Sample records for hot-strip mills part

  1. Microstructure Engineering in Hot Strip Mills, Part 1 of 2: Integrated mathematical Model

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    J.K. Brimacombe; I.V. Samaraseker; E.B. Hawbolt; T.R. Meadowcroft; M. Militzer; W.J. Pool; D.Q. Jin


    This report describes the work of developing an integrated model used to predict the thermal history, deformation, roll forces, microstructural evaluation and mechanical properties of steel strip in a hot-strip mill. This achievement results from a join research effort that is part of the American Iron and Steel Institute's (AISI) Advanced Process Control Program, a collaboration between the U.S. DOE and fifteen North American steel makers.

  2. AISI/DOE Advanced Process Control Program Vol. 3 of 6 Microstructure Engineering in Hot Strip Mills, Part 1 of 2: Integrated Mathematical Model

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    J.K. Brimacombe; I.V. Samarasekera; E.B. Hawbolt; T.R. Meadowcroft; M. Militzer; W.J. Pool; D.Q. Jin


    This report describes the work of developing an integrated model used to predict the thermal history, deformation, roll forces, microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of steel strip in a hot-strip mill. This achievement results from a joint research effort that is part of the American Iron and Steel Institute's (AIS) Advanced Process Control Program, a collaboration between the U.S. DOE and fifteen North American Steelmakers.

  3. AISI/DOE Advanced Process Control Program Vol. 3 of 6: MICROSTRUCTURAL ENGINEERING IN HOT-STRIP MILLS Part 2 of 2: Constitutive Behavior Modeling of Steels Under Hot-Rolling Conditions

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    Yi-Wen Cheng; Patrick Purtscher


    This report describes the development of models for predicting (1) constitutive behaviors and (2) mechanical properties of hot-rolled steels as functions of chemical composition, microstructural features, and processing variables. The study includes the following eight steels: A36, DQSK, HSLA-V, HSLA-Nb, HSLA-50/Ti-Nb, and two interstitial-free (IF) grades. These developed models have been integrated into the Hot-Strip Mill Model (HSMM), which simulates the hot strip rolling mills and predicts the mechanical properties of hot-rolled products. The HSMM model has been developed by the University of British Columbia-Canada as a part of project on the microstructural engineering in hot-strip mills.

  4. Model development of work roll wear in hot strip mill (United States)

    Liu, Ziying; Guan, Yingping; Wang, Fengqin


    This paper, based on the analysis of the main factors(specific roll force, mean roll surface temperature, irregular edge wear and contact arc length) affecting roll wear, designed a new work roll wear model, the test data shows that the model can more accurately reflect the work roll wear, can be on-line prediction of work roll wear. The roll wear curve, including constant wear and irregular edge wear, presents a box shape, and the reasons also are showed in this paper. The top roll wear and bottom roll wear in the same mill are inconsistent, and the reasons are also analysed in this paper. Results show that the construction of the work roll mathematical model accords with the general law of work roll wear and tear; it can more accurately forecast roll wear online.

  5. Neural and Neural Gray-Box Modeling for Entry Temperature Prediction in a Hot Strip Mill (United States)

    Barrios, José Angel; Torres-Alvarado, Miguel; Cavazos, Alberto; Leduc, Luis


    In hot strip mills, initial controller set points have to be calculated before the steel bar enters the mill. Calculations rely on the good knowledge of rolling variables. Measurements are available only after the bar has entered the mill, and therefore they have to be estimated. Estimation of process variables, particularly that of temperature, is of crucial importance for the bar front section to fulfill quality requirements, and the same must be performed in the shortest possible time to preserve heat. Currently, temperature estimation is performed by physical modeling; however, it is highly affected by measurement uncertainties, variations in the incoming bar conditions, and final product changes. In order to overcome these problems, artificial intelligence techniques such as artificial neural networks and fuzzy logic have been proposed. In this article, neural network-based systems, including neural-based Gray-Box models, are applied to estimate scale breaker entry temperature, given its importance, and their performance is compared to that of the physical model used in plant. Several neural systems and several neural-based Gray-Box models are designed and tested with real data. Taking advantage of the flexibility of neural networks for input incorporation, several factors which are believed to have influence on the process are also tested. The systems proposed in this study were proven to have better performance indexes and hence better prediction capabilities than the physical models currently used in plant.

  6. An Expert PI Controller with Dead Time Compensation of Monitor AGC in Hot Strip Mill

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    Fei Zhang


    Full Text Available Hot strip rolling production is a high-speed process which requires high-speed control and communication system, but because of the long distance between the delivery stand of the finishing mill and the gauge meter, dead time occurs when strip is transported from the site of the actuator to another location where the gauge meter takes its reading, which seriously affects the thickness control effect. According to the process model which is developed based on the measured data, a filtered Smith predictor is applied to predict the thickness deviation of the finishing mill. At the same time, an expert PI controller based on feature information is proposed for the strip thinning during looper rising and coiler biting period and the strip thickening during the tension loss period of the strip tail end. As a result, the thickness accuracy has been improved by about 1.06% at a steady rolling speed and about 1.23% in acceleration and deceleration.

  7. Current Developments of Alloyed Steels for Hot Strip Roughing Mills : Characterization of High-Chromium Steel and Semi-High Speed Steel


    Lecomte-Beckers, Jacqueline; Sinnaeve, Mario; Tchuindjang, Jérôme Tchoufack


    Two alloys grades for work rolls used in the roughing stand of Hot Strip Mill - high chromium steel (HCS) and semi-high-speed steel (semi-HSS), In this paper, the new semi-high-speed steel grade is studied Peer reviewed

  8. High quality and high grade hot strips of uniform dimensions and mechanical properties; Sunpo {center_dot} zaishitsu no kinshitsusei wo takameta netsuen kohan

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    Shiomi, H.; Kaji, T.; Kitahama, M. [Kawasaki Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    Kawasaki Steel Chiba Works No.3 hot strip mill is one of the latest mills. At this mil, the most advanced technologies, such as AC-moter drives, hydraulic screwdown, and pair ross rolling systems, are applied to all stands of finishing train. Thickness gauges, profile meters and pyrometers are installed not only on the delivery side but also on the intermediate stands of finishing mills. By using these sensors and actuators, feedback and feedforward controls of gauges and temperatures succeeds more accurately and in higher response than those at conventional hot strip mills. By using this advanced mill, Kawasaki Steel can supply hot rolled coils of highly uniform dimensions and mechanical properties. Customers can reduce their material costs by adopting our hot rolled products to applications where cold rolled coils used to be used. And Kawasaki Steel can contribute to the saving of cold rolling energy by suppling these hot rolled products and this ultimately conduces to global environment protection. (author)

  9. Improvements in electric power system of the effluent treatment station of the hot strip mill no. 2 (ETE/LTQ-2); Melhorias no sistema de alimentacao eletrica da estacao de tratamento de efluentes do laminador de tiras a quente n. 2 (ETE/LTQ-2)

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    Martins, Hamilton Geraldo; Pinho, Wilson Pereira de; Martinez, Flavio Costa; Rocha, Carlos Eduardo da [Companhia Siderurgica Nacional (CSN), Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil). Gerencia de Distribuicao de Energeticos


    The ETE/LTQ-2 is an vital area for the production process of coiled hot rolled strip. Any problems in the operating functions in this station results in the loss production in the mill. This is what occurred in 2007 January when there was problems in the termination of the power cables from the transformer of the circuit B-521 and in December in the same year, when there was an explosion of the oil cutout switch, which resulted in serious injury to the production process of the LTQ-2. Thus, began a search process for solutions to improve the reliability and security of the electrical system that meets the motor pumps of the ETE/LTQ-2 to reduce the risk of interference in the production process in result of the electrical faults. In 2010 June, was completed the implementations of the solutions to improve this performance, which consisted of repowering the two power circuits of the ETE/LTQ-2 (B-521 and B-570), replacement of the transformers for others of higher power (3.75 MVA to 5.5 MVA) of both circuits and replacement the oil cutout switch for SF6 circuit breakers. (author)

  10. Measurement of the thermal conductivity of thin insulating anisotropic material with a stationary hot strip method (United States)

    Jannot, Yves; Degiovanni, Alain; Félix, Vincent; Bal, Harouna


    This paper presents a method dedicated to the thermal conductivity measurement of thin insulating anisotropic materials. The method is based on three hot-strip-type experiments in which the stationary temperature is measured at the center of the hot strip. A 3D model of the heat transfer in the system is established and simulated to determine the validity of a 2D transfer hypothesis at the center of the hot strip. A simplified 2D model is then developed leading to the definition of a geometrical factor calculable from a polynomial expression. A very simple calculation method enabling the estimation of the directional thermal conductivities from the three stationary temperature measurements and from the geometrical factor is presented. The uncertainties on each conductivity are estimated. The method is then validated by measurements on polyethylene foam and Ayous (anistropic low-density tropical wood); the estimated values of the thermal conductivities are in good agreement with the values estimated using the hot plate and the flash method. The method is finally applied on a thin super-insulating fibrous material for which no other method is able to measure the in-plane conductivity.

  11. Mathematical modeling of the hot strip rolling of microalloyed Nb, multiply-alloyed Cr-Mo, and plain C-Mn steels

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    Siciliano, F. Jr.; Jonas, J.J.


    Industrial mill logs from seven different hot strip mills (HSMs) were analyzed in order to calculate the mean flow stresses (MFSs) developed in each stand. The schedules were typical of the processing of microalloyed Nb, multiply-alloyed Cr-Mo, and plain C-Mn steels. The calculations, based on the Sims analysis, take into account work roll flattening, redundant strain, and the forward slip ratio. The measured stresses are then compared to the predictions of a model based on an improved Misaka MFS equation, in which solute effects, strain accumulation, and the kinetics of static recrystallization (SRX) and metadynamic recrystallization (MDRX) are fully accounted for. Good agreement between the measured and predicted MFSs is obtained over the whole range of rolling temperatures. The evolution of grain size and the fractional softening are also predicted by the model during all stages of strip rolling. Special attention was paid to the Nb steels, in which the occurrence of Nb(C, N) precipitation strongly influences the rolling behavior, preventing softening between passes. The present study leads to the conclusion that Mn addition retards the strain-induced precipitation of Nb; by contrast, Si addition has an accelerating effect. The critical strain for the onset of dynamic recrystallization (DRX) in Nb steels is derived, and it is shown that the critical strain/peak strain ratio decreases with increasing Nb content; furthermore, Mn and Si have marginal but opposite effects. It is demonstrated that DRX followed by MDRX occurs under most conditions of hot strip rolling; during the initial passes, it is due to high strains, low strain rates, and high temperatures, and, in the final passes, it is a consequence of strain accumulation.

  12. Simulation of accelerated strip cooling on the hot rolling mill run-out roller table

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    Full Text Available A mathematical model of the thermal state of the metal in the run-out roller table continuous wide hot strip mill. The mathematical model takes into account heat generation due to the polymorphic γ → α transformation of supercooled austenite phase state and the influence of the chemical composition of the steel on the physical properties of the metal. The model allows calculation of modes of accelerated cooling strips on run-out roller table continuous wide hot strip mill. Winding temperature calculation error does not exceed 20°C for 98.5 % of strips of low-carbon and low-alloy steels

  13. Control of Carbides and Graphite in Cast Irons Type Alloy’s Microstructures for Hot Strip Mills

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    Sergio Villanueva Bravo


    Full Text Available The carbide and graphite formation and redistribution of alloy elements during solidification were investigated on high-speed steel (HS and Ni-hard type cast irons with Nb and V. The crystallization of hypereutectic HSS proceeds in the order of primary MC, γ + MC, γ + M6C, γ + M7C3, and γ +  graphite eutectic, in hypoeutectic alloys proceeds in the order of primary γ, γ + MC, γ + graphite, γ + M6C, and γ + M7C3 eutectic, and in Ni-hard proceeds in the order of primary γ, γ + MC, γ + M3C, and γ +  graphite eutectic. The γ +  graphite eutectic solidifies with the decrease of V, Nb, and Cr and the increase of Si and C contents in residual liquid during solidification. The behavior in graphite forming tendency in the residual liquid is estimated by the parameter ∑CLimi′. The eutectic graphite crystallizes at the solid fraction when ∑CLimi′ takes a minimum value. The amount of graphite increases with the decrease in ∑CLimi′ of initial alloy content in both specimens. Inoculation with ferrosilicon effectively increases the graphite content in both specimens.

  14. Tool Wear Analysis on Five-Axis Flank Milling for Curved Shape Part – Full Flute and Ground Shank End Mill

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    Syahrul Azwan Sundi


    Full Text Available This paper is a study on full flute (extra-long tool and ground shank end mill wear analysis by utilizing five-axis CNC to implement flank milling strategy on curved shape part. Five-axis machining eases the user to implement variations of strategy such as flank milling. Flank milling is different from point milling. Point milling cuts materials by using the tip of the tool whereas the flank milling uses the cutting tool body to cut material. The type of cutting tool used was end mill 10 mm diameter with High Speed Steel (HSS material. One factor at a time was utilized to analyze the overall data. Feed rate and spindle speed were the two main factors that been set up equally for both full flute and ground shank end mill. At the end of this research, the qualitative analysis based on tool wear between full flute and ground shank end mill is observed. Generally, both types of cutting tools showed almost the same failure indication such as broken edge or chipped off edge, formation of pinned hole on the surface and serration formation or built-up edge (BUE on the primary flute. However, the results obtained from the enlarged images which were captured by Optical Microscope indicated that, the ground shank end mill is better than the full flute end mill.

  15. Error compensation of thin plate-shape part with prebending method in face milling (United States)

    Yi, Wei; Jiang, Zhaoliang; Shao, Weixian; Han, Xiangcheng; Liu, Wenping


    Low weight and good toughness thin plate parts are widely used in modern industry, but its flexibility seriously impacts the machinability. Plenty of studies focus on the influence of machine tool and cutting tool on the machining errors. However, few researches focus on compensating machining errors through the fixture. In order to improve the machining accuracy of thin plate-shape part in face milling, this paper presents a novel method for compensating the surface errors by prebending the workpiece during the milling process. First, a machining error prediction model using finite element method is formulated, which simplifies the contacts between the workpiece and fixture with spring constraints. Milling forces calculated by the micro-unit cutting force model are loaded on the error prediction model to predict the machining error. The error prediction results are substituted into the given formulas to obtain the prebending clamping forces and clamping positions. Consequently, the workpiece is prebent in terms of the calculated clamping forces and positions during the face milling operation to reduce the machining error. Finally, simulation and experimental tests are carried out to validate the correctness and efficiency of the proposed error compensation method. The experimental measured flatness results show that the flatness improves by approximately 30 percent through this error compensation method. The proposed method not only predicts the machining errors in face milling thin plate-shape parts but also reduces the machining errors by taking full advantage of the workpiece prebending caused by fixture, meanwhile, it provides a novel idea and theoretical basis for reducing milling errors and improving the milling accuracy.

  16. Understanding dental CAD/CAM for restorations - dental milling machines from a mechanical engineering viewpoint. Part A: chairside milling machines. (United States)

    Lebon, Nicolas; Tapie, Laurent; Duret, Francois; Attal, Jean-Pierre


    The dental milling machine is an important device in the dental CAD/CAM chain. Nowadays, dental numerical controlled (NC) milling machines are available for dental surgeries (chairside solution). This article provides a mechanical engineering approach to NC milling machines to help dentists understand the involvement of technology in digital dentistry practice. First, some technical concepts and definitions associated with NC milling machines are described from a mechanical engineering viewpoint. The technical and economic criteria of four chairside dental NC milling machines that are available on the market are then described. The technical criteria are focused on the capacities of the embedded technologies of these milling machines to mill both prosthetic materials and types of shape restorations. The economic criteria are focused on investment costs and interoperability with third-party software. The clinical relevance of the technology is assessed in terms of the accuracy and integrity of the restoration.

  17. Use of Computer Simulation in Designing and Evaluating a Proposed Rough Mill for Furniture Interior Parts (United States)

    Philip A. Araman


    The design of a rough mill for the production of interior furniture parts is used to illustrate a simulation technique for analyzing and evaluating established and proposed sequential production systems. Distributions representing the real-world random characteristics of lumber, equipment feed speeds and delay times are programmed into the simulation. An example is...

  18. Computer aided process planning for high-speed milling of thin-walled parts : strategy-based support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popma, M.G.R.


    Technological developments have made high-speed milling economically attractive. It is now a manufacturing technology that can competitively manufacture thin-walled parts. Such parts however can require a lot of material to be machined. With high-speed milling, this can take a lot of toolpaths.

  19. Best Cutting Conditions for Pocket Milling in Aluminium Alloy Body Parts

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    S. V. Grubyy


    Full Text Available Essentially, new constructive solutions, among which there are such as application of highstrength aluminum alloys for large-size case parts with the wafer design of the shell (WDS characterize modern and perspective products of the missile and space equipment (MSE. To define optimum strategy of WDS pocket treatment, the paper presents a strategy analysis of penetration and treatment in CAID "ADEM". Based on the performed optimization a combination "spiral" and penetration "spiral on a contour" has been accepted as a strategy of the pocket treatment.To optimize the cutting modes, taking into consideration an elimination of the WDS element deformations, are calculated the hard-alloy mill forces, temperatures, wear rate, size of wear, and tool life, when milling a pocket as a standard element of WDS. A calculation technique which distinctive feature is to take into account the forces and pressure from the face edge of a mill tooth is used. In particular, there is functional relationship between the wear rate of a back surface of the tool and the generalized parameter, i.e. the cutting speed relation to hardness of the wearing tool surface as a function of the cutting temperature for milling conditions of aluminum alloys on the modern CN equipment.The paper presents a sequence of formulas implemented as a calculating algorithm and appropriate calculating program. It shows power and polynomial equations obtained to establish relations of the tool life and a torque of cutting with the variable parameters, i.e. the speed, depth, feed, mill diameter and width.Modeling and optimization results show that for rough treatment of grooves, a technological restriction is machine spindle power. With fine finish and penetration a feed of the tool has to be restricted to prevent deformation of a pocket bottom.During treatment of pockets in large-size parts with WDS a lag effect of the linear drives of equipment has to be taken into consideration, when feeding


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    Full Text Available In this study, a user–interactive computer programme generating CNC part programme according to dialog method has been developed. The design of programme has been prepared like a CAM programme structure. The part programme was established by required parameters asking to the user with a specific order. Subsequently, this parameters are used to create M and G codes, and these codes are showed at a different page on the screen. In addition, these code pages can be stored with "txt" format. This program includes basic processes and the programme design has been prepared for milling machine working according to Fanuc system. The computer programme was written by using Delphi 6 programming language.

  1. Impact pressure of water in hydraulic descaling during hot strip mill rolling. Netsukan atsuen ni okeru koatsusui datsu scale ji no shototsu atsu

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    Wada, T.; Oshimi, M. (Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan)); Ueda, M. (Hotani Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan))


    Using white Plasticine which shows plastic deformation similar to that of high temperature steel materials, the decrease in the thickness by high pressure water is measured, and impact pressure of water at the time of high pressure water injection is measured with a pressure converter to formulate the relationship with various factors. The thickness loss of Plasticine at the time of high pressure injection is closely correlated with 4 parameters, i.e. water consumption, water pressure, rolling speed, and vertical distance. The thickness loss and impact pressure by hydraulic descaling can be expressed by empirical formulas of {Delta}t = 2000 PV (vH{sup 2}) (cm, correlation coefficient: 0.94) and p = 5.64 PV H{sup 2} (MPa). The impact pressure equation is simple and practical, and agrees well with the result obtained by the equation of Hojas et al. The impact pressure required to remove the primary scale is much higher than that required for the secondary scale, and a careful set up of the conditions is essential to complete the descaling. 13 refs., 7 figs., 7 tabs.

  2. Understanding dental CAD/CAM for restorations--dental milling machines from a mechanical engineering viewpoint. Part B: labside milling machines. (United States)

    Lebon, Nicolas; Tapie, Laurent; Duret, Francois; Attal, Jean-Pierre


    Nowadays, dental numerical controlled (NC) milling machines are available for dental laboratories (labside solution) and dental production centers. This article provides a mechanical engineering approach to NC milling machines to help dental technicians understand the involvement of technology in digital dentistry practice. The technical and economic criteria are described for four labside and two production center dental NC milling machines available on the market. The technical criteria are focused on the capacities of the embedded technologies of milling machines to mill prosthetic materials and various restoration shapes. The economic criteria are focused on investment cost and interoperability with third-party software. The clinical relevance of the technology is discussed through the accuracy and integrity of the restoration. It can be asserted that dental production center milling machines offer a wider range of materials and types of restoration shapes than labside solutions, while labside solutions offer a wider range than chairside solutions. The accuracy and integrity of restorations may be improved as a function of the embedded technologies provided. However, the more complex the technical solutions available, the more skilled the user must be. Investment cost and interoperability with third-party software increase according to the quality of the embedded technologies implemented. Each private dental practice may decide which fabrication option to use depending on the scope of the practice.

  3. N=4 super-Yang-Mills in LHC superspace. Part I: Classical and quantum theory

    CERN Document Server

    Chicherin, Dmitry


    We present a formulation of the maximally supersymmetric N=4 gauge theory in Lorentz harmonic chiral (LHC) superspace. It is closely related to the twistor formulation of the theory but employs the simpler notion of Lorentz harmonic variables. They parametrize a two-sphere and allow us to handle efficiently infinite towers of higher-spin auxiliary fields defined on ordinary space-time. In this approach the chiral half of N=4 supersymmetry is manifest. The other half is realized non-linearly and the algebra closes on shell. We give a straightforward derivation of the Feynman rules in coordinate space. We show that the LHC formulation of the N=4 super-Yang-Mills theory is remarkably similar to the harmonic superspace formulation of the N=2 gauge and hypermultiplet matter theories. In the twin paper \\cite{twin} we apply the LHC formalism to the study of the non-chiral multipoint correlation functions of the N=4 stress-tensor supermultiplet.

  4. Marcal Paper Mills, Inc.; Order Granting in Part and Denying in Part Petition for Object to Title V Permit (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the Title V air operating permit regulations. This document is part of the Title V Petition Database available at

  5. The Tribological Performance of Hardfaced/ Thermal Sprayed Coatings for Increasing the Wear Resistance of Ventilation Mill Working Parts

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    A. Vencl


    Full Text Available During the coal pulverizing, the working parts of the ventilation mill are being worn by the sand particles. For this reason, the working parts are usually protected with materials resistant to wear (hardfaced/thermal sprayed coatings. The aim of this study was to evaluate the tribological performance of four different types of coatings as candidates for wear protection of the mill’s working parts. The coatings were produced by using the filler materials with the following nominal chemical composition: NiFeBSi-WC, NiCrBSiC, FeCrCTiSi, and FeCrNiCSiBMn, and by using the plasma arc welding and flame and electric arc spraying processes. The results showed that Ni-based coatings exhibited higher wear resistance than Fe-based coatings. The highest wear resistance showed coating produced by using the NiFeBSi-WC filler material and plasma transferred arc welding deposition process. The hardness was not the only characteristic that affected the wear resistance. In this context, the wear rate of NiFeBSi-WC coating was not in correlation with its hardness, in contrast to other coatings. The different wear performance of NiFeBSi-WC coating was attributed to the different type and morphological features of the reinforcing particles (WC.

  6. Application of orthogonal array technique and particle swarm optimization approach in surface roughness modification when face milling AISI1045 steel parts (United States)

    Azadi Moghaddam, Masoud; Kolahan, Farhad


    Face milling is an important and common machining operation because of its versatility and capability to produce various surfaces. Face milling is a machining process of removing material by the relative motion between a work piece and rotating cutter with multiple cutting edges. It is an interrupted cutting operation in which the teeth of the milling cutter enter and exit the work piece during each revolution. This paper is concerned with the experimental and numerical study of face milling of AISI1045. The proposed approach is based on statistical analysis on the experimental data gathered using Taguchi design matrix. Surface roughness is the most important performance characteristics of the face milling process. In this study the effect of input face milling process parameters on surface roughness of AISI1045 steel milled parts have been studied. The input parameters are cutting speed ( v), feed rate ( f z ) and depth of cut ( a p ). The experimental data are gathered using Taguchi L9 design matrix. In order to establish the relations between the input and the output parameters, various regression functions have been fitted on the data based on output characteristics. The significance of the process parameters on the quality characteristics of the process was also evaluated quantitatively using the analysis of variance method. Then, statistical analysis and validation experiments have been carried out to compare and select the best and most fitted models. In the last section of this research, mathematical model has been developed for surface roughness prediction using particle swarm optimization (PSO) on the basis of experimental results. The model developed for optimization has been validated by confirmation experiments. It has been found that the predicted roughness using PSO is in good agreement with the actual surface roughness.

  7. Mathematical model for predicting transformation of high carbon steel during cooling and its application to on-line temperature control in hot strip mill; Kotansoko no hentai yosoku model no kaihatsu to sono jikki eno tekiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suehiro, M.; Oda, T.; Senuma, T.; Konishi, S. [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    A mathematical model for predicting transformation of high carbon steel during cooling (transformation from austenite to pearlite, ferrite, and bainite) has been developed. The basic equation for this model is the Cahn`s transformation progress behavior indicating equation, from which an equation was introduced that represents transformation velocity for the case of generation and growth of nuclei and for the case of site saturation. Using these equations makes it possible to calculate transformation in arbitrary cooling processes. In addition, a prediction model for hot processing transformation that expresses the influence of the hot processing on transformation was coupled with the transformation equation to improve the accuracy of transformation prediction. Rise in steel plate temperature that takes place because of generation of transformation latent heat during cooling was calculated by using a two-dimensional heat conduction equation. Off-line applications of this model include prediction of steel plate temperatures on a hot-run table, improvement in productivity by increasing plate passing speed in a continuous hot rolling process, and correction of variation in finishing rolling temperature. On-line applications include controls in hot-run water injection facilities, and automation of an on-line control system. 13 refs., 18 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Uptake of radionuclide thorium by twelve native plants grown in uranium mill tailings soils from south part of China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Xun, E-mail:


    Highlights: • Screen dominant plants grown in uranium mill tailings soils. • Quantify the content of {sup 232}Th of soil samples from uranium mill tailings. • Quantify the transfer factor, bioconcentration factor and phytoremediation factor. • Screen out the plant species capable of remediating radionuclide contaminated soils. • Guide the reuse of study area in future. - Abstract: The concentrations of thorium ({sup 232}Th) in soil from a uranium mill tailings repository in South China were analyzed. The results showed that all the soil samples were acidic and the concentrations of {sup 232}Th in all the soil samples were more than the natural radionuclide content in soil of China. Through the field investigation, twelve kinds of dominant plants were discovered. The total quantity of {sup 232}Th in the whole plant is highest in rice flat sedge. We also found that Miscanthus floridulus has the greatest transfer factor (TF) for {sup 232}Th, rice flat sedge has the greatest bioconcentration factor (BF) for {sup 232}Th. At the mean time, M. floridulus has the greatest phytoremediation factor (PF) for {sup 232}Th. On the basis of the above conclusions and the definition for hyperaccumulator, rice flat sedge and M. floridulus could be the candidates of phytoremediation for radionuclide {sup 232}Th in the soil.

  9. A modified milling system, using a bimodal distribution of highly resistant ceramics. Part 1. A natural hydroxyapatite study. (United States)

    Harabi, Abdelhamid; Harabi, Esma


    A careful combination of the main parameters controlling natural hydroxyapatite (NHA: Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2) production such as milling techniques, sintering temperature and holding time may lead to an interesting NHA based bio-ceramics without any foreign oxide additions. In this way, an original wet milling setup has been proposed to obtain sub-micron sized NHA powders. In order to avoid any possible NHA decomposition, a precise Ca/P ratio of NHA derived from animals was selected accordingly. Also, an alternative direct visual approach of the bone age classification was also proposed. A relative density of about 95% was obtained for powders sintered at 1300°C for 2h. The best Vickers micro-hardness and 3 point bending strength values for these sintered samples, using this proposed milling system and without any additions, were 4.7±0.3GPa and 37MPa, respectively. Finally, a complete correlation between the powder microstructure and the final product properties has been established. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Interim report on task 1.2: near equilibrium processing requirements - attrition milling part 1 of 2 to Lawrence Livermore National for contract b345772

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    Stewart, M W A; Vance, E R; Day, R A; Eddowes, T; Moricca, S


    The objective of Task 1.2 has only partly been achieved as the work on Pu/U-formulations and to a significant degree on Th/U-formulations has been performed under grinding/blending conditions that did not replicate plant-like fabrication processes, particularly in the case with the small glovebox attritor. Nevertheless the results do show that actinide-rich particles, not present in specimens made via the alkoxide-route (equilibrium conditions), occur when the grinding process is not efficient enough to ensure that high-fired PuO{sub 2}, ThO{sub 2} and UO{sub 2} particles are below a critical size. Our current perception is that the critical size for specimens sintered at 1350 C for 4 hours is about 5 {micro}m in diameter. The critical size is difficult to estimate, as it is equal to the starting diameter of actinide oxides just visible within brannerite regions. Our larger scale attritor experiments as well as experience with wet and dry ball milling suggests that acceptable mineralogy and microstructure can be obtained by dry milling via attritor and ball mills. This is provided that appropriate attention is paid to the size and density of the grinding media, grinding additives that reduce caking of the powder, and in the case of attritors the grinding speed and pot setup. The ideal products for sintering are free flowing granules of {approx} 100 {micro}m containing constituents ground to about 1 {micro}m to ensure homogeneity and equilibrium mineralogy.

  11. N=4 super-Yang-Mills in LHC superspace. Part II: Non-chiral correlation functions of the stress-tensor multiplet

    CERN Document Server

    Chicherin, Dmitry


    We study the multipoint super-correlation functions of the full non-chiral stress-tensor multiplet in N=4 super-Yang-Mills theory in the Born approximation. We derive effective supergraph Feynman rules for them. Surprisingly, the Feynman rules for the non-chiral correlators differ only slightly from those for the chiral correlators. We rely on the formulation of the theory in Lorentz harmonic chiral (LHC) superspace elaborated in the twin paper \\cite{PartI}. In this approach only the chiral half of the supersymmetry is manifest. The other half is realized by nonlinear and nonlocal transformations of the LHC superfields. However, at Born level only the simple linear part of the transformations is relevant. It corresponds to effectively working in the self-dual sector of the theory. Our method is also applicable to a wider class of supermultiplets like all the half-BPS operators and the Konishi multiplet.

  12. Cohort mortality study of roofing granule mine and mill workers. Part I: Estimation of historical crystalline silica exposures. (United States)

    Hewett, Paul; Morey, Sandy Z; Holen, Brian M; Logan, Perry W; Olsen, Geary W


    A study was conducted to construct a job exposure matrix for the roofing granule mine and mill workers at four U.S. plants. Each plant mined different minerals and had unique departments and jobs. The goal of the study was to generate accurate estimates of the mean exposure to respirable crystalline silica for each cell of the job exposure matrix, that is, every combination of plant, department, job, and year represented in the job histories of the study participants. The objectives of this study were to locate, identify, and collect information on all exposure measurements ever collected at each plant, statistically analyze the data to identify deficiencies in the database, identify and resolve questionable measurements, identify all important process and control changes for each plant-department-job combination, construct a time line for each plant-department combination indicating periods where the equipment and conditions were unchanged, and finally, construct a job exposure matrix. After evaluation, 1871 respirable crystalline silica measurements and estimates remained. The primary statistic of interest was the mean exposure for each job exposure matrix cell. The average exposure for each of the four plants was 0.042 mg/m(3) (Belle Mead, N.J.), 0.106 mg/m(3) (Corona, Calif.), 0.051 mg/m(3) (Little Rock, Ark.), and 0.152 mg/m(3) (Wausau, Wis.), suggesting that there may be substantial differences in the employee cumulative exposures. Using the database and the available plant information, the study team assigned an exposure category and mean exposure for every plant-department-job and time interval combination. Despite a fairly large database, the mean exposure for > 95% of the job exposure matrix cells, or specific plant-department-job-year combinations, were estimated by analogy to similar jobs in the plant for which sufficient data were available. This approach preserved plant specificity, hopefully improving the usefulness of the job exposure matrix.

  13. Cohort mortality study of roofing granule mine and mill workers. Part II. Epidemiologic analysis, 1945-2004. (United States)

    Olsen, Geary W; Andres, Kara L; Johnson, Rebecca A; Buehrer, Betsy D; Holen, Brian M; Morey, Sandy Z; Logan, Perry W; Hewett, Paul


    The mortality of 2650 employees (93.4% males) in the mine and mill production of roofing granules at four plants was examined between 1945 and 2004. Hypotheses focused on diseases associated with exposure to silica: nonmalignant respiratory disease, lung cancer, and nonmalignant renal disease. Study eligibility required ≥ 1 year of employment by 2000. Work history and vital status were followed through 2004 with < 1% lost to follow-up. Industrial hygiene sampling data (1871 sampling measurements over a 32-year period) and professional judgment were used to construct 15 respirable crystalline silica exposure categories. A category was assigned to all plant-, department-, and time-dependent standard job titles. Cumulative respirable crystalline silica exposure (mg/m(3)-years) was calculated as the sum of the product of time spent and the average exposure for each plant-, department-, job-, and calendar-year combination. The cohort geometric mean was 0.17 mg/m(3)-years (geometric standard deviation 4.01) and differed by plant. Expected deaths were calculated using U.S. (entire cohort) and regional (each plant) mortality rates. Poisson regression was used for internal comparisons. For the entire cohort, 772 deaths (97.4% males) were identified (standardized mortality ratio 0.95, 95% CI 0.88-1.02). There were 50 deaths from nonmalignant respiratory diseases (1.14, 95% CI 0.85-1.51). Lagging exposure 15 years among the male cohort, the relative risks for nonmalignant respiratory disease were 1.00 (reference), 0.80, 1.94, and 2.03 (p value trend = 0.03) when cumulative exposure was categorized < 0.1, 0.1- < 0.5, 0.5- < 1.0, and ≥ 1.0 mg/m(3)-years, respectively. There was a total of 77 lung cancer deaths (1.11, 95% CI 0.88-1.39). Lagging exposure 15 years, the relative risks for males were 1.00 (reference), 1.83, 1.83, and 1.05 (p value trend = 0.9). There were 16 deaths from nonmalignant renal disease (1.76, 95% CI 1.01-2.86). This exposure-response trend was

  14. mill grinding plates

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    ABSTRACT. Maize was milled either 'wet' or ''dry'' using locally-manufactured milling plates. Samples of milled maize were taken and analyzed for elemental iron (Fe). Results show that iron particles from milling plates contaminates the milled maize and that the level of contamination increases with the quantity of milled ...

  15. ROMI 4.0: Updated Rough Mill Simulator (United States)

    Timo Grueneberg; R. Edward Thomas; Urs. Buehlmann


    In the secondary hardwood industry, rough mills convert hardwood lumber into dimension parts for furniture, cabinets, and other wood products. ROMI 4.0, the US Department of Agriculture Forest Service's ROugh-MIll simulator, is a software package designed to simulate the cut-up of hardwood lumber in rough mills in such a way that a maximum possible component yield...

  16. Wear of micro end mills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bissacco, Giuliano; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; De Chiffre, Leonardo


    part. For this investigation 200 microns end mills are considered. Visual inspection of the micro tools requires high magnification and depth of focus. 3D reconstruction based on scanning electron microscope (SEM) images and stereo-pair technique is foreseen as a possible method for quantification...

  17. Japan steel mill perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murase, K. [Kobe Steel Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    The international and Japan's steel industry, the coking coal market, and Japan's expectations from Canada's coal industry are discussed. Japan's steel mills are operating at full capacity. Crude steel production for the first half of 2004 was 55.8 million tons. The steel mills are profitable, but costs are high, and there are difficulties with procuring raw materials. Japan is trying to enhance the quality of coke, in order to achieve higher productivity in the production of pig iron. Economic growth is rising disproportionately in the BRICs (Brazil, Russia, India, and China), with a large increase in coking coal demand from China. On the supply side, there are several projects underway in Australia and Canada to increase production. These include new developments by Elk Valley Coal Corporation, Grande Cache Coal, Western Canadian Coal, and Northern Energy and Mining in Canada. The Elga Mine in the far eastern part of Russia is under development. But the market is expected to remain tight for some time. Japan envisions Canadian coal producers will provide a stable coal supply, expansion of production and infrastructure capabilities, and stabilization of price. 16 slides/overheads are included.

  18. The aptitude of the soils for the production of sugarcane. Part 2: Comparison of two methods at ‘Ciudad Caracas’ sugarcane mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson C. Arzola Pina


    Full Text Available The object of this study was to compare two methods for determining the aptitude of soils for growing Sugarcane in Cuba. The information was provided by three sugarcane farms owned by Ciudad Caracas sugarcane mill in the municipality of Santa Isabel de Las Lajas in Cienfuegos. The information of the soils from each farm was taken from the 1:25 000 scale cadastral maps designed by Ministerio de la Agricultura (MINAG. Rainfall data was collected from the nearby stations rain gauges. And the sugarcane yield was reported by each farm. The aptitude of the soils was determined by two methods (AGRO 24 de 1993 y Arzola de 1999 using the information available. Results showed that both methods are appropriate for selecting soils with higher productive potential, and are a useful tool for making right decisions for optimizing the land use at each sugarcane farm.

  19. Olive Mill Wastewater: From a Pollutant to Green Fuels, Agricultural Water Source and Bio-Fertilizer—Part 1. The Drying Kinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mejdi Jeguirim


    Full Text Available Olive Mill Wastewater (OMWW treatment is considered to be one of the main challenges that Mediterranean countries face. Although several procedures and technologies are mentioned in the literature, these techniques have several disadvantages or have been limited to laboratory pilot validation without posterior industrial projection. Recently, an advanced environmental friendly strategy for the recovery of OMWW was established involving the impregnation of OMWW on dry biomasses, drying of these impregnated samples, and finally green fuels and biochar production. This established strategy revealed that the drying step is crucial for the success of the entire recovery process. Hence, two impregnated samples were prepared through OMWW impregnation on sawdust (IS and olive mill solid waste (ISW. The drying kinetics of OMWW and impregnated samples (IS and ISW were examined in a convective dryer (air velocity range from 0.7–1.3 m/s and the temperature from 40–60 °C. The experimental results indicated that the drying of the impregnated samples occurred twice as fast as for the OMWW sample. Such behavior was attributed to the remaining thin layer of oil on the OMWW surface Furthermore, the Henderson and Pabis model showed the suitable fit of the drying curves with a determination coefficient R2 above 0.97. The drying rates were extracted from the mathematical models and the drying process was analyzed. The coefficient of effective diffusivity varied between 2.8 and 11.7 × 10−10 m2/s. In addition, the activation energy values ranged between 28.7 and 44.9 kJ/mol. These values were in the same range as those obtained during the drying of other agrifood byproducts. The final results could be very helpful to engineers aiming to improve and optimize the OMWW drying process.

  20. FM Interviews: Stephanie Mills


    Valauskas, Edward


    Stephanie Mills is an author, editor, lecturer and ecological activist who has concerned herself with the fate of the earth and humanity since 1969, when her commencement address at Mills College in Oakland, Calif., drew the attention of a nation. Her speech, which the New York Times called "perhaps the most anguished statement" of the year's crop of valedictory speeches, predicted a bleak future. According to Mills, humanity was destined for suicide, the result of overpopulation and overuse ...

  1. Prediction of mill performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P.A. Bennett [CoalTech Pty Ltd. (Australia)


    This Australian Coal Association Research Program (ACARP) project aimed to demonstrate that the Hardgrove Grindability Index (HGI) coupled with standard Petrographic Analysis can be used to greatly improve the prediction of mill power requirements, mill throughput and product size. The project examined the mill test data from ACIRL's pilot scale vertical spindle mill on 96 coals. A total of 360 mill tests, conducted under a wide range of throughputs, roll pressures and classifier settings, were included into the data set. The mill performance of maceral groups or microlithotypes was assumed to be additive, that is, each maceral group or microlithotype behaved independently and a size fraction of the product PF was the volume weighted sum of the petrographic components of that size fraction. Based on this assumption it was possible to determine the size distribution of the product PF, for a wide range of milling conditions, based solely on petrographic analysis. Microlithotypes were not determined directly but were estimated from the maceral analysis. The size distribution of individual maceral groups or microlithotypes can also be estimated based on developed correlations. Size distribution determined from petrographic analysis proved to be a better estimate than that determined from the HGI. Mill power can be estimated from petrographic analysis, but the HGI was found to be a better predictor of mill power. 19 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borsetto, Francesca; Bariani, Paolo

    /lubricants, milling strategies and controls. Moreover the accuracy of tool geometry directly affects the performance of the milling process influencing the dimensional tolerances of the machined part, the surface topography, the chip formation, the cutting forces and the tool-life. The dimensions of certain......The milling process is one of the most common metal removal operation used in industry. This machining process is well known since the beginning of last century and has experienced, along the years, many improvements of the basic technology, as concerns tools, machine tools, coolants...... geometrical details, as for instance the cutting edge radius, are determined by characteristics of the manufacturing process, tool material, coating etc. While for conventional size end mills the basic tool manufacturing process is well established, the reduction of the size of the tools required...

  3. Análise da madeira do Pinus oocarpa parte II: caracterização estrutural da lignina de madeira moída Chemical analysis of the Pinus oocarpa wood. Part II: characterization of the milled wood lignin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Antônio Lemos de Morais


    Full Text Available Este estudo caracterizou a Lignina de Madeira Moída (LMM proveniente de Pinus oocarpa cultivado na região do Cerrado brasileiro. A LMM foi isolada e analisada por meio das espectrometrias no infravermelho com transformada de Fourier (IVTF, de ressonância magnética nuclear do próton e carbono-13 e por intermédio de métodos químicos de análise por via úmida. A LMM apresentou uma fórmula mínima igual a C9H9,2O2,6(OCH 30,8 e massas molares médias em massa (Mw e numérica (Mn de 3.969 e 1.133 Da, respectivamente. A LMM dessa madeira se enquadra dentro das ligninas típicas de coníferas.This work presents the characterization of the milled wood lignin (MWL of the Pinus oocarpa cultivated in the Brazilian cerrado. FTIR, carbon-13 and proton NMR spectroscopies as well as wet chemical methods were used. The established C9 unit formula for MWL was C9H9,2O2,6(OCH 30,8 and its relative molecular weights (Mw and (Mn were 3969 and 1133 Da, respectively. Pinus oocarpa MWL was typical of softwood lignins.

  4. Operating System For Numerically Controlled Milling Machine (United States)

    Ray, R. B.


    OPMILL program is operating system for Kearney and Trecker milling machine providing fast easy way to program manufacture of machine parts with IBM-compatible personal computer. Gives machinist "equation plotter" feature, which plots equations that define movements and converts equations to milling-machine-controlling program moving cutter along defined path. System includes tool-manager software handling up to 25 tools and automatically adjusts to account for each tool. Developed on IBM PS/2 computer running DOS 3.3 with 1 MB of random-access memory.

  5. Overview of Curved Cutting Edge Mills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Potapova


    Full Text Available Now that there is a need to increase a processing capacity, curved cutting edge mills find ever-growing use. Also known as “rough end”, “full-side”, and “heavy-duty” mills, they provide the increased depth and width values of milling owing to the width-sized chip separation. The analysis of produced mills allowed us both to reveal their basic design components (type of a shaft or basic opening, diameter and length of the cutting part, mill length, quantity of teeth, a tilt angle of a screw flute and to make their classification. The paper presents a classification of the profile types of cutting edges, which can be divided by form (flat, round, size (small, large, super-large, and symmetry (symmetrical and asymmetrical. The profile of the cutting edge is characterized by the following parameters: profile height, pitch of crests spherical radius of crest.A review of the curved cutting edge profile types allows us to build the geometrical constructions to define a form and the sizes of the chip load made by the cutting edge from a billet. It is shown that parameters of the cutting edge profile influence the form and the sizes (thickness and width of the chip load.The chip load thickness provided by the curved cutting edge mills exceeds that of observed when using the “smooth” cutting edge mills. A thickening degree of the chip load is changed with changing form and sizes of the cutting edge mill profile. Larger thickening is observed if the chip load is limited from below and from above by the marks of a single tooth (the first or second etc., and a length of the other teeth marks is minimum. The most achievable chip load thickness is equal to feed per revolution.Studying the references allowed us to formulate some rules to choose a cutting edge profile depending on a type of the processed material and a desirable roughness of the processed surface. It is important to note the following.When choosing a profile of the cutting edge

  6. Effect of milling temperature and post-milling cooling procedures on rice milling quality appraisals (United States)

    The objective of this research was to study the effects of different milling conditions and post-milling handling procedures on appraised milling quality of rough rice. Samples of medium grain rough rice (M202) with moisture content (MC) of 11.5±0.2% were used for this study. To create different mil...

  7. Estudo do efeito do tratamento superficial por moagem sobre as propriedades das partículas de uma liga de hidreto metálico Effect of a milling surface treatment on the properties of metal hydride alloy particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elki Cristina Souza


    Full Text Available This work reports results of studies on the electrochemical and structural properties of a Ti/Zr-based metal hydride alloy covered by Ni and LaNi4,7Sn0,3 powder additives by ball milling. The effect of this treatment is investigated for the activation time, hydrogen storage capacity and equilibrium pressure, cycling stability and the hydration/dehydration kinetics. Charge and discharge cycles show a significant decrease of the activation time due to an increase of the active area caused by the milling treatment, independent of the additive. However, other results have evidenced little effect of the milling surface treatment on the charge storage capacity, hydrogen equilibrium pressure, and hydration/dehydration kinetics, for both the Ni and LaNi4,7Sn0,3 covered materials.

  8. Rotationally Vibrating Electric-Field Mill (United States)

    Kirkham, Harold


    A proposed instrument for measuring a static electric field would be based partly on a conventional rotating-split-cylinder or rotating-split-sphere electric-field mill. However, the design of the proposed instrument would overcome the difficulty, encountered in conventional rotational field mills, of transferring measurement signals and power via either electrical or fiber-optic rotary couplings that must be aligned and installed in conjunction with rotary bearings. Instead of being made to rotate in one direction at a steady speed as in a conventional rotational field mill, a split-cylinder or split-sphere electrode assembly in the proposed instrument would be set into rotational vibration like that of a metronome. The rotational vibration, synchronized with appropriate rapid electronic switching of electrical connections between electric-current-measuring circuitry and the split-cylinder or split-sphere electrodes, would result in an electrical measurement effect equivalent to that of a conventional rotational field mill. A version of the proposed instrument is described.

  9. The Analysis of Design Parameters of Thread Milling Cutters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Malkov


    Full Text Available Now the mechanical engineering industry produces a great variety of part mix having a male and female thread. In this regard a relevant task is to choose the most effective way of threading. Introduction of multi-coordinate CNC machines considerably extended the use of thread mills, instead of taps, roll burnishers, dies and thread turning tools.The article reviews manufacturer’s production programs of thread mills (Carmex, Emuge, Jel, Sandvik, Vargus to show that, presently, there is a significant diversity of thread mill designs for processing. The analysis allowed to reveal the main nomenclature and standard sizes of thread mills, including combined tools on their base, as well as to reveal classification signs and to develop classification of thread mills. Classification comprises also combined tools based on design of thread mill, which allow us to reduce the nomenclature of the tools used in threading.The paper considers working schemes of the main types of thread mills and areas of their rational application.To analyse design data of thread mills two types of tools have been selected, namely the integral trailer edge thread mills with the spiral chip flutes and drill thread mills made from hard alloy. The analysis of design data was made in the closed "system of the tool", i.e. in advance assuming that there is a connection between diameter of the tapping part of the tool and diameter of the cut thread. The parameter analysis of the chosen designs allowed us to develop the sketches of tools with the specified parameters to be calculated.The paper presents graphic dependences of the total length, length of a working part, diameter of a tail part and number of tool teeth on the diameter of the working part of the tool. Approximation of the specified parameters is carried out and mathematical dependences, which can be further used to calculate and choose the starting values of design data in designing the abovementioned constructions of

  10. 21 CFR 173.320 - Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills. (United States)


    ... controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills. Agents for controlling microorganisms in cane... used in the control of microorganisms in cane-sugar and/or beet-sugar mills as specified in paragraph...) Combination for cane-sugar mills: Parts per million Disodium cyanodithioimidocarbonate 2.5 Ethylenediamine 1.0...

  11. Linaria repens (L.) Mill. x L. vulgaris Mill

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ooststroom, van S.J.; Reichgelt, Th.J.


    Linaria repens (L.) Mill. (L. monspessulana (L.) Mill.; L. striata Lamk. & DC.) is bij ons reeds meermalen als adventief gevonden en blijkt zich op enkele plaatsen te handhaven. Dit laatste is bv. het geval te Arnhem, aan de Koningsweg. De soort werd daar in 1952 aangetroffen door Dr. A.G. de Wilde

  12. The economics of sugar mill waste management in the Australian Sugar Industry: Mill mud case study


    Qureshi, Muhammad Ejaz; Wegener, Malcolm K.; Mallawaarachchi, Thilak


    Sugar mills produce a range of by-products during the process of sugar extraction. Mill mud is one of the by-products that is produced in significant volume. Often mill mud is mixed with mill ash from the firing of bagasse, which together forms the bulk of mill waste available for disposal from raw sugar mills. The practice of spreading mill mud over nearby cane fields has been the primary means of disposing mill mud for many years. Mills generally promote the practice by offering freight sub...

  13. corn-mill grinding plates

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    manufactured corn-mill grinding plates to investigate the possible causes of their early wear and failure. Three different samples selected from the same local manufacturer were tested for chemical composition and micro- structural, as well as wear ...

  14. Education, Technology and the Sociological Imagination--Lessons to Be Learned from C. Wright Mills (United States)

    Selwyn, Neil


    As part of the "Learning, Media & Technology" series on "Key Thinkers and Theoretical Traditions", this paper explores the relevance of C. Wright Mills' much lauded book "The Sociological Imagination". The argument is made that we would do well to take heed of many of the central tenets of Mills' call to arms for…

  15. ROMI-RIP: Rough Mill RIP-first simulator user's guide (United States)

    R. Edward Thomas


    The ROugh Mill RIP-first simulator (ROMI-RIP) is a computer software package for IBM compatible personal computers that simulates current industrial practices for gang-ripping lumber. This guide shows the user how to set and examine the results of simulations regarding current or proposed mill practices. ROMI-RIP accepts cutting bills with up to 300 different part...

  16. Classical Yang-Mills potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandula, J.E.


    Classical Coulomb-type configurations of Yang-Mills fields coupled to external sources (charges) are described and discussed. They are shown to be stable against small classical fluctuations in the fields if the Yang-Mills coupling is sufficiently small. In developing the stability analysis, massless charged scalar fields in the presence of a weak Coulomb potential are also shown to be stable to small field fluctuations. (AIP)

  17. Chalk Line Mill, Anniston, AL (United States)

    The Chalk Line Mill property was the site of a textile mill which operated from 1887 until 1994. Demolition activities in 2004 removed most of the structures on-site, but also left large, unsightly piles of debris scattered across this 14-acre property. The City applied for and received a $200,000 Brownfields cleanup grant in 2007 to address contamination on the property and the Appalachian Regional Commission provided an additional $150,000 in funding.

  18. CNC Milling Machine Simulation in Engineering Education


    Lo Valvo, E; Licari, R; Adornetto, A


    In this work an effective simulator for a CNC milling machine is presented. It has been developed in EMC2, a free Opens Source NC software running in Linux environment, developed by an international community. It can be installed on a common PC and is able to: control a CNC machine; read part programs; display the tool path; send instructions to the CNC machine for the cutting process. In this work a new feature has been implemented, which can both display a 3D model of the machine and simula...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neeraj K. Mendiratta; Roe-Hoan Yoon; Paul Richardson


    A study of mill tailings and sulfide minerals was carried out in order to understand their behavior under subaqueous conditions. A series of electrochemical experiments, namely, cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and galvanic coupling tests were carried out in artificial seawater and in pH 6.8 buffer solutions with chloride and ferric salts. Two mill tailings samples, one from the Kensington Mine, Alaska, and the other from the Holden Mine, Washington, were studied along with pyrite, galena, chalcopyrite and copper-activated sphalerite. SEM analysis of mill tailings revealed absence of sulfide minerals from the Kensington Mine mill tailings, whereas the Holden Mine mill tailings contained approximately 8% pyrite and 1% sphalerite. In order to conduct electrochemical tests, carbon matrix composite (CMC) electrodes of mill tailings, pyrite and galena were prepared and their feasibility was established by conducting a series of cyclic voltammetry tests. The cyclic voltammetry experiments carried out in artificial seawater and pH 6.8 buffer with chloride salts showed that chloride ions play an important role in the redox processes of sulfide minerals. For pyrite and galena, peaks were observed for the formation of chloride complexes, whereas pitting behavior was observed for the CMC electrodes of the Kensington Mine mill tailings. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy conducted in artificial seawater provided with the Nyquist plots of pyrite and galena. The Nyquist plots of pyrite and galena exhibited an inert range of potential indicating a slower rate of leaching of sulfide minerals in marine environments. The galvanic coupling experiments were carried out to study the oxidation of sulfide minerals in the absence of oxygen. It was shown that in the absence of oxygen, ferric (Fe3+) ions might oxidize the sulfide minerals, thereby releasing undesirable oxidation products in the marine environment. The source of Fe{sup 3{minus}} ions may be

  20. Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill. subsp. piperitum) florets, a traditional culinary spice in Italy: evaluation of phenolics and volatiles in local populations, and comparison with the composition of other plant parts. (United States)

    Ferioli, Federico; Giambanelli, Elisa; D'Antuono, L Filippo


    Wild fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill. subsp. piperitum) florets are used as a typical spice in central and southern Italy. Although fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.), belonging to the Apiaceae (syn. Umbelliferae) family, is a well-known vegetable and aromatic plant, whose main phytochemical compounds have been extensively analysed and investigated as flavouring agents and for their putative health promoting functions, its florets have not been specifically considered up to now. Therefore, the volatile and phenolic composition of florets from an Italian wild fennel crop was determined at different developmental stages, and compared to that of leaves and fruits. Moreover, florets of nine Italian wild fennel populations of different geographical origin from northern-central Italy were also analysed. The total phenolic amount increased from leaves to florets, reaching its highest value in early florets, at 58 012 mg kg -1 of dry matter (DM), then constantly decreased in fruits. In florets of wild populations, phenolics ranged from 6666 to 43 368 mg kg -1 DM. The total amount of volatile compounds was more than twice higher in florets (21 449 mg kg -1 DM) than in leaves (10 470 mg kg -1 DM), reaching its highest value in fruits (50 533 mg kg -1 DM). Estragole and trans-anethole were the main compounds of the volatile fraction. Total volatiles ranged from 24 367 to 60 468 mg kg -1 DM in florets of local populations. Significant changes in the total amount and profile of both phenolic and volatile compounds occurred during plant development. The consistent increase of estragole at later developmental stages supported the claim of different sensory properties of florets and fruits. Geographical origin significantly affected phenolic and volatile composition of wild fennel florets. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Noise exposure in oil mills. (United States)

    Kumar, G V Prasanna; Dewangan, K N; Sarkar, Amaresh


    Noise of machines in various agro-based industries was found to be the major occupational hazard for the workers of industries. The predominant noise sources need to be identified and the causes of high noise need to be studied to undertake the appropriate measures to reduce the noise level in one of the major agro-based industries, oil mills. To identify the predominant noise sources in the workrooms of oil mills. To study the causes of noise in oil mills. To measure the extent of noise exposure of oil mill workers. To examine the response of workers towards noise, so that appropriate measures can be undertaken to minimize the noise exposure. A noise survey was conducted in the three renowned oil mills of north-eastern region of India. Information like output capacity, size of power source, maintenance condition of the machines and workroom configurations of the oil mills was collected by personal observations and enquiry with the owner of the mill. Using a Sound Level Meter (SLM) (Model-824, Larson and Davis, USA), equivalent SPL was measured at operator's ear level in the working zone of the workers near each machine of the mills. In order to study the variation of SPL in the workrooms of the oil mill throughout its operation, equivalent SPL was measured at two appropriate locations of working zone of the workers in each mill. For conducting the noise survey, the guidelines of Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety (CCOHS) were followed. Grid points were marked on the floor of the workroom of the oil mill at a spacing of 1 m x 1 m. SPL at grid points were measured at about 1.5 m above the floor. The direction of the SLM was towards the nearby noisy source. To increase accuracy, two replications were taken at each grid point. All the data were recorded for 30 sec. At the end of the experiment, data were downloaded to a personal computer. With the help of utility software of Larson and Davis, USA, equivalent SPL and noise spectrum at each reading was

  2. Implementation of Additive Rapid Prototyping on Retrofit CNC Mill (United States)

    Freeform fabrication techniques are gaining popularity as a means of making parts. Layered additive methods are associated with rapid prototyping. Many rapid prototyping methods are commercially proprietary and may cost thousands of dollars. Using a retrofit CNC mill for layered fabrication and C...

  3. Einstein-Yang-Mills from pure Yang-Mills amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nandan, Dhritiman; Plefka, Jan [Institut für Physik and IRIS Adlershof, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin,Zum Großen Windkanal 6, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Schlotterer, Oliver [Max-Planck-Institut für Gravitationsphysik, Albert-Einstein-Institut,Am Mühlenberg 1, D-14476 Potsdam (Germany); Wen, Congkao [I.N.F.N. Sezione di Roma Tor Vergata,Via della Ricerca Scientifica, 00133 Roma (Italy)


    We present new relations for scattering amplitudes of color ordered gluons and gravitons in Einstein-Yang-Mills theory. Tree-level amplitudes of arbitrary multiplicities and polarizations involving up to three gravitons and up to two color traces are reduced to partial amplitudes of pure Yang-Mills theory. In fact, the double-trace identities apply to Einstein-Yang-Mills extended by a dilaton and a B-field. Our results generalize recent work of Stieberger and Taylor for the single graviton case with a single color trace. As the derivation is made in the dimension-agnostic Cachazo-He-Yuan formalism, our results are valid for external bosons in any number of spacetime dimensions. Moreover, they generalize to the superamplitudes in theories with 16 supercharges.

  4. Galilean Yang-Mills theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagchi, Arjun [Center for Theoretical Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Basu, Rudranil [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics,Block AF, Sector 1, Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700068 (India); Kakkar, Ashish [Indian Institute of Science Education and Research,Dr Homi Bhabha Road, Pashan. Pune 411008 (India); Mehra, Aditya [Indian Institute of Science Education and Research,Dr Homi Bhabha Road, Pashan. Pune 411008 (India); Van Swinderen Institute for Particle Physics and Gravity, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands)


    We investigate the symmetry structure of the non-relativistic limit of Yang-Mills theories. Generalising previous results in the Galilean limit of electrodynamics, we discover that for Yang-Mills theories there are a variety of limits inside the Galilean regime. We first explicitly work with the SU(2) theory and then generalise to SU(N) for all N, systematising our notation and analysis. We discover that the whole family of limits lead to different sectors of Galilean Yang-Mills theories and the equations of motion in each sector exhibit hitherto undiscovered infinite dimensional symmetries, viz. infinite Galilean Conformal symmetries in D=4. These provide the first examples of interacting Galilean Conformal Field Theories (GCFTs) in D>2.

  5. Soil Carbon 4 per mille (United States)

    Minasny, Budiman; van Wesemael, Bas


    The '4 per mille Soils for Food Security and Climate' was launched at the COP21 aiming to increase global soil organic matter stocks by 4 per mille (or 0.4 %) per year as a compensation for the global emissions of greenhouse gases by anthropogenic sources. This paper surveyed the soil organic carbon (SOC) stock estimates and sequestration potentials from 20 regions in the world (New Zealand, Chile, South Africa, Australia, Tanzania, Indonesia, Kenya, Nigeria, India, China Taiwan, South Korea, China Mainland, United States of America, France, Canada, Belgium, England & Wales, Ireland, Scotland, and Russia) and asked whether the 4 per mille initiative is feasible. This study highlights region specific efforts and scopes for soil carbon sequestration. Reported soil C sequestration rates generally show that under best management practices, 4 per mille or even higher sequestration rates can be accomplished. High C sequestration rates (up to 10 per mille) can be achieved for soils with low initial SOC stock (topsoil less than 30 t C ha-1), and at the first twenty years after implementation of best management practices. In addition, areas that have reached equilibrium but not at their saturation level will not be able to further increase their sequestration. We found that most studies on SOC sequestration globally only consider topsoil (up to 0.3 m depth), as it is considered to be most affected by management techniques. The 4 per mille initiative was based on a blanket calculation of the whole global soil profile C stock, however the potential to increase SOC is mostly on managed agricultural lands. If we consider 4 per mille on global topsoil of agricultural land, SOC sequestration is about 3.6 Gt C per year, which effectively offset 40% of global anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. As a strategy for climate change mitigation, soil carbon sequestration buys time over the next ten to twenty years while other effective sequestration and low carbon technologies become

  6. Uranium Mines and Mills Location Database (United States)

    The Uranium Mines and Mills location database identifies and shows the location of active and inactive uranium mines and mills, as well as mines which principally produced other minerals, but were known to have uranium in the ore.

  7. Computer Vision Hardware System for Automating Rough Mills of Furniture Plants (United States)

    Richard W. Conners; Chong T. Ng; Thomas H. Drayer; Joe G. Tront; D. Earl Kline; C.J. Gatchell


    The rough mill of a hardwood furniture or fixture plant is the place where dried lumber is cut into the rough parts that will be used in the rest of the manufacturing process. Approximately a third of the cost of operating the rough mill is the cost of the raw material. Hence any increase in the number of rough parts produced from a given volume of raw material can...

  8. Integration of micro milling highspeed spindle on a microEDM-milling machine set-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Grave, Arnaud; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Andolfatto, Loic


    In order to cope with repositioning errors and to combine the fast removal rate of micro milling with the precision and small feature size achievable with micro EDM milling, a hybrid micro-milling and micro-EDM milling centre was built and tested. The aim was to build an affordable set-up, easy...

  9. Would John Stuart Mill have regulated pornography?


    McGlynn, C.; Ward, I.


    John Stuart Mill dominates contemporary pornography debates where he is routinely invoked as an authoritative defence against regulation. This article, by contrast, argues that a broader understanding of Mill's ethical liberalism, his utilitarianism, and his feminism casts doubt over such an assumption. New insights into Mill's approach to sex, sexual activity, and the regulation of prostitution reveal an altogether more nuanced and activist approach. We conclude that John Stuart Mill would a...

  10. Machine Shop. Module 6: Milling. Instructor's Guide. (United States)

    Walden, Charles H.

    This document consists of materials for a 12-unit course on the following topics: (1) introduction to milling; (2) structure and accessories; (3) safety and maintenance; (4) cutting-tool variables; (5) basic set-up activities; (6) squaring a workpiece; (7) hole-making operations; (8) form milling; (9) machining keyways; (10) milling angular…

  11. Soil carbon 4 per mille

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, V.L.


    The ‘4 per mille Soils for Food Security and Climate’ was launched at the COP21 with an aspiration to increase global soil organic matter stocks by 4 per 1000 (or 0.4 %) per year as a compensation for the global emissions of greenhouse gases by anthropogenic sources. This paper surveyed the soil

  12. The automatic lumber planing mill (United States)

    Peter Koch


    It is probable that a truly automatic planning operation could be devised if some of the variables commonly present in the mill-run lumber were eliminated and the remaining variables kept under close control. This paper will deal with the more general situation faced by mostl umber manufacturing plants. In other words, it will be assumed that the incoming lumber has...

  13. J. S. Mill on Education (United States)

    Ryan, Alan


    Mill may be said either to have written rather little on education or to have written a very great deal. He himself distinguished between a "narrow" and a "wider" sense of education, the former limited to what happens in formal educational settings, the latter embracing all the influences that make us who and what we are. He wrote rather little on…

  14. analysis of gear milling at vari gear milling at various gear milling

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    feedrates for cutting a tooth ing a tooth ing a tooth of a spur gear. Thus, as of a spur gear. Thus, as. The model will serve as a useful tool in prepar. Keywords: Cutting speed, feedrate, time. 1. INTRODUCTION. INTRODUCTION. INTRODUCTION. In milling, a multi-toothed cutter, rotating at a fi position on the machine, shapes ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pedro Hernández Touset


    Full Text Available An energy study was performed at Pulpa Cuba Paper Mill, located in Sancti Spiritus, where an energy management system was applied according to NC: ISO 50001, in order to assess the energy system by applying energy management systems for energy and water reduction in the paper mill, in which the current steam generation, distribution and consumption system is diagnosed. The proposal of a modified energy scheme with 1 MW Backpressure Steam Turbine Generator and rehabilitation of the original boiler or installing a lower capacity boiler contributes to save financial resources by the concept of water, fuel and electricity. The implementation of four projects will save 3,095,574 CUC / y and an average payback period of about 1 year is expected.

  16. Mill performance of coal blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P.A. Bennett; G. O' Brien; D. Holcombe [CoalTech Pty Ltd. (Australia)


    Evaluating the potential performance of coal blends for use as pulverised fuel (PF) in power plants and pulverised coal injection (PCI) into blast furnaces requires knowledge of the size distribution of the organic and mineral matter components of a blend, especially when there are significant differences in the Hardgrove Grindability Index (HGI) of the component coals. The size distribution of the organic matter impacts on combustibility of thermal and PCI coal blends and handleability of PCI coal blends. Petrography techniques were used to examine four size fractions from the PF of single coals and blends to measure the size distribution of maceral groups. For most coals, a good estimate of a blend's size distribution can be made assuming that the size distribution of the individual coals, milled under the same conditions, are added together in the proportions of the blend. The exception is when a very soft coal (HGI 90) is blended with a very hard coal (HGI 35). In this case preferential milling (more reporting to the smaller size fractions) of the softer coal occurred. All coals studied in this project show some sign of preferential grinding of the softer maceral group when the coal was milled individually or in a blend. It is only when there is a large difference in the relative strength of the maceral groups of the coals blended that the preferential milling of a coal in a blend is observed in the size distribution of the blend. The results indicate that the breakage characteristics (change in size reduction per unit of energy) of maceral groups in individual coals do not change when they are blended with other coals. 12 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Mill Glaze: Myth or Reality? (United States)

    Mark Knaebe


    Since the mid-1980s, a condition called “mill glaze” (also called planer’s glaze) has sometimes been blamed for the failure of a coating on smooth flat-grained siding and some other wood products. The exact cause of this problem has been a subject of controversy. Many people believe that the coating fails as a result of the planing and/or drying processes. They...

  18. The analysis of instantaneous tool displacements during precise ball end milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciechowski Szymon


    Full Text Available The paper presents the quantitative and qualitative analysis of monolithic ball end mill’s instantaneous displacements generated during precise milling of inclined surfaces. The conducted experiment involves the measurements of tool’s joining part displacements with the application of laser displacement sensor and cutting forces with piezoelectric dynamometer. The milling tests were carried out for the hardened alloy 55NiCrMoV6 steel in a range of variable feed per tooth and surface inclination angle values. The obtained results can be applied for the selection of effective milling parameters allowing the improvement of machined surface finish.

  19. Mathematical-Artificial Neural Network Hybrid Model to Predict Roll Force during Hot Rolling of Steel (United States)

    Rath, S.; Sengupta, P. P.; Singh, A. P.; Marik, A. K.; Talukdar, P.


    Accurate prediction of roll force during hot strip rolling is essential for model based operation of hot strip mills. Traditionally, mathematical models based on theory of plastic deformation have been used for prediction of roll force. In the last decade, data driven models like artificial neural network have been tried for prediction of roll force. Pure mathematical models have accuracy limitations whereas data driven models have difficulty in convergence when applied to industrial conditions. Hybrid models by integrating the traditional mathematical formulations and data driven methods are being developed in different parts of world. This paper discusses the methodology of development of an innovative hybrid mathematical-artificial neural network model. In mathematical model, the most important factor influencing accuracy is flow stress of steel. Coefficients of standard flow stress equation, calculated by parameter estimation technique, have been used in the model. The hybrid model has been trained and validated with input and output data collected from finishing stands of Hot Strip Mill, Bokaro Steel Plant, India. It has been found that the model accuracy has been improved with use of hybrid model, over the traditional mathematical model.

  20. Online SAG Mill Pluse Measurement and Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raj Rajamani; Jose Delgadillo; Vishal Duriseti


    The grinding efficiency of semi autogenous milling or ball milling depends on the tumbling motion of the total charge within the mill. Utilization of this tumbling motion for efficient breakage of particles depends on the conditions inside the mill. However, any kind of monitoring device to measure the conditions inside the mill shell during operation is virtually impossible due to the severe environment presented by the tumbling charge. An instrumented grinding ball, which is capable of surviving a few hours and transmitting the impacts it experiences, is proposed here. The spectrum of impacts collected over 100 revolutions of the mills presents the signature of the grinding environment inside mill. This signature could be effectively used to optimize the milling performance by investigating this signature's relation to mill product size, mill throughput, make-up ball size, mill speed, liner profile and ball addition rates. At the same time, it can also be used to design balls and liner systems that can survive longer in the mill. The technological advances made in electronics and communication makes this leap in instrumentation certainly viable. Hence, the instrumented grinding ball offers the ability to qualitatively observe and optimize the milling environment. An instrumented load cell package that can measure the force of impacts inside the grinding chamber of a mill is developed here. The signal from the instrumented load cell package is interpreted in terms of a histogram termed as an impact spectrum which is a plot of the number of impacts at a specific energy level against the energy. It reflects on the average force regime of the mill. The instrumented load cell package was calibrated against the ultra fast load cell which has been unanimously accepted as a standard to measure single breakage events. The load cell package was successfully used to produce impact spectra in an 8.5 inch lab scale mill. The mill speed and the ball size were varied to



    Ghasem Esmati, Behrooz Arezoo*


    Cutting tools nearly make up 30% of all the manufacturing cost. Modeling and simulation of machining is essential for improving and increasing efficiency of the process. Inconel 718 alloy which is an iron-nickel based superalloy is widely used in rocket engines, turbine blades, molds and extrusion containers. The flute profile is the main part in the milling cutting tool body and has an important effect on the tool life and machining quality in milling processes. The flute profile includes ra...

  2. La racionalidad imperialista en la monumental obra de James Mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homero Cuevas


    Full Text Available Este ensayo, parte de un trabajo más extenso sobre la dominación internacional en la economía mundial, revisa los procesos más relevantes para el análisis teórico tomando como referencia La historia de la India británica de James Mill, obra que es un hito en este campo y es la base de todas las teorías posteriores

  3. Closed-mill delignification by design using polyoxometalates (United States)

    C. J. Houtman; R. S. Reiner; S. E. Reichel; M. J. Birchmeier; C. E. Sullivan; L. A. Weinstock; R. H. Atalla


    Polyoxometalates (POMs) are a class of delignification agents that promise to provide the basis for a new closed-mill bleaching technology. The results presented here are based on the use of Na6SiV2W10O40, which is effective in reducing the Kappa number of softwood Kraft pulp from 30 to below 10 with minimal loss in viscosity. A critical part of a viable POM process is...

  4. Segregation distortion of isozyme loci in cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill). (United States)

    Perfectti, F; Pascual, L


    The allelic segregation of 13 isozyme loci in hand-fertilized heterozygous cherimoya trees (Annona cherimola Mill.) has been studied. We analyzed 63 locus x progeny combinations and found non-Mendelian segregation in 12 cases. The sequential Bonferroni method revealed only eight cases of non-Mendelian segregation; these have been investigated with several chi-square tests to discover what processes were involved. Gametic selection appears to be the main contributor, although zygotic selection seems also to play a part.

  5. Nonperturbative aspects of Yang-Mills theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleifenbaum, Wolfgang


    The subject of this thesis is the theory of strong interactions of quarks and gluons, with particular emphasis on nonperturbative aspects of the gluon sector. Continuum methods are used to investigate in particular the confinement phenomenon. Confinement which states that the elementary quarks and gluons cannot be detected as free particles requires an understanding of large-scale correlations. In perturbation theory, only short-range correlations can be reliably described. A nonperturbative approach is given by the set of integral Dyson Schwinger equations involving all Green functions of the theory. A solution for the gluon propagator is obtained in the infrared and ultraviolet asymptotic limits. In chapter 1, redundant degrees of freedom of the Yang Mills gauge theory are removed by fixing the Weyl and Coulomb gauge prior to quantization. The constrained quantization in the Dirac bracket formalism is then performed explicitly to produce the quantized Yang Mills Hamiltonian. The asymptotic infrared limits of Coulomb gauge correlation functions are studied analytically in chapter 2 in the framework of the Gribov Zwanziger confinement scenario. The Coulomb potential between heavy quarks as part of the Yang Mills Hamiltonian is calculated in this limit. A connection between the infrared limits of Coulomb and Landau gauge is established. The Hamiltonian derived paves the way in chapter 3 for finding the Coulomb gauge vacuum wave functional by means of the variational principle. Numerical solutions for the propagators in this vacuum state are discussed and seen to reproduce the anticipated infrared limit. The discussion is extended to the vertex functions. The effect of the approximations on the results is examined. Chapter 4 is mainly devoted to the ultraviolet behavior of the propagators. The discussion is issued in both Coulomb and Landau gauge. A nonperturbative running coupling is defined and calculated. The ultraviolet tails of the variational solutions from

  6. Research on the thermal load of CNC milling machine (United States)

    Nie, Xue-Jun; Wu, Ping-Dong


    Machine tool accuracy is the assurance of top-quality products in machining processes. In the all kinds of errors related to machine tools, thermal errors of machine tools' parts play an important role in machining accuracy and directly influence both the surface finish and the geometric shape of the finished workpiece. Therefore the objective of this work was to analyze the temperature field and thermal deformation in some parts of CNC machine tools. In this paper, the thermal boundary condition of main spindle and driving ball screw in CNC milling machine are discussed, some parameters in heat transfer process are calculated. Based on steady heat transfer process, the thermal analysis about spindle and ball screw is carried out under ANSYS environment, and their temperature fields are obtained when milling machine is working. Then the deformations of main spindle and ball screw are acquired by applying the thermal structure coupling element. Furthermore, in order to decrease main parts' deformations and improve the accuracy of CNC milling machine, some suggests are proposed.

  7. Hydrogen storage properties on mechanically milled graphite


    Ichikawa, Takayuki; Chen, D. M.; Isobe, Shigehito; Gomibuchi, Emi; Fujii, Hironobu


    We investigated hydrogen absorption/desorption and structural properties in mechanically milled graphite under hydrogen pressures up to 6 MPa to clarify catalytic and hydrogen pressure effects in the milling. The results indicate that a small amount of iron contamination during milling plays a quite important role as a catalyst for hydrogen absorption/desorption properties in graphite. Two-peak structure for hydrogen desorption in the TDS profile is due to existence of two different occupatio...

  8. Uranium mill monitoring for natural fission reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apt, K.E.


    Isotopic monitoring of the product stream from operating uranium mills is proposed for discovering other possible natural fission reactors; aspects of their occurrence and discovery are considered. Uranium mill operating characteristics are formulated in terms of the total uranium capacity, the uranium throughput, and the dilution half-time of the mill. The requirements for detection of milled reactor-zone uranium are expressed in terms of the dilution half-time and the sampling frequency. Detection of different amounts of reactor ore with varying degrees of /sup 235/U depletion is considered.

  9. The study on dynamic properties of monolithic ball end mills with various slenderness (United States)

    Wojciechowski, Szymon; Tabaszewski, Maciej; Krolczyk, Grzegorz M.; Maruda, Radosław W.


    The reliable determination of modal mass, damping and stiffness coefficient (modal parameters) for the particular machine-toolholder-tool system is essential for the accurate estimation of vibrations, stability and thus the machined surface finish formed during the milling process. Therefore, this paper focuses on the analysis of ball end mill's dynamical properties. The tools investigated during this study are monolithic ball end mills with different slenderness values, made of coated cemented carbide. These kinds of tools are very often applied during the precise milling of curvilinear surfaces. The research program included the impulse test carried out for the investigated tools clamped in the hydraulic toolholder. The obtained modal parameters were further applied in the developed tool's instantaneous deflection model, in order to estimate the tool's working part vibrations during precise milling. The application of the proposed dynamics model involved also the determination of instantaneous cutting forces on the basis of the mechanistic approach. The research revealed that ball end mill's slenderness can be considered as an important milling dynamics and machined surface quality indicator.

  10. The study on dynamic properties of monolithic ball end mills with various slenderness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciechowski Szymon


    Full Text Available The reliable determination of modal mass, damping and stiffness coefficient (modal parameters for the particular machine-toolholder-tool system is essential for the accurate estimation of vibrations, stability and thus the machined surface finish formed during the milling process. Therefore, this paper focuses on the analysis of ball end mill's dynamical properties. The tools investigated during this study are monolithic ball end mills with different slenderness values, made of coated cemented carbide. These kinds of tools are very often applied during the precise milling of curvilinear surfaces. The research program included the impulse test carried out for the investigated tools clamped in the hydraulic toolholder. The obtained modal parameters were further applied in the developed tool's instantaneous deflection model, in order to estimate the tool's working part vibrations during precise milling. The application of the proposed dynamics model involved also the determination of instantaneous cutting forces on the basis of the mechanistic approach. The research revealed that ball end mill's slenderness can be considered as an important milling dynamics and machined surface quality indicator.

  11. Considerations Concerning the Dynamics of Vibratory Mills Used in Powders’ Mechanical Milling Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Panaitescu-Liess


    Full Text Available Dynamic mechanical milling process in a powder mill was studied by analyzing the vibratory effects of vibration and shock phenomena on the material microstructure ground. During the milling process, there were noticed both distinct modes of ball motion: the one generated by the periodic vibration and the one produced by chaotic vibration.

  12. 7 CFR 868.310 - Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice... (United States)


    ... and objectionable seeds (number in 500 grams) Red rice and damaged kernels (singly or combined... Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice. (See also Â... Milled Rice Principles Governing Application of Standards § 868.310 Grades and grade requirements for the...


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Advanced Ground Based Field Mill (AGBFM) network consists of 34 (31 operational) field mills located at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Florida. The field mills...

  14. Experimental study of micro-milling mechanism and surface quality of a nickel-based single crystal superalloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Qi; Gong, Yadong; Zhou, Yun Guang; Wen, Xue Long [School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, Northeastern University, Shenyang (China)


    Micro-milling is widely used as a method for machining of micro-parts with high precision and efficiency. Taking the nickel-based single-crystal superalloy DD98 as the research object, the crystal characteristics of single-crystal materials were analysed, and the removal mechanism of single-crystal micro-milled parts was described. Based on molecular dynamics, a simulation model for nickel-based single-crystal superalloy DD98 micro-milling was established. Based on the response surface method of central composite design, the influences of spindle speed, feed rate, and milling depth on the surface roughness were examined, and a second-order regression model of the DD98 surface roughness was established. Using analysis of variance and the residuals of the model, a significant influence on surface roughness was found in the following order from large to small: Feed rate, spindle speed, and milling depth. Comparisons were conducted between the micro-milling experimental values and the predicted model values for different process parameters. The results show that the model fit is relatively high, and the adaptability is good. Scanning electron microscopy analysis of the micro-milling surfaces was performed to verify the slip and the removal mechanism of single-crystal materials. These results offer a theoretical reference and experimental basis for micro-milling of single-crystal materials.

  15. The Amino Acid Composition of the Sutter's Mill Carbonaceous Chondrite (United States)

    Glavin, D. P.; Burton, A. S.; Elsila, J. E.; Dworkin, J. P.; Yin, Q. Z.; Cooper, G.; Jenniskens, P.


    In contrast to the Murchison meteorite which had a complex distribution of amino acids with a total C2 to Cs amino acid abundance of approx.14,000 parts-per-billion (ppb) [2], the Sutters Mill meteorite was found to be highly depleted in amino acids. Much lower abundances (approx.30 to 180 ppb) of glycine, beta-alanine, L-alanine and L-serine were detected in SM2 above procedural blank levels indicating that this meteorite sample experienced only minimal terrestrial amino acid contamination after its fall to Earth. Carbon isotope measurements will be necessary to establish the origin of glycine and beta-alanine in SM2. Other non-protein amino acids that are rare on Earth, yet commonly found in other CM meteorites such as aaminoisobutyric acid (alpha-AIB) and isovaline, were not identified in SM2. However, traces of beta-AIB (approx.1 ppb) were detected in SM2 and could be" extraterrestrial in origin. The low abundances of amino acids in the Sutter's Mill meteorite is consistent with mineralogical evidence that at least some parts of the Sutter's Mill meteorite parent body experienced extensive aqueous and/or thermal alteration.

  16. milled degermed maize products for tropical countries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jan 19, 2009 ... processing of maize flour, which meets consumer demand for quality and achieves extended shelf life. One traditional soft cultivar was .... duplicate after extraction with 95% ethanol (ISO, 1986) and expressed as mg KOH ..... In addition, the hammer mill appears much more efficient than the disc mill, giving ...

  17. Radiological health aspects of uranium milling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, D.R.; Stoetzel, G.A.


    This report describes the operation of conventional and unconventional uranium milling processes, the potential for occupational exposure to ionizing radiation at the mill, methods for radiological safety, methods of evaluating occupational radiation exposures, and current government regulations for protecting workers and ensuring that standards for radiation protection are adhered to. In addition, a survey of current radiological health practices is summarized.

  18. Computer-aided design of rolling mills

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the design of rolling mills equipment, computer-aided design has been widely used. The available software, which covers both steady state and dynamic analysis of items such as mill stands, drive systems, manipulators, cooling beds, roll cooling, and automatic gauge control systems, is reviewed with special reference to ...

  19. Accuracy of depth of cut in micro milling operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bissacco, Giuliano

    since the magnitude of the cutting forces involved is reduced), which make mechanical micromachining by use of miniaturized tools troublesome or even impossible. This study deals with the use of a conventional 3 axis vertical milling machine equipped with a high speed attached spindle for micro milling......In any kind of conventional machining operation, dimensional and geometrical accuracy of the machined part cannot be achieved without a precise control of cutting parameters as well as positioning accuracy. Miniaturization of components implies a reduction of all component’s dimensions and involves...... downscaling of conventional manufacturing technologies. Although in micro manufacturing operations particular precautions are taken, the ratio between tolerances and absolute dimensions increases. However, the absolute required accuracy for the functionality increases, therefore the absolute value...

  20. System for manufacturing wooden rotor blades for small wind mills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, B.


    Acknowledging the need (also in developing countries) for small windmill wings with various patterns and aerodynamic characteristics a simple, low-cost hand-controlled copying milling machine was built (with standard parts) to reduce production time for one wing to 1-2 hours. A sensor-roll transfers the airfoil pattern to a set of two saw blades, driven by an electric motor, which carves the airfoil out of a wooden beam. It is thus possible to cut out each cross section of the wing and manufacture a constantly reproducible rotor blade. The hard-foam airfoil models - their shapes, material and production, the laminated beam - the preparation of the wood and the lamination, and the copying milling machine itself - its design and how to build, operate and maintain it, are described in detail. (AB)

  1. Cutting force simulation in milling with multi-edges cutter (United States)

    Tamura, Shoichi; Matsumura, Takashi


    In the aircraft parts, the portion of titanium alloy, one of the light-weight and high mechanical strength materials, has been increased in terms of the fuel efficiency. Therefore, the effective technologies in cutting of titanium alloy should be established to promote the material removal rate with high production quality. Multi-edges milling cutters, on which many inserts are helically aligned, have been commercially available for millings of deep sinking in large axial depth of cuts. The paper presents an analytical prediction model to control the cutting force with alignment and geometry of the insert. In the model, three dimensional chip flow on each insert is interpreted as a piling up of the orthogonal cuttings in the planes containing the cutting velocities and the chip flow velocities, where the chip flow direction is determined to minimize the cutting energy. Then, the cutting force is predicted in the determined chip flow model. The cutting tests were conducted to validate the force model.

  2. The effects of lifter configurations and mill speeds on the mill power draw and performance (United States)

    Usman, Husni; Taylor, Patrick; Spiller, D. Erik


    Grinding mills used in the mining industries are the most energy-intensive operation and require a large number of wear resistant materials as well. The 1-m mill was used to investigate the effects of three lifter configurations, namely Hi (High), Rail and Hi-Lo (High-Low), and mill speeds on the mill performance. The MillTraj software was also utilized to simulate the outermost charge trajectories of the mill. At the given operating conditions, the power draw of Hi lifter was slightly lower than that of the Rail and the Hi-Lo and thus, the Hi lifter showed improvement in the mill efficiency. The product size distributions of the different lifters are very close and the size distribution of Hi-Lo lifter is slightly finer than those of the other lifters. At 74% critical speed, the size distributions of the Rail and Hi-Lo lifters were finer than at 70% critical speed, while that of Hi lifter otherwise occurs. At 80% critical speed, the size distributions of the lifters were coarser than at 74% critical speed. In this case, the outer charge trajectories of each lifter could go down on the mill shell rather than on the toe of the mill charge, resulting in ineffective grinding. Increasing face angles and/or mill charge would allow the mill to be operated at higher speeds.

  3. The effect of crystal morphology and mill type on milling induced crystal disorder. (United States)

    Chikhalia, V; Forbes, R T; Storey, R A; Ticehurst, M


    Milling is a key process in the preparation of many solid dosage forms. One possible milling induced change is the production of small levels of disorder or amorphous material found predominantly at the surface of a powder, which could lead to significant chemical and physical instability. The influence of crystal habit on this change was investigated using beta-succinic acid, in plate like and needle like morphologies. beta-Succinic acid crystals with these habits were processed in a ball mill and a jet mill. SEM images indicated jet milled material was finer than the ball milled product. Powder X-ray diffraction of the milled powders revealed an amorphous halo at lower angles and peak broadening suggesting disorder though this could not be quantified accurately. In addition, a partial conversion during milling to the alpha form was noted. Quantitation of the alpha form in the milled powders indicated it was present at powders had lower heats of solution compared to the unmilled powers. The contribution of the alpha polymorph to the lower heats of solution was calculated to be insignificant. Therefore, the reduced heat of solution is attributed to a loss in crystallinity. The largest decreases were seen in the plate like morphology. These findings suggest that beta-succinic acid crystals with plate like morphology are more prone to crystallinity loss on milling compared to the needle like morphology. The mill type has also been shown to influence the final crystallinity.

  4. Coal Moisture Estimation in Power Plant Mills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Palle; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Pedersen, Tom S.


    Knowledge of moisture content in raw coal feed to a power plant coal mill is of importance for efficient operation of the mill. The moisture is commonly measured approximately once a day using offline chemical analysis methods; however, it would be advantageous for the dynamic operation...... of the plant if an on-line estimate were available. In this paper we such propose an on-line estimator (an extended Kalman filter) that uses only existing measurements. The scheme is tested on actual coal mill data collected during a one-month operating period, and it is found that the daily measured moisture...

  5. Growth response of tomato ( Lycopersicum esculentum Mill ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth response of tomato ( Lycopersicum esculentum Mill) inoculated with ... The field study attempted to validate positive responses obtained in the greenhouse. ... height and girth with the regression coefficient (r2) ranging from 0.74 to 0.96.

  6. (EFB) and palm oil mill effluent (POME)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    , palm oil mill effluent. could solve several problems including reducing the high load of waste produced by palm oil industry. It can also create a market for biofertilizer which have proven to be more effective and cheaper than ...

  7. Uranium Mill and ISL Facility Database (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — An Excel database on NRC and Agreement State licensed mills providing status, locational/operational/restoration data, maps, and environmental reports including...

  8. Dynamic study of milling low depth channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosca Dorin Mircea


    Full Text Available This paper presents a study of dynamic aspects of the milling cutters used in particular case of low depth channels. A new calculation method was developed, taking into account the high variations of cutting forces during milling small depth channels with peripheral cutting tools. A new formula was established for the minimal value of channel depth that allows cutting process to be performed in conditions of dynamic stability.

  9. High resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy characterization of a milled oxide dispersion strengthened steel powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loyer-Prost, M., E-mail: [DEN-Service de Recherches de Métallurgie Physique, CEA, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91191, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Merot, J.-S. [Laboratoire d’Etudes des Microstructures – UMR 104, CNRS/ONERA, BP72-29, Avenue de la Division Leclerc, 92 322, Châtillon (France); Ribis, J. [DEN-Service de Recherches de Métallurgie Appliquée, CEA, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91191, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Le Bouar, Y. [Laboratoire d’Etudes des Microstructures – UMR 104, CNRS/ONERA, BP72-29, Avenue de la Division Leclerc, 92 322, Châtillon (France); Chaffron, L. [DEN-Service de Recherches de Métallurgie Appliquée, CEA, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91191, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Legendre, F. [DEN-Service de la Corrosion et du Comportement des Matériaux dans leur Environnement, CEA, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91191, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)


    Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS) steels are promising materials for generation IV fuel claddings as their dense nano-oxide dispersion provides good creep and irradiation resistance. Even if they have been studied for years, the formation mechanism of these nano-oxides is still unclear. Here we report for the first time a High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy and Energy Filtered Transmission Electron Microscopy characterization of an ODS milled powder. It provides clear evidence of the presence of small crystalline nanoclusters (NCs) enriched in titanium directly after milling. Small NCs (<5 nm) have a crystalline structure and seem partly coherent with the matrix. They have an interplanar spacing close to the (011) {sub bcc} iron structure. They coexist with larger crystalline spherical precipitates of 15–20 nm in size. Their crystalline structure may be metastable as they are not consistent with any Y-Ti-O or Ti-O structure. Such detailed observations in the as-milled grain powder confirm a mechanism of Y, Ti, O dissolution in the ferritic matrix followed by a NC precipitation during the mechanical alloying process of ODS materials. - Highlights: • We observed an ODS ball-milled powder by high resolution transmission microscopy. • The ODS ball-milled powder exhibits a lamellar microstructure. • Small crystalline nanoclusters were detected in the milled ODS powder. • The nanoclusters in the ODS milled powder are enriched in titanium. • Larger NCs of 15–20 nm in size are, at least, partly coherent with the matrix.

  10. The Microbiology of Olive Mill Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spyridon Ntougias


    Full Text Available Olive mill wastes (OMWs are high-strength organic effluents, which upon disposal can degrade soil and water quality, negatively affecting aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. The main purpose of this review paper is to provide an up-to-date knowledge concerning the microbial communities identified over the past 20 years in olive mill wastes using both culture-dependent and independent approaches. A database survey of 16S rRNA gene sequences (585 records in total obtained from olive mill waste environments revealed the dominance of members of Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria. Independent studies confirmed that OMW microbial communities’ structure is cultivar dependant. On the other hand, the detection of fecal bacteria and other potential human pathogens in OMWs is of major concern and deserves further examination. Despite the fact that the degradation and detoxification of the olive mill wastes have been mostly investigated through the application of known bacterial and fungal species originated from other environmental sources, the biotechnological potential of indigenous microbiota should be further exploited in respect to olive mill waste bioremediation and inactivation of plant and human pathogens. The implementation of omic and metagenomic approaches will further elucidate disposal issues of olive mill wastes.

  11. Application of dynamic milling in stainless steel processing (United States)

    Shan, Wenju


    This paper mainly introduces the method of parameter setting for NC programming of stainless steel parts by dynamic milling. Stainless steel is of high plasticity and toughness, serious hard working, large cutting force, high temperature in cutting area and easy wear of tool. It is difficult to process material. Dynamic motion technology is the newest NC programming technology of Mastercam software. It is an advanced machining idea. The tool path generated by the dynamic motion technology is more smooth, more efficient and more stable in the machining process. Dynamic motion technology is very suitable for cutting hard machining materials.

  12. Effects of Dry-Milling and Wet-Milling on Chemical, Physical and Gelatinization Properties of Rice Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitranut Leewatchararongjaroen


    Full Text Available Rice flour from nine varieties, subjected to dry- and wet-milling processes, was determined for its physical and chemical properties. The results revealed that milling method had an effect on properties of flour. Wet-milling process resulted in flour with significantly lower protein and ash contents and higher carbohydrate content. Wet-milled flour also tended to have lower lipid content and higher amylose content. In addition, wet-milled rice flour contained granules with smaller average size compared to dry-milled samples. Swelling power at 90 °C of wet-milled samples was higher while solubility was significantly lower than those of dry-milled flour. Dry milling process caused the destruction of the crystalline structure and yielded flour with lower crystallinity compared to wet-milling process, which resulted in significantly lower gelatinization enthalpy.

  13. Determining the impact of sorting capacity on rip-first rough mill yield (United States)

    Edward Thomas; John. Brown


    The problem of increasing gang-rip-first rough mill yield often amounts to little more than optimizing the fit of needed parts into strips. However, it is rare when a part or combination of parts fits precisely in the area between two defects. Intuition tells us that the more lengths we have to choose from, the greater the chance of completely filling such an area....

  14. Development of hemicelluloses biorefineries for integration into kraft pulp mills (United States)

    Ajao, Olumoye Abiodun

    the first part of this work, the feasibility of concentrating prehydrolysate solution with a reverse osmosis membrane was studied. The concentration step is required to reduce the energy demand of the subsequent conversion processes and the size of process equipments. Reconstituted prehydrolysate solutions containing different concentrations of glucose, xylose acetic acid, syringaldehyde and furfural was used to determine the feasibility of concentrating with a reverse osmosis membrane. The effect of the solution composition and operating conditions (cross flow velocity, temperature and pressure) on the selectivity of the membrane and the permeate flux were investigated. The results revealed that irrespective of the prehydrolysate composition, the feed pressure and temperature had the most dominant effect on the permeate flux. A permeate flux decline was observed in all experiments and the mechanisms responsible for the flux decline were elucidated. It was also confirmed that the membrane fouling is reversible and regeneration can be successfully carried out by cleaning with a sodium hydroxide solution. The second part of this work focussed on a chemical conversion pathway for furfural production. A prehydrolysate solution was generated by using a wood chips furnish that is similar to that of the reference mill and used to evaluate the membrane concentration requirements for furfural production. The retention and flux characteristics of six commercial organic membranes made from different polymers (polyamide, cellulose acetate and polypiperazine amide) and with molecular weight cut offs (MWCO) between 100 and 500 Da were evaluated. A membrane with total sugar retention of 99% and a MWCO of about 200 Da was shown to be the most suitable for a furfural process based on the criteria: low energy requirement for concentration, low degree of fouling potential and high retentions of the desired components (sugars, acetic acid and furfural). The maximum volumetric

  15. Experimental High Speed Milling of the Selected Thin-Walled Component

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Zajac


    Full Text Available In a technical practice, it is possible to meet thin-walled parts more and more often. These parts are most commonly used in the automotive industry or aircraft industry to reduce the weight of different design part of cars or aircraft. Presented article is focused on experimental high speed milling of selected thin-walled component. The introduction of this article presents description of high speed machining and specification of thin – walled parts. The experiments were carried out using a CNC machine Pinnacle VMC 650S and C45 material - plain carbon steel for automotive components and mechanical engineering. In the last part of the article, described are the arrangements to reduction of deformation of thin-walled component during the experimental high speed milling.

  16. The influence of lumber grade on machine productivity in the rough mill (United States)

    Philip H. Steele; Jan Wiedenbeck; Rubin Shmulsky; Anura Perera; Anura Perera


    Lumber grade effect on hardwood-part processing time was investigated with a digitally described lumber database in conjunction with a crosscut-first rough mill yield optimization simulator. In this study, the digital lumber sample was subdivided into five hardwood lumber grades. Three cutting bills with varying degrees of difficulty were Cut." The three cutting...

  17. Model-based Process Monitoring and Control of Micro-milling using Active Magnetic Bearings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, R.S.


    The process of micro-milling is a promising technology for the fabrication of micro-parts with arbitrary 3D features in a wide range of materials. However, as a result of the reduced dimensions, the susceptibility of the process for machine tool errors and vibrations is higher, having adverse

  18. Protein and energy value of maize and millet milling wastes for rabbits

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thirty-six mixed rabbits were utilized to determine the protein and energy value s of maize milling waste (MZMW) and millet waste (MLMW). Parts of these wastes were autoclaved (AMZMW and AMLMW) and also fed to test rabbits. There was a significant higher (P<0.05) feed intake by rabbits on the MLMW and AMLMW ...

  19. Practitioner Profile: An Interview With Amanda Mills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Mills


    Full Text Available For more than 25 years, Amanda Mills has been working with arts organizations across Canada and with artists of all kinds to assist them in achieving financial sanity. She has taught business management at the University of Victoria and has prepared thousands of tax returns for writers, visual artists, choreographers, actors, filmmakers, broadcasters, and creative entrepreneurs. Ten years ago, bringing together her work on trauma, with twenty years of business management, Mills founded Loose Change Financial Therapy – the place where money and feelings meet. Mills has presented Loose Change workshops for social workers, teachers, psychotherapists, artists, anti-poverty activists, sex trade workers, women’s groups, and the general public.  She has been a guest on major Canadian radio and television broadcasts and profiled in many major Canadian newspapers and periodicals. Mills is also a crisis counselor and co-wrote a bestselling book on recovering from trauma. A tax professional and business manager, she is certified as a financial counselor under the Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act. Mills is also currently completing a certificate in mediation.

  20. Perturbative running of the twisted Yang-Mills coupling in the gradient flow scheme

    CERN Document Server

    Bribian, Eduardo I


    We report on our ongoing computation of the perturbative running of the Yang-Mills coupling using gradient flow techniques. In particular, we use the gradient flow method with twisted boundary conditions to perform a perturbative expansion of the expectation value of the Yang-Mills energy density up to fourth order in the coupling at finite flow time. We regularise the resulting integrals using dimensional regularisation, and reproduce the universal coefficient of the 1/{\\epsilon} term in the relation between bare and renormalised couplings. The computation of the finite part leading to a determination of the {\\Lambda} parameter in this scheme is underway.

  1. “Droit international” et opinion publique de Jeremy Bentham à John Stuart Mill


    Knüfer, Aurélie


    This article offers an interpretation of the first part – most often neglected by commentators – of « A Few Words on Non-Intervention » by John Stuart Mill (1859). It shows that these pages are not a naive apology of the English foreign policy: on the contrary we have to seriously consider the ideas concerning public opinion and the need for diplomats to reform their language, which are here exposed. Indeed, it is only possible to understand the emancipatory aims of John Stuart Mill in this a...

  2. Light Dilaton at Fixed Points and Ultra Light Scale Super Yang Mills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antipin, Oleg; Mojaza, Matin; Sannino, Francesco


    the spectrum near this point. We demonstrate that this theory naturally features a light scalar degree of freedom to be identified with the dilaton and elucidate its physical properties. We compute the spectrum and demonstrate that at low energy the nonperturbative part of the spectrum of the theory is the one...... of pure supersymmetric Yang-Mills. We can therefore determine the exact nonperturbative fermion condensate and deduce relevant properties of the nonperturbative spectrum of the theory. We also show that the intrinsic scale of super Yang-Mills is exponentially smaller than the scale associated...

  3. The postharvest of mill olives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousfi, Khaled


    Full Text Available The greatest deterioration of olive oil is due to poor handling of the olives during the time between harvesting and processing. Storage of olive fruits is carried out by simple heaping in fruit piles, waiting their processing. These fruits develop all kinds of degenerative processes in a short period of time. Oils obtained from them show characteristics hydrolytic and oxidative deteriorations confirmed by their high acidity values, peroxide value or ultraviolet absorbance at 232 and 270 nm. To avoid this situation, the industry is currently reducing the interval between harvesting and processing, through an increase in milling capacity. However, the equipment necessary for preventing the accumulation of fruit in January would be unnecessary for the rest of the season. In this chapter, refrigeration of the olive fruits, or the use of physical treatments, to allow the processing of unripe fruits, are analysed as possible alternatives.El mayor deterioro del aceite de oliva es debido a la inadecuada manipulación de las aceitunas durante el tiempo que media entre su cosecha y su procesado. El almacenamiento de las aceitunas se lleva acabo mediante el simple amontonamiento del fruto, esperando su procesamiento. Estos frutos desarrollan toda clase de procesos degenerativos en un corto periodo de tiempo. Los aceites obtenidos a partir de estos frutos exhiben deterioros hidrolíticos y oxidativos característicos, confirmados por sus valores altos de acidez, de índice de peróxidos o de absorbancia en la región ultravioleta a 232 y 270 nm. Para evitar esta situación, la industria intenta reducir al máximo el intervalo entre la cosecha y el procesado del fruto, mediante un aumento de la capacidad de molturación. Sin embargo, el equipo necesario para prevenir la acumulación de fruto en Enero no se precisa para el resto de la campaña. En este capítulo, la refrigeración de las aceitunas o el uso de tratamientos físicos, que permiten el procesado

  4. Quantification of process induced disorder in milled samples using different analytical techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zimper, Ulrike; Aaltonen, Jaakko; McGoverin, Cushla M.


    The aim of this study was to compare three different analytical methods to detect and quantify the amount of crystalline disorder/ amorphousness in two milled model drugs. X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Raman spectroscopy were used as analytical methods...... and indomethacin and simvastatin were chosen as the model compounds. These compounds partly converted from crystalline to disordered forms by milling. Partial least squares regression (PLS) was used to create calibration models for the XRPD and Raman data, which were subsequently used to quantify the milling...... by principal component analysis (PCA) to account for the fact that the choice of standard ultimately influences the quantification outcome. Finally, the calibration models were built using binary mixtures of crystalline and quench cooled amorphous drug materials. The results imply that the outcome with respect...

  5. Chlorinated acidic and phenolic compounds in pine needles in the recipient area of pulp mill emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinkkonen, S.; Paasivirta, J. [Department of Chemistry, Jyvaeskylae Univ. (Finland); Lammi, R. [UPM-Kymmene Co, Pietarsaari Mills, Pietarsaari (Finland)


    Pine or spruce needles can be used in monitoring of atmospheric pollution on global, regional and local levels. Different extraction, purification and derivatization methods were tested. Derivatization with pentafluorobenzyl bromide and consequent analyses by GC-ECD was found feasible for the chlorinated acids (CAs), except for trichloroacetic acid (TCA). Most part of polychlorinated phenols (PCPs) in needles are bound to the plant material and need alkali treatment for extraction. The pulp mill could not be shown to be the source of the quite low concentrations of CAs in the needles in the vicinity of the mill. Three guaiacols, 2,3,4,6-tetrachlorophenol and pentachlorophenol, observed in concentrations up to 100-300 ng/g in dried needles, probably originate from the pulp mill. (orig.)

  6. Three dimensional finite element simulation and analysis of residual stress in milling (United States)

    Liu, Haitao; Sun, Yazhou; Liang, Yingchun; Lu, Zesheng


    Framework parts are extensively used in aerospace industry and milling is its main processing method. This study aims at the milling of aluminum alloy 2024-T351. With the analysis of the milling cutter structure, the virtual topology technology was used to carry on the pretreatment of the milling cutter model, and the adaptive meshing technique was applied. Johnson-Cook's coupled thermo-mechanical model was used as the material model of workpiece. Johnson-Cook's shear failure principle was used as the material failure criterion. The modified Coulomb's law whose slide friction area is combined with sticking friction was used to compute the friction between tool and workpiece. And a more realistic three-dimensional finite element model of milling was finally established. The process of chip formation was simulated in this model. The distribution of surface residual stress at different spindle speed was obtained through finite element simulating. And with the analysis of the results, the basic affecting law of spindle speed to residual stress of machined surface was found, which provides a basis for practical machining.

  7. Recycling of mill scale in sintering process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Hussiny N.A.


    Full Text Available This investigation deals with the effect of replacing some amount of Baharia high barite iron ore concentrate by mill scale waste which was characterized by high iron oxide content on the parameters of the sintering process., and investigation the effect of different amount of coke breeze added on sintering process parameters when using 5% mill scale waste with 95% iron ore concentrate. The results of this work show that, replacement of iron ore concentrate with mill scale increases the amount of ready made sinter, sinter strength and productivity of the sinter machine and productivity at blast furnace yard. Also, the increase of coke breeze leads to an increase the ready made sinter and productivity of the sintering machine at blast furnace yard. The productivity of the sintering machine after 5% decreased slightly due to the decrease of vertical velocity.

  8. Magnetic properties of barium ferrite after milling by high energy milling (hem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idayanti Novrita


    Full Text Available Magnetic properties of barium ferrite that were mashed by High Energy Milling (HEM has been characterized. The starting iron oxide powder (Fe2O3 and barium carbonate (BaCO3 were prepared by powder metallurgy technique by the stages of mixing, calcining, milling, compacting, and sintering. Weight ratio of Fe2O3: BaCO3 was 88.74 wt% : 17.52 wt%. Some additives such as calcium oxide (CaO, silicon dioxide (SiO2, and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA were added after calcining process. Milling by HEM was varied at 30, 60, 90, 120, and 150 minutes. The ball and container of HEM were made of stainless steel. Characterization micro structure by SEM showed that the milling time affect the grain size of the magnetic powder. The longer of milling time, the grain size was smaller and uniform. Characterization by using magnetic instrument Permagraph showed that the grain size will affect the magnetic properties of barium ferrite. Induction of remanence (Br, coercivity (HcJ, and product energy maximum (BHmax values increased with increasing milling time. The optimal magnetic properties were obtained at the time of milling 120 minutes with value of Hc = 1.97 kG, HcJ = 2.314 kOe, and BHmax = 0.64 MGOe.

  9. Nonperturbative Results for Yang-Mills Theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sannino, Francesco; Schechter, Joseph


    Some non perturbative aspects of the pure SU(3) Yang-Mills theory are investigated assuming a specific form of the beta function, based on a recent modification by Ryttov and Sannino of the known one for supersymmetric gauge theories. The characteristic feature is a pole at a particular value of ....... Assuming the usual QCD value one finds it to be 1.67 GeV, which is in surprisingly good agreement with a quenched lattice calculation. A similar calculation is made for the supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory where the corresponding beta function is considered to be exact....

  10. Wollstonecraft, Mill, and Women's Human Rights


    Botting, Eileen Hunt


    This book argues that Mary Wollstonecraft and John Stuart Mill are the two primary architects of the modern theory of women’s rights as human rights. It only through addressing women’s rights, Botting argues, that the idea of human rights was given universal scope and application. Botting describes the development of the idea of women’s human rights beginning with the work of Wollstonecraft and Mill, and gives an account of their reception in both western and nonwestern contexts. Her goal is ...

  11. Corn-milling pretreatment with anhydrous ammonia. (United States)

    Taylor, Frank; Craig, James C; Kurantz, M J; Singh, Vijay


    Exposure to anhydrous ammonia has been suggested as a pretreatment for corn milling. Batches of corn were exposed to ammonia under controlled conditions. The amounts of ammonia absorbed and reacted with the corn were measured. The amounts were not more than are needed as nutritional supplement for yeast fermentation to ethanol. Loosening of the hull was observed qualitatively, and subsequent shearing in a disk mill followed by steeping for 2, 4, 6, or 8 h showed that germ could be recovered at higher yield and after a shorter steeping time compared to untreated control batches. Quality of oil was not affected by treatment with ammonia.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Ivanišová


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine of primary metabolites (content of starch, total dietary fibre, reducing sugars, proteins and amino acids in four milling fractions of selected cereals (barley, wheat, oat, spelt, rye, triticale grew in the year 2009. It was found that flour fractions (break flour and reduction flour showed the lower content of primary metabolites than bran fractions (fine bran and coarse bran. The aim of this study was also to mention the potential use of bran parts of grain - substances from these parts can be isolated and after treatment, which causes their efficiently usable for human body, they can be used for fortification of wide range of food products.

  13. Uranium Mines and Mills | RadTown USA | US EPA (United States)


    Uranium is used as nuclear fuel for electric power generation. U.S. mining industries can obtain uranium in two ways: mining or milling. Mining waste and mill tailings can contaminate water, soil and air if not disposed of properly.

  14. Superiority of wet-milled over dry-milled superfine powdered activated carbon for adsorptive 2-methylisoborneol removal. (United States)

    Pan, Long; Matsui, Yoshihiko; Matsushita, Taku; Shirasaki, Nobutaka


    Superfine powdered activated carbon (SPAC), which is produced from conventionally sized powdered activated carbon (PAC) by wet milling in a bead mill, has attracted attention for its high adsorptive removal ability in both research and practice. In this study, the performance of dry-milled SPAC was investigated. 2-Methylisoborneol (MIB), an earthy-musty compound commonly targeted by water treatment systems, was used as the target adsorbate. Dry-milled SPAC exhibited lower adsorptive removal of MIB than wet-milled SPAC, even when both SPACs were produced from the same PAC and were composed of particles of the same size. One reason for the lower removal of MIB by the dry-milled SPAC was a higher degree of aggregation in the dry-milled SPAC after production; as a result the apparent particle size of dry-milled SPAC was larger than that of wet-milled SPAC. The dry-milled SPAC was also more negatively charged than the wet-milled SPAC, and, owing to its higher repulsion, it was more amenable to dispersion by ultrasonication. However, even after the dry-milled SPAC was ultrasonicated so that its apparent particle size was similar to or less than that of the wet-milled SPAC, the dry-milled SPAC was still inferior in adsorptive removal to the wet-milled SPAC. Therefore, another reason for the lower adsorptive removal of dry-milled SPAC was its lower equilibrium adsorption capacity due to the oxidation during the milling. The adsorption kinetics by SPACs with different degrees of particle aggregation were successfully simulated by a pore diffusion model and a fractal aggregation model. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Mill Designed Bio bleaching Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Institute of Paper Science Technology


    generation of laccase has a broad spectrum of operating parameters. Nonetheless, the development of future genetically engineered laccases with enhanced temperature, pH and redox potentials will dramatically improve the overall process. A second challenge for LMS bleaching technologies is the need to develop effective, catalytic mediators. From the literature we already know this is feasible since ABTS and some inorganic mediators are catalytic. Unfortunately, the mediators that exhibit catalytic properties do not exhibit significant delignification properties and this is a challenge for future research studies. Potential short-term mill application of laccase has been recently reported by Felby132 and Chandra133 as they have demonstrated that the physical properties of linerboard can be improved when exposed to laccase without a chemical mediator. In addition, xxx has shown that the addition of laccase to the whitewater of the paper machine has several benefits for the removal of colloidal materials. Finally, this research program has presented important features on the delignification chemistry of LMS{sub NHA} and LMS{sub VA} that, in the opinion of the author, are momentous contributions to the overall LMS chemistry/biochemistry knowledge base which will continue to have future benefits.

  16. The mycotoxin distribution in maize milling fractions under experimental conditions. (United States)

    Burger, H-M; Shephard, G S; Louw, W; Rheeder, J P; Gelderblom, W C A


    Mycotoxin contamination of maize and maize-based food and feed products poses a health risk to humans and animals if not adequately controlled and managed. The current study investigates the effect of dry milling on the reduction of fumonisins (FB), deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEA) in maize. Five composite samples, constructed to represent different mycotoxin contamination levels were degermed yielding degermed maize and the germ. The degermed maize was milled under laboratory conditions and four major milling fractions (SPECIAL, SUPER, semolina (SEM) and milling hominy feed) collected. The whole maize, degermed maize and total hominy feed (germ+milling hominy feed) were reconstructed to ensure homogenous samples for mycotoxin analyses. For comparison, commercial dry milling fractions (whole maize, SPECIAL, SUPER and total hominy feed), collected from three South African industrial mills, were analysed for the same mycotoxins and hence a more accurate assessment of the distribution between the different milling fractions. The distribution of the mycotoxins during the experimental dry milling of the degermed maize differs, with FB mainly concentrated in the SPECIAL, DON in the SEM whereas ZEA was equally distributed between the two milling fractions. Distribution of mycotoxins between the fractions obtained during commercial dry milling generally provided similar results with the total hominy feed containing the highest and the SUPER milling fractions the lowest mycotoxin levels although variations existed. Although milling is an effective way to reduce mycotoxins in maize, kernel characteristics and resultant fungal colonisation may impact on the distribution of specific mycotoxins among the different milling fractions. Differences in industrial dry milling practices and problems encountered in sampling bulk maize remain a large problem in assessing mycotoxin contamination in milling fractions intended for human consumption. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B

  17. The MediaMill TRECVID 2006 Semantic Video Search Engine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snoek, C.G.M.; van Gemert, J.C.; Gevers, Th.; Huurnink, B.; Koelma, D.C.; van Liempt, M.; de Rooij, O.; van de Sande, K.E.A.; Seinstra, F.J.; Smeulders, A.W.M.; Thean, A.; Veenman, C.J.; Worring, M.


    In this paper we describe our TRECVID 2006 experiments. The MediaMill team participated in two tasks: concept detection and search. For concept detection we use the MediaMill Challenge as experimental platform. The MediaMill Challenge divides the generic video indexing problem into a visual-only,

  18. The MediaMill TRECVID 2006 semantic video search engine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snoek, C.G.M.; Gemert, J.C. van; Gevers, T.; Huurnink, B.; Koelma, D.C.; Liempt, M. van; Rooij, O. de; Sande, K.E.A. van de; Seinstra, F.J.; Smeulders, A.W.M.; Thean, A.H.C.; Veenman, C.J.; Worring, M.


    In this paper we describe our TRECVID 2006 experiments. The MediaMill team participated in two tasks: concept detection and search. For concept detection we use the MediaMill Challenge as experimental platform. The MediaMill Challenge divides the generic video indexing problem into a visual-only,

  19. 40 CFR 61.142 - Standard for asbestos mills. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for asbestos mills. 61.142... (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Asbestos § 61.142 Standard for asbestos mills. (a) Each owner or operator of an asbestos mill shall either...

  20. Investigations on dc conductivity behaviour of milled carbon fibre ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper reports the d.c. conductivity behaviour of milled carbon fibre reinforced polysulphide modified epoxy gradient composites. Milled carbon fibre reinforced composites having 3 vol. % of milled carbon fibre and poly sulphide modified epoxy resin have been developed. D.C. conductivity measurements are conducted ...

  1. Parametric optimization of CNC end milling using entropy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    End milling is the most important milling operation, widely used in most of the manufacturing industries due to its capability of producing complex geometric surfaces with reasonable accuracy and surface finish. However, with the inventions of CNC milling machine, the flexibility has been adopted along with versatility in end ...

  2. CVD carbon powders modified by ball milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazmierczak Tomasz


    Full Text Available Carbon powders produced using a plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition (CVD methods are an interesting subject of research. One of the most interesting methods of synthesizing these powders is using radio frequency plasma. This method, originally used in deposition of carbon films containing different sp2/sp3 ratios, also makes possible to produce carbon structures in the form of powder. Results of research related to the mechanical modification of these powders have been presented. The powders were modified using a planetary ball mill with varying parameters, such as milling speed, time, ball/powder mass ratio and additional liquids. Changes in morphology and particle sizes were measured using scanning electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. Phase composition was analyzed using Raman spectroscopy. The influence of individual parameters on the modification outcome was estimated using statistical method. The research proved that the size of obtained powders is mostly influenced by the milling speed and the amount of balls. Powders tend to form conglomerates sized up to hundreds of micrometers. Additionally, it is possible to obtain nanopowders with the size around 100 nm. Furthermore, application of additional liquid, i.e. water in the process reduces the graphitization of the powder, which takes place during dry milling.

  3. Nitrogen determination on tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum Mill ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nitrogen determination on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) seedlings by color image analysis (RGB). Adán Mercado-Luna, Enrique Rico-García, Alfredo Lara-Herrera, Genaro Soto-Zarazúa, Rosalía Ocampo-Velázquez, Ramón Guevara-González, Gilberto Herrera-Ruiz, Irineo Torres-Pacheco ...

  4. Cuttable Ruled Surface Strips for Milling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenstrup, Kasper Hornbak; Nørbjerg, Toke Bjerge; Søndergaard, Asbjørn


    This paper proposes a novel pre-processing method for industrial robotic CNC-milling. The method targets a hybrid machining process, in which the main bulk of material is removed through robotic hot or abrasive wire cutting, after which regular CNC-machining is employed for removal of the remaini...

  5. Species status of Mill Creek Elliptio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, G.M. [Academy of Natural Sciences (United States); Mulvey, M. [Savannah River Ecology Lab., Aiken, SC (United States)


    This report discusses environmental effects of the Savannah River Plant on aqautic populations in Mill Creek and surrounding tributaries. Of particular concern was the status of Elliptio. Genetics and phenotypic characteristics have shown that the current classification system is not adequate for these populations. The appendices characterize genetic variability at different loci, electrophoretic data, allele frequencies, sympatric species, and anatomical characters.

  6. Carbohydrate metabolism in tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum Mill ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to clarify carbohydrate content and enzymes activities involved in sugar metabolism in tomato seedling leaves and yield and fruit quality under low night temperature and subsequent recovery, tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Liaoyuanduoli) were grown in different climatic controlledenvironment ...

  7. Buffalo calves intoxicated with Ageratum houstonianum mill (United States)

    Ageratum houstonianum Mill, a noxious weed has been reported to contain pyrrolizidine alkaloids, saponins, triterpens and coumarin. It is an invasive weed that is commonly found in the pasturelands of tropical and subtropical regions. The objectives of this work were to verify the toxicity of A. ho...

  8. Growth response of tomato ( Lycopersicum esculentum Mill ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The performance of Azotobacter croococcum Beijerinck in enhancing growth and fruit production of tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill) was investigated in 3 greenhouse experiments and a field study. The first experiment assessed the appropriate method of inoculation while the 2nd study determined the relationship ...

  9. Improved Jet-Mill Silicon Grinder (United States)

    Collins, Earl R., Jr.


    Proposed refinement in jet-mill grinding of silicon reduces proportion of unusable, overly ground particles. Particles serve as seeds for growth of silicon from vapor. In new grinding apparatus, particle separator distinct from collision chamber. Particle collides only once before sorted for size. If proper size, extracted; if not, returned to chamber for another collision.

  10. Scheduling irrigation for jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Aug 30, 2010 ... 2Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Ministry of Water Resources, Yangling. Shaanxi 712100 ... Key words: Water stress, water status indicators, soil water potential, Jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) ...... of cover crops and irrigation rates on tomato yields and quality in a.

  11. VENVAL : a plywood mill cost accounting program (United States)

    Henry Spelter


    This report documents a package of computer programs called VENVAL. These programs prepare plywood mill data for a linear programming (LP) model that, in turn, calculates the optimum mix of products to make, given a set of technologies and market prices. (The software to solve a linear program is not provided and must be obtained separately.) Linear programming finds...

  12. Analysis of machining accuracy during free form surface milling simulation for different milling strategies (United States)

    Matras, A.; Kowalczyk, R.


    The analysis results of machining accuracy after the free form surface milling simulations (based on machining EN AW- 7075 alloys) for different machining strategies (Level Z, Radial, Square, Circular) are presented in the work. Particular milling simulations were performed using CAD/CAM Esprit software. The accuracy of obtained allowance is defined as a difference between the theoretical surface of work piece element (the surface designed in CAD software) and the machined surface after a milling simulation. The difference between two surfaces describes a value of roughness, which is as the result of tool shape mapping on the machined surface. Accuracy of the left allowance notifies in direct way a surface quality after the finish machining. Described methodology of usage CAD/CAM software can to let improve a time design of machining process for a free form surface milling by a 5-axis CNC milling machine with omitting to perform the item on a milling machine in order to measure the machining accuracy for the selected strategies and cutting data.

  13. Surface Quality of Staggered PCD End Mill in Milling of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangjun Liu


    Full Text Available Machined surface quality determines the reliability, wear resistance and service life of carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP workpieces. In this work, the formation mechanism of the surface topography and the machining defects of CFRPs are proposed, and the influence of milling parameters and fiber cutting angles on the surface quality of CFRPs is obtained, which can provide a reference for extended tool life and good surface quality. Trimming and slot milling tests of unidirectional CFRP laminates are performed. The surface roughness of the machined surface is measured, and the influence of milling parameters on the surface roughness is analyzed. A regression model for the surface roughness of CFRP milling is established. A significance test of the regression model is conducted. The machined surface topography of milling CFRP unidirectional laminates with different fiber orientations is analyzed, and the effect of fiber cutting angle on the surface topography of the machined surface is presented by using a digital super depth-of-field microscope and scanning electron microscope (SEM. To study the influence of fiber cutting angle on machining defects, the machined topography under different fiber orientations is analyzed. The slot milling defects and their formation mechanism under different fiber cutting angles are investigated.

  14. Yang-Mills theory for non-semisimple groups

    CERN Document Server

    Nuyts, J; Nuyts, Jean; Wu, Tai Tsun


    For semisimple groups, possibly multiplied by U(1)'s, the number of Yang-Mills gauge fields is equal to the number of generators of the group. In this paper, it is shown that, for non-semisimple groups, the number of Yang-Mills fields can be larger. These additional Yang-Mills fields are not irrelevant because they appear in the gauge transformations of the original Yang-Mills fields. Such non-semisimple Yang-Mills theories may lead to physical consequences worth studying. The non-semisimple group with only two generators that do not commute is studied in detail.

  15. Integrated modeling and analysis of ball screw feed system and milling process with consideration of multi-excitation effect (United States)

    Zhang, Xing; Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Wei; Liang, Tao; Liu, Hui; Zhao, Wanhua


    The present researches about feed drive system and milling process are almost independent with each other, and ignore the interaction between the two parts, especially the influence of nonideal motion of feed drive system on milling process. An integrated modeling method of ball screw feed system and milling process with multi-excitation effect is proposed in this paper. In the integrated model, firstly an analytical model of motor harmonic torque with consideration of asymmetrical drive circuit and asymmetrical permanent magnet is given. Then, the numerical simulation procedure of cutter/workpiece engagement during milling process with displacement fluctuation induced by harmonic torque is put forward, which is followed by the solving flow for the proposed integrated model. Based on the integrated model, a new kind of quality defect shown as contour low frequency oscillation on machined surface is studied by experiments and simulations. The results demonstrate that the forming mechanism of the contour oscillation can be ascribed to the multi-excitation effect with motor harmonic torque and milling force. Moreover, the influence of different milling conditions on the contour oscillation characteristics, particularly on surface roughness, are further discussed. The results indicate that it is necessary to explain the cause of the new kind of quality defect with a view of system integration.

  16. Performance test of single step continuous dry attrition mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young Woo; Joung, C. Y.; Lee, Y. W.; Na, S. H.; Kim, H. S.; Kim, S


    This report describes the improvement of the two-step attrition mill to solve problems associated with its complexity and those of batch type attrition mill as well as the results of the performance test in view of the comparison. In the performance test of the improved single step continuous attrition mill, powder milling and discharge time per pass was systematically measured, and UO{sup 2}-5wt%CeO{sub 2} powder mixture, UO{sup 2}-5wt%CeO{sub 2} powder mixture with poreformer, M{sub 3}O{sub 8} powder and/or MO2 scrap were milled to compare the performance of the milling operations between the 2-step attrition mill and improved single-step attrition mill. The results of the performance test shows, in addition to its improved milling operation, an improved function in less contamination with impurities, simpler handling with easier operation and maintenance and hence, less contamination of operational location, especially when used for the operation in a confinement system, for the improved single step attrition mill compared with a batch type or continuous 2-step attrition mill.

  17. Chatter Prediction for Variable Pitch and Variable Helix Milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Wang


    Full Text Available Regenerative chatter is a self-excited vibration that can occur during milling, which shortens the lifetime of the tool and results in unacceptable surface quality. In this paper, an improved semidiscretization method for modeling and simulation with variable pitch and variable helix milling is proposed. Because the delay between each flute varies along the axial depth of the tool in milling, the cutting tool is discrete into some axial layers to simplify calculation. A comparison of the predicted and observed performance of variable pitch and variable helix against uniform pitch and uniform helix milling is presented. It is shown that variable pitch and variable helix milling can obtain larger stable cutting area than uniform pitch and uniform helix milling. Thus, it is concluded that variable pitch and variable helix milling are an effective way for suppressing chatter.

  18. Beneficial uses of paper mill residuals for New York State`s recycled-paper mills. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This report evaluates the New York paper mill industry in terms of the productive management and treatment of solid wastes. It identifies current efforts by recycling mills to beneficially use paper mill residuals (often called sludge) and suggests additional options that should be considered by the industry in general and individual mills in particular. It also examines the regulations and economics affecting the mills and suggests actions that could improve the industry`s ability to convert wastes to value-added products. The report recommends that the mills should continue measures to reduce fiber and filler clay losses, promote the transfer of usable fiber and clay to mills able to use them, upgrade sludge dewatering capabilities, and take a more regional approach to solid waste disposal problems. State agencies are urged to support these efforts, encourage the development and commercialization of new beneficial use technologies, and reduce regulatory barriers whenever possible.

  19. Salmonella investigation in an Ontario feed mill. (United States)

    Hacking, W C; Mitchell, W R; Carlson, H C


    The frequency of Salmonella contamination of feedstuffs and finished broiler chicken feeds at an Ontario feed mill were investigated over a four-month period. Samples of feed ingredients and finished pelleted feeds were collected at various points during manufacture and cultured in trypticase soy broth prior to selective enrichment for isolation of Salmonella. Salmonella contamination was found in 4.3% of 93 finished pelleted broiler feeds examined. The contamination appeared to result primarily from the incorporation of contaminated animal protein ingredients into the feed. Meatmeal and the broiler, premix, which contained meatmeal as a filler, were most frequently contaminated followed by feather meal. Pelleting failed to eliminate the Salmonellae from the feeds. The methods used failed to detect Salmonella in the environment of the feed mill or its delivery trucks. Recommendations for control are made. PMID:369663

  20. Geothermal Mill Redevelopment Project in Massachusetts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vale, A.Q.


    Anwelt Heritage Apartments, LLC redeveloped a 120-year old mill complex into a mixed-use development in a lower-income neighborhood in Fitchburg, Massachusetts. Construction included 84 residential apartments rented as affordable housing to persons aged 62 and older. The Department of Energy (“DOE”) award was used as an essential component of financing the project to include the design and installation of a 200 ton geothermal system for space heating and cooling.

  1. Kinetic reduction of mill scale via hydrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaballah N.M.


    Full Text Available Mill scale is very attractive industrial waste since it is rich in iron (about = 72 % Fe and it is suiTab. for direct recycling to the blast furnace via sintering plant. In this paper the characterizations of raw materials were studied by different methods of analyses. The produced briquettes were reduced with different amounts of hydrogen at varying temperatures, and the reduction kinetics was determined. Two models were applied and the energy of activation was calculated.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irawan Irawan


    Full Text Available Dalam perindustrian penggunaan mesin CNC Milling sangat di andalkan untuk mendapatkan hasil yang optimum baik secara kualitas maupun kuantitas. Akan tetapi muncul permasalahan,bagaimana pengaruh perbedaan teknik penyayatan terhadap nilai kekasaran permukaan benda kerja berkontur dalam proses milling CNC. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh metode penyayatan pahat milling terhadap kekasaran permukaan benda kerja berkontur yang di hasilkan pada proses freis dengan menggunakan mesin milling CNC - 3Axis Makino S33. Peneliitan ini merancang dan membuat molding Cover stop kontak dikarenakan permukaan produk cover stop kontak memiliki permukaan yang berkontur. Molding ini terdiri dari Core dan Cavity. Benda kerja yang akan di ujicoba adalah bagian Core sebanyak 3 buah. Dalam pengerjaanya benda ujicoba diberikan perlakuan yang sama antara lain, kedalaman pemotongan, kecepatan spindle, dan jenis pahat yang di gunakan, kemudian dari ke 3 benda kerja tersebut masing- masing di tentukan 3 titik pengukuran. Dari hasil pengujian yang di peroleh kemudian dilakukan analisis tabel. Nilai kekasaran permukaan terendah (rata-rata kekasaran 0.899µ m dengan waktu permesinan tercepat (waktu proses 1 jam 08 menit pada penggunaan metode penyayatan 3D offset finishing. Penulis menyarankan agar dalam proses freis menggunakan mesin milling CNC 3Axis Makino S33 pada permukaan benda yang berkontur, untuk mendapatkan nilai kekasaran yang terendah disarankan menggunakan metode penyayatan 3D offset finishing.

  3. John Stuart Mill on socialism and accountability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José Sales Rocha


    Full Text Available artigo mostra que o tipo de socialismo proposto por John Stuart Mill é marcado por uma forte preocupação com a controlabilidade do poder econômico e político. Ele rejeitou enfaticamente os modelos centralistas de socialismo por entender que eles levam a uma grande concentração de poder que compromete a liberdade. Para J. S. Mill, o socialismo deve ser implantado lentamente a partir de reformas amplamente discutidas que favoreçam a cidadania econômica dos trabalhadores, promovam a participação deles nas decisões referentes ao processo produtivo e em associações voluntárias. J. S. Mill acreditava que a competição econômica é essencial para o adequado funcionamento de uma economia socialista. Ele não esperava que tal economia se tornasse uma realidade em um futuro próximo.

  4. Numerical simulation study on rolling-chemical milling process of aluminum-lithium alloy skin panel (United States)

    Huang, Z. B.; Sun, Z. G.; Sun, X. F.; Li, X. Q.


    Single curvature parts such as aircraft fuselage skin panels are usually manufactured by rolling-chemical milling process, which is usually faced with the problem of geometric accuracy caused by springback. In most cases, the methods of manual adjustment and multiple roll bending are used to control or eliminate the springback. However, these methods can cause the increase of product cost and cycle, and lead to material performance degradation. Therefore, it is of significance to precisely control the springback of rolling-chemical milling process. In this paper, using the method of experiment and numerical simulation on rolling-chemical milling process, the simulation model for rolling-chemical milling process of 2060-T8 aluminum-lithium alloy skin was established and testified by the comparison between numerical simulation and experiment results for the validity. Then, based on the numerical simulation model, the relative technological parameters which influence on the curvature of the skin panel were analyzed. Finally, the prediction of springback and the compensation can be realized by controlling the process parameters.

  5. Selenium and molybdenum removal from contaminated mill process effluent: Cameco Key Lake Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lieu, A.; Zheng, J.; Moldovan, B.; Ko, K.; Jarvi, J.; Saruchera, T.; Bergbusch, P.; Paulsen, K.; Tremblay, M.; Bharadwaj, B., E-mail: [Cameco Corp., Key Lake Operation, SK (Canada)


    The mill effluent treatment, Bulk Neutralization circuit in the Cameco Key Lake Operation was modified in 2008 to enhance the removal efficiency of selenium (Se) and molybdenum (Mo) from the mill process water. This modification was completed in part due to increased knowledge of the effects these elements have on biota. In addition, legacy effects from the historical operation of the Key Lake mill in regards to Se and Mo were shown to have an effect on the regional biota in the downstream receptors. This was a challenging initiative as there was no off the shelf technology available and the removal process had to be incorporated into an existing (brownfield) process. These modifications have resulted in significant reduction in the concentration of these elements in the mill effluent. The removal efficiency for Se and Mo has increased to 85% and 96%, respectively. As a result, concentrations of Se and Mo are now consistently less than 0.02 mg/L and 0.6 mg/L. This paper will provide detail on the hydrometallurgical removal mechanisms and process modifications required in the Key Lake effluent treatment circuit to remove these elements to trace levels. (author)

  6. John Stuart Mill: utilitarismo e liberalismo = John Stuart Mill: utilitarianism and liberalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simões, Mauro Cardoso


    Full Text Available Meu objetivo, neste trabalho, é investigar a compatibilidade das teses utilitaristas e liberais de John Stuart Mill. Apresentarei, inicialmente, os principais críticos da filosofia moral e política de Mill, para os quais o discípulo de Bentham teria abandonado o utilitarismo ou, ainda, não esclarecido suficientemente seu princípio da liberdade, o que o tornaria um pensador assistemático e inconsistente. Minha tese é contrária a tais interpretações, uma vez que sustenta ser Mill consistente. Em seguida, defenderei uma interpretação do princípio da liberdade e da individualidade, procurando demonstrar que seu utilitarismo é compatível com seu liberalismo

  7. The Milling Assistant, Case-Based Reasoning, and machining strategy: A report on the development of automated numerical control programming systems at New Mexico State University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burd, W. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Culler, D.; Eskridge, T.; Cox, L.; Slater, T. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States)


    The Milling Assistant (MA) programming system demonstrates the automated development of tool paths for Numerical Control (NC) machine tools. By integrating a Case-Based Reasoning decision processor with a commercial CAD/CAM software, intelligent tool path files for milled and point-to-point features can be created. The operational system is capable of reducing the time required to program a variety of parts and improving product quality by collecting and utilizing ``best of practice`` machining strategies.

  8. Model-based Process Monitoring and Control of Micro-milling using Active Magnetic Bearings


    Blom, R.S.


    The process of micro-milling is a promising technology for the fabrication of micro-parts with arbitrary 3D features in a wide range of materials. However, as a result of the reduced dimensions, the susceptibility of the process for machine tool errors and vibrations is higher, having adverse effects on accuracy and surface quality of the resulting workpieces. Furthermore, the production time and the efficiency of the process suffer from low material removal rates and excessive tool wear and ...

  9. Attempted - to -Phase Conversion of Croconic Acid via Ball Milling (United States)


    process was analyzed to determine the peak pressures and impact durations experienced by the CA powder during milling. Differential scanning...stainless steel ball and vessel. ................ 6 Fig. 6 Representative heat flow traces for milled CA samples. Curves have been offset to enhance...vessel on each swing. A Wig-L-Bug (Dentsply Rinn) ball mill was used to induce high dynamic pressures in as-received CA powder . The Wig-L-Bug is

  10. Archaeological Reconnaissance at Mill Creek, Rutherford County, North Carolina, (United States)


    Analysis of pollen from Buckles Bog on the Appalachian Plateau of Maryland provides a similar sequence of floral succession. Tundra vegetation existed...University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville, Tennessee., 47 S . . . S S* S. . . . . . ..- . . Maxwell, J. A. and M. B. Davis 1972 Pollen Evidence of Pleistocene...Lipscomb’s Mill, and Johnston’s Mill, Durham County, NC: Data Recovery operations of three mill complexes. 1985, Continuing archaeological investigations

  11. Ultrasonics for Monitoring of Mining Mill Linings:Pilot Experiments


    Stenström, Christer


    Mining mill linings are continuously exposed to wear induced by the charge, and thus, mill operation has to be interrupted on a regular basis for inspections. Stoppages due to inspections and replacement of linings lead to large production and monetary losses; especially in case of unplanned corrective maintenance. Condition monitoring during mill operation can assist in the maintenance planning and decision process to increase the availability and the overall performance of the material proc...

  12. Field-ball milling induced anisotropy in magnetic particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poudyal, Narayan [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States); Altuncevahir, Baki [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States); Chakka, Vamsi [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States); Chen Kanghua [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States); Black, Truman D [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States); Liu, J Ping [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States); Ding, Yong [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States); Wang Zhonglin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States)


    Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B and Sm{sub 2}Co{sub 17} particles of submicrometre sizes have been prepared by ball milling in a magnetic field. Structural and magnetic characterization reveal that these submicrometre particles milled in a magnetic field, consisting of nanosize grains, exhibit strong magnetic anisotropy compared with the particles milled without a magnetic field. Based on in situ observations of the field-ball milling in a transparent container, the mechanism of field-induced anisotropy in the nanostructured hard magnetic particles is discussed. (rapid communication)

  13. Milling Of Shaped Grooves - Profile Of Form Tools (United States)

    Pilc, Jozef; Sajgalik, Michal; Stancekova, Dana; Janota, Miroslav; Pitela, David


    This paper deals with design of milling tool for milling of shaped groove. Actual industry production requires the large amount of tools and notably the special tools used for example when shaped milling. The requirements on the quality of tools are increasingly demanding. The quality of tools is given by construction, production process, selected material and also heat treatment. Shaped milling requires special tools made for given shape. Main request on the construction of tool is making of shape of cutting edge, which can produce the required shape of workpiece.

  14. Mathematical Modeling of Thermofrictional Milling Process Using ANSYS WB Software

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    K.T. Sherov; M.R. Sikhimbayev; A.K. Sherov; B.S. Donenbayev; A.K. Rakishev; A.B. Mazdubai; M.M. Musayev; A.M. Abeuova


    This article presents ANSYS WB-based mathematical modelling of the thermofrictional milling process, which allowed studying the dynamics of thermal and physical processes occurring during the processing...

  15. Preparation of iron sulphides by high energy ball milling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, R.; Jiang, Jianzhong; Larsen, R.K.


    The reaction of a powder mixture consisting of 50 a.% Fe and 50 a.% S during high energy ball milling has been studied by x-ray diffraction and Mossbauer spectroscopy. After around 19 h of milling FeS2 and FeS havebeen formed. By further milling the FeS compound becomes dominating and only Fe......S with an average crystallite size of about 10 nm was observed after milling times longer than 67 h. Mossbauer spectra obtained with applied fields show that the particles are antiferromagnetic or have a strongly canted spin structure....

  16. Middle Miocene carnivorans from the Monarch Mill Formation, Nevada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kent Smith


    Full Text Available he lowest part of the Monarch Mill Formation in the Middlegate basin, west-central Nevada, has yielded a middle Miocene (Barstovian Land Mammal Age vertebrate assemblage, the Eastgate local fauna. Paleobotanical evidence from nearby, nearly contemporaneous fossil leaf assemblages indicates that the Middle Miocene vegetation in the area was mixed coniferous and hardwood forest and chaparral-sclerophyllous shrubland, and suggests that the area had been uplifted to 2700–2800 m paleoaltitude before dropping later to near its present elevation of 1600 m. Thus, the local fauna provides a rare glimpse at a medium- to high-altitude vertebrate community in the intermountain western interior of North America. The local fauna includes the remains of fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and 25 families of mammals. Carnivorans, the focus of this study, include six taxa (three of which are new belonging to four families. Canidae are represented by the borophagine Tomarctus brevirostris and the canine Leptocyon sp. indet. The earliest record and second North American occurrence of the simocyonine ailurid Actiocyon is represented by A. parverratis sp. nov. Two new mustelids, Brevimalictis chikasha gen. et sp. nov. and Negodiaetictis rugatrulleum gen. et sp. nov., may represent Galictinae but are of uncertain subfamilial and tribal affinity. The fourth family is represented by the felid Pseudaelurus sp. indet. Tomarctus brevirostris is limited biochronologically to the Barstovian land mammal age and thus is consistent with the age indicated by other members of the Eastgate local fauna as well as by indirect tephrochronological dates previously associated with the Monarch Mill Formation. Actiocyon parverratis sp. nov. extends the temporal range of the genus Actiocyon from late Clarendonian back to the Barstovian. The Eastgate local fauna improves our understanding of mammalian successions and evolution, during and subsequent to the Mid-Miocene Climatic Optimum

  17. Continuous production of drug nanoparticle suspensions via wet stirred media milling: a fresh look at the Rehbinder effect. (United States)

    Monteiro, Alexandre; Afolabi, Afolawemi; Bilgili, Ecevit


    Nanoparticles of BCS Class II drugs are produced in wet stirred media mills operating in batch or recirculation mode with the goal of resolving the poor water-solubility issue. Scant information is available regarding the continuous production of drug nanoparticles via wet media milling. Griseofulvin and Naproxen were milled in both recirculation mode and multi-pass continuous mode to study the breakage dynamics and to determine the effects of suspension flow rate. The evolution of the median particle size was measured and described by an empirical breakage model. We found that these two operation modes could produce drug nanosuspensions with similar particle size distributions (PSDs). A reduced suspension flow rate slowed the breakage rate and led to a wider PSD and more differentiation between the two operation modes. The latter part of this study focused on the roles of stabilizers (hydroxypropyl cellulose and sodium lauryl sulfate) and elucidation of the so-called Rehbinder effect (reduction in particle strength due to adsorbed stabilizers such as polymers and surfactants). Milling the drugs in the absence of the stabilizers produced primary nanoparticles and their aggregates, while milling with the stabilizers produced smaller primary nanoparticles with minimal aggregation. Using laser diffraction, BET nitrogen adsorption, scanning electron microscopy imaging, and a microhydrodynamic analysis of milling, this study, for the first time, provides sufficient evidence for the existence of the Rehbinder effect during the milling of drugs. Not only do the polymers and surfactants allow proper stabilization of the nanoparticles in the suspensions, but they also do facilitate drug particle breakage.


    Ray, R. B.


    OPMILL is a computer operating system for a Kearney and Trecker milling machine that provides a fast and easy way to program machine part manufacture with an IBM compatible PC. The program gives the machinist an "equation plotter" feature which plots any set of equations that define axis moves (up to three axes simultaneously) and converts those equations to a machine milling program that will move a cutter along a defined path. Other supported functions include: drill with peck, bolt circle, tap, mill arc, quarter circle, circle, circle 2 pass, frame, frame 2 pass, rotary frame, pocket, loop and repeat, and copy blocks. The system includes a tool manager that can handle up to 25 tools and automatically adjusts tool length for each tool. It will display all tool information and stop the milling machine at the appropriate time. Information for the program is entered via a series of menus and compiled to the Kearney and Trecker format. The program can then be loaded into the milling machine, the tool path graphically displayed, and tool change information or the program in Kearney and Trecker format viewed. The program has a complete file handling utility that allows the user to load the program into memory from the hard disk, save the program to the disk with comments, view directories, merge a program on the disk with one in memory, save a portion of a program in memory, and change directories. OPMILL was developed on an IBM PS/2 running DOS 3.3 with 1 MB of RAM. OPMILL was written for an IBM PC or compatible 8088 or 80286 machine connected via an RS-232 port to a Kearney and Trecker Data Mill 700/C Control milling machine. It requires a "D:" drive (fixed-disk or virtual), a browse or text display utility, and an EGA or better display. Users wishing to modify and recompile the source code will also need Turbo BASIC, Turbo C, and Crescent Software's QuickPak for Turbo BASIC. IBM PC and IBM PS/2 are registered trademarks of International Business Machines. Turbo

  19. Nutritional Impacts of Different Whole Grain Milling Techniques: A Review of Milling Practices and Existing Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miller Jones, J.; Adams, J.; Harriman, C.; Miller, C.; Kamp, J.W. van der


    The majority of whole grain flour is produced using modern milling techniques, usually with steel rollers, in which a batch of grain is separated into multiple millstreams, sifted, and recombined. In some cases constituent millstreams are purchased and combined by a supplier or end user to achieve a

  20. Nutritional impacts of different whole grain milling techniques : A review of milling practices and existing data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miller Jones, J.; Adams, J.; Harriman, C.; Miller, C.; Kamp, J.W. van der


    The majority of whole grain flour is produced using modern milling techniques, usually with steel rollers, in which a batch of grain is separated into multiple millstreams, sifted, and recombined. In some cases constituent millstreams are purchased and combined by a supplier or end user to achieve a

  1. Recidivemeting Glen Mills : De uitstroomresultaten van de Glen Mills School in termen van strafrechtelijke recidive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijersbergen, K.A.; Wartna, B.S.J.


    Deze Fact sheet beschrijft de strafrechtelijke recidive van ex-pupillen van de Glen Mills School. Na een korte beschrijving van de groep wordt de recidive van de jongeren die de school in de periode 1999-2004 verlieten, in kaart gebracht. Om reliëf te geven aan de resultaten, worden de cijfers

  2. Perturbative spacetimes from Yang-Mills theory

    CERN Document Server

    Luna, Andrés; Nicholson, Isobel; Ochirov, Alexander; O'Connell, Donal; Westerberg, Niclas; White, Chris D.


    The double copy relates scattering amplitudes in gauge and gravity theories. In this paper, we expand the scope of the double copy to construct spacetime metrics through a systematic perturbative expansion. The perturbative procedure is based on direct calculation in Yang-Mills theory, followed by squaring the numerator of certain perturbative diagrams as specified by the double-copy algorithm. The simplest spherically symmetric, stationary spacetime from the point of view of this procedure is a particular member of the Janis-Newman-Winicour family of naked singularities. Our work paves the way for applications of the double copy to physically interesting problems such as perturbative black-hole scattering.

  3. Duality in supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peskin, M.E.


    These lectures provide an introduction to the behavior of strongly-coupled supersymmetric gauge theories. After a discussion of the effective Lagrangian in nonsupersymmetric and supersymmetric field theories, the author analyzes the qualitative behavior of the simplest illustrative models. These include supersymmetric QCD for N{sub f} < N{sub c}, in which the superpotential is generated nonperturbatively, N = 2 SU(2) Yang-Mills theory (the Seiberg-Witten model), in which the nonperturbative behavior of the effect coupling is described geometrically, and supersymmetric QCD for N{sub f} large, in which the theory illustrates a non-Abelian generalization of electric-magnetic duality. 75 refs., 12 figs.

  4. Aerobic degradation of olive mill wastewaters. (United States)

    Benitez, J; Beltran-Heredia, J; Torregrosa, J; Acero, J L; Cercas, V


    The degradation of olive mill wastewater by aerobic microorganisms has been investigated in a batch reactor, by conducting experiments where the initial concentration of organic matter, quantified by the chemical oxygen demand, and the initial biomass were varied. The evolution of the chemical oxygen demand, biomass and the total contents of phenolic and aromatic compounds were followed through each experiment. According to the Contois model, a kinetic expression for the substrate utilization rate is derived, and its biokinetic constants are evaluated. This final predicted equation agrees well with all the experimental data.

  5. Cuttable Ruled Surface Strips for Milling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenstrup, Kasper Hornbak; Nørbjerg, Toke Bjerge; Søndergaard, Asbjørn


    This paper proposes a novel pre-processing method for industrial robotic CNC-milling. The method targets a hybrid machining process, in which the main bulk of material is removed through robotic hot or abrasive wire cutting, after which regular CNC-machining is employed for removal of the remaining...... material volume. Hereby, the roughing process is significantly sped up, reduc-ing overall machining time. We compare our method to the convex hull and re-move between 5% and 75% more material; on most models we obtain a 50% improvement. Our method ensures that no overcutting happens and that the result...

  6. Effect of cervical spine position on upper limb myoelectric activity during pre-manipulative stretch for Mills manipulation: a new model, relations to peripheral nerve biomechanics and specificity of Mills manipulation. (United States)

    Rade, Marinko; Shacklock, Michael; Peharec, Stanislav; Bačić, Petar; Candian, Corrado; Kankaanpää, Markku; Airaksinen, Olavi


    (A) Describe a new method of investigation of the possible muscular effects of the commonly practiced Mills manipulation for lateral elbow pain (epicondylalgia), (B) ascertain if myoelectric activity is influenced during the pre-manipulative stretch for Mills manipulation, (C) establish whether muscle responses are influenced by ipsilateral lateral flexion of the cervical spine which reduces mechanical tension in the peripheral nerves of the upper limb. Eight asymptomatic subjects were tested bilaterally (N=16). Myoelectric measurements - EMG signals were recorded with a 16 channel pocket EMG patient unit and processed off-line. Measurement of joint positions-three CCD adjustable cameras sensitive to 10mm reflective passive markers applied at specific locations on the subjects' bodies were used to reconstruct and verify accuracy of body movements and were correlated with EMG recordings. Compared with the standard (anatomical) position of the cervical spine in which Mills manipulation is typically performed, cervical spine ipsilateral lateral flexion produced significantly reduced activity in muscles that restrain the manipulation movement (elbow extension), namely biceps brachii (P=0.018) and brachioradialis (P=0.000). The affected muscles may therefore produce protective effects during the manipulation. Changes in myoelectric activity were in a pattern that suggests that muscle and neural mechanisms may be an integral part of the Mills manipulation. Cervical spine ipsilateral lateral flexion may be used to reduce mechanical stresses in the peripheral nerves and extraneous muscle activity, making Mills' manipulation potentially safer and more specific. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of milling time on microstructure and properties of Nano-titanium polymer by high-energy ball milling (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Wei, Shicheng; Wang, Yujiang; Liang, Yi; Guo, Lei; Xue, Junfeng; Pan, Fusheng; Tang, Aitao; Chen, Xianhua; Xu, Binshi


    Nano-titanium (Nano-Ti) was prepared by high-energy ball milling from pure Ti power and grinding agents (Epoxy resin) at room temperature. The effect of milling time on structure and properties of Nano-Ti polymer were investigated systematically. The results show that high-energy ball milling is an effective way to produce Nano-Ti polymer. The dispersion stability and compatibility between Ti power and grinding agents are improved by prolonging the milling time at a certain degree, that is to say, the optimization milling time is 240 min. The particle size of Ti powder and the diffraction peaks intensity of Ti decrease obviously as the milling time increases due to the compression stress, shear friction and other mechanical forces are formed during ball milling. FT-IR result displays that the wavenumber of all the bands move to lower wavenumber after ball milling, and the epoxy ring is open. The system internal energy rises owing to the broken epoxy group and much more Nano-Ti is formed to promote the grafting reaction between Nano-Ti and epoxy resin. The results from TEM and XPS also prove that. And the grafting ration is maximum as the milling time is 240 min, the mass loss ratio is 17.53%.

  8. Children's Rights, "die Antipadagogen," and the Paternalism of John Stuart Mill. (United States)

    Nordenbo, Sven Erik


    Examines how John Stuart Mill would have viewed present-day educational liberalists' claims that children should be included in Mill's principle of individual liberty. Concludes that educational liberalists cannot rightly claim Mill as spokesman for their views. (KO)

  9. Experimental studies on pulp and paper mill sludge ash behavior in fluidized bed combustors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latva-Somppi, J. [VTT Chemical Technology, Espoo (Finland). Process Technology


    Ash formation during the fluidized bed combustion (FBC) of pulp and paper mill sludges has been experimentally studied on an industrial and bench scale. The methods included aerosol measurements, chemical and crystalline composition analyses, thermogravimetry and electron microscopy. Fly ash mass and number size distributions and elemental enrichment in submicron particles and bottom ash were measured. Fly ash, bottom ash and ash deposits were characterized and their formation mechanisms are discussed. During combustion the fine paper-making additives in sludge, clay minerals and calcite, sintered fanning porous agglomerates. The fly ash mass mean size was 7.5 - 15 lam and the supermicron particles included 93.6 - 97.3 % of the fly ash. Condensation of the volatilized inorganic species formed spherical submicron particles in the fly ash. Their mass concentration was almost negligible when co-firing paper mill sludges and wood. This suggests that the fraction of the volatilized inorganic species in the paper mill sludges was low. Results from pulp mill sludge and bark co-firing were different. A clear mass mode below 0.3 pm, presenting 2.2 - 5.0 weight-% of the fly ash was detected. The condensed species included K, Na, S and Cl. Their mass fraction was higher in the pulp mill sludge than in the paper mill sludge. Evidently this resulted in increased volatilization and formation of condensed particles. The following trace elements were enriched in the submicron ash during pulp mill sludge and wood co-firing: As, Cd, Rb and Pb. The main part of the volatile species was, however, captured in the bulk ash. Presumably, this was due to the high surface area concentration in the bulk ash. Sludge moisture was observed to reduce the inorganic species volatilization. Probably steam vaporization from the wet sludge through the burning layer decreased combustion temperatures on char surface and less char was produced. Hence, the volatilization of ash forming species was

  10. Quantum Yang–Mills Dark Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Pasechnik


    Full Text Available In this short review, I discuss basic qualitative characteristics of quantum non-Abelian gauge dynamics in the non-stationary background of the expanding Universe in the framework of the standard Einstein–Yang–Mills formulation. A brief outlook of existing studies of cosmological Yang–Mills fields and their properties will be given. Quantum effects have a profound impact on the gauge field-driven cosmological evolution. In particular, a dynamical formation of the spatially-homogeneous and isotropic gauge field condensate may be responsible for both early and late-time acceleration, as well as for dynamical compensation of non-perturbative quantum vacua contributions to the ground state of the Universe. The main properties of such a condensate in the effective QCD theory at the flat Friedmann–Lemaítre–Robertson–Walker (FLRW background will be discussed within and beyond perturbation theory. Finally, a phenomenologically consistent dark energy can be induced dynamically as a remnant of the QCD vacua compensation arising from leading-order graviton-mediated corrections to the QCD ground state.

  11. Effects of size and age on the survival and growth of pulp and paper mills (United States)

    Xiaolei Li; Joseph Buongiorno; Peter J. Ince


    The growth of pulp and paper mills in the US from 1970 to 2000 depended mostly on size and age. Mills grew according to Gibrat’s law, and post-1970 mills grew faster than pre-1971 mills. Mills stopped growing at approximately 22 years of age. But most mills survived beyond that, thus growth was not necessary for survival, but characteristic of the early phase of the...

  12. Cooked rice texture and rice flour pasting properties; impacted by rice temperature during milling


    Saleh, Mohammed; Meullenet, Jean-Francois


    Rice milling plays a key factor in determining rice quality and value. Therefore accurate quality assessments are critical to the rice industry. This study was undertaken to assess the effect of exposing rice to elevated temperatures during milling, on cooked rice texture and rice flour pasting properties. Two long (Cybonnett and Francis) and one medium (Jupiter) rice (oryzae sativa L.) cultivars were milled using McGill laboratory mill for 30 and 40 s after warmed up the mill before milling....

  13. The MediaMill TRECVID 2011 semantic video search engine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snoek, C.G.M.; van de Sande, K.E.A.; Li, X.; Mazloom, M.; Jiang, Y.; Koelma, D.C.; Smeulders, A.W.M.


    In this paper we describe our TRECVID 2011 video retrieval experiments. The MediaMill team participated in two tasks: semantic indexing and multimedia event detection. The starting point for the MediaMill detection approach is our top-performing bag-of-words system of TRECVID 2010, which uses

  14. The MediaMill TRECVID 2012 semantic video search engine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snoek, C.G.M.; van de Sande, K.E.A.; Habibian, A.; Kordumova, S.; Li, Z.; Mazloom, M.; Pintea, S.L.; Tao, R.; Koelma, D.C.; Smeulders, A.W.M.


    In this paper we describe our TRECVID 2012 video retrieval experiments. The MediaMill team participated in four tasks: semantic indexing, multimedia event detection, multimedia event recounting and instance search. The starting point for the MediaMill detection approach is our top-performing

  15. The MediaMill TRECVID 2010 semantic video search engine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snoek, C.G.M.; van de Sande, K.E.A.; de Rooij, O.; Huurnink, B.; Gavves, E.; Odijk, D.; de Rijke, M.; Gevers, T.; Worring, M.; Koelma, D.C.; Smeulders, A.W.M.


    In this paper we describe our TRECVID 2010 video retrieval experiments. The MediaMill team participated in three tasks: semantic indexing, known-item search, and instance search. The starting point for the MediaMill concept detection approach is our top-performing bag-of-words system of TRECVID

  16. Lupine protein enrichment by milling and electrostatic separation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Jue; Zhao, Jun; Wit, De Martin; Boom, Remko M.; Schutyser, Maarten A.I.


    Lupine seeds are excellent source of plant protein. We here report on dry fractionation by combining milling and electrostatic separation providing an alternative to wet extraction of protein from lupine seeds. Relatively coarse milling was preferred as this provides sufficient detached protein

  17. Particle Size Distribution in Milled Sorghum Grains of Different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sorghum bicolor (L) Moench] coded V3, V6 and V8 was determined by sieve analysis. The moisture content of the grains ranged between 9.83 and 10.60%, wet weight basis. The milling was carried out on whole grains using a laboratory pin mill ...

  18. Hydraulic Workover Unit (HWU) Application in Down-hole Milling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    The major challenge with down hole milling operations using HWU is employing a suitable fluid circulating system, which is very ... Hydraulic Work over Unit in down hole milling operation in Niger Delta highlighting the steps taken to ensure good circulating .... Cover: Black, oil and abrasive resistant synthetic rubber. 6.

  19. John Stuart Mill on Freedom, Education, and Social Reform. (United States)

    Carbone, Peter F.


    Examines the social philosophy of John Stuart Mill, emphasizing his views on freedom, education, and social reform. Considers Mill's individualism and reformism, the conflict between freedom and control that characterizes his work, and the importance of freedom and education. Suggests caution in drawing educational implications from his work. (DAB)

  20. Profitability and capacity utilization of rice milling enterprises in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study estimated profitability of rice milling enterprises and determined their mills' capacity utilization in Ondo State of Nigeria Data collected from 85 rice millers in eight Local Government Areas of the State were analysed, using simple proportions, budgetary techniques, financial ratios and ordinary least squares ...

  1. Rough Mill Improvement Guide for Managers and Supervisors (United States)

    Philip H. Mitchell; Jan Wiedenbeck; Bobby Ammerman; Bobby Ammerman


    Wood products manufacturers require an efficient recovery of product from lumber to remain profitable. A company's ability to obtain the best yield in lumber cut-up operations (i.e., the rough mill) varies according to the raw material, product, processing equipment, processing environment, and knowledge and skill of the rough mill's employees. This book...

  2. Ball milling and annealing of Co-50 at% W Powders

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bolokang, AS


    Full Text Available annealing of unmilled compacts yielded metastable phases. Upon 10 and 20 h ball milling of Co-W powder, no alloying was obtained. Although milling did not yield significant crystal changes in W and Co ground state struc- tures, its effect is evident during...

  3. 'Mill's Liberal Project and Defence of Colonialism from a Post ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It aims to show that Mill's views on colonial rule were largely informed by his principle of liberty which, in turn, was based on his qualitative utilitarianism. The driving force behind his colonialism, as with his work in general, was his unwavering belief in the importance of human progress and development. Mill never believed ...

  4. Breaking seed dormancy in oil rose ( Rosa damascena Mill.) by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to determine the effects of microbial inoculation in breaking seed dormancy and on the germination of Rosa damascena Mill. Seeds of R. damascena Mill. are the most used scented rose species in rose oil production. The most important production centers around the world are Turkey and ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. B. Lojechnikov


    Full Text Available Powder rolling conditions are systematized with the purpose of their compacting and milling. The generalized  condition of solid and free-flowing bulk material deformation is proposed in the  paper. The analytical solution of a stressed state of powder being shaped mechanically that ensures milling of its particles has been obtained.

  6. Detection of internally infested popcorn using electrically conductive roller mills (United States)

    To detect popcorn kernels infested by the internal feeding stored-product insect pest Sitophilus zeamais, maize weevil, a laboratory roller mill was modified so that the electrical conductivity of the grain is measured while the kernels are milled between the rolls. When a kernel with a S. zeamais l...

  7. Fault Detection in Coal Mills used in Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Mataji, Babak


    In order to achieve high performance and efficiency of coal-fired power plants, it is highly important to control the coal flow into the furnace in the power plant. This means suppression of disturbances and force the coal mill to deliver the required coal flow, as well as monitor the coal mill...

  8. Conserved currents and gauge invariance in Yang-Mills theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnich, G. [Universite Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium). Faculte des Sciences; Brandt, F. [Nationaal Inst. voor Kernfysica en Hoge-Energiefysica (NIKHEF), Amsterdam (Netherlands). Sectie H; Henneaux, M. [Universite Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium). Faculte des Sciences


    It is shown that in the absence of free abelian gauge fields, the conserved currents of (classical) Yang-Mills gauge models coupled to matter fields can be always redefined so as to be gauge invariant. This is a direct consequence of the general analysis of the Wess-Zumino consistency condition for Yang-Mills theory that we have provided recently. (orig.).

  9. 33 CFR 117.225 - Yellow Mill Channel. (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Yellow Mill Channel. 117.225 Section 117.225 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Connecticut § 117.225 Yellow Mill Channel. The...

  10. Structural and magnetic properties of ball milled copper ferrite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goya, G.F.; Rechenberg, H.R.; Jiang, Jianzhong


    The structural and magnetic evolution in copper ferrite (CuFe2O4) caused by high-energy ball milling are investigated by x-ray diffraction, Mössbauer spectroscopy, and magnetization measurements. Initially, the milling process reduces the average grain size of CuFe2O4 to about 6 nm and induces...

  11. Effect of industrial processing on the distribution of aflatoxins and zearalenone in corn-milling fractions. (United States)

    Brera, Carlo; Catano, Carla; de Santis, Barbara; Debegnach, Francesca; de Giacomo, Marzia; Pannunzi, Elena; Miraglia, Marina


    The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of aflatoxins and zearalenone levels in various corn-milling fractions. Corn kernels and six derived milling fractions (germ, bran, large and small grits, flour, and animal feed flour) were sampled in an industrial plant; both conventional and organic corns were sampled. To evaluate the effect of cooking, samples of polenta were prepared starting from naturally contaminated flour. Conventional and organic lots showed mycotoxin contamination. For both lots, germ, bran, and animal feed flour showed a marked concentration factor from 239 to 911% accounting for both the low yields of the derived products and the distribution of aflatoxins and zearalenone contamination in the outer parts of the kernels. Conversely, a reduction factor of at least four times from raw material to finished products was observed. Polenta samples were unaffected by the cooking process, with levels of contamination similar to those of starting flour.

  12. Optimization strategy in end milling process for high speed machining of hardened die/mold steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    An optimization strategy for high speed machining of hardened die/mold steel based on machining feature analysis was studied. It is a further extension of the previously presented study on the thermal mechanism of end milling and constant cutting force control. An objective function concerning machining cost and associated optimization algorithm based on machining time and cutting length calculation was proposed. Constraints to satisfy specific machining strategies when high speed machining the hardened die/mold steel, trochoid tool path pattern in slot end milling to avoid over-heat and feed rate adaptation to avoid over-load, were also discussed.As a case study, the tool selection problem when machining a die part with multiple machining features was investigated.

  13. Revegetation and rock cover for stabilization of inactive uranium mill tailings disposal sites. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beedlow, P.A.


    Guidelines for using vegetation and rock to protect inactive uranium mill tailings from erosion were developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory as part of the Department of Energy's Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP) Technology Development program. Information on soils, climate, and vegetation were collected for 20 inactive tailings sites in the western United States. Sites were grouped according to similarities in climate and vegetation. Soil loss for those sites was characterized using the Universal Soil Loss Equation. Test plots were used to evaluate (1) the interaction between vegetation and sealant barrier systems and (2) the effects of surface rock on soil water and vegetation. Lysimeter and simulation studies were used to direct and support field experiments. 49 references, 17 figures, 16 tables.

  14. Broadband Absorber for the Microwave Region Using Ball-Milled Graphite Gratings (United States)

    Chen, Xiqiao; Zhang, Zilong; Wang, Zilin; Wang, Shuai; Heng, Liuyang; Zou, Yanhong


    A broadband absorber for the microwave region based on a dielectric structure with ball-milled graphite gratings has been proposed. In this absorber, electromagnetic waves in the frequency range of 5.4 to 18 GHz are absorbed efficiently with more than 90% absorptivity. The ball-milled graphite with high a imaginary part of its permittivity used in this work can exhibit dielectric loss to some extent, while there is almost no magnetic loss owing to its low permeability. By comparing the electric field of a single absorbing layer and our grating structure, we found that a λ/4 resonance mode with a narrowband property is excited in the single-layer structure, while the cavity-mode resonance and the edge diffraction effects are the main reasons for the broadband absorption of our designed grating structure. This result provides a guideline for microwave-absorbing materials to greatly extend their bandwidth using a simple structure.

  15. Improved hydrogen sorption kinetics in wet ball milled Mg hydrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Li


    In this work, wet ball milling method is used in order to improve hydrogen sorption behaviour due to its improved microstructure of solid hydrogen materials. Compared to traditional ball milling method, wet ball milling has benefits on improvement of MgH{sub 2} microstructure and further influences on its hydrogen sorption behavior. With the help of solvent tetrahydrofuran (THF), wet ball milled MgH{sub 2} powder has much smaller particle size and its specific surface area is 7 times as large as that of dry ball milled MgH{sub 2} powder. Although after ball milling the grain size is decreased a lot compared to as-received MgH{sub 2} powder, the grain size of wet ball milled MgH{sub 2} powder is larger than that of dry ball milled MgH{sub 2} powder due to the lubricant effect of solvent THF during wet ball milling. The improved particle size and specific surface area of wet ball milled MgH{sub 2} powder is found to be determining its hydrogen sorption kinetics especially at relatively low temperatures. And it also shows good cycling sorption behavior, which decides on its industrial applicability. With three different catalysts MgH{sub 2} powder shows improved hydrogen sorption behavior as well as the cyclic sorption behavior. Among them, the Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} catalyst is found to be the most effective one in this work. Compared to the wet ball milled MgH{sub 2} powder, the particle size and specific surface area of the MgH{sub 2} powder with catalysts are similar to the previous ones, while the grain size of the MgH{sub 2} with catalysts is much finer. In this case, two reasons for hydrogen sorption improvement are suggested: one is the reduction of the grain size. The other may be as pointed out in some literatures that formation of new oxidation could enhance the hydrogen sorption kinetics, which is also the reason why its hydrogen capacity is decreased compared to without catalysts. After further ball milling, the specific surface area of wet ball milled Mg

  16. The Influence of Milling on the Dissolution Performance of Simvastatin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Rades


    Full Text Available Particle size reduction is a simple means to enhance the dissolution rate of poorly water soluble BCS-class II and IV drugs. However, the major drawback of this process is the possible introduction of process induced disorder. Drugs with different molecular arrangements may exhibit altered properties such as solubility and dissolution rate and, therefore, process induced solid state modifications need to be monitored. The aim of this study was two-fold: firstly, to investigate the dissolution rates of milled and unmilled simvastatin; and secondly, to screen for the main milling factors, as well as factor interactions in a dry ball milling process using simvastatin as model drug, and to optimize the milling procedure with regard to the opposing responses particle size and process induced disorder by application of a central composite face centered design. Particle size was assessed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and image analysis. Process induced disorder was determined by partial least squares (PLS regression modeling of respective X-ray powder diffractograms (XRPD and Raman spectra. Valid and significant quadratic models were built. The investigated milling factors were milling frequency, milling time and ball quantity at a set drug load, out of which milling frequency was found to be the most important factor for particle size as well as process induced disorder. Milling frequency and milling time exhibited an interaction effect on the responses. The optimum milling settings using the maximum number of milling balls (60 balls with 4 mm diameter was determined to be at a milling frequency of 21 Hz and a milling time of 36 min with a resulting primary particle size of 1.4 μm and a process induced disorder of 6.1% (assessed by Raman spectroscopy and 8.4% (assessed by XRPD, at a set optimization limit of < 2 μm for particle size and < 10% for process induced disorder. This optimum was tested experimentally and the process induced disorder

  17. Development of a Staggered PCD End Mill for Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangjun Liu


    Full Text Available This work presents a PCD (polycrystalline diamond end mill with a new staggered structure for the milling of CFRP (carbon fiber reinforced plastic. The magnitude and direction of cutting force is decreased and changed by side-edge re-configuration of the structure. The flute and insert pocket of the staggered PCD end mill are designed considering the tool’s stiffness and welding process. The milling process and machining defects of the staggered PCD end mill are analyzed, and the structural parameters of the staggered PCD end mill are determined. The staggered PCD end mill is fabricated by the process of wire cutting, NC (Numerical Control machining, high-frequency induction brazing, welding, grinding and passivation. Milling tests of multidirectional CFRP with the staggered PCD end mill is conducted on CNC (Computerized Numerical Control milling machine. The milling force is measured by a dynamometer. A range analysis of the numerical results of milling force is conducted after milling test, and the influence of milling parameters on milling force is analyzed. A regression model of the milling force is built and verified by experiment. The effects of fiber cutting angle on milling force are obtained through milling CFRP with different fiber orientation angles.

  18. The influence of milling on the dissolution performance of simvastatin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zimper, Ulrike; Aaltonen, Jaakko; Krauel-Goellner, Karen


    , as well as factor interactions in a dry ball milling process using simvastatin as model drug, and to optimize the milling procedure with regard to the opposing responses particle size and process induced disorder by application of a central composite face centered design. Particle size was assessed...... properties such as solubility and dissolution rate and, therefore, process induced solid state modifications need to be monitored. The aim of this study was two-fold: firstly, to investigate the dissolution rates of milled and unmilled simvastatin; and secondly, to screen for the main milling factors...... by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and image analysis. Process induced disorder was determined by partial least squares (PLS) regression modeling of respective X-ray powder diffractograms (XRPD) and Raman spectra. Valid and significant quadratic models were built. The investigated milling factors were...

  19. Solid-state vitrification of crystalline griseofulvin by mechanical milling. (United States)

    Willart, Jean-François; Carpentier, Laurent; Danède, Florence; Descamps, Marc


    The thermodynamic, dynamic, and structural changes of crystalline griseofulvin upon high-energy ball milling at room temperature have been studied. The investigations have been performed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), dielectric relaxation spectroscopy, and powder X-ray diffraction. The results indicate that this compound undergoes a direct crystal-to-glass transformation upon milling, whereas no glass transition can be clearly detected upon heating because of the exceptional sub-glass transition temperature (T(g) ) recrystallization of the milled sample. This intrinsic difficulty for characterizing the glassy state has been overcome using three independent strategies: (i) comparison of the evolutions upon milling of both the crystalline powder and the quenched liquid, (ii) use of fast DSC to delay the recrystallization event, and (iii) search for dielectric β relaxations typical of glasses in the milled compound. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Fluidized Bed Opposed Jet Mill System for Processing Inorganic Materials (United States)

    Al-Nuzal, S. M. D.; Mohammed, M. I.


    A jet mill system was built aiming to give values for processing inorganic materials, to be used for different industry. The milling housing of the system is composed of; milling chamber, compressed air nozzles which deliver compressed air in the milling chamber to accelerate sample particles. The classifier wheel is composed of two concentric pieces welded together under argon and coupled to a AC Motor, 0 - 9000 rpm, 2 kW, with AC frequencies convertor. The performances of this jet mill system were tried on five cheap locally available materials, viz. white sand, glass, iron oxide, black carbon and alum. It is possible to get particle sizes of less than 1 μm with narrow distribution of particle sizes.

  1. Enhancement studies on operation and control of water usage in closed cycle paper mills; Vaehaevetisen paperikoneen vesijaerjestelmaen dynamiikan tutkiminen - PMSY 01

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laukkanen, I. [VTT Automation, Espoo (Finland)


    The dynamics of pulp and water systems of a closed cycle paper mill was studied in the project using a detailed simulation model. The model covers the main parts of the manufacture of the body paper from the pulp containers to the rollers of a paper machine. The main adjustments of the process and parts of the automation are included in the simulation model. The first application of the model was the preliminary training of the operators of the mill. The objective of the training was to develop the process control and to teach, by the aid of the model, the operation of the new mill under different operating conditions. Valmet Datamatic XD process control system, commercially available, was used in the training for operation of the simulator, due to which the training was realistic. The same simulation model was used for analysis of the dynamics of the water consumption of the mill under different, which are normal operation, change of the quality, breaks in the machine, and the process and equipment failures. The model was also used for investigation of interfering substances in the flow networks of the mill. All the simulations were carried out before the mill start-up with the APMS software developed by VTT Automation. Dynamic simulation appeared to be an efficient method for validation of the process and automation planning of a closed cycle paper mill, as well as for training of operators. Due to proper training the start-up of the mill is easy. The methods developed in the project for water cycles and quality management of a paper machine are directly applicable for other corresponding process plants. (orig.)

  2. Olive mill wastewater triggered changes in physiology and nutritional quality of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum mill) depending on growth substrate. (United States)

    Ouzounidou, G; Asfi, M; Sotirakis, N; Papadopoulou, P; Gaitis, F


    We have studied the changes in the physiology and nutritional quality of Lycopersicon esculentum exposed to olive mill wastewater (OMW) with regard to cultivation in sand and soil. Tomato plant performance decreased with increasing concentration of OMW to both substrates. Root was more sensitive to OMW than the upper parts of the plants, grown either in sand or in soil for 10 days and 3 months, respectively, probably due to the direct OMW toxicity on roots as compared to other parts. Significant restriction on uptake and translocation of nutrients (K, Na, Fe, Ca and Mg) under OMW application was found. The decrease in the photochemical efficiency of PSII photochemistry in the light adapted state and the big decrease in photochemical quenching, indicate that OMW resulted in diminished reoxidation of Q(A)(-) and started to inactivate the reaction centers of PSII. The OMW supply on soil and sand, resulted in leaf water stress and lesser water use efficiency. Plants treated with high OMW concentration, produced fewer but bigger tomatoes as compared to plants treated with lower OMW concentration. Generally, fruit yield and nutritional value was inhibited under OMW application.

  3. Hybrid ABC Optimized MARS-Based Modeling of the Milling Tool Wear from Milling Run Experimental Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulino José García Nieto


    Full Text Available Milling cutters are important cutting tools used in milling machines to perform milling operations, which are prone to wear and subsequent failure. In this paper, a practical new hybrid model to predict the milling tool wear in a regular cut, as well as entry cut and exit cut, of a milling tool is proposed. The model was based on the optimization tool termed artificial bee colony (ABC in combination with multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS technique. This optimization mechanism involved the parameter setting in the MARS training procedure, which significantly influences the regression accuracy. Therefore, an ABC–MARS-based model was successfully used here to predict the milling tool flank wear (output variable as a function of the following input variables: the time duration of experiment, depth of cut, feed, type of material, etc. Regression with optimal hyperparameters was performed and a determination coefficient of 0.94 was obtained. The ABC–MARS-based model's goodness of fit to experimental data confirmed the good performance of this model. This new model also allowed us to ascertain the most influential parameters on the milling tool flank wear with a view to proposing milling machine's improvements. Finally, conclusions of this study are exposed.

  4. Microbiological and physicochemical characterization of olive mill wastewaters from a continuous olive mill in Northeastern Portugal. (United States)

    Amaral, Carla; Lucas, Marco S; Coutinho, João; Crespí, Antonio L; do Rosário Anjos, Maria; Pais, Célia


    The microbiological and physicochemical characterization of samples from the different wastewaters generated during oil extraction in a continuous olive mill was performed. The main aim was to determine which of the physicochemical parameters were the best fitted to correctly characterize these residual waters. High correlations were obtained for COD, DOC, K, P and N contents with the sampling points, allowing the distinction of olive washing waters (OWW) from olive centrifuge waters (OCW) and olive mill wastewaters (OMW). These parameters were sufficient for a rapid and less costly chemical characterization of these waters. Phenols and oil and grease contents, together with low pH and dissolved oxygen contents, and high organic loads, were the most toxic for microbial populations. Microbial characterization showed that fungi were well adapted to these stressing environmental characteristics and the reuse of OMW after aerobic treatment with microbial species isolated from the effluent is considered.

  5. Recidivemeting Glen Mills: De uitstroomresultaten van de Glen Mills School in termen van strafrechtelijke recidive


    Beijersbergen, K.A.; Wartna, B.S.J.


    Deze Fact sheet beschrijft de strafrechtelijke recidive van ex-pupillen van de Glen Mills School. Na een korte beschrijving van de groep wordt de recidive van de jongeren die de school in de periode 1999-2004 verlieten, in kaart gebracht. Om reliëf te geven aan de resultaten, worden de cijfers vergeleken met die van de ex-pupillen uit alle justitiële jeugdbehandelinrichtingen.

  6. Influence of the charge properties on the milling tools wear during intensive milling in liquid environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Števulová Nadežda


    Full Text Available Grinding belongs to the basic technological operations in the treatment and processing of minerals. The method of the intensive grinding in a liquid environment has become attractive for the preparation of technologically advanced materials of the high fineness. Its choice was motivated by the intensification of dispersion and by the protection of ground powder against oxidation. The result of energy and material interactions among the grinding media and grinding environment is the wear of the grinding media and contamination of the ground material. The hardness of the particles has an important influence on the rate of wear. Particles with hardness lower than that of the surface of milling tools cause much less wear than harder particles. The wear rate becomes much more sensitive to the ratio of the abrasive hardness Ha to the surface hardness Hs when Ha/Hs <¡­1.The paper deals with the influence of four minerals with various microhardness (corundum, quartz, silicon and magnesite on the steel milling tools wear during intensive milling.. Experiments were performed in a vibration mill in methanol under same conditions. The grinding time was changed in a geometric sequence from 0,125 to 4 hours. The newly created surface area providesa basic information on grinding. The specific surface area was determined by the standard Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET method using the appratus Gemini 2360 (Sylab, Austria. The concentration of iron was determined by AAS (SpectrAA-30, Varian, Australia. It was confirmed that the rate of ball wear depends on the hardness of feed materials. It was found that the relation between the contamination of the ground powders by wear and the specific surface area increment is linear and the slope depends on the microhardness of the ground material.

  7. Thread milling on N/C and CNC milling machines. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashbaugh, F.A.; Murry, K.R.


    A unique thread-cutting tool design has been developed which permits threading of internal or external features; right- or left-hand threads; and standard, metric, or special pitches within a given size range without changing tools. One of the major advantages of the technique is the ability to produce small threads on N/C and CNC milling manchines. This study presents results showing fabrication of quality threads as small as number 0-80 in selected materials.

  8. Steel mill products analysis using qualities methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Gajdzik


    Full Text Available The article presents the subject matter of steel mill product analysis using quality tools. The subject of quality control were bolts and a ball bushing. The Pareto chart and fault mode and effect analysis (FMEA were used to assess faultiness of the products. The faultiness analysis in case of the bolt enabled us to detect the following defects: failure to keep the dimensional tolerance, dents and imprints, improper roughness, lack of pre-machining, non-compatibility of the electroplating and faults on the surface. Analysis of the ball bushing has also revealed defects such as: failure to keep the dimensional tolerance, dents and imprints, improper surface roughness, lack of surface premachining as well as sharp edges and splitting of the material.

  9. Quantum Yang-Mills field theory (United States)

    Frasca, Marco


    We show that the Dyson-Schwinger set of equations for the Yang-Mills theory can be exactly solved till the two-point function. This is obtained given a set of nonlinear waves solving the classical equations of motion. Translation invariance is maintained by the proper choice of the solution of the equation for the two-point function as devised by Coleman. The computation of the Dyson-Schwinger equations is performed in the same way as devised by Bender, Milton and Savage providing a set of partial differential equations whose proof of existence of the solutions is standard. So, the correlation functions of the theory could be proved to exist and the two-point function manifests a mass gap.

  10. Estimatation of talc properties after milling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Sublania Harish, E-mail: [Govt.College, Nohar(Hanumangarh) Rajasthan (India); Singh, K.J. [Govt College, Suratgarh(Sriganganagar) Rajasthan (India); Somani, A.K. [Govt. Polytechnic College, Hanumangarh, Rajasthan (India)


    As we know Talc is a natural mineral which is used in different areas for different purposes. The principle of this paper is analysis of structural properties of the natural talc therefore the different types of structural treatments were used. Talc powder was dry milled by vibration. Then the samples were alkalized by hydrochloric acid. To study its structural property the specific surface area and cumulative pore volume values of the starting material were 10.1 m{sup 2}/g and 0.09 cm{sup 3}/g. It was observed that the acid treatments were main reason to increase of the specific surface area. A small increment in the V{sub cp} was observed for all prepared samples. The treated samples were examined by using X-ray diffraction techniques.

  11. Hydrothermal carbonization of pulp mill streams. (United States)

    Wikberg, Hanne; Ohra-Aho, Taina; Honkanen, Mari; Kanerva, Heimo; Harlin, Ali; Vippola, Minnamari; Laine, Christiane


    The progress of the conversion, the yield, the structure and the morphology of the produced carbonaceous materials as a function of time were systematically studied with pyrolysis-GC/FID and FESEM microscope. The conversion of galactoglucomannan, bleached kraft pulp and TEMPO oxidized cellulose nanofibrils followed the reaction route of glucose being slower though with fibrous material, higher molar mass and viscosity. The conversion of kraft lignin was minor following completely different reaction route. Carbonaceous particles of different shape and size were produced with yields between 23% and 73% after 4h with being higher for lignin than carbohydrates. According to the results, potential pulp mill streams represent lignocellulosic resources for generation of carbonaceous materials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Casimir scaling and Yang-Mills glueballs (United States)

    Hong, Deog Ki; Lee, Jong-Wan; Lucini, Biagio; Piai, Maurizio; Vadacchino, Davide


    We conjecture that in Yang-Mills theories the ratio between the ground-state glueball mass squared and the string tension is proportional to the ratio of the eigenvalues of quadratic Casimir operators in the adjoint and the fundamental representations. The proportionality constant depends on the dimension of the space-time only, and is henceforth universal. We argue that this universality, which is supported by available lattice results, is a direct consequence of area-law confinement. In order to explain this universal behavior, we provide three analytical arguments, based respectively on a Bethe-Salpeter analysis, on the saturation of the scale anomaly by the lightest scalar glueball and on QCD sum rules, commenting on the underlying assumptions that they entail and on their physical implications.

  13. Understanding Biomass Ignition in Power Plant Mills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwarzer, Lars; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Glarborg, Peter


    % oxygen with those under inert atmosphere revealed two distinct pathways, pyrolysis and exothermic heterogeneous oxidation. At low temperatures and sufficient oxygen availability, heterogeneous oxidation of the solid seems to be favored over pyrolysis for wood, but not for coal. Current ignition models do......Converting existing coal fired power plants to biomass is a readily implemented strategy to increase the share of renewable energy. However, changing from one fuel to another is not straightforward: Experience shows that wood pellets ignite more readily than coal in power plant mills or storages....... This is not very well explained by apply-ing conventional thermal ignition theory. An experimental study at lab scale, using pinewood as an example fuel, was conducted to examine self-heating and self-ignition. Supplemental experiments were performed with bituminous coal. Instead of characterizing ignition...

  14. Treatment and valorization of olive mill wastewaters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabila Slimani Alaoui


    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of the physicochemical process with lime and ferric chloride in removing the pollution generated by the olive mill wastewaters (OMW .The characterization of the samples has shown that they are acidic, with a black color and a strong organic load due to the presence of phenolic compounds. The combination of the lime and the ferric chloride allows the removal of 87% of the total suspended solid (TSs, 58% of chemical oxygen demand (COD and 75% of Phenolic compounds. After purification the treated OMW were valorised as wash water or used for irrigation of green spaces and the generated sludge were dried and used to combustion. 

  15. 2008 National dry mill corn ethanol survey. (United States)

    Mueller, Steffen


    Emerging regulations require an examination of corn ethanol's greenhouse gas emissions on a life cycle basis, including emissions from energy consumed at the plant level. However, comprehensive survey data of the industry's average performance dates back to 2001, prior to the industry's expansion phase. Responding to the need for updated data, we conducted a survey to collect energy and processing data for average dry mill ethanol produced during 2008. The study finds that the average liter of anhydrous corn ethanol produced during 2008 requires 28% less thermal energy than 2001 ethanol: 7.18 MJ/l compared to 10 MJ/l. Also, 2008 ethanol requires 32% less electricity: 0.195 kWh/l compared to 0.287 kWh/l, but anhydrous ethanol yields from corn are 5.3% higher and total 0.416 l/kg compared to 0.395 l/kg. Findings also suggest that older plants installed energy efficiency retrofits.

  16. Precipitation of NbC and effect of Mn on the strength properties of hot strip HSLA low carbon steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thillou, V.; Hua, M.; Garcia, C.I.; DeArdo, A.J. [Pittsburgh Univ., PA (United States). Basic Metals Process. Res. Inst.; Perdrix, C.


    Two low-carbon microalloyed steels were investigated: 0.07C-0.02Nb-0.33Mn and 0.07C-0.028Nb-1.1Mn. The two steels were hot rolled in a similar way, followed by either air cooling to room temperature (ACRT) or accelerated cooling (AC) to 680 C and held isothermally at 650 C for various times prior to ACRT. The mechanical properties of the steels in their fully-processed condition were evaluated. As expected, the steel with the higher Mn content showed the highest tensile (YS and UTS) properties for all processing conditions. The results of this study also indicated that the tensile properties of both steels remained unchanged, prior to and after the isothermal treatments. The central goal of this study was to conduct a detailed microstructural analysis which could help in the understanding of the observed mechanical properties. The results from the ACRT samples after hot rolling revealed two distinct precipitation sequences: (i) precipitation of fine NbC (5 nm in average size) in austenite, and (ii) interphase and multivariant precipitation of NbC in ferrite. The samples which were AC and then held isothermally also exhibited fine NbC precipitates. All the precipitates observed in these samples had formed in austenite. The absence of the Baker-Nutting (B-N) orientation relationship clearly confirmed that precipitation in ferrite did not take place. Atom probe analysis of the precipitates revealed that the stoichiometry of the precipitates was close to NbC{sub 0.9}. From the detailed TEM microstructural analysis, all the hardening increments contributing to the yield strength of the steels were computed the results showed a good agreement with the measured tensile properties. (orig.) 19 refs.

  17. Historic mills and mill tailings as potential sources of contamination in and near the Humboldt River basin, northern Nevada. Chapter D. (United States)

    Nash, J. Thomas; Stillings, Lisa M.


    Reconnaissance field studies of 40 mining districts in and near the Humboldt River basin have identified 83 mills and associated tailings impoundments and several other kinds of mineral-processing facilities (smelters, mercury retorts, heap-leach pads) related to historic mining. The majority of the mills and tailings sites are not recorded in the literature. All tailings impoundments show evidence of substantial amounts of erosion. At least 11 tailings dams were breached by flood waters, carrying fluvial tailings 1 to 15 km down canyons and across alluvial fans. Most of the tailings sites are dry most of the year, but some are near streams. Tailings that are wet for part of the year do not appear to be reacting significantly with those waters because physical factors such as clay layers and hard-pan cement appear to limit permeability and release of metals to surface waters. The major impact of mill tailings on surface- water quality may be brief flushes of runoff during storm events that carry acid and metals released from soluble mineral crusts. Small ephemeral ponds and puddles that tend to collect in trenches and low areas on tailings impoundments tend to be acidic and extremely enriched in metals, in part through cycles of evaporation. Ponded water that is rich in salts and metals could be acutely toxic to unsuspecting animals. Rare extreme storms have the potential to cause catastrophic failure of tailings impoundments, carry away metals in stormwaters, and transport tailings as debris flows for 1 to 15 km. In most situations these stormwaters and transported tailings could impact wildlife but probably would impact few or no people or domes-tic water wells. Because all identified historic tailings sites are several kilometers or more from the Humboldt River and major tributaries, tailings probably have no measurable impact on water quality in the main stem of the Humboldt River.

  18. Effect of high energy milling time of the aluminum bronze alloy obtained by powder metallurgy with niobium carbide addition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, Alexandre Nogueira Ottoboni; Silva, Aline da; Rodrigues, Carlos Alberto; Melo, Mirian de Lourdes Noronha Motta; Rodrigues, Geovani; Silva, Gilbert, E-mail: [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), Itajuba, MG (Brazil)


    The aluminum bronze alloy is part of a class of highly reliable materials due to high mechanical strength and corrosion resistance being used in the aerospace and shipbuilding industry. It's machined to produce parts and after its use cycle, it's discarded, but third process is considered expensive and besides not being correct for environment reasons. Thus, reusing this material through the powder metallurgy (PM) route is considered advantageous. The aluminum bronze chips were submitted to high energy ball milling process with 3% of niobium carbide (NbC) addition. The NbC is a metal-ceramic composite with a ductile-brittle behaviour. It was analyzed the morphology of powders by scanning electron microscopy as well as particle size it was determined. X ray diffraction identified the phases and the influence of milling time in the diffractogram patterns. Results indicates that milling time and NbC addition improves the milling efficiency significantly and being possible to obtain nanoparticles. (author)

  19. Surface Seal for Carbon Parts (United States)

    Shuford, D. M.; Spruiell, J. P.


    Surface pores in parts made of graphite or reinforced-carbon/ carbon materials are sealed by a silicon carbide-based coating. Coating inhibits subsurface oxidation and lengthens part life. Starting material for coating is graphite felt, which is converted to silicon carbide felt by processing it according to a prescribed time/temperature schedule. Converted felt is pulverized in a ball mill and resulting powder is mixed with an equal weight of black silicon carbide powder. Powder mixture is combined with an equal weight of adhesive to form a paste.

  20. Process Capability of High Speed Micro End-Milling of Inconel 718 with Minimum Quantity Lubrication (United States)

    Rahman, Mohamed Abd; Yeakub Ali, Mohammad; Rahman Shah Rosli, Abdul; Banu, Asfana


    The demand for micro-parts is expected to grow and micro-machining has been shown to be a viable manufacturing process to produce these products. These micro-products may be produced from hard-to-machine materials such as superalloys under little or no metal cutting fluids to reduce machining cost or drawbacks associated with health and environment. This project aims to investigate the capability of micro end-milling process of Inconel 718 with minimum quantity lubrication (MQL). Microtools DT-110 multi-process micro machine was used to machine 10 micro-channels with MQL and 10 more under dry condition while maintaining the same machining parameters. The width of the micro-channels was measured using digital microscope and used to determine the process capability indices, Cp and Cpk. QI Macros SPC for Excel was used to analyze the resultant machining data. The results indicated that micro end-milling process of Inconel 718 was not capable under both MQL and dry cutting conditions as indicated by the Cp values of less than 1.0. However, the use of MQL helped the process to be more stable and capable. Results obtained showed that the process variation was greatly reduced by using MQL in micro end-milling of Inconel 718.

  1. Electric field mill network products to improve detection of the lightning hazard (United States)

    Maier, Launa M.


    An electric field mill network has been used at Kennedy Space Center for over 10 years as part of the thunderstorm detection system. Several algorithms are currently available to improve the informational output of the electric field mill data. The charge distributions of roughly 50 percent of all lightning can be modeled as if they reduced the charged cloud by a point charge or a point dipole. Using these models, the spatial differences in the lightning induced electric field changes, and a least squares algorithm to obtain an optimum solution, the three-dimensional locations of the lightning charge centers can be located. During the lifetime of a thunderstorm, dynamically induced charging, modeled as a current source, can be located spatially with measurements of Maxwell current density. The electric field mills can be used to calculate the Maxwell current density at times when it is equal to the displacement current density. These improvements will produce more accurate assessments of the potential electrical activity, identify active cells, and forecast thunderstorm termination.

  2. Electric field mill network products to improve detection of the lightning hazard (United States)

    Maier, Launa M.

    An electric field mill network has been used at Kennedy Space Center for over 10 years as part of the thunderstorm detection system. Several algorithms are currently available to improve the informational output of the electric field mill data. The charge distributions of roughly 50 percent of all lightning can be modeled as if they reduced the charged cloud by a point charge or a point dipole. Using these models, the spatial differences in the lightning induced electric field changes, and a least squares algorithm to obtain an optimum solution, the three-dimensional locations of the lightning charge centers can be located. During the lifetime of a thunderstorm, dynamically induced charging, modeled as a current source, can be located spatially with measurements of Maxwell current density. The electric field mills can be used to calculate the Maxwell current density at times when it is equal to the displacement current density. These improvements will produce more accurate assessments of the potential electrical activity, identify active cells, and forecast thunderstorm termination.

  3. Impact of pulp and paper mill effluents and solid wastes on soil mineralogical and physicochemical properties. (United States)

    Adhikari, Gopi; Bhattacharyya, Krishna G


    The present study was carried out to evaluate the impact of the effluents and the solid wastes generated by a giant pulp and paper mill in the northeastern part of India on soil mineralogy of the area. The impacts were monitored by analysis of soil samples from seven sites located in the potential impact zone and a control site where any kind of effluent discharge or solid waste dumping was absent. The soil belonged to medium texture type (sandy clay loam, sandy loam, loamy sand, and silt loam), and the soil aggregate analysis indicated higher levels of organic carbon, pH, electrical conductivity, effective cation exchange capacity, and mean weight diameter at sites receiving effluents and solid wastes from the pulp and paper mill. Depletion in soil silica level and in feldspar and quartz contents and rise in iron and calcium contents at the sites receiving effluents from the pulp and paper mill indicated significant influence on soil mineralogy. The soil contained a mixture of minerals consisting of tectosilicates (with silicate frameworks as in quartz or feldspar), phylosilicates (layered clays like kaolinite, smectite, chlorite, illite, etc.), and carbonates. Absence of pure clay minerals indicated a state of heterogeneous intermediate soil clay transformation. The significance of the mixed mineralogy in relation to the disposal of effluents and dumping of solid wastes is discussed in details.

  4. Control of Natural Zeolite Properties by Mechanical Activation in Stirred Media Mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohács K.


    Full Text Available Due to the special characteristics of zeolites, they can be applied in a very wide range of industries, i.e. agricultural, environmental or water treatment purposes. Generally, high added value zeolite products are manufactured by micro- or nanogrinding. However, these processes require high energy input and cause significant wearing of the mill parts. Therefore, the optimization of zeolite grinding, as well as the control of its properties are of a great importance. In the present paper a Hungarian natural zeolite was mechanically activated in stirred media mill for various residence times in distilled water, meanwhile the particle size distribution and the grinding energy were measured. Additionally, on-line tube rheometer was used to study the rheology of the suspension during the grinding process. The particle interaction and the suspension aggregation stability were detected by zeta-potential measurements. Structural changes due to the mechanical activation process were monitored by FTIR. It was found that the material structure of the zeolite, as well as the rheological behaviour of the zeolite suspension and its aggregation stability had been altered due to the mechanical activation in the stirred media mill. It can be concluded that the zeolite product properties can be modified by mechanical activation in order to produce a high added value tailored material.

  5. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Tuba City uranium mill tailings site, Tuba City, Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This document assesses and compares the environmental impacts of various alternatives for remedial action at the Tuba City uranium mill tailings site located approximately six miles east of Tuba City, Arizona. The site covers 105 acres and contains 25 acres of tailings and some of the original mill structures. The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA), Public Law 95-604, authorizes the US Department of Energy to clean up the site to reduce the potential health impacts associated with the residual radioactive materials remaining at the site and at associated properties off the site. The US Environmental Protection Agency promulgated standards for the remedial actions (40 CFR Part 192). Remedial actions must be performed in accordance with these standards and with the concurrence of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The proposed action is to stabilize the tailings at their present location by consolidating the tailings and associated contaminated materials into a recontoured pile. A radon barrier would be constructed over the pile and various erosion control measures would be taken to assure the long-term stability of the pile. Another alternative which would involve moving the tailings to a new location is also assessed in this document. This alternative would generally involve greater short-term impacts and costs but would result in stabilization of the tailings at a more remote location. The no action alternative is also assessed in this document.

  6. An Open Modular Architecture Controller Based Online Chatter Suppression System for CNC Milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenyu Han


    Full Text Available In milling processes, chatter is a kind of sudden relative vibration appearing between the cutter and the workpiece, which results in poor part quality, accelerated tool wear, and shortened spindle life. In this paper, an open modular architecture controller (OMAC of machine tool which integrates the algorithms including chatter recognition, compensation command generation, and execution is proposed with the aim of providing an integrated solution for milling chatter suppression in CNC kernel. To effectively identify chatter, experiments are designed to determine the optimal installation place of accelerometer and then triaxial cutting forces and acceleration signals are compared to see which are more sensitive to chatter onset. In terms of data processing, 16 sampling points in time domain are chosen to perform online fast Fourier transform (FFT in consideration of signal effectiveness and computational efficiency. To implement real-time chatter suppression in CNC kernel, a simplified dynamic model of milling system is used to obtain the relationship between chatter frequency and spindle speed. Finally, an adaptive control module which completes force signal extraction and processing by FFT and has the ability to modify related cutting parameters is designed to interact with other modules in OMAC where data acquisition thread and interpolation thread are synchronized. The proposed system is experimentally validated.

  7. The implementation of HPGR mills in existing grinding circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patzelt, N.; Knecht, J.; Longhurst, D. [Krupp Polysius AG, Beckum (Germany)


    High pressure grinding mills have been successfully introduced in the industry. They offer the possibilities for capacity increase of existing plants and reduction of operating costs. The plants in operation are running in different applications and modes of operation. They can be installed in a combination with SAG and ball mills or in a stand-alone mode. In combination with other grinding mills, it has to be investigated how the HPGR can be installed to reach the full efficiency. This paper describes the possibilities of implementing high pressure grinding rolls and shows by case studies the potential of savings which could be reached.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dityo Pradana


    Full Text Available Kendala yang dimiliki oleh seorang penggemar elektronik untuk membuat PCB diantaranya adalah efisiensi waktu, tenaga, dan biaya. Pembuatan CNC milling machine merupakan salah satu solusi yang tepat untuk membuat PCB. CNC milling machine adalah mesin bubut otomatis yang bekerja atas dasar perintah Numerical Code. Rancang bangun CNC Milling Machine Home Made ini dikontrol oleh komputer yang akan mengontrol IC L297 melalui parallel port. IC L297 ini kemudian memberikan empat data digital a, b, c dan d untuk mengatur phase IC L298 yang menyalurkan tegangan untuk koil motor stepper unipolar. Pada akhirnya motor stepper unipolar akan memutar baut dan dapat menggerakkan meja sumbu menggunakan prinsip kerja ulir.

  9. Generic Mathematical Model for Efficient Milling Process Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilde Perez


    Full Text Available The current challenge in metal cutting models is to estimate cutting forces in order to achieve a more accurate and efficient machining process simulation and optimization system. This paper presents an efficient mathematical model for process simulation to evaluate the cutting action with variable part geometries of helical cutters and predict the cutting forces involved in the process. The objective of this paper has been twofold: to improve both the accuracy and computational efficiency of the algorithm for cutting force estimation in peripheral milling. Runout effect and the real tool tooth trajectory are taken into account to determine the instantaneous position of the cutting flute. An expression of average chip thickness for the engaged flute in the cut is derived for cutting force calculations resulting in a more efficient process simulation method in comparison with previous models. It provides an alternative to other studies in scientific literature commonly based on numerical integration. Experiments were carried out to verify the validity of the proposed method.

  10. New hominid fossils from Woranso-Mille (Central Afar, Ethiopia) and taxonomy of early Australopithecus. (United States)

    Haile-Selassie, Yohannes; Saylor, Beverly Z; Deino, Alan; Alene, Mulugeta; Latimer, Bruce M


    The phylogenetic relationship between Australopithecus anamensis and Australopithecus afarensis has been hypothesized as ancestor-descendant. However, the weakest part of this hypothesis has been the absence of fossil samples between 3.6 and 3.9 million years ago. Here we describe new fossil specimens from the Woranso-Mille site in Ethiopia that are directly relevant to this issue. They derive from sediments chronometrically dated to 3.57-3.8 million years ago. The new fossil specimens are largely isolated teeth, partial mandibles, and maxillae, and some postcranial fragments. However, they shed some light on the relationships between Au. anamensis and Au. afarensis. The dental morphology shows closer affinity with Au. anamensis from Allia Bay/Kanapoi (Kenya) and Asa Issie (Ethiopia) than with Au. afarensis from Hadar (Ethiopia). However, they are intermediate in dental and mandibular morphology between Au. anamensis and the older Au. afarensis material from Laetoli. The new fossils lend strong support to the hypothesized ancestor-descendant relationship between these two early Australopithecus species. The Woranso-Mille hominids cannot be unequivocally assigned to either taxon due to their dental morphological intermediacy. This could be an indication that the Kanapoi, Allia Bay, and Asa Issie Au. anamensis is the primitive form of Au. afarensis at Hadar with the Laetoli and Woranso-Mille populations sampling a mosaic of morphological features from both ends. It is particularly difficult to draw a line between Au. anamensis and Au. afarensis in light of the new discoveries from Woranso-Mille. The morphology provides no evidence that Au. afarensis and Au. anamensis represent distinct taxa.

  11. End mill tools integration in CNC machining for rapid manufacturing processes: simulation studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed Nafis Osman Zahid


    Full Text Available Computer numerical controlled (CNC machining has been recognized as a manufacturing process that is capable of producing metal parts with high precision and reliable quality, whereas many additive manufacturing methods are less capable in these respects. The introduction of a new layer-removal methodology that utilizes an indexing device to clamp the workpiece can be used to extend CNC applications into the realm of rapid manufacturing (CNC-RM processes. This study aims to improve the implementation of CNC machining for RM by formulating a distinct approach to integrate end mill tools during finishing processes. A main objective is to enhance process efficiency by minimizing the staircasing effect of layer removal so as to improve the quality of machined parts. In order to achieve this, different types of end mill tools are introduced to cater for specific part surfaces during finishing operations. Virtual machining simulations are executed to verify the method and the implications. The findings indicate the advantages of the approach in terms of cutting time and excess volume left on the parts. It is shown that using different tools for finishing operations will improve the capabilities of CNC machining for rapid manufacturing applications.

  12. Effect of milling time on the formation of carbon nanotube by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 38; Issue 4 ... In this method, graphite powders in the elemental form were firstly exposed to milling process in high-energy ball milling and then the milled powders were ... As a result of milling of the graphite, ultra-active disordered carbon structures were obtained.

  13. Jet milling from a particle perspective : predicting particle fracture based on mechanical material properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vegt, Onno Martinus


    Milling is a very old discipline originated in milling agricultural products to flour. Despite the enormous literature on size reduction, milling is a unit operation which has no sound underlying theory comparable to those existing for other unit operations. The design of milling equipment for a

  14. 75 FR 30844 - General Mills, Inc.; Withdrawal of Food Additive Petition (United States)


    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration (formerly Docket No. 2007F-0454) General Mills, Inc... food additive petition (FAP 7M4770) had been filed by General Mills, Inc., One General Mills Blvd... potable water intended for use in food production. General Mills, Inc., has now withdrawn the petition...

  15. Microbiological treatment of oil mill waste waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranalli, A.


    Full Text Available Experiments of the biological treatment of the oil mill waste waters, deriving from continuous system, have been carried out with selected mutant ferments, adapted to rather forced toxic conditions. The commercial microbio formulations SNKD, LLMO and PSBIO have been utilized; the last two are liquid suspensions, constituted by living micro-organisms that, in contrast to those frozen or lyophilized, do not need be revitalized before their use and became completely active in short time. The experiments with the SNKD biological preparation were carried out both on filtered oil mill outflows (type A with an initial COD of approximately 43 g/l and on waste water dephenolized by Caro-acid (type B with a COD equal to 30 g/l. The experiments with LLMO and PSBIO complexes were conduced both on oil mill outflows filtered and diluted (ratio 1:0.5 with an initial COD equal to 44 g/l (type C, and on waste water that were filtered and preventatively subjected to a cryogenic treatment (type D, with an initial COD of approximately 22 g/l. The residual COD with the microbio formulation SNKD, was about 15 g/l (type A and 5 g/l (type B; with the PSBIO It was about 7 g/l (type C and 1.5 g/l (type D; with the microbio formulation LLMO it resulted in 6 g/l (type C and 1.3 g/l (type D.

    Han sido efectuadas pruebas de tratamiento biológico de alpechines, provenientes de sistemas continuos, con fermentos seleccionados adaptados a condiciones de toxicidad muy elevadas. Han sido utilizadas las formulaciones microbianas SNKD, LLMO y PSBIO; las dos últimas son suspensiones líquidas, constituidas por microorganismos vivos, los cuales a diferencia de los liofilizados o congelados, no deben ser revitalizados antes del uso; estos tienen una fase «lag» más breve y entran antes en completa actividad. Las pruebas con la preparación biológica SNKD han sido efectuadas en los alpechines filtrados (tipo A con DQO inicial alrededor de 43 g/l, y también con alpech

  16. In-Orbit Construction with a Helical Seam Pipe Mill (United States)

    Gilhooley, N.

    The challenges of building large structures in space, and in particular a torus habitat, require novel processes. One potential method is to manufacture helical seam (also called spiral) pipe in orbit using a pipe mill. These machines turn rolls of steel or alloy into fully formed, welded and inspected pipe, pressure vessels and silos of various diameters. Pipe mills are highly automated and efficient in a factory environment and are increasingly being used for in-situ repair. By constructing in-orbit (on-orbit assembly) the launch vehicle can supply full payloads of compact, robust rolls of material; and the installation design is less restricted by fairing constraints and modular limitations. The use of a pipe mill is discussed as a possible construction method, for comparison an example design envelope is shown and further pipe mill products are considered.

  17. Genetic structure of Tribolium castaneum (Coleptera: Tenebrionidae) populations in mills (United States)

    The red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, is primarily found associated with human structures such as wheat and rice mills, which are spatially isolated resource patches with apparently limited immigration that could produce genetically structured populations. We investigated genetic diversity and...

  18. WDVV equations for pure Super-Yang-Mills theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoevenaars, L.K.; Martini, Ruud


    In the literature, there are two proofs that the prepotential of $N=2$ pure Super-Yang-Mills theory satisfies the Witten-Dijkgraaf-Verlinde-Verlinde (WDVV) equations. We show that these two methods are in fact equivalent.

  19. The Voisey's Bay mine/mill project: project description report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    ...). The project referred to is the proposed development of a nickel-copper-cobalt mine and mill complex, including associated infrastructure, in the area of the Voisey's Bay discovery on the north coast of Labrador...

  20. Larvicidal activity of Persea americana Mill. against Aedes aegypti. (United States)

    Torres, Rosalinda C; Garbo, Alicia G; Walde, Rikkamae Zinca Marie L


    To evaluate the toxicity of the ethanol and hexane extracts of the different parts of Persea americana Mill. (P. americana) toward third and fourth instars larvae of Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti) and to characterize the ethanol extract by qualitative phytochemical analysis. The seeds, peels and pulp of P. americana were processed for crude extraction using 95% ethanol and n-hexane. Crude extracts were bio-assayed for larvicidal activity against Ae. aegypti following the World Health Organization standard bioassay method. The mortality was observed at 24 h and 48 h after treatment and data were subjected to probit analysis to determine lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC90). The ethanol extract was characterized by phytochemical analysis. Both the hexane and ethanol extracts from the different parts of P. americana exhibited evidence of larvicidal toxicity. The hexane extract from the seeds exhibited the highest toxicity with LC50 and LC90 values of 9.82 mg/L and 22.19 mg/L, respectively, while the ethanol seed extract exhibited LC50 of 16.48 mg/L and LC90 45.77 mg/L, respectively. This was closely followed by the ethanol extract of the peels with an LC50 of 10.35 mg/L and LC90 of 26.29 mg/L. The pulp extracted with ethanol also yielded great larvicidal toxicity with LC50 of 21.32 mg/L and LC90 of 59.45 mg/L. Results of the phytochemical analysis of the ethanol seed extract indicated presence of alkaloids, tannins, saponins, unsaturated steroids and triterpenoids, flavonoids (leucoanthocyanins), fats and oils. Both the hexane and ethanol extracts of P. americana showed promising potential as an alternative source of a more sustainable, non-toxic and environmentally friendly solution for the control of dengue vector, Ae. aegypti. Copyright © 2014 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Super-Yang-Mills and M5-branes


    Singh, Harvendra


    We uplift 5-dimensional super-Yang-Mills theory to a 6-dimensional gauge theory with the help of a space-like constant vector $\\eta^M$, whose norm determines the Yang-Mills coupling constant. After the localization of $\\eta^M$ the 6D gauge theory acquires Lorentzian invariance as well as scale invariance. We discuss KK states, instantons and the flux quantization. The 6D theory admits extended solutions like 1/2 BPS `strings' and monopoles.

  2. Production Recesses for Replaceable Cutting Inserts of Milling Tools (United States)

    Kousal, Lukáš; Sadílek, Marek


    This article describes the production of recesses for replaceable cutting inserts of milling tools. The recess manufacture is exemplified on a D20 shanktype milling cutter with three replaceable cutting inserts. A new production technology and its operating cycle are demonstrated. A com-parison of the old and the new technologies shows the percentage saving of change cycles and used tools, including overall evaluation of the tech-nology.

  3. A study on rheological characteristics of roller milled fenugreek fractions. (United States)

    Sakhare, Suresh D; Inamdar, Aashitosh A; Prabhasankar, P


    Fenugreek seeds were fractionated by roller milling to get various fractions. The roller milled fractions and whole fenugreek flour (WFF) were evaluated for the flow behavior and time-dependent flow properties using a rotational viscometer at the temperatures of 10-60 (0)C. The samples subjected to a programmed shear rate increase linearly from 0 to 300 s(-1) in 3 min and successive decrease linearly shear rate from 300 s(-1) to 0 in 3 min. The roller milled fractions and WFF paste exhibited non-Newtonian pseudoplastic behavior. Difference in hysteresis loop area was observed among the roller milled fractions and WFF, being more noticeable at lower temperatures. Power law and Casson models were used to predict flow properties of samples. The power law model described well the flow behavior of the roller milled fractions and WFF at temperatures tested. Except flour (FL) fraction, consistency coefficient, m, increased with the temperature both in the forward and backward measurements. The roller milled fractions and WFF exhibited rheopectic behavior that increased viscosity with increasing the shear speed and the temperature. For all the sample tested, initial shear stress increased with increase in shear rate and temperature.

  4. Dispersion of fine phosphor particles by newly developed beads mill (United States)

    Joni, I. Made; Panatarani, C.; Maulana, Dwindra W.


    Fine phosphor Y2O3:Eu3+ particles has advanced properties compare to conventional particles applied for compact fluorescent lamp (CFL) as three band phosphor. However, suspension of fine particles easily agglomerated during preparation of spray coating of the CFL tube. Therefore, it is introduced newly developed beads mill system to disperse fine phosphor. The beads mill consist of glass beads, dispersing chamber (impellers), separator chamber, slurry pump and motors. The first important performance of beads mill is the performance of the designed on separating the beads with the suspended fine particles. We report the development of beads mill and its separation performance vary in flow rate and separator rotation speeds. The 27 kg of glass beads with 30 µm in size was poured into dispersing chamber and then water was pumped continuously through the slurry pump. The samples for the separation test was obtained every 1 hours vary in rotation speed and slurry flow rate. The results shows that the separation performance was 99.99 % obtained for the rotation speed of >1000 rpm and flow rate of 8 L/minute. The performances of the system was verified by dispersing fine phosphor Y2O3:Eu3+ particles with concentration 1 wt.%. From the observed size distribution of particles after beads mill, it is concluded that the current design of bead mill effectively dispersed fine phosphor Y2O3:Eu3+.

  5. Interface Yang-Mills, supersymmetry, and Janus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Hoker, Eric [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Estes, John [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Gutperle, Michael [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)]. E-mail:


    We consider theories consisting of a planar interface with N=4 super-Yang-Mills on either side and varying gauge coupling across the interface. The interface does not carry any independent degrees of freedom, but is allowed to support local gauge invariant operators, included with independent interface couplings. In general, both conformal symmetry and supersymmetry will be broken, but for special arrangements of the interface couplings, these symmetries may be restored. We provide a systematic classification of all allowed interface supersymmetries. We find new theories preserving eight and four Poincare supersymmetries, which get extended to sixteen and eight supersymmetries in the conformal limit, respectively with SU(2)xSU(2), SO(2)xSU(2) internal symmetry. The Lagrangians for these theories are explicitly constructed. We also recover the theory with two Poincare supersymmetries and SU(3) internal symmetry proposed earlier as a candidate CFT dual to super-Janus. Since our new interface theories have only operators from the supergravity multiplet turned on, dual supergravity solutions are expected to exist. We speculate on the possible relation between the interface theory with maximal supersymmetry and the near-horizon limit of the D3-D5 system.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syamsudin Syamsudin


    Full Text Available Kraft pulp mill sludge cake composed of rejected wood fibers and activated sludge microorganisms. With a heating value about 14 MJ/kg (dried basis, this type of biomass had a potential as an alternative energy source. Unfortunately, it had an ash content of 27.6% and a moisture content of 80%. For reducing moisture content with minimum energy consumption, a combination of mechanical dewatering and thermal drying was studied previously. Meanwhile, experiments on isothermal pyrolysis had been carried out for further improvement on ultimate and proximate analysis of solid fuel. Final mass of char obtained from pyrolysis at 500oC was not significantly different from that of 700oC, so pyrolysis was considered to be optimum at 500oC. A char obtained from pyrolysis at temperature of 500oC had a pore surface area of 77.049 m2/g (highest among other temperatures. Kinetic of isothermal pyrolysis was well represented with a first order modified volumetric model with a frequency factor of 0.782 1/s and an activation of 34.050 kJ/mol.

  7. Electrochemical treatment of olive oil mill wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longhi, P.; Fiori, G [Milan Univ., Milan (Italy). Dept. of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry; Vodopivec, B. [Milan Univ. Bicocca, Milan (Italy). Dept. of Biotechnologies and Biosciences


    The possibility of oxidizing at a PbO{sub 2} anode the phenols and polyphenols, present in the olive oil mill wastewater, has been studied as a pre-treatment for the submission of such wastewater to the traditional biological treatments. The results obtained operating at current densities ranging 500 to 2000 A/m{sup 2} show that it is possible to reduce the concentration of the phenolic components, which interfere with the biological treatments, down to low values without decreasing too much the total organic content of the wastewater. [Italian] E' stata studiata la possibilita' di ossidare anodicamente i componenti fenolici delle acque reflue di frantoio, quale pretrattamento delle stesse prima del loro invio ai processi di trattamento biologico. I risultati ottenuti impiegando PbO{sub 2} quale materiale anodico e operando con densita' di corrente comprese tra 500 e 2000 A/m{sup 2} mostrano come sia possibile eliminare, o almeno diminuire sino a concentrazioni accettabili, dalle acque di frantoio i fenoli e i polifenoli, che interferiscono con i normali trattamenti biologici, senza diminuire eccessivamente il carico organico totale.

  8. Instrument for Analysis of Greenland's Glacier Mills (United States)

    Behar, Alberto E.; Matthews, Jaret B.; Tran, Hung B.; Steffen, Konrad; McGrath, Dan; Phillips, Thomas; Elliot, Andrew; OHern, Sean; Lutz, Colin; Martin, Sujita; hide


    A new instrument is used to study the inner workings of Greenland s glacier mills by riding the currents inside a glacier s moulin. The West Greenland Moulin Explorer instrument was deployed into a tubular shaft to autonomously record temperature, pressure, 3D acceleration, and location. It is built with a slightly positive buoyancy in order to assist in recovery. The unit is made up of several components. A 3-axis MEMS (microelectromechanical systems) accelerometer with 0.001-g resolution forms the base of the unit. A pressure transducer is added that is capable of withstanding 500 psi (=3.4 MPa), and surviving down to -40 C. An Iridium modem sends out data every 10 minutes. The location is traced by a GPS (Global Positioning System) unit. This GPS unit is also used for recovery after the mission. Power is provided by a high-capacity lithium thionyl chloride D-sized battery. The accelerometer is housed inside a cylindrical, foot-long (=30 cm) polyvinyl chloride (PVC) shell sealed at each end with acrylic. The pressure transducer is attached to one of these lids and a MEMS accelerometer to the other, recording 100 samples per second per axis.

  9. Catalytic pyrolysis of olive mill wastewater sludge (United States)

    Abdellaoui, Hamza

    From 2008 to 2013, an average of 2,821.4 kilotons/year of olive oil were produced around the world. The waste product of the olive mill industry consists of solid residue (pomace) and wastewater (OMW). Annually, around 30 million m3 of OMW are produced in the Mediterranean area, 700,000 m3 year?1 in Tunisia alone. OMW is an aqueous effluent characterized by an offensive smell and high organic matter content, including high molecular weight phenolic compounds and long-chain fatty acids. These compounds are highly toxic to micro-organisms and plants, which makes the OMW a serious threat to the environment if not managed properly. The OMW is disposed of in open air evaporation ponds. After evaporation of most of the water, OMWS is left in the bottom of the ponds. In this thesis, the effort has been made to evaluate the catalytic pyrolysis process as a technology to valorize the OMWS. The first section of this research showed that 41.12 wt. % of the OMWS is mostly lipids, which are a good source of energy. The second section proved that catalytic pyrolysis of the OMWS over red mud and HZSM-5 can produce green diesel, and 450 °C is the optimal reaction temperature to maximize the organic yields. The last section revealed that the HSF was behind the good fuel-like properties of the OMWS catalytic oils, whereas the SR hindered the bio-oil yields and quality.

  10. Tree-Ring Dating Of Old-Growth Longleaf Pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) Logs From An Exposed Timber Crib Dam, Hope Mills, North Carolina, U.S.A

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Saskia L. Van De Gevel; Justin L. Hart; Henri D. Grissino-Mayer; Kenneth W. Robinson


    Abstract On 26 May 2003, intense rainfall from a series of thunderstorms in eastern North Carolina caused flooding that eventually destroyed the concrete dam in Hope Mills, draining Hope Mills Lake...

  11. Digital data and geologic map of the Powder Mill Ferry Quadrangle, Shannon and Reynolds counties, Missouri (United States)

    McDowell, Robert C.; Harrison, Richard W.; Lagueux, Kerry M.


    The geology of the Powder Mill Ferry 7 1/2-minute quadrangle , Shannon and Reynolds Counties, Missouri was mapped from 1997 through 1998 as part of the Midcontinent Karst Systems and Geologic Mapping Project, Eastern Earth Surface Processes Team. The map supports the production of a geologic framework that will be used in hydrogeologic investigations related to potential lead and zinc mining in the Mark Twain National Forest adjacent to the Ozark National Scenic Riverways (National Park Service). Digital geologic coverages will be used by other federal and state agencies in hydrogeologic analyses of the Ozark karst system and in ecological models.

  12. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Maybell uranium mill tailings site near Maybell, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The purpose of this environmental assessment (EA) is to evaluate the environmental impacts resulting from remedial action at the Maybell uranium mill tailings site near Maybell, Colorado. A biological assessment (Attachment 1) and a floodplain/wetlands assessment (Assessment 2) are included as part of this EA. The following sections and attachments describe the proposed action, affected environment, and environmental impacts associated with the proposed remedial action, including impacts to threatened and endangered species listed or proposed for listing by the US Fish and Wildlife Service.

  13. Compressed Air System Optimization Saves Energy and Improves Production at a Textile Manufacturing Mill (Peerless Division, Thomastown Mills, Inc.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This case study is one in a series on industrial firms who are implementing energy efficient technologies and system improvements into their manufacturing processes. This case study documents the activities, savings, and lessons learned on the textile manufacturing mill project.

  14. Effect of paper mill effluents on accumulation of heavy metals in coconut trees near Nanjangud, mysore district, Karnataka, India (United States)

    Fazeli, M. Sharif; Sathyanarayan, S.; Satish, P. N.; Muthanna, Lata


    Physicochemical characteristics of wastewater from one of the paper mills near Nanjangud and the differential accumulation of heavy metals in parts of coconut trees growing in the area irrigated directly by the wastewaters of a paper mill were investigated. The total dissolved and suspended solids of wastewater were 1,136.9 mg/l and 2,185.4 mg/l, respectively. Biological oxygen demand (BOD) expands and COD is beyond the tolerance limit proposed by Indian standards. The concentrations of heavy metals like Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, Co, and Cd in coconut water, root, and leaf are higher than the limits suggested by World Health Organization. Survival of coconut trees irrigated by polluted waters indicates tolerance to toxic heavy metals. Since coconut forms part of human food chain, accumulation of toxic heavy metals may lead to organic disorders.

  15. STUDY OF THE flat die pellet mills kinematic diagram with active cylindrical press rolLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osokin Anton Vladislavovich


    Full Text Available Though being widely spread, the designs of such machines as flat die pellet mills have hardly been comprehensively theoretically studied. At the same time, the kinematic motion of the ring die pellet mill executive parts have been studied quite thoroughly. The machine executive parts kinematics determines the nature of their motion and velocity parameters, as well as the energy costs for the unit operation of the assembly. In addition, a detailed analysis of the facility kinematic diagram enables a rational approach to the design process for a new equipment. In view of this, this paper proposes a classification of flat matrix granulators over the kinematic diagrams of the executive parts interactions. We performed an analytical study of the kinematic diagram flat matrix granulator with active cylindrical press rolls. We considered the forces acting on the press roll during its operation. We determined the kinematic parameters and their interrelation with the design parameters of the press roll. We obtained the analytical equations for the of the neutral cross-section determination - the most characteristic section of the press-roll granulator

  16. Making Robots Mill Bone More Like Human Surgeons: Using Bone Density and Anatomic Information to Mill Safely and Efficiently. (United States)

    Dillon, Neal P; Fichera, Loris; Wellborn, Patrick S; Labadie, Robert F; Webster, Robert J


    Surgeons and robots typically use different approaches for bone milling. Surgeons adjust their speed and tool incidence angle constantly, which enables them to efficiently mill porous bone. Surgeons also adjust milling parameters such as speed and depth of cut throughout the procedure based on proximity to sensitive structures like nerves and blood vessels. In this paper we use image-based bone density estimates and segmentations of vital anatomy to make a robot mill more like a surgeon and less like an industrial computer numeric controlled (CNC) milling machine. We produce patient-specific plans optimizing velocity and incidence angles for spherical cutting burrs. These plans are particularly useful in bones of variable density and porosity like the human temporal bone. They result in fast milling in non-critical areas, reducing overall procedure time, and lower forces near vital anatomy. We experimentally demonstrate the algorithm on temporal bone phantoms and show that it reduces mean forces near vital anatomy by 63% and peak forces by 50% in comparison to a CNC-type path, without adding time to the procedure.

  17. Effect of ball milling on the physicochemical properties of atorvastatin calcium sesquihydrate: the dissolution kinetic behaviours of milled amorphous solids. (United States)

    Kobayashi, Makiko; Hattori, Yusuke; Sasaki, Tetsuo; Otsuka, Makoto


    The purposes of this study were to clarify the amorphization by ball milling of atorvastatin calcium sesquihydrate (AT) and to analyse the change in dissolution kinetics. The amorphous AT was prepared from crystal AT by ball milling and analysed in terms of the changes of its physicochemical properties by powder X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), thermal analysis and infrared spectroscopy (IR). Moreover, to evaluate the usefulness of the amorphous form for pharmaceutical development, intrinsic solubility of the ground product was evaluated using a dissolution kinetic method. The XRD results indicated that crystalline AT was transformed into amorphous solids by more than 30-min milling. The thermal analysis result suggested that chemical potential of the ground AT are changed significantly by milling. The IR spectra of the AT showed the band shift from the amide group at 3406 cm-1 with an intermolecular hydrogen bond to a free amide group at 3365 cm-1 by milling. The dissolution of amorphous AT follows a dissolution kinetic model involving phase transformation. The initial dissolution rate of the ground product increased with the increase in milling time to reflect the increase in the intrinsic solubility based on the amorphous state. © 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  18. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Maybell uranium mill tailings site near Maybell, Colorado: Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The purpose of this environmental assessment (EA) is to evaluate the environmental impacts resulting from remedial action at the Maybell uranium mill tailings site near Maybell, Colorado. A biological assessment and a floodplain/wetlands assessment are included as part of this EA. This report and attachments describe the proposed action, affected environment, and environmental impacts associated with the proposed remedial action, including impacts to threatened and endangered species listed or proposed for listing by the US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS).

  19. Flat Milling Process Simulation Taking into Consideration a Dependence of Dynamic Characteristics of the Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Zavarzin


    Full Text Available The milling process inherently is on/off, and therefore inevitably there is vibration excitation in the Machine/Fixture/Tool/Part (MFTP system, which results in a different quality of the treated surface, depending on the machining conditions. The objective is to identify effective operation conditions to cut a part on the 3-way easy class machines when there is no unwanted regenerative self-oscillation, leading to a significant deterioration in the quality of the surface machined. The paper describes vibrations arising during a milling process and their effect on the surface shape and the working tool. To solve this problem we apply a numerical simulation method of cutting dynamics, which consist of 4 modules. The main module is an algorithm of the geometric simulation. The second module is a phenomenological model of the cutting forces. Two remaining modules are responsible for dynamics simulation of the part machined and the cutting tool under time-varying cutting forces. The calculated values are transferred back to the geometric modelling algorithm at each step in time. Thus, the model is closed and allows us to take into account an effect of delay in a dynamic system. A finite element machine model to perform calculation in 3DCUT software has been a selected and compiled. The paper presents geometrical mapping of the machining process and natural frequencies and shapes found for the finite element model. Conducting multivariate calculations allowed us to analyse the dependences of a dynamic behaviour of the system on changing spindle speed. The multivariate modelling results are presented as the Poincare maps for a moving free end of the tool. These Poincare maps allow us to select the operation conditions domains coming both with forced vibration and with self-excited oscillations. On the Poincaré map for two operation conditions of different domains there are graphics of the cutting forces, a thickness of the cutting layer, tool

  20. A vision-based material tracking system for heavy plate rolling mills (United States)

    Tratnig, Mark; Reisinger, Johann; Hlobil, Helmut


    A modern heavy plate rolling mill can process more than 20 slabs and plates simultaneously. To avoid material confusions during a compact occupancy and the permanent discharging and re-entering of parts, one must know the identity and position of each part at every moment. One possibility to determine the identity and position of each slab and plate is the application of a comprehensive visual-based tracking system. Compared to a tracking system that calculates the position of a plate based on the diameter and the turns of the transport rolls, a visual system is not corrupted by a position- and material dependent transmission slip. In this paper we therefore present a vision-based material tracking system for the 2-dimensional tracking of glowing material in harsh environment. It covers the production area from the plant's descaler to the pre-stand of the rolling mill and consists of four independent, synchronized overlapping cameras. The paper first presents the conceptual design of the tracking system - and continues then with the camera calibration, the determination of pixel contours, the data segmentation and the fitting & modelling of the objects bodies. In a next step, the work will then show the testing setup. It will be described how the material tracking system was implemented into the control system of the rolling mill and how the delivered tracking data was checked on its correctness. Finally, the paper presents some results. It will be shown that the position of some moving plates was estimated with a precision of approx. 0.5m. The results will be analyzed and it will be explained where the inaccuracies come from and how they eventually can be removed. The paper ends with a conclusion and an outlook on future work.

  1. Preparation of bismuth telluride based thermoelectric nanomaterials via low-energy ball milling and their property characterizations (United States)

    Robinson, Christopher A.

    Thermoelectric materials are able to convert energy between heat and electricity with no moving parts, making them very appealing for power generation purposes. This is particularly appealing since many forms of energy generation lose energy to waste heat. The Livermore National Laboratory estimates that up to 55% of the energy created in traditional power plants is lost through heat generation [1]. As greenhouse gas emissions become a more important issue, large sources of waste like this will need to be harnessed. Adoption of these materials has been limited due to the cost and efficiency of current technology. Bismuth telluride based alloys have a dimensionless figure of merit, a measure of efficiency, near one at room temperature, which makes it the best current material. In order to compete with other forms of energy generation, this needs to be increased to three or higher [2]. Recently, improvements in performance have come in the form of random nanostructured materials [3]. Bulk bismuth telluride is subjected to particle size reduction via high-energy ball milling in order to scatter phonons between grains. This reduces the lattice thermal conductivity which in turn increases the performance of the material. In this work, we investigate the use of low-energy ball milling as a method of creating nanoparticles of n-type and p-type Bi2Te3 alloys for thermoelectric applications. Optimization of parameters such as milling containers, milling media, contamination and milling time has resulted in creating 15nm particles of bismuth telluride alloys. After creating solid pellets of the resulting powders via hot pressing, the material's thermal and electrical conductivities as well as Seebeck coefficients were measured. The ZT of n-type Bi2Te2.7Se3 created using this method is 0.32, while the p-type Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3 exhibits a higher ZT of 1.24, both at room temperature.

  2. Biomechanical properties of wheat grains: the implications on milling. (United States)

    Hourston, James E; Ignatz, Michael; Reith, Martin; Leubner-Metzger, Gerhard; Steinbrecher, Tina


    Millennia of continuous innovation have driven ever increasing efficiency in the milling process. Mechanically characterizing wheat grains and discerning the structure and function of the wheat bran layers can contribute to continuing innovation. We present novel shear force and puncture force testing regimes to characterize different wheat grain cultivars. The forces endured by wheat grains during the milling process can be quantified, enabling us to measure the impact of commonly applied grain pretreatments, such as microwave heating, extended tempering, enzyme and hormone treatments on grains of different 'hardness'. Using these methods, we demonstrate the importance of short tempering phases prior to milling and identify ways in which our methods can detect differences in the maximum force, energy and breaking behaviours of hard and soft grain types. We also demonstrate for the first time, endosperm weakening in wheat, through hormone stratification on single bran layers. The modern milling process is highly refined, meaning that small, cultivar specific, adjustments can result in large increases in downstream profits. We believe that methods such as these, which enable rapid testing of milling pretreatments and material properties can help to drive an innovation process that has been core to our industrial efforts since prehistory. © 2017 The Authors.

  3. Suppressing Heavy Metal Leaching through Ball Milling of Fly Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiliang Chen


    Full Text Available Ball milling is investigated as a method of reducing the leaching concentration (often termed stablilization of heavy metals in municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI fly ash. Three heavy metals (Cu, Cr, Pb loose much of their solubility in leachate by treating fly ash in a planetary ball mill, in which collisions between balls and fly ash drive various physical processes, as well as chemical reactions. The efficiency of stabilization is evaluated by analysing heavy metals in the leachable fraction from treated fly ash. Ball milling reduces the leaching concentration of Cu, Cr, and Pb, and water washing effectively promotes stabilization efficiency by removing soluble salts. Size distribution and morphology of particles were analysed by laser particle diameter analysis and scanning electron microscopy. X-ray diffraction analysis reveals significant reduction of the crystallinity of fly ash by milling. Fly ash particles can be activated through this ball milling, leading to a significant decrease in particle size, a rise in its BET-surface, and turning basic crystals therein into amorphous structures. The dissolution rate of acid buffering materials present in activated particles is enhanced, resulting in a rising pH value of the leachate, reducing the leaching out of some heavy metals.

  4. Nanostructuring of Undoped ZnSb by Cryo-Milling (United States)

    Song, X.; Valset, K.; Graff, J. S.; Thøgersen, A.; Gunnæs, A. E.; Luxsacumar, S.; Løvvik, O. M.; Snyder, G. J.; Finstad, T. G.


    We report the preparation of nanosized ZnSb powder by cryo-milling. The effect of cryo-milling then hot-pressing of undoped ZnSb was investigated and compared with that of room temperature ball-milling and hot-pressing under different temperature conditions. ZnSb is a semiconductor with favorable thermoelectric properties when doped. We used undoped ZnSb to study the effect of nanostructuring on lattice thermal conductivity, and with little contribution at room temperature from electronic thermal conductivity. Grain growth was observed to occur during hot-pressing, as observed by transmission electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction. The thermal conductivity was lower for cryo-milled samples than for room-temperature ball-milled samples. The thermal conductivity also depended on hot-pressing conditions. The thermal conductivity could be varied by a factor of two by adjusting the process conditions and could be less than a third that of single-crystal ZnSb.

  5. Surface integrity analysis when milling ultrafine-grained steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Roger Rodrigues


    Full Text Available This paper quantifies the effects of milling conditions on surface integrity of ultrafine-grained steels. Cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut were related to microhardness and microstructure of the workpiece beneath machined surface. Low-carbon alloyed steel with 10.8 µm (as-received and 1.7 µm (ultrafine grain sizes were end milled using the down-milling and dry condition in a CNC machining center. The results show ultrafine-grained workpiece preserves its surface integrity against cutting parameters more than the as-received material. Cutting speed increases the microhardness while depth of cut deepens the hardened layer of the as-received material. Also, deformations of microstructure following feed rate direction were observed in workpiece subsurface.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto González Santana


    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to propose the implementation of a management for efficient use of the energy resources with smaller emission of gases to the atmosphere in the Sugar Mill "14 de Julio". The bibliographic search, the energy characterization and the ISO Norms helped to define the basic indicators of the process and the consumption rates: (kwh / t milled cane and (t bagasse / t milled cane. The energy performance of the years 2013, 2014 and 2015 was compared; as a reference of better level of energy efficiency it was taken the year 2015 and it was set the goal of reducing in 8% the consumption of bagasse and electrical power in relation to that year. In the 2016 harvest, the procedure proposed was validated; and in less than a year, the investment grant for the implementation was recovered and a reduction in the emission of the polluting gases: CO2 and SOx was achieved.

  7. Milling technological experiments to reduce Fusarium toxin contamination in wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Véha A.


    Full Text Available We examine 4 different DON-toxin-containing (0.74 - 1.15 - 1.19 - 2.14 mg/kg winter wheat samples: they were debranned and undebranned, and we investigated the flour’s and the by-products’ (coarse, fine bran toxin content changes. SATAKE lab-debranner was used for debranning and BRABENDER lab-mill for the milling process. Without debranning, two sample flours were above the DON toxin limit (0.75 mg/kg, which are waste. By minimum debranning (and minimum debranning mass loss; 6-8%, our experience with whole flour is that the multi-stage debranning measurement significantly reduces the content of the flour’s DON toxin, while the milling by-products, only after careful consideration and DON toxin measurements, may be produced for public consumption and for feeding.

  8. Observer-based Coal Mill Control using Oxygen Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Palle; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; S., Tom


    This paper proposes a novel approach to coal flow estimation in pulverized coal mills, which utilizes measurements of oxygen content in the flue gas. Pulverized coal mills are typically not equipped with sensors that detect the amount of coal injected into the furnace. This makes control...... of the coal flow difficult, causing stability problems and limits the plant's load following capabilities. To alleviate this problem without having to rely on expensive flow measurement equipment, a novel observer-based approach is investigated. A Kalman filter based on measurements of combustion air flow led...... into the furnace and oxygen concentration in the flue gas is designed to estimate the actual coal flow injected into the furnace. With this estimate, it becomes possible to close an inner loop around the coal mill itself, thus giving a better disturbance rejection capability. The approach is validated against...

  9. The Role of Promotion in Milling and Bakery Products Sales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiu-Bogdan Constantin


    Full Text Available Irrespective of the avenue chosen for the retail of milling and bakery products, a key role in sales growth is the one played by promotion, information of the future customers as to the characteristics of the products, the execution and sale conditions. Such information process takes place by means of the promotional mix, consisting of a blend of advertising, sales promotion, public relations tools, trademarks, promotional events, and sales forces. The milling and baking industry uses, to certain extent, all the components of the promotional mix. Product promotion is central both to sales growth, as well as to educating, advising and informing consumers as to how they can select quality milling and bakery products.

  10. Power Spectral Density Evaluation of Laser Milled Surfaces (United States)

    Pastow, Jan; Sawannia, Michael; Klinkenberg, Peter; Förster, Daniel Johannes; Eckel, Hans-Albert


    Ablating surfaces with a pulsed laser system in milling processes often leads to surface changes depending on the milling depth. Especially if a constant surface roughness and evenness is essential to the process, structural degradation may advance until the process fails. The process investigated is the generation of precise thrust by laser ablation. Here, it is essential to predict or rather control the evolution of the surfaces roughness. Laser ablative milling with a short pulse laser system in vacuum (≈1 Pa) were performed over depths of several 10 µm documenting the evolution of surface roughness and unevenness with a white light interference microscope. Power spectral density analysis of the generated surface data reveals a strong influence of the crystalline structure of the solid. Furthermore, it was possible to demonstrate that this effect could be suppressed for gold. PMID:29286313

  11. Power Spectral Density Evaluation of Laser Milled Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raoul-Amadeus Lorbeer


    Full Text Available Ablating surfaces with a pulsed laser system in milling processes often leads to surface changes depending on the milling depth. Especially if a constant surface roughness and evenness is essential to the process, structural degradation may advance until the process fails. The process investigated is the generation of precise thrust by laser ablation. Here, it is essential to predict or rather control the evolution of the surfaces roughness. Laser ablative milling with a short pulse laser system in vacuum (≈1 Pa were performed over depths of several 10 µm documenting the evolution of surface roughness and unevenness with a white light interference microscope. Power spectral density analysis of the generated surface data reveals a strong influence of the crystalline structure of the solid. Furthermore, it was possible to demonstrate that this effect could be suppressed for gold.

  12. The aerodynamics of flight in an insect flight-mill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gal Ribak

    Full Text Available Predicting the dispersal of pest insects is important for pest management schemes. Flight-mills provide a simple way to evaluate the flight potential of insects, but there are several complications in relating tethered-flight to natural flight. We used high-speed video to evaluate the effect of flight-mill design on flight of the red palm weevil (Rynchophorous ferruginneus in four variants of a flight-mill. Two variants had the rotating radial arm pivoted on the main shaft of the rotation axis, allowing freedom to elevate the arm as the insect applied lift force. Two other variants had the pivot point fixed, restricting the radial arm to horizontal motion. Beetles were tethered with their lateral axis horizontal or rotated by 40°, as in a banked turn. Flight-mill type did not affect flight speed or wing-beat frequency, but did affect flapping kinematics. The wingtip internal to the circular trajectory was always moved faster relative to air, suggesting that the beetles were attempting to steer in the opposite direction to the curved trajectory forced by the flight-mill. However, banked beetles had lower flapping asymmetry, generated higher lift forces and lost more of their body mass per time and distance flown during prolonged flight compared to beetles flying level. The results indicate, that flapping asymmetry and low lift can be rectified by tethering the beetle in a banked orientation, but the flight still does not correspond directly to free-flight. This should be recognized and taken into account when designing flight-mills and interoperating their data.

  13. Comparison of Multiple Measures of Noise Exposure in Paper Mills. (United States)

    Neitzel, Richard L; Andersson, Marianne; Andersson, Eva


    Noise exposures are associated with a host of adverse health effects, yet these exposures remain inadequately characterized in many industrial operations, including paper mills. We assessed noise at four paper mills using three measures: (i) personal noise dosimetry, (ii) area noise measurements, and (iii) questionnaire items addressing several different aspects of perceived noise exposure. We assessed exposures to noise characterized using the three measures and compared the relationships between them. We also estimated the validity of each of the three measures using a novel application of the Method of Triads, which does not appear to have been used previously in the occupational health literature. We collected 209 valid dosimetry measurements and collected perceived noise exposure survey items from 170 workers, along with 100 area measurements. We identified exposures in excess of 85 dBA at all mills. The dosimetry and area noise measurements assigned to individual subjects generally showed good agreement, but for some operations within mill, large differences between the two measures were observed, and a substantial fraction of paired measures differed by >5 dB. Perceived noise exposures varied greatly between the mills, particularly for an item related to difficulty speaking in noise. One perceived noise exposure item related to difficulty hearing due to noise showed strong and significant correlations with both dosimetry and area measurements. The Method of Triads analysis showed that dosimetry measures had the highest estimated validity coefficient (0.70), and that the best performing perceived exposure measure had validity that exceeded that of area measurements (0.48 versus 0.40, respectively). Workers in Swedish pulp mills have the potential for exposures to high levels of noise. Our results suggest that, while dosimetry remains the preferred approach to exposure assessment, perceived noise exposures can be used to evaluate potential exposures to noise

  14. The aerodynamics of flight in an insect flight-mill. (United States)

    Ribak, Gal; Barkan, Shay; Soroker, Victoria


    Predicting the dispersal of pest insects is important for pest management schemes. Flight-mills provide a simple way to evaluate the flight potential of insects, but there are several complications in relating tethered-flight to natural flight. We used high-speed video to evaluate the effect of flight-mill design on flight of the red palm weevil (Rynchophorous ferruginneus) in four variants of a flight-mill. Two variants had the rotating radial arm pivoted on the main shaft of the rotation axis, allowing freedom to elevate the arm as the insect applied lift force. Two other variants had the pivot point fixed, restricting the radial arm to horizontal motion. Beetles were tethered with their lateral axis horizontal or rotated by 40°, as in a banked turn. Flight-mill type did not affect flight speed or wing-beat frequency, but did affect flapping kinematics. The wingtip internal to the circular trajectory was always moved faster relative to air, suggesting that the beetles were attempting to steer in the opposite direction to the curved trajectory forced by the flight-mill. However, banked beetles had lower flapping asymmetry, generated higher lift forces and lost more of their body mass per time and distance flown during prolonged flight compared to beetles flying level. The results indicate, that flapping asymmetry and low lift can be rectified by tethering the beetle in a banked orientation, but the flight still does not correspond directly to free-flight. This should be recognized and taken into account when designing flight-mills and interoperating their data.

  15. Use and treatment of olive mill wastewater: current situation and prospects in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiestas Ros de Ursinos, J. A.


    Full Text Available The characteristics of olive mill wastewater are set out the viewpoint of their pollutant capacity and the problems arising from their tipping in olive-growing areas. The national administration's solutions for preventing pollutions of surface waters are also stated. Special detail is given to the action taken within a research and development program financed by the Spanish Government and the EEC through the Commission MEDSPA 89 for the technical-economic evaluation of different systems for eliminating and treating olive mill wastewater, in order to determine the feasibility of their introduction at industrial level. At the same time the systems currently under evaluation are described: - Intensification of natural evaporation from olive mill wastewater stored in ponds (two systems. - Physical processes using forced evaporation to eliminate the olive mill wastewater, followed by aerobic biological processes or systems of ultrafiltration and inverse osmosis for final treatment of the condensate (two systems. - Application of physico-chemical processes to eliminate the greater part of the organic components of the olive mill wastewaters and the use of aerobic biological processes or systems of ultrafiltration and inverse osmosis for final treatment of the clarified fraction (three systems. - Biological process for the complete treatment of the olive mill wastewaters by the successive application of processes: bioconversion, biomethanisation, aerobic treatment, and physico-chemical treatment. Treatment yields of the order of 99,6% are achieved, at the same time obtaining by-products of commercial interest (one system.

    Las características de los alpechines se establecen desde el punto de vista de su capacidad contaminante y de los problemas típicos que surgen en las zonas de cultivo del olivo. También están descritas las soluciones de la administración del Estado para la prevención de la contaminación de aguas de superficie

  16. Ultrasound pretreatment for enhanced biogas production from olive mill wastewater. (United States)

    Oz, Nilgun Ayman; Uzun, Alev Cagla


    This study investigates applicability of low frequency ultrasound technology to olive mill wastewaters (OMWs) as a pretreatment step prior to anaerobic batch reactors to improve biogas production and methane yield. OMWs originating from three phase processes are characterized with high organic content and complex nature. The treatment of the wastewater is problematic and alternative treatment options should be investigated. In the first part of the study, OMW samples were subjected to ultrasound at a frequency of 20kHz with applied powers varying between 50 and 100W under temperature controlled conditions for different time periods in order to determine the most effective sonication conditions. The level of organic matter solubilization at ultrasound experiments was assessed by calculating the ratio of soluble chemical oxygen demand/total chemical oxygen demand (SCOD/TCOD). The results revealed that the optimum ultrasonic condition for diluted OMW is 20kHz, 0.4W/mL for 10min. The application of ultrasound to OMW increased SCOD/TCOD ratio from 0.59 to 0.79. Statistical analysis (Friedman's tests) show that ultrasound was significantly effective on diluted OMW (p0.05). For raw OMW, this increase has been found to be limited due to high concentration of suspended solids (SS). In the second part of the study, biogas and methane production rates of anaerobic batch reactor fed with the ultrasound pretreated OMW samples were compared with the results of control reactor fed with untreated OMW in order to determine the effect of sonication. A nonparametric statistical procedure, Mann-Whitney U test, was used to compare biogas and methane production from anaerobic batch reactors for control and ultrasound pretreated samples. Results showed that application of low frequency ultrasound to OMW significantly improved both biogas and methane production in anaerobic batch reactor fed with the wastewater (pbiogas and methane compared with the untreated one (control reactor). The

  17. Leaching of 226Ra from components of uranium mill tailings (United States)

    Landa, E.R.


    A sequential extraction procedure was used to characterize the geochemical forms of 226Ra retained by mixtures of quartz sand and a variety of fine-grained rock and mineral species. These mixtures had previously been exposed to the sulfuric acid milling liquor of a simulated acid-leach uranium milling circuit. For most test cases, the major fraction of the 226Ra was extracted with 1 mol/1 NH4Cl and was deemed to be exchangeable. However, 226Ra retained by the barite-containing mixture was resistant to both 1 mol/1 NH4Cl and 1 mol/HCHCl extraction. ?? 1991.

  18. Fermentation and chemical treatment of pulp and paper mill sludge (United States)

    Lee, Yoon Y; Wang, Wei; Kang, Li


    A method of chemically treating partially de-ashed pulp and/or paper mill sludge to obtain products of value comprising taking a sample of primary sludge from a Kraft paper mill process, partially de-ashing the primary sludge by physical means, and further treating the primary sludge to obtain the products of value, including further treating the resulting sludge and using the resulting sludge as a substrate to produce cellulase in an efficient manner using the resulting sludge as the only carbon source and mixtures of inorganic salts as the primary nitrogen source, and including further treating the resulting sludge and using the resulting sludge to produce ethanol.

  19. Modelling anaerobic codigestion of manure with olive oil mill effluent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, I.; Ellegaard, L.; Ahring, B.K.


    A mathematical model describing the combined anaerobic degradation of complex organic material, such as manure, and a lipid containing additive, such as olive oil mill effluents, has been developed based on a model previously described (Angelidaki et al. 1993). The model has been used to simulate...... anaerobic codigestion of cattle manure together with olive oil mill effluent (OME) and the simulations were compared with experimental data. Simulation data indicated that lack of ammonia, needed as nitrogen source for synthesis of bacterial biomass and as an important pH buffer, could be responsible...

  20. Annotated bibliography of environmentally relevant investigations of uranium mining and milling in the Grants Mineral Belt, northwestern New Mexico (United States)

    Otton, James K.


    Studies of the natural environment in the Grants Mineral Belt in northwestern New Mexico have been conducted since the 1930s; however, few such investigations predate uranium mining and milling operations, which began in the early 1950s. This report provides an annotated bibliography of reports that describe the hydrology and geochemistry of groundwaters and surface waters and the geochemistry of soils and sediments in the Grants Mineral Belt and contiguous areas. The reports referenced and discussed provide a large volume of information about the environmental conditions in the area after mining started. Data presented in many of these studies, if evaluated carefully, may provide much basic information about the baseline conditions that existed over large parts of the Grants Mineral Belt prior to mining. Other data may provide information that can direct new work in efforts to discriminate between baseline conditions and the effects of the mining and milling on the natural environment.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Blagoveshchenskaia


    Full Text Available Summary. In the work the model of quality management of technological processes of the grain processing and mill enterprises is presented. It is shown that flour-grinding production is an important part of agro-industrial complex because it provides production of the main food product of people – flour. The analytical indicators of quality of technological process are presented. The matrix of expert estimates of i-th level of quality for the set combinations of parameters values according to the scheme of complete factorial experiment is made. Considered a model for the calculation of the raw material preparation for milling, which characterizes the main qualities of the processed raw materials. For the purpose of management of quality of technological processes of flour mill the mathematical model which includes calculation of two groups of indicators of an assessment is developed: qualities of preparation of raw materials for a grinding and qualities of conducting technological process. The algorithm of an analytical assessment of indicators of quality of technological process of the flour-grinding enterprises, including the selection of waste, selection of bran, a compliance rate of output of flour-grinding products, compliance rate of moisture products, is offered. The assessment of quality management of technological process of a high-quality grinding on the example of several leading flour-grinding enterprises of Central Federal District is carried out. The two-dimensional model of quality management of technological process based on an analytical indicators of an assessment of quality, an assessment of quality of preparation the raw materials for a grinding and an optimum effective condition of technological process is constructed. It is shown that quality management at the enterprise provides collecting, processing and the analysis of information on a condition of material streams and productions on all of their stages.

  2. About renormalization of the Yang - Mills theory and the approach to calculation of the heat kernel (United States)

    Ivanov, Aleksandr


    The quantum theory of Yang - Mills in four-dimensional space - time plays an important role in modern theoretical physics. Currently, this model contains many open problems, therefore, it is of great interest to mathematicians. This work consists of several parts, however, it only offers a new approach and, therefore, it is methodological. First of all, the diagram technique and the mathematical basis will be recalled in the first part. Then the process of renormalization will be explained. It is based on momentum cut-off regularization and described in [1] and [2]. However, this type of the regularization has several problems, as a result, only the first correction is calculated. After common constructions and observations, the first correction will be described in detail. Namely, the heat kernel will be considered since it plays a main role in this formalism. In particular, the method for calculating of coefficients of arbitrary order will be proposed.

  3. Regularity and mechanism of wheat straw properties change in ball milling process at cellular scale. (United States)

    Gao, Chongfeng; Xiao, Weihua; Ji, Guanya; Zhang, Yang; Cao, Yaoyao; Han, Lujia


    To investigate the change of structure and physicochemical properties of wheat straw in ball milling process at cellular scale, a series of wheat straws samples with different milling time were produced using an ultrafine vibration ball mill. A multitechnique approach was used to analyze the variation of wheat straw properties. The results showed that the characteristics of wheat straw powder displayed regular changes as a function of the milling time, i.e., the powder underwent the inversion of breakage to agglomerative regime during wheat straw ball milling process. The crystallinity index, bulk density and water retention capacity of wheat straw were exponential relation with ball milling time. Moreover, ball milling continually converted macromolecules of wheat straw cell wall into water-soluble substances resulting in the water extractives proportional to milling time. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site in Lakeview, Oregon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This Baseline Risk Assessment of Ground Water Contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site in Lake view, Oregon evaluates potential impacts to public health or the environment resulting from ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site.

  5. Nanocrystalline 6061 Al Powder Fabricated by Cryogenic Milling and Consolidated via High Frequency Induction Heat Sintering

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hanna, Walid; Maung, Khinlay; El-Danaf, Ehab A; Almajid, Abdulhakim A; Soliman, Mahmoud S; Mohamed, Farghalli A


      Nanocrystalline 6061 Al alloy was synthesized by cryogenic milling (cryomilling). Both transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction were used to monitor the change in grain size as a function of milling time...

  6. 76 FR 14105 - International Paper Company, Pineville Mill Industrial Packaging Group; Pineville, LA; Notice of... (United States)


    ... Employment and Training Administration International Paper Company, Pineville Mill Industrial Packaging Group... workers and former workers of International Paper Company, Pineville Mill, Industrial Packaging Group... International Paper Company (subject firm) nor any of its customers imported articles like or directly...

  7. Microstructure Evolution of Ni-Based ODS Superalloy Powders During Horizontal Rotary Ball Milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee H.-E.


    Full Text Available Microstructure evolution of Ni-based oxide dispersion-strengthened alloy powders with milling time is investigated. The elemental powders having a nominal composition of Ni-15Cr-4.5Al-4W-2.5Ti-2Mo-2Ta-0.15Zr-1.1Y2O3 in wt % were ball-milled by using horizontal rotary ball milling with the change of milling velocity. Microstructure observation revealed that large aggregates were formed in the early stages of ball milling, and further milling to 5 h decreased particle size. The average crystalline size, estimated by the peak broadening of XRD, decreased from 28 nm to 15 nm with increasing milling time from 1 h to 5 h. SEM and EPMA analysis showed that the main elements of Ni and Cr were homogeneously distributed inside the powders after ball milling of 5 h.

  8. The Story of Story Mill-A Montana Community Working to Restore Wetlands (United States)

    Story Mill, a 55-acre site on the outskirts of Bozeman, Montana, has undergone several transformations in recent history. The place is virtually a “mill of stories” with respect to land use, but originally it was a wetland.

  9. Anaerobic digestion of pulp and paper mill wastewater and sludge. (United States)

    Meyer, Torsten; Edwards, Elizabeth A


    Pulp and paper mills generate large amounts of waste organic matter that may be converted to renewable energy in form of methane. The anaerobic treatment of mill wastewater is widely accepted however, usually only applied to few selected streams. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rates in full-scale reactors range between 30 and 90%, and methane yields are 0.30-0.40 m(3) kg(-1) COD removed. Highest COD removal rates are achieved with condensate streams from chemical pulping (75-90%) and paper mill effluents (60-80%). Numerous laboratory and pilot-scale studies have shown that, contrary to common perception, most other mill effluents are also to some extent anaerobically treatable. Even for difficult-to-digest streams such as bleaching effluents COD removal rates range between 15 and 90%, depending on the extent of dilution prior to anaerobic treatment, and the applied experimental setting. Co-digestion of different streams containing diverse substrate can level out and diminish toxicity, and may lead to a more robust microbial community. Furthermore, the microbial population has the ability to become acclimated and adapted to adverse conditions. Stress situations such as toxic shock loads or temporary organic overloading may be tolerated by an adapted community, whereas they could lead to process disturbance with an un-adapted community. Therefore, anaerobic treatment of wastewater containing elevated levels of inhibitors or toxicants should be initiated by an acclimation/adaptation period that can last between a few weeks and several months. In order to gain more insight into the underlying processes of microbial acclimation/adaptation and co-digestion, future research should focus on the relationship between wastewater composition, reactor operation and microbial community dynamics. The potential for engineering and managing the microbial resource is still largely untapped. Unlike in wastewater treatment, anaerobic digestion of mill biosludge (waste activated

  10. Crook and overlength in hardwood lumber:results from a 14-mill survey (United States)

    Jan Wiedenbeck; John Brown; Neal Bennett


    Data on red oak lumber were collected at 14 furniture and cabinet industry rough mills to identify how crook and overlength are related to lumber grade and size from mill to mill. The amount of crook in a sample of dry, 4/4 thickness, red oak lumber was significantly influenced by lumber grade and length, supply region, and mill. There were no differences in crook...

  11. Influence of the milling parameters on the nucleophilic substitution reaction of activated β-cyclodextrins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    László Jicsinszky


    Full Text Available The present work focuses on the mechanochemical preparation of industrially important β-cyclodextrin (CD derivatives. Activated CDs have been reacted with nitrogen and sulfur nucleophiles using a planetary mill equipped with stainless steel, zirconia and glass milling tools of different sizes. It is shown that the milling frequency and the number as well as the size of the milling balls have an effect on the nucleophilic reaction.

  12. Synthesis and Characterization of Aluminum-Carbon Nanotube Composite by Cryogenic Milling (United States)


    Suryanarayana [21] d. Cryogenic Mill Cryogenic mills use liquid nitrogen (LN) to supercool the sample and the grinding vial. The most common cryogenic ...CHARACTERIZATION OF ALUMINUM-CARBON NANOTUBE COMPOSITE POWDERS BY CRYOGENIC MILLING by Brent A. Bottolfson March 2012 Thesis Co-Advisors... Cryogenic Milling 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Brent A. Bottolfson 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Naval Postgraduate School

  13. 40 CFR Appendix D to Part 403 - Selected Industrial Subcategories Considered Dilute for Purposes of the Combined Wastestream Formula (United States)


    ... Electronic Devices Fixed Capacitors Fluorescent Lamps Fuel Cells Incandescent Lamps Magnetic Coatings Mica... Manufacture of Drum Dried Detergents Manufacture of Detergent Bars and Cakes Textile Mills (40 CFR part 410...

  14. Cheating Goes Global as Essay Mills Multiply (United States)

    Bartlett, Thomas


    The orders keep piling up. A philosophy student needs a paper on Martin Heidegger. A nursing student needs a paper on dying with dignity. An engineering student needs a paper on electric cars. Screen after screen, assignment after assignment--hundreds at a time, thousands each semester. The students come from all disciplines and all parts of the…

  15. Defusing the rumour mill, digitally | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)


    Sep 7, 2016 ... Bad information can be deadly in southeastern Kenya, but a Canadian organization is working to stop it in its tracks. Supported by IDRC, the Sentinel Project's text-messaging technology is helping quash rumours and save lives. This article is part of an ongoing series of stories about innovative projects in ...

  16. Effect of milling on the magnetic properties of Al-Mn obtained by mechanical alloying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betancourt, Mirna, E-mail: [Instituto Universitario de Tecnologia Cumana (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas, Lab. Materiales, Centro Ingenieria de Materiales y Nanotecnologia (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Silva, Pedro [Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas, Lab. Materia Condensada, Centro de Fisica (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Gonzalez, Gema, E-mail: [Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas, Lab. Materiales, Centro Ingenieria de Materiales y Nanotecnologia (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Al-42 at.% Mn transforms to {alpha}-Mn(Al) by mechanical milling after 5 h of milling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Transformation to nano {beta}-Mn is reached after 50 h of milling with 6 nm grain size. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Milling strongly affects magnetic behavior. - Abstract: Al-Mn powders were prepared to obtain the compound Mn{sub 42}Al{sub 58} by mechanical alloying. The powders were milled during different periods (1 h, 5 h, 11.5 h, 15 h, 20 h and 50 h) using a SPEX 8000 mixer mill in nitrogen atmosphere. The materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and magnetic properties at room temperature, using a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). XRD shows partial transformation to {alpha}-Mn after only 1 h of milling and a mixture of {alpha}-Mn and {beta}-Mn after 11.5 h of milling and further milling resulted in transformation to {beta}-Mn phase with a grain size of 6 nm after 50 h. The change in magnetic properties with milling time is quite dramatic, from a ferromagnetic behavior for {alpha}-Mn(Al) to paramagnetic after 11.5 h of milling and showing again ferromagnetic behavior, with a strong increase of magnetization values of 5.5 emu/g, after 50 h of milling with formation of {beta}-Mn(Al).

  17. Wheat Fields, Flour Mills, and Railroads: A Web of Interdependence. Teaching with Historic Places. (United States)

    Koman, Rita G.

    By 1860 much of the beauty of St. Anthony Falls in Minneapolis (Minnesota) had been destroyed, as mills on both sides of the river used the power of the falls to turn millions of bushels of wheat into flour. Steel rails linked bonanza farms hundreds of miles to the west to the mills. The mills, the farms, and the railroads depended on each other…

  18. Towards the effective tool wear control in micro-EDM milling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bissacco, Giuliano; Valentincic, J.; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard


    The electrode wear in micro-electrical discharge milling (micro-EDM milling) is one of the main problems to be solved in order to improve machining accuracy. This paper presents an investigation on wear and material removal in micro-EDM milling for selected process parameter combinations typical ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Gontarj


    Full Text Available The offered modernization of the mill presumes the increase of capacity of the small-sort wire mill of hot milling 150 approximately till 40% at reduction of cost of the produced on it rolled wire by 15%, that will allow in future as well to grow the volumes of hardware production.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Feskova


    Full Text Available Summary. The optimal parameters of milling and fractionation of flaxseeds were substantiated. It was found that the hull fraction with the highest content of lignan secoisolariciresinol diglucoside SDG was obtained when flaxseeds were grinded using a rotatory impact continuous operation mill at the rotation 1380-1640 rpm. Studies have shown that with the increasing of the rotor speed the number of unbriken seeds decreased. However, due to the fact that the shells are crushed more, they become more difficult to separate from the cotyledons. For identification and quantification of SDG the HPLC-MS method was used. It is found that the optimum separation membranes and cotyledon fraction occurs at sifting milled seeds sequentially through the sieves having meshes of 1 and 0.5 mm. The technology of industrial production of lignans-containing fraction and flour on the basis of flaxseeds processing were proposed. This technology includes milling flaxseeds at the rotation 1380-1640 rpm, with subsequent 2% silicon dioxide addition and stepwise sieving using sieves with the mesh size 2 mm. To use a fraction membranes high in lignans as raw material for biologically active additives to food it needed additional enforcement-ground to a size not more than 0.4 mm (technological features of capsulation. The developed technology allowed getting with maximum yields of lignans-containing fraction (10% yield and flaxseed flour (80% yield.

  1. Stickies monitoring at a newsprint and packaging mill

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Andrew, J


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to demonstrate the applicability of the new methods by undertaking stickies audits in a newsprint and a packaging mill to test the sensitivity of the methods to detect changes in the concentration of stickies...

  2. Effects of cassava mill effluent on some chemical and micro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper examines the effects of cassava mill effluent on the Physicochemical and biological properties of soils of Obubra and Odukpani Local Areas in Cross River State after long time of pollution by the effluent. The soil samples were collected with an auger at the depths of 0-15cm and 15-30cm in each of the polluted ...

  3. Influence of mechanical milling and thermal annealing on electrical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    the cation distribution. The dielectric constant is smaller by an order of magnitude and the dielectric loss is three orders of magnitude smaller for the milled sample compared to that of the bulk. In the case of cobalt ferrite, the observed decrease in conductivity, when the grain size is increased from 8–92 nm upon thermal.

  4. Study on surface defects in milling Inconel 718 super alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Liu; Chengzu, Ren; Guofeng, Wang; Yinwei, Yang; Lu, Zhang [Tianjin University, Tianjin (China)


    Nickel-based alloys have been extensively used as critical components in aerospace industry, especially in the key section of aero engine. In general, these sections are manufactured by milling process because most of them have complex forms. However, surface defects appear frequently in milling due to periodic impact force, which leads to the deterioration of the fatigue life. We conducted milling experiments under different cutting conditions and found that four kinds of defects, i.e., tear, cavity, build up edge (BUE) and groove, commonly appear on the machined surface. Based on the observed results, the morphology and generation regime of these defects are analyzed and the carbide particle cracking is discussed to explain the appearance of the nickel alloy defects. To study the effect of the cutting parameters on the severity of these surface defects, two qualitative indicators, which are named as average number of the defects per field and average area ratio of the defects per field, are presented and the influence laws are summarized based on the results correspondingly. This study is helpful for understanding the generation mechanism of the surface defects during milling process of nickel based super alloy.

  5. Simple grain mill boosts production and eases women's workload ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)


    powered mill that significantly reduces this workload, while virtually eliminating post-harvest losses. Manual dehulling methods often result in one-third to half of all seeds breaking. This is key, as clean seed sells for three to four times ...

  6. Opportunities for optimizing roller grinding mills. Optimierungsmoeglichkeiten an Rollenmuehlen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patzelt, N.; Lohnherr, L.


    Extensive material-processing and metrological studies have made it possible safely to design roller grinding mills with raw meal throughputs in excess of 600 t/h and drive capacities higher than 4000 kW. The inclusion of the material distribution above the louvre air ring and the internal material cycles has oppened out new possibilities of saving energy. Roller grinding mills can now also be used for materials with a high grinding resistance, a low propensity to form a bed of material, widely varying component properties and high abrasiveness. Preliminary studies carried out on the grinding rolls can provide imporant information about material behaviour. Efficient mill operation is also assisted by the use of material baffles, water injection and optimized geometric configuration of the grinding elements. Calculation of the temperature curves in the mechanically highly stressed components and the acquisition of measurement data on the corresponding sets of loads are absolutely fundamental to the construction of large-capacity roller grinding mills. (orig.).

  7. Jälle need Milling ja Normann / Ilona Martson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Martson, Ilona, 1970-


    Kanal 2 uus kodumaine komöödiaseriaal "Õpetajate tuba" : käsikiri Peep Pedmanson : lavastus Ivo Eensalu : näitlejad Ita Ever, Eino Baskin, Madis Milling, Henrik Normann, Maria Klenskaja, Margus Tabor jt. : tootjafirma "Ruut"

  8. Calibration of CNC milling machine by direct method (United States)

    Khan, Abdul Wahid; Chen, Wuyi


    Calibration refers to the system of quantity value determination of instruments, equipments and test devices according to industrial requirement, based on metrological characteristics. In present research critical parameter which affects the accuracy and product quality of a CNC milling machine, was investigated and quantified by using direct method. These parameters consist of position dependent or position independent parameters, like linear displacement errors, angular errors of linear axes, straightness error of linear axes and squareness error between the axes. Repeatability, lead screw and resolution error of the CNC milling machine were also quantified to provide additional information to the user, because in absence of this additional information a misconception persists causing a major contributor to the inaccuracy and quality of the product. Parameters were measured and quantified by using a laser interferometer and artifacts as working standards under controlled environmental conditions on a manufacturing CNC milling machine. Polynomial regression analyses were carried out for finding the coefficients to predict the errors at each and every desired position which is quite useful for compensation and enhancing the accuracy of a machine system. Machine accuracy detailed chart was also made to assess and assure the accuracy, capability or for accuracy monitoring of the CNC milling machine

  9. Cosmological model of interacting phantom and Yang–Mills fields

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Nov 27, 2015 ... In this paper, we consider a model of interacting phantom and Yang–Mills (YM) fields by assuming dilaton-type coupling. Using the specific solution for YM equation previously found by the author, we obtain simple exact solutions for the accelerated expansion of the Friedmann–Robertson–Walker (FRW) ...

  10. Biodegradation Potentials of Cassava Mill Effluent (CME) by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Aspergillus and Penicillium species which had the highest turbidity were used for bioremediation studies. The consortium of microorganisms demonstrated the highest efficacy. Bioremediation of cassava mill effluent by these microorganisms was manifested in the reduction of biological oxygen ...

  11. Supplementation of olive mill wastes in broiler chicken feeding

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Aug 6, 2007 ... Olive mill wastes (OMW), sub-product extracted from olives, remains largely unexploited in Algeria and repre- sents a significant environmental problem because of its great availability as a result of the large agricultural surfa- ces devoted to the cultivation of olive-tree. This product contains high phenol ...

  12. Topological susceptibility for the SU(3) Yang--Mills theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Del Debbio, Luigi; Giusti, Leonardo; Pica, Claudio


    We present the results of a computation of the topological susceptibility in the SU(3) Yang--Mills theory performed by employing the expression of the topological charge density operator suggested by Neuberger's fermions. In the continuum limit we find r_0^4 chi = 0.059(3), which corresponds to c...

  13. Benchmarking performance measurement and lean manufacturing in the rough mill (United States)

    Dan Cumbo; D. Earl Kline; Matthew S. Bumgardner


    Lean manufacturing represents a set of tools and a stepwise strategy for achieving smooth, predictable product flow, maximum product flexibility, and minimum system waste. While lean manufacturing principles have been successfully applied to some components of the secondary wood products value stream (e.g., moulding, turning, assembly, and finishing), the rough mill is...

  14. Milling solid proteins to enhance activity after melt-encapsulation. (United States)

    Lee, Parker W; Maia, João; Pokorski, Jonathan K


    Polymeric systems for the immobilization and delivery of proteins have been extensively used for therapeutic and catalytic applications. While most devices have been created via solution based methods, hot melt extrusion (HME) has emerged as an alternative due to the high encapsulation efficiencies and solvent-free nature of the process. HME requires high temperatures and mechanical stresses that can result in protein aggregation and denaturation, but additives and chemical modifications have been explored to mitigate these effects. This study explores the use of solid-state ball milling to decrease protein particle size before encapsulation within poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) via HME. The impact of milling on particle dispersion, retained enzymatic activity, secondary structure stability, and release was explored for lysozyme, glucose oxidase, and the virus-like particle derived from Qβ to fully understand the impact of milling on protein systems with different sizes and complexities. The results of this study describe the utility of milling to further increase the stability of protein/polymer systems prepared via HME. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The Failed Educations of John Stuart Mill and Henry Adams. (United States)

    Crossley, Robert


    Analyzes and contrasts Mill's "Autobiography" and Adams'"The Education of Henry Adams" in order to present two approaches to the nature of education and of failure. Maintains that their perspectives may serve as catalysts and cautions for contemporary theories of education and its utility and relevance. (CAM)

  16. John Stuart Mill, innate differences, and the regulation of reproduction. (United States)

    Paul, Diane B; Day, Benjamin


    In this paper, we show that the question of the relative importance of innate characteristics and institutional arrangements in explaining human difference was vehemently contested in Britain during the first half of the nineteenth century. Thus Sir Francis Galton's work of the 1860s should be seen as an intervention in a pre-existing controversy. The central figure in these earlier debates-as well as many later ones-was the philosopher and economist John Stuart Mill. In Mill's view, human nature was fundamentally shaped by history and culture, factors that accounted for most mental and behavioral differences between men and women and among people of different classes, nationalities, and races. Indeed, Mill's whole program of social reform depended on the assumption that human differences were not fixed by nature. To identify the leading figures in these disputes about difference and the concrete context in which they occurred, we explore three debates in which Mill played a key role: over the capacities and rights of women, the viability of peasant proprietorship in India and Ireland, and the status of black labor in Jamaica. The last two draw our attention to the important colonial context of the nature-nurture debate. We also show that ideas that for us seem of a piece were not always linked for these earlier thinkers, nor did views on innateness necessarily have the political correlates that we now take for granted.

  17. John Stuart Mill's Concepts of Quality and Pedagogical Norms. (United States)

    Kim, Ki Su


    Considers the paradoxical relationship between two pervasive educational goals--quality and equality. Sees this paradox embedded in John Stuart Mill's writings on education, which attempted to reconcile the utilitarian pleasure principle (which emphasizes quantitative measures), with a traditional differentiation among levels and kinds of desires…

  18. La justicia utilitarista y las paradojas del liberalismo de Mill


    Carrasco, A.


    This paper analyses the concept of justice that John Stuart Mill exposes in one of his main works: The Utilitarianism. The article states that this notion of justice, paradoxically to Mill’s spirit, can set up the foundations for a totalitarian society, instead of the liberal order that he promotes in his other main work, On liberty.

  19. Topological field patterns in the Yang–Mills theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Here, we obtain an expression for the charges of these topological SO(3) gauge field configurations in terms of the Abelian vector potentials. In this formalism we analyse the 't Hooft–Polyakov monopole solution. Keywords. Topological configurations; Yang–Mills theory; monopole. PACS Nos 14.80.Hv; 11.15.-q; 11.15.Tk. 1.

  20. Spontaneously broken Yang-Mills-Einstein supergravities as double copies (United States)

    Chiodaroli, Marco; Günaydin, Murat; Johansson, Henrik; Roiban, Radu


    Color/kinematics duality and the double-copy construction have proved to be systematic tools for gaining new insight into gravitational theories. Extending our earlier work, in this paper we introduce new double-copy constructions for large classes of spontaneously-broken Yang-Mills-Einstein theories with adjoint Higgs fields. One gauge-theory copy entering the construction is a spontaneously-broken (super-)Yang-Mills theory, while the other copy is a bosonic Yang-Mills-scalar theory with trilinear scalar interactions that display an explicitly-broken global symmetry. We show that the kinematic numerators of these gauge theories can be made to obey color/kinematics duality by exhibiting particular additional Lie-algebraic relations. We discuss in detail explicit examples with N=2 supersymmetry, focusing on Yang-Mills-Einstein supergravity theories belonging to the generic Jordan family in four and five dimensions, and identify the map between the supergravity and double-copy fields and parameters. We also briefly discuss the application of our results to N=4 supergravity theories. The constructions are illustrated by explicit examples of tree-level and one-loop scattering amplitudes.

  1. Coset Space Dimensional Reduction of Einstein--Yang--Mills theory

    CERN Document Server

    Chatzistavrakidis, A.; Prezas, N.; Zoupanos, G.


    In the present contribution we extend our previous work by considering the coset space dimensional reduction of higher-dimensional Einstein--Yang--Mills theories including scalar fluctuations as well as Kaluza--Klein excitations of the compactification metric and we describe the gravity-modified rules for the reduction of non-abelian gauge theories.

  2. Bioplastic production using wood mill effluents as feedstock. (United States)

    Ben, M; Mato, T; Lopez, A; Vila, M; Kennes, C; Veiga, M C


    Fibreboard production is one of the most important industrial activities in Galicia (Spain). Great amounts of wastewater are generated, with properties depending on the type of wood, treatment process, final product and water reusing, among others. These effluents are characterized by a high chemical oxygen demand, low pH and nutrients limitation. Although anaerobic digestion is one of the most suitable processes for the treatment, lately bioplastics production (mainly polyhydroxyalkanoates) from wastewaters with mixed cultures is being evaluated. Substrate requirements for these processes consist of high organic matter content and low nutrient concentration. Therefore, wood mill effluents could be a suitable feedstock. In this work, the possibility of producing bioplastics from to wood mill effluents is evaluated. First, wood mill effluent was converted to volatile fatty acids in an acidogenic reactor operated at two different hydraulic retention times of 1 and 1.5 d. The acidification percentage obtained was 37% and 42%, respectively. Then, aerobic batch assays were performed using fermented wood mill effluents obtained at different hydraulic retention times. Assays were developed using different cultures as inoculums. The maximum storage yield of 0.57 Cmmol/Cmmol was obtained when when the culture was enriched on a synthetic media.

  3. Genetic diversity in 14 tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum Mill ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 226 tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) fruits sold in markets within three states in Southwestern Nigeria were purchased and differentiated into 14 varietal groups based on morphological parameters. The genomic DNA from the young apical leaves of the seeded plants were extracted and analyzed by the ...

  4. Role of calcium in tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum Mill ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) was cultured in Hoagland's solution containing 0, 3 or 8 mM Ca2+, to investigate the responses against Botrytis cinerea infection and the effects of Ca2+ on salicylic acid (SA) biosynthesis and signal transduction. The disease index was significantly lower in 8 mM Ca2+ treatment ...

  5. Power generation from fuelwood by the Nicaraguan sugar mills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carneiro de Miranda, R.; Broek, R. van den


    With new concept development for the sugar industry and with new power market opportunities, two sugar mills in Nicaragua initiated projects aimed at becoming power plants during the sugar cane off-season. Basically the idea is to use more efficient boilers and turbines, and generate power beyond

  6. Carbonyl trapping and antiglycative activities of olive oil mill wastewater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Navarro, M.; Fiore, A.; Fogliano, V.; Morales, F.


    The use of natural compounds as antiglycative agents to reduce the load of advanced glycation end products from diet is very promising. Olive mill wastewater is a by-product of the olive oil extraction processes with a high content of hydroxytyrosol, hydroxytyrosol derivatives and molecules

  7. Characteristic Strength and Treatability of a Recycled Paper Mill ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The characteristic strength of wastewater from a recycled paper mill in Nairobi, Kenya and its suitability for treatment in a UASB (upflow anaerobic sludge blanket) reactor at ambient temperature were assessed. TheBOD5/COD relationship showedthat the wastewater is of high strength, biodegradable and has a potential to ...

  8. Parametric optimization of CNC end milling using entropy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Parametric optimization of CNC end milling using entropy measurement technique combined with grey-Taguchi method. 1. Sanjit Moshat, 2*. Saurav Datta, 3. Asish Bandyopadhyay and 4. Pradip Kumar Pal. 1, 3, 4Department of Mechanical Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata- 700032, West Bengal, INDIA.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randall L. Patton


    Full Text Available For a century, Citizens & Southern Bank was a fixture in Georgia. In 1991, the C&S brand name disappeared in a merger with North Carolina National Bank. This was one of the bittersweet consequences of the slow, confusing swirl of bank deregulation after 1970, when institutions such as C&S simply disappeared, swallowed by the “winners” in the new competitive environment of interstate banking in the 1980s and 1990s. Even earlier, however, the Lane family had ceased to control the bank started by Mills Lane, Sr. in 1891. Mills B. Lane, Jr. was the last member of the Lane family to run C&S. After his retirement in 1973, Mills handpicked his successor and tried to retain some influence, but the bank began slipping away from the Lanes. By the early 80s, a decade before Hugh McColl’s NCNB acquired C&S, Mills Lane, Jr. was deeply alienated from the institution that had been, according to many, “Georgia’s cornerstone bank.”

  10. Stepping Motor - Hydraulic Motor Servo Drives for an NC Milling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper the retrofit design of the control system of an NC milling machine with a stepping motor and stepping motor - actuated hydraulic motor servo mechanism on the machines X-axis is described. The servo designed in the course of this study was tested practically and shown to be linear - the velocity following errors ...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Keywords: palm oil mill effluent, maize, catalase, peroxidase, malondialdehyde. INTRODUCTION. The oil palm – Elaeis guineensis, is indigenous to the tropical rain forest region of West Africa. (Wattanapenpaiboon and Wahlqvist 2003; Ola- gunju, 2008). In Nigeria, palm oil production takes place mainly in the southern ...

  12. Biodegradation Potentials of Cassava Mill Effluent (CME) by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Medium. Five millilitres (5mls) of MSM was transferred into test tube and 0.5ml of the cassava mill effluent was introduced, sterilized and allowed to cool. ... Saccharomyces sp. 4.62. Table 2 revealed the genera of microbial isolates identified. They included Pseudomonas (15.48%),. Bacillus (12.41%), Acetobacter and ...

  13. Cutting Edge Localisation in an Edge Profile Milling Head

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez Robles, Laura; Azzopardi, George; Alegre, Enrique; Petkov, Nicolai


    Wear evaluation of cutting tools is a key issue for prolonging their lifetime and ensuring high quality of products. In this paper, we present a method for the effective localisation of cutting edges of inserts in digital images of an edge profile milling head. We introduce a new image data set of

  14. Health problems of mill operators in a tropical African population

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Occupational Health Unit, Department of Community Medicine. University College Hospital, Ibadan. Summary. The study reports a questionnaire based survey on mill operators in a large market in Ibadan, Southwest Nigeria. One hundred and twenty respondents, 65 males and 55 fe- males aged between 18 and 65 years ...

  15. Reproductive performance of rabbits fed maize-milling waste based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    treatments comprised of autoclaved and unautoclaved maize-milling waste, groundnut cake/maize meal diets formulated with 0 (I), ... waste was observed to improve the nutritional value of the diets and neither abortion nor still births were seen for the .... Autoclaving is the process of steam heating of feedstuffs to improve ...

  16. Bioremediation and biovalorisation of olive-mill wastes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morillo Perez, J.A.; Antizar-Ladislao, B.; Monteoliva-Sanchez, M.; Ramos-Cormenzana, A.; Russell, N.J.


    Olive-mill wastes are produced by the industry of olive oil production, which is a very important economic activity, particularly for Spain, Italy and Greece, leading to a large environmental problem of current concern in the Mediterranean basin. There is as yet no accepted treatment method for all

  17. Hydraulic Workover Unit (HWU) Application in Down-hole Milling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The major challenge with down hole milling operations using HWU is employing a suitable fluid circulating system, which is very critical for effective well bore cleaning and transporting of cuttings from the well bore to the surface. A bell nipple with sufficient side outlet diameter to ensure efficient fluid circulating system was ...

  18. Observer Based Fault Detection and Moisture Estimating in Coal Mill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Mataji, Babak


     requirements to the general performance of power plants. Detection  of faults and moisture content estimation are consequently of high interest in the handling of the problems caused by faults and moisture content. The coal flow out of the mill is the obvious variable to monitor, when detecting non-intended drops in the coal......In this paper an observer-based method for detecting faults and estimating moisture content in the coal in coal mills is presented. Handling of faults and operation under special conditions, such as high moisture content in the coal, are of growing importance due to the increasing...... flow out of the coal mill. However, this variable is not measurable. Another estimated variable is the moisture content, which is only "measurable" during steady-state operations of the coal mill. Instead, this paper suggests a method where these unknown variables are estimated based on a simple energy...

  19. Marginal Gap of Milled versus Cast Gold Restorations. (United States)

    Johnson, Russell; Verrett, Ronald; Haney, Stephan; Mansueto, Michael; Challa, Suman


    This in vitro study evaluated and compared the vertical marginal gap of cast and milled full coverage gold copings using two margin designs (chamfer and chamfer bevel) before and after fitting adjustments. Ten impressions were made of two metal master dies (one chamfer margin, one chamfer-bevel margin) and poured twice in Type IV stone. The 20 subsequent casts with 40 dies were split into four groups (n = 10); cast gold bevel, cast gold chamfer, milled gold bevel, and milled gold chamfer groups. The cast specimens received approximately 40 μm die relief no closer than 1 mm from the finish line. Cast copings were hand waxed, cast in a high noble gold alloy, chemically divested, and the sprues were removed. For milled gold copings, casts were scanned and copings designed using 3shape D900 scanner and software. Parameters were set to approximate analog fabrication (cement gap = 0.01 mm; extra cement gap = 0.04 mm, drill radius = 0.65 mm). Copings were milled from the same high noble alloy. All copings were seated on their respective master die in a custom scanning jig and measured using a measuring microscope at 90× (60 measurements per specimen, 15 per surface). Following initial measurements, all copings were adjusted on stone dies. The number of adjustment cycles was recorded and post-adjustment measurements were made using the same method. Data were analyzed using independent and paired t-tests. Milled gold copings with a beveled margin (11.7 ± 20.4 μm) had a significantly (p cast gold copings with a beveled margin (43.6 ± 46.8 μm) after adjustment. Cast gold copings with a chamfer margin (22.7 ± 24.7 μm) had a significantly (p gold copings with a chamfer margin (27.9 ± 31.6 μm) following adjustments. Adjustments significantly decreased marginal gap for both cast groups (p gold restorations milled with the tested parameters provide a vertical marginal gap that is an acceptable alternative to traditional gold crown casting techniques. © 2016 by the

  20. Improving the geotechnical properties of expansive soils by mixture with olive mill wastewater (United States)

    Ureña, C.; Azañón, J. M.; Corpas, F.; Nieto, F.; León-Buendía, C.


    In Southern Spain, Olive grove is an artificial forest which has a surface of 18.000 km2, representing more than 25% of olive oil world production. During the manufacturing process of this oil, different types of residues are generated. The most important is a biomass called olive mill wastewater. It is a dark colored liquid which can not be directly poured onto natural watercourses. On the one hand, part of this biomass is burnt to produce electrical energy or treated to make a bio-diesel. On the other hand, we propose the use of olive mill wastewater as a stabilization agent for expansive clayey soils. Using raw biomass as a stabilization agent two objectives are achieved: adding value to biomass and reducing the problems of expansive soils. Moreover, an important reduction of economic costs can take place. A pure bentonite clay was chosen as a sample of original expansive soil. It is abundant in Southern Spain and its main component is Na-Montmorillonite. Bentonite is very susceptible to changes in the environmental available moisture and very unsuitable for its use in civil engineering due to its low bearing capacity, high plasticity and volume changes. Several dosages (5%, 10%, 15%) of olive mill wastewater were added to the original sample of bentonite. To study eventual improvements in the mechanical properties of soil, Proctor, Atterberg Limits, California Bearing Ratio, Swelling Pressure and X-Ray Diffraction tests were carried out, following Spanish standards UNE by AENOR. Both geotechnical and mineralogical characterizations were developed at two different curing times: 15 and 30 days. The Plasticity Index (PI) of the original bentonite soil was 251 (High Plasticity). The addition of 15% of olive mill wastewater yielded reductions of PI similar to those produced by the addition of 5% of Portland cement. The California Bearing Ratio (CBR) values increased slightly after the treatment with biomass leading to very similar values to those obtained after the

  1. Investigation on Effect of Material Hardness in High Speed CNC End Milling Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Dhandapani


    Full Text Available This research paper analyzes the effects of material properties on surface roughness, material removal rate, and tool wear on high speed CNC end milling process with various ferrous and nonferrous materials. The challenge of material specific decision on the process parameters of spindle speed, feed rate, depth of cut, coolant flow rate, cutting tool material, and type of coating for the cutting tool for required quality and quantity of production is addressed. Generally, decision made by the operator on floor is based on suggested values of the tool manufacturer or by trial and error method. This paper describes effect of various parameters on the surface roughness characteristics of the precision machining part. The prediction method suggested is based on various experimental analysis of parameters in different compositions of input conditions which would benefit the industry on standardization of high speed CNC end milling processes. The results show a basis for selection of parameters to get better results of surface roughness values as predicted by the case study results.

  2. System technology for laser-assisted milling with tool integrated optics (United States)

    Hermani, Jan-Patrick; Emonts, Michael; Brecher, Christian


    High strength metal alloys and ceramics offer a huge potential for increased efficiency (e. g. in engine components for aerospace or components for gas turbines). However, mass application is still hampered by cost- and time-consuming end-machining due to long processing times and high tool wear. Laser-induced heating shortly before machining can reduce the material strength and improve machinability significantly. The Fraunhofer IPT has developed and successfully realized a new approach for laser-assisted milling with spindle and tool integrated, co-rotating optics. The novel optical system inside the tool consists of one deflection prism to position the laser spot in front of the cutting insert and one focusing lens. Using a fiber laser with high beam quality the laser spot diameter can be precisely adjusted to the chip size. A high dynamic adaption of the laser power signal according to the engagement condition of the cutting tool was realized in order not to irradiate already machined work piece material. During the tool engagement the laser power is controlled in proportion to the current material removal rate, which has to be calculated continuously. The needed geometric values are generated by a CAD/CAM program and converted into a laser power signal by a real-time controller. The developed milling tool with integrated optics and the algorithm for laser power control enable a multi-axis laser-assisted machining of complex parts.

  3. Investigation on Effect of Material Hardness in High Speed CNC End Milling Process. (United States)

    Dhandapani, N V; Thangarasu, V S; Sureshkannan, G


    This research paper analyzes the effects of material properties on surface roughness, material removal rate, and tool wear on high speed CNC end milling process with various ferrous and nonferrous materials. The challenge of material specific decision on the process parameters of spindle speed, feed rate, depth of cut, coolant flow rate, cutting tool material, and type of coating for the cutting tool for required quality and quantity of production is addressed. Generally, decision made by the operator on floor is based on suggested values of the tool manufacturer or by trial and error method. This paper describes effect of various parameters on the surface roughness characteristics of the precision machining part. The prediction method suggested is based on various experimental analysis of parameters in different compositions of input conditions which would benefit the industry on standardization of high speed CNC end milling processes. The results show a basis for selection of parameters to get better results of surface roughness values as predicted by the case study results.

  4. A conceptual model for milling formations in biological aggregates. (United States)

    Lukeman, Ryan; Li, Yue-Xian; Edelstein-Keshet, Leah


    Collective behavior of swarms and flocks has been studied from several perspectives, including continuous (Eulerian) and individual-based (Lagrangian) models. Here, we use the latter approach to examine a minimal model for the formation and maintenance of group structure, with specific emphasis on a simple milling pattern in which particles follow one another around a closed circular path.We explore how rules and interactions at the level of the individuals lead to this pattern at the level of the group. In contrast to many studies based on simulation results, our model is sufficiently simple that we can obtain analytical predictions. We consider a Newtonian framework with distance-dependent pairwise interaction-force. Unlike some other studies, our mill formations do not depend on domain boundaries, nor on centrally attracting force-fields or rotor chemotaxis.By focusing on a simple geometry and simple distant-dependent interactions, we characterize mill formations and derive existence conditions in terms of model parameters. An eigenvalue equation specifies stability regions based on properties of the interaction function. We explore this equation numerically, and validate the stability conclusions via simulation, showing distinct behavior inside, outside, and on the boundary of stability regions. Moving mill formations are then investigated, showing the effect of individual autonomous self-propulsion on group-level motion. The simplified framework allows us to clearly relate individual properties (via model parameters) to group-level structure. These relationships provide insight into the more complicated milling formations observed in nature, and suggest design properties of artificial schools where such rotational motion is desired.

  5. 29 CFR 570.54 - Logging occupations and occupations in the operation of any sawmill, lath mill, shingle mill, or... (United States)


    ... tallying lumber on the dry chain or the dry drop sorter. (iii) Pulling lumber from the dry chain. (iv... manually from precut and split blocks with a froe and mallet, except inside the mill building or cover. (ix... tallying lumber on the dry chain or the dry drop sorter. (ii) Pulling lumber from the dry chain, except...

  6. PSD Applicability Pulp and Paper Mill (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  7. Environmental Assessment of remedial action at the Ambrosia Lake uranium mill tailings site, Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This document assesses and compares the environmental impacts of various alternatives for remedial action at the Ambrosia Lake uranium mill tailings site located near Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico. The designated site covers 196 acres and contains 111 acres of tailings and some of the original mill structures. The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA), Public Law 95-604, authorizes the US Department of Energy to clean up the site to reduce the potential health impacts associated with the residual radioactive materials remaining at the site and at associated properties off the site. The US Environmental Protection Agency promulgated standards for th remedial action (40 CFR Part 192). Remedial action must be performed in accordance with these standards and with the concurrence of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The proposed action is to stabilize the tailings at their present location by consolidating the tailings and associated contaminated materials into a recontoured pile. A radon barrier would be constructed over the pile and various erosion protection measures would be taken to assure the long-term stability of the pile. Another alternative which would involve moving the tailings to a new location is also assessed in this document. This alternative would generally involve greater short-term impacts and costs but would result in stabilization of the tailings at an undeveloped location. The no action alternative is also assessed in this document.

  8. El aparato cultural del imperio. C. Wright Mills, la Revolución Cubana y la Nueva Izquierda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Rojas


    Full Text Available Este ensayo intenta reconstruir el debate que suscitó el libro Listen, Yankee (1960, del sociólogo norteamericano C. Wright Mills, en la opinión pública de Estados Unidos. Elprofesor de la Universidad de Columbia fue uno de los primeros intelectuales en viajar a la isla, luego del triunfo de la Revolución Cubana, y en interesarse en esa experienciade cambio social. La solidaridad de Wright Mills no era, sin embargo, acrítica con ciertos elementos autoritarios que observaba en el socialismo cubano y estaba fundamentalmente dirigida a defender una política comprensiva y respetuosa hacia el nacionalismo revolucionario del Caribe desde Estados Unidos. Esa política y esa crítica, defendidas por Wright Mills en el contexto de la Guerra Fría, formaron parte del repertorio de valores yprácticas que él mismo identifico con el concepto de “Nueva Izquierda”.

  9. Modeling and Analysis of High-Energy Ball Milling Through Attritors (United States)

    Zhao, Xuzhe; Shaw, Leon


    The effects of major processing parameters of attritor mills on ball milling efficiency ( i.e., minimum energy consumption with maximum milling progress) are investigated using discrete element modeling (DEM). The major processing parameters investigated include the size of balls, ball volume fraction inside the canister, ball milling velocity, and design of the impeller shaft of the attritor mill. Their effects are studied through examination of the output parameters including the average speed of balls, maximum speed of balls, and torque applied on the impeller shaft. The torque on the impeller shaft represents the energy consumption during ball milling, while the difference between the maximum and average speeds of balls scales with the compressive pressure during "mini-forging" of powder particles trapped between the colliding balls and thus scales with milling progress (particle deformation and size reduction). The simulation reveals that the ball milling velocity, ball volume fraction inside the canister, ball size, and impeller shaft design are all important parameters for energy-efficient ball milling. In particular, high ball milling velocities can lead to larger particle deformation and faster size reduction with minimum energy consumption. Further, ball sizes smaller than the gap that will not be hit by impellers directly are good for high-energy-efficient ball milling. Otherwise, energy consumption increases substantially.

  10. Effects of milling on the extraction efficiency of incurred pesticides in cereals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Susan Strange; Hajeb, Parvaneh; Andersen, Gitte


    ) or a knife mill both at room temperature and after freezing of the grain at –80°C overnight. The incurred pesticides in the test materials were extracted by the QuEChERS method and analysed by LC-MS/MS and GC-MS/MS. The particle size distribution for the milled samples was determined using a vibratory sieve......This study investigated the effects of particle size and milling temperature on the extraction efficiencies of pesticide residues from cereal flour. Samples of cereal grains (barley, oat, rye and wheat) were milled using a centrifugal mill with four different sieves (0.2, 1.0, 3.0 and 5.0 mm...... shaker. Based on the pesticide levels recovered from each of the different millings and the corresponding particle size distributions, it was confirmed that smaller average particle sizes increase the extraction efficiency up to 31%, with all other factors equal. The cereals milled at room temperature...

  11. The Tool Life of Ball Nose end Mill Depending on the Different Types of Ramping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vopát Tomáš


    Full Text Available The article deals with the cutting tool wear measurement process and tool life of ball nose end mill depending on upward ramping and downward ramping. The aim was to determine and compare the wear (tool life of ball nose end mill for different types of copy milling operations, as well as to specify particular steps of the measurement process. In addition, we examined and observed cutter contact areas of ball nose end mill with machined material. For tool life test, DMG DMU 85 monoBLOCK 5-axis CNC milling machine was used. In the experiment, cutting speed, feed rate, axial depth of cut and radial depth of cut were not changed. The cutting tool wear was measured on Zoller Genius 3s universal measuring machine. The results show different tool life of ball nose end mills depending on the copy milling strategy.

  12. The Tool Life of Ball Nose end Mill Depending on the Different Types of Ramping (United States)

    Vopát, Tomáš; Peterka, Jozef; Kováč, Martin


    The article deals with the cutting tool wear measurement process and tool life of ball nose end mill depending on upward ramping and downward ramping. The aim was to determine and compare the wear (tool life) of ball nose end mill for different types of copy milling operations, as well as to specify particular steps of the measurement process. In addition, we examined and observed cutter contact areas of ball nose end mill with machined material. For tool life test, DMG DMU 85 monoBLOCK 5-axis CNC milling machine was used. In the experiment, cutting speed, feed rate, axial depth of cut and radial depth of cut were not changed. The cutting tool wear was measured on Zoller Genius 3s universal measuring machine. The results show different tool life of ball nose end mills depending on the copy milling strategy.

  13. Investigation on burrs in micro milling of stainless steel 310S (United States)

    Meixia, Yuan; Shaonan, Liu; Hongxin, Xue; Boyan, Tang; Linlin, Zhao


    In the process of micro milling stainless steel 310S, the influence of milling parameters (cutting depth, a p , feed per tooth f z , cutting speed v),and down and up milling method were revealed, which provides reference for controlling burrs of stainless steel 310S, improving surface quality and optimizing cutting process. Based on the orthogonal test method, the coated carbide micro diameter cutter was used and milling experiments were carried out on stainless steel 310S.Top burr size data information was collected and analyzed. Up milling is better than down milling because the shape and size of burr are relatively small. With the increase of cutting depth, the shape of burrs appears long fibrous and tearing and wavy serrated, which means the burr getting large and worse. In order to minimize burrs, it is the good way to choose the sharp cutting tools and up milling, control the cutting depth and select feed rate.

  14. Magnetic and thermomagnetic studies of the formation of the Rhometal powders by high energy mechanical milling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chicinas, I; Popa, F; Prica, C V; Neamtu, B V; Marinca, T F [Materials Sciences and Technology Department, Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Isnard, O [Institut Neel, CNRS/ Universite Joseph Fourier, Grenoble (France); Chiriac, H [National Institute of R and D for Technical Physics, Iasi (Romania); Pop, V, E-mail: [Babes-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca (Romania)


    Nanocrystalline Rhometal (36Ni64Fe, wt. %) powders have been obtained by mechanical alloying under argon atmosphere. The initial mixture was milled up to 20 h. In order to eliminate internal stresses and to improve the solid state reaction annealing at 350 {sup 0}C was performed for 4h. The alloy formation is obtained after 8 h of milling. A mean crystallite size of 10 {+-} 4 nm is obtained after 20 hours of milling. The magnetization values for the as-milled samples are between that of the starting sample and that of the as cast one. The evolution of the magnetization versus the milling time is discussed. The thermomagnetic analysis shows the Curie temperatures confirming the alloy formation by milling. As a result of the solid state reaction by milling means, a continuous decrease of the magnetization with increasing the temperature is recorded, similarly to the behaviour of the classical cast alloy.

  15. Unravelling the relationship between degree of disorder and the dissolution behavior of milled glibenclamide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mah, Pei T; Laaksonen, Timo; Rades, Thomas


    Milling is an attractive method to prepare amorphous formulations as it does not require the use of solvents and is suitable for thermolabile drugs. One of the key critical quality attributes of milled amorphous formulations is their dissolution behavior. However, there are limited studies...... that have investigated the relationship between degree of disorder induced by milling and dissolution behavior. The main aim of this study was to identify the analytical technique used to characterize degree of disorder that correlates best with the recrystallization behavior during dissolution of milled...... glibenclamide samples. Solid state and surface changes during dissolution of milled glibenclamide samples were monitored in order to elucidate the processes that influence the dissolution behavior of milled glibenclamide samples. Glibenclamide was ball milled for different durations and analyzed using X...

  16. Hardwood lumber widths and grades used by the furniture and cabinet industries: Results of a 14-mill survey (United States)

    Jan Wiedenbeck; John Brown; Neal Bennett; Everette Rast


    Data on red oak lumber width, length, and grade were collected at 14 furniture and cabinet industry rough mills to identify relationships among these lumber attributes and the degree to which they differ from mill to mill. Also, this information is needed to formulate valid lumber size distributions that will improve the quality of theresults obtained in mill and...

  17. Agar agar-stabilized milled zerovalent iron particles for in situ groundwater remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velimirovic, Milica; Schmid, Doris; Wagner, Stephan; Micić, Vesna; Kammer, Frank von der; Hofmann, Thilo, E-mail:


    Submicron-scale milled zerovalent iron (milled ZVI) particles produced by grinding macroscopic raw materials could provide a cost-effective alternative to nanoscale zerovalent iron (nZVI) particles for in situ degradation of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons in groundwater. However, the aggregation and settling of bare milled ZVI particles from suspension presents a significant obstacle to their in situ application for groundwater remediation. In our investigations we reduced the rapid aggregation and settling rate of bare milled ZVI particles from suspension by stabilization with a “green” agar agar polymer. The transport potential of stabilized milled ZVI particle suspensions in a diverse array of natural heterogeneous porous media was evaluated in a series of well-controlled laboratory column experiments. The impact of agar agar on trichloroethene (TCE) removal by milled ZVI particles was assessed in laboratory-scale batch reactors. The use of agar agar significantly enhanced the transport of milled ZVI particles in all of the investigated porous media. Reactivity tests showed that the agar agar-stabilized milled ZVI particles were reactive towards TCE, but that their reactivity was an order of magnitude less than that of bare, non-stabilized milled ZVI particles. Our results suggest that milled ZVI particles could be used as an alternative to nZVI particles as their potential for emplacement into contaminated zone, their reactivity, and expected longevity are beneficial for in situ groundwater remediation. - Highlights: • Rapid aggregation and sedimentation were observed in bare milled ZVI particles. • Agar agar improved the stability of milled ZVI particle suspensions. • Agar agar enhanced the transport of milled ZVI particles in heterogeneous sands. • Agar agar reduced the reactivity of milled ZVI particles towards TCE.

  18. Anticonvulsant effect of Persea americana Mill (Lauraceae) (Avocado) leaf aqueous extract in mice. (United States)

    Ojewole, John A O; Amabeoku, George J


    Various morphological parts of Persea americana Mill (Lauraceae) (avocado) are widely used in African traditional medicines for the treatment, management and/or control of a variety of human ailments, including childhood convulsions and epilepsy. This study examined the anticonvulsant effect of the plant's leaf aqueous extract (PAE, 50-800 mg/kg i.p.) against pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-, picrotoxin (PCT)- and bicuculline (BCL)-induced seizures in mice. Phenobarbitone and diazepam were used as reference anticonvulsant drugs for comparison. Like the reference anticonvulsant agents used, Persea americana leaf aqueous extract (PAE, 100-800 mg/kg i.p.) significantly (p Persea americana leaf aqueous extract possesses an anticonvulsant property, and thus lends pharmacological credence to the suggested ethnomedical uses of the plant in the management of childhood convulsions and epilepsy.

  19. Customizable in situ TEM devices fabricated in freestanding membranes by focused ion beam milling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lei, Anders; Petersen, Dirch Hjorth; Booth, Tim


    Nano- and microelectromechanical structures for in situ operation in a transmission electron microscope (TEM) were fabricated with a turnaround time of 20 min and a resolution better than 100 nm. The structures are defined by focused ion beam (FIB) milling in 135 nm thin membranes of single....... The membrane structures provide a simple way to design electron-transparent nanodevices with high local temperature gradients within the field of view of the TEM, allowing detailed studies of surface diffusion processes. We show two examples of heat-induced coarsening of gold on a narrow freestanding bridge......, and that current annealing recrystallizes the structure, causing the electrical properties to partly recover to the pristine bulk resistivity. In situ imaging of the annealing process revealed both continuous and abrupt changes in the crystal structure, accompanied by instant changes of the electrical conductivity...

  20. Final technical evaluation report for the proposed revised reclamation plan for the Atlas Corporation Moab Mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This final Technical Evaluation Report (TER) summarizes the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff`s review of Atlas Corporation`s proposed reclamation plan for its uranium mill tailings pile near Moab, Utah. The proposed reclamation would allow Atlas to (1) reclaim the tailings pile for permanent disposal and long-term custodial care by a government agency in its current location on the Moab site, (2) prepare the site for closure, and (3) relinquish responsibility of the site after having its NRC license terminated. The NRC staff concludes that, subject to license conditions identified in the TER, the proposed reclamation plan meets the requirements identified in NRC regulations, which appear primarily in 10 CFR Part 40. 112 refs., 6 figs., 16 tabs.

  1. Wind Resource Assessment Report: Mille Lacs Indian Reservation, Minnesota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, Antonio C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Robichaud, Robi [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) launched the RE-Powering America's Land initiative to encourage development of renewable energy on potentially contaminated land and mine sites. EPA collaborated with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Mille Lacs Band of Chippewa Indians to evaluate the wind resource and examine the feasibility of a wind project at a contaminated site located on the Mille Lacs Indian Reservation in Minnesota. The wind monitoring effort involved the installation of a 60-m met tower and the collection of 18 months of wind data at multiple heights above the ground. This report focuses on the wind resource assessment, the estimated energy production of wind turbines, and an assessment of the economic feasibility of a potential wind project sited this site.

  2. Magnetic degradation of thin film multilayers during ion milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Read


    Full Text Available We present a study of Ar ion milling-induced damage in exchange biased IrMn/CoFe/Ag-based magnetic multilayer thin films. While process variations determine the change in CoFe magnetic properties, the distance from the ion milling front to the IrMn/CoFe interface dominates the extent of exchange bias damage. Remarkably, the interfacial coupling energy Jk can be reduced by 50% before any removal of the CoFe pinned layer. We attribute the losses to microstructural changes and damage effects where cap material is driven into the CoFe layer below. Disturbance depth estimates from ion impact simulations agree reasonably with the observed length scales of damage.

  3. Motion Simulation Analysis of Rail Weld CNC Fine Milling Machine (United States)

    Mao, Huajie; Shu, Min; Li, Chao; Zhang, Baojun

    CNC fine milling machine is a new advanced equipment of rail weld precision machining with high precision, high efficiency, low environmental pollution and other technical advantages. The motion performance of this machine directly affects its machining accuracy and stability, which makes it an important consideration for its design. Based on the design drawings, this article completed 3D modeling of 60mm/kg rail weld CNC fine milling machine by using Solidworks. After that, the geometry was imported into Adams to finish the motion simulation analysis. The displacement, velocity, angular velocity and some other kinematical parameters curves of the main components were obtained in the post-processing and these are the scientific basis for the design and development for this machine.

  4. Four pillars of radio astronomy Mills, Christiansen, Wild, Bracewell

    CERN Document Server

    Frater, R H; Wendt, H W


    This is the story of Bernie Mills, Chris Christiansen, Paul Wild and Ron Bracewell, members of a team of radio astronomers that would lead Australia, and the world, into this new field of research. Each of the four is remembered for his remarkable work: Mills for the development the cross type instrument that now bears his name; Christiansen for the application of rotational synthesis techniques; Wild for the masterful joining of observations and theory to elicit the nature of the solar atmosphere; Bracewell for his contribution to imaging theory. As well, these Four Pillars are remembered for creating a remarkable environment for scientific discovery and for influencing the careers of future generations. Their pursuit of basic science helped pave the way for technological developments in areas ranging from Wi-Fi to sonar to medical imaging to air navigation, and for underpinning the foundations of modern cosmology and astrophysics.

  5. Phase structure of lattice N=4 super Yang-Mills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Catterall, Simon; Damgaard, Poul H.; DeGrand, Thomas


    We make a first study of the phase diagram of four-dimensional N = 4 super Yang-Mills theory regulated on a space-time lattice. The lattice formulation we employ is both gauge invariant and retains at all lattice spacings one exactly preserved supersymmetry charge. Our numerical results are consi......We make a first study of the phase diagram of four-dimensional N = 4 super Yang-Mills theory regulated on a space-time lattice. The lattice formulation we employ is both gauge invariant and retains at all lattice spacings one exactly preserved supersymmetry charge. Our numerical results...... are consistent with the existence of a single deconfined phase at all observed values of the bare coupling....

  6. Casimir scaling and Yang–Mills glueballs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deog Ki Hong


    Full Text Available We conjecture that in Yang–Mills theories the ratio between the ground-state glueball mass squared and the string tension is proportional to the ratio of the eigenvalues of quadratic Casimir operators in the adjoint and the fundamental representations. The proportionality constant depends on the dimension of the space-time only, and is henceforth universal. We argue that this universality, which is supported by available lattice results, is a direct consequence of area-law confinement. In order to explain this universal behavior, we provide three analytical arguments, based respectively on a Bethe–Salpeter analysis, on the saturation of the scale anomaly by the lightest scalar glueball and on QCD sum rules, commenting on the underlying assumptions that they entail and on their physical implications. Keywords: Glueballs, Yang–Mills theories, Confinement, Casimir scaling

  7. Machining Chatter Analysis for High Speed Milling Operations (United States)

    Sekar, M.; Kantharaj, I.; Amit Siddhappa, Savale


    Chatter in high speed milling is characterized by time delay differential equations (DDE). Since closed form solution exists only for simple cases, the governing non-linear DDEs of chatter problems are solved by various numerical methods. Custom codes to solve DDEs are tedious to build, implement and not error free and robust. On the other hand, software packages provide solution to DDEs, however they are not straight forward to implement. In this paper an easy way to solve DDE of chatter in milling is proposed and implemented with MATLAB. Time domain solution permits the study and model of non-linear effects of chatter vibration with ease. Time domain results are presented for various stable and unstable conditions of cut and compared with stability lobe diagrams.

  8. Workpiece Machining Accuracy Prediction Based on Milling Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lv Yan-peng


    Full Text Available To ensure the machining accuracy of workpiece, it is necessary to predict the workpiece deformation in machining process through establishing a high precision workpiece deformation forecast model. To solve these problems, a more efficient variable stiffness analysis model is proposed, which can obtain quantitative stiffness value of the machining surface. Applying simulated cutting force in sampling points using finite element analysis software ABAQUS, the single direction variable stiffness rule can be obtained. First of all, finite element simulation model of face milling is established with the Johnson-Cook material model and failure model of 7050 aluminum alloy. Prediction model is established based on SVM and input data is provided by the finite element software ABAQUS simulation. Results show that the model prediction relative error is less than 5%. It is concluded that the effects of milling parameters on workpiece machining deformation and practical guide for production.

  9. Sorting Olive Batches for the Milling Process Using Image Processing. (United States)

    Aguilera Puerto, Daniel; Martínez Gila, Diego Manuel; Gámez García, Javier; Gómez Ortega, Juan


    The quality of virgin olive oil obtained in the milling process is directly bound to the characteristics of the olives. Hence, the correct classification of the different incoming olive batches is crucial to reach the maximum quality of the oil. The aim of this work is to provide an automatic inspection system, based on computer vision, and to classify automatically different batches of olives entering the milling process. The classification is based on the differentiation between ground and tree olives. For this purpose, three different species have been studied (Picudo, Picual and Hojiblanco). The samples have been obtained by picking the olives directly from the tree or from the ground. The feature vector of the samples has been obtained on the basis of the olive image histograms. Moreover, different image preprocessing has been employed, and two classification techniques have been used: these are discriminant analysis and neural networks. The proposed methodology has been validated successfully, obtaining good classification results.

  10. HYM-flation: Yang–Mills cosmology with Horndeski coupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Davydov


    Full Text Available We propose new mechanism for inflation using classical SU(2 Yang–Mills (YM homogeneous and isotropic field non-minimally coupled to gravity via Horndeski prescription. This is the unique generally and gauge covariant ghost-free YM theory with the curvature-dependent action leading to second-order gravity and Yang–Mills field equations. We show that its solution space contains de Sitter boundary to which the trajectories are attracted for some finite time, ensuring the robust inflation with a graceful exit. The theory can be generalized to include the Higgs field leading to two-steps inflationary scenario, in which the Planck-scale YM-generated inflation naturally prepares the desired initial conditions for the GUT-scale Higgs inflation.

  11. E-Everything and the School Library Media Specialist: Grist for the Mill (Part 2). (United States)

    Barron, Daniel D.


    Discusses electronic books and the need for school library media specialists to merge information literacy and library skills with technology skills. Highlights include advancing technology for electronic books; helpful Web sites, including Project Gutenburg; and reader software. (LRW)

  12. Space-time wormholes with Yang-Mills fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rey, S.J. (California Univ., Santa Barbara (USA). Dept. of Physics)


    Recently, Hosoya and Ogura found a wormhole instanton solution with a nontrivial SU(2) magnetic field. In this paper, we identify their solution with the gravitating meron configuration of the SU(2) gauge theory. In addition, we also find a generalized Yang-Mills wormhole solution with nontrivial electric and magnetic fields. These correspond to the 'nested' meron wormholes. Fermion dynamics on these wormhole backgrounds and implications for low-energy physics are also discussed. (orig.).

  13. Simple grain mill boosts production and eases women's workload ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    “The broken seeds turn into a flour-like powder that attracts insects or absorbs moisture that can lead to mould growth. Our machine is almost 98% efficient, with less than 2% of seeds broken,” says principal investigator and McGill University professor Valérie Orsat. The mill breaks the hulls by squeezing them through rollers ...

  14. Influence of mechanical milling and thermal annealing on electrical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The present article reports some of the interesting and important electrical and magnetic properties of nanostructured spinel ferrites such as Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 and CoFe2O4. In the case of Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4, d.c. electrical conductivity increases upon milling, and it is attributed to oxygen vacancies created by high energy ...

  15. Geochemical hosts of solubilized radionuclides in uranium mill tailings (United States)

    Landa, E.R.; Bush, C.A.


    The solubilization and subsequent resorption of radionuclides by ore components or by reaction products during the milling of uranium ores may have both economic and environmental consequences. Particle-size redistribution of radium during milling has been demonstrated by previous investigators; however, the identification of sorbing components in the tailings has received little experimental attention. In this study, uranium-bearing sandstone ore was milled, on a laboratory scale, with sulfuric acid. At regular intervals, filtrate from this suspension was placed in contact with mixtures of quartz sand and various potential sorbents which occur as gangue in uranium ores; the potential sorbents included clay minerals, iron and aluminum oxides, feldspar, fluorspar, barite, jarosite, coal, and volcanic glass. After equilibration, the quartz sand-sorbent mixtures were separated from the filtrate and radioassayed by gamma-spectrometry to determine the quantities of 238U, 230Th, 226Ra, and 210Pb sorbed, and the radon emanation coefficients. Sorption of 238U was low in all cases, with maximal sorptions of 1-2% by the bentonite- and coal-bearing samples. 230Th sorption also was generally less than 1%; maximal sorption here was observed in the fluorspar-bearing sample and appears to be associated with the formation of gypsum during milling. 226Ra and 210 Pb generally showed higher sorption than the other nuclides - more than 60% of the 26Ra solubilized from the ore was sorbed on the barite-bearing sample. The mechanism (s) for this sorption by a wide variety of substrates is not yet understood. Radon emanation coefficients of the samples ranged from about 5 to 30%, with the coal-bearing samples clearly demonstrating an emanating power higher than any of the other materials. ?? 1990.



    Aydın, Metin


    Utilitarianism, systematised by Jeremy Bentham (1748–1832) in 18th century, is a theory having strong effects in many different areas from economy and ethics to politic and law especially in England and geopraphies in which anglo-saxon culture reigns. John Stuart Mill (1806 – 1873) reinterpreted Utilitrianism which was inherited from Bentham, in the context of critics of utilitarianism and his own thoughts. In this essay, Mill’s utilitarianism will be examined. In this context, I will discuss...

  17. Performance characteristics of mill rolls from graphite chromium cast iron


    Lecomte-Beckers, Jacqueline; Terziev, L.; Breyer, J. P.


    The main requirements for the development of a new grade for the later finishing section of the mill are : good oxidation and thermal behaviour, high wear resistance, good resistance to rolling incidents. The approach of Marichal Ketin to improve the rolling performances in the last finishing stands is presented. The Hi-Cr cast iron possesses excellent wear resistance due to the presence of hard chromium carbides, but its thermal conductivity and sticking properties are fairly low. A graphite...

  18. Morse homology for the Yang–Mills gradient flow

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Swoboda, Jan


    ...€¢â€¢â€¢ (••••) •••–••• Morse homology for the Yang–Mills gradient flow Jan Swoboda ∗ Max-Planck-Institut...

  19. BRST renormalization of the first order Yang-Mills theory (United States)

    Frenkel, J.; Taylor, John C.


    We examine the renormalization of the first order formulation of the Yang-Mills theory, by using the BRST identities. These preserve the gauge invariance of the theory and enable a recursive proof of renormalizability to higher orders in perturbation theory. The renormalization involves non-linear mixings as well as re-scalings of the fields and sources, which lead to a renormalized action at all orders.

  20. ANN Based Tool Condition Monitoring System for CNC Milling Machines


    Mota-Valtierra G.C.; Franco-Gasca L.A.; Herrera-Ruiz G.; Macias-Bobadilla G.


    Most of the companies have as objective to manufacture high-quality products, then by optimizing costs, reducing and controlling the variations in its production processes it is possible. Within manufacturing industries a very important issue is the tool condition monitoring, since the tool state will determine the quality of products. Besides, a good monitoring system will protect the machinery from severe damages. For determining the state of the cutting tools in a milling machine, there is...

  1. Effect of Rosa damascena Mill. flower extract on rat ileum


    Sadraei, H.; Asghari, G.; Emami, S.


    Rosa damascena flower is widely used for gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. However, its pharmacological action on isolated ileum has not been studied. In this research, the effect of extract of flower petals of R. damascena Mill. growing in Kashan, Iran, on ileum motility was investigated. Hydroalcoholic extract was prepared by percolation method. A section of rat ileum was suspended in an organ bath containing Tyrode?s solution. The tissue was stimulated with electrical field stimulation (EFS...

  2. Mechanochemical synthesis of nanocrystalline materials in an industrial mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eberhard Gock


    Full Text Available Nanosized materials are polycrystalline materials, whose crystal size is a few (typically 1-100 nanometers in at least one dimension. It has been proposed that as particles become smaller in size they may take on different chemical and physical properties. One of the most intriguing observations was that nanocrystals prepared by the altered “nano“ approach exhibited a higher surface chemical reactivity than more conventionally prepared samples. Nanocrystalline materials have many potential applications in the area of advanced materials. Their strongly size-dependent optical properties render them attractive candidates as tunable light absorbers and emitters in optoelectronic devices such as light-emitting diodes and quantum-dot lasers. These materials can be synthesized via solid state reactions where the efficiency of synthesis can be strongly enhanced by an intervention of high-energy milling (mechanochemical synthesis. The mechanochemical synthesis can effectively control and regulate the course of solid state reactions. Nanocrystalline materials MeS (Me=Pb, Zn, Cd, Cu were successfully synthesized by the mechanochemical route from the corresponding metal acetates and natrium sulphide in an industrial mill. Structure properties of the as-prepared products were characterized by the X-ray powder diffraction, revealing the crystalline nature of the MeS nanoparticles. The methods of TEM, particle size analysis and the low temperature nitrogen sorption were used to analyze the particle morphology and the surface composition. The average sizes of MeS particles of 4-18 nm were estimated by Scherrer´s formula. The nanocrystalline materials are obtained in the simple step, making the process attractive for industrial applications. The main advantage of the application of the industrial mill is that it is a “quantity” process, permitting kilograms of material to be produced at an ambient temperature in a very short processing time. Moreover

  3. Investigating Genetic Diversity of Foeniculum Vulgare Mill using Molecular Markers


    Omid Jadidi; Mansour Kalantar


    Medicinal plants are considered valuable genetic resources in Iran. One of these medicinal as well as spice plants is Foeniculum Vulgare Mill from Umbellifetae family used in different industries such as food, medicine, and cosmetics. It seems that due to different climate conditions in Iran this plant represents a high and valuable genetic diversity; therefore, management of genetic resources protection and obtaining information about genetic diversity will help awareness of evolution pro...

  4. Effect of Milling Time on the Microstructure, Physical and Mechanical Properties of Al-Al₂O₃ Nanocomposite Synthesized by Ball Milling and Powder Metallurgy. (United States)

    Toozandehjani, Meysam; Matori, Khamirul Amin; Ostovan, Farhad; Abdul Aziz, Sidek; Mamat, Md Shuhazlly


    The effect of milling time on the morphology, microstructure, physical and mechanical properties of pure Al-5 wt % Al₂O₃ (Al-5Al₂O₃) has been investigated. Al-5Al₂O₃ nanocomposites were fabricated using ball milling in a powder metallurgy route. The increase in the milling time resulted in the homogenous dispersion of 5 wt % Al₂O₃ nanoparticles, the reduction of particle clustering, and the reduction of distances between the composite particles. The significant grain refining during milling was revealed which showed as a reduction of particle size resulting from longer milling time. X-Ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of the nanocomposite powders also showed that designated ball milling contributes to the crystalline refining and accumulation of internal stress due to induced severe plastic deformation of the particles. It can be argued that these morphological and microstructural variations of nanocomposite powders induced by designated ball milling time was found to contribute to an improvement in the density, densification, micro-hardness (HV), nano-hardness (HN), and Young's modulus (E) of Al-5Al₂O₃ nanocomposites. HV, HN, and E values of nanocomposites were increased by ~48%, 46%, and 40%, after 12 h of milling, respectively.

  5. Effect of Milling Time on the Microstructure, Physical and Mechanical Properties of Al-Al2O3 Nanocomposite Synthesized by Ball Milling and Powder Metallurgy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meysam Toozandehjani


    Full Text Available The effect of milling time on the morphology, microstructure, physical and mechanical properties of pure Al-5 wt % Al2O3 (Al-5Al2O3 has been investigated. Al-5Al2O3 nanocomposites were fabricated using ball milling in a powder metallurgy route. The increase in the milling time resulted in the homogenous dispersion of 5 wt % Al2O3 nanoparticles, the reduction of particle clustering, and the reduction of distances between the composite particles. The significant grain refining during milling was revealed which showed as a reduction of particle size resulting from longer milling time. X-Ray diffraction (XRD analysis of the nanocomposite powders also showed that designated ball milling contributes to the crystalline refining and accumulation of internal stress due to induced severe plastic deformation of the particles. It can be argued that these morphological and microstructural variations of nanocomposite powders induced by designated ball milling time was found to contribute to an improvement in the density, densification, micro-hardness (HV, nano-hardness (HN, and Young’s modulus (E of Al-5Al2O3 nanocomposites. HV, HN, and E values of nanocomposites were increased by ~48%, 46%, and 40%, after 12 h of milling, respectively.

  6. Field-scale investigation of pulverized coal mill power consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganguli, R.; Bandopadhyay, S. [University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK (United States)


    Twenty field-scale tests were conducted in a 28 MW pulverized coal power plant in Healy, Alaska, to examine mill power consumption in relation to coal grind size. The intent in this field-scale study was to verify if grind size truly impacted power consumption by a detectable amount. The regression model developed from the data indicates that grind size does impact mill power consumption, with finer grinds consuming significantly more power than coarser grinds. However, other factors such as coal hardness (i.e. the lower the Hardgrove Grindability Index, or the harder the coal, the higher the power consumption) and mill throughput (i.e., the higher the throughput, the higher the power consumption) had to be included before the impact of grind size could be isolated. It was also observed that combining amperage and flow rate into a single parameter, i.e., specific amperage, hurt modeling. Cost analysis based on the regression model indicate a power savings of $19,972 per year if the coal were ground to 50% passing 76 {mu}m rather than the industry standard of 70% passing 76 {mu}m. The study also demonstrated that size reduction constituted a significant portion of the power consumption.

  7. Long-term stabilization of uranium mill tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voorhees, L.D.; Sale, M.J.; Webb, J.W.; Mulholland, P.J.


    The primary hazard associated with uranium mill tailings is exposure to a radioactive gas, radon-222, the concentration of which has been correlated with the occurrence of lung cancer. Previous studies on radon attenuation conclude that the placement of earthen cover materials over the tailings is the most effective technique for reducing radioactive emissions and dispersal of tailings. The success of such a plan, however, is dependent on ensuring the long-term integrity of these cover materials. Soil erosion from water and wind is the major natural cause of destabilizing earthen cover materials. Field data related to the control of soil loss are limited and only indirectly apply to the problem of isolation of uranium mill tailings over very long time periods (up to 80,000 a). However, sufficient information is available to determine benefits that will result from the changes in specific design variables and to evaluate the need for different design strategies among potential disposal sites. The three major options available for stabilization of uranium mill tailings are: rock cover, soil and revegetation, or a combination of both on different portions of the tailings cover. The optimal choice among these alternatives depends on site-specific characteristics such as climate and local geomorphology and soils, and on design variables such as embankment, heights and slopes, modification of upstream drainage, and revegetation practices. Generally, geomorphic evidence suggests that use of soil and vegetation alone will not be adequate to reduce erosion on slopes greater than about 5 to 9%.

  8. Mechanically Milled Irregular Zinc Nanoparticles for Printable Bioresorbable Electronics. (United States)

    Mahajan, Bikram K; Yu, Xiaowei; Shou, Wan; Pan, Heng; Huang, Xian


    Bioresorbable electronics is predominantly realized by complex and time-consuming anhydrous fabrication processes. New technology explores printable methods using inks containing micro- or nano-bioresorbable particles (e.g., Zn and Mg). However, these particles have seldom been obtained in the context of bioresorbable electronics using cheap, reliable, and effective approaches with limited study on properties essential to printable electronics. Here, irregular nanocrystalline Zn with controllable sizes and optimized electrical performance is obtained through ball milling approach using polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as a process control agent to stabilize Zn particles and prevent cold welding. Time and PVP dependence of the ball milled particles are studied with systematic characterizations of morphology and composition of the nanoparticles. The results reveal crystallized Zn nanoparticles with a size of ≈34.834 ± 1.76 nm and low surface oxidation. The resulting Zn nanoparticles can be readily printed onto bioresorbable substrates and sintered at room temperature using a photonic sintering approach, leading to a high conductivity of 44 643 S m -1 for printable zinc nanoparticles. The techniques to obtain Zn nanoparticles through ball milling and processing them through photonic sintering may potentially lead to a mass fabrication method for bioresorbable electronics and promote its applications in healthcare, environmental protection, and consumer electronics. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. New relations for Einstein–Yang–Mills amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stieberger, Stephan, E-mail: [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, Werner-Heisenberg-Institut, 80805 München (Germany); Taylor, Tomasz R. [Department of Physics, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115 (United States)


    We obtain new relations between Einstein–Yang–Mills (EYM) amplitudes involving N gauge bosons plus a single graviton and pure Yang–Mills amplitudes involving N gauge bosons plus one additional vector boson inserted in a way typical for a gauge boson of a “spectator” group commuting with the group associated to original N gauge bosons. We show that such EYM amplitudes satisfy U(1) decoupling relations similar to Kleiss–Kuijf relations for Yang–Mills amplitudes. We consider a D-brane embedding of EYM amplitudes in the framework of disk amplitudes involving open and closed strings. A new set of monodromy relations is derived for mixed open–closed amplitudes with one closed string inserted on the disk world-sheet and a number of open strings at the boundary. These relations allow expressing the latter in terms of pure open string amplitudes and, in the field-theory limit, they yield the U(1) decoupling relations for EYM amplitudes.

  10. Biodiesel production from microalgae: co-location with sugar mills. (United States)

    Lohrey, Christian; Kochergin, Vadim


    Co-location of algae production facilities with cane sugar mills can be a technically advantageous path towards production of biodiesel. Algal biodiesel production was integrated with cane sugar production in the material and energy balance simulation program Sugars™. A model was developed that allowed comparison of production scenarios involving dewatering the algae to 20% ds (dry solids) or 30% ds prior to thermal drying. The net energy ratio, E(R) (energy produced/energy consumed) of the proposed process was found to be 1.5. A sensitivity analysis showed that this number ranged from 0.9 to 1.7 when the range of values for oil content, CO(2) utilization, oil conversion, and harvest density reported in the literature were evaluated. By utilizing available waste-resources from a 10,000 ton/d cane sugar mill, a 530 ha algae farm can produce 5.8 million L of biodiesel/yr and reduce CO(2) emissions of the mill by 15% without the need for fossil fuels. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Wet milling versus co-precipitation in magnetite ferrofluid preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almásy László


    Full Text Available Various uses of ferrofluids for technical applications continuously raise the interest in improvement and optimization of preparation methods. This paper deals with preparation of finely granulated magnetite particles coated with oleic acid in hydrocarbon suspensions following either chemical co-precipitation from iron salt precursors or wet milling of micron size magnetite powder with the goal to compare the benefits and disadvantages of each method. Microstructural measurements showed that both methods gave similar magnetite particle size of 10-15 nm. Higher saturation magnetization was achieved for the wet-milled magnetite suspension compared to relatively rapid co-precipitation synthesis. Different efficacies of ferrophase incorporation into kerosene could be related to the different mechanisms of oleic acid bonding to nanoparticle surface. The comparative data show that wet milling represents a practicable alternative to the traditional co-precipitation since despite of longer processing time, chemicals impact on environment can be avoided as well as the remnant water in the final product.

  12. Deconfinement in Yang-Mills Theory through Toroidal Compactification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simic, Dusan; Unsal, Mithat; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC


    We introduce field theory techniques through which the deconfinement transition of four-dimensional Yang-Mills theory can be moved to a semi-classical domain where it becomes calculable using two-dimensional field theory. We achieve this through a double-trace deformation of toroidally compactified Yang-Mills theory on R{sup 2} x S{sub L}{sup 1} x S{sub {beta}}{sup 1}. At large N, fixed-L, and arbitrary {beta}, the thermodynamics of the deformed theory is equivalent to that of ordinary Yang-Mills theory at leading order in the large N expansion. At fixed-N, small L and a range of {beta}, the deformed theory maps to a two-dimensional theory with electric and magnetic (order and disorder) perturbations, analogs of which appear in planar spin-systems and statistical physics. We show that in this regime the deconfinement transition is driven by the competition between electric and magnetic perturbations in this two-dimensional theory. This appears to support the scenario proposed by Liao and Shuryak regarding the magnetic component of the quark-gluon plasma at RHIC.

  13. Notes on theta dependence in holographic Yang-Mills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigazzi, Francesco [INFN - Sezione di Pisa,Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Cotrone, Aldo L. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Firenze and INFN - Sezione di Firenze,Via G. Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Sisca, Roberto [Università di Pisa, Dipartimento di Fisica “E. Fermi' ,Largo Bruno Pontecorvo 3, I-56127 Pisa (Italy)


    Effects of the θ parameter are studied in Witten’s model of holographic 4d Yang-Mills, where θ is the coefficient of the CP-breaking topological term. First, the gravity background, including the full backreaction of the RR form dual to the θ parameter, is revisited. Then, a number of observables are computed holographically: the ground-state energy density, the string tension, the ’t Hooft loop, the light scalar glueball mass, the baryon mass scale, the critical temperature for deconfinement — and thus the whole (T,θ) phase diagram — and the entanglement entropy. A simple rule is provided to derive the θ corrections to (at least) all the CP-neutral observables of the model. Some of the observables we consider can and have been in fact studied in pure 4d Yang-Mills on the lattice. In that framework the results, obtained in the small θ regime, are given up to very few powers of θ{sup 2}. The corresponding holographic results agree qualitatively with available lattice data and signal an overall mass scale reduction by θ. Moreover, being exact in θ, they provide a benchmark for higher order corrections in Yang-Mills.

  14. Phase Transitions in Mechanically Milled Mn-Al-C Permanent Magnets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Lucis


    Full Text Available Mn-Al powders were prepared by rapid solidification followed by high-energy mechanical milling. The rapid solidification resulted in single-phase ε. The milling was performed in both the ε phase and the τ phase, with the τ-phase formation accomplished through a heat treatment at 500 °C for 10 min. For the ε-milled samples, the conversion of the ε to the τ phase was accomplished after milling via the same heat treatment. Mechanical milling induced a significant increase in coercivity in both cases, reaching 4.5 kOe and 4.1 kOe, respectively, followed by a decrease upon further milling. The increase in coercivity was the result of grain refinement induced by the high-energy mechanical milling. Additionally, in both cases a loss in magnetization was observed. Milling in the ε phase showed a smaller decrease in the magnetization due to a higher content of the τ phase. The loss in magnetization was attributed to a stress-induced transition to the equilibrium phases, as no site disorder or oxidation was observed. Surfactant-assisted milling in oleic acid also improved coercivity, but in this case values reached >4 kOe and remained stable at least through 32 h of milling.

  15. Effect of annealing on the magnetic properties of ball milled NiO powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kisan, Bhagaban [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati 781039 (India); Saravanan, P. [Defence Metallurgical Research laboratory, Hyderabad 500058 (India); Layek, Samar; Verma, H.C. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur 208016 (India); Hesp, David; Dhanak, Vinod [Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3BX (United Kingdom); Krishnamurthy, Satheesh [Materials Engineering, The Open University, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Perumal, A., E-mail: [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati 781039 (India)


    We report systematic investigations on structural and magnetic properties of nanosized NiO powders prepared by the ball milling process followed by systematic annealing at different temperatures. Both as-milled and annealed NiO powders exhibit face centered cubic structure, but average crystallite size decreases (increases) with increasing milling time (annealing temperature). Pure NiO exhibits antiferromagnetic nature, which transforms into ferromagnetic one with moderate moment at room temperature with decreasing crystallite size. The on-set of ferromagnetic behavior in the as-milled powders was observed at higher temperatures (>750 K) as compared to bulk Ni (~630 K). On the other hand, annealing of as-milled powders showed a large reduction in magnetic moment and the rate of decrease of moment strongly depends on the milling conditions. The observed properties are discussed on the basis of crystallite size variation, defect density, oxidation/reduction of Ni and interaction between uncompensated surfaces and particle core with lattice expansion. - Highlights: • Preparation of fine NiO powder using top-to-bottom approach using planetary ball mill. • Effect of milling on instituting room temperature ferromagnetism with size reduction. • Stability of ferromagnetic properties at high temperatures in milled NiO powders • Effect of annealing process on the structural properties of milled NiO powders. • Understanding the origin of ferromagnetism at 300 K in NiO powders through annealing.

  16. Toward understanding the evolution of griseofulvin crystal structure to a mesophase after cryogenic milling. (United States)

    Feng, Tao; Bates, Simon; Carvajal, M Teresa


    The purpose of this research is to investigate the response of crystalline griseofulvin to mechanically induced stress through cryogenic milling. Crystalline griseofulvin was subjected to cryogenic milling for two different lengths of time. Following cryo-milling, the samples were immediately analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD). The DSC thermograms of cryo-milled griseofulvin showed a complex exothermic event at around 65 degrees C for the 30min cryo-milled sample and around 75 degrees C for the 60min cryo-milled sample. A glass transition event was not observed for the cryo-milled samples. This is in direct contrast to the X-ray amorphous griseofulvin sample prepared through the quench melt method The XRPD patterns of cryo-milled griseofulvin show a loss of the crystalline Bragg peaks and a corresponding increase in diffuse scattering (halos). The disordered griseofulvin material produced through cryo-milling appears X-ray amorphous, yet different from the amorphous phase produced using the quench melt method. Both X-ray amorphous materials have distinctive DSC thermograms and X-ray powder patterns. These findings suggest that the evolution of the griseofulvin crystal structure during cryo-milling is not simply a crystal-to-amorphous transition but a transition to an intermediate mesophase.

  17. Investigation of the milling-induced thermal behavior of crystalline and amorphous griseofulvin. (United States)

    Trasi, Niraj S; Boerrigter, Stephan X M; Byrn, Stephen Robert


    To gain a better understanding of the physical state and the unusual thermal behavior of milled griseofulvin. Griseofulvin crystals and amorphous melt quench samples were milled in a vibrating ball mill for different times and then analyzed using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD). Modulated DSC (mDSC) and annealing studies were done for the milled amorphous samples to further probe the effects of milling. Milling of griseofulvin crystals results in decrease in crystallinity and amorphization of the compound. A double peak is seen for crystallization in the DSC, which is also seen for the milled melt quench sample. Both enthalpy and temperature of crystallization decrease for the milled melt quenched sample. Tg is visible under the first peak with the mDSC, and annealing shows that increasing milling time results in faster crystallization upon storage. Milling of griseofulvin results in the formation of an amorphous form and not a mesophase. It increases the amount of surface created and the overall energy of the amorphous griseofulvin, which leads to a decreased temperature of crystallization. The two exotherms in the DSC are due to some particles having nuclei on the surface.

  18. Roll compaction/dry granulation: comparison between roll mill and oscillating granulator in dry granulation. (United States)

    Sakwanichol, Jarunee; Puttipipatkhachorn, Satit; Ingenerf, Gernot; Kleinebudde, Peter


    Different experimental factorial designs were employed to evaluate granule properties obtained from oscillating granulator and roll mill. Four oscillating-granulator parameters were varied, i.e. rotor speed, oscillating angle, aperture of mesh screen and rotor type. Six roll-mill parameters that were throughput, speed ratio in both first and second stages, gap between roll pair in both stages and roll-surface texture were also investigated. Afterwards, the granule properties obtained from two milling types with similar median particle size were compared. All milling parameters in both milling types affected significantly the median particle size, size distribution and amount of fine particles (P rotor types of oscillating granulator on fines. Only three milling parameters influenced significantly the flowability (P < 0.05). These were the throughput and the gap size in the first stage of roll mill and the sieve size of oscillating granulator. In comparison between milling types, the differences of granule properties were not practically relevant. However, the roll mill had much higher capacity than the oscillating granulator about seven times, resulting in improving energy savings per unit of product. Consequently, the roll mill can be applied instead of oscillating granulator for roll compaction/dry granulation technique.

  19. Effects of surfactant addition and high-speed ball milling on magnetic powders based on Pr-Fe-B obtained by HDDR; Efeitos da adicao de surfactante e moagem de alta velocidade em pos magneticos a base de Pr-Fe-B obtidos via HDDR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Patricia Brissi


    This work verified the effect caused by adding the surfactant in the high speed/energy milling in order to obtain Pr{sub 12}Fe{sub 65.9}Co{sub 16}B{sub 6}Nb{sub 0.1} magnetic nano powders. The first part of this work involved the magnetic powder obtainment through the process of hydrogenation, disproportionation, desorption and recombination (HDDR). The pressure of H2 during the hydrogenation and disproportion steps was 930 mbar and the temperature of desorption and recombination was 840 deg C. Initially, the HDDR powders were subjected a high speed milling process at 900 rpm, with quantity variations of the milling medium (cyclohexane) and without the addition of oleic acid. Then, the HDDR powders were subjected to the milling process with the addition of oleic acid and with milling time variations. After the milling process, heat treatments of the powder were carried out at 700 deg C or 800 deg C for 30 minutes in order to obtain the crystallization of the powder. By performing the procedures, it was verified that the milling efficiency improved with the addition of 6.6 ml of cyclohexane as the milling medium and with the addition of oleic acid. It was determined that for the surfactant additions of 0.02 ml to 0.05 ml, with a milling time of up to 360 minutes, powder agglomeration does not occur in the milling pot and the milling efficiency is higher than 90%. The second stage of this work involved the magnetic powder's characterization obtained by using vibrating sample magnetometer, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Through the characterizations it was found that the powder's magnetic properties improved when the addition of oleic acid in a high-speed /energy milling occurred. It was also verified that the {alpha}-Fe phase, present in the powder, shows a crystallite size decrease (from 35 nm to {approx} 10 nm) when the time milling variation occurred; meanwhile, the crystallinity degree was lower in

  20. Activity of Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in and around flour mills. (United States)

    Doud, C W; Phillips, T W


    Studies were conducted at two flour mills where male Indian meal moths, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner), were captured using pheromone-baited traps. Objectives were to determine the distribution of male P. interpunctella at different locations in and around the mills throughout the season, and to monitor moth activity before and after one of the mills was fumigated with methyl bromide to assess efficacy of treatment. Commercially available sticky traps baited with the P. interpunctella sex pheromone were placed at various locations outside and within the larger of the two mills (mill 1). Moths were captured inside mill 1 after methyl bromide fumigations. The highest numbers of P. interpunctella were caught outside the facility and at ground floor locations near outside openings. Additional traps placed in the rooms above the concrete stored-wheat silos at mill 1 during the second year captured more moths than did traps within the mill's production and warehouse areas. In another study, moths were trapped at various distances from a smaller flour mill (mill 2) to determine the distribution of moths outdoors relative to the mill. There was a negative correlation between moth capture and distance from the facility, which suggested that moth activity was concentrated at or near the flour mill. The effectiveness of the methyl bromide fumigations in suppressing moth populations could not be assessed with certainty because moths captured after fumigation may have immigrated from outside through opened loading bay warehouse doors. This study documents high levels of P. interpunctella outdoors relative to those recorded inside a food processing facility. Potential for immigration of P. interpunctella into flour mills and other stored product facilities from other sources may be greater than previously recognized. Moth entry into a food processing facility after fumigation is a problem that should be addressed by pest managers.

  1. Pomological and biochemical peculiarities of peach hybrids and varieties for genus Persica Mill. (Prunus persica Borkh. with anthocyanidin Persica vulgaris Mill, pigmentation of fruits pulp and leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. О. Ріхтер


    Full Text Available The chemical composition and the links between different groups of substances (content of dry substances, monosaccharides, saccharose, sum of sugars, titratable acids, proanthocyanidins, anthocyanidins, water soluble pectine, protopectin, sum of pectines and sugar-acid index have been studied in hybrids fruits of Persica vulgaris Mill, subsp. erytrocarpa Zajats and Persica vulgaris Mill, subsp. atropurpurea (Schneid. Zajats. The obtained data were compared with the characteristics typical for fruits of P. vulgaris Mill, subsp. nectarina (Ait. Shof. and P. vulgaris Mill. Brief information about the biology of obtained distant hybrids forms have been given. The content of anthocyanine pigments (Cy-3-Glu, Cy-3- Ara, Cy-3-(6-Kum- Glu in fruits and leaves of different taxons for genus Persica Mill, has been analysed.

  2. Biogeochemical aspects of uranium mineralization, mining, milling, and remediation (United States)

    Campbell, Kate M.; Gallegos, Tanya J.; Landa, Edward R.


    Natural uranium (U) occurs as a mixture of three radioactive isotopes: 238U, 235U, and 234U. Only 235U is fissionable and makes up about 0.7% of natural U, while 238U is overwhelmingly the most abundant at greater than 99% of the total mass of U. Prior to the 1940s, U was predominantly used as a coloring agent, and U-bearing ores were mined mainly for their radium (Ra) and/or vanadium (V) content; the bulk of the U was discarded with the tailings (Finch et al., 1972). Once nuclear fission was discovered, the economic importance of U increased greatly. The mining and milling of U-bearing ores is the first step in the nuclear fuel cycle, and the contact of residual waste with natural water is a potential source of contamination of U and associated elements to the environment. Uranium is mined by three basic methods: surface (open pit), underground, and solution mining (in situ leaching or in situ recovery), depending on the deposit grade, size, location, geology and economic considerations (Abdelouas, 2006). Solid wastes at U mill tailings (UMT) sites can include both standard tailings (i.e., leached ore rock residues) and solids generated on site by waste treatment processes. The latter can include sludge or “mud” from neutralization of acidic mine/mill effluents, containing Fe and a range of coprecipitated constituents, or barium sulfate precipitates that selectively remove Ra (e.g., Carvalho et al., 2007). In this chapter, we review the hydrometallurgical processes by which U is extracted from ore, the biogeochemical processes that can affect the fate and transport of U and associated elements in the environment, and possible remediation strategies for site closure and aquifer restoration.This paper represents the fourth in a series of review papers from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) on geochemical aspects of UMT management that span more than three decades. The first paper (Landa, 1980) in this series is a primer on the nature of tailings and radionuclide

  3. Records of Arthropod Species Sampled from Avocado Plant (Persea americana Mill) in Smallscale Agro-ecosystems at Taita Hills and Mount Kilimanjaro


    Odanga, James J.; Olubayo, Florence; Nyankanga, Richard; Mwalusepo, Sizah; Johansson, Tino Petri


    Avocado, Persea americana Mill, plays a central role in distribution of both beneficial and detrimental arthropods thereby influencing local species diversity in agro-ecosystems adjacent to Afromontane forests at Mount Kilimanjaro in North-eastern Tanzania and Taita Hills in South-eastern Kenya. However, little is known about arthropod species that inhabit avocado trees in the two study areas despite the fact that the crop forms the major part of agro-ecosystem in the East African highlands. ...

  4. Pallet part and cant evaluation for grading and processing using high-speed ultrasound (United States)

    M. Firoz Kabir; Philip A. Araman; Mark Schafer


    This paper presented the results of several years of testing the use of ultrasound to find structural defects in pallet parts and pallet cants used to produce pallet parts. To determine the magnitude of unsound defects, we inspected full length cants from seven saw mills from Virginia and West Virginia. Split, wane, shake, holes, decay, unsound knots, bark pocket, and...

  5. Synthesis of AlN-TiN nanostructured composite powder by reactive ball milling and subsequent thermal treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mashhadi, H. Amini, E-mail: [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto (Japan); Manikandan, P.; Suetsugu, R. [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto (Japan); Tanaka, S. [Faculty of Engineering, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto (Japan); Hokamoto, K. [Shock Wave and Condensed Matter Research Center, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto (Japan)


    Research highlights: {yields} A part of AlN was found to be gradually reduced by Ti during MA and Ti(Al,N) solid solution formed after early stages of milling. {yields} The particle size of supersaturated Ti(Al,N) solid solution and AlN reduced to submicron size and nanocrystalline structure as evident from XRD and SEM results. {yields} The lattice parameter and interplanar distance of Ti shows that all of the decomposed Al dissolved in the Ti lattice by MA and causes its contraction, while only 1 at.% of N dissolves to form Ti(Al,N) solid solution and leads to its dilation and the remaining N reacts with Ti to form TiN. {yields} Annealing of 360 ks MA powder leads to phase transformation as a result of increased thermal diffusivity, the formation of more TiN phase with more under-stoichiometric characteristic, as well as stress releasing and grain growth. - Abstract: In the present article, synthesis of AlN-TiN nanostructured composite by high-energy ball milling process (HEM) of Ti and AlN by 1:1 molar ratio and subsequent heat treatment was investigated. The microstructural evolution of samples was studied by scan electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDS), composition map analysis by electron probe micro-analyzer (EPMA) and phase determination using X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns. It was found that a Ti(Al,N) solid solution was formed at the early stages of milling and while Al causes the Ti lattice to contract, N has the opposite effect. The nonlinear variation of interplanar distance and c/a ratio of Ti is considered due to the competition between these two processes during MA and finally led to complete dissolution of Al and only 1 at.% of N in Ti lattice. On further milling, mechanochemical reaction between Ti solid solution and AlN took place in the gradual mode which led to the formation of TiN with an average crystallite size of 10 nm. It is generally acknowledged that the reactions between Ti and AlN includes three stages: (i

  6. Long-Term Stewardship at a Former Uranium Mill Tailings Site in Riverton, Wyoming WM2017-17090

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dam, William [USDOE Office of Legacy Management, Washington, DC (United States); Gil, Dr. April [USDOE Office of Legacy Management, Washington, DC (United States); Johnson, Raymond H. [Navarro Research and Engineering, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Campbell, Sam [Navarro Research and Engineering, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)


    The US Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management (LM) is responsible for maintaining protective public health and environmental conditions at former uranium mill tailings sites nationwide via long-term stewardship. One of these sites, a former uranium mill near Riverton, Wyoming, is within the boundary of the Wind River Indian Reservation and operated from 1958 to 1963. Tailings and contaminated material associated with mill operations were removed and transported to an offsite disposal cell in 1989. The remedial action was completed under Title I of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978. Milling operations, which included an unlined tailings impoundment and an unlined evaporation pond, contaminated the shallow groundwater, resulting in a downgradient groundwater plume that discharges to the Little Wind River. A natural flushing compliance strategy was implemented in 1998. This strategy allows contaminants of concern to naturally flush from the groundwater, provided that contaminants flush below US Environmental Protection Agency maximum concentration limits within 100 years. As part of the compliance strategy, LM has implemented a groundwater monitoring program along with institutional controls that include the installation of an alternate water supply, continued sampling of private wells, and restrictions on well drilling and gravel pit construction. LM works closely with local stakeholders and community members to ensure that these institutional controls are in place and maintained. The Riverton site provides an interesting case study where contaminant remobilization due to river flooding prompted a reevaluation of the conceptual site model to verify if the current compliance strategy would remain protective of human health and the environment. Concentrations of groundwater contaminants, which include sulfate, molybdenum, and uranium, were transiently elevated following flooding of the Little Wind River in 2010 and 2016. These flood

  7. Wood pellet milling tests in a suspension-fired power plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masche, Marvin; Puig-Arnavat, Maria; Wadenbäck, Johan


    consumption and the differential mill pressure. The size and shape of comminuted pellets sampled from burner pipes were analyzed by dynamic image analysis and sieve analysis, respectively. The results showed that the internal pellet particle size distribution affected both the milling behavior...... at lower mill loads and lower primary airflow rates reduced the mill power consumption, the mill pressure drop, and the classifier cut size. However, this was at the expense of a higher specific grinding energy consumption. Derived 2D shape parameters for comminuted and internal pellet particles were...... similar. Mill operating changes had a negligible effect on the original elongated wood particle shape. To achieve the desired comminuted product fineness (i.e., the classifier cut size) with lower specific grinding energy consumption, power plant operators need to choose pellets with a finer internal...

  8. Effect of high-energy ball milling in the structural and textural properties of kaolinite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. C. Leonel


    Full Text Available Through the process of high-energy ball milling it is possible to obtain solid materials with higher surface area and different particle sizes. These characteristics are very important for some application such as adsorption. Besides, applications of some clays depend on the functionalization which, for kaolinite, takes place in the aluminol groups. Modification in the structural and textural properties of kaolinite by high-energy milling can improve functionalization of kaolinite due to the exposure of aluminol groups. In this work studies were done on the influence of high-energy ball milling on the morphological properties of kaolinite, taking into account parameters such as filling of the miller, number of balls and amount of mass to be milled. Moreover, studies involving milling kinetics of purified kaolinite were carried out to verify modification in the morphology of kaolinite with milling time.

  9. Thermodynamics of SU(2 quantum Yang-Mills theory and CMB anomalies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hofmann Ralf


    Full Text Available A brief review of effective SU(2 Yang-Mills thermodynamics in the deconfining phase is given, including the construction of the thermal ground-state estimate in terms of an inert, adjoint scalar field φ, based on non-propagating (antiselfdual field configurations of topological charge unity. We also discuss kinematic constraints on interacting propagating gauge fields implied by the according spatial coarse-graining, and we explain why the screening physics of an SU(2 photon is subject to an electric-magnetically dual interpretation. This argument relies on the fact that only (anticalorons of scale parameter ρ ∼ |φ|−1 contribute to the coarse-graining required for thermal-ground-state emergence at temperature T. Thus, use of the effective gauge coupling e in the (anticaloron action is justified, yielding the value ħ for the latter at almost all temperatures. As a consequence, the indeterministic transition of initial to final plane waves caused by an effective, pointlike vertex is fundamentally mediated in Euclidean time by a single (anticaloron being part of the thermal ground state. Next, we elucidate how a low-frequency excess of line temperature in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB determines the value of the critical temperature of the deconfining-preconfining phase transition of an SU(2 Yang-Mills theory postulated to describe photon propagation, and we describe how, starting at a redshift of about unity, SU(2 photons collectively work 3D temperature depressions into the CMB. Upon projection along a line of sight, a given depression influences the present CMB sky in a cosmologically local way, possibly explaining the large-angle anomalies confirmed recently by the Planck collaboration. Finally, six relativistic polarisations residing in the SU(2 vector modes roughly match the number of degrees of freedom in cosmic neutrinos (Planck which would disqualify the latter as radiation. Indeed, if interpreted as single center

  10. Surface Integrity of SA508 Gr 3 Subjected to Abusive Milling Conditions


    Maurotto, A.; Gu, Y; Tsivoulas, D.; Burke, M.G.


    SA508 Gr 3, a bainitic forging steel employed in the fabrication of nuclear pressure vessels has been characterised after dry-milling to investigate extent of machining abuse on the surface. A detailed study of the evolution of residual stresses, microstructure, micro-hardness and roughness in relation to different milling parameters is presented. A central composite orthogonal (CCO) design of experiments (DoE) was used to generate a statistic model of the milling process. Deformation of the ...

  11. Performance of Disk Mill Type Mechanical Grinder for Size Reducing Process of Robusta Roasted Beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Mulato


    Full Text Available One of improtant steps in secondary coffee processing that influence on final product quality such as consistency and uniformity is milling process. Usually, Indonesian smallholder used "lumpang" for milling coffee roasted beans to coffee powder product which caused the final product not uniformed and consistent, and low productivity. Milling process of coffee roasted beans can be done by disk mill type mechanical grinder which is used by smallholder for milling several cereals. Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute have developed disk mill type grinding machine for milling coffee roasted beans. Objective of this research is to find performance of disk mill type grinding machine for size reducing process of Robusta roasted beans from several size dried beans and roasting level treatments. Robusta dried beans which are taken from dry processing method have 13—14% moisture content (wet basis, 680—685 kg/m3 density, and classified in 3 sizes level. The result showed that the disk mill type of grinding machine could be used for milling Robusta roasted beans. Machine hascapacity 31—54 kg/h on 5,310—5,610 rpm axle rotation and depend on roasting level. Other technical parameters were 91—98% process efficientcy, 19—31 ml/ kg fuel consumption, 0.3—1% slips, 50—55% particles had diameter less than 230 mesh and 38—44% particles had diameter bigger than 100 mesh, 32—38% lightness was increased, 0.6—12.6% density was decreased, and solubility of coffee powder between 28—30%. Cost milling process per kilogram of Robusta roasted beans which light roast on capacity 30 kg/hour was Rp362.9. Key words : Coffee roasted, Robusta, disk mill, mechanical grinder, size reduction.

  12. Effects of milling on the extraction efficiency of incurred pesticides in cereals. (United States)

    Herrmann, Susan S; Hajeb, Parvaneh; Andersen, Gitte; Poulsen, Mette E


    This study investigated the effects of particle size and milling temperature on the extraction efficiencies of pesticide residues from cereal flour. Samples of cereal grains (barley, oat, rye and wheat) were milled using a centrifugal mill with four different sieves (0.2, 1.0, 3.0 and 5.0 mm) or a knife mill both at room temperature and after freezing of the grain at -80°C overnight. The incurred pesticides in the test materials were extracted by the QuEChERS method and analysed by LC-MS/MS and GC-MS/MS. The particle size distribution for the milled samples was determined using a vibratory sieve shaker. Based on the pesticide levels recovered from each of the different millings and the corresponding particle size distributions, it was confirmed that smaller average particle sizes increase the extraction efficiency up to 31%, with all other factors equal. The cereals milled at room temperature produced lower pesticide extraction efficiencies compared with cereals milled when still frozen, especially for heat-sensitive pesticides. Furthermore, milling frozen grains was easier and resulted in more homogeneous samples with smaller relative particle sizes.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raj K. Rajamani; Sanjeeva Latchireddi; Sravan K. Prathy; Trilokyanath Patra


    The U.S. mining industry operates approximately 80 semi-autogenesis grinding mills (SAG) throughout the United States. Depending on the mill size the SAG mills draws between 2 MW and 17 MW. The product from the SAG mill is further reduced in size using pebble crushers and ball mills. Hence, typical gold or copper ore requires between 2.0 and 7.5 kWh per ton of energy to reduce the particle size. Considering a typical mining operation processes 10,000 to 100,000 tons per day the energy expenditure in grinding is 50 percent of the cost of production of the metal. A research team from the University of Utah is working to make inroads into saving energy in these SAG mills. In 2003, Industries of the Future Program of the Department of Energy tasked the University of Utah team to build a partnership between the University and the mining industry for the specific purpose of reducing energy consumption in SAG mills. A partnership was formed with Cortez Gold Mines, Kennecott Utah Copper Corporation, Process Engineering Resources Inc. and others. In the current project, Cortez Gold Mines played a key role in facilitating the 26-ft SAG mill at Cortez as a test mill for this study. According to plant personnel, there were a number of unscheduled shut downs to repair broken liners and the mill throughput fluctuated depending on ore type. The University team had two softwares, Millsoft and FlowMod to tackle the problem. Millsoft is capable of simulating the motion of charge in the mill. FlowMod calculates the slurry flow through the grate and pulp lifters. Based on this data the two models were fine-tuned to fit the Cortez SAG will. In the summer of 2004 a new design of shell lifters were presented to Cortez and in September 2004 these lifters were installed in the SAG mill. By December 2004 Cortez Mines realized that the SAG mill is drawing approximately 236-kW less power than before while maintaining the same level of production. In the first month there was extreme cycling

  14. Ferromagnetic behavior of nanocrystalline Cu–Mn alloy prepared by ball milling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mondal, B.N., E-mail: [Department of Central Scientific Services, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Sardar, G. [Department of Zoology, Baruipur College, South 24 parganas 743 610 (India); Nath, D.N. [Department of Physical Chemistry, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Chattopadhyay, P.P. [Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Bengal Engineering and Science University, Shibpur, Howrah 711 103 (India)


    50Cu–50Mn (wt%) alloy was produced by ball milling. The milling was continued up to 30 h followed by isothermal annealing over a four interval of temperature from 350 to 650 °C held for 1 h. Crystallite size, lattice strain, lattice parameter were determined by Rietveld refinement structure analysis of X-ray diffraction data. The amount of dissolved/precipitated Mn (wt%) after ball milling/milling followed by annealing was calculated by quantative phase analysis (QPA). The increase of coercivity could be attributed to the introduction of lattice strain and reduction of crystallite size as a function of milling time. Electron paramagnetic resonance and superconducting quantum interface device analysis indicate that soft ferromagnetic behavior has been achieved by ball milled and annealed Cu–Mn alloy. The maximum coercivity value of Cu–Mn alloy obtained after annealing at 350 °C for 1 h is 277 Oe. - Highlights: • A small amount of Mn has dissolved in Cu after ball milling for 30 h. • Coercivity of the Cu–Mn alloy has increased with an increase in milling time. • Substantial MnO has formed after annealing at 650 °C for 1 h. • The ball milled and annealed alloy have revealed soft ferromagnetic behavior. • The alloy annealed at 350 °C shows the maximum value of coercivity.

  15. Precission plunge milling for angled vertical walls, on three axis machining center (United States)

    Pralea, B.; Nagit, GH


    In this study the authors will construct a type of milling based on the plunge milling and raster milling toolpath strategy, only this time it is not going to be used for roughing but only for finishing vertical and angled surfaces of particular components of injection molds, with the help of a three axis vertical machining center. This particular toolpath strategy designed, with a commercial CAM program, for finishing the vertical and angled walls, offers a better surface roughness, and a better dimensional control (accuracy), both for the milling tool and also for the work piece.

  16. Terpenoid variations within and among half-sibling avocado trees, Persea americana Mill. (Lauraceae)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Niogret, Jerome; Epsky, Nancy D; Schnell, Raymond J; Boza, Edward J; Kendra, Paul E; Heath, Robert R


    Chemical analyses were conducted to determine the qualitative and quantitative differences in monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes in plant material from avocado trees, Persea americana Mill. (Lauraceae...

  17. An analytical model for force prediction in ball nose micro milling of inclined surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bissacco, Giuliano; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; De Chiffre, Leonardo


    Ball nose micro milling is a key process for the generation of free form surfaces and inclined surfaces often present in mould inserts for micro replication. This paper presents a new cutting force model for ball nose micro milling that is capable of taking into account the effect of the edge...... radius and the effect of the surface topography due to the previous milling passes. The model is completely analytical can be applied to ball end micro milling of slanted surfaces for any value of the surface inclination angle relative to the tool axis....

  18. Effectiveness of treatment technologies for wastewater pollution generated by Indian pulp mills. (United States)

    Tiku, Deepa K; Kumar, Anil; Sawhney, S; Singh, V P; Kumar, Rita


    India has a large number of paper manufacturing units, with mills varying in size of operations and type of product, scattered all over the length and breadth of the country. Present study deals with the survey of four different pulp and paper mills (Mill A, Mill B, Mill C and Mill D) in India, differing in their scale of operation as well as raw material usage. Physico-chemical characterization of wastewaters produced by different processing units like digestor house liquors, bleaching section, paper machine backwaters, combined inlet to the ETP and outlet to ETP, for all the four mills, was conducted. Different parameters like pH, Color, COD, BOD, percent Na, SAR, TDS and Total hardness were analyzed and compared. Highly significant differences were thus found between all the processing units of all four mills with p values < 0.01. This evaluation showed that though these mills have effluent treatment facilities installed in their premises, improvements are still needed to increase their efficiencies for treating the discharged wastewaters.

  19. Reliable Mechanochemistry: Protocols for Reproducible Outcomes of Neat and Liquid Assisted Ball-mill Grinding Experiments. (United States)

    Belenguer, Ana M; Lampronti, Giulio I; Sanders, Jeremy K M


    The equilibrium outcomes of ball mill grinding can dramatically change as a function of even tiny variations in the experimental conditions such as the presence of very small amounts of added solvent. To reproducibly and accurately capture this sensitivity, the experimentalist needs to carefully consider every single factor that can affect the ball mill grinding reaction under investigation, from ensuring the grinding jars are clean and dry before use, to accurately adding the stoichiometry of the starting materials, to validating that the delivery of solvent volume is accurate, to ensuring that the interaction between the solvent and the powder is well understood and, if necessary, a specific soaking time is added to the procedure. Preliminary kinetic studies are essential to determine the necessary milling time to achieve equilibrium. Only then can exquisite phase composition curves be obtained as a function of the solvent concentration under ball mill liquid assisted grinding (LAG). By using strict and careful procedures analogous to the ones here presented, such milling equilibrium curves can be obtained for virtually all milling systems. The system we use to demonstrate these procedures is a disulfide exchange reaction starting from the equimolar mixture of two homodimers to obtain at equilibrium quantitative heterodimer. The latter is formed by ball mill grinding as two different polymorphs, Form A and Form B. The ratio R = [Form B] / ([Form A] + [Form B]) at milling equilibrium depends on the nature and concentration of the solvent in the milling jar.

  20. Relations for Einstein–Yang–Mills amplitudes from the CHY representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo de la Cruz


    Full Text Available We show that a recently discovered relation, which expresses tree-level single trace Einstein–Yang–Mills amplitudes with one graviton and (n−1 gauge bosons as a linear combination of pure Yang–Mills tree amplitudes with n gauge bosons, can be derived from the CHY representation. In addition we show that there is a generalisation, which expresses tree-level single trace Einstein–Yang–Mills amplitudes with r gravitons and (n−r gauge bosons as a linear combination of pure Yang–Mills tree amplitudes with n gauge bosons. We present a general formula for this case.

  1. Effect of Ball Milling Time on Microstructure and Hardness of Porous Magnesium/Carbon Nanofiber Composites (United States)

    Xu, Huiru; Zou, Ning; Li, Qizhen


    Porous magnesium/carbon nanofiber composites were produced using a powder metallurgic method to study the effect of ball milling time on their microstructure and hardness. Three ball milling times (240 min, 320 min, and 480 min) and two carbon nanofiber concentrations (0.05% and 1%) were utilized in the production of these porous composites. The increase of ball milling time led to the gradual decrease of the average size of magnesium powders from the initial 40 µm to about 26 µm after 480 min of ball milling. The powder size range first increased with the increase of ball milling time from 240 min to 320 min, and then decreased with the further increase of ball milling time to 480 min. Among the three ball milling times, the produced porous composites from the powders after 320 min of ball milling have the largest average pore size. With the increase of ball milling time from 240 min to 320 min and then to 480 min, the average Vickers microhardness data first decreased and then increased for Mg-1%C porous composites along the cross-sections parallel to the compact processing direction, increased for the cross-sections perpendicular to the compact processing direction for Mg-1%C porous composites, first increased and then decreased for the cross-sections parallel to the compact processing direction for Mg-0.05%C porous composites, and slightly decreased for the cross-sections perpendicular to the compact processing direction for Mg-0.05%C porous composites.

  2. Ferti-irrigational effect of paper mill effluent on agronomical characteristics of Abelmoschus esculentus L. (Okra). (United States)

    Kumar, Vinod; Chopra, A K


    The ferti-irrigational effect of an agro-based paper mill effluent on Abelmoschus esculentus (var. IHR-31) was investigated. Different doses of paper mill effluent viz. 5, 10, 25, 50, 75 and 100% were used for fertigation ofA. esculentus along with bore well water (control). The study revealed that paper mill effluent had significant (p 0.05) changes in WHC and bulk density of the soil were observed after irrigation with paper mill effluent. The agronomical performance of A. esculentus was increased from 5 to 25% and decreased from 50 to 100% concentration of paper mill effluent as compared to control in both seasons. The heavy metals concentration was increased in A. esculentus from 5 to 100% concentrations of paper mill effluent in both seasons. Biochemical components like crude proteins, crude fiber and crude carbohydrates were found maximum with 25% paper mill effluent in both seasons. The order of Contamination Factor (Cf) of various heavy metals was Cr > Cd > Mn > Zn > Cu for soil and Zn > Mn > Cu > Cr > Cd for A. esculentus plants after fertigation with paper mill effluent. Therefore, paper mill effluent can be used as a biofertigant after appropriate dilution to improve yield of A. esculentus.

  3. Transforming from paramagnetism to room temperature ferromagnetism in CuO by ball milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daqiang Gao


    Full Text Available In this work, we experimentally demonstrate that it is possible to induce ferromagnetism in CuO by ball milling without any ferromagnetic dopant. The magnetic measurements indicate that paramagnetic CuO is driven to the ferromagnetic state at room temperature by ball milling gradually. The saturation magnetization of the milled powders is found to increase with expanding the milling time and then decrease by annealing under atmosphere. The fitted X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results indicate that the observed induction and weaken of the ferromagnetism shows close relationship with the valence charged oxygen vacancies (Cu1+-VO in CuO.

  4. Ultra-high aspect ratio replaceable AFM tips using deformation-suppressed focused ion beam milling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savenko, Alexey; Yildiz, Izzet; Petersen, Dirch Hjorth


    Fabrication of ultra-high aspect ratio exchangeable and customizable tips for atomic force microscopy (AFM) using lateral focused ion beam (FIB) milling is presented. While on-axis FIB milling does allow high aspect ratio (HAR) AFM tips to be defined, lateral milling gives far better flexibility...... in terms of defining the shape and size of the tip. Due to beam-induced deformation, it has so far not been possible to define HAR structures using lateral FIB milling. In this work we obtain aspect ratios of up to 45, with tip diameters down to 9 nm, by a deformation-suppressing writing strategy. Several...

  5. Decommissioning of a former uranium mine and mill in northern Saskatchewan, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiller, D.; Pollock, R.; Bennett, P.; Drake, N. [AREVA Resources Canada Inc., Saskatoon, SK (Canada)


    The Cluff Lake Project is a former uranium mine and mill in northern Saskatchewan, Canada. Over 60 million pounds of uranium concentrate were produced in just over twenty years of operation, ending in 2002. The Project is owned and operated by AREVA Resources Canada Inc., part of the AREVA Group, the world leader in nuclear energy development, and increasingly, a provider of other forms of electricity generation systems with low CO{sub 2} emissions. During operation, the facilities at the Cluff Lake Project included open-pit and underground mines, a mill, a tailings management area (TMA) with a two-stage liquid effluent treatment system, a residential camp area and various other support and site infrastructure facilities. Decommissioning when operations have concluded is both an AREVA Group corporate commitment and a regulatory requirement. The purpose is to conduct all necessary activities including the removal or stabilization of all constructed structures and the reclamation of disturbed areas to meet the following objectives: Environment is safe for non-human biota and human use; Long-term adverse effects are minimized; Reclaimed landscape is self-sustaining; and, Restrictions on future land use are minimized. In addition, any restrictions on land use should not prevent traditional land use including casual access for trapping, hunting, and fishing as the primary site activities. The Cluff Lake decommissioning project has four major stages which include planning, physical decommissioning activities, post-decommissioning and follow-up monitoring, and transfer of the site to the Provincial Institutional Control Program (ICP). (author)

  6. Tropane alkaloid profiling of hydroponic Datura innoxia Mill. Plants inoculated with Agrobacterium rhizogenes. (United States)

    Jousse, Cyril; Vu, Thi Dao; Tran, Thi Le Minh; Al Balkhi, Mohamad Houssam; Molinié, Roland; Boitel-Conti, Michèle; Pilard, Serge; Mathiron, David; Hehn, Alain; Bourgaud, Frédéric; Gontier, Eric


    Hydroponics has been shown as a possible way to produce high quality plant biomass with improved phytochemical levels. Nevertheless, effects of plant biotic and abiotic environment can lead to drastic changes and plant growth conditions must be optimised. To evaluate how much microbes and Agrobacterium rhizogenes TR7 wild strain may affect the tropane alkaloid profile in Datura innoxia Mill. plants cultivated in hydroponic conditions. Datura innoxia Mill. plants were cultivated in hydroponic with sterile or non-sterile conditions. For half of the non-sterile plants, Agrobacterium rhizogenes TR7 strain was added to the nutrient solution for hydroponics. The tropane alkaloid content of leaves and roots was analysed by UFLC/ESI-HRMS and MS/MS. The metabolite profiles were compared using partial least square-discriminant analysis. In sterile conditions, aerial parts contained more scopolamine than the roots. However, the diversity of tropane alkaloids was greater in roots. Furthermore, 21 known compounds and four non-elucidated tropane alkaloids were found. The tropane alkaloid profile was shown to be statistically different between sterile and non-sterile hydroponic conditions. The levels of 3-acetoxy-6-hydroxytropane and 3-hydroxylittorine were higher in plants inoculated with A. rhizogenes. Five other tropane compounds were found in higher amounts in non-axenic control plants. Hyoscyamine and scopolamine total contents were much higher in the whole plant co-cultivated with A. rhizogenes TR7 than in controls. Furthermore, the leaves and roots of axenic plants contained more alkaloids than non-sterile ones. In hydroponic conditions, microbes induced variations of the phytochemical levels. Addition of A. rhizogenes TR7 into the nutrient solutions improved the total hyoscyamine and scopolamine production. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Motorcycle Parts (United States)


    An article in NASA Tech Briefs describing a vacuum bagging process for forming composite parts helped a small Oklahoma Company to improve its manufacturing process. President of Performance Extremes, Larry Ortega, and his partners make motorcycle parts from carbon/epoxy to reduce weight. Using vacuum bags, parts have a better surface and fewer voids inside. When heat used in the vacuum bag process caused deformation upon cooling, a solution found in another tech brief solved the problem. A metal plate inside the vacuum bag made for more even heat transfer. A third article described a simple procedure for repairing loose connector pins, which the company has also utilized.

  8. Comparison of wind mill cluster performance: A multicriteria approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajakumar, D.G.; Nagesha, N. [Visvesvaraya Technological Univ., Karnataka (India)


    Energy is a crucial input for the economic and social development of any nation. Both renewable and non-renewable energy contribute in meeting the total requirement of the economy. As an affordable and clean energy source, wind energy is amongst the world's fastest growing renewable energy forms. Though there are several wind-mill clusters producing energy in different geographical locations, evaluating their performance is a complex task and not much of literature is available in this area. In this backdrop, an attempt is made in the current paper to estimate the performance of a wind-mill cluster through an index called Cluster Performance Index (CPI) adopting a multi-criteria approach. The proposed CPI comprises four criteria viz., Technical Performance Indicators (TePI), Economic Performance Indicators (EcPI), Environmental Performance Indicators (EnPI), and Sociological Performance Indicators (SoPI). Under each performance criterion a total of ten parameters are considered with five subjective and five objective oriented responses. The methodology is implemented by collecting empirical data from three wind-mill clusters located at Chitradurga, Davangere, and Gadag in the southern Indian State of Karnataka. Totally fifteen different stake holders are consulted through a set of structured researcher administered questionnaire to collect the relevant data in each wind farm. Stake holders involved engineers working in wind farms, wind farm developers, Government officials from energy department and a few selected residential people near the wind farms. The results of the study revealed that Chitradurga wind farm performed much better with a CPI of 45.267 as compared to Gadag (CPI of 28.362) and Davangere (CPI of 19.040) wind farms. (Author)

  9. The subversion of Mill and the ultimate aim of nursing. (United States)

    Snelling, Paul C


    This is lightly edited and referenced version of a presentation given at the 20th International Philosophy of Nursing conference in Quebec on 23rd August 2016. Philosophical texts are not given the same prominence in nurse education as their more valued younger sibling, primary research evidence, but they can influence practice through guidelines, codes and espoused values. John Stuart Mill's harm principle, found in On Liberty, is not a universal law, and only a thoroughgoing libertarian would defend it as such, though it, or its remnants, can be seen can be seen in policy documents. But its influence is weakening. Smoking bans in enclosed spaces were initially justified with other-regarding considerations, but judgements from unsuccessful legal challenges from patients in UK psychiatric hospitals rely on preventing harm to the smoker, even when smoking outside, which does not harm others. In the wake of legislation, no-smoking policies enacted by hospitals are becoming more aggressive, banning smoking both inside and outside, and extending the use of power gained through employment to prevent nurses assisting patients enjoy a lawful habit. Mill's dictum has been subverted, and this speaks to the fundamental purpose of nursing. Should nurses collude and willingly exert their power for their version of the good of the patient? Or should they instead reaffirm values that support and facilitate life choices made by autonomous people? The paper supports the latter option, and this has wider application for nursing which can be illuminated, if not settled, by revisiting Mill and his famous dictum. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Mine-to-Mill Optimization of Aggregate Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greg Adel; Toni Kojovic; Darren Thornton


    Mine-to-Mill optimization is a total systems approach to the reduction of energy and cost in mining and mineral processing operations. Developed at the Julius Krutschnitt Mineral Research Centre (JKMRC) in Queensland, Australia, the Mine-to-Mill approach attempts to minimize energy consumption through the optimization of all steps in the size reduction process. The approach involves sampling and modeling of blasting and processing, followed by computer simulation to optimize the operation and develop alternatives. The most promising alternatives are implemented, and sampling is conducted to quantify energy savings. In the current project, the primary objective is to adapt the JKMRC Mine-to-Mill technology to the aggregates industry. The second phase of this project is being carried out at the Pittsboro Quarry located south of Chapel Hill, North Carolina. This quarry is owned by 3M Corporation and operated by Luck Stone. Based on lessons learned from the first phase work, long-term monitoring ({approx} three months) of all quarry operations is being carried out to minimize the impact of geological changes during the mining process. To date, the blasting and processing operations have been audited and modeled, the long-term monitoring of current Luck Stone practice has been completed, and a modified blasting approach has been implemented based on the results of simulations using JKSimBlast and JKSimPlant. The modified blasting approach is expected to increase the primary throughput by 15% and the secondary throughput by approximately 6%, with an overall specific energy reduction of around 1%. Long-term monitoring is currently underway to evaluate the impact the modified blasting approach. This report summarizes the current status of work at the Pittsboro Quarry.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Svetlík


    Full Text Available The motive behind the effort to make virtual prototyping more sophisticated is first of all cost reduction of manufacturing machine design, followed by reduction of lead time for development, prototyping and testing of the pre-manufacturing machine series. This article deals with the analysis of manufacturing precision of a 3-axial, numerically controlled milling machine. The methodology for precision analysis rests on a selected simplified numerical calculation model of a manufacturing machine on which virtual machining has been conducted. The mechanical inaccuracy itself is calculated by computer via the FEM analysis. The results are processed for visualization by the Excel software.

  12. Kinetics of methane production from olive mill wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, A.; Garcia, I. (Faculty of Sciences, Cordoba (ES). Dept. of Chemical Engineering); Borja, R.; Fiestas, J.A. (Institute of Fat and its Derivatives, Seville (ES))


    A kinetic study on the anaerobic digestion of olive mill wastewater (OMW) was carried out in a semicontinuous, well-stirred fermenter with microorganisms immobilized on clayey supports. Substrate concentrations equal to or higher than 3.5 g COD/litre within the reactor resulted in a methane production rate that was first-order with respect to biodegradable substrate concentration. The apparent rate constant was proportional to the volatile suspended solids (VSS) concentration and varied slightly with the nature of the support. The yield coefficient, Y{sub p/s}, was 0.26 litres CH{sub 4} STP/g COD irrespective of the support used. (author).

  13. Topological susceptibility for the SU(3) Yang--Mills theory

    CERN Document Server

    Del Debbio, L; Pica, C; Debbio, Luigi Del; Giusti, Leonardo; Pica, Claudio


    We present the results of a computation of the topological susceptibility in the SU(3) Yang--Mills theory performed by employing the expression of the topological charge density operator suggested by Neuberger's fermions. In the continuum limit we find r_0^4 chi = 0.059(3), which corresponds to chi=(191 \\pm 5 MeV)^4 if F_K is used to set the scale. Our result supports the Witten--Veneziano explanation for the large mass of the eta'.

  14. Milled Die Steel Surface Roughness Correlation with Steel Sheet Friction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berglund, J.; Brown, C.A.; Rosén, B.-G.


    This work investigates correlations between the surface topography ofmilled steel dies and friction with steel sheet. Several die surfaces were prepared by milling. Friction was measured in bending under tension testing. Linear regression coefficients (R2) between the friction and texture...... characterization parameters were tested. None of the height, spacing, material volume, void or segmentation parameters showed good correlations. Developed area, rms surface gradient, relative area and complexity showed strong correlations (R2 > 0.7). For area-scale fractal complexity the correlation increases...

  15. Width of the confining string in Yang-Mills theory. (United States)

    Gliozzi, F; Pepe, M; Wiese, U-J


    We investigate the transverse fluctuations of the confining string connecting two static quarks in (2+1)D SU(2) Yang-Mills theory using Monte Carlo calculations. The exponentially suppressed signal is extracted from the large noise by a very efficient multilevel algorithm. The resulting width of the string increases logarithmically with the distance between the static quark charges. Corrections at intermediate distances due to universal higher-order terms in the effective string action are calculated analytically. They accurately fit the numerical data.

  16. Solvable Relativistic Hydrogenlike System in Supersymmetric Yang-Mills Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caron-Huot, Simon; Henn, Johannes M.


    he classical Kepler problem, as well as its quantum mechanical version, the hydrogen atom, enjoys a well-known hidden symmetry, the conservation of the Laplace-Runge-Lenz vector, which makes these problems superintegrable. Is there a relativistic quantum field theory extension that preserves...... this symmetry? In this Letter we show that the answer is positive: in the nonrelativistic limit, we identify the dual conformal symmetry of planar N=4 super Yang-Mills theory with the well-known symmetries of the hydrogen atom. We point out that the dual conformal symmetry offers a novel way to compute...

  17. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project. 1995 Environmental Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    In accordance with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 23 1. 1, Environment, Safety and Health Reporting, the DOE prepares an annual report to document the activities of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project environmental monitoring program. This monitoring must comply with appropriate laws, regulations, and standards, and it must identify apparent and meaningful trends in monitoring results. The results of all monitoring activities must be communicated to the public. The UMTRA Project has prepared annual environmental reports to the public since 1989.

  18. Simple singularities and N = 2 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory

    CERN Document Server

    Klemm, A D; Theisen, Stefan J; Yankielowicz, Shimon; Klemm, A; Lerche, W; Theisen, S


    We present a first step towards generalizing the work of Seiberg and Witten on N=2 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory to arbitrary gauge groups. Specifically, we propose a particular sequence of hyperelliptic genus n-1 Riemann surfaces to underly the quantum moduli space of SU(n) N=2 supersymmetric gauge theory. These curves have an obvious generalization to arbitrary simply laced gauge groups, which involves the A-D-E type simple singularities. To support our proposal, we argue that the monodromy in the semiclassical regime is correctly reproduced. We also give some remarks on a possible relation to string theory.

  19. Predicting remaining life in upper sugar-mill shafts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Rodríguez Pulecio


    Full Text Available A fracture mechanics-based method is presented for determining critical crack size and residual life of upper sugar-mill shafts having semi-elliptical and circumferential cracks. Due to the multiaxial stress field, an equivalent strain energy release rate stress intensity solution is used in Paris’ law to predict crack growth. Ultrasonic inspection intervals for the shaft were established. The crack zone evaluated was located in the shoulder of the bearing nearest to the square box coupling where about 25% of service failures in these types of shaft are observed.

  20. Treatment of Olive Mill Wastewater with Constructed Wetlands


    Andreas N. Angelakis; Iosif E. Kapellakis; Paranychianakis, Nikolaos V.; Tsagarakis, Konstantinos P.


    The objective of this study was to investigate the application of constructed wetlands as a mean to manage olive mill wastewater (OMW). Two free water surface (FWS) constructed wetlands, one without (CW1) and one with effluent recirculation (CW2), were operated for a two-year period with diluted OMW (1:10) and evaluated in terms of the removal of COD, TSS, TKN, NH4+-N, NO3−-N, TP and total phenols. The organic loading rate of CWs was adjusted to 925 kg BOD/ha·d. In CW1 the removal efficiency ...

  1. Super Yang-mills Theories On The Lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Bibireata, D


    We developed a toolkit for simulating gauge theories on the lattice. The toolkit has support far simulations in any dimension, with SU(Nc ≥ 2) gauge groups, with particles in fundamental or adjoint representation, and with Wilson or domain wall fermions. The main objective of the toolkit is to provide a framework for simulating super Yang-Mills theories on the lattice. As a check, we use the toolkit to match the meson spectrum of QCD in two dimensions, which can be computed exactly in the large Nc limit. Then, we perform a set of exploratory studies of N = 1 SYM in four dimensions and its dimensionally reduced models.

  2. N=1 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory on the lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piemonte, Stefano


    Supersymmetry (SUSY) relates two classes of particles of our universe, bosons and fermions. SUSY is considered nowadays a fundamental development to explain many open questions about high energy physics. The N=1 super Yang-Mills (SYM) theory is a SUSY model that describes the interaction between gluons and their fermion superpartners called ''gluinos''. Monte Carlo simulations on the lattice are a powerful tool to explore the non-perturbative dynamics of this theory and to understand how supersymmetry emerges at low energy. This thesis presents new results and new simulations about the properties of N=1 SYM, in particular about the phase diagram at finite temperature.

  3. Treatment and biotransformation of highly polluted agro-industrial wastewater from a palm oil mill into vermicompost using earthworms. (United States)

    Lim, Su Lin; Wu, Ta Yeong; Clarke, Charles


    In this laboratory-scale study, earthworms were introduced as biodegraders of palm oil mill effluent (POME), which is a wastewater produced from the wet process of palm oil milling. POME was absorbed into amendments (soil or rice straw) in different ratios as feedstocks for the earthworm, Eudrilus eugeniae. The presence of earthworms led to significant increases in pH, electrical conductivity, and nutrient content but decreases in the C/N ratio (0.687-75.8%), soluble chemical oxygen demand (19.7-87.9%), and volatile solids (0.687-52.7%). However, earthworm growth was reduced in all treatments by the end of the treatment process. Rice straw was a better amendment/absorbent relative to soil, with a higher nutrient content and greater reduction in soluble chemical oxygen demand with a lower C/N ratio in the vermicompost. Among all treatments investigated, the treatment with 1 part rice straw and 3 parts POME (w/v) (RS1:3) produced the best quality vermicompost with high nutritional status.

  4. Impact of high energy ball milling on the nanostructure of magnetite–graphite and magnetite–graphite–molybdenum disulphide blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Österle, W., E-mail: [BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, 12200 Berlin (Germany); Orts-Gil, G.; Gross, T.; Deutsch, C. [BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, 12200 Berlin (Germany); Hinrichs, R. [Instituto de Geociências, UFRGS, P.O. Box 15001, 91501-970 Porto Alegre (Brazil); Vasconcellos, M.A.Z. [Instituto de Física, UFRGS, P.O. Box 15051, 91501-970 Porto Alegre (Brazil); Zoz, H.; Yigit, D.; Sun, X. [Zoz Group, 57482 Wenden (Germany)


    Different, partly complementary and partly redundant characterization methods were applied to study the transition of magnetite, graphite and MoS{sub 2} powders to mechanically alloyed nanostructures. The applied methods were: Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Mössbauer spectroscopy (MS), Raman spectroscopy (RS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The main objective was to prepare a model material providing the essential features of a typical tribofilm forming during automotive braking, and to assess the impact of different constituents on sliding behaviour and friction level. Irrespective of the initial grain size, the raw materials were transferred to a nanocrystalline structure and mixed on a nanoscopic scale during high energy ball milling. Whereas magnetite remained almost unchanged, graphite and molybdenum disulphide were transformed to a nanocrystalline and highly disordered structure. The observed increase of the coefficient of friction was attributed to a loss of lubricity of the latter ingredient due to this transformation and subsequent oxidation. - Highlights: • Characterization of microstructural changes induced by high energy ball milling • Assessment of the potential of different characterization methods • Impact of mechanical alloying on tribological performance revealed by tests • Preparation of an artificial third body resembling the one formed during braking.

  5. New strategy for the optimal design and manufacture of high performance milling heads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bustillo, A.


    Full Text Available High-performance mechanical-transmission heads are one of the most complex, costly and problematic parts of a milling machine, owing to the large amount of piping required for transporting fluids and to the high level of mechanical performance that is required from them. This study proposes a strategy for optimising the design and manufacture of head bodies by using aluminium alloys and by integrating tubular stainless steel inserts in the casting of the head. These tubular inserts that are integrated into the aluminium mass are an alternative to cooling conduits currently made by machine drilling. As demonstrated in the experimental validation of the first prototype, the new method has created a design that retains the same mechanical performance, increases its reliability and reduces the weight of the milling machine’s moving parts.

    Los cabezales de transmisión mecánica de altas prestaciones son una de las partes más complejas, costosas y problemáticas de una maquina fresadora. Esto es debido a la gran cantidad de canalizaciones para la transmisión de fluidos que deben de contener y a las altas prestaciones mecánicas que se les exigen. En este trabajo se presenta una estrategia para optimizar el diseño y la fabricación de los cuerpos de estos cabezales basada en la incorporación de aleaciones de aluminio y la inclusión de insertos tubulares de acero en la propia fundición que conforma el cabezal. Los insertos tubulares sustituyen a los canales de refrigeración realizados actualmente por taladros de mecanizado y quedan integrados en la masa de aluminio. La nueva metodología ha permitido realizar un diseño que mantiene las prestaciones mecánicas, aumenta la fiabilidad y reduce la masa de estos elementos móviles de fresadoras como ha demostrado la validación experimental de un primer prototipo.

  6. Size effect of primary Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} additions on the characteristics of the nanostructured ferritic ODS alloys: Comparing as-milled and as-milled/annealed alloys using S/TEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saber, Mostafa, E-mail:; Xu, Weizong; Li, Lulu; Zhu, Yuntian; Koch, Carl C.; Scattergood, Ronald O.


    The need for providing S/TEM evidence to clarify the mechanisms of nano-scale precipitate formation was the motivation of this investigation. In this study, an Fe–14Cr–0.4Ti alloy was ball-milled with different amounts of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} content up to 10 wt.%, and then annealed at temperatures up to 1100 °C. Micron-size Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles were substituted for the nano-size counterpart to elucidate the mechanism of oxide precipitate formation. The S/TEM studies revealed that the microstructure of the alloy with 10 wt.% yttria contained amorphous undissolved Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} after ball milling, while a small part of the initial oxide particles were dissolved into the solid solution. Consequently, when the amount of yttria was reduced to 1 wt.%, the amorphous phase of the yttria vanished and the whole content of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} was dissolved into the BCC solid solution. Defect analysis of precipitates on the annealed samples via S/TEM and micro-hardness studies revealed that the use of micron-size primary oxide particles can produce nano-size precipitates, stable up to temperatures as high as 1100 °C, and uniformly distributed throughout the microstructure. This study indicates that the use of high energy ball milling along with micron-size primary oxide particles can lead to nanostructured ferritic ODS alloys without the use of nano-size primary oxide additions.

  7. Waste to resource: Converting paper mill wastewater to bioplastic. (United States)

    Jiang, Yang; Marang, Leonie; Tamis, Jelmer; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Dijkman, Henk; Kleerebezem, Robbert


    In this study we investigated the feasibility of producing polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) by microbial enrichments on paper mill wastewater. The complete process includes (1) paper mill wastewater acidogenic fermentation in a simple batch process, (2) enrichment of a PHA-producing microbial community in a selector operated in sequencing batch mode with feast-famine regime, (3) Cellular PHA content maximization of the enrichment in an accumulator in fed-batch mode. The selective pressure required to establish a PHA-producing microbial enrichment, as derived from our previous research on synthetic medium, was validated using an agro-industrial waste stream in this study. The microbial enrichment obtained could accumulate maximum up to 77% PHA of cell dry weight within 5 h, which is currently the best result obtained on real agro-industrial waste streams, especially in terms of biomass specific efficiency. Biomass in this enrichment included both Plasticicumulans acidivorans, which was the main PHA producer, and a flanking population, which exhibited limited PHA-producing capacity. The fraction of P. acidivorans in the biomass was largely dependent on the fraction of volatile fatty acids in the total soluble COD in the wastewater after acidification. Based on this observation, one simple equation was proposed for predicting the PHA storage capacity of the enrichment. Moreover, some crucial bottlenecks that may impede the successful scaling-up of the process are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ján Mareček


    Full Text Available Crushing the malted grain in the process of milling enables extractive substances of malt to become available for water which accelerates dissolving and other chemical and physical processes during the time of mashing. The aim of this work was at the basis of performed analyses to evaluate to what extent the grist composition with regard to different proportion of meal fraction affects the amount of extract and other technological parameters of malt. Analyzed malt was made from four varieties of malting barley as are Nitran, Ebson, Malz and Xanadu coming from the harvest year 2009. Composition of malt grist in great extent influenced the entire process of mashing, lautering and the amount of extract. The highest values of extract were measured by all varieties at the variant III. with the highest content (50% of the softest fraction meal + powder meal. The difference between variant I. with 10% content of the softest fraction and variant III. with 50% content, was already 3%. The most significant increase of this parameter was found out by varieties Ebson and Malz. Mashing and lautering parameters have not been significantly influenced by the milling variants. More significant differences were found out with regard to wort turbidity. Only variety Malz showed out the turbidity up to 4 EBC units, measured by turbidity meter under the angle 90°. The highest turbidity was measured by variant I. with the lowest proportion of the fraction meal + powder meal.doi:10.5219/111

  9. Solar Dryer Application for Olive Oil Mill Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Montero


    Full Text Available Global waste production has raised recently due to numerous agricultural and industrial activities. Among other actions devoted to waste reduction, revaluation seems to be the most advantageous one from an environmental and economic point of view. In the olive oil sector, by-product management (namely olive pomace, olive mill wastewater, and sludge residue poses serious problems for companies, with the energy use of these wastes being a feasible option to solve these problems. Due to their high moisture content, drying constitutes the main stage for a possible bio-fuel conversion. This research work deals with the analysis of drying for the three main wastes from olive oil by using a prototype dryer. This equipment has different working regimes depending on the kind of convection (natural or forced for passive and active mode, respectively, the incidence of solar radiation on the product (indirect or mixed type and the use of an additional system for energy supply (hybrid type. From the results, it could be said that all the wastes were suitable for solar drying. However, drying conditions were different for each case. Olive pomace and olive mill wastewater showed promising results for solar drying application in mixed active mode. Concerning sludge residue, its special physical structure could employ the use of turners for drying, in order to improve heat transfer to the product. Moreover, hybrid active mode enabled a considerable reduction in drying time, being an aspect to take into account for its use during low solar radiation or at night time.

  10. Mathematical Modeling of Thermofrictional Milling Process Using ANSYS WB Software (United States)

    Sherov, K. T.; Sikhimbayev, M. R.; Sherov, A. K.; Donenbayev, B. S.; Rakishev, A. K.; Mazdubai, A. B.; Musayev, M. M.; Abeuova, A. M.


    This article presents ANSYS WB-based mathematical modelling of the thermofrictional milling process, which allowed studying the dynamics of thermal and physical processes occurring during the processing. The technique used also allows determination of the optimal cutting conditions of thermofrictional milling for processing various materials, in particular steel 40CN2MA, 30CGSA, 45, 3sp. In our study, from among a number of existing models of cutting fracture, we chose the criterion first proposed by prof. V. L. Kolmogorov. In order to increase the calculations performance, a mathematical model was proposed, that used only two objects: a parallelepiped-shaped workpiece and a cutting insert in the form of a pentagonal prism. In addition, the work takes into account the friction coefficient between a cutting insert and a workpiece taken equal to 0.4 mm. To determine the temperature in the subcontact layer of the workpiece, we introduced the coordinates of nine characteristic points with the same interval in the local coordinate system. As a result, the temperature values were obtained for different materials at the studied points during the cutter speed change. The research results showed the possibility of controlling thermal processes during processing by choosing the optimum cutting modes.

  11. Photon and dilepton production in supersymmetric Yang-Mills plasma (United States)

    Huot, Simon C.; Kovtun, Pavel; Moore, Guy D.; Starinets, Andrei; Yaffe, Laurence G.


    By weakly gauging one of the U(1) subgroups of the R-symmetry group, Script N = 4 super-Yang-Mills theory can be coupled to electromagnetism, thus allowing a computation of photon production and related phenomena in a QCD-like non-Abelian plasma at both weak and strong coupling. We compute photon and dilepton emission rates from finite temperature Script N = 4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills plasma both perturbatively at weak coupling to leading order, and non-perturbatively at strong coupling using the AdS/CFT duality conjecture. Comparison of the photo-emission spectra for Script N = 4 plasma at weak coupling, Script N = 4 plasma at strong coupling, and QCD at weak coupling reveals several systematic trends which we discuss. We also evaluate the electric conductivity of Script N = 4 plasma in the strong coupling limit, and to leading-log order at weak coupling. Current-current spectral functions in the strongly coupled theory exhibit hydrodynamic peaks at small frequency, but otherwise show no structure which could be interpreted as well-defined thermal resonances in the high-temperature phase.

  12. Photon and dilepton production in supersymmetric Yang-Mills plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huot, Simon C. [Department of Physics, McGill University, Montreal, QC H3A 2T8 (Canada); Kovtun, Pavel [KITP, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106-4030 (United States); Moore, Guy D. [Department of Physics, McGill University, Montreal, QC H3A 2T8 (Canada); Starinets, Andrei [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, ON N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Yaffe, Laurence G. [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, 98195-1560, (United States)


    By weakly gauging one of the U(1) subgroups of the R-symmetry group, N 4 super-Yang-Mills theory can be coupled to electromagnetism, thus allowing a computation of photon production and related phenomena in a QCD-like non-Abelian plasma at both weak and strong coupling. We compute photon and dilepton emission rates from finite temperature N = 4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills plasma both perturbatively at weak coupling to leading order, and non-perturbatively at strong coupling using the AdS/CFT duality conjecture. Comparison of the photo-emission spectra for N = 4 plasma at weak coupling, N = 4 plasma at strong coupling, and QCD at weak coupling reveals several systematic trends which we discuss. We also evaluate the electric conductivity of N = 4 plasma in the strong coupling limit, and to leading-log order at weak coupling. Current-current spectral functions in the strongly coupled theory exhibit hydrodynamic peaks at small frequency, but otherwise show no structure which could be interpreted as well-defined thermal resonances in the high-temperature phase.

  13. PbSe nanocubes obtained by high-energy milling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas-Chavez, H., E-mail: [Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada - IPN (Mexico); Reyes-Carmona, F. [Facultad de Quimica - UNAM (Mexico); Achimovicova, M. [Slovak Academy of Sciences, Institute of Geotechnics (Slovakia); Daneu, N. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Department for Nanostructured Materials (Slovenia); Jaramillo-Vigueras, D. [Centro de Investigacion e Innovacion Tecnologica - IPN (Mexico)


    In this study, PbSe nanocubes were obtained by high-energy milling, and their optical properties were investigated by measuring the UV-VIS-IR spectra in the range of 200-2,000 nm. The optical absorption of all samples showed a strong UV emission band at 1.45 eV. Previously, to obtain only PbSe nanocubes, an intermediate phase was identified, PbSeO{sub 3}. Although both PbSeO{sub 3} and PbSe were traced through this study, a major effort is devoted to characterize the latter. To trace how chemical transitions evolve from precursors to PbSe, X-ray diffraction and Rietveld refinement were carried out. Therefore, the following parameters were evaluated as a function of milling time: phase percentages, area-to-volume ratio, average crystallite dimensions, specific surface area, and morphology changes. To corroborate previous findings, nitrogen adsorption and transmission electron microscopy techniques were used. All the set experimental results unambiguously confirm that crystallites show a cubic morphology, with its average crystallite size distribution being around 24 nm.

  14. The phytochemical and pharmacological profile of Persea americana Mill. (United States)

    Yasir, Mohammad; Das, Sattwik; Kharya, M D


    Over the past decades, herbal medicine has become a thing of global significance with medicinal and economic implications. Wide spread use of herbs throughout the globe has raised serious concerns over its quality, safety, and efficacy. Thus, exact scientific assessment has become a precondition for acceptance of herbal health claims. Persea americana Mill. (avocado) is a tree, native to central America, cultivated in tropical and subtropical climates around the world, belonging to the family Lauraceae, is widely used in Ayurveda and evidence-based phototherapy. There are 3 principal races or groups of avocado: Mexican, Guatemalan, and West Indian named for the areas where they were originally cultivated. The plant is used in traditional medicine for the treatment of various ailments, such as monorrhagia, hypertension, stomach ache, bronchitis, diarrhea, and diabetes. Peptone, b-galactoside, glycosylated abscisic acid, alkaloids, cellulose, polygalacto urease, polyuronoids, cytochrome P-450, and volatile oils are reported to be present in this plant. Biotechnologic approaches show that modified MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg benzyladenine/L, 0-1mg Indole Butyric Acid/L, 0.1 mg Gibberalic Acid 3/L was optimum for adventitious shoot development. In the present review, an effort has been made to study the different aspects of P. americana Mill.

  15. Detoxification of olive mill wastewater by electrocoagulation and sedimentation processes. (United States)

    Khoufi, Sonia; Feki, Firas; Sayadi, Sami


    Olive mill wastewater (OMW) is characterised by its high suspended solids content (SS), high turbidity (NTU), chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration up to 100 gl(-1) and toxic phenolic compounds concentration up to 10 gl(-1). This study examined the effect of a physico-electrochemical method to detoxify olive mill wastewater prior an anaerobic biotreatment process. The proposed pre-treatment process consisted in a preliminary electrocoagulation step in which most phenolic compounds were polymerised, followed by a sedimentation step. The BOD(5)/COD ratio of the electrocoagulated OMW increased from 0.33, initial value, to 0.58. Furthermore, the sedimentation step yielded the removal of 76.2%, 75% and 71% of phenolic compounds, turbidity and suspended solid, respectively, after 3 days of plain settling. The combination of electrocoagulation and sedimentation allowed a COD reduction and decoloration of about 43% and 90%, respectively. This pre-treatment decreases the inhibition of Vibrio fisheri luminescence by 66.4%. Continuous anaerobic biomethanization experiments conducted in parallel with raw OMW and electrocoagulated OMW before and after sedimentation at a loading rate of 6g COD l(-1)day(-1), proved that the final pre-treated OMW was bioconverted into methane at high yield while raw OMW was very toxic to anaerobic microorganisms.

  16. Water balance modelling of a uranium mill effluent management system (United States)

    Plagnes, Valérie; Schmid, Brad; Mitchell, Brett; Judd-Henrey, Ian


    A water balance model was developed to forecast the management strategy of a uranium mill effluent system, located in northern Saskatchewan, Canada. Mining and milling operations, such as pit dewatering or treated effluent release, can potentially influence the hydrology and the water quality downstream of the operations. This study presents the methodology used to predict water volumes and water quality discharging downstream in surface water bodies. A compartment model representing the three subsequent lakes included in the management system was set up using the software GoldSim®. The water balance allows predicting lake volumes at the daily time step. A mass balance model developed for conservative elements was also developed and allows validating the proportions of inputs and outputs issued from the water balance model. This model was then used as predictive tool to evaluate the impact of different scenarios of effluents management on volumes and chemistry of surface water for short and longer time periods. An additional significant benefit of this model is that it can be used as an input for geochemical modelling to predict the concentrations of all constituents of concern in the receiving surface water.

  17. Performance of paper mill sludges as landfill capping material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moo-Young, H.K. Jr. [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States); Zimmie, T.F. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY (United States)


    The high cost of waste containment has sparked interest in low cost and effective strategies of containing wastes. Paper mill sludges have been effectively used as the impermeable barrier in landfill covers. Since paper mill sludges are viewed as a waste material, the sludge is given to the landfill owner at little or no cost. Thus, when a clay soil is not locally available to use as the impermeable barrier in a cover system, paper sludge barriers can save $20,000 to $50,000 per acre in construction costs. This study looks at the utilization and performance of blended and primary paper sludge as landfill capping material. To determine the effectiveness of paper sludge as an impermeable barrier layer, test pads were constructed to simulate a typical landfill cover with paper sludge and clay as the impermeable barrier and were monitored for infiltration rates for five years. Long-term hydraulic conductivity values estimated from the leachate generation rates of the test pads indicate that paper sludge provides an acceptable hydraulic barrier.

  18. Therapeutic and pharmacological potential of Foeniculum vulgare Mill: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kooti Wesam


    Full Text Available Introduction: Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill is one of the oldest spice plants which, due to its economic importance and significant pharmaceutical industry applications, is considered as one of the world’s most important medicinal plants. The purpose of this study is to investigate and collect scientific reports such as morphological characteristics, phytochemical compounds and evaluation of the therapeutic properties of this valuable medicinal plant that have been published. Methods: In order to gather the information the keywords Fennel and Foeniculum vulgare mill, therapeutic, and pharmacology have been searched until January 1, 2015 from journals accessible in databases such as ScienceDirect, Scopus, EBSCO, Medline, PubMed, Embase, SID and Iran Medex. Results: The results showed that this plant has various pharmacological properties including antioxidant, anti-cancer activity, anti-inflammatory, antifungal, anti-bacterial and estrogenic effects which are probably due to the presence of aromatic compounds such as anethole, estragole and fenshon. Conclusion: Fennel possesses various pharmacological properties and the fennel bioactive molecules play an important role in human health, hence, it might be used for different drug productions.

  19. Mycoflora study in a wheat flour mill of Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.E. Aringoli


    Full Text Available The mycoflora of the environment: wheat conditioning, milling and screening, and filling zone, as well as, raw material -wheat-, intermediate product -grits- and end product -flour- on day 1, and after cleaning improvements -days 45 and 90- were studied in an Argentine wheat mill. Samples were incubated at 28°C for 5-7 days on Malt Extract Agar with chloramphenicol (100 mg L-1 and the results were expressed in colony forming units per cubic meter of air (CFU m-3 or per gram of sample (CFU g-1, respectively. Fungal genera and species were isolated and identified and the potential toxicogenic capacity of the Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium graminearum isolated was studied. Time-Place and Time-Product multifactorial ANOVA were carried out. After cleaning improvements, CFU m-3 of air decreased as a function of time. Cladosporium and Alternaria were abundant in every zone, Aspergillus predominated in the wheat conditioning zone and Penicillium and Eurotium decreased with time. Wheat was more contaminated than grits and flour; Aspergillus, Eurotium and Mucoraceae family were the most abundant. Deoxynivalenol was above the levels allowed in wheat, being acceptable in grits and flour. Aflatoxin and Zearalenone showed acceptable levels. When studied in vitro, 53% of Aspergillus flavus and 100% of Fusarium graminearum isolates, produced Total Aflatoxins, and Deoxynivalenol and Zearalenone, respectively.

  20. Mycoflora study in a wheat flour mill of Argentina (United States)

    Aringoli, E.E.; Cambiagno, D.E.; Chiericatti, C.A.; Basilico, J.C.; Basilico, M.L.Z.


    The mycoflora of the environment: wheat conditioning, milling and screening, and filling zone, as well as, raw material -wheat-, intermediate product -grits- and end product -flour- on day 1, and after cleaning improvements -days 45 and 90- were studied in an Argentine wheat mill. Samples were incubated at 28°C for 5–7 days on Malt Extract Agar with chloramphenicol (100 mg L-1) and the results were expressed in colony forming units per cubic meter of air (CFU m-3) or per gram of sample (CFU g-1), respectively. Fungal genera and species were isolated and identified and the potential toxicogenic capacity of the Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium graminearum isolated was studied. Time-Place and Time-Product multifactorial ANOVA were carried out. After cleaning improvements, CFU m-3 of air decreased as a function of time. Cladosporium and Alternaria were abundant in every zone, Aspergillus predominated in the wheat conditioning zone and Penicillium and Eurotium decreased with time. Wheat was more contaminated than grits and flour; Aspergillus, Eurotium and Mucoraceae family were the most abundant. Deoxynivalenol was above the levels allowed in wheat, being acceptable in grits and flour. Aflatoxin and Zearalenone showed acceptable levels. When studied in vitro, 53% of Aspergillus flavus and 100% of Fusarium graminearum isolates, produced Total Aflatoxins, and Deoxynivalenol and Zearalenone, respectively. PMID:24031975

  1. Survivability of ancient man-made earthen mounds: implications for uranium mill tailings impoundments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindsey, C.G.; Mishima, J.; King, S.E.; Walters, W.H.


    As part of a study for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is investigating long-term stabilization techniques for uranium mill impoundments. Part of this investigation involves the design of a rock armoring blanket (riprap) to mitigate wind and water erosion of the underlying soil cover, which in turn prevents exposure of the tailings to the environment. However, the need for the armoring blanket, as well as the blanket's effectiveness, depends on the stability of the underlying soil cap (radon suppression cover) and on the tailings themselves. Compelling evidence in archaeological records suggests that large man-made earthen structures can remain sound and intact for time periods comparable to those required for the stabilization of the tailings piles if properly constructed. We present archaeological evidence on the existence and survivability of man-made earthen and rock structures through specific examples of such structures from around the world. We also review factors contributing to their survival or destruction and address the influence of climate, building materials, and construction techniques on survivability.

  2. Design of a high power TM01 mode launcher optimized for manufacturing by milling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dal Forno, Massimo [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)


    Recent research on high-gradient rf acceleration found that hard metals, such as hard copper and hard copper-silver, have lower breakdown rate than soft metals. Traditional high-gradient accelerating structures are manufactured with parts joined by high-temperature brazing. The high temperature used in brazing makes the metal soft; therefore, this process cannot be used to manufacture structures out of hard metal alloys. In order to build the structure with hard metals, the components must be designed for joining without high-temperature brazing. One method is to build the accelerating structures out of two halves, and join them by using a low-temperature technique, at the symmetry plane along the beam axis. The structure has input and output rf power couplers. We use a TM01 mode launcher as a rf power coupler, which was introduced during the Next Linear Collider (NLC) work. The part of the mode launcher will be built in each half of the structure. This paper presents a novel geometry of a mode launcher, optimized for manufacturing by milling. The coupler was designed for the CERN CLIC working frequency f = 11.9942 GHz; the same geometry can be scaled to any other frequency.

  3. Characterization of Matured Vermicompost Derived from Valorization of Palm Oil Mill Byproduct. (United States)

    Lim, Su Lin; Wu, Ta Yeong


    The valorization process involves transforming low-value materials such as wastes into high-value-added products. The current study aims to determine the potential of using a valorization process such as vermicomposting technology to convert palm oil mill byproduct, namely, decanter cake (DC), into organic fertilizer or vermicompost. The maturity of the vermicompost was characterized through various chemical and instrumental characterization to ensure the end product was safe and beneficial for agricultural application. The vermicomposting of DC showed significantly higher nutrient recovery and decreases in C:N ratio in comparison with the controls, particularly in the treatment with 2 parts DC and 1 part rice straw (w/w) (2DC:1RS). 2DC:1RS vermicompost had a final C:N ratio of 9.03 ± 0.12 and reasonably high levels of calcium (1.13 ± 0.05 g/kg), potassium (25.47 ± 0.32 g/kg), magnesium (4.87 ± 0.19 g/kg), sodium (7.40 ± 0.03 g/kg), and phosphorus (3.62 ± 0.27 g/kg). In addition, instrumental characterization also revealed a higher degree of maturity in the vermicompost. Ratios of 2921:1633 and DTG2:DTG3 also showed significant linear correlations with the C:N ratio, implying that those ratios could be used to characterize the progression of vermicompost maturity during the valorization process of DC.

  4. Effect of Nanosize Yittria and Tungsten Addition to Duplex Stainless Steel During High Energy Planetary Milling (United States)

    Nayak, A. K.; Shashanka, R.; Chaira, D.


    In this present investigation, elemental powders of duplex stainless steel composition (Fe-18Cr-13Ni) with 1 wt. % nano yittria and tungsten were milled separately in dual drive planetary mill (DDPM) for 10 h to fabricate yittria dispersed and tungsten dispersed duplex stainless steel powders. The milled powder samples were characterized by X-Ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to study the size, morphology and phase evolution during milling. The gradual transformation from ferrite to austenite is evident from XRD spectra during milling. The crystallite size and lattice strain of yittria dispersed duplex stainless steel after 10 h milling were found to be 7 nm and 1.1% respectively. The crystallite size of tungsten dispersed duplex stainless steel was 5 nm. It has been observed from SEM analysis that particles size has been reduced from 40 to 5 μm in both cases. Annealing of 10 h milled powder was performed at 750°C for 1 h under argon atmosphere to study phase transformation in both yittria and tungsten dispersed duplex stainless steel. The XRD analysis of annealed stainless steel depicts the phase transformation from α-Fe to γ-Fe with the formation of oxides of Y,Fe and Cr. The differential scanning calorimetry analysis was conducted by heating the milled powder from room temperature to 1200°C under argon atmosphere to investigate the thermal analysis of both the stainless steel powders.

  5. Dissolution Kinetics of Milled-Silicate Rock Fertilizers in Organic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joko Priyono


    Full Text Available A dissolution experiment was carried out to identify the effects of milling condition on dissolution kinetics of silicate rock fertilizers. Initially ground materials (Ø < 250 μm for basalt, dolerite, gneiss, and Ø < 150 μm for K-feldspar were further milled with a ball mill (Spex 8000 under dry and wet conditions for 10, 60, and 120 minutes. The rock powders were dissolved in a mixture of 0.01M acetic-citric acid at a rock powder/solvent ratio of 1/1000, and the solution was agitated continuously on a rotary shaker at 25o C. The concentrations of dissolved Na, K, Ca, Mg, Al, and Si from the milled rocks were determined at intervals from 1 hour up to 56 days. Results indicated that the relationships of quantity of dissolved rock and elemental plant nutrients (Et with time (t were well described by a power equation: Et = Eo + atn with reaction order (n of 0.3 – 0.8. Milling increased quantity of total and individual dissolved element (Et , dissolution rate (Rt, the proportion of rapidly soluble rock or element (Eo, and dissolution constant a. The increases in dissolution due to dry milling were larger than for wet milling. Although further proves should be provided, results of this dissolution experiment clearly indicates that SRFs may be used as multinutrient fertilizers as well as remedial materials for acidic soils; and dry milling may be applied as an appropriate method for manufacturing effective SRFs.

  6. Influence of Milling Conditions on the Hydriding Properties of Mg-C Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristina Stoyadinova


    Full Text Available Mg75 at.%, CB25 at.% (CB: carbon black composites were synthesized at different ball milling conditions (milling energy, milling duration, and environment and their hydriding properties were characterized by high-pressure DSC. The SEM observations revealed that the samples consist of 5–15 μm Mg particles, surrounded and in some cases coated by carbon particles. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the Mg phase of all as-obtained composite powders is nanocrystalline with average crystallite size in the range 20–30 nm, depending on the milling conditions. The best hydriding properties, expressed in low-temperature hydriding (below 150°C and improved cycle life, showed the composites milled at dry conditions. This is obviously due mainly to the successful Mg surface protection by the carbon. Additional decrease of the hydriding temperature (<100°C was achieved applying higher-energy milling, but at the same time the cycling stability deteriorated, due to the extremely fine particles and microstructure achieved under these conditions. The composites milled in the presence of heptane showed rapid capacity decline during cycling as well. The observed difference in the hydriding behavior of the Mg-CB composites is attributed to the different coating efficiency of the carbon milled under different conditions with Mg, which is supposed to protect magnesium from oxidation and plays a catalytic role for the hydriding reaction.

  7. Estimation of the Levels of Fe in Wheat and Maize Flour Milled using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is therefore recommended that the commercial milling machine be redesigned with the incorporation of a permanent magnet to minimize or totally eliminate the introduction of Fe fillings into the ground grains and other foodstuffs. Keywords: Commercial milling machine, wheat, maize, contaminants, home blender, grinding ...

  8. Effect of milling time on microstructure and mechanical properties of Cu–Ni–graphite composites (United States)

    Wang, Yiran; Gao, Yimin; Li, Yefei; Zhang, Chao; Huang, Xiaoyu; Zhai, Wenyan


    Cu–Ni–graphite composites are intended for application in switch slide baseplate materials. The microstructure of the composites depends strongly on the ball milling time, and a suitable time can significantly improve the properties of the Cu–Ni–graphite composites. In this study, a two-step milling method was employed. The morphology evolution and microstructural features of the powder was characterized at different milling times. Afterwards, the Cu–Ni–graphite composites were prepared in the process of cold pressing, sintering, re-pressing and re-sintering as a function of the different milling times. Finally, both the microstructure and mechanical properties of the Cu–Ni–graphite composites are discussed. The results show that no new phase was generated during the milling process. The morphology evolution of the mixture of Cu/Ni powder changed from spherical-like to cubic-like, plate-like and flake-like with an increasing milling time. The microstructure of the composites consisted of α-phase and graphite. The boundary area and quantity of pores changed as the milling time increased. The relative density, hardness and flexural strength reached maximum values at 15 h of milling time.

  9. 40 CFR 61.149 - Standard for waste disposal for asbestos mills. (United States)


    ... asbestos mills. 61.149 Section 61.149 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Standard for Asbestos § 61.149 Standard for waste disposal for asbestos mills. Each owner or operator of any source covered under the provisions of § 61.142 shall: (a) Deposit all asbestos-containing waste...

  10. Valorization of palm oil (mill) residues. Identifyin and solving the challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbersen, H.W.; Meesters, K.P.H.; Bakker, R.R.C.


    This report explains in brief how the palm oil production system is set-up and how by-products of palm oil extraction (Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB), Mesocarp Fibre, Shells and Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME)) are generated in the Palm oil Mill and what the composition of each stream is. Then the options

  11. The Status of Children in John Stuart Mill's Theory of Liberty. (United States)

    Habibi, D. A.


    John Stuart Mill viewed children in a more favorable light than is generally believed. Mill wished to protect children from society's bad influences long enough for their individual personalities and talents to develop. Complexities that arise in applying a liberal theory to the education of the immature are discussed. (PP)

  12. John Stuart Mill on the liberty of the mentally ill: a historical note. (United States)

    Monahan, J


    The author discusses the quote from Mill's On Liberty that is often cited by libertarians in opposition to involuntary commitment of the mentally ill. This quote has been taken out of context; other statements in the document indicate that Mill excluded from his libertarian credo those "without the ordinary amount of understanding," i.e., those people who would now be considered mentally ill.

  13. John Stuart Mill, Harriet Taylor, and Women's Rights in America, 1850-1873. (United States)

    Pugh, Evelyn L.


    Examines John Stuart Mill's writings on women with respect to their reception in and their application to the American scene from 1850 to the 1870s. Concludes that the implications were accepted by a significant portion of American society in the 1970s, a full century after Mill's publication. Journal availability: see SO 507 179. (Author/DB)

  14. The Economics of Authorship: Online Paper Mills, Student Writers, and First-Year Composition (United States)

    Ritter, Kelly


    Using sample student analyses of online paper mill Web sites, student survey responses, and existing scholarship on plagiarism, authorship, and intellectual property, this article examines how the consumerist rhetoric of the online paper mills construes academic writing as a commodity for sale, and why such rhetoric appeals to students in…

  15. Influence of flaws and crystal properties on particle fracture in a jet mill

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vegt, Onno; Vromans, Herman; den Toonder, Jaap; Maarschalk, Kees van der Voort


    jet milling is commonly used for reducing the particle size of active pharmaceutical ingredients. Unfortunately, this process is sometimes difficult to control as pre-existing flaws and mechanical properties affect the particle fracture behaviour in a mill. In this study the effect of pre-existing

  16. Automatic in-process chatter avoidance in the high-speed milling process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, N.J.M. van; Doppenberg, E.J.J.; Faassen, R.P.H.; Wouw, N. van de; Oosterling, J.A.J.; Nijmeijer, H.


    High-speed milling is often used in industry to maximize productivity of the manufacturing of high-technology components, such as aeronautical components, mold, and dies. The occurrence of chatter highly limits the efficiency and accuracy of high-speed milling operations. In this paper, two control

  17. Effect of composting of palm oil mill wastes and cow dung or poultry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of shelter and different type of manure on degradation of palm oil mills wastes during composting and on growth and yield of African spinach (Amaranthus hybridus) grown on acrisol . Methodology and results: Palm oil mills wastes were composted, with poultry manure or cow dung with and ...

  18. A study of milling of pure polymers and a structural transformation of polyethylene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castricum, H.L.; Yang, H.; Bakker, H.; van Deursen, J.H.


    We investigated possible physical and chemical changes in inert polymers by means of mechanical milling. No chemical changes were observed. However, in polystyrene we found two glass temperatures after milling, in contrast to one glass temperature in the original material. Under certain conditions

  19. 78 FR 69663 - Jonathan and Jayne Chase Troy Mills Hydroelectric Inc.; Notice of Transfer of Exemption (United States)


    ..., 2011,\\1\\ has been transferred to Troy Mills Hydroelectric Inc. The project is located on the Missisquoi River in Orleans County, Vermont. The transfer of an exemption does not require Commission approval. \\1... Energy Regulatory Commission Jonathan and Jayne Chase Troy Mills Hydroelectric Inc.; Notice of Transfer...

  20. Waterford, Virginia: From Mill Town to National Historic Landmark. Teaching with Historic Places. (United States)

    Souders, Bronwen

    Waterford, Virginia, preserves the ambiance and many of the structures that characterized it during its heyday as a flour milling town in the 19th century. The village has changed so little in shape and size that founder Amos Janney would find it recognizable. He could stroll from his 1733 home to the area of his original mill and then on to the…