WorldWideScience

Sample records for hot water tank

  1. Thermal stratification in a hot water tank established by heat loss from the tank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Jianhua; Furbo, Simon

    2009-01-01

    Results of experimental and numerical investigations of thermal stratification and natural convection in a vertical cylindrical hot water tank during standby periods are presented. The transient fluid flow and heat transfer in the tank during cooling caused by heat loss are investigated...... on the natural buoyancy resulting in downward flow along the tank side walls due to heat loss of the tank and the influence on thermal stratification of the tank by the downward flow and the corresponding upward flow in the central parts of the tank. Water temperatures at different levels of the tank...... by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculations and by thermal measurements. A tank with uniform temperatures and thermal stratification is studied. The distribution of the heat loss coefficient for the different parts of the tank is measured by tests and used as input to the CFD model. The investigations focus...

  2. Temperature stratification in a hot water tank with circulation pipe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the project is to investigate the change in temperature stratification due to the operation of a circulation pipe. Further, putting forward rules for design of pipe inlet in order not to disturb the temperature stratification in the hot water tank. A validated computer model based on t...

  3. Investigation on Kombiterm GE Domestic Hot Water Tank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, Alfred; Heuer, Andreas Walter

    1996-01-01

    Investigation of a hot water tank with a high heat exchanger spiral with a small pipe diameter in the upper part of the heat exchanger spiral and a large pipe diameter in the lower part of the heat exchanger spiral in cooperation with Kãhler&Breum Beholder- og Maskinfabrik K/S. First preprint of ...

  4. Thermal stratification in a hot water tank established by heat loss from the tank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Jianhua; Furbo, Simon

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents numerical investigations of thermal stratification in a vertical cylindrical hot water tank established by standby heat loss from the tank. The transient fluid flow and heat transfer in the tank during cooling caused by standby heat loss are calculated by means of validated...... computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models. The measured heat loss coefficient for the different parts of the tank is used as input to the CFD model. Parametric studies are carried out using the validated models to investigate the influence on thermal stratification of the tank by the downward flow...... the heat loss from the tank sides will be distributed at different levels of the tank at different thermal conditions. The results show that 20–55% of the side heat loss drops to layers below in the part of the tank without the presence of thermal stratification. A heat loss removal factor is introduced...

  5. Development of a hot water tank simulation program with improved prediction of thermal stratification in the tank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Jianhua; Furbo, Simon; Yue, Hongqiang

    2015-01-01

    A simulation program SpiralSol was developed in previous investigations to calculate thermal performance of a solar domestic hot water (SDHW) system with a hot water tank with a built-in heat exchanger spiral [1]. The simulation program is improved in the paper in term of prediction of thermal...... stratification in the tank. The transient fluid flow and heat transfer in the hot water tank during cooling caused by standby heat loss are investigated by validated computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculations. Detailed CFD investigations are carried out to determine the influence of thickness and material...... property of the tank wall on thermal stratification in the tank. It is elucidated how thermal stratification in the tank is influenced by the natural convection and how the heat loss from the tank sides will be distributed at different levels of the tank at different thermal conditions. The existing...

  6. Experimental Validation of a Domestic Stratified Hot Water Tank Model in Modelica for Annual Performance Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carmo, Carolina; Dumont, Olivier; Nielsen, Mads Pagh

    2015-01-01

    The use of stratified hot water tanks in solar energy systems - including ORC systems - as well as heat pump systems is paramount for a better performance of these systems. However, the availability of effective and reliable models to predict the annual performance of stratified hot water tanks...

  7. Smart solar tanks for small solar domestic hot water systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Andersen, Elsa; Knudsen, Søren

    2005-01-01

    Investigation of small SDHW systems based on smart solar tanks are presented. The domestic water in a smart solar tank can be heated both by solar collectors and by means of an auxiliary energy supply system. The auxiliary energy supply system – in this study electric heating elements – heats up...... systems, based on differently designed smart solar tanks and a traditional SDHW system were investigated by means of laboratory experiments and theoretical calculations. The investigations showed that the yearly thermal performance of SDHW systems with smart solar tanks is 5-35% higher than the thermal...... performance of traditional SDHW systems. Estimates indicate that the performance/cost ratio can be improved by up to 25% by using a smart solar tank instead of a traditional tank when the backup energy system is electric heating elements. Further, smart solar tanks are suitable for unknown, variable, large...

  8. Buoyancy driven flow in a hot water tank due to standby heat loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Jianhua; Furbo, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Results of experimental and numerical investigations of thermal behavior in a vertical cylindrical hot water tank due to standby heat loss of the tank are presented. The effect of standby heat loss on temperature distribution in the tank is investigated experimentally on a slim 150l tank...... show that the CFD model predicts satisfactorily water temperatures at different levels of the tank during cooling by standby heat loss. It is elucidated how the downward buoyancy driven flow along the tank wall is established by the heat loss from the tank sides and how the natural convection flow...... with a height to diameter ratio of 5. A tank with uniform temperatures and with thermal stratification is studied. A detailed computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of the tank is developed to calculate the natural convection flow in the tank. The distribution of the heat loss coefficient for the different...

  9. Thermal performance behavior of a domestic hot water solar storage tank during consumption operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehghan, A.A.; Barzegar, A.

    2011-01-01

    Transient thermal performance behavior of a vertical storage tank of a domestic solar water heating system with a mantle heat exchanger has been investigated numerically in the discharge/consumption mode. It is assumed that the tank is initially stratified during its previous heat storing/charging operation. During the discharging period, the city cold water is fed at the bottom of the tank and hot water is extracted from its top outlet port for consumption. Meanwhile, the collector loop is assumed to be active. The conservation equations in the axis-symmetric cylindrical co-ordinate have been used and discretised by employing the finite volume method. The low Reynolds number (LRN) k - ω model is utilized for treating turbulence in the fluid. The influence of the tank Grashof number, the incoming cold fluid Reynolds number and the size of the inlet port of the heat storage tank on the transient thermal characteristics of the tank is investigated and discussed. It is found that for higher values of Grashof number, the pre-established thermal stratification is well preserved during the discharging operation mode. It is also noticed that in order to have a tank with a proper thermal performance and or have least mixing inside the tank during the consumption period, the tank inflow Reynolds number and or its inflow port diameter should be kept below certain values. In these cases, the storage tank is enabling to provide proper amount of hot water with a proper temperature for consumption purposes.

  10. Advantages using inlet stratification devices in solar domestic hot water storage tanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragsted, Janne; Furbo, Simon; Bava, Federico

    2017-01-01

    performances of two solar domestic hot water systems are presented. One system is a traditional high flow system with a heat exchanger spiral in the tank. The other system is a low flow system with an external heat exchanger and a newly developed inlet stratifier from EyeCular Technologies ApS installed......The thermal performance of a domestic hot water system is strongly affected by whether the storage tank is stratified or not. Thermal stratification can be built up in a solar storage tank if the heated water from the solar collectors enters the tank through an inlet stratifier.Measured thermal...... with the stratification device has a higher thermal performance compared to the system with the heat exchanger spiral inside the tank.The relative performance (defined as the ratio between the net utilized solar energy of the low flow system and the net utilized solar energy of the high flow system), is a function...

  11. Thermal performance assessment and improvement of a solar domestic hot water tank with PCM in the mantle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Jie; Furbo, Simon; Kong, Weiqiang

    2018-01-01

    To develop an appropriate solar DHW (Domestic Hot Water) tank for residential dwellings and put it into the European solar thermal market for promotion, thermal performance tests of PCM (Phase Change Material) hot water storage tanks of both a prototype and an improved version with a water volume...

  12. Temperature distribution of a hot water storage tank in a simulated solar heating and cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namkoong, D.

    1976-01-01

    A 2,300-liter hot water storage tank was studied under conditions simulating a solar heating and cooling system. The initial condition of the tank, ranging from 37 C at the bottom to 94 C at the top, represented a condition midway through the start-up period of the system. During the five-day test period, the water in the tank gradually rose in temperature but in a manner that diminished its temperature stratification. Stratification was found not to be an important factor in the operation of the particular solar system studied.

  13. Hot water tank for use with a combination of solar energy and heat-pump desuperheating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, John W.

    1983-06-28

    A water heater or system which includes a hot water tank having disposed therein a movable baffle to function as a barrier between the incoming volume of cold water entering the tank and the volume of heated water entering the tank which is heated by the circulation of the cold water through a solar collector and/or a desuperheater of a heat pump so as to optimize the manner in which heat is imparted to the water in accordance to the demand on the water heater or system. A supplemental heater is also provided and it is connected so as to supplement the heating of the water in the event that the solar collector and/or desuperheater cannot impart all of the desired heat input into the water.

  14. Hot water tank for use with a combination of solar energy and heat-pump desuperheating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, J.W.

    1980-06-25

    A water heater or system is described which includes a hot water tank having disposed therein a movable baffle to function as a barrier between the incoming volume of cold water entering the tank and the volume of heated water entering the tank which is heated by the circulation of the cold water through a solar collector and/or a desuperheater of a heat pump so as to optimize the manner in which heat is imparted to the water in accordance to the demand on the water heater or system. A supplemental heater is also provided and it is connected so as to supplement the heating of the water in the event that the solar collector and/or desuperheater cannot impart all of the desired heat input into the water.

  15. Implications of the modelling of stratified hot water storage tanks in the simulation of CHP plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos Celador, A., E-mail: alvaro.campos@ehu.es [ENEDI Research Group-University of the Basque Country, Departamento de Maquinas y Motores Termicos, E.T.S.I. de Bilbao Alameda de Urquijo, s/n 48013 Bilbao, Bizkaia (Spain); Odriozola, M.; Sala, J.M. [ENEDI Research Group-University of the Basque Country, Departamento de Maquinas y Motores Termicos, E.T.S.I. de Bilbao Alameda de Urquijo, s/n 48013 Bilbao, Bizkaia (Spain)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: {yields} Three different modelling approaches for simulation of hot water tanks are presented. {yields} The three models are simulated within a residential cogeneration plant. {yields} Small differences in the results are found by an energy and exergy analysis. {yields} Big differences between the results are found by an advanced exergy analysis. {yields} Results on the feasibility study are explained by the advanced exergy analysis. - Abstract: This paper considers the effect that different hot water storage tank modelling approaches have on the global simulation of residential CHP plants as well as their impact on their economic feasibility. While a simplified assessment of the heat storage is usually considered in the feasibility studies of CHP plants in buildings, this paper deals with three different levels of modelling of the hot water tank: actual stratified model, ideal stratified model and fully mixed model. These three approaches are presented and comparatively evaluated under the same case of study, a cogeneration plant with thermal storage meeting the loads of an urbanisation located in the Bilbao metropolitan area (Spain). The case of study is simulated by TRNSYS for each one of the three modelling cases and the so obtained annual results are analysed from both a First and Second-Law-based viewpoint. While the global energy and exergy efficiencies of the plant for the three modelling cases agree quite well, important differences are found between the economic results of the feasibility study. These results can be predicted by means of an advanced exergy analysis of the storage tank considering the endogenous and exogenous exergy destruction terms caused by the hot water storage tank.

  16. Sporadic Legionnaires' disease: the role of domestic electric hot-water tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufresne, S F; Locas, M C; Duchesne, A; Restieri, C; Ismaïl, J; Lefebvre, B; Labbé, A C; Dion, R; Plante, M; Laverdière, M

    2012-01-01

    Sporadic community-acquired legionellosis (SCAL) can be acquired through contaminated aerosols from residential potable water. Electricity-dependent hot-water tanks are widely used in the province of Quebec (Canada) and have been shown to be frequently contaminated with Legionella spp. We prospectively investigated the homes of culture-proven SCAL patients from Quebec in order to establish the proportion of patients whose domestic potable hot-water system was contaminated with the same Legionella isolate that caused their pneumonia. Water samples were collected in each patient's home. Environmental and clinical isolates were compared using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Thirty-six patients were enrolled into the study. Legionella was recovered in 12/36 (33%) homes. The residential and clinical isolates were found to be microbiologically related in 5/36 (14%) patients. Contaminated electricity-heated domestic hot-water systems contribute to the acquisition of SCAL. The proportion is similar to previous reports, but may be underestimated.

  17. Effect of Insulation Thickness on Thermal Stratification in Hot Water Tanks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burak KURŞUN

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the important factors to be considered in increasing the efficiency of hot water storage tanks used for thermal energy storage is thermal stratification. Reducing the temperature of the water at the base of the tank provides more utilization of the energy of the heat source during the heating of the water and improves the efficiency of the system. In this study, the effect of the insulation thickness on the outer surface of the tank and the ratio of the tank diameter to the height (D/H on the thermal stratification was investigated numerically. Numerical analyzes were carried out for the condition that the insulation thickness was constant and variable in the range of D/H=0,3-1. Water was used as the heat storage fluid and the analysis results were obtained for eight hours cooling period. Numerical results showed that the temperature difference between the bottom and top surfaces of the tank increased between 7-9 ° C for the range of D / H = 0,3-1 with changing the insulation thickness.

  18. Uniform and non-uniform inlet temperature of a vertical hot water jet injected into a rectangular tank

    KAUST Repository

    El-Amin, Mohamed; Sun, Shuyu

    2010-01-01

    In most of real-world applications, such as the case of heat stores, inlet is not kept at a constant temperature but it may vary with time during charging process. In this paper, a vertical water jet injected into a rectangular storage tank is measured experimentally and simulated numerically. Two cases of study are considered; one is a hot water jet with uniform inlet temperature (UIT) injected into a cold water tank, and the other is a cold water jet with non-uniform inlet temperature (NUIT) injected into a hot water tank. Three different temperature differences and three different flow rates are studied for the hot water jet with UIT which is injected into a cold water tank. Also, three different initial temperatures with constant flow rate as well as three different flow rates with constant initial temperature are considered for the cold jet with NUIT which is injected into a hot water tank. Turbulence intensity at the inlet as well as Reynolds number for the NUIT cases are therefore functions of inlet temperature and time. Both experimental measurements and numerical calculations are carried out for the same measured flow and thermal conditions. The realizable k-ε model is used for modeling the turbulent flow. Numerical solutions are obtained for unsteady flow while pressure, velocity, temperature and turbulence distributions inside the water tank are analyzed. The simulated results are compared to the measured results, and they show a good agreement at low temperatures. © 2010 IEEE.

  19. Uniform and non-uniform inlet temperature of a vertical hot water jet injected into a rectangular tank

    KAUST Repository

    El-Amin, Mohamed

    2010-12-01

    In most of real-world applications, such as the case of heat stores, inlet is not kept at a constant temperature but it may vary with time during charging process. In this paper, a vertical water jet injected into a rectangular storage tank is measured experimentally and simulated numerically. Two cases of study are considered; one is a hot water jet with uniform inlet temperature (UIT) injected into a cold water tank, and the other is a cold water jet with non-uniform inlet temperature (NUIT) injected into a hot water tank. Three different temperature differences and three different flow rates are studied for the hot water jet with UIT which is injected into a cold water tank. Also, three different initial temperatures with constant flow rate as well as three different flow rates with constant initial temperature are considered for the cold jet with NUIT which is injected into a hot water tank. Turbulence intensity at the inlet as well as Reynolds number for the NUIT cases are therefore functions of inlet temperature and time. Both experimental measurements and numerical calculations are carried out for the same measured flow and thermal conditions. The realizable k-ε model is used for modeling the turbulent flow. Numerical solutions are obtained for unsteady flow while pressure, velocity, temperature and turbulence distributions inside the water tank are analyzed. The simulated results are compared to the measured results, and they show a good agreement at low temperatures. © 2010 IEEE.

  20. Simulation of the interaction of a solar domestic hot water tank system with a compact plate heat exchanger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nizami, D.J.; Lightstone, M.F. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Harrison, S.; Cruickshank, C. [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical and Materials Engineering

    2008-08-15

    An external natural convection heat exchanger (NCHE) was used as an alternative to forced convection for transferring energy from solar collector loops to a hot water storage tank. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) program was used to predict interactions between the natural convection-driven side-arm heat exchanger and a hot water storage tank. A solar domestic hot water tank with a vertical compact plate natural convection heat exchanger was modelled. In addition, the heat exchanger was modelled as a section of pipe with high flow resistance and a volumetric energy source. Transient analyses were conducted and the CFD model was then compared with data obtained from laboratory experiments. Simulations were conducted on the fluid domain in order to investigate the influence of the flow on the thermal stratification in the tank, the heat transfer inside the tank, and the natural convection in the tank loop. Buoyancy for an incompressible fluid with constant fluid properties was modelled using a Boussinesq approximation. Temperature distributions were measured as a function of time. Results of the study indicated that assuming a constant thermal expansion coefficient in evaluation buoyancy forces for a wide range of operating temperatures did not result in accurate predictions. Future studies will model natural convection with a full buoyancy model. 11 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs.

  1. Heavy metal accumulation in hot water tanks in a region experiencing coal waste pollution and comparison between regional water systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wigginton, A.; McSpirit, S.; Sims, C.D. [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Biology

    2007-10-15

    In 2000, a coal slurry impoundment failure in Martin County, Kentucky, caused concerns about contaminants entering municipal water supplies. Water samples taken from impacted and reference area hot water tanks often exceeded US EPA drinking water guidelines. Concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Pb had maxima of 119; 51.9; 154; 170,000; 976,000; 8,710; and 12,700 {mu}g/L, respectively. Significantly different metal accumulation between counties indicated this procedure's utility for assessing long-term municipal water quality. Correlations between metal concentrations were strong and consistent for As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Co, and Fe indicating that some metals accumulate proportionally with others.

  2. Thermal stratification built up in hot water tank with different inlet stratifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragsted, Janne; Furbo, Simon; Dannemand, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Thermal stratification in a water storage tank can strongly increase the thermal performance of solar heating systems. Thermal stratification can be built up in a storage tank during charge, if the heated water enters through an inlet stratifier. Experiments with a test tank have been carried out...... in order to elucidate how well thermal stratification is established in the tank with differently designed inlet stratifiers under different controlled laboratory conditions. The investigated inlet stratifiers are from Solvis GmbH & Co KG and EyeCular Technologies ApS. The inlet stratifier from Solvis Gmb...... for Solvis GmbH & Co KG had a better performance at 4 l/min. In the intermediate charge test the stratifier from EyeCular Technologies ApS had a better performance in terms of maintaining the thermal stratification in the storage tank while charging with a relative low temperature. [All rights reserved...

  3. On the Behavior of Different PCMs in a Hot Water Storage Tank against Thermal Demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porteiro, Jacobo; Míguez, José Luis; Crespo, Bárbara; de Lara, José; Pousada, José María

    2016-03-21

    Advantages, such as thermal storage improvement, are found when using PCMs (Phase Change Materials) in storage tanks. The inclusion of three different types of materials in a 60 l test tank is studied. Two test methodologies were developed, and four tests were performed following each methodology. A thermal analysis is performed to check the thermal properties of each PCM. The distributions of the water temperatures inside the test tanks are evaluated by installing four Pt-100 sensors at different heights. A temperature recovery is observed after exposing the test tank to an energy demand. An energetic analysis that takes into account the energy due to the water temperature, the energy due to the PCM and the thermal loss to the ambient environment is also presented. The percentage of each PCM that remains in the liquid state after the energy demand is obtained.

  4. On the Behavior of Different PCMs in a Hot Water Storage Tank against Thermal Demands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobo Porteiro

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Advantages, such as thermal storage improvement, are found when using PCMs (Phase Change Materials in storage tanks. The inclusion of three different types of materials in a 60 l test tank is studied. Two test methodologies were developed, and four tests were performed following each methodology. A thermal analysis is performed to check the thermal properties of each PCM. The distributions of the water temperatures inside the test tanks are evaluated by installing four Pt-100 sensors at different heights. A temperature recovery is observed after exposing the test tank to an energy demand. An energetic analysis that takes into account the energy due to the water temperature, the energy due to the PCM and the thermal loss to the ambient environment is also presented. The percentage of each PCM that remains in the liquid state after the energy demand is obtained.

  5. Performance of a solid oxide fuel cell CHP system coupled with a hot water storage tank for single household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liso, Vincenzo; Zhao, Yingru; Yang, Wenyuan

    2014-01-01

    In this paper a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system for cogeneration of heat and power integrated with a stratified heat storage tank is studied. Thermal stratification in the tank increases the heat recovery performance as it allows existence of a temperature gradient with the benefit of deliver......In this paper a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system for cogeneration of heat and power integrated with a stratified heat storage tank is studied. Thermal stratification in the tank increases the heat recovery performance as it allows existence of a temperature gradient with the benefit...... of delivering hot water for the household and returning the coldest fluid back to SOFC heat recovery heat-exchanger. A model of the SOFC system is developed to determine the energy required to meet the hourly average electric load of the residence. The model evaluates the amount of heat generated and the amount...... of heat used for thermal loads of the residence. Two fuels are considered, namely syngas and natural gas. The tank model considers the temperature gradients over the tank height. The results of the numerical simulation is used to size the SOFC system and storage heat tank to provide energy for a small...

  6. 10 CFR 431.102 - Definitions concerning commercial water heaters, hot water supply boilers, and unfired hot water...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... supply boilers, and unfired hot water storage tanks. 431.102 Section 431.102 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY... Water Heaters, Hot Water Supply Boilers and Unfired Hot Water Storage Tanks § 431.102 Definitions concerning commercial water heaters, hot water supply boilers, and unfired hot water storage tanks. The...

  7. Health improvement of domestic hot tap water supply Gusev, Kaliningrad Region, Russia. Make-up water tank project. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aagaard, Joergen

    1998-07-01

    This report describes the project `Health Improvement of Domestic Hot Tap Water Supply, Gusev, Kaliningrad, Russia`, which was carried out in the autumn of 1996 and financed by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency, the Danish Energy Agency and Gusev Municipality. The project proposal and application outlined the following objectives: Erection of system so that hot tap water, which is tapped directly from the district heating system, obtains an acceptable quality in health terms; Complete training and education, so that the plant can be operated and maintained by the power station`s staff and rehabilitation projects within supply of domestic water and district heating can be promoted to the greatest possible extent; Systems for heat treatment of make-up water were implemented in less than three months; The project was carried out in close Danish-Russian co-operation from the beginning of engineering to the commissioning and resulted in transfer and demonstration of know-how and technology; Information was recorded on the existing domestic water and heat supply systems as well as on the treatment of sewage, and recommendations for rehabilitation projects were made. Previously, when the temperature in the district heating system was relatively high, a heat treatment apparently took place in the district heating system. However, due to the current poor economic situation there are no means with which to buy the fuel quantities necessary to maintain the previously normal district heating temperature. In the new concept the cold make-up water is heated to >80 deg. C as required by the health authorities before it is led to the district heating return system and subsequently heated to the actual supply temperature of 50-60 deg. C. The energy consumption in the two concepts is approximately the same. A 1,000 m{sup 3} tank with heating coils was erected between the make-up water system and the district heating system. The tank should equalise the daily capacity

  8. Investigation and optimisation of heat storage tanks for low-flow SDHW systems[Solar Domestic Hot Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knudsen, Soeren

    2004-07-01

    This thesis, 'Investigation and optimisation of heat storage tanks for low-flow SDHW systems', describes a study of the heat transfer and flow structure in vertical mantle heat exchangers for low-flow Solar Domestic Hot Water (SDHW) systems. The heat storage is a key component in SDHW systems and the vertical mantle heat exchanger is one of the most promising heat storage designs for low-flow SDHW systems. The study was carried out using a combination of experimental and numerical methods. Thermal experiments of mantle heat exchangers with different mantle inlet designs showed that the mantle inlet port with advantage can be located a distance from the top of the mantle. Consequently, the mantle heat exchangers marketed today can be improved by changing the mantle inlet position. The heat transfer and flow structure in mantle heat exchangers are rather complex and the thermal experiments were followed by investigations by means of advanced experimental and numerical techniques such as Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). Using a transparent glass mantle tank, experimental flow visualisation was carried out with a PIV system. The flow structures inside the mantle and inside the tank were visualised and then compared with the flow structures predicted by CFD-models. The investigations showed that the CFD-models were able to model the flow in the mantle and in the tank correctly. The CFD-models were also validated by means of thermal experiments with a steel mantle tank. With the verified CFD-models, a parameter analysis was carried out for differently designed mantle heat exchangers for different typical conditions to reveal how the mantle tank parameters influence the flow structure and heat transfer in mantle heat exchangers. The heat transfer in the mantle near the mantle inlet port showed to be in the mixed convection regime, and as the distance from the inlet increased, natural convection started to dominate. The

  9. Hot sanitary water production with CO_2 heat pumps: Effect of control strategy on system performance and stratification inside the storage tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tammaro, M.; Mauro, A.W.; Montagud, C.; Corberán, J.M.; Mastrullo, R.

    2016-01-01

    In this work three different control strategies for the production of sanitary hot water by means of an electric heat pump working with CO_2 are investigated. The heat pump is a prototype, here modelled in the vapour-compression software package IMST-ART. By simulating this model, the performance of the heat pump is correlated to the boundary conditions and is scaled to different sizes, namely 1, 1.5, and 2 times larger than the reference system. After having chosen an application for which the load profile of sanitary hot water during the year is known, these heat pumps are simulated in a TRNSYS16 model where the production of sanitary hot water and the consumption are buffered by the presence of a tank. Key parameter in guaranteeing comfort and good performance of the system is the stratification inside the storage tank. The size of the tank necessary to keep a certain level of comfort at the user is then determined through a parametric analysis for each size of the heat pump. The energetic performance is also evaluated for each system in terms of seasonal performance factor. Then, the results obtained are compared with a different system where the heat pump is equipped with an inverter and the circulation pump follows a different control logic. The size of the tank and the seasonal performance factor are therefore determined in this case too. Moreover, a “night&day” control logic is compared to these first two options to have a baseline of comparison in terms of volume of storage needed to guarantee a same level of comfort and performance. To provide information also on the running costs, a parametric analysis was run varying the type of control, the heat pump and the tank sizes for different load profiles. The results show that the size of the heat pump has a significant effect on the comfort of the user, which usually leads to oversizing of the storage tank when the load profile is unknown. With regard to this, the results obtained for the alternative

  10. Hot water tanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dumont, Olivier; Carmo, Carolina; Dickes, Rémi

    2016-01-01

    There is a rising interest for optimal use of thermal energy storages (TES) in buildings for load shifting in demand response programs and to improve energy efficiency. In this context, a state of the art of the different methods for simulating sensible TES is performed. Mathematical equations wh...

  11. Solar Hot Water Heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The solar panels pictured below, mounted on a Moscow, Idaho home, are part of a domestic hot water heating system capable of providing up to 100 percent of home or small business hot water needs. Produced by Lennox Industries Inc., Marshalltown, Iowa, the panels are commercial versions of a collector co-developed by NASA. In an effort to conserve energy, NASA has installed solar collectors at a number of its own facilities and is conducting research to develop the most efficient systems. Lewis Research Center teamed with Honeywell Inc., Minneapolis, Minnesota to develop the flat plate collector shown. Key to the collector's efficiency is black chrome coating on the plate developed for use on spacecraft solar cells, the coating prevents sun heat from "reradiating," or escaping outward. The design proved the most effective heat absorber among 23 different types of collectors evaluated in a Lewis test program. The Lennox solar domestic hot water heating system has three main components: the array of collectors, a "solar module" (blue unit pictured) and a conventional water heater. A fluid-ethylene glycol and water-is circulated through the collectors to absorb solar heat. The fluid is then piped to a double-walled jacket around a water tank within the solar module.

  12. Residential solar hot water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-06-01

    This report examines the feasibility of using solar energy to preheat domestic water coming from the city supply at a temperature of approximately 4{degree}C. Four solar collectors totalling 7 m{sup 2} were installed on a support structure facing south at an angle of 60{degree} from the horizontal. The system worked most efficiently in the spring and early summer when the combination of long hours of sunshine, clean air and clear skies allowed for maximum availability of solar radiation. Performance dropped in late summer and fall mainly due to cloudier weather conditions. The average temperature in the storage tank over the 10 months of operation was 42{degree}C, ranging from a high of 83{degree}C in July to a low of 6{degree}C in November. The system provided a total of 7.1 GJ, which is approximately one-third the annual requirement for domestic hot water heating. At the present time domestic use of solar energy to heat water does not appear to be economically viable. High capital costs are the main problem. As a solar system with present day technology can only be expected to meet half to two-thirds of the hot water energy demand the savings are not sufficient for the system to pay for itself within a few years. 5 figs.

  13. Heat losses through pipe connections in hot water stores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa; Fan, Jianhua; Furbo, Simon

    2007-01-01

    The heat loss from pipe connections at the top of hot water storage tanks with and without a heat trap is investigated theoretically and compared to similar experimental investigations. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is used for the theoretical analysis. The investigations show that the heat...... loss from an ideally insulated pipe connected to the top of a hot water tank is mainly due to a natural convection flow in the pipe, that the heat loss coefficient of pipes connected to the top of a hot water tank is high, and that a heat trap can reduce the heat loss coefficient significantly. Further......, calculations show that the yearly thermal performance of solar domestic hot water systems is strongly reduced if the hot water tank has a thermal bridge located at the top of the tank....

  14. Stochastic modelling of the thermal characteristics of a hot-water storage tank on the basis of Markov chains; Zur stochastischen Modellierung des thermischen Verhaltens eines Warmwasserspeichers mittels Markov`scher Ketten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, U.J. [Bauhaus-Universitaet Weimar (Germany). Fakultaet Bauingenieurwesen

    1998-09-01

    In an earlier contribution, a stochastic model was presented for a hot water storage tank supplied by a solar collector. The model was characterized in that the storage tank was assumed to be an ideal stratified storage tank, and its volume was subdivided into discrete identical storage compartments, so-called states, on the basis of the energy withdrawn from the tank. This simple model is now extended by assuming a stochastic variable for energy withdrawal and by taking account of energy loss at the surface of the hot water storage tank and inside it. [Deutsch] In einem frueheren Beitrag war fuer einen thermischen Speicher, der von einem Sonnenkollektor gespeist wird, ein stochastisches mathematisches Modell derart aufgestellt worden, dass ein als idealer Schichtenspeicher konzipierter Warmwasserspeicher bezueglich seines Volumens in diskrete, an der Energieentnahme orientierte, gleiche Speichereinheiten, sogenannte Zustaende, unterteilt wurde. Das einfache Modell wird nunmehr erweitert, indem die Entnahme als eine stochastische Groesse angenommen wird und die Energieverluste am und im Warmwasserspeicher Beruecksichtigung finden. (orig.)

  15. A sub-tank water-saving drinking water station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ting

    2017-05-01

    "Thousands of boiling water" problem has been affecting people's quality of life and good health, and now most of the drinking fountains cannot effectively solve this problem, at the same time, ordinary drinking water also has high energy consumption, there are problems such as yin and yang water. Our newly designed dispenser uses a two-tank heating system. Hot water after heating, into the insulation tank for insulation, when the water tank in the water tank below a certain water level, the cold water and then enter the heating tank heating. Through the water flow, tank volume and other data to calculate the time required for each out of water, so as to determine the best position of the water level control, summed up the optimal program, so that water can be continuously uninterrupted supply. Two cans are placed up and down the way, in the same capacity on the basis of the capacity of the container, the appropriate to reduce its size, and increase the bottom radius, reduce the height of its single tank to ensure that the overall height of two cans compared with the traditional single change. Double anti-dry design, to ensure the safety of the use of drinking water. Heating tank heating circuit on and off by the tank of the float switch control, so that the water heating time from the tank water level control, to avoid the "thousands of boiling water" generation. The entry of cold water is controlled by two solenoid valves in the inlet pipe, and the opening and closing of the solenoid valve is controlled by the float switch in the two tanks. That is, the entry of cold water is determined by the water level of the two tanks. By designing the control scheme cleverly, Yin and yang water generation. Our design completely put an end to the "thousands of boiling water", yin and yang water, greatly improving the drinking water quality, for people's drinking water safety provides a guarantee, in line with the concept of green and healthy development. And in the small

  16. TWRS tank waste pretreatment process development hot test siting report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howden, G.F.; Banning, D.L.; Dodd, D.A.; Smith, D.A.; Stevens, P.F.; Hansen, R.I.; Reynolds, B.A.

    1995-02-01

    This report is the sixth in a series that have assessed the hot testing requirements for TWRS pretreatment process development and identified the hot testing support requirements. This report, based on the previous work, identifies specific hot test work packages, matches those packages to specific hot cell facilities, and provides recommendations of specific facilities to be employed for the pretreatment hot test work. Also identified are serious limitations in the tank waste sample retrieval and handling infrastructure. Recommendations are provided for staged development of 500 mL, 3 L, 25 L and 4000 L sample recovery systems and specific actions to provide those capabilities

  17. Domestic hot water storage: Balancing thermal and sanitary performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, P.; Ager, D.; Thompson, I.; McCulloch, M.

    2014-01-01

    Thermal stratification within hot water tanks maximises the availability of stored energy and facilitates optimal use of both conventional and renewable energy sources. However, stratified tanks are also associated with the proliferation of pathogenic bacteria, such as Legionella, due to the hospitable temperatures that arise during operation. Sanitary measures, aimed at homogenising the temperature distribution throughout the tank, have been proposed; such measures reduce the effective energy storage capability that is otherwise available. Here we quantify the conflict that arises between thermodynamic performance and bacterial sterilisation within 10 real world systems. Whilst perfect stratification enhances the recovery of hot water and reduces heat losses, water samples revealed significant bacterial growth attributable to stratification (P<0.01). Temperature measurements indicated that users were exposed to potentially unsanitary water as a result. De-stratifying a system to sterilise bacteria led to a 19% reduction in effective hot water storage capability. Increasing the tank size to compensate for this loss would lead to an 11% increase in energy consumed through standing heat losses. Policymakers, seeking to utilise hot water tanks as demand response assets, should consider monitoring and control systems that prevent exposures to unsanitary hot water. - Highlights: • Domestic hot water tanks are a potential demand side asset for power networks. • A preference for bacterial growth in stratified hot water tanks has been observed. • Temperatures in base of electric hot water tanks hospitable to Legionella. • Potential exposures to unsanitary water observed. • De-stratifying a tank to sterilise leads to reduced energy storage capability

  18. Development of equipment for in situ studies of biofilm in hot water systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagh, Lene Karen; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen; Arvin, Erik

    1999-01-01

    New equipment was developed for in situ studies of biofilms in hot water tanks and hot water pipes under normal operation and pressure. Sampling ports were installed in the wall of a hot water tank and through these operating shafts were inserted with a test plug in the end. The surface of the test...

  19. Hot water reticulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fellows, S. K.

    1977-10-15

    Hot water reticulation (district heating) is an established method of energy supply within cities in many countries. It is based on the fact that heat can often be obtained cheaply in bulk, and that the resultant savings can, in suitable circumstances, justify the investment in a reticulation network of insulated pipes to distribute the heat to many consumers in the form of hot water or occasionally steam. The heat can be used by domestic, commercial, and industrial consumers for space heating and water heating, and by industries for process heat. The costs of supplying domestic consumers can be determined by considering an average residential area, but industrial and commercial consumers are so varied in their requirements that every proposal must be treated independently. Fixed costs, variable costs, total costs, and demand and resource constraints are discussed.

  20. Tank selection for Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) system hot testing in a single shell tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatia, P.K.

    1995-01-31

    The purpose of this report is to recommend a single shell tank in which to hot test the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) in Fiscal Year 1996. The LDUA is designed to utilize a 12 inch riser. During hot testing, the LDUA will deploy two end effectors (a High Resolution Stereoscopic Video Camera System and a Still/Stereo Photography System mounted on the end of the arm`s tool interface plate). In addition, three other systems (an Overview Video System, an Overview Stereo Video System, and a Topographic Mapping System) will be independently deployed and tested through 4 inch risers.

  1. Tank selection for Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) system hot testing in a single shell tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatia, P.K.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to recommend a single shell tank in which to hot test the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) in Fiscal Year 1996. The LDUA is designed to utilize a 12 inch riser. During hot testing, the LDUA will deploy two end effectors (a High Resolution Stereoscopic Video Camera System and a Still/Stereo Photography System mounted on the end of the arm's tool interface plate). In addition, three other systems (an Overview Video System, an Overview Stereo Video System, and a Topographic Mapping System) will be independently deployed and tested through 4 inch risers

  2. Thermocouple placement and hot spots in radioactive waste tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barker, J.J.

    1991-06-01

    Analytical solutions available in Carslaw and Jaeger's Conduction of Heat in Solids for continuous point sources and for continuous finite sources are used to demonstrate that placement of thermocouples on a fine enough grid to detect a hot spot is impracticable for existing waste tanks but fortunately not necessary. Graphs covering ranges of diffusivities, times, temperatures and heat generation rates are included. 2 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs

  3. Measurements of hot water service consumptions: temperature influence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Secchi, R.; Vallat, D.; Cyssau, R. (COSTIC, Saint Remy-les-Chevreuse (France))

    This article presents a campaign of measurements of which the aim is the observation of consumptions, for individual installations equiped with a hot water tank. The study takes an interest in the temperature of the water in the tank and the instantaneous power of the generator. The instrumentation, the installations and the results of this campaign are presented in this paper. The conclusion is the ''economic'' temperature of hot sanitary water is below 60/sup 0/C but above 55/sup 0/C.

  4. 10 CFR 431.106 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial water heaters and hot...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... efficiency of commercial water heaters and hot water supply boilers (other than commercial heat pump water... PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Water Heaters, Hot Water Supply Boilers and Unfired Hot Water Storage Tanks Test Procedures § 431.106 Uniform test method for the measurement...

  5. Theoretical comparison between solar combisystems based on bikini tanks and tank-in-tank solar combisystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazdanshenas, Eshagh; Furbo, Simon; Bales, Chris

    2008-01-01

    Theoretical investigations have shown that solar combisystems based on bikini tanks for low energy houses perform better than solar domestic hot water systems based on mantle tanks. Tank-in-tank solar combisystems are also attractive from a thermal performance point of view. In this paper......, theoretical comparisons between solar combisystems based on bikini tanks and tank-in-tank solar combisystems are presented....

  6. Cold water inlet in solar tanks - valuation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the project is to make a proposal for how to value a storage tank with a poor design of the cold water inlet. Based on measurements and calculations a number of curves, which are valid for this valuation, are worked out. Based on a simple test with a uniform heated storage tank the rat...

  7. Motel solar-hot-water system with nonpressurized storage--Jacksonville, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Modular roof-mounted copper-plated arrays collect solar energy; heated water drains from them into 1,000 gallon nonpressurized storage tank which supplies energy to existing pressurized motel hot water lines. System provides 65 percent of hot water demand. Report described systems parts and operation, maintenance, and performance and provides warranty information.

  8. Investigation af a solar heating system for space heating and domestic hot water supply with a high degree of coverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejen, Niels Kristian

    1999-01-01

    A solar storage tank for space heating and domestic hot water supply was designed and testet in af laboratory test facility.......A solar storage tank for space heating and domestic hot water supply was designed and testet in af laboratory test facility....

  9. OUT Success Stories: Solar Hot Water Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clyne, R.

    2000-01-01

    Solar hot water technology was made great strides in the past two decades. Every home, commercial building, and industrial facility requires hot water. DOE has helped to develop reliable and durable solar hot water systems. For industrial applications, the growth potential lies in large-scale systems, using flat-plate and trough-type collectors. Flat-plate collectors are commonly used in residential hot water systems and can be integrated into the architectural design of the building

  10. OUT Success Stories: Solar Hot Water Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clyne, R.

    2000-08-01

    Solar hot water technology was made great strides in the past two decades. Every home, commercial building, and industrial facility requires hot water. DOE has helped to develop reliable and durable solar hot water systems. For industrial applications, the growth potential lies in large-scale systems, using flat-plate and trough-type collectors. Flat-plate collectors are commonly used in residential hot water systems and can be integrated into the architectural design of the building.

  11. Investigation of a heat storage for a solar heating system for combined space heating and domestic hot water supply for homeowner´s association "Bakken"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejen, Niels Kristian

    1998-01-01

    A heat storage for a solar heating system for combined space heating and domestic hot water supply was tested in a laboratory test facility.The heat storage consist of a mantle tank with water for the heating system and of a hot water tank, which by means of thermosyphoning is heated by the water...

  12. Sanitary hot water; Eau chaude sanitaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Cegibat, the information-recommendation agency of Gaz de France for building engineering professionals, has organized this conference meeting on sanitary hot water to present the solutions proposed by Gaz de France to meet its clients requirements in terms of water quality, comfort, energy conservation and respect of the environment: quantitative aspects of the hot water needs, qualitative aspects, presentation of the Dolce Vita offer for residential buildings, gas water heaters and boilers, combined solar-thermal/natural gas solutions, key-specifications of hot water distribution systems, testimony: implementation of a gas hot water reservoir and two accumulation boilers in an apartment building for young workers. (J.S.)

  13. Hot water systems as sources of Legionella pneumophila in hospital and nonhospital plumbing fixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadowsky, R M; Yee, R B; Mezmar, L; Wing, E J; Dowling, J N

    1982-05-01

    Samples obtained from plumbing systems of hospitals, nonhospital institutions and homes were cultured for Legionella spp. by plating the samples directly on a selective medium. Swab samples were taken from the inner surfaces of faucet assemblies (aerators, spouts, and valve seats), showerheads, and shower pipes. Water and sediment were collected from the bottom of hot-water tanks. Legionella pneumophila serogroups 1, 5, and 6 were recovered from plumbing fixtures of the hospitals and nonhospital institutions and one of five homes. The legionellae (7 to 13,850 colony-forming units per ml) were also present in water and sediment from hot-water tanks maintained at 30 to 54 degrees C, but not in those maintained at 71 and 77 degrees C. Legionella micdadei was isolated from one tank. Thus legionellae are present in hot-water tanks which are maintained at warm temperatures or whose design results in warm temperatures at the bottom of the tanks. We hypothesize that hot-water tanks are a breeding site and a major source of L. pneumophila for the contamination of plumbing systems. The existence of these bacteria in the plumbing systems and tanks was not necessarily associated with disease. The extent of the hazard of this contamination needs to be delineated.

  14. Hot water systems as sources of Legionella pneumophila in hospital and nonhospital plumbing fixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wadowsky, R.M.; Yee, R.B.; Mezmar, L.; Wing, E.J.; Dowling, J.N.

    1982-05-01

    Samples obtained from plumbing systems of hospitals, nonhospital institutions, and homes were cultured for Legionella spp. by plating the samples directly on a selective medium. Swab samples were taken from the inner surfaces of faucet assemblies (aerators, spouts, and valve seats), showerheads, and shower pipes. Water and sediment were collected from the bottom of hot-water tanks. Legionella pnenumophila serogroups 1.5, and 6 were recovered from plubming fixtures of the hospitals and nonhospital institutions and one of five homes. The legionellae (7 to 13,850 colony-forming units per ml) were also present in water and sediment from hot-water tanks maintained at 30 to 54/sup 0/C, but not in those maintained at 71 and 77/sup 0/C. Legionella micdadei was isolated from one tank. Thus legionellae are present in hot-water tanks which are maintained at warm temperatures or whose design results in warm temperatures at the bottom of the tanks. We hypothesize that hot-water tanks are a breeding site and a major source of L. pneumophila for the contamination of plumbing systems. The existence of these bacteria in the plumbing systems and tanks was not necessarily associated with disease. The extent of the hazard of this contamination needs to be delineated.

  15. 49 CFR 230.115 - Feed water tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Feed water tanks. 230.115 Section 230.115... Tenders Steam Locomotive Tanks § 230.115 Feed water tanks. (a) General provisions. Tanks shall be maintained free from leaks, and in safe and suitable condition for service. Suitable screens must be provided...

  16. Getting into hot water Problematizing hot water service demand: The case of Old Cairo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culhane, Thomas Henry

    This dissertation analyzes hot water demand and service infrastructure in two neighboring but culturally distinct communities of the urban poor in the inner-city area of central Cairo. The communities are the Historic Islamic Cairo neighborhood of Darb Al Ahmar at the foot of Al-Azhar park, and the Zurayib neighborhood of Manshiyat Nasser where the Coptic Zabaleen Recyclers live. The study focuses on the demand side of the hot water issue and involves consideration of built-environment infrastructures providing piped water, electricity, bottled gas, sewage, and the support structures (wiring and plumbing) for consumer durables (appliances such as hot water heaters, stoves, refrigerators, air conditioners) as well as water pumps and water storage tanks. The study asks the questions "How do poor communities in Cairo value hot water" and "How do cost, infrastructure and cultural preferences affect which attributes of hot water service are most highly preferred?". To answer these questions household surveys based primarily on the World Bank LSMS modules were administered by professional survey teams from Darb Al Ahmar's Aga Khan Trust for Culture and the Zabaleen's local NGO "Spirit of Youth" in their adjacent conununities in and surrounding historic Cairo. In total 463 valid surveys were collected, (231 from Darb Al Ahmar, 232 from the Zabaleen). The surveys included a contingent valuation question to explore Willingness to Pay for improved hot water service; the surveys queried household assets as proxies for income. The dissertation's findings reveal that one quarter of the residents of Darb Al Ahmar and two-thirds of the residents of Manshiyet Nasser's Zabaleen lack conventional water heating service. Instead they employ various types of stoves and self-built contraptions to heat water, usually incurring considerable risk and opportunity costs. However the thesis explores the notion that this is rational "satisficing" behavior; despite the shortcomings of such self

  17. Impact analysis of a water storage tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jhung, Myung Jo; Jo, Jong Chull; Jeong, Sang Jin

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates the dynamic response characteristics of a structure impacted by a high speed projectile. The impact of a 300 kg projectile on a water storage tank is simulated by the general purpose computer codes ANSYS and LS-DYNA. Several methods to simulate the impact are considered and their results are compared. Based upon this, an alternative impact analysis method that equivalent to an explicit dynamic analysis is proposed. The effect of fluid on the responses of the tank is also addressed

  18. Development and demonstration of a stabilization system for buried mixed waste tanks: Initital results of the tank V-9 hot demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthern, G.E.; Kuhns, D.J.; Meservey, R.H.; Farnsworth, R.K.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes a systematic approach for the stabilization of buried mixed waste tanks and presents the status of an application of this approach to a specific hot waste tank demonstration to be performed in FY-96. The approach uses the cradle-to-grave concept and includes technical, health and safety, and regulatory considerations and requirements. It starts with the identification of the tank and continues to the final disposition and monitoring of the tank

  19. Building America Case Study: Addressing Multifamily Piping Losses with Solar Hot Water, Davis, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-12-01

    Solar thermal water heating is most cost effective when applied to multifamily buildings and some states offer incentives or other inducements to install them. However, typical solar water heating designs do not allow the solar generated heat to be applied to recirculation losses, only to reduce the amount of gas or electric energy needed for hot water that is delivered to the fixtures. For good reasons, hot water that is recirculated through the building is returned to the water heater, not to the solar storage tank. The project described in this report investigated the effectiveness of using automatic valves to divert water that is normally returned through the recirculation piping to the gas or electric water heater instead to the solar storage tank. The valves can be controlled so that the flow is only diverted when the returning water is cooler than the water in the solar storage tank.

  20. Using Solar Hot Water to Address Piping Heat Losses in Multifamily Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springer, David [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation, Davis, CA (United States); Seitzler, Matt [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation, Davis, CA (United States); Backman, Christine [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation, Davis, CA (United States); Weitzel, Elizabeth [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation, Davis, CA (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Solar thermal water heating is most cost effective when applied to multifamily buildings and some states offer incentives or other inducements to install them. However, typical solar water heating designs do not allow the solar generated heat to be applied to recirculation losses, only to reduce the amount of gas or electric energy needed for hot water that is delivered to the fixtures. For good reasons, hot water that is recirculated through the building is returned to the water heater, not to the solar storage tank. The project described in this report investigated the effectiveness of using automatic valves to divert water that is normally returned through the recirculation piping to the gas or electric water heater instead to the solar storage tank. The valves can be controlled so that the flow is only diverted when the returning water is cooler than the water in the solar storage tank.

  1. Development of a Performance Calculation Program for Solar Domestic Hot Water Systems with Improved Prediction of Thermal Stratification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Jianhua; Furbo, Simon; Li, Zhe

    2016-01-01

    The transient fluid flow and heat transfer in a hot water tank during cooling caused by standby heat loss were investigated by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculations and by thermal measurements in previous investigation. It is elucidated how thermal stratification in the tank is influenced...... by the natural convection and how the heat loss from the tank sides will be distributed at different levels of the tank at different thermal conditions....

  2. Development of smart solar tanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Andersen, Elsa

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the project is to develop smart solar tanks. A smart solar tank is a tank in which the domestic water can bee heated both by solar collectors and by an auxiliary energy supply system. The auxiliary energy supply system heats up the hot-water tank from the top and the water volume heated...... by the auxiliary energy supply system is fitted to the hot water consumption and consumption pattern. In periods with a large hot-water demand the volume is large, in periods with a small hot-water demand the volume is small. Based on measurements and calculations the advantage of smart SDHW systems is visualised....

  3. Energy efficiency of a solar domestic hot water system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zukowski, Miroslaw

    2017-11-01

    The solar domestic hot water (SDHW) system located on the campus of Bialystok University of Technology is the object of the research described in the current paper. The solar thermal system is composed of 35 flat plate collectors, 21 evacuated tube collectors and eight hot water tanks with the capacity of 1 m3 of each. Solar facility is equipped with hardware for automatic data collection. Additionally, the weather station located on the roof of the building provides measurements of basic parameters of ambient air and solar radiation. The main objective of Regional Operational Program was the assessment of the effectiveness of this solar energy technology in the climatic conditions of the north-eastern Poland. Energy efficiency of SDHW system was defined in this research as the ratio between the useful heat energy supplied to the domestic hot water system and solar energy incident on the surface of solar panels. Heat loss from water storage tanks, and from the pipe network to the surrounding air, as well as the electrical energy consumed by the pumps have been included in the calculations. The paper presents the detailed results and conclusions obtained from this energy analysis.

  4. Basics of Solar Heating & Hot Water Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Inst. of Architects, Washington, DC.

    In presenting the basics of solar heating and hot water systems, this publication is organized from the general to the specific. It begins by presenting functional and operational descriptions of solar heating and domestic hot water systems, outlining the basic concepts and terminology. This is followed by a description of solar energy utilization…

  5. Solar Energy for Space Heating & Hot Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Energy Research and Development Administration, Washington, DC. Div. of Solar Energy.

    This pamphlet reviews the direct transfer of solar energy into heat, particularly for the purpose of providing space and hot water heating needs. Owners of buildings and homes are provided with a basic understanding of solar heating and hot water systems: what they are, how they perform, the energy savings possible, and the cost factors involved.…

  6. Biofilm formation in a hot water system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagh, L.K.; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen; Arvin, Erik

    2002-01-01

    The biofilm formation rate was measured in situ in a hot water system in an apartment building by specially designed sampling equipment, and the net growth of the suspended bacteria was measured by incubation of water samples with the indigeneous bacteria. The biofilm formation rate reached......, in the sludge, or in the water from the distribution system was negligible. This indicated that bacterial growth took place on the inner surfaces in the hot water system and biofilm formation and detachment of bacteria could account for most of the suspended bacteria actually measured in hot water. Therefore...

  7. Design data brochure: Solar hot water system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    A design calculation is detailed for a single-family residence housing a family of four in a nonspecific geographical area. The solar water heater system is designed to provide 80 gallons of 140 F hot water per day.

  8. Solar heating and hot water system installed at Cherry Hill, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The solar heating and hot water system installed in existing buildings at the Cherry Hill Inn in Cherry Hill, New Jersey is described in detail. The system is expected to furnish 31.5% of the overall heating load and 29.8% of the hot water load. The collectors are liquid evacuated tube type. The storage system is an above ground insulated steel water tank with a capacity of 7,500 gallons.

  9. Solar heating and hot water system installed at Listerhill, Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The Solar system was installed into a new building and was designed to provide 79% of the estimated annual space heating load and 59% of the estimated annual potable hot water requirement. The collectors are flat plate, liquid manufactured by Reynolds Metals Company and cover a total area of 2344 square feet. The storage medium is water inhibited with NALCO 2755 and the container is an underground, unpressurized steel tank with a capacity of 5000 gallons. This report describes in considerable detail the solar heating facility and contains detailed drawings of the completed system.

  10. Solar heating and hot water system installed at Arlington Raquetball Club, Arlington, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    A solar space and water heating system is described. The solar energy system consists of 2,520 sq. ft. of flat plate solar collectors and a 4,000 gallon solar storage tank. The transfer medium in the forced closed loop is a nontoxic antifreeze solution (50 percent water, 50 percent propylene glycol). The service hot water system consists of a preheat coil (60 ft. of 1 1/4 in copper tubing) located in the upper third of the solar storage tank and a recirculation loop between the preheat coil and the existing electric water heaters. The space heating system consists of two separate water to air heat exchangers located in the ducts of the existing space heating/cooling systems. The heating water is supplied from the solar storage tank. Extracts from site files, specification references for solar modifications to existing building heating and hot water systems, and installation, operation and maintenance instructions are included.

  11. Solar heating and hot water system installed at office building, One Solar Place, Dallas, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    A solar heating on cooling system is described which is designed to provide 87 percent of the space heating needs, 100 percent of the potable hot water needs and is sized for future absorption cooling. The collection subsystem consists of 28 solargenics, series 76, flat plate collectors with a total area of 1,596 square feet. The solar loop circulates an ethylene glyco water solution through the collectors into a hot water system exchanger. The water storage subsystem consists of a heat exchanger, two 2,300 gallon concrete hot water storage tanks with built in heat exchangers and a back-up electric boiler. The domestic hot water subsystem sends hot water to the 10,200 square feet floor area office building hot water water fixtures. The building cold water system provides make up to the solar loop, the heating loop, and the hot water concrete storage tanks. The design, construction, cost analysis, operation and maintenance of the solar system are described.

  12. Corrosion Fatigue in District Heating Water Tanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maahn, Ernst Emanuel

    1996-01-01

    Three candidate materials for construction of buffer tanks for district heating water have been tested for corrosion fatigue properties in a district heating water environment. The investigation included Slow Strain Rate Testing of plain tensile specimens, crack initiation testing by corrosion...... fatigue of plain tensile specimens and crack growth rate determination for Compact Tensile Specimens under corrosion fatigue conditions. The three materials are equal with respect to stress corrosion sensibility and crack initiation. Crack growth rate is increased with a factor of 4-6 relative to an inert...

  13. Disaggregating Hot Water Use and Predicting Hot Water Waste in Five Test Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, Hugh [ARIES Collaborative, New York, NY (United States); Wade, Jeremy [ARIES Collaborative, New York, NY (United States)

    2014-04-01

    While it is important to make the equipment (or "plant") in a residential hot water system more efficient, the hot water distribution system also affects overall system performance and energy use. Energy wasted in heating water that is not used is estimated to be on the order of 10%-30% of total domestic hot water (DHW) energy use. This field monitoring project installed temperature sensors on the distribution piping (on trunks and near fixtures) in five houses near Syracuse, NY, and programmed a data logger to collect data at 5 second intervals whenever there was a hot water draw. This data was used to assign hot water draws to specific end uses in the home as well as to determine the portion of each hot water that was deemed useful (i.e., above a temperature threshold at the fixture). Overall, the procedures to assign water draws to each end use were able to successfully assign about 50% of the water draws, but these assigned draws accounted for about 95% of the total hot water use in each home. The amount of hot water deemed as useful ranged from low of 75% at one house to a high of 91% in another. At three of the houses, new water heaters and distribution improvements were implemented during the monitoring period and the impact of these improvements on hot water use and delivery efficiency were evaluated.

  14. Disaggregating Hot Water Use and Predicting Hot Water Waste in Five Test Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, H.; Wade, J.

    2014-04-01

    While it is important to make the equipment (or 'plant') in a residential hot water system more efficient, the hot water distribution system also affects overall system performance and energy use. Energy wasted in heating water that is not used is estimated to be on the order of 10 to 30 percent of total domestic hot water (DHW) energy use. This field monitoring project installed temperature sensors on the distribution piping (on trunks and near fixtures) and programmed a data logger to collect data at 5 second intervals whenever there was a hot water draw. This data was used to assign hot water draws to specific end uses in the home as well as to determine the portion of each hot water that was deemed useful (i.e., above a temperature threshold at the fixture). Five houses near Syracuse NY were monitored. Overall, the procedures to assign water draws to each end use were able to successfully assign about 50% of the water draws, but these assigned draws accounted for about 95% of the total hot water use in each home. The amount of hot water deemed as useful ranged from low of 75% at one house to a high of 91% in another. At three of the houses, new water heaters and distribution improvements were implemented during the monitoring period and the impact of these improvements on hot water use and delivery efficiency were evaluated.

  15. Experimental Study of a Thermosyphon Solar Water Heater Coupled to a Fibre-Reinforced Plastic (FRP) Storage Tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nwosu, P. N.; Oparaku, O. U.; Okonkwo, W. I.; Unachukwu, G. O.; Agbiogwu, D.

    2011-01-01

    The thermal performance of the thermosyphon solar water heater was analyzed to show its applicability in a tropical climate using data of cloudy, sunny and hazy days. The average daily efficiency of the parallel-connected module, ranged between 35 and 40%. Also, an analysis of the temperature storage characteristics of a novel fibre-reinforced plastic (FRP) storage tank was undertaken. The inlet andoutlet positions were determined using the recommendation of Simon and Wenxian [1]: the optional position for the inlet/outlet was around the very top/bottom of the tank. The obtained results showed that the coupled FRP tank substantially retained and delivered the stored hot water during off-sunshine hours with minimal losses, and stratification occurred in the tank as a result. In view of the thermal performance, FRP materials can be efficiently employed in the design of solar hot water storage tanks. (authors)

  16. Solar hot water system installed at Las Vegas, Nevada. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-01-01

    The solar hot water system installed at LaQuinta Motor Inn Inc., at Las Vegas, Nevada is described. The Inn is a three-story building with a flat roof for installation of the solar panels. The system consists of 1200 square feet of liquid flat plate collectors, a 2500 gallon insulated vertical steel storage tank, two heat exchangers and pumps and controls. The system was designed to supply approximately 74 percent of the total hot water load.

  17. SU-E-T-118: Analysis of Variability and Stability Between Two Water Tank Phantoms Utilizing Water Tank Commissioning Procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roring, J; Saenz, D; Cruz, W; Papanikolaou, N; Stathakis, S

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The commissioning criteria of water tank phantoms are essential for proper accuracy and reproducibility in a clinical setting. This study outlines the results of mechanical and dosimetric testing between PTW MP3-M water tank system and the Standard Imaging Doseview 3D water tank system. Methods: Measurements were taken of each axis of movement on the tank using 30 cm calipers at 1, 5, 10, 50, 100, and 200 mm for accuracy and reproducibility of tank movement. Dosimetric quantities such as percent depth dose and dose profiles were compared between tanks using a 6 MV beam from a Varian 23EX LINAC. Properties such as scanning speed effects, central axis depth dose agreement with static measurements, reproducibility of measurements, symmetry and flatness, and scan time between tanks were also investigated. Results: Results showed high geometric accuracy within 0.2 mm. Central axis PDD and in-field profiles agreed within 0.75% between the tanks. These outcomes test many possible discrepancies in dose measurements across the two tanks and form a basis for comparison on a broader range of tanks in the future. Conclusion: Both 3D water scanning phantoms possess a high degree of spatial accuracy, allowing for equivalence in measurements regardless of the phantom used. A commissioning procedure when changing water tanks or upon receipt of a new tank is nevertheless critical to ensure consistent operation before and after the arrival of new hardware

  18. Remote Water Lance Technology for Cleaning Waste Tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehr, R.M.; Owen, J.R.; Mangold, F.E.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the use of remote water lances for cleaning sludge or solidified heel materials from waste tanks. S.A.Robotics has developed a long arm retrieval system to deploy ultra-high pressure water lances and vacuum recovery systems for tank cleanup operations. This system uses remote-operated telescoping long arms with light weight, high strength materials, innovative high capacity joint designs, and multiple degrees of freedom to deploy tank cleaning heads to all areas within the tanks. Arm designs can be scaled and adjusted to suit even the largest tanks. (authors)

  19. Microbial water quality in clean water tanks following inspection and cleaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Sarah Christine Boesgaard; Esbjørn, Anne; Mollerup, Finn

    Increased bacterial counts are often registered in drinking water leaving clean water tanks after the tanks have been emptied, inspected and cleaned by flushing. To investigate the reason for the increased bacterial concentrations and consequently limit it, samples from two clean water tanks befo...... start-up of the tanks, which may indicate that a substantial part of the bacteria in the drinking water leaving the tanks originated from the sand filter. This was supported by 16S DNA analyses....

  20. Numerical Simulation of a Solar Domestic Hot Water System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mongibello, L; Graditi, G; Bianco, N; Di Somma, M; Naso, V

    2014-01-01

    An innovative transient numerical model is presented for the simulation of a solar Domestic Hot Water (DHW) system. The solar collectors have been simulated by using a zerodimensional analytical model. The temperature distributions in the heat transfer fluid and in the water inside the tank have been evaluated by one-dimensional models. The reversion elimination algorithm has been used to include the effects of natural convection among the water layers at different heights in the tank on the thermal stratification. A finite difference implicit scheme has been implemented to solve the energy conservation equation in the coil heat exchanger, and the energy conservation equation in the tank has been solved by using the finite difference Euler implicit scheme. Energy conservation equations for the solar DHW components models have been coupled by means of a home-made implicit algorithm. Results of the simulation performed using as input data the experimental values of the ambient temperature and the solar irradiance in a summer day are presented and discussed

  1. Numerical Simulation of a Solar Domestic Hot Water System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mongibello, L.; Bianco, N.; Di Somma, M.; Graditi, G.; Naso, V.

    2014-11-01

    An innovative transient numerical model is presented for the simulation of a solar Domestic Hot Water (DHW) system. The solar collectors have been simulated by using a zerodimensional analytical model. The temperature distributions in the heat transfer fluid and in the water inside the tank have been evaluated by one-dimensional models. The reversion elimination algorithm has been used to include the effects of natural convection among the water layers at different heights in the tank on the thermal stratification. A finite difference implicit scheme has been implemented to solve the energy conservation equation in the coil heat exchanger, and the energy conservation equation in the tank has been solved by using the finite difference Euler implicit scheme. Energy conservation equations for the solar DHW components models have been coupled by means of a home-made implicit algorithm. Results of the simulation performed using as input data the experimental values of the ambient temperature and the solar irradiance in a summer day are presented and discussed.

  2. Solar heating and hot water system installed at Saint Louis, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The solar heating and hot water system installed at the William Tao & Associates, Inc., office building in St. Louis, Missouri is described, including maintenance and construction problems, final drawings, system requirements, and manufacturer's component data. The solar system was designed to provide 50 percent of the hot water requirements and 45 percent of the space heating needs for a 900 sq ft office space and drafting room. The solar facility has 252 sq ft of glass tube concentrator collectors and a 1000 gallon steel storage tank buried below a concrete slab floor. Freeze protection is provided by a propylene glycol/water mixture in the collector loop. The collectors are roof mounted on a variable tilt array which is adjusted seasonally and is connected to the solar thermal storage tank by a tube-in-shell heat exchanger. Incoming city water is preheated through the solar energy thermal storage tank.

  3. Smart solar domestic hot water systems. Development and test; Intelligente solvarmeanlaeg. Udvikling og afproevning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, E.; Knudsen, S.; Furbo, S.; Vejen, N.K.

    2001-07-01

    The purpose of the project described in this report is to develop and test smart solar domestic hot water systems (SDHW systems) where the energy supply from the auxiliary energy supply system is controlled in a flexible way fitted to the hot water consumption in such a way, that the SDHW systems are suitable for large as well as small hot water demands. In a smart SDHW system the auxiliary energy supply system is controlled in a smart way. The auxiliary energy supply system heats up the water in the hot water tank from the top and only the hot water volume needed by the consumers is heated. Further the water is heated immediately before tapping. The control system includes a number of temperature sensors which cover the temperatures in the auxiliary heated volume. Based on these temperatures the energy content in the hot water tank is calculated. Only water heated to a temperature above 50 deg. C contributes to the total energy content in the hot water tank. Furhter the control system includes a timer that only allows the auxiliary energy supply system to be active in certain time periods and only if the energy content in the hot water tank is lower than wanted. In this way the water in the tank is heated immediately before the expected time of tapping and only the hot water volume needed is heated. The report is divided into five main sections. The sections deals with: Developing and testing storage tanks, laboratory test of SDHW systems based on some of the developed storage tanks, validation of simulation programs for smart solar heating systems, optimisation of system design and control strategy and measurements on two smart SDHW systems installed in single family houses. In all the developed hot water tanks, attempt is made to heat the water in the tank from the top of the tank and not as in traditional tanks where the water is heated from the lowest level of the auxiliary energy supply system, normally a helix or a electrical heating element placed in the

  4. Effect of Tank Size on the Temperature Distributions for Hybrid Photovoltaic/Thermal Water Heaters

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Masri, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    In the present study an investigation was conducted on the temperature distribution effect for several tank capacities (100 L, 120 L, 150 L and 200 L) having two different aspect ratios (H/D) for each capacity. Hot water is supplied to these tanks by a Hybrid PV/T collector of 4 m² illuminating area. The circulation of water within PV cells cools its surface area to solve the problem occurred in PV cells, where each 1°C increase in the surface module 0.45% of the electrical efficiency decreas...

  5. Entrance Effects in Solar Hot Water Stores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shah, Louise Jivan; Furbo, Simon

    2003-01-01

    A theoretical and experimental analysis of water jets entering a solar storage tank is performed. CFD calculations of three inlet designs with different inlet flow rates were carried out to illustrate the varying behaviour of the thermal conditions in a solar store. The results showed the impact ...... in an analysis using the first and second law of thermodynamics. The results showed how the entropy changes and the exergy changes in the storage during the draw-offs influenced by the Richardson number, the volume draw-off and the initial tank conditions....

  6. Simple characterisation of solar DHW tanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa; Furbo, Simon

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the project is to compare different methods used for testing small solar domestic hot water tanks. A small hot water tank is tested at three different European laboratories by means of the test methods normally used at the laboratories. The tank is marketed in Denmark.The test carried ...

  7. Physical and mathematical modeling of process of frozen ground thawing under hot tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemenkova, M. Y.; Shastunova, U.; Shabarov, A.; Kislitsyn, A.; Shuvaev, A.

    2018-05-01

    A description of a new non-stationary thermophysical model in the “hot tank-frozen ground” system is given, taking into account mass transfer of pore moisture. The results of calculated and experimental data are presented, and the position of the thawing front is shown to be in good agreement with the convective heat transfer due to moisture migration in the thawed ground.

  8. BC SEA Solar Hot Water Acceleration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, N.C. [BC Sustainable Energy Association, Victoria, BC (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    Although solar hot water heating is an environmentally responsible technology that reduces fossil fuel consumption and helps mitigate global climate change, there are many barriers to its widespread use. Each year, domestic water heating contributes nearly 6 million tonnes of carbon dioxide towards Canada's greenhouse gas emissions. The installation of solar water heaters can eliminate up to 2 tonnes of carbon dioxide emissions per household. The BC SEA Solar Hot Water Acceleration project was launched in an effort to demonstrate that the technology has the potential to be widely used in homes and businesses across British Columbia. One of the main barriers to the widespread use of solar hot water heating is the initial cost of the system. Lack of public awareness and understanding of the technology are other barriers. However, other jurisdictions around the world have demonstrated that the use of renewables are the product of conscious policy decisions, including low-cost financing and other subsidies that have created demand for these technologies. To this end, the BC SEA Solar Hot Water Acceleration project will test the potential for the rapid acceleration of solar water heating in pilot communities where barriers are removed. The objective of the project is to install 100 solar water systems in homes and 25 in businesses and institutions in communities in British Columbia by July 2007. The project will explore the financial barriers to the installation of solar hot water systems and produce an action plan to reduce these barriers. In addition to leading by example, the project will help the solar energy marketplace, mitigate climate change and improve energy efficiency.

  9. Maintaining of the demineralized water quality in storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hochmueller, K.; Wandelt, E.

    1981-03-01

    Two processes for maintaining the quality of the mineralized water in storage tanks are considered. A slight overpressure of nitrogen can be created above the water, or the air flowing in the tank can be cleaned by passing it through a soda-containing lime filter [fr

  10. Emergency cooling system with hot-water jet pumps for nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinsch, A.O.W.

    1977-01-01

    The ECCS for a PWR or BWR uses hot-water jet pumps to remove the thermal energy generated in the reactor vessel and stored in the water. The hot water expands in the nozzle part (Laval nozzle) of the jet pump and sucks in coolant (borated water) coming from a storage tank containing subcooled water. This water is mixing with the hot water/steam mixture from the Laval nozzle. The steam is condensed. The kinetic energy of the water is converted into a pressure increase which is sufficient to feed the water into the reactor vessel. The emergency cooling may further be helped by a jet condenser also operating according to the principle of a jet pump and condensing the steam generated in the reactor vessel. (DG) [de

  11. Residential hot water distribution systems: Roundtablesession

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutz, James D.; Klein, Gary; Springer, David; Howard, Bion D.

    2002-08-01

    Residential building practice currently ignores the lossesof energy and water caused by the poor design of hot water systems. Theselosses include: combustion and standby losses from water heaters, thewaste of water (and energy) while waiting for hot water to get to thepoint of use; the wasted heat as water cools down in the distributionsystem after a draw; heat losses from recirculation systems and thediscarded warmth of waste water as it runs down the drain. Severaltechnologies are available that save energy (and water) by reducing theselosses or by passively recovering heat from wastewater streams and othersources. Energy savings from some individual technologies are reported tobe as much as 30 percent. Savings calculations of prototype systemsincluding bundles of technologies have been reported above 50 percent.This roundtable session will describe the current practices, summarizethe results of past and ongoing studies, discuss ways to think about hotwater system efficiency, and point to areas of future study. We will alsorecommend further steps to reduce unnecessary losses from hot waterdistribution systems.

  12. Prototype solar heating and hot water system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Progress is reported in the development of a solar heating and hot water system which uses a pyramidal optics solar concentrator for heating, and consists of the following subsystems: collector, control, transport, and site data acquisition. Improvements made in the components and subsystems are discussed.

  13. Where Did the Water Go?: Boyle's Law and Pressurized Diaphragm Water Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brimhall, James; Naga, Sundar

    2007-01-01

    Many homes use pressurized diaphragm tanks for storage of water pumped from an underground well. These tanks are very carefully constructed to have separate internal chambers for the storage of water and for the air that provides the pressure. One might expect that the amount of water available for use from, for example, a 50-gallon tank would be…

  14. Hot water, fresh beer, and salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, F.S.

    1990-01-01

    In the ''hot chocolate effect'' the best musical scales (those with the finest tone quality, largest range, and best tempo) are obtained by adding salt to a glass of hot water supersaturated with air. Good scales can also be obtained by adding salt to a glass of freshly opened beer (supersaturated with CO 2 ) provided you first (a) get rid of much of the excess CO 2 so as to produce smaller, hence slower, rising bubbles, and (b) get rid of the head of foam, which damps the standing wave and ruins the tone quality. Finally the old question, ''Do ionizing particles produce bubbles in fresh beer?'' is answered experimentally

  15. Hot water, fresh beer, and salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Frank S.

    1990-11-01

    In the ``hot chocolate effect'' the best musical scales (those with the finest tone quality, largest range, and best tempo) are obtained by adding salt to a glass of hot water supersaturated with air. Good scales can also be obtained by adding salt to a glass of freshly opened beer (supersaturated with CO2) provided you first (a) get rid of much of the excess CO2 so as to produce smaller, hence slower, rising bubbles, and (b) get rid of the head of foam, which damps the standing wave and ruins the tone quality. Finally the old question, ``Do ionizing particles produce bubbles in fresh beer?'' is answered experimentally.

  16. Solar heating and hot water system installed at office building, One Solar Place, Dallas, Texas. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    This document is the Final Report of the Solar Energy System Installed at the First Solar Heated Office Building, One Solar Place, Dallas, Texas. The Solar System was designed to provide 87 percent of the space heating needs, 100 percent of the potable hot water needs and is sized for future absorption cooling. The collection subsystem consists of 28 Solargenics, series 76, flat plate collectors with a total area of 1596 square feet. The solar loop circulates an ethylene glycol-water solution through the collectors into a hot water system heat exchanger. The hot water storage subsystem consists of a heat exchanger, two 2300 gallon concrete hot water storage tanks with built in heat exchangers and a back-up electric boiler. The domestic hot water subsystem sends hot water to the 10,200 square feet floor area office building hot water fixtures. The building cold water system provides make-up to the solar loop, the heating loop, and the hot water concrete storage tanks. The design, construction, cost analysis, operation and maintenance of the solar system are described. The system became operational July 11, 1979.

  17. DETENTION TANKS AS A MEANS OF URBAN STORM WATER ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sewers and detention tanks. That is, for sewers the peak value, t,, and for detention tanks the total, t-i, is used, which are computed as follows: • = Maxq. P. Maxr. (3) ..... infrastructure, like water supply, power supply, storm and wastewater management, etc. A change or new development in the mode of settlement of a certain ...

  18. Solar heating and hot water system installed at Cherry Hill, New Jersey. [Hotels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-05-16

    The solar heating and hot water system installed in existing buildings at the Cherry Hill Inn in Cherry Hill, New Jersey is described in detail. The system went into operation November 8, 1978 and is expected to furnish 31.5% of the overall heating load and 29.8% of the hot water load. The collectors are General Electric Company liquid evacuated tube type. The storage system is an above ground insulated steel water tank with a capacity of 7,500 gallons.

  19. Study of the Thermal Behaviour of Water for Residential Use in Tanks of Concrete and Polyethylene in Humid Subtropical Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego-Ayala Ulises

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a comparative study of the thermal behavior of residential water tanks of polyethylene and concrete exposed to the sun over a year in the state of Yucatan. The energy for radiation and their corresponding temperatures in each system were measured. Daily patterns of elevation and reduction of temperature were identified and the amount of energy acquired during the day as well as the heat dissipated overnight were determined, aiming to determine the possibility of using residential water tanks as a source of hot water in residential homes in the Yucatan region. Based on this study it has been found that the periods of the day with hot water temperature for showering with comfort is limited and that, interestingly, both systems show similar temperatures at the bottom of the tanks throughout the year.

  20. Water chemistry management during hot functional test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, Jiro; Kanda, Tomio; Kagawa, Masaru

    1988-01-01

    To reduce radiation exposure in light water reactor, it is important decrease radioactive corrosion product which is a radiation source. One of the countermeasures is to improve water quality during plant trial operation to form a stable oxide film and to minimize metal release to the coolant at the beginning of commercial operation. This study reviews the optimum water quality conditions to form a chromium rich oxide film during hot functional test (HFT) that is thought to be stable under the PWR condition and reduce the release of Ni that is the source of Co-58, the main radiation source of exposure. (author)

  1. 78 FR 70076 - Aging Management of Internal Surfaces, Fire Water Systems, Atmospheric Storage Tanks, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-22

    ... Systems, Atmospheric Storage Tanks, and Corrosion Under Insulation AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission... Internal Surfaces, Fire Water Systems, Atmospheric Storage Tanks, and Corrosion Under Insulation.'' This LR... related to internal surface aging effects, fire water systems, atmospheric storage tanks, and corrosion...

  2. 21 CFR 880.6085 - Hot/cold water bottle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hot/cold water bottle. 880.6085 Section 880.6085... Devices § 880.6085 Hot/cold water bottle. (a) Identification. A hot/cold water bottle is a device intended for medical purposes that is in the form of a container intended to be filled with hot or cold water...

  3. ON A NEW TECHNOLOGY OF PREPARATION OF HOT DRINKING WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Jalilov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article contains information concerning the new Cl-anionization technology in the preparation of hot drinking water. In contrast with water softening, that replaces all the hardness salts by sodium cations in the cation exchanger, this new technology makes it possible to replace incrustating HCO3̄ and SO42--anions in a strong-base anion exchanger by Cl⁻-ions. As a result, the incrustation on the surfaces of heating hot water heaters is prevented. Thus, cations of hardness that are valuable for the human body remain in the water, the quality of the latter conforming to drinking water quality. Considering the important role of calcium and magnesium in the human body, in Germany and Turkey the minimum value of hardness cations in drinking water is limited to 2.85 and 7.50 mg-Eqv/l, respectively. According to the World Health Organization, in the composition of drinking water, the concentration of cations of magnesium and calcium is recommended, respectively, within 10–(20–30, and 20–50 mg/l; the minimum value of total hardness is 2–4 mg-Eqv/l. According to the developed technology drinking water is passed consistently in the downward direction through the mechanical and chlorineanionite exchanger filters. In the latter, the main part of HCO3̄ and SO42--water ions are exchanged for Cl-anions of anionite. Then the water is collected in the tank, from where it is pumped to the hot water heater through the ultraviolet disinfection unit. After the depletion of the anionite by HCO3̄ and SO42--anions, it is regenerated by a solution of 8–12 % NaCl. The results of research by the anion exchangers Purolite A200EMBCl and AB-17-8 are plotted. It is noted that when the specific consumption of salt for regeneration is of about 45–55 kg/m³, working exchange capacity of the A200EMBCl occurs to be in the range 300–370 g-Eqv/m³. For anionization of water, the residual concentration of HCO3̄-ions are changed from 0.5 to 3.2 mg

  4. Installation package for a solar heating and hot water system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Development and installation of two commercial solar heating and hot water systems are reported. The systems consist of the following subsystems: collector, storage, transport, hot water, auxiliary energy and controls. General guidelines are provided which may be utilized in development of detailed installation plans and specifications. In addition, operation, maintenance and repair of a solar heating and hot water system instructions are included.

  5. Lightweight concrete materials and structural systems for water tanks for thermal storage. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckman, R.W. Jr.; Elia, G.G.; Ichikawa, Y.

    1980-12-01

    Thermally efficient hot water storage tanks were designed, fabricated and evaluated. The tanks were made using cellular concrete at a nominal density of 100 lb/ft/sup 3/ for the structural elements and at a 30 lb/ft/sup 3/ density for the insulating elements. Thermal performance testing of the tanks was done using a static decay test since the test procedure specified in ASHRAE 94-77 was not experimentally practical. A series of composition modifications to the cellular concrete mix were investigated and the addition of alkaline resistant glass fibers was found to enhance the mechanical properties at no sacrifice in thermal behavior. Economic analysis indicated that cellular concrete provides a cost-effective insulating material. The total portability of the plant for producing cellular concrete makes cellular concrete amenable to on-site fabrication and uniquely adaptable to retrofit applications.

  6. Water Quality Study on the Hot and Cold Water Supply Systems at Vietnamese Hotels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanako Toyosada

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted as part of the Joint Crediting Mechanism (JCM of the Japanese Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry, and the Ministry of the Environment project’s preparation in Vietnam. Samples were taken from hot and cold water supplies from guest rooms’ faucets in 12 hotels in Hanoi city, Vietnam, and 13 hotels in Japan for comparison. A simple water quality measurement and determination of Legionella was carried out. The results showed that residual effective chlorine—which guarantees bactericidal properties—was not detected in tap water supplied in hotel rooms in Vietnam, and nitrite (an indicator of water pollution was detected in 40% of buildings. In the hotels in Japan, the prescribed residual chlorine concentration met the prescribed levels, and nitrite was not detected. Additionally, while there was no Legionella detected in the Japanese cases, it was detected in most of the Vietnamese hotels, which were found to manage the hot water storage tank at low temperatures of 40–50 °C. It was found that there were deficiencies in cold and hot water supply quality, and that there was no effective system in place for building operation maintenance and management.

  7. Analysis, Modeling and Optimum Design of Solar Domestic Hot Water Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Lin

    1999-01-01

    This study focus on the analysis, modeling and simulation of solar domestic hot water(DHW) systems. Problems related to the system operation such as input weather data and hot water load conditions are also investigated.In order to investigate the heat loss as part of the total heat load, dynamic...... model of distribution network is developed and simulations are carried out for typical designed circulation type of distribution networks. For dynamic simulation of thermosyphon and drain-back solar DHW systems, thermosyphon loop model and drain-back tank model are put forward. Based on the simulations...

  8. Application of solar energy to the supply of hot water for textile dyeing. Final report, CDRL/PA 10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-09-01

    The design plan for a solar process hot water system for a textile dye beck at Riegel Textile Corporation's LaFrance, South Carolina, facilities is presented. The solar system consists of 396 GE model TC 100 evacuated tube collector modules arranged in a ground mounted array with a total collector area of 6680 square feet. The system includes an 8000-gallon hot water storage tank. Systems analyses, specification sheets, performance data, and an economic evaluation of the proposed system are presented. (WHK)

  9. DEGRADATION EVALUATION OF HEAVY WATER DRUMS AND TANKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mickalonis, J.; Vormelker, P.

    2009-07-31

    Heavy water with varying chemistries is currently being stored in over 6700 drums in L- and K-areas and in seven tanks in L-, K-, and C-areas. A detailed evaluation of the potential degradation of the drums and tanks, specific to their design and service conditions, has been performed to support the demonstration of their integrity throughout the desired storage period. The 55-gallon drums are of several designs with Type 304 stainless steel as the material of construction. The tanks have capacities ranging from 8000 to 45600 gallons and are made of Type 304 stainless steel. The drums and tanks were designed and fabricated to national regulations, codes and standards per procurement specifications for the Savannah River Site. The drums have had approximately 25 leakage failures over their 50+ years of use with the last drum failure occurring in 2003. The tanks have experienced no leaks to date. The failures in the drums have occurred principally near the bottom weld, which attaches the bottom to the drum sidewall. Failures have occurred by pitting, crevice and stress corrosion cracking and are attributable, in part, to the presence of chloride ions in the heavy water. Probable degradation mechanisms for the continued storage of heavy water were evaluated that could lead to future failures in the drum or tanks. This evaluation will be used to support establishment of an inspection plan which will include susceptible locations, methods, and frequencies for the drums and tanks to avoid future leakage failures.

  10. Thermal water of the Yugawara Hot Spring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oki, Y; Ogino, K; Nagatsuka, Y; Hirota, S; Kokaji, F; Takahashi, S; Sugimoto, M

    1963-03-01

    The Yugawara Hot Spring is located in the bottom of the dissected creata of the Yugawara volcano. Natural hot spring water ran dry almost twenty five years ago, and thermal water is now pumped up by means of deep drill holes. The hydrorogy of the thermal water was studied from both geochemical and geophysical points of view. Two types of thermal water, sodium chloride and calcium sulfate, are recognized. Sodium chloride is predominant in the high temperature area and low in the surrounding low temperature area. Calcium sulfate predominates in the low temperature area. Sodium chloride is probably derived from deep magmatic emanations as indicated in the high Li content. Sulfate ion seems to originate from oxidation of pyrite whose impregnation took place in the ancient activity of the Yugawara volcano. The content of Ca is stoichiometrically comparable with SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/. It is suggested that sulfuric acid derived from the oxidation of pyrite attacks calcite formed during the hydrothermal alteration of rocks. Some consideration of well logging in the geothermal area is also discussed. Temperature measurement in recharging of cold water is applicable to the logging of drill holes as well as the electric logging.

  11. Modelling of flow and settling in storm water sedimentation tanks

    OpenAIRE

    Kluck, J.

    1994-01-01

    In the near future in the Netherlands many reservoirs will have to be built to abate the pollution of the surface water by overflowing storm water from combined sewer systems [Kluck, 1992-a]. These reservoirs, called storm water sedimentation tanks, reduce the pollution in two ways. The most important is by simply storing a part of the sewage (waste water and storm water) and thus reducing the quantity of overflowing water. The second is by providing flow conditions in which particles can set...

  12. FSI effects and seismic performance evaluation of water storage tank of AP1000 subjected to earthquake loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Chunfeng, E-mail: zhaowindy@126.com [Institute of Earthquake Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); School of Civil Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Anhui Province 230009 (China); Chen, Jianyun; Xu, Qiang [Institute of Earthquake Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2014-12-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Water sloshing and oscillation of water tank under earthquake are simulated by FEM. • The influences of various water levels on seismic response are investigated. • ALE algorithm is applied to study the fluid–structure interaction effects. • The effects of different water levels in reducing seismic response are compared. • The optimal water level of water tank under seismic loading is obtained. - Abstract: The gravity water storage tank of AP1000 is designed to cool down the temperature of containment vessel by spray water when accident releases mass energy. However, the influence of fluid–structure interaction between water and water tank of AP1000 on dynamic behavior of shield building is still a hot research question. The main objective of the current study is to investigate how the fluid–structure interaction affects the dynamic behavior of water tank and whether the water sloshing and oscillation can reduce the seismic response of the shield building subjected to earthquake. For this purpose, a fluid–structure interaction algorithm of finite element technique is employed for the seismic analysis of water storage tank of AP1000. In the finite element model, 8 cases height of water, such as 10.8, 9.8, 8.8, 7.8, 6.8, 5.8, 4.8, and 3.8 m, are established and compared with the empty water tank in order to demonstrate the positive effect in mitigating the seismic response. An Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) algorithm is used to simulate the fluid–structure interaction, fluid sloshing and oscillation of water tank under the El-Centro earthquake. The correlation between seismic response and parameters of water tank in terms of height of air (h{sub 1}), height of water (h{sub 2}), height ratio of water to tank (h{sub 2}/H{sub w}) and mass ratio of water to total structure (m{sub w}/m{sub t}) is also analyzed. The numerical results clearly show that the optimal h{sub 2}, h{sub 2}/H{sub w} and m{sub w}/m{sub t

  13. Modelling of flow and settling in storm water sedimentation tanks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluck, J.

    1994-01-01

    In the near future in the Netherlands many reservoirs will have to be built to abate the pollution of the surface water by overflowing storm water from combined sewer systems [Kluck, 1992-a]. These reservoirs, called storm water sedimentation tanks, reduce the pollution in two ways. The most

  14. Analysis, modeling and optimum design of solar domestic hot water systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin Qin

    1998-12-31

    The object of this study was dynamic modeling, simulation and optimum design of solar DHW (domestic hot water) systems, with respect to different whether conditions, and accurate dynamic behaviour of the heat load. Special attention was paid to systems with thermosyphon and drain-back design. The solar radiation in Beijing (China) and in Denmark are analyzed both by theoretical calculations and the analysis of long-term measurements. Based on the weather data from the Beijing Meteorological Station during the period of 1981-1993, a Beijing Test Reference Year has been formulated by means of statistical analysis. A brief introduction about the Danish Test Reference Year and the Design Reference Year is also presented. In order to investigate the heat loss as a part of the total heat load, dynamic models for distribution networks have been developed, and simulations have been carried out for typically designed distribution networks of the circulation type. The influence of operation parameters such as the tank outlet temperature, the hot-water load and the load pattern, on the heat loss from the distribution networks in presented. It was found that the tank outlet temperature has a significant influence on the heat loss from a circulation type of distribution network, while the hot-water load and the load pattern have no obvious effect. Dynamic models of drain-back tanks, both as a separated tank and combined with a mantle tank, have been developed and presented. Models of the other basic components commonly used in solar DHW systems, such as flat-plate collectors, connection pipes, storage tanks with a heat exchanger spiral, and controllers, are also described. (LN) 66 refs.

  15. Safety evaluation for adding water to tank 101-SY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinton, R.

    1994-01-01

    This document provides a new water limit for Tank 241-SY-101. The original limit was set at 9600 gallons. The new limit is now 20,000 gallons. There are various activities that require the use of additional water to the tank. The main activity is the removal of the temporary mixer pump. This requires a large amount of water which will exceed the original limit. Also, other activities such as flushing, adding a viscometer, and adding a void fraction meter requires additional water. The new limit safely incorporates these activities and allows room for more future activities

  16. Dynamic modeling of stratification for chilled water storage tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, Kahar; Al Khaireed, Syed Muhammad Nasrul; Ariffin, Mohd Kamal; Senawi, Mohd Yusoff

    2008-01-01

    Air conditioning of buildings can be costly and energy consuming. Application of thermal energy storage (TES) reduces cost and energy consumption. The efficiency of the overall operation is affected by storage tank sizing design, which affects thermal stratification of water during charging and discharging processes in TES system. In this study, numerical simulation is used to determine the relationship between tank size and good thermal stratification. Three dimensional simulations with different tank height-to-diameter ratio (HD) and inlet Reynolds number (Re) are investigated. The effect of the number of diffuser holes is also studied. For shallow tanks (low HD) simulations, no acceptable thermocline thickness can be seen for all Re experimented. Partial mixing is observed throughout the process. Medium HD tanks simulations show good thermocline behavior and clear distinction between warm and cold water can be seen. Finally, deep tanks (high HD) show less acceptable thermocline thickness as compared to that of medium HD tanks. From this study, doubling and halving the number of diffuser holes show no significant effect on the thermocline behavior

  17. Direct uses of hot water (geothermal) in dairying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barmettler, E.R.; Rose, W.R. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Digital computer simulation was used to investigate the peak, steady energy utilization of a geothermal energy-supported dairy. A digital computer program was also written to assess the lifetime economics of the dairy operation. A dynamic simulation program was written to design water storage tanks under diurnal transient loading. The geothermal site specified is the artesian spring named Hobo Wells near Susanville, California. The dairy configuration studies are unique, but consist of conventional processing equipment. In the dairy, cattle waste would be used to generate methane and carbon dioxide by anaerobic digestion. Some carbon dioxide would be removed from the gas stream with a pressurized water scrubber to raise the heating value. The product gas would be combusted in a spark ignition engine connected to an electric generator. The electrical power produced would be used for operation of fans, pumps, lights and other equipment in the dairy. An absorption chiller using a geothermal water driven generator would provide milk chilling. Space heating would be done with forced air hot water unit heaters.

  18. Visualization study on hot particle-water interaction by using neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishima, K.; Hibiki, T.; Saito, Y.; Moriyama, Kiyofumi; Sugimoto, Jun

    1999-01-01

    In relation to severe accident research of a nuclear reactor, an experiment was performed to simulate the premixing process in the vapor explosion by dropping hot stainless-steel particle into heavy water filled in a rectangular tank. The test rig consisted of a furnace and a rectangular tank (400 mm in height, 100 mm in width and 30 mm in depth) filled with heavy water kept at 4degC. The particle diameter used in the experiment were 6, 9 and 12 mm, and the initial temperature of the particle ranged from 600 to 1000degC. The behavior of gas dome generated by heated particle-subcooled water interaction was successfully visualized by high-frame-rate neutron radiography at the recording speed of 500 frames/s. Temporal and spatial variations of void fraction in the gas dome were measured by processing the images obtained. The void fraction measurement indicated the possibility that the ambient fluid was superheated by the hot particle-water contact and the vapor was generated in proportion to the particle size and temperature. Preliminary calculations of heat transfer from hot particle to water were conducted by using and empirical correlation for steady film boiling. Comparison between experimental and calculated results suggested that the transient heat transfer around the hot particle could not be explained only by steady film boiling but some other heat transfer mechanisms such as unsteady film boiling or hear transfer due to direct contact may be needed. (author)

  19. Long term performance of a solar floor and hot water heating house; Taiyonetsu yukadanbo kyuto jutaku no choki seino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Udagawa, M [Kogakuin University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    Outlined herein are measured energy consumption followed for 12 years for a totally electrified solar house with a floor-heating and hot-water heating system. In the solar system, hot water generated by the solar collector is sent, via a surge tank, to a living room, dining room and study to heat their concrete floors, and recycled back to the collector after heating the heat-storage tank for hot water supply. The collector is of plate type, consisting of 6 units, each with a white glass sheet as the heat-collecting membrane for selectively absorbing heat. Its total heat-collecting area is 11.4m{sup 2}. Long-term performance of the solar system installed for floor and hot-water heating in a totally electrified solar house, is analyzed by the measured results collected for 12 years. The house consumes secondary energy of 11.7MWh/year on the average, which is approximately 20% lower that that required for a house of the equivalent size. The solar system has been operated smoothly, to supply 46 and 35% of the required heat for hot-water and floor heating. It is however estimated that annual heat loss reaches 34% in the hot-water heating system, including that in the electric hot-water generator, and prevention of heat loss is one of the major themes for the future system designs. 4 refs., 5 figs.

  20. Commissioning and cross-comparison of four scanning water tanks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Saenz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Water scanning systems are commonly used for data collection to characterize dosimetric properties of photon and electron beams, and the commissioning of such systems has been previously described. The aim in this study, however, was to investigate tank-specific dependencies as well as conduct a dosimetric comparison between four distinct water scanning systems.Methods: Four water scanning systems were studied including the PTW MP3-M Phantom Tank, the Standard Imaging DoseView 3D, the IBA Blue Phantom, and the Sun Nuclear 3D Scanner. Mechanical accuracy and reproducibility was investigated by driving the chamber holder to nominal positions relative to a zero point and using a leveled caliper with 30 cm range to measure the actual position. Dosimetric measurements were also performed not only to compare percent-depth-dose (PDD curves and profiles between tanks but also to assess dependencies such as directionality, scanning speed, and reproducibility for each tank individually. A PTW Semiflex 31010 ionization chamber with a sensitive volume of 0.125 cc was used at a Varian Clinac 2300 linear accelerator.Results: Mechanical precision was ensured to within 0.1 mm with the standard deviation (SD of reproducibility <0.1 mm for measurements made with calipers. Dependencies on scanning direction and speed are presented. 6 MV PDDs between tanks agreed to within 0.6% relative to an averaged PDD beyond dmax and within 2.5% in the build-up region. Specifically, the maximum difference was 1.0% between MP3-M and Blue Phantom at 6.1 cm depth. Lateral profiles agreed between tanks within 0.5% in the central 80% of the field. 6 MeV PDD maximum difference was 1.3% occurring at the steepest portion, where the R50 was nevertheless within 0.6 mm across tanks. Setup uncertainties estimated at ≤1 mm are presumed to have contributed some of the difference between water tank data.Conclusion: Modern water scanning systems have achieved high accuracy across

  1. Ferrocyanide Safety Program: Waste tank sludge rheology within a hot spot or during draining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fauske, H.K.; Cash, R.J.

    1993-11-01

    The conditions under which ferrocyanide waste sludge flows as a homogeneous non-Newtonian two-phase (solid precipitate-liquid) mixture rather than as a liquid through a porous medium (of stationary precipitate) are examined theoretically, based on the notion that the preferred rheological behavior of the sludge is the one which imposes the least resistance to the sludge flow. The homogeneous two-phase mixture is modeled as a power-law fluid and simple criteria are derived that show that the homogeneous power-law sludge-flow is a much more likely flow situation than the porous medium model of sludge flow. The implication of this finding is that the formation of a hot spot or the drainage of sludge from a waste tank are not likely to result in the uncovering (drying) and subsequent potential overheating of the reactive-solid component of the sludge

  2. Sugar cane bagasse prehydrolysis using hot water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Abril

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Results are presented on the hot water prehydrolysis of sugar cane bagasse for obtaining ethanol by fermentation. The experimental study consisted of the determination of the effect of temperature and time of prehydrolysis on the extraction of hemicelluloses, with the objective of selecting the best operating conditions that lead to increased yield of extraction with a low formation of inhibitors. The study, carried out in a pilot plant scale rotational digester, using a 3² experimental design at temperatures of 150-190ºC and times of 60-90 min, showed that it is possible to perform the hot water prehydrolysis process between 180-190ºC in times of 60-82 min, yielding concentrations of xylose > 35 g/L, furfural < 2.5 g/L, phenols from soluble lignin < 1.5 g/L, and concentrations < 3.0 g/L of hemicelluloses in the cellolignin residue. These parameters of temperature and prehydrolysis time could be used for the study of the later hydrolysis and fermentation stages of ethanol production from sugar cane bagasse.

  3. Collective solar hot water: best practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beutin, Philippe; Grouzard, Patrice; Coroller, Francoise

    2005-10-01

    This brochure, edited by ADEME, the French office for energy management and sustainable development, gives a collection of good practices concerning the selection and installation of collective solar water heating systems in France. A first note presents the Garantie de Resultats solaires (GRS - Guarantee of Solar Results), a kind of certification that gives a long term guarantee of the annual solar energy produced quantity as a function of the hot water consumption. An overview of the collective solar market is given, followed by informations on the financial incentives for feasibility studies and installations, the technical design and optimization of a collective solar project, its economic assessment, etc. Numerous examples of collective of solar heating operations in collective buildings are presented, in various regions of France, in the east (Alsace), the center (Auvergne, Ile de France (Paris region)), and the south (Languedoc-Roussillon, Midi-Pyrennes, PACA), giving technical data, financing, partnerships, etc

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF A SMART SOLAR TANK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Andersen, Elsa

    1999-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental investigations of small SDHW systems based on so-called smart solar tanks are presented. A smart solar tank is a hot water tank in which the domestic water can both be heated by solar collectors and by an auxiliary energy supply system. The auxiliary energy supply sys...

  5. Detection of Hot Halo Gets Theory Out of Hot Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-02-01

    Scientists using NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory have detected an extensive halo of hot gas around a quiescent spiral galaxy. This discovery is evidence that galaxies like our Milky Way are still accumulating matter from the gradual inflow of intergalactic gas. "What we are likely witnessing here is the ongoing galaxy formation process," said Kristian Pedersen of the University of Copenhagen, Denmark, and lead author of a report on the discovery. Chandra observations show that the hot halo extends more than 60,000 light years on either side of the disk of the galaxy known as NGC 5746. The detection of such a large halo alleviates a long-standing problem for the theory of galaxy formation. Spiral galaxies are thought to form from enormous clouds of intergalactic gas that collapse to form giant, spinning disks of stars and gas. Chandra X-ray Image of NGC 5746 Chandra X-ray Image of NGC 5746 One prediction of this theory is that large spiral galaxies should be immersed in halos of hot gas left over from the galaxy formation process. Hot gas has been detected around spiral galaxies in which vigorous star formation is ejecting matter from the galaxy, but until now hot halos due to infall of intergalactic matter have not been detected. "Our observations solve the mystery of the missing hot halos around spiral galaxies," said Pedersen. "The halos exist, but are so faint that an extremely sensitive telescope such as Chandra is needed to detect them." DSS Optical Image of NGC 5746 DSS Optical Image of NGC 5746 NGC 5746 is a massive spiral galaxy about a 100 million light years from Earth. Its disk of stars and gas is viewed almost edge-on. The galaxy shows no signs of unusual star formation, or energetic activity from its nuclear region, making it unlikely that the hot halo is produced by gas flowing out of the galaxy. "We targeted NGC 5746 because we thought its distance and orientation would give us the best chance to detect a hot halo caused by the infall of

  6. Use of water towing tanks for aerodynamics and hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadelhak, Mohamed

    1987-01-01

    Wind tunnels and flumes have become standard laboratory tools for modeling a variety of aerodynamic and hydrodynamic flow problems. Less available, although by no means less useful, are facilities in which a model can be towed (or propelled) through air or water. This article emphasizes the use of the water towing tank as an experimental tool for aerodynamic and hydrodynamic studies. Its advantages and disadvantages over other flow rigs are discussed, and its usefullness is illustrated through many examples of research results obtained over the past few years in a typical towing tank facility.

  7. Hot water glows directly to the consumer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decken; Fedders; Hohlein.

    1980-01-01

    The supply of industry and households with heat is a central problem of our economy. With the background of a crisis-affected oil supply the long term ensured heat supply with nuclear power plants is a discussible alternative. The long distance transfer of heat in the form of hot water, that is heated in nuclear power plants and led over a long-distance heating pipeline network to the consumers is limited by the inevitable heat losses. For the bridging of long distances between heat source and consumer and for the supply of heat at a high temperature level the long-distance transport by the Eva-Adam-principle has clear advantages. (orig.) [de

  8. Final report : testing and evaluation for solar hot water reliability.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caudell, Thomas P. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); He, Hongbo (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Menicucci, David F. (Building Specialists, Inc., Albuquerque, NM); Mammoli, Andrea A. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Burch, Jay (National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO)

    2011-07-01

    Solar hot water (SHW) systems are being installed by the thousands. Tax credits and utility rebate programs are spurring this burgeoning market. However, the reliability of these systems is virtually unknown. Recent work by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has shown that few data exist to quantify the mean time to failure of these systems. However, there is keen interest in developing new techniques to measure SHW reliability, particularly among utilities that use ratepayer money to pay the rebates. This document reports on an effort to develop and test new, simplified techniques to directly measure the state of health of fielded SHW systems. One approach was developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and is based on the idea that the performance of the solar storage tank can reliably indicate the operational status of the SHW systems. Another approach, developed by the University of New Mexico (UNM), uses adaptive resonance theory, a type of neural network, to detect and predict failures. This method uses the same sensors that are normally used to control the SHW system. The NREL method uses two additional temperature sensors on the solar tank. The theories, development, application, and testing of both methods are described in the report. Testing was performed on the SHW Reliability Testbed at UNM, a highly instrumented SHW system developed jointly by SNL and UNM. The two methods were tested against a number of simulated failures. The results show that both methods show promise for inclusion in conventional SHW controllers, giving them advanced capability in detecting and predicting component failures.

  9. The biological treatment of petroleum tank draw waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, Jose L. [Envirosystems Supply, Inc., Hollywood, FL (United States); Stephens, Greg [Plantation Pipeline, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    This work reviews and summarizes the performance of a biological process (followed by the state-of-the-art) for the removal of organic compounds in petroleum tank draw waters. Trickling filter and the extended aeration modification of activated sludge were selected as the biological processes tested in pilot units. 4 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Rural water tanks with HFB technique: technical guide

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Solsona, F

    1991-03-01

    Full Text Available This technical guide describes a very simple technique for water tank construction called H-F-B (heart filled blocks). The technique makes use of a simple mould (which can be made even in rural areas) for the manufacture of concrete building blocks...

  11. The biological treatment of petroleum tank draw waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, Jose L [Envirosystems Supply, Inc., Hollywood, FL (United States); Stephens, Greg [Plantation Pipeline, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    This work reviews and summarizes the performance of a biological process (followed by the state-of-the-art) for the removal of organic compounds in petroleum tank draw waters. Trickling filter and the extended aeration modification of activated sludge were selected as the biological processes tested in pilot units. 4 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. ECOLO-HOUSE in the heavy snow-fall region. Ground-water and wasted-wood become resources by utilizing storage-tank; Yukiguni ECOLO-HOUSE. Chikunetsuso wo riyoshita chikasui oyobi mokushitsu gomi no shigenka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umemiya, H; Fukumuro, S [Yamagata University, Yamagata (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    This paper reports living comfort in summer by operating a groundwater utilization system using a hot water storage tank and a floor air conditioning system. The groundwater utilization system is a system for room cooling by using groundwater and for supplying water for living use. The system operates as follows: groundwater is passed through a coil-type heat exchanger having pipes each 100 m long laid in parallel for a total length of 200 m, the heat exchanger being installed in a hot water storage tank; the water is used to cool water in the storage tank in summer; and the water is warmed up in the storage tank in winter, further heated by an oil boiler to be used as hot water for cooking and bathing. In the floor air conditioning system, cold water in the water storage tank (warm water in winter) is pumped up by a circulation pump, and passed through the floor air conditioning circuit having a pipe with a total length of 400 m at a flow rate of 14 liters per minute. The system is of a closed circuit in which the water is re-heated by a wood burning boiler in winter and returned to the hot water storage tank. The amount of supplied cold heat from groundwater to the hot water tank obtained on a daily average is 90W. About 20% of the monthly cumulative cold heat amount dissipated from the floor circuit is the monthly cumulative cold heat amount supplied from the groundwater circuit to the hot water storage tank. 1 ref., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Identification of cascade water tanks using a PWARX model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattsson, Per; Zachariah, Dave; Stoica, Petre

    2018-06-01

    In this paper we consider the identification of a discrete-time nonlinear dynamical model for a cascade water tank process. The proposed method starts with a nominal linear dynamical model of the system, and proceeds to model its prediction errors using a model that is piecewise affine in the data. As data is observed, the nominal model is refined into a piecewise ARX model which can capture a wide range of nonlinearities, such as the saturation in the cascade tanks. The proposed method uses a likelihood-based methodology which adaptively penalizes model complexity and directly leads to a computationally efficient implementation.

  14. YACON INULIN LEACHING DURING HOT WATER BLANCHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Fenner Scher

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTYacon roots contain inulin, which has prebiotic properties and it may be used as sucrose or fat substitutes. However, inulin is very soluble in water. The loss of this important nutrient during blanching is caused mainly by diffusion or leaching, which might be diminished if blanching temperature - time conditions are correctly employed. The aim of this study was to determine the leaching of the sugars inulin, glucose and fructose, present in yacon roots, during hot water blanching under different time/temperature conditions. The samples were cleaned and peeled and cut into geometric forms of 1.75 ± 0.35 mm thick disks. A complete factorial experimental design was used, and the treatments of the samples were compared using the Tukey test. The results indicated that the time and temperature were significant in the dissolution of the sugars. The lowest inulin losses occurred at temperatures and times lower than 60 ºC and 3 minutes. For all temperatures, the lowest glucose and fructose losses were obtained at time lower than 3 and 5 minutes, respectively.

  15. Prototype solar heating and cooling systems including potable hot water

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Progress is reviewed in the development, delivery, and support of two prototype solar heating and cooling systems including potable hot water. The system consisted of the following subsystems: collector, auxiliary heating, potable hot water, storage, control, transport, and government-furnished site data acquisition.

  16. Macroalgal survival in ballast water tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flagella, Maria Monia; Verlaque, Marc; Soria, Alessio; Buia, Maria Cristina

    2007-01-01

    Despite a large amount of research into invasive species and their introductions, there have been no studies focused on macroalgal transport in ballast water. To address this, we collected replicate samples of ballast water from 12 ships in two Mediterranean harbours (Naples and Salerno). Filtered samples were kept in culture for a month at Mediterranean mean conditions (18 deg. C, 12:12 h LD, 60 μmol photons m -2 s -1 ). Fifteen macroalgal taxa were cultured and differed according to the geographic origin of the ballast water. Most of the cultured algae were widely distributed species (e.g. Ulva spp. and Acinetospora-phase). However, Ulva ohnoi Hiraoka and Shimada, described from Japan, was hitherto unknown in the Mediterranean Sea. We show for the first time that ballast water can be an important vector for the transport of microscopic stages of macroalgae and that this can be a vector for the introduction of alien species

  17. Macroalgal survival in ballast water tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flagella, Maria Monia [Benthic Ecology Laboratory, Stazione Zoologica A. Dohrn, P.ta S.Pietro, 80077, Ischia, Naples (Italy)], E-mail: flagella@szn.it; Verlaque, Marc [UMR 6540 DIMAR, COM, Universite de la Mediterranee, 13288 Marseille Cedex 9 (France); Soria, Alessio; Buia, Maria Cristina [Benthic Ecology Laboratory, Stazione Zoologica A. Dohrn, P.ta S.Pietro, 80077, Ischia, Naples (Italy)

    2007-09-15

    Despite a large amount of research into invasive species and their introductions, there have been no studies focused on macroalgal transport in ballast water. To address this, we collected replicate samples of ballast water from 12 ships in two Mediterranean harbours (Naples and Salerno). Filtered samples were kept in culture for a month at Mediterranean mean conditions (18 deg. C, 12:12 h LD, 60 {mu}mol photons m{sup -2} s{sup -1}). Fifteen macroalgal taxa were cultured and differed according to the geographic origin of the ballast water. Most of the cultured algae were widely distributed species (e.g. Ulva spp. and Acinetospora-phase). However, Ulva ohnoi Hiraoka and Shimada, described from Japan, was hitherto unknown in the Mediterranean Sea. We show for the first time that ballast water can be an important vector for the transport of microscopic stages of macroalgae and that this can be a vector for the introduction of alien species.

  18. Corrosion control by limestone immersion into the hot water heat-storage tank. Case history of air-conditioning systems of Sapporo city subway stations; Sekkaiseki shinsekiho ni yoru chikunetsu onsui keito no boshoku koka. Sapporoshi chikatetsu kakueki no kucho setsubi no jirei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishi, M. [Sapporo City Transportation Bureau, Sapporo (Japan); Okumura, J. [Hokkaido Nikken Sekkei Ltd., Sapporo (Japan); Sakai, Y.; Shiiya, O. [Takasago Thermal Engineering Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-06-05

    Limestone immersion into heat-storage water tanks is a method for improving the water quality so as to encrust inner surface of piping by corrosion-preventive calcium carbonate film. For air-conditioning of Support city subway stations, heat-storing heat-pump systems with heat recovery from exhaust air have been introduced and developed for energy saving along with expansion of the subway routes. Inner surfaces of the heat-storage water tanks of all stations are coated with FRP-lining, therefore, some corrosion-preventive chemicals had been dosed from the starting up. However, the storage waters of all stations turned to red because of continuity of the piping corrosion. Instead of dosing chemicals, the limestone immersion method station. Thanks to His method, excellent results were obtained in a short period contributing control of the piping corrosion together with the red water fading. 14 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Coating degradation at tank bottomdue to settled water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majeed, U.; Rizvi, M.A.; Khan, I.H.

    2008-01-01

    In the present work, coating degradation as a result of settled water on fuel storage tank bottoms has been reported with the help of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), blister analysis and gravimetric analysis (water uptake). Blistering occurs underneath the coating at the tank bottom due to direct contact with settled water. Degradation behavior of polyamide epoxy coatings on mild steel has been reported in term of coating resistance at the start of the experiments, after 96 hours and at the end of EIS experiments. Coating degradation in terms of shift in phase angle (theta) at high frequency as a function of exposure time has also been reported. The blister formation and gravimetric analysis data has also been reported in support of EIS result. (author)

  20. Experimental test of a hot water storage system including a macro-encapsulated phase change material (PCM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mongibello, L.; Atrigna, M.; Bianco, N.; Di Somma, M.; Graditi, G.; Risi, N.

    2017-01-01

    Thermal energy storage systems (TESs) are of fundamental importance for many energetic systems, essentially because they permit a certain degree of decoupling between the heat or cold production and the use of the heat or cold produced. In the last years, many works have analysed the addition of a PCM inside a hot water storage tank, as it can allow a reduction of the size of the storage tank due to the possibility of storing thermal energy as latent heat, and as a consequence its cost and encumbrance. The present work focuses on experimental tests realized by means of an indoor facility in order to analyse the dynamic behaviour of a hot water storage tank including PCM modules during a charging phase. A commercial bio-based PCM has been used for the purpose, with a melting temperature of 58°C. The experimental results relative to the hot water tank including the PCM modules are presented in terms of temporal evolution of the axial temperature profile, heat transfer and stored energy, and are compared with the ones obtained by using only water as energy storage material. Interesting insights, relative to the estimation of the percentage of melted PCM at the end of the experimental test, are presented and discussed.

  1. Targeted removal of ant colonies in ecological experiments, using hot water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschinkel, Walter R; King, Joshua R

    2007-01-01

    Ecological experiments on fire ants cannot, or should not, use poison baits to eliminate the fire ants because such baits are not specific to fire ants, or even to ants. Hot water is an extremely effective and specific killing agent for fire ant colonies, but producing large amounts of hot water in the field, and making the production apparatus mobile have been problematical. The construction and use of a charcoal-fired kiln made from a 55-gal. oil drum lined with a sand-fireclay mixture is described. An automobile heater fan powered from a 12-v battery provided a draft. Dual bilge pumps pumped water from a large tank through a long coil of copper tubing within the kiln to produce 4 to 5 l. of hot water per min. The hot water was collected in 20 l. buckets and poured into fire ant nests previously opened by piercing with a stick. The entire assembly was transported in and operated from the back of a pickup truck. Five experimental plots containing 32 to 38 colonies of the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, Buren (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), were treated with hot water over a period of two years. All colonies on the treatment plots were treated twice with hot water early in 2004, reducing their numbers to zero. However new colonies were formed, and mature colonies expanded into the plots. A third treatment was made in the spring of 2005, after which fire ant populations were suppressed for over a year. Whereas the 5 control plots contained a total of 166 mostly large colonies, the 5 treatment plots contained no live colonies at all. Averaged over a two-year period, a 70% reduction in total number of colonies was achieved (P ants.

  2. Hot Water Bathing Impairs Training Adaptation in Elite Teen Archers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Ta-Cheng; Liao, Yi-Hung; Tsai, Yung-Shen; Ferguson-Stegall, Lisa; Kuo, Chia-Hua; Chen, Chung-Yu

    2018-04-30

    Despite heat imposes considerable physiological stress to human body, hot water immersion remains as a popular relaxation modality for athletes. Here we examined the lingering effect of hot tub relaxation after training on performance-associated measures and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) in junior archers. Ten national level archers, aged 16.6 ± 0.3 years (M = 8, F = 2), participated in a randomized counter-balanced crossover study after baseline measurements. In particular, half participants were assigned to the hot water immersion (HOT) group, whereas another halves were assigned to the untreated control (CON) group. Crossover trial was conducted following a 2-week washout period. During the HOT trial, participants immersed in hot water for 30 min at 40°C, 1 h after training, twice a week (every 3 days) for 2 weeks. Participants during CON trial sat at the same environment without hot water after training. Performance-associated measures and salivary DHEA-S were determined 3 days after the last HOT session. We found that the HOT intervention significantly decreased shooting performance (CON: -4%; HOT: -22%, P HOT: -16%, P HOT: -60%, P < 0.05) of archers, compared with untreated CON trial. No group differences were found in motor unit recruitment (root mean square electromyography, RMS EMG) of arm muscles during aiming, autonomic nervous activity (sympathetic and vagal powers of heart rate variability, HRV), and plasma cortisol levels after treatments. Our data suggest that physiological adaptation against heat exposure takes away the sources needed for normal training adaptation specific to shooting performance in archers.

  3. Methods of accounting the hot water consumption modes at the solar installations design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyacheslav O. Dubkovsky

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Peculiarities of the high-powered solar systems for hot water heating are considered. The purpose of work consists in development of methods for accounting the 24-hourly hot water consumption mode, determining the solar systems dynamic descriptions. The basic solar system schemes are analyzed with their shortages from the user satisfaction view point due to sun energy. For the dynamic parameters improvement the use of operative expense tank is examined such receptacle bearing built-in worm-pipe, through which all heat carrier from solar collectors passes before entering the fast heat exchanger which heats a tank-accumulator. The scientific novelty refers to the proof that this tank principal parameter is a not the volume, but the built-in exchanger capacity, determined by the solar collectors field total thermal power. As an ecological constituent of operating costs it is suggested to take into account cost paid for the emission of combustion products. As this method practical application example considered is the solar collectors capacity optimization for a communal enterprise.

  4. Experimentation of a Solar Water Heater with Integrated Storage Tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elhmidi, I; Frikha, N; Chaouchi, B; Gabsi, S

    2009-01-01

    An integrated collector storage (ICS) solar water heater was constructed in 2004 and studied its optical and thermal performance. It was revealed that it has some thermal shortcomings of thermal performances. The ICS system consists of one cylindrical horizontal tank properly mounted in a stationary symmetrical Compound Parabolic Concentrating (CPC) reflector trough. The main objective was to delimit the causes of these deficiencies and trying to diagnose them. A rigorous experimentation of the solar water heater has been done over its daily energetic output as well as the evolution of the nocturnal thermal losses. In fact, three successive days, including nights, of operation have permitted to obtain diagrams describing the variations of mean temperature in the tank and the thermal loss coefficient during night of our installation. The experimental results, compared with those obtained by simulation, showed a perfecting of thermal performances of system which approach from those of other models introduced on the international market

  5. Preliminary design package for solar heating and hot water system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Two prototype solar heating and hot water systems for use in single-family dwellings or commercial buildings were designed. Subsystems included are: collector, storage, transport, hot water, auxiliary energy, and government-furnished site data acquisition. The systems are designed for Yosemite, California, and Pueblo, Colorado. The necessary information to evaluate the preliminary design for these solar heating and hot water systems is presented. Included are a proposed instrumentation plan, a training program, hazard analysis, preliminary design drawings, and other information about the design of the system.

  6. Efficacy of thermal treatment and copper-silver ionization for controlling Legionella pneumophila in high-volume hot water plumbing systems in hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mietzner, S; Schwille, R C; Farley, A; Wald, E R; Ge, J H; States, S J; Libert, T; Wadowsky, R M; Miuetzner, S

    1997-12-01

    Thermal treatment and copper-silver ionization are often used for controlling Legionella pneumophila in high-volume hospital plumbing systems, although the comparative efficacies of these measures in high-volume systems are unknown. Thermal treatment of a hot water circuit was accomplished by flushing hot water (> 60 degrees C) through distal fixtures for 10 minutes. Copper-silver ionization was conducted in three circuits by installing units into return lines immediately upstream from hot water tanks. Recovery rates of L. pneumophila were monitored by culturing swab samples from faucets. Concentrations of copper and silver in water samples were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Four heat-flush treatments failed to provide long-term control of L. pneumophila. In contrast, ionization treatment reduced the rate of recovery of L. pneumophila from 108 faucets from 72% to 2% within 1 month and maintained effective control for at least 22 months. Only three samples (1.9%) of hot water from faucets exceeded Environmental Protection Agency standards for silver, and none exceeded the standards for copper. Of 24 samples obtained from hot water tanks, 42% and 50% exceeded the silver and copper standards, respectively. Copper-silver ionization effectively controls L. pneumophila in high-volume plumbing systems and is superior to thermal treatment; however, high concentrations of copper and silver can accumulate at the bottom of hot water tanks.

  7. Solar heating and hot water system installed at Southeast of Saline, Unified School District 306, Mentor, Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The solar system, installed in a new building, was designed to provide 52 percent of the estimated annual space heating load and 84 percent of the estimated annual potable hot water requirement. The liquid flat plate collectors are ground-mounted and cover a total area of 5125 square feet. The system will provide supplemental heat for the school's closed-loop water-to-air heat pump system and domestic hot water. The storage medium is water inside steel tanks with a capacity of 11,828 gallons for space heating and 1,600 gallons for domestic hot water. The solar heating facility is described and drawings are presented of the completed system which was declared operational in September 1978, and has functioned successfully since.

  8. Rogue waves in a water tank: Experiments and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechuga, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    Recently many rogue waves have been reported as the main cause of ship incidents on the sea. One of the main characteristics of rogue waves is its elusiveness: they present unexpectedly and disappear in the same wave. Some authors (Zakharov and al.2010) are attempting to find the probability of their appearances apart from studyingthe mechanism of the formation. As an effort on this topic we tried the generation of rogue waves in a water wave tank using a symmetric spectrum(Akhmediev et al. 2011) as input on the wave maker. The produced waves were clearly rogue waves with a rate (maximum wave height/ Significant wave height) of 2.33 and a kurtosis of 4.77 (Janssen 2003, Onorato 2006). These results were already presented (Lechuga 2012). Similar waves (in pattern aspect, but without being extreme waves) were described as crossing waves in a water tank(Shemer and Lichter1988). To go on further the next step has been to apply a theoretical model to the envelope of these waves. After some considerations the best model has been an analogue of the Ginzburg-Landau equation. This apparently amazing result is easily explained: We know that the Ginzburg-Landau model is related to some regular structures on the surface of a liquid and also in plasmas, electric and magnetic fields and other media. Another important characteristic of the model is that their solutions are invariants with respectto the translation group. The main aim of this presentation is to extract conclusions of the model and the comparison with the measured waves in the water tank.The nonlinear structure of waves and their regularity make suitable the use of the Ginzburg-Landau model to the envelope of generated waves in the tank,so giving us a powerful tool to cope with the results of our experiment.

  9. Solar hot water system installed at Quality Inn, Key West, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-04-01

    The solar energy hot water system installed in the Quality Inn, Key West, Florida, which consists of four buildings is described. Three buildings are low-rise, two-story buildings containing 100 rooms. The fourth is a four-story building with 48 rooms. The solar system was designed to provide approximately 50 percent of the energy required for the domestic hot water system. The solar system consists of approximately 1400 square feet of flat plate collector, two 500 gallon storage tanks, a circulating pump, and a controller. Operation of the system was begun in April 1978, and has continued to date with only three minor interruptions for pump repair. In the first year of operation, it was determined that the use of the solar facility resulted in forty percent fuel savings.

  10. Solar heating and domestic hot water system installed at Kansas City, Fire Stations, Kansas City, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The solar system was designed to provide 47 percent of the space heating, 8,800 square feet area and 75 percent of the domestic hot water (DHW) load. The solar system consists of 2,808 square feet of Solaron, model 2001, air, flat plate collector subsystem, a concrete box storage subsystem which contains 1,428 cubic feet of 0.5 inch diameter pebbles weighing 71.5 tons, a DHW preheat tank, blowers, pumps, heat exchangers, air ducting, controls and associated plumbing. Two 120 gallon electric DHW heaters supply domestic hot water which is preheated by the solar system. Auxiliary space heating is provided by three electric heat pumps with electric resistance heaters and four 30 kilowatt electric unit heaters. There are six modes of system operation.

  11. Solar heating and domestic hot water system installed at Kansas City, Fire Stations, Kansas City, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-01

    The solar system was designed to provide 47 percent of the space heating, 8,800 square feet area and 75 percent of the domestic hot water (DHW) load. The solar system consists of 2,808 square feet of Solaron, model 2001, air, flat plate collector subsystem, a concrete box storage subsystem which contains 1,428 cubic feet of 0.5 inch diameter pebbles weighing 71.5 tons, a DHW preheat tank, blowers, pumps, heat exchangers, air ducting, controls and associated plumbing. Two 120 gallon electric DHW heaters supply domestic hot water which is preheated by the solar system. Auxiliary space heating is provided by three electric heat pumps with electric resistance heaters and four 30 kilowatt electric unit heaters. There are six modes of system operation.

  12. Energy, economy and exergy evaluations of the solutions for supplying domestic hot water from low-temperature district heating in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Xiaochen; Li, Hongwei; Svendsen, Svend

    2016-01-01

    . Evaluation models were built to investigate the energy, economy and exergy performances of the proposed domestic hot water systems in various configurations. The configurations of the devised domestic hot water substations were optimised to fit well with both low and ultra-low-temperature district heating...... °C and 50 °C district heating scenarios, while the individual micro tank solution consumed less energy and cost less in the 35 °C district heating scenario....

  13. Classifying hot water chemistry: Application of MULTIVARIATE STATISTICS

    OpenAIRE

    Sumintadireja, Prihadi; Irawan, Dasapta Erwin; Rezky, Yuanno; Gio, Prana Ugiana; Agustin, Anggita

    2016-01-01

    This file is the dataset for the following paper "Classifying hot water chemistry: Application of MULTIVARIATE STATISTICS". Authors: Prihadi Sumintadireja1, Dasapta Erwin Irawan1, Yuano Rezky2, Prana Ugiana Gio3, Anggita Agustin1

  14. Nickel Chloride Promoted Glaser Coupling Reaction in Hot Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pin Hua LI; Lei WANG; Min WANG; Jin Can YAN

    2004-01-01

    A Glaser coupling reaction of terminal alkynes in the presence of nickel chloride without any organics and bases in hot water has been developed, which produces the corresponding homo-coupling products in good yields.

  15. Solar system for domestic hot water and space heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, W. [Arbeitsgemeinschaf Erneubare Energie, Gleisdorf (Austria)

    1997-12-31

    The solar thermal markets, different types of solar systems for hot water and space heating, the dimensioning and the components of solar heating systems, the properties of the systems are reviewed in this presentation

  16. Solar system for domestic hot water and space heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, W [Arbeitsgemeinschaf Erneubare Energie, Gleisdorf (Austria)

    1998-12-31

    The solar thermal markets, different types of solar systems for hot water and space heating, the dimensioning and the components of solar heating systems, the properties of the systems are reviewed in this presentation

  17. Economic Model Predictive Control for Hot Water Based Heating Systems in Smart Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Awadelrahman, M. A. Ahmed; Zong, Yi; Li, Hongwei

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a study to optimize the heating energy costs in a residential building with varying electricity price signals based on an Economic Model Predictive Controller (EMPC). The investigated heating system consists of an air source heat pump (ASHP) incorporated with a hot water tank...... as active Thermal Energy Storage (TES), where two optimization problems are integrated together to optimize both the ASHP electricity consumption and the building heating consumption utilizing a heat dynamic model of the building. The results show that the proposed EMPC can save the energy cost by load...

  18. Solar heating and hot water system installed at James Hurst Elementary School, Portsmouth, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Solar heating and a hot water system installed in an elementary school in Portsmouth, Virginia are examined. The building is zoned into four heating/cooling areas. Each area is equipped with an air handling unit that is monitored and controlled by central control and monitoring system. The solar system for the building uses a collector area of 3,630 sq. ft. of flat plate liquid collectors, and a 6,000 gallon storage tank. System descriptions, maintenance reports, detailed component specifications, and design drawings to evaluate this solar system are reported.

  19. Domestic Hot Water Usage in Hotels; Tappvarmvattenanvaendning paa hotell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersson, Stefan; Werner, Sven [FVB Sverige AB, Vaesteraas (Sweden); Sandberg, Martin; Wahlstroem, Aasa [Swedish National Testing and Research Inst., Boraas (Sweden)

    2004-06-01

    Historically, design curves for domestic hot water, have been well sized and therefore also the components oversized. The Swedish district heating companies have noticed this and some companies replace large valves with customer-required valves, which give several advantages. There are several reasons why valves and heat exchangers can be customer-required and still the customers demand for hot water comfort can be fulfilled. The domestic hot water flow is composed, the taps are often short, large simultaneous taps are not very likely. Also, the dimensioning flows occur in the winter period, while the components are dimensioned for the summer case. The water pipes level off temporary temperature drops and the user seldom notices these because water with 55 deg C is not used in the tap. For residential buildings there are dimensioning recommendations on domestic hot water flow, but not for hotels. The purpose of this project has been to evaluate the domestic hot water use in relation to size and number of occupied beds. If the patterns of the chosen hotels coincide regarding to the sizes, dimensioning curves for domestic hot water use can be suggested. They can be used when hotels, or buildings with the same use pattern, are being built or restored. Measurements on 3 hotels with different sizes have been made. The hotels have 36, 52 and 158 rooms. The hotels are situated in the cities of Boraas and Kinna in Sweden. A short period of measurements from another hotel in the city of Gaevle (199 rooms) has also been included in this project. The measurements show that large hot water taps in hotels are rare and short. For the hotels, relative, cumulative relative frequencies and likely extreme values have been estimated. For residential buildings, The Swedish District Heating Association have recommendations for dimensioned domestic hot water flows. Formerly, these recommendations have been levelled so a cumulative relative frequency of 1 %, is reached, i.e. 99 % of all

  20. Hot spots and hot moments in riparian zones: Potential for improved water quality management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippe Vidon; Craig Allan; Douglas Burns; Tim P. Duval; Noel Gurwick; Shreeram Inamdar; Richard Lowrance; Judy Okay; Durelle Scott; Stephen Sebestyen

    2010-01-01

    Biogeochemical and hydrological processes in riparian zones regulate contaminant movement to receiving waters and often mitigate the impact of upland sources of contaminants on water quality. These heterogeneous processes have recently been conceptualized as "hot spots and moments" of retention, degradation, or production. Nevertheless, studies investigating...

  1. Hot water treatments delay cold-induced banana peel blackening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Promyou, S.; Ketsa, S.; Doorn, van W.G.

    2008-01-01

    Banana fruit of cv. Gros Michel (Musa acuminata, AAA Group, locally called cv. Hom Thong) and cv. Namwa (Musa x paradisiaca, ABB Group) were immersed for 5, 10 and 15 min in water at 42 degrees C, or in water at 25 degrees C (control), and were then stored at 4 degrees C. Hot water treatment for 15

  2. Pitting corrosion in austenitic stainless steel water tanks of hotel trains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, D. A.; Garcia, A. M.; Ranninger, C.; Molina, B.

    2011-01-01

    The water storage tanks of hotel trains suffered pitting corrosion. To identify the cause, the tanks were subjected to a detailed metallographic study and the chemical composition of the austenitic stainless steels used in their construction was determined. Both the tank water and the corrosion products were further examined by physicochemical and microbiological testing. Corrosion was shown to be related to an incompatibility between the chloride content of the water and the base and filler metals of the tanks. These findings formed the basis of recommendations aimed at the prevention and control of corrosion in such tanks. (Author) 18 refs.

  3. Origin of life and living matter in hot mineral water

    OpenAIRE

    Ignatov, Ignat; Mosin, Oleg

    2013-01-01

    In this review the composition of water and isotopic structure of water during a process of origin of life is submitted. The data obtained testify that life maintenance depends on physical-chemical properties of water and external factors – temperature and рН. Hot mineral alkaline water, which interacts with CaCO 3 is closest to these conditions. Next in line with regard to quality is sea and mountain water.

  4. How to build a small ferro-cement water tank: technical guide

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sadzik, P

    1988-05-01

    Full Text Available This guide will assist on how to build a small water tank which can be used to store spring water, rainwater or water pumped from a stream or dam. Small water tanks can be constructed from many different materials such as corrugated iron, bricks...

  5. Ferrocyanide safety program: Credibility of drying out ferrocyanide tank waste by hot spots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickinson, D.R.; McLaren, J.M.; Borsheim, G.L.; Crippen, M.D.

    1993-04-01

    The single-shell waste tanks at the Hanford Site that contain significant quantities of ferrocyanide have been considered a possible hazard, since under certain conditions the ferrocyanide in the waste tanks could undergo an exothermic chemical reaction with the nitrates and nitrites that are also present in the tanks. The purpose of this report is to assess the credibility of local dryout of ferrocyanide due to a hotspot. This report considers the following: What amount of decay heat generation within what volume would be necessary to raise the temperature of the liquid in the sludge to its boiling point? What mechanisms could produce a significant local concentration of heat sources? Is it credible that a waste tank heat concentration could be as large as that required to reach the dryout temperatures? This report also provides a recommendation as to whether infrared scanning of the ferrocyanide tanks is needed. From the analyses presented in this report it is evident that formation of dry, and thus chemically reactive, regions in the ferrocyanide sludge by local hotspots is not credible. This conclusion is subject to reevaluation if future analyses of tank core samples show much higher 137 Cs or 90 Sr concentrations than expected. Since hotspots of concern are not credible, infrared scanning to detect such hotspots is not required for safe storage of tank waste

  6. Retrofitting Domestic Hot Water Heaters for Solar Water Heating Systems in Single-Family Houses in a Cold Climate: A Theoretical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn Karlsson

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the biggest obstacles to economic profitability of solar water heating systems is the investment cost. Retrofitting existing domestic hot water heaters when a new solar hot water system is installed can reduce both the installation and material costs. In this study, retrofitting existing water heaters for solar water heating systems in Swedish single-family houses was theoretically investigated using the TRNSYS software. Four simulation models using forced circulation flow with different system configurations and control strategies were simulated and analysed in the study. A comparison with a standard solar thermal system was also presented based on the annual solar fraction. The simulation results indicate that the retrofitting configuration achieving the highest annual performance consists of a system where the existing tank is used as storage for the solar heat and a smaller tank with a heater is added in series to make sure that the required outlet temperature can be met. An external heat exchanger is used between the collector circuit and the existing tank. For this retrofitted system an annual solar fraction of 50.5% was achieved. A conventional solar thermal system using a standard solar tank achieves a comparable performance for the same total storage volume, collector area and reference conditions.

  7. Dynamic Behaviour and Seismic Response of Ground Supported Cylindrical Water Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asha, Joseph; Glory, Joseph

    2018-05-01

    Liquid storage tank such as in water distribution systems, petroleum plants etc., constitute a vital component of life line systems. Reducing earthquake effects on liquid storage tanks, to minimize the environmental and economic impact of these effects, have always been an important engineering concern. In this paper, the dynamic behavior of cylindrical ground supported concrete water tanks with different aspect ratios is investigated using finite element software ANSYS. The natural frequencies and modal responses are obtained for impulsive and convective modes of vibration. The natural frequency of vibration of the tank is observed to be the lowest at maximum water depth. The fundamental impulsive frequency increases as water level reduces and for water level less than 1/3 of tank height, there is significantly no change in impulsive frequency. The effect of wall flexibility on dynamic behavior of the tank is investigated by performing the modal analysis of flexible and rigid tanks. For a partially filled tank, the results of the present study are of significant relevance. The response of the tank to the transient loading as horizontal ground motion of El Centro earthquake is studied for various water heights. As the height of water on the tank increases, the ultimate maximum seismic response parameters are also observed to be increased. The location of maximum hoop stress varies in accordance with the variations in input ground motion and water fill condition whereas shear and bending moment are maximum at the base.

  8. An International Survey of Electric Storage Tank Water Heater Efficiency and Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Alissa; Lutz, James; McNeil, Michael A.; Covary, Theo

    2013-11-13

    Water heating is a main consumer of energy in households, especially in temperate and cold climates. In South Africa, where hot water is typically provided by electric resistance storage tank water heaters (geysers), water heating energy consumption exceeds cooking, refrigeration, and lighting to be the most consumptive single electric appliance in the home. A recent analysis for the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) performed by the authors estimated that standing losses from electric geysers contributed over 1,000 kWh to the annual electricity bill for South African households that used them. In order to reduce this burden, the South African government is currently pursuing a programme of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labelling (EES&L) for electric appliances, including geysers. In addition, Eskom has a history of promoting heat pump water heaters (HPWH) through incentive programs, which can further reduce energy consumption. This paper provides a survey of international electric storage water heater test procedures and efficiency metrics which can serve as a reference for comparison with proposed geyser standards and ratings in South Africa. Additionally it provides a sample of efficiency technologies employed to improve the efficiency of electric storage water heaters, and outlines programs to promote adoption of improved efficiency. Finally, it surveys current programs used to promote HPWH and considers the potential for this technology to address peak demand more effectively than reduction of standby losses alone

  9. Modeling patterns of hot water use in households

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutz, J.D.; Liu, Xiaomin; McMahon, J.E. [and others

    1996-11-01

    This report presents a detailed model of hot water use patterns in individual household. The model improves upon an existing model by including the effects of four conditions that were previously unaccounted for: the absence of a clothes washer; the absence of a dishwasher; a household consisting of seniors only; and a household that does not pay for its own hot water use. Although these four conditions can significantly affect residential hot water use, and have been noted in other studies, this is the first time that they have been incorporated into a detailed model. This model allows detailed evaluation of the impact of potential efficiency standards for water heaters and other market transformation policies. 21 refs., 3 figs., 10 tabs.

  10. Modeling patterns of hot water use in households

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutz, James D.; Liu, Xiaomin; McMahon, James E.; Dunham, Camilla; Shown, Leslie J.; McCure, Quandra T.

    1996-01-01

    This report presents a detailed model of hot water use patterns in individual households. The model improves upon an existing model by including the effects of four conditions that were previously unaccounted for: the absence of a clothes washer; the absence of a dishwasher; a household consisting of seniors only; and a household that does not pay for its own hot water use. Although these four conditions can significantly affect residential hot water use, and have been noted in other studies, this is the first time that they have been incorporated into a detailed model. This model allows detailed evaluation of the impact of potential efficiency standards for water heaters and other market transformation policies.

  11. Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes Case Study: Addressing Multifamily Piping Losses with Solar Hot Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Springer, M. Seitzler, and C. Backman

    2016-12-01

    Sun Light & Power, a San Francisco Bay Area solar design-build contractor, teamed with the U.S. Department of Energy’s Building America partner the Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI) to study this heat-loss issue. The team added three-way valves to the solar water heating systems for two 40-unit multifamily buildings. In these systems, when the stored solar hot water is warmer than the recirculated hot water returning from the buildings, the valves divert the returning water to the solar storage tank instead of the water heater. This strategy allows solar-generated heat to be applied to recirculation heat loss in addition to heating water that is consumed by fixtures and appliances.

  12. Lanthanoid abundance of some neutral hot spring waters in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikawada, Yoshikazu; Oi, Takao; Honda, Teruyuki

    1999-01-01

    Contents of lanthanoids (Ln's) in some neutral hot spring waters as well as in acidic hot spring waters were determined by neutron activation analysis. It was found that a higher pH resulted in lower concentrations of Ln's; the value of correlation coefficient (r) between the logarithm of the concentration of Sm ([Sm]), chosen as the representative of Ln's, and the logarithm of pH was -0.90. The sum of [Al] and [Fe] was strongly correlated with [Ln]'s in the pH range of 1.3 and 8.8; the correlation was expressed as log[Sm] = 0.893 log([Al] + [Fe]) - 5.45 with the r value of 0.98. The sum of [Al] and [Fe] was thus a good measure of the Ln contents in acidic and neutral hot spring waters. The Ln abundance patterns of neutral hot spring waters with normal CO 2 concentrations had concave shapes with relative depletion in the middle-heavy Ln's and seemed to reflect the solubility of Ln carbonates. The neutral hot spring water with a high CO 2 content of 1,800 ppm showed a Ln pattern with a relative enrichment in the heavy Ln's and seemed to reflect the solubility of Ln's observed for CO 2 -rich solutions. (author)

  13. Upgrading of biomass by carbonization in hot compressed water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiwut Tanthapanichakoon

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Carbonization of biomass (corn cob in hot compressed water was performed using a small bomb reactor at temperature 300-350ºC and pressure 10-18 MPa for 30 min. Then, the solid product or biochar was subjected to various analyses in order to investigate the effects of the carbonization in hot compressed water on the characteristics of the biochar. It was found that the yield of biochar carbonized in hot compressed water at 350ºC and pressure of 10 MPa for 30 min was 44.7%, whereas the yield of biochar carbonized in nitrogen atmosphere at 350ºC is 36.4%. Based on the information obtained from the elemental analyses of the biochar, it was found that the oxygen functional groups in the corn cob were selectively decomposed during the carbonization in hot compressed water. The pyrolysis and combustion behaviors of the biochar were found to be affected significantly by the carbonization in hot compressed water.

  14. High performance in low-flow solar domestic hot water systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dayan, M.

    1997-12-31

    Low-flow solar hot water heating systems employ flow rates on the order of 1/5 to 1/10 of the conventional flow. Low-flow systems are of interest because the reduced flow rate allows smaller diameter tubing, which is less costly to install. Further, low-flow systems result in increased tank stratification. Lower collector inlet temperatures are achieved through stratification and the useful energy produced by the collector is increased. The disadvantage of low-flow systems is the collector heat removal factor decreases with decreasing flow rate. Many solar domestic hot water systems require an auxiliary electric source to operate a pump in order to circulate fluid through the solar collector. A photovoltaic driven pump can be used to replace the standard electrical pump. PV driven pumps provide an ideal means of controlling the flow rate, as pumps will only circulate fluid when there is sufficient radiation. Peak performance was always found to occur when the heat exchanger tank-side flow rate was approximately equal to the average load flow rate. For low collector-side flow rates, a small deviation from the optimum flow rate will dramatically effect system performance.

  15. The Use of Solar Energy for Preparing Domestic Hot Water in a Multi-Storey Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giedrius Šiupšinskas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the possibilities of solar collectors used for a domestic hot water system and installed on the roofs of modernized multi-storey buildings under the existing climate conditions. A number of combinations of flat plate and vacuum solar collectors with accumulation tank systems of various sizes have been examined. Heat from the district heating system is used as an additional heat source for preparing domestic hot water. The paper compares calculation results of energy and economy regarding the combinations of flat plate and vacuum solar collectors and the size of the accumulation tank. The influence of variations in the main indicators on the final economic results has also been evaluated. Research has been supported applying EC FP7 CONCERTO program (‘‘Sustainable Zero Carbon ECO-Town Developments Improving Quality of Life across EU - ECO-Life’’ (ECO-Life Project Contract No. TREN/FP7EN/239497/”ECOLIFE”.Article in Lithuanian

  16. Structure design of water discharge surge tank of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Fang; Hou Shuqiang

    2015-01-01

    Drainage is an important function of water discharge surge tank in nuclear power plant. There is little wall and beam inside the water discharge surge tank due to the requirement of major work, which is different from the general structure. Taking water discharge surge tank of nuclear power plant for example, concerned problems are expatiated in the structure scheme of water discharge surge tank, and important structural components are analyzed. Structural analysis model is established by ANSYS finite element analysis. A comprehensive and numerical analysis is performed for different combinations of structural model, and the internal force of structure is extracted. Finally, suggestions for design of similar structure are proposed. (authors)

  17. HDR flood-water storage-tank modal vibration tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorman, V.W.; Thinnes, G.L.

    1983-01-01

    Modal vibration tests were conducted by EG and G Idaho on two vessels located at West Germany's Heissdampfreaktor (HDR) facility which is 25 kilometers east of Frankfurt. The tests were performed during May and June 1982 for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) as part of their cooperative effort with Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (KfK) of West Germany. The primary purpose for performing this task was to determine modal properties (frequencies, mode shapes and associated damping ratios) in order to eventually provide guidelines for standards development by the NRC in modeling similar vessels. One of the vessels tested was a flood water storage tank (FWST) for empty, half full and full water conditions. The FWST was excited randomly with an electromagnetic shaker and by impulsive hammer blows. Excitation or input forces together with measured vessel responses were processed by a digital modal analyzer and stored on magnetic disks for subsequent evaluation

  18. Solar action: solar hot water in The Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van de Water, Adrie

    2001-01-01

    This paper focuses on the use of solar hot water systems in the Netherlands, and reports on the Dutch Solar Domestic Hot Water System agreement signed in 1999 and set up to enhance the development of the market for solar domestic hot water (SDHW) systems and their application as a sustainable energy source. The Dutch Thermal Solar Energy Programme's objectives and goals, the subsidy schemes for thermal solar energy administered by Senter - an agency of the Ministry of Economic Affairs (MEA), and the project-based and individual approaches to boosting the sales of SDHW systems are examined. Large system sales, the targeting of consumers via a national campaign, and national publicity using the slogan 'Sustainable energy. Goes without saying' commissioned by the MEA are discussed along with the support shown by the Dutch power distribution companies for SDHW systems, marketing aspects, and the outlook for sales of SDHW systems

  19. Thermal analysis and performance optimization of a solar hot water plant with economic evaluation

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Youngdeuk

    2012-05-01

    The main objective of this study is to optimize the long-term performance of an existing active-indirect solar hot water plant (SHWP), which supplies hot water at 65 °C for use in a flight kitchen, using a micro genetic algorithm in conjunction with a relatively detailed model of each component in the plant and solar radiation model based on the measured data. The performance of SHWP at Changi International Airport Services (CIASs), Singapore, is studied for better payback period using the monthly average hourly diffuse and beam radiations and ambient temperature data. The data input for solar radiation model is obtained from the Singapore Meteorological Service (SMS), and these data have been compared with long-term average data of NASA (surface meteorology and solar energy or SSE). The comparison shows a good agreement between the predicted and measured hourly-averaged, horizontal global radiation. The SHWP at CIAS, which comprises 1200m 2 of evacuated-tube collectors, 50m 3 water storage tanks and a gas-fired auxiliary boiler, is first analyzed using a baseline configuration, i.e., (i) the local solar insolation input, (ii) a coolant flow rate through the headers of collector based on ASHRAE standards, (iii) a thermal load demand pattern amounting to 100m 3/day, and (iv) the augmentation of water temperature by auxiliary when the supply temperature from solar tank drops below the set point. A comparison between the baseline configuration and the measured performance of CIAS plant gives reasonably good validation of the simulation code. Optimization is further carried out for the following parameters, namely; (i) total collector area of the plant, (ii) storage volume, and (iii) three daily thermal demands. These studies are performed for both the CIAS plant and a slightly modified plant where the hot water supply to the load is adjusted constant at times when the water temperature from tank may exceed the set temperature. It is found that the latter

  20. Thermal analysis and performance optimization of a solar hot water plant with economic evaluation

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Youngdeuk; Thu, Kyaw; Bhatia, Hitasha Kaur; Bhatia, Charanjit Singh; Ng, K. C.

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to optimize the long-term performance of an existing active-indirect solar hot water plant (SHWP), which supplies hot water at 65 °C for use in a flight kitchen, using a micro genetic algorithm in conjunction with a relatively detailed model of each component in the plant and solar radiation model based on the measured data. The performance of SHWP at Changi International Airport Services (CIASs), Singapore, is studied for better payback period using the monthly average hourly diffuse and beam radiations and ambient temperature data. The data input for solar radiation model is obtained from the Singapore Meteorological Service (SMS), and these data have been compared with long-term average data of NASA (surface meteorology and solar energy or SSE). The comparison shows a good agreement between the predicted and measured hourly-averaged, horizontal global radiation. The SHWP at CIAS, which comprises 1200m 2 of evacuated-tube collectors, 50m 3 water storage tanks and a gas-fired auxiliary boiler, is first analyzed using a baseline configuration, i.e., (i) the local solar insolation input, (ii) a coolant flow rate through the headers of collector based on ASHRAE standards, (iii) a thermal load demand pattern amounting to 100m 3/day, and (iv) the augmentation of water temperature by auxiliary when the supply temperature from solar tank drops below the set point. A comparison between the baseline configuration and the measured performance of CIAS plant gives reasonably good validation of the simulation code. Optimization is further carried out for the following parameters, namely; (i) total collector area of the plant, (ii) storage volume, and (iii) three daily thermal demands. These studies are performed for both the CIAS plant and a slightly modified plant where the hot water supply to the load is adjusted constant at times when the water temperature from tank may exceed the set temperature. It is found that the latter

  1. Natural radioactivity in hot and mineral waters in Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, I.; Abbass, M.; Kattan, Z.

    1994-08-01

    A study of water chemistry and radioactivity of hot and mineral ground waters was conducted in Syria in order to determine the natural radioactivity levels as well as the mobility process of major radionuclides in the studied systems. The water samples were collected generally from carbonate and basaltic aquifer systems. The chemistry of groundwaters was a reflection of the rock type, while no relationship was found between the radionuclide activities and water temperatures. The increase of 222 Rn concentration in hot and mineral waters was accompanied by a similar increase of the concentration of its patent radionuclides (U t ot and 226 Ra). In parallel, the relative increase of 222 Rn concentration was correlated significantly with the presence of the large faults systems prevailing in the studied areas (Palmyrides and Great African Faults Systems). In all the cases, the radionuclide activity levels were below the maximum contaminant levels given for drinking water and health effects. (author). 11 refs., 7 figs., 8 tabs

  2. NORTH PORTAL - HOT WATER CALCULATION - CHANGE HOUSE FACILITY NO.5008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackstone, R.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this design analysis and calculation is to determine the demand for hot water and to size the supply main piping for the Change House Facility No.5008 in accordance with the Uniform Plumbing Code (UPC) (Section 4.4.1) and U.S. Department of Energy Order 6430.1A-1540. The method used for the calculations is based on Section 4.4.1. The first step is to determine the maximum pressure drop between the most remote plumbing fixture and the main supply. The pressure drop for the hot water system is based on the total length of the supply piping from the cold water supply source through the water heater to the most remote hot water outlet. Equivalent fixture units are then assigned using Section 4.4.1. For hot water, the values are reduced by 25 percent in accordance with the UPC. The demand load in gpm is then determined based on the number of fixture units. The demand load and the pressure drop between the source and the most remote fixture is used to determine the pipe size and the corresponding friction losses for a given flow velocity not to exceed 10 feet/second

  3. An underwater robot controls water tanks in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lardiere, C.

    2015-01-01

    The enterprises Newton Research Labs and IHI Southwest Technologies have developed a robot equipped with sensors to inspect the inside walls (partially) and bottom of water tanks without being obliged to empty them. The robot called 'Inspector' is made up of 4 main components: a chassis with 4 independent steering wheels, a camera video system able to provide a 360 degree view, various non-destructive testing devices such as underwater laser scanners, automated ultra-sound or Foucault current probes and an operation system for both driving the robot and controlling the testing. The Inspector robot has been used to inspect the inside bottom of an operating condensate tank at the Palo Verde nuclear station. The robot was able to check all the welds joining the bottom plates and the welds between the walls and the bottom. The robot is also able to come back to the exact place where a defect was detected during a previous inspection. (A.C.)

  4. Corrosion analysis of decommissioned carbon steel waste water tanks at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soo, P.; Roberts, T.C.

    1995-07-01

    A corrosion analysis was carried out on available sections of carbon steels taken from two decommissioned radioactive waste water tanks at Brookhaven National Laboratory. One of the 100,000 gallon tanks suffered from a pinhole failure in the wall which was subsequently patched. From the analysis it was shown that this leak, and two adjacent leaks were initiated by a discarded copper heating coil that had been dropped into the tank during service. The failure mechanism is postulated to have been galvanic attack at points of contact between the tank structure and the coil. Other leaks in the two tanks are also described in this report

  5. Vaporization Rate Analysis of Primary Cooling Water from Reactor PUSPATI TRIGA (RTP) Tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonny Anak Lanyau; Mohd Fazli Zakaria; Yahya Ismail

    2011-01-01

    Primary cooling system consists of pumps, heat exchangers, probes, a nitrogen-16 diffuser and associated valves is connected to the reactor TRIGA PUSPATI (RTP) tank by aluminium pipes. Both the primary cooling system and the reactor tank is filled with demineralized light water (H 2 O), which serves as a coolant, moderator as well as shielding. During reactor operation, vaporization in the reactor tank will reduce the primary water and contribute to the formation of vapor in the reactor hall. The vaporization may influence the function of the water subsequently may affect the safety of the reactor operation. It is essential to know the vaporization rate of the primary water to ensure its functionality. This paper will present the vaporization rate of the primary cooling water from the reactor tank and the influence of temperature of the water in the reactor tank to the vaporization rate. (author)

  6. SEPTIC TANK SETBACK DISTANCES: A WAY TO MINIMIZE VIRUS CONTAMINATION OF DRINKING WATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Septic tanks are the most frequently reported causes of contamination in ground-water disease outbreaks associated with the consumption of untreated ground water in the United States. The placement of septic tanks is generally controlled by county-wide or state-wide regulations, ...

  7. Solar Hot Water Heating by Natural Convection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Richard D.

    1983-01-01

    Presents an undergraduate laboratory experiment in which a solar collector is used to heat water for domestic use. The working fluid is moved by natural convection so no pumps are required. Experimental apparatus is simple in design and operation so that data can be collected quickly and easily. (Author/JN)

  8. Solar heating, cooling, and domestic hot water system installed at Kaw Valley State Bank and Trust Company, Topeka, Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The building has approximately 5600 square feet of conditioned space. Solar energy was used for space heating, space cooling, and preheating domestic hot water (DHW). The solar energy system had an array of evacuated tube-type collectors with an area of 1068 square feet. A 50/50 solution of ethylene glycol and water was the transfer medium that delivered solar energy to a tube-in-shell heat exchanger that in turn delivered solar heated water to a 1100 gallon pressurized hot water storage tank. When solar energy was insufficient to satisfy the space heating and/or cooling demand, a natural gas-fired boiler provided auxiliary energy to the fan coil loops and/or the absorption chillers. Extracts from the site files, specification references, drawings, and installation, operation and maintenance instructions are presented.

  9. System design package for SIMS Prototype System 4, solar heating and domestic hot water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-11-01

    This report is a collation of documents and drawings that describe a prototype solar heating and hot water system using air type solar energy collection techniques. The system consists of a modular designed prepackaged solar unit containing solar collctors, a rock storage container, blowers, dampers, ducting, air-to-water heat exchanger, DHW preheat tank, piping and system controls. The system was designed to be installed adjacent to a small single family dwelling. The description, performance specification, subsystem drawings, verification plan/procedure, and hazard analysis of the system are packaged for evaluation of the system with inforation sufficient to assemble a similar system. The prepackage solar unit has been installed at the Mississippi Power and Light Company, Training Facilities, Clinton, Mississippi.

  10. Effects of sulphuric acid and hot water treatments on seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out to investigate the effects of sulphuric acid and hot water treatments on the germination of Tamarind (Tamarindus indica L). Seeds were placed on moistened filter papers in 28 cm diameter Petri dishes under laboratory condition for germination. 330 seeds of T. indica (10 seeds per Petri dish) with ...

  11. Investigations on stratification devices for hot water stores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa; Furbo, Simon; Hampel, Matthias

    2008-01-01

    The significance of the thermal stratification for the energy efficiency of small solar-thermal hot water heat stores is pointed out. Exemplary the thermal stratification build-up with devices already marketed as well as with devices still in development has been investigated experimentally...

  12. Effects of Hot Water Treatment and Temperature on Seedling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted at the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Maiduguri, to study the effect of hot water treatment and temperature on the morphological characteristics of Arabic gum. The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design in a factorial arrangement. The treatments included a ...

  13. The effect of hot water injection on sandstone permeability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbrand, Esther; Haugwitz, Christian; Jacobsen, Peter Sally Munch

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal energy storage can be achieved by hot water injection in geothermal sandstone aquifers. We present an analysis of literature data in combination with new short-term flow through permeability experiments in order to address physical and physico-chemical mechanisms that can alter...

  14. Metagenomic analysis of bacterial diversity of Siloam hot water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The bacterial diversity of Siloam hot water spring was determined using 454 pyrosequencing of two 16S rRNA variable regions V1-3 and V4-7. Analysis of the community DNA revealed that the phyla Proteobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Bacteriodetes, Planctomycetes, Firmicutes, Chloroflexi and Verrucomicrobia were the most ...

  15. Preliminary design package for solar heating and hot water system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    The preliminary design review on the development of a multi-family solar heating and domestic hot water prototype system is presented. The report contains the necessary information to evaluate the system. The system consists of the following subsystems: collector, storage, transport, control and Government-furnished site data acquisition.

  16. Residential CO{sub 2} heat pump system for combined space heating and hot water heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stene, Joern

    2004-02-01

    the inlet water temperature for the Dh preheating gas cooler unit. The lower the inlet temperature, the higher the Cop. The CO{sub 2} system will therefore achieve the highest COP at low city water temperatures, and when there is negligible mixing and minimum conductive heat transfer between the hot and cold water in the DHW tank during the tapping and charging periods. (5) The COP for the integrated CO{sub 2} heat pump is generally more sensitive to variations in the compressor efficiency than that of conventional brine/water-to-water heat pump systems. It is therefore of particular importance to apply a high-efficiency compressor. (6) At each operating mode and temperature programme, there will be an optimum gas cooler (high-side) pressure that leads to a maximum COP for the integrated CO{sub 2} heat pump. However, at moderate DHW temperatures, the heat pump can be operated at constant high-side pressure in all heating modes with only a minor reduction in the COP. This is favourable, since it simplifies the operation of the system and reduces the first cost. (7) During operation in the combined heating mode, the COP for the integrated CO{sub 2} heat pump may be higher than in the DHW heating mode due to similar temperature approaches at the cold outlet of the gas coolers and lower optimum high-side pressure. The higher the DHW temperature, the larger the COP difference for the operating modes. (8) The integrated CO{sub 2} heat pump system will be more complex than the state-of-the art residential heat pump systems due to the requirement for a tripartite gas cooler, extra valves and tubing for by-pass of fluids, an inverter controlled pump in the DHW circuit as well as an especially designed DHW storage tank. The application of optimum high-side pressure control will further increase the technical and operational complexity of the system. (9) Conductive heat transfer between the DHW and the cold city water in the storage tank during the tapping and charging periods

  17. Study on core make-up water experiment of AC600 make-up water tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Fuyun; Li Changlin; Zheng Hua; Liu Shaohua; Xu Xiaolan

    1999-01-01

    The core makeup tank (CMT) is a principal component of the passive high pressure safety injection systems for AC600 and has a function to inject cold borated water into reactor vessel during abnormal events. The purpose of this experiment is to verify the gravity drain behavior of the CMT and to provide experimental data to verify the computer codes used in the safety analyses. Five experiments with simulative small and medium break conditions are conducted at AC600 core makeup tank performance test facility of Nuclear Power Institute of China (NPIC). The author provides the results of one test. The simulated accident is a small break loss-of-coolant accident

  18. Evaporation heat transfer of hot water from horizontal free service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koizumi, Y.; Ebihara, Y.; Hirota, T.; Murase, M.

    2011-01-01

    Evaporation heat transfer from the hot water flow to the cold air flow in a horizontal duct was examined. Hot water was in the range of 35 o C ~ 65 o C. Cold air was approximately 25 o C. The air velocity was varied from 0.0656 m/s ~ 1.41 m/s. The heat transfer rate from the water flow to the air flow became large with an increase in the air velocity. The higher the water temperature was, the larger the heat transfer rate was. When the total heat flux from water to the air flow is divided into two terms; the evaporation term and the forced flow convection term, the evaporation term dominate main part and that is about 90 ~ 80 % of the total heat flux. The measured values of the evaporation term and the forced flow convection term were larger than the predicted because of the effect of the diffusion of evaporated vapor. The correlation to predict the heat transfer from the hot water flow to the cold air flow with the evaporation was developed by modifying the laminar flow mass transfer correlation and the laminar forced convection heat transfer correlation. Good results were obtained. (author)

  19. Evaporation heat transfer of hot water from horizontal free service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koizumi, Y.; Ebihara, Y.; Hirota, T. [Shinshu Univ., Ueda, Nagano (Japan); Murase, M. [INSS, Mihama-cho, Fukui (Japan)

    2011-07-01

    Evaporation heat transfer from the hot water flow to the cold air flow in a horizontal duct was examined. Hot water was in the range of 35{sup o}C ~ 65{sup o}C. Cold air was approximately 25{sup o}C. The air velocity was varied from 0.0656 m/s ~ 1.41 m/s. The heat transfer rate from the water flow to the air flow became large with an increase in the air velocity. The higher the water temperature was, the larger the heat transfer rate was. When the total heat flux from water to the air flow is divided into two terms; the evaporation term and the forced flow convection term, the evaporation term dominate main part and that is about 90 ~ 80 % of the total heat flux. The measured values of the evaporation term and the forced flow convection term were larger than the predicted because of the effect of the diffusion of evaporated vapor. The correlation to predict the heat transfer from the hot water flow to the cold air flow with the evaporation was developed by modifying the laminar flow mass transfer correlation and the laminar forced convection heat transfer correlation. Good results were obtained. (author)

  20. Neutral sodium/bicarbonate/sulfate hot waters in geothermal systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahon, W.A.J. (Dept. of Industrial and Scientific Research, Wairakei, New Zealand); Klyen, L.E.; Rhode, M.

    1980-03-01

    The least understood thermal water is a near neutral water which contains varying amounts of bicarbonate and sulfate as the major anions, low concentrations of chloride (< 30 ppM) and sodium as the major cation. In the past this water has been referred to as a sodium bicarbonate water but present studies suggest that the quantities of bicarbonate and sulfate in this water type are frequently of the same order. Of particular interest is the distribution and position of the sodium/bicarbonate/sulfate water in the same and different systems. Many hot springs in Indonesia, for example, discharge water of this composition. Present studies indicate that this water type can originate from high temperature reservoirs which form the secondary steam heated part of a normal high temperature geothermal system. The hydrological conditions producing these waters in geothermal systems are investigated and the relationship between the water type and vapor dominated systems is discussed. It is suggested that the major water type occurring in the so called vapor dominated parts of geothermal systems is this water. The water does not simply represent steam condensate, rather it consists essentially of meteoric water which has been steam heated. The water composition results from the interaction of carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide with meteoric water and the rocks confining this water in the aquifer.

  1. 46 CFR 63.25-3 - Electric hot water supply boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electric hot water supply boilers. 63.25-3 Section 63.25... water supply boilers. (a) Electric hot water supply boilers that have a capacity not greater than 454... section except the periodic testing required by paragraph (j) of this section. Electric hot water supply...

  2. Performance Monitoring of Residential Hot Water Distribution Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Anna; Lanzisera, Steven; Lutz, Jim; Fitting, Christian; Kloss, Margarita; Stiles, Christopher

    2014-08-11

    Current water distribution systems are designed such that users need to run the water for some time to achieve the desired temperature, wasting energy and water in the process. We developed a wireless sensor network for large-scale, long time-series monitoring of residential water end use. Our system consists of flow meters connected to wireless motes transmitting data to a central manager mote, which in turn posts data to our server via the internet. This project also demonstrates a reliable and flexible data collection system that could be configured for various other forms of end use metering in buildings. The purpose of this study was to determine water and energy use and waste in hot water distribution systems in California residences. We installed meters at every end use point and the water heater in 20 homes and collected 1s flow and temperature data over an 8 month period. For a typical shower and dishwasher events, approximately half the energy is wasted. This relatively low efficiency highlights the importance of further examining the energy and water waste in hot water distribution systems.

  3. Pore Water Extraction Test Near 241-SX Tank Farm at the Hanford Site, Washington, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberlein, Susan J.; Parker, Danny L.; Tabor, Cynthia L.; Holm, Melissa J.

    2013-01-01

    A proof-of-principle test is underway near the Hanford Site 241-SX Tank Farm. The test will evaluate a potential remediation technology that will use tank farm-deployable equipment to remove contaminated pore water from vadose zone soils. The test system was designed and built to address the constraints of working within a tank farm. Due to radioactive soil contamination and limitations in drilling near tanks, small-diameter direct push drilling techniques applicable to tank farms are being utilized for well placement. To address space and weight limitations in working around tanks and obstacles within tank farms, the above ground portions of the test system have been constructed to allow deployment flexibility. The test system utilizes low vacuum over a sealed well screen to establish flow into an extraction well. Extracted pore water is collected in a well sump,and then pumped to the surface using a small-diameter bladder pump.If pore water extraction using this system can be successfully demonstrated, it may be possible to target local contamination in the vadose zone around underground storage tanks. It is anticipated that the results of this proof-of-principle test will support future decision making regarding interim and final actions for soil contamination within the tank farms

  4. Economics of residential solar hot water heating systems in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdulmula, Ahmed Mohamed Omer; Sopian, Kamaruzzaman; Haj Othman, Mohd Yosof

    2006-01-01

    Malaysia has favorable climatic conditions for the development of solar energy due to the abundant sunshine and is considered good for harnessing energy from the sun. This is because solar hot water can represent the large energy consumer in Malaysian households but, because of the high initial cost of Solar Water Heating Systems (SWHSs) and easily to install and relatively inexpensive to purchase electric water heaters, many Malyaysian families are still using Electric Water Heaters to hot their water needs. This paper is presented the comparing of techno-economic feasibility of some models of SWHS from Malaysian's market with the Electric Water Heaters )EWH) by study the annual cost of operation for both systems. The result shows that the annual cost of the electrical water heater becomes greater than than the annual cost of the SWHS for all models in long-team run so it is advantageous for the family to use the solar water heater, at least after 4 years. In addition with installation SWHS the families can get long-term economical benefits, environment friendly and also can doing its part to reduce this country's dependence on foreign oil that is price increase day after day.(Author)

  5. Dynamic Response of Ground Supported Rectangular Water Tanks ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bheema

    Hence, there is a need to understand the behavior of liquid retaining tanks and to ... reduction factor for the mass of the tank wall in order to compensate for the conservatism in ... to lack of uniform stress distribution that leads to local failure.

  6. Thermomechanical finite element analysis of hot water boiler structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Dragoljub S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an application of the Finite Elements Method for stress and strain analysis of the hot water boiler structure. The aim of the research was to investigate the influence of the boiler scale on the thermal stresses and strains of the structure of hot water boilers. Results show that maximum thermal stresses appear in the zone of the pipe carrying wall of the first reversing chamber. This indicates that the most critical part of the boiler are weld spots of the smoke pipes and pipe carrying plate, which in the case of significant scale deposits can lead to cracks in the welds and water leakage from the boiler. The nonlinear effects were taken into account by defining the bilinear isotropic hardening model for all boiler elements. Temperature dependency was defined for all relevant material properties, i. e. isotropic coefficient of thermal expansion, Young’s modulus, and isotropic thermal conductivity. The verification of the FEA model was performed by comparing the measured deformations of the hot water boiler with the simulation results. As a reference object, a Viessmann - Vitomax 200 HW boiler was used, with the installed power of 18.2 MW. CAD modeling was done within the Autodesk Inventor, and stress and strain analysis was performed in the ANSYS Software.

  7. Forecasting HotWater Consumption in Residential Houses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linas Gelažanskas

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available An increased number of intermittent renewables poses a threat to the system balance. As a result, new tools and concepts, like advanced demand-side management and smart grid technologies, are required for the demand to meet supply. There is a need for higher consumer awareness and automatic response to a shortage or surplus of electricity. The distributed water heater can be considered as one of the most energy-intensive devices, where its energy demand is shiftable in time without influencing the comfort level. Tailored hot water usage predictions and advanced control techniques could enable these devices to supply ancillary energy balancing services. The paper analyses a set of hot water consumption data from residential dwellings. This work is an important foundation for the development of a demand-side management strategy based on hot water consumption forecasting at the level of individual residential houses. Various forecasting models, such as exponential smoothing, seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average, seasonal decomposition and a combination of them, are fitted to test different prediction techniques. These models outperform the chosen benchmark models (mean, naive and seasonal naive and show better performance measure values. The results suggest that seasonal decomposition of the time series plays the most significant part in the accuracy of forecasting.

  8. EBR-II Primary Tank Wash-Water Alternatives Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demmer, R. L.; Heintzelman, J. B.; Merservey, R. H.; Squires, L. N.

    2008-05-01

    The EBR-II reactor at Idaho National Laboratory was a liquid sodium metal cooled reactor that operated for 30 years. It was shut down in 1994; the fuel was removed by 1996; and the bulk of sodium metal coolant was removed from the reactor by 2001. Approximately 1100 kg of residual sodium remained in the primary system after draining the bulk sodium. To stabilize the remaining sodium, both the primary and secondary systems were treated with a purge of moist carbon dioxide. Most of the residual sodium reacted with the carbon dioxide and water vapor to form a passivation layer of primarily sodium bicarbonate. The passivation treatment was stopped in 2005 and the primary system is maintained under a blanket of dry carbon dioxide. Approximately 670 kg of sodium metal remains in the primary system in locations that were inaccessible to passivation treatment or in pools of sodium that were too deep for complete penetration of the passivation treatment. The EBR-II reactor was permitted by the Idaho Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) in 2002 under a RCRA permit that requires removal of all remaining sodium in the primary and secondary systems by 2022. The proposed baseline closure method would remove the large components from the primary tank, fill the primary system with water, react the remaining sodium with the water and dissolve the reaction products in the wash water. This method would generate a minimum of 100,000 gallons of caustic, liquid, low level radioactive, hazardous waste water that must be disposed of in a permitted facility. On February 19-20, 2008, a workshop was held in Idaho Falls, Idaho, to look at alternatives that could meet the RCRA permit clean closure requirements and minimize the quantity of hazardous waste generated by the cleanup process. The workshop convened a panel of national and international sodium cleanup specialists, subject matter experts from the INL, and the EBR-II Wash Water Project team that organized the workshop. The

  9. Operation Performance of Central Solar Heating System with Seasonal Storage Water Tank in Harbin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Ling; JIANG Yi-qiang; YAO Yang; ZHANG Shi-cong

    2009-01-01

    This paper presented a preliminary research on the central solar heating system with seasonal stor-age(CSHSSS)used in cold climate in China.A mathematical model of the solar energy seasonal storage water tank used in the central solar heating system was firstly developed based on energy conservation.This was fol-lowed by the simulation of the CSHSSS used in a two-floor villa in Harbin,and analysis of the impacts on storage water temperature of tank volume,solar collector area,tank burial depth,insulation thickness around the tank,etc.The results show there is a relatively economical tank volume to optimize the system efficiency,which de-creases with increasing tank volume at the constant collector area,and increases with increasing collector area at the constant tank volume.Furthermore,the insulation thickness has obvious effect on avoiding heat loss,while the tank burial depth doesn't.In addition-the relationship between the solar collector efficiency and storage wa-ter temperature is also obtained,it decreases quickly with increasing storing water temperature,and then in-creases slowly after starting space heating system.These may be helpful for relevant design and optimization in cold climates in China and all over the world.

  10. Effect of temperature on anaerobic treatment of black water in UASB-septic tank systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luostarinen, S.; Sanders, W.T.M.; Kujawa-Roeleveld, K.; Zeeman, G.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of northern European seasonal temperature changes and low temperature on the performance of upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB)-septic tanks treating black water was studied. Three UASB-septic tanks were monitored with different operational parameters and at different temperatures. The

  11. Influence of tanks liner material on water quality and growth of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three tank liner materials: polyvinylchloride (PVC), polyethylene and polyester were evaluated in a 93 days experiment for their influence on culture water quality and growth performance of Clarias gariepinus. Fish of average weight of 5.03±0.21g were stocked at 375 per m3 in tanks lined with the aforementioned materials.

  12. Water velocity in commercial RAS culture tanks for Atlantic salmon smolt production

    Science.gov (United States)

    An optimal flow domain in culture tanks is vital for fish growth and welfare. This paper presents empirical data on rotational velocity and water quality in circular and octagonal tanks at two large commercial smolt production sites, with an approximate production rate of 1000 and 1300 ton smolt ann...

  13. Evaluations of different domestic hot water preparing methods with ultra-low-temperature district heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Xiaochen; Li, Hongwei; Svendsen, Svend

    2016-01-01

    of Legionella in the DHW (domestic hot water) and assure the comfortable temperature, all substations were installed with supplementary heating devices. Detailed measurements were taken in the substations, including the electricity demand of the supplementary heating devices. To compare the energy and economic......This study investigated the performances of five different substation configurations in single-family houses supplied with ULTDH (ultra-low-temperature district heating). The temperature at the heat plant is 46 degrees C and around 40 degrees C at the substations. To avoid the proliferation...... performance of the substations, separate models were built based on standard assumptions. The relative heat and electricity delivered for preparing DHW were calculated. The results showed that substations with storage tanks and heat pumps have high relative electricity demand, which leads to higher integrated...

  14. Achieving low return temperature for domestic hot water preparation by ultra-low-temperature district heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Xiaochen; Svendsen, Svend

    2017-01-01

    District heating (DH) is a cost-effective method of heat supply, especially to area with high heat density. Ultra-low-temperature district heating (ULTDH) is defined with supply temperature at 35-45 degrees C. It aims at making utmost use of the available low-temperature energy sources. In order...... to achieve high efficiency of the ULTDH system, the return temperature should be as low as possible. For the energy-efficient buildings in the future, it is feasible to use ULTDH to cover the space heating demand. However, considering the comfort and hygiene requirements of domestic hot water (DHW...... lower return temperature and higher efficiency for DHW supply, an innovative substation was devised, which replaced the bypass with an instantaneous heat exchanger and a micro electric storage tank. The energy performance of the proposed substation and the resulting benefits for the DH system...

  15. Surprisingly low natural gas consumption for hot water in the Netherlands in 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geerse, C.

    1997-01-01

    The Dutch use hot water more efficient than previously expected. This conclusion is drawn from a recent study of hot water consumption in Dutch households and the corresponding natural gas consumption. Based on that (once-only) hot water use survey the hot water use models, as applied in the annual Basic Survey of Natural Gas Consumption of Small-scale Consumers in the Netherlands (BAK), will be modified. 6 tabs

  16. Shear rate analysis of water dynamic in the continuous stirred tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulus; Mardiningsih; Sawaluddin; Sitompul, O. S.; Ihsan, A. K. A. M.

    2018-02-01

    Analysis of mixture in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) is an important part in some process of biogas production. This paper is a preliminary study of fluid dynamic phenomenon in a continuous stirred tank numerically. The tank is designed in the form of cylindrical tank equipped with a stirrer. In this study, it is considered that the tank is filled with water. Stirring is done with a stirring speed of 10rpm, 15rpm, 20rpm, and 25rpm. Mathematical modeling of stirred tank is derived. The model is calculated by using the finite element method that are calculated using CFD software. The result shows that the shear rate is high on the front end portion of the stirrer. The maximum shear rate tend to a stable behaviour after the stirring time of 2 second. The relation between the speed and the maximum shear rate is in the form of linear equation.

  17. Twin cities institutional issues study cogenerated hot water district heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundberg, R. E.; Leas, R.; Kolb, J. O.

    1979-01-01

    Community district heating, utilizing hot water produced through electrical/thermal cogeneration, is seen as an integral part of Minnesota's Energy Policy and Conservation Plan. Several studies have been conducted which consider the technical and institutional issues affecting implementation of cogenerated district heating in the Minneapolis and St. Paul Metropolitan Area. The state of the technical art of cogenerated hot water district heating is assumed to be transferable from European experience. Institutional questions relating to such factors as the form of ownership, financing, operation, regulation, and product marketability cannot be transferred from the European experience, and have been the subject of an extensive investigation. The form and function of the Institutional Issues Study, and some of the preliminary conclusions and recommendations resulting from the study are discussed.

  18. Elemental Water Impact Test: Phase 2 36-Inch Aluminum Tank Head

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassilakos, Gregory J.

    2014-01-01

    Spacecraft are being designed based on LS-DYNA simulations of water landing impacts. The Elemental Water Impact Test (EWIT) series was undertaken to assess the accuracy of LS-DYNA water impact simulations. EWIT Phase 2 featured a 36-inch aluminum tank head. The tank head was outfitted with one accelerometer, twelve pressure transducers, three string potentiometers, and four strain gages. The tank head was dropped from heights of 1 foot and 2 feet. The focus of this report is the correlation of analytical models against test data. As a measure of prediction accuracy, peak responses from the baseline LS-DYNA model were compared to peak responses from the tests.

  19. Solubility of solid ferrocene in pressurized hot water

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Karásek, Pavel; Hohnová, Barbora; Planeta, Josef; Roth, Michal

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 8 (2010), s. 2866-2869 ISSN 0021-9568 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/07/0886; GA ČR GA203/08/1465; GA ČR GA203/08/1536 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : pressurized hot water * ferrocene * solubility Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.089, year: 2010

  20. Solubilities of oxygenated aromatic solids in pressurized hot water

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Karásek, Pavel; Planeta, Josef; Roth, Michal

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 5 (2009), s. 1457-1461 ISSN 0021-9568 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/07/0886; GA ČR GA203/08/1536 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : oxygenated aromatics * solubility * pressurized hot water Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 1.695, year: 2009

  1. Preliminary design package for solar hot water system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fogle, Val; Aspinwall, David B.

    1977-12-01

    The information necessary to evaluate the preliminary design of the Solar Engineering and Manufacturing Company's (SEMCO) solar hot water system is presented. This package includes technical information, schematics, drawings and brochures. This system, being developed by SEMCO, consists of the following subsystems: collector, storage, transport, control, auxiliary energy, and Government-furnished site data acquisition. The two units being manufactured will be installed at Loxahatchee, Florida, and Macon, Georgia.

  2. Investigation of remote sensing scale up for hot cell waste tank applications. CPAC optical moisture monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, P.L.

    1994-01-01

    This report discusses work done to investigate the feasibility of using non-contact optical absorption to remotely sense the surface moisture content of salt cake materials. Optical measurements were made in a dimensionally scaled setup to investigate this technique for in-situ waste tank applications. Moisture measurements were obtained from BY-104 simulant samples with 0 wt%, 10 wt%, and 20 wt% moisture content using the back-scattered light from a pulsed infrared optical parametric converter (OPC) laser source operating from 1.51 to 2.12 micron. An InGaAs detector, with 0.038 steradian solid angle (hemisphere = 6.28 steradians) collection angle was used to detect the back-scattered light. This work indicated that there was sufficient back-scatter from the BY-104 material to provide an indication of the surface moisture content

  3. Solar Hot Water System Matter in Turkey (Mersin Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müjgan ŞEREFHANOĞLU SÖZEN

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available When the effects of sustainability on the construction sector have been taken into consideration, solar active systems on buildings emerge as an important design issue in the context of renewal energy usage. Solar hot water systems such as those widely used in Turkey are inefficient and have a negative effect on a building’s aesthetic and the urban view in general because of the poor quality of installation. Natural circulated open loop systems are commonly used, particularly in the south of Turkey, as they are highly economical and require no regulation to install. Solar hot water systems tend to be clustered together on the roofs, causing visual pollution, and this situation arises largely because are not considered part of the architectural design. It is therefore important to consider the negative effects of such systems in the form of treatment studies. This study aims to determine the positive effects that will be gained by the renovation of solar hot water systems in Mersin, a city in the southern region of Turkey.

  4. influence of tanks liner material on water quality and growth

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR A O AKINWOLE

    light of current government efforts to accelerate the growth of aquaculture, there ... plywood, cement blocks, epoxy coated steel, rubber, plastic sheeting or any ... The rectangular shaped wooden frames for the tanks were constructed each with.

  5. Organic Tank Safety Project: Effect of water partial pressure on the equilibrium water content of waste samples from Hanford Tank 241-U-105

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheele, R.D.; Bredt, P.R.; Sell, R.L.

    1997-09-01

    Water content plays a crucial role in the strategy developed by Webb et al. to prevent propagating or sustainable chemical reactions in the organic-bearing wastes stored in the 20 Organic Tank Watch List tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy''s Hanford Site. Because of water''s importance in ensuring that the organic-bearing wastes continue to be stored safely, Duke Engineering and Services Hanford commissioned the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to investigate the effect of water partial pressure (P H2O ) on the water content of organic-bearing or representative wastes. Of the various interrelated controlling factors affecting the water content in wastes, P H2O is the most susceptible to being controlled by the and Hanford Site''s environmental conditions and, if necessary, could be managed to maintain the water content at an acceptable level or could be used to adjust the water content back to an acceptable level. Of the various waste types resulting from weapons production and waste-management operations at the Hanford Site, determined that saltcake wastes are the most likely to require active management to maintain the wastes in a Conditionally Safe condition. Webb et al. identified Tank U-105 as a Conditionally Safe saltcake tank. A Conditionally Safe waste is one that is currently safe based on waste classification criteria but could, if dried, be classified as open-quotes Unsafe.close quotes To provide information on the behavior of organic-bearing wastes, the Westinghouse Hanford Company provided us with four waste samples taken from Tank 241-U-105 (U-105) to determine the effect of P H2O on their equilibrium water content

  6. The modified swirl sedimentation tanks for water purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochowiak, Marek; Matuszak, Magdalena; Włodarczak, Sylwia; Ancukiewicz, Małgorzata; Krupińska, Andżelika

    2017-03-15

    This paper discusses design, evaluation, and application for the use of swirl/vortex technologies as liquid purification system. A study was performed using modified swirl sedimentation tanks. The vortex separators (OW, OWK, OWR and OWKR) have been studied under laboratory conditions at liquid flow rate from 2.8⋅10 -5 to 5.1⋅10 -4 [m 3 /s]. The pressure drop and the efficiency of purification of liquid stream were analyzed. The suspended particles of different diameters were successfully removed from liquid with the application of swirl chambers of proposed constructions. It was found that damming of liquid in the tank increases alongside liquid stream at the inlet and depends on the tank construction. The efficiency of the sedimentation tanks increases alongside the diameters of solid particles and decrease in the liquid flow rate. The best construction proved to be the OWR sedimentation tank due to smallest liquid damming, even at high flow rates, and the highest efficiency of the purification liquid stream for solid particles of the smallest diameter. The proposed solution is an alternative to the classical constructions of sedimentation tanks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Legionella contamination in hot water of Italian hotels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borella, Paola; Montagna, Maria Teresa; Stampi, Serena; Stancanelli, Giovanna; Romano-Spica, Vincenzo; Triassi, Maria; Marchesi, Isabella; Bargellini, Annalisa; Tatò, Daniela; Napoli, Christian; Zanetti, Franca; Leoni, Erica; Moro, Matteo; Scaltriti, Stefania; Ribera D'Alcalà, Gabriella; Santarpia, Rosalba; Boccia, Stefania

    2005-10-01

    A cross-sectional multicenter survey of Italian hotels was conducted to investigate Legionella spp. contamination of hot water. Chemical parameters (hardness, free chlorine concentration, and trace element concentrations), water systems, and building characteristics were evaluated to study risk factors for colonization. The hot water systems of Italian hotels were strongly colonized by Legionella; 75% of the buildings examined and 60% of the water samples were contaminated, mainly at levels of > or =10(3) CFU liter(-1), and Legionella pneumophila was the most frequently isolated species (87%). L. pneumophila serogroup 1 was isolated from 45.8% of the contaminated sites and from 32.5% of the hotels examined. When a multivariate logistic model was used, only hotel age was associated with contamination, but the risk factors differed depending on the contaminating species and serogroup. Soft water with higher chlorine levels and higher temperatures were associated with L. pneumophila serogroup 1 colonization, whereas the opposite was observed for serogroups 2 to 14. In conclusion, Italian hotels, particularly those located in old buildings, represent a major source of risk for Legionnaires' disease due to the high frequency of Legionella contamination, high germ concentration, and major L. pneumophila serogroup 1 colonization. The possible role of chlorine in favoring the survival of Legionella species is discussed.

  8. How to repel hot water from a superhydrophobic surface?

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Zhejun

    2014-01-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces, with water contact angles greater than 150° and slide angles less than 10°, have attracted a great deal of attention due to their self-cleaning ability and excellent water-repellency. It is commonly accepted that a superhydrophobic surface loses its superhydrophobicity in contact with water hotter than 50 °C. Such a phenomenon was recently demonstrated by Liu et al. [J. Mater. Chem., 2009, 19, 5602], using both natural lotus leaf and artificial leaf-like surfaces. However, our work has shown that superhydrophobic surfaces maintained their superhydrophobicity, even in water at 80 °C, provided that the leaf temperature is greater than that of the water droplet. In this paper, we report on the wettability of water droplets on superhydrophobic thin films, as a function of both their temperatures. The results have shown that both the water contact and slide angles on the surfaces will remain unchanged when the temperature of the water droplet is greater than that of the surface. The water contact angle, or the slide angle, will decrease or increase, however, with droplet temperatures increasingly greater than that of the surfaces. We propose that, in such cases, the loss of superhydrophobicity of the surfaces is caused by evaporation of the hot water molecules and their condensation on the cooler surface. © 2014 the Partner Organisations.

  9. HEAT LOSS FROM HOT WATER SUPPLY LINE IN A RESIDENTIAL BUILDING

    OpenAIRE

    近藤, 修平; 鉾井, 修一

    2011-01-01

    In order to the evaluate heat loss from hot water supply lines in a residential building, hot water demand in a house in Chiba prefecture was measured and analyzed. The following results were obtained. 1. The heat loss of the hot water supply line was about 132kJ for the shower and 110kJ for the bathtub in winter. Since the temperature difference between the inlet and outlet of the hot water supply line is small, the measured heat loss from the hot water supply line sometimes becomes negative...

  10. Practical guidelines for small-volume additions of uninhibited water to waste storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, T.C.; Wiersma, B.J.; Zapp, P.E.; Pike, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    Allowable volumes of uninhibited water additions to waste tanks are limited to volumes in which hydroxide and nitrite inhibitors reach required concentrations by diffusion from the bulk waste within five days. This diffusion process was modeled conservatively by Fick's second law of diffusion. The solution to the model was applied to all applicable conditions which exist in the waste tanks. Plant engineers adapted and incorporated the results into a practical working procedure for controlling and monitoring the addition of uninhibited water. Research, technical support, and field engineers worked together to produce an effective solution to a potential waste tank corrosion problem

  11. EBR-II Primary Tank Wash-Water Alternatives Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demmer, R.; Heintzelman, J.; Squires, L.; Meservey, R.

    2009-01-01

    The EBR-II reactor at Idaho National Laboratory was a liquid sodium metal cooled reactor that operated for 30 years. Approximately 1100 kg of residual sodium remained in the primary system after draining the bulk sodium. To stabilize the remaining sodium, both the primary and secondary systems were treated with a purge of moist carbon dioxide. The passivation treatment was stopped in 2005 and the primary system is maintained under a blanket of dry carbon dioxide. Approximately 670 kg of sodium metal remains in the primary system in locations that were inaccessible to passivation treatment or in pools of sodium that were too deep for complete penetration of the passivation treatment. The EBR-II reactor was permitted by the Idaho Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) in 2002 under a RCRA permit that requires removal of all remaining sodium. The proposed baseline closure method would remove the large components from the primary tank, fill the primary system with water, react the remaining sodium with the water and dissolve the reaction products in about 100,000 gallons of wash water. On February 19-20, 2008, a workshop was held in Idaho Falls, Idaho, to evaluate alternatives that could meet the RCRA permit clean closure requirements and minimize the quantity of hazardous waste generated by the cleanup process. The workshop convened a panel of national and international sodium cleanup specialists, subject matter experts from the INL, and the EBR-II Wash Water Project team that organized the workshop. The workshop was conducted by a trained facilitator using Value Engineering techniques to elicit the most technically sound solutions from the workshop participants. A brainstorming session was held to identify possible alternative treatment methods that would meet the primary functions and criteria of neutralizing the hazards, maximizing byproduct removal and minimizing waste generation. An initial list of some 20 probable alternatives was evaluated and refined down

  12. STS-55 crewmembers repair waste water tank under OV-102's middeck subfloor

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    STS-55 Pilot Terence T. Henricks uses a spotlight and pen to point out a possible problem area on a waste water tank in the bilge area below Columbia's, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102's, middeck. Mission Specialist 1 (MS1) and Payload Commander (PLC) Jerry L. Ross records the activity with a video camcorder. The crewmembers are participating in an inflight maintenance (IFM) exercise to counter problems experienced with the waste water tank.

  13. Potential Energy Flexibility for a Hot-Water Based Heating System in Smart Buildings Via Economic Model Predictive Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Awadelrahman M. A.; Zong, Yi; Mihet-Popa, Lucian

    2017-01-01

    This paper studies the potential of shifting the heating energy consumption in a residential building to low price periods based on varying electricity price signals suing Economic Model Predictive Control strategy. The investigated heating system consists of a heat pump incorporated with a hot...... water tank as active thermal energy storage, where two optimization problems are integrated together to optimize both the heat pump electricity consumption and the building heating consumption. A sensitivity analysis for the system flexibility is examined. The results revealed that the proposed...

  14. Dismantling the activated annular water tank of the Rheinsberg nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klietz, Maik; Konitzer, Arnold; Luedeke, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Acting on behalf of Energiewerke Nord GmbH Lubmin, Anlagen- und Kraftwerksrohrleitungsbau Greifswald GmbH (AKB) planned and built a station for disassembly of the activated annular water tank (RWB) of the decommissioned Rheinsberg nuclear power plant. As part of this demolition step, the annular water tank must be conditioned and disposed of as a component of the reactor facility. This required planning, manufacturing, testing and construction on site of suitable disassembly and handling techniques and the necessary plant and equipment. The client opted for disassembly by means of a diamond cable saw for conditioning the annular water tank into segments fit for shipping, and defined the basic components for the disassembly station in a specification of deliveries and services. The disassembly station serves to divide the annular water tank by means of diamond cable saws into 2 sections in such a way that segment pieces for transport are produced. The existing activation of the annular water tank also entailed the need to plan for the shortest possible time to be spent on handling near the annular water tank, providing radiological protection to the personnel, and performing the sawing steps from a separate operating console assisted by camera surveillance. After works acceptance tests at the manufacturer's, AKB, in October 2009 and February 2010, the disassembly station was delivered to the customer at Rheinsberg KKR free from defects in June 2010. (orig.)

  15. Thermal Performance of a Large Low Flow Solar Heating System with a Highly Thermally Stratified Tank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Vejen, Niels Kristian; Shah, Louise Jivan

    2005-01-01

    are facing west. The collector tilt is 15° from horizontal for all collectors. Both the east-facing and the west-facing collectors have their own solar collector loop, circulation pump, external heat exchanger and control system. The external heat exchangers are used to transfer the heat from the solar......In year 2000 a 336 m² solar domestic hot water system was built in Sundparken, Elsinore, Denmark. The solar heating system is a low flow system with a 10000 l hot-water tank. Due to the orientation of the buildings half of the solar collectors are facing east, half of the solar collectors...... collector fluid to the domestic water. The domestic water is pumped from the bottom of the hot-water tank to the heat exchanger and back to the hot-water tank through stratification inlet pipes. The return flow from the DHW circulation pipe also enters the tank through stratification inlet pipes. The tank...

  16. Validation of a simulation method for forced circulation type of solar domestic hot water heating systems; Kyosei junkangata taiyonetsu kyuto system simulation hoho no kensho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, M; Udagawa, M [Kogakuin University, Tokyo (Japan); Matsumoto, T [Yazaki Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    Simulation of solar hot water systems using element model was conducted, in which computation of the convergence of apparatus characteristic values was performed every hour. For each apparatus, the outlet temperature was made a function of the inlet temperature on the basis of the heat balance, from which a simultaneous equation was derived and then solved for the determination of the outlet temperature for the computation of the quantity of heat collected by each apparatus. The actually measured system comprises a planar solar collector, heat storage tank, and heat collector piping. The measurement involved a direct heat collecting system with the medium running from the heat storage tank bottom layer, through the solar collector, and then back to the heat storage tank third layer, and an indirect heat collector system with a heat exchanger provided at the heat storage tank bottom layer. There was no substantial difference between the direct type and the indirect type with respect to the solar collector inlet and outlet temperatures, quantity of heat collected, and the fluctuation in heat storage tank inside temperature distribution relative to time. Difference occurred between the two in tank water temperature distribution, however, when water was extracted in great volume at a time. The quantity of the heat collected by each of the two and the daily integration of the same differed but a little from computed values. 4 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Tank bromeliad water: similar or distinct environments for research of bacterial bioactives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmo, F L; Santos, H F; Peixoto, R S; Rosado, A S; Araujo, F V

    2014-01-01

    The Atlantic Rainforest does not have a uniform physiognomy, its relief determines different environmental conditions that define the composition of its flora and fauna. Within this ecosystem, bromeliads that form tanks with their leaves hold water reservoirs throughout the year, maintaining complex food chains, based mainly on autotrophic and heterotrophic bacteria. Some works concluded that the water held by tank bromeliads concentrate the microbial diversity of their ecosystem. To investigate the bacterial diversity and the potential biotechnology of these ecosystems, tank bromeliads of the Neoregelia cruenta species from the Atlantic Rainforest in Brazil were used as models for this research. Bacteria isolated from these models were tested for production of bioactive compounds. DGGE of the water held by tank bromeliads was performed in different seasons, locations and sun exposure to verify whether these environmental factors affect bacterial communities. The DGGE bands profile showed no grouping of bacterial community by the environmental factors tested. Most of the isolates demonstrated promising activities in the tests performed. Collectively, these results suggest that tank bromeliads of the N. cruenta species provide important habitats for a diverse microbial community, suggesting that each tank forms a distinct micro-habitat. These tanks can be considered excellent sources for the search for new enzymes and/or new bioactive composites of microbial origin.

  18. Sludge accumulation and conversion to methane in a septic tank treating domestic wastewater or black water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmitwalli, Tarek

    2013-01-01

    Although the septic tank is the most applied on-site system for wastewater pre-treatment, limited research has been performed to determine sludge accumulation and biogas production in the tank. Therefore a dynamic mathematical model based on the Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1) was developed for anaerobic digestion of the accumulated sludge in a septic tank treating domestic wastewater or black water. The results showed that influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of the tank mainly control the filling time with sludge, while operational temperature governs characteristics of the accumulated sludge and conversion to methane. For obtaining stable sludge and high conversion, the tank needs to be operated for a period more than a year without sludge wasting. Maximum conversion to methane in the tank is about 50 and 60% for domestic wastewater and black water, respectively. The required period for sludge wasting depends on the influent COD concentration and the HRT, while characteristics of the wasted sludge are affected by operational temperature followed by the influent COD concentration and the HRT. Sludge production from the tank ranges between 0.19 to 0.22 and 0.13 to 0.15 L/(person.d), for the domestic wastewater and black water, respectively.

  19. Cold-Climate Solar Domestic Hot Water Systems Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burch, J.; Salasovich, J.; Hillman, T.

    2005-11-01

    The Solar Heating and Lighting Sub-program has set the key goal to reduce the cost of saved energy [Csav, defined as (total cost, $)/(total discounted savings, kWh_thermal)] for solar domestic water heaters (SDWH) by at least 50%. To determine if this goal is attainable and prioritize R&D for cold-climate SDWH, life-cycle analyses were done with hypothetical lower-cost components in glycol, drainback, and thermosiphon systems. Balance-of-system (BOS, everything but the collector) measures included replacing metal components with polymeric versions and system simplification. With all BOS measures in place, Csav could be reduced more than 50% with a low-cost, selectively-coated, glazed polymeric collector, and slightly less than 50% with either a conventional selective metal-glass or a non-selective glazed polymer collector. The largest percent reduction in Csav comes from replacing conventional pressurized solar storage tanks and metal heat exchangers with un-pressurized polymer tanks with immersed polymer heat exchangers, which could be developed with relatively low-risk R&D.

  20. Recreational Vehicle Water Tanks as a Possible Source for Legionella Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine M. Litwin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated recreational vehicle (RV water reservoirs in response to a case of pneumonia in which Legionella pneumophila was cultured both from the patient and a RV reservoir in which he travelled. Water samples processed and cultured at the CDC according to standard protocol were positive for Legionella spp. in 4/17 (24% faucets, 1/11 (9% water tanks from 4/20 (20% RVs from three different campsites. Legionella spp. that were isolated included L. pneumophila (serogroups 1 and 6, L. anisa, L. feeleii, and L. quateriensis. Environmental controls from the potable water of the three campsites were culture-negative. A survey of maintenance practices by the RV users at the campsites revealed that chlorine disinfection of the water tanks was rarely performed. To prevent the possibility of Legionella infections, RV owners should implement regular chlorine disinfection of their water tanks and follow the recommended maintenance guidelines according to their owner's manuals.

  1. Long-distance heat transport by hot water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munser, H.; Reetz, B.

    1990-01-01

    From the analysis of the centralized heat supply in the GDR energy-economical and ecological indispensable developments of long-distance heat systems in conurbation are derived. The heat extraction from a nuclear power plant combined with long- distance hot-water transport over about 110 kilometres is investigated and presented as a possibility to perspective base load heat demands for the district around Dresden. By help of industrial-economic, hydraulic and thermic evaluations of first design variants of the transit system the acceptance of this ecologic and energetic preferred solution is proved and requirements for its realization are shown

  2. Nuclear applications for steam and hot water supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-07-01

    An increase in the heat energy needs underlined by the potential increase in fossil fuel prices, particularly in oil supplies, and by the necessity for an improvement of the environment worldwide, as signalized by the IAEA Member States, prompted the decision to start a programme leading to this report. This document is intended to help to identify the experience of Member States where nuclear power plants or specialized nuclear heat plants are employed or envisaged to be used for distribution of steam or hot water to industrial or residential consumers, covering low and medium temperature ranges. 25 refs, 33 figs, 15 tabs

  3. Modeling water retention of sludge simulants and actual saltcake tank wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, C.S.

    1996-07-01

    The Ferrocyanide Tanks Safety Program managed by Westinghouse hanford Company has been concerned with the potential combustion hazard of dry tank wastes containing ferrocyanide chemical in combination with nitrate salts. Pervious studies have shown that tank waste containing greater than 20 percent of weight as water could not be accidentally ignited. Moreover, a sustained combustion could not be propagated in such a wet waste even if it contained enough ferrocyanide to burn. Because moisture content is a key critical factor determining the safety of ferrocyanide-containing tank wastes, physical modeling was performed by Pacific Northwest National laboratory to evaluate the moisture-retaining behavior of typical tank wastes. The physical modeling reported here has quantified the mechanisms by which two main types of tank waste, sludge and saltcake, retain moisture in a tank profile under static conditions. Static conditions usually prevail after a tank profile has been stabilized by pumping out any excess interstitial liquid, which is not naturally retained by the waste as a result of physical forces such as capillarity

  4. Occurrence of Legionella in hot water systems of single-family residences in suburbs of two German cities with special reference to solar and district heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathys, Werner; Stanke, Juliane; Harmuth, Margarita; Junge-Mathys, Elisabeth

    2008-03-01

    A total of 452 samples from hot water systems of randomly selected single family residences in the suburbs of two German cities were analysed for the occurrence of Legionella. Technical data were documented using a standardized questionnaire to evaluate possible factors promoting the growth of the bacterium in these small plumbing systems. All houses were supplied with treated groundwater from public water works. Drinking water quality was within the limits specified in the German regulations for drinking water and the water was not chlorinated. The results showed that plumbing systems in private houses that provided hot water from instantaneous water heaters were free of Legionella compared with a prevalence of 12% in houses with storage tanks and recirculating hot water where maximum counts of Legionella reached 100,000 CFU/100ml. The presence of L. pneumophila accounted for 93.9% of all Legionella positive specimens of which 71.8% belonged to serogroup 1. The volume of the storage tank, interrupting circulation for several hours daily and intermittently raising hot water temperatures to >60 degrees C had no influence on Legionella counts. Plumbing systems with copper pipes were more frequently contaminated than those made of synthetic materials or galvanized steel. An inhibitory effect due to copper was not present. Newly constructed systems (water preparation had a marked influence. More than 50% of all houses using district heating systems were colonized by Legionella. Their significantly lower hot water temperature is thought to be the key factor leading to intensified growth of Legionella. Although hot water systems using solar energy to supplement conventional hot water supplies operate at temperatures 3 degrees C lower than conventional systems, this technique does not seem to promote proliferation of the bacterium. Our data show convincingly that the temperature of the hot water is probably the most important or perhaps the only determinant factor for

  5. Organic tank safety project: Effect of water partial pressure on the equilibrium water contents of waste samples from Hanford Tank 241-BY-108

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheele, R.D.; Bredt, P.R.; Sell, R.L.

    1997-02-01

    Water content plays a crucial role in the strategy developed by Webb et al. to prevent propagating or sustainable chemical reactions in the organic-bearing wastes stored in the 20 Organic Tank Watch List tanks at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site. Because of water's importance in ensuring that the organic-bearing wastes continue to be stored safely, Duke Engineering and Services Hanford commissioned the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to investigate the effect of water partial pressure (P H2O ) on the water content of organic-bearing or representative wastes. Of the various interrelated controlling factors affecting the water content in wastes, P H2O is the most susceptible to being controlled by the and Hanford Site's environmental conditions and, if necessary, could be managed to maintain the water content at an acceptable level or could be used to adjust the water content back to an acceptable level. Of the various waste types resulting from weapons production and waste-management operations at the Hanford Site, Webb et al. determined that saltcake wastes are the most likely to require active management to maintain the wastes in a Conditionally Safe condition. A Conditionally Safe waste is one that satisfies the waste classification criteria based on water content alone or a combination of water content and either total organic carbon (TOC) content or waste energetics. To provide information on the behavior of saltcake wastes, two waste samples taken from Tank 241-BY-108 (BY-108) were selected for study, even though BY-108 is not on the Organic Tanks Watch List because of their ready availability and their similarity to some of the organic-bearing saltcakes

  6. Application of Tank Model for Predicting Water Balance and Flow Discharge Components of Cisadane Upper Catchment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nana Mulyana Arifjaya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of hydrological tank model was well described into four compartments (tanks. The first tank (tank A comprised of one vertical (qA0 and two lateral (qA1 and qA2 water flow components and tank B comprised of one vertical (qB0 and one lateral (qB1 water flow components. Tank C comprised of one vertical (qC0 and one lateral (qC1 water flow components, whereas tank D comprised of one lateral water flow component (qD1.  These vertical water flows would also contribute to the depletion of water flow in the related tanks but would replenish tanks in the deeper layers. It was assumed that at all lateral water flow components would finally accumulate in one stream, summing-up of the lateral water flow, much or less, should be equal to the water discharge (Qo at specified time concerns. Tank A received precipitation (R and evapo-transpiration (ET which was its gradientof (R-ET over time would become the driving force for the changes of water stored in the soil profiles and thosewater flows leaving the soil layer.  Thus tank model could describe th vertical and horizontal water flow withinthe watershed. The research site was Cisadane Upper Catchment, located at Pasir Buncir Village of CaringinSub-District within the Regency of Bogor in West Java Province.  The elevations ranged 512 –2,235 m above sealevel, with a total drainage area of 1,811.5 ha and total length of main stream of 14,340.7 m.  The land cover wasdominated by  forest  with a total of 1,044.6 ha (57.67%,  upland agriculture with a total of 477.96 ha (26.38%,mixed garden with a total of 92.85 ha(5.13% and semitechnical irigated rice field with a total of 196.09 ha (10,8%.  The soil was classified as hydraquent (96.6% and distropept (3.4%.  Based on the calibration of tank model application in the study area, the resulting coefficient of determination (R2 was 0.72 with model efficiency (NSEof= 0.75, thus tank model could well illustrate the water flow distribution of

  7. Energy behavior of solar hot water systems under different conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuentes Lombá, Osmanys; Torres Ten, Alonso; Arzuaga Machado, Yusnel; Hernández, Massipe J. Raúl; Cueva Gonzales, Wagner

    2017-01-01

    By means of numerical simulations in TRNSYS v14 the influence of the solar absorption area of a system for heating water with solar energy, composed by a flat solar collector and a tank thermo-accumulator, on its energy efficiency. For the study, the solar collectors EDWARDS, ISOFOTÓN 1, ISOFOTÓN 2, MADE, ROLDAN and IBERSOLAR of absorption area 2, 1,9, 1,88, 2, 1,9 and 2,3 m2 respectively were chosen. For each collector, the energy performance was simulated for one year, setting 200 L for the accumulation volume and 50 °C for the intake temperature. Despite the different characteristics of each collector, their behavior is quite similar showing a very mature technology. (author)

  8. Thermal stratification in storage tanks of integrated collector storage solar water heaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshchepkov, M.Y.; Frid, S.E.

    2015-01-01

    To determine the influence of the shape of the tank, the installation angle, and the magnitude of the absorbed heat flux on thermal stratification in integrated collector-storage solar water heaters, numerical simulation of thermal convection in tanks of different shapes and same volume was carried out. Idealized two-dimensional models were studied; auto model stratification profiles were obtained at the constant heat flux. The shape of the tank, the pattern of the heat flux dynamics, the adiabatic mixing on the circulation rate and the degree of stratification were shown to have significant influence. (authors)

  9. Releases from the cooling water system in the Waste Tank Farm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, W.C.; Lux, C.R.

    1991-01-01

    On September 12, 1991, a cooling-water header broke in the H-Area Waste Tank farm, at the Savannah River Site, releasing contaminated water down a storm sewer that drains to the creek. A copy of the Occurrence Report is attached. As part of the follow-up on this incident, the NPSR Section was asked by Waste Management Technology to perform a probabilistic analysis of the following cases: (1) A large break in the header combined with a large break in a cooling coil inside a waste tank. (2) A large break in the header combined with a leak in a cooling coil inside a waste tank. (3) A large break in the header combined with a very small leak in a cooling coil inside a waste tank. This report documents the results of the analysis of these cases

  10. Mechanism of Corrosion of Activated Aluminum Particles by Hot Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razavi-Tousi, S.S.; Szpunar, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    Mechanism of corrosion in aluminum particles by hot water treatment for hydrogen generation is evaluated. The aluminum powder was activated by ball milling for different durations, which modified size and microstructure of the particles. Open circuit potential test was carried out to elucidate different stages of the reaction. Tafel test was used to explain the effect of ball milling and growth of hydroxide layer on corrosion of the particles. Surface, cross section and thickness of the grown hydroxide on the aluminum particles were studied in a scanning electron microscope. The corrosion potential of the aluminum powders depends on microstructure of the aluminum particles, growth of the hydroxide layer and a change in pH because of cathodic reactions. The hydrogen production test showed that a deformed microstructure and smaller particle size accelerates the corrosion rate of aluminum by hot water, the effect of the deformed microstructure being more significant at the beginning of the reaction. Effect of growth of the hydroxide layer on corrosion mechanism is discussed

  11. Domestic hot water and solar energy in Ireland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hand, F; Asare, B; Haslett, J

    1977-01-01

    Two systems are discussed which involve the use of solar energy to supply domestic hot-water requirements and their usefulness in Ireland is examined. The systems are evaluated for thermal performance and cost-effectiveness by the use of a computer simulation model of a system involving a typical commercially available solar panel. It is shown that such systems may be economically justified when compared with electricity, but only if the water supply is directly heated by solar panels and only if the installed cost of such panels is low. Further, it appears that the system performance is relatively insensitive to the panel orientation and consequently that retro-fit installations on existing houses are unlikely to cause difficulties.

  12. Optimum hot water temperature for absorption solar cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lecuona, A.; Ventas, R.; Venegas, M.; Salgado, R. [Dpto. Ingenieria Termica y de Fluidos, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Avda. Universidad 30, 28911 Leganes, Madrid (Spain); Zacarias, A. [ESIME UPA, IPN, Av. de las Granjas 682, Col. Santa Catarina, 02550, D.F. Mexico (Mexico)

    2009-10-15

    The hot water temperature that maximizes the overall instantaneous efficiency of a solar cooling facility is determined. A modified characteristic equation model is used and applied to single-effect lithium bromide-water absorption chillers. This model is based on the characteristic temperature difference and serves to empirically calculate the performance of real chillers. This paper provides an explicit equation for the optimum temperature of vapor generation, in terms of only the external temperatures of the chiller. The additional data required are the four performance parameters of the chiller and essentially a modified stagnation temperature from the detailed model of the thermal collector operation. This paper presents and discusses the results for small capacity machines for air conditioning of homes and small buildings. The discussion highlights the influence of the relevant parameters. (author)

  13. Pore-Water Extraction Scale-Up Study for the SX Tank Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truex, Michael J.; Oostrom, Martinus; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Last, George V.; Lanigan, David C.

    2013-01-15

    The phenomena related to pore-water extraction from unsaturated sediments have been previously examined with limited laboratory experiments and numerical modeling. However, key scale-up issues have not yet been addressed. Laboratory experiments and numerical modeling were conducted to specifically examine pore-water extraction for sediment conditions relevant to the vadose zone beneath the SX Tank Farm at Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. Available SX Tank Farm data were evaluated to generate a conceptual model of the subsurface for a targeted pore-water extraction application in areas with elevated moisture and Tc-99 concentration. The hydraulic properties of the types of porous media representative of the SX Tank Farm target application were determined using sediment mixtures prepared in the laboratory based on available borehole sediment particle size data. Numerical modeling was used as an evaluation tool for scale-up of pore-water extraction for targeted field applications.

  14. Analysis on engineering application of CNP1000 in-containment refueling water storage tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Bin; Wang Yong; Qiu Jian; Weng Minghui

    2005-01-01

    Based on the basic design of CNP1000 (three loops), which is self-reliance designed by China National Nuclear Cooperation, and investigation results from abroad advanced nuclear power plant design of In-containment Refueling Water Storage tank, this paper describe the system flowsheet, functional requirements, structural design and piping arrangement about In-containment Refueling Water Storage Tank. The design takes the lower structural space as the IRWST. Four areas are configured to meet the diverse functional requirements, including depressurization area, water collection area, safety injection and/or containment spray suction area, TSP storage area / reactor cavity flooding holdup tank. Also the paper depict the corresponding analysis and demonstration, such as In-containment Refueling Water Storage Tank pressure transient on depressurization area of IRWST, suction and internal flow stream of IRWST, configuration of strains, the addition method and amount of chemical addition, design and engineering applicant of Reactor Cavity Flooding System. All the analysis results show the basic design of IRWST meeting with the Utility Requirement Document's requirements on performance of safety function, setting of overfill passage, overpressure protection, related interference, etc., and show the reliability of Engineering Safety Features being improved for CNP1000 (three loops). Meanwhile, it is demonstrated that the design of In-containment Refueling Water Storage Tank can apply on the future nuclear power plant project in China. (authors)

  15. Assessing the microbiomes of scalder and chiller tank waters throughout a typical commercial poultry processing day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothrock, M J; Locatelli, A; Glenn, T C; Thomas, J C; Caudill, A C; Kiepper, B H; Hiett, K L

    2016-10-01

    The commercial poultry processing environment plays a significant role in reducing foodborne pathogens and spoilage organisms from poultry products prior to being supplied to consumers. While understanding the microbiological quality of these products is essential, little is known about the microbiota of processing water tanks within the processing plant. Therefore, the goal of this study was to assess the microbiomes of the scalder and chiller tanks during a typical commercial processing d, and determine how bacterial populations, including foodborne pathogens and spoilage organisms, change during the processing day in relation to the bacterial communities as a whole. Additionally, considering this is the first microbiomic analysis of processing tank waters, 2 water sampling methods also were compared. Results of this study show that Proteobacteria and Firmicutes represented over half of the sequences recovered from both tanks at the phylum level, but the microbiomic profiles needed to be analyzed at the genus level to observe more dynamic population shifts. Bacteria known to predominate in the live production environment were found to increase in the scalder tank and gram negative spoilage-related bacteria were found to decrease in the chiller tank throughout the processing day. Directly sampling the scalder water, as compared to analyzing filtered samples, resulted in significantly different microbiomic profiles dominated by Anoxybacillus species. While no sequences related to major foodborne pathogens were found, further sampling collection and processing optimization should provide researchers and the poultry industry a new tool to understand the ecological role of spoilage and pathogenic bacteria within processing tank waters. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Poultry Science Association 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  16. Emission of Air Pollutants in the Hot Water Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzysztof, Nowak; Maria, Bukowska; Danuta, Proszak-Miąsik; Sławomir, Rabczak

    2017-10-01

    The result of the deteriorating condition of the environment and climate change is to increase the efficient use of fuel and energy and the rational use of energy resources. Great potential for reducing consumption of fossil fuels are stuck in heating systems ranging from generation, transmission and distribution and ending with the recipients rationalize their consumption of heat. Efficient production of heat is obtained during optimal boiler load. The boiler type WR operates with the highest efficiency of 80-85%, the rate of fuel consumption is the lowest, and the process is close to complete combustion. In such conditions to the atmosphere are emitted mainly: SO2, CO2 and NOX. Pollutants such as CO, CH4, HF, HCl, NH3, etc., are the result of incomplete and imperfect combustion, that is, when the boiler is working inefficiently [1-3]. Measurements of pollutant concentrations were performed using an analyzer FTIR Gasmet DX4000. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy is a technique of measuring that allows a very precise identification of qualitative and quantitative range of compounds, including gaseous pollutants. Device used to measure the concentrations of gaseous pollutants allow determining the amount of carbon, sulphur and nitrogen compounds, which measurement is not defined any rules, including chlorine compounds, hydrogen, methane, ammonia and volatile organic compounds. In this publication presents part of the literature the use of heat for domestic hot water production in summer and heating demand in winter. Described the characteristics of the water boilers WR type used for heating. Presents the results study of the emissions in the production of hot water for the summer and winter seasons.

  17. Energy efficiency of elevated water supply tanks for high-rise buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, C.T.; Mui, K.W.; Wong, L.T.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We evaluate energy efficiency for water supply tank location in buildings. ► Water supply tank arrangement in a building affects pumping energy use. ► We propose a mathematical model for optimal design solutions. ► We test the model with measurements in 22 Hong Kong buildings. ► A potential annual energy saving for Hong Kong is up to 410 TJ. -- Abstract: High-rise housing, a trend in densely populated cities around the world, increases the energy use for water supply and corresponding greenhouse gas emissions. This paper presents an energy efficiency evaluation measure for water supply system designs and a mathematical model for optimizing pumping energy through the arrangement of water tanks in a building. To demonstrate that the model is useful for establishing optimal design solutions that integrate energy consumption into urban water planning processes which cater to various building demands and usage patterns, measurement data of 22 high-rise residential buildings in Hong Kong are employed. The results show the energy efficiency of many existing high-rise water supply systems is about 0.25 and can be improved to 0.26–0.37 via water storage tank relocations. The corresponding annual electricity that can be saved is 160–410 TJ, a 0.1–0.3% of the total annual electricity consumption in Hong Kong.

  18. Water washes and caustic leaches of sludge from Hanford Tank S-101 and water washes of sludge from Hanford Tank C-103

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, R.D.; Collins, J.L.; Chase, C.W.

    1998-07-01

    In 1993, the Department of Energy (DOE) selected the enhanced sludge washing (ESW) process as the baseline for pretreatment of Hanford tank sludges. The ESW process uses a series of water washes and caustic leaches to separate nonradioactive components such as aluminum, chromium, and phosphate from the high-level waste sludges. If the ESW process is successful, the volume of immobilized high-level waste will be significantly reduced. The tests on the sludge from Hanford Tank S-101 focused on the effects of process variables such as sodium hydroxide concentration (1 and 3 M), temperature (70 and 95 C), and leaching time (5, 24, 72, and 168 h) on the efficacy of the ESW process with realistic liquid-to-solid ratios. Another goal of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of water washes on a sludge sample from hanford Tank C-103. The final objective of this study was to test potential process control monitors during the water washes and caustic leaches with actual sludge. Both 137 Cs activity and conductance were measured for each of the water washes and caustic leaches. Experimental procedures, a discussion of results, conclusions and recommendations are included in this report

  19. Installation package for a domestic solar heating and hot water system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The installation of two prototype solar heating and hot water systems is described. The systems consists of the following subsystems: solar collector, storage, control, transport, and auxiliary energy.

  20. Domestic Hot Water Production with Ground Source Heat Pump in Apartment Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jukka Yrjölä

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Producing domestic hot water (DHW with a ground source heat pump (GSHP is challenging due to the high temperature (HT of DHW. There are many studies proving the better performance of cascade heat pumps compared to single-stage heat pumps when the difference between the condensing and the evaporation temperature is large. In this system approach study, different GSHP arrangements are described and computationally compared. A two-stage heat pump arrangement is introduced in which water tanks of the heating system are utilized for warming up the DHW in two stages. It is shown that the electricity consumption with this two-stage system is approximately 31% less than with the single-stage heat pump and 12% less than with the cascade system. Further, both low temperature (LT and HT heat pumps can run alone, which is not common in cascade or other two-stage heat pumps. This is advantageous because the high loads of the space heating and DHW production are not simultaneous. Proper insulation of the DHW and recirculation pipe network is essential, and drying towel rails or other heating coils should be avoided when aiming for a high efficiency. The refrigerants in the calculations are R407C for the LT heat pump and R134a for the HT heat pump. Investment costs are excluded from calculations.

  1. Hot-film anemometry in air-water flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delahaye, J.M.; Galaup, J.P.

    1975-01-01

    Local measurements of void fraction and liquid velocity in a steady-state air-water bubbly flow at atmospheric pressure are presented. Use was made of a constant temperature anemometer and of a conical hot-film probe. The signal was processed with a multi-channel analyzer. Void fraction and liquid velocities are determined from the amplitude histogram of the signal. The integrated void fraction over a diameter is compared with the average void fraction along the same diameter obtained with a γ-ray absorption method. The liquid volumetric flow-rate is calculated from the void fraction and liquid velocity profiles and compared with the indication given by a turbine flowmeter [fr

  2. Solar hot-water generation and heating - Kombi-Kompakt+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haller, M.; Vogelsanger, P.

    2005-01-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes new testing facilities at the Institute for Solar Technology in Rapperswil, Switzerland, that allow the testing of solar systems the whole year through. The systems tested feature the combined generation of heat for hot water storage vessels and heat for space heating. The test method used, the Concise Cycle Test (CCT) is described. The results of tests made on a large number of systems demonstrate that it is especially important to have a test system that allows the solar market to be protected from unsatisfactory systems. Good co-operation with manufactures is noted. As the test method includes tests with secondary energy sources such as oil or gas, certain problems in this area were discovered and corrected. Further tests are to be made with systems using biomass as a secondary source of heat

  3. Radioactivity Monitoring System for TRIGA 2000 Reactor Water Tank with On-Line Gamma Spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasetyo Basuki; Sudjatmi KA

    2009-01-01

    One of the requirements in radiological safety in the operating condition of research reactor are the absence of radionuclide from fission product released to reactor cooling water and environment. Early detection of fission product that released from fuel element can be done by monitoring radioactivity level on primary cooling water.Reactor cooling water can be used as an important indicator in detecting radioactivity level of material fission product, when the leakage occurs. Therefore, it needs to build a monitoring system for measuring radioactivity level of cooling water directly and simple. The idea of this system is counting radioactivity water flow from reactor tank to the marinelli cube that attached to the HPGe detector on gamma spectrometer. Cooling water from tank aimed on plastic pipe to the marinelli cube. Water flows in gravitational driven to the marinelli cube, with volume flow rate 5.1 liters/minute in the inlet and 2.2 liters/minute in output. (author)

  4. Carbonate ion-enriched hot spring water promotes skin wound healing in nude rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingyan Liang

    Full Text Available Hot spring or hot spa bathing (Onsen is a traditional therapy for the treatment of certain ailments. There is a common belief that hot spring bathing has therapeutic effects for wound healing, yet the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. To examine this hypothesis, we investigated the effects of Nagano hot spring water (rich in carbonate ion, 42°C on the healing process of the skin using a nude rat skin wound model. We found that hot spring bathing led to an enhanced healing speed compared to both the unbathed and hot-water (42°C control groups. Histologically, the hot spring water group showed increased vessel density and reduced inflammatory cells in the granulation tissue of the wound area. Real-time RT-PCR analysis along with zymography revealed that the wound area of the hot spring water group exhibited a higher expression of matrix metalloproteinases-2 and -9 compared to the two other control groups. Furthermore, we found that the enhanced wound healing process induced by the carbonate ion-enriched hot spring water was mediated by thermal insulation and moisture maintenance. Our results provide the evidence that carbonate ion-enriched hot spring water is beneficial for the treatment of skin wounds.

  5. The Development of a Roof Integrated Solar Hot Water System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menicucci, David F. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Energy Infrastructure and DER Dept.; Moss, Timothy A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Solar Technologies Dept.; Palomino, G. Ernest [Salt River Project (SRP), Tempe, AZ (United States)

    2006-09-01

    The Salt River Project (SRP), in conjunction with Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and Energy Laboratories, Inc. (ELI), collaborated to develop, test, and evaluate an advanced solar water-heating product for new homes. SRP and SNL collaborated under a Department of Energy Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA), with ELI as SRP's industry partner. The project has resulted in the design and development of the Roof Integrated Thermal Siphon (RITH) system, an innovative product that features complete roof integration, a storage tank in the back of the collector and below the roofline, easy installation by homebuilders, and a low installed cost. SRP's market research guided the design, and the laboratory tests conducted at SNL provided information used to refine the design of field test units and indicated that the RITH concept is viable. ELI provided design and construction expertise and is currently configured to manufacture the units. This final report for the project provides all of the pertinent and available materials connected to the project including market research studies, the design features and development of the system, and the testing and evaluation conducted at SNL and at a model home test site in Phoenix, Arizona.

  6. Investigating the Mpemba Effect: When Hot Water Freezes Faster than Cold Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibekwe, R. T.; Cullerne, J. P.

    2016-01-01

    Under certain conditions a body of hot liquid may cool faster and freeze before a body of colder liquid, a phenomenon known as the Mpemba Effect. An initial difference in temperature of 3.2 °C enabled warmer water to reach 0 °C in 14% less time than colder water. Convection currents in the liquid generate a temperature gradient that causes more…

  7. Organic Tank Safety Project: development of a method to measure the equilibrium water content of Hanford organic tank wastes and demonstration of method on actual waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheele, R.D.; Bredt, P.R.; Sell, R.L.

    1996-09-01

    Some of Hanford's underground waste storage tanks contain Organic- bearing high level wastes that are high priority safety issues because of potentially hazardous chemical reactions of organics with inorganic oxidants in these wastes such as nitrates and nitrites. To ensure continued safe storage of these wastes, Westinghouse Hanford Company has placed affected tanks on the Organic Watch List and manages them under special rules. Because water content has been identified as the most efficient agent for preventing a propagating reaction and is an integral part of the criteria developed to ensure continued safe storage of Hanford's organic-bearing radioactive tank wastes, as part of the Organic Tank Safety Program the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory developed and demonstrated a simple and easily implemented procedure to determine the equilibrium water content of these potentially reactive wastes exposed to the range of water vapor pressures that might be experienced during the wastes' future storage. This work focused on the equilibrium water content and did not investigate the various factors such as at sign ventilation, tank surface area, and waste porosity that control the rate that the waste would come into equilibrium, with either the average Hanford water partial pressure 5.5 torr or other possible water partial pressures

  8. Organic Tank Safety Project: development of a method to measure the equilibrium water content of Hanford organic tank wastes and demonstration of method on actual waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheele, R.D.; Bredt, P.R.; Sell, R.L.

    1996-09-01

    Some of Hanford`s underground waste storage tanks contain Organic- bearing high level wastes that are high priority safety issues because of potentially hazardous chemical reactions of organics with inorganic oxidants in these wastes such as nitrates and nitrites. To ensure continued safe storage of these wastes, Westinghouse Hanford Company has placed affected tanks on the Organic Watch List and manages them under special rules. Because water content has been identified as the most efficient agent for preventing a propagating reaction and is an integral part of the criteria developed to ensure continued safe storage of Hanford`s organic-bearing radioactive tank wastes, as part of the Organic Tank Safety Program the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory developed and demonstrated a simple and easily implemented procedure to determine the equilibrium water content of these potentially reactive wastes exposed to the range of water vapor pressures that might be experienced during the wastes` future storage. This work focused on the equilibrium water content and did not investigate the various factors such as @ ventilation, tank surface area, and waste porosity that control the rate that the waste would come into equilibrium, with either the average Hanford water partial pressure 5.5 torr or other possible water partial pressures.

  9. Solar heating, cooling, and domestic hot water system installed at Kaw Valley State Bank and Trust Company, Topeka, Kansas. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-11-01

    The building has approximately 5600 square feet of conditioned space. Solar energy is used for space heating, space cooling, and preheating domestic hot water (DHW). The solar energy system has an array of evacuated tube-type collectors with an area of 1068 square feet. A 50/50 solution of ethylene glycol and water is the transfer medium that delivers solar energy to a tube-in-shell heat exchanger that in turn delivers solar-heated water to a 1100 gallon pressurized hot water storage tank. When solar energy is insufficient to satisfy the space heating and/or cooling demand, a natural gas-fired boiler provides auxiliary energy to the fan coil loops and/or the absorption chillers. Extracts from the site files, specification references, drawings, and installation, operation and maintenance instructions are included.

  10. Calculation of photon dose for Dalat research reactor in case of loss of reactor tank water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Vinh Vinh; Huynh Ton Nghiem; Nguyen Kien Cuong

    2007-01-01

    Photon sources of actinides and fission products were estimated by ORIGEN2 code with the modified cross-section library for Dalat research reactor (DRR) using new cross-section generated by WIMS-ANL code. Photon sources of reactor tank water calculated from the experimental data. MCNP4C2 with available non-analog Monte Carlo model and ANSI/ANL-6.1.1-1977 flux-to-dose factors were used for dose estimation. The agreement between calculation results and those of measurements showed that the methods and models used to get photon sources and dose were acceptable. In case the reactor water totally leaks out from the reactor tank, the calculated dose is very high at the top of reactor tank while still low in control room. In the reactor hall, the operation staffs can access for emergency works but with time limits. (author)

  11. Analytical and experimental comparisons of modal properties of a flood water storage tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thinnes, G.L.; Dooley, W.T.; Gorman, V.W.

    1986-01-01

    Comparisons of measured frequencies, mode shapes, and damping from experimental modal testing and analytical predictions have been performed on a vertically standing 90,000 liter flood water storage tank. The purpose of the study was to compare the accuracy of analytical calculations with experimentally obtained data. The need for this comparison arises because safety assessments of the integrity of such vessels are normally based upon analyses which have not usually been validated by experiments. The tank was excited using random input from an electromagnetic shaker. Data reduction was performed using frequency response functions. Analyses, including modal analysis calculations, were performed on the tank for three water level conditions using finite element methods. Results of the analyses are presented, comparisons to test data are shown, and conclusions and recommendations are made as a result of these studies. 5 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs

  12. Assessment of irradiation effects on beryllium reflector and heavy water tank of JRR-3M

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murayama, Yoji; Kakehuda, Kazuhiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-10-01

    The JRR-3M, a swimming pool type research reactor with beryllium and heavy water reflectors, has been operated since 1990. Since the beryllium reflectors are close to fuel and receive high fast neutron fluence in a relatively short time, they may be subject to change their dimensions by swelling due mostly to entrapped helium gaseous. This may bend the reflectors to the outside and narrow gaps between the reflectors and the fuel elements. The gaps have been measured with an ultrasonic thickness gage in an annual inspection. The results in 1996 show that the maximum of expansion in the diametral directions was 0.6 mm against 1.6 mm of a managed value for replacement of the reflector. A heavy water tank of the JRR-3M is made of aluminum alloy A5052. Surveillance tests of the alloy have been conducted to evaluate irradiation effects of the heavy water tank. Five sets of specimens of the alloy have been irradiated in the beryllium reflectors where fast neutron flux is higher than that in the heavy water tank. In 1994, one set of specimens had been unloaded and carried out the post-irradiation tests. The results show that the heavy water tank preserved satisfactory mechanical properties. (author)

  13. Thermal Stratification in Vertical Mantle Tanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Søren; Furbo, Simon

    2001-01-01

    It is well known that it is important to have a high degree of thermal stratification in the hot water storage tank to achieve a high thermal performance of SDHW systems. This study is concentrated on thermal stratification in vertical mantle tanks. Experiments based on typical operation conditions...... are carried out to investigate how the thermal stratification is affected by different placements of the mantle inlet. The heat transfer between the solar collector fluid in the mantle and the domestic water in the inner tank is analysed by CFD-simulations. Furthermore, the flow pattern in the vertical mantle...

  14. Minimizing temperature instability of heat recovery hot water system utilizing optimized thermal energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suamir, I. N.; Sukadana, I. B. P.; Arsana, M. E.

    2018-01-01

    One energy-saving technology that starts gaining attractive for hotel industry application in Indonesia is the utilization of waste heat of a central air conditioning system to heat water for domestic hot water supply system. Implementing the technology for such application at a hotel was found that hot water capacity generated from the heat recovery system could satisfy domestic hot water demand of the hotel. The gas boilers installed in order to back up the system have never been used. The hot water supply, however, was found to be instable with hot water supply temperature fluctuated ranging from 45 °C to 62 °C. The temperature fluctuations reaches 17 °C, which is considered instable and can reduce hot water usage comfort level. This research is aimed to optimize the thermal energy storage in order to minimize the temperature instability of heat recovery hot water supply system. The research is a case study approach based on cooling and hot water demands of a hotel in Jakarta-Indonesia that has applied water cooled chillers with heat recovery systems. The hotel operation with 329 guest rooms and 8 function rooms showed that hot water production in the heat recovery system completed with 5 m3 thermal energy storage (TES) could not hold the hot water supply temperature constantly. The variations of the cooling demand and hot water demands day by day were identified. It was found that there was significant mismatched of available time (hours) between cooling demand which is directly correlated to the hot water production from the heat recovery system and hot water usage. The available TES system could not store heat rejected from the condenser of the chiller during cooling demand peak time between 14.00 and 18.00 hours. The extra heat from the heat recovery system consequently increases the temperature of hot water up to 62 °C. It is about 12 K above 50 °C the requirement hot water temperature of the hotel. In contrast, the TES could not deliver proper

  15. 33 CFR 165.1313 - Security zone regulations, tank ship protection, Puget Sound and adjacent waters, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Areas Thirteenth Coast Guard District § 165.1313 Security zone regulations, tank ship protection, Puget... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Security zone regulations, tank ship protection, Puget Sound and adjacent waters, Washington 165.1313 Section 165.1313 Navigation and...

  16. Immune changes during whole body hot water immersion: the role of growth hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappel, M; Poulsen, T D; Hansen, M B; Galbo, H; Pedersen, B K

    1997-07-01

    Studies examined the role of growth hormone, catecholamines, and beta-endorphins in changes in natural killer cell activity, subtypes of blood mononuclear cells, and leukocyte concentration in response to hot water immersion in humans. The response of leukocytes and neutrophils to 2 hours of hot water immersion and simultaneous administration of propranolol, somatostatin, naloxone, or isotonic saline are reported.

  17. Rotating shell eggs immersed in hot water for the purpose of pasteurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasteurization of shell eggs for inactivation of Salmonella using hot water immersion can be used to improve their safety. The rotation of a shell egg immersed in hot water has previously been simulated by computational fluid dynamics (CFD); however, experimental data to verify the results do not ex...

  18. Solar Storage Tank Insulation Influence on the Solar Systems Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negoitescu Arina

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available For the storage tank of a solar system for domestic hot water production was analyzed the insulation thickness and material influence. To this end, it was considered a private house, occupied by 3 persons, located in zone I of thermal radiation, for which has been simulated the domestic hot water production process. The tank outlet hot water temperature was considered of 45°C. For simulation purposes, as insulation materials for the storage tank were taking into account glass wool and polyurethane with various thicknesses. Finally, was carried out the comparative analysis of two types of tanks, in terms of the insulation thickness influence on the solar fraction, annual solar contribution and solar annual productivity. It resulted that polyurethane is the most advantageous from all points of view.

  19. Solar Water Heater Installation Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    A 48-page report describes water-heating system, installation (covering collector orientation, mounting, plumbing and wiring), operating instructions and maintenance procedures. Commercial solar-powered water heater system consists of a solar collector, solar-heated-water tank, electrically heated water tank and controls. Analysis of possible hazards from pressure, electricity, toxicity, flammability, gas, hot water and steam are also included.

  20. Data from Sustainability Base Characterizing Hot Water Pump Differential Pressure Spikes for ACCEPT

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — During the heating season in Sustainability Base, a critical alarm associated with a hot water pump circulating heating water for the radiative system which...

  1. Reactivity effect of a heavy water tank as reflector in the IPEN/MB-01 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Adimir dos; Fuga, Rinaldo

    2013-01-01

    This experiment comprises a set of experiments performed in the IPEN/MB-01 reactor and described in the International Handbook of Evaluated Reactor Physics Benchmark Experiments, specifically the experiment aim to evaluate the reactivity due to the heavy water tank placed at reflector region of the IPEN/MB-01 reactor. An aluminum tank was designed to be filled with heavy water and positioned at the west face of the IPEN/MB-01, additionally the experiment was also designed to allow variable heavy water height inside of this tank providing different neutron leakage rate in the west face of the IPEN/MB-01, consequently providing a series of interesting combinations. The measured quantities in the experiment are reactivities and critical control bank positions for several combinations of the control banks and an excess of reactivity of the heavy water tank. The experiment will be simulated using a Monte Carlo code MCNP in order to compare the different critical control bank position. (author)

  2. Thermal Stratification in Small Solar Domestic Storage Tanks caused by Draw-offs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordan, Ulrike; Furbo, Simon

    2005-01-01

    As shown in many research studies in the past, the thermal stratification of the tank caused by draw-offs has a high impact on the performance of a Solar Domestic Hot Water (SDHW) system. Nevertheless, in most tank models for system simulations the influence of the draw-off pattern on the mixing...... behaviour is not taken into account sufficiently. Two typical Danish domestic water storage tanks, each with a volume of about 150 l, were investigated. In both tanks the inlet pipes are placed at the bottom and hot water is drawn from the upper part of tank. Above the inlet pipes, differently shaped plates...... are placed in order to reduce the mixing of the incoming cold water with the warmer storage water. To measure the thermal stratification thermocouples were placed in a vertical glass tube inside the tank. Measurements were carried out with different draw-off volumes, flow rates, and initial temperatures...

  3. Validation of a Hot Water Distribution Model Using Laboratory and Field Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backman, C.; Hoeschele, M.

    2013-07-01

    Characterizing the performance of hot water distribution systems is a critical step in developing best practice guidelines for the design and installation of high performance hot water systems. Developing and validating simulation models is critical to this effort, as well as collecting accurate input data to drive the models. In this project, the ARBI team validated the newly developed TRNSYS Type 604 pipe model against both detailed laboratory and field distribution system performance data. Validation efforts indicate that the model performs very well in handling different pipe materials, insulation cases, and varying hot water load conditions. Limitations of the model include the complexity of setting up the input file and long simulation run times. In addition to completing validation activities, this project looked at recent field hot water studies to better understand use patterns and potential behavioral changes as homeowners convert from conventional storage water heaters to gas tankless units. Based on these datasets, we conclude that the current Energy Factor test procedure overestimates typical use and underestimates the number of hot water draws. This has implications for both equipment and distribution system performance. Gas tankless water heaters were found to impact how people use hot water, but the data does not necessarily suggest an increase in usage. Further study in hot water usage and patterns is needed to better define these characteristics in different climates and home vintages.

  4. Validation of a Hot Water Distribution Model Using Laboratory and Field Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backman, C. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Hoeschele, M. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Characterizing the performance of hot water distribution systems is a critical step in developing best practice guidelines for the design and installation of high performance hot water systems. Developing and validating simulation models is critical to this effort, as well as collecting accurate input data to drive the models. In this project, the Building America research team ARBI validated the newly developed TRNSYS Type 604 pipe model against both detailed laboratory and field distribution system performance data. Validation efforts indicate that the model performs very well in handling different pipe materials, insulation cases, and varying hot water load conditions. Limitations of the model include the complexity of setting up the input file and long simulation run times. This project also looked at recent field hot water studies to better understand use patterns and potential behavioral changes as homeowners convert from conventional storage water heaters to gas tankless units. The team concluded that the current Energy Factor test procedure overestimates typical use and underestimates the number of hot water draws, which has implications for both equipment and distribution system performance. Gas tankless water heaters were found to impact how people use hot water, but the data does not necessarily suggest an increase in usage. Further study in hot water usage and patterns is needed to better define these characteristics in different climates and home vintages.

  5. Study on collision resistance characteristics of the side tanks with water inside

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuxi; Hu, Jinwen; Liu, Ting; Wu, Can

    2018-05-01

    When we evaluate the safety performance of ships against external events, one of the most important indicator is the collision resistance to which water inside the side tanks also make some contributions because of the water effect. To further analyze the interaction mechanism, different collision velocities and side tank waterlines are set for the analysis model. Results indicate the outside shell and the inner shell of the side structure significantly enhanced the collision resistance performance to a certain extension. The water effect on the failure of the outside shell is unobvious, while, it performs a great influence on the destructive reaction force of the inner shell. When the velocity of the coming bulbous bow gradually increases, the destructive reaction forces of the outside shell and the inner shell increase with a decreasing rate. Besides, water influence the collision characteristics of the inner shell a lot when the waterlines are below the upper rib of the strong frame.

  6. Economic efficiency of solar hot water policy in New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillingham, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    New Zealand has recently followed the path of several other countries in promoting solar hot water (SHW) systems in the effort to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, yet the economic efficiency of large-scale policies to encourage SHW remains a pressing question for policymakers. This paper develops an economic framework to examine policies to promote SHW in New Zealand, including the current information, training, and subsidy policy. The economic framework points to environmental, energy security, and average-cost electricity retail pricing market failures as motivation for SHW policy, with the global climate change externality the most important of these. The results indicate that domestic SHW systems are close to being financially attractive from a consumer perspective, but a more substantial subsidy policy would be necessary for SHW to appeal to a wider audience. Such a policy is far more likely to have positive net benefits than a policy of mandating SHW on all homes or all new homes in New Zealand, and could be justified on economic efficiency grounds under reasonable assumptions. However, this result reverses under an economy-wide carbon trading system that internalizes the environmental externality.

  7. Hydrolysis kinetics of tulip tree xylan in hot compressed water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Junho; Lee, Hun Wook; Sim, Seungjae; Myint, Aye Aye; Park, Hee Jeong; Lee, Youn-Woo

    2016-08-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass, a promising renewable resource, can be converted into numerous valuable chemicals post enzymatic saccharification. However, the efficacy of enzymatic saccharification of lignocellulosic biomass is low; therefore, pretreatment is necessary to improve the efficiency. Here, a kinetic analysis was carried out on xylan hydrolysis, after hot compressed water pretreatment of the lignocellulosic biomass conducted at 180-220°C for 5-30min, and on subsequent xylooligosaccharide hydrolysis. The weight ratio of fast-reacting xylan to slow-reacting xylan was 5.25 in tulip tree. Our kinetic results were applied to three different reaction systems to improve the pretreatment efficiency. We found that semi-continuous reactor is promising. Lower reaction temperatures and shorter space times in semi-continuous reactor are recommended for improving xylan conversion and xylooligosaccharide yield. In the theoretical calculation, 95% of xylooligosaccharide yield and xylan conversion were achieved simultaneously with high selectivity (desired product/undesired product) of 100 or more. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Effect of temperature on anaerobic treatment of black water in UASB-septic tank systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luostarinen, Sari; Sanders, Wendy; Kujawa-Roeleveld, Katarzyna; Zeeman, Grietje

    2007-03-01

    The effect of northern European seasonal temperature changes and low temperature on the performance of upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB)-septic tanks treating black water was studied. Three UASB-septic tanks were monitored with different operational parameters and at different temperatures. The results indicated the feasibility of the UASB-septic tank for (pre)treatment of black water at low temperatures with respect to removal of suspended solids and dissolved organic material. Inoculum sludge had little effect on COD(ss) removal, though in the start-up phase some poorly adapted inoculum disintegrated and washed out, thus requiring consideration when designing the process. Removal of COD(dis) was at first negative, but improved as the sludge adapted to low temperature. The UASB-septic tank alone did not comply with Finnish or Dutch treatment requirements and should therefore be considered mainly as a pre-treatment method. However, measuring the requirements as mgCOD l(-1) may not always be the best method, as the volume of the effluent discharged is also an important factor in the final amount of COD entering the receiving water bodies.

  9. Seismic response of elevated rectangular water tanks considering soil structure interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visuvasam, J.; Simon, J.; Packiaraj, J. S.; Agarwal, R.; Goyal, L.; Dhingra, V.

    2017-11-01

    The overhead staged water tanks are susceptible for high lateral forces during earthquakes. Due to which, the failure of beam-columns joints, framing elements and toppling of tanks arise. To avoid such failures, they are analyzed and designed for lateral forced induced by devastating earthquakes assuming the base of the structures are fixed and considering functional needs, response reduction, soil types and severity of ground shaking. In this paper, the flexible base was provided as spring stiffness in order to consider the effect of soil properties on the seismic behaviour of water tanks. A linear time history earthquake analysis was performed using SAP2000. Parametric studies have been carried out based on various types of soils such as soft, medium and hard. The soil stiffness values highly influence the time period and base shear of the structure. The ratios of time period of flexible to fixed base and base shear of flexible to fixed base were observed against capacities of water tank and the overall height of the system. The both responses are found to be increased as the flexibility of soil medium decreases

  10. Solar heating and hot water system installed at Shoney's Restaurant, North Little Rock, Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    A solar heating system designed to supply a major portion of the space and water heating requirements for a restaurant is described. The restaurant has a floor space of approximately 4,650 square feet and requires approximate 1500 gallons of hot water daily. The solar energy system consists of 1,428 square feet of Chamberlain flat plate liquid collector subsystem, and a 1500 gallon storage subsystem circulating hot water producing 321 x 10 to the 6th power Btu/Yr (specified) building heating and hot water heating.

  11. Feasibility analysis of domestic hot water systems using TRNSYS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gill, G.S.; Fung, A.S.

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted in which 17 conventional and solar-based domestic hot water (DHW) systems were simulated using the TRYNSYS simulation model, and their results were compared. According to Natural Resources Canada, DHW heating currently accounts for 25 per cent of Canadian residential energy consumption and 25 per cent of Canadian residential greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The objective of this simulation study was to investigate the fuel consumption of DHW systems, their GHG emissions and 30-year life cycle costs. Another aspect of the study was to model and analyze the effect of time of use (TOU) electricity pricing which was developed by the Ontario Energy Board (OEB) to provide stable and predictable electricity pricing. TOU electricity pricing also promotes energy conservation. In addition, the TOU electricity price charged per kilowatt-hour changes throughout the day to reflect the changes in cost to produce electricity at different times of the day. The Ontario government plans to equip all homes and businesses with smart meters using TOU pricing by 2010. Therefore, this study also investigated the effects of the TOU feature by optimizing its use in the effort to reduce overall energy costs and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The results revealed that a DHW system with solar pre-heat and electrical back-up is the best system for energy conservation and GHG reduction. The best system in terms of 30-year life cycle cost is a high efficiency DHW system with an on demand modulating gas combo boiler with gray water heat recovery. 23 refs., 7 tabs., 8 figs

  12. Long-term energy storage tanks for dwellings and solar house architecture. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-12-01

    The design and installation of hot water storage tanks as accumulators of solar energy is presented. Solar house architecture which maximizes roof, solar collector energy absorption potential is then considered. Proposals for residential areas which include solar houses are made.

  13. Toward Complete Utilization of Miscanthus in a Hot-Water Extraction-Based Biorefinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Ting Wang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Miscanthus (Miscanthus sp. Family: Poaceae was hot-water extracted (two h, at 160 °C at three scales: laboratory (Parr reactor, 300 cm3, intermediate (M/K digester, 4000 cm3, and pilot (65 ft3-digester, 1.841 × 106 cm3. Hot-water extracted miscanthus, hydrolyzate, and lignin recovered from hydrolyzate were characterized and evaluated for potential uses aiming at complete utilization of miscanthus. Effects of scale-up on digester yield, removal of hemicelluloses, deashing, delignification degree, lignin recovery and purity, and cellulose retention were studied. The scale-dependent results demonstrated that before implementation, hot-water extraction (HWE should be evaluated on a scale larger than a laboratory scale. The production of energy-enriched fuel pellets from hot-water extracted miscanthus, especially in combination with recovered lignin is recommended, as energy of combustion increased gradually from native to hot-water extracted miscanthus to recovered lignin. The native and pilot-scale hot-water extracted miscanthus samples were also subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis using a cellulase-hemicellulase cocktail, to produce fermentable sugars. Hot-water extracted biomass released higher amount of glucose and xylose verifying benefits of HWE as an effective pretreatment for xylan-rich lignocellulosics. The recovered lignin was used to prepare a formaldehyde-free alternative to phenol-formaldehyde resins and as an antioxidant. Promising results were obtained for these lignin valorization pathways.

  14. Organic compounds in hot-water-soluble fractions from water repellent soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanassova, Irena; Doerr, Stefan

    2014-05-01

    Water repellency (WR) is a soil property providing hydrophobic protection and preventing rapid microbial decomposition of organic matter entering the soil with litter or plant residues. Global warming can cause changes in WR, thus influencing water storage and plant productivity. Here we assess two different approaches for analysis of organic compounds composition in hot water extracts from accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) of water repellent soils. Extracts were lyophilized, fractionated on SiO2 (sand) and SPE cartridge, and measured by GC/MS. Dominant compounds were aromatic acids, short chain dicarboxylic acids (C4-C9), sugars, short chain fatty acids (C8-C18), and esters of stearic and palmitic acids. Polar compounds (mainly sugars) were adsorbed on applying SPE clean-up procedure, while esters were highly abundant. In addition to the removal of polar compounds, hydrophobic esters and hydrocarbons (alkanes and alkenes particle wettability and C dynamics in soils. Key words: soil water repellency, hot water soluble carbon (HWSC), GC/MS, hydrophobic compounds

  15. Installation package for a sunspot cascade solar water heating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Solar water heating systems installed at Tempe, Arizona and San Diego, California are described. The systems consist of the following: collector, collector-tank water loop, solar tank, conventional tank, and controls. General guidelines which may be utilized in development of detailed installation plans and specifications are provided along with instruction on operation, maintenance, and installation of solar hot water systems.

  16. 46 CFR 53.05-2 - Relief valve requirements for hot water boilers (modifies HG-400.2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Relief valve requirements for hot water boilers (modifies HG-400.2). 53.05-2 Section 53.05-2 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... requirements for hot water boilers (modifies HG-400.2). (a) The relief valve requirements for hot water boilers...

  17. Bacterial growth in solar heating prepared and traditional tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagh, L.K.

    2000-01-01

    In Denmark it has been put forward that the introduction of solar heating prepared tanks into the building regulation can cause increased nuisance with respect to bacterial growth in hot water for domestic use. The reason is that solar heating prepared tanks have a larger volume and another form of operation than traditional tanks. In this investigation the difference between bacterial growth in solar heating prepared and traditional tanks was measured by heterotrophic plate counts as a general parameter for microbiological growth. There was no significant difference between the bacterial number in the solar heating prepared tanks and in the traditional tanks, either for bacteria determined at 37 deg. C, 44 deg. C, 55 deg. C or at 65 deg. C. The hot water for domestic use from the solar heating prepared tanks and the traditional tanks had in most cases a bacterial number below 1.000 CFU/ml, and all tests had a bacterial number below 10.000 CFU/ml. The number of bacteria must be considered low seen in relation to the other measurements of bacteria in hot water for domestic use, particularly in larger block of flats. (au)

  18. Washing Habits and Machine with Intake of hot and cold Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bente Lis; Nørgaard, Jørgen

    1997-01-01

    with slightly adapted washing habits, or 17% of normal today. If the heat is supplied from combined heat and power production as in the actual experiment, CO2-emission is reduced by 81%. With hot water from oil or gas heaters the reduction will be slightly lower, while with solar hot water it will be larger.......Domestic washing machines typically spend around 80% of the electricity on heating water. Most of this can be replaced by more appropriate heat sources like district heat from combined heat and power production, or gas heating system. In recent years some washing machine manufacturers have marketed...... machines which can take in both hot and cold water and mix it to the temperature wanted. Such one machine has been tested in daily household use over 5 months, with habits of very few hot water washes. The result is an electricity consumption corresponding to 67 kWh per year for an average household...

  19. ''Terek-3'' a well flowmeter for hot water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrov, A; Bar-sliva, V

    1979-01-01

    For studying ther applicability of an injection well with injection of hot water (with temperature to 150-200/sup 0/C) it is necessary to have well flowmeters which have high sensitivity and performance capacity at this temperature. In developing the well remote flowmeter ''Terek-3'' the All-Union Scientific research and Planning-Design Institute for comprehensive automation of oil and gas industry made a decision to use a drive-less packer developed by the authors of the article for the well flowmeter ''Terek-1'' designed to study high-output wells. Because of the use of the drive-less packer, the sensitivity of the flowmeter was considerably improved and the lower limit of measurements were decreased to 60 m/sup 3//day. In order to reduce friction in the supports of the turbines, agate step bearings and cores were used made of steel 40KKhNM. The upper step bearing was installed in the instrument housing, and the lower in the body of the turbines. This reduces the possibility of its contamination in the measurement process. One should also bear in mind that with an increase in temperature, the viscosity of water diminshes (roughly 5-fold with temperature of 150/sup 0/C). Therefore, with a decrease in the influence of viscosity on the readings of the flowmeter in the instrument, a turbine was used suggested by V. I. Bar-Sliva. In this turbine the blades are separated from the step which guarantees not only the obtaining of the maximum moving momentum but also reduces the influence of the change in viscosity on the operation of the turbine. The impulse output signal obtained with rotation of the turbine with magnet is transmitted on a single-strand cable to a surface apparatus consisting of a condensator frequency meter and universal logging recorder N-381 which guarantees recording of the changed consumption on a diagram tape as a function of depth or time. Experimental samples of the well flowmeter ''Terek-3'' passed state inspection tests.

  20. Inclusion of tank configurations as a variable in the cost optimization of branched piped-water networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooda, Nikhil; Damani, Om

    2017-06-01

    The classic problem of the capital cost optimization of branched piped networks consists of choosing pipe diameters for each pipe in the network from a discrete set of commercially available pipe diameters. Each pipe in the network can consist of multiple segments of differing diameters. Water networks also consist of intermediate tanks that act as buffers between incoming flow from the primary source and the outgoing flow to the demand nodes. The network from the primary source to the tanks is called the primary network, and the network from the tanks to the demand nodes is called the secondary network. During the design stage, the primary and secondary networks are optimized separately, with the tanks acting as demand nodes for the primary network. Typically the choice of tank locations, their elevations, and the set of demand nodes to be served by different tanks is manually made in an ad hoc fashion before any optimization is done. It is desirable therefore to include this tank configuration choice in the cost optimization process itself. In this work, we explain why the choice of tank configuration is important to the design of a network and describe an integer linear program model that integrates the tank configuration to the standard pipe diameter selection problem. In order to aid the designers of piped-water networks, the improved cost optimization formulation is incorporated into our existing network design system called JalTantra.

  1. Concept of safe tank-type water cooled and moderated reactor with HTGR microparticle fuel compacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gol'tsev, A.O.; Kukharkin, N.E.; Mosevitskij, I.S.; Ponomarev-Stepnoj, N.N.; Popov, S.V.; Udyanskij, Yu.N.; Tsibul'skij, V.F.

    1993-01-01

    Concept of safe tank-type water-cooled and moderated reactor on the basis of HTGR fuel microparticles which enable to avoid environment contamination with radioactive products under severe accidents, is proposed. Results of neutron-physical and thermal-physical studies of water cooled and moderated reactor with HTGR microparticle compacts are presented. Characteristics of two reactors with thermal power of 500 and 1500 MW are indicated within the concept frames. The reactor behaviour under severe accident connected with complete loss of water coolant is considered. It is shown that under such an accident the fission products release from fuel microparticles does not occur

  2. Quantitative Analysis of Microbes in Water Tank of G.A. Siwabessy Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itjeu Karliana; Diah Dwiana Lestiani

    2003-01-01

    The quality of water in reactor system has an important role because it could effect the function as a coolant and the operation of reactor indirectly. The study of microbe analyzes has been carried out to detect the existence of microbes in water tank and quantitative analyzes of microbes also has been applied as a continuation of the previous study. The samples is taken out from the end side of reactor GA Siwabessy's tank, inoculated in TSA (Tripcase Soy Agar) medium, put in incubator at 30 - 35 o C for 4 days. The results of experiment show the reconfirmation for the existence of bacteria and the un-existence of yield. The quantitative analysis with TPC method show the growth rate of bacteria is twice in 24 hours. (author)

  3. Experimental, Numerical, and Analytical Slosh Dynamics of Water and Liquid Nitrogen in a Spherical Tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storey, Jedediah Morse

    2016-01-01

    Understanding, predicting, and controlling fluid slosh dynamics is critical to safety and improving performance of space missions when a significant percentage of the spacecraft's mass is a liquid. Computational fluid dynamics simulations can be used to predict the dynamics of slosh, but these programs require extensive validation. Many experimental and numerical studies of water slosh have been conducted. However, slosh data for cryogenic liquids is lacking. Water and cryogenic liquid nitrogen are used in various ground-based tests with a spherical tank to characterize damping, slosh mode frequencies, and slosh forces. A single ring baffle is installed in the tank for some of the tests. Analytical models for slosh modes, slosh forces, and baffle damping are constructed based on prior work. Select experiments are simulated using a commercial CFD software, and the numerical results are compared to the analytical and experimental results for the purposes of validation and methodology-improvement.

  4. High water level installation of monitoring wells for underground storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treadway, C.

    1990-01-01

    This paper briefly describes a common monitoring well installation design for shallow ground water contamination resulting from leaky underground storage tanks. The paper describes drilling techniques used in unconsolidated Florida aquifers using hollow-stem augers. It describes methods for the prevention of heaving sands and sand-locking problems. It then goes on to describe the proper well casing placement and sealing techniques using neat cements. The proper sell screen level is also discussed to maximize the detection of floating hydrocarbons

  5. STS-55 crewmembers repair waste water tank on OV-102's middeck

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Three STS-55 crewmembers participate in an inflight maintenance (IFM) exercise to counter problems experienced with a waste water tank below Columbia's, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102's, middeck. Mission Specialist 3 (MS3) Bernard A. Harris, Jr, inside the airlock, holds middeck floor access panel MD54G and looks below at Pilot Terence T. Henricks who is in the bilge area. Commander Steven R. Nagel is lying on middeck floor at the left.

  6. Modal analysis of pool door in water tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kang Soo; Jeong, Kyeong Hoon; Park, Chan Gook; Koo, In Soo [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    A pool door is installed at the chase of the pool gate by means of an overhead crane in the building of a research reactor. The principal function of the pool door, which is located between the reactor pool and service pool, is to separate the reactor pool from the service pool for the maintenance and/or the removal of the equipment either in the reactor pool or service pool. The pool door consists of stainless steel plates supported by structural steel frames and sealing components. The pool door is equipped with double inflatable gaskets. The configuration of the pool door is shown in Figure 1. The FEM analysis and theoretical calculation by the formula were performed to evaluate the natural frequency for the pool door in the water. The results from the two methods were compared.

  7. About economy of fuel and energy resources in the hot water supply system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotov, P. V.; Sivukhin, A. A.; Zhukov, D. A.; Zhukova, A. V.

    2017-11-01

    The assessment of the power efficiency realized in the current of heat supply system of technology of regulation of loading of the hot water supply system, considering unevenness consumption of hot water is executed. For the purpose of definition the applicability boundary of realized technology comparative analysis of indicators of the effectiveness of its work within the possible range of the parameters of regulations. Developed a software application “The calculation of the total economy of fuel and energy resources in the hot water supply system when you change of the parameters of regulations”, which allows on the basis of multivariate calculations analyses of their results, to choose the optimum mode of operation heat supply system and to assess the effectiveness of load regulation in the hot water supply system.

  8. Risk of Burns from Eruptions of Hot Water Overheated in Microwave Ovens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Products and Procedures Home, Business, and Entertainment Products Risk of Burns from Eruptions of Hot Water Overheated ... coffee or sugar are added before heating, the risk is greatly reduced. If superheating has occurred, a ...

  9. Design package for a complete residential solar space heating and hot water system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Information necessary to evaluate the design of a solar space heating and hot water system is reported. System performance specifications, the design data brochure, the system description, and other information pertaining to the design are included.

  10. Effects of Hot Water Immersion on Storage Quality of Fresh Broccoli Heads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaqiang Dong

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Freshly harvested broccoli heads were immersed for 0, 1, 4 or 8 min into hot water at 45 °C, and then were hydrocooled rapidly for 10 min at 10 °C. Following these treatments, the broccoli were air-dried for 30 min, then packed in commercial polymeric film bags, and, finally, stored for 16 days at –1, 1, and 12 °C. The samples treated with hot water maintained high contents of chlorophyll concentrations, their yellowing rate was delayed, and fungal infection and chilling or freezing injury were inhibited markedly. Compared to non-heat-treated broccoli, a lower level of peroxidase activity with a relatively higher chlorophyll concentration was observed when broccoli were treated with hot water. Among these heat treatments, immersion in hot water for 4 min at 45 °C was the most effective for maintaining the quality of harvested broccoli heads.

  11. Energy Requirement and Comfort of Gas- and Electric-powered Hot-water Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luedemann, B.; Schmitz, G.

    1999-01-01

    In view of the continuous reduction in the specific heating energy demand of new buildings the power demand for hot-water supply increasingly dominates the heating supply of residential buildings. Furthermore, the German energy-savings-regulation 2000 (ESVO) is intended to evaluate the techniques installed such as domestic heating or hot-water supply within an overall energetic view of the building. Planning advice for domestic heating, ventilation and hot-water systems in gas-heated, low-energy buildings has therefore been developed in a common research project of the Technical University of Hamburg Harburg (TUHH) and four energy supply companies. In this article different gas-or electricity-based hot-water systems in one family houses and multiple family houses are compared with one another with regard to the aspects of comfort and power requirements considering the user's behaviour. (author)

  12. Hot Topics/New Initiatives | Drinking Water in New England ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-06

    Information on Drinking Water in New England. Major Topics covered include: Conservation, Private Wells, Preventing Contamination, Drinking Water Sources, Consumer Confidence Reports, and Drinking Water Awards.

  13. Smart solar tanks - Heat storage of the future?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Shah, Louise Jivan

    1997-01-01

    energy supply system to a required temperature in periods with hot water demand. The tank is heated by the auxiliary energy supply system from the top so that the volume of water heated to the required temperature can be controlled in a flexible way. In periods with a large hot water demand the volume...... can be large and in periods with a small hot water demand the volume can be small. For instance, the energy supply system can be controlled on measurements of the energy content of the tank during all hours of the week and based on a required hot water consumption and consumption pattern which can...... recommendations for future development work are given....

  14. Elemental Water Impact Test: Phase 3 Plunge Depth of a 36-Inch Aluminum Tank Head

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassilakos, Gregory J.

    2014-01-01

    Spacecraft are being designed based on LS-DYNA water landing simulations. The Elemental Water Impact Test (EWIT) series was undertaken to assess the accuracy of LS-DYNA water impact simulations. Phase 3 featured a composite tank head that was tested at a range of heights to verify the ability to predict structural failure of composites. To support planning for Phase 3, a test series was conducted with an aluminum tank head dropped from heights of 2, 6, 10, and 12 feet to verify that the test article would not impact the bottom of the test pool. This report focuses on the comparisons of the measured plunge depths to LS-DYNA predictions. The results for the tank head model demonstrated the following. 1. LS-DYNA provides accurate predictions for peak accelerations. 2. LS-DYNA consistently under-predicts plunge depth. An allowance of at least 20% should be added to the LS-DYNA predictions. 3. The LS-DYNA predictions for plunge depth are relatively insensitive to the fluid-structure coupling stiffness.

  15. Modeling of Possible Conditions for Origin of First Organic Forms in hot Mineral Water

    OpenAIRE

    Ignat Ignatov; Oleg Mosin

    2014-01-01

    The composition of water, its temperature and pH value was analyzed in experiments with modelling of primary hydrosphere and possible conditions for origin of first organic forms in hot mineral water. For this aim the authors performed experiments with hot mineral and seawater from Bulgaria by IR-spectrometry (DNES-method). As model systems were used cactus juice of Echinopsis pachanoi and Mediterranean jellyfish Cotylorhiza tuberculata. It was considered the reactions of condensation and deh...

  16. Method for reducing heat loss during injection of hot water into an oil stratum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evgenev, A E; Kalashnikov, V N; Raiskii, Yu D

    1968-07-01

    A method is described for reduction of heat loss during the injection of hot water into an oil stratum. During the transportation of the hot water to the face of the bore holes, it has high-molecular polymers added to it. The high-molecular polymer may be guanidine or polyoxyethylene in the quantity of 0.01 to 0.03% by wt.

  17. Hot spots and hot moments in riparian zones: potential for improved water quality management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite considerable heterogeneity over space and time, biogeochemical and hydrological processes in riparian zones regulate contaminant movement to receiving waters and often mitigate the impact of upland sources of contaminants on water quality. Recently, these heterogeneous processes have been co...

  18. Evaluations of different domestic hot water preparing methods with ultra-low-temperature district heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Xiaochen; Li, Hongwei; Svendsen, Svend

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the performances of five different substation configurations in single-family houses supplied with ULTDH (ultra-low-temperature district heating). The temperature at the heat plant is 46 °C and around 40 °C at the substations. To avoid the proliferation of Legionella in the DHW (domestic hot water) and assure the comfortable temperature, all substations were installed with supplementary heating devices. Detailed measurements were taken in the substations, including the electricity demand of the supplementary heating devices. To compare the energy and economic performance of the substations, separate models were built based on standard assumptions. The relative heat and electricity delivered for preparing DHW were calculated. The results showed that substations with storage tanks and heat pumps have high relative electricity demand, which leads to higher integrated costs considering both heat and electricity for DHW preparation. The substations with in-line electric heaters have low relative electricity usage because very little heat is lost due to the instantaneous DHW preparation. Accordingly, the substations with in-line electric heaters would have the lowest energy cost for DHW preparation. To achieve optimal design and operation for the ULTDH substation, the electricity peak loads of the in-line electric heaters were analysed according to different DHW-heating strategies. - Highlights: • Five different substations supplied with ultra-low-temperature district heating were measured. • The relative heat and electricity delivered for DHW preparation were modelled for different substations. • The levelized cost of the five substations in respect of DHW preparation was calculated. • The feasibility of applying instantaneous electric heater with normal power supply was tested.

  19. Characterization by fluorescence of dissolved organic matter in rural drinking water storage tanks in Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Faissal; Ouazzani, Naaila; Mandi, Laila; Assaad, Aziz; Pontvianne, Steve; Poirot, Hélène; Pons, Marie-Noëlle

    2018-04-01

    Water storage tanks, fed directly from the river through opened channels, are particular systems used for water supply in rural areas in Morocco. The stored water is used as drinking water by the surrounding population without any treatment. UV-visible spectroscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy (excitation-emission matrices and synchronous fluorescence) have been tested as rapid methods to assess the quality of the water stored in the reservoirs as well as along the river feeding them. Synchronous fluorescence spectra (SFS50), collected with a difference of 50 nm between excitation and emission wavelengths, revealed a high tryptophan-like fluorescence, indicative of a pollution induced by untreated domestic and/or farm wastewater. The best correlations were obtained between the total SFS50 fluorescence and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and biological oxygen demand, showing that the contribution of humic-like fluorescent substances cannot be neglected to rapidly assess reservoir water quality in terms of DOC by fluorescence spectroscopy.

  20. Recovery of energy from geothermal brine and other hot water sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, III, Edward F.; Boucher, Frederic B.

    1981-01-01

    Process and system for recovery of energy from geothermal brines and other hot water sources, by direct contact heat exchange between the brine or hot water, and an immiscible working fluid, e.g. a hydrocarbon such as isobutane, in a heat exchange column, the brine or hot water therein flowing countercurrent to the flow of the working fluid. The column can be operated at subcritical, critical or above the critical pressure of the working fluid. Preferably, the column is provided with a plurality of sieve plates, and the heat exchange process and column, e.g. with respect to the design of such plates, number of plates employed, spacing between plates, area thereof, column diameter, and the like, are designed to achieve maximum throughput of brine or hot water and reduction in temperature differential at the respective stages or plates between the brine or hot water and the working fluid, and so minimize lost work and maximize efficiency, and minimize scale deposition from hot water containing fluid including salts, such as brine. Maximum throughput approximates minimum cost of electricity which can be produced by conversion of the recovered thermal energy to electrical energy.

  1. Testing of Alternative Abrasives for Water-Jet Cutting at C Tank Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krogstad, Eirik J.

    2013-08-01

    Legacy waste from defense-related activities at the Hanford Site has predominantly been stored in underground tanks, some of which have leaked; others may be at risk to do so. The U.S. Department of Energy’s goal is to empty the tanks and transform their contents into more stable waste forms. To do so requires breaking up, and creating a slurry from, solid wastes in the bottoms of the tanks. A technology developed for this purpose is the Mobile Arm Retrieval System. This system is being used at some of the older single shell tanks at C tank farm. As originally planned, access ports for the Mobile Arm Retrieval System were to be cut using a high- pressure water-jet cutter. However, water alone was found to be insufficient to allow effective cutting of the steel-reinforced tank lids, especially when cutting the steel reinforcing bar (“rebar”). The abrasive added in cutting the hole in Tank C-107 was garnet, a complex natural aluminosilicate. The hardness of garnet (Mohs hardness ranging from H 6.5 to 7.5) exceeds that of solids currently in the tanks, and was regarded to be a threat to Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant systems. Olivine, an iron-magnesium silicate that is nearly as hard as garnet (H 6.5 to 7), has been proposed as an alternative to garnet. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory proposed to test pyrite (FeS2), whose hardness is slightly less (H 6 to 6.5) for 1) cutting effectiveness, and 2) propensity to dissolve (or disintegrate by chemical reaction) in chemical conditions similar to those of tank waste solutions. Cutting experiments were conducted using an air abrader system and a National Institute of Standards and Technology Standard Reference Material (SRM 1767 Low Alloy Steel), which was used as a surrogate for rebar. The cutting efficacy of pyrite was compared with that of garnet and olivine in identical size fractions. Garnet was found to be most effective in removing steel from the target; olivine and pyrite were less

  2. Kinetics of Pressurized Water Reactors with Hot or Cold Moderators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norinder, O

    1960-11-15

    The set of neutron kinetic equations developed in this report permits the use of long integration steps during stepwise integration. Thermal relations which describe the transfer of heat from fuel to coolant are derived. The influence upon the kinetic behavior of the reactor of a number of parameters is studied. A comparison of the kinetic properties of the hot and cold moderators is given.

  3. Higher contamination rate than usual. Treatment and disinfection of water in hot whirlpool systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herschman, W

    1985-10-01

    Hot whirlpools must meet the hygienic standards set in the Federal Law Concerning Prevention of Epidemics of 18 Dec 1979. The low water volume of whirlpool systems and the extraordinary contamination rate in uninterrupted operation require a specific water treatment and disinfestation technology to make up for the poor buffer capacity of the low water volume. (orig./BWI).

  4. Design and construction of AT89C2051 micro controller based water level indicator for poly tank manufacturers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashong, Cynthia Ama

    2011-08-01

    This project is aimed at designing and constructing an AT89C2051 Micro controller Based Water level Indicator by programming a micro controller that has high frequency, logic, clock circuitry and 2.7V to 6V operating range with 5V volts being logic level 1 and 0 Volts being logic level 0 using Assembler language and programming the AT89C2051 Microcontroller using Galep 4 programmer. The device component and assembly includes A T89C2051 Micro controller, sensor (copper probe), bread board, electric bell for alarm to indicate low water level and a bulb to indicate high water level (that is the water tank is full). The AT89C2051 Micro controller Based Water Level Indicator works by sounding a bell when the tank is empty or the water level is low and light a bulb when the poly tank is full. The boundary within which the device operates is at the upper water level and the lower water level of the device (tank). That is it can operate within the levels of high to low limit. The result is very useful since it will help in ensuring water security. It is satisfactory since the project is working and indicating that the water level is low or high (that is the tank is empty or full). (au)

  5. Experimental Investigation of the Hot Water Layer Effect on Upward Flow Open Pool Reactor Operability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou Elmaaty, T.

    2014-01-01

    The open pool reactor offers a high degree of reliability in the handling and manoeuvring, the replacement of reactor internal components and the suing of vertical irradiation channels. The protection of both the operators and the reactor hall environment against radiation hazards is considered a matter of interest. So, a hot water layer is implemented above many of the research reactors main pool, especially those whose flow direction is upward flow. An experimental work was carried out to ensure the operability of the upward flow open pool research reactor with / without the hot water layer. The performed experiment showed that, the hot water layer is produced an inverse buoyant force make the water to diffuse downward against the ordinary natural circulation from the reactor core. An upward flow - open pool research reactor (with a power greater than 20 M watt) could not wok without a hot water layer. The high temperature of the hot water layer surface could release a considerable amount of water vapour into the reactor hall, so a heat and mass transfer model is built based on the measured hot water layer surface temperature to calculate the amount of released water vapour during the reactor operating period. The effects of many parameters like the ambient air temperature, the reactor hall relative humidity and the speed of the pushed air layer above the top pool end on the evaporation rate is studied. The current study showed that, the hot water layer system is considered an efficient shielding system against Gamma radiation for open pool upward flow reactor and that system should be operated before the reactor start up by a suitable period of time. While, the heat and mass transfer model results showed that, the amount of the released water vapour is increased as a result of both the increase in hot water layer surface temperature and the increase in air layer speed. As the increase in hot water layer surface temperature could produce a good operability

  6. Experimental Investigation of the Hot Water Layer Effect on Upward Flow Open Pool Reactor Operability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou Elmaaty, T.

    2015-01-01

    The open pool reactor offers a high degree of reliability in the handling and manoeuvring, the replacement of reactor internal components and the swing of vertical irradiation channels. The protection of both the operators and the reactor hall environment against radiation hazards is considered a matter of interest. So, a hot water layer implemented above many of the research reactors main pool, especially those whose flow direction is upward flow. An experimental work was carried out to ensure the operability of the upward flow open pool research reactor with / without the hot water layer. The performed experiment showed that, the hot water layer produced an inverse buoyant force making the water to diffuse downward against the ordinary natural circulation from the reactor core. An upward flow-open pool research reactor (with a power greater than 20 Mw) could not wok without a hot water layer. The high temperature of the hot water layer surface could release a considerable amount of water vapour into the reactor hall, so a heat and mass transfer model is built based on the measured hot water layer surface temperature to calculate the amount of released water vapour during the reactor operating period. The effects of many parameters like the ambient air temperature, the reactor hall relative humidity and the speed of the pushed air layer above the top pool end on the evaporation rate is studied. The current study showed that, the hot water layer system is considered an efficient shielding system against gamma radiation for open pool upward flow reactor and that system should be operated before the reactor start up by a suitable period of time. While, the heat and mass transfer model results showed that, the amount of the released water vapour is increased as a result of both the increase in hot water layer surface temperature and the increase in air layer speed. As the increase in hot water layer surface temperature could produce a good operability conditions from

  7. Life cycle assessment of domestic heat pump hot water systems in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moore Andrew D.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Water heating accounts for 23% of residential energy consumption in Australia, and, as over half is provided by electric water heaters, is a significant source of greenhouse gas emissions. Due to inclusion in rebate schemes heat pump water heating systems are becoming increasingly popular, but do they result in lower greenhouse gas emissions? This study follows on from a previous life cycle assessment study of domestic hot water systems to include heat pump systems. The streamlined life cycle assessment approach used focused on the use phase of the life cycle, which was found in the previous study to be where the majority of global warming potential (GWP impacts occurred. Data was collected from an Australian heat pump manufacturer and was modelled assuming installation within Australian climate zone 3 (AS/NZS 4234:2011. Several scenarios were investigated for the heat pumps including different sources of electricity (grid, photovoltaic solar modules, and batteries and the use of solar thermal panels. It was found that due to their higher efficiency heat pump hot water systems can result in significantly lower GWP than electric storage hot water systems. Further, solar thermal heat pump systems can have lower GWP than solar electric hot water systems that use conventional electric boosting. Additionally, the contributions of HFC refrigerants to GWP can be significant so the use of alternative refrigerants is recommended. Heat pumps combined with PV and battery technology can achieve the lowest GWP of all domestic hot water systems.

  8. Combined heat pump for sanitary hot water and space heating with CO{sub 2} as refrigerant; Kombineret brugsvands- og rumvarmepumpe med CO{sub 2} som koelemiddel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoen Poulsen, C. [Teknologisk Institut (Denmark)

    2006-05-19

    This project report describes the implementation of the Danish project called 'Combined heat pump for sanitary hot water and space heating with CO{sub 2} as refrigerant'. In the course of the project, a combined heat pump has been developed for heating sanitary hot water and producing domestic space heating. The project shows that CO2 has excellent properties in systems where a high temperature is desired on the gas cooler side and that it is possible to combine the production of sanitary hot water with the production of domestic space heating. During the project, a number of system solutions have been analysed and at the end of the project a prototype was built. It was tested in the laboratory according to a current Dutch standard for heat pumps for sanitary hot water. The prototype was constructed without the space heat part which solely has been analysed according to calculations. The reason is that there currently are no applicable European standards for the testing of combined systems and as the total efficiency of the system mainly depends on the temperature out of the gas cooler it was decided not to spend resources on the construction of the combined system in the prototype version of the unit. Instead, a number of proposals have been submitted to how the system with a space heat section could be constructed. The main components used in the prototype (compressor, exchangers, valve, control and tank) are all partly commercially available and therefore focus has been on the system construction. During the project, a number of CFD calculations have been carried out on the gas cooler in the hot water tank and the results show how important it is that the gas cooler is designed and placed correctly. The laboratory tests carried out on the unit show that the COP of the heat pump plant in connection with sanitary hot water tapping (according to Dutch standard) is 1.4 1.5 which is not immediately satisfactory. But when it is considered that the unit is a

  9. Solar Space and Water Heating for Hospital --Charlottesville, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Solar heating system described in an 86-page report consists of 88 single-glazed selectively-coated baseplate collector modules, hot-water coils in air ducts, domestic-hot-water preheat tank, 3,000 Gallon (11,350-1) concrete urethane-insulated storage tank and other components.

  10. Dismantling the activated annular water tank of the Rheinsberg nuclear power plant; Zerlegung des aktivierten Ringwasserbehaelters des Kernkraftwerks Rheinsberg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klietz, Maik; Konitzer, Arnold; Luedeke, Michael [Anlagen- und Kraftwerksrohrleitungsbau GmbH, Greifswald (Germany)

    2010-10-15

    Acting on behalf of Energiewerke Nord GmbH Lubmin, Anlagen- und Kraftwerksrohrleitungsbau Greifswald GmbH (AKB) planned and built a station for disassembly of the activated annular water tank (RWB) of the decommissioned Rheinsberg nuclear power plant. As part of this demolition step, the annular water tank must be conditioned and disposed of as a component of the reactor facility. This required planning, manufacturing, testing and construction on site of suitable disassembly and handling techniques and the necessary plant and equipment. The client opted for disassembly by means of a diamond cable saw for conditioning the annular water tank into segments fit for shipping, and defined the basic components for the disassembly station in a specification of deliveries and services. The disassembly station serves to divide the annular water tank by means of diamond cable saws into 2 sections in such a way that segment pieces for transport are produced. The existing activation of the annular water tank also entailed the need to plan for the shortest possible time to be spent on handling near the annular water tank, providing radiological protection to the personnel, and performing the sawing steps from a separate operating console assisted by camera surveillance. After works acceptance tests at the manufacturer's, AKB, in October 2009 and February 2010, the disassembly station was delivered to the customer at Rheinsberg KKR free from defects in June 2010. (orig.)

  11. Optimal operation by dynamic programming in a solar/electric hot-water system; Taiyonetsu/denryoku kyuto system no doteki keikakuho ni yoru saiteki un`yo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edo, S; Kenmoku, Y; Sakakibara, T [Toyohashi University of Technology, Aichi (Japan); Nakagawa, S [Maizuru College of Technology, Kyoto (Japan); Kawamoto, T [Shizuoka University, Shizuoka (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    With regard to utilization of a solar/electric hot-water system, a discussion was given by using a dynamic programming method on operation of a system which minimizes power charge. The discussed system is an installation in a welfare facility accommodating 100 persons, where solar heat is stored in a heat storage tank from a heat collector, and utilized for hot water supply. If the solar heat is insufficient for required hot water quantity, the water is heated by using an electric heater. The discussion compared the system operation using the dynamic programming method with the following two systems: the operation method 1, which does not utilize insolation forecast and the operation method 2, in which insolation forecast is utilized and late-night electric power is utilized for heating water in shortage. As a result of the calculation, the operation using the dynamic programming method conducts heat storage by utilizing the late-night power even if insolation is sufficient in winter in order to suppress heating by utilizing late-night power for days with less insolation. Thus, suppression is given on excessive utilization of day-time power and on rise in annual maximum power demand. It was found that the present system reduces power consumption by 37.7% when compared with the operation method 1, and 22.7% when compared even with the operation method 2. 3 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Heavy metal concentrations and toxicity in water and sediment from stormwater ponds and sedimentation tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Kristin; Viklander, Maria; Scholes, Lian; Revitt, Mike

    2010-06-15

    Sedimentation is a widely used technique in structural best management practices to remove pollutants from stormwater. However, concerns have been expressed about the environmental impacts that may be exerted by the trapped pollutants. This study has concentrated on stormwater ponds and sedimentation tanks and reports on the accumulated metal concentrations (Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, and Zn) and the associated toxicity to the bacteria Vibrio fischeri. The metal concentrations are compared with guidelines and the toxicity results are assessed in relation to samples for which metal concentrations either exceed or conform to these values. The water phase metal concentrations were highest in the ponds whereas the sedimentation tanks exhibited a distinct decrease towards the outlet. However, none of the water samples demonstrated toxicity even though the concentrations of Cu, Pb, and Zn exceeded the threshold values for the compared guidelines. The facilities with higher traffic intensities had elevated sediment concentrations of Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn which increased towards the outlet for the sedimentation tanks in agreement with the highest percentage of fine particles. The sediments in both treatment facilities exhibited the expected toxic responses in line with their affinity for heavy metals but the role of organic carbon content is highlighted. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The occurrence of legionalla in hot water distribution systems of some Finnish apartment and office buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zacheus, O M; Kuittinen, M H; Martikainen, P J [National Public Health Institute, Dept. Environ. Hyg. and Toxicol., Kuopio (FI)

    1991-01-01

    A project concerning the effect of water temperature and water quality on the microbiology of hot water distribution systems in Finnish apartment and office buildings was started in 1989. Here we report preliminary results on the occurrence of legionella. Samples were taken from showerpipes and from hot water mains before and after calorifiers of 17 buildings. Water temperature in the showerpipes ranged from 39 to 55 deg. C. Water temperature before calorifiers ranged from 40 to 52 deg. C and after them from 39 to 59 deg. C. Water temperature did not explain well the occurrence of legionalla. Legionalla pneumophila was isolated from six systems. The isolates were serogroups 1, 5 and 6. Legionella concentrations in positive samples ranged from 100 to 350 000 CFU/l. Highest concentrations of legionalla were obtained from showerpipes and hot water mains before calorifiers. Four legionella positive distribution systems were decontaminated by raising the water temperature to 60-70 deg. C and cleaning taps and showerheads, and flushing them twice a day. The numbers of legionellas in the hot water mains fell below detection limit (50 CFU/l) and their numbers also decreased in showerpipes. Decontamination failed in some parts of the distribution systems where water temperature remained below 60 deg. C. (author) 26 refs.

  14. Field Test Design Simulations of Pore-Water Extraction for the SX Tank Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truex, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Oostrom, Martinus [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-09-01

    A proof of principle test of pore water extraction is being performed by Washington River Protection Solutions for the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of River Protection. This test is being conducted to meet the requirements of Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (HFFACO) (Ecology et al. 1989) Milestone M 045-20, and is described in RPP-PLAN-53808, 200 West Area Tank Farms Interim Measures Investigation Work Plan. To support design of this test, numerical simulations were conducted to help define equipment and operational parameters. The modeling effort builds from information collected in laboratory studies and from field characterization information collected at the test site near the Hanford Site 241-SX Tank Farm. Numerical simulations were used to evaluate pore-water extraction performance as a function of the test site properties and for the type of extraction well configuration that can be constructed using the direct-push installation technique. Output of simulations included rates of water and soil-gas production as a function of operational conditions for use in supporting field equipment design. The simulations also investigated the impact of subsurface heterogeneities in sediment properties and moisture distribution on pore-water extraction performance. Phenomena near the extraction well were also investigated because of their importance for pore-water extraction performance.

  15. An assessment study of septic tank based sewage disposal system on quality of underground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khawaja, A.A.; Lisa, M.; Boustani, M.; Jaffar, M.; Masud, K.

    1999-01-01

    An assessment of septic tank based sewage disposal system made on the basis of quality of underground water is presented. Machrala village is selected as the case study area where an ever-increasing number of septic tanks are posing great health threat to the inhabitants. Both hand pump and tube well water samples are analyzed for toxic trace metals (Mn, Fe, Cd and Co), physico-chemical parameters (pH, turbidity, conductance, total dissolved salts, Ca, Mg, Cl/sup-/ and SO/sub 4//sup -2/) and micro-organism population in terms of total viable count, coliform count, MPN coliform. The metals were analyzed by the flame atomic absorption method using standard procedure. The study shows that the local underground water of the village is being adversely affected by toxic metals and coliform bacteria. In most cases, the latter parameter exceeds 240 counts/ml. Besides, tube well water were found to have higher Pb concentration (0.200 mg/ml) and the overall assessment renders more than 50% of the water samples as unsatisfactory for human consumption. (author)

  16. Uncertainties in the measured quantities of water leaving waste Tank 241-C-106 via the ventilation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minteer, D.J.

    1995-01-23

    The purpose of this analysis is to estimate the uncertainty in the measured quantity of water which typically leaves Tank 241-C-106 via the ventilation system each month. Such measurements are essential for heat removal estimation and tank liquid level verification purposes. The uncertainty associated with the current, infrequent, manual method of measurement (involves various psychrometric and pressure measurements) is suspected to be unreasonably high. Thus, the possible reduction of this uncertainty using a continuous, automated method of measurement will also be estimated. There are three major conclusions as a result of this analysis: (1) the uncertainties associated with the current (infrequent, manual) method of measuring the water which typically leaves Tank 241-C-106 per month via the ventilation system are indeed quite high (80% to 120%); (2) given the current psychrometric and pressure measurement methods and any tank which loses considerable moisture through active ventilation, such as Tank 241-C-106, significant quantities of liquid can actually leak from the tank before a leak can be positively identified via liquid level measurement; (3) using improved (continuous, automated) methods of taking the psychrometric and pressure measurements, the uncertainty in the measured quantity of water leaving Tank 241-C-106 via the ventilation system can be reduced by approximately an order of magnitude.

  17. Uncertainties in the measured quantities of water leaving waste Tank 241-C-106 via the ventilation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minteer, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to estimate the uncertainty in the measured quantity of water which typically leaves Tank 241-C-106 via the ventilation system each month. Such measurements are essential for heat removal estimation and tank liquid level verification purposes. The uncertainty associated with the current, infrequent, manual method of measurement (involves various psychrometric and pressure measurements) is suspected to be unreasonably high. Thus, the possible reduction of this uncertainty using a continuous, automated method of measurement will also be estimated. There are three major conclusions as a result of this analysis: (1) the uncertainties associated with the current (infrequent, manual) method of measuring the water which typically leaves Tank 241-C-106 per month via the ventilation system are indeed quite high (80% to 120%); (2) given the current psychrometric and pressure measurement methods and any tank which loses considerable moisture through active ventilation, such as Tank 241-C-106, significant quantities of liquid can actually leak from the tank before a leak can be positively identified via liquid level measurement; (3) using improved (continuous, automated) methods of taking the psychrometric and pressure measurements, the uncertainty in the measured quantity of water leaving Tank 241-C-106 via the ventilation system can be reduced by approximately an order of magnitude

  18. Metagenomic analysis of bacterial diversity of Siloam hot water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-07

    Dec 7, 2011 ... 14.40. Bicarbonate (HCO3). 107.36. Table 3. Trace elements composition at Siloam Hot spring. Element. Concentration (μg/L) Element. Concentration (μg/L) Element. Concentration μg/L. Antimony. 0.0. Cobalt. 0.1. Strontium. 20.4. Arsenic. 0.3. Copper. 0.0. Tellurium. 0.0. Barium. 4.2. Iodine. 1.9. Thallium.

  19. THERMAL STRATIFICATION IN SOLAR DOMESTIC STORAGE TANKS CAUSED BY DRAW-OFFS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordan, Ulrike; Furbo, Simon

    2003-01-01

    As shown in many research studies in the past, the thermal stratification of the tank caused by draw-offs has a high impact on the performance of a Solar Domestic Hot Water (SDHW) system. Nevertheless, in most tank models for system simulations the influence of the draw-off pattern on the mixing...... with a component oriented simulation tool for solar thermal systems....

  20. Solar heating, cooling and domestic hot water system installed at Columbia Gas System Service Corporation, Columbus, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The solar energy system installed in the building has 2,978 sq ft of single axis tracking, concentrating collectors and provides solar energy for space heating, space cooling and domestic hot water. A 1,200,000 Btu/hour water tube gas boiler provides hot water for space heating. Space cooling is provided by a 100 ton hot water fired absorption chiller. Domestic hot water heating is provided by a 50 gallon natural gas domestic storage water heater. Extracts from the site files, specification references, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions are included.

  1. Water level response measurement in a steel cylindrical liquid storage tank using image filter processing under seismic excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Wan; Choi, Hyoung-Suk; Park, Dong-Uk; Baek, Eun-Rim; Kim, Jae-Min

    2018-02-01

    Sloshing refers to the movement of fluid that occurs when the kinetic energy of various storage tanks containing fluid (e.g., excitation and vibration) is continuously applied to the fluid inside the tanks. As the movement induced by an external force gets closer to the resonance frequency of the fluid, the effect of sloshing increases, and this can lead to a serious problem with the structural stability of the system. Thus, it is important to accurately understand the physics of sloshing, and to effectively suppress and reduce the sloshing. Also, a method for the economical measurement of the water level response of a liquid storage tank is needed for the exact analysis of sloshing. In this study, a method using images was employed among the methods for measuring the water level response of a liquid storage tank, and the water level response was measured using an image filter processing algorithm for the reduction of the noise of the fluid induced by light, and for the sharpening of the structure installed at the liquid storage tank. A shaking table test was performed to verify the validity of the method of measuring the water level response of a liquid storage tank using images, and the result was analyzed and compared with the response measured using a water level gauge.

  2. CORRELATION OF EXPERIMENTAL AND THEORETICAL DATA FOR MANTLE TANKS USED IN LOW FLOW SDHW SYSTEMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shah, Louise Jivan; Furbo, Simon

    1997-01-01

    -calculations, a detailed analysis of the heat transfer from the solar collector fluid to the wall of the hot water tank is performed. The analysis has resulted in a correlation for the heat transfer between the solar collector fluid and the wall of the hot water........1. The model is validated against the experimental tests, and good agreement between measured and calculated results is achieved. The results from the CFD-calculations are used to illustrate the thermal behaviour and the fluid dynamics in the mantle and in the hot water tank. With the CFD...

  3. Determination of Hot Springs Physico-Chemical Water Quality Potentially Use for Balneotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaini Hamzah; Nurul Latiffah Abd Rani; Ahmad Saat; Ab Khalik Wood

    2013-01-01

    Hot springs areas are attractive places for locals and foreigners either for excursion or for medical purposes such as for healing of various types of diseases. This is because the hot spring water is believed rich in salt, sulfur, and sulfate in the water body. For many thousands of years, people have used hot springs water both for cozy bathing and therapy. Balneotherapy is the term used where the patients were immersed in hot mineral water baths emerged as an important treatment in Europe around 1800s. In view of this fact, a study of hot springs water was performed with the objective to determine the concentration of Na + , K + , Ca 2+ , S, SO 4 2- and Cl - in hot springs water around the State of Selangor, Malaysia. Energy dispersive X-ray Fluorescent Spectrometry (EDXRF) was used to measure the concentrations of Na + , K + , Ca 2+ and S meanwhile for SO 4 2- and Cl - anion, Ion Chromatography (IC) was used. The concentration of Na + obtained for filtered and unfiltered samples ranged from 33.68 to 80.95 and 37.03 to 81.91 ppm respectively. Meanwhile, the corresponding concentrations of K + ranged from 1.47 to 45.72 and 1.70 to 56.81 ppm. Concentrations of Ca 2+ ranged from 2.44 to 18.45 and 3.75 to 19.77 ppm. The concentration of S obtained for filtered and unfiltered samples ranged from 1.87 to 12.41 and 6.25 to 12.86 ppm. The concentrations for SO 4 2- and Cl - obtained ranged from 0.15 to 1.51 ppm and 7.06 to 20.66 ppm for filtered samples. The data signified higher concentration of salt and other important nutrients in hot spring water. (author)

  4. Fuel storage tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peehs, M.; Stehle, H.; Weidinger, H.

    1979-01-01

    The stationary fuel storage tank is immersed below the water level in the spent fuel storage pool. In it there is placed a fuel assembly within a cage. Moreover, the storage tank has got a water filling and a gas buffer. The water in the storage tank is connected with the pool water by means of a filter, a surge tank and a water purification facility, temperature and pressure monitoring being performed. In the buffer compartment there are arranged catalysts a glow plugs for recombination of radiolysis products into water. The supply of water into the storage tank is performed through the gas buffer compartment. (DG) [de

  5. Assessment of the impact of traditional septic tank soakaway systems on water quality in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keegan, Mary; Kilroy, Kate; Nolan, Daniel; Dubber, Donata; Johnston, Paul M; Misstear, Bruce D R; O'Flaherty, Vincent; Barrett, Maria; Gill, Laurence W

    2014-01-01

    One of the key threats to groundwater and surface water quality in Ireland is the impact of poorly designed, constructed or maintained on-site wastewater treatment systems. An extensive study was carried out to quantify the impact of existing sites on water quality. Six existing sites, consisting of a traditional septic tank and soakaway system, located in various ranges of subsoil permeabilities were identified and monitored to determine how well they function under varying subsoil and weather conditions. The preliminary results of the chemical and microbiological pollutant attenuation in the subsoil of the systems have been assessed and treatment performance evaluated, as well as impact on local surface water and groundwater quality. The source of any faecal contamination detected in groundwater, nearby surface water and effluent samples was confirmed by microbial source tracking. From this, it can be seen that the transport and treatment of percolate vary greatly depending on the permeability and composition of the subsoil.

  6. Systematic procedures for sizing photovoltaic pumping system, using water tank storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamidat, A.; Benyoucef, B.

    2009-01-01

    In this work, the performances of the photovoltaic pumping destined to supply drinking water in remote and scattered small villages have been studied. The methodology adopted proposes various procedures based on the water consumption profiles, total head, tank capacity and photovoltaic array peak power. A method of the load losses probability (LLP) has been used to optimize sizing of the photovoltaic pumping systems with a similarity between the storage energy in batteries and water in tanks. The results were carried out using measured meteorological data for four localities in Algeria: Algiers and Oran in the north, Bechar and Tamanrasset in the south. The results show that the performance of the photovoltaic pumping system depends deeply on the pumping total head and the peak power of the photovoltaic array. Also, for the southern localities, the LLP method shows that the size of the photovoltaic array varies versus LLP on a small scale. On the other hand, for the northern localities, the sizing of the photovoltaic array is situated on a large scale power. Because of the current high crud-oil price, the photovoltaic pumping still to be the best adopted energy resource to supply drinking water in remote and scattered villages

  7. An arboreal spider protects its offspring by diving into the water of tank bromeliads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hénaut, Yann; Corbara, Bruno; Azémar, Frédéric; Céréghino, Régis; Dézerald, Olivier; Dejean, Alain

    2018-03-01

    Cupiennius salei (Ctenidae) individuals frequently live in association with tank bromeliads, including Aechmea bracteata, in Quintana Roo (Mexico). Whereas C. salei females without egg sacs hunt over their entire host plant, females carrying egg sacs settle above the A. bracteata reservoirs they have partially sealed with silk. There they avoid predators that use sight to detect their prey, as is known for many bird species. Furthermore, if a danger is more acute, these females dive with their egg sacs into the bromeliad reservoir. An experiment showed that this is not the case for males or females without egg sacs. In addition to the likely abundance of prey found therein, the potential of diving into the tank to protect offspring may explain the close association of this spider with bromeliads. These results show that, although arboreal, C. salei evolved a protective behavior using the water of tank bromeliads to protect offspring. Copyright © 2018 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Water jet intrusion into hot melt concomitant with direct-contact boiling of water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sibamoto, Yasuteru [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai Research Establishment, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2005-08-01

    Boiling of water poured on surface of high-temperature melt (molten metal or metal oxide) provides an efficient means for heat exchange or cooling of melt. The heat transfer surface area can be extended by forcing water into melt. Objectives of the present study are to elucidate key factors of the thermal and hydrodynamic interactions for the water jet injection into melt (Coolant Injection mode). Proposed applications include in in-vessel heat exchangers for liquid metal reactor and emergency measures for cooling of molten core debris in severe accidents of light water reactor. Water penetration into melt may occurs also as a result of fuel-coolant interaction (FCI) in modes other than CI, it is anticipated that the present study contributes to understand the fundamental mechanism of the FCI process. The previous works have been limited on understanding the melt-water interaction phenomena in the water-injection mode because of difficulty in experimental measurement where boiling occurs in opaque invisible hot melt unlike the melt-injection mode. We conducted visualization and measurement of melt-water-vapor multiphase flow phenomena by using a high-frame-rate neutron radiography technique and newly-developed probes. Although limited knowledge, however, has been gained even such an approach, the experimental data were analyzed deeply by comparing with the knowledge obtained from relevant matters. As a result, we succeeded in revealing several key phenomena and validity in the conditions under which stable heat transfer is established. Moreover, a non-intrusive technique for measurement of the velocity and pressure fields adjacent to a moving free surface is developed. The technique is based on the measurement of fluid surface profile, which is useful for elucidation of flow mechanism accompanied by a free surface like the present phenomena. (author)

  9. Strontium isotopic composition of hot spring and mineral spring waters, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notsu, Kenji; Wakita, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Yuji

    1991-01-01

    In Japan, hot springs and mineral springs are distributed in Quaternary and Neogene volcanic regions as well as in granitic, sedimentary and metamorphic regions lacking in recent volcanic activity. The 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio was determined in hot spring and mineral spring waters obtained from 47 sites. The ratios of waters from Quaternary and Neogene volcanic regions were in the range 0.703-0.708, which is lower than that from granitic, sedimentary and metamorphic regions (0.706-0.712). The geographical distribution of the ratios coincides with the bedrock geology, and particularly the ratios of the waters in Quaternary volcanic regions correlate with those of surrounding volcanic rocks. These features suggest that subsurface materials control the 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios of soluble components in the hot spring and mineral spring waters. (author)

  10. Energy saving type area hot water supply system using heat of hot waste water from the sludge center as hot source for hot water; New energy rokko airando CITY. Surajjisenta karano onhaisuinetsu wo kyuyuyo netsugen ni riyosuru sho energy gata chiiki onsui kyokyu system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    Heat source of area hot water supply system in Rokko island City (man-made island) is heat of combustion at the sludge center (sludge incineration plant) in this island. Dehydrated sludge cakes (230ton/day) brought from seven sewage disposal plants in Kobe City is combusted (850degC) in the fluid bed hearth. Combustion gas washed in the scrubber, hot waste water after the washing give heat into heat transfer water in the first heat exchanger. Temperature being 64degC in summer and about 50degC in winter, this heat transfer water is sent into the second heat exchanger at every condominium building throughout the pipe line system circulating in the area. At each home, gas heater and hot water supply devices fitted, additional combustion is not necessary in summer but is used according to demand in other seasons. This hot water supply service has been carried out since 1988 and at present has been used by 3600 homes. Amount of supplying hot water being about 3000cu.m/day, saving is calculated roughly as 60% of gas for hot water supply. Fee for this system is 1500/yen/month uniformly for each home. 14 figs.

  11. Reducing drinking water supply chemical contamination: risks from underground storage tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enander, Richard T; Hanumara, R Choudary; Kobayashi, Hisanori; Gagnon, Ronald N; Park, Eugene; Vallot, Christopher; Genovesi, Richard

    2012-12-01

    Drinking water supplies are at risk of contamination from a variety of physical, chemical, and biological sources. Ranked among these threats are hazardous material releases from leaking or improperly managed underground storage tanks located at municipal, commercial, and industrial facilities. To reduce human health and environmental risks associated with the subsurface storage of hazardous materials, government agencies have taken a variety of legislative and regulatory actions--which date back more than 25 years and include the establishment of rigorous equipment/technology/operational requirements and facility-by-facility inspection and enforcement programs. Given a history of more than 470,000 underground storage tank releases nationwide, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency continues to report that 7,300 new leaks were found in federal fiscal year 2008, while nearly 103,000 old leaks remain to be cleaned up. In this article, we report on an alternate evidence-based intervention approach for reducing potential releases from the storage of petroleum products (gasoline, diesel, kerosene, heating/fuel oil, and waste oil) in underground tanks at commercial facilities located in Rhode Island. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether a new regulatory model can be used as a cost-effective alternative to traditional facility-by-facility inspection and enforcement programs for underground storage tanks. We conclude that the alternative model, using an emphasis on technical assistance tools, can produce measurable improvements in compliance performance, is a cost-effective adjunct to traditional facility-by-facility inspection and enforcement programs, and has the potential to allow regulatory agencies to decrease their frequency of inspections among low risk facilities without sacrificing compliance performance or increasing public health risks. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  12. Effect of hot water extracted hardwood and softwood chips on particleboard properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuel Raul Pelaez-Samaniego; Vikram Yadama; Tsai Garcia-Perez; Eini Lowell; Thomas Amidon

    2014-01-01

    The affinity of particleboard (PB) to water is one of the main limitations for using PB in moisture-rich environments. PB dimensional stability and durability can be improved by reducing the available hydroxyl groups in wood through hemicellulose removal, for example, by hot water extraction (HWE), which increases wood resistance to moisture uptake. The resulting...

  13. Effect of hot water and gamma radiation on postharvest decay of grapefruit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spalding, D.H.; Reeder, W.F.

    1986-01-01

    'Marsh' seedless white Florida grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.) were inoculated after harvest with a spore suspension of green mold (Penicillium digitatum Sacc.) and treated by immersion in hot water (50°C for 5 min) or irradiation with gamma rays (250 Gy) from a Cobalt-60 source or a combination of the two treatments. Fruit were wrapped individually with shrink film after hot water treatment and before irradiation and were stored with wrapped control fruit at 24°C for 9 days. Fruit treated with hot water developed less green mold rot than untreated fruit, even when treatment was delayed for 72 hr after inoculation. Fruit irradiated after a delay of 2 hr, but not 24-72 hr, after inoculation developed less rot than untreated fruit. Development of green mold rot was not significantly different in fruit treated with both hot water and irradiation than with hot water alone. No visible injury or off-flavors were detected in any of the fruit. (author)

  14. Application of waterproof breathable fabric in thermal protective clothing exposed to hot water and steam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Y.; Li, R.; Song, G.; Li, J.

    2017-10-01

    A hot water and steam tester was used to examine thermal protective performance of waterproof and breathable fabric against hot water and steam hazards. Time to cause skin burn and thermal energy absorbed by skin during exposure and cooling phases was employed to characterize the effect of configuration, placing order and properties of waterproof and breathable fabric on the thermal protective performance. The difference of thermal protective performance due to hot water and steam hazards was discussed. The result showed that the configuration of waterproof and breathable fabric presented a significant effect on the thermal protective performance of single- and double-layer fabric system, while the difference between different configurations in steam hazard was greater than that in hot water hazard. The waterproof and breathable fabric as outer layer provided better protection than that as inner layer. Increasing thickness and moisture regain improved the thermal protective performance of fabric system. Additionally, the thermal energy absorbed by skin during the cooling phase was affected by configuration, thickness and moisture regain of fabric. The findings will provide technical data to improve performance of thermal protective clothing in hot water and steam hazards.

  15. Effect of Hot water and dilute acid pretreatment on the chemical properties of liquorice root

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    zahra takzare

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study, the liquorice root (Glycyrrhiza glabra that was extracted in the factory in Kerman province, pre-hydrolyzed and then chemical compositions (Extractives, Lignin content, Holocellulose percent, the hydrolysis process yield and weight loss of the waste was measured. Pre-hydrolysis process was done on the above mentioned waste by hot water, hot water followed by 0.5 percent sulfuric acid and also alone sulfuric acid with different concentrations (0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 percent The samples were pre-hydrolyzed in hot water at 150 °C and 30, 60 and 90 minutes as well as in the mixture of hot water and 0.5 % sulfuric acid at 150 °C and 60 minutes and also in pure sulfuric acid, at 130 °C and at 60 minutes. The results showed that the pre-hydrolyzed treatment with hot water in 60 minutes had been favorable performance in the respect of weight loss, lignin content and holocellulose percent. Also, in the case of pre-treatment including sulfuric acid, 2% dose can be good selected option in term of maximum holocellulose percent and minimum lignin content so that it can be suggested to produce higher value-added products such as bioethanol from licorice root bid.

  16. Natural convection in a water tank with a heated horizontal plate facing downward

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Sun Kyoo; Jung, Moon Kee; Helmut Hoffmann

    1995-01-01

    Experimental and computational studies were carried out to investigate the natural convection of the single phase flow in a tank with a heated horizontal plate facing downward. This is a simplified model for investigations of the influence of a core melt at the bottom of a reactor vessel on the thermal hydraulic behavior in a water filled cavity surrounding the vessel. In this case the vessel is simulated by a hexahedron insulated box with a heated plate horizontally mounted at the bottom of the box. The box with the heated plate is installed in a water filled hexahedron tank. Coolers are immersed in the U-type water volume between the box and the tank. Although the multicomponent flows exist more probably below the heated plate in reality, present study concentrates on the single phase flow in a first step prior to investigating the complicated multicomponent thermal hydraulic phenomena. In the present study, in order to get a better understanding for the natural convection characteristics below the heated plate, the velocity and temperature are measured by LDA(Laser Doppler Anemometry) and thermocouples, respectively. And flow fields are visualized by taking pictures of the flow region with suspended particles. The results show the occurrence of a very effective circulation of the fluid in the whole flow area as the heater and coolers are put into operation. In the remote region below the heated plate the flow is nearly stagnant, and a remarkable temperature stratification can be observed with very thin thermal boundary. Analytical predictions using the FLUTAN code show a reasonable matching of the measured velocity fields. 18 figs., 2 tabs., 18 refs. (Author)

  17. Head-out immersion in hot water increases serum BDNF in healthy males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Daisuke; Nakamura, Takeshi; Banno, Motohiko; Umemoto, Yasunori; Kinoshita, Tokio; Ishida, Yuko; Tajima, Fumihiro

    2017-11-20

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is an important neurotrophin. The present study investigated the effects of head-out water immersion (HOI) on serum BDNF concentrations. Eight healthy men performed 20 min head-out water immersion at 42 °C (hot-HOI) and 35 °C (neutral-HOI). These experimental trials were administered in a randomised order separated by at least 7 days. Venous blood samples were withdrawn at rest, immediately after the 20-min HOI, as well as at 15 and 30 min after the end of the HOI. Serum BDNF and S100β, plasma cortisol, platelet and monocyte counts, and core body temperature (T cb ) were measured. T cb was higher at the end of the hot-HOI and 15 min after hot-HOI (p hot-HOI. No change in T cb was recorded during neutral-HOI. BDNF level was higher (p hot-HOI and at 15 min after the end of hot-HOI, and returned to the baseline at 30 min after hot-HOI. S100β, platelet count and monocyte count remained stable throughout the study. Cortisol level was lower at the end of the hot-HOI and returned to pre-HOI level during the recovery period. BDNF and S100β, cortisol, and platelet and monocyte counts did not change throughout the neutral-HOI study. The present findings suggested that the increase in BDNF during 20-min hot-HOI was induced by hyperthermia through enhanced production, rather than by changes in permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), platelet clotting mechanisms or secretion from monocytes.

  18. Summer Indoor Heat Pump Water Heater Evaluation in a Hot-Dry Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeschele, Marc [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Seitzler, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-05-01

    Heat pump water heaters offer a significant opportunity to improve water heating performance for the over 40% of U.S. households that heat domestic hot water using electric resistance storage water heaters. Numerous field studies have also been completed documenting performance in a variety of climates and applications. More recent evaluation efforts have focused attention on the performance of May through September 2014, with ongoing winter monitoring being sponsored by California utility partners. Summer results show favorable system performance with extrapolated annual water heating savings of 1,466 to 2,300 kWh per year, based on the observed hot water loads. Additional summer space cooling benefits savings of 121 to 135 kWh per year were projected, further increasing the water energy savings.

  19. An econometric viability model for ongrowing sole (Solea senegalensis) in tanks using pumped well sea water

    OpenAIRE

    García García, J.; García García, B.

    2006-01-01

    Sole (Solea senegalensis) is of great interest to marine aquaculture in the Mediterranean because of its relatively fast growth and good commercial prospects (high price). However, the wide mean annual variation in the temperature of Mediterranean sea water (14-26 deg C) is a limiting factor for the ongrowing of this species; the optimum for this process is 19-20 deg C. One of the possible mid-term solutions for ensuring a constant year-round temperature is to ongrow these fish in tanks conta...

  20. Concentration-driven models revisited: towards a unified framework to model settling tanks in water resource recovery facilities

    OpenAIRE

    Torfs, Elena; Marti, M. Carmen; Locatelli, Florent; Balemans, Sophie; Burger, Raimund; Diehl, Stefan; Laurent, Julien; Vanrolleghem, Peter A.; Francois, Pierre; Nopens, Ingmar

    2017-01-01

    A new perspective on the modelling of settling behaviour in water resource recovery facilities is introduced. The ultimate goal is to describe in a unified way the processes taking place both in primary settling tanks (PSTs) and secondary settling tanks (SSTs) for a more detailed operation and control. First, experimental evidence is provided, pointing out distributed particle properties (such as size, shape, density, porosity, and flocculation state) as an important common source of distribu...

  1. Volcanic Gases and Hot Spring Water to Evaluate the Volcanic Activity of the Mt. Baekdusan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, S. H.; Lee, S.; Chang, C.

    2017-12-01

    This study performed the analysis on the volcanic gases and hot spring waters from the Julong hot spring at Mt. Baekdu, also known as Changbaishan on the North Korea(DPRK)-China border, during the period from July 2015 to August 2016. Also, we confirmed the errors that HCO3- concentrations of hot spring waters in the previous study (Lee et al. 2014) and tried to improve the problem. Dissolved CO2 in hot spring waters was analyzed using gas chromatograph in Lee et al.(2014). Improving this, from 2015, we used TOC-IC to analysis dissolved CO2. Also, we analyzed the Na2CO3 standard solutions of different concentrations using GC, and confirmed the correlation between the analytical concentrations and the real concentrations. However, because the analytical results of the Julong hot spring water were in discord with the estimated values based on this correlation, we can't estimate the HCO3-concentrations of 2014 samples. During the period of study, CO2/CH4 ratios in volcanic gases are gradually decreased, and this can be interpreted in two different ways. The first interpretation is that the conditions inside the volcanic edifice are changing into more reduction condition, and carbon in volcanic gases become more favorable to distribute into CH4 or CO than CO2. The second interpretation is that the interaction between volcanic gases and water becomes greater than past, and the concentrations of CO2which have much higher solubility in water decreased, relatively. In general, the effect of scrubbing of volcanic gas is strengthened during the quiet periods of volcanic activity rather than active periods. Meanwhile, the analysis of hot spring waters was done on the anion of acidic gases species, the major cations, and some trace elements (As, Cd, Re).This work was funded by the Korea Meteorological Administration Research and Development Program under Grant KMIPA 2015-3060.

  2. Extraction of steviol glycosides from fresh Stevia using acidified water; comparison to hot water extraction, including purification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kootstra, A.M.J.; Huurman, Sander

    2017-01-01

    This report describes a practical comparison of an acidified water extraction of freshly harvested Stevia
    plants (the NewFoss method) to the hot water extraction of dried Stevia plants, the industry standard. Both
    extracts are subsequently purified using lab-/bench scale standard industrial

  3. OPTIMISATION OF MANTLE TANKS FOR LOW FLOW SOLAR HEATING SYSTEMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shah, Louise Jivan; Furbo, Simon

    1996-01-01

    A model, describing the heat transfer coefficients in the mantle of a mantle tank has been developed. The model is validated by means of measurements with varying operational conditions for different designed mantle tanks. The model has been implemented in an existing detailed mathematical...... with the programme and by means of tests of three SDHW systems with different designed mantle tanks. Based on the investigations design rules for mantle tanks are proposed. The model, describing the heat transfer coefficients in the mantle is approximate. In addition, the measurements have revealed...... that a temperature stratification in the hot water tank, above the mantle is built up. This phenomenon may be important, but it is not taken into calculation in the programme. Therefore, theoretical and practical work is continuing in order to make a more precise model for the whole mantle tank....

  4. Analysis of systems for hot water supply with solar energy utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zlateva, M.

    2001-01-01

    The results from the analysis of the hot water consumption of a group of hotels in the Black See resort Albena are presented. Structural schemes of hot water solar systems with flat plate collectors have been synthesized. By the synthesis have been analyzed the type of the consumers, the operating period, the existing heating plants, the auxiliary energy source - electricity. The change of the solar fraction by different performance of the system have been investigated. A comparative analysis of the alternative solutions has been fulfilled. The most advantageous solution has been chosen on the basis of the evaluation of the pay-back period, the life cycle savings and the benefit-cost ratio. The effect of the changing economic characteristics on the economic efficiency have been investigated. The risk for the investments has been examined. It had been proved that for the conditions in Bulgarian Black See region the use of solar energy for hot water producing is economic reasonable. (author)

  5. Identification and assessment of environmental benefits from solar hot water production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haralambopoulos, D.; Spilanis, I.

    1997-01-01

    The environmental benefits associated with the utilization of solar energy for hot water production are estimated in this work. The case of a particular country, Greece, and its electricity production system is employed to show the direct consequences of substituting electricity with solar energy for hot water production. The amount of conventional fuel saved, i.e. lignite and oil, is estimated, and the reduction in air pollution is calculated. This allows the calculation of reduction emission factors for solar hot water production to be undertaken. Data, with respect to the materials and the amount of energy necessary for the construction of the solar heaters, are also presented. These can serve as inputs to an energy-environment policy framework in order to lead to reduction of air pollutants like SO 2 , NO X and particulates, and the release of the greenhouse gas CO 2 into the atmosphere. (Author)

  6. Integration of space heating and hot water supply in low temperature district heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmegaard, Brian; Ommen, Torben Schmidt; Markussen, Michael

    2016-01-01

    District heating may supply many consumers efficiently, but the heat loss from the pipes to the ground is a challenge. The heat loss may be lowered by decreasing the network temperatures for which reason low temperature networks are proposed for future district heating. The heating demand...... of the consumers involves both domestic hot water and space heating. Space heating may be provided at low temperature in low energy buildings. Domestic hot water, however, needs sufficient temperatures to avoid growth of legionella. If the network temperature is below the demand temperature, supplementary heating...... is required by the consumer. We study conventional district heating at different temperatures and compare the energy and exergetic efficiency and annual heating cost to solutions that utilize electricity for supplementary heating of domestic hot water in low temperature district heating. This includes direct...

  7. Research on Liquid Management Technology in Water Tank and Reactor for Propulsion System with Hydrogen Production System Utilizing Aluminum and Water Reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Ryoji; Imamura, Takuya; Sugioka, Masatoshi; Higashino, Kazuyuki

    2017-12-01

    High pressure hydrogen produced by aluminum and water reaction is considered to be applied to space propulsion system. Water tank and hydrogen production reactor in this propulsion system require gas and liquid separation function under microgravity condition. We consider to install vane type liquid acquisition device (LAD) utilizing surface tension in the water tank, and install gas-liquid separation mechanism by centrifugal force which swirling flow creates in the hydrogen reactor. In water tank, hydrophilic coating was covered on both tank wall and vane surface to improve wettability. Function of LAD in water tank and gas-liquid separation in reaction vessel were evaluated by short duration microgravity experiments using drop tower facility. In the water tank, it was confirmed that liquid was driven and acquired on the outlet due to capillary force created by vanes. In addition of this, it was found that gas-liquid separation worked well by swirling flow in hydrogen production reactor. However, collection of hydrogen gas bubble was sometimes suppressed by aluminum alloy particles, which is open problem to be solved.

  8. Effects of septic-tank effluent on ground-water quality in northern Williamson County and southern Davidson County, Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanchar, D.W.

    1991-01-01

    An investigation of the potential contamination of ground water from septic tank systems blasted in bedrock in Williamson and Davidson Counties, Tennessee, was conducted during 1988-89. Water samples were collected from domestic and observation wells, springs, and surface-water sites in a residential subdivision in the northern part of Williamson County near Nashville. The subdivision has a high density of septic-tank field lines installed into blasted bedrock Water samples also were collected from a well located in an area of Davidson County where field lines were installed in 5 feet of soil. Samples were analyzed for major inorganic constituents, nutrients, total organic carbon, optical brighteners, and bacteria. Although results of analyses of water samples from wells indicate no effect of septic-tank effluent on ground-water quality at these sites, water from two springs located downgradient from the subdivision had slightly larger concentrations of nitrite plus nitrate (2.2 and 2.7 milligrams per liter N), and much larger concentrations of fecal coliform and fecal streptococci bacteria (2,000 to 3,200 and 700 to 900 colonies per 100 milliliters of sample, respectively), than other wells and springs sampled during 1988. Water from one of these springs contained optical brighteners, which indicates that septic-tank effluent is affecting ground-water quality.

  9. Combined cooling and purification system for nuclear reactor spent fuel pit, refueling cavity, and refueling water storage tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corletti, Michael M.; Lau, Louis K.; Schulz, Terry L.

    1993-01-01

    The spent fuel pit of a pressured water reactor (PWR) nuclear power plant has sufficient coolant capacity that a safety rated cooling system is not required. A non-safety rated combined cooling and purification system with redundant branches selectively provides simultaneously cooling and purification for the spent fuel pit, the refueling cavity, and the refueling water storage tank, and transfers coolant from the refueling water storage tank to the refueling cavity without it passing through the reactor core. Skimmers on the suction piping of the combined cooling and purification system eliminate the need for separate skimmer circuits with dedicated pumps.

  10. Physicochemical and phytochemical properties of cold and hot water extraction from Hibiscus sabdariffa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Rodrigues, Milena M; Plaza, Maria L; Azeredo, Alberto; Balaban, Murat O; Marshall, Maurice R

    2011-04-01

    Hibiscus cold (25 °C) and hot (90 °C) water extracts were prepared in various time-temperature combinations to determine equivalent extraction conditions regarding their physicochemical and phytochemical properties. Equivalent anthocyanins concentration was obtained at 25 °C for 240 min and 90 °C for 16 min. Total phenolics were better extracted with hot water that also resulted in a higher antioxidant capacity in these extracts. Similar polyphenolic profiles were observed between fresh and dried hibiscus extracts. Hibiscus acid and 2 derivatives were found in all extracts. Hydroxybenzoic acids, caffeoylquinic acids, flavonols, and anthocyanins constituted the polyphenolic compounds identified in hibiscus extracts. Two major anthocyanins were found in both cold and hot extracts: delphynidin-3-sambubioside and cyanidin-3-sambubioside. In general, both cold and hot extractions yielded similar phytochemical properties; however, under cold extraction, color degradation was significantly lower and extraction times were 15-fold longer. Hibiscus beverages are prepared from fresh or dried calyces by a hot extraction and pasteurized, which can change organoleptic, nutritional, and color attributes. Nonthermal technologies such as dense phase carbon dioxide may maintain their fresh-like color, flavor, and nutrients. This research compares the physicochemical and phytochemical changes resulting from a cold and hot extraction of fresh and dried hibiscus calyces and adds to the knowledge of work done on color, quality attributes, and antioxidant capacity of unique tropical products. In addition, the research shows how these changes could lead to alternative nonthermal processes for hibiscus.

  11. How to repel hot water from a superhydrophobic surface?

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Zhejun; Yang, Jieyi; Wan, Fang; Ge, Quan; Yang, Longlai; Ding, Zunliang; Yang, Dequan; Sacher, Edward R.; Isimjan, Tayirjan T.

    2014-01-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces, with water contact angles greater than 150° and slide angles less than 10°, have attracted a great deal of attention due to their self-cleaning ability and excellent water-repellency. It is commonly accepted that a

  12. Investigation and Construction of a Thermosyphoning Solar Hot Water System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Harvey

    1978-01-01

    Describes how a thermosyphoning solar water heater capable of heating 110 kilogram of water to 80 degree Celsius and maintaining this temperature for 24 hours was constructed by four students in the fifth form of Sekolah Date Abdul Razak, Seremban, Malaysia in 1976. (HM)

  13. Optimizing a Small Ammonia Heat Pump with Accumulator Tank for Space and Hot Tap Water Heating

    OpenAIRE

    Lalovs, Arturs

    2015-01-01

    The heat pump market offers a wide variety of different residential heat pumps where most of them utilize refrigerant R-410A which has high global warming potential. Considering the fact that global policy starts to focus on issues related to energy efficiency and harmful impact to the environment, it is necessary to investigate over new refrigerants. As an alternative solution is to utilize natural refrigerants, such as ammonia, which has almost zero glob...

  14. Modelling of Hot Water Storage Tank for Electric Grid Integration and Demand Response Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sinha, Rakesh; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna

    2017-01-01

    District heating (DH), based on electric boilers, when integrated into electric network has potential of flexible load with direct/indirect storage to increase the dynamic stability of the grid in terms of power production and consumption with wind and solar. The two different models of electric...

  15. Determination of arsenic and bromine in hot spring waters by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikawada, Y.; Kawai, S.; Oi, T.

    2004-01-01

    Concentrations of arsenic and bromine dissolved in hot spring waters have been determined by neutron activation analysis using 0.5 cm 3 of sample waters without any chemical pretreatment. The samples prepared for neutron irradiation were simply pieces of filter papers which were infiltrated with samples. With the results of satisfactorily high accuracy and precision, this analytical method was found to be very convenient for the determinations of arsenic and bromine dissolved in water at ppm to sub-ppm levels. (author)

  16. Phytochemical content of hot and cold water extracts of Orthosiphon stamineus leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habboo, Maysam Dahham; Nor, Norefrina Shafinaz Md.; Ibrahim, Nazlina

    2018-04-01

    Orthosiphon stamineus Benth (Lamiaceae) is a plant with ethnobotanical applications including antifungal and antibacterial properties. This study aimed to evaluate the phytochemical contents of Orthosiphon stamineus leaves water extract prepared in cold and hot distilled water. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of phytochemicals components such as a flavonoid, terpenoid and steroid in both extracts. Cold water extract has two extra components: saponin and alkaloid that may be destroyed by the exposure to heat.

  17. Solar Energy for Domestic Hot Water: Case Studies in Sisimiut 1999-2005

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimann, Gregers Peter

    2005-01-01

    Two pioneer solar domestic hot water systems were installed at Bygge- og Anlægsskolen in Sisimiut in 1999 and 2000. Detailed measurements of energy flows and solar radiation incl. snow reflectance has been undertaken for both plants. Since August 2004 data logging of the measurements was made...... available online on the website www.arcticsolar.com. Measurements show that solar plant 1 and 2 cover 22% and 23%, respectively, of the energy spent for domestic hot water heating. This paper summarises the findings from the past 5 years....

  18. Radiological performance of hot water layer system in open pool type reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr Abdelhady

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the calculated dose rate carried out by using MicroShield code to show the importance of hot water layer system (HWL in 22 MW open pool type reactor from the radiation protection safety point of view. The paper presents the dose rate profiles over the pool surface in normal and abnormal operations of HWL system. The results show that, in case of losing the hot water layer effect, the radiation dose rate profiles over the pool surface will increase from values lower than the worker permissible dose limits to values very higher than the permissible dose limits.

  19. Radiological performance of hot water layer system in open pool type reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Amr Abdelhady

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents the calculated dose rate carried out by using MicroShield code to show the importance of hot water layer system (HWL) in 22 MW open pool type reactor from the radiation protection safety point of view. The paper presents the dose rate profiles over the pool surface in normal and abnormal operations of HWL system. The results show that, in case of losing the hot water layer effect, the radiation dose rate profiles over the pool surface will increase from values lower than th...

  20. System design package for SIMS prototype system 3, solar heating and domestic hot water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-11-01

    This report is a collation of documents and drawings that describe a prototype solar heating and hot water system using liquid flat plat collectors and a gas or electric furnace energy subsystem. The system was designed for installation into a single-family dwelling. The description, performance specification, subsystem drawings, verification plan/procedure, and hazard analysis of the system are packaged for evaluation of the system with information sufficient to assemble a similar system. The SIMS Prototype Heating and Hot Water System, Model Number 3 has been installed in a residence at Glendo State Park, Glendo, Wyoming.

  1. Low flow water quality in rivers; septic tank systems and high-resolution phosphorus signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macintosh, K.A.; Jordan, P.; Cassidy, R.; Arnscheidt, J.; Ward, C.

    2011-01-01

    Rural point sources of phosphorus (P), including septic tank systems, provide a small part of the overall phosphorus budget to surface waters in agricultural catchments but can have a disproportionate impact on the low flow P concentration of receiving rivers. This has particular importance as the discharges are approximately constant into receiving waters and these have restricted dilution capacity during ecologically sensitive summer periods. In this study, a number of identified high impact septic systems were replaced with modern sequential batch reactors in three rural catchments during a monitoring period of 4 years. Sub-hourly P monitoring was conducted using bankside-analysers. Results show that strategic replacement of defective septic tank systems with modern systems and polishing filters decreased the low flow P concentration of one catchment stream by 0.032 mg TP L −1 (0.018 mg TRP L −1 ) over the 4 years. However two of the catchment mitigation efforts were offset by continued new-builds that increased the density of septic systems from 3.4 km −2 to 4.6 km −2 and 13.8 km −2 to 17.2 km −2 and subsequently increased low flow P concentrations. Future considerations for septic system mitigation should include catchment carrying capacity as well as technology changes.

  2. Thermal solar energy. Collective domestic hot water installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnier, Cedric; Chauvet, Chrystele; Fourrier, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    This brochure, edited by ADEME, the French office for energy management and sustainable development, gives a basic outlook on the way to complete the installation of a collective domestic water solar heating system. After some recall of what is solar energy, the thermal solar technology and the energy savings it may induce, this document presents the main hydraulic configurations of a solar heating system with water storage, the dimensioning of a solar water heating system and its cost estimation, the installation and the commissioning of the system, the monitoring and maintenance operations

  3. Performance of a lab-scale bio-electrochemical assisted septic tank for the anaerobic treatment of black water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamalloa, Carlos; Arends, Jan B A; Boon, Nico; Verstraete, Willy

    2013-06-25

    Septic tanks are used for the removal of organic particulates in wastewaters by physical accumulation instead of through the biological production of biogas. Improved biogas production in septic tanks is crucial to increase the potential of this system for both energy generation and organic matter removal. In this study, the effect on the biogas production and biogas quality of coupling a 20 L lab-scale septic tank with a microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) was investigated and compared with a standard septic tank. Both reactors were operated at a volumetric organic loading rate of 0.5gCOD/Ld and a hydraulic retention time between 20 and 40 days using black water as an input under mesophilic conditions for a period of 3 months. The MEC-septic tank was operated at an applied voltage of 2.0±0.1V and the current experienced ranged from 40 mA (0.9A/m(2) projected electrode area) to 180 mA (5A/m(2) projected electrode area). The COD removal was of the order of 85% and the concentration of residual COD was not different between both reactors. Yet, the total phosphorous in the output was on average 39% lower in the MEC-septic tank. Moreover, the biogas production rate in the MEC-septic tank was a factor of 5 higher than in the control reactor and the H2S concentration in the biogas was a factor of 2.5 lower. The extra electricity supplied to the MEC-septic tank was recovered as extra biogas produced. Overall, it appears that the combination of MEC and a septic tank offers perspectives in terms of lower discharge of phosphorus and H2S, nutrient recuperation and a more reliable supply of biogas. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. High efficient heat pump system using storage tanks to increase COP by means of the ISEC concept - Part 1: Model validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothuizen, Erasmus; Elmegaard, Brian; Markussen, Wiebke B.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the ISEC concept is to provide a high-efficient heat pump system for hot water production.The ISEC concept uses two storage tanks for the water, one discharged and one charged. Hot water for theindustrial process is tapped from the charged tank, while the other tank is charging....... This result in a lower condensingtemperature than if the water was heated in one step. Two test setups were built, one to test the performanceof the heat pump gradually heating the water and one to investigate the stratification in the storage tanks.Furthermore, a dynamic model of the system was implemented....... Charging is done bycirculating the water in the tank through the condenser of a heat pump several times and thereby graduallyheating the water. The charging is done with a higher mass flow rate than the discharging to reach severalcirculations of the water during the time frame of one discharging...

  5. Heat transfer correlations in mantle tanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Knudsen, Søren

    2005-01-01

    on calculations with a CFD-model, which has earlier been validated by means of experiments. The CFD-model is used to determine the heat transfer between the solar collector fluid in the mantle and the walls surrounding the mantle in all levels of the mantle as well as the heat transfer between the wall...... transfer correlations are suitable as input for a detailed simulation model for mantle tanks. The heat transfer correlations determined in this study are somewhat different from previous reported heat transfer correlations. The reason is that this study includes more mantle tank designs and operation......Small solar domestic hot water systems are best designed as low flow systems based on vertical mantle tanks. Theoretical investigations of the heat transfer in differently designed vertical mantle tanks during different operation conditions have been carried out. The investigations are based...

  6. Laser-fluorescence determination of trace uranium in hot spring water, geothermal water and tap water in Xi'an Lishan region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Wenyan; Zhou Chunlin; Han Feng; Di Yuming

    2002-01-01

    Using the Laser-Fluorescence technique, an investigation was made, adopting the standard mix method, on trace uranium concentrations in hot spring water and geothermal water from Lishan region, and in tap water from some major cities in Shanxi province. Totally 40 samples from 27 sites were investigated. Measurement showed that the tap water contains around 10 -6 g/L of uranium, whose concentrations in both hot spring water and geothermal water are 10 -5 g/L. Most of samples are at normal radioactive background level, some higher contents were determined in a few samples

  7. Clean subglacial access: prospects for future deep hot-water drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, David; Hodgson, Dominic A.; Smith, Andrew M.; Rose, Mike; Ross, Neil; Mowlem, Matt; Parnell, John

    2016-01-01

    Accessing and sampling subglacial environments deep beneath the Antarctic Ice Sheet presents several challenges to existing drilling technologies. With over half of the ice sheet believed to be resting on a wet bed, drilling down to this environment must conform to international agreements on environmental stewardship and protection, making clean hot-water drilling the most viable option. Such a drill, and its water recovery system, must be capable of accessing significantly greater ice depths than previous hot-water drills, and remain fully operational after connecting with the basal hydrological system. The Subglacial Lake Ellsworth (SLE) project developed a comprehensive plan for deep (greater than 3000 m) subglacial lake research, involving the design and development of a clean deep-ice hot-water drill. However, during fieldwork in December 2012 drilling was halted after a succession of equipment issues culminated in a failure to link with a subsurface cavity and abandonment of the access holes. The lessons learned from this experience are presented here. Combining knowledge gained from these lessons with experience from other hot-water drilling programmes, and recent field testing, we describe the most viable technical options and operational procedures for future clean entry into SLE and other deep subglacial access targets. PMID:26667913

  8. The effect of different stabilizers on the thermostability of electron beam crosslinked polyethylene in hot water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassanpour, S.; Khoylou, F.

    2003-01-01

    Plastic pipes owing to their flexibility, great lengths, easier handling and absence of corrosion have been used for hot-water installations. Crosslinked high-density polyethylene is one of the best materials, being used for this purpose. The useful lifetime of unstabilized polyethylene is predicted to vary from a few months in hot water (30-40 deg. C) to almost two years in cool water (0-10 deg. C). Polyethylene was mixed with different types of stabilizers, in order to increase its durability. The samples were irradiated at 100-150 kGy. The amount of gel fraction and the changes in mechanical properties were measured. Irradiated samples were immersed in hot water for 1000 h. The thermostability of the specimens and the existence of antioxidants were measured by the induction time technique using differential scanning calorimetry at different time intervals. Furthermore, the changes in chemical structure and mechanical properties of the samples during their immersion in hot water were determined

  9. Application of solar energy to the supply of industrial process hot water: preliminary design and performance report. Volume I. Technical report. Aerotherm report TR-76-219. [For can washing at Campbell Soup Plant in Sacramento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1976-10-14

    The design and performance of a solar hot water system for can washing at the Campbell Soup Plant in Sacramento, California, are presented. The collector field is located on the roof of the finished products warehouse of the Campbell Soup Sacramento plant. Water is supplied from a 3.8 cm (1/sup 1///sub 2/ in.) supply line which is located directly below an existing roof access hatch. A supply pipe will be brought up through that hatch. The water flow will then be split into two manifold lines which supply the dual rows of flat plate collectors. The preheated water from the flat plates is then passed into six sets of parallel connected concentrators. Each set consist of eight 1.83 x 3.05 m (6 x 10 foot) modules connected in series. The water from these units is gathered in a 3.8 cm (1/sup 1///sub 2/ in.) insulated pipe which transports it to the storage tank. This pipe will be attached to an existing pipe run until it reaches the can washing building. From there the pipe will follow the can washing building around to the storage tank. The storage tank is a 75,200 1 (20,000 gal) steel tank which is coated internally with a USDA approved phenolic liner. The outside of the tank is insulated. A 2.2 kw (3 hp) motor is used to pump the stored water for the tank into the can washing line. Detail drawings and descriptions of the collector field, installation, piping, controls, data acquisition equipment, and roof structure are included. Furthermore, a program schedule with equipment and manpower costs for successfully completing Phase II of this contract is included. Also included is an organization chart of the Phase II program personnel. (WHK)

  10. Thermal neutron activation analysis of the water Zamzam at Mecca, Saudi Arabia and the water of the fourty five hot springs at Hot Springs, Arkansas, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melibary, A.R.

    1980-10-01

    Samples from the Islamic holy water Zamzam in Mecca, Saudi Arabia and the famous mineral water of Hot Springs, in Hot Springs, Arkansas were analyzed for trace elements content by thermal neutron activation analysis. For Zamzam the concentration of 37 S, 49 Ca, 38 Cl, 31 Si, 42 K, 24 Na and 82 Br were found, respectively, to be 3, 107, 11, 12, 4, 14, and 9 ppm; and that for Hot Springs Sample, replacing 82 Br with 27 Mg, are 2, 44, 2, 10, 1, 4, and 5 ppm. The experimental limit of detection for pure standards of the nuclides 27 Mg, 128 I, 64 Cu, and 56 Mn were found to be 8, 8x10 - 3, 6x10 - 2, and 2x10 - 4 μg, respectively. These nuclides were not detected in Zamzam, therefore, it was concluded that in Zamzam the concentration levels of the nuclides 27 Mg, 128 I, 64 Cu, and 56 Mn were below that of the limit of detection of pure standards. (orig./HP) [de

  11. Bacterial communities in an ultrapure water containing storage tank of a power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohus, Veronika; Kéki, Zsuzsa; Márialigeti, Károly; Baranyi, Krisztián; Patek, Gábor; Schunk, János; Tóth, Erika M

    2011-12-01

    Ultrapure waters (UPWs) containing low levels of organic and inorganic compounds provide extreme environment. On contrary to that microbes occur in such waters and form biofilms on surfaces, thus may induce corrosion processes in many industrial applications. In our study, refined saltless water (UPW) produced for the boiler of a Hungarian power plant was examined before and after storage (sampling the inlet [TKE] and outlet [TKU] waters of a storage tank) with cultivation and culture independent methods. Our results showed increased CFU and direct cell counts after the storage. Cultivation results showed the dominance of aerobic, chemoorganotrophic α-Proteobacteria in both samples. In case of TKU sample, a more complex bacterial community structure could be detected. The applied molecular method (T-RFLP) indicated the presence of a complex microbial community structure with changes in the taxon composition: while in the inlet water sample (TKE) α-Proteobacteria (Sphingomonas sp., Novosphingobium hassiacum) dominated, in the outlet water sample (TKU) the bacterial community shifted towards the dominance of α-Proteobacteria (Rhodoferax sp., Polynucleobacter sp., Sterolibacter sp.), CFB (Bacteroidetes, formerly Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides group) and Firmicutes. This shift to the direction of fermentative communities suggests that storage could help the development of communities with an increased tendency toward corrosion.

  12. Naked Gold Nanoparticles and hot Electrons in Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghandi, Khashayar; Wang, Furong; Landry, Cody; Mostafavi, Mehran

    2018-05-08

    The ionizing radiation in aqueous solutions of gold nanoparticles, stabilized by electrostatic non-covalent intermolecular forces and steric interactions, with antimicrobial compounds, are investigated with picosecond pulse radiolysis techniques. Upon pulse radiolysis of an aqueous solution containing very low concentrations of gold nanoparticles with naked surfaces available in water (not obstructed by chemical bonds), a change to Cerenkov spectrum over a large range of wavelengths are observed and pre-solvated electrons are captured by gold nanoparticles exclusively (not by ionic liquid surfactants used to stabilize the nanoparticles). The solvated electrons are also found to decay rapidly compared with the decay kinetics in water. These very fast reactions with electrons in water could provide an enhanced oxidizing zone around gold nanoparticles and this could be the reason for radio sensitizing behavior of gold nanoparticles in radiation therapy.

  13. Sanitary evaluation of domestic water supply facilities with storage tanks and detection of Aeromonas, enteric and related bacteria in domestic water facilities in Okinawa Prefecture of Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyagi, Kazufumi; Sano, Kouichi; Hirai, Itaru

    2017-08-01

    To provide for temporary restrictions of the public water supply system, storage tanks are commonly installed in the domestic water systems of houses and apartment buildings in Okinawa Prefecture of Japan. To learn more about the sanitary condition and management of these water supply facilities with storage tanks (hereafter called "storage tank water systems") and the extent of bacterial contamination of water from these facilities, we investigated their usage and the existence of Aeromonas, enteric and related bacteria. Verbal interviews concerning the use and management of the storage tank water systems were carried out in each randomly sampled household. A total of 54 water samples were collected for bacteriological and physicochemical examinations. Conventional methods were used for total viable count, fecal coliforms, identification of bacteria such as Aeromonas, Enterobacteriaceae and non-fermentative Gram-negative rods (NF-GNR), and measurement of residual chlorine. On Aeromonas species, tests for putative virulence factor and an identification using 16S rRNA and rpoB genes were also performed. Water from the water storage systems was reported to be consumed directly without boiling in 22 of the 54 houses (40.7%). 31 of the sampled houses had installed water storage tanks of more than 1 cubic meter (m 3 ) per inhabitant, and in 21 of the sampled houses, the tank had never been cleaned. In all samples, the total viable count and fecal coliforms did not exceed quality levels prescribed by Japanese waterworks law. Although the quantity of bacteria detected was not high, 23 NF-GNR, 14 Enterobacteriaceae and 5 Aeromonas were isolated in 42.6%, 7.4% and 3.7% of samples respectively. One isolated A. hydrophila and four A. caviae possessed various putative virulence factors, especially A. hydrophila which had diverse putative pathogenic genes such as aer, hlyA, act, alt, ast, ser, and dam. Many bacteria were isolated when the concentration of residual chlorine

  14. Energy, economy and exergy evaluations of the solutions for supplying domestic hot water from low-temperature district heating in Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Xiaochen; Li, Hongwei; Svendsen, Svend

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Provided domestic hot water configurations for low-temperature district heating. • Various building typologies and district heating supply temperatures were included. • Different scenarios were evaluated from the energy, economy and exergy aspects. • The benefits of lower return temperature to district heating were investigated. - Abstract: District heating in Denmark is going through the transition from 3rd generation (80/40 °C) to 4th generation (50–55 °C/25 °C) systems in preparation for district heating based completely on renewable fuels by 2035. However, concern about Legionella growth and reduced comfort with low-temperature domestic hot water supply may be discouraging the implementation of low-temperature district heating. Aimed at providing possible solutions, this study modelled various proposals for district heating systems with supply temperatures of 65 °C, 50 °C and 35 °C and for two different building topologies. Evaluation models were built to investigate the energy, economy and exergy performances of the proposed domestic hot water systems in various configurations. The configurations of the devised domestic hot water substations were optimised to fit well with both low and ultra-low-temperature district heating and to reduce the return temperature to district heating. The benefits of lower return temperatures were also analysed compared with the current district heating situation. The evaluation results show that the decentralized substation system with instantaneous heat exchanger unit performed better under the 65 °C and 50 °C district heating scenarios, while the individual micro tank solution consumed less energy and cost less in the 35 °C district heating scenario.

  15. System design package for SIMS prototype system 4, solar heating and domestic hot water

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The system consisted of a modular designed prepackaged solar unit, containing solar collectors, a rock storage container, blowers, dampers, ducting, air-to-water heat exchanger, DHW preheat tank, piping, and system controls. The system was designed to be installed adjacent to a small single family dwelling. The description, performance specification, subsystem drawings, verification plan/procedure, and hazard analysis of the system were packaged for evaluation.

  16. Imaging the Extended Hot Hydrogen Exosphere at Mars to Determine the Water Escape Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Dolon

    2017-08-01

    ACS SBC imaging of the extended hydrogen exosphere of Mars is proposed to identify the hot hydrogen population present in the exosphere of Mars. Determining the characteristics of this population and the underlying processes responsible for its production are critical towards constraining the escape flux of H from Mars, which in turn is directly related to the water escape history of Mars. Since the hot atoms appear mainly at high altitudes, these observations will be scheduled when Mars is far from Earth allowing us to image the hot hydrogen atoms at high altitudes where they dominate the population. The altitude coverage by HST will extend beyond 30,000 km or 8.8 Martian radii in this case, which makes it perfect for this study as orbiting spacecraft remain at low altitudes (MAVEN apoapse is 6000 km) and cannot separate hot atoms from the thermal population at those altitudes. The observations will also be carried out when Mars is near aphelion, the atmospheric temperature is low, and the thermal population has a small scale height, allowing the clear characterization of the hot hydrogen layer. Another advantage of conducting this study in this cycle is that the solar activity is near its minimum, allowing us to discriminate between changes in the hot hydrogen population from processes taking place within the atmosphere of Mars and changes due to external drivers like the solar wind, producing this non-thermal population. This proposal is part of the HST UV initiative.

  17. 207 EFFECTS OF HOT AND COLD WATER PRE- TREATMENTS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The treatments used were immersion of the seeds in cold water (at room o temperature) for 8, 12 and ... goat, sheep and cattle in the semi arid regions due to the palatability of its ... visible signs of infestation were selected out of the total seeds ...

  18. Project W-519 CDR supplement: Raw water and electrical services for privatization contractor, AP tank farm operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parazin, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    This supplement to the Project W-519 Conceptual Design will identify a means to provide RW and Electrical services to serve the needs of the TWRS Privatization Contractor (PC) at AP Tank Farm as directed by DOE-RL. The RW will serve the fire suppression and untreated process water requirements for the PC. The purpose of this CDR supplement is to identify Raw Water (RW) and Electrical service line routes to the TWRS Privatization Contractor (PC) feed delivery tanks, AP-106 and/or AP-108, and establish associated cost impacts to the Project W-519 baseline

  19. COSTING MODELS FOR WATER SUPPLY DISTRIBUTION: PART III- PUMPS, TANKS, AND RESERVOIRS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distribution systems are generally designed to ensure hydraulic reliability. Storage tanks, reservoirs and pumps are critical in maintaining this reliability. Although storage tanks, reservoirs and pumps are necessary for maintaining adequate pressure, they may also have a negati...

  20. Tank 241-C-103 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    The data quality objective (DQO) process was chosen as a tool to be used to identify the sampling analytical needs for the resolution of safety issues. A Tank Characterization Plant (TCP) will be developed for each double shell tank (DST) and single-shell tank (SST) using the DQO process. There are four Watch list tank classifications (ferrocyanide, organic salts, hydrogen/flammable gas, and high heat load). These classifications cover the six safety issues related to public and worker health that have been associated with the Hanford Site underground storage tanks. These safety issues are as follows: ferrocyanide, flammable gas, organic, criticality, high heat, and vapor safety issues. Tank C-103 is one of the twenty tanks currently on the Organic Salts Watch List. This TCP will identify characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, hot cell sample isolation, and laboratory analytical evaluation and reporting requirements in accordance with the appropriate DQO documents. In addition, the current contents and status of the tank are projected from historical information. The relevant safety issues that are of concern for tanks on the Organic Salts Watch List are: the potential for an exothermic reaction occurring from the flammable mixture of organic materials and nitrate/nitrite salts that could result in a release of radioactive material and the possibility that other safety issues may exist for the tank

  1. Solar space and water heating system installed at Charlottesville, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The solar energy system located at David C. Wilson Neuropsychiatric Hospital, Charlottesville, Virginia, is described. The solar energy system consists of 88 single glazed, Sunworks 'Solector' copper base plate collector modules, hot water coils in the hot air ducts, a Domestic Hot Water (DHW) preheat tank, a 3,000 gallon concrete urethane insulated storage tank and other miscellaneous components. Extracts from the site files, specifications, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions are included.

  2. Sulfuric acid and hot water treatments enhance ex vitro and in vitro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seeds of Hibiscus dasycalyx S. F. Blake and Shiller, a federally listed candidate endangered species and native to North America and two variants of Hibiscus acetosella Welw. ex. Hiern were scarified using sulfuric acid and hot water. The effects of the scarification methods on in vitro and ex vitro germination in both ...

  3. Efficacy of brown sugar flotation and hot water methods for detecting Rhagoletis indifferens (Dipt., Tephritidae) larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    The brown sugar flotation and hot water methods are accepted procedures for detecting larval western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran, in sweet cherry [Prunus avium (L.) L.] and could be included in a systems approach for showing the absence of larvae in fruit. The methods require cr...

  4. [Severe burns of lower limb due to association of hot water and citrullus colocynthis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fejjal, N; Gharib, N E; El Mazouz, S; Abbassi, A; Belmahi, A

    2011-06-30

    The case is reported of a patient suffering from severe burns through having used Citrullus colocynthis as a medicinal plant together with hot water. This led to carbonization of the foot and to its amputation. A description of the plant and its toxicity is given.

  5. Evaluations of different domestic hot water preparing methods with ultra-low-temperature district heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Xiaochen; Li, Hongwei; Svendsen, Svend

    2016-01-01

    of Legionella in the DHW (domestic hot water) and assure the comfortable temperature, all substations were installed with supplementary heating devices. Detailed measurements were taken in the substations, including the electricity demand of the supplementary heating devices. To compare the energy and economic...

  6. Controlling Aphelenchoides subtenuis nematodes with a hot water treatment in Crocus and Allium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, van P.J.; Trompert, J.P.T.

    2011-01-01

    Several bulbous crops like Crocus, Allium and some species of Tulipa and Narcissus can be infected with the nematode Aphelenchoides subtenuis. The nematodes cause retarded growth, poor or no flowering and eventually death of the bulbs and corms. A hot water treatment after lifting the bulbs has

  7. Mixing Hot and Cold Water Streams at a T-Junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, David; Zhang, Mingqian; Xu, Zhenghe; Ryan, Jim; Wanke, Sieghard; Afacan, Artin

    2008-01-01

    A simple mixing of a hot- and cold-water stream at a T-junction was investigated. The main objective was to use mass and energy balance equations to predict mass low rates and the temperature of the mixed stream after the T-junction, and then compare these with the measured values. Furthermore, the thermocouple location after the T-junction and…

  8. NORTH PORTAL-HOT WATER CIRCULATION PUMP CALCULATION-SHOP BUILDING NO.5006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackstone, R.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this design analysis and calculation is to size a circulating pump for the service hot water system in the Shop Building 5006, in accordance with the Uniform Plumbing Code (Section 4.4.1) and U.S. Department of Energy Order 6430.1A-1540 (Section 4.4.2). The method used for the calculation is based on Reference 5.2. This consists of determining the total heat transfer from the service hot water system piping to the surrounding environment. The heat transfer is then used to define the total pumping capacity based on a given temperature change in the circulating hot water as it flows through the closed loop piping system. The total pumping capacity is used to select a pump model from manufacturer's literature. This established the head generation for that capacity and particular pump model. The total length of all hot water supply and return piping including fittings is then estimated from the plumbing drawings which defines the pipe friction losses that must fit within the available pump head. Several iterations may be required before a pump can be selected that satisfies the head-capacity requirements

  9. Non-parametric method for separating domestic hot water heating spikes and space heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bacher, Peder; de Saint-Aubain, Philip Anton; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo

    2016-01-01

    In this paper a method for separating spikes from a noisy data series, where the data change and evolve over time, is presented. The method is applied on measurements of the total heat load for a single family house. It relies on the fact that the domestic hot water heating is a process generating...

  10. Pressurized hot water extraction of proteins from Sambucus nigra L. branches

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šalplachta, Jiří; Hohnová, Barbora

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 108, DEC (2017), s. 312-315 ISSN 0926-6690 Grant - others:GA AV ČR(CZ) R200311521 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : elderberry * pressurized hot water extraction * proteins Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry Impact factor: 3.181, year: 2016

  11. Hot water extracted wood fiber for production of wood plastic composites (WPCs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuel Raul Pelaez-Samaniego; Vikram Yadama; Eini Lowell; Thomas E. Amidon; Timothy L. Chaffee

    2013-01-01

    Undebarked ponderosa pine chips were treated by hot water extraction to modify the chemical composition. In the treated pine (TP) , the mass was reduced by approximately 20%, and the extract was composed mainly of degradation products of hemicelluloses. Wood flour produced from TP and unextracted chips (untreated pine, UP) was blended with high-density polyethylene (...

  12. Solar heating and domestic hot water system installed at North Dallas High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The solar energy system located at the North Dallas High School, Dallas, Texas is discussed. The system is designed as a retrofit in a three story with basement, concrete frame high school building. Extracts from the site files, specification references for solar modification to existing building heating and domestic hot water systems, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions are included.

  13. Verification test report on a solar heating and hot water system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Information is provided on the development, qualification and acceptance verification of commercial solar heating and hot water systems and components. The verification includes the performances, the efficiences and the various methods used, such as similarity, analysis, inspection, test, etc., that are applicable to satisfying the verification requirements.

  14. Solar heating and hot water system installed at Alderson Broaddus College, Philippi, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Data needed necessary to evaluate the design and operation of a solar energy heating and hot water system installed in a commercial application are presented. The information includes system descriptions, acceptance test data, schematics, as built drawing, problems encountered, all solutions and photographs of the system at various stages of completion.

  15. Solar heating and hot water system installed at Charlotte Memorial Hospital, Charlotte, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Detailed information regarding the design and installation of a heating and hot water system in a commercial application is given. This information includes descriptions of system and building, design philosophy, control logic operation modes, design and installation drawing and a brief description of problems encountered and their solutions.

  16. Optimization of China's centralized domestic hot water system by applying Danish elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Lipeng; Gudmundsson, Oddgeir; Thorsen, Jan Eric

    2014-01-01

    Regardless of where they are in the world, people depend on a reliable and sufficient supply of domestic hot water (DHW) for daily use. Some countries that have district heating (DH) infrastructure, such as Denmark and China, combine spacing heating (SH) and DHW together, with the aim of having...

  17. Spattering and Crackle of Hot Cooking Oil with Water: A Classroom Demonstration and Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Gabriel; Gauthier, Carmen V.

    2009-01-01

    Any student that has spent time in the kitchen knows that hot vegetable oil will pop and spatter violently after coming into contact with water such as that on the surface of foods (meat, fish, potatoes, etc.). This well-known effect can be used as an instructional resource to promote cooperative, active, and inquiry-based learning about central…

  18. Mango fruit aroma volatile production following quarantine hot water treatment and subsequent ripening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangos are an important tropical fruit crop worldwide that are appreciated for their attractive peel and flesh colors, juicy texture, sweetness, and unique aroma. Mangos exported to the U.S. receive quarantine hot water treatment (QHWT) at 46.1 °C for 65 to 110 min (depending on fruit shape and size...

  19. MICROBIAL POPULATION OF HOT SPRING WATERS IN ESKİŞEHİR/TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalan YILMAZ SARIÖZLÜ

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate and find out the bacterial community of hot spring waters in Eskişehir, Turkey, 7 hot spring water samples were collected from 7 different hot springs. All samples were inoculated using four different media (nutrient agar, water yeast extract agar, trypticase soy agar, starch casein agar. After incubation at 50 ºC for 14 days, all bacterial colonies were counted and purified. Gram reaction, catalase and oxidase properties of all isolates were determined and investigated by BIOLOG, VITEK and automated ribotyping system (RiboPrinter. The resistance of these bacteriawas examined against ampiciline, gentamisine, trimethoprime-sulphamethoxazole and tetracycline. As a result, heat resistant pathogenic microorganisms in addition to human normal flora were determined in hot spring waters (43-50 ºC in investigated area. Ten different species belong to 6 genera were identified as Alysiella filiformis, Bordetella bronchiseptica, B. pertussis, Molexalla caprae, M. caviae, M. cuniculi, M. phenylpyruvica, Roseomonas fauriae, Delftia acidovorans and Pseudomonas taetrolens.

  20. Hot water surface pasteurization for inactivating Salmonella on surfaces of mature green tomatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Outbreaks of salmonellosis have been associated with the consumption of tomatoes contaminated with Salmonella. Commercial washing processes for tomatoes are limited in their ability to inactivate and/or remove this human pathogen. Our objective was to develop a hot water surface pasteurization pro...

  1. Controlling tulip stem nematodes in tulip bulbs by a hot water treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van M.F.N.

    2013-01-01

    A hot water treatment (HWT) protocol is needed to control tulip stem nematode (TSN) in tulip bulbs. A HWT above approximately 45°C in tulips is assumed to be harmful to the bulbs. Experience with HWT to destroy stem nematodes in daffodils shows that the required temperature for this is 4 hours at

  2. The effect of influent temperature variations in a sedimentation tank for potable water treatment--a computational fluid dynamics study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goula, Athanasia M; Kostoglou, Margaritis; Karapantsios, Thodoris D; Zouboulis, Anastasios I

    2008-07-01

    A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model is used to assess the effect of influent temperature variation on solids settling in a sedimentation tank for potable water treatment. The model is based on the CFD code Fluent and exploits several specific aspects of the potable water application to derive a computational tool much more efficient than the corresponding tools employed to simulate primary and secondary wastewater settling tanks. The linearity of the particle conservation equations allows separate calculations for each particle size class, leading to the uncoupling of the CFD problem from a particular inlet particle size distribution. The usually unknown and difficult to be measured particle density is determined by matching the theoretical to the easily measured experimental total settling efficiency. The present model is adjusted against data from a real sedimentation tank and then it is used to assess the significance of influent temperature variation. It is found that a temperature difference of only 1 degrees C between influent and tank content is enough to induce a density current. When the influent temperature rises, the tank exhibits a rising buoyant plume that changes the direction of the main circular current. This process keeps the particles in suspension and leads to a higher effluent suspended solids concentration, thus, worse settling. As the warmer water keeps coming in, the temperature differential decreases, the current starts going back to its original position, and, thus, the suspended solids concentration decreases.

  3. Stratification of living organisms in ballast tanks: how do organism concentrations vary as ballast water is discharged?

    Science.gov (United States)

    First, Matthew R; Robbins-Wamsley, Stephanie H; Riley, Scott C; Moser, Cameron S; Smith, George E; Tamburri, Mario N; Drake, Lisa A

    2013-05-07

    Vertical migrations of living organisms and settling of particle-attached organisms lead to uneven distributions of biota at different depths in the water column. In ballast tanks, heterogeneity could lead to different population estimates depending on the portion of the discharge sampled. For example, concentrations of organisms exceeding a discharge standard may not be detected if sampling occurs during periods of the discharge when concentrations are low. To determine the degree of stratification, water from ballast tanks was sampled at two experimental facilities as the tanks were drained after water was held for 1 or 5 days. Living organisms ≥50 μm were counted in discrete segments of the drain (e.g., the first 20 min of the drain operation, the second 20 min interval, etc.), thus representing different strata in the tank. In 1 and 5 day trials at both facilities, concentrations of organisms varied among drain segments, and the patterns of stratification varied among replicate trials. From numerical simulations, the optimal sampling strategy for stratified tanks is to collect multiple time-integrated samples spaced relatively evenly throughout the discharge event.

  4. Performance of UASB septic tank for treatment of concentrated black water within DESAR concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujawa-Roeleveld, K; Fernandes, T; Wiryawan, Y; Tawfik, A; Visser, M; Zeeman, G

    2005-01-01

    Separation of wastewater streams produced in households according to their origin, degree of pollution and affinity to a specific treatment constitutes a starting point in the DESAR concept (decentralised sanitation and reuse). Concentrated black water and kitchen waste carry the highest load of organic matter and nutrients from all waste(water)streams generated from different human activities. Anaerobic digestion of concentrated black water is a core technology in the DESAR concept. The applicability of the UASB septic tank for treatment of concentrated black water was investigated under two different temperatures, 15 and 25 degrees C. The removal of total COD was dependent on the operational temperature and attained 61 and 74% respectively. A high removal of the suspended COD of 88 and 94% respectively was measured. Effluent nutrients were mainly in the soluble form. Precipitation of phosphate was observed. Effective sludge/water separation, long HRT and higher operational temperature contributed to a reduction of E. coli. Based on standards there is little risk of contamination with heavy metals when treated effluent is to be applied in agriculture as fertiliser.

  5. Evaluation of Hanford Single-Shell Waste Tanks Suspected of Water Intrusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feero, Amie J.; Washenfelder, Dennis J.; Johnson, Jeremy M.; Schofield, John S.

    2013-01-01

    Intrusions evaluations for twelve single-shell tanks were completed in 2013. The evaluations consisted of remote visual inspections, data analysis, and calculations of estimated intrusion rates. The observation of an intrusion or the preponderance of evidence confirmed that six of the twelve tanks evaluated had intrusions. These tanks were tanks 241-A-103, BX-101, BX-103, BX-110, BY-102, and SX-106

  6. Effect Of Hot Water Injection On Sandstone Permeability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbrand, Esther; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2012-01-01

    of published results regarding the effect of temperature on sandstone permeability. These tests are performed with mineral oil, nitrogen gas, distilled water and solutions of NaCl, KCl, CaCl2 as well as brines that contain a mixture of salts. Thirteen sandstone formations, ranging from quartz arenites...... to formations with a significant fraction of fine particles including clay minerals are investigated. The porosities range from 0.10 to 0.30 and permeabilities span the range from 1 to 1000 md. To compare different rock types, specific surface is determined from permeability and porosity using Kozeny’s equation...... not account for all the permeability reductions observed. Permeablity reduction occurs both when distilled water is the saturating fluid as well as in tests with NaCl, KCl or CaCl2 solutions, however, this is not the case in tests with mineral oil or nitrogen gas. The formation of a filter cake or influx...

  7. Emerging issues in environmental cracking in hot water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andresen, P.L.; Morra, M.M.

    2007-01-01

    Extensive research and engineering application efforts have been made to understand and manage environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) in high temperature water. EAC is a complex phenomena involving dozens of important parameters, and important issues continue to emerge as careful studies have been performed. This paper summarizes a number of emerging issues, and highlights the need for improvements in experimental sophistication and for deeper probing into the nature and importance of these emerging issues. (author)

  8. A novel method to design water spray cooling system to protect floating roof atmospheric storage tanks against fires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraj Alimohammadi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrocarbon bulk storage tank fires are not very common, but their protection is essential due to severe consequences of such fires. Water spray cooling system is one of the most effective ways to reduce damages to a tank from a fire. Many codes and standards set requirements and recommendations to maximize the efficiency of water spray cooling systems, but these are widely different and still various interpretations and methods are employed to design such systems. This article provides a brief introduction to some possible design methods of cooling systems for protection of storage tanks against external non-contacting fires and introduces a new method namely “Linear Density Method” and compares the results from this method to the “Average Method” which is currently in common practice. The average Method determines the flow rate for each spray nozzle by dividing the total water demand by the number of spray nozzles while the Linear Density Method determines the nozzle flow rate based on the actual flow over the surface to be protected. The configuration of the system includes a one million barrel crude oil floating roof tank to be protected and which is placed one half tank diameter from a similar adjacent tank with a full surface fire. Thermal radiation and hydraulics are modeled using DNV PHAST Version 6.53 and Sunrise PIPENET Version 1.5.0.2722 software respectively. Spray nozzles used in design are manufactured by Angus Fire and PNR Nozzles companies. Schedule 40 carbon steel pipe is used for piping. The results show that the cooling system using the Linear Density Method consumes 3.55% more water than the design using the average method assuming a uniform application rate of 4.1 liters per minute. Despite higher water consumption the design based on Linear Density Method alleviates the problems associated with the Average Method and provides better protection.

  9. The study of the stress - strain state of the tank with bottom water drainage during operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shchipkova, Yu V.; Tokarev, V. V.

    2018-04-01

    Bottom drainage from tank is a current problem in modern tank usage. This article proposes the use of the bottom drainage system from the tank with the shape of the sloped cone to the centre of it. Changing the bottom design alters the stress - strain state to be analyzed in the Ansys. The analysis concluded that the proposed drainage system should be applied.

  10. Changes in antioxidant and fruit quality in hot water-treated ‘Hom Thong’ banana fruit during storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of hot water treatment on antioxidant phytochemicals and fruit quality were investigated in banana fruit of cv. Gros Michel (Musa acuminata, AAA Group, locally called cv. Hom Thong) by immersing fruits in hot water (50 'C) for 10 min, before storage at 25 'C for 10 days or 14 'C for 8 da...

  11. Two-phase flow experiments on Counter-Current Flow Limitation in a model of the hot leg of a pressurized water reactor (2015 test series)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyer, Matthias; Lucas, Dirk; Pietruske, Heiko; Szalinski, Lutz

    2016-12-01

    Counter-Current Flow Limitation (CCFL) is of importance for PWR safety analyses in several accident scenarios connected with loss of coolant. Basing on the experiences obtained during a first series of hot leg tests now new experiments on counter-current flow limitation were conducted in the TOPFLOW pressure vessel. The test series comprises air-water tests at 1 and 2 bar as well as steam-water tests at 10, 25 and 50 bar. During the experiments the flow structure was observed along the hot leg model using a high-speed camera and web-cams. In addition pressure was measured at several positions along the horizontal part and the water levels in the reactor-simulator and steam-generator-simulator tanks were determined. This report documents the experimental setup including the description of operational and special measuring techniques, the experimental procedure and the data obtained. From these data flooding curves were obtained basing on the Wallis parameter. The results show a slight shift of the curves in dependency of the pressure. In addition a slight decrease of the slope was found with increasing pressure. Additional investigations concern the effects of hysteresis and the frequencies of liquid slugs. The latter ones show a dependency on pressure and the mass flow rate of the injected water. The data are available for CFD-model development and validation.

  12. Two-phase flow experiments on Counter-Current Flow Limitation in a model of the hot leg of a pressurized water reactor (2015 test series)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beyer, Matthias; Lucas, Dirk; Pietruske, Heiko; Szalinski, Lutz

    2016-12-15

    Counter-Current Flow Limitation (CCFL) is of importance for PWR safety analyses in several accident scenarios connected with loss of coolant. Basing on the experiences obtained during a first series of hot leg tests now new experiments on counter-current flow limitation were conducted in the TOPFLOW pressure vessel. The test series comprises air-water tests at 1 and 2 bar as well as steam-water tests at 10, 25 and 50 bar. During the experiments the flow structure was observed along the hot leg model using a high-speed camera and web-cams. In addition pressure was measured at several positions along the horizontal part and the water levels in the reactor-simulator and steam-generator-simulator tanks were determined. This report documents the experimental setup including the description of operational and special measuring techniques, the experimental procedure and the data obtained. From these data flooding curves were obtained basing on the Wallis parameter. The results show a slight shift of the curves in dependency of the pressure. In addition a slight decrease of the slope was found with increasing pressure. Additional investigations concern the effects of hysteresis and the frequencies of liquid slugs. The latter ones show a dependency on pressure and the mass flow rate of the injected water. The data are available for CFD-model development and validation.

  13. Costs for heating and hot water more than halved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haag, J.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes how solar technology provides three-quarters of the water-heating energy requirements of a Swiss chalet in Riederalp. Advances in solar heating technology and the reduction of prices over the past few years are discussed. The installation, which uses vacuum-tube collectors that are integrated into the balustrades of the south-facing balconies of the three-storey chalet with holiday apartments, is briefly described. The partial financial support provided by the local authorities is discussed as is the word-of-mouth propaganda triggered off in this mountain resort which has led to increased interest in the combination of solar energy and traditional heating forms

  14. Investigation of the Solvis stratification inlet pipe for solar tanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa; Jordan, Ulrike; Shah, Louise Jivan

    2004-01-01

    Since the 1960’ties the influence of the thermal stratification in hot water tanks on the thermal performance of solar heating systems has been studied intensively. It was found, that the thermal performance of a solar heating system is increasing for increasing thermal stratification in the hot...... water tank. The temperature of the storage water heated by the solar collector loop usually varies strongly during the day. In order to reach a good thermal stratification in the tank, different types of pipes, plates, diffusers and other devices have been investigated in the past (e.g. Loehrke, 1979...... conditions. Temperature measurements were carried out and an optical method called Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) was used to visualize the flow around the flaps....

  15. Sanitary hot water consumption patterns in commercial and industrial sectors in South Africa: Impact on heating system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rankin, R.; Rousseau, P.G.

    2006-01-01

    A large amount of individual sanitary hot water consumers are present in the South African residential sector. This led to several studies being done on hot water consumption patterns in this sector. Large amounts of sanitary hot water are also consumed in the commercial sector in buildings such as hotels and in large residences such as those found in the mining industry. The daily profiles of sanitary hot water consumption are not related to any technical process but rather to human behavior and varying ambient conditions. The consumption of sanitary hot water, therefore, represents a challenge to the electrical utility because it is an energy demand that remains one of the biggest contributors to the undesirable high morning and afternoon peaks imposed on the national electricity supply grid. It also represents a challenge to sanitary hot water system designers because the amount of hot water as well as the daily profile in which it is consumed impacts significantly on system design. This paper deals with hot water consumption in the commercial and industrial sectors. In the commercial sector, we look at hotels and in the industrial sector at large mining residences. Both of them are served by centralized hot water systems. Measured results from the systems are compared to data obtained from previous publications. A comparison is also made to illustrate the impact that these differences will have on sanitary hot water system design. Simulations are conducted for these systems using a simulation program developed in previous studies. The results clearly show significant differences in the required heating and storage capacity for the new profiles. A twin peak profile obtained from previous studies in the residential sector was used up to now in studies of heating demand and system design in commercial buildings. The results shown here illustrate the sanitary hot water consumption profile differs significantly from the twin peaks profile with a very high morning

  16. Decay and acceptability of mangos treated with combinations of hot water, imazalil, and gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spalding, D.H.; Reeder, W.F.

    1986-01-01

    Combination treatments with radiation at 200 or 750 Gy and hot water (53 C) or hot 0.1% a.i. imazalil (53 C) for 3 min were more effective than single treatments for control of anthracnose and stem-end rot of Tommy Atkins mangos caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Diplodia natalensis or Phomopsis citri, respectively. Irradiation at 750 Gy inhibited development of ripe skin color and caused some browning and pitting of the skin. Effects of radiation on skin color and injury were partially offset when heat treatment preceded irradiation. Individual wrapping of mangos in shrink film resulted in increased decay and breakdown. (author)

  17. Decay and acceptability of mangos treated with combinations of hot water, imazalil, and gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spalding, D. H.; Reeder, W. F.

    1986-12-15

    Combination treatments with radiation at 200 or 750 Gy and hot water (53 C) or hot 0.1% a.i. imazalil (53 C) for 3 min were more effective than single treatments for control of anthracnose and stem-end rot of Tommy Atkins mangos caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Diplodia natalensis or Phomopsis citri, respectively. Irradiation at 750 Gy inhibited development of ripe skin color and caused some browning and pitting of the skin. Effects of radiation on skin color and injury were partially offset when heat treatment preceded irradiation. Individual wrapping of mangos in shrink film resulted in increased decay and breakdown. (author)

  18. The Effect of Coriolis Force on the Formation of Dip on the Free Surface of Water Draining from a Tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Jong Chull; Kang, Dong Gu; Kim, Hho Jhung; Roh, Kyung Wan; Yune, Young Gill

    2007-01-01

    For the case of RWT (refueling water tank) connecting to the ECC (emergency core cooling) line, it can be surmised that there is a possibility of ECC pump failure due to air ingression into the ECC supply line even before the RWT is drained away. Therefore, it is important to check if the operational limit of the RWT water level is set at a value higher than the critical height that causes a dip formation on the free surface of a draining liquid. In the previous work, such complex unsteady flow fields both in a simple water tank and in the RWT at the Korean standard nuclear power plant have been simulated using the CFX5.10 code which is well-known as one of the well-validated commercial CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) codes. However, for the simplicity of those calculations the Coriolis force has not been taken into account. Thus, in the present paper, the effect of Coriolis force-induced vortex flow on the dip formation of dip has been investigated for the simple water tank to confirm validity of the previous work. To do this the unsteady flow fields accompanied by vortex in the simple water tank has been simulated using the CFX5.10 code

  19. The Effect of Coriolis Force on the Formation of Dip on the Free Surface of Water Draining from a Tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Jong Chull; Kang, Dong Gu; Kim, Hho Jhung; Roh, Kyung Wan; Yune, Young Gill [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-10-15

    For the case of RWT (refueling water tank) connecting to the ECC (emergency core cooling) line, it can be surmised that there is a possibility of ECC pump failure due to air ingression into the ECC supply line even before the RWT is drained away. Therefore, it is important to check if the operational limit of the RWT water level is set at a value higher than the critical height that causes a dip formation on the free surface of a draining liquid. In the previous work, such complex unsteady flow fields both in a simple water tank and in the RWT at the Korean standard nuclear power plant have been simulated using the CFX5.10 code which is well-known as one of the well-validated commercial CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) codes. However, for the simplicity of those calculations the Coriolis force has not been taken into account. Thus, in the present paper, the effect of Coriolis force-induced vortex flow on the dip formation of dip has been investigated for the simple water tank to confirm validity of the previous work. To do this the unsteady flow fields accompanied by vortex in the simple water tank has been simulated using the CFX5.10 code.

  20. Solar combi system based on a mantle tank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazdanshenas, Eshagh; Furbo, Simon

    2007-01-01

    A solar combisystem based on a mantle tank is investigated numerically and experimentally. Three different houses with four different radiator systems are considered for the simulations. The needed temperature for the auxiliary heater is determined for different houses and radiator systems....... The thermal performance of the solar combisystem is compared to the thermal performance of a solar domestic hot water system based on a mantle tank. In the experimental study, tank temperatures and the heat transfer coefficient for the top mantle for a discharge test is determined. The investigations showed...

  1. Theoretical model and experimental validation of a direct-expansion solar assisted heat pump for domestic hot water applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno-Rodríguez, A.; González-Gil, A.; Izquierdo, M.; Garcia-Hernando, N.

    2012-01-01

    This paper has shown the development of a theoretical model to determine the operating parameters and consumption of a domestic hot water (DHW) installation, which uses a direct-expansion solar assisted heat pump (DXSAHP) with refrigerant R-134a, a compressor with a rated capacity of 1.1 kW and collectors with a total area of 5.6 m 2 . The model results have been compared and validated the experimental results obtained with the equipment installed at the University Carlos III, South of Madrid. The analysis was conducted over the course of a year, and the results have been represented depending on the meteorological and process variables of several representative days. Taking into account the thermal losses of the installation and the dependency on the operating conditions, the acquired experimental coefficient of performance is between 1.7 and 2.9, while the DHW tank temperature over the course of the study is 51 °C. -- Highlights: ► The study aims to present a new theoretical model and an experimental validation. ► The experimental COP vary between 1.7 and 2.9 (max. condensation temperature 57 °C). ► The operating parameters respond to the solar radiation. The COP may increase up to 50%. ► The useful surface area varies between 50% and 85% of the total surface. ► The system stops if conditions exceed the maximum value of the absorbed heat.

  2. Standard Guide for On-Site Inspection and Verification of Operation of Solar Domestic Hot Water Systems

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1987-01-01

    1.1 This guide covers procedures and test methods for conducting an on-site inspection and acceptance test of an installed domestic hot water system (DHW) using flat plate, concentrating-type collectors or tank absorber systems. 1.2 It is intended as a simple and economical acceptance test to be performed by the system installer or an independent tester to verify that critical components of the system are functioning and to acquire baseline data reflecting overall short term system heat output. 1.3 This guide is not intended to generate accurate measurements of system performance (see ASHRAE standard 95-1981 for a laboratory test) or thermal efficiency. 1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only. 1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine th...

  3. The impact of the hot tap water load pattern in the industrial hall on the energy yield from solar collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidorów-Kaprawyl, Natalia; Dudkiewicz, Edyta

    2017-11-01

    The systems using solar energy, popular in Poland, can be used to supply hot water for the installation used by employees of industrial halls. In manufacturing plants, employing a large number of people, the demand for hot water is practically constant throughout the year and is characterized by periodic use at the end of each work shift. Dynamics of the hot water consumption depends on the number of shifts as well as working days and holidays. Additionally the maximum hot tap water demand occurs in the whole period of installation operation. In polish climatic conditions the solar collectors' systems have the largest capacity in the summer, while in winter they need to be assisted. Beside that the supply of renewable energy is uneven and depends on weather conditions. In the paper the one-hour step analysis concerning the dependence of the load pattern of the hot tap water preparation system on the energy yield from solar collectors had been performed.

  4. Experimental and computational analysis of the hot water layer for the radiological protection in swimming pool reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Rogerio.

    1995-01-01

    Pool reactors are research reactors, which allow easy access to the core and rare simple to operate. Reactors of this kind operating at power levels higher than about one megawatt need a hot water layer at the surface of the pool, in order to keep surface activity below acceptable levels and enable free access to the upper part of the reactor. An experimental apparatus was constructed to study the hot water layer stability. Thermocouples were used to measure the temperature field. A numerical analysis was conducted simultaneously. Regarding experimental results, representative temperature contour lines of the hot water layer were plotted. The temperature field was determined in the numerical analysis and temperature contour lines corresponding to those of the experimental results were plotted. The hot water layer kept stable for experimental and numerical results. Good agreement between the results for the hot water layer position and thickness has been obtained. (author). 21 refs., 40 figs., 15 tabs

  5. Efficacy of water spray protection against propane and butane jet fires impinging on LPG storage tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirvill, L.C. [Shell Global Solutions (UK), Chester (United Kingdom)

    2004-03-01

    Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) storage tanks are often provided with water sprays to protect them in the event of a fire. This protection has been shown to be effective in a hydrocarbon pool fire but uncertainties remained regarding the degree of protection afforded in a jet fire resulting from a liquid or two-phase release of LPG. Two projects, sponsored by the Health and Safety Executive, have been undertaken to study, at full scale, the performance of a water spray system on an empty 13 tonne LPG vessel under conditions of jet fire impingement from nearby releases of liquid propane and butane. The results showed that a typical water deluge system found on an LPG storage vessel cannot be relied upon to maintain a water film over the whole vessel surface in an impinging propane or butane jet fire scenario. The deluge affects the fire itself, reducing the luminosity and smoke, resulting in a lower rate of wall temperature rise at the dry patches, when compared with the undeluged case. The results of these studies will be used by the HSE in assessing the risk of accidental fires on LPG installations leading to boiling liquid expanding vapour explosion (BLEVE) incidents. (Author)

  6. Scaling and parametric studies of condensation oscillation in an in-containment refueling water storage tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jun Hyung; No, Hee Cheon

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the condensation oscillation phenomena by steam-jetting into subcooled water through a sparger, implementing a scaling methodology and the similarity correlation between the test facility and model prototype. In additon, the results of this study can provide suitable guidelines for sparger design utilized in the IRWST for the Advanced Passive Reactor 1400 (APR 1400). To corroborate the scaling methodology, various experimental tests were conducted. The scaling-related parameters experimentally considered were water temperatures, mass flux, discharge system volumes, tank sizes, source pressure, steam-jetting directions, and numbers of sparger discharge holes. To preserve the scaling similarity, the thickness of the minimum water volume created by the boundary layer that encloses the steam cavity was found to be equal to the maximum length of the steam cavity formed. Four key scaling parameters were identified and empirically correlated with the maximum amplitude of pressure oscillation. They are as follows: Volume of the steam cavity, flow restriction coefficient, discharge hole area, and density ratio of steam to water. Variations of the oscillation amplitude were small when steam-jetting directions were altered. The concept of a reduction factor was introduced for estimating the oscillation amplitude of the multi-hole sparger with test data from a single-hole sparger

  7. Determination of the calibration characteristic of cylindrical hot-film probes in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulmanu, D.; Weinberg, D.

    1976-01-01

    On measurement with hot-film probes in industrial water circuits one has to account for temperature fluctuations of the water during the duration of the experiment. In contrast with measurements in air the material data of water already change, and among them especially viscosity, at very small temperature variations. This occurs for water most markedly at room temperature, i.e. in the normal range for water. In the range from 20 0 C to 40 0 C the kinematical viscosity for water varies by a factor of four as compared with air. Variations of 1 0 C in water temperature in this range means an error of 1.0 per cent in velocity. For measurements in water it therefore is necessary to know the calibration characteristic of the probes. (orig./TK) [de

  8. The Performance Evaluation of a Hot Water Layer using a Numerical Simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jong Hark; Chae, Hee Taek; Kim, Heon Il; Jun, Byung Jin; Park, Cheol

    2009-01-01

    Most of all research reactors are immerged in the deep water pool to be a ultimate heat sink. At the neighbor of the reactor, some radio-active matters, such as Na-24, Ar-41, Mg-27, Al-28 and etc, may be generated by the neutron irradiation. Those radio-active isotopes may rise up to the pool water surface through the natural convection flow, which can make the radioactivity in the reactor hall rise high enough to concern about the health of people working in the reactor hall. When the irradiation test facilities are loaded or unloaded during a normal operation, the highly radio-activated primary coolant may flow out through the irradiation test holes on the top of the reactor. This also may be a main hazard source to make the working environment of the reactor hall bad. Making a hot water layer 1.5 ∼ 2.0 m thick at the top of reactor pool would be a good measure to resolve that problem. The hot water layer is formed by a thermal stratification of pool water, which can effectively suppress the ascending of the radio-active matters and primary coolant flowing out from the IR holes. In this study a performance evaluation of the hot water layer is conducted by a computational fluid dynamics technique. According to the results of the prediction the hot water layer is formed well about 1.5 m thick, and can suppress the flows containing radioactive matters ascending from the neighbor of the reactor

  9. Poster - 17: Characterization and correction of radiation induced background in scanning water tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Elsayed [The Ottawa Hospital Cancer Centre (Canada)

    2016-08-15

    Purpose: To characterize and correct for radiation-induced background (RIB) observed in the signals from a class of scanning water tanks. Methods: A method was developed to isolate the RIB through detector measurements in the background-free linac console area. Variation of the RIB against a large number of parameters was characterized, and its impact on basic clinical data for photon and electron beams was quantified. Different methods to minimize and/or correct for the RIB were proposed and evaluated. Results: The RIB is due to the presence of the electrometer and connection box in a low background radiation field (by design). The absolute RIB current with a biased detector is up to 2 pA, independent of the detector size, which is 0.6% and 1.5% of the central axis reference signal for a standard and a mini scanning chamber, respectively. The RIB monotonically increases with field size, is three times smaller for detectors that do not require a bias (e.g., diodes), is up to 80% larger for positive (versus negative) polarity, decreases with increasing photon energy, exhibits a single curve versus dose rate at the electrometer location, and is negligible for electron beams. Data after the proposed field-size correction method agree with point measurements from an independent system to within a few tenth of a percent for output factor, head scatter, depth dose at depth, and out-of-field profile dose. Manufacturer recommendations for electrometer placement are insufficient and sometimes incorrect. Conclusions: RIB in scanning water tanks can have a non-negligible effect on dosimetric data.

  10. ANALYSIS OF THE LEACHING EFFICIENCY OF INHIBITED WATER AND TANK 23H SIMULANT IN REMOVING RESIDUES ON TANK 48H WALLS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fondeur, F; Thomas02 White, T; Lawrence Oji, L; Chris Martino, C; Bill Wilmarth, B

    2006-01-01

    Solid residues on two sets of thermowell pipe samples from the D2 riser in SRS Tank 48H were characterized. The residue thickness was determined using the ASTM standard D 3483-05 and was found to be three order of magnitudes below the 1mm thickness estimated from an earlier video of the tank cooling coil inspection. The actual estimated thickness ranged from 4 to 20.4 microns. The mass per unit area ranged from 1 to 5.3 milligrams per square inch. The residues appear to consist primarily of potassium tetraphenylborate (39.8 wt% KTPB) and dried salt solution (33.5 wt% total of nitrates, nitrites and oxalate salts), although ∼30% of the solid mass was not accounted for in the mass balance. No evidence of residue buildup was found inside the pipe, as expected. The residue leaching characteristics were measured by placing one pipe in inhibited water and one pipe in DWPF Recycle simulant. After soaking for less than 4 weeks, the inhibited water was 95.4% effective at removing the residue and the DWPF Recycle simulant was 93.5% effective. The surface appearance of the pipes after leaching tests appeared close to the clean shiny appearance of a new pipe. Total gamma counts of leachates averaged 48.1 dpm/ml, or an equivalent of 2.35E-11 Ci/gm Cs-137 (dry solids basis), which is much lower than the 1.4 E-03 Ci/gm expected for Tank 48 dry slurry solids

  11. Solar heating, cooling, and hot water systems installed at Richland, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The project described is part of the U. S. Department of Energy's solar demonstration program, and became operational in April 1978. The solar system uses 6,000 square feet of flat-plate liquid collectors in a closed loop to deliver solar energy through a liquid-liquid heat exchanger to the building heat-pump duct work or 9,000-gallon thermal energy storage tank. A 25-ton Arkla solar-driven absorption chiller provides the cooling, in conjunction with a 2,000 gallon chilled water storage tank and reflective ponds on three sides of the building surplus heat. A near-by building is essentially identical except for having conventional heat-pump heating and cooling, and can serve as an experimental control. An on-going public relations program was provided from the beginning of the program, and resulted in numerous visitors and tour groups.

  12. The main chemical properties of hot and cold mineral waters in Bayankhongor, Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Oyuntsetseg

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the current study, hot and cold mineral springs and sub mineral waters in the Bayankhongor province were examined for their chemical characteristics and identified cold mineral waters classification according to mineral water classification of Mongolia. The hot spring waters belong to Na+-HCO3- and Na+-SO42- types. The cold mineral spring of Lkham belongs to Ca2+-HCO3- type. All sub mineral waters are generally located in the two areas (northern part or mountain forest area and the southern part or Gobi desert area. TDS concentrations of cold springs of the southern part in the study area were higher than northern part’s cold springs. The total dissolved silica content of cold spring was ranged from 4.5mg/L to 26 mg/L which did not correspond to requirements of mineral water standard of Mongolia. Thus, these cold springs are belonging to sub mineral water classification. The sub mineral waters were characterized into four types such as a Ca2+-SO42-, Na+-SO42-, Na+-HCO3 and Ca2+ - HCO3 by their chemical composition in the study area. The values for the quartz, chalcedony geothermometer and the Na/K geothermometer were quite different. The silica-enthalpy mixing model predicts a subsurface reservoir temperature between 124 and 197°C and most of the hot waters have been  probably mixed with cold water. The result shows that an averaged value of calculated temperature ranges from 77°C to 119°C which indicates that studied area has low temperature geothermal resources. DOI: http://doi.dx.org/10.5564/mjc.v15i0.324 Mongolian Journal of Chemistry 15 (41, 2014, p56-62

  13. Effects of Misasa hot spring water on the growth of vegetables (Joint research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Satoshi; Kita, Makoto; Goto, Yukari; Ishimori, Yuu

    2011-11-01

    Tottori University and Japan Atomic Energy Agency started a joint study to investigate the effect of hot spring water on the growth of vegetable plants in 2009. The aim of the study is to examine a feasibility of producing a regionally special vegetable with considering the characteristics of the Misasa district, where radon hot springs are historically famous. This report illustrates the intermediate results obtained from the study carried out from 2009 to 2010. (1) Screening test: Eighteen plants were examined for screening. As the results, Misasa hot spring water used in the water culture enlarged the growths of 14 plants. Lastly, 9 plants were selected as candidate plants for further examinations. (2) Sample preparation: Plants sampled in the water culture were lyophilized and stored in a freezer for nutrio-physiological analyses to select the suitable plant from the 9 plants. (3) Examination in labor-saving cultivation: Preliminary examinations were performed with a large-scale system to establish a practical labor-saving water culture system. (author)

  14. Tank 241-A-104 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, WHC 222-S Laboratory, and PNL 325 Analytical Chemistry Laboratory. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of auger samples from tank 241-A-104. This Tank Characterization Plan will identify characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, hot cell sample isolation, and laboratory analytical evaluation and reporting requirements in addition to reporting the current contents and status of the tank as projected from historical information

  15. Performances in Tank Cleaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanel-Viorel Panaitescu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available There are several operations which must do to maximize the performance of tank cleaning. The new advanced technologies in tank cleaning have raised the standards in marine areas. There are many ways to realise optimal cleaning efficiency for different tanks. The evaluation of tank cleaning options means to start with audit of operations: how many tanks require cleaning, are there obstructions in tanks (e.g. agitators, mixers, what residue needs to be removed, are cleaning agents required or is water sufficient, what methods can used for tank cleaning. After these steps, must be verify the results and ensure that the best cleaning values can be achieved in terms of accuracy and reliability. Technology advancements have made it easier to remove stubborn residues, shorten cleaning cycle times and achieve higher levels of automation. In this paper are presented the performances in tank cleaning in accordance with legislation in force. If tank cleaning technologies are effective, then operating costs are minimal.

  16. Scaling and Parametric Studies of Condensation Oscillation in an In-Containment Refueling Water Storage Tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jun Hyung; No, Hee Cheon

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the condensation oscillation phenomena by steam-jetting into subcooled water through a multihole sparger, implementing a scaling methodology and the similarity correlation between the test facility and model prototype. To corroborate the scaling methodology, various experimental tests were conducted. The thickness of the boundary layer that encloses the steam cavity was found to be equal to the maximum length of the steam cavity formed. Three key scaling parameters were identified and correlated with the maximum amplitude of pressure oscillation: flow restriction coefficient, area ratio of discharge hole to steam cavity, and density ratio of water to steam. Variations of the oscillation amplitude were small when steam-jetting directions were altered. The concept of a reduction factor was introduced for estimating the oscillation amplitude of the multihole sparger with test data from a single-hole sparger. The results of this study can provide suitable guidelines for sparger design utilized in the in-containment refueling water storage tank for the Advanced Power Reactor 1400

  17. Low cycle fatigue behavior of hot-bent 347 stainless steel in a simulated PWR water environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jun Ho; Seo, Myung Gyu; Jang, Chang Heui [Dept. of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Jong Tae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae Soon [Central Research InstituteKorea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    The effect of hot bending on the Low cycle fatigue (LCF) behavior of 347 SS was evaluated in Room temperature (RT) air and simulated Pressurized water reactor (PWR) water environments. The LCF life of 347 SS in PWR water was shorter than that in RT air for the as-received and hot-bent conditions. The LCF life of hot-bent 347 SS was relatively longer than that of the as-received condition in both RT air and PWR water. Microstructure analysis indicated development of dislocation structure near niobium carbide particles and increase in dislocation density for the hot-bent 347 SS. Such microstructure acted as barriers to dislocation movement during the LCF test, resulting in minimal hardening for the hot-bent 347 SS in RT air.

  18. A radioecological survey of eatable organisms for natural radionuclides in hot spring water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, H.; Huang, X.; Song, H.; Li, J.; Zhang, J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reports a radioecological survey on some aquatic eatable organisms raised in a hot spring water, which is rich in 226 Ra, in Hubei Province; and on agricultural products irrigated with the water. The contents of 226 Ra, 210 Pb and 210 Po in the water, some aquatic organisms, rice, vegetable an some other connected environmental samples were determined. The Concentration Factor (CF) or Transfer Coefficient (TC) from environmental medium into the eatable parts of the organisms for these nuclides as well as relative Distribution Factor (DF) was calculated. (author). 6 refs, 1 fig., 9 tabs

  19. Measure Guideline. Combination Forced-Air Space and Tankless Domestic Hot Water Heating Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudd, Armin [Building Science Corporation Industry Team (BSC), Somerville, MA (United States)

    2012-08-01

    This document describes design and application guidance for combination space and tankless domestic hot water heating systems (combination systems) used in residential buildings, based on field evaluation, testing, and industry meetings conducted by Building Science Corporation. As residential building enclosure improvements continue to drive heating loads down, using the same water heating equipment for both space heating and domestic water heating becomes attractive from an initial cost and space-saving perspective. This topic is applicable to single- and multi-family residential buildings, both new and retrofitted.

  20. Nitrogen and Phosphorus Removal in the Recirculating Aquaculture System with Water Treatment Tank containing Baked Clay Beads and Chinese Cabbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aeknarin Thanakitpairin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to describe the nitrogen and phosphorus removal in Recirculating Aquaculture System (RAS by crop plants biomass production. The 3 experiment systems consisted of 1 treatment (fish tank + baked clay beads + Chinese cabbage and 2 controls as control-1 (fish tank only and control-2 (fish tank + baked clay beads, were performed. With all experimental RAS, Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus was cultured at 2 kg/m3 density. The baked clay beads (8-16 mm in diameter were filled as a layer of 10 cm in the water treatment tank of control-2. While in the treatment tank, Chinese cabbage (Brassica pekinensis was planted at 334 plants/m2 in baked clay beads layer. During 35 days of experiment, the average fish wet-weight in control-1, control-2 and treatment systems increased from 16.31±1.49, 15.18±1.28 and 11.31±1.49 g to 29.43±7.06, 28.65±3.12 and 27.20±6.56 g, respectively. It was found that the growth rate of 0.45±0.15 g-wet weight/day in a treatment tank was higher than in those 2 controls, which were rather similar at 0.37±0.16 and 0.38±0.05 g-wet weight/day, respectively. The fish survival rate of all experimental units was 100%. The average Chinese cabbage wet-weight in treatment system increased from 0.15±0.02 g to 1.00±0.38 g. For water quality, all parameters were within the acceptable range for aquaculture. The assimilation inorganic nitrogen in a treatment tank showed a slower rate and lower nitrite accumulation relative to those in control tanks. The nitrogen and phosphorus balance analysis illustrated that most of the nitrogen and phosphorus input in all systems was from feed (82-87% and 21-87% while at the final day of experiments, nitrogen and phosphorus in tilapia culture revealed at 15-19% and 4-13%. The accumulation of nitrogen and phosphorus in the water, up to 56% and 70%, was found in control-1 while water in the tank with baked clay beads had substantial lower nitrogen and phosphorus concentration. The

  1. Study of the effect of injecting cold or hot water on the operation of an oil field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gusein-Zade, M A; Kolosovskaya, A K; Lebedev, V V; Chicherov, L G

    1968-11-01

    Several Soviet reservoirs contain either highly paraffinic or viscous crude oils, where recovery by an ordinary waterflood is poor. Under such circumstances, hot water injection appears to be advantageous. Hot water injection is advisable when: (1) the reservoir is heterogeneous and contains low-permeability sections; (2) the oil is saturated with paraffin at reservoir temperature; and (3) reservoir pressure is only slightly higher than static pressure. In Uzen field, hot water injection should recover 1.5 times more oil than would be recovered with cold water. Various problems involved with hot water injection such as equipment and methods of heating the water, transportation of the water of the wellhead, heat losses in transport of hot water, and well equipment for handling hot water are discussed. Calculations indicate that it should be possible to transport 100/sup 0/C water through a 5 km pipeline with a 4/sup 0/ to 6/sup 0/C temperature drop; then deliver to the well bottom at a temperature of 90/sup 0/ to 92/sup 0/C.

  2. The analysis of the hot water consumption and energy performance before and after renovation in multi-apartment buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumanova, K.; Borodinecs, A.; Geikins, A.

    2017-10-01

    The article presents the results of hot water supply system analysis. Taking into account that the current consumption of hot water differs from normative values, real measured data of hot water consumption in multi-apartment buildings from year 2013 until year 2015 have been analyzed. Also, the thermal energy consumption for hot water preparation has been analyzed. Based on aggregated data and taking into account the fact that renovated systems of hot water supply in existing multi-apartment buildings have same pipelines’ diameters, it was analyzed how these systems are economically and energy efficient. For the study, residential buildings in Riga, which have different architectural and engineering solutions for hot water supply systems, were selected. The study was based on thermal energy consumption measurements, which were taken at the individual heating system’s manifolds. This study was done in order to develop database on hot water consumption in civil buildings and define difference in key performance criteria in unclassified buildings. Obtained results allows to reach European Regional Development Fund project “NEARLY ZERO ENERGY SOLUTIONS FOR UNCLASSIFIED BUILDINGS” Nr. 1.1.1.116A048 main targets.

  3. Hydrothermal pretreatment of wood by mild steam explosion and hot water extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtasz-Mucha, Joanna; Hasani, Merima; Theliander, Hans

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this work was to compare the two most common hydrothermal pre-treatments for wood - mild steam explosion and hot water extraction - both with the prospect of enabling extraction of hemicelluloses and facilitating further processing. Although both involve autohydrolysis of the lignocellulosic tissue, they are performed under different conditions: the most prominent difference is the rapid, disintegrating, discharge employed in the steam explosion opening up the structure. In this comparative study, the emphasis was placed on local composition of the pre-treated wood chips (of industrially relevant size). The results show that short hot water extraction treatments lead to significant variations in the local composition within the wood chips, while steam explosion accomplishes a comparably more even removal of hemicelluloses due to the advective mass transport during the explosion step. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Study on Thermal Performance Assessment of Solar Hot Water Systems in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulaiman Shaharin Anwar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Solar Hot Water Systems (SHWS are gaining popularity in Malaysia due to increasing cost of electricity and also awareness of environmental issues related to the use of fossil fuels. The introduction of solar hot water systems in Malaysia is an indication that it has potential market. However, there is a need for a proper methodology for rating the energy performance of these systems. The main objective of this study is to assess the thermal performance of several SHWS subject to four different locations in Malaysia using combined direct measurement and computer modelling using the TRNSYS simulation program. The results showed distinct differences in performance of the systems as a result of locations and manufacturers. The findings could be used further in developing an acceptable rating system for SHWS in Malaysia.

  5. Hot water epilepsy: Phenotype and single photon emission computed tomography observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehul Patel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the anatomical correlates of reflex hot water epilepsy (HWE using multimodality investigations viz. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, electroencephalography (EEG, and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT. Five men (mean age: 27.0 ΁ 5.8 years with HWE were subjected to MRI of brain, video-EEG studies, and SPECT scan. These were correlated with phenotypic presentations. Seizures could be precipitated in three patients with pouring of hot water over the head and semiology of seizures was suggestive of temporal lobe epilepsy. Ictal SPECT showed hyperperfusion in: left medial temporal - one, left lateral temporal - one, and right parietal - one. Interictal SPECT was normal in all five patients and did not help in localization. MRI and interictal EEG was normal in all the patients. The clinical and SPECT studies suggested temporal lobe as the seizure onset zone in some of the patients with HWE.

  6. Effect of pressurized hot water extraction on antioxidants from grape pomace before and after enological fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara-Salinas, José R; Bulnes, Pedro; Zúñiga, María Carolina; Pérez-Jiménez, Jara; Torres, Josep Lluís; Mateos-Martín, María Luisa; Agosin, Eduardo; Pérez-Correa, José R

    2013-07-17

    Grape pomace was extracted with pressurized hot water at laboratory scale before and after fermentation to explore the effects of fermentation and extraction temperature (50-200 °C) and time (5 and 30 min) on total extracted antioxidant levels and activity and to determine the content and recovery efficiency of main grape polyphenols, anthocyanins, and tannins. Fermented pomace yielded more total antioxidants (TAs), antioxidant activity, and tannins, than unfermented pomace but fewer anthocyanins. Elevating the extraction temperature increased TA extraction and antioxidant activity. Maximum anthocyanin extraction yields were achieved at 100 °C and at 150 °C for tannins and tannin-anthocyanin adducts. Using higher temperatures and longer extraction times resulted in a sharp decrease of polyphenol extraction yield. Relevant proanthocyanidin amounts were extracted only at 50 and 100 °C. Finally, TA recovery and activity were not directly related to the main polyphenol content when performing pressurized hot water grape pomace extraction.

  7. Solar hot water systems application to the solar building test facility and the Tech House

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goble, R. L.; Jensen, R. N.; Basford, R. C.

    1976-01-01

    Projects which relate to the current national thrust toward demonstrating applied solar energy are discussed. The first project has as its primary objective the application of a system comprised of a flat plate collector field, an absorption air conditioning system, and a hot water heating system to satisfy most of the annual cooling and heating requirements of a large commercial office building. The other project addresses the application of solar collector technology to the heating and hot water requirements of a domestic residence. In this case, however, the solar system represents only one of several important technology items, the primary objective for the project being the application of space technology to the American home.

  8. A semi-analytical refrigeration cycle modelling approach for a heat pump hot water heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panaras, G.; Mathioulakis, E.; Belessiotis, V.

    2018-04-01

    The use of heat pump systems in applications like the production of hot water or space heating makes important the modelling of the processes for the evaluation of the performance of existing systems, as well as for design purposes. The proposed semi-analytical model offers the opportunity to estimate the performance of a heat pump system producing hot water, without using detailed geometrical or any performance data. This is important, as for many commercial systems the type and characteristics of the involved subcomponents can hardly be detected, thus not allowing the implementation of more analytical approaches or the exploitation of the manufacturers' catalogue performance data. The analysis copes with the issues related with the development of the models of the subcomponents involved in the studied system. Issues not discussed thoroughly in the existing literature, as the refrigerant mass inventory in the case an accumulator is present, are examined effectively.

  9. Chemical composition of hot spring waters in the Oita river basins, Oita prefecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawano, Tamio

    1988-01-30

    The source of the water from Oita River comes from the Kuju and Yubu-Tsurumi Volcanos, pouring into Beppu Bay. Its drainage area is 646 km/sup 2/ with a total length of 55 km. Hot springs are exist throughout most of the basin of the main and branches of Oita River. The chemical components of the hot springs in the Ota River basin -Yufuin, Yunotaira, Nagayu, Shonai/Hazama, and Oita City - have been analyzed. The equivalent of magnesium exceeds that of calcium in the carbonate springs of the above. Ca+Mg has positive correlations with HCO/sub 3/ in these carbonate springs. The water from these springs flows into the rivers and pours into Beppu Bay. The flow rate and chemical component concentration were measured at Fudai bridge. The concentration of chemical components having an average flow rate (30 ton/sec) were calculated. (4 figs, 7 tabs, 10 refs)

  10. Hot water immersion as a treatment for stonefish sting: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darlene F. Ongkili

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The North Borneo state of Sabah is known worldwide for its beautiful islands and dive sites. Local hospitals deal with a number of marine-related injuries, including marine fauna envenomation by Scorpaenidae and Synanceiidae families of fish. We report a case of a tourist who presented with excruciating pain on her right foot after stepping on a stonefish. Despite being given parenteral analgesia and regional anaesthesia, the pain persisted. Her pain improved after she soaked her foot in hot water for about 30 minutes. No further treatment was required. We reviewed the literature comparing this inexpensive mode of treatment with other conventional treatments. We also explored the possibility of using hot water immersion for treatment of envenomation by other types of marine animals.

  11. Health Benefits of Water-based Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pools Operating Public Hot Tubs/Spas Recommendations for Hydrotherapy Tanks Preventing Pool Chemical-Associated Health Events Chloramines & ... arthritis have more health improvements after participating in hydrotherapy than with other activities 8 . Water-based exercise ...

  12. Hot and cold CO{sub 2}-rich mineral waters in Chaves geothermal area (northern Portugal)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aires-Barros, Luis; Marques, Jose Manuel; Graca, Rui Cores; Matias, Maria Jose [Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Lab. de Mineralogia e Petrologia (LAMPIST), Lisboa (Portugal); Weijden, Cornelis H. van der; Kreulen, Rob [Utrecht Univ., Dept. of Geochemistry, Utrecht (Netherlands); Eggenkamp, Hermanus Gerardus M. [Utrecht Univ., Dept. of Geochemistry, Utrecht (Netherlands); Reading Univ., Postgraduate Research Inst. for Sedimentology, Reading (United Kingdom)

    1998-02-01

    In order to update the geohydrologic characterisation of Chaves geothermal area, coupled isotopic and chemical studies have been carried out on hot and cold CO{sub 2}-rich mineral waters discharging, in northern Portugal, along one of the major regional NNE-trending faults (the so-called Verin-Chaves-Penacova Depression). Based upon their location, and chemical and isotopic composition, the analysed waters can be divided into two groups. The northern group belongs to the HCO{sub 3}/Na/CO{sub 2}-rich type, and consists of the hot spring waters of Chaves and the cold spring waters of Vilarelho da Raia. The {delta}D and {delta}{sup 18}O values show that these waters are of meteoric origin. The lack of an {sup 18}O shift indicates that there is no evidence of water/rock interaction at high temperatures. The southern group includes the cold spring waters of Campilho/Vidago and Sabroso/Pedras Salgadas. Their chemistry is similar to that of the northern group but their heavier {delta}D and {delta}{sup 18}O values could be attributed to different recharge altitudes. Mixing between deep mineralised waters and dilute superficial waters of meteoric origin might explain the higher {sup 3}H activity found in the Vidago and Pedras Salgadas mineral waters. Alternatively, they could be mainly related to shallow underground flowpaths. The {delta}{sup 13}C values support a deep-seated origin for the CO{sub 2}. The {delta}{sup 37}Cl is comparable in all the mineral waters of the study areas, indicating a common origin of Cl. The {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios in waters seem to be dominated by the dissolution of plagioclases or granitic rocks. (Author)

  13. Integration of Thermoelectric Generators and Wood Stove to Produce Heat, Hot Water, and Electrical Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goudarzi, A.M.; Mazandarani, P.; Panahi, R.

    2013-01-01

    Traditional fire stoves are characterized by low efficiency. In this experimental study, the combustion chamber of the stove is developed by two devices. An electric fan can increase the air to fuel ratio in order to increase the system’s efficiency and to decrease the air pollution by providing....... The presented prototype is designed to fulfill the basic needs of domestic electricity, hot water and the essential heat for warming the room and cooking....

  14. Optimization of hot water transport and distribution networks by analytical method: OPTAL program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barreau, Alain; Caizergues, Robert; Moret-Bailly, Jean

    1977-06-01

    This report presents optimization studies of hot water transport and distribution network by minimizing operating cost. Analytical optimization is used: Lagrange's method of undetermined multipliers. Optimum diameter of each pipe is calculated for minimum network operating cost. The characteristics of the computer program used for calculations, OPTAL, are given in this report. An example of network is calculated and described: 52 branches and 27 customers. Results are discussed [fr

  15. Looking beyond installation: Why households struggle to make the most of solar hot water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gill, Nicholas; Osman, Peter; Head, Lesley; Voyer, Michelle; Harada, Theresa; Waitt, Gordon; Gibson, Chris

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines household responses to sustainability issues and adoption of energy saving technologies. Our example of solar hot water systems highlights the complexity and variability of responses to low-carbon technologies. While SHW systems have the potential to provide the majority of household hot water and to lower carbon emissions, little research has been done to investigate how SHW systems are integrated into everyday life. We draw on cultural understandings of the household to identify passive and active users of SHW systems and utilize a model that illustrates how technology use is dependent on inter-relations between cultural norms, systems of provision, the material elements of homes, and practice. A key finding is that households can be ill-prepared to make the most of their SHW systems and lack post-installation support to do so. Thus, informed and efficient use of SHW systems is hit and miss. Current policy is largely aimed at subsidizing purchase and installation on the assumption that this is sufficient for emission reduction goals. Our analysis provides evidence to the contrary. Areas we highlight for policy and practice improvement are independent pre-purchase advice, installation quality, and practical guidance on system operation and interaction with patterns of hot water use. - Highlights: • We interview Australian households about their experience with SHW systems. • We identify active and passive users of SHW. Active users tend to be dissatisfied with their system. • Passive users tend to be satisfied but have relatively inefficient systems. • Householders struggle to integrate hot water use and system operation, compromising efficiency. • Policy should encompass pre and post-installation support as much as incentives to install.

  16. System design package for IBM system one: solar heating and domestic hot water

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    This report is a collation of documents and drawings that describe a prototype solar heating and hot water system using air as the collector fluid and a pebble bed for heat storage. The system was designed for installation into a single family dwelling. The description, performance specification, subsystem drawings, verification plan/procedure, and hazard analysis of the system was packaged for evaluation of the system with information sufficient to assemble a similar system.

  17. System Design Package for SIMS Prototype System 3, Solar Heating and Domestic Hot Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    A collation of documents and drawings are presented that describe a prototype solar heating and hot water system using liquid flat plate collectors and a gas or electric furnace energy subsystem. The system was designed for installation into a single-family dwelling. The description, performance specification, subsystem drawings, verification plan/procedure, and hazard analysis of the system are packaged for evaluation of the system with information sufficient to assemble a similar system.

  18. Effects of hot water pre-extraction on surface properties of bagasse soda pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Nereida; Ashori, Alireza; Hamzeh, Yahya; Faria, Marisa

    2013-03-01

    In this work, the effects of hot water pre-extraction of depithed bagasse on the soda pulping and surface properties were studied. The conditions of hot water pre-extraction were: maximum temperature 170 °C, heat-up time 90 min, time at maximum temperature 10 min, and solid to liquor ratio (S:L) 1:8. Consequently, the pre-extracted and un-extracted bagasse chips were subjected to soda pulping at 160 °C for 1h with 11, 14 and 17% active alkali charge and an S:L of 1:5. The results showed that the hot water pre-extraction increased bagasse surface texture porosity by hemicellulose degradation. Therefore, the delignification was faster for pulping of pre-extracted samples. At a certain charge of alkali, pre-extracted samples showed higher screened yield and lower Kappa number. For instance, at 17% alkali charge, pre-extracted bagasse gave 11.3% higher pulp yield compared with the un-extracted ones. Inverse gas chromatography (IGC) results showed that the hot water pre-extraction changed the active sites on the bagasse surface, decreasing the dispersive energy and the basicity character, and affected the particle morphology. The pulping process decreased the hydrophobicity and the basicity of the bagasse surface. The surfaces of un-extracted and pre-extracted bagasse pulps had similar properties but different morphology. The pulps present higher surface area and permeability with more reactive capacity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Prototype Solar Domestic Hot Water Systems (A collation of Quarterly Reports)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-02-01

    This report is a collection of quarterly reports from Solar Engineering and Manufacturing Company (SEMCO) covering the period from November 1976 through September 1977. SEMCO, under NASA/MSFC Contract NAS8-32248, is developing two prototype solar domestic hot water systems consisting of the following subsystems: collector, storage, control, transport, and auxiliary energy. These two systems are being installed at sites in Loxahatchee, Florida (OTS-27) and Macon, Georgia (OTS-28).

  20. Performance Characteristics of Hero's Turbine Using Hot Water as a Working Fluid

    OpenAIRE

    FUJII, Terushige; OHTA, Jun-ichi; AKAGAWA, Koji; NAKAMURA, Toshi; ASANO, Hitoshi

    1992-01-01

    From the viewpoint of energy conservation and the development of new energy resources,it is important to utilize geothermal resources and waste heat from factories. Among energy conversion device,there is a radial outflow reaction turbine,i.e.,Hero's turbine. Performance characteristics of Hero's turbine are analytically and experimentally clarified for flashing expansion of initially subcooled hot water. It is found that: (a)there is an optimum number of revolutions at which maximum tubine e...

  1. Performance Characteristics of Hero's Turbine Using Hot Water as a Working Fluid

    OpenAIRE

    藤井, 照重; 太田, 淳一; 赤川, 浩爾; 中村, 登志; 浅野, 等

    1990-01-01

    From the view point of energy saving and the development of new energy resources,it is important to utilize geothermal resources and waste heat from factories. As one of the energy conversion expanders,there is a radial outflow reaction turbine(that is,Hero's turbine). Performance characteristics of Hero's turbine using subcooled hot water as a working fluid are clarified analytically and experimentally. It is found that:(a)there is an optimum rotational speed at which maximum turbine efficie...

  2. A continuum from clear to cloudy hot-Jupiter exoplanets without primordial water depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sing, David K; Fortney, Jonathan J; Nikolov, Nikolay; Wakeford, Hannah R; Kataria, Tiffany; Evans, Thomas M; Aigrain, Suzanne; Ballester, Gilda E; Burrows, Adam S; Deming, Drake; Désert, Jean-Michel; Gibson, Neale P; Henry, Gregory W; Huitson, Catherine M; Knutson, Heather A; des Etangs, Alain Lecavelier; Pont, Frederic; Showman, Adam P; Vidal-Madjar, Alfred; Williamson, Michael H; Wilson, Paul A

    2016-01-07

    Thousands of transiting exoplanets have been discovered, but spectral analysis of their atmospheres has so far been dominated by a small number of exoplanets and data spanning relatively narrow wavelength ranges (such as 1.1-1.7 micrometres). Recent studies show that some hot-Jupiter exoplanets have much weaker water absorption features in their near-infrared spectra than predicted. The low amplitude of water signatures could be explained by very low water abundances, which may be a sign that water was depleted in the protoplanetary disk at the planet's formation location, but it is unclear whether this level of depletion can actually occur. Alternatively, these weak signals could be the result of obscuration by clouds or hazes, as found in some optical spectra. Here we report results from a comparative study of ten hot Jupiters covering the wavelength range 0.3-5 micrometres, which allows us to resolve both the optical scattering and infrared molecular absorption spectroscopically. Our results reveal a diverse group of hot Jupiters that exhibit a continuum from clear to cloudy atmospheres. We find that the difference between the planetary radius measured at optical and infrared wavelengths is an effective metric for distinguishing different atmosphere types. The difference correlates with the spectral strength of water, so that strong water absorption lines are seen in clear-atmosphere planets and the weakest features are associated with clouds and hazes. This result strongly suggests that primordial water depletion during formation is unlikely and that clouds and hazes are the cause of weaker spectral signatures.

  3. Sustainable and reliable hot water in utility buildings; Duurzaam en verantwoord warmtapwater in utiliteitsgebouwen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lansbergen, A. [Itho, Schiedam (Netherlands)

    2008-02-15

    Non-residential buildings that have a high demand for hot water were formerly equipped with large, conventional central hot water systems. A growing awareness of the risk of legionella infection and the thermal strategy needed to prevent the growth of these bacteria have generally resulted in higher water temperatures. The water circulation rate in such systems has also been raised. An unexpected side effect of these measures has been an increase in transmission loss from the hot water pipe network. This loss often results in the heating of water in adjacent cold water pipes to a higher temperature than desired or permitted. There is no longer any advantage in designing large centralized systems with a high thermal output. The answer is to split a large system into a number of smaller ones, and thereby reduce the pipe lengths required to serve the draw-off points. [Dutch] In utiliteitsgebouwen met veel warmwatertappunten is in het verleden vaak een grote traditionele centrale warmtapwaterinstallaties geplaatst. Door de groeiende bekendheid over de gevaren van de legionellabacterie en het thermisch beheer van de warmtapwaterinstallatie om legionellagroei te voorkomen, is de warmtapwatertemperatuur in de regel nu hoger ingesteld dan voorheen. Ook is de circulatie in de warmtapwaterinstallaties opgevoerd. Het bijkomend nadelig effect van deze maatregelen is dat het transmissieverlies van het warmtapwaternet groter is geworden, waardoor in veel gevallen de naastgelegen koudwaterleidingen onbedoeld warmer worden dan gewenst en toegestaan. Het heeft dus geen voordeel meer een grote centrale installatie met relatief veel warmteafgifte te ontwerpen. Het antwoord: splits de grote installatie in meerdere kleine installaties en beperk daardoor de noodzakelijke leidinglengtes naar de tappunten.

  4. Specific leaf areas of the tank bromeliad Guzmania monostachia perform distinct functions in response to water shortage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freschi, Luciano; Takahashi, Cassia Ayumi; Cambui, Camila Aguetoni; Semprebom, Thais Ribeiro; Cruz, Aline Bertinatto; Mioto, Paulo Tamoso; de Melo Versieux, Leonardo; Calvente, Alice; Latansio-Aidar, Sabrina Ribeiro; Aidar, Marcos Pereira Marinho; Mercier, Helenice

    2010-05-01

    Leaves comprise most of the vegetative body of tank bromeliads and are usually subjected to strong longitudinal gradients. For instance, while the leaf base is in contact with the water accumulated in the tank, the more light-exposed middle and upper leaf sections have no direct access to this water reservoir. Therefore, the present study attempted to investigate whether different leaf portions of Guzmania monostachia, a tank-forming C(3)-CAM bromeliad, play distinct physiological roles in response to water shortage, which is a major abiotic constraint in the epiphytic habitat. Internal and external morphological features, relative water content, pigment composition and the degree of CAM expression were evaluated in basal, middle and apical leaf portions in order to allow the establishment of correlations between the structure and the functional importance of each leaf region. Results indicated that besides marked structural differences, a high level of functional specialization is also present along the leaves of this bromeliad. When the tank water was depleted, the abundant hydrenchyma of basal leaf portions was the main reservoir for maintaining a stable water status in the photosynthetic tissues of the apical region. In contrast, the CAM pathway was intensified specifically in the upper leaf section, which is in agreement with the presence of features more suitable for the occurrence of photosynthesis at this portion. Gas exchange data indicated that internal recycling of respiratory CO(2) accounted for virtually all nighttime acid accumulation, characterizing a typical CAM-idling pathway in the drought-exposed plants. Altogether, these data reveal a remarkable physiological complexity along the leaves of G. monostachia, which might be a key adaptation to the intermittent water supply of the epiphytic niche. Copyright 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. The relation of collector and storage tank size in solar heating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Çomaklı, Kemal; Çakır, Uğur; Kaya, Mehmet; Bakirci, Kadir

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A storage tank is used in many solar water heating systems for the storage of hot water. ► Using larger storage tanks decrease the efficiency and increases the cost of the system. ► The optimum tank size for the collector area is very important for economic solar heating systems. ► The optimum sizes of the collectors and the storage tank are determined. - Abstract: The most popular method to benefit from the solar energy is to use solar water heating systems since it is one of the cheapest way to benefit from the solar energy. The investment cost of a solar water heating system is very low, and the maintenance costs are nearly zero. Using the solar energy for solar water heating (SWH) technology has been greatly improved during the past century. A storage tank is used in many solar water heating systems for the conservation of heat energy or hot water for use when some need it. In addition, domestic hot water consumption is strongly variable in many buildings. It depends on the geographical situation, also on the country customs, and of course on the type of building usage. Above all, it depends on the inhabitants’ specific lifestyle. For that reason, to provide the hot water for consumption at the desirable temperature whenever inhabitants require it, there must be a good relevance between the collectors and storage tank. In this paper, the optimum sizes of the collectors and the storage tank are determined to design more economic and efficient solar water heating systems. A program has been developed and validated with the experimental study and environmental data. The environmental data were obtained through a whole year of operation for Erzurum, Turkey.

  6. Effects of Material Choice on Biocide Loss in Orion Water Storage Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, W. T.; Wallace, S. L.; Gazda, D. B.; Lewis, J. F.

    2016-01-01

    When preparing for long-duration spaceflight missions, maintaining a safe supply of potable water is of the utmost importance. One major aspect of that is ensuring that microbial growth is minimized. Historically, this challenge has been addressed through the use of biocides. When using biocides, the choice of materials for the storage containers is important, because surface reactions can reduce biocide concentrations below their effective range. In the water storage system baselined for the Orion vehicle, the primary wetted materials are stainless steel (316 L) and a titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V). Previous testing with these materials has shown that the biocide selected for use in the system (ionic silver) will plate out rapidly upon initial wetting of the system. One potential approach for maintaining an adequate biocide concentration is to spike the water supply with high levels of biocide in an attempt to passivate the surface. To evaluate this hypothesis, samples of the wetted materials were tested individually and together to determine the relative loss of biocide under representative surface area-to-volume ratios after 24 hours. Additionally, we have analyzed the efficacy of disinfecting a system containing these materials by measuring reductions in bacterial counts in the same test conditions. Preliminary results indicate that the use of titanium, either individually or in combination with stainless steel, can result in over 95% loss of biocide, while less than 5% is lost when using stainless steel. In bacterial testing, viable organisms were recovered from samples exposed to the titanium coupons after 24 hours. By comparison, no organisms were recovered from the test vessels containing only stainless steel. These results indicate that titanium, while possessing some favorable attributes, may pose additional challenges when used in water storage tanks with ionic silver biocide.

  7. Simulation programs for ph.D. study of analysis, modeling and optimum design of solar domestic hot water systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin Qin

    1998-12-31

    The design of solar domestic hot water (DHW) systems is a complex process, due to characteristics inherent in the solar heating technology. Recently, computer simulation has become a widely used technique to improve the understanding of the thermal processes in such systems. One of the main objects of the Ph.D. study of `Analysis, Modelling and optimum Design of Solar Domestic Hot Water Systems` is to develop and verify programs for carrying out the simulation and evaluation of the dynamic performance of solar DHW systems. During this study, simulation programs for hot water distribution networks and for certain types of solar DHW systems were developed. (au)

  8. Control Strategies to Reduce the Energy Consumption of Central Domestic Hot Water Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dentz, Jordan [The Levy Partnership, Inc., New York, NY (United States). Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions; Ansanelli, Eric [The Levy Partnership, Inc., New York, NY (United States). Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions; Henderson, Hugh [The Levy Partnership, Inc., New York, NY (United States). Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions; Varshney, Kapil [The Levy Partnership, Inc., New York, NY (United States). Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions

    2016-06-23

    Domestic hot water (DHW) heating is the second largest energy end use in U.S. buildings, exceeded only by space conditioning. Recirculation systems consisting of a pump and piping loop(s) are commonly used in multifamily buildings to reduce wait time for hot water at faucets; however, constant pumping increases energy consumption by exposing supply and return line piping to continuous heat loss, even during periods when there is no demand for hot water. In this study, ARIES installed and tested two types of recirculation controls in a pair of buildings in order to evaluate their energy savings potential. Demand control, temperature modulation controls, and the simultaneous operation of both were compared to the baseline case of constant recirculation. Additionally, interactive effects between DHW control fuel reductions and space conditioning (heating and cooling) were estimated in order to make more realistic predictions of the payback and financial viability of retrofitting DHW systems with these controls. Results showed that DHW fuel consumption reduced by 7% after implementing the demand control technique, 2% after implementing temperature modulation, and 15% after implementing demand control and temperature modulation techniques simultaneously; recirculation pump runtime was reduced to 14 minutes or less per day. With space heating and cooling interactions included, the estimated annual cost savings were 8%, 1%, and 14% for the respective control techniques. Possible complications in the installation, commissioning and operation of the controls were identified and solutions offered.

  9. Control Strategies to Reduce the Energy Consumption of Central Domestic Hot Water Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dentz, Jordan; Ansanelli, Eric; Henderson, Hugh; Varshney, Kapil

    2016-06-03

    Domestic hot water (DHW) heating is the second largest energy end use in U.S. buildings, exceeded only by space conditioning. Recirculation systems consisting of a pump and piping loop(s) are commonly used in multifamily buildings to reduce wait time for hot water at faucets; however, constant pumping increases energy consumption by exposing supply and return line piping to continuous heat loss, even during periods when there is no demand for hot water. In this study, ARIES installed and tested two types of recirculation controls in a pair of buildings in order to evaluate their energy savings potential. Demand control, temperature modulation controls, and the simultaneous operation of both were compared to the baseline case of constant recirculation. Additionally, interactive effects between DHW control fuel reductions and space conditioning (heating and cooling) were estimated in order to make more realistic predictions of the payback and financial viability of retrofitting DHW systems with these controls. Results showed that DHW fuel consumption reduced by 7% after implementing the demand control technique, 2% after implementing temperature modulation, and 15% after implementing demand control and temperature modulation techniques simultaneously; recirculation pump runtime was reduced to 14 minutes or less per day. With space heating and cooling interactions included, the estimated annual cost savings were 8%, 1%, and 14% for the respective control techniques. Possible complications in the installation, commissioning and operation of the controls were identified and solutions offered.

  10. Effects of Disinfection on Legionella spp., Eukarya, and Biofilms in a Hot Water System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moletta-Denat, Marina; Frère, Jacques; Onillon, Séverine; Trouilhé, Marie-Cécile; Robine, Enric

    2012-01-01

    Legionella species are frequently detected in hot water systems, attached to the surface as a biofilm. In this work, the dynamics of Legionella spp. and diverse bacteria and eukarya associated together in the biofilm, coming from a pilot scale 1 system simulating a real hot water system, were investigated throughout 6 months after two successive heat shock treatments followed by three successive chemical treatments. Community structure was assessed by a fingerprint technique, single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP). In addition, the diversity and dynamics of Legionella and eukarya were investigated by small-subunit (SSU) ribosomal cloning and sequencing. Our results showed that pathogenic Legionella species remained after the heat shock and chemical treatments (Legionella pneumophila and Legionella anisa, respectively). The biofilm was not removed, and the bacterial community structure was transitorily affected by the treatments. Moreover, several amoebae had been detected in the biofilm before treatments (Thecamoebae sp., Vannella sp., and Hartmanella vermiformis) and after the first heat shock treatment, but only H. vermiformis remained. However, another protozoan affiliated with Alveolata, which is known as a host cell for Legionella, dominated the eukaryal species after the second heat shock and chemical treatment tests. Therefore, effective Legionella disinfection may be dependent on the elimination of these important microbial components. We suggest that eradicating Legionella in hot water networks requires better study of bacterial and eukaryal species associated with Legionella in biofilms. PMID:22820326

  11. Elution behavior into the high pressured hot water and the organizational change of granite and andesite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsunaga, Isao; Miyazaki, Akira; Yamaguchi, Tsutomu; kuriyakawa, Michio

    1988-04-01

    In the development of a high temperature rock system, the interaction between the rock and hot water which occurs in a reservoir provides big effects. The decline of the strength and the increase of the permeability are caused by the elusion of the rock on the surface of the hydraulic fracture and the redeposition of the eluded material also causes to narrow or close the channel. However, studies concerning the organizational change of the rock by the hot water or the material change associated with the organizational change are small in number. In this research, Inaba granite and Honkomatsu andesite were treated in heat with an autoclave in order to investigate the organizational changes of the rocks and at the same time, the elusion behavior of the rocks into the hot water was investigated by examining chemical components which were eluded into the fluid and the components remaining on the rock surface. The decreased amount per specific surface area due to the autoclave treatment is the order of 10/sup -3/(gcm/sup -2/) for both rocks and changeable depending upon the heating temperature and the kind of rock. As a result of the analysis of the fluids in the autoclave after the heat treatment, the Si concentration of Honkomatsu andesite was higher in the same temperature and the heating time. (2 figs, 3 tabs, 6 refs)

  12. Chemical analyses of waters from geysers, hot springs, and pools in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming from 1974 to 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, J.M.; Yadav, S.

    1979-01-01

    Waters from geysers, hot springs, and pools of Yellowstone National Park have been analyzed. We report 422 complete major ion analyses from 330 different locations of geysers, hot springs, and pools, collected from 1974 to 1978. Many of the analyses from Upper, Midway, Lower, and Norris Geyser Basin are recollections of features previously reported.

  13. The isotope geochemistry of hot springs gases and waters from Coromandel and Hauraki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, G.L.; Giggenbach, W.F.

    1992-01-01

    Carbon, hydrogen and oxygen stable isotope analyses have been made on carbon dioxide,methane and water from warm and hot springs in the Coromandel Peninsula and Hauraki Plains. Most of the waters are isotopically unaltered meteoric waters. Methane δ 1 3C values vary widely, from -30%o to -72%o. Warm springs in swamps at Maketu and Kerepehi have microbial methane probably added to the water near the surface. Puriri, Okoroire and Miranda springs produce thermally derived methane, and the Hot Water Beach gas is similar to the Kaitoke gas in chemistry and isotopic composition but altered by shallow microbial oxidation. The Te Aroha gas, though, is not inconsistent with a geothermal origin and the boiling springs and oxygen-isotope altered water are further evidence for high temperatures. Other spring gases have mixtures of thermogenic and microbial methane and none are closely similar to major NZ geothermal CH 4 composition. CO 2 , which is usually present in lesser amounts than N 2 , has isotopic values which suggest a geothermal origin at Te Aroha and Maketu, but otherwise indicates a crustal origin. The dominance of N 2 implies that the fluid flows are tectonic fracture flow rather than geothermal. 3 He/ 4 He data gives further evidence of no major contribution from magmatic material except at Maketu, on the NW boundary of the TVZ. (author). 24 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  14. Measurements of cold and hot water in ten dwellings; Maetning av kall- och varmvatten i tio hushaall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahlstroem, Aasa; Nordman, Roger; Pettersson, Ulrik (Swedish National Testing and Research Inst., Boraas (Sweden))

    2008-07-01

    Reducing tap water consumption has considerable potential for reducing overall environmental impact. It not only saves fresh water, but also gives significant savings of energy that would otherwise have been needed to heat hot water. However, in order to improve the energy efficiency of building services systems and to help occupants act more energy-efficiently, more knowledge is needed on how water is used in our homes. Today, we actually know very little about usage patterns from one tapping point to another, or the division between cold and hot water use, and this study aims to help provide appropriate information. The aim of this project is to increase the knowledge of how tap water is used in Swedish households. The main purpose is to gain knowledge of how to decrease the energy use and for that reason the description of the use of hot water is essential. Measurement has been made of hot and cold water use at each tapping point in ten dwellings: four apartments in apartment buildings, and six single-family buildings. The households were of the following categories; single, young couple, middle-aged couple and families with children. The number of households is too low to represent the water use at national level, but can still contribute with important knowledge of how we use water in our homes. The results show the following division of tap water use: - wash basin: 19% (11 % hot water and 8 % cold water); - kitchen sink 41% (23 % hot water and 18 % cold water); - shower/bathtub 40% (27 % hot water and 13 % cold water). About 61% of the total water quantity is hot water (note that cold water for toilet flushing and for laundry is not included in the total water use). The proportions between tapping points are very similar for the dwellings in the apartment buildings and single-family houses, and the use of water in the shower/bathtub is essentially the same as the use in the kitchens. In the single-family buildings the water use in laundry rooms was measured

  15. Evaluating Domestic Hot Water Distribution System Options with Validated Analysis Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weitzel, E. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation, Davis, CA (United States); Hoeschele, E. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation, Davis, CA (United States)

    2014-09-01

    A developing body of work is forming that collects data on domestic hot water consumption, water use behaviors, and energy efficiency of various distribution systems. Transient System Simulation Tool (TRNSYS) is a full distribution system developed that has been validated using field monitoring data and then exercised in a number of climates to understand climate impact on performance. In this study, the Building America team built upon previous analysis modeling work to evaluate differing distribution systems and the sensitivities of water heating energy and water use efficiency to variations of climate, load, distribution type, insulation and compact plumbing practices. Overall, 124 different TRNSYS models were simulated. The results of this work are useful in informing future development of water heating best practices guides as well as more accurate (and simulation time efficient) distribution models for annual whole house simulation programs.

  16. Potential in hot and tepid waters in the department of Landes - Present and future applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauquin, J.P.; Godard, J.M.; Tronel, F.; Pouchan, P.

    1994-12-31

    This study of the geothermal waters potentialities in the Landes department has selectively reviewed the areas of interest in respect of geology and hydrogeology and gives a picture of their potential valorizations. In the Landes, the exploitation of geothermal fields outside of the use for spa bathing was mainly geared to conventional applications (flats heating, swimming pools). Today geothermal potentialities can be extended to balneotherapy, horticultural and market garden greenhouses, fish farming and wood drying. The study performed delivers a data base to be used by the investor to define and to accurately devise their projects of hot and tepid waters utilization. (Authors). 12 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  17. Imitation experiment for water-treatment by heat of solar collector and hot pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao Yuanzong; Liu Shuqing; Pang Heding; Zhao Zhongxin; Zhang Biguang; Wang Xiping; Huo Guangqing

    1997-01-01

    The author presents an imitation experiment in which solar collector and hot pump are jointed for supplying heat to evaporate cleaned water and diffuse it into air. The effects of the temperature and the quantity of supplying air, and circumstance conditions on evaporation quantity are studied. The ratio of evaporating quantity to consuming energy, the efficiency of evaporation, average efficiency of solar collector and supplying heat coefficient of heat pump are measured. The experiment shows that this supplying heat model is practicable, economic and efficient for treating cleaned water

  18. Installation of devices in water tanks to prevent drowning of wild animals (Instalacion de Estructuras Dentro de Tanques de Agua Para Evitar El Ahogamiento de Animales Silvestres)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberto Lafon

    2006-01-01

    Domestic farm and ranch properties use a variety of water retention structures and water supply infrastructures that benefit wildlife. Some water supply systems, however, are harmful to wild birds, small mammals, and reptiles. Water supply systems include metal water tanks, cemented reservoirs, or excavated earthen retention ponds (or tanques as they are known in...

  19. Ways of formation(training of water-fuel mixes both accumulation settling-vat water and their property in fuel tanks aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М. Д. Туз

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Investigated are the conditions and mechanisms of accumulation of free water in aircraft torsion-box fuel systems. Determined is a quantitative balance between phases and conditions in the torsion-box fuel tanks at every stage of operation

  20. Parametric and scaling studies of condensation oscillation in subcooled water of the in-containment refueling water storage tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jun Hyung; No, Hee Cheon

    1999-01-01

    Condensation oscillation by jetting the steam into subcooled water through spargers is studied. To provide a suitable guideline for oscillation phenomena in the IRWST of the next generation reactor, scaling methodology is introduced. Through scaling methodology and subsequent tests, it shows that the volume of steam cavity determines the dynamic characteristics of condensation oscillation. The second-order linear differential equation for frequency analysis is derived and its results are compared with those from the test data. Two types of condensation phenomena exist according to steam flow rates. At subsonic jet, condensation interface becomes irregular in shape and upper system volumes affect the dynamic characteristics of condensation oscillation. At sonic jet, a regular steam cavity forms at the exit of discharge holes. Parametric effects and subsequent dynamic responses of the pool tank are investigated through experiments in applicable test ranges. When the temperature of pool water becomes lower, the amplitude becomes larger. Critical parameters are derived from the scaling methodology and are system volume, cavity volume, discharge hole area, and density ration. It is found that system friction factors affect frequency components of condensation oscillation. Oscillations of a steam cavity occur mainly on the face of the axial direction and pressure amplitudes become larger than that of the lateral direction