged sitting.
Albawardi, Nada M; Jradi, Hoda; Almalki, Abdulla A; Al-Hazzaa, Hazzaa M
Research in Saudi Arabia has revealed a shocking level of insufficiently physically active adults, particularly women. The risk of sedentary behavior will likely increase as the number of women with office-based jobs increases. The aim of this study is to determine the level of sedentary behavior, and its associated factors, among Saudi women working office-based jobs in the city of Riyadh. A cross-sectional study of 420 Saudi female employees at 8 office-based worksites were measured to determine body mass index and were given a self-administered survey to evaluate their level of physical activity and sedentary behavior. Median sitting time on work days was 690 min per day (interquartile range, IQR 541-870), with nearly half accumulated during work hours, and 575 min per day (IQR 360-780) on non-work days. Predictors of work day sitting time were level of education, number of children, and working in the private sector. Number of children, whether they were single, and whether they lived in a small home were found to predict non-work day sitting time. This study identifies Saudi women in office-based jobs as a high-risk group for sedentary behavior. There is a need to promote physical activity at worksites and reduce prolonged sitting.
Tariq M. Alhawassi
Full Text Available Low-quality medicines deliver sub-optimal clinical outcomes and waste precious health resources. It is important to ensure that public funds are spent on healthcare technologies that meet national regulatory bodies such as the Saudi Food and Drug Authority (SFDA, quality standards for safety, efficacy, and quality. Medicines quality is a complicated combination of pre-market regulatory specifications, appropriate sourcing of ingredients (active pharmaceutical ingredient (API, excipients, etc., manufacturing processes, healthcare ecosystem communications, and regular and robust pharmacovigilance practices. A recent conference in Riyadh, sponsored by King Saud University, sought to discuss these issues and develop specific policy recommendations for the Saudi 2030 Vision plan. This and other efforts will require more and more creative educational programs for physicians, pharmacists, hospitals, and patients, and, most importantly evolving regulations on quality standards and oversight by Saudi health authorities.
Alshammari, Sulaiman A.; AlShowair, Mishal A.; AlRuhaim, Abdulmalik
BACKGROUND: Worldwide, studies have shown a high prevalence of hormones and nutritional supplement use by athletes and gym members. Many athletes consume unproven, potentially harmful or even banned supplements. OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence of the use of hormones and nutritional supplements by people who exercise in gyms in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, and the types of supplements they most commonly use and to obtain a general view of the main reasons for using these enhancements. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study using a self-administered questionnaire was conducted at gyms in Riyadh that were selected randomly from different sectors of the city. The sample size was estimated at 289, but the actual number of randomly selected participants in the study was 457. RESULTS: The number of gym members who participated in this study was 457. Approximately 47.9% of the sample reported an intake of nutritional supplements and 7.9% reported that they took hormones. Protein powder was consumed by 83.1% of the participants. Approximately 16.8% of supplement users had noticed some side effects, and 25.7% of those who took hormones had stopped taking them because of adverse effects. Only half of the hormone users (54.2%) reported that they had had medical checkups. The major source of information on supplement and hormone use was non-health professionals; friends being major source (40%) of information on the use of hormones. The use of nutritional supplements was significantly associated with BMI (OR = 1.89, CI = 1.06–3.39), duration of daily exercise (OR = 4.23, CI = 2.06–8.68), and following a special diet (OR = 8.42, CI = 5.37–13.2). There was a very strong association between nutritional supplement consumption and hormone use (P gyms took nutritional supplements, and most had received their information from nonhealth professionals. There was an association between the duration of exercise and the use of hormones and supplements. Fewer than half of
Abdullah A. Bin Shalhoub
Full Text Available Objectives: To identify and describe the hospital disaster preparedness (HDP in major private hospitals in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Methods: This is an observational cross-sectional survey study performed in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia between December 2015 and April 2016. Thirteen major private hospitals in Riyadh with more than 100 beds capacity were included in this investigation. Results: The 13 hospitals had HDP plan and reported to have an HDP committee. In 12 (92.3% hospitals, the HDP covered both internal and external disasters and HDP was available in every department of the hospital. There were agreements with other hospitals to accept patients during disasters in 9 facilities (69.2% while 4 (30.8% did not have such agreement. None of the hospitals conducted any unannounced exercises in previous year. Conclusion: Most of the weaknesses were apparent particularly in the education, training and monitoring of the hospital staff to the preparedness for disaster emergency occasion. Few hospitals had conducted an exercise with casualties, few had drilled evacuation of staff and patients in the last 12 months, and none had any unannounced exercise in the last year.
... have at least 51 percent U.S. content of the value of the finished product or service. Selection Criteria for Participation Selection will be based on the following criteria: Suitability of the company's... applicant's submission and not considered during the selection process. Timeframe for Recruitment and...
Vende Valdeko, 1920-2009
Hotell Rataskaevu 7 hoones avati 1850. aastal. Kohe sai ta Tallinna teiseks esinduslikumaks võõrastemajaks. Hotelli ümberehitusest. Loetletud hotelli omanikud ja nimemuutused. Hotelli restoranist. Hotell oli Tallinna üks kallimaid. Tegemist on kõige pikemat aega pidevalt tegutsenud Tallinna hotelliga
Full Text Available Ibrahim G Alghamdi,1,2 Issam I Hussain,1 Mohamed S Alghamdi,3 Mansour M Alghamdi,4 Ahlam A Dohal,4 Mohammed A El-Sheemy51School of Life Sciences, University of Lincoln, Brayford Pool, Lincoln, UK; 2Al-Baha University, Kingdom of Saudia Arabia; 3Ministry of Health, General Directorate of Health Affairs, Al-Baha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 4King Fahad Specialist Hospital–Dammam, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 5Department of Research and Development, Lincoln Hospital, United Lincolnshire Hospitals, National Health Service Trust, Lincoln, UKPurpose: This study provides descriptive epidemiological data, such as the percentage of cases diagnosed, crude incidence rate (CIR, and age-standardized incidence rate (ASIR of ovarian cancer in Saudi Arabia from 2001–2008. Patients and methods: A retrospective descriptive epidemiological analysis of all ovarian cancer cases recorded in the Saudi Cancer Registry (SCR from January 2001–December 2008 was performed. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, analysis of variance tests, Poisson regression, and simple linear modeling.Results: A total of 991 ovarian cancer cases were recorded in the SCR from January 2001–December 2008. The region of Riyadh had the highest overall ASIR at 3.3 cases per 100,000 women, followed by the Jouf and Asir regions at 3.13 and 2.96 cases per 100,000 women. However, Hail and Jazan had the lowest rates at 1.4 and 0.6 cases per 100,000 women, respectively. Compared to Jazan, the incidence rate ratio for the number of ovarian cancer cases was significantly higher (P<0.001 in the Makkah region at 6.4 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.13–9.83, followed by Riyadh at 6.3 (95% CI: 4.10–9.82, and the eastern region of Saudi Arabia at 4.52 (95% CI: 2.93–6.98. The predicted annual CIR and ASIR for ovarian cancer in Saudi Arabia could be defined by the equations 0.9 + (0.07× years and 1.71 + (0.09× years, respectively.Conclusion: We observed a slight increase in the CIRs and
Bishi Al Garni
Conclusion: The majority of the patients surveyed were willing to pay the median price for an implant. Willingness to pay (WTP is a multifactorial variable which is significantly influenced by the income of the patient, the setting of the clinic and the gender; the most significant factor being the acceptability of the implant to the patient.
Omar A Al-Mohrej
Conclusions: The awareness of DDH should be increased among paediatricians to decrease the incidence of late DDH diagnosis. A structured screening program has to be created and implemented in all hospitals of the country to detect DDH earlier and to provide treatment as early as possible.
Nasser Mansour Assery
Conclusion: Dentists who participated in dental implantology workshops had a higher tendency to answer correctly compared to dentists who were given didactic courses in their undergraduate studies in issues associated with hands-on training. This shows that hands-on training in the undergraduate studies would result in a better understanding of dental implants, its complications, and management.
Mostafa A Arafa
Conclusion: Beliefs and attitudes have a great impact, at every stage of the cancer continuum, this attitudes depends mainly on level of knowledge and quantity of information provided to patients and their families. Such attitudes should rely on a solid background of proper information and motivation from physicians to enhance and empower attitudes toward PC screening behavior.
Thamer A. Alsulaiman
Conclusion: Deficiencies were observed regarding the diabetics' annual follow-up at our clinic during the year 2013. A more consistent approach is needed in requesting the lab investigations and referrals for diabetics in order to meet the clinic's target. Repeat auditing in a year's time is recommended to monitor improvement.
Albogami, Saad S; Alotaibi, Meshal R; Alsahli, Saud A; Masuadi, Emad; Alshaalan, Mohammad
ARTIs have a huge impact in health systems in which 20-30% of all hospital admissions and 30-60% of practitioner visits are related to respiratory tract infections. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence, age distribution, and seasonal variation of respiratory viruses. This study was descriptive retrospective study in which all patients 14 years of age and below who presented with signs and symptoms of ARTIs between January 2013 and December 2014 and had respiratory specimen tested by direct immunofluorescence assays for viruses identification were included in the study. During that period, a total of 4611 patients who presented with ARTIs from January 2013 to December 2014 were investigated, viruses were detected in 1115 (24%). RSV was associated with 97.4% of the total viral pathogens. Viruses were detected throughout all the two years with a peak in winter; Dec (n: 265), Jan (n: 418), Feb (n: 218), and Mar (n: 109). Viral pathogens are very important cause of ARTIs in our region. RSV was the most common virus detected with the highest detection rate in children who are two years old and below. A multi-center surveillance with more sensitive detection methods like PCR may help to provide a comprehensive understanding of virus distribution in our area, which may contribute implant an effective prevention approach for each virus. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Nofal, F H; Saeed, A A; Anokute, C C
The study analysed 13,390 police records of road traffic accidents (RTAs) covering a three and a half year period according to different suspected aetiological factors. The majority of the accidents were recorded for vehicles in good condition on well-paved straight roads with well-operating traffic light systems. Adverse weather conditions such as precipitation, fog and dust were of minimal importance, with most of the accidents being reported during sunny days during the rush period of 12 noon to 3 pm. Driver's error was identified as the main contributing factor in about two thirds of all RTAs mainly as reckless driving and excess speeding. About 27% of the drivers were professional drivers and 41% were in the age group 25-35 years in good health with no alcohol or drug intake. Hence, human errors may be attributed to carelessness, experience, lack of knowledge or attention, over-exhaustion or fatigue. The effects of physical stressors on performance of drivers need to be further explored and clarified but this need not underestimate the importance of vehicle and environment since most accidents are multifactoral and a slight change in them may effectively enhance perception and minimise personal error. Recommendations for remedial measures adopting an interdisciplinary approach are presented.
International Monetary Fund
This Selected Issues paper on Saudi Arabia assesses Saudi Arabia’s role in the oil market and global economy. Saudi Arabia, the world’s largest producer and exporter of oil, has long played a systemically important role in the global oil market. Short-term fluctuations in Saudi Arabia’s oil production have partially reflected attempts to stabilize the global oil market. Saudi Arabia has on several occasions used its systemic role to raise production to fill global demand gaps created by large...
Al-Hazzaa Hazzaa M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Few lifestyle factors have been simultaneously studied and reported for Saudi adolescents. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to report on the prevalence of physical activity, sedentary behaviors and dietary habits among Saudi adolescents and to examine the interrelationships among these factors using representative samples drawn from three major cities in Saudi Arabia. Methods This school-based cross-sectional study was conducted during the years 2009-2010 in three cities: Al-Khobar, Jeddah and Riyadh. The participants were 2908 secondary-school males (1401 and females (1507 aged 14-19 years, randomly selected using a multistage stratified sampling technique. Measurements included weight, height, sedentary behaviors (TV viewing, playing video games and computer use, physical activity using a validated questionnaire and dietary habits. Results A very high proportion (84% for males and 91.2% for females of Saudi adolescents spent more than 2 hours on screen time daily and almost half of the males and three-quarters of the females did not meet daily physical activity guidelines. The majority of adolescents did not have a daily intake of breakfast, fruit, vegetables and milk. Females were significantly (p p p p Conclusions The high prevalence of sedentary behaviors, physical inactivity and unhealthy dietary habits among Saudi adolescents is a major public health concern. There is an urgent need for national policy promoting active living and healthy eating and reducing sedentary behaviors among children and adolescents in Saudi Arabia.
Full Text Available Imran A Siddiqui,1 Khalid A Bin Abdulrahman,2 Mohammed A Alsultan3 1Department of Medical Education and Postgraduate Studies, Saudi Commission for Health Specialties, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2College of Medicine, Al-Imam Muhammad Ibn Saud Islamic University (IMSIU, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 3College of Medicine, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Background: Every year nearly 1,500 students enter into medical program after passing high school and national aptitude exams. However, many students experience frustration, failure, and psychological morbidities like stress, depression, and anxiety because they are not aware of their learning styles or do not have effective learning skills and strategies. The College of Medicine of Al-Imam Muhammad ibn Saud Islamic University has adopted the outcome based, community oriented, Spiral Curriculum. Although the curriculum is innovative, on the other hand, it is very demanding. Objective: The purpose of this paper is to share educational structure and evaluation results of the course on effective learning and study skills for the 1st year medical students. Methods: To prepare our students in order to cope with this demanding but promising curriculum, we conducted an effective and comprehensive learning skills course for 16 weeks in the first semester of year 1 in the medical program. Performance of each student was assessed and the course evaluation was done by students at the end of the course. Results: The attendance of the students throughout the course was over 90%. The average performance of students in the summative assessment was 78% and the course was generally liked by the students. Discussion: Students overall had a positive attitude toward the learning skills course. Majority of the students showed interest in attending the sessions regularly and realized the significance of this course to improve their learning skills. Keywords: medical students, learning
Petersson, Stefan; Werner, Sven [FVB Sverige AB, Vaesteraas (Sweden); Sandberg, Martin; Wahlstroem, Aasa [Swedish National Testing and Research Inst., Boraas (Sweden)
Historically, design curves for domestic hot water, have been well sized and therefore also the components oversized. The Swedish district heating companies have noticed this and some companies replace large valves with customer-required valves, which give several advantages. There are several reasons why valves and heat exchangers can be customer-required and still the customers demand for hot water comfort can be fulfilled. The domestic hot water flow is composed, the taps are often short, large simultaneous taps are not very likely. Also, the dimensioning flows occur in the winter period, while the components are dimensioned for the summer case. The water pipes level off temporary temperature drops and the user seldom notices these because water with 55 deg C is not used in the tap. For residential buildings there are dimensioning recommendations on domestic hot water flow, but not for hotels. The purpose of this project has been to evaluate the domestic hot water use in relation to size and number of occupied beds. If the patterns of the chosen hotels coincide regarding to the sizes, dimensioning curves for domestic hot water use can be suggested. They can be used when hotels, or buildings with the same use pattern, are being built or restored. Measurements on 3 hotels with different sizes have been made. The hotels have 36, 52 and 158 rooms. The hotels are situated in the cities of Boraas and Kinna in Sweden. A short period of measurements from another hotel in the city of Gaevle (199 rooms) has also been included in this project. The measurements show that large hot water taps in hotels are rare and short. For the hotels, relative, cumulative relative frequencies and likely extreme values have been estimated. For residential buildings, The Swedish District Heating Association have recommendations for dimensioned domestic hot water flows. Formerly, these recommendations have been levelled so a cumulative relative frequency of 1 %, is reached, i.e. 99 % of all
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hotels. 31.82 Section 31... Same Premises § 31.82 Hotels. The proprietor of a hotel who conducts the sale of liquors throughout the hotel premises is only required to register under this part for one place. For example, different areas...
Full Text Available According to the statistics in Egypt (2013, the number of hotels is 1193, about 407 of them have contracted power greater than 500 kW.Air conditioning, lighting, water heating and refrigeration represent the main activities demanding electrical energy in hotel business.The energy consumption per night spend changes a lot, depending on various factors; facilities provided, category of hotel, occupancy , geographical situation, weather conditions, nationality of clients, design and control of the installations.Energy benchmarking is an internal management tool designed to provide ongoing, reliable and verifiable tracking on the hotels performance. The most useful performance indicator (or Energy Efficiency Benchmarking of hotels are: Lighting Power Density (LPD in W (for lighting/m2, and energy intensity (kWh/m2/ y.There are multiple benefits for improving energy in hotel business; reduces the hotel's operating cost, reduces climate change risks and promotes green tourism.Energy efficiency opportunities are low-cost measures and cost- effective investments. There are many energy saving opportunities for lighting in hotel's guest rooms as well as the more obvious savings in lobbies and exterior lighting areas. Behavior campaigns can yield substantial energy savings, both through the guests and housekeeper behavior. Encouraging housekeepers to use natural light during room cleaning is a simple first step to implement energy saving program.This paper presents the energy efficiency guidelines and energy benchmarking for hotels. Also a case study showing how the energy efficiency program implemented is presented.
John D. Murtha, CHA
Full Text Available When evaluating ways to maximize revenues, hotel executives should consider supporting the efforts of local destination marketing organizations. Helping to build and sustain travel to a city or region can benefit individual hotels, by combining resources and energy on marketing tactics that would otherwise be too ambitious or costly for a single property to pursue on its own. The market in Boston and adjacent Cambridge, Massachusetts offers an interesting case study for understanding the interaction of hotels and destination marketing organizations. The author includes action steps for hoteliers who would like to become more involved in such efforts.
Sanon, Marie-Anne V.
Hotel housekeepers experience unique workplace hazards and characteristics that increase their risks for poor health outcomes. Today’s agency-hiring practices may further marginalize hotel housekeepers and negatively impact their health. Yet the impact of such hiring practices on the health of this vulnerable worker group remains unexplored. This article presents the debate regarding agency-hiring practices and how these practices may influence the health and well-being of hotel housekeepers. Implications for occupational health nurses are also discussed. PMID:24512722
Full Text Available An empowered worker is a knowledgeable worker. Thus, the aims of this study were to examine how empowerment is perceived by the front-line hotel employees and secondly, to identify the factors affecting empowerment within the industry. Factors such as communication, coaching, participation, training and reward were examined for any significant relationship with empowerment, along with whether the employee’s socio-demographic characteristics affected their perceptions of empowerment. The findings indicated that except for gender, socio-demographic factors were not a strong influence on the diffusion of empowerment among employees. In order to ensure that the employees feel empowered, factors such as communication, coaching, participation, training and reward should be given due attention by the management. Based on the findings, implications for companies are discussed and further research is suggested.
Neutra, Richard J.
Full Text Available Una de las arterias principales de Los Angeles, la carretera de acceso desde Western Avenue, que relaciona la ciudad con su puerto, permite llegar fácilmente, a través de una pequeña desviación, a la entrada principal del hotel. El sencillo grupo de edificios que lo constituyen, se amolda a la pendiente del terreno, acusando el juego de volúmenes y de sol y sombra para aumentar el interés visual. Al fondo, la severidad del paisaje montañoso contrasta con la tranquilidad del mar, que en este caso, pese a ser el Océano Pacífico el gran mar occidental americano, aparece al E., por estar el edificio situado en la orilla oriental de la península de Falos Verdes.
Full Text Available In the advancement of hospitality industry, thus it is important for hotel sales and marketing to understand the customer behavior in order to create effective marketing. Factors that influence customer behavior as individuality consist of personal and interpersonal factors. Personal factors include the needs, wants, motivation, perception, learning, personality, lifestyle, and self-concept. Meanwhile, interpersonal factors come from culture and sub-culture, group references, customers through stages before deciding to purchase. Begin with the awareness about the needs, customers then find information about the product or service that could be used to solve the problems. After having the information, customers select the best product and service before deciding to purchase. After purchasing, the last stage is evaluation of product and service, whether it is satisfying or not.
Full Text Available As e-marketing has become the dominant marketing mode in the hospitality industry, this study investigates how two luxury hotels represent and promote themselves through their major e-commerce platforms (i.e. hotel-owned websites. The verbal and visual texts of 51 website homepages owned by these two hotel chains are compiled and analyzed by drawing upon the corpus linguistic approach for verbal analysis and Kress and van Leeuwen’s (2006 visual grammar framework for image analysis. The findings indicate that despite some similarities in their web-mediated communication strategies, each hotel firm has discursive strategies that reveal diverging attitudes in their choices of various semiotic resources to construct their own brand identities. This study contributes to the academic literature on web-mediated tourism discourse by showing how a multimodal analysis can add insights to brand formulation.
Võrus Männiku tee 43A asuva Kubija Hotell-Loodusspaa sisekujundusest. Sisearhitektid Tiiu Truus ja Birgit Jaanus (Stuudio Truus). Arhitektid Indrek Tiigi ja Helle-Triin Hansumäe. Loetletud Stuudio Truus tehtud töid
Almuhanna, Monira Abdulrahman; Alsaif, Mohammed; Alsaadi, Muslim; Almajwal, Ali
Childhood obesity has become a new challenge for healthcare providers. The issue is not limited to certain parts of the world; its prevalence is increasing worldwide. The causes of obesity are poorly understood and continue to be debated and studied. It is a multifactorial disorder which involves dietary, behavioral, environmental as well as genetic factors. The increased consumption of more energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods with high levels of sugar and saturated fats, combined with reduced physical activity, have led to high obesity rates among children. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of dietary intake on the occurrence of childhood obesity, and study other associated factors including the education, occupation and income of parents and the living status. Normal healthy school girls (n =196) and school boys (n = 85) between the age of 6- 15 were recruited for the study. We found that obesity among children in Riyadh City was significantly associated with fast food intake (p = 0.0280). It was also observed that 72.5% of the overweight or obese students consumed fast food at least 4 times/week, and the other 15.9% were taking fast food 1- 3 times/week, while only 11.6% of the same overweight or obese group did not consume any fast food/ week. Father's and mother's occupations were not significantly correlated to their children's body weight. The prevalence of childhood obesity is changing and increasing yearly and is attributed to the nutritional risk factors for the Saudi school-age children. It is interesting to know that most of overweight or obese school students belonged to the families of highincome. Parents must take necessary precautions for the diet of their children and should adopt healthy life style in order to prevent or manage obesity of their children.
Alam, Awatif Ali
We conducted this study to assess the knowledge of breast cancer and sources of information about breast cancer among women in Riyadh. We also analyzed whether associations existed between demographic variables. Knowledge of breast cancer and, and the practice of breast self examination and use of mammography screening. Women interested in participating in this community based descriptive study provided data by completing a pre-tested structured questionnaire. Of 864 participating women, 84% were Saudi 45% were married and 67.8% had a university level education*0% were between the ages of 20 to 50 years. Knowledge of breast self examination (BSE) was high 82% (95% CI, 79.2%-84.4%) knew about BSE, 61% (95% CI confidence intervals [CI], 79.2%-84.4%) knew about BSE , while 61% [95%CI, 57.9%-64.5%] knew about mammography but only 41.2% [95% CI, 37.9%-44.5%] had performed BSE and 18.2% (95% CI, 15.5%-20.8%)had had mammography screening Knowledge of breast cancer, risk factors and protective factors for breast cancer was moderate. There was a statistically significant association between demographic characteristics (marital status, educational status and family history of breast cancer) and knowledge and practice of BSE and mammography. Though it has limitations, this study revealed an imbalance between the knowledge and practice of BSE among women. It also showed that there is only that there is only moderate knowledge of risks and protective factors for breast cancer and that knowledge and practice of BSE and mammography vary according to marital and educational status. Hence, frequent community based awareness programs are needed so that all women can know and practice BSE, which in turn helps to prevent breast cancer. (author)
Al-Tuwijri, Abdulmohsin A [Dept. of Family Medicine, Ministry of Health, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Al-Rukban, Mohammed Othman [Dept. of Family and Community Medicine, Coll. of Medicine, King Saud Univ., Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)
The prevalence of hypertension in Saudi Arabia has been assessed only in preliminary reports. The aim of this study was to determine the degree of control of blood pressure and the prevalence of common hypertension co-morbidities among hypertensive patients attending primary health care (PHC) centers in Riyadh. A cross sectional study was conducted by reviewing medical records of hypertensive patients during May and June 2001. Two hundred fifty-five medical records selected by a stratified randomization process according to the distribution of the 73 PHC centers in the city and the total number of hypertensive patients registered in the mini-clinic of each PHC-center. Trained mini-clinic nurses collected data using a data collection form developed for this purpose. Of 255 patients, 121 (47.5%) were males and 134 (52.5%) were females, the mean age was 57.2+-11.1 years and 8.3% were smokers. The majority 204 (85.7%) had greater than normal body weight. Only 101 (40.4%) had controlled systolic BP. The most common co-morbidity was diabetes mellitus found in 98 (38.4%), followed by dislipidemia in 50 (19.6%), bronchial asthma in 28 (11.0%) and renal diseases in 12 (4.7%). Except for osteoporosis, which was reported by females only (P=0.003), the occurrences of hypertensive co-morbidities did not vary from other demographic characteristics. This study demonstrated poor blood pressure control in the mini-clinics in the PHC-centers. To improve the quality of care for hypertensive patients, we recommend an improvement in PHC physician knowledge of and attitudes toward the importance of achieving targeted blood pressure levels. (author)
Al-Tuwijri, Abdulmohsin A.; Al-Rukban, Mohammed Othman
The prevalence of hypertension in Saudi Arabia has been assessed only in preliminary reports. The aim of this study was to determine the degree of control of blood pressure and the prevalence of common hypertension co-morbidities among hypertensive patients attending primary health care (PHC) centers in Riyadh. A cross sectional study was conducted by reviewing medical records of hypertensive patients during May and June 2001. Two hundred fifty-five medical records selected by a stratified randomization process according to the distribution of the 73 PHC centers in the city and the total number of hypertensive patients registered in the mini-clinic of each PHC-center. Trained mini-clinic nurses collected data using a data collection form developed for this purpose. Of 255 patients, 121 (47.5%) were males and 134 (52.5%) were females, the mean age was 57.2+-11.1 years and 8.3% were smokers. The majority 204 (85.7%) had greater than normal body weight. Only 101 (40.4%) had controlled systolic BP. The most common co-morbidity was diabetes mellitus found in 98 (38.4%), followed by dislipidemia in 50 (19.6%), bronchial asthma in 28 (11.0%) and renal diseases in 12 (4.7%). Except for osteoporosis, which was reported by females only (P=0.003), the occurrences of hypertensive co-morbidities did not vary from other demographic characteristics. This study demonstrated poor blood pressure control in the mini-clinics in the PHC-centers. To improve the quality of care for hypertensive patients, we recommend an improvement in PHC physician knowledge of and attitudes toward the importance of achieving targeted blood pressure levels. (author)
Bassuni, W.; Asindi, A.A.; Mustafa, F.S.; Hassan, B.; Din, Z.S.; Kumar, R.K.
A study was designed to determine the red cell values (hemoglobin and hematocrit) of neonates born in the high altitude of Abha and to compare these values with known values of other lowland areas of Saudi Arabia. From the cord blood of 587 normal, appropriate for gestational age and term infants born in 1993 in Abha Maternity Hospital, the ranges of Hb and Hct were 130 to 240 g/L and 0.24 to 0.79 L/L respectively. The mean Hb was 187 g/L. There was no significant difference between the male and female values. Also, 17% of the infants in this study were polycythemic, while no polycythemia was recorded in these lowland areas and only 2% to 4% in the general global newborn population. It was therefore revealed that Abha newborns had higher red cell values at the birth when compared to other newborns in the low altitude areas of Riyadh and Jeddah (P<0.001). We postulate that high altitude (2700 meters above sea level) of Abha, and therefore its relative hypoxia, has induced high red cell values in infants born in the city. The phenomenon therefore warrants the adoption of higher red cell reference values and not necessarily those already documented in other Saudi new born populations. (author)
Idrees, Majdy M.; Azzeghaiby, Saleh N.; Hammad, Mohammad M.; Kujan, Omar B.
Objectives: To evaluate the prevalence and severity of plaque-induced gingivitis among a Saudi adult population in Riyadh region. Methods: Three hundred and eighty-five eligible participants in this cross-sectional study were recruited from routine dental patients attending the oral diagnosis clinic at Al-Farabi College in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia from June 2013 to December 2013. A clinical examination was performed by 2 dentists to measure the gingival and plaque indices of Löe and Silness for each participant. Results: The prevalence of gingivitis was 100% among adult subjects aged between 18-40 years old. Moreover, the mean gingival index was 1.68±0.31, which indicates a moderate gingival inflammation. In fact, males showed more severe signs of gingival inflammation compared with females (p=0.001). In addition, the mean plaque index was 0.875±0.49, which indicates a good plaque status of the participants. Interestingly, the age was not related either to the gingival inflammation (p=0.13), or to the amount of plaque accumulation (p=0.17). However, males were more affected than females (p=0.005). Conclusion: The results of this study show that plaque accumulation is strongly associated with high prevalence of moderate to severe gingivitis among Saudi subjects. PMID:25399215
Batais, Mohammad Ali
The doctor-patient relationship has been influenced by the appearance of physicians, and there is an association between a physician's physical appearance and the patients' initial perceptions of physician competence. This study aims to explore patients' preferences toward the attire of a male physician, and to examine if a physician's choice of uniform influences the degree of trust, confidence, and follow-up care among respondents. A cross-sectional survey conducted among patients of the Alwazarat family medicine center in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by 300 patients (50% were male and 83.6% had received a secondary education; the mean age was 33.4 [10.1] years) in the Alwazarat family medicine center in Riyadh. The questionnaire was also customized for the local setting with the inclusion of photos of a male doctor in Saudi Arabian national costume, and 3 other dress styles (Western dress with white coat, scrubs with white coat, and scrubs only). Overall, across all questions regarding physician dress style preferences, participants significantly preferred Western dress (39.9%, P patients (P=.002). Respondents were more likely to favor a physician wearing Western attire with a white coat. However, Saudi national dress, followed by Western dress, is the preferred attire when physicians are dealing with social, sexual, and psychological problems.
Alosaimi, Fahad D; Alshehri, Youssef; Alfraih, Ibrahim; Alghamdi, Ayedh; Aldahash, Saleh; Alkhuzayem, Haifa; Albeeeshi, Haneen
We investigated the prevalence of psychiatric disorders among visitors to Faith Healers (FHs) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. We also studied the sociodemographic profiles for these visitors, in addition to their past psychiatric history, reason(s) for seeking FH help, and past and current treatment experience with FHs. We conducted a cross-sectional study among the visitors (n=321) to a number of faith healing settings in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia using a specially designed questionnaire and validated Arabic version of The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Most of the participants were young adults (35.1±10.8 years) and males with intermediate and secondary levels of education who had not sought medical help prior to their visits. A high proportion of the FH visitors have diagnosable mental illnesses. Depressive and anxiety disorders were the most prevalent among the study participants; few visitors were affected by psychotic or bipolar disorders. The present study provides insight for understanding the type of patients with psychiatric disorders who visit Faith Healers.(FHs). The study highlights the tendency of psychiatric patients in Saudi Arabia to visit FHs, which could reflect the importance of further studies to clarify the impact of FHs on the management of those patients.
Full Text Available Mostafa A Abolfotouh,1 Abdullah A Alabdrabalnabi,2 Rehab B Albacker,3 Umar A Al-Jughaiman,4 Samar N Hassan5 1King Abdullah International Medical Research Center (KAIMRC, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2University of Dammam, College of Medicine, Dammam, Saudi Arabia; 3King Saud University, College of Medicine, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 4King Faisal University, College of Medicine, Dammam, Saudi Arabia; 5Division of Reproductive Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Introduction: Infertility places a huge psychological burden on infertile couples, especially for women. Greater knowledge of the factors affecting fertility may help to decrease the incidence of infertility by allowing couples to avoid certain risk factors. The aim of our study was (1 to assess the knowledge and attitudes of infertile and fertile Saudi participants on infertility, possible risk factors, and social consequences; and (2 to determine the practices of infertile Saudi couples to promote their fertility before having them attend an in vitro fertilization (IVF clinic. Methods and materials: We conducted a cross-sectional study on 277 fertile participants from outpatient clinics and 104 infertile patients from the IVF clinic at King Abdulaziz Medical City between June 24, 2012 and July 4, 2012, using a previously validated interview questionnaire. Descriptive and analytical statistics were applied with a significance threshold of P ≤ 0.05. Results: A generally poor level of knowledge (59% and a neutral attitude (76% toward infertility were reported by participants. Mistaken beliefs commonly held by the study participants regarding the causes of infertility were Djinns and supernatural causes (58.8%, black magic (67.5%, intrauterine devices (71.3%, and contraceptive pills (42.9%. The healer/Sheikh was reported as the primary and secondary preference for infertility
Full Text Available Hotel housekeeping department is represented in every organizational structure of the hotel, and its size and structure depends on the type and size of the hotel, basic offer and contents, category of the hotel, the level of usage and the duration of the hotel business. The primary role of hotel housekeeping is cleaning and maintenance of hotel units and rooms, and the selection of the head hotel housekeeper, who will successfully lead the housekeeping department is extremely important for a successful business, recognition and reputation of the hotel. In addition to higher or university education and language skills, the head housekeeper must have the management skills related to planning, organizing, leading and controlling, as well as general and professional knowledge of psychology of work and hygiene. The head hotel housekeeper, as a hotel manager, organizes, directs and controls the work of hotel housekeeping. It is responsible for the accuracy of the occupancy rate report, preparation of rooms and other hotel units, to achieve the highest level of quality of hotel services, training of employees, for the application of standards and for continuous application of business policy of the hotel
Object of this research is physical environment of the boutique hotel named Haven. As there is lack of the researches concerning physical environment role in the boutique hotels, this paper could be useful both for the studied hotel as well as for the other boutique hotels managers and owners. Moreover, it could be useful for the potential customers of Hotel Haven. Main topic of this research is the importance and relevance of the physical environment in Hotel Haven, mostly its impact o...
Carla Schlieper Castilho
Full Text Available This article intends to discuss the beginnings and evolution of hotel business in Porto Alegre City, relating the upsurge of these facilities with its historic context and locating them in time and space. This study identifies, classifies and discusses several types of lodging facilities settled between 1732 and 1940 and describes the particular characteristics of each one. This article also discusses the importance of selected hotels that became markers of the social and political history of the city.
Abdulkareem O Alsuwaida
There are no available data about the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and its risk factors in the general population of the kingdom of Saudi Arabia. To estimate the prevalence of CKD and its associated risk factors in the Saudi population, we conducted a pilot community-based screening program in commercial centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Candidates were interviewed and blood and urine samples were collected. Participants were categorized to their CKD stage according to their estimated Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD3)-based, the new Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation and the presence of albuminuria. The sample comprised 491 (49.9% were males) adult Saudi nationals. The mean age was 37.4 ± 11.3 years. The overall prevalence of CKD was 5.7% and 5.3% using the MDRD-3 and CKD-EPI glomerular filtration equations, respectively. Gender, age, smoking status, body mass index, hypertension and diabetes mellitus were not significant predictors of CKD in our cohort. However, CKD was significantly higher in the older age groups, higher serum glucose, waist/hip ratio and blood pressure. Only 7.1% of the CKD patients were aware of their CKD status, while 32.1% were told that they had protein or blood in their urine and 10.7% had known kidney stones in the past. We conclude that prevalence of CKD in the young Saudi population is around 5.7%. Our pilot study demonstrated the feasibility of screening for CKD. Screening of high-risk individuals is likely to be the most cost-effective strategy to detect CKD patients (Author).
AlFakhri, Lama; Sarraj, Jumana; Kherallah, Shouq; Kuhail, Khulood; Obeidat, Akef; Abu-Zaid, Ahmed
Background The medical student population is believed to be at an increased risk for sleep deprivation. Little is known about students? perceptions towards sleep deprivation and its relationship to academic performance. The aim of study is to explore the perceptions of medical students and their academic advisors about sleep deprivation and its relationship to academic performance. Methods The study took place at Alfaisal University, College of Medicine, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. An online, anony...
Jamjoom, Abdulhakim B
To calculate the h-index for neurosurgeons in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), and to assess its association with a number of features relating to neurosurgical practice in KSA. The h-index for 84 neurosurgeons that worked in KSA during 1990-2013 was evaluated using Google Scholar during the period September to October 2014. The correlation between the h-index and a number of neurosurgeon and neurosurgical center characteristics was determined and examined statistically. The median h-index was 2.5 (range 0-33) and the mean was 5.04. The h-index was significantly higher for neurosurgeons who obtained their certification before 2001 and those working at the King Faisal Specialist Hospital, Riyadh, KSA. The h-index was also higher, but without reaching significance, for non-Saudi neurosurgeons, those with international certification and those working at the university hospitals. Additionally, the h-index was significantly lower for neurosurgeons working in the Ministry of Health hospitals. Application of the h-index to KSA neurosurgeons revealed a significant correlation with the duration after certification and with certain centers. Evaluation of the h-index should be included in the consideration for academic positions in KSA. Saudi neurosurgeons should be encouraged to publish in journals with high impact factor.
Al-Tannir, Mohamad; Kobrosly, Samer Y; Al-Badr, Ahmad H; Salloum, Nourhan A; Altannir, Youssef M
To characterize sleeping habits, assess sleep disturbance prevalence, and identify associated factors among Saudi adults. Methods: A total of 1720 adults were approached for this observational cross-sectional study between October 2014 and March 2015. The study took place in Riyadh, the capital of Saudi Arabia. We used a questionnaire to describe sleeping characteristics in relation to existing chronic diseases, smoking status, obesity, daily performance and sociodemographic variables. Results: The response rate was 79.6% (1369 participants), 61.6% have or may have sleeping disturbances of which 18.6% claimed either slowed or stopped breathing during sleep. Women reported a higher prevalence of sleep disturbances (65.2%). Feeling tired was significantly associated with sleep disturbance (49% versus 19.7%) (p greater than 0.001). Approximately 78.4% of those with sleep disturbance significantly believed that their ability to perform daily tasks is affected (p=0.005). Moreover, smoking and obesity were significantly associated with sleep disturbances (p less than 0.01). Participants with asthma, hypertension, chronic heart disease, and diabetes mellitus reported significantly more sleeping disturbance (p=0.016 to p=0.001). Conclusions: Sleep disturbances are associated with obesity, smoking, chronic health conditions, and lower performance among Saudi adults.
Al-Durihim, H; Al-Hussaini, M; Bin Salih, S; Hassan, I; Harakati, M; Al Hajjaj, A
We surveyed the records of 21 of the 28 snakebite victims seen at King Fahad National Guard Hospital in Riyadh over the 20-year period 1986-2005. The most common symptoms were local pain and swelling and the most common signs oedema and tenderness. Neurotoxicity was not noted in any case. Coagulopathy was recorded for 14/21 patients (66.7%) and 5/19 (26.4%) had leukocytosis. All patients were given tetanus toxoid (100%) and 20 (95.2%) received antivenom. Blood products were administered in 2 cases and prophylactic antibiotics in 10 (47.6%). No allergic reaction to antivenom was reported.
This presentation reviewed the geopolitics of energy in the Middle East, with particular reference to Saudi Arabia as a potential hotspot. The author examined the question of who actually governs Saudi Arabia and the core relationship between Crown Prince Abdullah and the interior Minister, Prince Nayef. Issues regarding the country's social stability were discussed with reference to the high unemployment rate. The financial security of Saudi Arabia was also discussed with reference to the need for economic and political reform. Expectations for Saudi petroleum output were outlined along with regional spurs for energy competition and OPEC participation
Full Text Available This splendid building, located at «Las Merinas», is a new source of interest in the beautiful Costa del Sol. It has been made with the most modern materials and techniques. It has an outstanding view over the sea and it has seven standardized floor levels occupied by single rooms, whilst other parts of the building are taken up with small apartments. The recreation zone includes a bar, swimming pools for children and adults, and a cabaret. The ground floor has a main entrance hall, reception offices, shopping corridor, great hall, tea room, and bar. The second floor has a breakfast room, connecting two banqueting halls, hairdresser's, sauna baths, gymnasium, administrative offices, and the manager's flat. The services zone comprises the kitchen, a dining room for various members of the senior staff, post office, laundry, and other standard facilities. The celler serves as a general store and also as wine storage. This hotel has a most impressive functional aspect, and sets a new standard of comfort and luxury for the benefit of tourists who visit this fashionable and picturesque part of the Mediterranean coast.Este espléndido edificio, situado en la finca «Las Merinas», es un atractivo más de la bellísima Costa del Sol malagueña. Se ha instalado de acuerdo con los más modernos materiales y técnicas, disfrutando de bellas vistas hacia el mar, y dispone de: un bloque con siete plantas-tipo de habitaciones, otro de apartamentos auxiliares de pequeña altura, y la zona de recreo, con bar, piscinas para niños, nadadores y saltos, y sala de fiestas. La planta baja aloja: el acceso principal, recepción, conserjería, galería comercial, gran hall, salón de té, bar, etc. La entreplanta comprende: el comedor de desayunos, en conexión con dos comedores para banquetes; peluquerías, sauna, gimnasio, administración y vivienda del director, aparte de la zona de servicios, con cocina, comedores varios de jefes, personal, correos, lavander
Based on the research project 'Accessible Hotel Rooms' that studies the balance between the experience of supply and demand regarding accessibility features in Danish hotel rooms, this paper demonstrates factors having an influence on Universal Design hotels in Denmark. The research project was financed by the Danish Transport and Construction Agency. Different notions in the hotel sector of the current supply and demand for Universal Design hotel rooms are identified, as well as future demand. Despite supplying accessible rooms, some hotels do not advertise their accessibility features on their website. There exists an attitude in the hotel sector that functions as a barrier for Universal Design: if there are enough guests, for example business travellers, then why market the hotel on Universal Design? The paper points out the coherence between the understanding of the users and the view of demand. Another important factor is Corporate Social Responsibility, which can be regarded as a strategy or platform towards Universal Design hotels.
Salih, Mustafa A.; Al-Jarallah; Al-Jarallah, Ahmed A.; Kentab, Amal Y.; Abdel-Gader, Abdel-Galil M.
Objective was to report on the prognosis, neurologic outcome, and recurrence of stroke in Saudi children. We evaluated a cohort of 104 Saudi children with stroke at the Division of Pediatric Neurology at King Khalid University Hospital, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia from July 1992 to February 2001 (retrospective study) and February2001 to March 2003 (prospective study). We analyzed the salient clinical, neuroimaging, neurophysiological, neuropsychological and laboratory data following retrieval from a specially designed comprehensive protocol. Of the 104 children in the cohort (aged one month to 12 years), 5 (4.8%) died during the study period and 9(8.7%) were lost to follow-up. The mean duration of follow-up for the remaining 90 children was 40 months (median 33 months). Recovery was judged complete in 6(6.7%) of these 90 children. We detected residual hemiparesis (irrespective of its effect on daily functions) in 73 (81%) and this was combined with other motor deficits in 45 children (50%). Forty-one children (46%) had residual dysphasia or language deficits, whereas 45 (50%) were judged to have had cognitive deficit. Psychometry revealed an abnormal intelligence quotient test (70) in 19 of 26 (73%) children. Other neurologic sequelae included epilepsy in 52 (58%), recurrent headaches in 13 (14%) and hydrocephalus in 4 (4.4%) patients, Six of the 95 (6.3%) children, who were ascertained to have died or kept their follow-up, had one or more occurrences, one month to 5 years after initial stroke (median 23 months). Patients who had recurrent strokes were significantly more likely to be the product of consanguineous marriages (p=0.04). Regarding the group of 23 children with perinatal stroke, neither deaths nor recurrences occurred during the follow-up period. However, 20 (87%) of them had significant delays in their developmental milestones. The toll of stroke in Saudi children is demanding, with most children demonstrating
Hemida, M G; Perera, R A; Wang, P; Alhammadi, M A; Siu, L Y; Li, M; Poon, L L; Saif, L; Alnaeem, A; Peiris, M
In Saudi Arabia, including regions of Riyadh and Al Ahsa, pseudoparticle neutralisation (ppNT) and microneutralisation (MNT) tests detected no antibodies to Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in sheep (n= 100), goats (n= 45), cattle (n= 50) and chickens (n= 240). Dromedary camels however, had a high prevalence of MERS-CoV antibodies. Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) infected sera from cattle had no cross-reactivity in MERS-CoV ppNT or MNT, while many dromedary camels’ sera reacted to both BCoV and MERS-CoV. Some nevertheless displayed specific serologic reaction profiles to MERS-CoV.
Full Text Available Rania M Fahmy,1,2 Ramesa S Bhat,3 Manar Al-Mutairi,4 Feda S Aljaser,5 Afaf El-Ansary4 1Department of Optometry, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt; 3Biochemistry Department, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 4Central Laboratory, Female Center for Medical Studies and Scientific Section, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 5Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Objective: To evaluate the effect of diabetes mellitus (DM, diabetic retinopathy, and degree of glycemic control (glycosylated hemoglobin [HbA1c] on peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT using optical coherence tomography.Methods: The study included 126 eyes of healthy controls (n=32 and diabetics patients (n=31, whose ages ranged from 40 to 70 years. The diabetic group was divided into: Subgroup 1: with HbA1c <7% and Subgroup 2: with HbA1c ≥7%. All patients underwent full ophthalmic examination. HbA1c level was obtained with the A1cNow+ system and the peripapillary RNFLT was measured using 3D-OCT 2000 Topcon (360-degree circular scan with 3.4 mm diameter centered on optic disc.Results: The obtained data demonstrates significant decrease in peripapillary RNFLT in superior and inferior quadrants of the right eye (p=0.000 and p=0.039, respectively, and in superior quadrant of the left eye (p=0.002 with impairment of glycemic control. Pearson’s correlation test showed significant negative correlation of RNFLT with HbA1c in the superior quadrant in both eyes.Conclusion: Impairment of glycemic control affects the peripapillary RNFLT mainly in the superior quadrant. This thickness also tends to decrease with long-standing DM, use of DM medications, and development of diabetic retinopathy. The measurement of peripapillary RNFLT
Assaf, A. George; Josiassen, Alexander; Woo, Linda
, government support, disposable income, and number of international arrivals within a tourism destination. Results indicate that the most important barriers to hotel performance are the competition among accommodation providers, tax rate and fuel price. We argue for the need for hotel providers to develop......The increased market saturation and competition in both domestic and international tourism destinations have renewed interest among hotel operators in identifying the key drivers of hotel performance. This paper presents a comprehensive analysis of the determinants of hotel performance...... strategies that take cognisance of the key drivers and barriers to enhancing hotel performance in an ever-changing global tourism sector....
Full Text Available Introduction. The Royal Monarchy in Saudi Arabia decreed that all sectors of the workforce would be subject to a policy of “Saudisation” to reduce the reliance on the expatriate workforce and to reduce the unemployment rate of Saudi nationals (Al-Mahmoud et al., 2012. Methodology. A cross-sectional design was chosen to investigate the research questions. The population of this study comprised Saudi Registered Nurses working in MOH hospitals in Riyadh which is the main health care provider in Saudi Arabia (Aboul-Enein, 2002; MOH, 2009. Results and Findings. A total number of 1,198 questionnaires were distributed and 61.2% (n=741 were returned. The findings of the study showed that the questionnaires were collected from an equal portion of the study locale and that a sample of 741 is enough to create a strong conclusion and answer the problem set in this study and all the questions in the study have been provided with answers with enough data and literatures to supports its findings. Conclusion and Recommendations. The results indicate that an increase in the recruitment of Saudi males may simply reflect cultural issues such as gender specific facilities and the Saudisation program’s nondiscriminatory approach to employment of both genders into nursing.
Chowdhury, Shakhawat; Ouda, Omar K. M.; Papadopoulou, Maria P.
The concept of virtual water content (VWC) may facilitate an understanding of total water demand for commodity production. The water consumption for livestock production forms a significant fraction of freshwater demand in arid regions, i.e., Saudi Arabia. In this paper, VWC was estimated for different livestocks in the 13 regions of Saudi Arabia. The VWC for camel production was also estimated, which has not been investigated in the previous studies. The overall VWC for livestock in Saudi Arabia was about 10.5 and 8.9 billion m3 in 2006 and 2010, respectively. This study shows the decreasing trend of overall VWC in producing livestock in Saudi Arabia. The VWC were highest in Riyadh followed by Eastern region, Qaseem, Hail, and Makkah with ranges of 3587-4112, 1684-2044, 1007-1331, 644-810, and 504-715 million m3/year, respectively. The results demonstrate that a shift in diet from the high VWC meat to low VWC meat may reduce the overall VWC for livestock production. The findings of this analysis provide an assessment of the quantity and trend of water demand for livestock production in Saudi Arabia, which is useful to assess the development of an information-based agricultural water management strategy.
Al-Kharboush, Ghada H; Al-Balkhi, Khalid M; Al-Moammar, Khalid
The aims of this study were to investigate the prevalence and distribution of dental anomalies in a group of Saudi subjects with cleft lip and palate (CLP), to examine potential sex-based associations of these anomalies, and to compare dental anomalies in Saudi subjects with CLP with published data from other population groups. This retrospective study involved the examination of pre-treatment records obtained from three CLP centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, in February and March 2010. The pre-treatment records of 184 subjects with cleft lip and palate were identified and included in this study. Pre-treatment maxillary occlusal radiographs of the cleft region, panoramic radiographs, and orthodontic study models of subjects with CLP were analyzed for dental anomalies. Orthopantomographs and occlusal radiographs may not be reliable for the accurate evaluation of root malformation anomalies. A total of 265 dental anomalies were observed in the 184 study subjects. Hypodontia was observed most commonly (66.8%), followed by microdontia (45.6%), intra-oral ectopic eruption (12.5%), supernumerary teeth (12.5%), intra-nasal ectopic eruption (3.2), and macrodontia (3.2%). No gender difference in the prevalence of these anomalies was observed. Dental anomalies were common in Saudi subjects with CLP type. This will complicate the health care required for the CL/P subjects. This study was conducted to epidemiologically explore the prevalence of dental anomalies among Saudi Arabian subjects with CLP.
Alhamlan, F S; Khayat, H H; Ramisetty-Mikler, S; Al-Muammar, T A; Tulbah, A M; Al-Badawi, I A; Kurdi, W I; Tulbah, M I; Alkhenizan, A A; Hussain, A N; Ahmed, M; Al-Ahdal, M N
To determine the prevalence and the sociodemographic characteristics and sexual behavior risk factors for human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in a hospital-based cohort of women in Saudi Arabia. Cervical specimens and questionnaire data were collected from women attending clinics in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Cervical specimens were examined for abnormal cytology using a standard Pap test and for the presence of HPV-DNA using PCR and reverse line blot hybridization tests. Approximately 73% of the 400 women tested were Saudi nationals. Nearly 50% were under 40 years old (range 22-80 years, mean±standard deviation 41.20±10.43 years). Approximately 17% of the women were HPV-positive. The most commonly detected HPV types were HPV-18 (34%) and HPV-16 (19%), with multiple infections detected in 10% of positive specimens. Multivariate analyses revealed that smoking and multiple partners were significant risk factors for HPV infection (pSaudi women. However, a high prevalence of HPV infection was found, with smoking and multiple partners as significant risk factors, in this hospital-based cohort of predominantly Saudi women. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Alkhunizan, Muath; Alkhenizan, Abdullah; Basudan, Loay
The age of the population in Saudi Arabia is shifting toward elderly, which can lead to an increased risk of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of cognitive impairment (MCI and dementia) among elderly patients in a community-based setting in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. In this cross-sectional study, we included patients aged 60 years and above who were seen in the Family Medicine Clinics affiliated with King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre. Patients with delirium, active depression, and patients with a history of severe head trauma in the past 3 months were excluded. Patients were interviewed during their regular visit by a trained physician to collect demographic data and to administer the validated Arabic version of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) test. One hundred seventy-one Saudi patients were recruited based on a calculated sample size for the aim of this study. The mean age of included sample was 67 ± 6 years. The prevalence of cognitive impairment was 45%. The prevalence of MCI was 38.6% and the prevalence of dementia was 6.4%. Age, low level of education, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease were risk factors for cognitive impairment. Prevalence of MCI and dementia in Saudi Arabia using MoCA were in the upper range compared to developed and developing countries. The high rate of risk factors for cognitive impairment in Saudi Arabia is contributing to this finding.
Alzeidan, Rasmieh A; Rabiee, Fatemeh; Mandil, Ahmed A; Hersi, Ahmad S; Ullah, Anhar A
The aim of this paper is to assess the impact of living in Saudi Arabia on expatriate employees and their families' behavioural cardiovascular risk factors (BCVRFs), and to examine the association between changes in BCVRFs and metabolic syndrome (MetS). A cross-sectional study was conducted on 1437 individuals, aged ≥ 18 years, from King Saud University in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. We used the World Health Organization STEPS questionnaire to ask every participant questions about BCVRFs twice: (1) to reflect their period of living in Saudi Arabia and (2) to shed light upon life in their country of origin. Their mean age was 40.9 (11.7) years. The prevalence of BCVRFs was as follows: tobacco use in 156 (11%), physical inactivity in 1049 (73%) low intake of fruit and vegetables in 1264 (88%) and MetS in 378 (26%). Residing in Saudi Arabia had reduced physical activity and intake of fruit and vegetables. There was also a significant increase in the fast food consumption. In conclusion, living in Saudi Arabia had a significant negative effect on BCVRFs. However, there was no statistically significant association between changes in fruit and vegetable intake and physical activity and MetS status, except that intake of fast food was lower among participants with MetS.
Z Alotaibi, Abdullah
Vision is the ability of seeing with a definite understanding of features, color and contrast, and to distinguish between objects visually. In the year 1999, the World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Agency for the Prevention of Blindness formulated a worldwide project for the eradication of preventable loss of sight with the subject of "Vision 2020: the Right to Sight". This global program aims to eradicate preventable loss of sight by the year 2020. This study was conducted to determine the main causes of low vision in Saudi Arabia and also to assess their visual improvement after using low vision aids (LVD).The study is a retrospective study and was conducted in low vision clinic at Eye World Medical Complex in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The file medical record of 280 patients attending low vision clinics from February 2008 to June 2010 was included. A data sheet was filled which include: age, gender, cause of low vision, unassisted visual acuity for long distances and short distances, low vision devices needed for long distances and short distances that provides best visual acuity. The result shows that the main cause of low vision was Optic atrophy (28.9%). Retinitis pigmentosa was the second cause of low vision, accounting for 73 patients (26%) followed by Diabetic retinopathy and Macular degeneration with 44 patients (15.7%) and 16 patients (5.7%) respectively. Inter family marriage could be one of the main causes of low vision. Public awareness should be embarked on for enlightenment on ocular diseases result in consanguineous marriage. Also, it is an important issue to start establishing low vision clinics in order to improve the situation.
Al-Muammar, T.; Hassan, A.; Kessie, G.; Cruz, D.M.D.; Al-Ahdal, Mohammed N.; Mohammed, Gamal E.
Prevalence information is lacking on human papillomavirus type 16 and 18 (HPV-16/18) infections in cervical tissues of women in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. In addition, there are no observations on progression to cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). Pap smear and HPV-16/18 detection by PCR followed by Southern blotting was performed on 120 subjects (Saudi and other Arab nationals) during routine gynecological examination. Some HPV-positive was followed for 4 years by Pap smears at every 6 months and by HPV DNA detection at the end of four years. Overall HPV-16/18 prevalence was 31.6%. HPV-16 prevalence alone was 13.3%, HPV-16 as a mixed infection with HPV-18 was 15% and all HPV-18 was 18.3%. Ten subjects had cervical abnormalities with the Pap smear test, six of whom were HPV-16/18 positive, 1 with HPV-16, 1 with HPV-18 and 4 with a mixed infection of HPV-16/18. Of all 23 HPV-16/18-positive subjects, either as individual or mixed infection, followed for years, 7 showed abnormal cytology, 6 at initial examination and 1 during follow-up. Of these 7, 6 reverted to normal without treatment and 1 was treated and became normal after 3 years. None of the subjects progressed to CIN-III. A high prevalence of HPV-16/18 was found, but with low rate of progression to CIN. A significant association with abnormal cytology was found only in patents with HPV-16/18 mixed infection. (author)
Sabbagh, Heba J.; Innes, Nicola P.; Sallout, Bahauddin I.; Alamoudi, Najlaa M.; Hamdan, Mustafa A.; Alhamlan, Nasir; Al-Khozami, Amaal I.; Abdulhameed, Fatma D.; Al-Aama, Jumana Y.; Mossey, Peter A.
Objectives: To describe the characteristics and prevalence of non-syndromic orofacial clefting (NSOFC) and assess the effects of parental consanguinity on NSOFC phenotypes in the 3 main cities of Saudi Arabia. Methods: All infants (114,035) born at 3 referral centers in Riyadh, and 6 hospitals in Jeddah and Madinah between January 2010 and December 2011 were screened. The NSOFC cases (n=133) were identified and data was collected through clinical examination and records, and information on consanguinity through parent interviews. The diagnosis was confirmed by reviewing medical records and contacting the infants’ pediatricians. Control infants (n=233) matched for gender and born in the same hospitals during the same period, were selected. Results: The prevalence of NSOFC was 1.07/1000 births in Riyadh, and 1.17/1000 births overall; cleft lip (CL) was 0.47/1000 births, cleft lip and palate (CLP) was 0.42/1000 births, and cleft palate (CP) was 0.28/1000 births. Cleft palate was significantly associated with consanguinity (p=0.047, odds ratio: 2.5, 95% confidence interval: 1 to 6.46), particularly for first cousin marriages. Conclusion: The birth prevalence of NSOFC in Riyadh alone, and in the 3 main cities of Saudi Arabia were marginally lower than the mean global prevalence. While birth prevalence for CLP was comparable to global figures, the CL:CLP ratio was high, and only CP was significantly associated with consanguinity. PMID:26318465
Heba J. Sabbagh
Full Text Available Objectives: To describe the characteristics and prevalence of non-syndromic orofacial clefting (NSOFC and assess the effects of parental consanguinity on NSOFC phenotypes in the 3 main cities of Saudi Arabia. Methods: All infants (114,035 born at 3 referral centers in Riyadh, and 6 hospitals in Jeddah and Madinah between January 2010 and December 2011 were screened. The NSOFC cases (n=133 were identified and data was collected through clinical examination and records, and information on consanguinity through parent interviews. The diagnosis was confirmed by reviewing medical records and contacting the infants’ pediatricians. Control infants (n=233 matched for gender and born in the same hospitals during the same period, were selected. Results: The prevalence of NSOFC was 1.07/1000 births in Riyadh, and 1.17/1000 births overall; cleft lip (CL was 0.47/1000 births, cleft lip and palate (CLP was 0.42/1000 births, and cleft palate (CP was 0.28/1000 births. Cleft palate was significantly associated with consanguinity (p=0.047, odds ratio: 2.5, 95% confidence interval: 1 to 6.46, particularly for first cousin marriages. Conclusion: The birth prevalence of NSOFC in Riyadh alone, and in the 3 main cities of Saudi Arabia were marginally lower than the mean global prevalence. While birth prevalence for CLP was comparable to global figures, the CL:CLP ratio was high, and only CP was significantly associated with consanguinity.
Huda A. Al-Shehri
Full Text Available Objectives: To probe dental students’ perceptions on their cultural competency and international student exchange programs as a way of improving cultural competency training. Methods: A cross-sectional survey (n=460 was distributed to predoctoral students at the College of Dentistry, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in May 2014 at the male and female university campuses. Descriptive statistics were carried out using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (p=0.05. Results: It was found that 79.6% of students think that teaching them regarding cultural diversity is important. Only 41% of students thought their dental education teaches them on the importance of volunteerism and philanthropy. Most students (89.8% think that international student exchanges can enhance their cultural competence. Conclusion: In this study, it was found that students believe that cultural competence is important and participation in international student exchange programs can enhance their training.
Al-Shehri, Huda A; Al-Taweel, Sara M; Ivanoff, Chris S
To probe dental students' perceptions on their cultural competency and international student exchange programs as a way of improving cultural competency training. A cross-sectional survey (n=460) was distributed to predoctoral students at the College of Dentistry, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in May 2014 at the male and female university campuses. Descriptive statistics were carried out using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (p=0.05). It was found that 79.6% of students think that teaching them regarding cultural diversity is important. Only 41% of students thought their dental education teaches them on the importance of volunteerism and philanthropy. Most students (89.8%) think that international student exchanges can enhance their cultural competence. In this study, it was found that students believe that cultural competence is important and participation in international student exchange programs can enhance their training.
Shaffi Ahamed Shaik
Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of socio demographic and clinical characteristics of pregnant women on their physical activity. Methods: An observational quantitative cross sectional design was carried out in the delivery ward and paediatrics clinic of king Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The study subjects included all women who had delivered in the last three months, during the study period between 2013- 2014. The sample size was 336. Data collection included socio-demographic variables, pregnancy related variables and the physical activity by using validated pregnancy physical activity questionnaire. Results: The mean (standard deviation total physical activity score of all the study subjects was 197.39(72.1. The physical activity scores are statistically significantly higher in younger women, graduation education level, and among those who were employed. The physical activity scores were statistically significantly higher in women who had normal delivery, did not have any illness and those who had followed the advice to perform physical activity. Conclusion: The levels of physical activity along with their socio demographic and clinical characteristic were assessed among the pregnant women. The study found low pursuance of physical activity during pregnancy. Any kind of illness suffered during pregnancy further reduced the physical activity levels. It was only the young and educated pregnant women who held onto regular physical activity as advised during their pregnancy.
Eelmisel aastal moodustatud hotellikett Barons Hotels OÜ opereerib Tallinnas kolme hotelli, need on eksklusiivne butiikhotell Barons, moodne äri-, konverentsi- ja puhkereisijate hotell Euroopa ja mugav kahetärnihotell Braavo!
Petrevska, Biljana; Cingoski, Vlatko; Gelev, Saso
This paper gives an overview of a potential path that new hotels have to satisfy to improve their status from a hotel with smart rooms towards a full-scale smart hotel facility. It presents a possible transitional way including innovative applications based on modern information technology for ambient settings in the domain of hotel industry that aims to improve the quality of offered services towards clients, starting from the present level of smart rooms. The main objective i...
Gunawan, Astri Indrawati
The development of entertainment and tourism in Surabaya has lead to increasing of tourist arrival. This condition makes hotel businesses flourishing. The 3 star hotel is currently the best-selling hotel due to adequate facilities at current economic level. To cope with the competition, many 3 star hotels applied branding in the interior. Interior branding is formed not only from the visual beauty, but rather to the room's atmosphere that contains stories and unique messages to influence the ...
Soesatyo, Stephanie; Wibowo, Adi; Handojo, Andreas
Hotel ABC is a company engaged in hospitality management, i.e. room rental, rental of meeting rooms and coffee shop. Hotel ABC has a branch that has the same specifications of the hotel. In business process, Hotel ABC has information systems to support existing business processes. However, existing information systems have not been integrated as a whole. Based on the condition stated above, analysis and design of enterprise architecture information system is created for the company. The proce...
Bachelor thesis analyzes the marketing strategy of The Emblem Hotel. The work combines two main parts - theoretical and practical, based on the chosen hotel. The first part defines the main terms and concepts associated with marketing and services in the hotel environment. Another section is devoted to presentation and analysis of individual marketing mix with its application to the hotel. The last section contains of an analysis of competition and SWOT analysis, on the basis of which in the ...
Health ATMs are terminals which are connected to a centrally located database storing patients' electronic healthcare records (EHR). These machines are capable of collecting information in a far superior fashion than humans and are also able to rectify obsolete data in a manner that humans are generally not inclined to. The main goal of this study is to assess the importance of adopting health ATMs in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), which can improve the confidence of patients, reward health self-management, and achieve positive health outcomes through their easy-to-use applications that are secure and accessible through various devices. Strength, Weakness, Opportunity, and Threat (SWOT) analysis was used to assess the efficiency of adopting health ATMs in KSA and reveal the said characteristics. Three focus groups assembled in the cities of Riyadh, Jeddah and Dammam during the period 2013-2014. The groups consisted of individuals experienced in the function of health ATMs. It was found that the sector possessed a number of strengths that would help it in reaching the goals outlined therein, thereby achieving successful outcomes. Health ATMs could be a promising new advancement in the field of health if the project were to be planned and implemented correctly. Their benefits would consequently reach organizational and national levels. It is, therefore, crucial to educate the project managers about the benefits of learning from others as well as educating them about the needs and the requirements of the concerned organization.
Tabbara, Khalid F; Omar, Nazri; Hammouda, Ehab; Akanuma, Masataka; Ohguchi, Takeshi; Ariga, Toshihide; Tagawa, Yoshitsugu; Kitaichi, Nobuyoshi; Ishida, Susumu; Aoki, Koki; Ishiko, Hiroaki; Ohno, Shigeaki
Adenoviral keratoconjunctivitis is a major cause of ocular morbidity and may lead to visual loss. Adenovirus types 8, 19, and 37 may cause epidemic keratoconjunctivitis. The main objective of this study was to determine the types of adenoviruses causing keratoconjunctivitis in Saudi Arabia. We conducted a non-interventional observational clinical study. Seventy three eyes from 65 patients who presented to The Eye Center in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia with clinical features of acute adenoviral keratoconjunctivitis were included. Each patient underwent complete clinical examination and features such as membranous reaction, conjunctival hemorrhage, subepithelial corneal infiltrates, and preauricular lymph node enlargement were recorded. Conjunctival swabs were obtained from patients with presumed acute viral conjunctivitis. Immunochromatography (IC) and restriction fragment length polymorphism polymerase chain reaction (PCR-RFLP) were performed on the conjunctival swabs obtained from each eye. Serotype identification was performed using direct sequencing technique. Forty-nine (67.1%) were adenovirus type 8, 8 (11.0%) were adenovirus type 3, 6 (8.2%) type 37, 5 (6.8%) were adenovirus type 4, and 2 (2.3%) type 19. The remaining 5 were types 14, 19, and 22. The prevalence of membranous conjunctivitis was highest (83%) among eyes with adenovirus type 37 while subepithelial corneal opacities were most commonly seen among eyes with adenovirus type 8 (47%). Immunochromatography tests were positive for adenovirus in 48 (65.7%) out of 73 eyes. This study determined the types of adenoviruses causing keratoconjunctivitis at one center in Saudi Arabia. Direct sequencing techniques is an efficient, accurate, and rapid means of diagnosing adenoviral keratoconjunctivitis. The most common causes of adenoviral keratoconjunctivitis in Saudi Arabia were adenovirus types 8, 3, and 37. Membranous conjunctivitis and subepithelial opacities had the highest frequency of adenovirus types 37 and 8
Jammah, Anwar A.; Alshehri, Anwar S.; Alrakhis, Afaf A.; Alhedaithy, Asma S.; Almadhi, Asma M.; Alkwai, Hala M.; Alhamad, Maram M.; Alzahrani, Saad H.
Objective: To determine the reference intervals for thyroid function tests and the prevalence of thyroid autoimmunity in the Saudi population. Methods: A cross-sectional prospective study was conducted in King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia from January to June 2013. History and physical examination were obtained. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), and free triiodothyronine (FT3) were measured by Electro-chemiluminescence Immunoassay system-assay. Anti-thyroperoxidase, and anti-thyroglobulin antibodies were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent-assay. Subjects with previous or a family history of thyroid disorders, those taking medications affecting thyroid function, pregnant or lactating women, and those with goiter were excluded. Individuals with positive antibodies were excluded from the final analysis of the TSH reference range, but were used to determine the prevalence of thyroid autoimmunity. Results: Out of 337 Saudi subjects initially screened, 132 (aged 13-60 years) were candidates for reference calculation, the mean±standard deviation, and (2.5th-97.5th) percentile of TSH (mIU/L) was 1.96±0.9 (0.59-4.37), for FT4 (pmol/L) was 15.47±1.83 (12.04-19.13), and for FT3 (pmol/L) was 5.22±0.7 (4.07-6.76). The TSH was higher in the antibodies positive group (2.5±1.17 mIU/L) compared with the negative one (1.96±0.9 mIU/L) (pantithyroid antibodies. Conclusion: The TSH reference range was similar to laboratory references. Thyroid antibodies were prevalent in Saudis, necessitating further work in larger scale studies. PMID:25987111
Before the grand opening of Hotel Nikko Tianjin on April 11,Beijing Review conducted an interview with Mr.Hiroshi O’ishi,General Manager of the new hotel,in order to share the operational and management expertise of Nikko Hotels International with our readers.
Full Text Available Sportsmen are customers of hotel services, therofore sports managers must have about their organization and work. In the hotel business there are at least three involved parties, and each one of them has one or more main goals. Main goal of the hotel owners is to make profit, hotel employees is to earn their salaries and the hotel guests main goal is to get the satisfac- tion through the services that hotel offers. Main assignment of the hotel management is to create business strategy which would lead to satisfaction of all three involved parties. Favoring one of the involved party’s needs that leads to other parties disadvanta- ge is not a formula of successful management. Mission and vision of the hotel business are determined by the hotel owners them- selves. The goal of the hotel management is to “translate” the general business philo- sophy into goals, plans and measures in order to achieve the before mentioned philo- sophy. Determining of the (really achievable vision, “dream of success” if you will, is the foundation of the total and successful business politics in the hotelier business. The goal of this work is to answer the questions of the usefulness of the hotels marketing mix, diverse commercial tools and the resource size which hotels use for mar- keting. All in the function of general alignment of the universal business politics and concrete plans and functions.
Full Text Available Business is back for hotels across the United States with occupancy levels surpassing long-run averages and hotels raising room rates more aggressively. The hotel industry has finally climbed out of the recovery period following the Great Recession as people are traveling more than ever before, and at higher prices.
Marquès Palmer, Jordi
Desenvolupament d'una aplicació amb Microsoft .NET, WCF, WPF, Linq2SQL, d'un Hotel Spa. Desarrollo de una aplicación con Microsoft .NET, WCF, WPF, Linq2SQL, de un Hotel Spa. Application development using Microsoft .NET, WCF, WPF, Linq2SQL, for a Spa Hotel.
Salwa B. El-Sobkey
Full Text Available Background Patient’s rights are worldwide considerations. Saudi Patient’s Bill of Rights (PBR which was established in 2006 contained 12 items. Lack of knowledge regarding the Saudi PBR limits its implementation in health facilities. This study aimed to investigate the knowledge of health professions’ students at College of Applied Medical Sciences (CAMS Riyadh Saudi Arabia regarding the existence and content of Saudi PBR as well as their attitude toward its ineffectiveness. Method A 3-parts survey was used to collect data from 239 volunteer students participated in the study. Data were analyzed by descriptive and analytical statistics using SPSS. Results Results showed that although the majority of students (96.7% believe in the ineffectiveness of patient’s rights, half (52.3% of them had perceptual knowledge regarding the existence of Saudi PBR and only 7.9% of them were knowledgeable about some items (1–4 items of the bill. Privacy and confidentiality of patient was the most common known patient’s rights. Students’ academic level was not correlated to neither their knowledge regarding the bill existence or its content nor to their attitude toward the bill. The majority of the students (93% reported that only one course within their curriculum was patient’s rights-course related. About one quarter (23.4% of the students reported that teaching staff used to mention patient’s rights in their teaching sessions. Conclusion The Saudi health professions students at CAMS have positive attitude toward the ineffectiveness of patient’s rights nevertheless they showed limited knowledge regarding the existence of Saudi PBR and its contents. CAMS curriculums do not support the subject of patient’s rights.
ATAY, Lütfi; DİLEK, S. Emre; YILDIRIM, H. Mehmet
Defined as environmentally-sensitive marketing, green marketing is applied as a green hotel by accommodation establishments, and as a result of this application, hotels are entitled to be awarded a green star certificate. While those international hotel establishments which have become a brand are carrying out important activities with respect to the green hotel practice, it might be stated that hotels in Turkey are at the beginning level concerning sensitivity to the environment. In the stud...
Rogerson, Jayne M.
The global hotel industry is at the heart of the tourism production system and dominated by chain affiliated hotels. Understanding the international spread of hotel chains is a critical issue in contemporary tourism scholarship. Although the internationalization of hotel chains based in the global North is extensively researched, limited work exists on hotel chains based in the global South. This paper addresses the internationalization and destination choice in Africa of South African based ...
Chemical pollution, loss of biodiversity, ecological and other to environmental issues addressing words are often heard in todays’ society. Sustainability and especially its environmental aspect are growing trend. Environmental sustainability is considerable issues as well in tourism industry. Hotels can decrease their negative impact on environment by following and implementing environmentally sustainable practices at their business. Any step towards sustainability benefits both the environm...
Raukas, Inga, 1967-
Projekteerija Arhitektuuribüroo Künnapu & Padrik. Arhitektid Vilen Künnapu, Ain Padrik, Eero Palm, Tarmo Maiste. Sisekujundajad Christian Lundwall, Jan Öberg. Konstruktsioonid: Teuvo Meriläinen, Jyrki Rautamäki. Projekt ja hotell valmis 2000. 12 ill.: korruste plaanid, sise- ja välisvaated
Nermin K. Saeed; Abdulmageed M. Kambal; Noura A. El-Khizzi
To assess the prevalence of multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacteria causing infections in patients at the intensive care units (ICUs) of Riyadh Military Hospital (RMH), as well as their antimicrobial resistance patterns for one year. A retrospective, cohort investigation was performed. Laboratory records from January to December 2009 were studied for the prevalence of MDR Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria and their antimicrobial resistance in ICU patients from RMH, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A total of 1210 isolates were collected from various specimens such as: respiratory (469), blood (400), wound/tissue (235), urinary (56), nasal swabs (35), and cerebro-spinal fluid (15). Regardless of the specimen, there was a high rate of nosocomial MDR organisms isolated from patients enrolled in the General ICU (GICU) in Riyadh. Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) comprised 40.9%, Klebsiella pneumonia (K. pneumonia) - 19.4%, while Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) formed 16.3% of these isolates. The P. aeruginosa, A. baumannii, K. pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus (methycillin sensitive and methycillin resistant), and Staphylococccus coagulase negative are the most common isolates recovered from clinical specimens in the GICU of RMH. Respiratory tract specimens represented nearly 39% of all the specimens collected in the ICU. The most common MDR organisms isolated in this unit were A. baumannii, and K. pneumoniae (Author).
AlNafie, Abdulatif H
This paper presents the phyto geography of Saudi Arabia and examines its phytogeographic location within the complex plant geographical regions of the Middle East. It reviews and discuses works have that been published so far by plant geographers and biogeographers on the phytogeographical regions of Southwest Asia and Northeast Africa, and determines the location of Saudi Arabia within it. The delimitation of the frontiers between plant-regions in Saudi Arabia, especially the south western part, which has always created some difficulties for biogeographers as well as phytogeographers who have studied the region. (author)
Hinloopen, J.; Martin, S.
We introduce a cost of location into Hotelling's (1929) spatial duopoly model. We derive the general conditions on the cost-of-location function under which a pure strategy price-location Nash equilibrium exists. With linear transportation cost and a suitably specified cost of location that rises
Hotel and Catering Industry Training Board, Wembley (England).
This syllabus is intended for the use of training personnel in drawing up training programs for room-maids in hotels. Its main objective is to produce fully trained maids, thereby maintaining and raising standards. The syllabus is divided into three sections: Introducing to Housekeeping, Basic Tasks Performed by the Majority of Housekeeping…
Koszuta, Laurie Einstein
Hotels, in hopes of gaining a competitive edge, are offering workout rooms, exercise equipment, fitness trails, and jogging tracks, but no standards have been set for safety of the facilities or staff preparedness in exercise screening, equipment use, injury prevention, or first aid. (MT)
Full Text Available To evaluate the prevalence, etiologic factors and therapy of hypertension in actively followed up transplant population in Saudi Arabia; we retrospectively reviewed the records of the active renal transplant patients at two large transplant centers in Riyadh and Jeddah in Saudi Arabia. These subjects were transplanted between January 1979 and November 1998. The patients were grouped according to the measurement of blood pressure; group 1 (considered normo-tensive: blood pressure below 140/90 mmHg, group2: blood pressure between 140-159/90-99, group 3: blood pressure 160-179/100-109 group 4: equal to or above 180/110. There were 1115 patients′ records included in the study. The mean duration of transplantation was 66.9 ± 50.1 months. According to the level of measured blood pressure, there were 641 (57.5% patients in the normotensive group (group 1, 404 (36.3% patients in the mildly hypertensive group (group 2 64 (5.7% patients in the moderately severe hypertension group (group 3 and only six (0.5% patients in the severe hypertension group (group 4. The estimated prevalence of hypertension in this study was almost 85%. We found no significant difference in the prevalence of hypertension in terms of gender, year of transplantation, duration of transplantation, type of donor, number of previous transplants, diagnosis of renal artery stenosis, etiology of kidney disease, diagnosis of diabetes after transplantation, diagnosis of cerebrovascular accidents, or mean dose of prednisolone and cyclosporine. There was a statistically significant association between increased level of blood pressure and old age (above 50 years, original disease associated with hypertension, history of hypertension on dialysis, acute rejection (once or more, presence of protienuria (more than 0.3 mg/day, abnormality of ECG, or serum creatinine above 300 µmol/L. We conclude that hypertension is highly prevalent in the renal transplant population in Saudi Arabia. Risk
Full Text Available Ibrahim G Alghamdi,1 Issam I Hussain,1 Mohamed S Alghamdi,2 Mohamed A El-Sheemy1,3 1University of Lincoln, Brayford Pool, Lincoln, United Kingdom; 2Ministry of Health, General Directorate of Health Affairs Al-Baha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 3Lincoln Hospital, Research and Development, United Lincolnshire Hospitals, National Health Service Trust, Lincoln, United Kingdom Background: This study presents descriptive epidemiological data related to breast cancer cases diagnosed from 2001 to 2008 among Saudi women, including the frequency and percentage of cases, the crude incidence rate (CIR, and the age-standardized incidence rate (ASIR, adjusted by the region and year of diagnosis. Methods: This is a retrospective descriptive epidemiological study of all Saudi female breast cancer cases from 2001 to 2008. The statistical analyses were conducted using descriptive statistics, a linear regression model, and analysis of variance with the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 20 (IBM Corporation, Armonk, NY, USA. Results: A total of 6,922 female breast cancer cases were recorded in the Saudi Cancer Registry from 2001 to 2008. The highest overall percentages (38.6% and 31.2% of female breast cancer cases were documented in women who were 30–44 and 45–59 years of age, respectively. The eastern region of Saudi Arabia had the highest overall ASIR, at 26.6 per 100,000 women, followed by Riyadh at 20.5 and Makkah at 19.4. Jazan, Baha, and Asir had the lowest average ASIRs, at 4.8, 6.1, and 7.3 per 100,000 women, respectively. The region of Jouf (24.2%; CIR 11.2, ASIR 17.2 had the highest changes in CIR and ASIR from 2001 to 2008. While Qassim, Jazan and Tabuk recorded down-trending rates with negative values. Conclusion: There was a significant increase in the CIRs and ASIRs for female breast cancer between 2001 and 2008. The majority of breast cancer cases occurred among younger women. The region of Jouf had the greatest significant
Mohammad Abdul Baseer
Conclusion: Oral health knowledge among the health professionals working in KFMC, Riyadh was lower than what would be expected of these groups, which had higher literacy levels in health care, but they showed a positive attitude toward professional dental care.
Full Text Available Ahmad Abulaban, Abdulrahman Alharbi, Osama BinDajam, Mohammed Al Jarbou, Hatem Alharbi, Faiz Alanazi, Khalid Aldamiri, Ahmed Althobaiti, Abdulla Al Sayyari Department of Medicine, Division of Neurology, King Saud bin-Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, King Abdulaziz Medical City, National Guard Health Affairs, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate and compare the opinions and attitudes of medical students toward medical research in five Saudi universities and examine the changes observed in these opinions and attitudes in one of these universities over a period of time.Methods: This is a cross-sectional study conducted among medical students in five Saudi universities. This study was based on a survey undertaken in 2015. The survey consisted of five questions inquiring about the opinions and attitudes of medical students toward medical research. The same survey was carried out 8 years earlier in one of these universities (King Abdulaziz University [KAU], and the results obtained during the two periods (2007 and 2015 were compared.Results: A convenient sample of 924 students was selected from five Saudi universities. Ninety-five (10.3% of the medical students were not aware of the usefulness and importance scientific research will have on their future careers. A total of 409 (44.3% stated that they had no knowledge on how to conduct scientific research. On the other hand, a vast majority of medical students (98.1% expressed a willingness and interest to participate in scientific research if provided with an opportunity. The percentage of students from KAU strongly agreeing to participate in research rose from 33.1% in 2007 to 81.5% in 2015 (P=0.001. Of all the students surveyed, 431 (46.6% had participated in scientific research as undergraduates.Conclusion: Most students in five Saudi universities expressed enthusiasm for participating in a research project, but only a few of them had
Al-Ruthia, Yazed Sulaiman; Mansy, Wael; Barasin, Mohammad; Ghawaa, Yazeed Mohammad; AlSultan, Mohammed; Alsenaidy, Mohammad A; Alhawas, Solaiman; AlGhadeer, Sultan
Background: Patients with mental disorders, such as depression and anxiety, who seek medical care in private psychiatric clinics in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, have recently expressed concerns to doctors about difficulty in filling psychotropic medications, such as Amitriptyline and Aripiprazole, at retail community pharmacies. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is a shortage of some commonly prescribed psychotropic medications in retail community pharmacies in Saudi Arabia, and if so, to explore the possible reasons behind the shortage of these medications. Methods: The availability of 28 commonly prescribed psychotropic medications was checked in multiple retail community pharmacies in 4 different regions of Saudi Arabia. Further, potential reasons behind the shortage of some psychotropic medications in retail community pharmacies were also explored. Results: Amitriptyline, Amoxapine, Aripiprazole, Bupropion, Buspirone, Duloxetine, Haloperidol, Hydroxyzine, Lithium, Prochlorperazine, Procyclidine, Promethazine, Thioridazine, Trazodone, and Trifluoperazine were unavailable in over half of the 248 community pharmacies surveyed. Four possible reasons behind the shortage of these medications were reported by 31 pharmacists working in different retail community pharmacies' purchasing departments, with a majority (58.06%) reporting the primary reason for a shortage of these medications that they are slow-moving items with low profit margins. Conclusions: The findings of this study should expedite the reform process in both the Ministry of Health and the Saudi Food and Drug Authority (SFDA) to publish and enforce an essential list of medications for retail community pharmacies, which should include the most commonly prescribed psychotropic medications.
Balkhy, Hanan H; El Beltagy, Kamel; El-Saed, Aiman; Aljasir, Badr; Althaqafi, Abdulhakeem; Alothman, Adel F; Alshalaan, Mohammad; Al-Jahdali, Hamdan
The annual risk of tuberculosis infection (ARTI) data in Saudi Arabia has not been updated since 1993. To estimate the prevalence of latent TB infection (LTBI) and ARTI in a population-based sample in Saudi Arabia using Tuberculin skin test (TST) and QuantiFERON TB Gold in tube (QFT-GIT) test. A population-based cross sectional study was conducted between July 2010 and March 2013. Participants were randomly selected from the population served by the primary healthcare centers of the Ministry of National Guard Health Affairs in Riyadh, Jeddah, Alhassa and Dammam, Saudi Arabia. A total of 1369 participants were included. The overall prevalence of LTBI was similar using TST and QFT-GIT (9.3% and 9.1% respectively, p=0.872) but stratified prevalence rates were variable in all sociodemographic groups except marital status. Additionally, the prevalence rates of LTBI using either test alone showed significant differences by several sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics. The overall ARTI was 0.36% using TST and 0.35% using QFT-GIT. We are reporting much lower estimates for the prevalence of LTBI and the ARTI in a population-based sample in Saudi Arabia relative to the data that have been used for more than two decades. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Aldrees, Turki; Al-Eissa, Sami; Badri, Motasim; Aljuhayman, Ahmed; Zamakhshary, Mohammed
Job satisfaction refers to the extent to which people like or dislike their job. Job satisfaction varies across professions. Few studies have explored this issue among physicians in Saudi Arabia. The objective of this study is to determine the level and factors associated with job satisfaction among Saudi and non-Saudi physicians. In this cross-sectional study conducted in a major tertiary hospital in Riyadh, a 5-point Likert scale structured questionnaire was used to collect data on a wide range of socio-demographic, practice environment characteristics and level and consequences of job satisfaction from practicing physicians (consultants or residents) across different medical specialties. Logistic regression models were fitted to determine factors associated with job satisfaction. Of 344 participants, 300 (87.2%) were Saudis, 252 (73%) males, 255 (74%) married, 188 (54.7%) consultants and age [median (IQR)] was 32 (27-42.7) years. Overall, 104 (30%) respondents were dissatisfied with their jobs. Intensive care physicians were the most dissatisfied physicians (50%). In a multiple logistic regression model, income satisfaction (odds ratio [OR]=0.448 95% CI 0.278-0.723, P job satisfaction identified in this study should be addressed in governmental strategic planning aimed at improving the healthcare system and patient care.
Full Text Available Ayidh M Alqarni,1,2 Vishal Vennu,1 Sulaiman A Alshammari,3 Saad M Bindawas1 1Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Physical Therapy, King Abdullah Hospital, Bisha, Saudi Arabia; 3Department of Family and Community Medicine, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Purpose: Older adults are the fastest growing population group worldwide. Regular physical activity (PA is reported to reduce the risk of health conditions and improve personal well-being. Few validated instruments can be used to measure the PA levels among older adults in Saudi Arabia. The Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE is used worldwide for evaluating the PA levels of the elderly in epidemiological studies. However, this scale has not been translated into Arabic. This study aimed to cross-culturally adapt the PASE into Arabic language and evaluate its reliability and validity among community-dwelling older adults in Saudi Arabia. Patients and methods: This study was a cross-sectional one following Beaton guidelines to translate and perform cultural adaptation, as well as test the reliability and validity of the PASE Arabic version (PASE-A. Elderly (N=74 people from both genders, who lived in a community dwelling in Riyadh city, were selected from several primary health care centers. The study used Cronbach’s alpha coefficient to assess the internal consistency reliability, while intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC2,1 was used for test–retest reliability and the Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient (r was used to evaluate the correlation among PASE-A and grip strength, Timed Up and Go test, body mass index, and fat percentage. Results: Out of 74 older adults, 59 (79.7% completed the PASE-A questionnaire twice. The internal consistency of the PASE-A components was good (Cronbach’s alpha 0.70–0.75, and the reliability of the components
Al-Swiahb, Jamil N.; Al-Ammar, A.; Al-Dousary, Surayie H.
Objective was to report the allergic fungal sinusitis (AFS) in children in Saudi Arabia and to review the experience of King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital in diagnosis and management of AFS in children. Hospital charts of 45 children reviewed retrospectively. Clinical presentation, radiological and operative findings, management and outcomes studied. Only 25 patients had >-4 diagnostic criteria, treated endoscopically between January 2000 and December 2005 and followed at least 2 years in KAUH, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Twenty-five patients had at least 4 criteria for AFS> All patients underwent functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) with high recurrence rate 44%. Twenty-eight percent needed revision surgery even with medical treatment post operatively. Moreover, no other complications were reported in this study. Aspergillus spp is the most common fungal type in our review. Allergic fungal sinusitis in children is underestimated and understudied associated with poor outcome and high recurrence because of difficulty in management. Therefore, the most effective approach of AFS management in children is to have a high index of suspicion, adequate, preoperative evaluation, medical preparation preoperatively, meticulous surgery, medical management, postoperative including topical and systemic corticosteroids and close clinical follow-up with endoscopically guided debridement. (author)
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to find out the prevalence, characteristics, and distribution of musculoskeletal pain among construction workers in Saudi Arabia. A questionnaire about musculoskeletal pain in different parts of the body was completed by 165 construction workers from the construction industries in Dammam and Riyadh cities. The descriptive data were analyzed using chi-square test. The level of statistical significance was set at P<0.05. Eighty (48.5% of the responding workers had pain in neck, shoulders, lower back, hand, knee, or ankle. The majority of respondents had low back pain (50% followed by knee pain (20%. The average intensity of pain at all sites during activity and rest was 6.65 and 3.59, respectively. Thirty-four (42.5% respondents had dull aching pain and 24 (30% had cramping pain. There was an association between years of experience, duration of break during work, and use of protective equipment with the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain in construction workers (P<0.05. Most of the workers complaining of pain got medical treatment (62.5% and only 25% received physical therapy. It can be concluded from this study that the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain among construction workers in Saudi Arabia is high.
AlQuadeib, Bushra T; Eltahir, Eram K D; Banafa, Rana A; Al-Hadhairi, Lama A
Shampooing is the most common form of hair treatment. Shampoos are primarily products aimed at cleansing the hair and scalp. There are many brands of shampoos in Saudi Arabia, available from different sources, locally and imported from other countries. This study aims to investigate whether such brands comply with the Saudi standard specifications for shampoos, issued by the National Center for Specifications and Standards, and to what extent these specifications are applied. Six shampoo brands were randomly collected from Riyadh market (Pantene®, Sunsilk®, Herbal essences®, Garnier Ultra Doux®, Syoss® and L'Oreal Elvive®). The selected shampoos were evaluated according to their physicochemical properties, including organoleptic characterization, pH measurement, percentage of solid content, rheological measurements, dirt dispersion level, foaming ability and foam stability, and surface tension. All shampoos had a good percentage of solids, excellent foam formation with stable foam and a highly viscous nature. Regarding the pH measurement, all shampoo samples were within the specified range with good wetting ability.
With the evolution of health services in Saudi Arabia, there has been increase in the number of medical practice litigations. The author analyzed the medical malpractice litigation that was referred to the National Medico-Legal Committee (MLC) in order to evaluate the magnitude and underlying factors of the problem in Saudi Arabia. A retrospective analysis of the official records of Medico-Legal malpractice over the period 1420H-1424H (199-2003) was performed. The incidence among different medical specialties, location, and final resolution of each claim were identified. Data analysis revealed an increasing trend in the total number of claims over the study period, with a sharp increase in the transition between 1422H and 1423H (2001-200). The distribution of claims over different medical specialties showed that obstetrical practice took the lead with 27%, followed by general surgery and subspecialties, represented by 17% each, internal medicine 13%, while pediatrics contributed 10% of claims: the fewest claims were in dentistry with 2.5%. The majority of claims were referred to the Ministry of Health and private sectors medical facilities. Most claims were from the Riyadh region over the period between 1420H to 1422H (1999-2001), while thereafter, during 1423 and 1424H (2002 and 2003), the Holy Capital had the highest number of claims referred to the MLC. Adherence to standards of medical practice is by far the best approach to avoid or reduce the incidence of litigation. (author)
Bushra T. AlQuadeib
Full Text Available Shampooing is the most common form of hair treatment. Shampoos are primarily products aimed at cleansing the hair and scalp. There are many brands of shampoos in Saudi Arabia, available from different sources, locally and imported from other countries. This study aims to investigate whether such brands comply with the Saudi standard specifications for shampoos, issued by the National Center for Specifications and Standards, and to what extent these specifications are applied. Six shampoo brands were randomly collected from Riyadh market (Pantene®, Sunsilk®, Herbal essences®, Garnier Ultra Doux®, Syoss® and L'Oreal Elvive®. The selected shampoos were evaluated according to their physicochemical properties, including organoleptic characterization, pH measurement, percentage of solid content, rheological measurements, dirt dispersion level, foaming ability and foam stability, and surface tension. All shampoos had a good percentage of solids, excellent foam formation with stable foam and a highly viscous nature. Regarding the pH measurement, all shampoo samples were within the specified range with good wetting ability. Keywords: Shampoo, Physicochemical approach, Evaluation
Full Text Available The subject of this research is the market of hotel services in Ukraine in recent years, since the market for the hotel services in Ukraine emerged in the first half of the 2000s. Initially, the focus of both local and foreign investors was on the development of the hotel market in Kyiv. Gradually, with the development of hotel business in Ukraine, investors’ interest began to shift in the direction of populated cities, primarily large business centers of the country (with a population of about 1 million people such as Kharkiv, Donetsk, Dnipropetrovsk, Lviv and in the direction of resort areas – Crimea, Carpathians, Odessa. According to the World Tourism Organization during the past 24 years the income from international tourism has increased by 9%. The number of international tourists every year is growing at a rate of 4%. Active development of hotel real estate segment was highly influenced by the European football championship held in 2011 due to the requirements of the cities-organizers which hosted matches (Kyiv, Kharkiv, Donetsk, Lviv to have certain number of hotel rooms of different categories. Purpose. The study is an analysis of the problems in the market of hotel services and prospects for their solution. Hospitality industry in Ukraine is one of the fastest growing sectors of the economy. It is pleasant to note that new hotels, rest houses and resorts are being opened while the existing hotels are being reconstructed to meet higher levels of services. Unsaturated market of hotel services of different levels creates a great opportunity for international hotel operators to enter Ukrainian market with confidence and expand its influence in the industry by the means of its internal policies. Therefore, this study is very relevant in the modern realms. The methodological base of research were works of domestic and foreign authors dedicated to the problems of the hotel industry development. Existing problems in the hospitality industry
Full Text Available In the present work a simple and very effective mathematical model is designed for tourist hotels of LEVEL 2. Location of hotels building structure of hotels quality of hotels feedback of hotels and advertisement of hotels are as input factors. Trapezoidal membership function and triangular membership function are used for fuzzification process and defuzzification is done by COG technique. The fuzzy logic has been utilized in several different approaches to modeling the selection of tourist hotels process. This model addressed the hotel of LEVEL2 and this model concludes that the hotel is LEVEL 2 with degree of precision 52.15 .
Several controversies exist regarding the use of vitamin and mineral supplements in treating hair loss. To explore practices, knowledge, and attitudes for using vitamins and minerals in treating hair loss among dermatologists in Saudi Arabia. A self-administrated questionnaire containing 33 questions was distributed to 177 dermatologists attending a national dermatology conference in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, in 2012. Of the 177 attending dermatologists, 144 responded to the questionnaire (81% response rate). Vitamins and minerals were recommended for treating at least one type of hair loss by 60%. Vitamins and minerals were most commonly used for acute telogen effluvium (62%). The majority (72%) reported a good knowledge of vitamins and minerals toxicity. Although dermatologists in Saudi Arabia displayed positive believes in the usefulness of vitamins and minerals in treating hair loss, further research is needed to prove their role in the management of different hair loss disorders.
Full Text Available Abdullah Alkhayal,1 Shahla Aldhukair,2 Nahar Alselaim,1 Salah Aldekhayel,1 Sultan Alhabdan,1 Waleed Altaweel,3 Mohi Elden Magzoub,4 Mohammed Zamakhshary1,21Department of Surgery, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Public Health Section, King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 3Urology Department, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 4Department of Medical Education, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaBackground: After almost a decade of implementing competency-based programs in postgraduate training programs, the assessment of technical skills remains more subjective than objective. National data on the assessment of technical skills during surgical training are lacking. We conducted this study to document the assessment tools for technical skills currently used in different surgical specialties, their relationship with remediation, the recommended tools from the program directors’ perspective, and program directors’ attitudes toward the available objective tools to assess technical skills.Methods: This study was a cross-sectional survey of surgical program directors (PDs. The survey was initially developed using a focus group and was then sent to 116 PDs. The survey contains demographic information about the program, the objective assessment tools used, and the reason for not using assessment tools. The last section discusses the recommended tools to be used from the PDs’ perspective and the PDs’ attitude and motivation to apply these tools in each program. The associations between the responses to the assessment questions and remediation were statistically evaluated.Results: Seventy-one (61% participants responded. Of the respondents, 59% mentioned using only nonstandardized, subjective, direct observation for technical skills assessment. Sixty percent use only summative
Zakarian, Joy M; Quintana, Penelope J E; Winston, Carl H; Matt, Georg E
Most states in the U.S. permit hotels to allow smoking in some guest rooms, and only five (Indiana, Michigan, North Dakota, Vermont, and Wisconsin) require that all hotel and motel rooms be 100% smoke-free (State and local 100% smokefree hotel and motel guest room laws enacted as of July 3, 2017). Little is known, however, about how hotels' smoking policies have been implemented. This study examined hotels' smoking policies and their implementation. A telephone survey of a random sample of 383 California hotel managers was conducted. Overall, 60.6% of hotels reported that smoking was prohibited in all guest rooms, and 4.7% reported that smoking was prohibited everywhere on their property. While California law permitted smoking in up to 65% of guest rooms, only 6.9% of rooms were reported as smoking-permitted. Over 90% of hotels had smoking rooms scattered among nonsmoking rooms, and about half of the smoking hotels reported that guests requesting either smoking or nonsmoking rooms were sometimes assigned to the other room type. When guests smoked in nonsmoking rooms fees could be substantial, but were often uncollected. Hotel smoking policies and their implementation fall short of protecting nonsmoking guests and workers from exposure to secondhand and thirdhand smoke. Complete indoor smoking bans for all hotels are needed to close existing loopholes. Nonsmokers who wish to protect themselves from exposure to tobacco smoke should avoid hotels that permit smoking and instead stay in completely smoke-free hotels.
Aljadhey, Hisham; Mahmoud, Mansour A; Alshammari, Thamir M; Al-Dhaeefi, Mohammed; Le Louet, Herve; Perez-Gutthann, Susana; Pitts, Peter J
To explore the challenges facing pharmacovigilance in Saudi Arabia and formulate recommendations to improve it from the perspective of healthcare professionals in Saudi Arabia. This was a qualitative study of 4 focus group discussions with pharmacists, physicians, and academicians held under the auspices of the King Saud University School of Pharmacy and the Center for Medicine in the Public Interest, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A total of 29 eligible healthcare professionals were invited to participate in the discussion. The predefined themes of the study were the current practice and major challenges facing pharmacovigilance in regulatory bodies, hospitals, the community, and academia, as well as recommendations to improve pharmacovigilance practice. Of the 29 participants invited, 27 attended the discussion. Challenges facing regulatory bodies included complicated adverse drug reactions (ADR) reporting forms, lack of feedback on ADRs submitted to the Saudi Food and Drug Authority, lack of decisions from the local authority to withdraw medications, and lack of data on pharmacovigilance. The challenges to pharmacovigilance in hospitals included the lack of knowledge of the significance of ADR reporting, workload, blaming culture, and lack of collaboration between regulatory bodies and hospitals. However, challenges facing pharmaceutical industries included the lack of drug manufacturers in Saudi Arabia and lack of interest in pharmacovigilance. Recommendations to improve pharmacovigilance included the need for communication, stronger regulatory requirements, the need for research, the need for unified ADRs reporting, and continuous education and training. The study has identified the challenges facing pharmacovigilance in Saudi Arabia and made certain recommendations to overcome them. These recommendations might be helpful for regulatory bodies to enhance spontaneous reporting and promote pharmacovigilance.
Al-Hazzaa, Hazzaa M; Abahussain, Nada A; Al-Sobayel, Hana I; Qahwaji, Dina M; Musaiger, Abdulrahman O
Few lifestyle factors have been simultaneously studied and reported for Saudi adolescents. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to report on the prevalence of physical activity, sedentary behaviors and dietary habits among Saudi adolescents and to examine the interrelationships among these factors using representative samples drawn from three major cities in Saudi Arabia. This school-based cross-sectional study was conducted during the years 2009-2010 in three cities: Al-Khobar, Jeddah and Riyadh. The participants were 2908 secondary-school males (1401) and females (1507) aged 14-19 years, randomly selected using a multistage stratified sampling technique. Measurements included weight, height, sedentary behaviors (TV viewing, playing video games and computer use), physical activity using a validated questionnaire and dietary habits. A very high proportion (84% for males and 91.2% for females) of Saudi adolescents spent more than 2 hours on screen time daily and almost half of the males and three-quarters of the females did not meet daily physical activity guidelines. The majority of adolescents did not have a daily intake of breakfast, fruit, vegetables and milk. Females were significantly (p sedentary, much less physically active, especially with vigorous physical activity, and there were fewer days per week when they consumed breakfast, fruit, milk and diary products, sugar-sweetened drinks, fast foods and energy drinks than did males. However, the females' intake of French fries and potato chips, cakes and donuts, and candy and chocolate was significantly (p intake of breakfast, vegetables and fruit. Physical activity had a significant (p intake but not with sedentary behaviors. The high prevalence of sedentary behaviors, physical inactivity and unhealthy dietary habits among Saudi adolescents is a major public health concern. There is an urgent need for national policy promoting active living and healthy eating and reducing sedentary behaviors among
The objective of this thesis was to make a marketing plan for Hotel Kakslauttanen to increase its sales and profit, to improve the satisfaction of customers and to promote popularity and reputation. The quantitative research method was considered to be the most appropriate for this research. In the theoretical part, the study was focused on internal and external marketing environment analysis, marketing strategies management, planning, marketing mix and segmentation. The empirical part in...
Mitreva, Elizabeta; Miteva, Natasa; Saneva, Dusica
Quality assessment is one of the greatest challenges of hotel industry. Given its complex nature, numerous technics help in quality measurement, assessment and management. Following this it can be achieved full quality management and with that sustainable business development to the satisfaction of all stakeholders. In service industries quality is measured according to consumers’ expectation and perception. The aim of this paper is to, through literature review, to get the importance of qual...
The paper is aimed at presenting several facets of branding in the hotel industry, and at brieflyasserting the current state and challenges faced by the Romanian Seaside hotel industry related tobranding.
Full Text Available Online reputation is nowadays particularly significant in the context of hotel firms due to the high sensitivity and enormous influence of electronic word-of-mouth activities of customers. Since there is still no clear set of online reputation-generating factors, the aim of this paper is to contribute to this knowledge considering the role of family governance as an antecedent of hotel online reputation. Specifically, our purpose is to explain whether the heterogeneity among family firms regarding their family influence on the business exerts a significant effect on online reputation of hotel firms, investigating how family ownership and family management dimensions interact in terms of influencing online reputation. Our findings, based on a sample of 157 Spanish family hotels, indicate a positive influence of family ownership on a hotel's online reputation, augmented by a positive moderating effect of the family management represented by the presence of a family CEO managing the hotel.
Vlashchenko Nataliia M.
Full Text Available The article is aimed at studying the features of marketing communications in the hotel industry and developing scientific-practical recommendations to activate their use at the level of domestic hotel enterprises. A classification of the communications of hotel enterprises, with defining the place for marketing therein, has been compiled. A complex of marketing communications of hotel enterprises has been developed, taking account of the current marketing instrumentarium. Objectives for the staff of hotel enterprises in terms of activities in the social networks have been formulated. Recommendations to activate the development of Internet marketing in the sphere of hospitality have been developed. It has been concluded that the special feature of promoting services of a hotel enterprise is the development of personalized relationships with customers.
Alsaghir, Abdullah H.; Al-Mobeireek, Abdulla F.; Al-Jahdali, H.; Al-Etihan, A.; Al-Otair, H.; Al-Dayel, F.
Because reports of bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP) are lacking from the Middle East, we conducted a retrospective review of all histopathologically proven cases of BOOP over 10-year period at three tertiary care hospitals in Riyadh and describe the clinical features and outcome. Charts at the three hospitals were searched using a specific code for BOOP or cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP). Lung specimens have to show histological proof of BOOP with a compatible clinical picture. Chest radiographs and high resolution CT scans were reviewed. Twenty cases of biopsy-proven BOOP had well documented clinical and radiograph data. There were 11 males and 9 females (mean age 58 years; range 42-78). The clinical presentation f BOOP was acute or subacute pneumonia-like illness with cough (85%), fever (70%) dyspnea, (85%) and crackles (80%). The most frequent radiological pattern was a bilateral alveolar infiltrate. The most common abnormality on pulmonary function testing (n=14) was a restrictive pattern (11 patients). Most patients (70%) had no underlying cause (idiopathic BOOP). Other associations included thyroid cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, syphilis and Wegner's granulomatosis. Ten patients (50%) had a complete response to steroids, 6 (30%) had a partial response and 3 (15.8) with secondary BOOP had rapid progressive respiratory failure and died. The clinical presentation of BOOP in our patients is similar to other reported series. A favorable outcome occurs in the majority of cases. However, BOOP may occasionally be associated with a poor prognosis, particularly when associated with an underlying disease. (author)
The theoretical part of the master thesis focuses mainly on particular methods to help to identify customer satisfaction with regard to the specific processes in the hotel industry. The practical part determines the customer satisfaction in the hotel Jalta. A customer satisfaction survey based on a research of the web pages www.hrs.com, www.booking.com, www.tripadvisor and the evaluation of questionnaires provided by the hotel Jalta has been carried out. In addition a mystery shopping with an...
Full Text Available Abstract - Development of accommodation services is growing very fast, the construction of hotels ranging from low to star property confirms that the business is very profitable and promising. Growing hotel development as the presence and development of tourism in a region. Concept of mix used and are now growing in demand by developers. In addition to shorten the land, its facilities are increasingly in demand, because the concept of developing the land into two business buildings comprising the hotel and mall, can provide ease of access for service users to carry out all the activities that support their activities. Accessibility is a very important thing to be considered for the service users to choose the hotel accommodation that will be flown them. Distance, transportation, facilities, road conditions, and ease of location had been the benchmark and consideration to get a suitable hotel for their activities. Keyword : Accessibility, Hotel Abstrak - Perkembangan jasa akomodasi saat ini berkembang sangat cepat, dibangunnya hotel mulai dari hotel rendah hingga bintang menegaskan bahwa bisnis properti ini sangat menguntungkan dan menjanjikan. Pembangunan hotel berkembang seiring hadirnya dan berkembangnya pariwisata di suatu daerah. Konsep mix used pun kini semakin berkembang dan diminati oleh para pengembang. Selain karena mempersingkat lahan, fasilitas nya pun semakin diminati, karena konsep mengembangkan satu lahan menjadi dua bangunan usaha yang terdiri dari hotel dan mal, dapat memberikan kemudahan akses untuk para pengguna jasa untuk melakukan segala aktifitas yang mendukung kegiatannya. Aksesbilitas merupakan hal yang sangat penting yang menjadi pertimbangan bagi para pengguna jasa akomodasi untuk memilih hotel yang akan mereka singgahi. Jarak, transportasi, fasilitas, kondisi jalan, dan kemudahan lokasi lah yang menjadi tolak ukur dan pertimbangan untuk mendapatkan hotel yang cocok bagi kegiatan mereka. Kata Kunci
This research discusses the effects of Service Quality on Customer Satisfaction, Customer Loyalty, and Brand Image Budget hotel (Five Budget Hotel Managed by local chain hotel). The purpose of this study were 1) to analyze the effects of Service Quality on Customer Satisfaction, 2) to analyze the effects of Service Quality on Customer Loyalty, 3) to analyze the effect of Customer Satisfaction to Customer Loyalty, 4) to analyze the effects of Service Quality on the Brand Image, 5 ) to analyze ...
Al-Nozha, Mansour M.; Arafah, Mohammed R.; Al-Maatouq, Mohammed A.
Objective was to determine the prevalence of hyperlipidemia among Saudis of both genders in rural and urban communities. Selected Saudis in the age group of 30-70 years were studied over a 5-year period between 1995 and 2000 in Saudi Arabia. Data were obtained from history, physical examination and analysis of fasting plasma lipids. The data were analyzed to classify individuals with hypercholesterolemia (HC) (total cholesterol >=5.2 mmol/l) and hypertriglyceridemia (HT) (total triglycerides >=1.69 mmol/l). Logistic regression analysis was performed to provide a risk assessment model and correlation with other coronary artery disease (CAD) risk factors. The number of study samples included in the final analysis was 16,819. The prevalence of HC was 54% with mean cholesterol level of 5.4+-1.52 mmol/l. Prevalence of HC among males was 54.9% and 53.2% for females, while 53.4% among urban Saudis and 55.3% for rural Saudis. Hypertriglycemia prevalence was 40.3% with mean triglycerides level of 1.8+-1.29 mmol/l. Males had statistically significant higher HT prevalence of 47.6% compared to 33.7% in females (p<0.0001). Hyperlipidemia is reaching higher prevalence rates in KSA. This finding may suggest that CAD will soon be a major health problem. Reduction in obesity by adopting healthier eating problem habits and increasing physical activity are of considerable importance to our community. (author)
Alkorashy, Hanan A Ezzat; Al Moalad, Fawziah Bakheet
Violence against nurses is a major challenge for healthcare administrators. It is gaining more attention because it has a negative impact on nurses, the quality of health care and health organization. Common types of violence include physical harassment, sexual abuse, aggression, mobbing and bullying. Patients, their relatives and co-workers are considered the main perpetrators. To determine the prevalence rate of workplace violence against nursing professionals in a university hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, most frequent type and perpetrators as well as the contributing factors. This quantitative cross-sectional study adapted a survey questionnaire from the Massachusetts Nurses Association Survey on Workplace Violence/Abuse to collect data from a quota sample of 370 nursing personnel. Almost half of the participants had experienced violence in the professional setting during the 12 months prior to the study. The majority of subjects perceived workplace violence as verbal abuse. Nearly all nursing professionals identified patients as the leading cause. Slightly more than half mentioned understaffing, misunderstandings, long waits for service and lack of staff training and policies for preventing crisis as contributing factors. The prevalence rate is extremely high among nurses in the targeted Saudi university hospital. Saudi health as well as university hospitals' administration and policy makers should adopt and introduce a 'zero tolerance policy', set standards and develop practical measures for preventing the incidence and for controlling the prevalence of violence against nurses. Besides, healthcare organizations, particularly hospitals, can fulfil their obligations to provide both staff and patients with more secure environment. Further research on the topic is needed. © 2016 International Council of Nurses.
Full Text Available Abeer A Alharbi,1 Hamza Mohammad Abdulghani2 1Department of Family and Community Medicine, 2Department of Medical Education, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Introduction: Postpartum depression (PPD is one of the major psychological disorders worldwide that affects both mother and child. The aim of this study was to correlate the risk of PPD with obstetric and demographic variables in Saudi females. Materials and methods: Data were collected by interviewing females 8–12 weeks postpartum. PPD symptoms were defined as present when subjects had an Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale score of 10 or higher. Variables included in this study were age, education, occupation, parity, baby's sex, pregnancy period, delivery type, hemoglobin level, anemia, and iron pills taken during pregnancy. Results: Of the 352 postpartum females, the prevalence of PPD symptom risk was 117 (33.2%. Among the PPD symptomatic females, 66 (39.8% had low hemoglobin levels, and 45 (40.5% females were anemic during pregnancy (P≤0.05. These results suggest that early postpartum anemia, indicated by low hemoglobin level, is a significant risk factor for PPD (adjusted odds ratio 1.70, 95% confidence interval 1.05–2.74; P=0.03. Other variables, including age, parity, education, occupation, and delivery type, were not significantly correlated (P=0.15–0.95, but marginally indicative of the risk of depressive symptoms. Conclusion: Low hemoglobin level and anemia during pregnancy were risk factors for PPD in Saudi females. Many other factors may be considered risk factors, such as age, occupation, and parity. Anemic women need more attention and to be checked regarding their PPD, and treated if necessary. Keywords: postpartum depression, hemoglobin level, anemia, EPDS
Full Text Available What are the main differences between C-corporation hotels, such as Marriott, Hilton, and Choice, and Hotel-REITs like Diamond Rock, Felcor, and Host? What are the potential growth opportunities in these hotel structures? The author answers these questions by comparing the two corporate structures.
Research purpose: To determine the environmentally-friendly practices in hotels in Zimbabwe and South Africa and establish the contribution that hotels are making towards mitigation of the negative environmental effects. Motivation for the study: Currently, the world is facing environmental issues, which include global climate change, ozone depletion, pollution, high consumption of resources and increasing amounts of solid waste. Hotels, as part of the tourism industry, exert a significant impact on the environment. While the extent and range of the impact that hotels exert on the environment suggest an urgent need to address this problem, the question that arises is whether hoteliers appreciate the need for environmentally-friendly initiatives in their establishments. Research design, approach and method: A qualitative research was carried out in eight hotels that employ the strategy of the case study in the aforementioned countries. Main findings: Currently, no policies for green management exist, although some hotels do engage in some environmentally-friendly practices. Some hotel managers do not implement green management initiatives to mitigate the environmental problems emanating from their hotel operations. Practical and/or managerial implications: This indicates that a gap exists between managers’ awareness of appropriate environmentally-friendly practices for hotels, implying a need for training and increased awareness of green management. Contribution and/or value-add: The results could guide managers in the implementation of environmentally-friendly practices in an effort to mitigate environmental problems facing the present generation.
The subject of this research is the market of hotel services in Ukraine in recent years, since the market for the hotel services in Ukraine emerged in the first half of the 2000s. Initially, the focus of both local and foreign investors was on the development of the hotel market in Kyiv. Gradually, with the development of hotel business in Ukraine, investors’ interest began to shift in the direction of populated cities, primarily large business centers of the country (with a population of abo...
Full Text Available The first objective of this article is to describe the fundamental aspects of the concept of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR. The second goal is to present the activities, or the so-called good practices that hotels may take up and which are in tandem with the idea of CSR. The good practices will be described on the example of Polish hotel group and two hotels active on the Polish market, especially in Krakow. The article outlines possible benefits resulting from the implementation of CSR principles into the hotel strategy.
A comprehensive review is provided of Saudi Arabia's petroleum industry covering oil and gas exploration and production, refining, oil and gas trade, marketing and Saudi overseas investments. Profiles of key Saudi decision makers are provided. A statistical appendix includes data from the start of oil production in Saudi Arabia in 1938. Part I Geological potential; Part II The Saudi energy economy; Part III Production capacity; Part IV The oil refining sector ; Part V Exports and logistics; Part VI Overseas petroleum industry investments; Part VII The decision makers; Part VIII Statistical Appendix; Reserves, Production, Exports, Prices 1950 to 1999. (Author)
Osuagwu, Uchechukwu L; Briggs, Stella T; Chijuka, John C; Alanazi, Saud A; Ogbuehi, Kelechi C
Optometry is a primary health-care profession (PHCP) and this study aimed to elucidate the factors influencing the choice of optometry as a career for Saudi students, the students' perceptions of optometry and the effect of gender. Two hundred and forty-seven students whose average age was 21.7 ± 1.5 (SD) years and who are currently enrolled in two colleges of optometry in Saudi Arabia--King Saud University (KSU) and Qassim University (QU)--completed self-administered questionnaires. The survey included questions concerning demography, career first choice, career perception and factors influencing career choices. The response rate was 87.6 per cent and there were 161 male (64.9 per cent) students. Seventy-nine per cent of the participants were from KSU (males and females) and 20.6 per cent were from QU (only males). Seventy-three per cent come from Riyadh and 19 per cent are from Qassim province. Regarding the first choice for their careers, the females (92 per cent) were 0.4 times more likely (p = 0.012) to choose optometry than males (78.3 per cent). The males were significantly more likely to be influenced by the following factors: the Doctor of Optometry (OD) programs run at both universities, good salary and prospects (p optometry. Females were more likely to opt for a career in optometry and males were more likely to be influenced by the new OD programs, good salary and job prospects. Service provision to others in the community was a primary motivation to opt for a career in optometry among young Saudis. © 2014 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Optometry © 2014 Optometrists Association Australia.
Yasin, Bahar; Jamontaite, Kamile; Ahmedova, Saida; Akin, Mahmut Selami
The purpose of this article is to explore the relationship between brand personality and customer loyalty in the five-star business hotel and propose an effective way for developing a remarkable hotel brand and improving its customer loyalty. The reason for choosing a particular hotel is that it is a member of a famous international hotel chain with a well-known brand name. According to the literature, business hotels usually have stronger brand names comparing to leisure hotels. Literature r...
Mariana Wibowo, Inez Natalia Suteja
Malang is one of the places nostalgia tourists by Dutchman. Design boutique hotel take building's dutch colonial. Boutique hotel having the characteristics of unique, historic, and fancy. Uniqueness boutique hotel ditonjolkan in the atmosphere hotel that looks homey with support 3star class hotel facilities. The concept of the basis of design with apply a style of design colonial into the interior of boutique hotel good with the material the wall, the floor, ceiling, column and the elements d...
In the present work a simple and very effective mathematical model is designed for tourist hotels of LEVEL 2. Location of hotels building structure of hotels quality of hotels feedback of hotels and advertisement of hotels are as input factors. Trapezoidal membership function and triangular membership function are used for fuzzification process and defuzzification is done by COG technique. The fuzzy logic has been utilized in several different approaches to modeling the selection of tourist h...
Alkhalife, Ibrahim S.; Hassan, Rafiaa R.; Abdel-Hameed, Ahmed A.; Al-Khayal, Laila A.
We described a Saudi patient infected with Diphyllobothrium latum D. latum. A 38-year-old male presented, complaining of passing worms. He had a history of recent travel to Europe and South East Asia. Stools examination revealed typical D. latum eggs. He was treated with praziquantel followed by saline purge, after which he discharged an intact tapeworm. Macroscopic and microscopic examinations of the worm confirmed the diagnosis of D. latum. This is the first case of diphyllobothriasis to be reported in Saudi Arabia. The epidemiology and methods of prevention of diphyllobothriasis are discussed. (author)
Al Jumah K
Full Text Available Khalaf Al Jumah,1 Mohamed Azmi Hassali,2 Dalal Al Qhatani,1 Kamal El Tahir3 1Department of Pharmacy, Al Amal Psychiatric Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia; 3College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Background: Several studies have investigated the factors associated with adherence to antidepressants, with inconsistent conclusions. However, no similar study has investigated this issue among patients diagnosed with major depressive disorder in Saudi Arabia. The aim of this study is to explore patients’ adherence to antidepressant medications, and the factors associated with adherence.Methods: A non-experimental cross-sectional design was used to measure adherence to antidepressants among major depressive disorder patients, and the factors associated with adherence. The patients were recruited from the outpatient clinic at the Al-Amal Complex for Mental Health in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, between August 2013 and January 2014. Eligible participants met with one of the research coordinators for assessment of their adherence. Adherence was investigated indirectly by use of the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale, and patients’ beliefs were assessed through the Beliefs about Medicine Questionnaire. Information about the severity of their depression, demographics, and other study variables were collected.Results: A total of 403 patients met the inclusion criteria and participated in the study. Of those, 203 (50.37% were females, while the remaining 200 (49.6% were males. There was an average age of 39 years (standard deviation, ±11 years. Half of the patients (52.9% reported low adherence to their antidepressant medication, with statistically significant differences between the low adherence and high adherence scores relating to sex, age, and duration of illness. Conclusion: Low medication adherence is a common problem among major depressive disorder
on their website. There exists an attitude in the hotel sector that functions as a barrier for Universal Design: if there are enough guests, for example business travellers, then why market the hotel on Universal Design? The paper points out the coherence between the understanding of the users and the view...
Full Text Available By implementing certain standards in business, especially the standards of business ethics, each entity in the hotel industry emphasize its specificity and recognition, while giving a guestconsumer security and a guarantee that they will get desired quality. In today's global world, business ethics has become an indispensable part of the hotel business practices and prerequisite for achieving business success. Business ethics receives strategic significance because it creates a system of governance based on ethical principles that enables the hotel to properly respond to the demands of all interest groups. Successful will be precisely those hotels that do not separate ethics from profitability, but those that successfully coordinate them in its business. Business ethics has a strong impact on hotel business, and a major role in its implementation has a hotel management. Every responsible hotel management should, in accordance with the business philosophy of hotel, devise various ethical practices and ethical codes of conduct prescribed by the employees who will be an important standard of a business object.
Pulu, Astrid A; Makainas, Idradjaja; Erdiono, Deddy
Penyediaan jasa akomodasi yang memadai menjadi salah satu sarana pendukung kelancaran pariwisata suatu daerah. Bagi kota Manado dengan objek pariwisata yang mampu mencuri perhatian wisatawan domestik maupun mancanegara, hal ini merupakan sesuatu yang sangat penting. Berbagai hotel beserta klasifikasinya pun sudah banyak bermunculan. Namun melihat perkembangan minat wisatawan terhadap properti yang unik dan terasa berbeda semakin meningkat, maka kehadiran boutique hotel sangat dibutuhkan mengi...
Alleweldt, Frank; Tonner, Klaus; McDonald, Marc
This study, conducted by Civic Consulting, looks at both pre-contractual and contractual matters concerning online hotel reservation systems, examines relevant Community rules, identifies gaps and, where needed, discusses possible policy options. Key conclusions The study shows that the impact of Community law on online hotel
McLean, S; Wood, L J; Montgomery, I M; Davidson, J; Jones, M E
This study reports on an intervention programme to promote responsible drinking in hotels. The licensees of eight hotels agreed to participate in a trial of measures designed to assist patrons to avoid drink-driving, and seven other hotels were used as controls. The interventions acceptable to licensees comprised commercial-quality promotional material with the theme "0.05 Know Your Limits", and a breath analysis machine and poster on its use. Patrons leaving the hotels on Thursday, Friday and Saturday nights were interviewed and breath-tested. Although the intervention material had been seen by one-third of patrons in the intervention hotels, there was no significant difference between them and control hotel patrons in either median BAC or the proportion who were going to drive with BAC over the legal limit. There was poor compliance by hotels with the intervention procedures, indicating that a major impediment to the implementation and evaluation of programmes to promote responsible drinking is a lack of motivation by many licensees, despite support by some licensees and the Australian Hotels Association.
't Hekke, voor N. (Nadieh); Bos, A. (Anita); Jansen, B. (Bas); Klatt, C. (Christiaan); Kuipers, R. (Ruth); Marle, van R.S.F. (Rienk); Pijls, R. (Ruth); Schreiber, G.H. (Gerrit)
Inzicht in hoe gasten hun hotelbezoek ervaren is belangrijk. Hotels zijn zich hiervan in toenemende mate bewust. Hotels meten regelmatig de tevredenheid van hun gasten. Maar hoe komt het dat gasten tevreden of niet tevreden zijn? Gastbeleving gaat over het ‘waarom’ achter deze
Full Text Available Anastasia Samara,1 Anne Nistrup,1 Tamader Y AL-Rammah,2 Arja R Aro11Unit for Health Promotion and Research, University of Southern Denmark, Esbjerg, Denmark; 2Faculty of Rehabilitation and Health Sciences, Princess Nora Bint Abdul Rahman University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaPurpose: The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is experiencing a dramatic increase in physical inactivity, with women having higher levels of inactivity than men among all age groups. It is assumed that factors such as dress codes, restrictions on going outdoors, and conservative norms are the main reasons for women’s low physical activity. Our aim was to explore the different parameters related to physical activity, including self-efficacy, as well as the perceived barriers to and benefits of physical activity in young Saudi females.Patients and methods: Ninety-four first-year female Saudi university students in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, participated in the present study in 2014. The students were from eight bachelor’s programs in health and well-being, and each completed a questionnaire with questions divided into five parts as follows: 1 socioeconomic status, 2 physical activity, 3 self-efficacy 4 social factors, and 5 barriers and facilitators related to physical activity.Results: The students exercised at home and alone, and there was low self-efficacy for physical activity (mean score =42±14. Among social factors, attending university was the only factor that hindered physical activity (32%. Physical activity was positively perceived overall (mean score =131±10. Students showed awareness of the benefits of physical activity for health and well-being. The most important barrier was the lack of designated areas available for physical activity. Students disagreed that family or the Islamic community were barriers to physical activity.Conclusion: The lack of facilities and lack of encouragement from the university, but not a lack of knowledge (a high level of
Characteristics of hotel housekeeping work increase the risk for hypertension development. Little is known about the influences of such work on hypertension management. For this qualitative study, 27 Haitian immigrant hotel housekeepers from Miami-Dade County, FL were interviewed. Interview transcripts were analyzed with the assistance of the Atlas.ti software for code and theme identification. Influences of hotel housekeeping work on hypertension management arose both at the individual and system levels. Factors at the individual level included co-worker dynamics and maintenance of transmigrant life. Factors at the system level included supervisory support, workload, work pace, and work hiring practices. No positive influences were reported for workload and hiring practices. Workplace interventions may be beneficial for effective hypertension management among hotel housekeepers. These work influences must be considered when determining effective methods for hypertension management among hotel housekeepers. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Putu Arismawan Jaya Kusuma
Full Text Available Hotel merupakan fasilitas yang sudah menjadi kebutuhan yang sangat penting bagi masyarakat meliputi kebutuhan traveling antar kota dalam urusan bisnis maupun wisata. Teknologi informasi dalam pengolahan informasi sangatlah diperlukan dalam pengolahan data instansi hotel agar data dapat dikelola dengan baik sehingga membantu pengelola dalam melakukan pengambilan keputusan. Kecepatan dan efisiensi suatu sistem dalam pengolahan data manajerial hotel kini menjadi suatu hal mutlak yang diperlukan dalam kompetisi di dunia bisnis perhotelan. Sistem informasi berbasis Android merupakan solusi tepat untuk mengatasi permasalahan kebutuhan pengolahan data manajerial hotel yang bersifat dinamis dan dapat diakses secara mobile. Perangkat mobile yang terintegrasi dengan web merupakan salah satu pilihan yang tepat untuk mengolah sistem informasi perhotelan, dalam pelaksanaan administrator sistem informasi dapat mengelola data dari server database. Seorang user dapat memperoleh informasi dengan membuat permintaan dari aplikasi yang telah terpasang sebelumnya pada smartphone android, ke database. Segala proses pertukaran data disimpan pada server web. Kata kunci : Teknologi, Sistem Informasi, Hotel, Front Office
The article examines the foundational elements of the Saudi state: idea, governing institutions and physical basis. The author notes, that its supra-national ideas will be challenged by on-going reforms without attenuating tensions with its Shia minority population. Governing institutions of it...
Projektbüroo AS Resandi osalusel on rajatud Saudi Araabiasse Jiddahi kaheksa puidust jalgteesilda: kuus talasilda ja kaks kaarsilda. Ideekavandi valmistab ette Risto Mäkipuro, OÜ NuvoEst. Inseneriarvutused ja silla projekt tehakse AS-s Resand (insenerid Ragnar Pabort, Alar Just). Silla detailid valmistatakse Soomes. Ill: 2 joonist, värv. foto
Khalid K. Alharbi
Full Text Available Large scale studies in Europeans have clearly identified common polymorphism affecting BMI and obesity. We undertook a genotype study to examine the impact of variants, known to influence obesity, in a sample from the Saudi Arabian population, notable for its profound combination of low mean physical activity indices and high energy intake. Anthropometry measures and genotypes were obtained for 367 Saudis, taken from King Saud University and Biomarker Screening Project in Riyadh (Riyadh Cohort. We observed large effect sizes with obesity for rs10767664 (BDNF (OR = 1.923, P=0.00072 and rs3751812 (FTO (OR = 1.523, P=0.016 in our sample and, using weighted genetic risk scores, we found strong evidence of a cumulative effect using 11 SNPs taken predominantly from loci principally affecting appetite (OR = 2.57, P=0.00092. We used conditional analyses to discern which of our three highly correlated FTO SNPs were responsible for the observed signal, although we were unable to determine with confidence which best marked the causal site. Our analysis indicates that markers located in loci known to influence fat mass through increased appetite affect obesity in Saudi Arabians to an extent possibly greater than in Europeans. Larger scale studies will be necessary to obtain a precise comparison.
Qarawi, A.A.; Mridha, M.A.U.; Alghamdi, O.M.
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) regarded as ubiquitous soil fungi which help in improving plant growth under harsh conditions. Petunia hybrida is one of the most favorite ornamental plants growing all over the Riyadh city of Saudi Arabia. In the present study, we would like to highlight the Petunia as a mycotrophic plant for the management of mycorrhizal fungi under field conditions. Roots along with rhizosphere soils of P. hybrida were collected from various sites in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia to study AM colonization and biodiversity of AMF. The data obtained in this study indicated that P. hybrida is a very highly mycotrophic plants, and all the samples produced very high colonization with mycelium, vesicles, coiled hyphae and arbuscules. The significant variation was found with the occurrence of mycelium and vesicles among the locations but in case of arbuscules more or less same range of occurrence was found. Only different species of Glomus were observed in all the locations. Glomus showed diversity in all the locations as indicated by the Shanon Diversity Index. As the P. hybrida is a highly mycotrophic plant, so this plant may be grown under harsh condition of Saudi Arabia to manage the plant growth under different stresses viz., water stress, saline soils and heavy metal toxicity conditions. (author)
Full Text Available This is one of the largest hotels in Switzerland, having 400 bedrooms and a capacity for 800 guests, distributed in 15 storeys. There are also 3 restaurants, 3 bars, a dancing hall, a general hall, with installations for simultaneous translations, cinema shows, etc., with accommodation for 400 people, four lecture rooms, a number of luxurious shops, hairdressers and beauty salon, travelling agency, hot water pool, and other ameneties. Its main merit is the right choice of materials, and the simple, elegant style of its outer shape and interior decoration.Este hotel, que es uno de los mayores construidos en Suiza, cuenta, entre sus dependencias, con 400 habitaciones que pueden acoger a 800 huéspedes y distribuidas en 15 plantas; tres restaurantes; tres bares; un salón de baile; un salón para múltiples usos, equipado con instalaciones de traducción simultánea, de proyección, etc., y en el cual pueden ser servidos banquetes de 400 cubiertos; cuatro salas de conferencias; una serie de lujosas tiendas; peluquería y salón de belleza; agencias de viajes; piscina con agua caliente; etc. Su mayor atractivo reside en la acertada elección de los materiales empleados en su construcción, así como en la elegancia y sencillez de líneas exteriores y decoración interior.
Full Text Available This hotel complex includes a central building and two wings. The former is occupied with the main hall, reception zone, management offices, various shops, bars, games section, open air reception space, resting rooms, dancing hall, services and secondary rooms. The east wing contains the dining room, two drawing rooms, a hall for meetings and banquets, kitchen, dining room for the staff, washing facilities and similar. The west wing has 54 bedrooms and 3 reception rooms. The most outstanding features of this project are the use of concrete slabs for the roof, and the strongly articulate planform, which fits beautifully with the exuberant natural environment.El conjunto hotelero construido consta: de un cuerpo central y dos alas laterales. El primero alberga: la entrada del hotel; zona de recepción; despachos de la administración y dirección; varias tiendas; bares; áreas para juegos; salones al aire libre; salones de descanso; pista de baile; servicios; etc. El ala E. aloja: el comedor; dos salones; la sala para congresos, banquetes u otros usos, etc.; cocinas; comedor de los empleados; lavandería; etc. El ala O. consta de 84 dormitorios y 3 salones. Destacan como características más notables del edificio, el empleo de movidas láminas de hormigón como cubiertas y su planta ágil y viva, que tan bien encaja en el marco exuberante que la rodea.
Al-Turki, Yousef Abdullah
The present study highlighted life styles related to coronary artery disease risk factors among patients attending a primary care clinic at King Khalid University Hospital, in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. We conducted a cross-sectional study at a primary care clinic at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, during the period from 18/4/2006 to 13/6/2006. All adult male patients older than 12 years of age who attended one consultant primary care clinic were included in the study. All patients were interviewed by one consultant in family medicine during the study period. The patients were asked about dietary habits, physical activity and type of exercise, and smoking habits. Weight and height was taken for all patients by the nurse in the clinic and body mass index (BMI) were calculated for all patients. The total number of participants was 246 patients. The data were analyzed using the Statistical Package of Social Science (SPSS) version 11.5. A p value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Of the 246 male adult patients, 45.4% always consumed vegetables and fruits in their diet, 21.5% exercised on a daily basis, 51.2% exercised sometimes and 26% did not exercise at all. The type of exercise practiced by active participants was walking (76.5%) and sports (22.9%). Sports included football, basketball, swimming and other sports club activity. Only 20.7% of the participants had an ideal body weight (BMI =30). 8.9% of the participants were current smokers. Overweight and obesity is a common health problem among male adult patients attending a primary care setting. Improved dietary habits (consumption of vegetables and fruits and minimization of fat and suits) encouraging exercise and walking and helping current smokers to quit smoking are essential steps towards improving life styles in the community. It is an important health plan priority to concentrate on improving life styles in the Saudi community, to prevent cardiovascular risk
Reem L. Al-Mutairi
Full Text Available Objectives: The incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is growing rapidly in the Saudi population. The purpose of this study was to assess the constructs of the health belief model (HBM as they relate to T2DM lifestyle and prevention behaviours among adolescents. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted between May and October 2013 among 426 non-diabetic secondary school students from randomly selected schools in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. An Arabic version of an adapted English language questionnaire was used to assess knowledge and attitudes related to the severity and prevention of T2DM. A preventative behaviour assessment was also conducted to assess physical activity and dietary habits. Results: The majority of the students (63.4% had at least one diabetic family member. Obesity was more frequent in males compared to females (P = 0.013. Awareness about the importance of maintaining a healthy body weight to prevent T2DM was lower in males than females (P = 0.037, although males engaged in routine exercise more often (P = 0.001. Males were less likely than females to recognise the risks for T2DM, including obesity (P = 0.030, heredity (P = 0.013 and high fat intake (P = 0.001. Conclusion: An alarmingly high number of Saudi students were unaware of T2DM severity and associated risk factors. Female students were more aware of the benefits of T2DM preventative lifestyle behaviours than males, although males engaged in routine exercise more often. Raising adolescents’ awareness about the primary prevention strategies for T2DM should be a public health priority in Saudi Arabia. The HBM could inform further research on diabetes prevention among Saudi adolescents.
Alshammari, Thamir M; Alamri, Khaled K; Ghawa, Yazeed A; Alohali, Noura F; Abualkol, Shaza A; Aljadhey, Hisham S
Drug safety has major implications for patients' lives. However, this concept is still considered new to some healthcare professionals. This study aims to investigate the knowledge and awareness of Saudi healthcare professionals to pharmacovigilance (PV). Setting Governmental and private hospitals at three main cities in Saudi Arabia (Riyadh, Jeddah, and Dammam). A cross-sectional survey among healthcare professionals (pharmacists, physicians, and nurses) within 12 Saudi hospitals was conducted between November and December 2012. The questionnaire consisted of 18 questions assessing the knowledge, awareness, and attitude of healthcare professionals (HCPs) towards science and the concept of PV. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data. The data were analyzed using Statistical Analysis Software (SAS 9.3). Main outcome measure Knowledge, attitude and practice of HCPs toward pharmacovigilance. Three-hundred and thirty-two healthcare professionals completed the survey (response rate 72 %), 110 (34 %) physicians, 106 (33 %) pharmacists, and 104 (32 %) nurses. More than half of the participants (55 %) did not know the correct definition of PV. Two-thirds of the respondents, 207 (65.5 %), had knowledge of the aim of post-marketing surveillance, yet only 113 (36.9 %) were aware that the National Pharmacovigilance and Drug Safety Center is the official body for monitoring adverse drug reaction in Saudi Arabia. In addition, 34.7 % agreed that lack of time could be a major barrier for reporting. The majority of the respondents (78.4 %) believed that reporting was a professional obligation and hospitals should have a drug safety department. There was a limited knowledge of pharmacovigilance that could have affected reporting incidence. Educational intervention and a practical training program need to be applied by the drug regulatory body as well as health authorities to enhance the pharmacovigilance and drug safety culture in Saudi Arabia.
El-Desouki, Mahmoud I.; Othman, Saleh M.; Fouda, Mona A.
This prospective study was conducted to demonstrate the role of bone mineral density (BMD) and bone scan in the management of adult Saudi female patients with established diagnosis of osteomalacia. Bone scan using Tc99m methylene diphosphate (MDP) and BMD of the lumbar spine and femoral neck using dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) were performed at the time of diagnosis 6 months and one year after therapy in 96 Saudi female patients attending the metabolic bone disease clinic at King Khalid University Hospital, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, between January 1997 through to June 1999, aged between 20 and 73 years (mean 42 years). Alkaline phosphates, calcium and inorganic phosphorus were measured for all patients before and after treatment. 25 Hydroxy vitamin D was only measured with the first BMD measurements. A bone profile showed typical biochemical abnormalities of osteomalacia.The bone scan showed features of superscan in all patients and pseudofractures in 43 patients. BMD measures were compared with that of normal Saudi subjects matched for age and sex. The BMD was low at diagnosis and showed significant improvement after therapy. The improvement of bone density in response to therapy was more evident in lumbar spine than in femoral neck bone.Our results showed that BMD in adult Saudi female patients with osteomalacia was markedly affected probably due to specific constitutional and environmental factors ( inadeqate exercise, lack of sun exposure and lack of intake of milk and dairy products). In addition, lumbar BMD and serum calcium appeared to be better markers to monitor therapy.Bone scan helped in demonstrating disease activity, the presence of pseudofractures. (author)
Full Text Available This article describes the above two hotels, one of which is a town hotel, namely the «Gran Hotel Almería », and the other a touristic hotel situated near the beach and close to sporting facilities. Both hotels are of 1. A classification, and have been carefully designed; they have basic characteristics that are common to both, but have many secondary features that are specific of each, depending on their emplacement and use.En este artículo se describen dos instalaciones hoteleras: una, de carácter urbano, «Gran Hotel Almería»; otra, eminentemente deportiva y de playa, «Alcazaba Gran Hotel». Ambos edificios son de categoría cuatro estrellas y se han estudiado cuidadosamente, plasmando características básicas y fundamentales comunes, pero con detalles distintivos que las diferencian, en función de su emplazamiento y utilización.
Al Ghobain Mohammed
Full Text Available Objective: To study the prevalence and characteristics of cigarette smoking among secondary school students (16- to 18-year-old boys and girls in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. Methods: We applied a standard two-stage, cross-sectional study design. Secondary schools for both boys and girls in Riyadh city were randomly selected using a cluster sampling method. We used the global youth tobacco survey (GYTS tool to achieve our objectives. Results: Among 1272 students (606 boys and 666 girls, the prevalence of those ever smoked cigarettes was 42.8% (55.6% of boys and 31.4% of girls. The prevalence of current smoking was 19.5% (31.2% of boys and 8.9% of girls. Despite the fact that the majority of students think smoking is harmful, most do not wish to stop smoking, and they had not tried to stop in the past year. Cigarette smoking is significantly associated with the male gender, having friends who smoke, and having parents who smoke, but is not significantly associated with the type of school attended. Conclusion: Smoking prevalence among secondary schools students in Saudi Arabia is high and alarming. There is a need to implement an education program about the risks of smoking and to include parents and friends as healthy models to prevent students from beginning to smoke.
Al Ghobain, Mohammed O; Al Moamary, Mohamed S; Al Shehri, Sulieman N; Al-Hajjaj, Mohamed S
To study the prevalence and characteristics of cigarette smoking among secondary school students (16- to 18-year-old boys and girls) in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. We applied a standard two-stage, cross-sectional study design. Secondary schools for both boys and girls in Riyadh city were randomly selected using a cluster sampling method. We used the global youth tobacco survey (GYTS) tool to achieve our objectives. Among 1272 students (606 boys and 666 girls), the prevalence of those ever smoked cigarettes was 42.8% (55.6% of boys and 31.4% of girls). The prevalence of current smoking was 19.5% (31.2% of boys and 8.9% of girls). Despite the fact that the majority of students think smoking is harmful, most do not wish to stop smoking, and they had not tried to stop in the past year. Cigarette smoking is significantly associated with the male gender, having friends who smoke, and having parents who smoke, but is not significantly associated with the type of school attended. Smoking prevalence among secondary schools students in Saudi Arabia is high and alarming. There is a need to implement an education program about the risks of smoking and to include parents and friends as healthy models to prevent students from beginning to smoke.
Full Text Available The paper analyses the new management practice in the hotel industry. Over recent years, the environment for hotel management in Croatia has changed radically. Difficult business conditions require the transformation of management in the hotel industry. From the old-style business model, in which hotel managers were focused inwards on the hotel and its operation, a new paradigm encompassing a more externally oriented focus is now required. The current transformation of socially-owned hotels into capital-based and market-oriented business enterprises will accelerate the general process of privatisation and promote incentive management strategies. The article gives the research results of the new management practice in the case of the hotel "Excelsior" in Dubrovnik. It is one of the most successful hotels on the Croatian coast, which practises modern management. The research referred to management level, sex, age and educational structure of managers, their continuing education, knowledge, skills and characteristics of management, main functions of management, delegation of authorities and responsibilities, management system, decision-making, styles of leading and governing of managers by their time. The received results have been compared with the earlier management approach of the above-mentioned hotel. The objective of the paper is to point out the importance of the new management practice and its contribution to the successful hotel business.
Bosilevac, Joseph M; Gassem, Mustafa A; Al Sheddy, Ibraheem A; Almaiman, Salah A; Al-Mohizea, Ibrahim S; Alowaimer, Abdullah; Koohmaraie, Mohammad
Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella are significant foodborne pathogens that can be found in the feces and on the hides of meat animals. When hides are removed during the harvest process, the carcass and subsequent meat products can become contaminated. Camels, cattle, sheep, and goats are harvested for meat in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella are unknown in these animals, and it is assumed that if the animals carry the pathogens in their feces or on their hides, meat products are likely to become contaminated. To this end, a minimum of 206 samples each from hides and feces of camels, cattle, goats, and sheep were collected over the course of 8 months and tested for E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella. It was found that E. coli O157:H7 was present in feces (10.7, 1.4, 2.4, and 2.4%) and on hides (17.9, 8.2, 2.9, and 9.2%) of cattle, goats, camels, and sheep, respectively. The prevalence of Salmonella was 11.2, 13.5, 23.2, and 18.8% in feces and 80.2, 51.2 67.6, and 60.2% on hides of cattle, goats, camels, and sheep, respectively. The prevalence of E coli O157:H7 was nearly zero in all samples collected in June and July, while Salmonella did not exhibit any seasonal variation. These results constitute the first comprehensive study of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella prevalence in Saudi Arabian meat animals at harvest.
Fnais, Naif; al-Nasser, Muhammad; Zamakhshary, Mohammad; Abuznadah, Wesam; Dhukair, Shahla Al; Saadeh, Mayssa; Al-Qarni, Ali; Bokhari, Bayan; Alshaeri, Taqreed; Aboalsamh, Nouf; Binahmed, AbdulAziz
Multiple surveys of medical residents have shown a high incidence of harassment and discrimination in academic health centers. Harassment has a negative effects on residents' health and on their ability to function. No previous study has documented the prevalence of harassment and discrimination among residents in Saudi Arabia. We aimed in this study to assess the prevalence of harassment and discrimination among residents at a tertiary care academic hospitals in Saudi Arabia. Cross-sectional survey conducted at National Guard Hospitals in Riyadh, Jeddah and Al-Ahsa'a from 27 July to 20 August 2010. The survey included questions on the prevalence of harassment of different types, inlcuding verbal, academic, physical and sexual harassment, as well as discrimination on the basis of gender, region of origin or physical appearance. Of 380 residents, 213 (56%) returned a completed questionnaire (123 male, 57.8%). At least one of type of harassment and discrimination was reported by 83.6% of respondents. The most frequently reported forms were verbal harassment and gender discrimination (61.5% and 58.3%, respectively). Sexual harassment was commonly reported (19.3%) and was experienced significantly more often by female residents than by male residents (P=.0061). Harassment and discrimination of Saudi residents is common with more than three-quarters reporting having had such an experience. Identification of the risk factors is a necessary first step in clarifying this issue and could be used when planning strategies for prevention.
Al-Khlaiwi, Thamir; Meo, Sultan A.
The widespread use of mobile phones has been increased over the past decade; they are now an essential part of business, commerce and society. The use of mobile phones can cause health problems. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to investigate the association of using mobile phones with fatigue, headache, dizziness, tension and sleep disturbance in the Saudi population and provide health and social awareness in using these devices. This study was conducted in the Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, King Saudi University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during the year 2002 to 2003. In the present study, a total of 437 subjects (55.1% male and 39.9% female) were invited, they have and had been using mobile phones. A questionnaire was distributed regarding detailed history and association of mobile phones with health hazards. The results of the present study showed an association between the use of mobile phones and health hazards. The overall mean percentage for these clinical findings in all groups were headache (21.6%), sleep disturbance (4.%), tension (3.9%), fatigue (3%) and dizziness (2.4%). Based on the results of the present study, we conclude that the use of mobile phones is a risk factor for health hazards and suggest that long term or excessive use of mobile phones should be avoided by health promotion activities such as group discussions, public presentations and through electronic and print media sources. (author)
Amer, Saud M. Bin; Maqbool, Z.; Nirmal, Maimoona S.; Hussain, Syed S.; Jeprel, Hatim A.; Qattan, Amal T.; Tulbah, Asma M.; Malik, Osama A.; Al-Tweigeri, Taher A.
Objective was to generate consensus gene expression profiles of invasive breast tumors from a small cohort of Saudi females and to explore the possibility that they may be broadly conserved between Caucasian and Middle Eastern populations. This study was performed at King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, from January 2005 to January 2007. Gene expression profiles were generated from 38 invasive breast tumors and 8 tumor adjacent tissues (TATs) using BD Atlas cDNA expression arrays containing 1176 genes. Results were confirmed by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and analyzed by 2-dimensional unsupervised hierarchical clustering. The analysis identified 48 differentially expressed genes in tumors from which 25 are already reported by various western studies. Forty-three of these genes were also differentially expressed in TATs. The same data set has been able to distinguish between tumors and the TAT's, interestingly by using only 4 of the differentially expressed genes. Moreover, we were able to group the patients according to prognosis to an extent by hierarchical clustering. Our results indicate that expression profiles between Saudi females with breast cancer and the Caucasian population are conserved to some extent, and can be used to classify patients according to prognostic groups. We also suggest 3 differentially expressed genes (IGHG3, CDK3 and RPS9) in tumors may have a novel role in breast cancer. In addition, the role of TATs is much more essential in breast cancer and needs to be explored thoroughly. (author)
Al-Arfaj, Abdurhman S.; Al-Boukai, Ahmad A.
The aim of the study was to characterize the pattern of radiographic changes in the hands and feet of rheumatoid arthritis in Saudi patients. The radiographs of hands and feet of rheumatoid arthritis patients attending rheumatology outpatient clinics of King Khalid University Hospital in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, over the period extending from March to June 2001, were examined and reported for the presence of osteopenia, joint space narrowing, and erosions. Fifty-six rheumatoid arthritis patients were studied. Their mean age was 50 + 1.9 years, and mean disease duration was 9.07 + 0.84 years. Generalized osteopenia was seen in 16/56 (29%) and periarticular osteopenia in 38/56 (68%). Joint space narrowing was present in 9/56 (16%) of feet and 35/56 (63%) of hand x-rays. Erosions were seen in 3/56 (6%) of feet and in 22/56 (39%) of hand x-rays. Significant correlation was seen between joints space narrowing, joint erosions, and disease duration. Radiographic changes in hands and feet of Saudi rheumatoid arthritis patients are less severe than those reported from the West, and the pattern is also different with less affection of the feet. (author)
Gosadi, Ibrahim M; Alatar, Abdullah A; Otayf, Mojahed M; AlJahani, Dhaherah M; Ghabbani, Hisham M; AlRajban, Waleed A; Alrsheed, Abdullah M; Al-Nasser, Khalid A
To create a food frequency questionnaire specifically designed to capture the dietary habits of Saudis and test its validity and reliability. Methods: This investigation is a longitudinal, test-retest study conducted in King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between December 2015 and March 2016. A list of 140 food items was included in the questionnaire where a closed-ended and open-ended approach was used. Regarding past year food frequency consumption and 24 hours dietary recall, body weight and height were collected. Internal consistency, test-retest reliability, completeness of the food list, and criterion validity were assessed. Results: One-hundred and thirty eight participants were interviewed to complete the 24 hours dietary recall and the constructed questionnaire. Approximately 85% of the food items reported in the dietary recall were covered in the food frequency questionnaire. The association of body mass index with meats (regression coefficients: 2.28) and dairy products consumption frequency was statistically significant (regression coefficients: 2.31). A high overall reproducibility rate of the questionnaire was detected (Pearsons' correlation coefficient: 0.78 p less than 0.001). Conclusion: The developed questionnaire has a high reliability and reasonable validity, and suitable for use in nutritional epidemiological investigations in Saudi Arabia.
Al-Mohaissen, Maha A
Awareness of basic life support (BLS) is paramount to ensure the provision of essential life-saving medical care in emergency situations. This study aimed to measure knowledge of BLS and attitudes towards BLS training among female health students at a women's university in Saudi Arabia. This prospective cross-sectional study took place between January and April 2016 at five health colleges of the Princess Nourah bint Abdulrahman University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. All 2,955 students attending the health colleges were invited to participate in the study. Participants were subsequently asked to complete a validated English-language questionnaire which included 21 items assessing knowledge of BLS and six items gauging attitudes to BLS. A total of 1,349 students completed the questionnaire (response rate: 45.7%). The mean overall knowledge score was very low (32.7 ± 13.9) and 87.9% of the participants had very poor knowledge scores. A total of 32.5% of the participants had never received any BLS training. Students who had previously received BLS training had significantly higher knowledge scores ( P supported mandatory BLS training. Overall knowledge about BLS among the students was very poor; however, attitudes towards BLS training were positive. These findings call for an improvement in BLS education among Saudi female health students so as to ensure appropriate responses in cardiac arrest or other emergency situations.
Almuneef, Maha A; Alghamdi, Linah A; Saleheen, Hassan N
To describe the family profile of child abuse and neglect (CAN) subjects in Saudi Arabia. Data were collected retrospectively between July 2009 and December 2013 from patients' files, which were obtained from the Child Protection Centre (CPC) based in King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Four main sets of variables were examined: demographics of victim, family profile, parental information, and information on perpetrator and forms of abuse. The charts of 220 CAN cases were retrospectively reviewed. Physical abuse was the most common form of abuse (42%), followed by neglect (39%), sexual abuse (14%), and emotional abuse (4%). Children with unemployed fathers were 2.8 times as likely to experience physical abuse. Children living in single/step-parent households were 4 times as likely to experience physical abuse. Regarding neglect children living in larger households (≥6) were 1.5 times as likely to be neglected by their parents as were children living in smaller households (less than 6). Regarding sexual abuse, male children were 2.9 times as likely to be abused as were female children. The recent acknowledgment of CAN as a public health problem in Saudi Arabia suggests that time will be needed to employ effective and culturally sensitive prevention strategies based on family risk factors.
Alahmad, Ghiath; Hifnawy, Tamer; Abbasi, Badaruddin; Dierickx, Kris
Achieving a balance between giving access to information and respecting donors' confidentiality is a crucial issue for any biobank, with its large number of samples and associated information. Despite the existence of much empirical literature on confidentiality, there are too few surveys in the Middle East about the topic, particularly in the Saudi context. A survey was conducted of 200 respondents at King Abdulaziz Medical City in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, among 5 groups of equal size, comprised of researchers, physicians, medical students, donors and laypersons, respectively. The majority of participants agreed that confidentiality is an important issue and that it is well protected in the Saudi biobank. All 5 groups showed different attitudes toward disclosing information to various third parties. They were in favor of allowing treating physicians, and to a certain extent family members, to have access to medical and genetic results from research. No significant differences were found between views on medical and genetic confidentiality. The majority of respondents agreed that confidentiality might be breached in cases with specific justified reasons. Even considering differences in religion, culture and other factors, the results of the study were consistent with those reported in the literature and research conducted in other countries. We therefore place emphasis on the importance of protecting and promoting patient/donor confidentiality and privacy. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Al-Khathaami, Ali M.; Alshahrani, Saeed M.; Kojan, Suleiman M.; Al-Jumah, Mohammed A.; Alamry, Ahmed A.; El-Metwally, Ashraf A.
Objectives: To determine the degree of satisfaction and acceptance of stroke patients, their relatives, and healthcare providers toward using telestroke technology in Saudi Arabia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted between October and December 2012 at King Abdulaziz Medical City, Ministry of National Guard Affairs, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The Remote Presence Robot (RPR), the RP-7i® (FDA- cleared) provided by InTouch Health was used in the study. Patients and their relatives were informed that the physician would appear through a screen on top of a robotic device, as part of their clinical care. Stroke patients admitted through the emergency department, and their relatives, as well as healthcare providers completed a self-administered satisfaction questionnaire following the telestroke consultation sessions. Results: Fifty participants completed the questionnaire. Most subjects agreed that the remote consultant interview was useful and that the audiovisual component of the intervention was of high quality; 98% agreed that they did not feel shy or embarrassed during the remote interview, were able to understand the instruction of the consultant, and recommended its use in stroke management. Furthermore, 92% agreed or strongly agreed that the use of this technology can efficiently replace the physical presence of a neurologist. Conclusion: Results suggest that the use of telestroke medicine is culturally acceptable among stroke patients and their families in Saudi Arabia and favorably received by healthcare providers. PMID:25630777
Full Text Available A survey was conducted to determine the status of Lucerne transient streak virus (LTSV in three high-yielding alfalfa regions in central Saudi Arabia (Riyadh, Qassim, and Hail during 2014. Three hundred and eight symptomatic alfalfa, and seven Sonchus oleraceus samples were collected. DAS-ELISA indicated that 59 of these samples were positive to LTSV. Two isolates of LTSV from each region were selected for molecular studies. RT-PCR confirmed the presence of LTSV in the selected samples using a specific primer pair. Percentage identity and homology tree comparisons revealed that all Saudi isolates were more closely related to each other but also closely related to the Canadian isolate-JQ782213 (97.1–97.6% and the New Zealand isolate-U31286 (95.8–97.1%. Comparing Saudi isolates of LTSV with ten other sobemoviruses based on the coat protein gene sequences confirmed the distant relationship between them. Eleven out of fourteen plant species used in host range study were positive to LTSV. This is the first time to document that Trifolium alexandrinum, Nicotiana occidentalis, Chenopodium glaucum, and Lathyrus sativus are new host plant species for LTSV and that N. occidentalis being a good propagative host for it.
Raza, Ahmed; Al-Shahwan, Ibrahim M; Abdalla, Omer A; Al-Saleh, Mohammed A; Amer, Mahmoud A
A survey was conducted to determine the status of Lucerne transient streak virus (LTSV) in three high-yielding alfalfa regions in central Saudi Arabia (Riyadh, Qassim, and Hail) during 2014. Three hundred and eight symptomatic alfalfa, and seven Sonchus oleraceus samples were collected. DAS-ELISA indicated that 59 of these samples were positive to LTSV. Two isolates of LTSV from each region were selected for molecular studies. RT-PCR confirmed the presence of LTSV in the selected samples using a specific primer pair. Percentage identity and homology tree comparisons revealed that all Saudi isolates were more closely related to each other but also closely related to the Canadian isolate-JQ782213 (97.1-97.6%) and the New Zealand isolate-U31286 (95.8-97.1%). Comparing Saudi isolates of LTSV with ten other sobemoviruses based on the coat protein gene sequences confirmed the distant relationship between them. Eleven out of fourteen plant species used in host range study were positive to LTSV. This is the first time to document that Trifolium alexandrinum , Nicotiana occidentalis , Chenopodium glaucum , and Lathyrus sativus are new host plant species for LTSV and that N. occidentalis being a good propagative host for it.
Mostafa A. Abolfotouh
Full Text Available Aim. (i To estimate the prevalence of the metabolic abnormalities among Saudi college students in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, and (ii to investigate the association between different indicators of body composition and these abnormalities. Methods. A total of 501 college students participated in a cross-sectional study. Anthropometric assessments, BP measurements, and biochemical assessment were done. Metabolic abnormalities were identified. Results. Applying BMI, 21.9 % and 20.6% of students were classified as overweight and obese, respectively. Central obesity was prevalent in 26.9% and 42.2% of students based on WC and WHtR, respectively. Other metabolic abnormalities were hypertension (23.6% and abnormal FPG level (22.6%. Three or more abnormalities were prevalent in 7.8% of students and increased significantly to 26.4%, 20%, and 17.6 in obese subjects based on BMI, WC, and WHtR, respectively. With the exception of abnormal FPG, prevalence of individual metabolic abnormalities as well as the number of these abnormalities significantly increased with increasing BMI, WC, and WHtR (P<0.001 each. Conclusion. Our findings provide evidence for the presence of MS in Saudi college students. Central adiposity contributes to the high incidence of individual MS components. College health programs that promote healthful lifestyle and avoidance of adult weight gain are recommended.
Nipkow, J.; Busch, E. [Schweizerische Agentur fuer Energieeffizienz S.A.F.E., Zuerich (Switzerland); Herzog, L.; Paris, A. [Alteno AG, Basel (Switzerland); Perincioli, L. [Perincioli Lorenz, Goldiwil (Switzerland)
Minibars are common in hotel rooms to provide cold drinks of the four-star or higher standard, sometimes also for the three-star houses these appliances are located inside the guest room and should not disturb the guests, they have to be noiseless. For that reason, up to now the vast majority is equipped with absorption refrigeration technology. That's why the daily electricity consumption is very rarely below 0.7 kWh/d, and was a few years ago rarely below 1.5 kWh/d. Energy efficiency potentials are therefore substantial: According to surveys and estimates 50'000 to 60'000 minibars are being operated in Switzerland, resulting in an electricity consumption of about 24 GWh/a and electricity cost of about 4.8 million CHF/a. Additional electricity consumption for air conditioning due to the minibar waste heat is not yet included in these figures. From a technical point of view this service might be performed at 1/4 of the actual electricity consumption, using the most efficient small household refrigerators. As a short-time alternative, minibars with Peltier technology are being offered, saving 30% electricity compared to the most efficient absorption models, and 70% compared to older models. Additional development steps seem to be necessary to optimize compressor technology minibars, as the efficiency of the actually sold models on the market seems hardly more efficient than absorption models. Other alternatives of the service 'cool drinks available at every time' could not be established in hotels so far, for different reasons. The improvement of minibar efficiency in short and longer term should be pursued by subsequent projects. (author)
2014 Analisis Kontribusi Pajak Hotel terhadap Pendapatan Asli Daerah Kabupaten Nunukan Analysis of The Contributions Tax on Hotel Againts Regional Renenue Nunukan District Muliati Haerial M. Christian Mangiwa Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui seberapa besar kontribusi pajak hotel terhadap pendapatan asli daerah, mengetahui sistem pengawasan, dan potensi yang ada untuk meningkatkan pajak hotel, mengetahui sistem dan prosedur...
Ahmed, Anwar E; Al-Jahdali, Hamdan; Fatani, Abdulhamid; Al-Rouqi, Khalid; Al-Jahdali, Fares; Al-Harbi, Abdullah; Baharoon, Salim; Ali, Yosra Z; Khan, Mohammad; Rumayyan, Ahmad
The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of insomnia among the Saudi adult population. A cross-sectional insomnia survey was conducted at King Abdulaziz Medical City (KAMC) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The presence of insomnia was defined by difficulty initiating sleep, early morning awakening, or frequent awakening, in addition to the second-day effect in the form of fatigue, tiredness, or changes in the mode because of lack of sleep. The crude prevalence of insomnia was 77.7% (95% CI = 75.9-79.5%). The gender-adjusted prevalence of insomnia was higher for females, 88.7% (95% CI = 86.4-90.7%) than for males, 70.4% (95% CI = 67.8-72.9%), p-value = .001. The age-adjusted prevalence of insomnia was higher for the elderly, 93.7% (95% CI = 90.6-96.0%) than for the middle aged, 79.8% (95% CI = 77.4-82.1%), or for the young group, 64.2% (95% CI = 59.9-68.4%), p-value = .001. The Chi-square analyses revealed that (1) being elderly, widowed/divorced, females, or housewives, (2) having a lack of education, and (3) excessive tea consumption were significantly associated with elevated risks for insomnia (p-values Saudi females and the elderly Saudi population.
Hazzaa M. Al-Hazzaa
Full Text Available This study investigated the cross-cultural differences and similarity in health behaviors between Saudi and British adolescents. A school-based cross-sectional study was conducted at four cities in Saudi Arabia (Riyadh and Al-Khobar; N = 1,648 and Britain (Birmingham and Coventry; N = 1,158. The participants (14–18 year-olds were randomly selected using a multistage stratified cluster sampling technique. Measurements included anthropometric, screen time, validated physical activity (PA questionnaire and dietary habits. The overweight/obesity prevalence among Saudi adolescents (38.3% was significantly (p < 0.001 higher than that found among British adolescents (24.1%. The British adolescents demonstrated higher total PA energy expenditure than Saudi adolescents (means ± SE = 3,804.8 ± 81.5 vs. 2,219.9 ± 65.5 METs-min/week. Inactivity prevalence was significantly (p < 0.001 higher among Saudi adolescents (64% compared with that of British adolescents (25.5%. The proportions of adolescents exceeding 2 h of daily screen time were high (88.0% and 90.8% among Saudis and British, respectively. The majority of Saudi and British adolescents did not have daily intakes of breakfast, fruit, vegetables and milk. MANCOVA showed significant (p < 0.05 gender by country interactions in several lifestyle factors. There was a significant (p < 0.001 gender differences in the ratio of physical activity to sedentary behaviors. In conclusion, Saudi and British adolescents demonstrated some similarities and differences in their PA levels, sedentary behaviors and dietary habits. Unhealthy lifestyle behaviors among adolescents appear to be a cross-cultural phenomenon.
Ricardo Barbosa Angeli
Full Text Available The hospitality industry needs from time to time to renovate its installations. There is no better moment for a marketing repositioning. This paper presents an exploratory study on how the boutique hotel concept is understood by researchers from different countries. Due to independent hotels agility in implementing innovations, it was considered the possibility of part of this segment adopting the boutique model to improve competitiveness against hotel chains. It was found that there is no single understanding of boutique hotel meaning. Nevertheless, small and fancy hotels with unique design and customer service are usually considered boutique hotels. Unique experience is also mentioned as an ingredient to a boutique hotel.
Salih, Mustafa S.; Al-Jarallah, Ahmad A.; Alorainy, Ibrahim A.
Objective was to explore the hematologic risk factors for stroke in cohort of Saudi children. We evaluated children at the Division of Pediatric Neurology at King Khalid University Hospital, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, during the periods July 1992 to February 2001 (retrospective study) and February 2001 to March 2003 (prospective study). Investigations for suspected cases included neuroimaging, transcranial Dopppler (TCD) for cases of sickle cell diseases (SCD), and Duplex scan. Hemostatic assays included coagulation screening tests, tests of thrombin generation and fibrinolysis, coagulation inhibitors, and activated protein C resistance. During the study period, 104 Saudi children (aged one month to 12 years) with stroke were seen. The mean age of the cohort was 27.1 months (SD=39.3 months) and median was 6 months. Ischemic strokes accounted for the majority of cases (76%). A major risk factor was identified in 93 of 104 cases of stroke (89.4%). Hematologic disorders were the most common (46.2%), followed by prothrombic disorders (31.7%); microcystic hypochromic anemia (26%); sickle cell disease (SCD), or SCB-thalassemia, (11.5%), and factor IX deficiency (2.9%). Raised anticardiolipin antibodies (13/49, 26.5%) was the most frequent abnormality. Deficiencies of the natural anticoagulants (protein S, protein C and antithrombin III) were as follows: protein S (15/70, 21.4%); protein C (15/70,21.4%) and combined deficiency of 2 or more inhibitors (9/70, 12.9%). Activated protein C resistance has not been detected. Contrary to the findings of previous studies from Saudi Arabia, SCD is a common risk factor and is severe, as it resulted in multiple strokes. Moyamoya syndrome was diagnosed in 2 patients with SCD, one of whom had revascularization surgery (encephaldoduroarteriosynangiosis). Assessment of children with SCD at a risk of stroke was helped by the introduction of TCD followed by neuroimaging, using MRI and magnetic resonanceangiography
Oktariani, Elvi; Achnes, Syofia
Loyalty is an important thing in any industry, including in the hotel industry. There are some definition of customer loyalty, which can be concluded as “the behavior and attitude that is shown by a customer in type of repurchasings and commitments in al long term at a certain company or product”. Hotel Pangeran Pekanbaru is challenged to retain their customer to always be chosen at anytime they stay in Pekanbaru. The loyalty aspect of Hotel Pangeran Pekanbaru's customer is described by this ...
Wang, Mingshu; Zhou, Xiaolu
In resonance with the popularity of user-generated contents (UGC) and the volunteered geographic information (VGI), this study crowdsourced 77,098 hotel reviews of 220 hotels provided by U.S. reviewers in the city of San Francisco, 2002 to 2015. In this exploratory analysis, we have revealed that there is spatial dependence of customer satisfaction at different locations (of hotels), which violates the assumption that ordinary least-square (OLS) is the best linear unbiased estimator (BLUE); therefore, spatial model might be required for analysing any antecedents and consequences of such phenomena. These results have implications in marketing and management strategies.
Full Text Available In resonance with the popularity of user-generated contents (UGC and the volunteered geographic information (VGI, this study crowdsourced 77,098 hotel reviews of 220 hotels provided by U.S. reviewers in the city of San Francisco, 2002 to 2015. In this exploratory analysis, we have revealed that there is spatial dependence of customer satisfaction at different locations (of hotels, which violates the assumption that ordinary least-square (OLS is the best linear unbiased estimator (BLUE; therefore, spatial model might be required for analysing any antecedents and consequences of such phenomena. These results have implications in marketing and management strategies.
Loyalty card is one of the most commonly used promotional activities in business. Thus far, there are some research has been done on luxury hotel, but very few researches are on budget hotel. So, the purpose of the thesis is finding out the Swedish customers’ attitude and behavior towards budget hotel’s loyalty card; getting to know what factors influence Swedish customers’ response towards the loyalty card and budget hotels. In the thesis, the main research problem is “How do Swedish custome...
Full Text Available This paper aims at presenting and analysing the performance appraisalsystems and the human potential development in hotelunits. It aims at integrating and updating many aspects of performanceappraisal while concentrating on the hotel units systemto prove the importance of human resource evaluation in hotelunits and the procedure that is to be followed by the enterprisefor further development of hotel employees. HR evaluation analysisis presented through relevant theoretical background on theevaluation method and the presentation of the practical problematicalissues in order to create an image for a whole evaluationsystem of HR in Greek hotel enterprises.
Omar A. Al-Mohrej
Conclusions: The overall results showed a slightly high rate of propanol misuse among medical and dental students. The majority of users are aware of the risks and potential side effects of self-prescribing medications, however; the anxiety relieving effect of propranolol increased its use prior to oral exams and presentations. Educational activity targeting students must be implemented.
Alosaimi, Fahad D; Alshehri, Youssef; Alfraih, Ibrahim; Alghamdi, Ayedh; Aldahash, Saleh; Alkhuzayem, Haifa; Al-Beeshi, Haneen
In this study, we compared the prevalence of psychiatric disorders and the characteristics of those who either use or do not use faith healers (FHs) services. We also assessed the independent factors of study subjects associated with using FHs. This cross-sectional study compared those who use FHs (n = 383) with a control group of those who do not use them (i.e., shopping mall visitors, n = 424) using a survey of sociodemographic characteristics and a validated Arabic version of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI 6.0). Participants who ranked higher among FH users included males, people who were either married, divorced, or widowed, those with less education, and those with lower income. They were more likely to report past medical and psychiatric history. Those with diagnosable psychiatric disorders were more likely to visit FHs, especially if the diagnosis was of psychotic and bipolar disorders. The prevalence of psychiatric disorders was higher among FH users, and depressive and anxiety disorders were the most prevalent. The study showed that having past psychiatric history and a current psychiatric disorder are risk factors for using FHs. Also, a high percentage of FH users had a diagnosable psychiatric disorder. Further research should assess how to facilitate their access to the mental health system.
Full Text Available Aims To determine whether there is an effect of healthy behaviours (diet, physical activity, sleep pattern and coping with stress strategies on academic performance among King Saud University (KSU female students who study in different academic fields. Methods A self-administered questionnaire was distributed among 14342 female students aged from 18-25 from different colleges fields, these colleges are Medical Colleges, Sciences Colleges and Humanities Colleges. We distributed the questionnaires through the students’ official emails and only 310 students who completed them. Results The study results show, there was a very weak, positive monotonic correlation between GPA and family income (rs=0.105, n=310, p>0.001 while, there was a very weak, negative monotonic correlation between GPA and the number of family members, marital status, and with whom they live (p<0.001. Regarding the health behaviours; Physical activity seems to be related to academic performance among students of sciences colleges (X2 =174.34, and p<0.001 while, sleep pattern and stress are related to academic performance for medical students, (X2 =297.470, X2 =120.7 respectively and p<0.001. Conclusion The medical students are the most affected group by the health behaviours where sleep pattern and cope with stress are found to be the most health behaviours affecting their academic performance.
Pande Putu Indrayana Tirtayasa
Full Text Available The growth of the number of hotel rooms in Ubud has caused increasing business competition among the so called non-star melati hotel.Non-star melati hotel is a category of hotel which is not qualified to be awarded as a star hotel by Indonesian Ministry of Tourism.In response to the competition, the hotels embrace internet as a sales and promotion media by developing hotel websites.Individual tourism trend ignites the emergence of online travel agency websites (OTA which used by tourists to compare and choose hotels thus increasing the importance of internet as a channel for selling and promoting hotel products.The purposes of this research are to identify motivation, perception, advantages and disadvantages of hotel website and OTA by non-star melati hotel operator’s perspective.Theories used are motivation, perception, and SWOT theory. Data was analyzed with descriptive qualitative method.Results show that hotel website and OTA have its own advantages and disadvantages. Motivation in using hotel website and OTA are very high.Perception in using hotel website and OTA are very agree. It is advised that hotels need to focus more on using OTA as source of getting guests, but also using hotel website, together as medium for promotion and sales activities.
Seo Yeon Kim; Jong Uk Kim; Sang Cheol Park
With the rapid development of information technology in hotel booking context, it is no doubt that many hotels consequently enhance the needs of integrating information technologies into their overall business operations. In this study, we developed a research model which consists of perceived value, trust toward a third party online booking site, and trust toward hotels, and tested it by using partial least square techniques. Survey data were collected from 307 individuals who have prior exp...
Within a few decades globalization continues to be widespread in all sectors. This phenomenon affects tourism as well, we can follow such new trends such as acquisitions or creation of big hotel groups.Thus, we can see how this issue is important nowadays.This bachelor thesis project is focused on analyzing the current position of hotel chains on market. In the theoretical part are explained major terms related to the operation of hotel chains, system of their functioning and comparisons with...
Milan Bradić; Ljiljana Kosar; Bojana Kalenjuk
This paper considers the problem of satisfaction of business guests with hotel brands in North America. In analysis we used the guests responses (scores) given for 12 different elements of hotel product. In order to arrive at more accurate results, monitored hotel chains are grouped into price tiers. The aim of this paper is to indicate what facilities and services the North American business guests appreciate most. Industry trends and results may be beneficial to all hoteliers, especially in...
Ketut Ngurah Trisni Sakawati
The tourism sector of Bali has developed rapidly in the last tenyears, especially when it is seen from the trend of the numbers ofdomestic and foreign tourist arrivals. This trend is accompaniedwith the increasing number of accommodation facilities. Denpasaris a region which shows the rapid growth of accommodationfacilities, such as the presence of a number of hotels in the city areawhich is often referred to as a city hotel. This study examines thefactors that cause the growth of city hotels...
The Diploma thesis "Boutique Hotels Analysis" is focused on tourism and hotel industry in the Czech Republic. The theoretical part encompasses essential terms and pieces of knowledge in both sectors; the practical part is based on boutique hotel Buddha-Bar Hotel Prague. Provided services, position among competitive subjects in hotel industry market and satisfaction of staff are analyzed. Based on results, strategy for further development and suggestions for increasing competitiveness are reco...
The paper presents a review of various aspects of legal liability and claims to hotel management arising in the hotel industry in the context of the legal framework and possible legal consequences for hotels and other types of commercial accommodation establishments. The main reasons for accidents' occurrence in the hotel industry are chronologically traced. Possible claims to the hotel management are also presented in detail. The problem with workplace discrimination, which is considered as ...
Made Suksma Prijandhini Devi Salain
Full Text Available Bali is one of the favorite tourism destinations in the world give benefits as well as loss for Indonesia and Bali particularly. As a tourism place, a lot of Hotels are established in Bali, especially the chain hotels, such as Aston, Ibis, Harris, Fave or Horrison Hotel. Existence of the chain hotels is causing unfair competition with the local hotels. They have different standards in competitive prices. Especially in Bali, there is no regulation that regulates the chain hotels. According to those conditions, it really need to conduct a normative research of the chain hotels regulations within international, national and local Balinese instruments.
Energy and the Saudi economy were discussed with reference to reserves, oil prices, gross domestic product co-movements, and gas resources and development. In particular, this presentation reviewed the emergence and prospects of the petrochemical industry of Saudi Arabia using statistical, institutional and economic analyses relying on a wide range of data sources. Saudi Arabia has the world's largest oil reserves, at 263 billion barrels. In the 1990s, more than 54 Tcf of non-associated gas reserves were added to Saudi Arabia's resource base, more than doubling its proven non-associated gas reserves to approximately 97 Tcf. With 138 Tcf of associated gas reserves, Saudi Arabia holds the fourth largest gas reserves in the world at nearly 235 Tcf. First, this presentation identified and evaluated the endowments as well as the institutional and strategic forces that are driving the growth of the petrochemical industry in Saudi Arabia. Some of the economic, technical and geopolitical factors that influenced the increase in oil prices between 2003 and 2005 were also identified. The dual relationship between the Saudi petrochemical industry and long term economic performance of the Saudi economy were illustrated within a broad domestic economic diversification policy objective. The future growth prospects and challenges facing the Saudi petrochemical industry were also evaluated with respect to the evolving economic reform policies and Saudi international commitments. Potential implications for the petrochemical industry in North America were also identified, in terms of technology transfer and having Saudi Arabia secure the markets in order to meet its commitment to the World Trade Organization. tabs., figs
Full Text Available The introduction of the innovation in business is critical factor of the quality of the accommodation offer and the success of the hotel. Studies have shown that there is a relationship between category and innovativeness of the hotel, where the higher categories hotels have been shown to be more innovative. The aim of this study is to explore the relationship between category and innovativeness of the hotel, as well as to determine the differences in terms of innovation and types of innovation, depending on the category of the hotel. The study included 57 hotels of the first, second and third category in Serbia. The survey was conducted on a sample of 512 employees. The results of correlation analysis showed there is no corelation between the category and innovativeness of the hotel. The results of ANOVA showed that the second category hotels are more innovative than hotels with three and five stars. Statistically significant differences between the first, second and third category were found in the case of process innovation, product and service innovation and management innovation.
Ketut Ngurah Trisni Sakawati
Full Text Available The tourism sector of Bali has developed rapidly in the last tenyears, especially when it is seen from the trend of the numbers ofdomestic and foreign tourist arrivals. This trend is accompaniedwith the increasing number of accommodation facilities. Denpasaris a region which shows the rapid growth of accommodationfacilities, such as the presence of a number of hotels in the city areawhich is often referred to as a city hotel. This study examines thefactors that cause the growth of city hotels, the impacts of the cityhotel growths on the budget hotel businesses, the competition andbusiness strategies of inter-city hotels as well as their influences onbusiness strategies of budget hotels in Denpasar City. The theoriesapplied in the study were the theory of supply and demand, theimpact theory and the theory of tourism policy. Data were collectedthrough observation and interviews with relevant tourismstakeholders. The findings show the rapid developments of the cityhotels have given negatif and positive impacts on the businesses ofthe budget hotels in Denpasar. To prevent excessive developmentof the city hotel, it is recommended to Denpasar government todevelop a needs assessment of hotel rooms and some policies suchas standard setting policies of room rates or equitable policy of thehotel developments.
NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Abstract: This file shows the physical location of known Hotel, Motel, and Bed and Breakfast establishments in Volusia County. This file will be checked at least...
Department of Homeland Security — Provides a listing of properties compliant with the requirements of the Hotel and Motel Fire Safety Act of 1990. Users may search for compliant properties and submit...
Full Text Available The concept of empowerment, which is applicable for any social group that the person belongs to, is an essential phenomenon for continuity and success of the organization. The main purpose of this study is to determine the empowerment perceptions of employees in hotel industry. The research was conducted in four and five star hotels that operate in the city of Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, and 170 employees were reached at those hotels. Empowerment perceptions of the employees were measured using the scales “Conditions of Work Effectiveness Questionnaire-II, CWEQ-II” and “Psychological Empowerment Scale, PES”. As a result of factor analysis made on the scales, it was observed that structural empowerment and psychological empowerment perceptions were grouped into three sub-dimensions. And in comparisons based on demographic factors; it was ob served that perceptions of empowerment have clearly differentiated according to level of education, level of income, hotel class, tourism education position, employee position.
Full Text Available The concept of empowerment, which is applicable for any social group that the person belongs to, is an essential phenomenon for continuity and success of the organization. The main purpose of this study is to determine the empowerment perceptions of employees in hotel industry. The research was conducted in four and five star hotels that operate in the city of Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, and 170 employees were reached at those hotels. Empowerment perceptions of the employees were measured using the scales “Conditions of Work Effectiveness Questionnaire-II, CWEQ-II”and “Psychological Empowerment Scale, PES”. As a result of factor analysis made on the scales, it was observed that structural empowerment and psychological empowerment perceptions were grouped into three sub- dimensions. And in comparisons based on demographic factors; it was ob served that perceptions of empowerment have clearly differentiated according to level of education, level of income, hotel class, tourism education position, employee position
Full Text Available The paper presents some problems in using Balanced Scorecard (BSC in a hotel section. Fundamental element, which marks out BSC conception, is consolidation around vision and strategy appointed by the hotel management. Well compiled strategy should join all the targets and indexes, which compose four perspectives in BSC. Hotel section is the main gaining centre in the hotel, because the service quality is the main target of management strategy. BSC is a tool, which should not only measure effectiveness, but also implement changes, as soon as possible, so that the effects and expected results will be quick achieved. Most of the companies, which have used this conception, have treated it as a basic management system that joins strategy and operational activity. Therefore it is necessary to improve, modernize and create new sub perspectives in compiled BSC.
Indian Country, Minor Permit, proposed permit SD-0034584, Rosebud Casino and Hotel, South Dakota, is authorized to discharge from its wastewater treatment facility in Todd County, South Dakota to an unnamed drainageway(s) tributary to Rock Creek.
Diplomová práce s názvem Hotel na Vysočině řeší projektovou dokumentaci ve stupni pro provedení stavby. Hotel má tři nadzemní podlaží. Objekt je nepodsklepený. Zastřešení je provedeno plochou a šikmou střechou. Zdící systém POROTHERM s kontaktním zateplením expandovaným polystyrenem EPS -F. The master thesis named Hotel at Vysočina solves project documentation in the degree for building construction. The hotel has three floors. The object is without a cellar. As roofing is used a flat and ...
I Ketut Yasa Dharmika; GAP. Candra Dharmayanti; IBN. Purbawijaya
Construction of the hotel development is carried out without cessation of the hotel operations have a bigger challenge because of many things such as: accesses to the hotel, material loading area, noise, safety of guests and hotel staff, working time, demonstrations, etc should be well managed in order to minimize the impacts to hotel operation. Risk is the chance of occurrence of adverse events, which is caused by the uncertainty. The research aims to identify, analyze and how the risks can ...
Alyaemni, Asmaa; Theobald, Sally; Faragher, Brian; Jehan, Kate; Tolhurst, Rachel
This study aimed to explore Saudi Arabian women's perceptions of how gendered social structures affect their health by understanding their perceptions of these influences on their health relative to those on men's health. Qualitative methods, including focus group discussions (FGDs) and in-depth individual interviews (IDIs) were conducted with 66 married women in Riyadh, the capital city. Participants were purposively sampled for maximum variation, including consideration of socio-economic status, age, educational level, health status and the use of healthcare. The majority of women perceived their health to be worse than men's and attributed this to their childbearing, domestic and care-giving roles, restrictions on their mobility, poverty and psychological stress related to their responsibilities for children, and marital conflict. A minority of participants felt that men's health was worse than women's and related this to their gendered roles as "breadwinners," greater mobility and masculine norms and identities. Gender equity should be a health policy priority to improve women's health.
Alkhomashi, N.; Alyousif, A.A.S.; Walied Alotibi; Alkhorayef, M.A.
In the current study, 32 brands of canned tuna that were purchased in supermarkets in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia were analysed to quantify the activity levels of 137 Cs, 134 Cs and 40 K. These samples were processed in Japan, the Philippines, Thailand, Europe and the Middle East in 2011 and 2012. The samples were analysed using high-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy. The highest activity concentrations of all three radionuclides were obtained in the samples that were processed in Japan in 2011 a few months after the Fukushima Daiichi accident. However, the activity concentrations of radiocaesium in all the samples in this study were far below the limit for food and beverages of 100 Bq/kg, which is the standard limit in the Japan. (author)
Sonntag, C.; Thoma, G.; Muennich, K.O.; Dincer, T.; Klitzsch, E.
I. North Saharian palaeowaters were mainly formed during a long humid period between 50,000 and 20,000 years BP., which was followed by a cool dry period from 20,000 to 14,000 years BP. These palaeowaters show a significant west-east decrease in deuterium and 18 O because of past groundwater formation by local rainfall from the western drift. Sahel zone groundwaters seem to show meridional variation of deuterium and 18 O due to a tropical convective influence. II. A computer model estimate of the alternate play between rainwater infiltration and evaporation in the Dahna sand-dune (near Riyadh, Saudi Arabia) yields a mean annual groundwater recharge of 20 mm annually which agrees with that obtained from bomb tritium vertical profiles of the sand moisture. The model also describes the deuterium and 18 O profiles. (author)
Griffin, Tim D.; Algren, Mark S.
Religion pervades all aspects of Saudi Arabia, the conservative home of Islam, where the constitution is the Quran and law is interpreted by religious scholars. A formal adult basic education program was initiated in 1960. As part of the country's modernization since the early 1970s, the Saudi government has begun an enormous nation-building plan…
Granata, V.; Palermo, M.
Saudi Arabia has a central role in the world oil market. After analyzing the country's political and economic situation with all its possible outgrowths, this article indicates the various development prospects relevant to Saudi oil production and its future impacts on the market
This paper demonstrates the potential of Saudi schools for technology leadership provided by Learning Resource Centres (LRCs) to enhance the formation of a technology-motivated educational environment. Using the grounded theory methodology and the CBAM stages of concern and levels of use this study sheds light on Saudi LRCs and their leadership…
This paper discusses the historical, political, ideological (value), and government policies of women's education in Saudi Arabia implicated within teaching and learning, how women's higher education has changed over time in the realm of Saudi cultural traditions and religious norms. It also highlights the golden era of women's higher education.…
Full Text Available Gempa bumi pada tahun 2009 mengakibatkan bangunan-bangunan di Padang banyak yang runtuh, salah satunya adalah Hotel Ambacang. Pemilik membangun kembali Hotel Ambacang dengan desain struktur tahan gempa dan ini membutuhkan biaya yang jauh lebih besar dari bangunan semula. Hotel Axana adalah hotel berbintang empat dengan jumlah lantai empat lantai, lantai satu terdiri dari kafe, lobby, gudang, coffe, dan ballroom, sedangkan untuk lantai dua terdiri dari 39 unit kamar, lantai tiga terdiri dari 37 unit kamar, lantai empat terdiri dari 38 unit kamar, gym dan kolam renang. Penelitian ini bertujuan melakukan analisa kelayakan dengan meninjau aspek finansial. Analisa finansial ini dilakukan dengan menganalisa variabel investasi, kemudian menghitung pengeluaran dan penerimaan yang selanjutnya dapat dibuat cashflow selama masa investasi, kemudian dilakukan analisa sensitivitas terhadap variabel tingkatan jumlah pengunjung, tarif sewa kamar, dan suku bunga bank. Dari hasil analisa data diketahui bahwa Investasi total Hotel Axana Sebesar Rp 130.293.467.888,00 dengan NPV selama masa investasi sebesar Rp 1.712.634.662,00, sedangkan analisa Profitability Index (PI Hotel Axana ini = 1,3%, positif berarti hotel ini profit dan dikatakan layak dari segi finansial. Hasil analisa sensitivitas antara variabel okupansi, tarif sewa kamar, dan suku bunga terhadap NPV diketahui bahwa Hotel Axana Padang layak jika tingkat hunian lebih dari 40%, penurunan tarif sewa kamar tidak lebih dari 5% dari taraf saat ini, suku bunga tidak lebih lebih dari 12,6 %.
By implementing certain standards in business, especially the standards of business ethics, each entity in the hotel industry emphasize its specificity and recognition, while giving a guestconsumer security and a guarantee that they will get desired quality. In today's global world, business ethics has become an indispensable part of the hotel business practices and prerequisite for achieving business success. Business ethics receives strategic significance because ...
The research was conducted for Lossiranta Lodge, the Finnish boutique hotel located in Savonlinna, which is interested in expansion of the current promotion system via advertising on the Internet. The idea of the present thesis is promotion of the boutique hotel Lossiranta Lodge via various modern methods and ways on the Internet by dint of advertising. In the framework of this work was identified the main features of advertising on Internet in order to implement the outcome of my diplo...
Prague, with its monuments of great historical and artistic value, has been gaining popularity in recent years. It has become one of the most important tourist destinations in Central Europe. This is the reason why hotel industry in this city is developing so quickly – there are 654 collective tourist accommodation establishments with 547 hotels, motels, pensions and residences, which is more than 83%. Establishments, located in the old, historical buildings, are among the m...
Environmental issues are becoming increasingly important in modern day society, and environmental sustainability is one issue to be considered in hotel business. Global temperatures have been increasing during the recent years and the emissions of carbon dioxide have a big role in the issue. Hotels can affect the situation for their part by trying to run their businesses in an environmentally sustainable fashion. Concentrating on environmental issues can also result in financial savings in th...
Marco-Lajara, Bartolomé; Claver Cortés, Enrique; Úbeda García, Mercedes; Zaragoza Sáez, Patrocinio del Carmen
This paper measures the impact on profitability of the geographical area where the vacation hotels of the Spanish Mediterranean are situated. It places a special emphasis on analysing the tourist districts existing in this coastal Spanish area and the extent to which the degree of business agglomeration at each destination affects hotel profit. Due to the characteristics of the service sector, and after a revision of the agglomeration literature, a ‘U’-shaped relationship is hypothesized betw...
Vukotic, P.; Antovic, N.; Dapcevic, S.; Uvarov, V.V.; Mrdak, R.
Indoor radon concentrations in the 16 hotels in Montenegro, well known by tourists, were measured in winter period by an integral method, with etch-track detectors. Radon concentrations obtained at the 30 measuring sites are in a range (22 - 90) Bq/m 3 , with an arithmetic mean of 43 Bq/m 3 . This means that the radon levels in the all surveyed hotels in Montenegro are much bellow the most stringent reference level internationally recommended. (author)
The bachelor’s thesis examines the importance of customer satisfaction via customers’ opinions. The objective of the thesis is to measure the level of satisfaction of Customers in Omena hotels in Helsinki region. The research exposes the expectation of customers that could assist the Omena hotels to upgrade their IT-enabled business operational services. The theory part of this thesis covers the concept of customer satisfaction, customer service and service quality dimensions. The empiri...
Kateřina Ryglová; Ida Vajčnerová; Jakub Šácha
The aim of the paper is to present possibilities and specifics of quality management in hotel services with the focus on the Servqual model. Servqual works on the definition of five dimensions of service quality: tangibles, reliability, responsiveness, assurance and empathy. Demonstrating the practical application of Servqual in selected hotels in the Czech Republic is also a part of the paper. Input data have been gained by force of a primary field-research with the help of a quantitative re...
Strong competition in the market has caused the development of a new management approach known as Total Quality Management (TQM). Due to importance that quality plays in achieving competitive advantage, the hotel industry started to apply TQM. During the introduction of these systems, hotel companies may use different approaches to suit their own buseiness requirements. In doing so, 'TQM standards' can be used, or various international standards and models of business ...
Full Text Available Getting information in real time at specific times and locations is especially needed when users have high mobility. But often users are not familiar with the area, so difficulty in finding locations and information. The development of technology for location based services and augmented reality makes it easy to get information from available resources in locations using mobile devices equipped with GPS devices. The research aims to combine hotel location based services and augmented reality in android-based mobile device by manipulating virtual objects into real objects through the camera as input and mobile phone display as output.The integration of hotel location based services and augmented reality is useful for hotel users to be able to search hotel information by directing the camera mobile device in the direction of specific targets to be retrieved information. The output of the system is provided in real time on the mobile device display for the user. Output information provided in the direction of location of the hotel object and information about the object of the hotel.
Nanny Roedji Roedji
Full Text Available Nowadays, eviromental management has gotten a fully attention. Then, hospitality industry in East Java Province has committed to the Eco Friendly Enviroment needs a deep investigation in order to analyze a practical managment of hotel product which uses an eviromental friendly method in improving efficiency of energy, water, air quality, and solid waste management and liquid waste management system. This research used a descriptive qualitatif method which chracterized causuality and using a survey method. Data were collected by using an istitutional-perceptional approach and were analyzed by using enviromental performance scale from 1 to 5 point toward Green Hotel practice. The conclusion from the investigation result are; 45% hotel understand the concept and green product implementation. 50% hotel reuse the water to pour the garden. 40% about operating procedure such as towel reuse and bed sheet. 90% of the hotel already use VRV air-conditioner which can adjust the temperature suitable� with the number of the people in the room and its automatically turn off when there are no people in the room. 45% shows that hotel provide dispenser to combine shampoo and conditioner (hair moisturizer in one product so it will decrease the plastic waste.
Ziad A Memish
Full Text Available Objectives: To study the knowledge, attitudes, and practices with regard to human immunodeficiency virus infection / acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS in illegal residents, in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire study was conducted among the illegal residents from four regions in Saudi Arabia: Jeddah, Makkah, Riyadh, and Jazan. Results: The survey enrolled 5,000 participants, 79%male (39.6% from Jeddah; 20% from Riyadh; and 20% from Jazan, aged between 15 and 45 years. Of the total, 1288 (25.8% had not heard about HIV/AIDS. Knowledge of HIV transmission was poor in 90% of the respondents. Of the total, 737 had read about HIV/AIDS materials and 649 participants had been previously tested for HIV. The majority of participants (85% held a negative attitude toward people living with HIV/AIDS. Those who were knowledgeable about HIV/AIDS expressed more a positive attitude. One-fifth (968, majority were men; single 55%, married 45% had engaged in non-marital sexual activity. The largest proportion of the individuals who had engaged in non-marital sex were single (54.9% followed by the married ones (40.4%. Men cited pleasure as the main reason for such activity (84.6%, whereas women (73.4% cited financial gain. Of the respondents, 53.9 and 32.1% believed that TV and schools were the best media through which information with regard to HIV/AIDS could be imparted. Conclusions: Knowledge of HIV/AIDS, its mode of transmission, and prevention measures was poor. Educational programs specifically targeted toward this group were required.
Aljadhey, Hisham; Assiri, Ghada A; Mahmoud, Mansour A; Al-Aqeel, Sinaa; Murray, Michael
To determine the prevalence of self-medication and assess the knowledge, attitudes, and perception of consumers toward self-medication. This cross-sectional survey was conducted over 4 weeks in May 2011 in Riyadh city, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Community pharmacies within 5 areas of the city (North, South, West, East, and Middle) were randomly selected for the study. All consumers were approached to participate in the study, with the exception of those buying cosmetic and medicinal equipments. A validated self-administered questionnaire was used to collect the data. A total of 538 out of 707 consumers attending community pharmacies in Riyadh city, agreed to participate in the study. Most responders were male (73%), 23-33 years old (35%), and college graduates (42%). A total of 285 medications were bought without a prescription. Of these, 149 (49%) medications should be dispensed by prescription only, and 155 (51%) were over the counter medications. The most common prescription medications dispensed without prescriptions were antibiotics (22%) and analgesics/antipyretics (19%). The most common reasons for buying medications without a prescription were that the symptoms were too minor to visit a doctor (54%), time saving (40%), and minor illnesses for which the participants knew the required treatment (40%). Overall, most participants had poor knowledge, and negative perceptions regarding self-medication. More than 68% of participants did not know whether the medicine they bought is a prescription-only or over the counter medication. Irresponsible self-medication is common in Saudi Arabia. Future studies should focus on improving the consumers' awareness of self-medication and the proper use of medications.
Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate knowledge and attitude of physicians involved in the management of patients with heart failure regarding implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD. Methods: We conducted personal interviews with physicians involved in treating patients with heart failure. Between October 2015 and February 2016, the study was conducted in hospitals in the Riyadh region where no cardiac electrophysiology service was available. Every participant was met in person and received an oral questionnaire that aimed to assess basic knowledge regarding ICD indications and benefits. Results: Sixty-three physicians were met from 13 hospitals (14 consultants and 49 specialists. Forty-one percent of participants use the recommended cut-off level of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF which is ≤35% as the LVEF criterion for ICD referral in patients with cardiomyopathy. Only 50% of the consultants use ≤35% as the LVEF criterion for ICD referral. Seventy percent of the participants thought that ICD may improve heart failure symptoms. Forty-eight percent of physicians have a defined channel to refer patients to higher centers for ICD implant. There was no statistically significant difference between physicians’ knowledge when we categorized them according to three different factors: (1 physician’s specialty (cardiology vs. internal medicine; (2 physician’s degree (consultant vs. specialist; and (3 physician’s location (inside vs. outside Riyadh city. Conclusion: There is a lack of knowledge of current clinical guidelines regarding ICD implantation for patients with heart failure at general hospitals in Saudi Arabia. This finding highlights the need to improve the dissemination of guidelines to practitioners involved in managing patients with heart failure in an effort to improve ICD utilization. Keywords: Cardiac defibrillator, Heart failure, Physicians’ knowledge, Saudi Arabia
Mu, Bin; Xiao, Meng; Gebray, Yonas
This thesis is to identify the main factors that influence CRM implementation in Scandic hotel and Clarion hotel. Moreover, benefits of both hotels that can be reaped from using CRM. The result shows that CRM plays an important role in creating a long term successful to the hotels. But this can be achieved through considering major factors that influencing CRM implementation. CRM benefits also realized in both operational and strategic.
Full Text Available Nurdan Kokturk,1 Mehmet Polatli,2 I Kivilcim Oguzulgen,1 Sarfraz Saleemi,3 Mohammed Al Ghobain,4 Javed Khan,5 Adam Doble,6 Luqman Tariq,7 Fayaz Aziz,7 Abdelkader El Hasnaoui7 1Department of Pulmonary Medicine, School of Medicine, Gazi University, Besevler, Turkey; 2Department of Pulmonary Medicine, School of Medicine, Adnan Menderes University, Aydin, Turkey; 3Section of Pulmonary Medicine, Department of Medicine, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 4Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 5Department of Medicine, King Fahd Armed Forces Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; 6Foxymed, Paris, France; 7GlaxoSmithKline, Dubai, UAE Background: COPD affects millions of people worldwide. Poor treatment adherence contributes to increased symptom severity, morbidity and mortality. This study was designed to investigate adherence to COPD treatment in Turkey and Saudi Arabia. Methods: An observational, cross-sectional study in adult COPD patients in Turkey and Saudi Arabia. Through physician-led interviews, data were collected on sociodemographics and disease history, including the impact of COPD on health status using the COPD Assessment Test (CAT; quality of life, using the EuroQol Five-Dimension questionnaire (EQ-5D; and anxiety and depression using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS. Treatment adherence was measured using the 8-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8. Multivariate logistic regression analysis examined the predictors of non-adherence and the impact of adherence on symptom severity. Results: Four hundred and five COPD patients participated: 199 in Turkey and 206 in Saudi Arabia. Overall, 49.2% reported low adherence (MMAS-8 <6. Of those, 74.7% reported high disease impact (CAT >15 compared to 58.4% reporting medium/high adherence (p=0.0008. Patients with low adherence reported a lower mean 3-level EQ-5D
Agung Gita Subakti
Full Text Available Picking the right hotel can be tricky especially in today’s world of multiple rating systems. A luxury hotel rating once topped out at five stars but in the war to snag vacationers certain hotels that sing tunes of opulence and luxurious pleasure have started to accumulate seven stars. Star rating systems vary from continentto continent, country to country, and in a country. Hotel ratings have become a subjective assessment of amenities depending on the hotel and location. But the big question that is how they rate a seven stars Hotel. What makes it different from five stars Hotel or any fine establishment alike. In this case, the author is over viewing some of the Hotels in the world that are known for its seven stars reputation and taking a closer look on how they get their reputation for being the most luxurious Hotels in the world.
Sulaiman O. Aljaloud
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to understand the usage patterns of dietary supplements among professional athletes in Saudi Arabia. The survey consisted of sixteen questions divided into four categories: use of supplements, reason for consumption of supplements, personal beliefs about supplements, and behavior. The questionnaires were given to the three teams residing in Riyadh: Al Hilal, Al Nasr, and Al-Shabab. Out of the 105 athletes surveyed, we found that only 98 are currently taking dietary supplements and the mean age and standard deviation were 25.74±2.90. The survey results showed a high percentage of athletes (93.3%; n=98 using different dietary supplements throughout the season, 43.8% (n=43 reported using supplements for performance, and 32.6% (n=32 believed in health benefits as a reason for using dietary supplements. Our results showed that a total of 87 (88.7%, 81 (82.6%, and 51 (52.0% athletes are consuming sports drinks, vitamin C, and multivitamins, respectively. Meanwhile, those supplements ranking among the least used included omega 6 (18.6%, creatine (16.3%, and Ginkgo biloba (10.2%. A majority of athletes indicated that their use of supplements was for the purpose of improving their health and performance.
Mobeireek, A F; al-Kassimi, F A; al-Majid, S A; al-Shimemry, A
To study some ethical problems created by accession of a previously nomadic and traditional society to modern invasive medicine, by assessment of physicians' attitudes towards sharing information and decision-making with patients in the setting of a serious illness. Self-completion questionnaire administered in 1993. Riyadh, Jeddah, and Buraidah, three of the largest cities in Saudi Arabia. Senior and junior physicians from departments of internal medicine and critical care in six hospitals in the above cities. A total of 249 physicians participated in the study. Less than half (47%) indicated they provided information on diagnosis and prognosis of serious illnesses all the time. Physicians who were more senior and those who spoke Arabic fared better than other groups. The majority (75%) preferred to discuss information with close relatives rather than patients, even when the patients were mentally competent. Most of the physicians (72%) felt patients had the right to refuse a specific treatment modality, and 68% denied patients the right to demand such a treatment if considered futile. Further analysis showed that physicians' attitudes varied along a spectrum from passive (25%) to paternalistic (21%) with the largest group (47%) in a balanced position. In traditional societies where physicians are regarded as figures of authority and family ties are important, there is a considerable shift of access to information and decision-making from patients to their physicians and relatives in a manner that threatens patients' autonomy. Ethical principles, wider availability of invasive medical technology and a rise in public awareness dictate an attitude change.
Full Text Available Air pollution exposure has been shown to be associated with an increased risk of specific cancers. This study investigated whether the number and incidence of the most common cancers in Saudi Arabia were associated with urban air pollution exposure, specifically NO2. Overall, high model goodness of fit (GOF was observed in the Eastern, Riyadh and Makkah regions. The significant coefficients of determination (r2 were higher at the regional level (r2 = 0.32–0.71, weaker at the governorate level (r2 = 0.03–0.43, and declined slightly at the city level (r2 = 0.17–0.33, suggesting that an increased aggregated spatial level increased the explained variability and the model GOF. However, the low GOF at the lowest spatial level suggests that additional variation remains unexplained. At different spatial levels, associations between NO2 concentration and the most common cancers were marginally improved in geographically weighted regression (GWR analysis, which explained both global and local heterogeneity and variations in cancer incidence. High coefficients of determination were observed between NO2 concentration and lung and breast cancer incidences, followed by prostate, bladder, cervical and ovarian cancers, confirming results from other studies. These results could be improved using individual explanatory variables such as environmental, demographic, behavioral, socio-economic, and genetic risk factors.
Alwatban, Lenah; Binamer, Yousef
Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by defective DNA repair that results in extreme sensitivity to ultraviolet (UV) rays. Depending on the type of XP, the disease may affect the skin, eyes and nervous system. Describe the dermatologic manifestations in patients suffering from XP. Retrospective, descriptive review of medical records. Dermatology clinic at tertiary care center in Riyadh. This study included Saudi patients with clinically confirmed XP. Demographic and clinical data including pathology and associated conditions and outcomes. Of 21 patients with XP, the most common manifestation was lentigines, affecting 18 patients (86%). The most common skin cancer was basal cell carcinoma followed by squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) affecting 15 (71.4%) and 9 (42.8%), respectively. Other skin findings included neurofibroma, trichilemmoma and seborrheic keratosis. Ocular involvement included photophobia, which was the most common finding followed by dryness and ocular malignancies. Two patients showed neurological involvement, which correlated with the type of mutation. Considering that XP is a rare genetic disease, this description of our patient population will aid in early recognition and diagnosis. Retrospective and small number of patients. Genetic analyses were done for only 5 of the 21 patients.
Saeed, Elshazaly; Assiri, Asaad Mohammed; AwadEljack, Ibrahim; Aljasser, Abdullah S; Alhuzimi, Abdulrahman Mohammed; Assiri, Ahmed Assad; Alqahtani, Nasser Ali; Alshahrani, Saud Amer; Al-Ammar, Yousif A
To determine the prevalence of obesity and associated risk factors among medical students in Saudi Arabia. The cross-sectional study was conducted from December 2012 to March 2013 at King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Using stratified sampling technique, undergraduate students of either gender from the health colleges were included. Information was collected through a pretested questionnaire. Measurements of the height and weight were noted and body mass index for all the subjects was calculated. Of the 292 students, 146(50%) were males and 146(50%) were females. Obesity was found in 40(13.7%)students. It was more prevalent among males than females (pobesity was significantly associated with obesity (p=0.016). No significant association was found between physical activity and obesity (p=0.863). There was considerable prevalence of obesity among the medical students. Being male, having family history of obesity, and having chronic diseases were important risk factors.
Batais, Mohammed Ali; Almigbal, Turky H; Bin Abdulhak, Aref A; Altaradi, Hani B; AlHabib, Khalid F
The scarcity of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) cases reported in Saudi Arabia might be indicative of a lack of awareness of this common genetic disease among physicians. To assess physicians' awareness, practice, and knowledge of FH in Saudi Arabia. This is a cross-sectional study conducted among physicians at four tertiary hospitals in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia between March 2016 and May 2016 using a self-administered questionnaire. A total of 294 physicians completed the survey (response rate 90.1%). Overall, 92.9% of the participants have poor knowledge of FH while only 7.1% have acceptable knowledge. The majority (68.7%) of physicians rated their familiarity with FH as average or above average, and these had higher mean knowledge scores than participants with self-reported below average familiarity (mean 3.4 versus 2.6) (P knowledge scores compared to those without FH patients in their care (3.5 versus 2.9) (P = 0.006). In addition, there were statistically significant differences between physicians' mean knowledge scores and their ages, levels of training, and years in practice. Moreover, a substantial deficit was identified in the awareness of various clinical algorithms to diagnose patients with FH, cascade screening, specialist lipid services, and the existence of statin alternatives, such as proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors. A substantial deficit was found in the awareness, knowledge, practice, and detection of FH among physicians in Saudi Arabia. Extensive educational programs are required to raise physician awareness and implement best practices; only then can the impact of these interventions on FH management and patient outcome be assessed.
Full Text Available Abdullah S Amoudi,1 Mohammed H Albar,2 Amjed M Bokhari,3 Sultan H Yahya,4 Anas A Merdad1 1Department of Internal Medicine, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 3Department of Surgery, King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, 4Department of Radiology, King Saud University Hospital, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Objective: Do-not-resuscitate (DNR orders in Saudi Arabia were first regulated by a fatwa on a national level in 1988, one that excludes the patient and their families from decision making. Although the core of this policy is taken up by all hospitals in Saudi Arabia, there is no homogeneity in implementation. Here, we appraise what interns and residents know of these policies and their attitudes toward DNR. Methods: Interns and residents in four major hospitals in Jeddah, King Abdulaziz University Hospital, National Guard Hospital, King Fahad General Hospital, and King Fahad Armed Forces Hospital, were given a questionnaire in English with four blocks of questions. Results: A total of 140 questionnaires were included in our study. From these questionnaires, we conclude a lack of familiarity with DNR's policies and the fatwa and also a lack of understanding when it comes to treating DNR-labeled patients. The majority opinion was to include the patient in the decision-making process who is excluded according to the fatwa. Participants considered patients' dignity, religious concerns, and legal concerns to be important in considering resuscitation. Conclusion: We conclude a need to emphasize the issue of DNR and treatment of DNR patients in medical ethics classes in Saudi Arabia and put more effort to enact national DNR laws that include the patient in the decision-making process. Keywords: passive euthanasia, Middle East, cross-sectional study
Abahussain, Nada A.; Al-Sobayel, Hana I.; Qahwaji, Dina M.; Alsulaiman, Nouf A.; Musaiger, Abdulrahman O.
ABSTRACT The nutrition transition with associated lifestyle-related non-communicable diseases has rapidly reached many developing countries, including Saudi Arabia. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine the prevalence of overweight, obesity, and abdominal obesity among Saudi adolescents. This school-based multicentre cross-sectional study was conducted during 2009-2010 in three major cities in Saudi Arabia: Al-Khobar, Jeddah, and Riyadh. Participants included 2,908 students of secondary schools (1,401 males and 1,507 females) aged 14 to 19 years, randomly selected using a multistage stratified cluster-sampling technique. Weight, height, and waist-circumference were measured; prevalence of overweight and obesity was determined using age- and sex-specific BMI cutoff reference standards of the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF). Abdominal obesity was determined using waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) cutoffs (above 0.5). The prevalence of overweight was 19.5% in males and 20.8% in females while that of obesity was 24.1% in males and 14% in females. The prevalence of abdominal obesity in males and females was 35.9% and 30.3% respectively. Higher prevalence of obesity was observed among adolescents in private schools. Across all ages, overweight and obesity ranged from 39.9% to 45.6% in males and from 30.4% to 38.7% in females. ANCOVA, controlling for age, showed significant interaction effects (city by gender). It is concluded that the proportions of overweight, obesity, and abdominal obesity, observed among Saudi adolescents were remarkably high. Such high prevalence of overweight and obesity is a major public-health concern. PMID:25895197
Al Shareef, Saad M.; Almeneessier, Aljohara S.; Hammad, Omeima; Smith, Richard M.; BaHammam, Ahmed S.
Objectives: To establish baseline sleep architecture during an acute attack of Kleine-Levin syndrome (KLS) in a cohort of Saudi Arabian KLS patients and compare these characteristics with other published cohorts. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study of the polysomnographic characteristics of 10 typical symptomatic Saudi Arabian KLS patients attending the University Sleep Disorders Center, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia between 2002 and 2015. Data were captured by nocturnal polysomnography during an acute attack of hypersomnia and compared with other published cohorts identified via a systematic literature search. Results: Self-reported time asleep during episodes (11.1±6.7 hours) and recorded total sleep time (TST) (322.5±108.7 minutes) were generally shorter than other published cohorts. Sleep efficiency was poor at 75.0%±25.1%, with low relative amounts of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep (16.5±5.9% of TST) and deep non-REM sleep (stage N3; 10.5±6.0% of TST) and high relative amounts of non-REM sleep (stage N1; 7.0±4.3% of TST). The sleep architecture of Saudi Arabian KLS patients was similar to other published cohorts. Conclusions: Sleep architecture of our cohort was relatively normal and broadly similar to other published studies, the main features being low sleep efficiency and low relative amounts of REM and stage N3 sleep. Time-course polysomnography studies with functional imaging may be useful to further establish the exact pathophysiology of this disease. PMID:29332107
Allam, Safaa; Moharam, Maha; Alarfaj, Gada
Family physician advice and follow-up may be important to reduce the negative aspects of locally marketed herbal remedies and improve the patient outcome. There is a lack of studies assessing the preference of Saudi patients for the integration of herbal medicine into primary care services. To examine the knowledge, attitudes, and practice of Saudi patients toward herbal medicine and its integration into primary care services. A cross-sectional study was conducted between February and March 2013 among adult patients attending the family medicine clinics at a primary care center in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A self-administered questionnaire (27 items) was developed and administered to all patients. A total of 240 patients were included in the current analysis. The average age was 33.5 ± 9.9 years, and 61% of the patients were women. Approximately 60% of the patients were aware of herbal medicine use and its possible side effects. More than 85% of the patients believed that herbal containers should be labeled with safety information. Approximately 71% of the patients had a favorable attitude toward integrated services. Approximately 65% of the patients used herbal remedies for themselves, and 42% used them for their children. Preference for integrated services was significantly associated with female sex, better knowledge, positive attitudes toward safety and regulations, and higher level of practice. A good knowledge and a very favorable attitude toward integrating herbal medicine into primary care services were found among a group of patients attending a primary care center in Saudi Arabia. © The Author(s) 2014.
Asiri, Yousif A
The trends in the quality of biomedical education in pharmacy schools have witnessed significant changes in the 21st century. With the advent of continuous revision and standardization processes of medical curricula throughout the world, the focus has been on imparting quality education. This pedagogic paradigm has shifted to pharmacy schools. In Saudi Arabia, the concept of "medical and pharmacy education" is relatively new as mainstream pharmacy curriculum and universities were established only half a century ago. This period has seen major changes in the dimension of "pharmacy education" to keep pace with the education systems in the United States and Europe. As our knowledge and perceptions about pharmaceuticals change with time, this motivates educators to search for better teaching alternatives to the ever increasing number of enthusiastic and budding pharmacists. Recently, the academic system in Saudi Arabian Pharmacy has adopted a more clinically-oriented Pharm. D. curriculum. This paper deals with the major changes from the inception of a small pharmacy faculty in 1959, the College of Pharmacy at the King Saud University, Riyadh, to the model of progress and a prototype of pharmacy colleges in Saudi Arabia. The fifty year chronological array can be regarded as an epitome of progress in pharmacy education in Saudi Arabia from its traditional curriculum to the modern day Pharm. D. curriculum with a high population growth and expanding health care sector, the demand for qualified pharmacists is growing and is projected to grow considerably in the future. The number of pharmacy graduates is increasing each year by many folds and to meet the needs the system lays stress upon a constant revising and updating of the current curriculum from a global perspective.
AlEisa, Einas; Tse, Cynthia; Alkassabi, Othman; Buragadda, Syamala; Melam, Ganeswara Rao
Job satisfaction is an important consideration in the recruitment and retention of physiotherapists (PTs). To date, the job satisfaction of PTs working in Saudi Arabia has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to measure the level of job satisfaction of PTs working in Saudi Arabia and evaluate predictors of job satisfaction. This was a cross-sectional observational study among licensed physical therapists working across 11 health care centers and university hospitals in Riyadh between 2013 and 2014. A total of 183 physical therapists participated in the survey. Level of job satisfaction and factors influencing satisfaction were explored using a purpose-designed job satisfaction questionnaire. It consisted of 8 survey domains, and the scores were normalized to allow between-domain comparison. Global job satisfaction was 37%. The highest levels of job satisfaction were seen in the domains of professional development and teamwork and the lowest levels of job satisfaction in the domains of supervisory/ management relationship (75%) and working environment (60%). Predictors of job satisfaction were gender (OR [odds ratio] 1.4, 95% CI 1.1-2.3), age (OR 0.7, 95% CI 0.5-0.9), relationships with supervisors and managers (OR 1.3, 95% CI 1.2-1.9), working environment (OR 1.2, 95% CI 1.0-2.3), and opportunities for professional development (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.2-3.7). Saudi PTs were moderately satisfied with their job; strategies should be designed in such a way that they experience a high level of job satisfaction and retention thus resulting in improved rehabilitation services in Saudi Arabia.
Almutairi, K M; Mansour, E A; Vinluan, J M
This aim of this study was to assess the quality of life of Saudi female breast cancer patients and determine the effects of the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics on the quality of life of those patients. This study was designed as a cross-sectional study. The data were collected from 145 female cancer patients who were recruited from outpatient units in different clinical settings in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, from September 2014 to February 2015. Questionnaires were distributed to the patients during their visits to the outpatient clinics after obtaining informed consent. Quality of life was assessed using a validated Arabic version of the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) quality of life. Among functional scales, emotional functioning scored the highest (83.25 [95% CI 79.53-86.98]). The most distressing symptom on the symptom scale was insomnia (mean 84.14 [95% CI 79.95-88.32]), followed by appetite loss (mean 80.92 [95% CI 76.51-85.33]) and dyspnoea (mean 80.00 [95% CI 75.51-84.49]). Poor functioning was found in sexual enjoyment (mean 22.52 [95% CI 17.97-27.08]) while future perspective scored the highest (mean 76.32 [95% CI 70.52-82.12]). This study shows breast cancer survivors in Saudi had a low overall global quality of life. Saudi women showed average scores on all the functional scales but the emotional ones scored the highest. Insomnia, appetite loss, and dyspnoea were the distressing symptoms on symptom scales while future perspective domain scored the highest in item of QLQ-BR23. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This research aims to study what sustainable factors of Dana Hotel in the human assets; and also find out what the status of Dana Hotel, using VRIN analysis (Value, Rarity, Imperfect Imitability, and Non-Substitutability from Natural Language Data of observation and in-depth interviews in a descriptive qualitative study. In results, in order to achieve sustainability, Dana Hotel has valuable, rare, imperfectly imitable, and non-substitutable factors in the human assets. As the human assets are valuable, rare, imperfectly imitable, and non-substitutable, the status of Dana Hotel is sustainable in the context of human resources. It is concluded that following the success of Dana Hotel, organizations that have those factors or even more, tend to have big opportunities to survive.
NEACŞU NICOLETA ANDREEA
Full Text Available In order to be competitive on the tourism market, hotels adopt different strategies. An intelligent and relatively new strategy that is adopted in the hotel market in Romania is the use of the ECO concept, the goal being to achieve sustainable development and sustainable tourism, involving a series of socio-economic benefits. One of the first accommodation units in Romania to use this strategy is Vega Hotel in Mamaia, a 5* hotel, which was awarded the Eco-Hotel Management System certification by Tuv-Rheinland Romania in the summer of 2009. This paper, through a market research, analyzes the views and attitudes of tourists on the use of the ECO concept in the hospitality industry.
Full Text Available Abandonment of mass tourism in the late 80-ies of 20th century and attitude of humane tourism oriented to the needs and requirements of individuals, it is characterized by changes in the design and architectural design of hotel facilities. Features and functionality of hotel facilities are affected by trends in tourism demand. Tourism gets new features, which hotel companies must adapt. Individualism, humanism and hedonism are the guidelines that accompany the tourist industry in the 21st century. They determine the new considerations shaping and arranging hotel facilities, and the need for transformation of the hotel buildings designed for mass tourism in facilities for contemporary tourist who is aware of his needs, desires and aspirations. These trends should be monitored and the hotel industry in Croatia. The last decade marked by investments in reconstruction and modernization of existing hotel facilities, but investment in new hotel facilities are still minor. The reason for this is the fact that the hotel industry is low profitable activity, but also in the unfinished privatization, lack of domestic financial capital and the lack of attractiveness of the Croatia to attract foreign capital which would allow meaningful construction of new and rehabilitation of existing hotel facilities in line with trends in the tourism market. This paper critically examines the state of the hotel industry in the Republic of Croatia and its competitiveness in Europe, and it presents the results of research on the effectiveness of building a fictional hotel in Croatia, with a comparative analysis with European hotels.
Hackett, Gereva; Melia, Detta
This paper analyses trends in the international hotel industry and provides insights into the trends that are most likely to influence future business success. Trends, such as, design, social and lifestyle changes, the eco-hotel, the historically significant hotel, the sports hotel, the health spa, the quirky hotel, the boutique hotel and the fashionable hotel which are differentiating the traditional hotel product are discussed. This paper is based on primary and secondary research providing...
Full Text Available On a large 4-storey base structure rises a long, rather narrow 27-story tower. The 37,000 m2 of the hotel are distributed in the following manner: 525 hotel rooms, special suites, convention hall, meeting rooms; three restaurants with different interior decorations; ball room; cafeterias, shops; swimming-pools; additional installations that correspond to this hotel category. A chapter of great importance in the construction of the hotel was the interior planning and design. Different colour schemes, special furniture and a most varied selection of decorative and functional elements have been used. The materials and design of the exterior have been chosen with utmost care, whereby a contrast, though not a clash, with the adjacent buildings has been achieved. The hotel is completed with a 1,000-car parking deck, situated across the street and connected with the hotel by means of an over Street bridge.Está constituido por una amplia base de cuatro plantas, sobre la que se eleva una alta y esbelta torre de 27 plantas. En sus 37.000 m2 de superficie total se distribuyen: 525 habitaciones para clientes, incluyendo suites de categorías distintas; gran salón de congresos y salas de juntas y reuniones; tres restaurantes con distintas ambientaciones; sala de baile; cafeterías, tiendas; piscinas; y toda una serie de servicios propios de un hotel de esta categoría. Un capítulo de gran importancia en la construcción del hotel fue la ambientación interior, conseguida con diferentes esquemas de color, mobiliario especial y los más variados elementos decorativos y funcionales. El exterior también fue muy cuidado, empleándose materiales y diseños que contrastan, sin desentonar, con los edificios vecinos. El hotel se completa con un aparcamiento cubierto, de 1.000 plazas, situado al otro lado de la calle, y al que se une mediante un puente elevado.
AlTurki, Yousef Abdullah
The present study highlighted life styles related to coronary artery disease risk factors among patients attending a primary care clinic at King Khalid University Hospital, in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study at a primary care clinic at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, during the period from 18/4/2006 to 13/6/2006. All adult male patients older than 12 years of age who attended one consultant primary care clinic were included in the study. All patients were interviewed by one consultant in family medicine during the study period. The patients were asked about dietary habits, physical activity and type of exercise, and smoking habits. Weight and height was taken for all patients by the nurse in the clinic and body mass index (BMI) was calculated for all patients. The total numbers of participants were 246 patients. The data were analyzed using the Statistical Package of Social Science (SPSS) version 11.5. A p value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Of the 246 male adult patients, 45.4% always consumed vegetables and fruits in their diet, 21.5% exercised on a daily bases, 51.2% exercised sometimes, and 26% did not exercise at all. The type of exercise practiced by active participants was walking (76.5%) and sports (22.9%). Sports included football, basketball, swimming, and other sport club activity. Only 20.7% of the participants had an ideal body weight (BMI<25), 37.4% were overweight (BMI 25 to <30), while 37.7% of the participants were obese (BMI ? 30). 8.9% of the participants were current smokers. Conclusion and recommendation: Overweight and obesity is a common health problem among male adult patients attending a primary care setting. Improved dietary habits (consumption of vegetables and fruits, and minimization of fat and sweets), encouraging exercise and walking, and helping current smokers to quit smoking are essential steps towards improving life styles in the
Enrique Claver Cortés
Full Text Available Los hoteles necesitan cada vez más información para su correcta gestión y para maximizar su desempeño o éxito empresarial. De esta forma, en este estudio se analizan una serie de variables estratégicas clave que influyen directamente sobre el desempeño hotelero. Estas variables son el tamaño, el tipo de gestión y la categoría de los hoteles. En este trabajo, empleando la teoría de los grupos estratégicos, se han agrupado los hoteles españoles de entre 3 a 5 estrellas en función de cada una de estas variables estratégicas con el objetivo de determinar si influyen significativamente sobre el desempeño hotelero y en qué sentido. Entre los resultados que se han obtenido destacan el hecho de que a mayor tamaño y categoría, mayor es el desempeño que alcanzan los hoteles. Así mismo, los hoteles que pertenecen a cadenas alcanzan niveles de desempeño mayores que los independientes. Por lo tanto, de esta investigación se deducen importantes implicaciones para la dirección hotelera.
Full Text Available Tourism is a rapidly growing industry that requires explosive reaction of management. In order to achieve or even exceed guests' expectations, we must determine what their expectations for quality of service are. The employees are the heart of business. How do we integrate all the power of quality that we will become in the eyes of customers? This is the task of modern management in tourism. In this paper we present an analysis of quality in a casual sample of 333 guests in 42 different hotels in Slovenia and Croatia. Based on multiple linear regression analysis, we found that guests in the four-star hotels are more satisfied with the quality of offers as guests in three-star hotels. Statistically significant differences between the three-stars hotels and four-star hotel is reflected in the satisfaction with the quality of food and drink and its quick service, the price of the service, friendliness of staff to guests, and the arrangement of the restaurant, reception and rooms.
Al-Ghatani, Ali M; Obonsawin, Marc C; Binshaig, Basmah A; Al-Moutaery, Khalaf R
There are 2 aims for this study: first, to collect normative data for the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), Stroop test, Test of Non-verbal Intelligence (TONI-3), Picture Completion (PC) and Vocabulary (VOC) sub-test of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised for use in a Saudi Arabian culture, and second, to use the normative data provided to generate the regression equations. To collect the normative data and generate the regression equations, 198 healthy individuals were selected to provide a representative distribution for age, gender, years of education, and socioeconomic class. The WCST, Stroop test, TONI-3, PC, and VOC were administrated to the healthy individuals. This study was carried out at the Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Riyadh Military Hospital, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from January 2000 to July 2002. Normative data were obtained for all tests, and tables were constructed to interpret scores for different age groups. Regression equations to predict performance on the 3 tests of frontal function from scores on tests of fluid (TONI-3) and premorbid intelligence were generated from the data from the healthy individuals. The data collected in this study provide normative tables for 3 tests of frontal lobe function and for tests of general intellectual ability for use in Saudi Arabia. The data also provide a method to estimate pre-injury ability without the use of verbally based tests.
Salih, Mustafa A.; Zahraa, Jihad N.; Abdel-Gader, Abdel-Galil M.; Alorainy, Ibrahim A.; Hassan, Hamdy H.; Al-Rayees, Molham; Ruitenbeek, W.; Zeviani, M.
Objective was to report on the clinical and biochemical features of patients who presented with stroke due to mitochondrial disorders amongst a prospective and retrospective cohort of Saudi children. Children, who presented with stroke were evaluated at the Division of Pediatric Neurology, or admitted to King Khalid University Hospital, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, during the periods July 1992 to February2001 (retrospective study)and February 2001 to March 2003 (prospective study). Open muscle biopsies were obtained from patients suspected to have mitochondrial disorders, and examined using conventional histological and histochemical techniques. Biochemical, molecular pathological investigations, or both, of muscle could be arranged for only some of the patients. Mitochondrial disorders were the underlying risk factor for stroke in 4 (3.8%) of 104 children (aged one month to 12 years). Three patients (one male and 2 females) had Leigh syndromes (LS) and one had mitochondrial encephalomyopathy with lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS). At the time of stroke, the 3 children with LS were 11 months, 15 months, and 7 years old. They presented with psychomotor regression and seizures. Muscle histology and histochemistry showed mild non-specific changes but no ragged red fibers. Biochemical analysis of muscle (in one patient) revealed deficiency of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. Analysis of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), [the other 2 patients] was negative for the 2 point mutations (T-G and T-C) at nucleotide position 8993, and for two T-C point mutations (at position 8851 and 9176 of the ATPase 6 gene) that have been described in patients with LS. The girl with MELAS syndrome presented with a stroke-like episode at the age of 29 months and had focal brain lesions in the media aspect of the left occipital and temporal lobes, and in the posteromedial aspect of the left thalamus, which resolved within 7 weeks. She had
Salih, Mustafa A.; Al-Jarallah, Ahmed A.; Kentab, Anal Y.; Al-Nasser, Mohammad N.; Abdel-Gader, Abdel-Galil M.; Alorainy, Ibrahim A.; Hassan, Hamdy H.
To describe the clinical features and presentations of perinatal stroke in a prospective and retrospective cohort of Saudi children and ascertain the risk factors. Patients with perinatal stroke were identified from within a cohort of 104 Saudi children who were evaluated at the Division of Pediatric Neurology at King Khalid University Hospital, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia from July 1992 to February 2001 (retrospective study) and February 2001 to March 2003 (prospective study). Neuroimaging for suspected cases of stroke consisted of cranial CT, MRI, or both. During the study period, 23 (22%) of 104 children (aged one months to 12 years) were diagnosed to have had perinatal stroke. The male: female ratio was 1.6:1. Ten (67%) of the 15 children who had unilateral ischemic involvement had their lesion in the left hemisphere. The presentation of the ischemic result was within 24-72 hours of life in 13 (57%) patients, and in 6 children (26%), motor impairment was recognized at or after the age of 4 months. Nine children (39%) had seizures at presentation. Pregnancy, labor, and delivery risk factors were ascertained in 18 (78%) cases. The most common of these included emergency cesarean section in 5 cases, and instrumental delivery in other 5. Screening for prothrombotic risk factors detected abnormalities in 6 (26%) patients on at least one test carried out between 2 months and 9 years of age. Four children (17%) had low protein C, which was associated low protein S and raised anticardiolipin antibodies (ACA) in one patient, and low antithrombin III in another. Low proteins S was detected in a 42-month-old boy. The abnormality in the sixth child was confined to raised ACA. The present study highlights the non-specific features by which stroke presents during the neonatal period. The data are in keeping with the potential role for inherited and acquired thrombophilia as being the underlying cause. However, the high prevalence of
Leda G. Bousiakou; Leda G. Bousiakou; Rabia Qindeel; A. S. Almuzaini; Hosham A. Alghamdi; Walid Tawfik; Walid Tawfik; W. A Farooq; H. Kalkani; E. Manzou
This work focuses on the monitoring of trace element removal from the Riyadh South Tertiary Wastewater Treatment plant using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Considering that the final effluent originating from the plant is directed for irrigation purposes towards the farms of Al- Dirayia, Dirab and Wadi Hanifa it is important to consider the possible presence of elevated microelement concentrations that could pose potential threats to the human health. All samples were...
Full Text Available The usage of computer based information management system on companies are very helpful on company'sgrowth, information management system process the data and make it into in formations that we're needed by thecompany for making decisions. One of the information management systems that often used is Human ResourceAdministration Information System. The development of a company makes a company have to own a humanresource function that capable to handle certain processes related to the company's personals. One of the examples isHuman Resource Administration Information System on Hotel Besakih Sanur, The Human Resource AdministrationInformation System has several processes, and these processes are still being done manually so they haven't beenable to give an effective an efficient result. This fact is the cause for building a human resource administrationinformation system that used information technology, so that it will be capable of managing the human resourcefunctions.System that is being build is applied by making the web based Human Resource Administration InformationSystem application using AJAX, this application also being completed by automatic absence application by usingfingerprint technology. The analysis that was being done is the analysis on user grouping, the usage of AJAX ondata processing, user interface, reporting, and the usage of fingerprint.Testing of the application is being done byinputting some data with a certain amount so that it would be known that the system can still work fine with a bigamount of data. But to avoid a big data growth especially on absence data, the system will move the data to a newtable each year. Usage of fingerprint in course of absence facilitate in inclusion of absence data.
Samara, Anastasia; Nistrup, Anne; Al-Rammah, Tamader Y; Aro, Arja R
The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is experiencing a dramatic increase in physical inactivity, with women having higher levels of inactivity than men among all age groups. It is assumed that factors such as dress codes, restrictions on going outdoors, and conservative norms are the main reasons for women's low physical activity. Our aim was to explore the different parameters related to physical activity, including self-efficacy, as well as the perceived barriers to and benefits of physical activity in young Saudi females. Ninety-four first-year female Saudi university students in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, participated in the present study in 2014. The students were from eight bachelor's programs in health and well-being, and each completed a questionnaire with questions divided into five parts as follows: 1) socioeconomic status, 2) physical activity, 3) self-efficacy 4) social factors, and 5) barriers and facilitators related to physical activity. The students exercised at home and alone, and there was low self-efficacy for physical activity (mean score =42±14). Among social factors, attending university was the only factor that hindered physical activity (32%). Physical activity was positively perceived overall (mean score =131±10). Students showed awareness of the benefits of physical activity for health and well-being. The most important barrier was the lack of designated areas available for physical activity. Students disagreed that family or the Islamic community were barriers to physical activity. The lack of facilities and lack of encouragement from the university, but not a lack of knowledge (a high level of knowledge is to be expected given their health and well-being studies backgrounds) and/or restrictions from families and society, seem to hinder female students' physical activity, at least young Saudi students.
Full Text Available Mitral valve prolapse (MVP is a well recognized clinical entity that is associated with significant morbidity. Epidemiology, echocardiographic (echo characteristics and clinical outcome of MVP in Saudi Arabia have not been studied. To determine the prevalence, echo features and clinical outcome of MVP among the adult Saudi patients who underwent echo evaluation over a 10-year period.Retrospective review of consecutive cases of MVP or any of its components as diagnose by echocardiogram. Study was conducted in King Abdulaziz Cardiac Center, Riyadh and included 121,419 adult echo studies done between January 2003 and December 2012. Study population consisted of 77,176 patients after removing duplicate studies. Echo parameters for all Saudi nationals ⩾14 y of age were collected from the Xcelera database. Mitral valve disease due to non-myxomatous prolapse were excluded. Among the study population (n = 77,176 600 patients were labled as having MVP or any of its echo features (0.7%. Mean age was 64 years and 62% were males. Majority of patients (54.4% had mild MVP, while moderate and severe prolapse were present in 21.1% and 24.5% respectively. Severe mitral regurgitation was present in 16.5% and chordal rupture was noted in 9%. Left ventricular size was moderately dilated in 7.6% and severely dilated in 1.3%.Prevalence of MVP in Saudi nationals at a referral cardiac center is less than the reported international figure of 1-3%. In contrary to published literature MVP in Saudi population seems to be more common in males and seems to be diagnosed at a later age.
Sandlund, Johanna; Banaei, Niaz
This case illustrates skin lesions in a traveler staying in a hotel bed infested with tics. Although infestation of hotels with bedbugs belonging to the Cimex genus is a growing problem worldwide, tick infestation has never been reported before.
AlBattat Ahmad Rasmi
Full Text Available This paper aims to identify major emergencies that have the potential to place Malaysian hotels in emergency and disaster situations; investigate how hotels were prepared for emergencies, how they manage and overcome emergencies when occurred; and limitations and factors influencing successful emergency planning and adoption emergency management in Malaysian hotels. Face-to-face interview with managers from three, four and five star hotels from different backgrounds: local; regional; and International in Kuala Lumpur, Subang, and Putrajaya are undertaken. The result revealed that Malaysian hotels are exposed to a wide range of natural and man-made disasters. Malaysian hotels lack proactive emergency planning and a lot of constraints which impede successful emergency planning for disasters in the hotel industry in Malaysia, with emphasizing on the relevant authority’s role to demonstrate emergency management to hotels convincing them to adopt such practices, so they can be able to cope with emergencies effectively.
Keywords: economic theory, hotels, revenue management, Big Data, hospitality education ... and the ease and quality in which pricing information is delivered to ...... Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, 25(2), 27–40.
Al-Johar, Al-Waleed; Al-Saud, Abdulrahman; Abalkhail, Yazeed; Jawdat, Talal; Al-Khamees, Saleh; Al-Thunayan Faisal; Abdel-Gader, Abdel G
Saudi females constitute less than 5% of blood donors and as demand for blood is ever increasing there is a need to identify the factors that discourage them from donating their blood and subsequently to find approaches to enhance their share as blood donors. The aim of this study is to find out the knowledge, attitude and motivation of Saudi female university students towards blood donation. This is a questionnaire-based cross-sectional descriptive study among female students (n = 300) from six colleges: Medicine, Dentistry, Applied Medical Sciences, Science, Arts, and Business Administration at King Saud University, Riyadh. Questions covered their knowledge on blood donation and factors that discourage or motivate them to donate. The majority of participants are unaware that females constitute less than 5% of donors, but know that blood banks are in continuous need for donors to give support for needy patients particularly road traffic accidents and surgical patients. Fear from complications of the donation process prevailed widely. Most participants would donate as a religious obligation, need of a relative or friend, but not for money. The most prominent hurdle preventing them from donating is the difficulty of reaching the blood bank as they cannot drive cars or move alone in public transport. Most will donate if blood collection is done at their colleges and other places of gather- ing such as shopping malls. The attitude of Saudi female students towards blood donation is positive and few misconceptions that emerged could be corrected by health awareness campaigns. Careful organization of blood collection efforts that would observe the special status of women in the society by reaching them in their colleges and other gathering sites could enhance female donor input markedly.
Silvia Patricia DODU
Full Text Available The European hospitality industry currently sees an increase in all specific indicators, a fact that shows, on one hand, the ability of this sector to overcome the economic turbulences of recent years, but also the real perspectives for future growth. Today’s hotel industry can no longer rely on the traditional growth methods, and needs to prepare for the major confrontation with the next-generation technological developments that generate modern marketing channels but, by default, incur significantly higher costs for simply „being” on the market. The Bucharest hotel market is no exception; in the recent past, it has witnessed a slight upwards trend generated by the increase of demand in the business tourism area, while also facing the challenge of integration of modern technologies in the hotel business.
Fill, Mary-Margaret A; Lloyd, Jennifer; Chakraverty, Tamal; Sweat, David; Manners, Judy; Garman, Katie; Hlavsa, Michele C; Roellig, Dawn M; Dunn, John R; Schaffner, William; Jones, Timothy F
We investigated a gastrointestinal illness cluster among persons who attended a baseball tournament (>200 teams) during July 2015. We interviewed representatives of 19 teams; illness was reported among only the 9 (47%) teams that stayed at Hotel A (p Hotel A was significantly associated with illness (odds ratio: 7.3; 95% confidence interval: 3.6, 15.2). Eight out of nine (89%) stool specimens tested were positive for Cryptosporidium, with C. hominis IfA12G1 subtype identified in two specimens. The environmental health assessment detected a low free available chlorine level, and pool water tested positive for E. coli and total coliforms. A possible diarrheal contamination event, substantial hotel pool use, and use of cyanuric acid might have contributed to this outbreak and magnitude. Aquatic facilities practicing proper operation and maintenance (e.g., following the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Model Aquatic Health Code) can protect the public’s health.
Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to present possibilities and specifics of quality management in hotel services with the focus on the Servqual model. Servqual works on the definition of five dimensions of service quality: tangibles, reliability, responsiveness, assurance and empathy. Demonstrating the practical application of Servqual in selected hotels in the Czech Republic is also a part of the paper. Input data have been gained by force of a primary field-research with the help of a quantitative research via questionnaires and deep interviews. The results of the Servqual score for individual dimensions of service quality have also been used to calculate a total weighted score for the examined hotels and to outline benchmarking utilisation possibilities.
Blanchard, Christoper M; Prados, Alfred B
According to the U.S. State Department 2007 International Narcotics Control Strategy Report, Saudi donors and unregulated charities have been a major source of financing to extremist and terrorist groups over the past 25 years...
Burak Tatyana V.
Hotel business has been the most dynamic and profitable segment of economy, which is characterised with a high degree of internationalisation of capital and international character, during the recent decades. We clearly observe development of national and international hotel networks at this stage. Management contract is one of the methods of development and creation of hotel networks. The article describes theoretical basis of introduction of the contract management into the hotel business, ...
AlBattat Ahmad Rasmi; Mat Som Ahmad Puad; Abukhalifeh Ala`a
This paper aims to identify major emergencies that have the potential to place Malaysian hotels in emergency and disaster situations; investigate how hotels were prepared for emergencies, how they manage and overcome emergencies when occurred; and limitations and factors influencing successful emergency planning and adoption emergency management in Malaysian hotels. Face-to-face interview with managers from three, four and five star hotels from different backgrounds: local; regional; and Inte...
Jasinskas, Edmundas; Streimikiene, Dalia; Svagzdiene, Biruta; Simanavicius, Arturas
The hotel business is rapidly developing due to growing demand for such services as well as the growing opportunities for travel. As a result, hotels face demanding customers, since the requirements for quality grow with an increased use of hotels’ services, in order to increase the competitive ability of a hotel, the issue of customer loyalty is also important. The aim of this article is to assess the impact of the quality of hotel services on the loyalty of customers. In t...
Vrkljan, Sanela; Bartoluci, Mato; Čižmar, Sanja
It is increasingly testing for individual hotels, even the well-run and famous ones, to compete and grow in the wider world market without having the underpinning and benefits of the global representation. Perhaps, this is why even the more notable establishments, join hotel chains or a global hotel management conglomerate. This paper focuses on the correlation between business performance of global chain hotels (GCHs) and quality and internationality of the brand they belong to. The quality ...
Ali, Yahya [Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Hashemite University, Zarqa 13115 (Jordan); Mustafa, Mairna [Department of Sustainable Tourism, Queen Rania' s Institute of Tourism and Heritage, Hashemite University, Zarqa 13115 (Jordan); Al-Mashaqbah, Shireen [International Office, Hashemite University, Zarqa 13115 (Jordan); Mashal, Kholoud [Department of Land Management and Environment, Faculty of Natural Resources and Environment, Hashemite University, Zarqa 13115 (Jordan); Mohsen, Mousa [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Hashemite University, Zarqa 13115 (Jordan)
This paper presents some insights into Jordan's energy consumption in the tourist accommodation sector. The results of a recent survey on environmental performance in the tourist accommodation sector in Jordan were used to evaluate energy conservation in hotels. A survey was designed and distributed to hotels' managers and departments' supervisors in order to understand the environmental performance in the tourist accommodation sector in Jordan during the period 10-17 August 2006. Also some field visits were conducted to fully understand hotels interaction regarding the environment, in addition to help interpreting the results of the survey. The study is limited to all classified hotels in Jordan. It was found that lighting hotels' main building and outside areas, and air conditioning consume more electricity compared to other departments. The results show that few classified hotels already installed energy saving equipments, though, it was noticed that managers of one star hotels were not really willing to make such changes in their hotels, on the other hand, other classified hotels (2-5 star hotels) have shown a high willingness to make changes in their hotels to reduce the consumption of different types of energy. Hotel's classification played a significant role in explaining variations in most of the results, particularly when it comes to long-term investments to reduce energy consumption by using energy efficient appliances. Five and four star hotels were the most hotels willing to use energy efficient appliances to reduce energy consumption. The study suggested some strategies to help reduce the negative impacts of high energy consumption in hotels. These strategies include better insulation, and enhanced insulation for the hot water reticulation system. Moreover, enhancing and increasing the level of awareness among all hoteliers through a directed and well-designed campaign. Also offer interest free loans; and activate precise
Rocco, Sanja; Šipić, Neven
Hotel industry is becoming a leading segment of tourism in Croatia, evident from the constant increase in accommodation capacities, number of overnights, and employees in the hotel industry. To succeed, hotel managers need to identify the needs of their clients and find creative ways to please them. Hence, the future of small family-owned hotels is likely in differentiation by design. It implies a wide spectre of areas of applicability. The design is implemented in marketing strategy in the p...
Chung-Chieh Lee; Feng-Hua Yang; Chih-Jen Chen
The author conducted a questionnaire survey on randomly selected elderly tourists from three hotel groups in Taiwan: international group, domestic-business group, and domestic-tourist group. Based on the literature, the author developed a questionnaire and asked these tourists to rate the hotels in which they were staying on three quality dimensions: brand awareness, hotel facilities, and hotel services. Through the questionnaire survey, the author wanted to determine the performance of the t...
Hufei Ge; Silu Chen; Yujie Chen
Under increasing environmental pressure, hotel firms need to improve their ability to access international alliances while maintaining good performance for sustainable development. This paper uses survey data from 784 hotels running at different levels of service in China to test the hypothesis in an integrated analytical model, and the findings show that the impact of international alliances varies with different levels of green hotels. Despite operating in the same sector, hotels running at...
Ali, Yahya; Mustafa, Mairna; Al-Mashaqbah, Shireen; Mashal, Kholoud; Mohsen, Mousa
This paper presents some insights into Jordan's energy consumption in the tourist accommodation sector. The results of a recent survey on environmental performance in the tourist accommodation sector in Jordan were used to evaluate energy conservation in hotels. A survey was designed and distributed to hotels' managers and departments' supervisors in order to understand the environmental performance in the tourist accommodation sector in Jordan during the period 10-17 August 2006. Also some field visits were conducted to fully understand hotels interaction regarding the environment, in addition to help interpreting the results of the survey. The study is limited to all classified hotels in Jordan. It was found that lighting hotels' main building and outside areas, and air conditioning consume more electricity compared to other departments. The results show that few classified hotels already installed energy saving equipments, though, it was noticed that managers of one star hotels were not really willing to make such changes in their hotels, on the other hand, other classified hotels (2-5 star hotels) have shown a high willingness to make changes in their hotels to reduce the consumption of different types of energy. Hotel's classification played a significant role in explaining variations in most of the results, particularly when it comes to long-term investments to reduce energy consumption by using energy efficient appliances. Five and four star hotels were the most hotels willing to use energy efficient appliances to reduce energy consumption. The study suggested some strategies to help reduce the negative impacts of high energy consumption in hotels. These strategies include better insulation, and enhanced insulation for the hot water reticulation system. Moreover, enhancing and increasing the level of awareness among all hoteliers through a directed and well-designed campaign. Also offer interest free loans; and activate precise standards and specifications
Paphada Cherdchamadol; Pitinan Kawachart
The budget hotels in Thailand are likely to grow by the growth of low cost airline. Since cheaper airline ticket, middle management employees and their families including tourists travel more and more. Other than that, budget hotel business requires low investment but good return. Not surprisingly, the giant public company in Thailand hotel business, CENTEL, has been planned to expand new brand of 2 star hotel chain to serve the number of increasing travelers for AEC in 2015. However, IBIS Ba...
Nadia Pavia; Jasmina Gržinić; Tamara Floričić
Purpose – In this paper, the importance of the organisation of specialised hotel offer is researched, as well as its competitiveness in the market. The research goal is determination of changes in hotel competitiveness levels following implementation of specialised label standards for the purposes of as high as possible quality organisation of the hotel industry in destination and resource valorisation. Design – The paper is conceived in the way that it presents Croatian hotel industry proble...
This thesis treats of security provisions, which hotels are using to protect health and property of accommodated persons. In the opening part is caught the progress of attendance and capacities of hotels in the Czech republic during a specific time period. The next chapter focuses on possible threats, which are imminent to hotels during the operation. The third part of the thesis solves particular methods of application of security provisions, these are verified in two concrete hotels in the ...
Ade Mubarok; M Ridza Apriyanta
Abstrak Hotel adalah industri yang berkembang sangat cepat seiring dengan perkembangan teknologi informasi. salah satu faktor yang dapat memberikan fasilitas kenyamanan adalah adanya layanan informasi yang cepat untuk reservasi hotel. Beberapa masalah yang biasanya dihadapi pihak hotel dan calon tamunya seperti sulit mendapatkan informasi yang cepat, melakukan check in dan pembayaran yang mengharuskan tamu datang lansung ke hotel, melakukan pencatatan buku tamu dan membuat laporan secara ...
Efstathios VELISSARIOU; Christos AMIRADIS
Tourism can have significant impacts on employment in tourist destinations. It must be also noted that the human capital in the tourism sector, and more specifically in hotels, constitutes a basic factor of quality. The effectiveness of service in the Hotel industry is often linked with the sufficient number of hotel personnel, their individual qualities and efficient Human resources management. The development of the hotel industry in Greece and the resulted employment and characteristics of...
Full Text Available This paper considers the problem of satisfaction of business guests with hotel brands in North America. In analysis we used the guests responses (scores given for 12 different elements of hotel product. In order to arrive at more accurate results, monitored hotel chains are grouped into price tiers. The aim of this paper is to indicate what facilities and services the North American business guests appreciate most. Industry trends and results may be beneficial to all hoteliers, especially in business tourism segment.
Al-Khathaami, Ali M; Alshahrani, Saeed M; Kojan, Suleiman M; Al-Jumah, Mohammed A; Alamry, Ahmed A; El-Metwally, Ashraf A
To determine the degree of satisfaction and acceptance of stroke patients, their relatives, and healthcare providers toward using telestroke technology in Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study was conducted between October and December 2012 at King Abdulaziz Medical City, Ministry of National Guard Affairs, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The Remote Presence Robot (RPR), the RP-7i (FDA- cleared) provided by InTouch Health was used in the study. Patients and their relatives were informed that the physician would appear through a screen on top of a robotic device, as part of their clinical care. Stroke patients admitted through the emergency department, and their relatives, as well as healthcare providers completed a self-administered satisfaction questionnaire following the telestroke consultation sessions. Fifty participants completed the questionnaire. Most subjects agreed that the remote consultant interview was useful and that the audiovisual component of the intervention was of high quality; 98% agreed that they did not feel shy or embarrassed during the remote interview, were able to understand the instruction of the consultant, and recommended its use in stroke management. Furthermore, 92% agreed or strongly agreed that the use of this technology can efficiently replace the physical presence of a neurologist. Results suggest that the use of telestroke medicine is culturally acceptable among stroke patients and their families in Saudi Arabia and favorably received by healthcare providers.
Al-Shaikh, Ghadeer K; Almussaed, Eman M; Fayed, Amel A; Khan, Farida H; Syed, Sadiqa B; Al-Tamimi, Tahani N; Elmorshedy, Hala N
To assess the level of knowledge regarding cervical cancer and the acceptance of the human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccine among Saudi female students in health colleges. This cross-sectional study of a convenient sample encompassed 1400 students in Health Colleges at Princess Nora Bint Abdul Rahman University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia was conducted between December 2013 and February 2014. A self-administrated questionnaire was distributed to all participants. Data collected included socio-demographic data, knowledge of cervical cancer risk factors and clinical presentation, Pap smear, and HPV vaccine acceptance. The questionnaire reliability as tested by Cronbach's alpha was 0.82. The response rate was 89.9%, and data analysis revealed that 95.7% of students had poor knowledge level. The Pap smear was poorly recognized as a screening tool, with 46.7% of students having heard of the test. Senior and medical students had a significantly higher knowledge score. Father's health profession, high monthly income, and presence of cervical cancer among family members or friends increased the level of knowledge. Vaccine acceptance is influenced by its price, approximately 80% of students thought that an affordable vaccine price should not exceed 300 Saudi Riyals. Perceived barriers to the vaccine were fear of injections and vaccine side effects. There is a lack of knowledge and misinformation regarding cervical cancer, Pap smear, and HPV as a major risk factor for cancer of the cervix. These data can be used as a benchmark to formulate effective awareness programs.
Mohammed M Alqahtani
Full Text Available Objective : To determine the prevalence of psychological disorders and somatization among primary care patients from a semi-urban area of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Design : Screening of consecutive patients with the 12-item and 28-item versions of the General Health Questionnaires and assessments of physical symptoms associated with somatization, using the HSCL-12. Eight primary care health centres in Assir, Saudi Arabia. Results : About half of the sample had one or more psychological disorders. The prevalence of somatization detected by the GHQ-28 was 16%. The prevalence of somatization indicated by GPs′ identification of medically unexplained symptoms was 14%. Women displayed higher levels of somatization than men. Conclusion : This study reported prevalence of psychological disorders that was as high as found in the more modern areas of Saudi Arabia such as Riyadh. The view that individuals in less open areas are protected from psychological disorders associated with stress and lifestyle pressure seems to be unsubstantiated. The results highlight the potential value of screening for psychological disorders using such simple instruments as the GHQ
Alqahtani, Mohammed M; Salmon, Peter
To determine the prevalence of psychological disorders and somatization among primary care patients from a semi-urban area of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Screening of consecutive patients with the 12-item and 28-item versions of the General Health Questionnaires and assessments of physical symptoms associated with somatization, using the HSCL-12. Eight primary care health centres in Assir, Saudi Arabia. About half of the sample had one or more psychological disorders. The prevalence of somatization detected by the GHQ-28 was 16%. The prevalence of somatization indicated by GPs' identification of medically unexplained symptoms was 14%. Women displayed higher levels of somatization than men. This study reported prevalence of psychological disorders that was as high as found in the more modern areas of Saudi Arabia such as Riyadh. The view that individuals in less open areas are protected from psychological disorders associated with stress and lifestyle pressure seems to be unsubstantiated. The results highlight the potential value of screening for psychological disorders using such simple instruments as the GHQ.
Alturki, Hmidan A; Brookes, Denise Sk; Davies, Peter Sw
To provide an in-depth analysis of the relationship between obesity and fast-food consumption by comparing urban obese and normal-weight Saudi Arabian children. A multicentre cross-sectional study was conducted from December 2015 to March 2016. Participants were divided into two groups (normal weight and obese) and further stratified by sex. Groups were randomly selected using a multistage stratified cluster-sampling technique. A self-paced questionnaire was used to collect data relating to food consumption. Weight height and waist circumference were measured and bioelectrical impedance analysis was performed in all children. Capital of Saudi Arabia, Riyadh. Children aged 9·00-11·99 years (n 1023). Compared with normal-weight groups, intake frequency of fast food/week was higher among the obese groups (Pfast-food consumption outside (Pfast-food meals together was a protective factor against obesity (OR; 95 % CI: 2·67; 1·44, 4·96, Pfast foods (P=0·021), child-friendly menu (P=0·020) and meal cost (Pfast-food restaurants; these data were replicated for parents with obese boys, but not girls. Development of effective interventions to reduce fast-food consumption in Saudi Arabian schoolchildren requires greater research-based evidence of fast-food consumption habits and practices associated with increased childhood obesity.
Richard S. Segall
Full Text Available This paper provides an extensive literature review and list of references on the background of web mining as applied specifically to hotel customer survey data. This research applies the techniques of web mining to actual text of written comments for hotel customers using Megaputer PolyAnalyst®. Web mining functionalities utilized include those such as clustering, link analysis, key word and phrase extraction, taxonomy, and dimension matrices. This paper provides screen shots of the web mining applications using Megaputer PolyAnalyst®. Conclusions and future directions of the research are presented.
Full Text Available Strong competition in the market has caused the development of a new management approach known as Total Quality Management (TQM. Due to importance that quality plays in achieving competitive advantage, the hotel industry started to apply TQM. During the introduction of these systems, hotel companies may use different approaches to suit their own buseiness requirements. In doing so, 'TQM standards' can be used, or various international standards and models of business excellence Malcolm Balridge National Quality Award and European Quality Award.