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Sample records for hot-wire cvd growth

  1. Growth of boron doped hydrogenated nanocrystalline cubic silicon carbide (3C-SiC) films by Hot Wire-CVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawbake, Amit [School of Energy Studies, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune 411 007 (India); Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Colaba, Mumbai 400 005 (India); Mayabadi, Azam; Waykar, Ravindra; Kulkarni, Rupali; Jadhavar, Ashok [School of Energy Studies, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune 411 007 (India); Waman, Vaishali [Modern College of Arts, Science and Commerce, Shivajinagar, Pune 411 005 (India); Parmar, Jayesh [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Colaba, Mumbai 400 005 (India); Bhattacharyya, Somnath [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, IIT Madras, Chennai 600 036 (India); Ma, Yuan‐Ron [Department of Physics, National Dong Hwa University, Hualien 97401, Taiwan (China); Devan, Rupesh; Pathan, Habib [Department of Physics, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune 411007 (India); Jadkar, Sandesh, E-mail: sandesh@physics.unipune.ac.in [Department of Physics, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune 411007 (India)

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • Boron doped nc-3C-SiC films prepared by HW-CVD using SiH{sub 4}/CH{sub 4}/B{sub 2}H{sub 6}. • 3C-Si-C films have preferred orientation in (1 1 1) direction. • Introduction of boron into SiC matrix retard the crystallanity in the film structure. • Film large number of SiC nanocrystallites embedded in the a-Si matrix. • Band gap values, E{sub Tauc} and E{sub 04} (E{sub 04} > E{sub Tauc}) decreases with increase in B{sub 2}H{sub 6} flow rate. - Abstract: Boron doped nanocrystalline cubic silicon carbide (3C-SiC) films have been prepared by HW-CVD using silane (SiH{sub 4})/methane (CH{sub 4})/diborane (B{sub 2}H{sub 6}) gas mixture. The influence of boron doping on structural, optical, morphological and electrical properties have been investigated. The formation of 3C-SiC films have been confirmed by low angle XRD, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy and high resolution-transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) analysis whereas effective boron doping in nc-3C-SiC have been confirmed by conductivity, charge carrier activation energy, and Hall measurements. Raman spectroscopy and HR-TEM analysis revealed that introduction of boron into the SiC matrix retards the crystallanity in the film structure. The field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and non contact atomic force microscopy (NC-AFM) results signify that 3C-SiC film contain well resolved, large number of silicon carbide (SiC) nanocrystallites embedded in the a-Si matrix having rms surface roughness ∼1.64 nm. Hydrogen content in doped films are found smaller than that of un-doped films. Optical band gap values, E{sub Tauc} and E{sub 04} decreases with increase in B{sub 2}H{sub 6} flow rate.

  2. Development of laser-fired contacts for amorphous silicon layers obtained by Hot-Wire CVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz, D.; Voz, C.; Blanque, S.; Ibarz, D.; Bertomeu, J.; Alcubilla, R.

    2009-01-01

    In this work we study aluminium laser-fired contacts for intrinsic amorphous silicon layers deposited by Hot-Wire CVD. This structure could be used as an alternative low temperature back contact for rear passivated heterojunction solar cells. An infrared Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm) has been used to locally fire the aluminium through the thin amorphous silicon layers. Under optimized laser firing parameters, very low specific contact resistances (ρ c ∼ 10 mΩ cm 2 ) have been obtained on 2.8 Ω cm p-type c-Si wafers. This investigation focuses on maintaining the passivation quality of the interface without an excessive increase in the series resistance of the device.

  3. Single and multijunction silicon based thin film solar cells on a flexible substrate with absorber layers made by hot-wire CVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongbo

    2007-09-01

    With the worldwide growing concern about reliable energy supply and the environmental problems of fossil and nuclear energy production, the need for clean and sustainable energy sources is evident. Solar energy conversion, such as in photovoltaic systems, can play a major role in the urgently needed energy transition in electricity production. Solar cells based on thin film silicon and its alloys are a promising candidate that is capable of fulfilling the fast increasing demand of a reliable solar cell supply. The conventional method to deposit silicon thin films is based on plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) techniques, which have the disadvantage of increasing film inhomogeneity at a high deposition rate when scaling up for the industrial production. In this thesis, we study the possibility of making high efficiency single and multijunction thin film silicon solar cells with the so-called hot-wire CVD technique, in which no strong electromagnetic field is involved in the deposition. Therefore, the up-scaling for industrial production is straightforward. We report and discuss our findings on the correlation of substrate surface rms roughness and the main output parameter of a solar cell, the open circuit voltage Voc of c-Si:H n i p cells. By considering all the possible reasons that could influence the Voc of such cells, we conclude that the near linear correlation of Voc and substrate surface rms roughness is the result the two most probable reasons: the unintentional doping through the cracks originated near the valleys of the substrate surface due to the in-diffusion of impurities, and the high density electrical defects formed by the collision of columnar silicon structures. Both of them relate to the morphology of substrate surface. Therefore, to have the best cell performance on a rough substrate surface, a good control on the substrate surface morphology is necessary. Another issue influencing the performance of c-Si:H solar cells is the

  4. EBSD analysis of tungsten-filament carburization during the hot-wire CVD of multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oliphant, CJ

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available the carburization of tungsten filaments. During the synthesis, the W-filaments transform to W(sub2)C and WC.W-carbide growth followed a parabolic behavior corresponding to the diffusion of C as the rate-determining step. The grain size of W, W(sub2)C, and WC...

  5. How deposition parameters control growth dynamics of nc-Si deposited by hot-wire chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moutinho, H.R.; To, B.; Jiang, C.-S.; Xu, Y.; Nelson, B.P.; Teplin, C.W.; Jones, K.M.; Perkins, J.; Al-Jassim, M.M.

    2006-01-01

    We studied the growth of silicon films deposited by hot-wire chemical vapor deposition under different values of filament current, substrate temperature, and hydrogen dilution ratio. The physical and electrical properties of the films were studied by Raman spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, conductive-atomic force microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. There is an interdependence of the growth parameters, and films grown with different parameters can have similar structures. We discuss why this interdependence occurs and how it influences the properties of the deposited films, as well as the deposition rate. In general, the films have a complex structure, with a mixture of amorphous (220)-oriented crystalline and nanocrystalline phases present in most cases. The amount of each phase can be controlled by the variation of one or more of the growth parameters at a time

  6. Dual catalytic purpose of the tungsten filament during the synthesis of single-helix carbon microcoils by hot-wire CVD

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oliphant, CJ

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the deposition of crystalline single-helix carbon microcoils, in the as-deposited state, by the hot-wire chemical vapor deposition process without any special preparation of nano-sized transition metal catalysts and subsequent...

  7. Structural and photoluminescence investigation on the hot-wire assisted plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition growth silicon nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chong, Su Kong; Goh, Boon Tong; Wong, Yuen-Yee; Nguyen, Hong-Quan; Do, Hien; Ahmad, Ishaq; Aspanut, Zarina; Muhamad, Muhamad Rasat; Dee, Chang Fu; Rahman, Saadah Abdul

    2012-01-01

    High density of silicon nanowires (SiNWs) were synthesized by a hot-wire assisted plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique. The structural and optical properties of the as-grown SiNWs prepared at different rf power of 40 and 80 W were analyzed in this study. The SiNWs prepared at rf power of 40 W exhibited highly crystalline structure with a high crystal volume fraction, X C of ∼82% and are surrounded by a thin layer of SiO x . The NWs show high absorption in the high energy region (E>1.8 eV) and strong photoluminescence at 1.73 to 2.05 eV (red–orange region) with a weak shoulder at 1.65 to 1.73 eV (near IR region). An increase in rf power to 80 W reduced the X C to ∼65% and led to the formation of nanocrystalline Si structures with a crystallite size of <4 nm within the SiNWs. These NWs are covered by a mixture of uncatalyzed amorphous Si layer. The SiNWs prepared at 80 W exhibited a high optical absorption ability above 99% in the broadband range between 220 and ∼1500 nm and red emission between 1.65 and 1.95 eV. The interesting light absorption and photoluminescence properties from both SiNWs are discussed in the text. - Highlights: ► Growth of random oriented silicon nanowires using hot-wire assisted plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. ► Increase in rf power reduces the crystallinity of silicon nanowires. ► High density and nanocrystalline structure in silicon nanowires significant enhance the near IR light absorption. ► Oxide defects and silicon nanocrystallites in silicon nanowires reveal photoluminescence in red–orange and red regions.

  8. Sub-bandgap optical absorption spectroscopy of hydrogenated microcrystalline silicon thin films prepared using hot-wire CVD (Cat-CVD) process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goktas, O.; Isik, N.; Okur, S.; Gunes, M.; Carius, R.; Klomfass, J.; Finger, F.

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogenated microcrystalline silicon (μc-Si:H) thin films with different silane concentration (SC) have been prepared using the HW-CVD technique. Dual beam photoconductivity (DBP), photothermal deflection spectroscopy (PDS), and transmission measurements have been used to investigate the optical properties of the μc-Si:H films. Two different sub-bandgap absorption, α(hν), methods have been applied and analyzed to obtain a better insight into the electronic states involved. A good agreement has been obtained in the absorption spectrum obtained from the PDS and DBP measurements at energies above the bandgap. Differences between PDS and DBP spectra exist below the bandgap energy where DBP spectra always give lower α(hν) values and show a dependence on the SC. For some films, differences exist in the α(hν) spectra when the DBP measurements are carried out through the film and substrate side. In addition, for some films, there remains fringe pattern left on the spectrum after the calculation of the fringe-free absorption spectrum, which indicates structural inhomogeneities present throughout the film

  9. Impact of microcrystalline silicon carbide growth using hot-wire chemical vapor deposition on crystalline silicon surface passivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomaska, M.; Beyer, W.; Neumann, E.; Finger, F.; Ding, K.

    2015-01-01

    Highly crystalline microcrystalline silicon carbide (μc-SiC:H) with excellent optoelectronic material properties is a promising candidate as highly transparent doped layer in silicon heterojunction (SHJ) solar cells. These high quality materials are usually produced using hot wire chemical vapor deposition under aggressive growth conditions giving rise to the removal of the underlying passivation layer and thus the deterioration of the crystalline silicon (c-Si) surface passivation. In this work, we introduced the n-type μc-SiC:H/n-type μc-SiO x :H/intrinsic a-SiO x :H stack as a front layer configuration for p-type SHJ solar cells with the μc-SiO x :H layer acting as an etch-resistant layer against the reactive deposition conditions during the μc-SiC:H growth. We observed that the unfavorable expansion of micro-voids at the c-Si interface due to the in-diffusion of hydrogen atoms through the layer stack might be responsible for the deterioration of surface passivation. Excellent lifetime values were achieved under deposition conditions which are needed to grow high quality μc-SiC:H layers for SHJ solar cells. - Highlights: • High surface passivation quality was preserved after μc-SiC:H deposition. • μc-SiC:H/μc-SiO x :H/a-SiO x :H stack a promising front layer configuration • Void expansion at a-SiO x :H/c-Si interface for deteriorated surface passivation • μc-SiC:H provides a high transparency and electrical conductivity.

  10. Synthesis of γ-WO{sub 3} thin films by hot wire-CVD and investigation of its humidity sensing properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jadkar, Vijaya; Waykar, Ravindra; Jadhavar, Ashok [School of Energy Studies, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune 411 007 (India); Pawbake, Amit [School of Energy Studies, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune 411 007 (India); Physical and Material Chemistry Division, National Chemical Laboratory, Pune 411 008 (India); Date, Abhijit [School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, RMIT University, Plenty Road, Bundoora, Melbourne VIC 3083 (Australia); Late, Dattatray [Physical and Material Chemistry Division, National Chemical Laboratory, Pune 411 008 (India); Pathan, Habib; Gosavi, Suresh; Jadkar, Sandesh [Department of Physics, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune 411 007 (India)

    2017-05-15

    In this study, monoclinic tungsten oxide (γ-WO{sub 3}) have been grown in a single step using HW-CVD method by resistively heating W filaments in a constant O{sub 2} pressure. The formation of γ-WO{sub 3} was confirmed using low angle-XRD and Raman spectroscopy analysis. Low angle-XRD analysis revealed that as-deposited WO{sub 3} film are highly crystalline and the crystallites have preferred orientation along the (002) direction. HRTEM analysis and SAED pattern also show the highly crystalline nature of WO{sub 3} with d spacing of ∝ 0.38 nm, having an orientation along the (002) direction. Surface topography investigated by SEM analysis shows the formation of a uniform and homogeneous cauliflower like morphology throughout the substrate surface without flaws and cracks. A humidity sensing device incorporating WO{sub 3} is also fabricated, which shows a maximum humidity sensitivity factor of ∝ 3954% along with a response time of ∝14 s and a recovery time of ∝25 s. The obtained results demonstrate that it is possible to synthesize WO{sub 3} in a single step by HW-CVD method and to fabricate a humidity sensor by using it. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  11. Direct growth of large grain polycrystalline silicon films on aluminum-induced crystallization seed layer using hot-wire chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Bing-Rui; Lo, Shih-Yung; Wuu, Dong-Sing; Ou, Sin-Liang; Mao, Hsin-Yuan; Wang, Jui-Hao; Horng, Ray-Hua

    2012-01-01

    Large grain polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) films on glass substrates have been deposited on an aluminum-induced crystallization (AIC) seed layer using hot-wire chemical vapor deposition (HWCVD). A poly-Si seed layer was first formed by the AIC process and a thicker poly-Si film was subsequently deposited upon the seed layer using HWCVD. The effects of AIC annealing parameters on the structural and electrical properties of the poly-Si seed layers were characterized by Raman scattering spectroscopy, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, and Hall measurements. It was found that the crystallinity of seed layer was enhanced with increasing the annealing duration and temperature. The poly-Si seed layer formed at optimum annealing parameters can reach a grain size of 700 nm, hole concentration of 3.5 × 10 18 cm −3 , and Hall mobility of 22 cm 2 /Vs. After forming the seed layer, poly-Si films with good crystalline quality and high growth rate (> 1 nm/s) can be obtained using HWCVD. These results indicated that the HWCVD-deposited poly-Si film on an AIC seed layer could be a promising candidate for thin-film Si photovoltaic applications. - Highlights: ►Poly-Si seed layers are formed by aluminum-induced crystallization (AIC) process. ►Poly-Si on AIC seed layers are prepared by hot-wire chemical vapor deposition. ►AIC process parameters affect structural properties of poly-Si films. ►Increasing the annealing duration and temperature increases the film crystallinity.

  12. Hot-wire chemical vapour deposition of carbon nanotubes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cummings, FR

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available ablation of graphite, carbon-arc discharge and chemical vapour deposition (CVD). However, some of these techniques have been shown to be expensive due to high deposition temperatures and are not easily controllable. Recently hot-wire chemical vapour...

  13. The influence of charge effect on the growth of hydrogenated amorphous silicon by the hot-wire chemical vapor deposition technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Q.; Nelson, B.P.; Iwaniczko, E.; Mahan, A.H.; Crandall, R.S.; Benner, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1998-09-01

    The authors observe at lower substrate temperatures that the scatter in the dark conductivity on hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) films grown on insulating substrates (e.g., Corning 7059 glass) by the hot-wire chemical vapor deposition technique (HWCVD) can be five orders of magnitude or more. This is especially true at deposition temperatures below 350 C. However, when the authors grow the same materials on substrates with a conductive grid, virtually all of their films have acceptable dark conductivity (< 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}10} S/cm) at all deposition temperatures below 425 C. This is in contrast to only about 20% of the materials grown in this same temperature range on insulating substrates having an acceptable dark conductivity. The authors estimated an average energy of 5 eV electrons reaching the growing surface in vacuum, and did additional experiments to see the influence of both the electron flux and the energy of the electrons on the film growth. Although these effects do not seem to be important for growing a-Si:H by HWCVD on conductive substrates, they help better understand the important parameters for a-Si:H growth, and thus, to optimize these parameters in other applications of HWCVD technology.

  14. Hot wire radicals and reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Wengang; Gallagher, Alan

    2006-01-01

    Threshold ionization mass spectroscopy is used to measure radical (and stable gas) densities at the substrate of a tungsten hot wire (HW) reactor. We report measurements of the silane reaction probability on the HW and the probability of Si and H release from the HW. We describe a model for the atomic H release, based on the H 2 dissociation model. We note major variations in silicon-release, with dependence on prior silane exposure. Measured radical densities versus silane pressure yield silicon-silane and H-silane reaction rate coefficients, and the dominant radical fluxes to the substrate

  15. Deposition of thermal and hot-wire chemical vapor deposition copper thin films on patterned substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimitropoulos, G; Davazoglou, D

    2011-09-01

    In this work we study the hot-wire chemical vapor deposition (HWCVD) of copper films on blanket and patterned substrates at high filament temperatures. A vertical chemical vapor deposition reactor was used in which the chemical reactions were assisted by a tungsten filament heated at 650 degrees C. Hexafluoroacetylacetonate Cu(I) trimethylvinylsilane (CupraSelect) vapors were used, directly injected into the reactor with the aid of a liquid injection system using N2 as carrier gas. Copper thin films grown also by thermal and hot-wire CVD. The substrates used were oxidized silicon wafers on which trenches with dimensions of the order of 500 nm were formed and subsequently covered with LPCVD W. HWCVD copper thin films grown at filament temperature of 650 degrees C showed higher growth rates compared to the thermally ones. They also exhibited higher resistivities than thermal and HWCVD films grown at lower filament temperatures. Thermally grown Cu films have very uniform deposition leading to full coverage of the patterned substrates while the HWCVD films exhibited a tendency to vertical growth, thereby creating gaps and incomplete step coverage.

  16. Angular response of hot wire probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Mare, L; Jelly, T O; Day, I J

    2017-01-01

    A new equation for the convective heat loss from the sensor of a hot-wire probe is derived which accounts for both the potential and the viscous parts of the flow past the prongs. The convective heat loss from the sensor is related to the far-field velocity by an expression containing a term representing the potential flow around the prongs, and a term representing their viscous effect. This latter term is absent in the response equations available in the literature but is essential in representing some features of the observed response of miniature hot-wire probes. The response equation contains only four parameters but it can reproduce, with great accuracy, the behaviour of commonly used single-wire probes. The response equation simplifies the calibration the angular response of rotated slanted hot-wire probes: only standard King’s law parameters and a Reynolds-dependent drag coefficient need to be determined. (paper)

  17. Hetero- and homogeneous three-dimensional hierarchical tungsten oxide nanostructures by hot-wire chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houweling, Z.S., E-mail: Silvester.Houweling@asml.com [Utrecht University, Debye Institute for Nanomaterials Science, Nanophotonics—Physics of Devices, Princetonlaan 4, 3584 CB Utrecht (Netherlands); Harks, P.-P.R.M.L.; Kuang, Y.; Werf, C.H.M. van der [Utrecht University, Debye Institute for Nanomaterials Science, Nanophotonics—Physics of Devices, Princetonlaan 4, 3584 CB Utrecht (Netherlands); Geus, J.W. [Utrecht University, Inorganic Chemistry and Catalysis, Padualaan 8, 3584 CH Utrecht (Netherlands); Schropp, R.E.I. [Utrecht University, Debye Institute for Nanomaterials Science, Nanophotonics—Physics of Devices, Princetonlaan 4, 3584 CB Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2015-01-30

    We present the synthesis of three-dimensional tungsten oxide (WO{sub 3−x}) nanostructures, called nanocacti, using hot-wire chemical vapor deposition. The growth of the nanocacti is controlled through a succession of oxidation, reduction and re-oxidation processes. By using only a resistively heated W filament, a flow of ambient air and hydrogen at subatmospheric pressure, and a substrate heated to about 700 °C, branched nanostructures are deposited. We report three varieties of simple synthesis approaches to obtain hierarchical homo- and heterogeneous nanocacti. Furthermore, by using catalyst nanoparticles site-selection for the growth is demonstrated. The atomic, morphological and crystallographic compositions of the nanocacti are determined using a combination of electron microscopy techniques, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and electron diffraction. - Highlights: • Continuous upscalable hot-wire CVD of 3D hierarchical nanocacti • Controllable deposition of homo- and heterogeneous WO{sub 3−x}/WO{sub 3−y} nanocacti • Introduction of three synthesis routes comprising oxidation, reduction and re-oxidation processes • Growth of periodic arrays of hetero- and homogeneous hierarchical 3D nanocacti.

  18. Hot wire TIG temper bead welding for nuclear repairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, J.A.; Gilston, P.F.

    1989-08-01

    A preliminary assessment has been carried out to determine the suitability of the hot wire tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding process for the repair of thick section, ferritic steel nuclear pressure vessels. The objective has been to identify a hot wire TIG temper bead procedure, suitable for repairs without post weld heat treatment. This procedure involves depositing two weld layers with carefully selected welding parameters such that overlapping thermal cycles produce a refined and tempered heat affected zone, HAZ, microstructure. (author)

  19. Crystal growth of CVD diamond and some of its peculiarities

    CERN Document Server

    Piekarczyk, W

    1999-01-01

    Experiments demonstrate that CVD diamond can form in gas environments that are carbon undersaturated with respect to diamond. This fact is, among others, the most serious violation of principles of chemical thermodynamics. In this $9 paper it is shown that none of the principles is broken when CVD diamond formation is considered not a physical process consisting in growth of crystals but a chemical process consisting in accretion of macro-molecules of polycyclic $9 saturated hydrocarbons belonging to the family of organic compounds the smallest representatives of which are adamantane, diamantane, triamantane and so forth. Since the polymantane macro-molecules are in every respect identical with $9 diamond single crystals with hydrogen-terminated surfaces, the accretion of polymantane macro- molecules is a process completely equivalent to the growth of diamond crystals. However, the accretion of macro-molecules must be $9 described in a way different from that used to describe the growth of crystals because so...

  20. On the Humidity Sensitivity of Hot-Wire Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Søren Ejling; Busch, N. E.

    1980-01-01

    The influence of humidity changes on hot-wire measurements is discussed. Indications are that the humidity sensitivity parameters obtained by the authors in an earlier paper should be changed. This means, however, that the agreement between predicted and measured sensitivities ceases to exist...

  1. CVD-graphene growth on different polycrystalline transition metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Lavin-Lopez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical vapor deposition (CVD graphene growth on two polycrystalline transition metals (Ni and Cu was investigated in detail using Raman spectroscopy and optical microscopy as a way to synthesize graphene of the highest quality (i.e. uniform growth of monolayer graphene, which is considered a key issue for electronic devices. Key CVD process parameters (reaction temperature, CH4/H2flow rate ratio, total flow of gases (CH4+H2, reaction time were optimized for both metals in order to obtain the highest graphene uniformity and quality. The conclusions previously reported in literature about the performance of low and high carbon solubility metals in the synthesis of graphene and their associated reaction mechanisms, i.e. surface depositionand precipitation on cooling, respectively, was not corroborated by the results obtained in this work. Under the optimal reaction conditions, a large percentage of monolayer graphene was obtained over the Ni foil since the carbon saturation was not complete, allowing carbon atoms to be stored in the bulk metal, which could diffuse forming high quality monolayer graphene at the surface. However, under the optimal reaction conditions, the formation of a non-uniform mixture of few layers and multilayer graphene on the Cu foil was related to the presence of an excess of active carbon atoms on the Cu surface.

  2. Carbon Nanotubes Growth by CVD on Graphite Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shen; Su, Ching-Hua; Cochrane, J. C.; Lehoczky, S. L.; Muntele, I.; Ila, D.; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Due to the superior electrical and mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes (CNT), synthesizing CNT on various substances for electronics devices and reinforced composites have been engaged in many efforts for applications. This presentation will illustrate CNT synthesized on graphite fibers by thermal CVD. On the fiber surface, iron nanoparticles as catalysts for CNT growth are coated. The growth temperature ranges from 600 to 1000 C and the pressure ranges from 100 Torr to one atmosphere. Methane and hydrogen gases with methane content of 10% to 100% are used for the CNT synthesis. At high growth temperatures (greater than or equal to 900 C), the rapid inter-diffusion of the transition metal iron on the graphite surface results in the rough fiber surface without any CNT grown on it. When the growth temperature is relative low (650-800 C), CNT with catalytic particles on the nanotube top ends are fabricated on the graphite surface. (Methane and hydrogen gases with methane content of 10% to 100% are used for the CNT synthesis.) (By measuring the samples) Using micro Raman spectroscopy in the breath mode region, single-walled or multi-walled CNT (MWCNT), depending on growth concentrations, are found. Morphology, length and diameter of these MWCNT are determined by scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The detailed results of syntheses and characterizations will be discussed in the presentation.

  3. Industrialization of Hot Wire Chemical Vapor Deposition for thin film applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schropp, R.E.I., E-mail: r.e.i.schropp@tue.nl

    2015-11-30

    The consequences of implementing a Hot Wire Chemical Vapor Deposition (HWCVD) chamber into an existing in-line or roll-to-roll reactor are described. The hardware and operation of the HWCVD production reactor is compared to that of existing roll-to-roll reactors based on Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition. The most important consequences are the technical consequences and the economic consequences, which are both discussed. The technical consequences are adaptations needed to the hardware and to the processing sequences due to the different interaction of the HWCVD process with the substrate and already deposited layers. The economic consequences are the reduced investments in radio frequency (RF) supplies and RF components. This is partially offset by investments that have to be made in higher capacity pumping systems. The most mature applications of HWCVD are moisture barrier coatings for thin film flexible devices such as Organic Light Emitting Diodes and Organic Photovoltaics, and passivation layers for multicrystalline Si solar cells, high mobility field effect transistors, and silicon heterojunction cells (also known as heterojunction cells with intrinsic thin film layers). Another example is the use of Si in thin film photovoltaics. The cost perspective per unit of thin film photovoltaic product using HWCVD is estimated at 0.07 €/Wp for the Si thin film component. - Highlights: • Review of consequences of implementing Hot Wire CVD into a manufacturing plant • Aspects of scaling up to large area and continuous manufacturing are discussed • Economic advantage of introducing a HWCVD process in a production system is estimated • Using HWCVD, the cost for the Si layers in photovoltaic products is 0.08 €/Wp.

  4. Industrialization of Hot Wire Chemical Vapor Deposition for thin film applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schropp, R.E.I.

    2015-01-01

    The consequences of implementing a Hot Wire Chemical Vapor Deposition (HWCVD) chamber into an existing in-line or roll-to-roll reactor are described. The hardware and operation of the HWCVD production reactor is compared to that of existing roll-to-roll reactors based on Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition. The most important consequences are the technical consequences and the economic consequences, which are both discussed. The technical consequences are adaptations needed to the hardware and to the processing sequences due to the different interaction of the HWCVD process with the substrate and already deposited layers. The economic consequences are the reduced investments in radio frequency (RF) supplies and RF components. This is partially offset by investments that have to be made in higher capacity pumping systems. The most mature applications of HWCVD are moisture barrier coatings for thin film flexible devices such as Organic Light Emitting Diodes and Organic Photovoltaics, and passivation layers for multicrystalline Si solar cells, high mobility field effect transistors, and silicon heterojunction cells (also known as heterojunction cells with intrinsic thin film layers). Another example is the use of Si in thin film photovoltaics. The cost perspective per unit of thin film photovoltaic product using HWCVD is estimated at 0.07 €/Wp for the Si thin film component. - Highlights: • Review of consequences of implementing Hot Wire CVD into a manufacturing plant • Aspects of scaling up to large area and continuous manufacturing are discussed • Economic advantage of introducing a HWCVD process in a production system is estimated • Using HWCVD, the cost for the Si layers in photovoltaic products is 0.08 €/Wp.

  5. Kinetic study on hot-wire-assisted atomic layer deposition of nickel thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Guangjie; Shimizu, Hideharu; Momose, Takeshi; Shimogaki, Yukihiro

    2014-01-01

    High-purity Ni films were deposited using hot-wire-assisted atomic layer deposition (HW-ALD) at deposition temperatures of 175, 250, and 350 °C. Negligible amount of nitrogen or carbon contamination was detected, even though the authors used NH 2 radical as the reducing agent and nickelocene as the precursor. NH 2 radicals were generated by the thermal decomposition of NH 3 with the assist of HW and used to reduce the adsorbed metal growth precursors. To understand and improve the deposition process, the kinetics of HW-ALD were analyzed using a Langmuir-type model. Unlike remote-plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition, HW-ALD does not lead to plasma-induced damage. This is a significant advantage, because the authors can supply sufficient NH 2 radicals to deposit high-purity metallic films by adjusting the distance between the hot wire and the substrate. NH 2 radicals have a short lifetime, and it was important to use a short distance between the radical generation site and substrate. Furthermore, the impurity content of the nickel films was independent of the deposition temperature, which is evidence of the temperature-independent nature of the NH 2 radical flux and the reactivity of the NH 2 radicals

  6. Hot-wire ignition of AN-based emulsions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turcotte, Richard; Goldthorp, Sandra; Badeen, Christopher M. [Canadian Explosives Research Laboratory, Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0G1 (Canada); Chan, Sek Kwan [Orica Canada Inc., Brownsburg-Chatham, Quebec (Canada)

    2008-12-15

    Emulsions based on ammonium nitrate (AN) and water locally ignited by a heat source do not undergo sustained combustion when the pressure is lower than some threshold value usually called the Minimum Burning Pressure (MBP). This concept is now being used by some manufacturers as a basis of safety. However, before a technique to reliably measure MBP values can be designed, one must have a better understanding of the ignition mechanism. Clearly, this is required to avoid under ignitions which could lead to the erroneous interpretation of failures to ignite as failures to propagate. In the present work, facilities to prepare and characterize emulsions were implemented at the Canadian Explosives Research Laboratory. A calibrated hot-wire ignition system operated in a high-pressure vessel was also built. The system was used to study the ignition characteristics of five emulsion formulations as a function of pressure and ignition source current. It was found that these mixtures exhibit complicated pre-ignition stages and that the appearance of endotherms when the pressure is lowered below some threshold value correlates with the MBP. Thermal conductivity measurements using this hot-wire system are also reported. (Abstract Copyright [2008], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  7. Graphene Synthesis by Plasma-Enhanced CVD Growth with Ethanol

    OpenAIRE

    Campo, T.; Cotto, M.; Márquez, F.; Elizalde, E.; Morant, C.

    2016-01-01

    A modified route to synthesize graphene flakes is proposed using the Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) technique, by using copper substrates as supports. The carbon source used was ethanol, the synthesis temperature was 950°C and the pressure was controlled along the whole process. In this CVD synthesis process the incorporation of the carbon source was produced at low pressure and 950°C inducing the appearance of a plasma blue flash inside the quartz tube. Apparently, the presence of this plas...

  8. Skin-friction measurements with hot-wire gages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houdeville, R.; Juillen, J. C.; Cousteix, J.

    1983-11-01

    The development of two hot-wire gauges for implantation in wind-tunnel models and their application to the measurement of skin-friction phenomena are reported. The measurement principle is explained; the design and calibration of a single-wire gage containing a thermocouple for temperature determination (Cousteix and Juillen, 1982-1983) are summarized; and sample results for 2D and 3D flows with positive pressure gradients are shown. An advanced design employing a thin hot film deposited on an 80-micron-diameter quartz fiber extending into a 1-mm-sq 0.8-mm-deep cavity is characterized and demonstrated on a pulsed flow on a flat plate, Tollmien-Schlichting waves, and a turbulent boundary layer. Two cold-wire temperature sensors are added to this gage to permit detection of the skin of the skin friction in the separated flow over a cylinder.

  9. Hot wire deposited hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahan, A.H.; Iwaniczko, E.; Nelson, B.P.; Reedy, R.C. Jr.; Crandall, R.S. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-05-01

    This paper details the results of a study in which low H content, high deposition rate hot wire (HW) deposited amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) has been incorporated into a substrate solar cell. The authors find that the treatment of the top surface of the HW i layer while it is being cooled from its high deposition temperature is crucial to device performance. They present data concerning these surface treatments, and correlate these treatments with Schottky device performance. The authors also present first generation HW n-i-p solar cell efficiency data, where a glow discharge (GD) {mu}c-Si(p) layer was added to complete the partial devices. No light trapping layer was used to increase the device Jsc. Their preliminary investigations have yielded efficiencies of up to 6.8% for a cell with a 4000 {Angstrom} thick HW i-layer, which degrade less than 10% after a 900 hour light soak. The authors suggest avenues for further improvement of their devices.

  10. Hot Wire Measurements in a Axisymmetric Shear Layer with Swirl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, D.; Pollard, A.

    1996-11-01

    It is well known that the introduction of swirl in an axisymmetric jet can influence the development of and mixing in the near field of the jet. Recent efforts to compute this flow have demonstrated that the development of the near field is dependent on parameters at the jet outlet other than distribution of the swirl component, such as the distribution the mean radial velocity (Xai, J.L., Smith, B.L., Benim, A. C., Schmidli, J., and Yadigaroglu, G. (1996) Influence of Boundary Conditions on Swirling Flow in Combustors, Proc. ASME Fluid. Eng. Div. Summer Meeting), San Diego, Ca., July 7-11.. An experimental rig has been designed to produce co-axial round and annular swirling jets with uniform outlet conditions in each flow. The flow rate and swirl component from each of these jets can be controlled independently and the rig can be configured to produce both co- and counter-swirling flows. Thus, the rig can be used to carry out an extensive investigation of the effect of swirl on the development of axisymmetric flows. The key design features of the rig and the first sets of hot-wire measurements in the shear layer will be reported here.

  11. Large-area selective CVD epitaxial growth of Ge on Si substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sammak, A.; De Boer, W.; Nanver, L.K.

    2011-01-01

    Selective epitaxial growth of crystalline Ge on Si in a standard ASM Epsilon 2000 CVD reactor is investigated for the fabrication of Ge p+n diodes. At the deposition temperature of 700?C, most of the lattice mismatch-defects are trapped within first 300nm of Ge growth and good quality single crystal

  12. Comparison of PIV and Hot-Wire statistics of turbulent boundary layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dróżdż, A; Uruba, V

    2014-01-01

    The paper shows a cross checking of turbulent boundary layer measurements using large field of view PIV and hot-wire anemometry techniques. The time-resolved PIV method was used for the experiments. The measuring plane was oriented perpendicularly to the wall and parallel to the mean flow. Hot wire measurement has been performed using the special probe with perpendicular hot wire. The HW point measurements were performed in the same place as PIV experiments. The hot-wire probe has the wire length of l + < 20 in considered range of Reynolds numbers. Various evaluation methods were applied on PIV data. The profiles of statistical characteristics of streamwise velocity components were evaluated from the data. Mean values, standard deviations as well as skewness and kurtosis coefficients were compared for a few values of Re θ . Reynolds number ranges from 1000 to 5500. The result shows that with the increasing Reynolds number the attenuation of fluctuations maximum in PIV measurements occurs with respect to Hot-Wire measurements, however representation of velocity fluctuations using the PIV method is satisfactory. The influence of wall-normal fluctuation component on Hot-Wire near wall peak was also investigated.

  13. Application of Hot-wire Method for Measuring Thermal Conductivity of Fine Ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shangxi WANG

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Ceramic substrate is preferred in high density packaging due to its high electrical resistivity and moderate expansion coefficient. The thermal conductivity is a key parameter for packaging substrates. There are two common methods to measure the thermal conductivity, which are the hot-wire method and the laser-flash method. Usually, the thermal conductivities of porcelain is low and meet the measurement range of hot-wire method, and the measured value by hot-wire method has little difference with that by laser-flash method. In recent years, with the requirement of high-powered LED lighting, some kinds of ceramic substrates with good thermal conductivity have been developed and their thermal conductivity always measured by the means of laser flash method, which needs expensive instrument. In this paper, in order to detect the thermal conductivity of fine ceramic with convenience and low cost, the feasibility of replacing the laser flash method with hot wire method to measure thermal conductivity of ceramic composites was studied. The experiment results showed that the thermal conductivity value of fine ceramics measured by the hot-wire method is severely lower than that by the laser-flash method. However, there is a positive relationship between them. It is possible to measure the thermal conductivity of fine ceramic workpiece instantly by hot-wire method via a correction formula.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.22.4.12543

  14. Merging Standard CVD Techniques for GaAs and Si Epitaxial Growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sammak, A.; De Boer, W.; Van den Bogaard, A.; Nanver, L.K.

    2010-01-01

    A commercial Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) system, the ASMI Epsilon 2000 designed for Si and SiGe epitaxy, has, for the first time, been equipped for the growth of GaAs compounds in a manner that does not exclude the use of the system also for Si-based depositions. With the new system, intrinsic,

  15. Ge-on-Si : Single-Crystal Selective Epitaxial Growth in a CVD Reactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sammak, A.; De Boer, W.B.; Nanver, L.K.

    2012-01-01

    A standard Si/SiGe ASM CVD reactor that was recently modified for merging GaAs and Si epitaxial growth in one system is utilized to achieve intrinsic and doped epitaxial Ge-on-Si with low threading dislocation and defect densities. For this purpose, the system is equipped with 2% diluted GeH4 as the

  16. SiC epitaxy growth using chloride-based CVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, Anne; Leone, Stefano; Beyer, Franziska C.; Pedersen, Henrik; Kordina, Olof; Andersson, Sven; Janzén, Erik

    2012-01-01

    The growth of thick epitaxial SiC layers needed for high-voltage, high-power devices is investigated with the chloride-based chemical vapor deposition. High growth rates exceeding 100 μm/h can be obtained, however to obtain device quality epilayers adjustments of the process parameters should be carried out appropriately for the chemistry used. Two different chemistry approaches are compared: addition of hydrogen chloride to the standard precursors or using methyltrichlorosilane, a molecule that contains silicon, carbon and chlorine. Optical and electrical techniques are used to characterize the layers.

  17. Rapid growth of single-layer graphene on the insulating substrates by thermal CVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, C.Y. [Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 (China); Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Related Technologies, Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Protective Technologies, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Dai, D.; Chen, G.X.; Yu, J.H. [Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Related Technologies, Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Protective Technologies, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Nishimura, K. [Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Related Technologies, Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Protective Technologies, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Advanced Nano-processing Engineering Lab, Mechanical Systems Engineering, Kogakuin University (Japan); Lin, C.-T. [Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Related Technologies, Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Protective Technologies, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Jiang, N., E-mail: jiangnan@nimte.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Related Technologies, Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Protective Technologies, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Zhan, Z.L., E-mail: zl_zhan@sohu.com [Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 (China)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • A rapid thermal CVD process has been developed to directly grow graphene on the insulating substrates. • The treating time consumed is ≈25% compared to conventional CVD procedure. • Single-layer and few-layer graphene can be formed on quartz and SiO{sub 2}/Si substrates, respectively. • The formation of thinner graphene at the interface is due to the fast precipitation rate of carbon atoms during cooling. - Abstract: The advance of CVD technique to directly grow graphene on the insulating substrates is particularly significant for further device fabrication. As graphene is catalytically grown on metal foils, the degradation of the sample properties is unavoidable during transfer of graphene on the dielectric layer. Moreover, shortening the treatment time as possible, while achieving single-layer growth of graphene, is worthy to be investigated for promoting the efficiency of mass production. Here we performed a rapid heating/cooling process to grow graphene films directly on the insulating substrates by thermal CVD. The treating time consumed is ≈25% compared to conventional CVD procedure. In addition, we found that high-quality, single-layer graphene can be formed on quartz, but on SiO{sub 2}/Si substrate only few-layer graphene can be obtained. The pronounced substrate effect is attributed to the different dewetting behavior of Ni films on the both substrates at 950 °C.

  18. Low temperature CVD growth of ultrathin carbon films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Yang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate the low temperature, large area growth of ultrathin carbon films by chemical vapor deposition under atmospheric pressure on various substrates. In particularly, uniform and continuous carbon films with the thickness of 2-5 nm were successfully grown at a temperature as low as 500 oC on copper foils, as well as glass substrates coated with a 100 nm thick copper layer. The characterizations revealed that the low-temperature-grown carbon films consist on few short, curved graphene layers and thin amorphous carbon films. Particularly, the low-temperature grown samples exhibited over 90% transmittance at a wavelength range of 400-750 nm and comparable sheet resistance in contrast with the 1000oC-grown one. This low-temperature growth method may offer a facile way to directly prepare visible ultrathin carbon films on various substrate surfaces that are compatible with temperatures (500-600oC used in several device processing technologies.

  19. Corrosion behavior of Cu during graphene growth by CVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Yuhua; Liu, Qingqing; Zhou, Qiong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Graphene films were deposited on the Cu by chemical vapor deposition method. • Annealing affects the corrosion property of Cu. • Graphene films improve corrosion performance of Cu for a short period of time. - Abstract: The corrosion performance of Cu samples may be affected by annealing at high temperatures during graphene growth via the chemical vapor deposition method. In this study, multiple graphene films were deposited on Cu and characterized by Raman spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The corrosion behavior of Cu immersed in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution was investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The Cu morphology was observed by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Results indicated that annealing affects the corrosion process of Cu. The presence of graphene films on the Cu substrate improved the corrosion performance of the material for a short period of time

  20. Direct CVD Graphene Growth on Semiconductors and Dielectrics for Transfer-Free Device Fabrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huaping; Yu, Gui

    2016-07-01

    Graphene is the most broadly discussed and studied two-dimensional material because of its preeminent physical, mechanical, optical, and thermal properties. Until now, metal-catalyzed chemical vapor deposition (CVD) has been widely employed for the scalable production of high-quality graphene. However, in order to incorporate the graphene into electronic devices, a transfer process from metal substrates to targeted substrates is inevitable. This process usually results in contamination, wrinkling, and breakage of graphene samples - undesirable in graphene-based technology and not compatible with industrial production. Therefore, direct graphene growth on desired semiconductor and dielectric substrates is considered as an effective alternative. Over the past years, there have been intensive investigations to realize direct graphene growth using CVD methods without the catalytic role of metals. Owing to the low catalytic activity of non-metal substrates for carbon precursor decomposition and graphene growth, several strategies have been designed to facilitate and engineer graphene fabrication on semiconductors and insulators. Here, those developed strategies for direct CVD graphene growth on semiconductors and dielectrics for transfer-free fabrication of electronic devices are reviewed. By employing these methods, various graphene-related structures can be directly prepared on desired substrates and exhibit excellent performance, providing versatile routes for varied graphene-based materials fabrication. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. A thermo-electro-mechanical simulation model for hot wire cutting of EPS foam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petkov, Kiril; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2016-01-01

    A one-dimensional thermo-electro-mechanical mathematical model describing the effects taking place within a Ni-Cr20% wire used in a hot-wire cutting process for free forming and rapid prototyping of expanded polystyrene (EPS) is investigated and simulated. The model implements and solves three semi...... cutting of EPS in contact with a cutting tool made of an electrically heated metal wire attached to a robot device. The finite difference method is used to solve the coupled equations in the two environments (domains) in which the hot-wire operates, namely air and EPS. The model is calibrated against...... experimentally obtained data. Novel findings are a transient temperature-dependent kerfwidth prediction and a relation between kerfwidth and the cutting angle as measured from the horizontal direction. These are important relations in the aim for higher geometrical accuracy of the hot-wire cutting process. (C...

  2. On unique parameters and unified formal form of hot-wire anemometric sensor model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LigePza, P.

    2005-01-01

    This note reviews the extensively adopted equations used as models of hot-wire anemometric sensors. An unified formal form of the mathematical model of a hot-wire anemometric sensor with otherwise defined parameters is proposed. Those parameters, static and dynamic, have simple physical interpretation and can be easily determined. They show directly the range of sensor application. They determine the metrological properties of the given sensor in the actual medium. Hence, the parameters' values might be ascribed to each sensor in the given medium and be quoted in manufacturers' catalogues, supplementing the sensor specifications. Because of their simple physical interpretation, those parameters allow the direct comparison of the fundamental metrological properties of various sensors and selection of the optimal sensor for the given research measurement application. The parameters are also useful in modeling complex hot-wire systems

  3. Cold-walled UHV/CVD batch reactor for the growth of Si1_x/Gex layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Erik Vilain; Christensen, Carsten; Andersen, C.R.

    1997-01-01

    A novel cold-walled, lamp-heated, ultrahigh vacuum chemical vapor deposition (UHV/CVD) batch system for the growth of SiGe layers is presented. This system combines the batch capability of the standard UHV/CVD furnace with the temperature processing available in rapid thermal processing (Rm...

  4. Effect of growth temperature and precursor concentration on synthesis of CVD-graphene from camphor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaram, Narasimman; Patel, Biren; Ray, Abhijit; Mukhopadhyay, Indrajit

    2018-05-01

    Here, we have synthesized CVD-graphene from camphor by using atmospheric pressure (AP)-CVD system on Cu foil. We have studied the effect of growth temperature and camphor concentration by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Raman spectroscopy. The domain size of the graphene is increasing with an increase in the temperature and camphor quantity. The complete coverage of graphene on the Cu foil achieved at 1020 °C. Higher camphor quantity leads to growth of multilayer graphene. The graphene is transferred by PMMA-assisted method onto the glass substrate. The sheet resistance and transmittance of the graphene are 1.5 kohm/sq and 92.7%, respectively.

  5. Crystalline silicon thin film growth by ECR plasma CVD for solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Licai Wang

    1999-07-01

    This thesis describes the background, motivation and work carried out towards this PhD programme entitled 'Crystalline Silicon Thin Film Growth by ECR Plasma CVD for Solar Cells'. The fundamental principles of silicon solar cells are introduced with a review of silicon thin film and bulk solar cells. The development and prospects for thin film silicon solar cells are described. Some results of a modelling study on thin film single crystalline solar cells are given which has been carried out using a commercially available solar cell simulation package (PC-1D). This is followed by a description of thin film deposition techniques. These include Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD) and Plasma-Assisted CVD (PACVD). The basic theory and technology of the emerging technique of Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) PACVD, which was used in this research, are introduced and the potential advantages summarised. Some of the basic methods of material and cell characterisation are briefly described, together with the work carried out in this research. The growth by ECR PACVD at temperatures 2 illumination. The best efficiency in the ECR grown structures was 13.76% using an epitaxial emitter. Cell performance was analysed in detail and the factors controlling performance identified by fitting self-consistently the fight and dark current-voltage and spectral response data using PC-1D. Finally, the conclusions for this research and suggestions for further work are outlined. (author)

  6. Industrialization of hot wire chemical vapor deposition for thin film applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schropp, Ruud

    2015-01-01

    The consequences of implementing a Hot Wire Chemical Vapor Deposition (HWCVD) chamber into an existing in-line or roll-to-roll reactor are described. The hardware and operation of the HWCVD production reactor is compared to that of existing roll-to-roll reactors based on Plasma Enhanced Chemical

  7. Rethinking the participatory web : A history of HotWired's 'new publishing paradigm,' 1994-1997

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevenson, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This article critically interrogates key assumptions in popular web discourse by revisiting an early example of web “participation.” Against the claim that Web 2.0 technologies ushered in a new paradigm of participatory media, I turn to the history of HotWired, Wired magazine’s ambitious web-only

  8. Electrically active, doped monocrystalline silicon nanoparticles produced by hot wire thermal catalytic pyrolysis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Scriba, MR

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Doped silicon nanoparticles have successfully been produced by hot wire thermal catalytic pyrolysis at 40 mbar and a filament temperature of 1800 °C, using a mixture of silane and diborane or phosphine. All particles are monocrystalline with shapes...

  9. The calibration of (multi-) hot-wire probes. 1. Temperature calibration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van A.; Nieuwstadt, F.T.M.

    2004-01-01

    We study the performance of the classical relation for the correction for ambient temperature drift of the signal of a hot-wire anemometer and the influence of practical assumptions. It is shown that most methods to estimate the operational temperature via the temperature/resistance coefficient lead

  10. Hot Wire Anemometer Turbulence Measurements in the wind Tunnel of LM Wind Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Andreas

    downstream of the nozzle contraction. We used two different hot wire probes: a dual sensor miniature wire probe (Dantec 55P61) and a triple sensor fiber film probe (Dantec 55R91). The turbulence intensity measured with the dual sensor probe in the empty tunnel section was significantly lower than the one...

  11. Tandem solar cells deposited using hot-wire chemical vapor deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, M.K. van

    2003-01-01

    In this thesis, the application of the hot-wire chemical vapor deposition (HWCVD) technique for the deposition of silicon thin films is described. The HWCVD technique is based on the dissociation of silicon-containing gasses at the catalytic surface of a hot filament. Advantages of this technique

  12. A Hot-Wire Method Based Thermal Conductivity Measurement Apparatus for Teaching Purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, S.; Marin, E.; Juarez, A. G.; Calderon, A.; Ivanov, R.

    2012-01-01

    The implementation of an automated system based on the hot-wire technique is described for the measurement of the thermal conductivity of liquids using equipment easily available in modern physics laboratories at high schools and universities (basically a precision current source and a voltage meter, a data acquisition card, a personal computer…

  13. Surface structure deduced differences of copper foil and film for graphene CVD growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Junjun [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Hu, Baoshan, E-mail: hubaoshan@cqu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Wei, Zidong; Jin, Yan [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Luo, Zhengtang [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The Hongkong University of Science and Technology, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Xia, Meirong [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Pan, Qingjiang [Key Laboratory of Functional Inorganic Material Chemistry, Ministry of Education, Heilongjiang University, Harbin 150080 (China); Liu, Yunling [State Key Laboratory of Inorganic Synthesis and Preparative Chemistry, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China)

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • We demonstrate the significant differences between Cu foil and film in the surface morphology and crystal orientation distribution. • The different surface structure leads to the distinctive influences of the CH₄ and H₂ concentrations on the thickness and quality of as-grown graphene. • Nucleation densities and growth rate differences at the initial growth stages on the Cu foil and film were investigated and discussed. Abstract: Graphene was synthesized on Cu foil and film by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (CVD) with CH₄ as carbon source. Electron backscattered scattering diffraction (EBSD) characterization demonstrates that the Cu foil surface after the H₂-assisted pre-annealing was almost composed of Cu(1 0 0) crystal facet with larger grain size of ~100 μm; meanwhile, the Cu film surface involved a variety of crystal facets of Cu(1 1 1), Cu(1 0 0), and Cu(1 1 0), with the relatively small grain size of ~10 μm. The different surface structure led to the distinctive influences of the CH₄ and H₂ concentrations on the thickness and quality of as-grown graphene. Further data demonstrate that the Cu foil enabled more nucleation densities and faster growth rates at the initial growth stages than the Cu film. Our results are beneficial for understanding the relationship between the metal surface structure and graphene CVD growth.

  14. Hot wire chemical vapor deposition: limits and opportunities of protecting the tungsten catalyzer from silicide with a cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frigeri, P.A.; Nos, O.; Bengoechea, S.; Frevert, C.; Asensi, J.M.; Bertomeu, J.

    2009-01-01

    Hot Wire Chemical Vapor Deposition (HW-CVD) is one of the most promising techniques for depositing the intrinsic microcrystalline silicon layer for the production of micro-morph solar cells. However, the silicide formation at the colder ends of the tungsten wire drastically reduces the lifetime of the catalyzer, thus limiting its industrial exploitation. A simple but interesting strategy to decrease the silicide formation is to hide the electrical contacts of the catalyzer in a long narrow cavity which reduces the probability of the silane molecules to reach the colder ends of the wire. In this paper, the working mechanism of the cavity is elucidated. Measurements of the thickness profile of the silicon deposited in the internal walls of the cavity have been compared with those predicted using a simple diffusion model based on the assumption of Knudsen flow. A lifetime study of the protected and unprotected wires has been carried out. The different mechanisms which determine the deterioration of the catalyzer have been identified and discussed.

  15. Controlled growth of CNT in mesoporous AAO through optimized conditions for membrane preparation and CVD operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciambelli, P; Sarno, M; Leone, C; Sannino, D [Department of Chemical and Food Engineering, University of Salerno, I-84084 Fisciano (Italy); Arurault, L; Fontorbes, S; Datas, L; Lenormand, P; Le Blond Du Plouy, S, E-mail: msarno@unisa.it, E-mail: arurault@chimie.ups-tlse.fr [Universite de Toulouse, CIRIMAT, UPS/INPT/CNRS, LCMIE, F-31062 Toulouse Cedex 9 (France)

    2011-07-01

    Anodic aluminium oxide (RAAO) membranes with a mesoporous structure were prepared under strictly controlling experimental process conditions, and physically and chemically characterized by a wide range of experimental techniques. Commercial anodic aluminium oxide (CAAO) membranes were also investigated for comparison. We demonstrated that RAAO membranes have lower content of both water and phosphorus and showed better porosity shape than CAAO. The RAAO membranes were used for template growth of carbon nanotubes (CNT) inside its pores by ethylene chemical vapour deposition (CVD) in the absence of a catalyst. A composite material, containing one nanotube for each channel, having the same length as the membrane thickness and an external diameter close to the diameter of the membrane holes, was obtained. Yield, selectivity and quality of CNTs in terms of diameter, length and arrangement (i.e. number of tubes for each channel) were optimized by investigating the effect of changing the experimental conditions for the CVD process. We showed that upon thermal treatment RAAO membranes were made up of crystallized allotropic alumina phases, which govern the subsequent CNT growth, because of their catalytic activity, likely due to their Lewis acidity. The strict control of experimental conditions for membrane preparation and CNT growth allowed us to enhance the carbon structural order, which is a critical requisite for CNT application as a substitute for copper in novel nano-interconnects.

  16. Graphene growth on Ge(100)/Si(100) substrates by CVD method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasternak, Iwona; Wesolowski, Marek; Jozwik, Iwona; Lukosius, Mindaugas; Lupina, Grzegorz; Dabrowski, Pawel; Baranowski, Jacek M; Strupinski, Wlodek

    2016-02-22

    The successful integration of graphene into microelectronic devices is strongly dependent on the availability of direct deposition processes, which can provide uniform, large area and high quality graphene on nonmetallic substrates. As of today the dominant technology is based on Si and obtaining graphene with Si is treated as the most advantageous solution. However, the formation of carbide during the growth process makes manufacturing graphene on Si wafers extremely challenging. To overcome these difficulties and reach the set goals, we proposed growth of high quality graphene layers by the CVD method on Ge(100)/Si(100) wafers. In addition, a stochastic model was applied in order to describe the graphene growth process on the Ge(100)/Si(100) substrate and to determine the direction of further processes. As a result, high quality graphene was grown, which was proved by Raman spectroscopy results, showing uniform monolayer films with FWHM of the 2D band of 32 cm(-1).

  17. CVD growth of graphene under exfoliated hexagonal boron nitride for vertical hybrid structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Min; Jang, Sung Kyu; Song, Young Jae; Lee, Sungjoo

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: We have demonstrated a novel yet simple method for fabricating graphene-based vertical hybrid structures by performing the CVD growth of graphene at an h-BN/Cu interface. Our systematic Raman measurements combined with plasma etching process indicate that a graphene film is grown under exfoliated h-BN rather than on its top surface, and that an h-BN/graphene vertical hybrid structure has been fabricated. Electrical transport measurements of this h-BN/graphene, transferred on SiO2, show the carrier mobility up to approximately 2250 cm 2 V −1 s −1 . The developed method would enable the exploration of the possibility of novel hybrid structure integration with two-dimensional material systems. - Abstract: We have demonstrated a novel yet simple method for fabricating graphene-based vertical hybrid structures by performing the CVD growth of graphene at an h-BN/Cu interface. Our systematic Raman measurements combined with plasma etching process indicate that a graphene film is grown under exfoliated h-BN rather than on its top surface, and that an h-BN/graphene vertical hybrid structure has been fabricated. Electrical transport measurements of this h-BN/graphene, transferred on SiO 2 , show the carrier mobility up to approximately 2250 cm 2 V −1 s −1 . The developed method would enable the exploration of the possibility of novel hybrid structure integration with two-dimensional material systems

  18. Influence of tungsten on the carbon nanotubes growth by CVD process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escobar, Mariano [Instituto de Fisicoquimica de Materiales, Ambiente y Energia, CONICET-UBA, Pabellon II, Ciudad Universitaria (1428) Bs As (Argentina); LP and MC, Dep. De Fisica, FCEyN-UBA, Pabellon 1, Ciudad Universitaria (1428) Bs As (Argentina)], E-mail: mescobar@qi.fcen.uba.ar; Rubiolo, Gerardo H. [LP and MC, Dep. De Fisica, FCEyN-UBA, Pabellon 1, Ciudad Universitaria (1428) Bs As (Argentina); Unidad de Actividad Materiales, CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, San Martin (1650), Bs As (Argentina); Moreno, M. Sergio [Centro Atomico Bariloche, (8400) S.C. de Bariloche, Rio Negro (Argentina); Goyanes, Silvia [LP and MC, Dep. De Fisica, FCEyN-UBA, Pabellon 1, Ciudad Universitaria (1428) Bs As (Argentina); Candal, Roberto [Instituto de Fisicoquimica de Materiales, Ambiente y Energia, CONICET-UBA, Pabellon II, Ciudad Universitaria (1428) Bs As (Argentina)

    2009-06-24

    The effect of tungsten (W) on the growth of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) using the chemical vapour deposition (CVD) process over a metal Fe-W catalyst incorporated into a silica matrix is reported. A W molar content in Fe/SiO{sub 2} up to 10% was studied. The incorporation of only 2% of W substantially modifies the crystalline phases and the crystalline degree of the catalyst during the MWNTs synthesis. This fact seems to have a strong influence on the type and yield of the carbonaceous species obtained by the CVD of acetylene, at 600 deg. C and 180 Torr, over each catalyst. Tungsten interacts with iron within the matrix, diminishing the catalytic activity of the metal nanoparticles, and both, carbon nanotubes and carbon nanofibers, are obtained when tungsten is present. The results obtained support the hypothesis of a base growth model for carbon nanotubes indicating a strong interaction between silica matrix and Fe/W nanoparticles, independently of the content of W.

  19. Influence of tungsten on the carbon nanotubes growth by CVD process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escobar, Mariano; Rubiolo, Gerardo H.; Moreno, M. Sergio; Goyanes, Silvia; Candal, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    The effect of tungsten (W) on the growth of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) using the chemical vapour deposition (CVD) process over a metal Fe-W catalyst incorporated into a silica matrix is reported. A W molar content in Fe/SiO 2 up to 10% was studied. The incorporation of only 2% of W substantially modifies the crystalline phases and the crystalline degree of the catalyst during the MWNTs synthesis. This fact seems to have a strong influence on the type and yield of the carbonaceous species obtained by the CVD of acetylene, at 600 deg. C and 180 Torr, over each catalyst. Tungsten interacts with iron within the matrix, diminishing the catalytic activity of the metal nanoparticles, and both, carbon nanotubes and carbon nanofibers, are obtained when tungsten is present. The results obtained support the hypothesis of a base growth model for carbon nanotubes indicating a strong interaction between silica matrix and Fe/W nanoparticles, independently of the content of W.

  20. CVD-grown horizontally aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes: synthesis routes and growth mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Imad; Bachmatiuk, Alicja; Warner, Jamie H; Büchner, Bernd; Cuniberti, Gianaurelio; Rümmeli, Mark H

    2012-07-09

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) have attractive electrical and physical properties, which make them very promising for use in various applications. For some applications however, in particular those involving electronics, SWCNTs need to be synthesized with a high degree of control with respect to yield, length, alignment, diameter, and chirality. With this in mind, a great deal of effort is being directed to the precision control of vertically and horizontally aligned nanotubes. In this review the focus is on the latter, horizontally aligned tubes grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The reader is provided with an in-depth review of the established vapor deposition orientation techniques. Detailed discussions on the characterization routes, growth parameters, and growth mechanisms are also provided. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Rethinking the participatory web: A history of HotWired's "new publishing paradigm," 1994-1997

    OpenAIRE

    Stevenson, M.

    2014-01-01

    This article critically interrogates key assumptions in popular web discourse by revisiting an early example of web 'participation.' Against the claim that Web 2.0 technologies ushered in a new paradigm of participatory media, I turn to the history of HotWired, Wired magazine's ambitious web-only publication launched in 1994. The case shows how debates about the value of amateur participation vis-à-vis editorial control have long been fundamental to the imagination of the web's difference fro...

  2. Real-time monitoring of the laser hot-wire welding process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Liu, Shuang; Ma, Junjie; Kovacevic, Radovan

    2014-04-01

    The laser hot-wire welding process was investigated in this work. The dynamics of the molten pool during welding was visualized by using a high-speed charge-coupled device (CCD) camera assisted by a green laser as an illumination source. It was found that the molten pool is formed by the irradiation of the laser beam on the filler wire. The effect of the hot-wire voltage on the stability of the welding process was monitored by using a spectrometer that captured the emission spectrum of the laser-induced plasma plume. The spectroscopic study showed that when the hot-wire voltage is above 9 V a great deal of spatters occur, resulting in the instability of the plasma plume and the welding process. The effect of spatters on the plasma plume was shown by the identified spectral lines of the element Mn I. The correlation between the Fe I electron temperature and the weld-bead shape was studied. It was noted that the electron temperature of the plasma plume can be used to real-time monitor the variation of the weld-bead features and the formation of the weld defects.

  3. Investigation on Characterizing Heated Pulsating Flows with Hot Wire Anemometers - A Hands-On Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Alexandru PANAIT

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The pulsating heated flows are traditionally a difficult subject to treat with conventional hot wire or film methods. Special factors that complicate matters are flow reversal and non linear flow effects of vortices and wire probe wake disturbances on the heat transfer to the hot film or wire sensor in heated pulsating flows. The presence of these strongly nonlinear and unknown terms leads to great difficulties in calibration of hot film probes in this particular regime. The paper analyses the current state of matters in the field and reports a series of solutions that have been practically tested in a case of a high speed pulsated heated flow. Normally such measurements are made in a non-contact fashion using a LDV system or various visualization techniques but there have been recent attempts to use a constant temperature hot wire anemometer system (CTA.To obtain meaningful calibration for hot wire films in hot pulsating flows, a comparison system on other principles (LDV was used, as well as a specially designed nozzle to replace the calibrator unit that could not be operated with heated fluid due to structural integrity reasons. The method as described below works well for the expected speed range that could be generated using the special nozzle.

  4. Growth studies of CVD-MBE by in-situ diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maracas, George N.; Steimle, Timothy C.

    1992-10-01

    This is the final technical report for the three year DARPA-URI program 'Growth Studies of CVD-MBE by in-situ Diagnostics'. The goals of the program were to develop non-invasive, real time epitaxial growth monitoring techniques and combine them to gain an understanding of processes that occur during MBE growth from gas sources. We have adapted these techniques to a commercially designed gas source MBE system (Vacuum Generators Inc.) to facilitate technology transfer out of the laboratory into industrial environments. The in-situ measurement techniques of spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) and laser induced fluorescence (LIF) have been successfully implemented to monitor the optical and chemical properties of the growing epitaxial film and the gas phase reactants. The ellipsometer was jointly developed with the J. Woolam Co. and has become a commercial product. The temperature dependence of group 3 and 5 desorption from GaAs and InP has been measured as well as the incident effusion cell fluxes. The temporal evolution of the growth has also been measured both by SE and LIF to show the smoothing of heterojunction surfaces during growth interruption. Complicated microcavity optical device structures have been monitored by ellipsometry in real time to improve device quality. This data has been coupled with the structural information obtained from reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) to understand the growth processes in binary and ternary bulk 3-5 semiconductors and heterojunctions.

  5. CVD growth of graphene under exfoliated hexagonal boron nitride for vertical hybrid structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Min [SKKU Advanced Institute of Nanotechnology (SAINT) (Korea, Republic of); Center for Human Interface Nanotechnology (HINT) (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Sung Kyu [SKKU Advanced Institute of Nanotechnology (SAINT) (Korea, Republic of); Song, Young Jae [SKKU Advanced Institute of Nanotechnology (SAINT) (Korea, Republic of); Department of Physics, Sungkyunkwan University (SKKU), Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sungjoo, E-mail: leesj@skku.edu [SKKU Advanced Institute of Nanotechnology (SAINT) (Korea, Republic of); Center for Human Interface Nanotechnology (HINT) (Korea, Republic of); College of Information and Communication Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University (SKKU), Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    Graphical abstract: We have demonstrated a novel yet simple method for fabricating graphene-based vertical hybrid structures by performing the CVD growth of graphene at an h-BN/Cu interface. Our systematic Raman measurements combined with plasma etching process indicate that a graphene film is grown under exfoliated h-BN rather than on its top surface, and that an h-BN/graphene vertical hybrid structure has been fabricated. Electrical transport measurements of this h-BN/graphene, transferred on SiO2, show the carrier mobility up to approximately 2250 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1}. The developed method would enable the exploration of the possibility of novel hybrid structure integration with two-dimensional material systems. - Abstract: We have demonstrated a novel yet simple method for fabricating graphene-based vertical hybrid structures by performing the CVD growth of graphene at an h-BN/Cu interface. Our systematic Raman measurements combined with plasma etching process indicate that a graphene film is grown under exfoliated h-BN rather than on its top surface, and that an h-BN/graphene vertical hybrid structure has been fabricated. Electrical transport measurements of this h-BN/graphene, transferred on SiO{sub 2}, show the carrier mobility up to approximately 2250 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1}. The developed method would enable the exploration of the possibility of novel hybrid structure integration with two-dimensional material systems.

  6. Design and Development of an Acoustic Levitation System for Use in CVD Growth of Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qasem, Amal ali

    The most widely used methods for growth of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) arc discharge, laser ablation, and chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Some of these methods have difficulties, such as controlling the quality and straightness of the nanotube in the synthesis of CNTs from substrates. Also, the enhanced plasma chemical vapor deposition method with the catalyst on a substrate produces straighter, larger diameter nanotubes by the tip growth method, but they are short. The difficulty in the floating catalyst method is that the nanotubes stay in the growth furnace for short times limiting growth to about one mm length; this method also leaves many catalyst impurities. One factor that limits CNT growth in these methods is the difficulty of getting enough carbon atoms to the growth catalyst to grow long nanotubes. The motivation of this work is that longer, higher quality nanotubes could be grown by increasing growth time and by increasing carbon atom movement to catalyst. The goal of this project is to use acoustic levitation to assist chemical vapor deposition growth by trapping and vibrating the growing CNTs for better properties. Our levitation system consists of a piezoelectric transducer attached to an aluminum horn and quartz rod extending into the growth furnace. The most important elements of our methods to achieve the acoustic levitation are as follows. 1. Using COMSOL Multi-physic Simulation software to determine the length of quartz rod needed to excite standing waves for levitation in the tube furnace. 2. Determining the resonance frequency of different transducers and horns. 3. Using ultrasound measurement to determine the time of flight, velocity of sound and sound wavelength of different horns. 4. Making Aluminum horns with the appropriate lengths. 5. Using ultrasound measurement to determine the changing of quartz rod velocity of sound and length in the furnace. 6. Mounting the transducer to booster horn and aluminum cylindrical horn above a reflector to

  7. Contribution to understanding and controlling a-Si:H thin films growth by mercury-sensitised photo-CVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barhdadi, A.

    2003-09-01

    Mercury-sensitized photo-CVD technique is widely used for growing amorphous silicon thin films. This attractive method allows damage-free thin film depositions at very low substrate temperatures without the deleterious effects of the other processes. This review reports on the principle and potential of this technique. It also recalls and summarizes some fundamental issues such as experimental systems or apparatus particularities, the analysis of gas-phase reactions in the reactor, the surface-reaction model of SiH 3 and H during the film growth and all the kinetic model for lamp-induced Photo-CVD. (author)

  8. Computer programs for evaluation of turbulence characteristics from hot-wire measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vosahlo, L.

    1984-06-01

    This report describes the set of the computer programs for evaluation of the turbulent flow characteristics from hot-wire experimental data. Three different methods and, in addition, some variants are solved in these programs. This enables a comparison of the results obtained by these methods and the analysis of the influence of individual calculation parameters and calibration coefficients on the evaluated results. The results are printed in lucid numerical tables and written into files for further processing into graphs by plotting routines. (orig.) [de

  9. Hot-Wire Calibration at Low Velocities: Revisiting the Vortex Shedding Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohrab S. Sattarzadeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The necessity to calibrate hot-wire probes against a known velocity causes problems at low velocities, due to the inherent inaccuracy of pressure transducers at low differential pressures. The vortex shedding calibration method is in this respect a recommended technique to obtain calibration data at low velocities, due to its simplicity and accuracy. However, it has mainly been applied in a low and narrow Reynolds number range known as the laminar vortex shedding regime. Here, on the other hand, we propose to utilize the irregular vortex shedding regime and show where the probe needs to be placed with respect to the cylinder in order to obtain unambiguous calibration data.

  10. Creation of subsonic macro-and microjets facilities and automated measuring system (AMS-2) for the spatial - temporal hot - wire anemometric visualization of jet flow field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokin, A. M.; Grek, G. R.; Gilev, V. M.; Zverkov, I. D.

    2017-10-01

    Macro-and microjets facilities for generation of the round and plane subsonic jets are designed and fabricated. Automated measuring system (AMS - 2) for the spatial - temporal hot - wire anemometric visualization of jet flow field is designed and fabricated. Coordinate device and unit of the measurement, collecting, storage and processing of hot - wire anemometric information were integrated in the AMS. Coordinate device is intended for precision movement of the hot - wire probe in jet flow field according to the computer program. At the same time accuracy of the hot - wire probe movement is 5 microns on all three coordinates (x, y, z). Unit of measurement, collecting, storage and processing of hot - wire anemometric information is intended for the hot - wire anemometric measurement of the jet flow field parameters (registration of the mean - U and fluctuation - u' characteristics of jet flow velocity), their accumulation and preservation in the computer memory, and also carries out their processing according to certain programms.

  11. A novel design and analysis of a MEMS ceramic hot-wire anemometer for high temperature applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagaiah, N R; Sleiti, A K; Rodriguez, S; Kapat, J S; An, L; Chow, L

    2006-01-01

    This paper attempts to prove the feasibility of high temperature MEMS hot-wire anemometer for gas turbine environment. No such sensor exists at present. Based on the latest improvement in a new type of Polymer-Derived Ceramic (PDC) material, the authors present a Novel design, structural and thermal analysis of MEMS hot-wire anemometer (HWA) based on PDC material, and show that such a sensor is indeed feasible. This MEMS Sensor is microfabricated by using three types of PDC materials such as SiAlCN, SiCN (lightly doped) and SiCN (heavily doped) for sensing element (hot-wire), support prongs and connecting leads respectively. This novel hot wire anemometer can perform better than a conventional HWA in which the hot wire is made of tungsten or platinum-iridium. This type of PDC-HWA can be used in harsh environment due to its high temperature resistance, tensile strength and resistance to oxidation. This HWA is fabricated using microstereolithography as a novel microfabrication technique to manufacture the proposed MEMS Sensor

  12. Hot-Film and Hot-Wire Anemometry for a Boundary Layer Active Flow Control Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenahan, Keven C.; Schatzman, David M.; Wilson, Jacob Samuel

    2013-01-01

    Unsteady active flow control (AFC) has been used experimentally for many years to minimize bluff-body drag. This technology could significantly improve performance of rotorcraft by cleaning up flow separation. It is important, then, that new actuator technologies be studied for application to future vehicles. A boundary layer wind tunnel was constructed with a 1ft-x-3ft test section and unsteady measurement instrumentation to study how AFC manipulates the boundary layer to overcome adverse pressure gradients and flow separation. This unsteady flow control research requires unsteady measurement methods. In order to measure the boundary layer characteristics, both hot-wire and hot-film Constant Temperature Anemometry is used. A hot-wire probe is mounted in the flow to measure velocity while a hot-film array lays on the test surface to measure skin friction. Hot-film sensors are connected to an anemometer, a Wheatstone bridge circuit with an output that corresponds to the dynamic flow response. From this output, the time varying flow field, turbulence, and flow reversal can be characterized. Tuning the anemometers requires a fan test on the hot-film sensors to adjust each output. This is a delicate process as several variables drastically affect the data, including control resistance, signal input, trim, and gain settings.

  13. Cladding nuclear steels - the application of plasma-arc hot wire surfacing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trarbach, K.O.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of one and two layer plasma-arc hot wire cladding on the HAZ microstructure of the fine grained structural steel 22 NiMoCr 3 7, which is similar to ASTM A 508, class 2, and steel 20 MnMoNi 5 5, similar to ASTM A 533, grade B, class 1 is determined. Attention is directed particularly to the behaviour of the susceptible region, and the consumables considered are cladding materials X 2 CrNiNb 19 9, similar to ER 347 Elc, and S-NiCr 20 Nb, similar to ER NiCr-3 (Inconel 82). Results of corrosion resistance tests show that this cladding technique can be recommended for manufacture of equipment for the chemical industry to avoid corrosion failure. Plasma-arc hot wire surfacing is also shown to be capable of depositing single or double clad layers to meet the highest safety requirements and could be applied to nuclear power plants for the special manufacture of wear resistant parts and for protection of equipment subject to a variety of corrosive environments. (U.K.)

  14. Further elucidation of nanofluid thermal conductivity measurement using a transient hot-wire method apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Donghoon; Lee, Joohyun; Lee, Byeongchan; Kwon, Suyong; Koo, Junemo

    2018-02-01

    The Transient Hot-Wire Method (THWM) was developed to measure the absolute thermal conductivity of gases, liquids, melts, and solids with low uncertainty. The majority of nanofluid researchers used THWM to measure the thermal conductivity of test fluids. Several reasons have been suggested for the discrepancies in these types of measurements, including nanofluid generation, nanofluid stability, and measurement challenges. The details of the transient hot-wire method such as the test cell size, the temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) and the sampling number are further investigated to improve the accuracy and consistency of the measurements of different researchers. It was observed that smaller test apparatuses were better because they can delay the onset of natural convection. TCR values of a coated platinum wire were measured and statistically analyzed to reduce the uncertainty in thermal conductivity measurements. For validation, ethylene glycol (EG) and water thermal conductivity were measured and analyzed in the temperature range between 280 and 310 K. Furthermore, a detailed statistical analysis was conducted for such measurements, and the results confirmed the minimum number of samples required to achieve the desired resolution and precision of the measurements. It is further proposed that researchers fully report the information related to their measurements to validate the measurements and to avoid future inconsistent nanofluid data.

  15. Thermally induced nano-structural and optical changes of nc-Si:H deposited by hot-wire CVD

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Arendse, CJ

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 15 [26] D. Stryahilev, F. Diehl, B. Schroeder, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 266–269, 166 (2000) [27] M. H. Brodsky, M. Cardona, and J. J. Cuomo, Phys. Rev. B 16. 3556 (1977) [28] H. Shanks, C. J. Fang, L. Ley... stream_source_info Arendse_d1_2009.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 28527 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Arendse_d1_2009.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8...

  16. Formation of isolated carbon nanofibers with hot-wire CVD using nanosphere lithography as catalyst patterning technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houweling, Z.S.; Verlaan, V.; ten Grotenhuis, G.T.; Schropp, R.E.I.

    2008-01-01

    Recently the site-density control of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) has attracted much attention as this has become critical for its many applications. To obtain an ordered array of catalyst nanoparticles with good monodispersity nanosphere lithography (NSL) is used. These nanoparticles are tested as

  17. Low temperature back-surface-field contacts deposited by hot-wire CVD for heterojunction solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz, D.; Voz, C.; Martin, I.; Orpella, A.; Alcubilla, R.; Villar, F.; Bertomeu, J.; Andreu, J.; Roca-i-Cabarrocas, P.

    2008-01-01

    The growing interest in using thinner wafers ( 2 ) have been fabricated and characterized by External Quantum Efficiency and current-voltage measurements. Total-area conversion efficiencies up to 14.5% were achieved in a fully low temperature process (< 200 deg. C)

  18. Growth of high quality AlN films on CVD diamond by RF reactive magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang-xian; Liu, Hao; Liu, Sheng; Li, Cheng-ming; Wang, Yi-chao; An, Kang; Hua, Chen-yi; Liu, Jin-long; Wei, Jun-jun; Hei, Li-fu; Lv, Fan-xiu

    2018-02-01

    A highly oriented AlN layer has been successfully grown along the c-axis on a polycrystalline chemical vapor deposited (CVD) diamond by RF reactive magnetron sputtering. Structural, morphological and mechanical properties of the heterostructure were investigated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Nano-indentation and Four-probe meter. A compact AlN film was demonstrated on the diamond layer, showing columnar grains and a low surface roughness of 1.4 nm. TEM results revealed a sharp AlN/diamond interface, which was characterized by the presence of a distinct 10 nm thick buffer layer resulting from the initial AlN growth stage. The FWHM of AlN (002) diffraction peak and its rocking curve are as low as 0.41° and 3.35° respectively, indicating a highly preferred orientation along the c-axis. AlN sputtered films deposited on glass substrates show a higher bulk resistivity (up to 3 × 1012 Ω cm), compared to AlN films deposited on diamond (∼1010 Ω cm). Finally, the film hardness and Young's modulus of AlN films on diamond are 25.8 GPa and 489.5 GPa, respectively.

  19. Applying hot-wire anemometry to directly measure the water balance in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al Shakhshir, Saher; Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Berning, Torsten

    2016-01-01

    In order to better understand and more accurately measure the water balance in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell, our group has recently proposed to apply hot wire anemometry in the fuel cell's anode outlet. It was theoretically shown that the electrical signal obtained from the hot wire sensor...... can be directly converted into the fuel cell water balance. In this work an ex-situ experimental investigation is performed to examine the effect of the wire diameter and the outlet pipe diameter on the voltage signal. For a laboratory fuel cell where the mass flow rate the anode outlet is small...... number Nu range between m = 0.137 and m = 0.246. In general, it is shown that applying hot wire anemometry yields in fact very clear voltage readings with high frequency, and it can be used as a diagnosis tool in various fuel cell applications....

  20. Employing Hot Wire Anemometry to Directly Measure the Water Balance of a Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shakhshir, Saher Al; Berning, Torsten

    Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC’s) are currently being commercialized for various applications ranging from automotive to stationary such as powering telecom back-up units. In PEMFC’s, oxygen from air is internally combined with hydrogen to form water and produce electricity and waste......-hoc and real time electrical signal of the fuel cell water balance by employing hot wire anemometry. The hot wire sensor is placed into a binary mixture of hydrogen and water vapour, and the voltage signal received gives valuable insight into heat and mass transfer phenomena in a PEMFC. A central question...

  1. Heat transfer monitoring by means of the hot wire technique and finite element analysis software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Wong, J; Suarez, V; Guarachi, J; Calderón, A; Rojas-Trigos, J B; Juárez, A G; Marín, E

    2014-01-01

    It is reported the study of the radial heat transfer in a homogeneous and isotropic substance with a heat linear source in its axial axis. For this purpose, the hot wire characterization technique has been used, in order to obtain the temperature distribution as a function of radial distance from the axial axis and time exposure. Also, the solution of the transient heat transport equation for this problem was obtained under appropriate boundary conditions, by means of finite element technique. A comparison between experimental, conventional theoretical model and numerical simulated results is done to demonstrate the utility of the finite element analysis simulation methodology in the investigation of the thermal response of substances. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Real-time monitoring of laser hot-wire cladding of Inconel 625

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuang; Liu, Wei; Harooni, Masoud; Ma, Junjie; Kovacevic, Radovan

    2014-10-01

    Laser hot-wire cladding (LHWC), characterized by resistance heating of the wire, largely increases the productivity and saves the laser energy. However, the main issue of applying this method is the occurrence of arcing which causes spatters and affects the stability of the process. In this study, an optical spectrometer was used for real-time monitoring of the LHWC process. The corresponding plasma intensity was analyzed under various operating conditions. The electron temperature of the plasma was calculated for elements of nickel and chromium that mainly comprised the plasma plume. There was a correlation between the electron temperature and the stability of the process. The characteristics of the resulted clad were also investigated by measuring the dilution, hardness and microstructure.

  3. Calibration techniques for the hot wire anemometer in a low velocity region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimura, Kaoru; Kawamura, Hiroshi

    1980-03-01

    In connection with experiments on coolant flow in the core of multi-purpose VHTR, a low-velocity calibration wind tunnel was made, and techniques for the hot wire anemometer in the air were investigated. Following are the results. 1) A technique using the frequency of von Karman vortex street is not recommended because of the irregular mode in a low velocity region. 2) A Pitot tube is valid only for the flow velocities larger than 1 m/s. 3) The thermal trace technique is suitable in a relatively wide range of velocity, if velocity defect in the wake is compensated for. When flow velocity is larger than 1 m/s, the thermal trace technique is consistent with the Pitot tube method. (author)

  4. Onset temperatures in hot wire Ignition of AN-Based emulsions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Sek Kwan [Orica Mining Services, Quebec (Canada); Turcotte, Richard [Canadian Explosive Research Laboratory, Ottawa (Canada)

    2009-02-15

    Hot wire ignition experiments were carried out recently at the Canadian Explosives Research Laboratory on a few emulsion formulations. The data indicate that there is a pressure-dependent onset temperature beyond which the wire temperature increases at an accelerated rate. In order to explain this observation and to detect this temperature more consistently, particularly at low pressures, the data are reanalysed by comparing the experimental wire temperature with that predicted from theory for the heating of an inert material. For this purpose, an analytical theory from the literature is reviewed and the numerical solution developed in this report is described. The latter can deal with more general solutions with variable thermal properties and chemical reactions in the condensed medium surrounding the wire. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  5. Landing Gear Components Noise Study - PIV and Hot-Wire Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutcheson, Florence V.; Burley, Casey L.; Stead, Daniel J.; Becker, Lawrence E.; Price, Jennifer L.

    2010-01-01

    PIV and hot-wire measurements of the wake flow from rods and bars are presented. The test models include rods of different diameters and cross sections and a rod juxtaposed to a plate. The latter is representative of the latch door that is attached to an aircraft landing gear when the gear is deployed, while the single and multiple rod configurations tested are representative of some of the various struts and cables configuration present on an aircraft landing gear. The test set up is described and the flow measurements are presented. The effect of model surface treatment and freestream turbulence on the spanwise coherence of the vortex shedding is studied for several rod and bar configurations.

  6. CVD growth and characterization of 3C-SiC thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Cubic silicon carbide (3C-SiC) thin films were grown on (100) and (111) Si substrates by CVD technique using ... of grown films were studied using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and X-ray ... the oxide mask gets damaged (Edgar et al 1998). There- fore, lower ...

  7. Investigation of thermal and hot-wire chemical vapor deposition copper thin films on TiN substrates using CupraSelect as precursor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimitropoulos, G; Davazoglou, D

    2011-09-01

    Copper films were deposited on oxidized Si substrates covered with TiN using a novel chemical vapor deposition reactor in which reactions were assisted by a heated tungsten filament (hot-wire CVD, HWCVD). Liquid at room temperature hexafluoroacetylacetonate Cu(I) trimethylvinylsilane (CupraSelect) was directly injected into the reactor with the aid of a direct-liquid injection (DLI) system using N2 as carrier gas. The deposition rates of HWCVD Cu films obtained on TiN covered substrates were found to increase with filament temperature (65 and 170 degrees C were tested). The resistivities of HWCVD Cu films were found to be higher than for thermally grown films due to the possible presence of impurities into the Cu films from the incomplete dissociation of the precursor and W impurities caused by the presence of the filament. For HWCVD films grown at a filament temperature of 170 degrees C, smaller grains are formed than at 65 degrees C as shown from the taken SEM micrographs. XRD diffractograms taken on Cu films deposited on TiN could not reveal the presence of W compounds originating from the filament because the relative peak was masked by the TiN [112] peak.

  8. Growth and characterization of nanodiamond layers prepared using plasma enhanced linear antennas microwave CVD system

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fendrych, František; Taylor, Andrew; Peksa, Ladislav; Kratochvílová, Irena; Vlček, J.; Řezáčová, V.; Petrák, V.; Kluiber, Z.; Fekete, Ladislav; Liehr, M.; Nesládek, M.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 37 (2010), 374018/1-374018/6 ISSN 0022-3727 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN200100801; GA AV ČR KAN300100801; GA AV ČR KAN301370701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : nanodiamond, * thin films * PE MW CVD * linear antennas Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.105, year: 2010

  9. Growth of carbon allotropes and plasma characterization in linear antenna microwave plasma CVD system

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Potocký, Štěpán; Babchenko, Oleg; Davydova, Marina; Ižák, Tibor; Čada, Martin; Kromka, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 5 (2014), "05FP04-1"-"05FP04-3" ISSN 0021-4922 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA01011740; GA ČR GAP205/12/0908 Grant - others:AVČR(CZ) M100100902 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : antenna linear * CVD system * plasma Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.127, year: 2014

  10. Hot-wire chemical vapor synthesis for a variety of nano-materials with novel applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dillon, A.C.; Mahan, A.H.; Deshpande, R.; Alleman, J.L.; Blackburn, J.L.; Parillia, P.A.; Heben, M.J.; Engtrakul, C.; Gilbert, K.E.H.; Jones, K.M.; To, R.; Lee, S-H.; Lehman, J.H.

    2006-01-01

    Hot-wire chemical vapor deposition (HWCVD) has been demonstrated as a simple economically scalable technique for the synthesis of a variety of nano-materials in an environmentally friendly manner. For example we have employed HWCVD for the continuous production of both carbon single- and multi-wall nanotubes (SWNTs and MWNTs). Unanticipated hydrogen storage on HWCVD-generated MWNTs has led insight into the adsorption mechanism of hydrogen on metal/carbon composites at near ambient temperatures that could be useful for developing a vehicular hydrogen storage system. Recent efforts have been focused on growing MWNT arrays on thin nickel films with a simple HWCVD process. New data suggests that these MWNT arrays could replace the gold black coatings currently used in pyroelectric detectors to accurately measure laser power. Finally, we have very recently employed HWCVD for the production of crystalline molybdenum and tungsten oxide nanotubes and nanorods. These metal oxide nanorods and nanotubes could have applications in catalysis, batteries and electrochromic windows or as gas sensors. A summary of the techniques for growing these novel materials and their various potential applications is provided

  11. USING HOT WIRE TECHNIQUE FOR MEASURING THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF INFUSIONS OF ORGANIC AND CONVENTIONAL COFFEE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Gordillo-Delgado

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The technique of hot wire, a versatile method of low cost and high accuracy for measuring the thermal conductivity of fluids through the increasing temperature of a wire that is immersed into the liquid and between its ends a potential difference is abruptly applied. Using well-known conductivity liquids: water, ethylene glycol and glycerine, the system was tested and calibrated. In this work, this procedure was used to measure the thermal conductivity of the infusion samples of organic and conventional coffee. The same roast degree of the beans was verified with a colorimeter and the preparation was made by pressing 22g of coffee powder in 110mL of water. The obtained data were subjected to Analysis of Variance (ANOVA and this confirmed that the differences in the thermophysical parameter in the two samples are significant with a confidence level of 95\\%. On this way, it was proved that the thermal conductivity value of the coffee infusion allows differentiate between organic and conventional coffee.

  12. Experimental hot-wire measurements in a centrifugal compressor with vaned diffuser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinarbasi, Ali

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to improve the understanding of the flow physics in a centrifugal compressor with vaned diffuser. For this reason three component hot wire measurements in the vaneless space and vane region of a low speed centrifugal compressor are presented. A low speed compressor with a 19 bladed backswept impeller and diffuser with 16 wedge vanes were used. The measurements were made at three inter-vane positions and are presented as mean velocity, turbulent kinetic energy and flow angle distributions. The flow entering the diffuser closely resembles the classic jet-wake flow characteristic of centrifugal impeller discharges. A strong upstream influence of the diffuser vanes is observed which results in significant variations in flow quantities between the vane-to-vane locations. The circumferential variations due to the passage and blade wakes rapidly mix out in the vaneless space, although some variations are still discernible in the vaned region. The impeller blade wakes mix out rapidly within the vaneless space and more rapidly than in an equivalent vaneless diffuser. Although the flow is highly non uniform in velocity at the impeller exit, there is no evidence in the results of any separation from the diffuser vanes

  13. Hot-wire substoichiometric tungsten oxide films deposited in hydrogen environment with n-type conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostis, I; Vasilopoulou, M; Giannakopoulos, K; Papadimitropoulos, G; Davazoglou, D; Michalas, L; Papaioannou, G; Konofaos, N; Iliadis, A A; Kennou, S

    2012-01-01

    Substoichiometric tungsten oxide nanostructured films were synthesized by a hot-wire deposition technique in hydrogen-rich environment and characterized for their structural and electrical properties. A semiconducting behaviour was identified, allowing n-type conductivity even at room temperature which is an important result since it is well known that fully stoichiometric tungsten trioxide is nearly an insulator. Current-voltage characteristics for various temperatures were measured for tungsten oxide/Si heterostructures and analysed using proper modelling. As a result, the conduction mechanism inside the films was identified and found to be of a dual nature, with variable range hopping being dominant at near room temperatures. The saturation current was found to be thermally activated and the activation energy was calculated at 0.40 eV and the grain boundaries barrier at 150 meV. From Hall measurements it was also revealed that the dominant carriers are electrons and a carrier concentration of about 10 14 cm -3 was estimated.

  14. The vertical growth of MoS2 layers at the initial stage of CVD from first-principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Xiong-Xiong; Feng, Yexin; Chen, Keqiu; Zhang, Lixin

    2018-04-01

    Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is the highly preferred method for mass production of transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) layers, yet the atomic-scale knowledge is still lacking about the nucleation and growth. In this study, by using first-principles calculations, we show that, on Au(111) surface, one-dimensional (1D) MoxSy chains are first formed by coalescing of smaller feeding species and are energetically favored at the early stage of nucleation. Two-dimensional (2D) layers can be stabilized only after the number of Mo atoms exceeds ˜12. A vertical growth mode is revealed which accomplishes the structural transformation from the 1D chains to the 2D layers for the clusters while growing. The competition between intralayer and interlayer interactions is the key. These findings serve as new insights for better understanding the atomistic mechanism of the nucleation and growth of TMDs on the surface.

  15. Growth, characterization and properties of CVD diamond films for applications as radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sciorti, S.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the work is to give a picture of the current state of the art of CVD (chemical vapour deposition) diamond. The interest is due to the capability to grow over large areas a material with physical properties suitable for an impressive number of applications. The authors focuses on the potential of diamond as a radiation detector and gets into details of the huge field that extends from the thermochemistry of the deposition process to the test of a diamond-based tracker with a fast readout electronics

  16. Measurement of the thermal conductivity of liquid D2O by the transient hot-wire method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagasaka, Y.; Hiraiwa, H.; Nagashima, A.

    1990-01-01

    The measurement of the thermal conductivity of liquid D 2 O (heavy water) started in 1951. Since then, many researchers have measured the thermal conductivity of heavy water mainly with the aid of steady-state methods such as the parallel plate method and the concentric cylinder method. It should be noted here that even in the case of pure H 2 O or D 2 O enclosed in metallic vessel for a couple of days, the electrical conductivity seems to be not low enough for precise transient hot-wire measurements. The purpose of this paper is to obtain precise thermal conductivity data of liquid D 2 O which can be the reference standard values by the transient hot-wire method. The temperature range covered was 4 degrees C to 80 degrees C with pressure up to 40 MPa and the experimental data have an estimated accuracy of ±0.5%

  17. A comparison of disturbance levels measured in hypersonic tunnels using a hot-wire anemometer and a pitot pressure probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stainback, P. C.; Wagner, R. D.

    1972-01-01

    Disturbance levels were measured in the test section of a Mach 5 blowdown jet using a constant-current, hot-wire anemometer and a pressure transducer. The disturbance levels, measured by the two instruments and normalized by local mean values, agreed within about 30%, with the pitot data higher than the hot-wire data. The rms disturbance levels measured with the hot-wire anemometer and converted to pitot pressures using a quasi-steady flow analysis, were about two-thirds the levels measured with the pitot probe. The variation of the normalized rms disturbance levels with stagnation pressure indicated that transition occurred in the boundary layer on the nozzle wall and influenced the outputs of the instruments located at the exit of the nozzle when the total pressure was about 35 N/sq cm. Below this pressure the disturbance levels decreased markedly. At higher pressures the disturbances were predominantly aerodynamic noise generated by the turbulent boundary layer on the nozzle wall.

  18. Applying hot-wire anemometry to directly measure the water balance in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell for a pre-humidified hydrogen stream

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berning, Torsten; Shakhshir, Saher Al

    2016-01-01

    In a recent publication it has been shown how the water balance in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell can be determined employing hot wire anemometry. The hot wire sensor has to be placed into the anode outlet pipe of the operating fuel cell, and the voltage signal E that is read from the senso....... Finally, it will be shown how previously developed dew point diagrams for the anode side in a fuel cell can be corrected for a humidified hydrogen inlet stream....

  19. A hot-wire method based thermal conductivity measurement apparatus for teaching purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarado, S; Marín, E; Juárez, A G; Calderón, A; Ivanov, R

    2012-01-01

    The implementation of an automated system based on the hot-wire technique is described for the measurement of the thermal conductivity of liquids using equipment easily available in modern physics laboratories at high schools and universities (basically a precision current source and a voltage meter, a data acquisition card, a personal computer and a high purity platinum wire). The wire, which is immersed in the investigated sample, is heated by passing a constant electrical current through it, and its temperature evolution, ΔT, is measured as a function of time, t, for several values of the current. A straightforward methodology is then used for data processing in order to obtain the liquid thermal conductivity. The start point is the well known linear relationship between ΔT and ln(t) predicted for long heating times by a model based on a solution of the heat conduction equation for an infinite lineal heat source embedded in an infinite medium into which heat is conducted without convective and radiative heat losses. A criterion is used to verify that the selected linear region is the one that matches the conditions imposed by the theoretical model. As a consequence the method involves least-squares fits in linear, semi-logarithmic (semi-log) and log-log graphs, so that it becomes attractive not only to teach about heat transfer and thermal properties measurement techniques, but also as a good exercise for students of undergraduate courses of physics and engineering learning about these kinds of mathematical functional relationships between variables. The functionality of the experiment was demonstrated by measuring the thermal conductivity in samples of liquids with well known thermal properties. (paper)

  20. Airflow Measurement of the Car HVAC Unit Using Hot-wire Anemometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fojtlín Miloš

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal environment in a vehicular cabin significantly influence drivers’ fatigue and passengers’ thermal comfort. This environment is traditionally managed by HVAC cabin system that distributes air and modifies its properties. In order to simulate cabin thermal behaviour, amount of the air led through car vents must be determined. The aim of this study was to develop methodology to measure airflow from the vents, and consequently calculate corresponding air distribution coefficients. Three climatic cases were selected to match European winter, summer, and spring / fall conditions. Experiments were conducted on a test vehicle in a climatic chamber. The car HVAC system was set to automatic control mode, and the measurements were executed after the system stabilisation—each case was independently measured three times. To be able to evaluate precision of the method, the airflow was determined at the system inlet (HVAC suction and outlet (each vent, and the total airflow values were compared. The airflow was calculated by determining a mean value of the air velocity multiplied by an area of inlet / outlet cross-section. Hot-wire anemometry was involved to measure the air velocity. Regarding the summer case, total airflow entering the cabin was around 57 l s-1 with 60 % of the air entering the cabin through dashboard vents; no air was supplied to the feet compartment. The remaining cases had the same total airflow of around 42 l s-1, and the air distribution was focused mainly on feet and windows. The inlet and outlet airflow values show a good match with a maximum mass differential of 8.3 %.

  1. CVD growth of large-area and high-quality HfS2 nanoforest on diverse substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Binjie; Wang, Zegao; Qi, Fei; Wang, Xinqiang; Yu, Bo; Zhang, Wanli; Chen, Yuanfu

    2018-03-01

    Two-dimensional layered transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have attracted burgeoning attention due to their various properties and wide potential applications. As a new TMD, hafnium disulfide (HfS2) is theoretically predicted to have better electrical performance than widely studied MoS2. The experimental researches also confirmed the extraordinary feature in electronics and optoelectronics. However, the maximal device performance may not be achieved due to its own limitation of planar structure and challenge of transfer without contamination. Here, through the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique, inch-size HfS2 nanoforest has been directly grown on diverse objective substrates covering insulating, semiconducting and conducting substrates. This direct CVD growth without conventional transfer process avoids contamination and degradation in quality, suggesting its promising and wide applications in high-quality and multifarious devices. It is noted that all the HfS2 nanoforests grown on diverse substrates are constructed with vertically aligned few-layered HfS2 nanosheets with high crystalline quality and edge orientation. Moreover, due to its unique structure, the HfS2 nanoforest owns abundant exposed edge sites and large active surface area, which is essential to apply in high-performance catalyst, sensor, and energy storage or field emitter.

  2. Structure and wettability property of the growth and nucleation surfaces of thermally treated freestanding CVD diamond films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Xiaoqiang; Cheng, Shaoheng; Ma, Yibo; Wu, Danfeng; Liu, Junsong; Wang, Qiliang; Yang, Yizhou; Li, Hongdong

    2015-08-01

    This paper reports the surface features and wettability properties of the (1 0 0)-textured freestanding chemical vapor deposited (CVD) diamond films after thermal exposure in air at high temperature. Thermal oxidation at proper conditions eliminates selectively nanodiamonds and non-diamond carbons in the films. The growth side of the films contains (1 0 0)-oriented micrometer-sized columns, while its nucleation side is formed of nano-sized tips. The examined wettability properties of the as-treated diamond films reveal a hydrophilicity and superhydrophilicity on the growth surface and nucleation surface, respectively, which is determined by oxygen termination and geometry structure of the surface. When the surface termination is hydrogenated, the wettability of nucleation side converted from superhydrophilicity to high hydrophobicity, while the hydrophilicity of the growth side does not change significantly. The findings open a possibility for realizing freestanding diamond films having not only novel surface structures but also multifunction applications, especially proposed on the selected growth side or nucleation side in one product.

  3. Low temperature diamond growth by linear antenna plasma CVD over large area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izak, Tibor; Babchenko, Oleg; Potocky, Stepan; Kromka, Alexander; Varga, Marian

    2012-01-01

    Recently, there is a great effort to increase the deposition area and decrease the process temperature for diamond growth which will enlarge its applications including use of temperature sensitive substrates. In this work, we report on the large area (20 x 30 cm 2 ) and low temperature (250 C) polycrystalline diamond growth by pulsed linear antenna microwave plasma system. The influence of substrate temperature varied from 250 to 680 C, as controlled by the table heater and/or by microwave power, is studied. It was found that the growth rate, film morphology and diamond to non-diamond phases (sp 3 /sp 2 carbon bonds) are influenced by the growth temperature, as confirmed by SEM and Raman measurements. The surface chemistry and growth processes were studied in terms of activation energies (E a ) calculated from Arrhenius plots. The activation energies of growth processes were very low (1.7 and 7.8 kcal mol -1 ) indicating an energetically favourable growth process from the CO 2 -CH 4 -H 2 gas mixture. In addition, from activation energies two different growth regimes were observed at low and high temperatures, indicating different growth mechanism. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  4. The growth of GaN films by alternate source gas supply hot-mesh CVD method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komae, Yasuaki; Saitou, Takeshi [Nagaoka University of Technology, Nagaoka 940-2188 (Japan); Suemitsu, Maki; Ito, Takashi [Center of Interdisciplinary Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Endoh, Tetsuo [Research Institute of Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Nakazawa, Hideki [Faculty of Science and Technology, Hirosaki University, Hirosaki 036-8561 (Japan); Narita, Yuzuru [Faculty of Engineering, Yamagata University, Yonezawa 992-8510 (Japan); Takata, Masasuke; Akahane, Tadashi [Nagaoka University of Technology, Nagaoka 940-2188 (Japan); Yasui, Kanji, E-mail: kyasui@vos.nagaokaut.ac.j [Nagaoka University of Technology, Nagaoka 940-2188 (Japan)

    2009-04-30

    Gallium nitride (GaN) films and Aluminium nitride (AlN) layers were deposited on SiC/Si (111) substrates by an alternating source gas supply or an intermittent supply of a source gas such as ammonia (NH{sub 3}), trimethylgallium (TMG) or trimethylaluminum (TMA) in a hot-mesh chemical vapor deposition (CVD) apparatus. The AlN layer was deposited as a buffer layer using NH{sub 3} and TMA on a SiC layer grown by carbonization on Si substrates using propane (C{sub 3}H{sub 8}). GaN films were grown on an AlN layer by a reaction between NH{sub x} radicals generated on a ruthenium (Ru) coated tungsten (W)-mesh and TMG molecules. An alternating source gas supply or an intermittent supply of one of the source gases during the film growth are expected to be effective for the suppression of gas phase reactions and for the enhancement of precursor migration on the substrate surface. By the intermittent supply of alkylmetal gas only during the growth of the AlN layer, the defect generation in the GaN films was reduced. GaN film growth by intermittent supply on an AlN buffer layer, however, did not lead to the improvement of the film quality.

  5. Chloride-based fast homoepitaxial growth of 4H-SiC films in a vertical hot-wall CVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guoguo, Yan; Feng, Zhang; Yingxi, Niu; Fei, Yang; Xingfang, Liu; Lei, Wang; Wanshun, Zhao; Guosheng, Sun; Yiping, Zeng

    2016-06-01

    Chloride-based fast homoepitaxial growth of 4H-SiC epilayers was performed on 4° off-axis 4H-SiC substrates in a home-made vertical hot-wall chemical vapor deposition (CVD) system using H2-SiH4-C2H4-HCl. The effect of the SiH4/H2 ratio and reactor pressure on the growth rate of 4H-SiC epilayers has been studied successively. The growth rate increase in proportion to the SiH4/H2 ratio and the influence mechanism of chlorine has been investigated. With the reactor pressure increasing from 40 to 100 Torr, the growth rate increased to 52 μm/hand then decreased to 47 μm/h, which is due to the joint effect of H2 and HCl etching as well as the formation of Si clusters at higher reactor pressure. The surface root mean square (RMS) roughness keeps around 1 nm with the growth rate increasing to 49 μm/h. The scanning electron microscope (SEM), Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) demonstrate that 96.7 μm thick 4H-SiC layers of good uniformity in thickness and doping with high crystal quality can be achieved. These results prove that chloride-based fast epitaxy is an advanced growth technique for 4H-SiC homoepitaxy. Project supported by the National High Technology R&D Program of China (No. 2014AA041402), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61474113, 61274007, 61574140), the Beijing Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 4132076, 4132074), the Program of State Grid Smart Grid Research Institute (No. SGRI-WD-71-14-004), and the Youth Innovation Promotion Association of CAS.

  6. Time dependent growth of vertically aligned carbon nanotube forest using a laser activated catalytical CVD method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haluska, M.; Bellouard, Y.J.; Dietzel, A.H.

    2008-01-01

    We report the growth of vertically aligned single-wall and multi-wall carbon nanotube forest using a Laser Activated - Catalytic Chemical Vapor Deposition process. The experiments were performed in a cold-wall reactor filled with an ethylene-hydrogen-argon gas mixture in a 5:2:8 ratio at ambient

  7. Experimental study of bypass flow in near wall gaps of a pebble bed reactor using hot wire anemometry technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amini, Noushin; Hassan, Yassin A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Coolant flow behavior in near wall gaps of a pebble bed reactor is studied. • Hot wire anemometry is applied for high frequency velocity measurements. • Bypass flow is identified within the velocity profiles of near wall gaps. • Effect of gap geometry and Reynolds number on bypass flow is investigated. • Variation of velocity power spectra with radial location and Reynolds number is studied. - Abstract: Coolant flow behavior through the core of an annular pebble bed reactor is investigated in this experimental study. A high frequency hot wire anemometry system coupled with an X-probe is used for measurement of axial and radial velocity components at different points within two near wall gaps at five different modified Reynolds numbers (Re m = 2043–6857). The velocity profiles within the gaps verify the presence of an area of increased velocity close to the pebble bed outer reflector wall, which is known as the bypass flow. Moreover, the characteristics of the coolant flow profile are seen to be highly dependent on the gap geometry. The effect of Reynolds number on the velocity profiles varies as the geometry of the gap changes. The time histories of the local velocities measured with considerably high frequency are further analyzed using power spectral density technique. Power spectral plots illustrate substantial spatial variation of the energy content, spectral shape, and the slope of the energy cascade region. A significant correlation between Reynolds number and characteristics of the velocity power spectra is observed

  8. Determination of burning velocity of methane-air mixtures using soap bubbles and a hot-wire anemometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, Yukio

    1987-12-25

    The rate of combustion of the mixture of methane and air under a constant atmospheric pressure was determined using a soap bubble and a hot-wire anemometer. The flame propagation velocity, Ss, of the specified ratio of mixed gas confined in a soap bubble regarded as a transparent vessel was recorded using the multi-exposurement schlieren method by igniting the gas at the centre of bubble. The velocity of mixed gas, Sg, in front of the flame was measured by the hot-wire anemometer installed in the soap bubble to obtain the rate of combustion Su (Ss-Sg). The maximum Su was 45 cm/s obtained at the ratio of equivalent amounts of 1.08, which agreed with the theoretical value of one-dimensional flame. This is because the measuring method accords with the definition of rate of combustion. Su was 12.5 and 11.0 cm/s at the ratio of equivalent amounts of 0.6 and 1.6, respectively. The measurements by this method considerably agreed with those by conventional similar methods and other high-accuracy methods. The method is applicable accurately to various combustible mixed gas. (6 figs, 1 tab, 18 refs)

  9. Effect of the spatial filtering and alignment error of hot-wire probes in a wall-bounded turbulent flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segalini, A; Cimarelli, A; Rüedi, J-D; De Angelis, E; Talamelli, A

    2011-01-01

    The effort to describe velocity fluctuation distributions in wall-bounded turbulent flows has raised different questions concerning the accuracy of hot-wire measurement techniques close to the wall and more specifically the effect of spatial averaging resulting from the finite size of the wire. Here, an analytical model which describes the effect of the spatial filtering and misalignment of hot-wire probes on the main statistical moments in turbulent wall-bounded flows is presented. The model, which is based on the two-point velocity correlation function, shows that the filtering is directly related to the transverse Taylor micro-scale. By means of turbulent channel flow DNS data, the capacity of the model to accurately describe the probe response is established. At the same time, the filtering effect is appraised for different wire lengths and for a range of misalignment angles which can be expected from good experimental practice. Effects of the second-order terms in the model equations are also taken into account and discussed. In order to use the model in a practical situation, the Taylor micro-scale distribution at least should be provided. A simple scaling law based on classic turbulence theory is therefore introduced and finally employed to estimate the filtering effect for different wire lengths

  10. Fundamental Studies in the OM-CVD Growth of Ga-In-As-Sb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-05-01

    greater than one ’T. Fukui and Y. Horkoshi. Jpn. 1. Appl. Phys. 19. L53 19801.tG. Nataf and C. Vene. J. Cryst. Growth 55. 87 11981.volt, the tunneling...350 *C. The BEP of In, Sb, and As was kept at ’T. Fukui and Y. Horikoshi, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 19, L53 (1980). 3 X 10’ , 3.1 X 10- 7, and 1.3 X 10...substrate and a Gas mask. Rat"" feedtM2, l The experimental setup is shown in Fig. 1. The rf heated td u susceptor is made of graphite coated with silicon

  11. Catalyst free growth of CNTs by CVD on nanoscale rough surfaces of silicon substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damodar, D.; Sahoo, R. K.; Jacob, C.

    2013-06-01

    Catalyst free growth of carbon nanotubes (CNT) has been achieved using atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) on surface modified Si(111) substrates. The effect of the substrate surface has been observed by partially etching with KOH (potassium hydroxide) solution which is an anisotropic etchant. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) confirmed the formation of CNTs over most of the area of the substrate where substrates were anisotropically etched. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to observe the internal structure of the CNTs. Raman spectroscopy further confirmed the formation of the carbon nanostructures and also their graphitic crystallinity.

  12. The effects of varying plasma parameters on silicon thin film growth by ECR plasma CVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summers, S.; Reehal, H.S.; Shirkoohi, G.H.

    2001-01-01

    The technique of electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) is increasingly being used in electronic and photonic device applications. ECR offers a number of advantages including improved control of the deposition process, less damage to the growing film and the possibility of high deposition rates. ECR occurs in a plasma under appropriate magnetic and electric field conditions. In most cases, as in our system, this is achieved with a combination of 2.45 GHz microwave radiation and a 0.0875 T magnetic field, due to the use of standardized microwave supplies. We have studied the effects on silicon film growth of changing the magnetic field configuration to produce one or more planes of ECR within the system, and of changing the positions of the plane(s) relative to the deposition substrate. The films were grown in silane-hydrogen discharges. The magnetic field in our system was provided by two electromagnets. It was measured experimentally for a number of operating current values and then a detailed profile achieved by modelling using a proprietary software package. A process condition discharge under identical magnetic field configurations to growth was analysed by the use of a Langmuir probe and the results correlated with film properties determined by Raman spectroscopy and Dektak profilometry. (author)

  13. Growth and characterization of single-crystal CVD diamond for radiation detection applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tranchant, N.

    2008-01-01

    This work aimed at the study of the synthesis of single crystal diamond using the Microwave enhanced Chemical Vapour Deposition technique (MPCVD). The work enabled the development and optimisation of the growth conditions, from the study of the crystalline quality, of the material purity, and of its electronic properties. The assessment of the transport properties was the most determinant: the use of the time of flight (TOF) technique has enabled the measurement of the carrier mobilities and of their kinetic properties as a function of the temperature. When coupled with collected charge efficiency measurements, the work led to remarkable carrier mobility values obtained in the synthesised crystals (3000 cm 2 .V-1.s -1 ). Prepared samples were mounted as detection devices and used successfully in real conditions for the monitoring of ultra-fast pulses, as well as for neutron fluency monitoring, and for medical dosimeters for radiotherapy applications. (author)

  14. Growth and characterization of nanodiamond layers prepared using the plasma-enhanced linear antennas microwave CVD system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fendrych, Frantisek; Taylor, Andrew; Peksa, Ladislav; Kratochvilova, Irena; Kluiber, Zdenek; Fekete, Ladislav [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v.v.i, Na Slovance 2, CZ-18221 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Vlcek, Jan [Department of Physics and Measurement, Institute of Chemical Technology Prague, Technicka 5, CZ-16628 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Rezacova, Vladimira; Petrak, Vaclav [Faculty of Biomedical Engineering, Czech Technical University, Sitna 3105, CZ-27201 Kladno 2 (Czech Republic); Liehr, Michael [Leybold Optics Dresden GmbH, Zur Wetterwarte 50, D-01109 Dresden (Germany); Nesladek, Milos, E-mail: fendrych@fzu.c [IMOMEC division, IMEC, Institute for Materials Research, University Hasselt, Wetenschapspark 1, B-3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium)

    2010-09-22

    Industrial applications of plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition (CVD) diamond grown on large area substrates, 3D shapes, at low substrate temperatures and on standard engineering substrate materials require novel plasma concepts. Based on the pioneering work of the group at AIST in Japan, the high-density coaxial delivery type of plasmas has been explored (Tsugawa et al 2006 New Diamond Front. Carbon Technol. 16 337-46). However, an important challenge is to obtain commercially interesting growth rates at very low substrate temperatures. In this work we introduce the concept of novel linear antenna sources, designed at Leybold Optics Dresden, using high-frequency pulsed MW discharge with a high plasma density. This type of pulse discharges leads to the preparation of nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) thin films, compared with ultra-NCD thin films prepared in (Tsugawa et al 2006 New Diamond Front. Carbon Technol. 16 337-46). We present optical emission spectroscopy data for the CH{sub 4}-CO{sub 2}-H{sub 2} gas chemistry and we discuss the basic properties of the NCD films grown.

  15. Employing Hot Wire Anemometry to Directly Measure the Water Balance in a Proton Exchange membrane Fuel Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shakhshir, Saher Al; Hussain, Nabeel; Berning, Torsten

    2015-01-01

    Water management in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC’s) remains a critical problem for their durability, cost, and performance. Because the anode side of this fuel cell has the tendency to become dehydrated, measuring the water balance can be an important diagnosis tool during fuel cell...... operation. The water balance indicates how much of the product water leaves at the anode side versus the cathode side. Previous methods of determining the fuel cell water balance often relied on condensing the water in the exhaust gas streams and weighing the accumulated mass which is a time consuming...... process that has limited accuracy. Currently, our group is developing a novel method to accurately determine the water balance in a PEMFC in real time by employing hot-wire anemometry. The amount of heat transferred from the wire to the anode exhaust stream can be translated into a voltage signal which...

  16. Applying hot wire anemometry to directly measure the water balance in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell - Part 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berning, Torsten; Al Shakhshir, Saher

    2015-01-01

    In order to accurately determine the water balance of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell it has recently been suggested to employ constant temperature anemometry (CTA), a frequently used method to measure the velocity of a fluid stream. CTA relies on convective heat transfer around a heated wire...... the equations required to calculate the heat transfer coefficient and the resulting voltage signal as function of the fuel cell water balance. The most critical and least understood part is the determination of the Nusselt number to calculate the heat transfer between the wire and the gas stream. Different...... expressions taken from the literature will be examined in detail, and it will be demonstrated that the power-law approach suggested by Hilpert is the only useful one for the current purposes because in this case the voltage response from the hot-wire sensor E/E0 shows the same dependency to the water balance...

  17. An explanation for anomalous thermal conductivity behaviour in nanofluids as measured using the hot-wire technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marín, E; Bedoya, A; Alvarado, S; Calderón, A; Ivanov, R; Gordillo-Delgado, F

    2014-01-01

    Several efforts have been made to explain thermal conductivity enhancements in fluids due to the addition of nanoparticles. However, until now, there has been no general consensus on this issue. In this work a simple experiment is described that demonstrates a possible cause of misinterpretation of the experimental data of thermal conductivity obtained when using the hot-wire technique (HWT) in these systems. It has been demonstrated that the thermal conductivity of a two-layer sample of two non-miscible phase systems determined by means of the HWT must be modelled using a series thermal resistance model with consideration of the interfacial layers between different phases. This result sheds light on the thermal conductivity enhancement in nanofluids with respect to the values corresponding to the base fluid, suggesting that this increase can be explained using the above-mentioned model and not by application of empirical formulae for effective media, as done before. (paper)

  18. Joint tests at INL and CEA of a transient hot wire needle probe for in-pile thermal conductivity measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daw, J.E.; Knudson, D.L.; Villard, J.F.; Liothin, J.; Destouches, C.; Rempe, J.L.; Matheron, P.; Lambert, T.

    2015-01-01

    Thermal conductivity is a key property that must be known for proper design, testing, and deployment of new fuels and structural materials in nuclear reactors. Thermal conductivity is highly dependent on the physical structure, chemical composition, and the state of the material. Typically, thermal conductivity changes that occur during irradiation are currently measured out-of-pile using a 'cook and look' approach. But repeatedly removing samples from a test reactor to make measurements is expensive, has the potential to disturb phenomena of interest, and only provides understanding of the sample's end state when each measurement is made. There are also limited thermo-physical property data available for advanced fuels; and such data are needed for simulation codes, the development of next generation reactors, and advanced fuels for existing nuclear plants. Being able to quickly characterize fuel thermal conductivity during irradiation can improve the fidelity of data, reduce costs of post-irradiation examinations, increase understanding of how fuels behave under irradiation, and confirm or improve existing thermal conductivity measurement techniques. This paper discusses efforts to develop and evaluate an innovative in-pile thermal conductivity sensor based on the transient hot wire thermal conductivity method (THWM), using a single needle probe (NP) containing a line heat source and thermocouple embedded in the fuel. The sensor that has been designed and manufactured by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) includes a unique combination of materials, geometry, and fabrication techniques that make the hot wire method suitable for in-pile applications. In particular, efforts were made to minimize the influence of the sensor and maximize fuel hot-wire heating. The probe has a thermocouple-like construction with high temperature resistant materials that remain ductile while resisting transmutation and materials interactions. THWM-NP prototypes were

  19. Joint tests at INL and CEA of a transient hot wire needle probe for in-pile thermal conductivity measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daw, J.E.; Knudson, D.L. [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID 83415, (United States); Villard, J.F.; Liothin, J.; Destouches, C. [CEA, DEN, DER, Instrumentation Sensors and Dosimetry Laboratory, Cadarache, F-13108 St Paul-Lez-Durance, (France); Rempe, J.L. [Rempe and Associates, LLC, Idaho Falls, ID, 83404 (United States); Matheron, P. [CEA, DEN, DEC, Uranium Fuels Laboratory, Cadarache, F-13108 St Paul-Lez-Durance, (France); Lambert, T. [CEA, DEN, DEC, Innovative Fuel Design and Irradiation Laboratory, Cadarache, F-13108 St Paul-Lez-Durance, (France)

    2015-07-01

    Thermal conductivity is a key property that must be known for proper design, testing, and deployment of new fuels and structural materials in nuclear reactors. Thermal conductivity is highly dependent on the physical structure, chemical composition, and the state of the material. Typically, thermal conductivity changes that occur during irradiation are currently measured out-of-pile using a 'cook and look' approach. But repeatedly removing samples from a test reactor to make measurements is expensive, has the potential to disturb phenomena of interest, and only provides understanding of the sample's end state when each measurement is made. There are also limited thermo-physical property data available for advanced fuels; and such data are needed for simulation codes, the development of next generation reactors, and advanced fuels for existing nuclear plants. Being able to quickly characterize fuel thermal conductivity during irradiation can improve the fidelity of data, reduce costs of post-irradiation examinations, increase understanding of how fuels behave under irradiation, and confirm or improve existing thermal conductivity measurement techniques. This paper discusses efforts to develop and evaluate an innovative in-pile thermal conductivity sensor based on the transient hot wire thermal conductivity method (THWM), using a single needle probe (NP) containing a line heat source and thermocouple embedded in the fuel. The sensor that has been designed and manufactured by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) includes a unique combination of materials, geometry, and fabrication techniques that make the hot wire method suitable for in-pile applications. In particular, efforts were made to minimize the influence of the sensor and maximize fuel hot-wire heating. The probe has a thermocouple-like construction with high temperature resistant materials that remain ductile while resisting transmutation and materials interactions. THWM-NP prototypes were

  20. Human serum albumin (HSA) adsorption onto a-SiC:H thin films deposited by hot wire chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swain, Bibhu P.

    2006-01-01

    In the present paper, we report the study of the adsorption behavior of human serum albumin (HSA) onto surfaces of a-SiC:H thin films deposited by using the hot wire chemical vapor deposition (HWCVD) technique. The surface composition and surface energy of the various substrates as well as the evaluation of the adsorbed amount of protein has been carried out by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy, AFM and contact angle measurements. At the immediate effect of HSA interaction with a-SiC:H films N is adsorbed on the surface and stabilized after 3 days. Preliminary observation found that Si and O atom are desorbed from the surface while C and N set adsorbed to the surface of the a-SiC:H film

  1. Human serum albumin (HSA) adsorption onto a-SiC:H thin films deposited by hot wire chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swain, Bibhu P. [Department of Metallurgical Engineering and Materials Science, Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay (India) and Samtel Centre for Display Technologies, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, India, Kanpur 208016 (India)]. E-mail: bibhup@iitb.ac.in

    2006-12-15

    In the present paper, we report the study of the adsorption behavior of human serum albumin (HSA) onto surfaces of a-SiC:H thin films deposited by using the hot wire chemical vapor deposition (HWCVD) technique. The surface composition and surface energy of the various substrates as well as the evaluation of the adsorbed amount of protein has been carried out by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy, AFM and contact angle measurements. At the immediate effect of HSA interaction with a-SiC:H films N is adsorbed on the surface and stabilized after 3 days. Preliminary observation found that Si and O atom are desorbed from the surface while C and N set adsorbed to the surface of the a-SiC:H film.

  2. Microstructure and mechanical properties of hot wire laser clad layers for repairing precipitation hardening martensitic stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Peng; Cai, Zhipeng; Feng, Zhenhua; Wang, Gang

    2015-12-01

    Precipitation hardening martensitic stainless steel (PH-MSS) is widely used as load-bearing parts because of its excellent overall properties. It is economical and flexible to repair the failure parts instead of changing new ones. However, it is difficult to keep properties of repaired part as good as those of the substrate. With preheating wire by resistance heat, hot wire laser cladding owns both merits of low heat input and high deposition efficiency, thus is regarded as an advantaged repairing technology for damaged parts of high value. Multi-pass layers were cladded on the surface of FV520B by hot wire laser cladding. The microstructure and mechanical properties were compared and analyzed for the substrate and the clad layer. For the as-cladded layer, microstructure was found non-uniform and divided into quenched and tempered regions. Tensile strength was almost equivalent to that of the substrate, while ductility and impact toughness deteriorated much. With using laser scanning layer by layer during laser cladding, microstructure of the clad layers was tempered to fine martensite uniformly. The ductility and toughness of the clad layer were improved to be equivalent to those of the substrate, while the tensile strength was a little lower than that of the substrate. By adding TiC nanoparticles as well as laser scanning, the precipitation strengthening effect was improved and the structure was refined in the clad layer. The strength, ductility and toughness were all improved further. Finally, high quality clad layers were obtained with equivalent or even superior mechanical properties to the substrate, offering a valuable technique to repair PH-MSS.

  3. On the potential of Hg-Photo-CVD process for the low temperature growth of nano-crystalline silicon (Topical review)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barhdadi, A.

    2005-08-01

    Mercury-Sensitized Photo-Assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition (Hg-Photo-CVD) technique opens new possibilities for reducing thin film growth temperature and producing novel semiconductor materials suitable for the future generation of high efficiency thin film solar cells onto low cost flexible plastic substrates. This paper provides an overview of this technique, with the emphasis on its potential in low temperature elaboration of nano-crystalline silicon for the development of thin films photovoltaic technology. (author)

  4. A micro-scale hot wire anemometer based on low stress (Ni/W) multi-layers deposited on nano-crystalline diamond for air flow sensing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Talbi, A.; Gimeno, L.; Gerbedoen, J.-C.; Viard, R.; Soltani, A.; Mortet, Vincent; Preobrazhensky, V.; Merlen, A.; Pernod, P.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 2 (2015), s. 1-8, č. článku 125029. ISSN 0960-1317 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : hot wire * nano-crystalline diamond * active flow control * anemometry Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 1.768, year: 2015

  5. Probing Growth-Induced Anisotropic Thermal Transport in High-Quality CVD Diamond Membranes by Multifrequency and Multiple-Spot-Size Time-Domain Thermoreflectance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhe; Bougher, Thomas; Bai, Tingyu; Wang, Steven Y; Li, Chao; Yates, Luke; Foley, Brian M; Goorsky, Mark; Cola, Baratunde A; Faili, Firooz; Graham, Samuel

    2018-02-07

    The maximum output power of GaN-based high-electron mobility transistors is limited by high channel temperature induced by localized self-heating, which degrades device performance and reliability. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond is an attractive candidate to aid in the extraction of this heat and in minimizing the peak operating temperatures of high-power electronics. Owing to its inhomogeneous structure, the thermal conductivity of CVD diamond varies along the growth direction and can differ between the in-plane and out-of-plane directions, resulting in a complex three-dimensional (3D) distribution. Depending on the thickness of the diamond and size of the electronic device, this 3D distribution may impact the effectiveness of CVD diamond in device thermal management. In this work, time-domain thermoreflectance is used to measure the anisotropic thermal conductivity of an 11.8 μm-thick high-quality CVD diamond membrane from its nucleation side. Starting with a spot-size diameter larger than the thickness of the membrane, measurements are made at various modulation frequencies from 1.2 to 11.6 MHz to tune the heat penetration depth and sample the variation in thermal conductivity. We then analyze the data by creating a model with the membrane divided into ten sublayers and assume isotropic thermal conductivity in each sublayer. From this, we observe a two-dimensional gradient of the depth-dependent thermal conductivity for this membrane. The local thermal conductivity goes beyond 1000 W/(m K) when the distance from the nucleation interface only reaches 3 μm. Additionally, by measuring the same region with a smaller spot size at multiple frequencies, the in-plane and cross-plane thermal conductivities are extracted. Through this use of multiple spot sizes and modulation frequencies, the 3D anisotropic thermal conductivity of CVD diamond membrane is experimentally obtained by fitting the experimental data to a thermal model. This work provides an improved

  6. Design and Development of Embedded System for the Measurement of Thermal Conductivity of Liquids by Transient Hot Wire Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagamani GOSALA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Thermal conductivity of polymers is an important property for both polymer applications and processing industry. The successful application of thermal insulating fluids in the last several years has demonstrated that such fluids can effectively control the heat loss. Understanding and controlling the thermal environment for oilfield operations has been a concern and research topic. As a consequence of this trend, there is huge demand for new methods of instrumentation to evaluate the performance of material properties and characterization. The main aim of the present study is the development of hardware and software for measuring the thermal conductivity of liquids using transient hot wire method. Because of the relatively short experimental times and large amounts of parametric data involved in the measurement process, embedded control of the measurement is essential. The experimental implementation requires a suitable temperature sensing, automatic control, data acquisition, and data analysis systems accomplished using an embedded system that has been built around the ARM LPC 2103 mixed signal controller.

  7. A Novel Portable Absolute Transient Hot-Wire Instrument for the Measurement of the Thermal Conductivity of Solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assael, Marc J.; Antoniadis, Konstantinos D.; Metaxa, Ifigeneia N.; Mylona, Sofia K.; Assael, John-Alexander M.; Wu, Jiangtao; Hu, Miaomiao

    2015-11-01

    A new portable absolute Transient Hot-Wire instrument for measuring the thermal conductivity of solids over a range of 0.2 { W}{\\cdot }m^{-1}{\\cdot }{K}^{-1} to 4 { W}{\\cdot }m^{-1}{\\cdot }{K}^{-1} is presented. The new instrument is characterized by three novelties: (a) an innovative two-wires sensor which provides robustness and portability, while at the same time employs a soft silicone layer to eliminate the effect of the contact resistance between the wires and the sample, (b) a newly designed compact portable printed electronic board employing an FPGA architecture CPU to the control output voltage and data processing—the new board replaces the traditional, large in size Wheatstone-type bridge system required to perform the experimental measurements, and (c) a cutting-edge software suite, developed for the mesh describing the structure of the sensor, and utilizing the Finite Elements Method to model the heat flow. The estimation of thermal conductivity is modeled as a minimization problem and is solved using Bayesian Optimization. Our revolutionizing proposed methodology exhibits radical speedups of up to × 120, compared to previous approaches, and considerably reduces the number of simulations performed, achieving convergence only in a few minutes. The new instrument was successfully employed to measure, at room temperature, the thermal conductivity of two thermal conductivity reference materials, Pyroceram 9606 and Pyrex 7740, and two possible candidate glassy solids, PMMA and BK7, with an absolute low uncertainty of 2 %.

  8. Simplified Transient Hot-Wire Method for Effective Thermal Conductivity Measurement in Geo Materials: Microstructure and Saturation Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Merckx

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The thermal conductivity measurement by a simplified transient hot-wire technique is applied to geomaterials in order to show the relationships which can exist between effective thermal conductivity, texture, and moisture of the materials. After a validation of the used “one hot-wire” technique in water, toluene, and glass-bead assemblages, the investigations were performed (1 in glass-bead assemblages of different diameters in dried, water, and acetone-saturated states in order to observe the role of grain sizes and saturation on the effective thermal conductivity, (2 in a compacted earth brick at different moisture states, and (3 in a lime-hemp concrete during 110 days following its manufacture. The lime-hemp concrete allows the measurements during the setting, desiccation and carbonation steps. The recorded Δ/ln( diagrams allow the calculation of one effective thermal conductivity in the continuous and homogeneous fluids and two effective thermal conductivities in the heterogeneous solids. The first one measured in the short time acquisitions (<1 s mainly depends on the contact between the wire and grains and thus microtexture and hydrated state of the material. The second one, measured for longer time acquisitions, characterizes the mean effective thermal conductivity of the material.

  9. Transition over C4 leading edge and measurement of intermittency factor using PDF of hot-wire signal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazarika, B.K.; Hirsch, C. [Vrije Univ. Brussel, Brussels (Belgium). Dept. of Fluid Mechanics

    1997-07-01

    The variation of intermittency factors in the transition region of a C4 leading edge flat plate is measured at three incidence angles in a low-turbulence free stream. During the determination of intermittency factor, the threshold value of the detector function and the validity of conditional averaging are verified by a method based on the direct application of PDF of the hot-wire output. As the angle of incidence is increased, the transition progressively moves through all the three modes on the suction surface: at zero incidence the bypass transition, at 2 deg incidence the natural transition, and at 4 deg incidence the separated-flow transition occur, respectively. All three modes of transition exhibited the chordwise intermittency factor variation in accordance with Narasinha`s universal intermittency distribution; thus, the method based on spot production rate is applicable to all the three modes of transition. In the transition zone of the attached boundary layers, the conditionally averaged interturbulent profiles are fuller than the Blasius profile, while the conditionally averaged turbulent profiles follow a logarithmic profile with a variable additive parameter.

  10. The Laser Welding with Hot Wire of 316LN Thick Plate Applied on ITER Correction Coil Case

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, Chao; Wu, Weiyue; Wei, Jing; Zhang, Shuquan; Li, Hongwei; Dolgetta, N; Libeyre, P; Cormany, C; Sgobba, S

    2014-01-01

    ITER correction coil (CC) cases have characteristics of small cross section, large dimensions, and complex structure. The cases are made of heavy thick (20 mm), high strength and high toughness austenitic stainless steel 316LN. The multi-pass laser welding with hot wire technology is used for the case closure welding, due to its low heat input and deformation. In order to evaluate the reliability of this welding technology, 20 mm welding samples with the same groove structure and welding depth as the cases were welded. High purity argon was used as the shielding gas to prevent oxidation because of the narrowness and depth of the weld. In this paper investigation of, microstructure characteristics and mechanical properties of welded joints using optimized welding parameters are presented. The results show that the base metal, fusion metal, and heat affected zone (HAZ) are all have fully austenitic microstructure, and that the grain size of fusion metal was finer than that of the base metal. The welding resulte...

  11. Long-range distributed optical fiber hot-wire anemometer based on chirped-pulse ΦOTDR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Ruiz, Andres; Dominguez-Lopez, Alejandro; Pastor-Graells, Juan; Martins, Hugo F; Martin-Lopez, Sonia; Gonzalez-Herraez, Miguel

    2018-01-08

    We demonstrate a technique allowing to develop a fully distributed optical fiber hot-wire anemometer capable of reaching a wind speed uncertainty of ≈ ±0.15m/s (±0.54km/h) at only 60 mW/m of dissipated power in the sensing fiber, and within only four minutes of measurement time. This corresponds to similar uncertainty values than previous papers on distributed optical fiber anemometry but requires two orders of magnitude smaller dissipated power and covers at least one order of magnitude longer distance. This breakthrough is possible thanks to the extreme temperature sensitivity and single-shot performance of chirped-pulse phase-sensitive optical time domain reflectometry (ΦOTDR), together with the availability of metal-coated fibers. To achieve these results, a modulated current is fed through the metal coating of the fiber, causing a modulated temperature variation of the fiber core due to Joule effect. The amplitude of this temperature modulation is strongly dependent on the wind speed at which the fiber is subject. Continuous monitoring of the temperature modulation along the fiber allows to determine the wind speed with singular low power injection requirements. Moreover, this procedure makes the system immune to temperature drifts of the fiber, potentially allowing for a simple field deployment. Being a much less power-hungry scheme, this method also allows for monitoring over much longer distances, in the orders of 10s of km. We expect that this system can have application in dynamic line rating and lateral wind monitoring in railway catenary wires.

  12. Design, Modeling, Fabrication, and Evaluation of Thermoelectric Generators with Hot-Wire Chemical Vapor Deposited Polysilicon as Thermoelement Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Leon, Maria Theresa; Tarazona, Antulio; Chong, Harold; Kraft, Michael

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents the design, modeling, fabrication, and evaluation of thermoelectric generators (TEGs) with p-type polysilicon deposited by hot-wire chemical vapor deposition (HWCVD) as thermoelement material. A thermal model is developed based on energy balance and heat transfer equations using lumped thermal conductances. Several test structures were fabricated to allow characterization of the boron-doped polysilicon material deposited by HWCVD. The film was found to be electrically active without any post-deposition annealing. Based on the tests performed on the test structures, it is determined that the Seebeck coefficient, thermal conductivity, and electrical resistivity of the HWCVD polysilicon are 113 μV/K, 126 W/mK, and 3.58 × 10-5 Ω m, respectively. Results from laser tests performed on the fabricated TEG are in good agreement with the thermal model. The temperature values derived from the thermal model are within 2.8% of the measured temperature values. For a 1-W laser input, an open-circuit voltage and output power of 247 mV and 347 nW, respectively, were generated. This translates to a temperature difference of 63°C across the thermoelements. This paper demonstrates that HWCVD, which is a cost-effective way of producing solar cells, can also be applied in the production of TEGs. By establishing that HWCVD polysilicon can be an effective thermoelectric material, further work on developing photovoltaic-thermoelectric (PV-TE) hybrid microsystems that are cost-effective and better performing can be explored.

  13. Growth kinetics of nc-Si:H deposited at 200 °C by hot-wire chemical vapour deposition

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oliphant, CJ

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available deposited on single-side polished (100) crystalline silicon and Corning 7059 glass substrates using an ultra-high vacuum HWCVD system [3] from various 3 gas mixtures of SiH4 and H2. The H-dilution ratio, defined as )( 42 2 SiHH HR ?+? ? = , where..., South Africa 2 National Metrology Institute of South Africa, Private Bag X34, Lynwood Ridge, Pretoria 0040, South Africa 3 CSIR National Centre for Nano-Structured Materials, P. O. Box 395, Pretoria 0001, South Africa Abstract We report...

  14. Optimization of Al-CVD process based on elementary reaction simulation and experimental verification: From the growth rate to the surface morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiyama, Masakazu; Iino, Tomohisa; Nakajima, Tohru; Tanaka, Takeshi; Egashira, Yasuyuki; Yamashita, Kohichi; Komiyama, Hiroshi; Shimogaki, Yukihiro

    2006-01-01

    We propose a method to reduce the surface roughness of Al film in the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using dimethyl-aluminum-hydride (DMAH) as the precursor. An elementary reaction simulation was executed not only to predict the deposition rate but also to predict the coverage of the film by surface adsorbates. It was assumed that high surface coverage is essential in order to deposit smooth films because the adsorbates protect the surface from oxidation which causes discontinuous growth of crystal grains. According to this principle, the condition, that realizes both high surface coverage and high deposition rate at the same time by using the elementary reaction simulation, was sought. A nozzle inlet was used instead of a conventional showerhead. This drastically improved the surface morphology, showing the effectiveness of this theoretical optimization procedure

  15. A step-by-step experiment of 3C-SiC hetero-epitaxial growth on 4H-SiC by CVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xin, Bin [School of Microelectronics, Xidian University, Key Laboratory of Wide Band-Gap Semiconductor Materials and Devices, Xi’an 710071 (China); Jia, Ren-Xu, E-mail: rxjia@mail.xidian.edu.cn [School of Microelectronics, Xidian University, Key Laboratory of Wide Band-Gap Semiconductor Materials and Devices, Xi’an 710071 (China); Hu, Ji-Chao [School of Microelectronics, Xidian University, Key Laboratory of Wide Band-Gap Semiconductor Materials and Devices, Xi’an 710071 (China); Tsai, Cheng-Ying [Graduate Institute of Electronics Engineering, National Taiwan University, 10617 Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lin, Hao-Hsiung, E-mail: hhlin@ntu.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Electronics Engineering, National Taiwan University, 10617 Taipei, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Photonics and Optoelectronics, National Taiwan University, 10617 Taipei, Taiwan (China); Zhang, Yu-Ming [School of Microelectronics, Xidian University, Key Laboratory of Wide Band-Gap Semiconductor Materials and Devices, Xi’an 710071 (China)

    2015-12-01

    Highlights: • A step-by-step experiment to investigate the growth mechanism of SiC hetero-epitaxial is proposed. • It has shown protrusive regular “hill” morphology with much lower density of DPB defect in our experiment, which normally were in high density with shallow groove. Based on the defect morphology, an anisotropy migration rate phenomenon of adatoms has been regarded as forming the morphology of DPB defects and a new “DPB defects assist epitaxy” growth mode has been proposed based on Frank-van der Merwe growth mode. - Abstract: To investigate the growth mechanism of hetero-epitaxial SiC, a step-by-step experiment of 3C-SiC epitaxial layers grown on 4H-SiC on-axis substrates by the CVD method are reported in this paper. Four step experiments with four one-quarter 4H-SiC wafers were performed. Optical microscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to characterize the morphology of the epitaxial layers. It was previously found that the main factor affecting the epilayer morphology was double-positioning boundary (DPB) defects, which normally were in high density with shallow grooves. However, a protrusive regular “hill” morphology with a much lower density was shown in our experiment in high-temperature growth conditions. The anisotropic migration of adatoms is regarded as forming the morphology of DPB defects, and a new “DPB defects assist epitaxy” growth mode has been proposed based on the Frank-van der Merwe growth mode. Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction were used to examine the polytypes and the quality of the epitaxial layers.

  16. Carbide-forming groups IVB-VIB metals: a new territory in the periodic table for CVD growth of graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Zhiyu; Fu, Lei; Song, Xiuju; Zhang, Yanfeng; Liu, Zhongfan

    2014-07-09

    Early transition metals, especially groups IVB-VIB metals, can form stable carbides, which are known to exhibit excellent "noble-metal-like" catalytic activities. We demonstrate herein the applications of groups IVB-VIB metals in graphene growth using atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition technique. Similar to the extensively studied Cu, Ni, and noble metals, these transition-metal foils facilitate the catalytic growth of single- to few-layer graphene. The most attractive advantage over the existing catalysts is their perfect control of layer thickness and uniformity with highly flexible experimental conditions by in situ converting the dissolved carbons into stable carbides to fully suppress the upward segregation/precipitation effect. The growth performance of graphene on these transition metals can be well explained by the periodic physicochemical properties of elements. Our work has disclosed a new territory of catalysts in the periodic table for graphene growth and is expected to trigger more interest in graphene research.

  17. Study of porogen removal by atomic hydrogen generated by hot wire chemical vapor deposition for the fabrication of advanced low-k thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godavarthi, S., E-mail: srinivas@cinvestav.mx [Program of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Cinvestav-IPN (Mexico); Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Instituto de Ciencias Fisicas, Av. Universidad, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Wang, C.; Verdonck, P. [imec, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Matsumoto, Y.; Koudriavtsev, I. [Program of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Cinvestav-IPN (Mexico); SEES, Electrical Engineering Department, Cinvestav-IPN (Mexico); Dutt, A. [SEES, Electrical Engineering Department, Cinvestav-IPN (Mexico); Tielens, H.; Baklanov, M.R. [imec, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2015-01-30

    In order to obtain low-k dielectric films, a subtractive technique, which removes sacrificial porogens from a hydrogenated silicon oxycarbide (SiOC:H) film, has been used successfully by different groups in the past. In this paper, we report on the porogen removal from porogenated SiOC:H films, using a hot wire chemical vapor deposition (HWCVD) equipment. Molecular hydrogen is dissociated into atomic hydrogen by the hot wires and these atoms may successfully remove the hydrocarbon groups from the porogenated SiOC:H films. The temperature of the HWCVD filaments proved to be a determining factor. By Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray reflectivity (XRR), secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), ellipsometric porosimetry and capacitance-voltage analyses, it was possible to determine that for temperatures higher than 1700 °C, efficient porogen removal occurred. For temperatures higher than 1800 °C, the presence of OH groups was detected. The dielectric constant was the lowest, 2.28, for the samples processed at a filament temperature of 1800 °C, although porosity measurements showed higher porosity for the films deposited at the higher temperatures. XRR and SIMS analyses indicated densification and Tungsten (W) incorporation at the top few nanometers of the films.

  18. Molecular dynamics simulation of graphene growth at initial stage on Ni(100) facet for low flux C energy by CVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syuhada, Ibnu, E-mail: ibnu-syuhada-p3@yahoo.com; Rosikhin, Ahmad, E-mail: aulia-fikri-h@yahoo.co.id; Fikri, Aulia, E-mail: a.rosikhin86@yahoo.co.id; Noor, Fatimah A., E-mail: fatimah@fi.itb.ac.id; Winata, Toto, E-mail: toto@fi.itb.ac.id [Departement of Physics, Institute of Technology Bandung, Tamansari 64 Street, East Java (Indonesia)

    2016-02-08

    In this study, atomic simulation for graphene growth on Ni (100) at initial stage via chemical vapor deposition method has been developed. The C-C atoms interaction was performed by Terasoff potential mean while Ni-Ni interaction was specified by EAM (Embedded Atom Modified). On the other hand, we used very simple interatomic potential to describe Ni-C interaction during deposition process. From this simulation, it shows that the formation of graphene is not occurs through a combined deposition mechanism on Ni substrate but via C segregation. It means, Ni-C amorphous is source for graphene growth when cooling down of Ni substrate. This result is appropriate with experiments, tight binding and quantum mechanics simulation.

  19. A self-ordered, body-centered tetragonal superlattice of SiGe nanodot growth by reduced pressure CVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Yuji; Zaumseil, Peter; Capellini, Giovanni; Schubert, Markus Andreas; Hesse, Anne; Albani, Marco; Bergamaschini, Roberto; Montalenti, Francesco; Schroeder, Thomas; Tillack, Bernd

    2017-12-01

    Self-ordered three-dimensional body-centered tetragonal (BCT) SiGe nanodot structures are fabricated by depositing SiGe/Si superlattice layer stacks using reduced pressure chemical vapor deposition. For high enough Ge content in the island (>30%) and deposition temperature of the Si spacer layers (T > 700 °C), we observe the formation of an ordered array with islands arranged in staggered position in adjacent layers. The in plane periodicity of the islands can be selected by a suitable choice of the annealing temperature before the Si spacer layer growth and of the SiGe dot volume, while only a weak influence of the Ge concentration is observed. Phase-field simulations are used to clarify the driving force determining the observed BCT ordering, shedding light on the competition between heteroepitaxial strain and surface-energy minimization in the presence of a non-negligible surface roughness.

  20. Development of scientific and technological basis for the fabrication of thin film solar cells on the basis of a-Si:H and {mu}c-Si:H using the 'hot-wire' deposition technique. Final report; Entwicklung wissenschaftlicher und technischer Grundlagen fuer die Herstellung von Duennschichtsolarzellen auf der Basis des a-Si:H und {mu}c-Si:H mit der 'Hot-Wire'-Depositionstechnik. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, B.

    2002-01-22

    Two new deposition systems were realized enabling the entire and respectively, large area deposition of a-Si:H based solar cells using the so called 'hot-wire' (HW) CVD. The deposition conditions for appropriate n- and p-doped a-Si:H and {mu}c-Si:H layers have been developed. For the first time in the world a-Si:H based pin solar cells were entirely deposited by the HWCVD method. A maximum initial conversion efficiency of {eta}{sub initial}=8.9% was obtained. After the development of a suitable p/n-tunnel/recombination junction pin-pin tandem structures with a-Si:H absorbers could be entirely fabricated by the HWCVD for the first time in the world, too. A conversion efficiency of {eta}=7% was measured for the tandem cell, after some structural degradation took place. In general, the stability of the HWCVD solar cells is not satisfactory, what could be attributed to a structural instability of the HWCVD-p-layers. For the first time we have deposited nip solar cells on stainless steel substrates entirely by HWCVD ({eta}{sub initial}>6%). The incorporation of {mu}c-Si:H absorber layers by HWCVD or ECWR-PECVD into pin solar cells was not successfull until now. Large area deposition of a-Si:H films has been performed in a simple vacuum vessel. Under consideration of appropriate filament and gas supply geometry as well as simulation calculations a good electronic quality and a film thickness uniformity of {delta}d={+-}2.5% of the material was obtained. i-layers for small area solar cells on an area of 20 x 20 cm{sup 2} have been deposited which could be completed to solar cells with very uniform conversion efficiencies of {eta}{sub initial} = 6,1{+-}0.2%. This result represents a proof of concept for the large area deposition of a-Si:H based solar cells using the HWCVD. Also for the first time the HWCVD was used for the deposition of emitter layers on c-Si-wafers to realize hetero solar cells. Hetero solar cells with amorphous, microcrystalline and epitaxial n

  1. Linear antenna microwave plasma CVD diamond deposition at the edge of no-growth region of C-H-O ternary diagram

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Potocký, Štěpán; Babchenko, Oleg; Hruška, Karel; Kromka, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 249, č. 12 (2012), s. 2612-2615 ISSN 0370-1972 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108; GA ČR GAP205/12/0908 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : C-H-O phase diagram * nanocrystalline diamond * plasma enhanced CVD * Raman spectroscopy * SEM Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.489, year: 2012

  2. Hot-wire air flow meter for gasoline fuel-injection system. Calculation of air mass in cylinder during transient condition; Gasoline funsha system yo no netsusenshiki kuki ryuryokei. Kato untenji no cylinder juten kukiryo no keisan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oyama, Y [Hitachi Car Engineering, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Nishimura, Y; Osuga, M; Yamauchi, T [Hitachi, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Air flow characteristics of hot-wire air flow meters for gasoline fuel-injection systems with supercharging and exhaust gas recycle during transient conditions were investigated to analyze a simple method for calculating air mass in cylinder. It was clarified that the air mass in cylinder could be calculated by compensating for the change of air mass in intake system by using aerodynamic models of intake system. 3 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Delaminated Transfer of CVD Graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavijo, Alexis; Mao, Jinhai; Tilak, Nikhil; Altvater, Michael; Andrei, Eva

    Single layer graphene is commonly synthesized by dissociation of a carbonaceous gas at high temperatures in the presence of a metallic catalyst in a process known as Chemical Vapor Deposition or CVD. Although it is possible to achieve high quality graphene by CVD, the standard transfer technique of etching away the metallic catalyst is wasteful and jeopardizes the quality of the graphene film by contamination from etchants. Thus, development of a clean transfer technique and preservation of the parent substrate remain prominent hurdles to overcome. In this study, we employ a copper pretreatment technique and optimized parameters for growth of high quality single layer graphene at atmospheric pressure. We address the transfer challenge by utilizing the adhesive properties between a polymer film and graphene to achieve etchant-free transfer of graphene films from a copper substrate. Based on this concept we developed a technique for dry delamination and transferring of graphene to hexagonal boron nitride substrates, which produced high quality graphene films while at the same time preserving the integrity of the copper catalyst for reuse. DOE-FG02-99ER45742, Ronald E. McNair Postbaccalaureate Achievement Program.

  4. CVD in nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickel, H.

    1981-08-01

    CVD-deposited pyrocarbon, especially the coatings of nuclear fuel kernels show a structure depending on many parameters such as deposition temperature, nature and pressure of the pyrolysis gas, nature of the substrate, geometry of the deposition system, etc. Because of the variety of pyrocarbon different characterization methods have been developed or qualified for this new application. Additionally classical characterization procedures are available. Beside theoretical aspects concerning the formation and deposition mechanism of pyrocarbon from the gas phase the behaviour of such coatings under irradiation with fast neutrons is discussed. (orig.) [de

  5. Growth of GaN on SiC/Si substrates using AlN buffer layer by hot-mesh CVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, Kazuyuki; Kuroki, Yuichiro; Yasui, Kanji; Suemitsu, Maki; Ito, Takashi; Endou, Tetsuro; Nakazawa, Hideki; Narita, Yuzuru; Takata, Masasuke; Akahane, Tadashi

    2008-01-01

    GaN films were grown on SiC/Si (111) substrates by hot-mesh chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using ammonia (NH 3 ) and trimetylgallium (TMG) under low V/III source gas ratio (NH 3 /TMG = 80). The SiC layer was grown by a carbonization process on the Si substrates using propane (C 3 H 8 ). The AlN layer was deposited as a buffer layer using NH 3 and trimetylaluminum (TMA). GaN films were formed and grown by the reaction between NH x radicals, generated on a tungsten hot mesh, and the TMG molecules. The GaN films with the AlN buffer layer showed better crystallinity and stronger near-band-edge emission compared to those without the AlN layer

  6. Growth of GaN on SiC/Si substrates using AlN buffer layer by hot-mesh CVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamura, Kazuyuki [Nagaoka University of Technology, Nagaoka 940-2188 (Japan)], E-mail: kazuyuki@stn.nagaokaut.ac.jp; Kuroki, Yuichiro; Yasui, Kanji [Nagaoka University of Technology, Nagaoka 940-2188 (Japan); Suemitsu, Maki; Ito, Takashi [Center of Interdisciplinary Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Endou, Tetsuro [Research Institute of Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Nakazawa, Hideki [Faculty of Science and Technology, Hirosaki University, Hirosaki 036-8561 (Japan); Narita, Yuzuru [Center of Interdisciplinary Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Takata, Masasuke; Akahane, Tadashi [Nagaoka University of Technology, Nagaoka 940-2188 (Japan)

    2008-01-15

    GaN films were grown on SiC/Si (111) substrates by hot-mesh chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using ammonia (NH{sub 3}) and trimetylgallium (TMG) under low V/III source gas ratio (NH{sub 3}/TMG = 80). The SiC layer was grown by a carbonization process on the Si substrates using propane (C{sub 3}H{sub 8}). The AlN layer was deposited as a buffer layer using NH{sub 3} and trimetylaluminum (TMA). GaN films were formed and grown by the reaction between NH{sub x} radicals, generated on a tungsten hot mesh, and the TMG molecules. The GaN films with the AlN buffer layer showed better crystallinity and stronger near-band-edge emission compared to those without the AlN layer.

  7. Improvement of μc-Si:H n–i–p cell efficiency with an i-layer made by hot-wire CVD by reverse H2-profiling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, H. B. T.; Franken, R.H.; Stolk, R.L.; van der Werf, C.H.M.; Rath, J.K.; Schropp, R.E.I.

    2008-01-01

    The technique of maintaining a proper crystalline ratio in microcrystalline silicon (μc-Si:H) layers along the thickness direction by decreasing the H2 dilution ratio during deposition (H2 profiling) was introduced by several laboratories while optimizing either n–i–p or p–i–n μc-Si:H cells made by

  8. Study of low-defect and strain-relaxed GeSn growth via reduced pressure CVD in H2 and N2 carrier gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margetis, J.; Mosleh, A.; Al-Kabi, S.; Ghetmiri, S. A.; Du, W.; Dou, W.; Benamara, M.; Li, B.; Mortazavi, M.; Naseem, H. A.; Yu, S.-Q.; Tolle, J.

    2017-04-01

    High quality, thick (up to 1.1 μm), strain relaxed GeSn alloys were grown on Ge-buffered Si (1 0 0) in an ASM Epsilon® chemical vapor deposition system using SnCl4 and low-cost commercial GeH4 precursors. The significance of surface chemistry in regards to growth rate and Sn-incorporation is discussed by comparing growth kinetics data in H2 and N2 carrier gas. The role of carrier gas is also explored in the suppression of Sn surface segregation and evolution of layer composition and strain profiles via secondary ion mass spectrometry and X-ray diffraction. Transmission electron microscopy revealed the spontaneous compositional splitting and formation of a thin intermediate layer in which dislocations are pinned. This intermediate layer enables the growth of a thick, strain relaxed, and defect-free epitaxial layer on its top. Last, we present photoluminescence results which indicate that both N2 and H2 growth methods produce optoelectronic device quality material.

  9. CVD growth of (001) and (111)3C-SiC epilayers and their interface reactivity with praseodymium oxide dielectric layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohal, R.

    2006-01-01

    In this work, growth and characterisation of 3C-SiC thin films, investigation of oxidation of thus prepared layers and Pr-silicate and AlON based interface with SiC have been studied. Chemical vapor deposition of 3C-SiC thin films on Si(001) and Si(111) substrates has been investigated. Prior to the actual SiC growth, preparation of initial buffer layers of SiC was done. Using such a buffer layer, epitaxial growth of 3C-SiC has been achieved on Si(111) and Si(001) substrates. The temperature of 1100 C and 1150 C has been determined to be the optimal temperature for 3C-SiC growth on Si (111) and Si(001) substrates respectively. The oxidation studies on SiC revealed that a slow oxidation process at moderate temperatures in steps was useful in reducing and suppressing the g-C at the SiO 2 /SiC interface. Clean, graphite-free SiO 2 has been successfully grown on 3C-SiC by silicon evaporation and UHV anneal. For the application of high-k Pr 2 O 3 on silicon carbide, plausible interlayer, Pr-Silicate and AlON, have been investigated. Praseodymium silicate has been prepared successfully completely consuming the SiO2 and simultaneously suppressing the graphitic carbon formation. A comparatively more stable interlayer using AlON has been achieved. This interlayer mainly consists of stable phases of AlN along with some amount of Pr-aluminates and CN. Such layers act as a reaction barrier between Pr 2 O 3 and SiC, and simultaneously provide higher band offsets. (orig.)

  10. CVD growth of (001) and (111)3C-SiC epilayers and their interface reactivity with pradeodymium oxide dielectric layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohal, R.

    2006-07-24

    In this work, growth and characterisation of 3C-SiC thin films, investigation of oxidation of thus prepared layers and Pr-silicate and AlON based interface with SiC have been studied. Chemical vapor deposition of 3C-SiC thin films on Si(001) and Si(111) substrates has been investigated. Prior to the actual SiC growth, preparation of initial buffer layers of SiC was done. Using such a buffer layer, epitaxial growth of 3C-SiC has been achieved on Si(111) and Si(001) substrates. The temperature of 1100 C and 1150 C has been determined to be the optimal temperature for 3C-SiC growth on Si (111) and Si(001) substrates respectively. The oxidation studies on SiC revealed that a slow oxidation process at moderate temperatures in steps was useful in reducing and suppressing the g-C at the SiO{sub 2}/SiC interface. Clean, graphite-free SiO{sub 2} has been successfully grown on 3C-SiC by silicon evaporation and UHV anneal. For the application of high-k Pr{sub 2}O{sub 3} on silicon carbide, plausible interlayer, Pr-Silicate and AlON, have been investigated. Praseodymium silicate has been prepared successfully completely consuming the SiO2 and simultaneously suppressing the graphitic carbon formation. A comparatively more stable interlayer using AlON has been achieved. This interlayer mainly consists of stable phases of AlN along with some amount of Pr-aluminates and CN. Such layers act as a reaction barrier between Pr{sub 2}O{sub 3} and SiC, and simultaneously provide higher band offsets. (orig.)

  11. An important atomic process in the CVD growth of graphene: Sinking and up-floating of carbon atom on copper surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yingfeng; Li, Meicheng; Gu, TianSheng; Bai, Fan; Yu, Yue; Trevor, Mwenya; Yu, Yangxin

    2013-01-01

    By density functional theory (DFT) calculations, the early stages of the growth of graphene on copper (1 1 1) surface are investigated. At the very first time of graphene growth, the carbon atom sinks into subsurface. As more carbon atoms are adsorbed nearby the site, the sunken carbon atom will spontaneously form a dimer with one of the newly adsorbed carbon atoms, and the formed dimer will up-float on the top of the surface. We emphasize the role of the co-operative relaxation of the co-adsorbed carbon atoms in facilitating the sinking and up-floating of carbon atoms. In detail: when two carbon atoms are co-adsorbed, their co-operative relaxation will result in different carbon–copper interactions for the co-adsorbed carbon atoms. This difference facilitates the sinking of a single carbon atom into the subsurface. As a third carbon atom is co-adsorbed nearby, it draws the sunken carbon atom on top of the surface, forming a dimer. Co-operative relaxations of the surface involving all adsorbed carbon atoms and their copper neighbors facilitate these sinking and up-floating processes. This investigation is helpful for the deeper understanding of graphene synthesis and the choosing of optimal carbon sources or process.

  12. Growth and characterization of single-crystal CVD diamond for radiation detection applications; Synthese et caracterisation de diamants monocristallins pour applications de detecteur de rayonnements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tranchant, N

    2008-01-15

    This work aimed at the study of the synthesis of single crystal diamond using the Microwave enhanced Chemical Vapour Deposition technique (MPCVD). The work enabled the development and optimisation of the growth conditions, from the study of the crystalline quality, of the material purity, and of its electronic properties. The assessment of the transport properties was the most determinant: the use of the time of flight (TOF) technique has enabled the measurement of the carrier mobilities and of their kinetic properties as a function of the temperature. When coupled with collected charge efficiency measurements, the work led to remarkable carrier mobility values obtained in the synthesised crystals (3000 cm{sup 2}.V-1.s{sup -1}). Prepared samples were mounted as detection devices and used successfully in real conditions for the monitoring of ultra-fast pulses, as well as for neutron fluency monitoring, and for medical dosimeters for radiotherapy applications. (author)

  13. CVD - main concepts, applications and restrictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bliznakovska, B.; Milosevski, M.; Krawczynski, S.; Meixner, C.; Koetter, H.R.

    1993-01-01

    Despite of the fact that the existing literature covering the last two decades is plentiful with data related to CVD, this document is an attempt to provide to a reader a concise information about the nature of CVD technique at production of technologically important materials as well as to point at special references. The text is devided into three separate sections. The first section, The Main Features of CVD, is intended to give a complete comprehensive picture of the CVD technique through process description and characterization. The basic principles of thermodynamics, CVD chemical reactions classification, CVD chemical kinetics aspects and physics of CVD (with particular attention on the gas-flow phenomena) are included. As an additional aspect, in CVD unavoidable aspect however, the role of the coating/substrate compatibility on the overall process was outlined. The second section, CVD Equipment, concerns on the pecularities of the complete CVD unit pointing out the individual significances of the separate parts, i.e. pumping system, reactor chamber, control system. The aim of this section is to create to a reader a basic understanding of the arising problems but connected to be actual CVD performance. As a final goal of this review the reader's attention is turned upon the CVD applications for production of an up-to-date important class of coatings such as multilayer coatings. (orig.)

  14. CVD diamond detectors and dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manfredotti, C.; Fizzotti, F.; LoGiudice, A.; Paolini, C.; Oliviero, P.; Vittone, E.; Torino Univ., Torino

    2002-01-01

    Natural diamond, because of its well-known properties of tissue-equivalence, has recorded a wide spreading use in radiotherapy planning with electron linear accelerators. Artificial diamond dosimeters, as obtained by Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD) could be capable to offer the same performances and they can be prepared in different volumes and shapes. The dosimeter sensitivity per unit volume may be easily proved to be better than standard ionization microchamber. We have prepared in our laboratory CVD diamond microchamber (diamond tips) in emispherical shape with an external diameter of 200 μm, which can be used both as X-ray beam profilometers and as microdosimeters for small field applications like stereotaxy and also for in vivo applications. These dosimeters, which are obtained on a wire substrate that could be either metallic or SiC or even graphite, display good performances also as ion or synchrotron X-rays detectors

  15. High collection efficiency CVD diamond alpha detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergonzo, P.; Foulon, F.; Marshall, R.D.; Jany, C.; Brambilla, A.; McKeag, R.D.; Jackman, R.B.

    1998-01-01

    Advances in Chemical Vapor Deposited (CVD) diamond have enabled the routine use of this material for sensor device fabrication, allowing exploitation of its unique combination of physical properties (low temperature susceptibility (> 500 C), high resistance to radiation damage (> 100 Mrad) and to corrosive media). A consequence of CVD diamond growth on silicon is the formation of polycrystalline films which has a profound influence on the physical and electronic properties with respect to those measured on monocrystalline diamond. The authors report the optimization of physical and geometrical device parameters for radiation detection in the counting mode. Sandwich and co-planar electrode geometries are tested and their performances evaluated with regard to the nature of the field profile and drift distances inherent in such devices. The carrier drift length before trapping was measured under alpha particles and values as high as 40% of the overall film thickness are reported. Further, by optimizing the device geometry, they show that a gain in collection efficiency, defined as the induced charge divided by the deposited charge within the material, can be achieved even though lower bias values are used

  16. Time resolved investigations on flow field and quasi wall shear stress of an impingement configuration with pulsating jets by means of high speed PIV and a surface hot wire array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janetzke, Timm; Nitsche, Wolfgang

    2009-01-01

    The effects of jet pulsation on flow field and quasi wall shear stress of an impingement configuration were investigated experimentally. The excitation Strouhal number and amplitude were varied as the most influential parameters. A line-array with three submerged air jets, and a confining plate were used. The flow field analysis by means of time resolved particle image velocimetry shows that the controlled excitation can considerably affect the near-field flow of an impinging jet array. These effects are visualized as organization of the coherent flow structures. Augmentation of the Kelvin-Helmholtz vortices in the jet shear layer depends on the Strouhal number and pulsation magnitude and can be associated with pairing of small scale vortices in the jet. A total maximum of vortex strength was observed when exciting with Sr = 0.82 and coincident high amplitudes. Time resolved interaction between impinging vortices and impingement plate boundary layer due to jet excitation was verified by using an array of 5 μm surface hot wires. Corresponding to the global flow field modification due to periodic jet pulsation, the impact of the vortex rings on the wall boundary layer is highly influenced by the above mentioned excitation parameters and reaches a maximum at Sr = 0.82.

  17. Carbon nanostructures from Fe-C nanocomposites by activated CVD methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleaca, Claudiu; Morjan, Ion; Alexandrescu, Rodica; Dumitrache, Florian; Soare, Iuliana; Gavrila-Florescu, Lavinia [Laser Photochemistry Laboratory, NILPRP, Bucharest (Romania); Le Normand, Francois; Faerber, Jaques [Groupe Surfaces and Interfaces, IPCMS, UMR 7504 CNRS, Strasbourg (France)

    2010-04-15

    Iron-based core-shell nanoparticles can present interesting catalytic properties for the growth of carbon nanostructures. We report the synthesis of various carbon nanostructures using activated chemical vapour deposition methods. These structures were analysed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Raman spectroscopy. Laser pyrolysis technique was used for synthesis of less than 10 nm diameter Fe-C core-shell catalyst nanoparticles. Acetone suspensions of Fe-C nanoparticles were drop-casted or spin coated onto Si(100) substrates. The consequence of hydrogen selective etching of these nanocomposites at 550 C, followed by a treatment with a mixture of H{sub 2} and C{sub 2}H{sub 2} at 700 C (both in the presence of hot filaments) was the growth of corrugated ribbons and decorated or distorted carbon nanotubes/nanofibers. Round agglomerate nanoparticles and long and very thin nanotubes were observed on the substrates edges (protected from direct etching). By adding in similar conditions a glow discharge plasma to hot filaments, the resulted deposits contain oriented nanotubes. Due to the implication of the electric field, the presence of both plasma and hot wires seems to significantly change the specific growth conditions of carbon nanostructures towards those resulted when only incandescent filaments were used (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  18. Origin, state of the art and some prospects of the diamond CVD

    CERN Document Server

    Spitsyn, B V; Alexenko, A E

    2000-01-01

    A short review on the diamond CVD origin, together with its state of the art and some prospects was given. New hybrid methods of the diamond CVD permit to gain 1.2 to 6 times of growth rate in comparison with ordinary diamond CVD's. Recent results on n-type diamond film synthesis through phosphorus doping in the course of the CVD process are briefly discussed. In comparison with high-pressure diamond synthesis, the CVD processes open new facets of the diamond as ultimate crystal for science and technology evolution. It was stressed that, mainly on the basis of new CVDs of diamond, the properties of natural diamond are not only reproduced, but can be surpassed. As examples, mechanical (fracture resistance), physical (thermal conductivity), and chemical (oxidation stability) properties are mentioned. Some present issues in the field are considered.

  19. 25th anniversary article: CVD polymers: a new paradigm for surface modification and device fabrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coclite, Anna Maria; Howden, Rachel M; Borrelli, David C; Petruczok, Christy D; Yang, Rong; Yagüe, Jose Luis; Ugur, Asli; Chen, Nan; Lee, Sunghwan; Jo, Won Jun; Liu, Andong; Wang, Xiaoxue; Gleason, Karen K

    2013-10-11

    Well-adhered, conformal, thin (polymers can be achieved on virtually any substrate: organic, inorganic, rigid, flexible, planar, three-dimensional, dense, or porous. In CVD polymerization, the monomer(s) are delivered to the surface through the vapor phase and then undergo simultaneous polymerization and thin film formation. By eliminating the need to dissolve macromolecules, CVD enables insoluble polymers to be coated and prevents solvent damage to the substrate. CVD film growth proceeds from the substrate up, allowing for interfacial engineering, real-time monitoring, and thickness control. Initiated-CVD shows successful results in terms of rationally designed micro- and nanoengineered materials to control molecular interactions at material surfaces. The success of oxidative-CVD is mainly demonstrated for the deposition of organic conducting and semiconducting polymers. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. CVD diamond deposition onto dental burs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, N.; Sein, H.

    2001-01-01

    A hot-filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) system has been modified to enable non-planar substrates, such as metallic wires and dental burs, to be uniformly coated with thin polycrystalline diamond films. Initially, diamond deposition was carried out on titanium and tantalum wires in order to test and optimize the system. High growth rates of the order of approx. 8 /hr were obtained when depositing diamond on titanium wires using the vertical filament arrangement. However, lower growth rates of the order of 4-5meu m/hr were obtained with diamond deposition on tantalum wires. To extend the work towards a practical biomedical application tungsten carbide dental burs were coated with diamond films. The as-grown films were found to be polycrystalline and uniform over the cutting tip. Finally, the costs relating to diamond CVD onto dental burs have been presented in this paper. The costs relating to coating different number of burs at a time and the effect of film thickness on costs have been included in this investigation. (author)

  1. CVD diamond windows for infrared synchrotron applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sussmann, R.S.; Pickles, C.S.J.; Brandon, J.R.; Wort, C.J.H.; Coe, S.E.; Wasenczuk, A.; Dodge, C.N.; Beale, A.C.; Krehan, A.J.; Dore, P.; Nucara, A.; Calvani, P.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the attributes that make diamond a unique material for infrared synchrotron beam experiments. New developments in diamond synthesised by Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD) promise to extend the range of applications which have been hitherto limited by the availability and cost of large-size single-crystal diamond. Polycrystalline CVD diamond components such as large (100 mm) diameter windows with extremely good transparency over a wide spectral range are now commercially available. Properties of CVD diamond of relevance to optical applications, such as mechanical strength, thermal conductivity and absolute bulk absorption, are discussed. It is shown that although some of the properties of CVD diamond (similar to other polycrystalline industrial ceramics) are affected by the grain structure, currently produced CVD diamond optical components have the quality and performance required for numerous demanding applications

  2. Non-classical crystallization of thin films and nanostructures in CVD and PVD processes

    CERN Document Server

    Hwang, Nong Moon

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive introduction to a recently-developed approach to the growth mechanism of thin films and nanostructures via chemical vapour deposition (CVD). Starting from the underlying principles of the low pressure synthesis of diamond films, it is shown that diamond growth occurs not by individual atoms but by charged nanoparticles. This newly-discovered growth mechanism turns out to be general to many CVD and some physical vapor deposition (PVD) processes. This non-classical crystallization is a new paradigm of crystal growth, with active research taking place on growth in solution, especially in biomineralization processes. Established understanding of the growth of thin films and nanostructures is based around processes involving individual atoms or molecules. According to the author’s research over the last two decades, however, the generation of charged gas phase nuclei is shown to be the rule rather than the exception in the CVD process, and charged gas phase nuclei are actively ...

  3. Influence of surface morphology and microstructure on performance of CVD tungsten coating under fusion transient thermal loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lian, Youyun, E-mail: lianyy@swip.ac.cn [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu (China); Liu, Xiang; Wang, Jianbao; Feng, Fan [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu (China); Lv, Yanwei; Song, Jiupeng [China National R& D Center for Tungsten Technology, Xiamen Tungsten Co. Ltd, 361026 Xiamen (China); Chen, Jiming [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu (China)

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • Thick CVD-W coatingswere deposited at a rapid growth rate. • The polished CVD-W coatings have highly textured structure and exhibited a very strong preferred orientation. • The polished CVD tungsten coatings show superior thermal shock resistance as compared with that of the as-deposited coatings. • The crack formation of the polished CVD-W was almost suppressed at an elevated temperature. - Abstract: Thick tungsten coatings have been deposited by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) at a rapid growth rate. A series of tungsten coatings with different thickness and surface morphology were prepared. The surface morphology, microstructure and preferred orientation of the CVD tungsten coatings were investigated. Thermal shock analyses were performed by using an electron beam facility to study the influence of the surface morphology and the microstructure on the thermal shock resistance of the CVD tungsten coatings. Repetitive (100 pulses) ELMs-like thermal shock loads were applied at various temperatures between room temperature and 600 °C with pulse duration of 1 ms and an absorbed power density of up to 1 GW/m{sup 2}. The results of the tests demonstrated that the specific surface morphology and columnar crystal structure of the CVD tungsten have significant influence on the surface cracking threshold and crack propagation of the materials. The CVD tungsten coatings with a polished surface show superior thermal shock resistance as compared with that of the as-deposited coatings with a rough surface.

  4. Hot-wire synthesis of Si nanoparticles

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Scriba, MR

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The viability of producing silicon nanoparticles using the HWCVD process is investigated. A system is assembled and particles are produced from silane at pressures between 0.2 – 48 mbar, with hydrogen dilutions of 0-80%, at a total flow rate of 50...

  5. CVD diamond for nuclear detection applications

    CERN Document Server

    Bergonzo, P; Tromson, D; Mer, C; Guizard, B; Marshall, R D; Foulon, F

    2002-01-01

    Chemically vapour deposited (CVD) diamond is a remarkable material for the fabrication of radiation detectors. In fact, there exist several applications where other standard semiconductor detectors do not fulfil the specific requirements imposed by corrosive, hot and/or high radiation dose environments. The improvement of the electronic properties of CVD diamond has been under intensive investigations and led to the development of a few applications that are addressing specific industrial needs. Here, we report on CVD diamond-based detector developments and we describe how this material, even though of a polycrystalline nature, is readily of great interest for applications in the nuclear industry as well as for physics experiments. Improvements in the material synthesis as well as on device fabrication especially concern the synthesis of films that do not exhibit space charge build up effects which are often encountered in CVD diamond materials and that are highly detrimental for detection devices. On a pre-i...

  6. Surface coatings deposited by CVD and PVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabriel, H.M.

    1982-01-01

    The demand for wear and corrosion protective coatings is increasing due to economic facts. Deposition processes in gas atmospheres like the CVD and PVD processes attained a tremendous importance especially in the field of the deposition of thin hard refractory and ceramic coatings. CVD and PVD processes are reviewed in detail. Some examples of coating installations are shown and numerous applications are given to demonstrate the present state of the art. (orig.) [de

  7. CVD diamond for nuclear detection applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergonzo, P.; Brambilla, A.; Tromson, D.; Mer, C.; Guizard, B.; Marshall, R.D.; Foulon, F.

    2002-01-01

    Chemically vapour deposited (CVD) diamond is a remarkable material for the fabrication of radiation detectors. In fact, there exist several applications where other standard semiconductor detectors do not fulfil the specific requirements imposed by corrosive, hot and/or high radiation dose environments. The improvement of the electronic properties of CVD diamond has been under intensive investigations and led to the development of a few applications that are addressing specific industrial needs. Here, we report on CVD diamond-based detector developments and we describe how this material, even though of a polycrystalline nature, is readily of great interest for applications in the nuclear industry as well as for physics experiments. Improvements in the material synthesis as well as on device fabrication especially concern the synthesis of films that do not exhibit space charge build up effects which are often encountered in CVD diamond materials and that are highly detrimental for detection devices. On a pre-industrial basis, CVD diamond detectors have been fabricated for nuclear industry applications in hostile environments. Such devices can operate in harsh environments and overcome limitations encountered with the standard semiconductor materials. Of these, this paper presents devices for the monitoring of the alpha activity in corrosive nuclear waste solutions, such as those encountered in nuclear fuel assembly reprocessing facilities, as well as diamond-based thermal neutron detectors exhibiting a high neutron to gamma selectivity. All these demonstrate the effectiveness of a demanding industrial need that relies on the remarkable resilience of CVD diamond

  8. Fermented dairy food and CVD risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapsell, Linda C

    2015-04-01

    Fermented dairy foods such as yoghurt and cheese are commonly found in the Mediterranean diet. Recent landmark research has confirmed the effect of the Mediterranean diet on reducing the CVD risk, but the relative contributions of fermented dairy foods have not been fully articulated. The present study provides a review of the relationship between fermented dairy foods consumption and CVD risk in the context of the whole diet. Studies show that people who eat healthier diets may be more likely to consume yoghurt, so there is a challenge in attributing separate effects to yoghurt. Analyses from large population studies list yoghurt as the food most negatively associated with the risk of weight gain (a problem that may lead to CVD). There is some suggestion that fermented dairy foods consumption (yoghurt or cheese) may be associated with reduced inflammatory biomarkers associated with the development of CVD. Dietary trials suggest that cheese may not have the same effect on raising LDL-cholesterol levels as butter with the same saturated fat content. The same might be stated for yoghurt. The use of different probiotic cultures and other aspects of study design remain a problem for research. Nevertheless, population studies from a range of countries have shown that a reduced risk of CVD occurs with the consumption of fermented dairy foods. A combination of evidence is necessary, and more research is always valuable, but indications remain that fermented dairy foods such as cheese and yoghurt are integral to diets that are protective against CVD.

  9. Nucleation of microwave plasma CVD diamond on molybdenum (Mo) substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inderjeet, K.; Ramesh, S.

    2000-01-01

    Molybdenum is a metal, which is gaining increasing significance in industrial applications. The main use of Mo is as all alloying element added in small amounts to steel, irons and non- ferrous alloys in order to enhance the strength, toughness and wear resistance. Mo is also vastly being employed in the automotive and aircraft industries, mainly due to its low coefficient of friction. Diamond, on be other hand, is a unique material for innumerable applications because of its usual combination of physical and chemical properties. Several potential applications can be anticipated for diamond in many sectors including electronics, optics, as protective corrosion resistant coatings, cutting tools, etc. With the enhancement in science and technology, diamond microcrystals and thin films are now being produced from the vapour phase by a variety of chemical vapour deposition (CVD) techniques; such as microwave plasma CVD. With such technology being made available, it is envisage that diamond-coated molybdenum would further enhance the performance and to open up new avenue for Mo in various industries. Therefore, it is the aim of the present work to study the nucleation and growth of diamond particles on Mo surface by employing microwave plasma CVD (MAPCVD). In the present work, diamond deposition was carried out in several stages by varying the deposition distance. The nucleation and growth rate were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In addition, the existence of diamond was verified by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. It has been found that the nucleation and growth rate of diamond particles were influenced by the deposition height between the substrate and plasma. Under the optimum condition, well defined diamond crystallites distributed homogeneously throughout the surface, could be obtained. Some of the important parameters controlling the deposition and growth of diamond particles on Mo surface are discussed. (author)

  10. Selective CVD tungsten on silicon implanted SiO/sub 2/

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennessy, W.A.; Ghezzo, M.; Wilson, R.H.; Bakhru, H.

    1988-01-01

    The application range of selective CVD tungsten is extended by its coupling to the ion implantation of insulating materials. This article documents the results of selective CVD tungsten using silicon implanted into SiO/sub 2/ to nucleate the tungsten growth. The role of implant does, energy, and surface preparation in achieving nucleation are described. SEM micrographs are presented to demonstrate the selectivity of this process. Measurements of the tungsten film thickness and sheet resistance are provided for each of the experimental variants corresponding to successful deposition. RBS and XPS analysis are discussed in terms of characterizing the tungsten/oxide interface and to evaluate the role of the silicon implant in the CVD tungsten mechanism. Utilizing this method a desired metallization pattern can be readily defined with lithography and ion implantation, and accurately replicated with a layer of CVD tungsten. This approach avoids problems usually associated with blanket deposition and pattern transfer, which are particularly troublesome for submicron VLSI technology

  11. High-efficiency supercapacitor electrodes of CVD-grown graphenes hybridized with multiwalled carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalam, Amir Abul; Bae, Joon Ho [Dept. of Nano-physics, Gachon University, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Park, Soo Bin; Seo, Yong Ho [Nanotechnology and Advanced Material Engineering, HMC, and GRI, Sejong University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    We demonstrate, for the first time, high-efficiency supercapacitors by utilizing chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-grown graphenes hybridized with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs). A single-layer graphene was grown by simple CVD growth method, and transferred to polyethylene terephthalate substrates. The bare graphenes were further hybridized with multiwalled CNTs by drop-coating CNTs on graphenes. The supercapacitors using bare graphenes and graphenes with CNTs revealed that graphenes with CNTs resulted in enhanced supercapacitor performances of 2.2- (the mass-specific capacitance) and 4.4-fold (the area-specific capacitance) of those of bare graphenes. Our strategy to improve electrochemical performance of CVD-grown graphenes is advantageous for large-scale graphene electrodes due to high electrical conductivity of CVD-grown graphenes and cost-effectiveness of using multiwalled CNTs as compared to conventional employment of single-walled CNTs.

  12. High-efficiency supercapacitor electrodes of CVD-grown graphenes hybridized with multiwalled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalam, Amir Abul; Bae, Joon Ho; Park, Soo Bin; Seo, Yong Ho

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate, for the first time, high-efficiency supercapacitors by utilizing chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-grown graphenes hybridized with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs). A single-layer graphene was grown by simple CVD growth method, and transferred to polyethylene terephthalate substrates. The bare graphenes were further hybridized with multiwalled CNTs by drop-coating CNTs on graphenes. The supercapacitors using bare graphenes and graphenes with CNTs revealed that graphenes with CNTs resulted in enhanced supercapacitor performances of 2.2- (the mass-specific capacitance) and 4.4-fold (the area-specific capacitance) of those of bare graphenes. Our strategy to improve electrochemical performance of CVD-grown graphenes is advantageous for large-scale graphene electrodes due to high electrical conductivity of CVD-grown graphenes and cost-effectiveness of using multiwalled CNTs as compared to conventional employment of single-walled CNTs

  13. CVD diamonds as thermoluminescent detectors for medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marczewska, B.; Olko, P.; Nesladek, M.; Waligorski, M.P.R.; Kerremans, Y.

    2002-01-01

    Diamond is believed to be a promising material for medical dosimetry due to its tissue equivalence, mechanical and radiation hardness, and lack of solubility in water or in disinfecting agents. A number of diamond samples, obtained under different growth conditions at Limburg University, using the chemical vapour deposition (CVD) technique, was tested as thermoluminescence dosemeters. Their TL glow curve, TL response after doses of gamma rays, fading, and so on were studied at dose levels and for radiation modalities typical for radiotherapy. The investigated CVD diamonds displayed sensitivity comparable with that of MTS-N (Li:Mg,Ti) detectors, signal stability (reproducibility after several readouts) below 10% (1 SD) and no fading was found four days after irradiation. A dedicated CVD diamond plate was grown, cut into 20 detector chips (3x3x0.5 mm) and used for measuring the dose-depth distribution at different depths in a water phantom, for 60 Co and six MV X ray radiotherapy beams. Due to the sensitivity of diamond to ambient light, it was difficult to achieve reproducibility comparable with that of standard LiF detectors. (author)

  14. Investigation of CVD graphene topography and surface electrical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Rui; Pearce, Ruth; Gallop, John; Patel, Trupti; Pollard, Andrew; Hao, Ling; Zhao, Fang; Jackman, Richard; Klein, Norbert; Zurutuza, Amaia

    2016-01-01

    Combining scanning probe microscopy techniques to characterize samples of graphene, a selfsupporting, single atomic layer hexagonal lattice of carbon atoms, provides far more information than a single technique can. Here we focus on graphene grown by chemical vapour deposition (CVD), grown by passing carbon containing gas over heated copper, which catalyses single atomic layer growth of graphene on its surface. To be useful for applications the graphene must be transferred onto other substrates. Following transfer it is important to characterize the CVD graphene. We combine atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning Kelvin probe microscopy (SKPM) to reveal several properties of the transferred film. AFM alone provides topographic information, showing ‘wrinkles’ where the transfer provided incomplete substrate attachment. SKPM measures the surface potential indicating regions with different electronic properties for example graphene layer number. By combining AFM and SKPM local defects and impurities can also be observed. Finally, Raman spectroscopy can confirm the structural properties of the graphene films, such as the number of layers and level of disorder, by observing the peaks present. We report example data on a number of CVD samples from different sources. (paper)

  15. MgO by injection CVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrutis, A.; Kubilius, V.; Teiserkis, A.; Bigelyte, V.; Vengalis, B.; Jukna, A.; Butkute, R.

    1997-01-01

    Epitaxial YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 layers with 45 in-plane orientation have been grown by injection CVD on MgO substrates polished off-axis to within 1.4-1.9 of the [100] direction. This new single-source CVD process is based on computer-controlled injection of precise microdoses of a metal-organic precursor solution into a CVD reactor. A wide range of solution compositions was tested to investigate compositional effects on phase purity, surface morphology, texturing and superconducting properties of the prepared films. The highest quality films with pure 45 texture had a smooth surface, zero resistance T c (R=0) of 88-89 K, and critical current density J c (77 K) above 10 6 A/cm 2 . (orig.) and critical current density J c (77 K) above 10 6 A/cm 2 . (orig.)

  16. CVD mechanism of pyrolytic boron nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanji, H.; Monden, K.; Ide, M.

    1987-01-01

    Pyrolytic boron nitride (P-BN) has become a essential material for III-V compound semiconductor manufacturing process. As the demand from electronics industry for larger single crystals increases, the demand for larger and more economical P-BN components is growing rapidly. P-BN is manufactured by low pressure CVD using boron-trihalides and ammonia as the reactants. In spite that P-BN has been in the market for quite a long time, limited number of fundamental studies regarding the kinetics and the formation mechanism of P-BN have been reported. As it has been demonstrated in CVD of Si, knowledge and both theoretical and empirical modeling of CVD process can be applied to improve the deposition technology and to give more uniform deposition with higher efficiency, and it should also apply to the deposition of P-BN

  17. Effect of pulse biasing on the morphology of diamond films grown by hot filament CVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beake, B.D.; Hussain, I.U.; Rego, C.; Ahmed, W.

    1999-01-01

    There has been considerable interest in the chemical vapour deposition (CVD) of diamond due to its unique mechanical, optical and electronic properties, which make it useful for many applications. For use in optical and electronic applications further developments in the CVD process are required to control the surface morphology and crystal size of the diamond films. These will require a detailed understanding of both the nucleation and growth processes that effect the properties. The technique of bias enhanced nucleation (BEN) of diamond offers better reproducibility than conventional pre-treatment methods such as mechanical abrasion. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) have been used study the surface modification of diamond films on silicon substrates during pulse biased growth in a hot filament CVD reactor. Pre-abraded silicon substrates were subjected to a three-step sequential growth process: (i) diamond deposition under standard CVD conditions, (ii) bias pre-treatment and (iii) deposition under standard conditions. The results show that the bias pre-treatment time is a critical parameter controlling the surface morphology and roughness of the diamond films deposited. Biasing reduces the surface roughness from 152 nm for standard CVD diamond to 68 nm for the 2.5 minutes pulse biased film. Further increase in the bias time results in an increase in surface roughness and crystallite size. (author)

  18. Método de fio quente na determinação das propriedades térmicas de polímeros Hot wire technique in the determination of thermal properties of polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson N. dos Santos

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A técnica de fio quente paralelo normalizada para a determinação da condutividade térmica de materiais cerâmicos foi empregada na determinação das propriedades térmicas de polímeros. As amostras foram preparadas em forma de paralelepípedos retangulares, com dimensões de (230x80x30mm. Neste trabalho, a condutividade térmica e o calor específico foram simultaneamente determinados a partir do mesmo transiente térmico experimental e a difusividade térmica foi calculada a partir dessas duas propriedades. Cinco diferentes polímeros com diferentes estruturas a temperatura ambiente foram selecionados neste trabalho. Os cálculos foram feitos utilizando-se um método de ajuste por regressão não linear, de tal maneira que todos os pontos experimentais obtidos são considerados nos cálculos dessas propriedades térmicas. O equipamento utilizado neste trabalho é totalmente automatizado. A reprodutibilidade dos resultados foi muito boa com respeito à condutividade térmica, obtendo-se um desvio máximo de apenas 0,5% entre os valores máximo e mínimo para todas as amostras ensaiadas, mesmo introduzindo propositadamente alguns defeitos no arranjo experimental, em relação ao modelo teórico. Todavia, pequenos desvios do modelo teórico podem causar drásticas influências nos valores de calor específico, obtendo-se desvios de até 32% em relação ao arranjo experimental correto. Os resultados experimentais foram então comparados com aqueles encontrados na literatura. As discrepâncias observadas entre alguns desses valores podem estar associadas ao grau de cristalinidade ou à história térmica da amostra, ficando assim mostrada a aplicabilidade desta técnica na determinação das propriedades térmicas de polímeros.The hot wire parallel technique standardized for determining thermal conductivity of ceramic materials was employed in the determination of thermal properties of polymers. Samples were prepared in shape of rectangular

  19. Recent results on CVD diamond radiation sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weilhammer, P.; Adam, W.; Bauer, C.; Berdermann, E.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; v. d. Eijk, R.; van Eijk, B.; Fallou, A.; Fish, D.; Fried, M.; Gan, K. K.; Gheeraert, E.; Grigoriev, E.; Hallewell, G.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Kass, R.; Knopfle, K. T.; Krammer, M.; Manfredi, P. F.; Meier, D.; LeNormand; Pan, L. S.; Pernegger, H.; Pernicka, M.; Plano, R.; Re, V.; Riester, J. L.; Roe, S.; Roff; Rudge, A.; Schieber, M.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Speziali, V.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Tapper, R. J.; Tesarek, R.; Thomson, G. B.; Trawick, M.; Trischuk, W.; Turchetta, R.; RD 42 Collaboration

    1998-02-01

    CVD diamond radiation sensors are being developed for possible use in trackers in the LHC experiments. The diamond promises to be radiation hard well beyond particle fluences that can be tolerated by Si sensors. Recent results from the RD 42 collaboration on charge collection distance and on radiation hardness of CVD diamond samples will be reported. Measurements with diamond tracking devices, both strip detectors and pixel detectors, will be discussed. Results from beam tests using a diamond strip detector which was read out with fast, 25 ns shaping time, radiation-hard pipeline electronics will be presented.

  20. Low temperature CVD deposition of silicon carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dariel, M.; Yeheskel, J.; Agam, S.; Edelstein, D.; Lebovits, O.; Ron, Y.

    1991-04-01

    The coating of graphite on silicon carbide from the gaseous phase in a hot-well, open flow reactor at 1150degC is described. This study constitutes the first part of an investigation of the process for the coating of nuclear fuel by chemical vapor deposition (CVD)

  1. CVD diamond pixel detectors for LHC experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Wedenig, R; Bauer, C; Berdermann, E; Bergonzo, P; Bogani, F; Borchi, E; Brambilla, A; Bruzzi, Mara; Colledani, C; Conway, J; Dabrowski, W; Delpierre, P A; Deneuville, A; Dulinski, W; van Eijk, B; Fallou, A; Fizzotti, F; Foulon, F; Friedl, M; Gan, K K; Gheeraert, E; Grigoriev, E; Hallewell, G D; Hall-Wilton, R; Han, S; Hartjes, F G; Hrubec, Josef; Husson, D; Kagan, H; Kania, D R; Kaplon, J; Karl, C; Kass, R; Knöpfle, K T; Krammer, Manfred; Lo Giudice, A; Lü, R; Manfredi, P F; Manfredotti, C; Marshall, R D; Meier, D; Mishina, M; Oh, A; Pan, L S; Palmieri, V G; Pernicka, Manfred; Peitz, A; Pirollo, S; Polesello, P; Pretzl, Klaus P; Procario, M; Re, V; Riester, J L; Roe, S; Roff, D G; Rudge, A; Runólfsson, O; Russ, J; Schnetzer, S R; Sciortino, S; Speziali, V; Stelzer, H; Stone, R; Suter, B; Tapper, R J; Tesarek, R J; Trawick, M L; Trischuk, W; Vittone, E; Wagner, A; Walsh, A M; Weilhammer, Peter; White, C; Zeuner, W; Ziock, H J; Zöller, M

    1999-01-01

    This paper reviews the development of CVD diamond pixel detectors. The preparation of the diamond pixel sensors for bump-bonding to the pixel readout electronics for the LHC and the results from beam tests carried out at CERN are described. (9 refs).

  2. CVD diamond pixel detectors for LHC experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wedenig, R.; Adam, W.; Bauer, C.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; Eijk, B. van; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Gan, K.K.; Gheeraert, E.; Grigoriev, E.; Hallewell, G.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Karl, C.; Kass, R.; Knoepfle, K.T.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Manfredi, P.F.; Manfredotti, C.; Marshall, R.D.; Meier, D.; Mishina, M.; Oh, A.; Pan, L.S.; Palmieri, V.G.; Pernicka, M.; Peitz, A.; Pirollo, S.; Polesello, P.; Pretzl, K.; Procario, M.; Re, V.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Roff, D.; Rudge, A.; Runolfsson, O.; Russ, J.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Speziali, V.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Suter, B.; Tapper, R.J.; Tesarek, R.; Trawick, M.; Trischuk, W.; Vittone, E.; Wagner, A.; Walsh, A.M.; Weilhammer, P.; White, C.; Zeuner, W.; Ziock, H.; Zoeller, M.; Blanquart, L.; Breugnion, P.; Charles, E.; Ciocio, A.; Clemens, J.C.; Dao, K.; Einsweiler, K.; Fasching, D.; Fischer, P.; Joshi, A.; Keil, M.; Klasen, V.; Kleinfelder, S.; Laugier, D.; Meuser, S.; Milgrome, O.; Mouthuy, T.; Richardson, J.; Sinervo, P.; Treis, J.; Wermes, N

    1999-08-01

    This paper reviews the development of CVD diamond pixel detectors. The preparation of the diamond pixel sensors for bump-bonding to the pixel readout electronics for the LHC and the results from beam tests carried out at CERN are described.

  3. CVD diamond pixel detectors for LHC experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wedenig, R.; Adam, W.; Bauer, C.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; Eijk, B. van; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Gan, K.K.; Gheeraert, E.; Grigoriev, E.; Hallewell, G.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Karl, C.; Kass, R.; Knoepfle, K.T.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Manfredi, P.F.; Manfredotti, C.; Marshall, R.D.; Meier, D.; Mishina, M.; Oh, A.; Pan, L.S.; Palmieri, V.G.; Pernicka, M.; Peitz, A.; Pirollo, S.; Polesello, P.; Pretzl, K.; Procario, M.; Re, V.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Roff, D.; Rudge, A.; Runolfsson, O.; Russ, J.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Speziali, V.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Suter, B.; Tapper, R.J.; Tesarek, R.; Trawick, M.; Trischuk, W.; Vittone, E.; Wagner, A.; Walsh, A.M.; Weilhammer, P.; White, C.; Zeuner, W.; Ziock, H.; Zoeller, M.; Blanquart, L.; Breugnion, P.; Charles, E.; Ciocio, A.; Clemens, J.C.; Dao, K.; Einsweiler, K.; Fasching, D.; Fischer, P.; Joshi, A.; Keil, M.; Klasen, V.; Kleinfelder, S.; Laugier, D.; Meuser, S.; Milgrome, O.; Mouthuy, T.; Richardson, J.; Sinervo, P.; Treis, J.; Wermes, N.

    1999-01-01

    This paper reviews the development of CVD diamond pixel detectors. The preparation of the diamond pixel sensors for bump-bonding to the pixel readout electronics for the LHC and the results from beam tests carried out at CERN are described

  4. Turbostratic stacked CVD graphene for high-performance devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uemura, Kohei; Ikuta, Takashi; Maehashi, Kenzo

    2018-03-01

    We have fabricated turbostratic stacked graphene with high-transport properties by the repeated transfer of CVD monolayer graphene. The turbostratic stacked CVD graphene exhibited higher carrier mobility and conductivity than CVD monolayer graphene. The electron mobility for the three-layer turbostratic stacked CVD graphene surpassed 10,000 cm2 V-1 s-1 at room temperature, which is five times greater than that for CVD monolayer graphene. The results indicate that the high performance is derived from maintenance of the linear band dispersion, suppression of the carrier scattering, and parallel conduction. Therefore, turbostratic stacked CVD graphene is a superior material for high-performance devices.

  5. High-pressure CVD Growth of InN and Indium-rich Group III-nitride Compound Semiconductors for Novel Mid- and Far-infrared Detectors and Emitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    conditions. The TMI and trimethylgallium ( TMG ) precursors are injected simultaneously c) growth surface response via PARS signal The link between...ternary or quaternary alloys such as InGaN or InGaAlN is illustrated in Fig. 10. Here, the injection of the metal precursors, TMI and TMG , are separated...digital InGaN alloy formation, for the control of phase segregations, as well as to adjust the injection parameter to the different TMI and TMG growth

  6. Estudo do Processo TIG Hot-Wire com Material de Adição AISI-316L Analisando o Efeito do Sopro Magnético do Arco sobre a Diluição do Cordão de Solda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick Alejandro González Olivares

    Full Text Available Resumo: O processo TIG com adição de arame quente (HotWire é considerado um processo altamente produtivo em comparação ao processo TIG convencional com arame frio (ColdWire, sendo possível alcançar grandes taxas de deposição e baixas porcentagens de diluição, características essas que permitem ao processo ser uma ótima alternativa para aplicações de revestimentos. Existem variadas opções em configurações de circuitos elétricos para aquecer o arame de adição no processo TIG Hot-Wire, entre elas podemos destacar a utilização da corrente contínua pulsada e a corrente alternada. No presente trabalho foi utilizada a corrente contínua constante e foram estudadas duas configurações do circuito elétrico para aquecer o material de adição, as quais em teoria provocam diferentes comportamentos no arco voltaico e, portanto, nas propriedades geométricas do cordão de solda. Uma primeira análise realizada sobre o arco voltaico demonstra que se forma um sopro mágnetico constante ao se aquecer o arame com corrente contínua constante. Segundo os ensaios realizados, a direção do sopro magnético depende da polaridade da corrente para aquecer o arame. Uma análise macrográfica dos cordões de solda obtidos demonstraram que os melhores resultados foram para os ensaios feitos com Hot-Wire, conseguindo diluições de até um 2% aproximadamente para uma velocidade de arame de 7,5 m/min, 1 kW de potência de aquecimento do arame e usando uma velocidade de soldagem de 30 cm/min.

  7. CVD calibration light systems specifications. Rev. 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mcllwain, A. K.

    1992-04-01

    Two prototype Cerenkov Viewing Device Calibration Light systems for the Mark IV CVD have been fabricated. They consist of a maintenance unit that will be used by the IAEA maintenance staff and a field unit that will be used by IAEA inspectors. More detailed information on the design of the calibration units can be obtained from the document SSP-39 and additional information on the Mark IV CVD can be obtained from the operating manual published as Canadian Safeguards Support Program document CSSP 6. The specifications refer to the prototype units which will be demonstrated to the IAEA in 1992 May. Based upon the feedback from the IAEA, the instruments will be changed in the final production models to provide devices that more closely satisfy the needs of the end users

  8. Recent results with CVD diamond trackers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, W.; Bauer, C.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; Eijk, B. van; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Gan, K.K.; Gheeraert, E.; Grigoriev, E.; Hallewell, G.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Karl, C.; Kass, R.; Knoepfle, K.T.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Manfredi, P.F.; Manfredotti, C.; Marshall, R.D.; Meier, D.; Mishina, M.; Oh, A.; Pan, L.S.; Palmieri, V.G.; Pernicka, M.; Peitz, A.; Pirollo, S.; Polesello, P.; Pretzl, K.; Procario, M.; Re, V.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Roff, D.; Rudge, A.; Runolfsson, O.; Russ, J.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Speziali, V.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Suter, B.; Tapper, R.J.; Tesarek, R.; Trawick, M.; Trischuk, W.; Vittone, E.; Walsh, A.M.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; White, C.; Ziock, H.; Zoeller, M

    1999-08-01

    We present recent results on the use of Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) diamond microstrip detectors for charged particle tracking. A series of detectors was fabricated using 1 x 1 cm{sup 2} diamonds. Good signal-to-noise ratios were observed using both slow and fast readout electronics. For slow readout electronics, 2 {mu}s shaping time, the most probable signal-to-noise ratio was 50 to 1. For fast readout electronics, 25 ns peaking time, the most probable signal-to-noise ratio was 7 to 1. Using the first 2 x 4 cm{sup 2} diamond from a production CVD reactor with slow readout electronics, the most probable signal-to-noise ratio was 23 to 1. The spatial resolution achieved for the detectors was consistent with the digital resolution expected from the detector pitch.

  9. Recent results with CVD diamond trackers

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, W; Berdermann, E; Bergonzo, P; Bogani, F; Borchi, E; Brambilla, A; Bruzzi, Mara; Colledani, C; Conway, J; Dabrowski, W; Delpierre, P A; Deneuville, A; Dulinski, W; van Eijk, B; Fallou, A; Fizzotti, F; Foulon, F; Friedl, M; Gan, K K; Gheeraert, E; Grigoriev, E; Hallewell, G D; Hall-Wilton, R; Han, S; Hartjes, F G; Hrubec, Josef; Husson, D; Kagan, H; Kania, D R; Kaplon, J; Karl, C; Kass, R; Knöpfle, K T; Krammer, Manfred; Lo Giudice, A; Lü, R; Manfredi, P F; Manfredotti, C; Marshall, R D; Meier, D; Mishina, M; Oh, A; Pan, L S; Palmieri, V G; Pernicka, Manfred; Peitz, A; Pirollo, S; Polesello, P; Pretzl, Klaus P; Procario, M; Re, V; Riester, J L; Roe, S; Roff, D G; Rudge, A; Runólfsson, O; Russ, J; Schnetzer, S R; Sciortino, S; Speziali, V; Stelzer, H; Stone, R; Suter, B; Tapper, R J; Tesarek, R J; Trawick, M L; Trischuk, W; Vittone, E; Walsh, A M; Wedenig, R; Weilhammer, Peter; White, C; Ziock, H J; Zöller, M

    1999-01-01

    We present recent results on the use of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond microstrip detectors for charged particle tracking. A series of detectors was fabricated using 1*1 cm/sup 2/ diamonds. Good signal-to-noise ratios were observed using both slow and fast readout electronics. For slow readout electronics, 2 mu s shaping time, the most probable signal-to-noise ratio was 50 to 1. For fast readout electronics, 25 ns peaking time, the most probable signal-to-noise ratio was 7 to 1. Using the first 2*4 cm/sup 2/ diamond from a production CVD reactor with slow readout electronics, the most probable signal-to-noise ratio was 23 to 1. The spatial resolution achieved for the detectors was consistent with the digital resolution expected from the detector pitch. (6 refs).

  10. Ballistic Josephson junctions based on CVD graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tianyi; Gallop, John; Hao, Ling; Romans, Edward

    2018-04-01

    Josephson junctions with graphene as the weak link between superconductors have been intensely studied in recent years, with respect to both fundamental physics and potential applications. However, most of the previous work was based on mechanically exfoliated graphene, which is not compatible with wafer-scale production. To overcome this limitation, we have used graphene grown by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) as the weak link of Josephson junctions. We demonstrate that very short, wide CVD-graphene-based Josephson junctions with Nb electrodes can work without any undesirable hysteresis in their electrical characteristics from 1.5 K down to a base temperature of 320 mK, and their gate-tuneable critical current shows an ideal Fraunhofer-like interference pattern in a perpendicular magnetic field. Furthermore, for our shortest junctions (50 nm in length), we find that the normal state resistance oscillates with the gate voltage, consistent with the junctions being in the ballistic regime, a feature not previously observed in CVD-graphene-based Josephson junctions.

  11. Undoped CVD diamond films for electrochemical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosinska, Lidia; Fabisiak, Kazimierz; Paprocki, Kazimierz; Kowalska, Magdalena; Popielarski, Pawel; Szybowicz, Miroslaw

    2013-01-01

    By using different deposition conditions, the CVD diamond films with different qualities and orientation were grown by the hot-filament CVD technique. The object of this article is to summarize and discuss relation between structural, physical and electrochemical properties of different diamond electrodes. The physical properties of the Hot Filament CVD microcrystalline diamond films are analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. In presented studies two different electrodes were used of the diamond grain sizes around 200 nm and 10 μm, as it was estimated from SEM picture. The diamond layers quality was checked on basis of FWHM (Full width at Half Maximum) of 1332 cm −1 diamond Raman peak. The ratio of sp 3 /sp 2 carbon bonds was determined by 1550 cm −1 G band and 1350 cm −1 D band in the Raman spectrum. The electrochemical properties were analyzed using (CV) cyclic voltammetry measurements in aqueous solutions. The sensitivity of undoped diamond electrodes depends strongly on diamond film quality and concentration of amorphous carbon phase in the diamond layer

  12. An assessment of radiotherapy dosimeters based on CVD grown diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramkumar, S.; Buttar, C.M.; Conway, J.; Whitehead, A.J.; Sussman, R.S.; Hill, G.; Walker, S.

    2001-01-01

    Diamond is potentially a very suitable material for use as a dosimeter for radiotherapy. Its radiation hardness, the near tissue equivalence and chemical inertness are some of the characteristics of diamond, which make it well suited for its application as a dosimeter. Recent advances in the synthesis of diamond by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) technology have resulted in the improvement in the quality of material and increased its suitability for radiotherapy applications. We report in this paper, the response of prototype dosimeters based on two different types (CVD1 and CVD2) of CVD diamond to X-rays. The diamond devices were assessed for sensitivity, dependence of response on dose and dose rate, and compared with a Scanditronix silicon photon diode and a PTW natural diamond dosimeter. The diamond devices of CVD1 type showed an initial increase in response with dose, which saturates after ∼6 Gy. The diamond devices of CVD2 type had a response at low fields ( 1162.8 V/cm), the CVD2-type devices showed polarisation and dose-rate dependence. The sensitivity of the CVD diamond devices varied between 82 and 1300 nC/Gy depending upon the sample type and the applied voltage. The sensitivity of CVD diamond devices was significantly higher than that of natural diamond and silicon dosimeters. The results suggest that CVD diamond devices can be fabricated for successful use in radiotherapy applications

  13. Comparative evaluation of CVD diamond technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony, T.R. [General Electric Corporate Research & Development Center, Schenectady, NY (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of diamonds occurs from hydrogen-hydrocarbon gas mixtures in the presence of atomic hydrogen at subatmospheric pressures. Most CVD methods are based on different means of generating and transporting atomic hydrogen in a particular system. Evaluation of these different techniques involves their capital costs, material costs, energy costs, labor costs and the type and quality of diamond that they produce. Currently, there is no universal agreement on which is the best technique and technique selection has been largely driven by the professional background of the user as well as the particular application of interest. This article discusses the criteria for evaluating a process for low-pressure deposition of diamond. Next, a brief history of low-pressure diamond synthesis is reviewed. Several specific processes are addressed, including the hot filament process, hot filament electron-assisted chemical vapor deposition, and plasma generation of atomic hydrogen by glow discharge, microwave discharge, low pressure radio frequency discharge, high pressure DC discharge, high pressure microwave discharge jets, high pressure RF discharge, and high and low pressure flames. Other types of diamond deposition methods are also evaluated. 101 refs., 15 figs.

  14. Development of CVD diamond radiation detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, W; Berdermann, E; Bogani, F; Borchi, E; Bruzzi, Mara; Colledani, C; Conway, J; Dabrowski, W; Delpierre, P A; Deneuville, A; Dulinski, W; van Eijk, B; Fallou, A; Fisch, D; Foulon, F; Friedl, M; Gan, K K; Gheeraert, E; Grigoriev, E A; Hallewell, G D; Hall-Wilton, R; Han, S; Hartjes, F G; Hrubec, Josef; Husson, D; Kagan, H; Kania, D R; Kaplon, J; Kass, R; Knöpfle, K T; Krammer, Manfred; Manfredi, P F; Meier, D; Mishina, M; Le Normand, F; Pan, L S; Pernegger, H; Pernicka, Manfred; Pirollo, S; Re, V; Riester, J L; Roe, S; Roff, D G; Rudge, A; Schnetzer, S R; Sciortino, S; Speziali, V; Stelzer, H; Stone, R; Tapper, R J; Tesarek, R J; Thomson, G B; Trawick, M L; Trischuk, W; Turchetta, R; Walsh, A M; Wedenig, R; Weilhammer, Peter; Ziock, H J; Zoeller, M M

    1998-01-01

    Diamond is a nearly ideal material for detecting ionizing radiation. Its outstanding radiation hardness, fast charge collection and low leakage current allow a diamond detector to be used in high ra diation, high temperature and in aggressive chemical media. We have constructed charged particle detectors using high quality CVD diamond. Characterization of the diamond samples and various detect ors are presented in terms of collection distance, $d=\\mu E \\tau$, the average distance electron-hole pairs move apart under the influence of an electric field, where $\\mu$ is the sum of carrier mo bilities, $E$ is the applied electric field, and $\\tau$ is the mobility weighted carrier lifetime. Over the last two years the collection distance increased from $\\sim$ 75 $\\mu$m to over 200 $\\mu$ m. With this high quality CVD diamond a series of micro-strip and pixel particle detectors have been constructed. These devices were tested to determine their position resolution and signal to n oise performance. Diamond detectors w...

  15. TSC response of irradiated CVD diamond films

    CERN Document Server

    Borchi, E; Bucciolini, M; Guasti, A; Mazzocchi, S; Pirollo, S; Sciortino, S

    1999-01-01

    CVD diamond films have been irradiated with electrons, sup 6 sup 0 Co photons and protons in order to study the dose response to exposure to different particles and energies and to investigate linearity with dose. The Thermally Stimulated Current (TSC) has been studied as a function of the dose delivered to polymethilmetacrilate (PMMA) in the range from 1 to 12 Gy with 20 MeV electrons from a linear accelerator. The TSC spectrum has revealed the presence of two components with peak temperatures of about 470 and 520 K, corresponding to levels lying in the diamond band gap with activation energies of the order of 0.7 - 1 eV. After the subtraction of the exponential background the charge emitted during the heating scan has been evaluated and has been found to depend linearly on the dose. The thermally emitted charge of the CVD diamond films has also been studied using different particles. The samples have been irradiated with the same PMMA dose of about 2 Gy with 6 and 20 MeV electrons from a Linac, sup 6 sup 0 ...

  16. A CVD diamond beam telescope for charged particle tracking

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, W; Bergonzo, P; de Boer, Wim; Bogani, F; Borchi, E; Brambilla, A; Bruzzi, Mara; Colledani, C; Conway, J; D'Angelo, P; Dabrowski, W; Delpierre, P A; Dulinski, W; Doroshenko, J; Doucet, M; van Eijk, B; Fallou, A; Fischer, P; Fizzotti, F; Kania, D R; Gan, K K; Grigoriev, E; Hallewell, G D; Han, S; Hartjes, F G; Hrubec, Josef; Husson, D; Kagan, H; Kaplon, J; Kass, R; Keil, M; Knöpfle, K T; Koeth, T W; Krammer, Manfred; Meuser, S; Lo Giudice, A; MacLynne, L; Manfredotti, C; Meier, D; Menichelli, D; Mishina, M; Moroni, L; Noomen, J; Oh, A; Pan, L S; Pernicka, Manfred; Perera, L P; Riester, J L; Roe, S; Rudge, A; Russ, J; Sala, S; Sampietro, M; Schnetzer, S; Sciortino, S; Stelzer, H; Stone, R; Suter, B; Trischuk, W; Tromson, D; Vittone, E; Weilhammer, Peter; Wermes, N; Wetstein, M; Zeuner, W; Zöller, M

    2002-01-01

    CVD diamond is a radiation hard sensor material which may be used for charged particle tracking near the interaction region in experiments at high luminosity colliders. The goal of the work described here is to investigate the use of several detector planes made of CVD diamond strip sensors for charged particle tracking. Towards this end a tracking telescope composed entirely of CVD diamond planes has been constructed. The telescope was tested in muon beams and its tracking capability has been investigated.

  17. Experiment and equipment of depositing diamond films with CVD system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Erqing; Song Chang'an

    2002-01-01

    CVD (chemical vapor deposition) emerged in recent years is a new technique for thin film deposition, which play a key role in development of modern physics. It is important to predominate the principle and technology of CVD for studying modern physics. In this paper, a suit of CVD experimental equipment for teaching in college physics is presented, which has simple design and low cost. The good result was gained in past teaching practices

  18. New developments in CVD diamond for detector applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, W.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; de Boer, W.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; D'Angelo, P.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Dulinski, W.; Doroshenko, J.; van Eijk, B.; Fallou, A.; Fischer, P.; Fizzotti, F.; Furetta, C.; Gan, K. K.; Ghodbane, N.; Grigoriev, E.; Hallewell, G.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kaplon, J.; Kass, R.; Keil, M.; Knoepfle, K. T.; Koeth, T.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Mac Lynne, L.; Manfredotti, C.; Meier, D.; Menichelli, D.; Meuser, S.; Mishina, M.; Moroni, L.; Noomen, J.; Oh, A.; Pernicka, M.; Perera, L.; Potenza, R.; Riester, J. L.; Roe, S.; Rudge, A.; Sala, S.; Sampietro, M.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Sutera, C.; Trischuk, W.; Tromson, D.; Tuve, C.; Vincenzo, B.; Weilhammer, P.; Wermes, N.; Wetstein, M.; Zeuner, W.; Zoeller, M.

    Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) diamond has been discussed extensively as an alternative sensor material for use very close to the interaction region of the LHC and other machines where extreme radiation conditions exist. During the last seven years the RD42 collaboration has developed diamond detectors and tested them with LHC electronics towards the end of creating a device usable by experiments. The most recent results of this work are presented. Recently, a new form of CVD diamond has been developed: single crystal CVD diamond which resolves many of the issues associated with poly-crystalline CVD material. The first tests of this material are also presented.

  19. New developments in CVD diamond for detector applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, W. [HEPHY, Vienna (Austria); Berdermann, E. [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Bergonzo, P.; Brambilla, A. [LETI/DEIN/SPE/CEA Saclay (France); Boer, W. de [Universitaet Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe (Germany); Bogani, F. [LENS, Florence (Italy); Borchi, E.; Bruzzi, M. [University of Florence (Italy); Colledani, C.; Dulinski, W. [LEPSI, IN2P3/CNRS-ULP, Strasbourg (France); Conway, J.; Doroshenko, J. [Rutgers University, Piscataway (United States); D' Angelo, P.; Furetta, C. [INFN, Milano (Italy); Dabrowski, W. [UMM, Cracow (Poland); Delpierre, P.; Fallou, A. [CPPM, Marseille (France); Eijk, B. van [NIKHEF, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Fischer, P. [Universitaet Bonn, Bonn (Germany); Fizzotti, F. [University of Torino (Italy); Gan, K.K.; Ghodbane, N.; Grigoriev, E.; Hallewell, G.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kaplon, J.; Kass, R.; Keil, M.; Knoepfle, K.T.; Koeth, T.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Mac Lynne, L.; Manfredotti, C.; Meier, D.; Menichelli, D.; Meuser, S.; Mishina, M.; Moroni, L.; Noomen, J.; Oh, A.; Pernicka, M.; Perera, L.; Potenza, R.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Rudge, A.; Sala, S.; Sampietro, M.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Sutera, C.; Trischuk, W.; Tromson, D.; Tuve, C.; Vincenzo, B.; Weilhammer, P.; Wermes, N.; Wetstein, M.; Zeuner, W.; Zoeller, M.

    2004-07-01

    Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) diamond has been discussed extensively as an alternative sensor material for use very close to the interaction region of the LHC and other machines where extreme radiation conditions exist. During the last seven years the RD42 collaboration has developed diamond detectors and tested them with LHC electronics towards the end of creating a device usable by experiments. The most recent results of this work are presented. Recently, a new form of CVD diamond has been developed: single crystal CVD diamond which resolves many of the issues associated with poly-crystalline CVD material. The first tests of this material are also presented. (orig.)

  20. New developments in CVD diamond for detector applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, W.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Brambilla, A.; Boer, W. de; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Dulinski, W.; Conway, J.; Doroshenko, J.; D'Angelo, P.; Furetta, C.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Fallou, A.; Eijk, B. van; Fischer, P.; Fizzotti, F.; Gan, K.K.; Ghodbane, N.; Grigoriev, E.; Hallewell, G.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kaplon, J.; Kass, R.; Keil, M.; Knoepfle, K.T.; Koeth, T.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Mac Lynne, L.; Manfredotti, C.; Meier, D.; Menichelli, D.; Meuser, S.; Mishina, M.; Moroni, L.; Noomen, J.; Oh, A.; Pernicka, M.; Perera, L.; Potenza, R.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Rudge, A.; Sala, S.; Sampietro, M.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Sutera, C.; Trischuk, W.; Tromson, D.; Tuve, C.; Vincenzo, B.; Weilhammer, P.; Wermes, N.; Wetstein, M.; Zeuner, W.; Zoeller, M.

    2004-01-01

    Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) diamond has been discussed extensively as an alternative sensor material for use very close to the interaction region of the LHC and other machines where extreme radiation conditions exist. During the last seven years the RD42 collaboration has developed diamond detectors and tested them with LHC electronics towards the end of creating a device usable by experiments. The most recent results of this work are presented. Recently, a new form of CVD diamond has been developed: single crystal CVD diamond which resolves many of the issues associated with poly-crystalline CVD material. The first tests of this material are also presented. (orig.)

  1. Application of CVD diamond film for radiation detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Haiyang; Zhu Xiaodong; Zhan Rujuan

    2005-01-01

    With the development of diamond synthesis at low pressure, the CVD diamond properties including electronic characteristics have improved continuously. Now the fabrication of electronic devices based on the CVD diamond has been one of hot research subjects in this field. Due to many unique advantages, such as high signal-noise ratio, fast time response, and normal output in extremely harsh surrounding, the CVD diamond radiation detector has attracted more and more interest. In this paper, we have reviewed the development and status of the CVD diamond radiation detector. The prospect of this detector is described. (authors)

  2. CVD diamond detectors for ionizing radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Friedl, M; Bauer, C; Berfermann, E; Bergonzo, P; Bogani, F; Borchi, E; Brambilla, A; Bruzzi, Mara; Colledani, C; Conway, J; Dabrowski, W; Delpierre, P A; Deneuville, A; Dulinski, W; van Eijk, B; Fallou, A; Fizzotti, F; Foulon, F; Gan, K K; Gheeraert, E; Grigoriev, E; Hallewell, G D; Hall-Wilton, R; Han, S; Hartjes, F G; Hrubec, Josef; Husson, D; Kagan, H; Kania, D R; Kaplon, J; Karl, C; Kass, R; Knöpfle, K T; Krammer, Manfred; Lo Giudice, A; Lü, R; Manfredi, P F; Manfredotti, C; Marshall, R D; Meier, D; Mishina, M; Oh, A; Pan, L S; Palmieri, V G; Pernegger, H; Pernicka, Manfred; Peitz, A; Pirollo, S; Polesello, P; Pretzl, Klaus P; Re, V; Riester, J L; Roe, S; Roff, D G; Rudge, A; Schnetzer, S R; Sciortino, S; Speziali, V; Stelzer, H; Stone, R; Tapper, R J; Tesarek, R J; Thomson, G B; Trawick, M L; Trischuk, W; Vittone, E; Walsh, A M; Wedenig, R; Weilhammer, Peter; Ziock, H J; Zöller, M

    1999-01-01

    In future HEP accelerators, such as the LHC (CERN), detectors and electronics in the vertex region of the experiments will suffer from extreme radiation. Thus radiation hardness is required for both detectors and electronics to survive in this harsh environment. CVD diamond, which is investigated by the RD42 Collaboration at CERN, can meet these requirements. Samples of up to 2*4 cm/sup 2/ have been grown and refined for better charge collection properties, which are measured with a beta source or in a test beam. A large number of diamond samples has been irradiated with hadrons to fluences of up to 5*10/sup 15/ cm/sup -2/ to study the effects of radiation. Both strip and pixel detectors were prepared in various geometries. Samples with strip metallization have been tested with both slow and fast readout electronics, and the first diamond pixel detector proved fully functional with LHC electronics. (16 refs).

  3. CVD diamond sensors for charged particle detection

    CERN Document Server

    Krammer, Manfred; Berdermann, E; Bergonzo, P; Bertuccio, G; Bogani, F; Borchi, E; Brambilla, A; Bruzzi, Mara; Colledani, C; Conway, J; D'Angelo, P; Dabrowski, W; Delpierre, P A; Dencuville, A; Dulinski, W; van Eijk, B; Fallou, A; Fizzotti, F; Foulon, F; Friedl, M; Gan, K K; Gheeraert, E; Hallewell, G D; Han, S; Hartjes, F G; Hrubec, Josef; Husson, D; Kagan, H; Kania, D R; Kaplon, J; Kass, R; Koeth, T W; Lo Giudice, A; Lü, R; MacLynne, L; Manfredotti, C; Meier, D; Mishina, M; Moroni, L; Oh, A; Pan, L S; Pernicka, Manfred; Peitz, A; Perera, L P; Pirollo, S; Procario, M; Riester, J L; Roe, S; Rousseau, L; Rudge, A; Russ, J; Sala, S; Sampietro, M; Schnetzer, S; Sciortino, S; Stelzer, H; Stone, R; Suter, B; Tapper, R J; Tesarek, R; Trischuk, W; Tromson, D; Vittone, E; Walsh, A M; Wedenig, R; Weilhammer, Peter; Wetstein, M; White, C; Zeuner, W; Zöller, M

    2001-01-01

    CVD diamond material was used to build position-sensitive detectors for single-charged particles to be employed in high-intensity physics experiments. To obtain position information, metal contacts shaped as strips or pixels are applied to the detector surface for one- or two- dimensional coordinate measurement. Strip detectors 2*4 cm/sup 2/ in size with a strip distance of 50 mu m were tested. Pixel detectors of various pixel sizes were bump bonded to electronics chips and investigated. A key issue for the use of these sensors in high intensity experiments is the radiation hardness. Several irradiation experiments were carried out with pions, protons and neutrons exceeding a fluence of 10/sup 15/ particles/cm/sup 2/. The paper presents an overview of the results obtained with strip and pixel detectors in high-energy test beams and summarises the irradiation studies. (8 refs).

  4. CVD diamond detectors for ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedl, M. E-mail: markus.friedl@cern.ch; Adam, W.; Bauer, C.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; Eijk, B. van; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foulon, F.; Gan, K.K.; Gheeraert, E.; Grigoriev, E.; Hallewell, G.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Karl, C.; Kass, R.; Knoepfle, K.T.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Manfredi, P.F.; Manfredotti, C.; Marshall, R.D.; Meier, D.; Mishina, M.; Oh, A.; Pan, L.S.; Palmieri, V.G.; Pernegger, H.; Pernicka, M.; Peitz, A.; Pirollo, S.; Polesello, P.; Pretzl, K.; Re, V.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Roff, D.; Rudge, A.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Speziali, V.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Tapper, R.J.; Tesarek, R.; Thomson, G.B.; Trawick, M.; Trischuk, W.; Vittone, E.; Walsh, A.M.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; Ziock, H.; Zoeller, M

    1999-10-01

    In future HEP accelerators, such as the LHC (CERN), detectors and electronics in the vertex region of the experiments will suffer from extreme radiation. Thus radiation hardness is required for both detectors and electronics to survive in this harsh environment. CVD diamond, which is investigated by the RD42 Collaboration at CERN, can meet these requirements. Samples of up to 2x4 cm{sup 2} have been grown and refined for better charge collection properties, which are measured with a {beta} source or in a test beam. A large number of diamond samples has been irradiated with hadrons to fluences of up to 5x10{sup 15} cm{sup -2} to study the effects of radiation. Both strip and pixel detectors were prepared in various geometries. Samples with strip metallization have been tested with both slow and fast readout electronics, and the first diamond pixel detector proved fully functional with LHC electronics. (author)

  5. CVD diamond detectors for ionizing radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedl, M.; Adam, W.; Bauer, C.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; van Eijk, B.; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foulon, F.; Gan, K. K.; Gheeraert, E.; Grigoriev, E.; Hallewell, G.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Karl, C.; Kass, R.; Knöpfle, K. T.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Manfredi, P. F.; Manfredotti, C.; Marshall, R. D.; Meier, D.; Mishina, M.; Oh, A.; Pan, L. S.; Palmieri, V. G.; Pernegger, H.; Pernicka, M.; Peitz, A.; Pirollo, S.; Polesello, P.; Pretzl, K.; Re, V.; Riester, J. L.; Roe, S.; Roff, D.; Rudge, A.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Speziali, V.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Tapper, R. J.; Tesarek, R.; Thomson, G. B.; Trawick, M.; Trischuk, W.; Vittone, E.; Walsh, A. M.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; Ziock, H.; Zoeller, M.; RD42 Collaboration

    1999-10-01

    In future HEP accelerators, such as the LHC (CERN), detectors and electronics in the vertex region of the experiments will suffer from extreme radiation. Thus radiation hardness is required for both detectors and electronics to survive in this harsh environment. CVD diamond, which is investigated by the RD42 Collaboration at CERN, can meet these requirements. Samples of up to 2×4 cm2 have been grown and refined for better charge collection properties, which are measured with a β source or in a testbeam. A large number of diamond samples has been irradiated with hadrons to fluences of up to 5×10 15 cm-2 to study the effects of radiation. Both strip and pixel detectors were prepared in various geometries. Samples with strip metallization have been tested with both slow and fast readout electronics, and the first diamond pixel detector proved fully functional with LHC electronics.

  6. Premature menopause linked to CVD and osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Claire; Overton, Caroline

    2010-03-01

    Premature menopause affects 1% of women under the age of 40, the usual age of the menopause is 51. Most women will present with irregular periods or no periods at all with or without climacteric symptoms. Around 10% of women present with primary amenorrhoea. A careful history and examination are required. It is important to ask specifically about previous chemotherapy or radiotherapy and to look for signs of androgen excess e.g. polycystic ovarian syndrome, adrenal problems e.g. galactorrhoea and thyroid goitres. Once pregnancy has been excluded, a progestagen challenge test can be performed in primary care. Norethisterone 5 mg tds po for ten days or alternatively medroxyprogesterone acetate 10 mg daily for ten days is prescribed. A withdrawal bleed within a few days of stopping the norethisterone indicates the presence of oestrogen and bleeding more than a few drops is considered a positive withdrawal bleed. The absence of a bleed indicates low levels of oestrogen, putting the woman at risk of CVD and osteoporosis. FSH levels above 30 IU/l are an indicator that the ovaries are failing and the menopause is approaching or has occurred. It should be remembered that FSH levels fluctuate during the month and from one month to the next, so a minimum of two measurements should be made at least four to six weeks apart. The presence of a bleed should not exclude premature menopause as part of the differential diagnosis as there can be varying and unpredictable ovarian function remaining. The progestagen challenge test should not be used alone, but in conjunction with FSH, LH and oestradiol. There is no treatment for premature menopause. Women desiring pregnancy should be referred to a fertility clinic and discussion of egg donation. Women not wishing to become pregnant should be prescribed HRT until the age of 50 to control symptoms of oestrogen deficiency and reduce the risks of osteoporosis and CVD.

  7. A 3D tomographic EBSD analysis of a CVD diamond thin film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Tao; Raabe, Dierk; Zaefferer, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    We have studied the nucleation and growth processes in a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond film using a tomographic electron backscattering diffraction method (3D EBSD). The approach is based on the combination of a focused ion beam (FIB) unit for serial sectioning in conjunction with high-resolution EBSD. Individual diamond grains were investigated in 3-dimensions particularly with regard to the role of twinning.

  8. A 3D tomographic EBSD analysis of a CVD diamond thin film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Liu, Dierk Raabe and Stefan Zaefferer

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We have studied the nucleation and growth processes in a chemical vapor deposition (CVD diamond film using a tomographic electron backscattering diffraction method (3D EBSD. The approach is based on the combination of a focused ion beam (FIB unit for serial sectioning in conjunction with high-resolution EBSD. Individual diamond grains were investigated in 3-dimensions particularly with regard to the role of twinning.

  9. Diamond radiation detectors II. CVD diamond development for radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kania, D.R.

    1997-01-01

    Interest in radiation detectors has supplied some of the impetus for improving the electronic properties of CVD diamond. In the present discussion, we will restrict our attention to polycrystalhne CVD material. We will focus on the evolution of these materials over the past decade and the correlation of detector performance with other properties of the material

  10. Lipids, atherosclerosis and CVD risk: is CRP an innocent bystander?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordestgaard, B G; Zacho, J

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate recent human studies with respect to the interpretation of whether elevated plasma levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) cause cardiovascular disease (CVD), or whether elevated CRP levels more likely is an innocent bystander. DATA SYNTHESIS: Elevated CRP concentrations...... and vulnerability of atherosclerotic plaques, and thus simply an innocent bystander in CVD....

  11. Micro-strip sensors based on CVD diamond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, W.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bertuccio, G.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; D' Angelo, P.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; Eijk, B. van; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Gan, K.K.; Gheeraert, E.; Hallewell, G.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Kass, R.; Koeth, T.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Mac Lynne, L.; Manfredotti, C.; Meier, D. E-mail: dirk.meier@cern.ch; Mishina, M.; Moroni, L.; Oh, A.; Pan, L.S.; Pernicka, M.; Peitz, A.; Perera, L.; Pirollo, S.; Procario, M.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Rousseau, L.; Rudge, A.; Russ, J.; Sala, S.; Sampietro, M.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Suter, B.; Tapper, R.J.; Tesarek, R.; Trischuk, W.; Tromson, D.; Vittone, E.; Walsh, A.M.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; Wetstein, M.; White, C.; Zeuner, W.; Zoeller, M

    2000-10-11

    In this article we present the performance of recent chemical vapour deposition (CVD) diamond micro-strip sensors in beam tests. In addition, we present the first comparison of a CVD diamond micro-strip sensor before and after proton irradiation.

  12. Micro-strip sensors based on CVD Diamond

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, W; Bergonzo, P; Bertuccio, G; Bogani, F; Borchi, E; Brambilla, A; Bruzzi, Mara; Colledani, C; Conway, J; D'Angelo, P; Dabrowski, W; Delpierre, P A; Deneuville, A; Dulinski, W; van Eijk, B; Fallou, A; Fizzotti, F; Foulon, F; Friedl, M; Gan, K K; Gheeraert, E; Hallewell, G D; Han, S; Hartjes, F G; Hrubec, Josef; Husson, D; Kagan, H; Kania, D R; Kaplon, J; Kass, R; Koeth, T W; Krammer, Manfred; Lo Giudice, A; Lü, R; MacLynne, L; Manfredotti, C; Meier, D; Mishina, M; Moroni, L; Oh, A; Pan, L S; Pernicka, Manfred; Peitz, A; Perera, L P; Pirollo, S; Procario, M; Riester, J L; Roe, S; Rousseau, L; Rudge, A; Russ, J; Sala, S; Sampietro, M; Schnetzer, S R; Sciortino, S; Stelzer, H; Stone, R; Suter, B; Tapper, R J; Tesarek, R J; Trischuk, W; Tromson, D; Vittone, E; Walsh, A M; Wedenig, R; Weilhammer, Peter; Wetstein, M; White, C; Zeuner, W; Zoeller, M M

    2000-01-01

    In this article we present the performance of recent chemical vapour deposition (CVD) diamond micro-strip sensors in beam tests. In addition we present the first comparison of a CVD diamond micro-strip sensor before and after proton irradiation.

  13. Micro-strip sensors based on CVD diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, W.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bertuccio, G.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; D'Angelo, P.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; Eijk, B. van; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Gan, K.K.; Gheeraert, E.; Hallewell, G.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Kass, R.; Koeth, T.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Mac Lynne, L.; Manfredotti, C.; Meier, D.; Mishina, M.; Moroni, L.; Oh, A.; Pan, L.S.; Pernicka, M.; Peitz, A.; Perera, L.; Pirollo, S.; Procario, M.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Rousseau, L.; Rudge, A.; Russ, J.; Sala, S.; Sampietro, M.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Suter, B.; Tapper, R.J.; Tesarek, R.; Trischuk, W.; Tromson, D.; Vittone, E.; Walsh, A.M.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; Wetstein, M.; White, C.; Zeuner, W.; Zoeller, M.

    2000-01-01

    In this article we present the performance of recent chemical vapour deposition (CVD) diamond micro-strip sensors in beam tests. In addition, we present the first comparison of a CVD diamond micro-strip sensor before and after proton irradiation

  14. Micro-strip sensors based on CVD diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, W.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bertuccio, G.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; D'Angelo, P.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; van Eijk, B.; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Gan, K. K.; Gheeraert, E.; Hallewell, G.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Kass, R.; Koeth, T.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; mac Lynne, L.; Manfredotti, C.; Meier, D.; Mishina, M.; Moroni, L.; Oh, A.; Pan, L. S.; Pernicka, M.; Peitz, A.; Perera, L.; Pirollo, S.; Procario, M.; Riester, J. L.; Roe, S.; Rousseau, L.; Rudge, A.; Russ, J.; Sala, S.; Sampietro, M.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Suter, B.; Tapper, R. J.; Tesarek, R.; Trischuk, W.; Tromson, D.; Vittone, E.; Walsh, A. M.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; Wetstein, M.; White, C.; Zeuner, W.; Zoeller, M.; RD42 Collaboration

    2000-10-01

    In this article we present the performance of recent chemical vapour deposition (CVD) diamond micro-strip sensors in beam tests. In addition, we present the first comparison of a CVD diamond micro-strip sensor before and after proton irradiation.

  15. Mechanics-driven patterning of CVD graphene for roll-based manufacturing process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang-Min; Jang, Bongkyun; Jo, Kyungmin; Kim, Donghyuk; Lee, Jihye; Kim, Kyung-Shik; Lee, Seung-Mo; Lee, Hak-Joo; Han, Seung Min; Kim, Jae-Hyun

    2017-06-01

    Graphene is considered as a promising material for flexible and transparent electrodes due to its outstanding electrical, optical, and mechanical properties. Efforts to mass-produce graphene electrodes led to the development of roll-to-roll chemical vapor deposition (CVD) graphene growth and transfer, and the only remaining obstacle to the mass-production of CVD graphene electrodes is a cost-effective patterning technique that is compatible with the roll-to-roll manufacturing. Herein, we propose a mechanics-driven technique for patterning graphene synthesized on copper foil (commonly used in roll-to-roll manufacturing). The copper foil is exposed to high temperature for a prolonged period during the CVD growth of graphene, and thus can result in recrystallization and grain growth of the copper foil and thereby reducing to the yield strength. This softening behavior of the copper was carefully controlled to allow simple stamp patterning of the graphene. The strength of the underlying substrate was controlled for the accuracy of the residual patterns. The proposed stamp patterning technique is mask-less and photoresist-free, and can be performed at room temperature without high-energy sources such as lasers or plasma. To demonstrate the capability of this process to produce a continuous electrode, a transparent in-plane supercapacitor was fabricated using the proposed patterning technique.

  16. CVD of alternated microcrystalline (MCD) and nanocrystalline (NCD) diamond films on WC-TIC-CO substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, Raonei Alves; Contin, Andre; Trava-Airoldi, Vladimir J.; Corat, Evaldo Jose; Barquete, Danilo Maciel

    2010-01-01

    CVD Diamond coating of WC-TiC-Co cutting tools has been an alternative to increase tool lifetime. Experiments have shown that residual stresses produced during films growth on WC-TiC-Co substrates significantly increases with increasing film thickness up to 20 μm and usually leads to film delamination. In this work alternated micro- and nanocrystalline CVD diamond films have been used to relax interface stresses and to increase diamond coatings performance. WC-TiC-Co substrates have been submitted to a boronizing thermal diffusion treatment prior to CVD diamond films growth. After reactive heat treatment samples were submitted to chemical etching in acid and alkaline solution. The diamond films deposition was performed using HFCVD reactor with different gas concentrations for microcrystalline (MCD) and nano-crystalline (NCD) films growth. As a result, we present the improvement of diamond films adherence on WC-TiC-Co, evaluated by indentation and machining tests. Samples were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) for qualitative analysis of diamond films. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) was used for phases identification after boronizing process. Diamond film compressive residual stresses were analyzed by Raman Scattering Spectroscopy (RSS). (author)

  17. CVD carbon powders modified by ball milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazmierczak Tomasz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Carbon powders produced using a plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition (CVD methods are an interesting subject of research. One of the most interesting methods of synthesizing these powders is using radio frequency plasma. This method, originally used in deposition of carbon films containing different sp2/sp3 ratios, also makes possible to produce carbon structures in the form of powder. Results of research related to the mechanical modification of these powders have been presented. The powders were modified using a planetary ball mill with varying parameters, such as milling speed, time, ball/powder mass ratio and additional liquids. Changes in morphology and particle sizes were measured using scanning electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. Phase composition was analyzed using Raman spectroscopy. The influence of individual parameters on the modification outcome was estimated using statistical method. The research proved that the size of obtained powders is mostly influenced by the milling speed and the amount of balls. Powders tend to form conglomerates sized up to hundreds of micrometers. Additionally, it is possible to obtain nanopowders with the size around 100 nm. Furthermore, application of additional liquid, i.e. water in the process reduces the graphitization of the powder, which takes place during dry milling.

  18. CVD diamond substrates for electronic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzer, H.

    1996-03-01

    In this study the applicability of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond as a material for heat spreaders was investigated. Economical evaluations on the production of heat spreaders were also performed. For the diamond synthesis the hot-filament and microwave method were used respectively. The deposition parameters were varied in a way that free standing diamond layers with a thickness of 80 to 750 microns and different qualities were obtained. The influence of the deposition parameters on the relevant film properties was investigated and discussed. With both the hot-filament and microwave method it was possible to deposit diamond layers having a thermal conductivity exceeding 1200 W/mK and therefore to reach the quality level for commercial uses. The electrical resistivity was greater than 10 12 Ωcm. The investigation of the optical properties was done by Raman-, IR- and cathodoluminescence spectroscopy. Because of future applications of diamond-aluminium nitride composites as highly efficient heat spreaders diamond deposition an AIN was investigated. An improved substrate pretreatment prior to diamond deposition showed promising results for better performance of such composite heat spreaders. Both free standing layers and diamond-AIN composites could be cut by a CO2 Laser in Order to get an exact size geometry. A reduction of the diamond surface roughness was achieved by etching with manganese powder or cerium. (author)

  19. CVD-Graphene-Based Flexible, Thermoelectrochromic Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Januszko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main idea behind this work was demonstrated in a form of a new thermoelectrochromic sensor on a flexible substrate using graphene as an electrically reconfigurable thermal medium (TEChrom™. Our approach relies on electromodulation of thermal properties of graphene on poly(ethylene terephthalate (PET via mechanical destruction of a graphene layer. Graphene applied in this work was obtained by chemical vapor deposition (CVD technique on copper substrate and characterized by Raman and scanning tunneling spectroscopy. Electrical parameters of graphene were evaluated by the van der Pauw method on the transferred graphene layers onto SiO2 substrates by electrochemical delamination method. Two configurations of architecture of sensors, without and with the thermochromic layer, were investigated, taking into account the increase of voltage from 0 to 50 V and were observed by thermographic camera to define heat energy. Current-voltage characteristics obtained for the sensor with damaged graphene layer are linear, and the resistivity is independent from the current applied. The device investigated under 1000 W/m2 exhibited rise of resistivity along with increased temperature. Flexible thermoelectrochromic device with graphene presented here can be widely used as a sensor for both the military and civil monitoring.

  20. Effect of mixture ratios and nitrogen carrier gas flow rates on the morphology of carbon nanotube structures grown by CVD

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Malgas, GF

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the growth of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) by thermal Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD) and investigates the effects of nitrogen carrier gas flow rates and mixture ratios on the morphology of CNTs on a silicon substrate by vaporizing...

  1. Plasma CVD reactor with two-microwave oscillators for diamond film synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagatsu, M.; Miyake, M.; Maeda, J.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we present the experimental results of a new type of microwave plasma CVD system, where two of 1.5 kW microwave sources were used for enlarging the plasma discharge and the diamond film growth. One of the microwave oscillators was used to produce the microwave plasma as in the conventional microwave plasma CVD device, while the second one was used to enlarge the plasma by introducing microwave from the launcher mounted at the substrate stage. We demonstrated the enlargement of plasma discharge area from 60 mm to 100 mm in diameter by using the two-microwave oscillators system. Characteristics of diamond films deposited using H 2 /CH 4 plasmas were also investigated using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Raman spectroscopy

  2. Use of Kelvin probe force microscopy for identification of CVD grown graphene flakes on copper foil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rakesh; Mehta, B. R.; Kanjilal, D.

    2017-05-01

    Graphene flakes have been grown by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) method on Cu foils. The obtained graphene flakes have been characterized by optical microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) and Raman spectroscopy. The graphene flakes grown on Cu foil comprise mainly single layer graphene and confirm that the nucleation for graphene growth starts very quickly. Moreover, KPFM has been found to be a valuable technique to differentiate between covered and uncovered portion of Cu foil by graphene flakes deposited for shorter duration. The results show that KPFM can be a very useful technique in understanding the mechanism of graphene growth.

  3. Effect of pretreatment and deposition parameters on diamond nucleation in CVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazim, E.; Izman, S.; Ourdjini, A.; Shaharoun, A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Chemical vapour deposition (CVD) of diamond films on cemented carbide (WC) has aroused great interest in recent years. The combination of toughness from the WC and the high hardness of diamond results in outstanding wear resistance. This will increase the lifetime and better technical performance of the components made of diamond coated carbide. One of the important steps in the growth of diamond film is the nucleation of diamond as its density strongly influences the diamond growth process, film quality and morphology. In this paper the various effects of surface pretreatment and diamond deposition conditions on the diamond nucleation density are reviewed. (author)

  4. CVD refractory metals and alloys for space nuclear power application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, L.; Gulden, T.D.; Watson, J.F.

    1984-01-01

    CVD technology has made significant contributions to the development of space nuclear power systems during the period 1962 to 1972. For the in-core thermionic concept, CVD technology is essential to the fabrication of the tungsten electron emitter. For the liquid metal cooled fuel pin using uranium nitride as fuel and T-111 and Nb-1 Zr as cladding, a tungsten barrier possibly produced by CVD methods is essential to the fuel-cladding compatibility at the designed operating temperature. Space power reactors may use heat pipes to transfer heat from the reactor core to the conversion system. CVD technology has been used for fabricating the heat pipe used as cross-flow heat exchanger, including the built-in channels on the condenser wall for liquid lithium return. 28 references, 17 figures

  5. Investigation of defects in CVD diamond: Influence for radiotherapy applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrero, M.J.; Tromson, D.; Bergonzo, P.; Barrett, R.

    2005-01-01

    In this study we present the potentialities of CVD diamond as an ionisation chamber for radiotherapy applications. Trapping levels present in CVD diamond are characterised using Thermally Stimulated Current (TSC) method with X-ray sources. The influence of the corresponding defects on the detector response is investigated and compared to those observed in natural diamond. Also, their spatial distribution across a large area polycrystalline diamond ionisation chamber is discussed. Results show the relative influence of two different populations of trapping levels in CVD diamond whose effect is crucial for radiotherapy applications. To partially overcome the defect detrimental effects, we propose to use CVD diamond ionisation chambers at moderate temperatures from 70 to 100 deg. C that could be provided by self heating of the device, for a dramatically improved stability and reproducibility

  6. The gate oxide integrity of CVD tungsten polycide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, N.W.; Su, W.D.; Chang, S.W.; Tseng, M.F.

    1988-01-01

    CVD tungsten polycide has been demonstrated as a good gate material in recent very large scale integration (VLSI) technology. CVD tungsten silicide offers advantages of low resistivity, high temperature stability and good step coverage. On the other hand, the polysilicon underlayer preserves most characteristics of the polysilicon gate and acts as a stress buffer layer to absorb part of the thermal stress origin from the large thermal expansion coefficient of tungsten silicide. Nevertheless, the gate oxide of CVD tungsten polycide is less stable or reliable than that of polysilicon gate. In this paper, the gate oxide integrity of CVD tungsten polycide with various thickness combinations and different thermal processes have been analyzed by several electrical measurements including breakdown yield, breakdown fluence, room temperature TDDB, I-V characteristics, electron traps and interface state density

  7. Verification of thermo-fluidic CVD reactor model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisik, Z; Turczynski, M; Ruta, L; Raj, E

    2014-01-01

    Presented paper describes the numerical model of CVD (Chemical Vapour Deposition) reactor created in ANSYS CFX, whose main purpose is the evaluation of numerical approaches used to modelling of heat and mass transfer inside the reactor chamber. Verification of the worked out CVD model has been conducted with measurements under various thermal, pressure and gas flow rate conditions. Good agreement between experimental and numerical results confirms correctness of the elaborated model.

  8. Ion beam figuring of CVD silicon carbide mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gailly, P.; Collette, J.-P.; Fleury Frenette, K.; Jamar, C.

    2017-11-01

    Optical and structural elements made of silicon carbide are increasingly found in space instruments. Chemical vapor deposited silicon carbide (CVD-SiC) is used as a reflective coating on SiC optics in reason of its good behavior under polishing. The advantage of applying ion beam figuring (IBF) to CVD-SiC over other surface figure-improving techniques is discussed herein. The results of an IBF sequence performed at the Centre Spatial de Liège on a 100 mm CVD-SiC mirror are reported. The process allowed to reduce the mirror surface errors from 243 nm to 13 nm rms . Beside the surface figure, roughness is another critical feature to consider in order to preserve the optical quality of CVD-SiC . Thus, experiments focusing on the evolution of roughness were performed in various ion beam etching conditions. The roughness of samples etched at different depths down to 3 ≠m was determined with an optical profilometer. These measurements emphasize the importance of selecting the right combination of gas and beam energy to keep roughness at a low level. Kaufman-type ion sources are generally used to perform IBF but the performance of an end-Hall ion source in figuring CVD-SiC mirrors was also evaluated in this study. In order to do so, ion beam etching profiles obtained with the end-Hall source on CVD-SiC were measured and used as a basis for IBF simulations.

  9. CVD Diamond Sensors In Detectors For High Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00334150; Trischuk, William

    At the end of the next decade an upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) to High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) is planned which requires the development of new radiation tolerant sensor technology. Diamond is an interesting material for use as a particle detector in high radiation environments. The large band gap ($5.47\\,\\text{eV}$) and the large displacement energy suggest that diamond is a radiation tolerant detector material. In this Thesis the capability of Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) diamond as such a sensor technology is investigated. The radiation damage constant for $800\\,\\text{MeV}$ protons is measured using single crystalline CVD (scCVD) and polycrystalline CVD (pCVD) diamonds irradiated to particle fluences up to $12 \\times 10^{15}\\,\\text{p/cm}^2$. In addition the signal response of a pCVD diamond detector after an irradiation to $12 \\times 10^{15}\\,\\text{p/cm}^2$ is investigated to determine if such a detector can be operated efficiently in the expected HL-LHC environment. By using electrodes em...

  10. Aplicação da técnica de fio quente na determinação das propriedades térmicas de polímeros fundidos Hot wire technique in the determination of thermal properties of melt polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson N. dos Santos

    2005-11-01

    properties of a material that are needed for heat transfer calculations. Reliable thermal properties values are essential for polymers, both in steady and non-steady state situations. Nowadays, several different techniques for the determination of the thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity may be found in the literature. In this work, the hot wire parallel technique is employed in the experimental determination of the thermal properties of polymers. Three semi-crystalline polymers (HDPE, LDPE and PP, and two amorphous polymers (PS and HIPS were selected for this work. Samples are prepared through the extrusion process starting from the powder or pellets of the solid polymer. A special mould of stainless steel in the shape of a rectangular parallelepiped provided with ceramic insulators between the hot wire, thermocouple and the mould is employed to store the melt extruded polymer whose thermal properties will be measured. Measurements are carried out from room temperature up to approximately 50 ºC above the melting point. Experimental results obtained are checked against data found in literature and those ones furnished by the manufacturers. A critical analysis of this method shows the advantages and disadvantages of this technique when compared with the laser flash technique.

  11. Synthesis of graphene on nickel films by CVD method using methane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Manuela O. de; Liebold-Ribeiro, Yvonne; Barros, Eduardo B.; Salomao, Francisco C.C.; Mendes Filho, Josue; Souza Filho, Antonio G.; Chesman, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Nanomaterials have opened up many possibilities for groundbreaking innovations in various technologies of modern society. One key example is graphene, which is composed of one-atom-thick sheet of sp2-bonded carbon atoms, arranged in a hexagonal symmetry. However, real world applications of graphene require well-established and large synthesis techniques. The so-called Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) is one of the most promising method for synthesizing graphene. The general idea of this technique is to dissolve carbon atoms inside a transition metal melt at a certain temperature, then allowing the dissolved carbon to precipitate at lower temperatures as single layer graphene (SLG). In the present work, we used the CVD method and methane gas as carbon source for the synthesis of graphene on silicon (Si) substrates (300nm thermal oxide) covered with sputtered nickel (Ni) films as catalyst. In order to achieve large-area and defect-free graphene sheets the influence of the different growth parameters (growth temperature and time, gas flow of methane, film thickness and grain size of Ni) on quality and quantity of graphene growth were studied. The obtained graphene films were transferred to a silicon substrate by the polymer coating process, using polymethyl-methacrylate (PMMA) as coating. In order to characterize the transferred graphene we used Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Raman Spectroscopy, Optical Microscopy and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). The results show the influence of CVD process parameters on the quality and quantity of graphene growth in our experimental conditions. Acknowledgments: The authors thank Brazilian agencies CNPq and FUNCAP for financial support and Alfonso Reina (MIT, USA) for helpful discussions. (author)

  12. Surface modification on 304 SS by plasma-immersed ion implantation to improve the adherence of a CVD diamond film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nono, M.C.A.; Corat, E.J. (Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)); Ueda, M.; Stellati, C.; Barroso, J.J.; Conrad, J.R.; Shamim, M.; Fetherston, P.; Sridharan, K.

    1999-02-01

    The weak adherence of chemical vapor deposited (CVD) diamond films on steel substrates is an important factor that limits the technological applications of these materials. We are interested in enhancing the film-to-substrate adherence by using substrate surfaces with a previous modification by plasma-immersed ion implantation (PIII). In this work we present and discuss the preliminary results on phase formation, microstructure and adherence evaluations. CVD diamond films were deposited on 304 SS, the surface of which was modified by implanted carbon ions. The samples were first submitted to implantation with 30 keV carbon ions at different doses. Later, these surfaces were examined by Auger spectroscopy (SAM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction. We observed a metastable carbide phase formed from carbon and iron, which is considered to be a good polycrystalline material for the nucleation of CVD diamond crystals. The CVD diamond nucleation and film growth were observed by SEM and Raman spectroscopy. These results are discussed with the emphasis on the carbon diffusion barrier on the substrate surfaces. The preliminary results of diamond growth were encouraging. (orig.) 7 refs.

  13. CVD transfer-free graphene for sensing applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Schiattarella

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The sp2 carbon-based allotropes have been extensively exploited for the realization of gas sensors in the recent years because of their high conductivity and large specific surface area. A study on graphene that was synthetized by means of a novel transfer-free fabrication approach and is employed as sensing material is herein presented. Multilayer graphene was deposited by chemical vapour deposition (CVD mediated by CMOS-compatible Mo. The utilized technique takes advantage of the absence of damage or contamination of the synthesized graphene, because there is no need for the transfer onto a substrate. Moreover, a proper pre-patterning of the Mo catalyst allows one to obtain graphene films with different shapes and dimensions. The sensing properties of the material have been investigated by exposing the devices to NO2, NH3 and CO, which have been selected because they are well-known hazardous substances. The concentration ranges have been chosen according to the conventional monitoring of these gases. The measurements have been carried out in humid N2 environment, setting the flow rate at 500 sccm, the temperature at 25 °C and the relative humidity (RH at 50%. An increase of the conductance response has been recorded upon exposure towards NO2, whereas a decrease of the signal has been detected towards NH3. The material appears totally insensitive towards CO. Finally, the sensing selectivity has been proven by evaluating and comparing the degree of adsorption and the interaction energies for NO2 and NH3 on graphene. The direct-growth approach for the synthesis of graphene opens a promising path towards diverse applicative scenarios, including the straightforward integration in electronic devices.

  14. CVD transfer-free graphene for sensing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiattarella, Chiara; Vollebregt, Sten; Polichetti, Tiziana; Alfano, Brigida; Massera, Ettore; Miglietta, Maria Lucia; Di Francia, Girolamo; Sarro, Pasqualina Maria

    2017-01-01

    The sp 2 carbon-based allotropes have been extensively exploited for the realization of gas sensors in the recent years because of their high conductivity and large specific surface area. A study on graphene that was synthetized by means of a novel transfer-free fabrication approach and is employed as sensing material is herein presented. Multilayer graphene was deposited by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) mediated by CMOS-compatible Mo. The utilized technique takes advantage of the absence of damage or contamination of the synthesized graphene, because there is no need for the transfer onto a substrate. Moreover, a proper pre-patterning of the Mo catalyst allows one to obtain graphene films with different shapes and dimensions. The sensing properties of the material have been investigated by exposing the devices to NO 2 , NH 3 and CO, which have been selected because they are well-known hazardous substances. The concentration ranges have been chosen according to the conventional monitoring of these gases. The measurements have been carried out in humid N 2 environment, setting the flow rate at 500 sccm, the temperature at 25 °C and the relative humidity (RH) at 50%. An increase of the conductance response has been recorded upon exposure towards NO 2 , whereas a decrease of the signal has been detected towards NH 3 . The material appears totally insensitive towards CO. Finally, the sensing selectivity has been proven by evaluating and comparing the degree of adsorption and the interaction energies for NO 2 and NH 3 on graphene. The direct-growth approach for the synthesis of graphene opens a promising path towards diverse applicative scenarios, including the straightforward integration in electronic devices.

  15. Low-temperature graphene synthesis using microwave plasma CVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Takatoshi; Kim, Jaeho; Ishihara, Masatou; Hasegawa, Masataka

    2013-01-01

    The graphene chemical vapour deposition (CVD) technique at substrate temperatures around 300 °C by a microwave plasma sustained by surface waves (surface wave plasma chemical vapour deposition, SWP-CVD) is discussed. A low-temperature, large-area and high-deposition-rate CVD process for graphene films was developed. It was found from Raman spectra that the deposited films on copper (Cu) substrates consisted of high-quality graphene flakes. The fabricated graphene transparent conductive electrode showed uniform optical transmittance and sheet resistance, which suggests the possibility of graphene for practical electrical and optoelectronic applications. It is intriguing that graphene was successfully deposited on aluminium (Al) substrates, for which we did not expect the catalytic effect to decompose hydrocarbon and hydrogen molecules. We developed a roll-to-roll SWP-CVD system for continuous graphene film deposition towards industrial mass production. A pair of winder and unwinder systems of Cu film was installed in the plasma CVD apparatus. Uniform Raman spectra were confirmed over the whole width of 297 mm of Cu films. We successfully transferred the deposited graphene onto PET films, and confirmed a transmittance of about 95% and a sheet resistance of less than 7 × 10 5 Ω/sq.

  16. Low-temperature graphene synthesis using microwave plasma CVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Takatoshi; Kim, Jaeho; Ishihara, Masatou; Hasegawa, Masataka

    2013-02-01

    The graphene chemical vapour deposition (CVD) technique at substrate temperatures around 300 °C by a microwave plasma sustained by surface waves (surface wave plasma chemical vapour deposition, SWP-CVD) is discussed. A low-temperature, large-area and high-deposition-rate CVD process for graphene films was developed. It was found from Raman spectra that the deposited films on copper (Cu) substrates consisted of high-quality graphene flakes. The fabricated graphene transparent conductive electrode showed uniform optical transmittance and sheet resistance, which suggests the possibility of graphene for practical electrical and optoelectronic applications. It is intriguing that graphene was successfully deposited on aluminium (Al) substrates, for which we did not expect the catalytic effect to decompose hydrocarbon and hydrogen molecules. We developed a roll-to-roll SWP-CVD system for continuous graphene film deposition towards industrial mass production. A pair of winder and unwinder systems of Cu film was installed in the plasma CVD apparatus. Uniform Raman spectra were confirmed over the whole width of 297 mm of Cu films. We successfully transferred the deposited graphene onto PET films, and confirmed a transmittance of about 95% and a sheet resistance of less than 7 × 105 Ω/sq.

  17. Evaluation of CVD silicon carbide for synchrotron radiation mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takacs, P.Z.

    1981-07-01

    Chemical vapor deposited silicon carbide (CVD SiC) is a recent addition to the list of materials suitable for use in the harsh environment of synchrotron radiation (SR) beam lines. SR mirrors for use at normal incidence must be ultrahigh vacuum compatible, must withstand intense x-ray irradiation without surface damage, must be capable of being polished to an extremely smooth surface finish, and must maintain surface figure under thermal loading. CVD SiC exceeds the performance of conventional optical materials in all these areas. It is, however, a relatively new optical material. Few manufacturers have experience in producing optical quality material, and few opticians have experience in figuring and polishing the material. The CVD material occurs in a variety of forms, sensitively dependent upon reaction chamber production conditions. We are evaluating samples of CVD SiC obtained commercially from various manufacturers, representing a range of deposition conditions, to determine which types of CVD material are most suitable for superpolishing. At the time of this writing, samples are being polished by several commercial vendors and surface finish characteristics are being evaluated by various analytical methods

  18. Test of radiation hardness of pcCVD detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlemme, Steffen [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Technische Universitaet Darmstadt (Germany); Enders, Joachim [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt (Germany); Figuera, P.; Salamone, S. [LNS-INFN Catania (Italy); Fruehauf, J.; Kis, Mladen; Kratz, A.; Kurz, N.; Loechner, S.; Nociforo, Chiara; Schirru, Fabio; Szczepanczyk, B.; Traeger, M.; Visinka, R. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Musumarra, A. [LNS-INFN Catania (Italy); University of Catania (Italy)

    2016-07-01

    The new in-flight separator Super-FRS is under construction at the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR, Darmstadt). Ion rates up to 3 x 10{sup 11} {sup 238}U/spill demand an adaption of detectors to a high radiation environment. A test experiment to investigate the radiation hardness of polycrystalline diamond detectors (pcCVD) was performed at the LNS-INFN in Catania using a {sup 12}C beam at 62 MeV/u and intensities of up to 1.5 pnA. The setup consisted of pcCVD strip detectors to measure the beam profile, a single crystal diamond detector to calibrate the ionisation chamber working in current mode as a beam intensity monitor and a pcCVD sample to be irradiated. The IC used was designed for FAIR and showed a stable counting rate allowing us to calibrate and perform beam intensity measurements with it. The total measured counts on the sample were 8.25 x 10{sup 11} counts/mm{sup 2} over a period of 60 hours. Digital waveforms of the pcCVD signals were taken with an oscilloscope and analysed. The results showed no change of the pcCVD signal properties during the entire irradiation.

  19. Control growth of silicon nanocolumns' epitaxy on silicon nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chong, Su Kong, E-mail: sukong1985@yahoo.com.my [University of Malaya, Low Dimensional Materials Research Centre, Department of Physics (Malaysia); Dee, Chang Fu [Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), Institute of Microengineering and Nanoelectronics (IMEN) (Malaysia); Yahya, Noorhana [Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Faculty of Science and Information Technology (Malaysia); Rahman, Saadah Abdul [University of Malaya, Low Dimensional Materials Research Centre, Department of Physics (Malaysia)

    2013-04-15

    The epitaxial growth of Si nanocolumns on Si nanowires was studied using hot-wire chemical vapor deposition. A single-crystalline and surface oxide-free Si nanowire core (core radius {approx}21 {+-} 5 nm) induced by indium crystal seed was used as a substance for the vapor phase epitaxial growth. The growth process is initiated by sidewall facets, which then nucleate upon certain thickness to form Si islands and further grow to form nanocolumns. The Si nanocolumns with diameter of 10-20 nm and aspect ratio up to 10 can be epitaxially grown on the surface of nanowires. The results showed that the radial growth rate of the Si nanocolumns remains constant with the increase of deposition time. Meanwhile, the radial growth rates are controllable by manipulating the hydrogen to silane gas flow rate ratio. The optical antireflection properties of the Si nanocolumns' decorated SiNW arrays are discussed in the text.

  20. Optical characterization of a-Si:H thin films grown by Hg-Photo-CVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barhdadi, A.; Karbal, S.; M'Gafad, N.; Benmakhlouf, A.; Chafik El Idrissi, M.; Aka, B.M.

    2006-08-01

    Mercury-Sensitized Photo-Assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition (Hg-Photo-CVD) technique opens new possibilities for reducing thin film growth temperature and producing novel semiconductor materials suitable for the future generation of high efficiency thin film solar cells onto low cost flexible plastic substrates. This paper provides some experimental data resulting from the optical characterization of hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin films grown by this deposition technique. Experiments have been performed on both as-deposited layers and thermal annealed ones. (author) [fr

  1. Adhesion of non-selective CVD tungsten to silicon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodruff, D.W.; Wilson, R.H.; Sanchez-Martinez, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    Adhesion of non-selective, CVD tungsten to silicon dioxide is a critical issue in the development of tungsten as a metalization for VLSI circuitry. Without special adhesion promoters, tungsten deposited from WF/sub 6/ and H/sub 2/ has typically failed a standard tape test over all types of silicon oxides and nitrides. The reasons for failure of thin films, and CVD tungsten in particular are explored along with standard techniques for improving adhesion of thin films. Experiments are reported which include a number of sputtered metals as adhesion promoters, as well as chemical and plasma treatment of the oxide surface. Sputtered molybdenum is clearly the superior adhesion promoting layer from these tests. Traditional adhesion layers such as chromium or titanium failed as adhesion layers for CVD tungsten possibly due to chemical reactions between the WF/sub 6/ and Cr or Ti

  2. The formation of tritium permeation barriers by CVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forcey, K.S.; Perujo, A.; Reiter, F.; Lolli-Ceroni, P.L.

    1993-01-01

    The effectiveness as permeation barriers of the following CVD coatings have been investigated: TiC (1 to 2 μm in thickness); a bi-layer of TiN on TiC (3 μm total thickness) and CVD Al 2 O 3 on a TiN/TiC bi-layer. The substrate materials were TZM (a Mo alloy) and 316L stainless steel in the form of discs of diameter 48 mm and thickness 0.1 or 1 mm. Permeation measurements were performed in the temperature range 515-742 K using deuterium at pressures in the range 1-50 kPa. CVD layers were shown to form reasonably effective permeation barriers. At a temperature of 673 K TiC is around 6000 times less permeable to deuterium than 316L stainless steel. (orig.)

  3. Calibration Experiments with a DISA Hot-Wire Anemometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kjellstroem, B.; Hedberg, S.

    1968-11-01

    From Collis' law and the direction sensitivity relation proposed by Hinze it is possible to derive the following relation between the voltage over the wire, the velocity and the angle of incidence of the flow: (V 2 - V 2 0 )/R(R-R a ) = b(ρu) c (sin 2 ψ + k 2 cos 2 ψ) c/2 . T values of the exponent c and the direction sensitivity coefficient k were determined experimentally in the range 20 2 . It was found that, if V 0 is the voltage measured with no net flow past the wire, c and k are decreasing with increasing values of ρu. In order to check these calibration experiments, shear stress and turbulence measurements were made in a circular channel. For this geometry the shear stress distribution can be estimated theoretically and several earlier experiments can be used for comparisons. These experiments were made at Reynolds numbers 3 x 10 5 - 10 6 , Mach numbers 0.1 - 0.3 and a channel length of 61 diameters. Excellent agreement with the theoretical shear stress distribution (corrected for compressibility effects) and earlier data for the axial and radial turbulence components was obtained when the results of the calibration experiments were used for the evaluation of these measurements Evaluation with a constant value of c or with k 2 equal to zero (as often recommended) gave less good agreement

  4. Carbon Nanotube Electrodes for Hot-Wire Electrochemistry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gründler, P.; Frank, Otakar; Kavan, Ladislav; Dunsch, L.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 3 (2009), s. 559-563 ISSN 1439-4235 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400400804; GA AV ČR KAN200100801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : electrochemistry * electrodes * nanotubes * Raman spectroscopy Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 3.453, year: 2009

  5. Calibration Experiments with a DISA Hot-Wire Anemometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjellstroem, B; Hedberg, S

    1968-11-15

    From Collis' law and the direction sensitivity relation proposed by Hinze it is possible to derive the following relation between the voltage over the wire, the velocity and the angle of incidence of the flow: (V{sup 2} - V{sup 2}{sub 0})/R(R-R{sub a}) = b({rho}u){sup c} (sin{sup 2}{psi} + k{sup 2}cos{sup 2}{psi}){sup c/2}. T values of the exponent c and the direction sensitivity coefficient k were determined experimentally in the range 20 < {rho}u < 180 kg/sm{sup 2}. It was found that, if V{sub 0} is the voltage measured with no net flow past the wire, c and k are decreasing with increasing values of {rho}u. In order to check these calibration experiments, shear stress and turbulence measurements were made in a circular channel. For this geometry the shear stress distribution can be estimated theoretically and several earlier experiments can be used for comparisons. These experiments were made at Reynolds numbers 3 x 10{sup 5} - 10{sup 6}, Mach numbers 0.1 - 0.3 and a channel length of 61 diameters. Excellent agreement with the theoretical shear stress distribution (corrected for compressibility effects) and earlier data for the axial and radial turbulence components was obtained when the results of the calibration experiments were used for the evaluation of these measurements Evaluation with a constant value of c or with k{sup 2} equal to zero (as often recommended) gave less good agreement.

  6. Hot wire needle probe for thermal conductivity detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condie, Keith Glenn; Rempe, Joy Lynn; Knudson, Darrell lee; Daw, Joshua Earl; Wilkins, Steven Curtis; Fox, Brandon S.; Heng, Ban

    2015-11-10

    An apparatus comprising a needle probe comprising a sheath, a heating element, a temperature sensor, and electrical insulation that allows thermal conductivity to be measured in extreme environments, such as in high-temperature irradiation testing. The heating element is contained within the sheath and is electrically conductive. In an embodiment, the heating element is a wire capable of being joule heated when an electrical current is applied. The temperature sensor is contained within the sheath, electrically insulated from the heating element and the sheath. The electrical insulation electrically insulates the sheath, heating element and temperature sensor. The electrical insulation fills the sheath having electrical resistance capable of preventing electrical conduction between the sheath, heating element, and temperature sensor. The control system is connected to the heating element and the temperature sensor.

  7. Thermal stability of hot-wire deposited amorphous silicon

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Arendse, CJ

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available , Utrecht, The Nether- lands, 2001. [9] D. Beeman, R. Tsu, M.F. Thorpe, Phys. Rev., B 32 (1985) 874. [10] D.T. Britton, M. Ha¨rting, M.R.B. Teemane, S. Mills, F.M. Nortier, T.N. van der Walt, Appl. Surf. Sci. 116 (1997) 53. [11] P. Willutzki, J. Sto¨rmer...

  8. Correlation of CVD Diamond Electron Emission with Film Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, S. P.; Baumann, P. K.; Ward, B. L.; Nemanich, R. J.; Dreifus, D. L.

    1996-03-01

    Electron field emission from metals is affected by surface morphology and the properties of any dielectric coating. Recent results have demonstrated low field electron emission from p-type diamond, and photoemission measurements have identified surface treatments that result in a negative electron affinity (NEA). In this study, the field emission from diamond is correlated with surface treatment, surface roughness, and film properties (doping and defects). Electron emission measurements are reported on diamond films synthesized by plasma CVD. Ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy indicates that the CVD films exhibit a NEA after exposure to hydrogen plasma. Field emission current-voltage measurements indicate "threshold voltages" ranging from approximately 20 to 100 V/micron.

  9. Radiation tolerance of CVD diamond detectors for pions and protons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, W.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bertuccio, G.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; D' Angelo, P.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; Eijk, B. van; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Gan, K.K.; Gheeraert, E.; Hallewell, G.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F. E-mail: f.hartjes@nikhef.nl; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Kass, R.; Koeth, T.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Mac Lynne, L.; Manfredotti, C.; Meier, D.; Mishina, M.; Moroni, L.; Noomen, J.; Oh, A.; Pan, L.S.; Pernicka, M.; Peitz, A.; Perera, L.; Pirollo, S.; Procario, M.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Rousseau, L.; Rudge, A.; Russ, J.; Sala, S.; Sampietro, M.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Suter, B.; Tapper, R.J.; Tesarek, R.; Trischuk, W.; Tromson, D.; Vittone, E.; Walsh, A.M.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; Wetstein, M.; White, C.; Zeuner, W.; Zoeller, M

    2002-01-11

    The paper gives new results on the radiation tolerance of CVD diamond for irradiation with 300 MeV/c pions and 24 GeV/c protons. The measured charge signal spectrum is compared at several irradiation levels with the spectrum calculated by a model. Irradiation by particles causes damage leading to a decrease of the charge signal. However, both the measurements and the outcome from the model show that for tracker applications this drawback is at least partly counterbalanced by a narrowing of the distribution curve of the charge signal. As a result, the efficiency of a CVD diamond tracker is less affected by irradiation than the mean charge signal.

  10. Radiation tolerance of CVD diamond detectors for pions and protons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, W.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bertuccio, G.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; D'Angelo, P.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; van Eijk, B.; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Gan, K. K.; Gheeraert, E.; Hallewell, G.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Kass, R.; Koeth, T.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; mac Lynne, L.; Manfredotti, C.; Meier, D.; Mishina, M.; Moroni, L.; Noomen, J.; Oh, A.; Pan, L. S.; Pernicka, M.; Peitz, A.; Perera, L.; Pirollo, S.; Procario, M.; Riester, J. L.; Roe, S.; Rousseau, L.; Rudge, A.; Russ, J.; Sala, S.; Sampietro, M.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Suter, B.; Tapper, R. J.; Tesarek, R.; Trischuk, W.; Tromson, D.; Vittone, E.; Walsh, A. M.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; Wetstein, M.; White, C.; Zeuner, W.; Zoeller, M.

    2002-01-01

    The paper gives new results on the radiation tolerance of CVD diamond for irradiation with 300 MeV/ c pions and 24 GeV/ c protons. The measured charge signal spectrum is compared at several irradiation levels with the spectrum calculated by a model. Irradiation by particles causes damage leading to a decrease of the charge signal. However, both the measurements and the outcome from the model show that for tracker applications this drawback is at least partly counterbalanced by a narrowing of the distribution curve of the charge signal. As a result, the efficiency of a CVD diamond tracker is less affected by irradiation than the mean charge signal.

  11. Application of Cat-CVD for ULSI technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akasaka, Yoichi

    2008-01-01

    The ULSI technology has been following Moore's law into the sub-100 nm era, although several challenging technical issues must be resolved. This paper describes possible application of Cat-CVD for ULSI technology beyond the 45 nm node. Especially, Cat-CVD SiN film for a transistor gate sidewall and/or a pre-metallic liner layer, and removal of photo resist (ash) by Cat-induced hydrogen atoms in the interconnect structure with an extreme low-k material are mainly discussed

  12. Radiation tolerance of CVD diamond detectors for pions and protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, W.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bertuccio, G.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; D'Angelo, P.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; Eijk, B. van; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Gan, K.K.; Gheeraert, E.; Hallewell, G.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Kass, R.; Koeth, T.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Mac Lynne, L.; Manfredotti, C.; Meier, D.; Mishina, M.; Moroni, L.; Noomen, J.; Oh, A.; Pan, L.S.; Pernicka, M.; Peitz, A.; Perera, L.; Pirollo, S.; Procario, M.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Rousseau, L.; Rudge, A.; Russ, J.; Sala, S.; Sampietro, M.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Suter, B.; Tapper, R.J.; Tesarek, R.; Trischuk, W.; Tromson, D.; Vittone, E.; Walsh, A.M.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; Wetstein, M.; White, C.; Zeuner, W.; Zoeller, M.

    2002-01-01

    The paper gives new results on the radiation tolerance of CVD diamond for irradiation with 300 MeV/c pions and 24 GeV/c protons. The measured charge signal spectrum is compared at several irradiation levels with the spectrum calculated by a model. Irradiation by particles causes damage leading to a decrease of the charge signal. However, both the measurements and the outcome from the model show that for tracker applications this drawback is at least partly counterbalanced by a narrowing of the distribution curve of the charge signal. As a result, the efficiency of a CVD diamond tracker is less affected by irradiation than the mean charge signal

  13. Physics and applications of CVD diamond

    CERN Document Server

    Koizumi, Satoshi; Nesladek, Milos

    2008-01-01

    Here, leading scientists report on why and how diamond can be optimized for applications in bioelectronic and electronics. They cover such topics as growth techniques, new and conventional doping mechanisms, superconductivity in diamond, and excitonic properties, while application aspects include quantum electronics at room temperature, biosensors as well as diamond nanocantilevers and SAWs.Written in a review style to make the topic accessible for a wider community of scientists working in interdisciplinary fields with backgrounds in physics, chemistry, biology and engineering, this is e

  14. Structural and optical properties of CdO nanostructures prepared by atmospheric-pressure CVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terasako, T.; Fujiwara, T.; Nakata, Y.; Yagi, M.; Shirakata, S.

    2013-01-01

    Cadmium oxide (CdO) nanostructures of various shapes were successfully grown on gold (Au) nanocolloid coated c-plane sapphire substrates by atmospheric-pressure CVD using Cd powder and H 2 O as source materials. CdO nanorods (NRs) exhibited tapered shapes and the degree of the tapering became larger with increasing substrate temperature. One of the possible reasons for the tapering behavior is the competition between the axial growth due to the vapor–liquid–solid (VLS) mechanism and the radial growth due to the vapor–solid (VS) mechanism. The influence of the competition between the two different growth mechanisms was also confirmed on the appearance of “seaweed-like” NRs. Moreover, we cannot neglect the influence of the shrinkage of catalyst particles during the growth process on the tapering behavior. In addition, there is a possibility that the temporal evolution of catalyst particles, such as diffusion, splitting, migration and coalescence, contributes not only to the disappearance of catalyst particles on the tips of the NRs, resulting in the enhancement of the radial growth relative to the axial growth, but also to the formation of nanobelts (NBs) and nanotrees (NTs). Photoacoustic measurements revealed that the absorption edge shifts towards lower energies and the absorption band below the absorption edge becomes larger with increasing T S . This tendency may be due to the increase of intrinsic defects and/or the decrease in residual impurities. - Highlights: ► Various shapes of CdO nanostructures were grown by AP-CVD using Cd and H 2 O. ► This diversity is due to the competition between VLS and VS mechanisms. ► The temporal evolution of Au catalyst particles also contributes to the diversity. ► Photoacoustic spectra were changed, depending on the substrate temperature. ► This is probably related to the intrinsic defects and/or residual impurities

  15. CVD-graphene for low equivalent series resistance in rGO/CVD-graphene/Ni-based supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Young Hwi; Kumar, Sunil; Bae, Joonho; Seo, Yongho

    2018-05-01

    Reduced equivalent series resistance (ESR) is necessary, particularly at a high current density, for high performance supercapacitors, and the interface resistance between the current collector and electrode material is one of the main components of ESR. In this report, we have optimized chemical vapor deposition-grown graphene (CVD-G) on a current collector (Ni-foil) using reduced graphene oxide as an active electrode material to fabricate an electric double layer capacitor with reduced ESR. The CVD-G was grown at different cooling rates—20 °C min‑1, 40 °C min‑1 and 100 °C min‑1—to determine the optimum conditions. The lowest ESR, 0.38 Ω, was obtained for a cell with a 100 °C min‑1 cooling rate, while the sample without a CVD-G interlayer exhibited 0.80 Ω. The CVD-G interlayer-based supercapacitors exhibited fast CD characteristics with high scan rates up to 10 Vs‑1 due to low ESR. The specific capacitances deposited with CVD-G were in the range of 145.6 F g‑1–213.8 F g‑1 at a voltage scan rate of 0.05 V s‑1. A quasi-rectangular behavior was observed in the cyclic voltammetry curves, even at very high scan rates of 50 and 100 V s‑1, for the cell with optimized CVD-G at higher cooling rates, i.e. 100 °C min‑1.

  16. Sharp boron spikes in silicon grown at reduced and atmospheric pressure by fast-gas-switching CVD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, A.T.; Roksnoer, P.J.; Maes, J.W.F.M.; Vriezema, C.J.; IJzendoorn, van L.J.; Zalm, P.C.

    1990-01-01

    Boron doping spikes in Si were grown by fast-gas-switching CVD at 800 and 850°C using Si2H6 and B2H6 in 0.03, 0.1 and 1 atm H2 as the carrier gas. The B2H6 doping gas was added for 2 s by two methods, namely during growth or as a flush while the Si2H6 flow was interrupted. High-resolution SIMS

  17. Modelling and analysis of CVD processes for ceramic membrane preparation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkman, H.W.; Cao, G.Z.; Meijerink, J.; de Vries, Karel Jan; Burggraaf, Anthonie

    1993-01-01

    A mathematical model is presented that describes the modified chemical vapour deposition (CVD) process (which takes place in advance of the electrochemical vapour deposition (EVD) process) to deposit ZrO2 inside porous media for the preparation and modification of ceramic membranes. The isobaric

  18. Optical characterization of single-crystal diamond grown by DC arc plasma jet CVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hei, Li-fu; Zhao, Yun; Wei, Jun-jun; Liu, Jin-long; Li, Cheng-ming; Lü, Fan-xiu

    2017-12-01

    Optical centers of single-crystal diamond grown by DC arc plasma jet chemical vapor deposition (CVD) were examined using a low-temperature photoluminescence (PL) technique. The results show that most of the nitrogen-vacancy (NV) complexes are present as NV- centers, although some H2 and H3 centers and B-aggregates are also present in the single-crystal diamond because of nitrogen aggregation resulting from high N2 incorporation and the high mobility of vacancies under growth temperatures of 950-1000°C. Furthermore, emissions of radiation-induced defects were also detected at 389, 467.5, 550, and 588.6 nm in the PL spectra. The reason for the formation of these radiation-induced defects is not clear. Although a Ni-based alloy was used during the diamond growth, Ni-related emissions were not detected in the PL spectra. In addition, the silicon-vacancy (Si-V)-related emission line at 737 nm, which has been observed in the spectra of many previously reported microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) synthetic diamonds, was absent in the PL spectra of the single-crystal diamond prepared in this work. The high density of NV- centers, along with the absence of Ni-related defects and Si-V centers, makes the single-crystal diamond grown by DC arc plasma jet CVD a promising material for applications in quantum computing.

  19. CVD polycrystalline diamond. A novel neutron detector and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mongkolnavin, R.

    1998-01-01

    Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD) Polycrystalline Diamond film has been investigated as a low noise sensor for beta particles, gammas and neutrons using High Energy Physics technologies. Its advantages and disadvantages have been explored in comparison with other particle detectors such as silicon detector and other plastic scintillators. The performance and characteristic of the diamond detector have been fully studied and discussed. These studies will lead to a better understanding of how CVD diamonds perform as a detector and how to improve their performance under various conditions. A CVD diamond detector model has been proposed which is an attempt to explain the behaviour of such an extreme detector material. A novel neutron detector is introduced as a result of these studies. A good thermal and fast neutron detector can be fabricated with CVD diamond with new topologies. This detector will perform well without degradation in a high neutron radiation environment, as diamond is known to be radiation hard. It also offers better neutrons and gammas discrimination for high gamma background applications compared to other semiconductor detectors. A full simulation of the detector has also been done using GEANT, a Monte-Carlo simulation program for particle detectors. Simulation results show that CVD diamond detectors with this novel topology can detect neutrons with great directionality. Experimental work has been done on this detector in a nuclear reactor environment and accelerator source. A novel neutron source which offers a fast pulse high-energy neutrons has also been studied. With this detector, applications in neutron spectrometer for low-Z material have been pursued with various neutron detection techniques. One of these is a low-Z material identification system. The system has been designed and simulated for contraband luggage interrogation using the detector and the novel neutron source. Also other neutron related applications have been suggested. (author)

  20. CVD polycrystalline diamond. A novel neutron detector and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mongkolnavin, R.

    1998-07-01

    Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD) Polycrystalline Diamond film has been investigated as a low noise sensor for beta particles, gammas and neutrons using High Energy Physics technologies. Its advantages and disadvantages have been explored in comparison with other particle detectors such as silicon detector and other plastic scintillators. The performance and characteristic of the diamond detector have been fully studied and discussed. These studies will lead to a better understanding of how CVD diamonds perform as a detector and how to improve their performance under various conditions. A CVD diamond detector model has been proposed which is an attempt to explain the behaviour of such an extreme detector material. A novel neutron detector is introduced as a result of these studies. A good thermal and fast neutron detector can be fabricated with CVD diamond with new topologies. This detector will perform well without degradation in a high neutron radiation environment, as diamond is known to be radiation-hard. It also offers better neutrons and gammas discrimination for high gamma background applications compared to other semiconductor detectors. A full simulation of the detector has also been done using GEANT, a Monte Carlo simulation program for particle detectors. Simulation results show that CVD diamond detectors with this novel topology can detect neutrons with great directionality. Experimental work has been done on this detector in a nuclear reactor environment and accelerator source. A novel neutron source which offers a fast pulse high-energy neutrons has also been studied. With this detector, applications in neutron spectrometry for low-Z material have been pursued with various neutron detection techniques. One of these is a low-Z material identification system. The system has been designed and simulated for contraband luggage interrogation using the detector and the novel neutron source. (author)

  1. Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Jones; George A. Schier

    1985-01-01

    This chapter considers aspen growth as a process, and discusses some characteristics of the growth and development of trees and stands. For the most part, factors affecting growth are discussed elsewhere, particularly in the GENETICS AND VARIATION chapter and in chapters in PART 11. ECOLOGY. Aspen growth as it relates to wood production is examined in the WOOD RESOURCE...

  2. Toroidal plasma enhanced CVD of diamond films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zvanya, John; Cullen, Christopher; Morris, Thomas; Krchnavek, Robert R.; Holber, William; Basnett, Andrew; Basnett, Robert; Hettinger, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    An inductively coupled toroidal plasma source is used as an alternative to microwave plasmas for chemical vapor deposition of diamond films. The source, operating at a frequency of 400 kHz, synthesizes diamond films from a mixture of argon, methane, and hydrogen. The toroidal design has been adapted to create a highly efficient environment for diamond film deposition: high gas temperature and a short distance from the sample to the plasma core. Using a toroidal plasma geometry operating in the medium frequency band allows for efficient (≈90%) coupling of AC line power to the plasma and a scalable path to high-power and large-area operation. In test runs, the source generates a high flux of atomic hydrogen over a large area, which is favorable for diamond film growth. Using a deposition temperature of 900–1050 °C and a source to sample distance of 0.1–2.0 cm, diamond films are deposited onto silicon substrates. The results showed that the deposition rate of the diamond films could be controlled using the sample temperature and source to sample spacing. The results also show the films exhibit good-quality polycrystalline diamond as verified by Raman spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy. The scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction results show that the samples exhibit diamond (111) and diamond (022) crystallites. The Raman results show that the sp 3 peak has a narrow spectral width (FWHM 12 ± 0.5 cm −1 ) and that negligible amounts of the sp 2 band are present, indicating good-quality diamond films

  3. Changes in CVD risk factors in the activity counseling trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan Baruth

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Meghan Baruth1, Sara Wilcox1, James F Sallis3, Abby C King4,5, Bess H Marcus6, Steven N Blair1,21Department of Exercise Science, 2Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Public Health Research Center, Columbia, SC, USA; 3Department of Psychology, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA, USA; 4Department of Health Research and Policy, 5Stanford Prevention Research Center, Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA; 6Behavioral and Social Sciences Section, Brown University Program in Public Health, Providence, RI, USAAbstract: Primary care facilities may be a natural setting for delivering interventions that focus on behaviors that improve cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors. The purpose of this study was to examine the 24-month effects of the Activity Counseling Trial (ACT on CVD risk factors, to examine whether changes in CVD risk factors differed according to baseline risk factor status, and to examine whether changes in fitness were associated with changes in CVD risk factors. ACT was a 24-month multicenter randomized controlled trial to increase physical activity. Participants were 874 inactive men and women aged 35–74 years. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three arms that varied by level of counseling, intensity, and resource requirements. Because there were no significant differences in change over time between arms on any of the CVD risk factors examined, all arms were combined, and the effects of time, independent of arm, were examined separately for men and women. Time × Baseline risk factor status interactions examined whether changes in CVD risk factors differed according to baseline risk factor status. Significant improvements in total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, the ratio of total cholesterol to HDL-C, and triglycerides were seen in

  4. COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF RISK FACTORS FOR CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE (CVD) IN GENETICALLY PREDISPOSED RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodent CVD models are increasingly used for understanding individual differences in susceptibility to environmental stressors such as air pollution. We characterized pathologies and a number of known human risk factors of CVD in genetically predisposed, male young adult Spontaneo...

  5. Thermodynamic study of CVD-ZrO2 phase diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres-Huerta, A.M.; Vargas-Garcia, J.R.; Dominguez-Crespo, M.A.; Romero-Serrano, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of zirconium oxide (ZrO 2 ) from zirconium acetylacetonate Zr(acac) 4 has been thermodynamically investigated using the Gibbs' free energy minimization method and the FACTSAGE program. Thermodynamic data Cp o , ΔH o and S o for Zr(acac) 4 have been estimated using the Meghreblian-Crawford-Parr and Benson methods because they are not available in the literature. The effect of deposition parameters, such as temperature and pressure, on the extension of the region where pure ZrO 2 can be deposited was analyzed. The results are presented as calculated CVD stability diagrams. The phase diagrams showed two zones, one of them corresponds to pure monoclinic phase of ZrO 2 and the other one corresponds to a mix of monoclinic phase of ZrO 2 and graphite carbon.

  6. Performance of irradiated CVD diamond micro-strip sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, W.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bertuccio, G.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; D'Angelo, P.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; Eijk, B. van; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Gan, K.K.; Gheeraert, E.; Hallewell, G.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Kass, R.; Koeth, T.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Mac Lynne, L.; Manfredotti, C.; Meier, D.; Mishina, M.; Moroni, L.; Noomen, J.; Oh, A.; Pan, L.S.; Pernicka, M.; Peitz, A.; Perera, L.; Pirollo, S.; Procario, M.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Rousseau, L.; Rudge, A.; Russ, J.; Sala, S.; Sampietro, M.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Suter, B.; Tapper, R.J.; Tesarek, R.; Trischuk, W.; Tromson, D.; Vittone, E.; Walsh, A.M.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; Wetstein, M.; White, C.; Zeuner, W.; Zoeller, M.; Plano, R.; Somalwar, S.V.; Thomson, G.B.

    2002-01-01

    CVD diamond detectors are of interest for charged particle detection and tracking due to their high radiation tolerance. In this article, we present, for the first time, beam test results from recently manufactured CVD diamond strip detectors and their behavior under low doses of electrons from a β-source and the performance before and after intense (>10 15 /cm 2 ) proton- and pion-irradiations. We find that low dose irradiation increase the signal-to-noise ratio (pumping of the signal) and slightly deteriorate the spatial resolution. Intense irradiation with protons 2.2x10 15 p/cm 2 lowers the signal-to-noise ratio slightly. Intense irradiation with pions 2.9x10 15 π/cm 2 lowers the signal-to-noise ratio more. The spatial resolution of the diamond sensors improves after irradiations

  7. Performance of irradiated CVD diamond micro-strip sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, W.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bertuccio, G.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; D' Angelo, P.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; Eijk, B. van; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Gan, K.K.; Gheeraert, E.; Hallewell, G.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Kass, R.; Koeth, T.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Mac Lynne, L.; Manfredotti, C.; Meier, D. E-mail: dirk.meier@cern.ch; Mishina, M.; Moroni, L.; Noomen, J.; Oh, A.; Pan, L.S.; Pernicka, M.; Peitz, A.; Perera, L.; Pirollo, S.; Procario, M.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Rousseau, L.; Rudge, A.; Russ, J.; Sala, S.; Sampietro, M.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Suter, B.; Tapper, R.J.; Tesarek, R.; Trischuk, W.; Tromson, D.; Vittone, E.; Walsh, A.M.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; Wetstein, M.; White, C.; Zeuner, W.; Zoeller, M.; Plano, R.; Somalwar, S.V.; Thomson, G.B

    2002-01-11

    CVD diamond detectors are of interest for charged particle detection and tracking due to their high radiation tolerance. In this article, we present, for the first time, beam test results from recently manufactured CVD diamond strip detectors and their behavior under low doses of electrons from a {beta}-source and the performance before and after intense (>10{sup 15}/cm{sup 2}) proton- and pion-irradiations. We find that low dose irradiation increase the signal-to-noise ratio (pumping of the signal) and slightly deteriorate the spatial resolution. Intense irradiation with protons 2.2x10{sup 15} p/cm{sup 2} lowers the signal-to-noise ratio slightly. Intense irradiation with pions 2.9x10{sup 15} {pi}/cm{sup 2} lowers the signal-to-noise ratio more. The spatial resolution of the diamond sensors improves after irradiations.

  8. Pulse height distribution and radiation tolerance of CVD diamond detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, W.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bertuccio, G.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; Dangelo, P.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; Eijk, B. van; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Gan, K.K.; Gheeraert, E.; Grigoriev, E.; Hallewell, G.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F. E-mail: f.hartjes@nikhef.nl; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Karl, C.; Kass, R.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Manfredotti, C.; Meier, D.; Mishina, M.; Moroni, L.; Oh, A.; Pan, L.S.; Pernicka, M.; Peitz, A.; Pirollo, S.; Polesello, P.; Procario, M.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Rousseau, L.; Rudge, A.; Russ, J.; Sala, S.; Sampietro, M.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Suter, B.; Tapper, R.J.; Tesarek, R.; Trawick, M.; Trischuk, W.; D.Tromson,; Vittone, E.; Walsh, A.M.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; White, C.; Zeuner, W.; Zoeller, M.; Fenyvesi, A.; Molnar, J.; Sohler, D

    2000-06-01

    The paper reviews measurements of the radiation tolerance of CVD diamond for irradiation with 24 GeV/c protons, 300 MeV/c pions and 1 MeV neutrons. For proton and neutron irradiation, the measured charge signal spectrum is compared with the spectrum calculated by a model. Irradiation by particles causes radiation damage leading to a decrease of the charge signal. However, both the measurements and the outcome from the model shows that for tracker applications this drawback is at least partly counterbalanced by a narrowing of the distribution curve of the charge signal. In addition, we observed after proton irradiation at the charge signal spectrum a decrease of the number of small signals. As a result, the efficiency of a CVD diamond tracker is less affected by irradiation than the mean charge signal.

  9. Performance of irradiated CVD diamond micro-strip sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, W; Bergonzo, P; Bertuccio, G; Bogani, F; Borchi, E; Brambilla, A; Bruzzi, Mara; Colledani, C; Conway, J; D'Angelo, P; Dabrowski, W; Delpierre, P A; Deneuville, A; Dulinski, W; van Eijk, B; Fallou, A; Fizzotti, F; Foulon, F; Friedl, M; Gan, K K; Gheeraert, E; Hallewell, G D; Han, S; Hartjes, F G; Hrubec, Josef; Husson, D; Kagan, H; Kania, D R; Kaplon, J; Kass, R; Koeth, T W; Krammer, Manfred; Lo Giudice, A; Lü, R; MacLynne, L; Manfredotti, C; Meier, D; Mishina, M; Moroni, L; Noomen, J; Oh, A; Pan, L S; Pernicka, Manfred; Peitz, A; Perera, L P; Pirollo, S; Procario, M; Riester, J L; Roe, S; Rousseau, L; Rudge, A; Russ, J; Sala, S; Sampietro, M; Schnetzer, S R; Sciortino, S; Stelzer, H; Stone, R; Suter, B; Tapper, R J; Tesarek, R J; Trischuk, W; Tromson, D; Vittone, E; Walsh, A M; Wedenig, R; Weilhammer, Peter; Wetstein, M; White, C; Zeuner, W; Zöller, M

    2002-01-01

    CVD diamond detectors are of interest for charged particle detection and tracking due to their high radiation tolerance. In this article we present, for the first time, beam test results from recently manufactured CVD diamond strip detectors and their behavior under low doses of electrons from a $\\beta$-source and the performance before and after intense ($>10^{15}/{\\rm cm^2}$) proton- and pion-irradiations. We find that low dose irradiations increase the signal-to-noise ratio (pumping of the signal) and slightly deteriorate the spatial resolution. Intense irradiations with protons ($2.2\\times 10^{15}~p/{\\rm cm^2}$) lowers the signal-to-noise ratio slightly. Intense irradiation with pions ($2.9\\times 10^{15}~\\pi/{\\rm cm^2}$) lowers the signal-to-noise ratio more. The spatial resolution of the diamond sensors improves after irradiations.

  10. Performance of irradiated CVD diamond micro-strip sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, W.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bertuccio, G.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; D'Angelo, P.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; van Eijk, B.; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Gan, K. K.; Gheeraert, E.; Hallewell, G.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Kass, R.; Koeth, T.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; mac Lynne, L.; Manfredotti, C.; Meier, D.; Mishina, M.; Moroni, L.; Noomen, J.; Oh, A.; Pan, L. S.; Pernicka, M.; Peitz, A.; Perera, L.; Pirollo, S.; Procario, M.; Riester, J. L.; Roe, S.; Rousseau, L.; Rudge, A.; Russ, J.; Sala, S.; Sampietro, M.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Suter, B.; Tapper, R. J.; Tesarek, R.; Trischuk, W.; Tromson, D.; Vittone, E.; Walsh, A. M.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; Wetstein, M.; White, C.; Zeuner, W.; Zoeller, M.; Plano, R.; Somalwar, S. V.; Thomson, G. B.

    2002-01-01

    CVD diamond detectors are of interest for charged particle detection and tracking due to their high radiation tolerance. In this article, we present, for the first time, beam test results from recently manufactured CVD diamond strip detectors and their behavior under low doses of electrons from a β-source and the performance before and after intense (>10 15/cm 2) proton- and pion-irradiations. We find that low dose irradiation increase the signal-to-noise ratio (pumping of the signal) and slightly deteriorate the spatial resolution. Intense irradiation with protons 2.2×10 15 p/ cm2 lowers the signal-to-noise ratio slightly. Intense irradiation with pions 2.9×10 15 π/ cm2 lowers the signal-to-noise ratio more. The spatial resolution of the diamond sensors improves after irradiations.

  11. Assessment of CVD diamond as a thermoluminescence dosemeter material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borchi, E.; Furetta, C.; Leroy, C.

    1996-01-01

    Diamond has a low atomic number (Z = 6) and is therefore essentially soft tissue (Z = 7.4) equivalent. As such, diamond is an attractive material for applications in dosimetry in which the radiation absorption in the sensor material should be as close as possible to that of soft tissue. Synthetic diamond prepared by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) offers an attractive option for this application. The aim of the present work is to report results on the thermoluminescence (TL) properties of CVD diamond samples. The annealing procedures, the linearity of the TL response as a function of dose, a short-term fading experiment and some kinetic properties have been investigated and are reported here. (Author)

  12. Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) OCRWM Loop Error Determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PHILIPP, B.L.

    2000-01-01

    Characterization is specifically identified by the Richland Operations Office (RL) for the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) of the US Department of Energy (DOE), as requiring application of the requirements in the Quality Assurance Requirements and Description (QARD) (RW-0333P DOE 1997a). Those analyses that provide information that is necessary for repository acceptance require application of the QARD. The cold vacuum drying (CVD) project identified the loops that measure, display, and record multi-canister overpack (MCO) vacuum pressure and Tempered Water (TW) temperature data as providing OCRWM data per Application of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) Quality Assurance Requirements to the Hanford Spent Nuclear Fuel Project HNF-SD-SNF-RPT-007. Vacuum pressure transmitters (PT 1*08, 1*10) and TW temperature transmitters (TIT-3*05, 3*12) are used to verify drying and to determine the water content within the MCO after CVD

  13. Pulse height distribution and radiation tolerance of CVD diamond detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, W; Bergonzo, P; Bertuccio, G; Bogani, F; Borchi, E; Brambilla, A; Bruzzi, Mara; Colledani, C; Conway, J; D'Angelo, P; Dabrowski, W; Delpierre, P A; Deneuville, A; Dulinski, W; van Eijk, B; Fallou, A; Fizzotti, F; Foulon, F; Friedl, M; Gan, K K; Gheeraert, E; Grigoriev, E; Hallewell, G D; Han, S; Hartjes, F G; Hrubec, Josef; Husson, D; Kagan, H; Kania, D R; Kaplon, J; Karl, C; Kass, R; Krammer, Manfred; Lo Giudice, A; Lü, R; Manfredotti, C; Meier, D; Mishina, M; Moroni, L; Oh, A; Pan, L S; Pernicka, Manfred; Peitz, A; Pirollo, S; Polesello, P; Procario, M; Riester, J L; Roe, S; Rousseau, L; Rudge, A; Russ, J; Sala, S; Sampietro, M; Schnetzer, S R; Sciortino, S; Stelzer, H; Stone, R; Suter, B; Tapper, R J; Tesarek, R J; Trawick, M L; Trischuk, W; Tromson, D; Vittone, E; Walsh, A M; Wedenig, R; Weilhammer, Peter; White, C; Zeuner, W; Zöller, M; Fenyvesi, A; Molnár, J; Sohler, D

    2000-01-01

    The paper reviews measurements of the radiation tolerance of CVD diamond for irradiation with 24 GeV/c protons, 300 MeV/c pions and 1 MeV neutrons. For proton and neutron irradiation, the measured charge signal spectrum is compared with the spectrum calculated by a model. Irradiation by particles causes radiation damage leading to a decrease of the charge signal. However, both the measurements and the outcome from the model shows that for tracker applications this drawback is at least partly counterbalanced by a narrowing of the distribution curve of the charge signal. In addition, we observed after proton irradiation at the charge signal spectrum a decrease of the number of small signals. As a result, the efficiency of a CVD diamond tracker is less affected by irradiation than the mean charge signal. (11 refs).

  14. Pulse height distribution and radiation tolerance of CVD diamond detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, W.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bertuccio, G.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; Dangelo, P.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; Eijk, B. van; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Gan, K.K.; Gheeraert, E.; Grigoriev, E.; Hallewell, G.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Karl, C.; Kass, R.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Manfredotti, C.; Meier, D.; Mishina, M.; Moroni, L.; Oh, A.; Pan, L.S.; Pernicka, M.; Peitz, A.; Pirollo, S.; Polesello, P.; Procario, M.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Rousseau, L.; Rudge, A.; Russ, J.; Sala, S.; Sampietro, M.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Suter, B.; Tapper, R.J.; Tesarek, R.; Trawick, M.; Trischuk, W.; D.Tromson,; Vittone, E.; Walsh, A.M.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; White, C.; Zeuner, W.; Zoeller, M.; Fenyvesi, A.; Molnar, J.; Sohler, D.

    2000-01-01

    The paper reviews measurements of the radiation tolerance of CVD diamond for irradiation with 24 GeV/c protons, 300 MeV/c pions and 1 MeV neutrons. For proton and neutron irradiation, the measured charge signal spectrum is compared with the spectrum calculated by a model. Irradiation by particles causes radiation damage leading to a decrease of the charge signal. However, both the measurements and the outcome from the model shows that for tracker applications this drawback is at least partly counterbalanced by a narrowing of the distribution curve of the charge signal. In addition, we observed after proton irradiation at the charge signal spectrum a decrease of the number of small signals. As a result, the efficiency of a CVD diamond tracker is less affected by irradiation than the mean charge signal

  15. Parameterisation of radiation effects on CVD diamond for proton irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartjes, F.; Adam, W.; Bauer, C.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; Eijk, B. van; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Gan, K.K.; Gheeraert, E.; Grigoriev, E.; Hallewell, G.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Han, S.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Karl, C.; Kass, R.; Knoepfle, K.T.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Manfredi, P.F.; Manfredotti, C.; Marshall, R.D.; Meier, D.; Mishina, M.; Oh, A.; Pan, L.S.; Palmieri, V.G.; Pernicka, M.; Peitz, A.; Pirollo, S.; Polesello, P.; Pretzl, K.; Procario, M.; Re, V.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Roff, D.; Rudge, A.; Runolfsson, O.; Russ, J.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Speziali, V.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Suter, B.; Tapper, R.J.; Tesarek, R.; Trawick, M.; Trischuk, W.; Vittone, E.; Wagner, A.; Walsh, A.M.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; White, C.; Zeuner, W.; Ziock, H.; Zoeller, M.

    1999-01-01

    The paper reviews measurements of the radiation hardness of CVD diamond for 24 GeV/c proton irradiation at fluences up to 5 * 10 15 protons/cm 2 . The results not only show radiation damage but also an annealing effect that is dominant at levels around 10 15 protons/cm 2 . A model describing both effects is introduced, enabling a prediction of the distribution curve of the charge signal for other levels

  16. Parameterisation of radiation effects on CVD diamond for proton irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartjes, F.; Adam, W.; Bauer, C.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; Eijk, B. van; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Gan, K.K.; Gheeraert, E.; Grigoriev, E.; Hallewell, G.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Han, S.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Karl, C.; Kass, R.; Knoepfle, K.T.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Manfredi, P.F.; Manfredotti, C.; Marshall, R.D.; Meier, D.; Mishina, M.; Oh, A.; Pan, L.S.; Palmieri, V.G.; Pernicka, M.; Peitz, A.; Pirollo, S.; Polesello, P.; Pretzl, K.; Procario, M.; Re, V.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Roff, D.; Rudge, A.; Runolfsson, O.; Russ, J.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Speziali, V.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Suter, B.; Tapper, R.J.; Tesarek, R.; Trawick, M.; Trischuk, W.; Vittone, E.; Wagner, A.; Walsh, A.M.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; White, C.; Zeuner, W.; Ziock, H.; Zoeller, M

    1999-08-01

    The paper reviews measurements of the radiation hardness of CVD diamond for 24 GeV/c proton irradiation at fluences up to 5{sup *}10{sup 15} protons/cm{sup 2}. The results not only show radiation damage but also an annealing effect that is dominant at levels around 10{sup 15} protons/cm{sup 2}. A model describing both effects is introduced, enabling a prediction of the distribution curve of the charge signal for other levels.

  17. Does productivity influence priority setting? A case study from the field of CVD prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Löfroth Emil

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this case study, different measures aimed at preventing cardiovascular diseases (CVD in different target groups have been ranked based on cost per QALY from a health care sector perspective and from a societal perspective, respectively. The innovation in this study is to introduce a budget constraint and thereby show exactly which groups would be included or excluded in treatment or intervention programs based on the two perspectives. Approximately 90% of the groups are included in both perspectives. Mainly elderly women are excluded when the societal perspective is used and mainly middle-aged men are excluded when the health care sector perspective is used. Elderly women have a higher risk of CVD and generally lower income than middle-aged men. Thus the exclusion of older women in the societal perspective is not a trivial consequence since it is in conflict with the general interpretation of the "treatment according to need" rule, as well as societal goals regarding gender equality and fairness. On the other hand, the exclusion of working individuals in the health care perspective undermines a growth of public resources for future health care for the elderly. The extent and consequences of this conflict are unclear and empirical studies of this problem are rare.

  18. Nitrogen and hydrogen related infrared absorption in CVD diamond films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Titus, E. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 (Portugal)]. E-mail: elby@mec.ua.pt; Ali, N. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 (Portugal); Cabral, G. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 (Portugal); Madaleno, J.C. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 (Portugal); Neto, V.F. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 (Portugal); Gracio, J. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 (Portugal); Ramesh Babu, P [Materials Ireland, Polymer research Centre, School of Physics, Dublin (Ireland); Sikder, A.K. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Bombay (India); Okpalugo, T.I. [Northern Ireland Bio-Engineering Centre, NIBEC, University of Ulster (United Kingdom); Misra, D.S. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Bombay (India)

    2006-09-25

    In this paper, we investigate on the presence of hydrogen and nitrogen related infrared absorptions in chemical vapour deposited (CVD) diamond films. Investigations were carried out in cross sections of diamond windows, deposited using hot filament CVD (HFCVD). The results of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy carried out in a cross section of self-standing diamond sheets are presented. The FTIR spectra showed several features that have not been reported before. In order to confirm the frequency of nitrogen related vibrations, ab-initio calculations were carried out using GAMESS program. The investigations showed the presence of several C-N related peaks in one-phonon (1000-1333 cm{sup -1}). The deconvolution of the spectra in the three-phonon region (2700-3150 cm{sup -1}) also showed a number of vibration modes corresponding to sp {sup m}CH {sub n} phase of carbon. Elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA) was employed to compare the H content measured using FTIR technique. Using these measurements we point out that the oscillator strength of the different IR modes varies depending upon the structure and H content of CVD diamond sheets.

  19. Thermoluminescent properties of CVD diamond: applications to ionising radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petitfils, A.

    2007-09-01

    Remarkable properties of synthetic diamond (human soft tissue equivalence, chemical stability, non-toxicity) make this material suitable for medical application as thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD). This work highlights the interest of this material as radiotherapy TLD. In the first stage of this work, we looked after thermoluminescent (TL) and dosimetric properties of polycrystalline diamond made by Chemically Vapor Deposited (CVD) synthesis. Dosimetric characteristics are satisfactory as TLD for medical application. Luminescence thermal quenching on diamond has been investigated. This phenomenon leads to a decrease of dosimetric TL peak sensitivity when the heating rate increases. The second part of this work analyses the use of synthetic diamond as TLD in radiotherapy. Dose profiles, depth dose distributions and the cartography of an electron beam obtained with our samples are in very good agreement with results from an ionisation chamber. It is clearly shown that CVD) diamond is of interest to check beams of treatment accelerators. The use of these samples in a control of treatment with Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy underlines good response of synthetic diamond in high dose gradient areas. These results indicate that CVD diamond is a promising material for radiotherapy dosimetry. (author)

  20. Mass production of CNTs using CVD multi-quartz tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yousef, Samy; Mohamed, Alaa [Dept. of Production Engineering and Printing Technology, Akhbar Elyom Academy, Giza (Egypt)

    2016-11-15

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have become the backbone of modern industries, including lightweight and heavy-duty industrial applications. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is considered as the most common method used to synthesize high yield CNTs. This work aims to develop the traditional CVD for the mass production of more economical CNTs, meeting the growing CNT demands among consumers by increasing the number of three particular reactors. All reactors housing is connected by small channels to provide the heat exchange possibility between the chambers, thereby decreasing synthesis time and reducing heat losses inside the ceramic body of the furnace. The novel design is simple and cheap with a lower reacting time and heat loss compared with the traditional CVD design. Methane, hydrogen, argon, and catalyzed iron nanoparticles were used as a carbon source and catalyst during the synthesis process. In addition, CNTs were produced using only a single quartz tube for comparison. The produced samples were examined using XRD, TEM, SEM, FTIR, and TGA. The results showed that the yield of CNTs increases by 287 % compared with those synthesized with a single quartz tube. Moreover, the total synthesis time of CNTs decreases by 37 % because of decreased heat leakage.

  1. Fast method for reactor and feature scale coupling in ALD and CVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanguas-Gil, Angel; Elam, Jeffrey W.

    2017-08-08

    Transport and surface chemistry of certain deposition techniques is modeled. Methods provide a model of the transport inside nanostructures as a single-particle discrete Markov chain process. This approach decouples the complexity of the surface chemistry from the transport model, thus allowing its application under general surface chemistry conditions, including atomic layer deposition (ALD) and chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Methods provide for determination of determine statistical information of the trajectory of individual molecules, such as the average interaction time or the number of wall collisions for molecules entering the nanostructures as well as to track the relative contributions to thin-film growth of different independent reaction pathways at each point of the feature.

  2. Photodecomposition of Hg - Photo - CVD monosilane. Application to hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aka, B.

    1989-04-01

    The construction of a Hg-photo-CVD device is discussed. The system enables the manufacturing of hydrogenous thin films of amorphous silicon from monosilane compound. The reaction mechanisms taking place in the gaseous phase and at the surface, and the optimal conditions for the amorphous silicon film growth are studied. The analysis technique is based on the measurement of the difference between the condensation points of the gaseous components of the mixture obtained from the monosilane photolysis. A kinetic simplified model is proposed. Conductivity measurements are performed and the heat treatment effects are analyzed. Trace amounts of oxygen and carbon are found in the material. No Hg traces are detected by SIMS analysis [fr

  3. Direct deposition of patterned nanocrystalline CVD diamond using an electrostatic self-assembly method with nanodiamond particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung-Koo; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Jeong, Min-Goon; Lim, Dae-Soon [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, Anam-Dong 5-1, Seoungbuk-Ku, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Min-Jung, E-mail: dslim@korea.ac.kr [Center for Advanced Device Materials, Korea University, Anam-Dong 5-1, Seoungbuk-Ku, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-17

    Micron-sized and precise patterns of nanocrystalline CVD diamond were fabricated successfully on substrates using dispersed nanodiamond particles, charge connection by electrostatic self-assembly, and photolithography processes. Nanodiamond particles which had been dispersed using an attritional milling system were attached electrostatically on substrates as nuclei for diamond growth. In this milling process, poly sodium 4-styrene sulfonate (PSS) was added as an anionic dispersion agent to produce the PSS/nanodiamond conjugates. Ultra dispersed nanodiamond particles with a {zeta}-potential and average particle size of - 60.5 mV and {approx} 15 nm, respectively, were obtained after this milling process. These PSS/nanodiamond conjugates were attached electrostatically to a cationic polyethyleneimine (PEI) coated surface on to which a photoresist had been patterned in an aqueous solution of the PSS/nanodiamond conjugated suspension. A selectively seeded area was formed successfully using the above process. A hot filament chemical vapor deposition system was used to synthesize the nanocrystalline CVD diamond on the seeded area. Micron-sized, thin and precise nanocrystalline CVD diamond patterns with a high nucleation density (3.8 {+-} 0.4 x 10{sup 11} cm{sup -2}) and smooth surface were consequently fabricated.

  4. Direct deposition of patterned nanocrystalline CVD diamond using an electrostatic self-assembly method with nanodiamond particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung-Koo; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Jeong, Min-Goon; Lim, Dae-Soon; Song, Min-Jung

    2010-01-01

    Micron-sized and precise patterns of nanocrystalline CVD diamond were fabricated successfully on substrates using dispersed nanodiamond particles, charge connection by electrostatic self-assembly, and photolithography processes. Nanodiamond particles which had been dispersed using an attritional milling system were attached electrostatically on substrates as nuclei for diamond growth. In this milling process, poly sodium 4-styrene sulfonate (PSS) was added as an anionic dispersion agent to produce the PSS/nanodiamond conjugates. Ultra dispersed nanodiamond particles with a ζ-potential and average particle size of - 60.5 mV and ∼ 15 nm, respectively, were obtained after this milling process. These PSS/nanodiamond conjugates were attached electrostatically to a cationic polyethyleneimine (PEI) coated surface on to which a photoresist had been patterned in an aqueous solution of the PSS/nanodiamond conjugated suspension. A selectively seeded area was formed successfully using the above process. A hot filament chemical vapor deposition system was used to synthesize the nanocrystalline CVD diamond on the seeded area. Micron-sized, thin and precise nanocrystalline CVD diamond patterns with a high nucleation density (3.8 ± 0.4 x 10 11 cm -2 ) and smooth surface were consequently fabricated.

  5. Stress analysis of CVD diamond window for ECH system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Koji

    2001-03-01

    The stress analysis of a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond window for Electron Cyclotron Heating and Current Drive (ECH/ECCD) system of fusion reactors is described. It was found that the real size diamond window (φ aper =70mm, t=2.25mm) withstood 14.5 atm. (1.45 MPa). The calculation results of the diamond window by ABAQUS code agree well with the results of the pressure test. The design parameters of the torus diamond window for a vacuum and a safety barrier were also obtained. (author)

  6. CVD diamond sensor for UV-photon detection

    CERN Document Server

    Periale, L; Gervino, G; Lamarina, A M; Palmisano, C; Periale, R; Picchi, P

    2012-01-01

    A new generation of UV photosensors, based on single crystal Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD) diamonds to work optically coupled with large volume two-phase liquid-Ar (LAr) or liquid-Xe (LXe) detectors nowadays under design for the next generation of WIMPs experiments, is under development. Preliminary tests and first calibrations show these devices can have better performance than the existing UV sensitive detectors (higher photosensitivity and better signal-to-noise ratio). I-V characteristics, dark current measurements, linearity response to X-ray irradiation, and alpha-particle energy resolution are reported and discussed. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. CVD Graphene/Ni Interface Evolution in Sulfuric Electrolyte

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yivlialin, Rossella; Bussetti, Gianlorenzo; Duò, Lamberto

    2018-01-01

    Systems comprising single and multilayer graphene deposited on metals and immersed in acid environments have been investigated, with the aim of elucidating the mechanisms involved, for instance, in hydrogen production or metal protection from corrosion. In this work, a relevant system, namely...... chemical vapor deposited (CVD) multilayer graphene/Ni (MLGr/Ni), is studied when immersed in a diluted sulfuric electrolyte. The MLGr/Ni electrochemical and morphological properties are studied in situ and interpreted in light of the highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) electrode behavior, when...... immersed in the same electrolyte. Following this interpretative framework, the dominant role of the Ni substrate in hydrogen production is clarified....

  8. Graphene growth from reduced graphene oxide by chemical vapour deposition: seeded growth accompanied by restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Sung-Jin; Hyun, Moon Seop; Myung, Sung; Kang, Min-A.; Yoo, Jung Ho; Lee, Kyoung G.; Choi, Bong Gill; Cho, Youngji; Lee, Gaehang; Park, Tae Jung

    2016-03-01

    Understanding the underlying mechanisms involved in graphene growth via chemical vapour deposition (CVD) is critical for precise control of the characteristics of graphene. Despite much effort, the actual processes behind graphene synthesis still remain to be elucidated in a large number of aspects. Herein, we report the evolution of graphene properties during in-plane growth of graphene from reduced graphene oxide (RGO) on copper (Cu) via methane CVD. While graphene is laterally grown from RGO flakes on Cu foils up to a few hundred nanometres during CVD process, it shows appreciable improvement in structural quality. The monotonous enhancement of the structural quality of the graphene with increasing length of the graphene growth from RGO suggests that seeded CVD growth of graphene from RGO on Cu surface is accompanied by the restoration of graphitic structure. The finding provides insight into graphene growth and defect reconstruction useful for the production of tailored carbon nanostructures with required properties.

  9. Effects of Light Intensity Activity on CVD Risk Factors: A Systematic Review of Intervention Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeo B. Batacan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of light intensity physical activity (LIPA on cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors remain to be established. This review summarizes the effects of LIPA on CVD risk factors and CVD-related markers in adults. A systematic search of four electronic databases (PubMed, Academic Search Complete, SPORTDiscus, and CINAHL examining LIPA and CVD risk factors (body composition, blood pressure, glucose, insulin, glycosylated hemoglobin, and lipid profile and CVD-related markers (maximal oxygen uptake, heart rate, C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and tumor necrosis factor receptors 1 and 2 published between 1970 and 2015 was performed on 15 March 2015. A total of 33 intervention studies examining the effect of LIPA on CVD risk factors and markers were included in this review. Results indicated that LIPA did not improve CVD risk factors and CVD-related markers in healthy individuals. LIPA was found to improve systolic and diastolic blood pressure in physically inactive populations with a medical condition. Reviewed studies show little support for the role of LIPA to reduce CVD risk factors. Many of the included studies were of low to fair study quality and used low doses of LIPA. Further studies are needed to establish the value of LIPA in reducing CVD risk.

  10. Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Iron Aluminide by CVD Coated Powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asit Biswas Andrew J. Sherman

    2006-09-25

    This I &I Category2 program developed chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of iron, aluminum and aluminum oxide coated iron powders and the availability of high temperature oxidation, corrosion and erosion resistant coating for future power generation equipment and can be used for retrofitting existing fossil-fired power plant equipment. This coating will provide enhanced life and performance of Coal-Fired Boilers components such as fire side corrosion on the outer diameter (OD) of the water wall and superheater tubing as well as on the inner diameter (ID) and OD of larger diameter headers. The program also developed a manufacturing route for readily available thermal spray powders for iron aluminide coating and fabrication of net shape component by powder metallurgy route using this CVD coated powders. This coating can also be applid on jet engine compressor blade and housing, industrial heat treating furnace fixtures, magnetic electronic parts, heating element, piping and tubing for fossil energy application and automotive application, chemical processing equipment , heat exchanger, and structural member of aircraft. The program also resulted in developing a new fabrication route of thermal spray coating and oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) iron aluminide composites enabling more precise control over material microstructures.

  11. A study of the thermoluminescent properties of CVD diamond detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marczewska, B.; Bilski, P.; Olko, P.; Rebisz, M.; Nesladek, M.; Waligorski, M.P.R.

    2002-01-01

    A batch of 20 diamond detectors obtained by the chemical vapour deposition (CVD) method at the Institute for Materials Research at the Limburg University, Belgium, was investigated with respect to their thermoluminescent (TL) properties. The investigated detectors demonstrate TL sensitivity similar to that of the standard LiF:Mg, Ti (MTS) thermoluminescent detectors, lack of fading after two weeks from irradiation and apparent linearity of dose response. In spite of the persistent fluctuation of individual detector sensitivity observed in this batch, a new annealing procedure improved the stability of the TL signal. It has been concluded that 1 h annealing at 350 C assures the highest reproducibility for this set of detectors. A 30% discrepancy of the value of the TL signal between individual detectors from the batch may be caused by non-uniform distribution of dopants in the volume of the CVD diamond. A prototype of a planar TL reader equipped with a CCD camera was employed in this investigation. (Abstract Copyright [2002], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  12. Thermoluminescence in CVD diamond films: application to actinometric dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barboza-Flores, M.; Melendrez, R.; Chernov, V.; Castaneda, B.; Pedroza-Montero, M.; Gan, B.; Ahn, J.; Zhang, Q.; Yoon, S.F.

    2002-01-01

    Diamond is considered a tissue-equivalent material since its atomic number (Z=6) is close to the effective atomic number of biological tissue (Z=7.42). Such a situation makes it suitable for radiation detection purposes in medical applications. In the present work the analysis is reported of the thermoluminescence (TL) and dosimetric features of chemically vapour deposited (CVD) diamond film samples subjected to ultraviolet (UV) irradiation in the actinometric region. The TL glow curve shows peaks at 120, 220, 320 and 370 deg. C. The 120 and 370 deg. C peaks are too weak and the first one fades away in a few seconds after exposure. The overall room temperature fading shows a 50% TL decay 30 min after exposure. The 320 deg. C glow peak is considered to be the most adequate for dosimetric applications due to its low fading and linear TL behaviour as a function of UV dose in the 180-260 nm range. The TL excitation spectrum presents a broad band with at least two overlapped components around 205 and 220 nm. The results indicate that the TL behaviour of CVD diamond film can be a good alternative to the currently available dosemeter and detector in the actinometric region as well as in clinical and medical applications. (author)

  13. VOx effectively doping CVD-graphene for transparent conductive films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Qinghua; Shi, Liangjing; Zhang, Qinghong; Wang, Weiqi; Zheng, Huifeng; Zhang, Yuzhi; Liu, Yangqiao; Sun, Jing

    2016-11-01

    Chemical vapor deposition(CVD)-synthesized graphene is potentially an alternative for tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) transparent conductive films (TCFs), however its sheet resistance is still too high to meet many demands. Vanadium oxide has been widely applied as smart window materials, however, no study has been reported to use it as dopant to improve the conductivity of graphene TCFs. In this study, we firstly reported that VOx doping can effectively lower the sheet resistance of CVD-graphene films while keeping its good optical properties, whose transmittance is as high as 86-90%. The optimized VOx-doped graphene exhibits a sheet resistance as low as 176 Ω/□, which decreases by 56% compared to the undoped graphene films. The doping process is convenient, stable, economical and easy to operate. What is more, VOx can effectively increase the work function(WF) of the film, making it more appropriate for use in solar cells. The evolution of the VOx species annealed at different temperatures below 400 °C has been detailed studied for the first time, based on which the doping mechanism is proposed. The prepared VOx doped graphene is expected to be a promising candidate for transparent conductive film purposes.

  14. Management of Hypertension and Other CVD Risk Factors in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa A. Abolfotouh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To assess the knowledge and practice of PHC physicians toward the detection and management of hypertension (HTN and other CVD risk factors. Methods. A cross-sectional study of all primary health care physicians of the FHU of three rural districts of Egypt was conducted. Each physician was subjected to a prevalidated interview questionnaire on the WHO-CVD risk management package for low and medium resources, and a checklist of observation of daily practices. Results. Hypertension was a priority problem in about two-thirds (62.9% of physicians, yet only 19% have guidelines for HTN patients. Clinical history recording system for HNT was available for 50% of physicians. Levels of knowledge varied with regard to definition of HTN (61.3%, fair, procedures for BP measurement (43.5%, poor, indications for referral (43.5%, poor, patient counseling (61.3%, fair, patient treatment (59.8%, fair. Availability of clinical history recording system for HNT was a significant predictor for physician's level of knowledge (P=0.001. Overall level of practice was fair (68.5%. Conclusion. PHC physicians have unsatisfactory knowledge and practice on hypertension. There is a need of more continuing medical education. Local and international manuals, workshops, and seminars on how to make use of these guidelines would improve doctors' performance.

  15. Response of CVD diamond detectors to alpha radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souw, E.-K. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Meilunas, R.J. [Northrop-Grumman Corporation, Bethpage, NY 11714-3582 (United States)

    1997-11-21

    This article describes some results from an experiment with CVD diamond films used as {alpha} particle detectors. It demonstrates that bulk polarization can be effectively stopped within a reasonable time interval. This will enable detector calibration and quantitative measurement. A possible mechanism for the observed polarization quenching is discussed. It involves two types of carrier traps and a tentative band-gap model derived from the results of photoconductive current measurements. The experiment was set up mainly to investigate {alpha} detection properties of polycrystalline diamond films grown by the technique of microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. For comparison, two commercially purchased diamond wafers were also investigated, i.e., one grown by the DC arc jet method, and the other, a type-IIa natural diamond wafer (not preselected). The best response to {alpha} particles was obtained using diamond thin-films grown by the microwave PECVD method, followed by the type-IIa natural diamond, and finally, the CVD diamond grown by the DC arc jet technique. (orig.). 43 refs.

  16. Prevalence of undiagnosed cardiovascular risk factors and 10-year CVD risk in male steel industry workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Benjamin J; Bracken, Richard M; Turner, Daniel; Morgan, Kerry; Mellalieu, Stephen D; Thomas, Michael; Williams, Sally P; Williams, Meurig; Rice, Sam; Stephens, Jeffrey W

    2014-05-01

    To assess the prevalence of undiagnosed cardiovascular disease (CVD) in a cohort of male steelworkers in South Wales, UK. Male steel industry workers (n = 221) with no prior diagnosis of CVD or diabetes accepted a CVD risk assessment within the work environment. Demographic, anthropometric, family, and medical histories were all recorded and capillary blood samples obtained. The 10-year CVD risk was predicted using the QRISK2-2012 algorithm. Up to 81.5% of workers were either overweight or obese. More than 20% of workers were found to have diastolic hypertension, high total cholesterol, and/or a total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein ratio of six or more. Over one quarter of workers assessed had an increased 10-year CVD risk. Despite a physically demanding occupation, risk assessment in the workplace uncovered significant occult factors in CVD risk in a sample of male heavy industry workers.

  17. Thermal Analysis of Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) of Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PIEPHO, M.G.

    2000-01-01

    The thermal analysis examined transient thermal and chemical behavior of the Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) container for a broad range of cases that represent the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) processes. The cases were defined to consider both normal and off-normal operations at the CVD Facility for an MCO with N Reactor spent fuel. This analysis provides the basis for the MCO thermal behavior at the CVD Facility in support of the safety basis documentation

  18. Synthesis and characterization of hafnium carbide microcrystal chains with a carbon-rich shell via CVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Song; Li, Hejun; Zhang, Yulei; Liu, Sen; Fu, Yangxi; Li, Yixian; Qiang, Xinfa

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Novel HfC microcrystal chains have been synthesized via a catalyst-assisted chemical vapor deposition process. SEM results show the chains have a periodically changing diameter and a nanoscale sharpening tip. Analysis of TEM/SAED/EELS/EDX data shows the single-crystal chains grow along a [0 0 1] direction and consist of a HfC core and a thin carbon-rich shell with embedded HfC nanocrystallites surrounding the core. This work achieves the controllable preparation of nanoscale HfC sharpening tips for application as a point electron emission source and facilitates the application of HfC ultrafast laser-triggered tips in attosecond science. Highlights: •HfC microcrystal chains were synthesized by a catalyst-assisted CVD. •The chains grow along a [0 0 1] direction and have a periodically changing diameter. •Single-crystal HfC core is sheathed by a thin carbon-rich shell. •A growth mechanism model is proposed to explain the growth of microcrystal chians. •This work achieves the controllable preparation of nanoscale HfC sharpening tips. -- Abstract: Novel hafnium carbide (HfC) microcrystal chains, with a periodically changing diameter and a nanoscale sharpening tip at the chain end, have been synthesized via a catalyst-assisted chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process. The as-synthesized chains with many octahedral microcrystals have diameters of between several hundreds of nm and 6 μm and lengths of ∼500 μm. TEM diffraction studies show that the chains are single-crystalline HfC and preferentially grow along a [0 0 1] crystal orientation. TEM/EELS/EDX analysis proves the chains are composed of a HfC core and a thin (several tens of nm to 100 nm) carbon-rich shell with the embedded HfC nanocrystallites (typically below 10 nm) surrounding the core. The growth mechanism model for the chains based on the vapor–liquid–solid process, the vapor–solid process, and the HfC crystal growth characteristics is discussed

  19. A measure of the interfacial shear strength between SiC(CVD)/B(CVD) filament--aluminum matrix by fragmentation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Y.Q.; Chen, X.J.; Yang, D.M.; Fei, X.; Pan, J.

    1993-01-01

    The tensile specimens used are of dog-bone shape and consist of single axial SiC (CVD) /B (CVD) filament processed by CVD and embedded in a LD-2 aluminum alloy. Model composite specimens have been fabricated by a high pressure squeeze casting technique. This paper describes the application of an Acoustic Emission Technique for locating the position of fiber breaks and thus determining the length distribution of fiber fragments resulting when a composite specimen containing a single fiber is loaded to failure. The critical lengths (minimal lengths) are checked by Corrosion Method

  20. Pushing the boundaries of high power lasers: low loss, large area CVD diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickham, Benjamin; Schoofs, Frank; Olsson-Robbie, Stefan; Bennett, Andrew; Balmer, Richard

    2018-02-01

    Synthetic CVD diamond has exceptional properties, including broad spectral transmission, physical and chemical robustness, and the highest thermal conductivity of any known material, making diamond an attractive material for medium to high power optical and laser applications, minimizing the detrimental effects of thermal lensing and radiation damage. Example applications include ATR prisms, Raman laser crystals, extra- and intra-cavity laser cooling. In each case the demands on the fundamental material properties and fabrication routes are slightly different. In recent years, there has been good progress in the development of low-loss, single crystal diamond, suitable for higher power densities, higher pulse rates and more demanding intra- and extra-cavity thermal management. The adoption of single crystal diamond in this area has however, been hindered by the availability of large area, low birefringence plates. To address this, we report a combination of CVD growth and processing methods that have enabled the manufacture of large, low defect substrates. A final homoepitaxial, low absorption synthesis stage has produced plates with large area (up to 16 mm edge length), low absorption (α<0.005 cm-1 at 1064 nm), and low birefringence (Δn <10-5), suitable for double-sided intra-cavity cooling. We demonstrate the practical advances in synthesis, including increasing the size while reducing in-use losses compared to previous generations of single crystal material, and practical developments in processing and implementation of the single crystal diamond parts, optimizing them for use in a state-of-the-art femto-second pulsed Ti:Sa thin disk gain module, all made in collaboration with the wider European FP7 funded Ti:Sa TD consortium.

  1. Charge transfer effects, thermo and photochromism in single crystal CVD synthetic diamond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, R U A; Martineau, P M; Cann, B L; Newton, M E; Twitchen, D J

    2009-09-09

    We report on the effects of thermal treatment and ultraviolet irradiation on the point defect concentrations and optical absorption profiles of single crystal CVD synthetic diamond. All thermal treatments were below 850 K, which is lower than the growth temperature and unlikely to result in any structural change. UV-visible absorption spectroscopy measurements showed that upon thermal treatment (823 K), various broad absorption features diminished: an absorption band at 270 nm (used to deduce neutral single substitutional nitrogen (N(S)(0)) concentrations) and also two broad features centred at approximately 360 and 520 nm. Point defect centre concentrations as a function of temperature were also deduced using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. Above ∼500 K, we observed a decrease in the concentration of N(S)(0) centres and a concomitant increase in the negatively charged nitrogen-vacancy-hydrogen (NVH) complex (NVH(-)) concentration. Both transitions exhibited an activation energy between 0.6 and 1.2 eV, which is lower than that for the N(S)(0) donor (∼1.7 eV). Finally, it was found that illuminating samples with intense short-wave ultraviolet light recovered the N(S)(0) concentration and also the 270, 360 and 520 nm absorption features. From these results, we postulate a valence band mediated charge transfer process between NVH and single nitrogen centres with an acceptor trap depth for NVH of 0.6-1.2 eV. Because the loss of N(S)(0) concentration is greater than the increase in NVH(-) concentration we also suggest the presence of another unknown acceptor existing at a similar energy to NVH. The extent to which the colour in CVD synthetic diamond is dependent on prior history is discussed.

  2. Studies of mono-crystalline CVD diamond pixel detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Bartz, E; Atramentov, O; Yang, Z; Hall-Wilton, R; Schnetzer, S; Patel, R; Bugg, W; Hebda, P; Halyo, V; Hunt, A; Marlow, D; Steininger, H; Ryjov, V; Hits, D; Spanier, S; Pernicka, M; Johns, W; Doroshenko, J; Hollingsworth, M; Harrop, B; Farrow, C; Stone, R

    2011-01-01

    The Pixel Luminosity Telescope (PLT) is a dedicated luminosity monitor, presently under construction, for the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It measures the particle flux in several three layered pixel diamond detectors that are aligned precisely with respect to each other and the beam direction. At a lower rate it also performs particle track position measurements. The PLTs mono-crystalline CVD diamonds are bump-bonded to the same readout chip used in the silicon pixel system in CMS. Mono-crystalline diamond detectors have many attributes that make them desirable for use in charged particle tracking in radiation hostile environments such as the LHC. In order to further characterize the applicability of diamond technology to charged particle tracking we performed several tests with particle beams that included a measurement of the intrinsic spatial resolution with a high resolution beam telescope. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Oxidation kinetics of CVD silicon carbide and silicon nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Dennis S.

    1992-01-01

    The long-term oxidation behavior of pure, monolithic CVD SiC and Si3N4 is studied, and the isothermal oxidation kinetics of these two materials are obtained for the case of 100 hrs at 1200-1500 C in flowing oxygen. Estimates are made of lifetimes at the various temperatures investigated. Parabolic rate constants for SiC are within an order of magnitude of shorter exposure time values reported in the literature. The resulting silica scales are in the form of cristobalite, with cracks visible after exposure. The oxidation protection afforded by silica for these materials is adequate for long service times under isothermal conditions in 1-atm dry oxygen.

  4. Studies of mono-crystalline CVD diamond pixel detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bugg, W. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (United States); Hollingsworth, M., E-mail: mhollin3@utk.edu [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (United States); Spanier, S.; Yang, Z. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (United States); Bartz, E.; Doroshenko, J.; Hits, D.; Schnetzer, S.; Stone, R.; Atramentov, O.; Patel, R.; Barker, A. [Rutgers University, Piscataway (United States); Hall-Wilton, R.; Ryjov, V.; Farrow, C. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Pernicka, M.; Steininger, H. [HEPHY, Vienna (Austria); Johns, W. [Vanderbilt University, Nashville (United States); Halyo, V.; Harrop, B. [Princeton University, Princeton (United States); and others

    2011-09-11

    The Pixel Luminosity Telescope (PLT) is a dedicated luminosity monitor, presently under construction, for the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It measures the particle flux in several three layered pixel diamond detectors that are aligned precisely with respect to each other and the beam direction. At a lower rate it also performs particle track position measurements. The PLT's mono-crystalline CVD diamonds are bump-bonded to the same readout chip used in the silicon pixel system in CMS. Mono-crystalline diamond detectors have many attributes that make them desirable for use in charged particle tracking in radiation hostile environments such as the LHC. In order to further characterize the applicability of diamond technology to charged particle tracking we performed several tests with particle beams that included a measurement of the intrinsic spatial resolution with a high resolution beam telescope.

  5. Dimensionless Numbers Expressed in Terms of Common CVD Process Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuczmarski, Maria A.

    1999-01-01

    A variety of dimensionless numbers related to momentum and heat transfer are useful in Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) analysis. These numbers are not traditionally calculated by directly using reactor operating parameters, such as temperature and pressure. In this paper, these numbers have been expressed in a form that explicitly shows their dependence upon the carrier gas, reactor geometry, and reactor operation conditions. These expressions were derived for both monatomic and diatomic gases using estimation techniques for viscosity, thermal conductivity, and heat capacity. Values calculated from these expressions compared well to previously published values. These expressions provide a relatively quick method for predicting changes in the flow patterns resulting from changes in the reactor operating conditions.

  6. Tests of Hercules/Ultramet CVD coatings in hot hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanier, P.E.; Barletta, R.E.; Svandrlik, J.; Adams, J.

    1992-01-01

    The effort by Hercules and Ultramet to produce CVD NbC coatings, which protect carbon-carbon substrates from hot hydrogen, has had some success but with some limitations. The coatings increase the survival time at atmospheric pressure and low flow rate of hydrogen by about a factor of 40 over uncoated graphite at 3000 K. However, the grain structure is not stable at these temperatures, and after about 10--20 minutes, the coating is subject to rapid degradation by spalling in visible chunks. Further experiments would have to be performed to determine the effects of higher pressures and flow rates, for it is not clear how these factors would affect the survival time, considering that one of the main failure mechanisms is independent of the atmosphere

  7. Polycrystalline CVD diamond device level modeling for particle detection applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozzi, A.; Passeri, D.; Kanxheri, K.; Servoli, L.; Lagomarsino, S.; Sciortino, S.

    2016-12-01

    Diamond is a promising material whose excellent physical properties foster its use for radiation detection applications, in particular in those hostile operating environments where the silicon-based detectors behavior is limited due to the high radiation fluence. Within this framework, the application of Technology Computer Aided Design (TCAD) simulation tools is highly envisaged for the study, the optimization and the predictive analysis of sensing devices. Since the novelty of using diamond in electronics, this material is not included in the library of commercial, state-of-the-art TCAD software tools. In this work, we propose the development, the application and the validation of numerical models to simulate the electrical behavior of polycrystalline (pc)CVD diamond conceived for diamond sensors for particle detection. The model focuses on the characterization of a physically-based pcCVD diamond bandgap taking into account deep-level defects acting as recombination centers and/or trap states. While a definite picture of the polycrystalline diamond band-gap is still debated, the effect of the main parameters (e.g. trap densities, capture cross-sections, etc.) can be deeply investigated thanks to the simulated approach. The charge collection efficiency due to β -particle irradiation of diamond materials provided by different vendors and with different electrode configurations has been selected as figure of merit for the model validation. The good agreement between measurements and simulation findings, keeping the traps density as the only one fitting parameter, assesses the suitability of the TCAD modeling approach as a predictive tool for the design and the optimization of diamond-based radiation detectors.

  8. CVD diamond Brewster window: feasibility study by FEM analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaccaro A.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Chemical vapor deposition (CVD diamond windows are a crucial component in heating and current drive (H&CD applications. In order to minimize the amount of reflected power from the diamond disc, its thickness must match the desired beam wavelength, thus proper targeting of the plasma requires movable beam reflectors. This is the case, for instance, of the ITER electron cyclotron H&CD system. However, looking at DEMO, the higher heat loads and neutron fluxes could make the use of movable parts close to the plasma difficult. The issue might be solved by using gyrotrons able to tune the beam frequency to the desired resonance, but this concept requires transmission windows that work in a given frequency range, such as the Brewster window. It consists of a CVD diamond disc brazed to two copper cuffs at the Brewster angle. The brazing process is carried out at about 800°C and then the temperature is decreased down to room temperature. Diamond and copper have very different thermal expansion coefficients, therefore high stresses build up during the cool down phase that might lead to failure of the disc. Considering also the complex geometry of the window with the skewed position of the disc, analyses are required in the first place to check its feasibility. The cool down phase was simulated by FEM structural analyses for several geometric and constraint configurations of the window. A study of indirect cooling of the window by water was also performed considering a HE11 mode beam. The results are here reported.

  9. Chemical Vapor-Deposited (CVD) Diamond Films for Electronic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    Diamond films have a variety of useful applications as electron emitters in devices such as magnetrons, electron multipliers, displays, and sensors. Secondary electron emission is the effect in which electrons are emitted from the near surface of a material because of energetic incident electrons. The total secondary yield coefficient, which is the ratio of the number of secondary electrons to the number of incident electrons, generally ranges from 2 to 4 for most materials used in such applications. It was discovered recently at the NASA Lewis Research Center that chemical vapor-deposited (CVD) diamond films have very high secondary electron yields, particularly when they are coated with thin layers of CsI. For CsI-coated diamond films, the total secondary yield coefficient can exceed 60. In addition, diamond films exhibit field emission at fields orders of magnitude lower than for existing state-of-the-art emitters. Present state-of-the-art microfabricated field emitters generally require applied fields above 5x10^7 V/cm. Research on field emission from CVD diamond and high-pressure, high-temperature diamond has shown that field emission can be obtained at fields as low as 2x10^4 V/cm. It has also been shown that thin layers of metals, such as gold, and of alkali halides, such as CsI, can significantly increase field emission and stability. Emitters with nanometer-scale lithography will be able to obtain high-current densities with voltages on the order of only 10 to 15 V.

  10. Polycrystalline CVD diamond device level modeling for particle detection applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morozzi, A.; Passeri, D.; Kanxheri, K.; Servoli, L.; Lagomarsino, S.; Sciortino, S.

    2016-01-01

    Diamond is a promising material whose excellent physical properties foster its use for radiation detection applications, in particular in those hostile operating environments where the silicon-based detectors behavior is limited due to the high radiation fluence. Within this framework, the application of Technology Computer Aided Design (TCAD) simulation tools is highly envisaged for the study, the optimization and the predictive analysis of sensing devices. Since the novelty of using diamond in electronics, this material is not included in the library of commercial, state-of-the-art TCAD software tools. In this work, we propose the development, the application and the validation of numerical models to simulate the electrical behavior of polycrystalline (pc)CVD diamond conceived for diamond sensors for particle detection. The model focuses on the characterization of a physically-based pcCVD diamond bandgap taking into account deep-level defects acting as recombination centers and/or trap states. While a definite picture of the polycrystalline diamond band-gap is still debated, the effect of the main parameters (e.g. trap densities, capture cross-sections, etc.) can be deeply investigated thanks to the simulated approach. The charge collection efficiency due to β -particle irradiation of diamond materials provided by different vendors and with different electrode configurations has been selected as figure of merit for the model validation. The good agreement between measurements and simulation findings, keeping the traps density as the only one fitting parameter, assesses the suitability of the TCAD modeling approach as a predictive tool for the design and the optimization of diamond-based radiation detectors.

  11. Organic solar cells using CVD-grown graphene electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hobeom; Han, Tae-Hee; Lim, Kyung-Geun; Lee, Tae-Woo; Bae, Sang-Hoon; Ahn, Jong-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    We report on the development of flexible organic solar cells (OSCs) incorporating graphene sheets synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) as transparent conducting electrodes on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates. A key barrier that must be overcome for the successful fabrication of OSCs with graphene electrodes is the poor-film properties of water-based poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiphene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) when coated onto hydrophobic graphene surfaces. To form a uniform PEDOT:PSS film on a graphene surface, we added perfluorinated ionomers (PFI) to pristine PEDOT:PSS to create ‘GraHEL’, which we then successfully spin coated onto the graphene surface. We systematically investigated the effect of number of layers in layer-by-layer stacked graphene anode of an OSC on the performance parameters including the open-circuit voltage (V oc ), short-circuit current (J sc ), and fill factor (FF). As the number of graphene layers increased, the FF tended to increase owing to lower sheet resistance, while J sc tended to decrease owing to the lower light absorption. In light of this trade-off between sheet resistance and transmittance, we determined that three-layer graphene (3LG) represents the best configuration for obtaining the optimal power conversion efficiency (PCE) in OSC anodes, even at suboptimal sheet resistances. We finally developed efficient, flexible OSCs with a PCE of 4.33%, which is the highest efficiency attained so far by an OSC with CVD-grown graphene electrodes to the best of our knowledge. (paper)

  12. Facet-dependent study of efficient growth of graphene on copper

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The growth of graphene by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) on copper is the most promising scalable method for high-quality graphene. The use of ethanol, an economic and safe precursor, for the fast growth of graphene on copper by a home-built CVD set-up was analysed. Full coverage of uniform single-layer ...

  13. Universal Design: Supporting Students with Color Vision Deficiency (CVD) in Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeks, Lisa M.; Jain, Neera R.; Herzer, Kurt R.

    2016-01-01

    Color Vision Deficiency (CVD) is a commonly occurring condition in the general population. For medical students, it has the potential to create unique challenges in the classroom and clinical environments. Few studies have provided medical educators with comprehensive recommendations to assist students with CVD. This article presents a focused…

  14. Urchin-like artificial gallium oxide nanowires grown by a novel MOCVD/CVD-based route for random laser application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, Ronaldo P. de [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências de Materiais, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife (Brazil); Colégio Militar do Recife, Exército Brasileiro, Recife PE 50730-120 (Brazil); Oliveira, Nathalia Talita C. [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências de Materiais, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife (Brazil); Dominguez, Christian Tolentino; Gomes, Anderson S. L.; Araújo, Cid B. de [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, 50670-901 Recife (Brazil); Falcão, Eduardo H. L.; Alves, Severino; Luz, Leonis L. da [Departamento de Química Fundamental, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, 50670-901 Recife (Brazil); Chassagnon, Remi [Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Carnot de Bourgogne, UMR 6303 CNRS-Université de Bourgogne, 9 Av. A. Savary, BP 47870, 21078 Dijon Cedex (France); Sacilotti, Marco [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, 50670-901 Recife (Brazil); Nanoform Group, Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Carnot de Bourgogne, Université de Bourgogne, Dijon (France)

    2016-04-28

    A novel procedure based on a two-step method was developed to obtain β-Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanowires by the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. The first step consists in the gallium micro-spheres growth inside a metal-organic chemical vapor deposition environment, using an organometallic precursor. Nanoscale spheres covering the microspheres were obtained. The second step involves the CVD oxidization of the gallium micro-spheres, which allow the formation of β-Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanowires on the micro-sphere surface, with the final result being a nanostructure mimicking nature's sea urchin morphology. The grown nanomaterial is characterized by several techniques, including X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray, transmission electron microscopy, and photoluminescence. A discussion about the growth mechanism and the optical properties of the β-Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} material is presented considering its unknown true bandgap value (extending from 4.4 to 5.68 eV). As an application, the scattering properties of the nanomaterial are exploited to demonstrate random laser emission (around 570 nm) when it is permeated with a laser dye liquid solution.

  15. Large-scale synthesis of NbS2 nanosheets with controlled orientation on graphene by ambient pressure CVD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Wanyin; Kawahara, Kenji; Tsuji, Masaharu; Ago, Hiroki

    2013-07-07

    We report ambient pressure chemical vapor deposition (CVD) growth of single-crystalline NbS2 nanosheets with controlled orientation. On Si and SiO2 substrates, NbS2 nanosheets grow almost perpendicular to the substrate surface. However, when we apply transferred CVD graphene on SiO2 as a substrate, NbS2 sheets grow laterally lying on the graphene. The NbS2 sheets show the triangular and hexagonal shapes with a thickness of about 20-200 nm and several micrometres in the lateral dimension. Analyses based on X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy indicate that the NbS2 nanosheets are single crystalline 3R-type with a rhombohedral structure of R3m space group. Our findings on the formation of highly aligned NbS2 nanosheets on graphene give new insight into the formation mechanism of NbS2 and would contribute to the templated growth of various layered materials.

  16. NEXAFS Study of the Annealing Effect on the Local Structure of FIB-CVD DLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saikubo, Akihiko; Kato, Yuri; Igaki, Jun-ya; Kanda, Kazuhiro; Matsui, Shinji; Kometani, Reo

    2007-01-01

    Annealing effect on the local structure of diamond like carbon (DLC) formed by focused ion beam-chemical vapor deposition (FIB-CVD) was investigated by the measurement of near edge x-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) and energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) spectra. Carbon K edge absorption NEXAFS spectrum of FIB-CVD DLC was measured in the energy range of 275-320 eV. In order to obtain the information on the location of the gallium in the depth direction, incidence angle dependence of NEXAFS spectrum was measured in the incident angle range from 0 deg. to 60 deg. . The peak intensity corresponding to the resonance transition of 1s→σ* originating from carbon-gallium increased from the FIB-CVD DLC annealed at 200 deg. C to the FIB-CVD DLC annealed at 400 deg. C and decreased from that at 400 deg. C to that at 600 deg. C. Especially, the intensity of this peak remarkably enhanced in the NEXAFS spectrum of the FIB-CVD DLC annealed at 400 deg. C at the incident angle of 60 deg. . On the contrary, the peak intensity corresponding to the resonance transition of 1s→π* originating from carbon double bonding of emission spectrum decreased from the FIB-CVD DLC annealed at 200 deg. C to that at 400 deg. C and increased from that at 400 deg. C to that at 600 deg. C. Gallium concentration in the FIB-CVD DLC decreased from ≅2.2% of the as-deposited FIB-CVD DLC to ≅1.5% of the FIB-CVD DLC annealed at 600 deg. C from the elementary analysis using EDX. Both experimental results indicated that gallium atom departed from FIB-CVD DLC by annealing at the temperature of 600 deg. C

  17. Efecto del argon en películas CNxHy depositadas mediante ECR-CVD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albella, J. M.

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nitride films have been deposited by ECR-CVD, from Ar/CH4/N2 gas mixtures with different methane concentrations. Infrared Spectroscopy (IRS and Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis (ERDA have been used for films characterisation and Optical Emission Spectroscopy (OES for plasma analysis. Argon concentration in the gas mixture controls the growth rate as well as the composition of the film. In the proposed model, argon plays a key role in the activation of methane molecules. Also, during the growth of the film, two processes may be considered: i Film formation and ii Etching of the growing surface. Changing the gas mixture composition affects both processes, which results in films with different composition and structure as well as different deposition rates.Se ha estudiado el efecto del argon durante el proceso de CVD asistido por un plasma ECR para la síntesis de películas de nitruro de carbono (CNxHy a partir de mezclas gaseosas Ar/CH4/N2 con diferente contenido de metano. Las películas depositadas han sido analizadas mediante espectroscopía infrarroja (IRS y ERDA (Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis, y el análisis del plasma ha sido realizado utilizando la técnica de espectroscopía de emisión óptica (OES. La velocidad de deposición y la composición de las películas depositadas se encuentran determinadas por la concentración de argon en la mezcla gaseosa. Se propone un modelo, según el cual el argon juega un papel fundamental como activador de las moléculas de metano. El modelo propuesto incluye dos procesos simultáneos durante el crecimiento de las capas : i formación de la capa y ii ataque de la superficie de crecimiento. Según la composición de la mezcla gaseosa se favorece uno u otro proceso, lo que conduce a velocidades de deposición diferentes así como a depósitos con diferente composición y estructura atómica.

  18. Superior assessment of CVD death by MACD index compared with the framingham score is highly associated with predisposition to diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soltyskinska, Ewa; Barascuk, Natascha; Ganz, Melanie

    an OR of 20 which was significantly higher than the AC24 index OR of 5.0 and any other single or multivariate metabolic/physical marker, alone or in combination. The MACD index, compared to that of AC24, was significantly correlated to baseline glucose levels (p... to triglyceride levels.   Conclusions: The newly established MACD-index that encompasses information on plaque morphology, distribution and growth potential provides additional biological information emphasizing that smaller plaques with a spread elongated morphology have a larger growth potential and thereby...... subsequent rupture potential. This results in a superior identification of CVD related death with an OR of 20.  This increased biological information of the MACD index correlated strongly to glucose levels suggesting that this assessment method entails information of pre-diabetic status that is an important...

  19. Facility for continuous CVD coating of ceramic fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, A.W.

    1992-01-01

    The development of new and improved ceramic fibers has spurred the development and application of ceramic composites with improved strength, strength/weight ratio, toughness, and durability at increasingly high temperatures. For many systems, the ceramic fibers can be used without modification because their properties are adequate for the chosen application. However, in order to take maximum advantage of the fiber properties, it is often necessary to coat the ceramic fibers with materials of different composition and properties. Examples include (1) boron nitride coatings on a ceramic fiber, such as Nicalon silicon carbide, to prevent reaction with the ceramic matrix during fabrication and to enhance fiber pullout and increase toughness when the ceramic composite is subjected to stress; (2) boron nitride coatings on ceramic yarns, such as Nicalon for use as thermal insulation panels in an aerodynamic environment, to reduce abrasion of the Nicalon and to inhibit the oxidation of free carbon contained within the Nicalon; and (3) ceramic coatings on carbon yarns and carbon-carbon composites to permit use of these high-strength, high-temperature materials in oxidizing environments at very high temperatures. This paper describes a pilot-plant-sized CVD facility for continuous coating of ceramic fibers and some of the results obtained so far with this equipment

  20. Selective tungsten deposition in a batch cold wall CVD system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chow, R.; Kang, S.; Harshbarger, W.R.; Susoeff, M.

    1987-01-01

    Selective deposition of tungsten offers many advantages for VLSI technology. The process can be used as a planarization technique for multilevel interconnect technology, it can be used to fill contacts and to provide a barrier layer between Al and Si materials, and the selective W process might be used as a self-aligned technology to provide low resistance layers on source/drain and gate conductors. Recent publications have indicate that cold wall CVD systems provide advantages for development of selective W process. Genus has investigated selective W deposition processing, and we have developed a selective W deposition process for the Genus 8402 multifilm deposition system. This paper describes the Genus 8402 system and the selective W process developed in this reactor. To further develop selective W technology, Genus has signed an agreement with General Electric establishing a joint development program. As a part of this program, the authors characterized the selective W process for encroachment, Si consumption and degrees of selectivity on various dielectrics. The status of this development activity and process characterization is reviewed in this paper

  1. Cyclic voltammetry response of an undoped CVD diamond electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabisiak, K., E-mail: kfab@ukw.edu.pl [Institute of Physics, Kazimierz Wielki University, Powstancow Wielkopolskich 2, 85-090 Bydgoszcz (Poland); Torz-Piotrowska, R. [Faculty of Chemical Technology and Engineering, UTLS Seminaryjna 3, 85-326 Bydgoszcz (Poland); Staryga, E. [Institute of Physics, Technical University of Lodz, Wolczanska 219, 90-924 Lodz (Poland); Szybowicz, M. [Faculty of Technical Physics, Poznan University of Technology, Nieszawska 13A, 60-965 Poznan (Poland); Paprocki, K.; Popielarski, P.; Bylicki, F. [Institute of Physics, Kazimierz Wielki University, Powstancow Wielkopolskich 2, 85-090 Bydgoszcz (Poland); Wrzyszczynski, A. [Institute of Physics, Technical University of Lodz, Wolczanska 219, 90-924 Lodz (Poland)

    2012-09-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Correlation was found between diamond quality and its electrochemical performance. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The electrode sensitivity depends on the content of sp{sup 2} carbon phase in diamond layer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The sp{sup 2} carbon phase content has little influence on the CV peak separation ({Delta}E{sub p}). - Abstract: The polycrystalline undoped diamond layers were deposited on tungsten wire substrates by using hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) technique. As a working gas the mixture of methanol in excess of hydrogen was used. The morphologies and quality of as-deposited films were monitored by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy respectively. The electrochemical activity of the obtained diamond layers was monitored by using cyclic voltammetry measurements. Analysis of the ferrocyanide-ferricyanide couple at undoped diamond electrode suggests that electrochemical reaction at diamond electrode has a quasireversibile character. The ratio of the anodic and cathodic peak currents was always close to unity. In this work we showed that the amorphous carbon admixture in the CVD diamond layer has a crucial influence on its electrochemical performance.

  2. A Fast CVD Diamond Beam Loss Monitor for LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Griesmayer, E; Dobos, D; Effinger, E; Pernegger, H

    2011-01-01

    Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD) diamond detectors were installed in the collimation area of the CERN LHC to study their feasibility as Fast Beam Loss Monitors in a high-radiation environment. The detectors were configured with a fast, radiation-hard pre-amplifier with a bandwidth of 2 GHz. The readout was via an oscilloscope with a bandwidth of 1 GHz and a sampling rate of 5 GSPS. Despite the 250 m cable run from the detectors to the oscilloscope, single MIPs were resolved with a 2 ns rise time, a pulse width of 10 ns and a time resolution of less than 1 ns. Two modes of operation were applied. For the analysis of unexpected beam aborts, the loss profile was recorded in a 1 ms buffer and, for nominal operation, the histogram of the time structure of the losses was recorded in synchronism with the LHC period of 89.2 μs. Measurements during the LHC start-up (February to December 2010) are presented. The Diamond Monitors gave an unprecedented insight into the time structure of the beam losses resolving the 400...

  3. Investigation of laser ablation of CVD diamond film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Choung-Lii; Chou, W. C.; Ma, Kung-Jen; Chen, Ta-Tung; Liu, Y. M.; Kuo, Y. S.; Chen, Ying-Tung

    2005-04-01

    Diamond, having many advanced physical and mechanical properties, is one of the most important materials used in the mechanical, telecommunication and optoelectronic industry. However, high hardness value and extreme brittleness have made diamond extremely difficult to be machined by conventional mechanical grinding and polishing. In the present study, the microwave CVD method was employed to produce epitaxial diamond films on silicon single crystal. Laser ablation experiments were then conducted on the obtained diamond films. The underlying material removal mechanisms, microstructure of the machined surface and related machining conditions were also investigated. It was found that during the laser ablation, peaks of the diamond grains were removed mainly by the photo-thermal effects introduced by excimer laser. The diamond structures of the protruded diamond grains were transformed by the laser photonic energy into graphite, amorphous diamond and amorphous carbon which were removed by the subsequent laser shots. As the protruding peaks gradually removed from the surface the removal rate decreased. Surface roughness (Ra) was improved from above 1μm to around 0.1μm in few minutes time in this study. However, a scanning technique would be required if a large area was to be polished by laser and, as a consequence, it could be very time consuming.

  4. Experimental studies of N~+ implantation into CVD diamond thin films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辛火平; 林成鲁; 王建新; 邹世昌; 石晓红; 林梓鑫; 周祖尧; 刘祖刚

    1997-01-01

    The effects of N+ implantation under various conditions on CVD diamond films were analyzed with Raman spectroscopy, four-point probe method, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Rutherford backseattering spectroscopy (RBS), ultraviolet photoluminescence spectroscopy (UV-PL), Fourier transformation infrared absorption spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results show that the N+ implantation doping without any graphitization has been successfully realized when 100 keV N+ ions at a dosage of 2 × 1016 cm-2 were implanted into diamond films at 550℃ . UV-PL spectra indicate that the implanted N+ ions formed an electrically inactive deep-level impurity in diamond films. So the sheet resistance of the sample after N+ implantation changed little. Carbon nitride containing C≡N covalent bond has been successfully synthesized by 100 keV, 1.2×1018 N/cm2 N+ implantation into diamond films. Most of the implanted N+ ions formed C≡N covalent bonds with C atoms. The others were free state nitroge

  5. Functional materials - Study of process for CVD SiC/C composite material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Doo Jin; Wang, Chae Chyun; Lee, Young Jin; Oh, Byung Jun [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    The CVD SiC coating techniques are the one of high functional material manufactures that improve the thermal, wear, oxidization and infiltration resistance of the surface of raw materials and extend the life of material. Silicon carbide films have been grown onto graphite substrates by low pressure chemical vapor deposition using MTS(CH{sub 3}SiCl{sub 3}) as a source precursor and H{sub 2} or N{sub 2} as a diluent gas. The experiments for temperature and diluent gas addition changes were performed. The effect of temperature from 900 deg. C to 1350 deg. C and the alteration of diluent gas species on the growth rate and structure of deposits have been studied. The experimental results showed that the deposition rate increased with increasing deposition temperature irrespective of diluent gases and reactant depletion effect increased especially at H{sub 2} diluent gas ambient. As the diluent gas added, the growth rate decreased parabolically. For N{sub 2} addition, surface morphology of leaf-like structure appeared, and for H{sub 2}, faceted structure at 1350 deg. C. The observed features were involved by crystalline phase of {beta}-SiC and surface composition with different gas ambient. We also compared the experimental results of the effect of partial pressure on the growth rate with the results of theoretical approach based on the Langmuir-Hinshelwood model. C/SiC composites were prepared by isothermal chemical vapor infiltration (ICVI). In order to fabricate the more dense C/SiC composites, a novel process of the in-situ whisker growing and filling during ICVI was devised, which was manipulated by alternating dilute gas species. The denser C/SiC composites were successfully prepared by the novel process comparing with the conventional ICVI process. 64 refs., 36 figs., 5 tabs. (Author)

  6. CVD and obesity in transitional Syria: a perspective from the Middle East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barakat, Hani; Barakat, Hanniya; Baaj, Mohamad K

    2012-01-01

    Syria is caught in the middle of a disruptive nutritional transition. Its healthcare system is distracted by challenges and successes in other areas while neglecting to address the onslaught of Syria's cardiovascular disease (CVD) epidemic. Despite the official viewpoint touting improvement in health indicators, current trends jeopardize population health, and several surveys in the Syrian population signal the epidemic spreading far and wide. The goal is to counteract the indifference towards obesity as a threat to Syrian's health, as the country is slowly becoming a leader in CVD mortality globally. PubMed, World Health Organization, and official government websites were searched for primary surveys in Syria related to CVD morbidity, mortality, and risk factors. Inclusion criteria ensured that results maximized relevance while producing comparable studies. Statistical analysis was applied to detect the most common risk factor and significant differences in risk factor prevalence and CVD rates. Obesity remained the prevailing CVD risk factor except in older Syrian men, where smoking and hypertension were more common. CVD mortality was more common in males due to coronary disease, while stroke dominated female mortality. The young workforce is especially impacted, with 50% of CVD mortality occurring before age 65 years and an 81% prevalence of obesity in women over 45 years. Syria can overcome its slow response to the CVD epidemic and curb further deterioration by reducing obesity and, thus, inheritance and clustering of risk factors. This can be achieved via multilayered awareness and intensive parental and familial involvement. Extinguishing the CVD epidemic is readily achievable as demonstrated in other countries.

  7. Development of a CVD silica coating for UK advanced gas-cooled nuclear reactor fuel pins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, M.J.; Houlton, M.R.; Moore, D.A.; Foster, A.I.; Swidzinski, M.A.M.

    1983-04-01

    Vapour deposited silica coatings could extend the life of the 20% Cr/25% Ni niobium stabilised (20/25/Nb) stainless steel fuel cladding of the UK advanced gas cooled reactors. A CVD coating process developed originally to be undertaken at atmospheric pressure has now been adapted for operation at reduced pressure. Trials on the LP CVD process have been pursued to the production scale using commercial equipment. The effectiveness of the LP CVD silica coatings in providing protection to 20/25/Nb steel surfaces against oxidation and carbonaceous deposition has been evaluated. (author)

  8. Radiation monitoring with CVD diamonds and PIN diodes at BaBar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruinsma, M. [University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Burchat, P. [Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-4060 (United States); Curry, S. [University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States)], E-mail: scurry@slac.stanford.edu; Edwards, A.J. [Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-4060 (United States); Kagan, H.; Kass, R. [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Kirkby, D. [University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Majewski, S.; Petersen, B.A. [Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-4060 (United States)

    2007-12-11

    The BaBar experiment at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center has been using two polycrystalline chemical vapor deposition (pCVD) diamonds and 12 silicon PIN diodes for radiation monitoring and protection of the Silicon Vertex Tracker (SVT). We have used the pCVD diamonds for more than 3 years, and the PIN diodes for 7 years. We will describe the SVT and SVT radiation monitoring system as well as the operational difficulties and radiation damage effects on the PIN diodes and pCVD diamonds in a high-energy physics environment.

  9. Multilayered and composite PVD-CVD coatings in cemented carbides manufacture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glushkov, V.N.; Anikeev, A.I.; Anikin, V.N.; Vereshchaka, A.S.

    2001-01-01

    Carbide cutting tools with wear-resistant coatings deposited by CVD process are widely employed in mechanical engineering to ensure a substantially longer service life of tool systems. However, the relatively high temperature and long time of the process make the substrate decarburise and, as a result, the bend strength and performance characteristics of a tool decrease. The present study suggests the problem of deteriorated strength of CVD-coated carbide tools be solved by the development of a technology that combines arc-PVD and CVD processes to deposit multilayered coatings of titanium and aluminium compounds. (author)

  10. Treatment with liraglutide may improve markers of CVD reflected by reduced levels of apoB

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelbrechtsen, Line; Lundgren, J; Wewer Albrechtsen, Nicolai Jacob

    2017-01-01

    Background: Dislipidaemia and increased levels of apolipoprotein B (apoB) in individuals with obesity are risk factors for development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of weight loss and weight maintenance with and without liraglutide treatment ......B, despite similar body weight maintenance. Treatment with liraglutide may therefore reduce apoB levels and thus reflect lower CVD risk. Including apoB measurements in clinical practice when monitoring patients with dislipidemia or CVD might prove to be useful....

  11. Electrochemical Energy Storage Applications of CVD Grown Niobium Oxide Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiz, Raquel; Appel, Linus; Gutiérrez-Pardo, Antonio; Ramírez-Rico, Joaquín; Mathur, Sanjay

    2016-08-24

    We report here on the controlled synthesis, characterization, and electrochemical properties of different polymorphs of niobium pentoxide grown by CVD of new single-source precursors. Nb2O5 films deposited at different temperatures showed systematic phase evolution from low-temperature tetragonal (TT-Nb2O5, T-Nb2O5) to high temperature monoclinic modifications (H-Nb2O5). Optimization of the precursor flux and substrate temperature enabled phase-selective growth of Nb2O5 nanorods and films on conductive mesoporous biomorphic carbon matrices (BioC). Nb2O5 thin films deposited on monolithic BioC scaffolds produced composite materials integrating the high surface area and conductivity of the carbonaceous matrix with the intrinsically high capacitance of nanostructured niobium oxide. Heterojunctions in Nb2O5/BioC composites were found to be beneficial in electrochemical capacitance. Electrochemical characterization of Nb2O5/BioC composites showed that small amounts of Nb2O5 (as low as 5%) in conjunction with BioCarbon resulted in a 7-fold increase in the electrode capacitance, from 15 to 104 F g(-1), while imparting good cycling stability, making these materials ideally suited for electrochemical energy storage applications.

  12. A study of diaschisis in CVD using MR-CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Akihiko; Fujimoto, Toshiro; Uetsuhara, Koichi; Asakura, Tetsuhiko; Osame, Mitsuhiro; Igata, Akihiro.

    1987-01-01

    The presence of diaschisis in the non-infarct cerebral areas in a cerebro-vascular disorder (CVD) has been reported using PET and cerebral-blood flowmetry. We are not aware, however, of any report studying this diaschisis by means of the method of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In this connection, we studied brain MRI in 38 patients with cerebral infarctions. The T 1 relaxation time was estimated in the white and grey matters of the frontal, temporal, and occipital lobes and the thalamus, including the cerebral white matter of both the infarct and non-infarct sides. In the major-stroke group, significant increases (all P 1 relaxation time were observed in the thalamus of the infarct side, as well as in the thalamus and the white matter of the occipital lobe on the non-infarct side. In the minor-stroke group, significant increases (all P 1 relaxation time were also observed in all areas except the frontal-lobe white matter of the infarct and non-infarct sides. We have thus proved the presence of diaschisis through the method of MRI by evaluating the T 1 relaxation time. An analysis of the time profile of the T 1 relaxation time in each area demonstrated that the T 1 relaxation time tended to show its greatest value between 2 weeks and 2 months and thereafter gradually decreased, reaching the normal range 2 months later in the white matter of both the infarct and non-infarct sides. The T 1 relaxation time in the thalamus of the infarct side, however, decreased between 2 weeks and 2 months and then increased again. Therefore, we were able to show different time profiles of the diaschisis in various areas of the brain through the analysis of the T 1 relaxation time in MRI. (author)

  13. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of uranium for alpha spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez V, M. L.; Rios M, C.; Ramirez O, J.; Davila R, J. I.; Mireles G, F.

    2015-09-01

    The uranium determination through radiometric techniques as alpha spectrometry requires for its proper analysis, preparation methods of the source to analyze and procedures for the deposit of this on a surface or substrate. Given the characteristics of alpha particles (small penetration distance and great loss of energy during their journey or its interaction with the matter), is important to ensure that the prepared sources are thin, to avoid problems of self-absorption. The routine methods used for this are the cathodic electro deposition and the direct evaporation, among others. In this paper the use of technique of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) for the preparation of uranium sources is investigated; because by this, is possible to obtain thin films (much thinner than those resulting from electro deposition or evaporation) on a substrate and comprises reacting a precursor with a gas, which in turn serves as a carrier of the reaction products to achieve deposition. Preliminary results of the chemical vapor deposition of uranium are presented, synthesizing and using as precursor molecule the uranyl acetylacetonate, using oxygen as carrier gas for the deposition reaction on a glass substrate. The uranium films obtained were found suitable for alpha spectrometry. The variables taken into account were the precursor sublimation temperatures and deposition temperature, the reaction time and the type and flow of carrier gas. Of the investigated conditions, two depositions with encouraging results that can serve as reference for further work to improve the technique presented here were selected. Alpha spectra obtained for these depositions and the characterization of the representative samples by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction are also presented. (Author)

  14. Lithium storage properties of multiwall carbon nanotubes prepared by CVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, J.-O.; Andong National University,; Wang, G.X.; Liu, H.K.; Dou, S.X.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were synthesised by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) method using acetylene gas. The XRD pattern of as prepared carbon nanotubes showed that the d 002 value is 3.44 Angstroms. The morphology and microstructure of carbon nanotubes were characterized by HRTEM. Most of carbon nanotubes are entangled together to form bundles or ropes. The diameter of the carbon nanotubes is in the range of 10 ∼ 20 nm. There is a small amount of amorphous carbon particles presented in the sample. However, the yield of carbon nanotubes is more than 95%. Electrochemical properties of carbon nanotubes were characterised via a variety of electrochemical testing techniques. The result of CV test showed that the Li insertion potential is quite low, which is very close to O V versus Li + /Li reference electrode, whereas the potential for Li de-intercalation is in the range of 0.2-0.4 V. There exists a slight voltage hysteresis between Li intercalation and Li de-intercalation, which is similar to the other carbonaceous materials. The intensity of redox peaks of carbon nanotubes decrease with scanning cycle, indicating that the reversible Li insertion capacity gradually decreases. The carbon nanotubes electrode demonstrated a reversible lithium storage capacity of 340 mAh/g with good cyclability at moderate current density. Further improvement of Li storage capacity is possible by opening the end of carbon nanotubes to allow lithium insertion into inner graphene sheet of carbon nanotubes. The kinetic properties of lithium insertion in carbon nanotube electrodes were characterised by a.c. impedance measurements. It was found that the lithium diffusion coefficient d Li decreases with an increase of Li ion concentration in carbon nanotube host

  15. Cutting characteristics of dental diamond burs made with CVD technology Características de corte de pontas odontológicas diamantadas obtidas pela tecnologia CVD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Monti Lima

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the cutting ability of chemical vapor deposition (CVD diamond burs coupled to an ultrasonic dental unit handpiece for minimally invasive cavity preparation. One standard cavity was prepared on the mesial and distal surfaces of 40 extracted human third molars either with cylindrical or with spherical CVD burs. The cutting ability was compared regarding type of substrate (enamel and dentin and direction of handpiece motion. The morphological characteristics, width and depth of the cavities were analyzed and measured using scanning electron micrographs. Statistical analysis using the Kruskal-Wallis test (p O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a habilidade de corte das pontas de diamante obtidas pelo processo de deposição química a vapor (CVD associadas ao aparelho de ultra-som no preparo cavitário minimamente invasivo. Uma cavidade padronizada foi preparada nas faces mesial e distal de 40 terceiros molares, utilizando-se pontas de diamante CVD cilíndrica e esférica. A habilidade de corte foi comparada quanto ao tipo de substrato (esmalte e dentina e quanto à direção do movimento realizado com a ponta. As características morfológicas, a largura e profundidade das cavidades foram analisadas e medidas em microscopia eletrônica de varredura. A análise estatística pelo teste de Kruskal-Wallis (p < 0,05 revelou que a largura e profundidade das cavidades foram significativamente maiores em dentina. Cavidades mais largas foram obtidas quando se utilizou a ponta de diamante CVD cilíndrica, e mais profundas quando a ponta esférica foi empregada. A direção do movimento da ponta não influenciou o tamanho das cavidades, sendo os cortes produzidos pelas pontas de diamante CVD precisos e conservadores.

  16. Effect of vapor-phase oxygen on chemical vapor deposition growth of graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terasawa, Tomo-o.; Saiki, Koichiro

    2015-03-01

    To obtain a large-area single-crystal graphene, chemical vapor deposition (CVD) growth on Cu is considered the most promising. Recently, the surface oxygen on Cu has been found to suppress the nucleation of graphene. However, the effect of oxygen in the vapor phase was not elucidated sufficiently. Here, we investigate the effect of O2 partial pressure (PO2) on the CVD growth of graphene using radiation-mode optical microscopy. The nucleation density of graphene decreases monotonically with PO2, while its growth rate reaches a maximum at a certain pressure. Our results indicate that PO2 is an important parameter to optimize in the CVD growth of graphene.

  17. Deposition and micro electrical discharge machining of CVD-diamond layers incorporated with silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühn, R.; Berger, T.; Prieske, M.; Börner, R.; Hackert-Oschätzchen, M.; Zeidler, H.; Schubert, A.

    2017-10-01

    In metal forming, lubricants have to be used to prevent corrosion or to reduce friction and tool wear. From an economical and ecological point of view, the aim is to avoid the usage of lubricants. For dry deep drawing of aluminum sheets it is intended to apply locally micro-structured wear-resistant carbon based coatings onto steel tools. One type of these coatings are diamond layers prepared by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Due to the high strength of diamond, milling processes are unsuitable for micro-structuring of these layers. In contrast to this, micro electrical discharge machining (micro EDM) is a suitable process for micro-structuring CVD-diamond layers. Due to its non-contact nature and its process principle of ablating material by melting and evaporating, it is independent of the hardness, brittleness or toughness of the workpiece material. In this study the deposition and micro electrical discharge machining of silicon incorporated CVD-diamond (Si-CVD-diamond) layers were presented. For this, 10 µm thick layers were deposited on molybdenum plates by a laser-induced plasma CVD process (LaPlas-CVD). For the characterization of the coatings RAMAN- and EDX-analyses were conducted. Experiments in EDM were carried out with a tungsten carbide tool electrode with a diameter of 90 µm to investigate the micro-structuring of Si-CVD-diamond. The impact of voltage, discharge energy and tool polarity on process speed and resulting erosion geometry were analyzed. The results show that micro EDM is a suitable technology for micro-structuring of silicon incorporated CVD-diamond layers.

  18. Bone repair after osteotomy with diamond burs and CVD ultrasonic tips – histological study in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Matuda, Fábio S.; Pagani, Clovis; Miranda, Carolina B.; Crema, Aline A. S.; Brentel, Aline S.; Carvalho, Yasmin R.

    2010-01-01

    This study histologically evaluated the behavior of bone tissue of rats submitted to osteotomy with conventional diamond burs in high speed and a new ultrasonic diamond tips system (CVD – Chemical Vapor Deposition), at different study periods. The study was conducted on 24 Wistar rats. Osteotomy was performed on the posterior paws of each rat, with utilization of diamond burs in high speed under thorough water cooling at the right paw, and CVD tips at the left paw. Animals were killed a...

  19. Simulation of a perfect CVD diamond Schottky diode steep forward current–voltage characteristic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kukushkin, V.A., E-mail: vakuk@appl.sci-nnov.ru [Institute of Applied Physics of the Russian Academy of Science, 46 Ulyanov St., 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Nizhny Novgorod State University named after N.I. Lobachevsky, 23 Gagarin pr., 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation)

    2016-10-01

    The kinetic equation approach to the simulation of the perfect CVD diamond Schottky diode current–voltage characteristic is considered. In result it is shown that the latter has a significantly steeper forward branch than that of perfect devices of such a type on usual semiconductors. It means that CVD diamond-based Schottky diodes have an important potential advantage over analogous devices on conventional materials.

  20. Tribological Characteristics and Applications of Superhard Coatings: CVD Diamond, DLC, and c-BN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa; Murakawa, Masao; Watanabe, Shuichi; Takeuchi, Sadao; Wu, Richard L. C.

    1999-01-01

    Results of fundamental research on the tribological properties of chemical-vapor-deposited (CVD) diamond, diamondlike carbon, and cubic boron nitride films in sliding contact with CVD diamond in ultrahigh vacuum, dry nitrogen, humid air, and water are discussed. Furthermore, the actual and potential applications of the three different superhard coatings in the field of tribology technology, particularly for wear parts and tools, are reviewed.

  1. CVD Diamond, DLC, and c-BN Coatings for Solid Film Lubrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa

    1998-01-01

    When the main criteria for judging coating performance were coefficient of friction and wear rate, which had to be less than 0.1 and 10(exp -6) mm(exp 3)/N-m, respectively, carbon- and nitrogen-ion-implanted, fine-grain CVD diamond and DLC ion beam deposited on fine-grain CVD diamond met the requirements regardless of environment (vacuum, nitrogen, and air).

  2. Defining the relationship between COPD and CVD: what are the implications for clinical practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Ann D; Zakeri, Rosita; Quint, Jennifer K

    2018-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are arguably the most important comorbidities in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). CVDs are common in people with COPD, and their presence is associated with increased risk for hospitalization, longer length of stay and all-cause and CVD-related mortality. The economic burden associated with CVD in this population is considerable and the cumulative cost of treating comorbidities may even exceed that of treating COPD itself. Our understanding of the biological mechanisms that link COPD and various forms of CVD has improved significantly over the past decade. But despite broad acceptance of the prognostic significance of CVDs in COPD, there remains widespread under-recognition and undertreatment of comorbid CVD in this population. The reasons for this are unclear; however institutional barriers and a lack of evidence-based guidelines for the management of CVD in people with COPD may be contributory factors. In this review, we summarize current knowledge relating to the prevalence and incidence of CVD in people with COPD and the mechanisms that underlie their coexistence. We discuss the implications for clinical practice and highlight opportunities for improved prevention and treatment of CVD in people with COPD. While we advocate more active assessment for signs of cardiovascular conditions across all age groups and all stages of COPD severity, we suggest targeting those aged under 65 years. Evidence indicates that the increased risks for CVD are particularly pronounced in COPD patients in mid-to-late-middle-age and thus it is in this age group that the benefits of early intervention may prove to be the most effective. PMID:29355081

  3. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of uranium for alpha spectrometry; Deposicion quimica de vapor (CVD) de uranio para espectrometria alfa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez V, M. L.; Rios M, C.; Ramirez O, J.; Davila R, J. I.; Mireles G, F., E-mail: luisalawliet@gmail.com [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico)

    2015-09-15

    The uranium determination through radiometric techniques as alpha spectrometry requires for its proper analysis, preparation methods of the source to analyze and procedures for the deposit of this on a surface or substrate. Given the characteristics of alpha particles (small penetration distance and great loss of energy during their journey or its interaction with the matter), is important to ensure that the prepared sources are thin, to avoid problems of self-absorption. The routine methods used for this are the cathodic electro deposition and the direct evaporation, among others. In this paper the use of technique of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) for the preparation of uranium sources is investigated; because by this, is possible to obtain thin films (much thinner than those resulting from electro deposition or evaporation) on a substrate and comprises reacting a precursor with a gas, which in turn serves as a carrier of the reaction products to achieve deposition. Preliminary results of the chemical vapor deposition of uranium are presented, synthesizing and using as precursor molecule the uranyl acetylacetonate, using oxygen as carrier gas for the deposition reaction on a glass substrate. The uranium films obtained were found suitable for alpha spectrometry. The variables taken into account were the precursor sublimation temperatures and deposition temperature, the reaction time and the type and flow of carrier gas. Of the investigated conditions, two depositions with encouraging results that can serve as reference for further work to improve the technique presented here were selected. Alpha spectra obtained for these depositions and the characterization of the representative samples by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction are also presented. (Author)

  4. Surface structuring of boron doped CVD diamond by micro electrical discharge machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, A.; Berger, T.; Martin, A.; Hackert-Oschätzchen, M.; Treffkorn, N.; Kühn, R.

    2018-05-01

    Boron doped diamond materials, which are generated by Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD), offer a great potential for the application on highly stressed tools, e. g. in cutting or forming processes. As a result of the CVD process rough surfaces arise, which require a finishing treatment in particular for the application in forming tools. Cutting techniques such as milling and grinding are hardly applicable for the finish machining because of the high strength of diamond. Due to its process principle of ablating material by melting and evaporating, Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM) is independent of hardness, brittleness or toughness of the workpiece material. EDM is a suitable technology for machining and structuring CVD diamond, since boron doped CVD diamond is electrically conductive. In this study the ablation characteristics of boron doped CVD diamond by micro electrical discharge machining are investigated. Experiments were carried out to investigate the influence of different process parameters on the machining result. The impact of tool-polarity, voltage and discharge energy on the resulting erosion geometry and the tool wear was analyzed. A variation in path overlapping during the erosion of planar areas leads to different microstructures. The results show that micro EDM is a suitable technology for finishing of boron doped CVD diamond.

  5. A Hybrid Information Mining Approach for Knowledge Discovery in Cardiovascular Disease (CVD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Pasanisi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The healthcare ambit is usually perceived as “information rich” yet “knowledge poor”. Nowadays, an unprecedented effort is underway to increase the use of business intelligence techniques to solve this problem. Heart disease (HD is a major cause of mortality in modern society. This paper analyzes the risk factors that have been identified in cardiovascular disease (CVD surveillance systems. The Heart Care study identifies attributes related to CVD risk (gender, age, smoking habit, etc. and other dependent variables that include a specific form of CVD (diabetes, hypertension, cardiac disease, etc.. In this paper, we combine Clustering, Association Rules, and Neural Networks for the assessment of heart-event-related risk factors, targeting the reduction of CVD risk. With the use of the K-means algorithm, significant groups of patients are found. Then, the Apriori algorithm is applied in order to understand the kinds of relations between the attributes within the dataset, first looking within the whole dataset and then refining the results through the subsets defined by the clusters. Finally, both results allow us to better define patients’ characteristics in order to make predictions about CVD risk with a Multilayer Perceptron Neural Network. The results obtained with the hybrid information mining approach indicate that it is an effective strategy for knowledge discovery concerning chronic diseases, particularly for CVD risk.

  6. Recent Results from Beam Tests of 3D and Pad pCVD Diamond Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Wallny, Rainer

    2017-01-01

    Results from prototypes of a detector using chemical vapor deposited (CVD) diamond with embedded resistive electrodes in the bulk forming a 3D diamond device are presented. A detector system consisting of 3D devices based on poly-crystalline CVD (pCVD) diamond was connected to a multi-channel readout and successfully tested in a 120 GeV/c proton beam at CERN proving for the first time the feasibility of the 3D detector concept in pCVD for particle tracking applications. We also present beam test results on the dependence of signal size on incident particle rate in charged particle detectors based on poly-crystalline CVD diamond. The detectors were tested in a 260 MeV/c pion beam over a range of particle fluxes from 2 kHz/cm2 to 10 MHz/cm2 . The pulse height of the sensors was measured with pad readout electronics at a peaking time of 7 ns. Our data from the 2015 beam tests at PSI indicate that the pulse height of poly-crystalline CVD diamond sensor irradiated to 5×1014 neq/cm2 is independent of particle flux...

  7. Ion beam induced surface graphitization of CVD diamond for x-ray beam position monitor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Chian; Shu, D.; Kuzay, T.M.; Wen, L.; Melendres, C.A.; Argonne National Lab., IL

    1996-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source at ANL is a third-generation synchrotron facility that generates powerful x-ray beams on its undulator beamlines. It is important to know the position and angle of the x- ray beam during experiments. Due to very high heat flux levels, several patented x-ray beam position monitors (XBPM) exploiting chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond have been developed. These XBPMs have a thin layer of low-atomic-mass metallic coating so that photoemission from the x rays generate a minute but measurable current for position determination. Graphitization of the CVD diamond surface creates a very thin, intrinsic and conducting layer that can stand much higher temperatures and minimal x-ray transmission losses compared to the coated metallic layers. In this paper, a laboratory sputter ion source was used to transform selected surfaces of a CVD diamond substrate into graphite. The effect of 1-5 keV argon ion bombardment on CVD diamond surfaces at various target temperatures from 200 to 500 C was studied using Auger electron spectroscopy and in-situ electrical resistivity measurements. Graphitization after the ion bombardment has been confirmed and optimum conditions for graphitization studied. Raman spectroscopy was used to identify the overall diamond structure in the bulk of CVD diamond substrate after the ion bombardments. It was found that target temperature plays an important role in stability and electrical conductivity of the irradiated CVD diamonds

  8. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) event rates in HIV-positive persons at high predicted CVD and CKD risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyd, Mark A; Mocroft, Amanda; Ryom, Lene

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs (D:A:D) study has developed predictive risk scores for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and chronic kidney disease (CKD, defined as confirmed estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] ≤ 60 ml/min/1.73 m2) events in HIV...

  9. How dietary evidence for the prevention and treatment of CVD is translated into practice in those with or at high risk of CVD: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Tracy L; Burrows, Tracy L; Neubeck, Lis; Redfern, Julie; Callister, Robin; Collins, Clare E

    2017-01-01

    CVD is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity, and nutrition is an important lifestyle factor. The aim of the present systematic review was to synthesise the literature relating to knowledge translation (KT) of dietary evidence for the prevention and treatment of CVD into practice in populations with or at high risk of CVD. A systematic search of six electronic databases (CINAHL, Cochrane, EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsycINFO and Scopus) was performed. Studies were included if a nutrition or dietary KT was demonstrated to occur with a relevant separate measureable outcome. Quality was assessed using a tool adapted from two quality checklists. Population with or at high risk of CVD or clinicians likely to treat this population. A total of 4420 titles and abstracts were screened for inclusion, with 354 full texts retrieved to assess inclusion. Forty-three articles were included in the review, relating to thirty-five separate studies. No studies specifically stated their aim to be KT. Thirty-one studies were in patient or high-risk populations and four targeted health professionals. Few studies stated a theory on which the intervention was based (n 10) and provision of instruction was the most common behaviour change strategy used (n 26). KT in nutrition and dietary studies has been inferred, not stated, with few details provided regarding how dietary knowledge is translated to the end user. This presents challenges for implementation by clinicians and policy and decision makers. Consequently a need exists to improve the quality of publications in this area.

  10. Graphene growth with ‘no’ feedstock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, Fangzhu; Jia, Ruitao; Li, Bao-Wen; Liu, Chunlin; Li, Congzhou; Peng, Bo; Deng, Longjiang; Zhang, Wanli; Li, Yanrong; Ruoff, Rodney S.; Li, Xuesong

    2017-06-01

    Synthesis of graphene by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) from hydrocarbons on Cu foil substrates can yield high quality and large area graphene films. In a typical CVD process, a hydrocarbon in the gas phase is introduced for graphene growth and hydrogen is usually required to achieve high quality graphene. We have found that in a low pressure CVD system equipped with an oil mechanical vacuum pump located downstream, graphene can be grown without deliberate introduction of a carbon feedstock but with only trace amounts of C present in the system, the origin of which we attribute to the vapor of the pump oil. This finding may help to rationalize the differences in graphene growth reported by different research groups. It should also help to gain an in-depth understanding of graphene growth mechanisms with the aim to improve the reproducibility and structure control in graphene synthesis, e.g. the formation of large area single crystal graphene and uniform bilayer graphene.

  11. Friction Properties of Polished Cvd Diamond Films Sliding against Different Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zichao; Sun, Fanghong; Shen, Bin

    2016-11-01

    Owing to their excellent mechanical and tribological properties, like the well-known extreme hardness, low coefficient of friction and high chemical inertness, chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond films have found applications as a hard coating for drawing dies. The surface roughness of the diamond films is one of the most important attributes to the drawing dies. In this paper, the effects of different surface roughnesses on the friction properties of diamond films have been experimentally studied. Diamond films were fabricated using hot filament CVD. The WC-Co (Co 6wt.%) drawing dies were used as substrates. A gas mixture of acetone and hydrogen gas was used as the feedstock gas. The CVD diamond films were polished using mechanical polishing. Polished diamond films with three different surface roughnesses, as well as the unpolished diamond film, were fabricated in order to study the tribological performance between the CVD diamond films and different metals with oil lubrication. The unpolished and polished CVD diamond films are characterized with scanning electron microscope (SEM), atomic force microscope (AFM), surface profilometer, Raman spectrum and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The friction examinations were carried out by using a ball-on-plate type reciprocating friction tester. Low carbide steel, stainless steel, copper and aluminum materials were used as counterpart balls. Based on this study, the results presented the friction coefficients between the polished CVD films and different metals. The friction tests demonstrate that the smooth surface finish of CVD diamond films is beneficial for reducing their friction coefficients. The diamond films exhibit low friction coefficients when slid against the stainless steel balls and low carbide steel ball, lower than that slid against copper ball and aluminum ball, attributed to the higher ductility of copper and aluminum causing larger amount of wear debris adhering to the sliding interface and higher adhesive

  12. Cardiovascular disease (CVD and chronic kidney disease (CKD event rates in HIV-positive persons at high predicted CVD and CKD risk: A prospective analysis of the D:A:D observational study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Boyd

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs (D:A:D study has developed predictive risk scores for cardiovascular disease (CVD and chronic kidney disease (CKD, defined as confirmed estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] ≤ 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 events in HIV-positive people. We hypothesized that participants in D:A:D at high (>5% predicted risk for both CVD and CKD would be at even greater risk for CVD and CKD events.We included all participants with complete risk factor (covariate data, baseline eGFR > 60 ml/min/1.73 m2, and a confirmed (>3 months apart eGFR 1%-5%, >5% and fitted Poisson models to assess whether CVD and CKD risk group effects were multiplicative. A total of 27,215 participants contributed 202,034 person-years of follow-up: 74% male, median (IQR age 42 (36, 49 years, median (IQR baseline year of follow-up 2005 (2004, 2008. D:A:D risk equations predicted 3,560 (13.1% participants at high CVD risk, 4,996 (18.4% participants at high CKD risk, and 1,585 (5.8% participants at both high CKD and high CVD risk. CVD and CKD event rates by predicted risk group were multiplicative. Participants at high CVD risk had a 5.63-fold (95% CI 4.47, 7.09, p < 0.001 increase in CKD events compared to those at low risk; participants at high CKD risk had a 1.31-fold (95% CI 1.09, 1.56, p = 0.005 increase in CVD events compared to those at low risk. Participants' CVD and CKD risk groups had multiplicative predictive effects, with no evidence of an interaction (p = 0.329 and p = 0.291 for CKD and CVD, respectively. The main study limitation is the difference in the ascertainment of the clinically defined CVD endpoints and the laboratory-defined CKD endpoints.We found that people at high predicted risk for both CVD and CKD have substantially greater risks for both CVD and CKD events compared with those at low predicted risk for both outcomes, and compared to those at high predicted risk for only CVD or CKD events. This suggests that CVD and

  13. Tribosystems based on multilayered micro/nanocrystalline CVD diamond coatings =

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabani, Mohammadmehdi

    A combinacao das caracteristicas do diamante microcristalino (MCD) e nanocristalino (NCD), tais como elevada adesao do MCD e a baixa rugosidade superficial e baixo coeficiente de atrito do NCD, e ideal para aplicacoes tribologicas exigentes. Deste modo, o presente trabalho centrou-se no desenvolvimento de revestimentos em multicamada MCD/NCD. Filmes com dez camadas foram depositados em amostras de cerâmicos de Si3N4 pela tecnica de deposicao quimica em fase vapor assistida por filamento quente (HFCVD). A microestrutura, qualidade do diamante e adesao foram investigadas usando tecnicas como SEM, AFM, espectroscopia Raman, DRX, indentacao Brale e perfilometria otica 3D. Diversas geometrias para aplicacoes distintas foram revestidas: discos e esferas para testes tribologicos a escala laboratorial, e para testes em servico, aneis de empanques mecânicos e pastilhas de corte para torneamento. Nos ensaios tribologicos esfera-sobre-plano em movimento reciproco, sob 10-90% de humidade relativa (RH), os valores medios dos coeficientes de atrito maximo e em estado estacionario sao de 0,32 e 0,09, respetivamente. Em relacao aos coeficientes de desgaste, observou-se um valor minimo de cerca de 5,2x10-8 mm3N-1m-1 para valores intermedios de 20-25% de RH. A humidade relativa tem um forte efeito sobre o valor da carga critica que triplica a partir de 40 N a 10% RH para 120 N a 90% de RH. No intervalo de temperaturas 50-100 °C, as cargas criticas sao semelhantes as obtidas em condicoes de baixa RH ( 10-25%). A vida util das ferramentas com revestimento de dez camadas alternadas MCD/NCD e 24 mum de espessura total no torneamento de um composito de matriz metalica Al- 15 vol% Al2O3 (Al-MMC) e melhor do que a maioria das ferramentas de diamante CVD encontradas na literatura, e semelhante a maioria das ferramentas de diamante policristalino (PCD). A formacao de cratera ocorre por desgaste sucessivo das varias camadas, atrasando a delaminacao total do revestimento de diamante do

  14. Movers and stayers: The geography of residential mobility and CVD hospitalisations in Auckland, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exeter, Daniel J; Sabel, Clive E; Hanham, Grant; Lee, Arier C; Wells, Susan

    2015-05-01

    The association between area-level disadvantage and health and social outcomes is unequivocal. However, less is known about the health impact of residential mobility, particularly at intra-urban scales. We used an encrypted National Health Index (eNHI) number to link individual-level data recorded in routine national health databases to construct a cohort of 641,532 participants aged 30+ years to investigate the association between moving and CVD hospitalisations in Auckland, New Zealand. Residential mobility was measured for participants according to changes in the census Meshblock of usual residence, obtained from the Primary Health Organisation (PHO) database for every calendar quarter between 1/1/2006 and 31/12/2012. The NZDep2006 area deprivation score at the start and end of a participant's inclusion in the study was used to measure deprivation mobility. We investigated the relative risk of movers being hospitalised for CVD relative to stayers using multi-variable binomial regression models, controlling for age, gender, deprivation and ethnicity. Considered together, movers were 1.22 (1.19-1.26) times more likely than stayers to be hospitalised for CVD. Using the 5×5 deprivation origin-destination matrix to model a patient's risk of CVD based on upward, downward or sideways deprivation mobility, movers within the least deprived (NZDep2006 Quintile 1) areas were 10% less likely than stayers to be hospitalised for CVD, while movers within the most deprived (NZDep2006 Q5) areas were 45% more likely than stayers to have had their first CVD hospitalisation in 2006-2012 (RR: 1.45 [1.35-1.55]). Participants who moved upward also had higher relative risks of having a CVD event, although their risk was less than those observed for participants experiencing downward deprivation mobility. This research suggests that residential mobility is an important determinant of CVD in Auckland. Further investigation is required to determine the impact moving has on the risk of

  15. Applicability of the Existing CVD Risk Assessment Tools to Type II Diabetics in Oman: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulhakeem Al-Rawahi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Patients with type II diabetes (T2DM have an elevated risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD, and it is considered to be a leading cause of morbidity and premature mortality in these patients. Many traditional risk factors such as age, male sex, hypertension, dyslipidemia, glycemic control, diabetes duration, renal dysfunction, obesity, and smoking have been studied and identified as independent factors for CVD. Quantifying the risk of CVD among diabetics using the common risk factors in order to plan the treatment and preventive measures is important in the management of these patients as recommended by many clinical guidelines. Therefore, several risk assessment tools have been developed in different parts of the world for this purpose. These include the tools that have been developed for general populations and considered T2DM as a risk factor, and the tools that have been developed for T2DM populations specifically. However, due to the differences in sociodemographic factors and lifestyle patterns, as well as the differences in the distribution of various CVD risk factors in different diabetic populations, the external applicability of these tools on different populations is questionable. This review aims to address the applicability of the existing CVD risk models to the Omani diabetic population.

  16. Reference Intervals for Non-Fasting CVD Lipids and Inflammation Markers in Pregnant Indigenous Australian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Tracy L; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Clausen, Don; Weatherall, Loretta; Keogh, Lyniece; Pringle, Kirsty G; Rae, Kym M

    2017-10-14

    Indigenous Australians experience high rates of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The origins of CVD may commence during pregnancy, yet few serum reference values for CVD biomarkers exist specific to the pregnancy period. The Gomeroi gaaynggal research project is a program that undertakes research and provides some health services to pregnant Indigenous women. Three hundred and ninety-nine non-fasting samples provided by the study participants (206 pregnancies and 175 women) have been used to construct reference intervals for CVD biomarkers during this critical time. A pragmatic design was used, in that women were not excluded for the presence of chronic or acute health states. Percentile bands for non-linear relationships were constructed according to the methods of Wright and Royston (2008), using the xriml package in StataIC 13.1. Serum cholesterol, triglycerides, cystatin-C and alkaline phosphatase increased as gestational age progressed, with little change seen in high-sensitivity C-Reactive Protein and γ glutamyl transferase. Values provided in the reference intervals are consistent with findings from other research projects. These reference intervals will form a basis with which future CVD biomarkers for pregnant Indigenous Australian women can be compared.

  17. Spin transport in two-layer-CVD-hBN/graphene/hBN heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurram, M.; Omar, S.; Zihlmann, S.; Makk, P.; Li, Q. C.; Zhang, Y. F.; Schönenberger, C.; van Wees, B. J.

    2018-01-01

    We study room-temperature spin transport in graphene devices encapsulated between a layer-by-layer-stacked two-layer-thick chemical vapor deposition (CVD) grown hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) tunnel barrier, and a few-layer-thick exfoliated-hBN substrate. We find mobilities and spin-relaxation times comparable to that of SiO2 substrate-based graphene devices, and we obtain a similar order of magnitude of spin relaxation rates for both the Elliott-Yafet and D'Yakonov-Perel' mechanisms. The behavior of ferromagnet/two-layer-CVD-hBN/graphene/hBN contacts ranges from transparent to tunneling due to inhomogeneities in the CVD-hBN barriers. Surprisingly, we find both positive and negative spin polarizations for high-resistance two-layer-CVD-hBN barrier contacts with respect to the low-resistance contacts. Furthermore, we find that the differential spin-injection polarization of the high-resistance contacts can be modulated by dc bias from -0.3 to +0.3 V with no change in its sign, while its magnitude increases at higher negative bias. These features point to the distinctive spin-injection nature of the two-layer-CVD-hBN compared to the bilayer-exfoliated-hBN tunnel barriers.

  18. Flavonoids and Reduction of Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Patrizia; Prinzi, Giulia; Lamonaca, Palma; Cardaci, Vittorio; Fini, Massimo

    2018-05-13

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and cardiovascular diseases (CV) often coexist. COPD and CVD are complex diseases characterized by a strict interaction between environment and genetic. The mechanisms linking these two diseases are complex, multifactorial and not entirely understood, influencing the therapeutic approach. COPD is characterized by several comorbidities, it is hypothesizable that treatment of cardiovascular co-morbidities may reduce morbidity and mortality. Flavonoids are an important class of plant low molecular weight secondary metabolites (SMs). Convincing data from laboratory, epidemiological, and human clinical studies point to an important effects on CVD risk prevention. This review aims to provide up-to-date information on the ability of Flavonoids to reduce the CVD risk. Current studies support the potential of Flavonoids to prevent the risk of CVD. Well-designed clinical studies are suggested to evaluate advantages and limits of Flavonoids for managing CVD comorbidity in COPD. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  19. High quality aluminide and thermal barrier coatings deposition for new and service exposed parts by CVD techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedraza, F.; Tuohy, C.; Whelan, L.; Kennedy, A.D. [SIFCO Turbine Components, Carrigtwohill, Cork (Ireland)

    2004-07-01

    In this work, the performance of CVD aluminide coatings is compared to that of coatings deposited by the classical pack cementation technique using standard SIFCO procedures. The CVD coatings always seem to behave better upon exposure to isothermal and cyclic oxidation conditions. This is explained by a longer term stability of CVD coatings, with higher Al amounts in the diffusion zone and less refractory element precipitation in the additive layer. The qualities of Pt/Al coatings by out-of-pack and CVD are also compared as a previous step for further thermal barrier coating deposition. As an example, YSZ thermal barrier coatings are deposited by MO-CVD on Pt/Al CVD bond coats rendering adherent and thick coatings around the surface of turbine blades. This process under development does not require complex manipulation of the component to be coated. (orig.)

  20. A Comparative Study of Three Different Chemical Vapor Deposition Techniques of Carbon Nanotube Growth on Diamond Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betty T. Quinton

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares between the methods of growing carbon nanotubes (CNTs on diamond substrates and evaluates the quality of the CNTs and the interfacial strength. One potential application for these materials is a heat sink/spreader for high-power electronic devices. The CNTs and diamond substrates have a significantly higher specific thermal conductivity than traditional heat sink/spreader materials making them good replacement candidates. Only limited research has been performed on these CNT/diamond structures and their suitability of different growth methods. This study investigates three potential chemical vapor deposition (CVD techniques for growing CNTs on diamond: thermal CVD (T-CVD, microwave plasma-enhanced CVD (MPE-CVD, and floating catalyst thermal CVD (FCT-CVD. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM were used to analyze the morphology and topology of the CNTs. Raman spectroscopy was used to assess the quality of the CNTs by determining the ID/IG peak intensity ratios. Additionally, the CNT/diamond samples were sonicated for qualitative comparisons of the durability of the CNT forests. T-CVD provided the largest diameter tubes, with catalysts residing mainly at the CNT/diamond interface. The MPE-CVD process yielded non uniform defective CNTs, and FCT-CVD resulted in the smallest diameter CNTs with catalyst particles imbedded throughout the length of the nanotubes.

  1. Enhancing quality of carbon nanotubes through a real-time controlled CVD process with application to next-generation nanosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laxminarayana, Karthik; Jalili, Nader

    2004-07-01

    Nanocrystals and nanostructures will be the building blocks for future materials that will exhibit enhanced or entirely new combinations of properties with tremendous opportunity for novel technologies that can have far-reaching impact on our society. It is, however, realized that a major challenge for the near future is the design, synthesis and integration of nanostructures to develop functional nanosystems. In view of this, this exploratory research seeks to facilitate the development of a controlled and deterministic framework for nanomanufacturing of nanotubes as the most suitable choice among nanostructures for a plethora of potential applications in areas such as nanoelectronic devices, biological probes, fuel cell electrodes, supercapacitors and filed emission devices. Specifically, this paper proposes to control and maintain the most common nanotube growth parameters (i.e., reaction temperature and gas flow rate) through both software and hardware modifications. The influence of such growth parameters in a CVD process on some of the most vital and crucial aspects of nanotubes (e.g., length, diameter, yield, growth rate and structure) can be utilized to arrive at some unique and remarkable properties for the nanotubes. The objective here is, therefore, to control the process parameters to pinpoint accuracy, which would enable us to fabricate nanotubes having the desired properties and thereby maximize their ability to function at its fullest potential. To achieve this and in order to provide for experimental validation of the proposed research program, an experimental test-bed using the nanotube processing test chamber and a mechatronics workstation are being constructed.

  2. Electrical characteristics of thermal CVD B-doped Si films on highly strained Si epitaxially grown on Ge(100) by plasma CVD without substrate heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugawara, Katsutoshi; Sakuraba, Masao; Murota, Junichi

    2010-01-01

    Using an 84% relaxed Ge(100) buffer layer formed on Si(100) by electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (CVD), influence of strain upon electrical characteristics of B-doped Si film epitaxially grown on the Ge buffer have been investigated. For the thinner B-doped Si film, surface strain amount is larger than that of the thicker film, for example, strain amount reaches 2.0% for the thickness of 2.2 nm. It is found that the hole mobility is enhanced by the introduction of strain to Si, and the maximum enhancement of about 3 is obtained. This value is higher than that of the usually reported mobility enhancement by strain using Si 1 -x Ge x buffer. Therefore, introduction of strain using relaxed Ge film formed by ECR plasma enhanced CVD is useful to improve future Si-based device performance.

  3. Polymer Adsorption on Graphite and CVD Graphene Surfaces Studied by Surface-Specific Vibrational Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yudan; Han, Hui-Ling; Cai, Qun; Wu, Qiong; Xie, Mingxiu; Chen, Daoyong; Geng, Baisong; Zhang, Yuanbo; Wang, Feng; Shen, Y R; Tian, Chuanshan

    2015-10-14

    Sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy was employed to probe polymer contaminants on chemical vapor deposition (CVD) graphene and to study alkane and polyethylene (PE) adsorption on graphite. In comparing the spectra from the two surfaces, it was found that the contaminants on CVD graphene must be long-chain alkane or PE-like molecules. PE adsorption from solution on the honeycomb surface results in a self-assembled ordered monolayer with the C-C skeleton plane perpendicular to the surface and an adsorption free energy of ∼42 kJ/mol for PE(H(CH2CH2)nH) with n ≈ 60. Such large adsorption energy is responsible for the easy contamination of CVD graphene by impurity in the polymer during standard transfer processes. Contamination can be minimized with the use of purified polymers free of PE-like impurities.

  4. Cold Vacuum Dryer (CVD) Facility Fire Protection System Design Description (SYS 24)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SINGH, G.

    2000-10-17

    This system design description (SDD) addresses the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility fire protection system (FPS). The primary features of the FPS for the CVD are a fire alarm and detection system, automatic sprinklers, and fire hydrants. The FPS also includes fire extinguishers located throughout the facility and fire hydrants to assist in manual firefighting efforts. In addition, a fire barrier separates the operations support (administrative) area from the process bays and process bay support areas. Administrative controls to limit combustible materials have been established and are a part of the overall fire protection program. The FPS is augmented by assistance from the Hanford Fire Department (HED) and by interface systems including service water, electrical power, drains, instrumentation and controls. This SDD, when used in conjunction with the other elements of the definitive design package, provides a complete picture of the FPS for the CVD Facility.

  5. Development of CVD Diamond for Industrial Applications Final Report CRADA No. TC-2047-02

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caplan, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Olstad, R. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Jory, H. [Communications and Power Industries, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Vikharov, A. L. [Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2017-09-08

    This project was a collaborative effort to develop and demonstrate a new millimeter microwave assisted chemical vapor deposition(CVD) process for manufacturing large diamond disks with greatly reduced processing times and costs from those now available. In the CVD process, carbon based gases (methane) and hydrogen are dissociated into plasma using microwave discharge and then deposited layer by layer as polycrystalline diamond onto a substrate. The available low frequency (2.45GHz) microwave sources used elsewhere (De Beers) result in low density plasmas and low deposition rates: 4 inch diamond disks take 6-8 weeks to process. The new system developed in this project uses a high frequency 30GHz Gyrotron as the microwave source and a quasi-optical CVD chamber resulting in a much higher density plasma which greatly reduced the diamond processing times (1-2 weeks)

  6. CVD diamond based soft X-ray detector with fast response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Fang; Hou Lifei; Su Chunxiao; Yang Guohong; Liu Shenye

    2010-01-01

    A soft X-ray detector has been made with high quality chemical vapor deposited (CVD) diamond and the electrical structure of micro-strip. Through the measurement of response time on a laser with the pulse width of 10 ps, the full width at half maximum of the data got in the oscilloscope was 115 ps. The rise time of the CVD diamond detector was calculated to be 49 ps. In the experiment on the laser prototype facility, the signal got by the CVD diamond detector was compared with that got by a soft X-ray spectrometer. Both signals coincided well. The detector is proved to be a kind of reliable soft X-ray detector with fast response and high signal-to-noise ratio. (authors)

  7. Oxidation protection of multilayer CVD SiC/B/SiC coatings for 3D C/SiC composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yongsheng; Cheng Laifei; Zhang Litong; Wu Shoujun; Li Duo; Xu Yongdong

    2007-01-01

    A CVD boron coating was introduced between two CVD SiC coating layers. EDS and XRD results showed that the CVD B coating was a boron crystal without other impurity elements. SEM results indicated that the CVD B coating was a flake-like or column-like crystal with a compact cross-section. The crack width in the CVD SiC coating deposited on CVD B is smaller than that in a CVD SiC coating deposited on CVD SiC coating. After oxidation at 700 deg. C and 1000 deg. C, XRD results indicated that the coating was covered by product B 2 O 3 or B 2 O 3 .xSiO 2 film. The cracks were sealed as observed by SEM. There was a large amount of flake-like material on hybrid coating surface after oxidation at 1300 deg. C. Oxidation weight loss and residual flexural strength results showed that hybrid SiC/B/SiC multilayer coating provided better oxidation protection for C/SiC composite than a three layer CVD SiC coating at temperatures from 700 deg. C to 1000 deg. C for 600 min, but worse oxidation protection above 1000 deg. C due to the large amount of volatilization of B 2 O 3 or B 2 O 3 .xSiO 2

  8. Fabrication of Ultrasensitive Field-Effect Transistor DNA Biosensors by a Directional Transfer Technique Based on CVD-Grown Graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chao; Huang, Le; Zhang, Hong; Sun, Zhongyue; Zhang, Zhiyong; Zhang, Guo-Jun

    2015-08-12

    Most graphene field-effect transistor (G-FET) biosensors are fabricated through a routine process, in which graphene is transferred onto a Si/SiO2 substrate and then devices are subsequently produced by micromanufacture processes. However, such a fabrication approach can introduce contamination onto the graphene surface during the lithographic process, resulting in interference for the subsequent biosensing. In this work, we have developed a novel directional transfer technique to fabricate G-FET biosensors based on chemical-vapor-deposition- (CVD-) grown single-layer graphene (SLG) and applied this biosensor for the sensitive detection of DNA. A FET device with six individual array sensors was first fabricated, and SLG obtained by the CVD-growth method was transferred onto the sensor surface in a directional manner. Afterward, peptide nucleic acid (PNA) was covalently immobilized on the graphene surface, and DNA detection was realized by applying specific target DNA to the PNA-functionalized G-FET biosensor. The developed G-FET biosensor was able to detect target DNA at concentrations as low as 10 fM, which is 1 order of magnitude lower than those reported in a previous work. In addition, the biosensor was capable of distinguishing the complementary DNA from one-base-mismatched DNA and noncomplementary DNA. The directional transfer technique for the fabrication of G-FET biosensors is simple, and the as-constructed G-FET DNA biosensor shows ultrasensitivity and high specificity, indicating its potential application in disease diagnostics as a point-of-care tool.

  9. Association of BMI with risk of CVD mortality and all-cause mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kee, Chee Cheong; Sumarni, Mohd Ghazali; Lim, Kuang Hock; Selvarajah, Sharmini; Haniff, Jamaiyah; Tee, Guat Hiong Helen; Gurpreet, Kaur; Faudzi, Yusoff Ahmad; Amal, Nasir Mustafa

    2017-05-01

    To determine the relationship between BMI and risk of CVD mortality and all-cause mortality among Malaysian adults. Population-based, retrospective cohort study. Participants were followed up for 5 years from 2006 to 2010. Mortality data were obtained via record linkages with the Malaysian National Registration Department. Multiple Cox regression was applied to compare risk of CVD and all-cause mortality between BMI categories adjusting for age, gender and ethnicity. Models were generated for all participants, all participants the first 2 years of follow-up, healthy participants, healthy never smokers, never smokers, current smokers and former smokers. All fourteen states in Malaysia. Malaysian adults (n 32 839) aged 18 years or above from the third National Health and Morbidity Survey. Total follow-up time was 153 814 person-years with 1035 deaths from all causes and 225 deaths from CVD. Underweight (BMIBMI ≥30·0 kg/m2) was associated with a heightened risk of CVD mortality. Overweight (BMI=25·0-29·9 kg/m2) was inversely associated with risk of all-cause mortality. Underweight was significantly associated with all-cause mortality in all models except for current smokers. Overweight was inversely associated with all-cause mortality in all participants. Although a positive trend was observed between BMI and CVD mortality in all participants, a significant association was observed only for severe obesity (BMI≥35·0 kg/m2). Underweight was associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality and obesity with increased risk of CVD mortality. Therefore, maintaining a normal BMI through leading an active lifestyle and healthy dietary habits should continue to be promoted.

  10. Thermoluminescent properties of CVD diamond: applications to ionising radiation dosimetry; Proprietes thermoluminescentes du diamant CVD: applications a la dosimetrie des rayonnements ionisants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petitfils, A

    2007-09-15

    Remarkable properties of synthetic diamond (human soft tissue equivalence, chemical stability, non-toxicity) make this material suitable for medical application as thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD). This work highlights the interest of this material as radiotherapy TLD. In the first stage of this work, we looked after thermoluminescent (TL) and dosimetric properties of polycrystalline diamond made by Chemically Vapor Deposited (CVD) synthesis. Dosimetric characteristics are satisfactory as TLD for medical application. Luminescence thermal quenching on diamond has been investigated. This phenomenon leads to a decrease of dosimetric TL peak sensitivity when the heating rate increases. The second part of this work analyses the use of synthetic diamond as TLD in radiotherapy. Dose profiles, depth dose distributions and the cartography of an electron beam obtained with our samples are in very good agreement with results from an ionisation chamber. It is clearly shown that CVD) diamond is of interest to check beams of treatment accelerators. The use of these samples in a control of treatment with Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy underlines good response of synthetic diamond in high dose gradient areas. These results indicate that CVD diamond is a promising material for radiotherapy dosimetry. (author)

  11. Validation of a model to investigate the effects of modifying cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors on the burden of CVD: the rotterdam ischemic heart disease and stroke computer simulation (RISC) model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kempen, Bob J H; Ferket, Bart S; Hofman, Albert; Steyerberg, Ewout W; Colkesen, Ersen B; Boekholdt, S Matthijs; Wareham, Nicholas J; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Hunink, M G Myriam

    2012-12-06

    We developed a Monte Carlo Markov model designed to investigate the effects of modifying cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors on the burden of CVD. Internal, predictive, and external validity of the model have not yet been established. The Rotterdam Ischemic Heart Disease and Stroke Computer Simulation (RISC) model was developed using data covering 5 years of follow-up from the Rotterdam Study. To prove 1) internal and 2) predictive validity, the incidences of coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, CVD death, and non-CVD death simulated by the model over a 13-year period were compared with those recorded for 3,478 participants in the Rotterdam Study with at least 13 years of follow-up. 3) External validity was verified using 10 years of follow-up data from the European Prospective Investigation of Cancer (EPIC)-Norfolk study of 25,492 participants, for whom CVD and non-CVD mortality was compared. At year 5, the observed incidences (with simulated incidences in brackets) of CHD, stroke, and CVD and non-CVD mortality for the 3,478 Rotterdam Study participants were 5.30% (4.68%), 3.60% (3.23%), 4.70% (4.80%), and 7.50% (7.96%), respectively. At year 13, these percentages were 10.60% (10.91%), 9.90% (9.13%), 14.20% (15.12%), and 24.30% (23.42%). After recalibrating the model for the EPIC-Norfolk population, the 10-year observed (simulated) incidences of CVD and non-CVD mortality were 3.70% (4.95%) and 6.50% (6.29%). All observed incidences fell well within the 95% credibility intervals of the simulated incidences. We have confirmed the internal, predictive, and external validity of the RISC model. These findings provide a basis for analyzing the effects of modifying cardiovascular disease risk factors on the burden of CVD with the RISC model.

  12. Hard coatings by plasma CVD on polycarbonate for automotive and optical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmauder, T.; Nauenburg, K.-D.; Kruse, K.; Ickes, G.

    2006-01-01

    In many applications, plastic surfaces need coatings as a protection against abrasion or weathering. Leybold Optics is developing Plasma CVD processes and machinery for transparent hard coatings (THC) for polycarbonate parts. In this paper we present the current features and remaining challenges of this technique. The coatings generally show excellent adhesion. Abrasion resistance is superior to commonly used lacquers. Climate durability of the coating has been improved to pass the tests demanded by automotive specifications. Current activities are focused on improving the durability under exposure to UV radiation. Estimations show that our high-rate plasma CVD hard coating process is also economically competitive to lacquering

  13. Anisotropy and dimensional characteristics in CVD route Y1Ba2Cu3O7-δ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, K.; Kobayashi, N.; Awaji, S.; Yamane, H.; Hirai, T.; Muto, Y.

    1993-01-01

    The anisotropic behaviors of the upper critical field B c2 and the critical current density J c were investigated in Y 1 Ba 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ films prepared by a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) route. The angular dependence of J c at fixed temperature, the field dependence of J c at fixed angle, and the temperature dependence of J c at fixed field were measured. The obtained results were explored in terms of the dimensional superconducting characteristics. The important information on the anisotropic behaviors of J c in CVD-Y 1 Ba 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ was discussed from a viewpoint of the flux pinning. (orig.)

  14. Study on the effect of the metal–support (Fe-MgO and Pt-MgO) interaction in alcohol-CVD synthesis of carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steplewska, Anna; Borowiak-Palen, Ewa

    2011-01-01

    This study presents the effect of the metal–support interaction in two systems: (1) iron particle, and (2) platinum particles, being supported on magnesium oxide (MgO) nanopowder in alcohol-CVD process for carbon nanotubes (CNTs) growth. The employment of the different metals but the same substrate (with equal molar ratio) resulted in the synthesis of single-walled CNTs (SWCNTs) or double-walled CNTs (DWCNTs), using iron and platinum, respectively. Furthermore, along with the prolongation of the process time, the decrease of the mean nanotubes diameter in case of iron-catalyzed materials was detected. Interestingly, the extention of the growth time in the synthesis using Pt/MgO resulted in the synthesis of the thicker mean nanotubes diameter. However, for both applied catalytic systems the reduction of the diameter distribution of the tubes and the increase of relative purity of the samples upon the growth time increase were detected.

  15. Study on the effect of the metal-support (Fe-MgO and Pt-MgO) interaction in alcohol-CVD synthesis of carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steplewska, Anna, E-mail: asteplewska@zut.edu.pl; Borowiak-Palen, Ewa [West Pomeranian University of Technology, Centre of Knowledge Based Nanomaterials and Technologies, Institute of Chemical and Environment Engineering (Poland)

    2011-05-15

    This study presents the effect of the metal-support interaction in two systems: (1) iron particle, and (2) platinum particles, being supported on magnesium oxide (MgO) nanopowder in alcohol-CVD process for carbon nanotubes (CNTs) growth. The employment of the different metals but the same substrate (with equal molar ratio) resulted in the synthesis of single-walled CNTs (SWCNTs) or double-walled CNTs (DWCNTs), using iron and platinum, respectively. Furthermore, along with the prolongation of the process time, the decrease of the mean nanotubes diameter in case of iron-catalyzed materials was detected. Interestingly, the extention of the growth time in the synthesis using Pt/MgO resulted in the synthesis of the thicker mean nanotubes diameter. However, for both applied catalytic systems the reduction of the diameter distribution of the tubes and the increase of relative purity of the samples upon the growth time increase were detected.

  16. Chemical vapor deposition growth of two-dimensional heterojunctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yu; Li, Bo; Li, JingBo; Wei, ZhongMing

    2018-01-01

    The properties of two-dimensional (2D) layered materials with atom-smooth surface and special interlayer van der Waals coupling are different from those of traditional materials. Due to the absence of dangling bonds from the clean surface of 2D layered materials, the lattice mismatch influences slightly on the growth of 2D heterojunctions, thus providing a flexible design strategy. 2D heterojunctions have attracted extensive attention because of their excellent performance in optoelectronics, spintronics, and valleytronics. The transfer method was utilized for the fabrication of 2D heterojunctions during the early stage of fundamental research on these materials. This method, however, has limited practical applications. Therefore, chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method was recently developed and applied for the preparation of 2D heterojunctions. The CVD method is a naturally down-top growth strategy that yields 2D heterojunctions with sharp interfaces. Moreover, this method effectively reduces the introduction of contaminants to the fabricated heterojunctions. Nevertheless, the CVD-growth method is sensitive to variations in growth conditions. In this review article, we attempt to provide a comprehensive overview of the influence of growth conditions on the fabrication of 2D heterojunctions through the direct CVD method. We believe that elucidating the effects of growth conditions on the CVD method is necessary to help control and improve the efficiency of the large-scale fabrication of 2D heterojunctions for future applications in integrated circuits.

  17. Validation of a model to investigate the effects of modifying cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors on the burden of CVD: the rotterdam ischemic heart disease and stroke computer simulation (RISC) model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kempen, Bob J. H.; Ferket, Bart S.; Hofman, Albert; Steyerberg, Ewout W.; Colkesen, Ersen B.; Boekholdt, S. Matthijs; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Hunink, M. G. Myriam

    2012-01-01

    Background: We developed a Monte Carlo Markov model designed to investigate the effects of modifying cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors on the burden of CVD. Internal, predictive, and external validity of the model have not yet been established. Methods: The Rotterdam Ischemic Heart Disease

  18. Validation of a model to investigate the effects of modifying cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors on the burden of CVD: The rotterdam ischemic heart disease and stroke computer simulation (RISC) model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.J.H. van Kempen (Bob); B.S. Ferket (Bart); A. Hofman (Albert); E.W. Steyerberg (Ewout); E.B. Colkesen (Ersen); S.M. Boekholdt (Matthijs); N.J. Wareham (Nick); K-T. Khaw (Kay-Tee); M.G.M. Hunink (Myriam)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: We developed a Monte Carlo Markov model designed to investigate the effects of modifying cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors on the burden of CVD. Internal, predictive, and external validity of the model have not yet been established.Methods: The Rotterdam Ischemic

  19. Ion beam induced luminescence characterisation of CVD diamond films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bettiol, A A; Gonon, P; Jamieson, D N [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1997-12-31

    The characterisation of the band structure properties of materials and devices by ion microprobe techniques has been made possible at the Melbourne MeV ion microprobe facility with the development of Ion Beam Induced Luminescence (IBIL). A number of diamond films grown by Microwave Plasma Chemical Vapour Deposition (MPCVD) on silicon substrates are analysed. A preliminary study of the luminescence properties of these samples has revealed information not previously obtainable via traditional microprobe techniques. The optical effects of incorporating dopants during the deposition process is determined using IBIL. The presence of trace element impurities introduced during growth is examined by Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE), and a measurement of the film thickness is made using Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS). 7 refs., 2 figs.

  20. Ion beam induced luminescence characterisation of CVD diamond films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bettiol, A.A.; Gonon, P.; Jamieson, D.N. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1996-12-31

    The characterisation of the band structure properties of materials and devices by ion microprobe techniques has been made possible at the Melbourne MeV ion microprobe facility with the development of Ion Beam Induced Luminescence (IBIL). A number of diamond films grown by Microwave Plasma Chemical Vapour Deposition (MPCVD) on silicon substrates are analysed. A preliminary study of the luminescence properties of these samples has revealed information not previously obtainable via traditional microprobe techniques. The optical effects of incorporating dopants during the deposition process is determined using IBIL. The presence of trace element impurities introduced during growth is examined by Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE), and a measurement of the film thickness is made using Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS). 7 refs., 2 figs.

  1. Numerical Study of Operating Pressure Effect on Carbon Nanotube Growth Rate and Length Uniformity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Zahed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD is one of the most popular methods for producing Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs. The growth rate of CNTs based on CVD technique is investigated by using a numerical model based on finite volume method. Inlet gas mixture, including xylene as carbon source and mixture of argon and hydrogen as carrier gas enters into a horizontal CVD reactor at atmospheric pressure. In this article the operating pressure variations are studied as the effective parameter on CNT growth rate and length uniformity.

  2. Thermodynamic and experimental studies of the CVD of A-15 superconductors. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madar, R.; Weiss, F.; Fruchart, R.; Bernard, C.

    1978-01-01

    This paper deals with the experimental and thermodynamic study of the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) synthesis of Nb 3 Ga layers on various metallic and insulating substrates using the coreduction of mixed halides by hydrogen. Thermodynamic equilibrium in the seven-component system Nb-Ga-H-Cl-Si-O-Ar has been calculated using the method of minimization of the system Gibbs free energy as a function of the variables directly available in the CVD system. The chosen variables were the chloride ratio, the reduction and dilution parameters and the temperature of the deposition zone. The equilibrium compositions were calculated for the two composition limits of the A-15 phase: NbGasub(0.15) and Nb 3 Ga. They are presented in the form of CVD phase diagrams. A CVD reactor has been set up and more than one hundred measurements have been made in order to check the validity of the equilibrium calculations. The comparisons between equilibrium and experimental results show a good agreement and lead to a better understanding of the chemistry and thermodynamics of the system. (Auth.)

  3. Control of Reaction Surface in Low Temperature CVD to Enhance Nucleation and Conformal Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Navneet

    2009-01-01

    The Holy Grail in CVD community is to find precursors that can afford the following: good nucleation on a desired substrate and conformal deposition in high AR features. Good nucleation is not only necessary for getting ultra-thin films at low thicknesses; it also offers films that are smooth at higher thickness values. On the other hand,…

  4. CVD of SiC and AlN using cyclic organometallic precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interrante, L. V.; Larkin, D. J.; Amato, C.

    1992-01-01

    The use of cyclic organometallic molecules as single-source MOCVD precursors is illustrated by means of examples taken from our recent work on AlN and SiC deposition, with particular focus on SiC. Molecules containing (AlN)3 and (SiC)2 rings as the 'core structure' were employed as the source materials for these studies. The organoaluminum amide, (Me2AlNH2)3, was used as the AlN source and has been studied in a molecular beam sampling apparatus in order to determine the gas phase species present in a hot-wall CVD reactor environment. In the case of SiC CVD, a series of disilacyclobutanes (Si(XX')CH2)2 (with X and X' = H, CH3, and CH2SiH2CH3), were examined in a cold-wall, hot-stage CVD reactor in order to compare their relative reactivities and prospective utility as single-source CVD precursors. The parent compound, disilacyclobutane, (SiH2CH2)2, was found to exhibit the lowest deposition temperature (ca. 670 C) and to yield the highest purity SiC films. This precursor gave a highly textured, polycrystalline film on the Si(100) substrates.

  5. The effect of percentage carbonon the CVD coating of plain carbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two steels En 3 and En 39 were given a TiC-TiN CVD coating in the carburized and uncarburized conditions. The continuity of the coatings and their adherance to the substrate were examined. The thickness of the deposited coatings were also measured, their adherence to the substrate and their thickness was off ected by ...

  6. Hexagonal Boron Nitride assisted transfer and encapsulation of large area CVD graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shautsova, Viktoryia; Gilbertson, Adam M.; Black, Nicola C. G.; Maier, Stefan A.; Cohen, Lesley F.

    2016-07-01

    We report a CVD hexagonal boron nitride (hBN-) assisted transfer method that enables a polymer-impurity free transfer process and subsequent top encapsulation of large-area CVD-grown graphene. We demonstrate that the CVD hBN layer that is utilized in this transfer technique acts as a buffer layer between the graphene film and supporting polymer layer. We show that the resulting graphene layers possess lower doping concentration, and improved carrier mobilities compared to graphene films produced by conventional transfer methods onto untreated SiO2/Si, SAM-modified and hBN covered SiO2/Si substrates. Moreover, we show that the top hBN layer used in the transfer process acts as an effective top encapsulation resulting in improved stability to ambient exposure. The transfer method is applicable to other CVD-grown 2D materials on copper foils, thereby facilitating the preparation of van der Waals heterostructures with controlled doping.

  7. The integration of epigenetics and genetics in nutrition research for CVD risk factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is increasing evidence documenting gene-by-environment (G x E) interactions for CVD related traits. However, the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. DNA methylation may represent one of such potential mechanisms. The objective of this review paper is to summarise the current evidence supp...

  8. CVD of solid oxides in porous substrates for ceramic membrane modification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, Y.S.; Lin, Y.S.; Burggraaf, Anthonie; Burggraaf, A.J.

    1992-01-01

    The deposition of yttria-doped zirconia has been experimented systematically in various types of porous ceramic substrates by a modified chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process operating in an opposing reactant geometry using water vapor and corresponding metal chloride vapors as reactants. The

  9. Synthesis of crystalline Ge nanoclusters in PE-CVD-deposited SiO2 films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leervad Pedersen, T.P.; Skov Jensen, J.; Chevallier, J.

    2005-01-01

    The synthesis of evenly distributed Ge nanoclusters in plasma-enhanced chemical-vapour-deposited (PE-CVD) SiO2 thin films containing 8 at. % Ge is reported. This is of importance for the application of nanoclusters in semiconductor technology. The average diameter of the Ge nanoclusters can...

  10. Hydrogen termination of CVD diamond films by high-temperature annealing at atmospheric pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seshan, V.; Ullien, D.; Castellanos-Gomez, A.; Sachdeva, S.; Murthy, D.H.K.; Savenije, T.J.; Ahmad, H.A.; Nunney, T.S.; Janssens, S.D.; Haenen, K.; Nesládek, M.; Van der Zant, H.S.J.; Sudhölter, E.J.R.; De Smet, L.C.P.M.

    2013-01-01

    A high-temperature procedure to hydrogenate diamond films using molecular hydrogen at atmospheric pressure was explored. Undoped and doped chemical vapour deposited (CVD) polycrystalline diamond films were treated according to our annealing method using a H2 gas flow down to ?50 ml/min (STP) at

  11. An economic CVD technique for pure SnO 2 thin films deposition

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A modified new method of CVD for formation of pure layers of tin oxide films was developed. This method is very simple and inexpensive and produces films with good electrical properties. The effect of substrate temperature on the sheet resistance, resistivity, mobility, carrier concentration and transparency of the films has ...

  12. A beam radiation monitor based on CVD diamonds for SuperB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardarelli, R.; Di Ciaccio, A.

    2013-08-01

    Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) diamond particle detectors are in use in the CERN experiments at LHC and at particle accelerator laboratories in Europe, USA and Japan mainly as beam monitors. Nowadays it is considered a proven technology with a very fast signal read-out and a very high radiation tolerance suitable for measurements in high radiation environment zones i.e. near the accelerators beam pipes. The specific properties of CVD diamonds make them a prime candidate for measuring single particles as well as high-intensity particle cascades, for timing measurements on the sub-nanosecond scale and for beam protection systems in hostile environments. A single-crystalline CVD (scCVD) diamond sensor, read out with a new generation of fast and high transition frequency SiGe bipolar transistor amplifiers, has been tested for an application as radiation monitor to safeguard the silicon vertex tracker in the SuperB detector from excessive radiation damage, cumulative dose and instantaneous dose rates. Test results with 5.5 MeV alpha particles from a 241Am radioactive source and from electrons from a 90Sr radioactive source are presented in this paper.

  13. Photo-Hall measurements on phosphorus-doped n-type CVD diamond at low temperatures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Remeš, Zdeněk; Kalish, R.; Uzan-Saguy, C.; Baskin, E.; Nesládek, M.; Koizumi, S.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 199, č. 1 (2003), s. 82-86 ISSN 0031-8965 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) HPRN-CT-1999-00139 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : photo-Hall measurements * CVD diamonnd * phosphorus doped Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.950, year: 2003

  14. An economic CVD technique for pure SnO2 thin films deposition ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An economic CVD technique for pure SnO2 thin films deposition: Temperature effects ..... C are depicted in figure 7. It is observed that the cut-off wave- ... cating that the energy gap of the SnO2 films varies among. 3·54, 3·35 and 1·8 eV.

  15. Thermoluminescence properties of undoped diamond films deposited using HF CVD technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paprocki K.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Natural diamond has been considered as a perspective material for clinical radiation dosimetry due to its tissuebiocompatibility and chemical inertness. However, the use of natural diamond in radiation dosimetry has been halted by the high market price. The recent progress in the development of CVD techniques for diamond synthesis, offering the capability of growing high quality diamond layers, has renewed the interest in using this material in radiation dosimeters having small geometricalsizes. Polycrystalline CVD diamond films have been proposed as detectors and dosimeters of β and α radiation with prospective applications in high-energy photon dosimetry. In this work, we present a study on the TL properties of undoped diamond film samples grown by the hot filament CVD (HF CVD method and exposed to β and α radiation. The glow curves for both types of radiation show similar character and can be decomposed into three components. The dominant TL peaks are centered at around 610 K and exhibit activation energy of the order of 0.90 eV.

  16. Superconductivity and low temperature electrical transport in B-doped CVD nanocrystalline diamond

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nesládek, M.; Mareš, Jiří J.; Tromson, D.; Mer, Ch.; Bergonzo, P.; Hubík, Pavel; Krištofik, Jozef

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 7, Suppl. 1 (2006), S41-S44 ISSN 1468-6996 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA202/06/0040 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : superconductivity * electrical transport * doping * CVD diamond Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.124, year: 2006

  17. Thermoluminescence properties of undoped and nitrogen-doped CVD diamond exposed to gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barboza-Flores, M.; Gastelum, S.; Cruz-Zaragoza, E.; Melendrez, R.; Chernov, V.; Pedroza-Montero, M.; Favalli, A.

    2008-01-01

    It is known that the thermoluminescence (TL) performance of CVD diamond depends on the impurity concentration and doping materials introduced during growing. We report on the TL properties of undoped and 750 ppm nitrogen-doped CVD diamond grown on (0 0 1) silicon substrate. The samples were exposed to gamma radiation from a Gammacell 200 Nordion irradiator in the 10-500 Gy dose range at 627 mGy/min dose rate. The nitrogen-doped CVD diamond sample exhibited a TL glow curve peaked around 537 K and a small shoulder about 411 K and a linear dose behavior in the 10-60 Gy dose range. In contrast, the undoped specimen showed a 591 K peaked TL glow curve and linear dose response for 10-100 Gy doses. However, both samples displayed a non-linear dose response for doses higher than 100 Gy. The doping effects seem to cause a higher TL efficiency, which may be attributed to the differences in the diamond bonding and amorphous carbon on the CVD samples as well as to the presence of nitrogen. In addition, the nitrogen content may produce some structural and morphological surface effects, which may account for the distinctive TL features and dose response of the diamond samples

  18. Red blood cell rheology in patients with chronic venous disease (CVD)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chwała, Maciej; Spannbauer, Anna; Teległów, Aneta; Cencora, Andrzej; Marchewka, Anna; Hardeman, Max R.; Dabrowski, Zbigniew

    2009-01-01

    Rheological studies concerning aggregation and elongation of erythrocytes were carried out in 21 patients (mean age 56 years) with chronic venous disease (CVD) and 10 (mean age 45 years) healthy control subjects, with the use of a LORCA device. Higher values of parameters characterizing both

  19. Optimization of CVD parameters for long ZnO NWs grown on ITO

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The optimization of chemical vapour deposition (CVD) parameters for long and vertically aligned (VA) ZnO nanowires (NWs) were investigated. Typical ZnO NWs as a single crystal grown on indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated glass substrate were successfully synthesized. First, the conducted side of ITO–glass substrate was ...

  20. Computation of flow and thermal fields in a model CVD reactor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mixing of coaxial jets within a tube in the presence of blockage has been numerically studied. This configuration is encountered during the modelling of flow and heat transfer in CVD (chemical vapour deposition) reactors. For the conditions prevailing in the reactor, the Reynolds numbers are low and flow can be taken to be ...

  1. Ambipolar transport in CVD grown MoSe2 monolayer using an ionic liquid gel gate dielectric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deliris N. Ortiz

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available CVD grown MoSe2 monolayers were electrically characterized at room temperature in a field effect transistor (FET configuration using an ionic liquid (IL as the gate dielectric. During the growth, instead of using MoO3 powder, ammonium heptamolybdate was used for better Mo control of the source and sodium cholate added for lager MoSe2 growth areas. In addition, a high specific capacitance (∼7 μF/cm2 IL was used as the gate dielectric to significantly reduce the operating voltage. The device exhibited ambipolar charge transport at low voltages with enhanced parameters during n- and p-FET operation. IL gating thins the Schottky barrier at the metal/semiconductor interface permitting efficient charge injection into the channel and reduces the effects of contact resistance on device performance. The large specific capacitance of the IL was also responsible for a much higher induced charge density compared to the standard SiO2 dielectric. The device was successfully tested as an inverter with a gain of ∼2. Using a common metal for contacts simplifies fabrication of this ambipolar device, and the possibility of radiative recombination of holes and electrons could further extend its use in low power optoelectronic applications.

  2. The role of (sub)-surface oxygen on the surface electronic structure of hydrogen terminated (100) CVD diamond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deferme, W.; Tanasa, G.; Amir, J.; Haenen, K.; Nesladek, M.; Flipse, C.F.J.

    2006-01-01

    In this work, scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) and scanning tunnelling spectroscopy (STS) were applied to investigate the surface morphol. and the surface electronic structure of plasma-treated (100)-oriented CVD diamond films. These films were hydrogenated using a conventional MWPE-CVD

  3. P-type sp3-bonded BN/n-type Si heterodiode solar cell fabricated by laser-plasma synchronous CVD method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komatsu, Shojiro; Nagata, Takahiro; Chikyo, Toyohiro; Sato, Yuhei; Watanabe, Takayuki; Hirano, Daisuke; Takizawa, Takeo; Nakamura, Katsumitsu; Hashimoto, Takuya; Nakamura, Takuya; Koga, Kazunori; Shiratani, Masaharu; Yamamoto, Atsushi

    2009-01-01

    A heterojunction of p-type sp 3 -bonded boron nitride (BN) and n-type Si fabricated by laser-plasma synchronous chemical vapour deposition (CVD) showed excellent rectifying properties and proved to work as a solar cell with photovoltaic conversion efficiency of 1.76%. The BN film was deposited on an n-type Si (1 0 0) substrate by plasma CVD from B 2 H 6 + NH 3 + Ar while doping of Si into the BN film was induced by the simultaneous irradiation of an intense excimer laser with a pulse power of 490 mJ cm -2 , at a wavelength of 193 nm and at a repetition rate of 20 Hz. The source of dopant Si was supposed to be the Si substrate ablated at the initial stage of the film growth. The laser enhanced the doping (and/or diffusion) of Si into BN as well as the growth of sp 3 -bonded BN simultaneously in this method. P-type conduction of BN films was determined by the hot (thermoelectric) probe method. The BN/Si heterodiode with an essentially transparent p-type BN as a front layer is supposed to efficiently absorb light reaching the active region so as to potentially result in high efficiency.

  4. Correlates of CVD and discussing sexual issues with physicians among male military veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Matthew Lee; Goltz, Heather Honoré; Motlagh, Audry S; Ahn, SangNam; Bergeron, Caroline D; Ory, Marcia G

    2016-10-01

    This study aims to identify socio-demographic and health behavior factors associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) diagnosis and patient-physician communication concerning sexual issues among older Veterans. Cross-sectional data were collected from 635 male Veterans over age 55 years as part of the 2010 National Social Life, Health and Aging Project, a nationally-representative, population-based study of community-dwelling older Americans. Two independent logistic regression analyses were performed. Over 33% of Veterans were aged 75 years or older. Over one-half of participants reported having a CVD diagnosis (58%) and sexual intercourse within the previous year (58%); over one-third (37%) reported having one or more sexual dysfunctions and discussing sexual issues with their physician (42%). Veterans diagnosed with CVD were significantly more likely to self-identify as racial/ethnic minorities (OR=1.89, P=0.021), have more chronic disease comorbidities (OR=1.23, P=0.041), and have more sexual dysfunctions (OR=1.19, P=0.028). Veterans diagnosed with CVD were significantly less likely to report having sex within the previous year (OR=0.53, P=0.005). Veterans who reported discussing sexual issues with a physician were significantly more likely to be ≥75 years (OR=1.79, P=0.010), and report more than a high school education (OR=1.62, P=0.016), CVD diagnosis (OR=1.59, P=0.015), sex within the previous year (OR=1.69, P=0.033), and trouble achieving/maintaining an erection (OR=3.39, Paging and sexual health/counseling services. These services should promote increased patient-physician communication as well as referrals between physicians and sex health/counseling specialists. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Superhydrophobic Copper Surfaces with Anticorrosion Properties Fabricated by Solventless CVD Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilaró, Ignasi; Yagüe, Jose L; Borrós, Salvador

    2017-01-11

    Due to continuous miniaturization and increasing number of electrical components in electronics, copper interconnections have become critical for the design of 3D integrated circuits. However, corrosion attack on the copper metal can affect the electronic performance of the material. Superhydrophobic coatings are a commonly used strategy to prevent this undesired effect. In this work, a solventless two-steps process was developed to fabricate superhydrophobic copper surfaces using chemical vapor deposition (CVD) methods. The superhydrophobic state was achieved through the design of a hierarchical structure, combining micro-/nanoscale domains. In the first step, O 2 - and Ar-plasma etchings were performed on the copper substrate to generate microroughness. Afterward, a conformal copolymer, 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecyl acrylate-ethylene glycol diacrylate [p(PFDA-co-EGDA)], was deposited on top of the metal via initiated CVD (iCVD) to lower the surface energy of the surface. The copolymer topography exhibited a very characteristic and unique nanoworm-like structure. The combination of the nanofeatures of the polymer with the microroughness of the copper led to achievement of the superhydrophobic state. AFM, SEM, and XPS were used to characterize the evolution in topography and chemical composition during the CVD processes. The modified copper showed water contact angles as high as 163° and hysteresis as low as 1°. The coating withstood exposure to aggressive media for extended periods of time. Tafel analysis was used to compare the corrosion rates between bare and modified copper. Results indicated that iCVD-coated copper corrodes 3 orders of magnitude slower than untreated copper. The surface modification process yielded repeatable and robust superhydrophobic coatings with remarkable anticorrosion properties.

  6. FY1995 development of a clean CVD process by evaluation and control of gas phase nucleation phenomena; 1995 nendo kisokaku seisei gensho no hyoka to seigyo ni yoru clean CVD process no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a high-rate and clean chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process as a breakthrough technique to overcome the problems that particles generated in the gas phase during CVD process for preparation of functional thin films cause reduced product yield and deterioration of the films. In the CVD process proposed here, reactant gas and generated particles are electrically charged to control the motion of them with an electric field. In this study, gas-phase nucleation phenomena are evaluated both theoretically and experimentally. A high-rate, ionized CVD method is first developed, in which reactant gas and generated particles are charged with negative ions generated from a radioisotope source and the UV/photoelectron method, and the motion of the charged gas and particles is controlled with an electric field. Charging and transport processes of fine particles are then investigated experimentally and theoretically to develop a clean CVD method in which generated particles are removed with the electric forces. As a result, quantitative evaluation of the charging and transport process was made possible. We also developed devices for measuring the size distribution and concentration of fine particles in low pressure gas such as those found in plasma CVD processes. In addition, numerical simulation and experiments in this study for a TEOS/O{sub 3} CVD process to prepare thin films could determine reaction rates which have not been known so far and give information on selecting good operation conditions for the process. (NEDO)

  7. Hard Coat Layers by PE-CVD Process for the Top Surface of Touch Panel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okunishi, T; Sato, N; Yazawa, K

    2013-01-01

    In order to protect surface from damages, the high pencil hardness and the high abrasion resistance are required for the hard coat layers on polyethylene telephthalate (PET) films for the application of touch panel surface. We have already found that the UV-curing-hard-coat-polymer (UHP) coated PET films show the poor abrasion resistance, while they have the high pencil hardness. It reveals that the abrasion resistance of hard coat layers of the UHP is not simply dependent on the pencil hardness. In this work, we have studied to improve the abrasion resistance of SiOC films as hard coat layers, which were formed by PE-CVD process on UHP coated PET. The abrasion resistance was evaluated by Taber abrasion test. PE-CVD hard coat layers which formed on UHP coater PET films have showed the better abrasion resistance and have the possibility of substitution to the thin glass sheets for touch panel application.

  8. Comparative study of dlc coatings by pvd against cvd technique on textile dents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, M.; Alam, S.; Iftikhar, F.

    2007-01-01

    Diamond like Carbon (DLC) film is a hard amorphous carbon hydride film formed by Physical or Chemical vapor deposition (PVD or CVD) techniques. Due to its unique properties especially high hardness, lower coefficient of friction and lubricious nature, these coatings are not only used to extend the life of cutting tools but also for non cutting applications such as for forming dies, molds and on many functional parts of textile. In the present work two techniques were employed i.e. PVD and CVD for deposition of diamond like carbon film on textile dents. These dents are used as thread guider in high speed weaving machine. The measurement of coating thickness, adhesion, hardness and roughness values indicates that overall properties of DLC coating developed by PVD LARC technology reduces abrasion and increases the workability and durability of textile dents as well as suppress the need of lubricants. (author)

  9. Thermodynamic study of CVD-ZrO{sub 2} phase diagrams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres-Huerta, A.M., E-mail: atorresh@ipn.m [Research Center for Applied Science and Advanced Technology, Altamira-IPN, Altamira C.P.89600 Tamaulipas (Mexico); Vargas-Garcia, J.R. [Dept of Metallurgical Eng., ESIQIE-IPN, Mexico 07300 D.F. (Mexico); Dominguez-Crespo, M.A. [Research Center for Applied Science and Advanced Technology, Altamira-IPN, Altamira C.P.89600 Tamaulipas (Mexico); Romero-Serrano, J.A. [Dept of Metallurgical Eng., ESIQIE-IPN, Mexico 07300 D.F. (Mexico)

    2009-08-26

    Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of zirconium oxide (ZrO{sub 2}) from zirconium acetylacetonate Zr(acac){sub 4} has been thermodynamically investigated using the Gibbs' free energy minimization method and the FACTSAGE program. Thermodynamic data Cp{sup o}, DELTAH{sup o} and S{sup o} for Zr(acac){sub 4} have been estimated using the Meghreblian-Crawford-Parr and Benson methods because they are not available in the literature. The effect of deposition parameters, such as temperature and pressure, on the extension of the region where pure ZrO{sub 2} can be deposited was analyzed. The results are presented as calculated CVD stability diagrams. The phase diagrams showed two zones, one of them corresponds to pure monoclinic phase of ZrO{sub 2} and the other one corresponds to a mix of monoclinic phase of ZrO{sub 2} and graphite carbon.

  10. Pulse-height defect in single-crystal CVD diamond detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beliuskina, O.; Imai, N. [The University of Tokyo, Center for Nuclear Study, Wako, Saitama (Japan); Strekalovsky, A.O.; Aleksandrov, A.A.; Aleksandrova, I.A.; Ilich, S.; Kamanin, D.V.; Knyazheva, G.N.; Kuznetsova, E.A.; Mishinsky, G.V.; Pyatkov, Yu.V.; Strekalovsky, O.V.; Zhuchko, V.E. [JINR, Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions, Dubna, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Devaraja, H.M. [Manipal University, Manipal Centre for Natural Sciences, Manipal, Karnataka (India); Heinz, C. [II. Physikalisches Institut, Justus-Liebig-Universitaet Giessen, Giessen (Germany); Heinz, S. [II. Physikalisches Institut, Justus-Liebig-Universitaet Giessen, Giessen (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Hofmann, S.; Kis, M.; Kozhuharov, C.; Maurer, J.; Traeger, M. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Pomorski, M. [CEA, LIST, Diamond Sensor Laboratory, CEA/Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2017-02-15

    The pulse-height versus deposited energy response of a single-crystal chemical vapor deposition (scCVD) diamond detector was measured for ions of Ti, Cu, Nb, Ag, Xe, Au, and of fission fragments of {sup 252} Cf at different energies. For the fission fragments, data were also measured at different electric field strengths of the detector. Heavy ions have a significant pulse-height defect in CVD diamond material, which increases with increasing energy of the ions. It also depends on the electrical field strength applied at the detector. The measured pulse-height defects were explained in the framework of recombination models. Calibration methods known from silicon detectors were modified and applied. A comparison with data for the pulse-height defect in silicon detectors was performed. (orig.)

  11. Diameter Tuning of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes by Diffusion Plasma CVD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiaki Kato

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We have realized a diameter tuning of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs by adjusting process gas pressures with plasma chemical vapor deposition (CVD. Detailed photoluminescence measurements reveal that the diameter distribution of SWNTs clearly shifts to a large-diameter region with an increase in the pressure during plasma CVD, which is also confirmed by Raman scattering spectroscopy. Based on the systematical investigation, it is found that the main diameter of SWNTs is determined by the pressure during the heating in an atmosphere of hydrogen and the diameter distribution is narrowed by adjusting the pressure during the plasma generation. Our results could contribute to an application of SWNTs to high-performance thin-film transistors, which requires the diameter-controlled semiconductor-rich SWNTs.

  12. The effect of alkaline doped catalysts on the CVD synthesis of carbon nanotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nemeth, Krisztian; Nemeth, Zoltan; Fejes, Dora

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work was to develop new doped catalysts for chemical vapour deposition (CVD) synthesis in order to increase the quantity and quality of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Doping compounds such as CsBr, CsCl, KBr and KCl were used to reach higher carbon deposit and carbon yield. The amount o...... of the dopant alkali compounds varied from 1 to 5%. As prepared CNTs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X‐ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman microscopy. Results revealed that both carbon yield and deposit could be increased over doped catalysts.......The aim of this work was to develop new doped catalysts for chemical vapour deposition (CVD) synthesis in order to increase the quantity and quality of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Doping compounds such as CsBr, CsCl, KBr and KCl were used to reach higher carbon deposit and carbon yield. The amount...

  13. Board diversity and corporate voluntary disclosure (CVD in the annual reports of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Abdur Rouf

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This is an exploratory study designed to investigate the extant and nature of corporate voluntary disclosure (CVD in corporate annual reports of Bangladesh. Specifically, examine the relationship between board diversity and corporate voluntary disclosures. The paper is based on a sample of 106 listed non-financial companies in Dhaka Stock Exchanges (DSE from the period 2007-2011 and all the companies are selected by Judgment Sampling. The study is used ordinary least squares regression model to examine the relationship between explanatory variables and voluntary disclosure. Using an unweighted relative disclosure index for measuring voluntary disclosure, the empirical results indicate that Percentage Female Director (PFD, Board Leadership Structure (BLS and Total Assets (TA are positively association with corporate voluntary disclosure (CVD. In contrast, the extent of corporate voluntary disclosure is negatively associated with a Percentage of equity owned by the insiders to all equity of the firm higher management ownership

  14. Temperature dependence of stress in CVD diamond films studied by Raman spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dychalska Anna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Evolution of residual stress and its components with increasing temperature in chemical vapor deposited (CVD diamond films has a crucial impact on their high temperature applications. In this work we investigated temperature dependence of stress in CVD diamond film deposited on Si(100 substrate in the temperature range of 30 °C to 480 °C by Raman mapping measurement. Raman shift of the characteristic diamond band peaked at 1332 cm-1 was studied to evaluate the residual stress distribution at the diamond surface. A new approach was applied to calculate thermal stress evolution with increasing tempera­ture by using two commonly known equations. Comparison of the residts obtained from the two methods was presented. The intrinsic stress component was calculated from the difference between average values of residual and thermal stress and then its temperature dependence was discussed.

  15. Natural and CVD type diamond detectors as dosimeters in hadrontherapy applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cirrone, G.A.P.; Cuttone, G.; Rafaele, L.; Sabini, M.G.; De Angelis, C.; Onori, S.; Pacilio, M.; Bucciolini, M.; Bruzzi, M.; Sciortino, S.

    2003-01-01

    Diamond is potentially a suitable material for use as radiation dosimeter; the wide band gap results in low dark currents and low sensitivity to visible light, the high carrier mobility can give rapid response, the very high density of strong bonds in the crystal structure make diamond very resistant to radiation damage; moreover it is tissue equivalent. The more recent advances in the synthesis of polycrystalline diamond by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) techniques have allowed the synthesis of material with electronic properties suitable for dosimetric application. In this paper we will report the results obtained in the study of the response of a natural diamond dosimeter and a CVD one irradiated with 62 AMeV proton beams to demonstrate their possible application in protontherapy

  16. Development of Health Parameter Model for Risk Prediction of CVD Using SVM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Unnikrishnan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Current methods of cardiovascular risk assessment are performed using health factors which are often based on the Framingham study. However, these methods have significant limitations due to their poor sensitivity and specificity. We have compared the parameters from the Framingham equation with linear regression analysis to establish the effect of training of the model for the local database. Support vector machine was used to determine the effectiveness of machine learning approach with the Framingham health parameters for risk assessment of cardiovascular disease (CVD. The result shows that while linear model trained using local database was an improvement on Framingham model, SVM based risk assessment model had high sensitivity and specificity of prediction of CVD. This indicates that using the health parameters identified using Framingham study, machine learning approach overcomes the low sensitivity and specificity of Framingham model.

  17. Fish consumption and its motives in households with versus without self-reported medical history of CVD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pieniak, Zuzanna; Verbeke, Wim; Perez-Cueto, Federico

    2008-01-01

    subjective and objective knowledge related to nutrition issues about fish. In the other countries, objective knowledge about fish was on a low level, similar for CVD+ as for CVD- subjects, despite a higher claimed use of medical information sources about fish among CVD+ subjects. Conclusions - Although...... consumption. This study exemplifies the need for nutrition education and more effective communication about fish, not only to the people facing chronic diseases, but also to the broader public. European consumers are convinced that eating fish is healthy, but particular emphasis should be made...

  18. Synthesis of carbon nanotubes from palm oil on stacking and non-stacking substrate by thermal-CVD method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robaiah, M.; Rusop, M.; Abdullah, S.; Khusaimi, Z.; Azhan, H.; Fadzlinatul, M. Y.; Salifairus, M. J.; Asli, N. A.

    2018-05-01

    Palm oil has been used as the carbon source to synthesize carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on silicon substrates using the thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. Meanwhile, silicon has been applied using two techniques, which are stacked technique and non-stacked technique. The CNTs were grown at the constant time of 30 minutes with various synthesis temperatures of 750 °C, 850 °C and 950 °C. The CNTs were characterized using micro-Raman spectroscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). It was found that the density, growth rate, diameter and length of the CNTs produced were affected by the synthesis temperature. Moreover, the structure slightly changes were observed between CNTs obtained in SS and NSS. The synthesize temperature of 750 °C was considered as the suitable temperature for the production of CNTs due to low ID/IG ratio, which for stacked is 0.89 and non-stacked are 0.90. The possible explanation for the different morphology of the produced CNTs was also discussed.

  19. The effectiveness of Ti implants as barriers to carbon diffusion in Ti implanted steel under CVD diamond deposition conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiser, P.S.; Prawer, S.; Paterson, P.J.K.

    1993-01-01

    The growth of chemical vapour deposited (CVD) diamond onto iron based substrates complicated by preferential soot formation and carbon diffusion into the substrate [1], leading to poor quality films and poor adhesion. In the initial stages of exposure to a microwave plasma, a layer of graphite is rapidly formed on an untreated Fe based substrate. Once this graphite layer reaches a certain thickness, reasonable quality diamond nucleates and grows upon it. However, the diamond film easily delaminates from the substrate, the weak link being the graphitic layer. Following an initial success in using a TiN barrier layer to inhibit the formation of such a graphitic layer the authors report on attempts to use an implanted Ti layer for the same purpose. This work was prompted by observation that, although the TiN proved to be an extremely effective diffusion barrier, adhesion may be further enhanced by the formation of a TiC interface layer between the diamond film and the Fe substrate. 3 refs., 6 figs

  20. The effectiveness of Ti implants as barriers to carbon diffusion in Ti implanted steel under CVD diamond deposition conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiser, P S; Prawer, S [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics; Hoffman, A [Technion-Israel Inst. of Tech., Haifa (Israel). Dept. of Chemistry; Evan, P J [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia); Paterson, P J.K. [Royal Melbourne Inst. of Tech., VIC (Australia)

    1994-12-31

    The growth of chemical vapour deposited (CVD) diamond onto iron based substrates complicated by preferential soot formation and carbon diffusion into the substrate [1], leading to poor quality films and poor adhesion. In the initial stages of exposure to a microwave plasma, a layer of graphite is rapidly formed on an untreated Fe based substrate. Once this graphite layer reaches a certain thickness, reasonable quality diamond nucleates and grows upon it. However, the diamond film easily delaminates from the substrate, the weak link being the graphitic layer. Following an initial success in using a TiN barrier layer to inhibit the formation of such a graphitic layer the authors report on attempts to use an implanted Ti layer for the same purpose. This work was prompted by observation that, although the TiN proved to be an extremely effective diffusion barrier, adhesion may be further enhanced by the formation of a TiC interface layer between the diamond film and the Fe substrate. 3 refs., 6 figs.

  1. The effectiveness of Ti implants as barriers to carbon diffusion in Ti implanted steel under CVD diamond deposition conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiser, P.S.; Prawer, S. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics; Hoffman, A. [Technion-Israel Inst. of Tech., Haifa (Israel). Dept. of Chemistry; Evan, P.J. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia); Paterson, P.J.K. [Royal Melbourne Inst. of Tech., VIC (Australia)

    1993-12-31

    The growth of chemical vapour deposited (CVD) diamond onto iron based substrates complicated by preferential soot formation and carbon diffusion into the substrate [1], leading to poor quality films and poor adhesion. In the initial stages of exposure to a microwave plasma, a layer of graphite is rapidly formed on an untreated Fe based substrate. Once this graphite layer reaches a certain thickness, reasonable quality diamond nucleates and grows upon it. However, the diamond film easily delaminates from the substrate, the weak link being the graphitic layer. Following an initial success in using a TiN barrier layer to inhibit the formation of such a graphitic layer the authors report on attempts to use an implanted Ti layer for the same purpose. This work was prompted by observation that, although the TiN proved to be an extremely effective diffusion barrier, adhesion may be further enhanced by the formation of a TiC interface layer between the diamond film and the Fe substrate. 3 refs., 6 figs.

  2. Study of CNT growth using nanocatalyst Ag precursor by HWC-VHF-PECVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliyana, Ajeng; Rosikin, Ahmad; Winata, Toto

    2015-01-01

    The study of CNT growth has been done by using silver (Ag) nanocatalyst as a guide precursor on corning glass 7059 substrate. The silver catalyst was prepared by the evaporation method by varying deposition time for 50, 25, and 14 seconds. The silver films were then annealed at temperature of 400°C for 4 hours. From Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX) results the grain sizes are 65 nm, 57 nm, and 33 nm, and also the atomic compositions are 6,06%, 4,52%, and 3,73% for 14, 25 and 50 seconds samples, respectively. The 33 nm samples were then used for CNT growth by using Hot Wire Cell (HWC) – Very High Frequency (VHF) – Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PECVD) at 275 ° C deposition temperature and pressure of 300 mTorr. The rf power was varied from 8 to 20 watts, with deposition time for 60 minutes. The methane (CH4) 99.999% was used as Carbon sources. Hydrogen gas (H2) was used to etch the oxide layer formed during the pre-deposition process. The diameter and length for the CNT are 125 nm and 1.650 to 2.989 nm respectively

  3. Study of CNT growth using nanocatalyst Ag precursor by HWC-VHF-PECVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliyana, Ajeng; Rosikin, Ahmad; Winata, Toto, E-mail: toto@fi.itb.ac.id [Physics of Electronics Material Research Division, Physics Programme, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132, West Java (Indonesia)

    2015-04-16

    The study of CNT growth has been done by using silver (Ag) nanocatalyst as a guide precursor on corning glass 7059 substrate. The silver catalyst was prepared by the evaporation method by varying deposition time for 50, 25, and 14 seconds. The silver films were then annealed at temperature of 400°C for 4 hours. From Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX) results the grain sizes are 65 nm, 57 nm, and 33 nm, and also the atomic compositions are 6,06%, 4,52%, and 3,73% for 14, 25 and 50 seconds samples, respectively. The 33 nm samples were then used for CNT growth by using Hot Wire Cell (HWC) – Very High Frequency (VHF) – Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PECVD) at 275 ° C deposition temperature and pressure of 300 mTorr. The rf power was varied from 8 to 20 watts, with deposition time for 60 minutes. The methane (CH4) 99.999% was used as Carbon sources. Hydrogen gas (H2) was used to etch the oxide layer formed during the pre-deposition process. The diameter and length for the CNT are 125 nm and 1.650 to 2.989 nm respectively.

  4. Development of Fe-AI CVD coatings as tritium permeation barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabrol, C.; Schuster, F.; Le Marois, G.; Serra, E.

    1998-01-01

    A specific method of pack-cementation has been developed in order to perform a CVD deposition of Fe-Al alloys on a martensitic steel at a temperature which respects its mechanical properties ( 2 Al 5 intermetallic phases thanks to a low pressure deposition and using a special cement containing Fe and Al. These coatings coated with an Al 2 O 3 top layer drastically reduce the permeation rate of deuterium with regards to the uncoated substrate. (authors)

  5. Mediators and Moderators of Dementia Caregiver Depression and CVD Risk Outcomes in the Pleasant Events Program

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Jennefer S.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale: Alzheimer’s disease caregivers demonstrate significant elevations in depression compared with noncaregivers. Addressing caregiver depression is of high public health importance due to its ties with overall wellbeing, increased risk for cardiovascular diseases (CVD), and ability to sustain caregiving duties. Improving caregiver mental and physical health may not only decrease healthcare costs, but it may also delay institutionalization of Alzheimer’s disease patients. Despite existi...

  6. Cold Vacuum Dryer (CVD) Facility Security System Design Description. System 54

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WHITEHURST, R.

    2000-01-01

    This system design description (SDD) addresses the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility security system. The system's primary purpose is to provide reasonable assurance that breaches of security boundaries are detected and assessment information is provided to protective force personnel. In addition, the system is utilized by Operations to support reduced personnel radiation goals and to provide reasonable assurance that only authorized personnel are allowed to enter designated security areas

  7. The Role of Built Environments in Physical Activity, Obesity, and CVD

    OpenAIRE

    Sallis, James F.; Floyd, Myron F.; Rodríguez, Daniel A.; Saelens, Brian E.

    2012-01-01

    In industrialized nations like the United States and Sweden, the vast majority of adults do not meet the physical activity guidelines of 150 minutes per week.1 Inactive lifestyles put most adults at risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), diabetes, obesity, some cancers, osteoporosis, and psychological disorders.2 Physical activity can be effective at all phases of chronic disease management, from primordial prevention (prevention of risk factors) through treatment and rehabilitation.2 There i...

  8. Preparación de tamices moleculares de carbono por CVD

    OpenAIRE

    Manso, R.; Pajares, J. A.; Albiniak, A.; Broniek, E.; Siemieniewska, T.

    2001-01-01

    Carbon molecular sieves (CMS) have been prepared by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) of carbon from the pyrolysis of benzene molecules on activated carbon surfaces. The pyrolysis of benzene at temperatures in the range 650-850 ºC restricts the accessibility of the micropores due to the creation of constrictions on the microporous network. Temperatures higher than 850 ºC (temperature of carbonisation) add difficulties due to decomposition and sinterization processes. Low flows of nitrogen (30 ...

  9. Nanocrystalline sp{sup 2} and sp{sup 3} carbons: CVD synthesis and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terranova, M. L. [Università degli Studi di Roma “Tor Vergata,” via Della Ricerca Scientifica, Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Chimiche—MinimaLab (Italy); Rossi, M. [Università degli Studi di Roma “Sapienza,” via A. Scarpa, Dipartimento di Scienze di Base e Applicate per l’Ingegneria and Centro di Ricerca per le Nanotecnologie Applicate all’Ingegneria (CNIS) (Italy); Tamburri, E., E-mail: emanuela.tamburri@uniroma2.it [Università degli Studi di Roma “Tor Vergata,” via Della Ricerca Scientifica, Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Chimiche—MinimaLab (Italy)

    2016-11-15

    The design and production of innovative materials based on nanocrystalline sp{sup 2}- and sp{sup 3}-coordinated carbons is presently a focus of the scientific community. We present a review of the nanostructures obtained in our labs using a series of synthetic routes, which make use of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) techniques for the selective production of non-planar graphitic nanostructures, nanocrystalline diamonds, and hybrid two-phase nanostructures.

  10. CVD Diamond Detectors for Current Mode Neutron Time-of-Flight Spectroscopy at OMEGA/NIF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    G. J. Schmid; V. Yu. Glebov; A. V. Friensehner; D. R. Hargrove; S. P. Hatchett; N. Izumi; R. A. Lerche; T. W. Phillips; T. C. Sangster; C. Silbernagel; C. Stoecki

    2001-01-01

    We have performed pulsed neutron and pulsed laser tests of a CVD diamond detector manufactured from DIAFILM, a commercial grade of CVD diamond. The laser tests were performed at the short pulse UV laser at Bechtel Nevada in Livermore, CA. The pulsed neutrons were provided by DT capsule implosions at the OMEGA laser fusion facility in Rochester, NY. From these tests, we have determined the impulse response to be 250 ps fwhm for an applied E-field of 500 V/mm. Additionally, we have determined the sensitivity to be 2.4 mA/W at 500 V/mm and 4.0 mA/W at 1000 V/mm. These values are approximately 2 to 5x times higher than those reported for natural Type IIa diamond at similar E-field and thickness (1mm). These characteristics allow us to conceive of a neutron time-of-flight current mode spectrometer based on CVD diamond. Such an instrument would sit inside the laser fusion target chamber close to target chamber center (TCC), and would record neutron spectra fast enough such that backscattered neutrons and x-rays from the target chamber wall would not be a concern. The acquired neutron spectra could then be used to extract DD fuel areal density from the downscattered secondary to secondary ratio

  11. Topographic and spectroscopic characterization of electronic edge states in CVD grown graphene nanoribbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Minghu; Girão, E Costa; Jia, Xiaoting; Bhaviripudi, Sreekar; Li, Qing; Kong, Jing; Meunier, V; Dresselhaus, Mildred S

    2012-04-11

    We used scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy (STM/S) techniques to analyze the relationships between the edge shapes and the electronic structures in as-grown chemical vapor deposition (CVD) graphene nanoribbons (GNRs). A rich variety of single-layered graphene nanoribbons exhibiting a width of several to 100 nm and up to 1 μm long were studied. High-resolution STM images highlight highly crystalline nanoribbon structures with well-defined and clean edges. Theoretical calculations indicate clear spin-split edge states induced by electron-electron Coulomb repulsion. The edge defects can significantly modify these edge states, and different edge structures for both sides of a single ribbon produce asymmetric electronic edge states, which reflect the more realistic features of CVD grown GNRs. Three structural models are proposed and analyzed to explain the observations. By comparing the models with an atomic resolution image at the edge, a pristine (2,1) structure was ruled out in favor of a reconstructed edge structure composed of 5-7 member rings, showing a better match with experimental results, and thereby suggesting the possibility of a defective morphology at the edge of CVD grown nanoribbons. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  12. Freedom poverty: a new tool to identify the multiple disadvantages affecting those with CVD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callander, Emily J; Schofield, Deborah J; Shrestha, Rupendra N

    2013-06-20

    It is recognised that CVD affects an individual's financial situation, placing them in income poverty. However, recent developments in poverty measurement practice recognises other forms of disadvantage other than low income, such as poor health and insufficient education also affect living standards. Using the Freedom Poverty Measure, the multiple forms of disadvantage experienced by those with no health condition, heart disease, other diseases of the circulatory system, and all other health conditions was assessed using data on the adult Australian population contained in the 2003 Survey of Disability, Ageing and Carers. 24% of those with heart disease and 23% of those with other diseases of the circulatory system were in freedom poverty, suffering from multiple forms of disadvantage. Those with heart disease and those with other diseases of the circulatory system were around three times more likely to be in freedom poverty (OR 3.02, 95% CI: 2.29-3.99, p<.0001; OR 2.78, 95% CI: 1.94-3.98, p<.0001) than those with no health condition. Recognising the multiple forms of disadvantage suffered by those with CVD provides a clearer picture of their living standards than just looking at their income alone and the high proportion of individuals with CVD that are suffering from multiple forms of disadvantage should make them a target for policy makers wishing to improve living standards. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Which population groups are most unaware of CVD risks associated with sitting time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Mitch J; Gilson, Nicholas; Vandelanotte, Corneel

    2014-08-01

    Prolonged sitting is an emerging risk factor for poor health yet few studies have examined awareness of the risks associated with sitting behaviours. This study identifies the population subgroups with the highest levels of unawareness regarding the cardiovascular disease (CVD) risks associated with sitting behaviours. Adults (n=1256) living in Queensland, Australia completed a telephone-based survey in 2011, analysis conducted in 2013. The survey assessed participant's socio-demographic characteristics, physical activity, sitting behaviours and awareness of CVD risks associated with three sitting behaviours: 1) sitting for prolonged periods, 2), sitting for prolonged periods whilst also engaging in regular physical activity, and 3) breaking up periods of prolonged sitting with short activity breaks. Population sub-groups with the highest levels of unawareness were identified based on socio-demographic and behavioural characteristics using signal detection analysis. Unawareness ranged from 23.3% to 67.0%. Age was the most important variable in differentiating awareness levels; younger adults had higher levels of unawareness. Body mass index, physical activity, TV viewing, employment status and time spent at work also identified population sub-groups. Unawareness of CVD risk for prolonged sitting was moderately high overall. Younger adults had high levels of unawareness on all of the outcomes examined. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Proton irradiation of CVD diamond detectors for high-luminosity experiments at the LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, D.; Adam, W.; Bauer, C.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; van Eijk, B.; Fallou, A.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Jany, C.; Gan, K. K.; Gheeraert, E.; Grigoriev, E.; Hallewell, G.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Kass, R.; Knöpfle, K. T.; Krammer, M.; Manfredi, P. F.; Marshall, R. D.; Mishina, M.; Le Normand, F.; Pan, L. S.; Palmieri, V. G.; Pernegger, H.; Pernicka, M.; Peitz, A.; Pirollo, S.; Pretzl, K.; Re, V.; Riester, J. L.; Roe, S.; Roff, D.; Rudge, A.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Speziali, V.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Tapper, R. J.; Tesarek, R.; Thomson, G. B.; Trawick, M.; Trischuk, W.; Turchetta, R.; Walsh, A. M.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; Ziock, H.; Zoeller, M.; RD42 Collaboration

    1999-04-01

    CVD diamond shows promising properties for use as a position-sensitive detector for experiments in the highest radiation areas at the Large Hadron Collider. In order to study the radiation hardness of diamond we exposed CVD diamond detector samples to 24 Gev/ c and 500 Mev protons up to a fluence of 5×10 15 p/cm 2. We measured the charge collection distance, the average distance electron-hole pairs move apart in an external electric field, and leakage currents before, during, and after irradiation. The charge collection distance remains unchanged up to 1×10 15 p/cm 2 and decreases by ≈40% at 5×10 15 p/cm 2. Leakage currents of diamond samples were below 1 pA before and after irradiation. The particle-induced currents during irradiation correlate well with the proton flux. In contrast to diamond, a silicon diode, which was irradiated for comparison, shows the known large increase in leakage current. We conclude that CVD diamond detectors are radiation hard to 24 GeV/ c and 500 MeV protons up to at least 1×10 15p/cm 2 without signal loss.

  15. Proton irradiation of CVD diamond detectors for high-luminosity experiments at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, D. E-mail: dirk.meier@cern.ch.; Adam, W.; Bauer, C.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; Eijk, B. van; Fallou, A.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Jany, C.; Gan, K.K.; Gheeraert, E.; Grigoriev, E.; Hallewell, G.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Kass, R.; Knoepfle, K.T.; Krammer, M.; Manfredi, P.F.; Marshall, R.D.; Mishina, M.; Le Normand, F.; Pan, L.S.; Palmieri, V.G.; Pernegger, H.; Pernicka, M.; Peitz, A.; Pirollo, S.; Pretzl, K.; Re, V.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Roff, D.; Rudge, A.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Speziali, V.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Tapper, R.J.; Tesarek, R.; Thomson, G.B.; Trawick, M.; Trischuk, W.; Turchetta, R.; Walsh, A.M.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; Ziock, H.; Zoeller, M

    1999-04-21

    CVD diamond shows promising properties for use as a position-sensitive detector for experiments in the highest radiation areas at the Large Hadron Collider. In order to study the radiation hardness of diamond we exposed CVD diamond detector samples to 24 Gev/c and 500 Mev protons up to a fluence of 5x10{sup 15} p/cm{sup 2}. We measured the charge collection distance, the average distance electron-hole pairs move apart in an external electric field, and leakage currents before, during, and after irradiation. The charge collection distance remains unchanged up to 1x10{sup 15} p/cm{sup 2} and decreases by {approx}40% at 5x10{sup 15} p/cm{sup 2}. Leakage currents of diamond samples were below 1 pA before and after irradiation. The particle-induced currents during irradiation correlate well with the proton flux. In contrast to diamond, a silicon diode, which was irradiated for comparison, shows the known large increase in leakage current. We conclude that CVD diamond detectors are radiation hard to 24 GeV/c and 500 MeV protons up to at least 1x10{sup 15}p/cm{sup 2} without signal loss.

  16. Proton irradiation of CVD diamond detectors for high-luminosity experiments at the LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, D.; Adam, W.; Bauer, C.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; Eijk, B. van; Fallou, A.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Jany, C.; Gan, K.K.; Gheeraert, E.; Grigoriev, E.; Hallewell, G.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Kass, R.; Knoepfle, K.T.; Krammer, M.; Manfredi, P.F.; Marshall, R.D.; Mishina, M.; Le Normand, F.; Pan, L.S.; Palmieri, V.G.; Pernegger, H.; Pernicka, M.; Peitz, A.; Pirollo, S.; Pretzl, K.; Re, V.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Roff, D.; Rudge, A.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Speziali, V.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Tapper, R.J.; Tesarek, R.; Thomson, G.B.; Trawick, M.; Trischuk, W.; Turchetta, R.; Walsh, A.M.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; Ziock, H.; Zoeller, M.

    1999-01-01

    CVD diamond shows promising properties for use as a position-sensitive detector for experiments in the highest radiation areas at the Large Hadron Collider. In order to study the radiation hardness of diamond we exposed CVD diamond detector samples to 24 Gev/c and 500 Mev protons up to a fluence of 5x10 15 p/cm 2 . We measured the charge collection distance, the average distance electron-hole pairs move apart in an external electric field, and leakage currents before, during, and after irradiation. The charge collection distance remains unchanged up to 1x10 15 p/cm 2 and decreases by ∼40% at 5x10 15 p/cm 2 . Leakage currents of diamond samples were below 1 pA before and after irradiation. The particle-induced currents during irradiation correlate well with the proton flux. In contrast to diamond, a silicon diode, which was irradiated for comparison, shows the known large increase in leakage current. We conclude that CVD diamond detectors are radiation hard to 24 GeV/c and 500 MeV protons up to at least 1x10 15 p/cm 2 without signal loss

  17. Proton Irradiation of CVD Diamond Detectors for High Luminosity Experiments at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Meier, D; Bauer, C; Berdermann, E; Bergonzo, P; Bogani, F; Borchi, E; Bruzzi, Mara; Colledani, C; Conway, J; Dabrowski, W; Delpierre, P A; Deneuville, A; Dulinski, W; van Eijk, B; Fallou, A; Foulon, F; Friedl, M; Gan, K K; Gheeraert, E; Grigoriev, E A; Hallewell, G D; Hall-Wilton, R; Han, S; Hartjes, F G; Hrubec, Josef; Husson, D; Jany, C; Kagan, H; Kania, D R; Kaplon, J; Kass, R; Knöpfle, K T; Krammer, Manfred; Manfredi, P F; Marshall, R D; Mishina, M; Le Normand, F; Pan, L S; Palmieri, V G; Pernegger, H; Pernicka, Manfred; Peitz, A; Pirollo, S; Pretzl, Klaus P; Re, V; Riester, J L; Roe, S; Roff, D G; Rudge, A; Schnetzer, S R; Sciortino, S; Speziali, V; Stelzer, H; Stone, R; Tapper, R J; Tesarek, R J; Thomson, G B; Trawick, M L; Trischuk, W; Turchetta, R; Walsh, A M; Wedenig, R; Weilhammer, Peter; Ziock, H J; Zöller, M

    1999-01-01

    CVD diamond shows promising properties for use as a position sensitive detector for experiments in the highest radiation areas at the Large Hadron Collider. In order to study the radiation hardn ess of diamond we exposed CVD diamond detector samples to 24~GeV/$c$ and 500~MeV protons up to a fluence of $5\\times 10^{15}~p/{\\rm cm^2}$. We measured the charge collection distance, the ave rage distance electron hole pairs move apart in an external electric field, and leakage currents before, during, and after irradiation. The charge collection distance remains unchanged up to $1\\ times 10^{15}~p/{\\rm cm^2}$ and decreases by $\\approx$40~\\% at $5\\times 10^{15}~p/{\\rm cm^2}$. Leakage currents of diamond samples were below 1~pA before and after irradiation. The particle indu ced currents during irradiation correlate well with the proton flux. In contrast to diamond, a silicon diode, which was irradiated for comparison, shows the known large increase in leakage curren t. We conclude that CVD diamond detectors are radia...

  18. Convection and chemistry effects in CVD: A 3-D analysis for silicon deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokoglu, S. A.; Kuczmarski, M. A.; Tsui, P.; Chait, A.

    1989-01-01

    The computational fluid dynamics code FLUENT has been adopted to simulate the entire rectangular-channel-like (3-D) geometry of an experimental CVD reactor designed for Si deposition. The code incorporated the effects of both homogeneous (gas phase) and heterogeneous (surface) chemistry with finite reaction rates of important species existing in silane dissociation. The experiments were designed to elucidate the effects of gravitationally-induced buoyancy-driven convection flows on the quality of the grown Si films. This goal is accomplished by contrasting the results obtained from a carrier gas mixture of H2/Ar with the ones obtained from the same molar mixture ratio of H2/He, without any accompanying change in the chemistry. Computationally, these cases are simulated in the terrestrial gravitational field and in the absence of gravity. The numerical results compare favorably with experiments. Powerful computational tools provide invaluable insights into the complex physicochemical phenomena taking place in CVD reactors. Such information is essential for the improved design and optimization of future CVD reactors.

  19. Increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) with age in HIV-positive men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petoumenos, K; Reiss, P; Ryom, L

    2014-01-01

    equations. METHODS: We analysed three endpoints: myocardial infarction (MI), coronary heart disease (CHD: MI or invasive coronary procedure) and CVD (CHD or stroke). We fitted a number of parametric age effects, adjusting for known risk factors and antiretroviral therapy (ART) use. The best-fitting age...... rates per 1000 person-years increased from 2.29, 3.11 and 3.65 in those aged 40-45 years to 6.53, 11.91 and 15.89 in those aged 60-65 years, respectively. The best-fitting models included inverse age for MI and age + age(2) for CHD and CVD. In D:A:D there was a slowly accelerating increased risk of CHD...... and CVD per year older, which appeared to be only modest yet was consistently raised compared with the risk in the general population. The relative risk of MI with age was not different between D:A:D and the general population. CONCLUSIONS: We found only limited evidence of accelerating increased risk...

  20. A CVD Diamond Detector for (n,a) Cross-Section Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Weiss, Christina; Griesmayer, Erich; Guerrero, Carlos

    A novel detector based on the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond technology has been developed in the framework of this PhD, for the experimental determination of (n,a) cross-sections at the neutron time-of-flight facility n_TOF at CERN. The 59Ni(n,a)56Fe cross-section, which is relevant for astrophysical questions as well as for risk-assessment studies in nuclear technology, has been measured in order to validate the applicability of the detector for such experiments. The thesis is divided in four parts. In the introductory part the motivation for measuring (n,a) cross-sections, the experimental challenges for such measurements and the reasons for choosing the CVD diamond technology for the detector are given. This is followed by the presentation of the n_TOF facility, an introduction to neutron-induced nuclear reactions and a brief summary of the interaction of particles with matter. The CVD diamond technology and the relevant matters related to electronics are given as well in this first part of the t...

  1. RF characteristic of MESFET on H-terminated DC arc jet CVD diamond film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, J.L.; Li, C.M.; Zhu, R.H.; Guo, J.C.; Chen, L.X.; Wei, J.J.; Hei, L.F.; Wang, J.J.; Feng, Z.H.; Guo, H.; Lv, F.X.

    2013-01-01

    Diamond has been considered to be a potential material for high-frequency and high-power electronic devices due to the excellent electrical properties. In this paper, we reported the radio frequency (RF) characteristic of metal-semiconductor field effect transistor (MESFET) on polycrystalline diamond films prepared by direct current (DC) arc jet chemical vapor deposition (CVD). First, 4 in polycrystalline diamond films were deposited by DC arc jet CVD in gas recycling mode with the deposition rate of 14 μm/h. Then the polished diamond films were treated by microwave hydrogen plasma and the 0.2 μm-gate-length MESFET was fabricated by using Au mask photolithography and electron beam (EB) lithography. The surface conductivity of the H-terminated diamond film and DC and RF performances of the MESFET were characterized. The results demonstrate that, the carrier mobility of 24.6 cm 2 /V s and the carrier density of 1.096 × 10 13 cm −2 are obtained on the surface of H-terminated diamond film. The FET shows the maximum transition frequency (f T ) of 5 GHz and the maximum oscillation frequency (f max ) of 6 GHz at V GS = −0.5 V and V DS = −8 V, which indicates that H-terminated DC arc jet CVD polycrystalline diamond is suitable for the development of high frequency devices.

  2. Coffee consumption is not associated with prevalent subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) or the risk of CVD events, in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: Results from the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atherosclerosis and its clinical sequelae represent the leading cause of mortality among patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). While epidemiologic data support the hepatoprotective benefits of coffee in NAFLD, whether coffee improves NAFLD-associated Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) ri...

  3. Methods of Measurement of High Air Velocities by the Hot Wire Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    1943-02-01

    to that of the heating current, as indicated by the minus sign. The cathode bias of the linearizing stage 1» then adjusted to obtain readings that...and tungsten wire. ! MM Taobaloai lot* lo. tifx» 3.- Heating aunnt of a bot «in at ooutaat-railitaae* operation. ? a UM tMMlMl nta Fe. IN nca . 4

  4. Hot wire production of single-wall and multi-wall carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Anne C.; Mahan, Archie H.; Alleman, Jeffrey L.

    2010-10-26

    Apparatus (210) for producing a multi-wall carbon nanotube (213) may comprise a process chamber (216), a furnace (217) operatively associated with the process chamber (216), and at least one filament (218) positioned within the process chamber (216). At least one power supply (220) operatively associated with the at least one filament (218) heats the at least one filament (218) to a process temperature. A gaseous carbon precursor material (214) operatively associated with the process chamber (216) provides carbon for forming the multi-wall carbon nanotube (213). A metal catalyst material (224) operatively associated with the process (216) catalyzes the formation of the multi-wall carbon nanotube (213).

  5. Acquisition of Turbulence Data Using the DST Group Constant-Temperature Hot-Wire Anemometer System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Turbulence intensities. uv , uw Reynolds stresses. xP, yP, zP Probe body coordinate system (right-handed). For a single-wire probe, the xP axis...Figure 8), i.e. UNCLASSIFIED DST-Group-TN-1467 UNCLASSIFIED 2 vVV += (2) and wWW += (3) Turbulence terms such as 2u , 2v , 2w , uv and uw...traverse. A very small amount of phosphoric acid can be placed on the tips of the prongs and the Wollaston wire is soldered to the prongs using a

  6. Hot wire and spark pyrolysis as simple new routes to silicon nanoparticle synthesis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Scriba, MR

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available doped silicon powders have a much higher conductivity than those doped with phosphorus. TEM and XPS analysis reveals that the difference in electrical resistivity between boron an phosphorus doped particles can be attributed to phosphorus dopants being...

  7. Composition and crystallinity of silicon nanoparticles synthesised by hot wire thermal catalytic pyrolysis at different pressures

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Scriba, MR

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available , whereas those produced at higher pressure are typically 50 nm. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) shows a surface layer of between 2 and 5 nm thickness, which was confirmed by X-ray photoemission spectroscopy to be an oxide shell...

  8. Transverse vorticity measurements using an array of four hot-wire probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foss, J. F.; Klewickc, C. L.; Disimile, P. J.

    1986-01-01

    A comprehensive description of the technique used to obtain a time series of the quasi-instantaneous transverse vorticity from a four wire array of probes is presented. The algorithmic structure which supports the technique is described in detail and demonstration data, from a large plane shear layer, are presented to provide a specific utilization of the technique. Sensitivity calculations are provided which allow one contribution to the inherent uncertainty of the technique to be evaluated.

  9. Scientific basis of fat requirement for Indians and recent trends in CVD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Ahamed Ibrahim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Dietary fats have several roles such as provision of metabolic energy, fat soluble vitamins and essential fatty acids (linoleic, LA and α-linolenic, ALNA. Fats improve texture and palatability and have a satiety role. LA and ALNA and their long-chain polyunstaturated fatty acids (LC n-6 PUFA and LC n-3 PUFA respectively are important structural membrane components and therefore essential for formation of new tissues. LC n-3 PUFA have specific role in vision and nervous system. Both n-6 and n-3 PUFA are essential for fetal and early infant growth and development and nervous tissue development.  The absolute levels and ratio of n-6 and n-3 PUFA in membrane affect a wide range of physiological processes either directly or through eicosanoids. The individual components of fats affect the risk of diet - related chronic diseases through the atherogenic effects of plasma lipids, insulin resistance, thrombosis, endothelial dysfunction as well as pathways of inflammation. The chain length/geometric configuration of double bonds and position of saturated (SFA, mono unsaturated (MUFA or PUFA on glycerol backbone (triglyceride structure modify the nutritional and metabolic effects of dietary fats. The non-glyceride components present in the vegetable oils have hypocholesterolemic and antioxidant effects. Several lines of evidence have documented that restrictions in SFA and cholesterol, negligible intake of trans fatty acids (TFA on the one hand and preference for more than one type of vegetable oil (to ensure adequate absolute intakes of LA, ALNA and their ratio, adding n-3 PUFA from fish or plant sources, and ensuring moderate intake of  total fat in  the diet  substantially reduces the risk of diet-related chronic diseases. Studies were done at National Institute of Nutrition  on intake of individual  fatty acids, the pro/anti-athero-thrombogenic effects of different types of visible fats in Indian adults, insulin sensitivity and the antioxidant

  10. Carbon fiber CVD coating by carbon nanostructured for space materials protection against atomic oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastore, Roberto; Bueno Morles, Ramon; Micheli, Davide

    2016-07-01

    , by the purpose to integrate the carbon nanostructures in the carbon fibers by means of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method, in order to develop the basic substrate of advanced carbon-based nanocomposite for atomic oxygen protection. The nanostructures grown onto the carbon fibers can be used to create multiscale hybrid carbon nanotube/carbon fiber composites where individual carbon fibers, which are several microns in diameter, are surrounded by nanotubes. The present objective is the setting-up of the CVD parameters for a reliable growth of carbon nanostructures on carbon fiber surface; after that, the results of a preliminary characterization related to atomic oxygen effects testing by means of a ground LEO simulation facility are reported and discussed.

  11. Scientific basis of fat requirement for Indians and recent trends in CVD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Ahamed Ibrahim

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Dietary fats have several roles such as provision of metabolic energy, fat soluble vitamins and essential fatty acids (linoleic, LA and α-linolenic, ALNA. Fats improve texture and palatability and have a satiety role. LA and ALNA and their long-chain polyunstaturated fatty acids (LC n-6 PUFA and LC n-3 PUFA respectively are important structural membrane components and therefore essential for formation of new tissues. LC n-3 PUFA have specific role in vision and nervous system. Both n-6 and n-3 PUFA are essential for fetal and early infant growth and development and nervous tissue development.  The absolute levels and ratio of n-6 and n-3 PUFA in membrane affect a wide range of physiological processes either directly or through eicosanoids. The individual components of fats affect the risk of diet - related chronic diseases through the atherogenic effects of plasma lipids, insulin resistance, thrombosis, endothelial dysfunction as well as pathways of inflammation. The chain length/geometric configuration of double bonds and position of saturated (SFA, mono unsaturated (MUFA or PUFA on glycerol backbone (triglyceride structure modify the nutritional and metabolic effects of dietary fats. The non-glyceride components present in the vegetable oils have hypocholesterolemic and antioxidant effects. Several lines of evidence have documented that restrictions in SFA and cholesterol, negligible intake of trans fatty acids (TFA on the one hand and preference for more than one type of vegetable oil (to ensure adequate absolute intakes of LA, ALNA and their ratio, adding n-3 PUFA from fish or plant sources, and ensuring moderate intake of  total fat in  the diet  substantially reduces the risk of diet-related chronic diseases. Studies were done at National Institute of Nutrition  on intake of individual  fatty acids, the pro/anti-athero-thrombogenic effects of different types of visible fats in Indian adults, insulin sensitivity and the antioxidant

  12. Validation of a model to investigate the effects of modifying cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors on the burden of CVD: the rotterdam ischemic heart disease and stroke computer simulation (RISC model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Kempen Bob JH

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We developed a Monte Carlo Markov model designed to investigate the effects of modifying cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors on the burden of CVD. Internal, predictive, and external validity of the model have not yet been established. Methods The Rotterdam Ischemic Heart Disease and Stroke Computer Simulation (RISC model was developed using data covering 5 years of follow-up from the Rotterdam Study. To prove 1 internal and 2 predictive validity, the incidences of coronary heart disease (CHD, stroke, CVD death, and non-CVD death simulated by the model over a 13-year period were compared with those recorded for 3,478 participants in the Rotterdam Study with at least 13 years of follow-up. 3 External validity was verified using 10 years of follow-up data from the European Prospective Investigation of Cancer (EPIC-Norfolk study of 25,492 participants, for whom CVD and non-CVD mortality was compared. Results At year 5, the observed incidences (with simulated incidences in brackets of CHD, stroke, and CVD and non-CVD mortality for the 3,478 Rotterdam Study participants were 5.30% (4.68%, 3.60% (3.23%, 4.70% (4.80%, and 7.50% (7.96%, respectively. At year 13, these percentages were 10.60% (10.91%, 9.90% (9.13%, 14.20% (15.12%, and 24.30% (23.42%. After recalibrating the model for the EPIC-Norfolk population, the 10-year observed (simulated incidences of CVD and non-CVD mortality were 3.70% (4.95% and 6.50% (6.29%. All observed incidences fell well within the 95% credibility intervals of the simulated incidences. Conclusions We have confirmed the internal, predictive, and external validity of the RISC model. These findings provide a basis for analyzing the effects of modifying cardiovascular disease risk factors on the burden of CVD with the RISC model.

  13. Laser-Directed CVD 3D Printing System for Refractory Metal Propulsion Hardware, Phase II, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this work, Ultramet is developing a three-dimensional (3D) laser-directed chemical vapor deposition (CVD) additive manufacturing system to build free-form...

  14. En route to controlled catalytic CVD synthesis of densely packed and vertically aligned nitrogen-doped carbon nanotube arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slawomir Boncel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The catalytic chemical vapour deposition (c-CVD technique was applied in the synthesis of vertically aligned arrays of nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes (N-CNTs. A mixture of toluene (main carbon source, pyrazine (1,4-diazine, nitrogen source and ferrocene (catalyst precursor was used as the injection feedstock. To optimize conditions for growing the most dense and aligned N-CNT arrays, we investigated the influence of key parameters, i.e., growth temperature (660, 760 and 860 °C, composition of the feedstock and time of growth, on morphology and properties of N-CNTs. The presence of nitrogen species in the hot zone of the quartz reactor decreased the growth rate of N-CNTs down to about one twentieth compared to the growth rate of multi-wall CNTs (MWCNTs. As revealed by electron microscopy studies (SEM, TEM, the individual N-CNTs (half as thick as MWCNTs grown under the optimal conditions were characterized by a superior straightness of the outer walls, which translated into a high alignment of dense nanotube arrays, i.e., 5 × 108 nanotubes per mm2 (100 times more than for MWCNTs grown in the absence of nitrogen precursor. In turn, the internal crystallographic order of the N-CNTs was found to be of a ‘bamboo’-like or ‘membrane’-like (multi-compartmental structure morphology. The nitrogen content in the nanotube products, which ranged from 0.0 to 3.0 wt %, was controlled through the concentration of pyrazine in the feedstock. Moreover, as revealed by Raman/FT-IR spectroscopy, the incorporation of nitrogen atoms into the nanotube walls was found to be proportional to the number of deviations from the sp2-hybridisation of graphene C-atoms. As studied by XRD, the temperature and the [pyrazine]/[ferrocene] ratio in the feedstock affected the composition of the catalyst particles, and hence changed the growth mechanism of individual N-CNTs into a ‘mixed base-and-tip’ (primarily of the base-type type as compared to the purely

  15. En route to controlled catalytic CVD synthesis of densely packed and vertically aligned nitrogen-doped carbon nanotube arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boncel, Slawomir; Pattinson, Sebastian W; Geiser, Valérie; Shaffer, Milo S P; Koziol, Krzysztof K K

    2014-01-01

    The catalytic chemical vapour deposition (c-CVD) technique was applied in the synthesis of vertically aligned arrays of nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes (N-CNTs). A mixture of toluene (main carbon source), pyrazine (1,4-diazine, nitrogen source) and ferrocene (catalyst precursor) was used as the injection feedstock. To optimize conditions for growing the most dense and aligned N-CNT arrays, we investigated the influence of key parameters, i.e., growth temperature (660, 760 and 860 °C), composition of the feedstock and time of growth, on morphology and properties of N-CNTs. The presence of nitrogen species in the hot zone of the quartz reactor decreased the growth rate of N-CNTs down to about one twentieth compared to the growth rate of multi-wall CNTs (MWCNTs). As revealed by electron microscopy studies (SEM, TEM), the individual N-CNTs (half as thick as MWCNTs) grown under the optimal conditions were characterized by a superior straightness of the outer walls, which translated into a high alignment of dense nanotube arrays, i.e., 5 × 10(8) nanotubes per mm(2) (100 times more than for MWCNTs grown in the absence of nitrogen precursor). In turn, the internal crystallographic order of the N-CNTs was found to be of a 'bamboo'-like or 'membrane'-like (multi-compartmental structure) morphology. The nitrogen content in the nanotube products, which ranged from 0.0 to 3.0 wt %, was controlled through the concentration of pyrazine in the feedstock. Moreover, as revealed by Raman/FT-IR spectroscopy, the incorporation of nitrogen atoms into the nanotube walls was found to be proportional to the number of deviations from the sp(2)-hybridisation of graphene C-atoms. As studied by XRD, the temperature and the [pyrazine]/[ferrocene] ratio in the feedstock affected the composition of the catalyst particles, and hence changed the growth mechanism of individual N-CNTs into a 'mixed base-and-tip' (primarily of the base-type) type as compared to the purely 'base'-type for undoped

  16. Industrial science and technology research and development project of university cooperative type in fiscal 2000. Report on achievements in semiconductor device manufacturing processes using Cat-CVD method (Semiconductor device manufacturing processes using Cat-CVD method); 2000 nendo daigaku renkeigata sangyo kagaku gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu project. Cat-CVD ho ni yoru handotai device seizo process seika hokokusho (Cat-CVD ho ni yoru handotai device seizo process)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The catalytic chemical vapor deposition (Cat-CVD) method is a low-temperature thin film depositing technology that can achieve improvement in quality of semiconductor thin films and can perform inexpensive film deposition in a large area. The present project is composed of the basic research and development theme and the demonstrative research and development theme for the Cat-CVD method. This report summarizes the achievements in fiscal 2000 centering on the former theme. Discussions were given on the following five areas: 1) simulation on film thickness distribution in the Cat-CVD method, 2) life extension by preventing the catalyst converting into silicide and development of a catalyst integrated shear head, 3) vapor diagnosis in the film forming process by the Cat-CVD method using silane, hydrogen and ammonia, 4) a technology for high-speed deposition of hydrogenated amorphous silicon films for solar cells using the Cat-CVD method, and the low-temperature silicon oxide nitriding technology using heated catalysts, and 5) discussions on compatibility of transparent oxide electrode materials to the process of manufacturing thin-film silicon-based solar cells by using the Cat-CVD method. (NEDO)

  17. Chemical vapour deposition growth and Raman characterization of graphene layers and carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Y.-C.; Rafailov, P. M.; Vlaikova, E.; Marinova, V.; Lin, S. H.; Yu, P.; Yu, S.-C.; Chi, G. C.; Dimitrov, D.; Sveshtarov, P.; Mehandjiev, V.; Gospodinov, M. M.

    2016-02-01

    Single-layer graphene films were grown by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) on Cu foil. The CVD process was complemented by plasma enhancement to grow also vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes using Ni nanoparticles as catalyst. The obtained samples were characterized by Raman spectroscopy analysis. Nature of defects in the samples and optimal growth conditions leading to achieve high quality of graphene and carbon nanotubes are discussed.

  18. Fabrication of cerium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet thin films by a mist CVD method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murai, Shunsuke, E-mail: murai@dipole7.kuic.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Sato, Takafumi; Yao, Situ; Kamakura, Ryosuke; Fujita, Koji; Tanaka, Katsuhisa

    2016-02-15

    We synthesized thin films, consisting of yttrium aluminum garnet doped with Ce{sup 3+} (YAG:Ce), using the mist chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method, which allows the fabrication of high-quality thin films under atmospheric conditions without the use of vacuum equipment. Under a deposition rate of approximately 1 μm/h, the obtained thin films had a typical thickness of 2 μm. The XRD analysis indicated that the thin films consisted of single-phase YAG:Ce. The Rutherford backscattering confirmed the stoichiometry; the composition of the film was determined to be (Y, Ce){sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12}, with a Ce content of Ce/(Y+Ce)=2.5%. The YAG:Ce thin films exhibited fluorescence due to the 5d–4f electronic transitions characteristic of the Ce ions occupying the eight-coordinated dodecahedral sites in the YAG lattice. - Highlights: • We have synthesized thin films of yttrium aluminum garnet doped with Ce{sup 3+} (YAG:Ce) by using a mist chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method for the first time. • The thickness of the single-phase and stoichiometric thin film obtained by 2 h deposition and following heat treatments is 2 μm. • The thin film is porous but optically transparent, and shows yellow fluorescence upon irradiation with a blue light. • Mist-CVD is a green and sustainable technique that allows fabrication of high-quality thin films at atmospheric conditions without vacuum equipment.

  19. Morphology of Diamond Layers Grown on Different Facets of Single Crystal Diamond Substrates by a Microwave Plasma CVD in CH4-H2-N2 Gas Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny E. Ashkinazi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Epitaxial growth of diamond films on different facets of synthetic IIa-type single crystal (SC high-pressure high temperature (HPHT diamond substrate by a microwave plasma CVD in CH4-H2-N2 gas mixture with the high concentration (4% of nitrogen is studied. A beveled SC diamond embraced with low-index {100}, {110}, {111}, {211}, and {311} faces was used as the substrate. Only the {100} face is found to sustain homoepitaxial growth at the present experimental parameters, while nanocrystalline diamond (NCD films are produced on other planes. This observation is important for the choice of appropriate growth parameters, in particular, for the production of bi-layer or multilayer NCD-on-microcrystalline diamond (MCD superhard coatings on tools when the deposition of continuous conformal NCD film on all facet is required. The development of the film morphology with growth time is examined with SEM. The structure of hillocks, with or without polycrystalline aggregates, that appear on {100} face is analyzed, and the stress field (up to 0.4 GPa within the hillocks is evaluated based on high-resolution mapping of photoluminescence spectra of nitrogen-vacancy NV optical centers in the film.

  20. Ballistic Transport Exceeding 28 μm in CVD Grown Graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banszerus, Luca; Schmitz, Michael; Engels, Stephan; Goldsche, Matthias; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Beschoten, Bernd; Stampfer, Christoph

    2016-02-10

    We report on ballistic transport over more than 28 μm in graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) that is fully encapsulated in hexagonal boron nitride. The structures are fabricated by an advanced dry van-der-Waals transfer method and exhibit carrier mobilities of up to three million cm(2)/(Vs). The ballistic nature of charge transport is probed by measuring the bend resistance in cross- and square-shaped devices. Temperature-dependent measurements furthermore prove that ballistic transport is maintained exceeding 1 μm up to 200 K.

  1. Role of biomarkers in predicting CVD risk in the setting of HIV infection?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worm, Signe W; Hsue, Priscilla

    2010-01-01

    with risk of CVD. Biomarkers associated with inflammation such as C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 have been suggested to improve risk stratification among intermediate-risk persons; however, their routine use is not recommended in the general population. Both biomarkers have recently been reported......-infected population and will increase as this population continues to age. Identification of intermediate-risk individuals using biomarkers will be an important tool for clinicians in the future to be able to treat HIV-infected individuals aggressively. Future studies of biomarkers among individuals with HIV...

  2. Fabrication and characteristics of self-assembly nano-polystyrene films by laser induced CVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Tingting [Department of Applied Physics, Chongqing University, Chongqing 401331 (China); Science and Technology on Plasma Physics Laboratory, Research Center of Laser Fusion, CAEP, Mianyang 621900 (China); Cai, Congzhong [Department of Applied Physics, Chongqing University, Chongqing 401331 (China); Peng, Liping [Science and Technology on Plasma Physics Laboratory, Research Center of Laser Fusion, CAEP, Mianyang 621900 (China); Wu, Weidong, E-mail: wuweidongding@163.com [Science and Technology on Plasma Physics Laboratory, Research Center of Laser Fusion, CAEP, Mianyang 621900 (China)

    2013-10-01

    The self-assembly nano-polystyrene (PS) films have been prepared by laser induced CVD at room temperature. The XPS, Raman and UV–vis absorption spectra all indicated that the films were PS. The optical properties, microstructure and controllable nanostructure of PS films have been investigated. Dewetting-like microstructure in PS films was investigated and uniform island structures with a diameter of about 200 nm were observed at the deposition pressure of 14 Pa. The films possess good toughness and precisely controlled thicknesses. The free-standing PS films with thickness of 10 nm could be obtained by this method though a series of process.

  3. Ethylene Gas Sensing Properties of Tin Oxide Nanowires Synthesized via CVD Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhir, Maisara A. M.; Mohamed, Khairudin; Rezan, Sheikh A.; Arafat, M. M.; Haseeb, A. S. M. A.; Uda, M. N. A.; Nuradibah, M. A.

    2018-03-01

    This paper studies ethylene gas sensing performance of tin oxide (SnO2) nanowires (NWs) as sensing material synthesized using chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique. The effect of NWs diameter on ethylene gas sensing characteristics were investigated. SnO2 NWs with diameter of ∼40 and ∼240 nm were deposited onto the alumina substrate with printed gold electrodes and tested for sensing characteristic toward ethylene gas. From the finding, the smallest diameter of NWs (42 nm) exhibit fast response and recovery time and higher sensitivity compared to largest diameter of NWs (∼240 nm). Both sensor show good reversibility features for ethylene gas sensor.

  4. A Review of Carbon Nanomaterials’ Synthesis via the Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yehia M. Manawi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanomaterials have been extensively used in many applications owing to their unique thermal, electrical and mechanical properties. One of the prime challenges is the production of these nanomaterials on a large scale. This review paper summarizes the synthesis of various carbon nanomaterials via the chemical vapor deposition (CVD method. These carbon nanomaterials include fullerenes, carbon nanotubes (CNTs, carbon nanofibers (CNFs, graphene, carbide-derived carbon (CDC, carbon nano-onion (CNO and MXenes. Furthermore, current challenges in the synthesis and application of these nanomaterials are highlighted with suggested areas for future research.

  5. A Review of Carbon Nanomaterials’ Synthesis via the Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manawi, Yehia M.; Samara, Ayman; Al-Ansari, Tareq; Atieh, Muataz A.

    2018-01-01

    Carbon nanomaterials have been extensively used in many applications owing to their unique thermal, electrical and mechanical properties. One of the prime challenges is the production of these nanomaterials on a large scale. This review paper summarizes the synthesis of various carbon nanomaterials via the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. These carbon nanomaterials include fullerenes, carbon nanotubes (CNTs), carbon nanofibers (CNFs), graphene, carbide-derived carbon (CDC), carbon nano-onion (CNO) and MXenes. Furthermore, current challenges in the synthesis and application of these nanomaterials are highlighted with suggested areas for future research. PMID:29772760

  6. The study on diamond-coated insert by DC plasma jet CVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Kesong; Dai Mingjiang; Song Jinbing; Kuang Tongchun; Liu Zhengyi

    2001-01-01

    Diamond coating were deposited on cemented carbide inserts by DC plasma jet CVD. The cemented carbide inserts were pretreated by methods including chemical etching of Co, Ar/H 2 plasma etching. The characteristics of diamond film, interface structure, adhesion strength and film stress were analysized by different methods such as SEM, XRD, Raman spectrum etc. A comparing experiment of cutting Al - 22 % Si alloy was carried out with diamond-coated cemented carbide inserts and uncoated cemented carbide inserts. The results show that the diamond-coated cemented carbide insert has a great advantage for cutting abrasive high content Al - Si alloy. (author)

  7. High-Resolution Energy and Intensity Measurements with CVD Diamond at REX-ISOLDE

    CERN Document Server

    Griesmayer, E; Dobos, D; Wenander, F; Bergoz, J; Bayle, H; Frais-Kölbl, H; Leinweber, J; Aumeyr, T; CERN. Geneva. BE Department

    2009-01-01

    A novel beam instrumentation device for the HIE-REX (High In-tensity and Energy REX) upgrade has been developed and tested at the On-Line Isotope Mass Separator ISOLDE, located at the European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN). This device is based on CVD diamond detector technology and is used for measuring the beam intensity, particle counting and measuring the energy spectrum of the beam. An energy resolution of 0.6% was measured at a carbon ion energy of 22.8 MeV. This corresponds to an energy spread of ± 140 keV.

  8. Joint association of physical activity/screen time and diet on CVD risk factors in 10-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drenowatz, Clemens; Carlson, Joseph J; Pfeiffer, Karin A; Eisenmann, Joey C

    2012-12-01

    The increasing prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity has been associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). While several studies examined the effect of single behaviors such as physical activity (PA), sedentary behavior or diet on CVD risk, there is a lack of research on combined associations, specifically in children. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the joint association of PA or screen time (ST) and diet on CVD risk factors in children. PA, STand diet were assessed via questionnaire in 210 fifth grade students (age: 10.6 ± 0.4 years). The healthy eating index (HEI) was subsequently calculated as indicator for diet quality. Height, weight, % body fat, and resting blood pressure were measured according to standard procedures and blood samples obtained via fingerprick were assayed for blood lipids. Total cholesterol HDL ratio (TC:HDL), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and % body fat were used as indicators of CVD risk. 55% of children did not meet current PA recommendations on at least 5 days/week and 70% exceeded current recommendations for ST. Further, only 2.5% possessed a "good" diet (HEI> 80). There was no significant association of PA or STand diet on CVD risk score. Neither TC:HDL, MAP, and % body fat nor the total CVD risk score was significantly correlated with diet, PA, or ST. Children in the high PA group, however, had significantly better diet scores. Despite the fact that self-reported PA, ST, or dietary intake were not directly related to CVD risk in this sample, higher activity levels were associated with a healthier diet and lower ST indicating an overall healthier lifestyle of this subgroup.

  9. VO{sub x} effectively doping CVD-graphene for transparent conductive films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Qinghua; Shi, Liangjing [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1295 Dingxi Road, Shanghai 200050 (China); Zhang, Qinghong [State Key Laboratory of Modification of Chemical Fibers and Polymer Materials, College of Material Science and Engineering, Donghua University, 2999 North Renmin Road, Shanghai 201620 (China); Wang, Weiqi; Zheng, Huifeng [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1295 Dingxi Road, Shanghai 200050 (China); Zhang, Yuzhi [The Key Laboratory of Inorganic Coating Materials, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences,1295 Dingxi Road, Shanghai 200050 (China); Liu, Yangqiao, E-mail: yqliu@mail.sic.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1295 Dingxi Road, Shanghai 200050 (China); Sun, Jing, E-mail: jingsun@mail.sic.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1295 Dingxi Road, Shanghai 200050 (China)

    2016-11-30

    Highlights: • Doping process operated easily. • Sheet resistance decreased efficiently after doping. • Sheet resistance of doped graphene is stable after exposed in the air. • Mechanism of doping process is studied. - Abstract: Chemical vapor deposition(CVD)-synthesized graphene is potentially an alternative for tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) transparent conductive films (TCFs), however its sheet resistance is still too high to meet many demands. Vanadium oxide has been widely applied as smart window materials, however, no study has been reported to use it as dopant to improve the conductivity of graphene TCFs. In this study, we firstly reported that VO{sub x} doping can effectively lower the sheet resistance of CVD-graphene films while keeping its good optical properties, whose transmittance is as high as 86–90%. The optimized VO{sub x}-doped graphene exhibits a sheet resistance as low as 176 Ω/□, which decreases by 56% compared to the undoped graphene films. The doping process is convenient, stable, economical and easy to operate. What is more, VO{sub x} can effectively increase the work function(WF) of the film, making it more appropriate for use in solar cells. The evolution of the VO{sub x} species annealed at different temperatures below 400 °C has been detailed studied for the first time, based on which the doping mechanism is proposed. The prepared VO{sub x} doped graphene is expected to be a promising candidate for transparent conductive film purposes.

  10. A novel Mo-W interlayer approach for CVD diamond deposition on steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kundrát, Vojtěch; Sullivan, John; Ye, Haitao, E-mail: h.ye@aston.ac.uk [School of Engineering and Applied Science, Aston University, Birmingham, B4 7ET (United Kingdom); Zhang, Xiaoling; Cooke, Kevin; Sun, Hailin [Miba Coating Group: Teer Coatings Ltd, West-Stone-House, West-Stone, Berry-Hill-Industrial-Estate, WR9 9AS, Droitwich (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-15

    Steel is the most widely used material in engineering for its cost/performance ratio and coatings are routinely applied on its surface to further improve its properties. Diamond coated steel parts are an option for many demanding industrial applications through prolonging the lifetime of steel parts, enhancement of tool performance as well as the reduction of wear rates. Direct deposition of diamond on steel using conventional chemical vapour deposition (CVD) processes is known to give poor results due to the preferential formation of amorphous carbon on iron, nickel and other elements as well as stresses induced from the significant difference in the thermal expansion coefficients of those materials. This article reports a novel approach of deposition of nanocrystalline diamond coatings on high-speed steel (M42) substrates using a multi-structured molybdenum (Mo) – tungsten (W) interlayer to form steel/Mo/Mo-W/W/diamond sandwich structures which overcome the adhesion problem related to direct magnetron sputtering deposition of pure tungsten. Surface, interface and tribology properties were evaluated to understand the role of such an interlayer structure. The multi-structured Mo-W interlayer has been proven to improve the adhesion between diamond films and steel substrates by acting as an effective diffusion barrier during the CVD diamond deposition.

  11. GaN CVD Reactions: Hydrogen and Ammonia Decomposition and the Desorption of Gallium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartram, Michael E.; Creighton, J. Randall

    1999-01-01

    Isotopic labeling experiments have revealed correlations between hydrogen reactions, Ga desorption, and ammonia decomposition in GaN CVD. Low energy electron diffraction (LEED) and temperature programmed desorption (TPD) were used to demonstrate that hydrogen atoms are available on the surface for reaction after exposing GaN(0001) to deuterium at elevated temperatures. Hydrogen reactions also lowered the temperature for Ga desorption significantly. Ammonia did not decompose on the surface before hydrogen exposure. However, after hydrogen reactions altered the surface, N 15 H 3 did undergo both reversible and irreversible decomposition. This also resulted in the desorption of N 2 of mixed isotopes below the onset of GaN sublimation, This suggests that the driving force of the high nitrogen-nitrogen bond strength (226 kcal/mol) can lead to the removal of nitrogen from the substrate when the surface is nitrogen rich. Overall, these findings indicate that hydrogen can influence G-aN CVD significantly, being a common factor in the reactivity of the surface, the desorption of Ga, and the decomposition of ammonia

  12. CVD tungsten metallization and electron beam lithography for fabricating submicron interconnects for advanced ULSI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, S.R.; Mattox, R.J.

    1988-01-01

    CVD W (0.45μm thick) and CVD W (0.25μm thick) strapped by Al (0.5μm thick) have been used as metal 1 systems. Electrical and physical data are presented from experiments exploring the effects of processing issues with both e-beam and stepper lithography as well as dry etch chemistry on both metal systems. The special issues encountered with the thick tungsten processing were: (i) Significant e-beam proximity related problems as compared to the sandwich metal layers. The resultant e-beam proximity problem contributed to a high level of metal bridging and poor CD control. (ii) Multiple etch related problems due to mask failure and a lack of etch selectivity. The multilevel masks utilized, consisting of photoresist and plasma enhanced oxide (PEO), failed due to the poor etch selectivity. Poor etch selectivity with respect to the underlying oxide was also observed. These issues were addressed with thicker organic and PEO mask layers as well as changes in etch chemistry. These thick layers were successful in preventing the loss of the mask during etch., but caused problems in the e-beam CD control and did not prevent the degradation of the underlying glass. A higher selectivity etch was developed which greatly reduced the underlying dielectric damage and also allowed the use of the thinner organic and PEO hardmask layers without mask failure

  13. A novel Mo-W interlayer approach for CVD diamond deposition on steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundrát, Vojtěch; Zhang, Xiaoling; Cooke, Kevin; Sun, Hailin; Sullivan, John; Ye, Haitao

    2015-04-01

    Steel is the most widely used material in engineering for its cost/performance ratio and coatings are routinely applied on its surface to further improve its properties. Diamond coated steel parts are an option for many demanding industrial applications through prolonging the lifetime of steel parts, enhancement of tool performance as well as the reduction of wear rates. Direct deposition of diamond on steel using conventional chemical vapour deposition (CVD) processes is known to give poor results due to the preferential formation of amorphous carbon on iron, nickel and other elements as well as stresses induced from the significant difference in the thermal expansion coefficients of those materials. This article reports a novel approach of deposition of nanocrystalline diamond coatings on high-speed steel (M42) substrates using a multi-structured molybdenum (Mo) - tungsten (W) interlayer to form steel/Mo/Mo-W/W/diamond sandwich structures which overcome the adhesion problem related to direct magnetron sputtering deposition of pure tungsten. Surface, interface and tribology properties were evaluated to understand the role of such an interlayer structure. The multi-structured Mo-W interlayer has been proven to improve the adhesion between diamond films and steel substrates by acting as an effective diffusion barrier during the CVD diamond deposition.

  14. Estimation of magnetic relaxation property for CVD processed YBCO-coated conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Y.; Kiuchi, M.; Otabe, E.S.; Matsushita, T.; Shikimachi, K.; Watanabe, T.; Kashima, N.; Nagaya, S.

    2010-01-01

    Ion Beam Assist Deposition/Chemical Vapor Deposition(IBAD/CVD)-processed YBCO-coated conductors with high critical current density J c at high magnetic fields are expected to be applied to superconducting equipments such as superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES). For application to superconducting magnet in SMES one of the most important properties for superconductors is the relaxation property of superconducting current. In this paper, the relaxation property is investigated for IBAD/CVD-processed YBCO-coated conductors of the superconducting layer in the range of 0.18-0.90 μm. This property can be quantitatively characterized by the apparent pinning potential, U 0 *. It is found that U 0 * takes a smaller value due to the two-dimensional pinning mechanism at high magnetic fields for conductor with thinner superconducting layer. Although U 0 * decreases with increasing thickness at low magnetic fields at 20 K, it increases at high magnetic fields. The results are theoretically explained by the model of the flux creep and flow based on the dimensionality of flux pinning. Scaling analysis is examined for the dependence of U 0 * on the magnetic field, temperature and the layer thickness.

  15. Low resistive edge contacts to CVD-grown graphene using a CMOS compatible metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaygan, Mehrdad; Otto, Martin; Sagade, Abhay A.; Neumaier, Daniel [Advanced Microelectronic Center Aachen, AMO GmbH, Aachen (Germany); Chavarin, Carlos A. [Lehrstuhl Werkstoffe der Elektrotechnik, Duisburg-Essen Univ., Duisburg (Germany); Innovations for High Performance Microelectronics, IHP GmbH, Frankfurt (Oder) (Germany); Bacher, Gerd; Mertin, Wolfgang [Lehrstuhl Werkstoffe der Elektrotechnik, Duisburg-Essen Univ., Duisburg (Germany)

    2017-11-15

    The exploitation of the excellent intrinsic electronic properties of graphene for device applications is hampered by a large contact resistance between the metal and graphene. The formation of edge contacts rather than top contacts is one of the most promising solutions for realizing low ohmic contacts. In this paper the fabrication and characterization of edge contacts to large area CVD-grown monolayer graphene by means of optical lithography using CMOS compatible metals, i.e. Nickel and Aluminum is reported. Extraction of the contact resistance by Transfer Line Method (TLM) as well as the direct measurement using Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy demonstrates a very low width specific contact resistance down to 130 Ωμm. The contact resistance is found to be stable for annealing temperatures up to 150 C enabling further device processing. Using this contact scheme for edge contacts, a field effect transistor based on CVD graphene with a high transconductance of 0.63 mS/μm at 1 V bias voltage is fabricated. (copyright 2017 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  16. Stress in ion-implanted CVD Si3N4 films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EerNisse, E.P.

    1977-01-01

    The compressive stress buildup caused in chemical-vapor-deposited (CVD) Si 3 N 4 films by ion implantation is shown to be caused entirely by atomic collision effects, ionization effects being unimportant. The stress introduction rate is shown to be independent of CVD processing variables and O content of the film. The maximum attainable compressive stress change is 3.5 x 10 10 dyn/cm 2 , resulting in a maximum net compressive stress of 2 x 10 10 dyn/cm 2 for films on Si where the as-deposited films inherently have 1.5 x 10 10 dyn/cm 2 tensile stress before ion implantation. Results are presented which show that O in the films inhibits thermal annealing of the ion-implantation-induced compressive stress. Results for introduction rate and annealing effects are presented in normalized form so that workers can use the effects for intentional stress level adjustment in the films to reduce probability of cracking and detachment

  17. Electrically insulating films deposited on V-4%Cr-4%Ti by reactive CVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.H.

    1998-04-01

    In the design of liquid-metal blankets for magnetic fusion reactors, corrosion resistance of structural materials and the magnetohydrodynamic forces and their influence on thermal hydraulics and corrosion are major concerns. Electrically insulating CaO films deposited on V-4%Cr-4%Ti exhibit high-ohmic insulator behavior even though a small amount of vanadium from the alloy become incorporated into the film. However, when vanadium concentration in the film is > 15 wt.%, the film becomes conductive. When the vanadium concentration is high in localized areas, a calcium vanadate phase that exhibits semiconductor behavior can form. The objective of this study is to evaluate electrically insulating films that were deposited on V-4%Cr-4%Ti by a reactive chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. To this end, CaO and Ca-V-O coatings were produced on vanadium alloys by CVD and by a metallic-vapor process to investigate the electrical resistance of the coatings. The authors found that the Ca-V-O films exhibited insulator behavior when the ratio of calcium concentration to vanadium concentration R in the film > 0.9, and semiconductor or conductor behavior when R 0.98 were exposed in liquid lithium. Based on these studies, they conclude that semiconductor behavior occurs if a conductive calcium vanadate phase is present in localized regions in the CaO coating

  18. Parametric assessments on hydrogenic species transport in CVD-diamond vacuum windows used in ITER ECRH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, C.; Sedano, L.A.; Fernandez, A. [EURATOM-CIEMAT Association, Madrid (Spain)

    2007-07-01

    Insulators used as H and CD and Diagnostic vacuum windows (VW) in ITER may become modified by surface intake and bulk transport of hydrogenic species. VW, operating under severe radiation levels, have a primary safety role as tritium confinement barriers. Ionizing radiation enhances the (H') uptake and release at surfaces and diffusion rates in the bulk. Radiation damage modifies the material's bulk trapped inventories by increasing steady state trapping centre concentrations. An experimental programme is ongoing at CIEMAT, to quantify radiation effects on H transport characteristics and also the possible impact on the VW. The reference material for ECRH VW is CVD diamond. As a parallel activity, parametric transport assessments are being made in order to obtain a wide evaluation of permeation fluxes, ranges, and soluted/trapped inventories in CVD diamond. Transport models have been developed based on extended capabilities of finite differences integrator tool TMAP7. Special attention is paid to radiation parameters defining inputs acting on transport magnitudes. These inputs have been analysed by using ionizing/damage radiation transport tools such as MCNPX/SRIM. VW operational scenarios are discussed with special attention being paid to the ITER design assumptions for the values of H-species source terms (neutrals and implanted) in the ECRH system. The available material transport database with and without radiation is discussed and taken as reference for this parametric exercise. Permeation fluxes through base materials are shown to be below DRG limits established for ITER. (orig.)

  19. A novel Mo-W interlayer approach for CVD diamond deposition on steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojtěch Kundrát

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Steel is the most widely used material in engineering for its cost/performance ratio and coatings are routinely applied on its surface to further improve its properties. Diamond coated steel parts are an option for many demanding industrial applications through prolonging the lifetime of steel parts, enhancement of tool performance as well as the reduction of wear rates. Direct deposition of diamond on steel using conventional chemical vapour deposition (CVD processes is known to give poor results due to the preferential formation of amorphous carbon on iron, nickel and other elements as well as stresses induced from the significant difference in the thermal expansion coefficients of those materials. This article reports a novel approach of deposition of nanocrystalline diamond coatings on high-speed steel (M42 substrates using a multi-structured molybdenum (Mo – tungsten (W interlayer to form steel/Mo/Mo-W/W/diamond sandwich structures which overcome the adhesion problem related to direct magnetron sputtering deposition of pure tungsten. Surface, interface and tribology properties were evaluated to understand the role of such an interlayer structure. The multi-structured Mo-W interlayer has been proven to improve the adhesion between diamond films and steel substrates by acting as an effective diffusion barrier during the CVD diamond deposition.

  20. Performance of CVD diamond as an optically and thermally stimulated luminescence dosemeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preciado-Flores, S.; Schreck, M.; Melendrez, R.; Chernov, V.; Bernal, R.; Cruz-Vazquez, C.; Cruz-Zaragoza, E.; Barboza-Flores, M.

    2006-01-01

    Diamond is a material with extreme physical properties. Its radiation hardness, chemical inertness and tissue equivalence qualify it as an ideal material for radiation dosimetry. In the present work, the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and thermoluminescence (TL) characteristics of a 10 μm thick CVD diamond (polycrystalline diamond films prepared by chemical vapor deposition) film were studied in order to test its performance as a beta radiation dosemeter. The TL response is composed of four main TL glow peaks; two of these are in the range of 150-200 deg. C and two additional peaks in the 250-400 deg. C temperature range. The integrated TL as a function of radiation dose is linear up to 100 Gy and increases with increasing dose exposure. The dose dependence of the integrated OSL exhibits a similar behavior. The observed OSL/TL behavior for the CVD diamond film clearly demonstrate its capability for applications in radiation dosimetry with special relevance in medical dosimetry owing to the diamond's intrinsic material properties. (authors)

  1. Performance of CVD and CVR coated carbon-carbon in high temperature hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, J. W.; Barletta, R. E.; Svandrlik, J.; Vanier, P. E.

    As a part of the component development process for the particle bed reactor (PBR), it is necessary to develop coatings which will be time and temperature stable at extremely high temperatures in flowing hydrogen. These coatings must protect the underlying carbon structure from attack by the hydrogen coolant. Degradation which causes small changes in the reactor component, e.g. hole diameter in the hot frit, can have a profound effect on operation. The ability of a component to withstand repeated temperature cycles is also a coating development issue. Coatings which crack or spall under these conditions would be unacceptable. While refractory carbides appear to be the coating material of choice for carbon substrates being used in PBR components, the method of applying these coatings can have a large effect on their performance. Two deposition processes for these refractory carbides, chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and chemical vapor reaction (CVR), have been evaluated. Screening tests for these coatings consisted of testing of coated 2-D and 3-D weave carbon-carbon in flowing hot hydrogen at one atmosphere. Carbon loss from these samples was measured as a function of time. Exposure temperatures up to 3,000 K were used, and samples were exposed in a cyclical fashion cooling to room temperature between exposures. The results of these measurements are presented along with an evaluation of the relative merits of CVR and CVD coatings for this application.

  2. Influence of duration time of CVD process on emissive properties of carbon nanotubes films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stępinska Izabela

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper various types of films made of carbon nanotubes (CNTs are presented. These films were prepared on different substrates (Al2O3, Si n-type by the two-step method. The two-step method consists of physical vapor deposition step, followed by chemical vapor deposition step (PVD/CVD. Parameters of PVD process were the same for all initial films, while the duration times of the second step - the CVD process, were different (15, 30 min.. Prepared films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and field emission (FE measurements. The I-E and F-N characteristics of electron emission were discussed in terms of various forms of CNT films. The value of threshold electric field ranged from few V/μm (for CNT dispersed rarely on the surface of the film deposited on Si up to ~20 V/μm (for Al2O3 substrate.

  3. Unravelling merging behaviors and electrostatic properties of CVD-grown monolayer MoS2 domains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao, Song; Yang, Bingchu; Gao, Yongli

    2016-01-01

    The presence of grain boundaries is inevitable for chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-grown MoS 2 domains owing to various merging behaviors, which greatly limits its potential applications in novel electronic and optoelectronic devices. It is therefore of great significance to unravel the merging behaviors of the synthesized polygon shape MoS 2 domains. Here we provide systematic investigations of merging behaviors and electrostatic properties of CVD-grown polycrystalline MoS 2 crystals by multiple means. Morphological results exhibit various polygon shape features, ascribed to polycrystalline crystals merged with triangle shape MoS 2 single crystals. The thickness of triangle and polygon shape MoS 2 crystals is identical manifested by Raman intensity and peak position mappings. Three merging behaviors are proposed to illustrate the formation mechanisms of observed various polygon shaped MoS 2 crystals. The combined photoemission electron microscopy and kelvin probe force microscopy results reveal that the surface potential of perfect merged crystals is identical, which has an important implication for fabricating MoS 2 -based devices.

  4. Mindfulness-Based Interventions for Weight Loss and CVD Risk Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulwiler, Carl; Brewer, Judson A.; Sinnott, Sinead; Loucks, Eric B.

    2017-01-01

    Obesity affects more than one-third of U.S. adults and is a major cause of preventable morbidity and mortality, primarily from cardiovascular disease. Traditional behavioral interventions for weight loss typically focus on diet and exercise habits and often give little attention to the role of stress and emotions in the initiation and maintenance of unhealthy behaviors, which may account for their modest results and considerable variability in outcomes. Stress eating and emotional eating are increasingly recognized as important targets of weight loss interventions. Mindfulness-based interventions were specifically developed to promote greater self-efficacy in coping with stress and negative emotions, and appear to be effective for a variety of conditions. In recent years researchers have begun to study mindfulness interventions for weight loss and CVD risk management. This review describes the rationale for the use of mindfulness in interventions for weight loss and CVD risk management, summarizes the research to date, and suggests priorities for future research. PMID:28405260

  5. Electrical and thermal conductivity of low temperature CVD graphene: the effect of disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlassiouk, Ivan; Datskos, Panos; Smirnov, Sergei; Ivanov, Ilia; Hensley, Dale; Lavrik, Nickolay V; Fulvio, Pasquale F; Dai Sheng; Meyer, Harry; Chi Miaofang

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present a study of graphene produced by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) under different conditions with the main emphasis on correlating the thermal and electrical properties with the degree of disorder. Graphene grown by CVD on Cu and Ni catalysts demonstrates the increasing extent of disorder at low deposition temperatures as revealed by the Raman peak ratio, I G /I D . We relate this ratio to the characteristic domain size, L a , and investigate the electrical and thermal conductivity of graphene as a function of L a . The electrical resistivity, ρ, measured on graphene samples transferred onto SiO 2 /Si substrates shows linear correlation with L a -1 . The thermal conductivity, K, measured on the same graphene samples suspended on silicon pillars, on the other hand, appears to have a much weaker dependence on L a , close to K ∼ L a 1/3 . It results in an apparent ρ ∼ K 3 correlation between them. Despite the progressively increasing structural disorder in graphene grown at lower temperatures, it shows remarkably high thermal conductivity (10 2 -10 3 W K -1 m -1 ) and low electrical (10 3 -3 x 10 5 Ω) resistivities suitable for various applications.

  6. Heparin free coating on PLA membranes for enhanced hemocompatibility via iCVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Shi, Xiao; Gao, Ailin; Lin, Haibo; Chen, Yongliang; Ye, Yumin; He, Jidong; Liu, Fu; Deng, Gang

    2018-03-01

    In the present work, we report one-step immobilization of nano-heparin coating on PLA membranes via initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) for enhanced hemocompatibility. The nano-coating introduced onto the membrane surface via the crosslinking of P(MAA-EGDA) was confirmed by the FTIR, SEM and weight measurement respectively. The negative carboxyl groups could form the hydration interaction with the protein and platelets and electrostatic interaction with amide groups of thrombin by the mediation of antithrombin, which is similar but different with heparin. The P(MAA-EGDA) coated membranes showed suppressed platelet adhesion and prolonged clotting time (APTTs increased to 59 s, PTs increased to 20.4 s, TTs increased to 17.5 s, and the FIBs declined by 30 mg/dL). Moreover, the complement activation tests demonstrated the formation of C3a and C5a was inhibited. All results demonstrated that the nano-coating of P(MAA-EGDA) via iCVD significantly enhanced the hemocompatibility of PLA membranes, which is also applicable for various membranes.

  7. Synthesis of AlN fine particles by surface corona discharge-CVD; Enmen corona hoden CVD ni yoru AlN biryushi no gosei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oyama, Y.; Chiba, S. [Hokkaido National Industrial Research Institute, Sapporo (Japan); Harima, K> ; Kondo, K.; Shinohara, K. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)

    1994-09-15

    With an objective to improve insulating and heat dissipating substrates substituting for the conventional alumina substrates, discussions been given on synthesis of AlN fine particles by means of gaseous phase reaction between AlCl3 and NH3 using surface corona discharge as a reaction exciting source. AIN particles should be highly pure to acquire high-heat conductivity, and fine and uniform particles to obtain dense sinters at low temperatures. The particles obtained by using the present method were amorphous particles having nearly spherical form and smooth surface. The particle diameter depends on the initial concentration of AlCl3, and is proportional to 0.4 square of the concentration. Within the range in the present experiment, the diameters ranged from 208 nm to 431 nm. The particle diameter increased in proportion to 0.2 square of an average gas stagnating time within the plasma generating region. The particle size distribution consisted of highly uniform fine particles having the standard deviation at about the same degree as that in the conventional thermal CVD process. The alumina-based oxygen was removed completely by reduction due to graphite powder, but the re-oxidation during removal of the remaining graphite using combustion had oxygen remained at 7.4% by weight. 16 refs., 7 figs.

  8. Future prospect of remote Cat-CVD on the basis of the production, transportation and detection of H atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umemoto, Hironobu; Matsumura, Hideki

    2008-01-01

    The future prospect of remote Cat-CVD, in which the decomposition and the deposition chambers are separated, is discussed on the basis of the absolute density measurements of H atoms. It is now well recognized that uniform deposition is possible on a large area without plasma damages by Cat-CVD. However, we may not overlook the demerits in Cat-CVD. One of the demerits is the poisoning of the catalyzer surfaces by the material gases, both temporary and permanent. One technique to overcome this problem is remote Cat-CVD. The question is how to separate the decomposition and deposition areas. If the separation is not enough, there should be back diffusion of the material gases, which will poison the catalyzers. If the separation is too tight, radicals may not effuse out from the decomposition chamber. These problems are discussed and it is shown that SiO 2 coating to reduce the radical recombination rates on walls is promising. The possibility of the polytetrafluoroethene coating by Cat-CVD is also discussed

  9. Coffee consumption is not associated with prevalent subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) or the risk of CVD events, in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: results from the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Tracey G; Trejo, Maria Esther Perez; Zeb, Irfan; Frazier-Wood, Alexis C; McClelland, Robyn L; Chung, Raymond T; Budoff, Matthew J

    2017-10-01

    Atherosclerosis and its clinical sequelae represent the leading cause of mortality among patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). While epidemiologic data support the hepatoprotective benefits of coffee in NAFLD, whether coffee improves NAFLD-associated CVD risk is unknown. We examined 3710 ethnically-diverse participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) cohort, without history of known liver disease, and with available coffee data from a validated 120-item food frequency questionnaire. All participants underwent baseline non-contrast cardiac CT from which NAFLD was defined by liver:spleen ratio (L:S0. Major CVD events were defined by the first occurrence of myocardial infarction, cardiac arrest, angina, stroke, or CVD death. We used log-binomial regression to calculate the adjusted prevalence ratio (PR) for CAC>0 by coffee intake and NAFLD status, and events were compared between groups using frequency of events within adjusted Cox proportional hazard regression models. Seventeen percent (N=637) of participants met criteria for NAFLD. NAFLD participants were more likely to have elevated BMI (mean 31.1±5.5kg/m 2 vs. 28.0±5.2kg/m 2 , pcoffee consumption (p=0.97). Among NAFLD participants, coffee consumption was not associated with prevalent, baseline CAC>0 (PR=1.02 [0.98-1.07]). Over 12.8years of follow-up, 93 NAFLD and 415 non-NAFLD participants experienced a CV event. However, coffee intake was not associated with incident CVD events, in either NAFLD (HR=1.05 [0.91-1.21]) or non-NAFLD participants (HR=1.03 [0.97-1.11]). In a large, population-based cohort, coffee consumption was not associated with the prevalence of subclinical CVD, nor did coffee impact the future risk of major CVD events, regardless of underlying NAFLD status. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Low-temperature formation of crystalline Si:H/Ge:H heterostructures by plasma-enhanced CVD in combination with Ni-nanodots seeding nucleation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yimin; Makihara, Katsunori; Takeuchi, Daichi; Ikeda, Mitsuhisa; Ohta, Akio; Miyazaki, Seiichi

    2017-06-01

    Hydrogenated microcrystalline (µc) Si/Ge heterostructures were prepared on quartz substrates by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (CVD) from VHF inductively coupled plasma of SiH4 just after GeH4 employing Ni nanodots (NDs) as seeds for crystalline nucleation. The crystallinity of the films and the progress of grain growth were characterized by Raman scattering spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM), respectively. When the Ge films were grown on Ni-NDs at 250 °C, the growth of µc-Ge films with crystallinity as high as 80% was realized without an amorphous phase near the Ge film/quartz substrate interface. After the subsequent Si film deposition at 250 °C, fine grains were formed in the early stages of film growth on µc-Ge films with compositional mixing (µc-Si0.85Ge0.15:H) caused by the release of large lattice mismatch between c-Si and c-Ge. With further increase in Si:H film thickness, the formation of large grain structures accompanied by fine grains was promoted. These results suggest that crystalline Si/Ge heterojunctions can be used for efficient carrier collection in solar cell application.

  11. Significance of determination of the serum levels of homocysteine (Hcy) and insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF-II) in patients with cerebrovascular diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong Haijiang; Wang Yaling; Wang Lin; Xia Weiren; Shi Min; Lu Yaling

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical significance of the changes of homocysteine (Hcy) and insulin-like growth factor H (IGF-II) in patients with cerebrovascular diseases (CVD). Methods: The serum Hcy (with CLIA) and IGF-II (with RIA) levels were measured in 123 patients with CVD (cerebral infarction 69 and cerebral hemorrhage 54) and 43 controls. Results: The levels of Hcy and IGF-II in patients with CVD were significantly higher than those in the controls (P 0.05). Conclusion: The serum Hcy and IGF-II levels in patients with CVD are elevated, Hcy and IGF-II may be involved in the development and pathogenesis of CVD. (authors)

  12. A comparative study of the thermoluminescent response to beta irradiation of CVD diamond and LiF dosimeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogani, F. [Florence Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Energetica; Borchi, E. [Florence Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Energetica; Bruzzi, M. [Florence Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Energetica; Leroy, C. [Florence Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Energetica; Sciortino, S. [Florence Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Energetica

    1997-04-01

    The thermoluminescent (TL) response of chemical vapour deposited (CVD) diamond films to beta irradiation has been investigated. A numerical curve-fitting procedure, calibrated by means of a set of LiF TLD100 experimental spectra, has been developed to deconvolute the complex structured TL glow curves. The values of the activation energy and of the frequency factor related to each of the TL peaks involved have been determined. The TL response of the CVD diamond films to beta irradiation has been compared with the TL response of a set of LiF TLD100 and TLD700 dosimeters. The results have been discussed and compared in view of an assessment of the efficiency of CVD diamond films in future applications as in vivo dosimeters. (orig.).

  13. A comparative study of the thermoluminescent response to beta irradiation of CVD diamond and LiF dosimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Bruzzi, M.; Leroy, C.; Sciortino, S.

    1997-02-01

    The thermoluminescent (TL) response of Chemical Vapour Deposited (CVD) diamond films to beta irradiation has been investigated. A numerical curve-fitting procedure, calibrated by means of a set of LiF TLD100 experimental spectra, has been developed to deconvolute the complex structured TL glow curves. The values of the activation energy and of the frequency factor related to each of the TL peaks involved have been determined. The TL response of the CVD diamond films to beta irradiation has been compared with the TL response of a set of LiF TLD100 and TLD700 dosimeters. The results have been discussed and compared in view of an assessment of the efficiency of CVD diamond films in future applications as in vivo dosimeters.

  14. A comparative study of the thermoluminescent response to beta irradiation of CVD diamond and LiF dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Bruzzi, M.; Leroy, C.; Sciortino, S.

    1997-01-01

    The thermoluminescent (TL) response of chemical vapour deposited (CVD) diamond films to beta irradiation has been investigated. A numerical curve-fitting procedure, calibrated by means of a set of LiF TLD100 experimental spectra, has been developed to deconvolute the complex structured TL glow curves. The values of the activation energy and of the frequency factor related to each of the TL peaks involved have been determined. The TL response of the CVD diamond films to beta irradiation has been compared with the TL response of a set of LiF TLD100 and TLD700 dosimeters. The results have been discussed and compared in view of an assessment of the efficiency of CVD diamond films in future applications as in vivo dosimeters. (orig.)

  15. Homo-epitaxial diamond film growth on ion implanted diamond substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiser, P.S.; Prawer, S.; Nugent, K.W.; Bettiol, A.A.; Kostidis, L.I.; Jamieson, D.N. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1996-12-31

    The nucleation of CVD diamond is a complicated process, governed by many interrelated parameters. In the present work we attempt to elucidate the effect of strain on the growth of a homo-epitaxial CVD diamond. We have employed laterally confined high dose (MeV) Helium ion implantation to produce surface swelling of the substrate. The strain is enhanced by the lateral confinement of the implanted region to squares of 100 x 100 {mu}m{sup 2}. After ion implantation, micro-Raman spectroscopy was employed to map the surface strain. The substrates were then inserted into a CVD reactor and a CVD diamond film was grown upon them. Since the strained regions were laterally confined, it was then possible to monitor the effect of strain on diamond nucleation. The substrates were also analysed using Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS), Proton induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and Ion Beam induced Luminescence (IBIL). 7 refs., 5 figs.

  16. Homo-epitaxial diamond film growth on ion implanted diamond substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiser, P S; Prawer, S; Nugent, K W; Bettiol, A A; Kostidis, L I; Jamieson, D N [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1997-12-31

    The nucleation of CVD diamond is a complicated process, governed by many interrelated parameters. In the present work we attempt to elucidate the effect of strain on the growth of a homo-epitaxial CVD diamond. We have employed laterally confined high dose (MeV) Helium ion implantation to produce surface swelling of the substrate. The strain is enhanced by the lateral confinement of the implanted region to squares of 100 x 100 {mu}m{sup 2}. After ion implantation, micro-Raman spectroscopy was employed to map the surface strain. The substrates were then inserted into a CVD reactor and a CVD diamond film was grown upon them. Since the strained regions were laterally confined, it was then possible to monitor the effect of strain on diamond nucleation. The substrates were also analysed using Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS), Proton induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and Ion Beam induced Luminescence (IBIL). 7 refs., 5 figs.

  17. Homo-epitaxial diamond film growth on ion implanted diamond substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiser, P.S.; Prawer, S.; Nugent, K.W.; Bettiol, A.A.; Kostidis, L.I.; Jamieson, D.N.

    1996-01-01

    The nucleation of CVD diamond is a complicated process, governed by many interrelated parameters. In the present work we attempt to elucidate the effect of strain on the growth of a homo-epitaxial CVD diamond. We have employed laterally confined high dose (MeV) Helium ion implantation to produce surface swelling of the substrate. The strain is enhanced by the lateral confinement of the implanted region to squares of 100 x 100 μm 2 . After ion implantation, micro-Raman spectroscopy was employed to map the surface strain. The substrates were then inserted into a CVD reactor and a CVD diamond film was grown upon them. Since the strained regions were laterally confined, it was then possible to monitor the effect of strain on diamond nucleation. The substrates were also analysed using Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS), Proton induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and Ion Beam induced Luminescence (IBIL). 7 refs., 5 figs

  18. Prediction of the properties of PVD/CVD coatings with the use of FEM analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Śliwa, Agata; Mikuła, Jarosław; Gołombek, Klaudiusz; Tański, Tomasz; Kwaśny, Waldemar; Bonek, Mirosław; Brytan, Zbigniew

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Prediction of the properties of PVD/CVD coatings with the use of (FEM) analysis. • Stress distribution in multilayer Ti/Ti(C,N)/CrN, Ti/Ti(C,N)/(Ti,Al)N coatings. • The experimental values of stresses were determined on X-ray diffraction patterns. • An FEM model was established for the purpose of building a computer simulation. - Abstract: The aim of this paper is to present the results of the prediction of the properties of PVD/CVD coatings with the use of finite element method (FEM) analysis. The possibility of employing the FEM in the evaluation of stress distribution in multilayer Ti/Ti(C,N)/CrN, Ti/Ti(C,N)/(Ti,Al)N, Ti/(Ti,Si)N/(Ti,Si)N, and Ti/DLC/DLC coatings by taking into account their deposition conditions on magnesium alloys has been discussed in the paper. The difference in internal stresses in the zone between the coating and the substrate is caused by, first of all, the difference between the mechanical and thermal properties of the substrate and the coating, and also by the structural changes that occur in these materials during the fabrication process, especially during the cooling process following PVD and CVD treatment. The experimental values of stresses were determined based on X-ray diffraction patterns that correspond to the modelled values, which in turn can be used to confirm the correctness of the accepted mathematical model for testing the problem. An FEM model was established for the purpose of building a computer simulation of the internal stresses in the coatings. The accuracy of the FEM model was verified by comparing the results of the computer simulation of the stresses with experimental results. A computer simulation of the stresses was carried out in the ANSYS environment using the FEM method. Structure observations, chemical composition measurements, and mechanical property characterisations of the investigated materials has been carried out to give a background for the discussion of the results that were

  19. Prediction of the properties of PVD/CVD coatings with the use of FEM analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Śliwa, Agata; Mikuła, Jarosław; Gołombek, Klaudiusz; Tański, Tomasz; Kwaśny, Waldemar; Bonek, Mirosław, E-mail: miroslaw.bonek@polsl.pl; Brytan, Zbigniew

    2016-12-01

    Highlights: • Prediction of the properties of PVD/CVD coatings with the use of (FEM) analysis. • Stress distribution in multilayer Ti/Ti(C,N)/CrN, Ti/Ti(C,N)/(Ti,Al)N coatings. • The experimental values of stresses were determined on X-ray diffraction patterns. • An FEM model was established for the purpose of building a computer simulation. - Abstract: The aim of this paper is to present the results of the prediction of the properties of PVD/CVD coatings with the use of finite element method (FEM) analysis. The possibility of employing the FEM in the evaluation of stress distribution in multilayer Ti/Ti(C,N)/CrN, Ti/Ti(C,N)/(Ti,Al)N, Ti/(Ti,Si)N/(Ti,Si)N, and Ti/DLC/DLC coatings by taking into account their deposition conditions on magnesium alloys has been discussed in the paper. The difference in internal stresses in the zone between the coating and the substrate is caused by, first of all, the difference between the mechanical and thermal properties of the substrate and the coating, and also by the structural changes that occur in these materials during the fabrication process, especially during the cooling process following PVD and CVD treatment. The experimental values of stresses were determined based on X-ray diffraction patterns that correspond to the modelled values, which in turn can be used to confirm the correctness of the accepted mathematical model for testing the problem. An FEM model was established for the purpose of building a computer simulation of the internal stresses in the coatings. The accuracy of the FEM model was verified by comparing the results of the computer simulation of the stresses with experimental results. A computer simulation of the stresses was carried out in the ANSYS environment using the FEM method. Structure observations, chemical composition measurements, and mechanical property characterisations of the investigated materials has been carried out to give a background for the discussion of the results that were

  20. Treatment with liraglutide may improve markers of CVD reflected by reduced levels of apoB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelbrechtsen, L.; Lundgren, J.; Wewer Albrechtsen, N. J.; Mahendran, Y.; Iepsen, E. W.; Finocchietto, P.; Jonsson, A. E.; Madsbad, S.; Holst, J. J.; Vestergaard, H.; Hansen, T.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Background Dislipidaemia and increased levels of apolipoprotein B (apoB) in individuals with obesity are risk factors for development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of weight loss and weight maintenance with and without liraglutide treatment on plasma lipid profiles and apoB. Methods Fifty‐eight individuals with obesity (body mass index 34.5 ± 3.0 kg/m2 [mean ± SD]) were included in this study. After 8 weeks on a very low‐calorie diet (800 kcal/day), participants were randomized to weight maintenance with meal replacements with or without liraglutide (1.2 mg daily) for 1 year. Plasma samples from before and after weight loss and after 1 year of weight maintenance were subjected to nuclear magnetic resonance‐based lipidomics analysis. Results After an 8‐week low‐calorie diet, study participants lost 12.0 ± 2.9 kg (mean ± SD) of their body weight, which was reflected in their lipid profiles (80 out of 124 lipids changed significantly), including reduced levels of apoB, total cholesterol, free cholesterol, remnant cholesterol, triglycerides, low‐density lipoprotein and very low‐density lipoprotein subclasses. After 1 year of maintained weight loss, the majority of the lipids had returned to pre‐weight loss levels even though weight loss was successfully maintained in both groups. Interestingly, apoB levels remained low in the liraglutide treated group (apoB change: 0.03 ± 0.02 mmol/L, p = 0.4) in contrast to an increase in the control group (apoB change: 0.06 ± 0.07 mmol/L, p = 0.02). Conclusion An 8‐week low‐calorie diet, in individuals with obesity, reduced plasma levels of lipids and the atherogenic marker apoB. After 1 year of weight maintenance, only study participants treated with liraglutide maintained reduced levels of apoB, despite similar body weight maintenance. Treatment with liraglutide may therefore reduce apoB levels and thus reflect lower