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Sample records for hot pepper capsicum

  1. Genome sequence of the hot pepper provides insights into the evolution of pungency in Capsicum species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seungill; Park, Minkyu; Yeom, Seon-In; Kim, Yong-Min; Lee, Je Min; Lee, Hyun-Ah; Seo, Eunyoung; Choi, Jaeyoung; Cheong, Kyeongchae; Kim, Ki-Tae; Jung, Kyongyong; Lee, Gir-Won; Oh, Sang-Keun; Bae, Chungyun; Kim, Saet-Byul; Lee, Hye-Young; Kim, Shin-Young; Kim, Myung-Shin; Kang, Byoung-Cheorl; Jo, Yeong Deuk; Yang, Hee-Bum; Jeong, Hee-Jin; Kang, Won-Hee; Kwon, Jin-Kyung; Shin, Chanseok; Lim, Jae Yun; Park, June Hyun; Huh, Jin Hoe; Kim, June-Sik; Kim, Byung-Dong; Cohen, Oded; Paran, Ilan; Suh, Mi Chung; Lee, Saet Buyl; Kim, Yeon-Ki; Shin, Younhee; Noh, Seung-Jae; Park, Junhyung; Seo, Young Sam; Kwon, Suk-Yoon; Kim, Hyun A; Park, Jeong Mee; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Choi, Sang-Bong; Bosland, Paul W; Reeves, Gregory; Jo, Sung-Hwan; Lee, Bong-Woo; Cho, Hyung-Taeg; Choi, Hee-Seung; Lee, Min-Soo; Yu, Yeisoo; Do Choi, Yang; Park, Beom-Seok; van Deynze, Allen; Ashrafi, Hamid; Hill, Theresa; Kim, Woo Taek; Pai, Hyun-Sook; Ahn, Hee Kyung; Yeam, Inhwa; Giovannoni, James J; Rose, Jocelyn K C; Sørensen, Iben; Lee, Sang-Jik; Kim, Ryan W; Choi, Ik-Young; Choi, Beom-Soon; Lim, Jong-Sung; Lee, Yong-Hwan; Choi, Doil

    2014-03-01

    Hot pepper (Capsicum annuum), one of the oldest domesticated crops in the Americas, is the most widely grown spice crop in the world. We report whole-genome sequencing and assembly of the hot pepper (Mexican landrace of Capsicum annuum cv. CM334) at 186.6× coverage. We also report resequencing of two cultivated peppers and de novo sequencing of the wild species Capsicum chinense. The genome size of the hot pepper was approximately fourfold larger than that of its close relative tomato, and the genome showed an accumulation of Gypsy and Caulimoviridae family elements. Integrative genomic and transcriptomic analyses suggested that change in gene expression and neofunctionalization of capsaicin synthase have shaped capsaicinoid biosynthesis. We found differential molecular patterns of ripening regulators and ethylene synthesis in hot pepper and tomato. The reference genome will serve as a platform for improving the nutritional and medicinal values of Capsicum species.

  2. Integrated crop management of hot pepper (Capsicum spp.) in tropical lowlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, J.G.M.

    1994-01-01

    Hot pepper ( Capsicum spp.) is the most important low elevation vegetable commodity in Indonesia. Yields are low, in part due to crop health problems. Farmers' practices were surveyed by means of exploratory surveys. Hot pepper pests and diseases were identified and

  3. Aroma changes in fresh bell peppers (Capsicum annuum) after hot-air drying.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luning, P.A.; Yuksel, D.; Vuurst de Vries, van R.; Roozen, J.P.

    1995-01-01

    The aroma of fresh and hot-air dried bell peppers (Capsicum annuum) was evaluated by sensory and instrumental methods. Hot-air drying decreased levels of the odor compounds (Z)-3-hexenal, 2-heptanone, (Z)-2-hexenal, (E)-2-hexenal, hexanol, (Z)-3-hexanol, (E)-2-hexenol, and linalool, which have

  4. Pepper, Sweet (Capsicum annuum)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heidmann, I.; Boutilier, K.A.

    2015-01-01

    Capsicum (pepper) species are economically important crops that are recalcitrant to genetic transformation by Agrobacterium ( Agrobacterium tumefaciens ). A number of protocols for pepper transformation have been described but are not routinely applicable. The main bottleneck in pepper

  5. Innovations in microspore embryogenesis in Indonesian hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) and Brassica napus L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Supena, E.D.J.

    2004-01-01

    Hot pepper (Capsicum annuumL.) is the most important vegetable in

  6. Variation in Yugoslavian hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) accessions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeven, A.C.; Zewdie, Y.

    1997-01-01

    A total of 67 hot pepper accessions were evaluated based on 35 morphological and physiological characters. Differences were observed in a number of characters. The accessions were grouped into six clusters, mainly based on fruit weight, 1000 seed weight, and fruit number per plant. accessions -

  7. Innovations in microspore embryogenesis in Indonesian hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) and Brassica napus L.

    OpenAIRE

    Supena, E.D.J.

    2004-01-01

    Hot pepper (Capsicum annuumL.) is the most important vegetable inIndonesia, but the yield is low, and the breeding programs are confined to the conventional methods and not efficient. To improve the efficiency of the breeding programs by speeding up the production of homozygous lines, studies were aimed at the introduction of haploid technology, which includes the regeneration and the production of doubled haploid plants from gametes. This technique is well developed in the model speciesBrass...

  8. Metabolomic Characterization of Hot Pepper (Capsicum annuum "CM334") during Fruit Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Yu Kyung; Jung, Eun Sung; Lee, Hyun-Ah; Choi, Doil; Lee, Choong Hwan

    2015-11-04

    Non-targeted metabolomic analysis of hot pepper (Capsicum annuum "CM334") was performed at six development stages [16, 25, 36, 38, 43, and 48 days post-anthesis (DPA)] to analyze biochemical changes. Distinct distribution patterns were observed in the changes of metabolites, gene expressions, and antioxidant activities by early (16-25 DPA), breaker (36-38 DPA), and later (43-48 DPA) stages. In the early stages, glycosides of luteolin, apigenin, and quercetin, shikimic acid, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and putrescine were highly distributed but gradually decreased over the breaker stage. At later stages, leucine, isoleucine, proline, phenylalanine, capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, and kaempferol glycosides were significantly increased. Pathway analysis revealed metabolite-gene interactions in the biosynthesis of amino acids, capsaicinoids, fatty acid chains, and flavonoids. The changes in antioxidant activity were highly reflective of alterations in metabolites. The present study could provide useful information about nutrient content at each stage of pepper cultivation.

  9. Diallel analyses and estimation of genetic parameters of hot pepper (Capsicum chinense Jacq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sousa João Alencar de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The degree of heterosis in the genus Capsicum spp. is considered high; however, most of the studies refer to the species Capsicum annuum L. In spite of the potential use of F1 hybrids in pungent peppers of the species Capsicum chinense, few studies are available which assess the magnitude of heterosis in this species . This study was carried out to assess heterosis and its components in F1 hybrids from a diallel cross between hot pepper lines (Capsicum chinense and to obtain data on the allelic interaction between the parents involved in the crosses. Trials were made in Rio Branco-Acre, Brazil, from March through October 1997. A randomized complete block design with fifteen treatments and three replications was used. The treatments were five C. chinense accessions (from the Vegetable Germplasm Bank of the Universidade Federal de Viçosa - BGH/UFV and 10 F1 hybrids derived from single crosses between them (reciprocals excluded. Diallel analyses were performed for total yield, fruit length/diameter ratio, fruit dry matter per plant, Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria incidence, capsaicin yield per plant and number of seeds per fruit. Non-additive genetic effects were larger than additive effects for all the traits assessed. Epistasis was detected for fruit dry matter per plant, capsaicin yield per plant and number of seeds per fruit. In these cases, epistasis seemed to be largely responsible for heterosis expression. Dominant gene action, ranging from incomplete dominance to probable overdominance, was responsible for heterosis in those traits where no epistatic genetic action was detected.

  10. Genetic diversity studies in twenty accessions of hot pepper (Capsicum spp L.) in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doku, S.K.

    2015-07-01

    Twenty (20) accessions of hot pepper (Capsicum spp L.) were collected from eight geographical regions of Ghana for genetic diversity studies. The objective was to assess genetic relationship among them using phenotypic and molecular traits and to evaluate their elemental composition. A replicated field experiment was conducted to assess their genetic diversity based on 13 quantitative traits and 22 qualitative traits using the IBPGR descriptor list for Capsicum. Confirmation of their identities was done using 10 SSR markers. The accessions were also evaluated for macro, micro and trace elements in their fresh fruits using the Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Five essential macro elements (Ca, Cl, K, Mg and Na), two micro elements (Al and Mn) and one trace element (Br) were detected by INAA. Results from the agromorphological study revealed that accession Wes 01 had the widest stem width, matured leaf width, high fruit set but late maturing. Nor 03 was early maturing and had high fruit set, but also possessed the highest number of seeds per fruit. Fruit weight, fruit width, fruit length and plant canopy width, recorded the highest variabilities with 66.191; 53.24; 49.32; and 32.42 coefficients of variation (CVs), respectively. Few traits such as plant canopy width, plant height, fruit length, mature leaf length and number of seeds per fruit contributed substantially to total genetic variance as revealed by the principal component analysis (PCA). A dendrogram generated using morphological traits grouped accessions into cultivated and wild genotypes of pepper and all the accessions were identified as separate entities with no duplications. Strong correlation was recorded between plant canopy width and plant height, mature leaf length and mature leaf width, and also fruit weight and fruit width and fruit length. Negative correlation was however, observed between fruit length and days to 50% fruiting and flowering. All three accessions from the Northern

  11. Evapotranspiration and water balance in a hot pepper (Capsicum frutescens L.) field during a dry season in the tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laban, S.; Oue, H.; Rampisela, D. A.

    2018-05-01

    Evapotranspiration and water balance in a hot pepper (Capsicum frutescens L.) field during the 2nd dry season were analyzed in this study. Actual evapotranspiration (ET) was estimated by Bowen Ratio Energy Budget (BREB) method, potential evaporation (EP) was calculated by Penman method, and irrigation volume of water was measured manually. Meteorological instruments were installed in the experimental field during hot pepper cultivation. Leaf area index increased during the growing stages where the highest LAI of 1.65 in the generative stage. The daily average of ET was 1.94 and EP was 6.71 mm resulting in low Kc. The Kc values were significantly different between stage to stage under T-test analysis (α = 0.05). Moreover, Kc in every stage could be related to soil water content (SWC) in logarithmic function. Totally, ET during hot pepper cultivation was 179.19 mm, while rainfall was 180.0 mm and irrigation water was 27.42 mm. However, there was a water shortages during vegetative and generative stages. This study suggested that consumptive water of hot pepper was complimented by soil and groundwater under the condition of water shortages in the vegetative and generative stages during the 2nd dry season.

  12. Physicochemical and in vitro antioxidant properties of pectin extracted from hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L. var. acuminatum (Fingerh.)) residues with hydrochloric and sulfuric acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Honggao; Tai, Kedong; Wei, Tong; Yuan, Fang; Gao, Yanxiang

    2017-11-01

    Transformation of hot pepper residues to value-added products with concomitant benefits on environmental pollution would be of great value to capsicum oleoresin manufacturers. Pectin, a soluble dietary fiber with multiple functions, from hot pepper residues was investigated in this study. The extraction of hot pepper pectin using hydrochloric acid was first optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). The most efficient parameters for maximum hot pepper pectin yield (14.63%, dry basis) were a pH of 1.0, a temperature of 90 °C, an extraction time of 2 h and a liquid-to-solid ratio of 20 L g -1 . The pectin was mainly composed of uronic acids, and the major neutral sugars were galactose and glucose. The structure of hot pepper pectin was characterized by homogalacturonan and rhamnogalacturonan I elements. The physicochemical properties of hot pepper pectin extracted by sulfuric acid and hydrochloric acid were further investigated. The content of protein and degree of esterification in hot pepper pectin extracted with sulfuric acid solution (SP) were higher (P hot pepper pectin, hot pepper residues would be a new source to obtain pectin, and SP would be more preferred than HP. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Beneficial Effects of Selenium on Some Morphological and Physiological Trait of Hot Pepper (Capsicum anuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Shekari

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Aluminum (Al, cobalt (Co, sodium (Na, selenium (Se, and silicon (Si are considered as beneficial elements for plants. They are not required for all plants but they can improve the growth and development of some plant species. Selenium is an essential element for human with antioxidant and antivirus functions but is not considered essential for higher plants. Selenium is reported to be protective against cancer and more than 40 types of diseases are associated with Se deficiency. The amounts of selenium in food also depend on the amount of the element in the soil. However, its beneficial role in improving plant growth and stress tolerances is well established. Plants revealed different physiological reactions into the Se levels, some specious accumulate it unlike some which are sensitive and Se is a toxic element for them. Some studies showed that Se can reduce adverse effects of salinity, drought, high and low temperatures and also heavy metal stress by enhancing antioxidant defense and MG detoxification systems. Pepper is one of the most important vegetable crops which have strong antioxidant properties. The effect of Se on vegetable especially on hot pepper is not well documented. Materials and Methods: Present experiment was designed in order to study the effects of different concentrations of selenium on vegetative growth and physiological trait of hot pepper (Capsicum annum cv. kenya in hydroponic conditions in the greenhouse at the Department of Horticulture Science, Islamic Azad University of Shiraz (Iran under natural light with a day/night average temperature of 25/17 °C, relative humidity of 50±8.5% and photoperiod 14/10 (day/night. This experiment was carried out based on completed randomized design (CRD with 5 Se levels at (0 as control, 3, 5, 7 and 10 µM with 3 replications. 30 days old seedling with uniform size were selected and transplanted into 4 L pot containing a mixture of peat moss and perlite (1:1. The

  14. Capsicum

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... research shows that taking a combination supplement (Prograde Metabolism) containing capsicum extract (Capsimax, OmniActive Health Technologies) twice ... African Bird Pepper, African Chillies, African Pepper, Aji, Bird Pepper, Capsaicin, ... Capsicum annuum, Capsicum baccatum, Capsicum chinense, Capsicum ...

  15. Assessment of combining ability for yield and quality components in hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohini, N.; Lakshmanan, V.; Saraladevi, D.; Amalraj, J.J.; Govindaraju, P.

    2017-07-01

    Six parental genotypes and their thirty F1 hybrids in a full diallel cross system with reciprocals, were used in the present study to estimate combining ability for five quantitative and five qualitative traits in hot pepper. The mean sum of squares due to general combining ability (GCA), specific combining ability (SCA) and reciprocal combining ability (RCA) were significant for all the characters which suggest that these parents could have performed differently in different combinations indicating interallelic interactions. All the traits studied exhibited greater SCA variance than GCA, suggesting that these traits are controlled by non-additive gene action. Analysis of the GCA effects of parents for various traits revealed that LCA625, K1 and PKM1 were the best general combiners for almost all the traits. Estimates of SCA effects showed that the hybrids LCA625 × K1, K1 × Arka LohitandPusa Jwala × PKM1were found to be the best combiners for yield and its attributes. The hybrid K1 × Arka Lohitwas the best reciprocal combiner for quality parameters based on its better mean performance and combining ability. These results suggest that commercial production of hot pepper hybrids and isolation of pure lines from these hybrids is a possible way to enhance the yield and fruit quality.

  16. Identification and characterization of novel microRNAs for fruit development and quality in hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhoubin; Zhang, Yuping; Ou, Lijun; Kang, Linyu; Liu, Yuhua; Lv, Junheng; Wei, Ge; Yang, Bozhi; Yang, Sha; Chen, Wenchao; Dai, Xiongze; Li, Xuefeng; Zhou, Shudong; Zhang, Zhuqing; Ma, Yanqing; Zou, Xuexiao

    2017-04-15

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding small RNAs which play an important regulatory role in various biological processes. Previous studies have reported that miRNAs are involved in fruit development in model plants. However, the miRNAs related to fruit development and quality in hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) remains unknown. In this study, small RNA populations from different fruit ripening stages and different varieties were compared using next-generation sequencing technology. Totally, 59 known miRNAs and 310 novel miRNAs were identified from four libraries using miRDeep2 software. For these novel miRNAs, 656 targets were predicted and 402 of them were annotated. GO analysis and KEGG pathways suggested that some of the predicted miRNAs targeted genes involved in starch sucrose metabolism and amino sugar as well as nucleotide sugar metabolism. Quantitative RT-PCR validated the contrasting expression patterns between several miRNAs and their target genes. These results will provide an important foundation for future studies on the regulation of miRNAs involved in fruit development and quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Hypolipidemic and Antioxidant Properties of Hot Pepper Flower (Capsicum annuum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrelli, Mariangela; Menichini, Francesco; Conforti, Filomena

    2016-09-01

    At present, the various medical treatments of obesity involve side effects. The aim of the research is therefore to find natural compounds that have anti-obesity activity with minimum disadvantages. In this study, the hypolipidemic effect of hydroalcoholic extract of flowers from Capsicum annuum L. was examined through the evaluation of inhibition of pancreatic lipase. Antioxidant activity was assessed using different tests: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), nitric oxide (˙NO) and lipid peroxidation inhibition assays. Phytochemical analysis indicated that total phenolic and flavonoid content in the extract was 128.7 ± 4.5 mg chlorogenic acid equivalent/g of crude extract and 17.66 ± 0.11 mg of quercetin equivalent/g of crude extract, respectively. The extract inhibited pancreatic lipase with IC50 value equal to 3.54 ± 0.18 mg/ml. It also inhibited lipid peroxidation with IC50 value of 27.61 ± 2.25 μg/ml after 30 min of incubation and 41.69 ± 1.13 μg/ml after 60 min of incubation. The IC50 value of radical scavenging activity was 51.90 ± 2.03 μg/ml. The extract was also able to inhibit NO production (IC50 = of 264.3 ± 7.98 μg/ml) without showing any cytotoxic effect.

  18. Phylogenetic relationships, diversification and expansion of chili peppers (Capsicum, Solanaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrizo García, Carolina; Barfuss, Michael H. J.; Sehr, Eva M.; Barboza, Gloria E.; Samuel, Rosabelle; Moscone, Eduardo A.; Ehrendorfer, Friedrich

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Capsicum (Solanaceae), native to the tropical and temperate Americas, comprises the well-known sweet and hot chili peppers and several wild species. So far, only partial taxonomic and phylogenetic analyses have been done for the genus. Here, the phylogenetic relationships between nearly all taxa of Capsicum were explored to test the monophyly of the genus and to obtain a better knowledge of species relationships, diversification and expansion. Methods Thirty-four of approximately 35 Capsicum species were sampled. Maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference analyses were performed using two plastid markers (matK and psbA-trnH) and one single-copy nuclear gene (waxy). The evolutionary changes of nine key features were reconstructed following the parsimony ancestral states method. Ancestral areas were reconstructed through a Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo analysis. Key Results Capsicum forms a monophyletic clade, with Lycianthes as a sister group, following both phylogenetic approaches. Eleven well-supported clades (four of them monotypic) can be recognized within Capsicum, although some interspecific relationships need further analysis. A few features are useful to characterize different clades (e.g. fruit anatomy, chromosome base number), whereas some others are highly homoplastic (e.g. seed colour). The origin of Capsicum is postulated in an area along the Andes of western to north-western South America. The expansion of the genus has followed a clockwise direction around the Amazon basin, towards central and south-eastern Brazil, then back to western South America, and finally northwards to Central America. Conclusions New insights are provided regarding interspecific relationships, character evolution, and geographical origin and expansion of Capsicum. A clearly distinct early-diverging clade can be distinguished, centred in western–north-western South America. Subsequent rapid speciation has led to the origin of the remaining clades. The

  19. Characterization of a pepper collection (Capsicum frutescens L.) from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, M F; Carvalho, S I C; Ragassi, C F; Bianchetti, L B; Faleiro, F G; Reifschneider, F J B

    2017-08-31

    Germplasm banks are essential as sources of genetic variability for plant breeding programs. To characterize a Brazilian Capsicum frutescens collection, 21 malagueta and 5 Tabasco hot pepper accessions were evaluated under field and greenhouse conditions regarding morphological and molecular traits, as well as resistance to viruses. Morphological characterization was performed using 53 IPGRI (International Plant Genetic Resources Institute) descriptors, 15 vegetative, 13 inflorescence, 22 fruit, and 3 seed. Molecular characterization was carried out with 60 polymorphic markers from 29 RAPD primers. The incidence of major viruses infecting Capsicum spp, Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), Groundnut ringspot virus (GRSV), Potato virus Y (PVY), Pepper yellow mosaic virus (PepYMV), Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV), and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) was evaluated by ELISA. Based on the average genetic distance among genotypes, six groups were defined for the 53 IPGRI descriptors. When considering only 11 quantitative traits (five vegetative and six fruit), six groups were also determined, and the traits plant canopy width (56.05%) and days to fruiting (25.07%) most explained the genetic diversity among genotypes. Molecular analysis defined five groups of accessions with partial correspondence to the morphological characterization data. The incidence of viruses in field-grown plants varied among genotypes and according to virus species, from 5.6% (GRSV; CNPH 3286) to 100% (PMMoV; CNPH2871), and indicated some accessions as potential sources of virus resistance. These results demonstrate the genetic variability within the group of 26 hot pepper accessions, as well as virus-resistant genotypes that can be used in breeding programs.

  20. Phylogenetic relationships, diversification and expansion of chili peppers (Capsicum, Solanaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrizo García, Carolina; Barfuss, Michael H J; Sehr, Eva M; Barboza, Gloria E; Samuel, Rosabelle; Moscone, Eduardo A; Ehrendorfer, Friedrich

    2016-07-01

    Capsicum (Solanaceae), native to the tropical and temperate Americas, comprises the well-known sweet and hot chili peppers and several wild species. So far, only partial taxonomic and phylogenetic analyses have been done for the genus. Here, the phylogenetic relationships between nearly all taxa of Capsicum were explored to test the monophyly of the genus and to obtain a better knowledge of species relationships, diversification and expansion. Thirty-four of approximately 35 Capsicum species were sampled. Maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference analyses were performed using two plastid markers (matK and psbA-trnH) and one single-copy nuclear gene (waxy). The evolutionary changes of nine key features were reconstructed following the parsimony ancestral states method. Ancestral areas were reconstructed through a Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo analysis. Capsicum forms a monophyletic clade, with Lycianthes as a sister group, following both phylogenetic approaches. Eleven well-supported clades (four of them monotypic) can be recognized within Capsicum, although some interspecific relationships need further analysis. A few features are useful to characterize different clades (e.g. fruit anatomy, chromosome base number), whereas some others are highly homoplastic (e.g. seed colour). The origin of Capsicum is postulated in an area along the Andes of western to north-western South America. The expansion of the genus has followed a clockwise direction around the Amazon basin, towards central and south-eastern Brazil, then back to western South America, and finally northwards to Central America. New insights are provided regarding interspecific relationships, character evolution, and geographical origin and expansion of Capsicum A clearly distinct early-diverging clade can be distinguished, centred in western-north-western South America. Subsequent rapid speciation has led to the origin of the remaining clades. The diversification of Capsicum has culminated in the origin

  1. Brazilian Capsicum peppers: capsaicinoid content and antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogusz, Stanislau; Libardi, Silvia H; Dias, Fernanda Fg; Coutinho, Janclei P; Bochi, Vivian C; Rodrigues, Daniele; Melo, Arlete Mt; Godoy, Helena T

    2018-01-01

    Capsicum peppers are known as a source of capsaicinoids, phenolic compounds and antioxidants. Brazilian Capsicum peppers are important spices used in foods worldwide. However, little information is available on the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of these peppers. Capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, total phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity were investigated in extracts of three Brazilian peppers: Capsicum frutescens, C. chinense and C. baccatum var. pendulum, in two different harvest years and at two ripening stages. The bioactive compound content was dependent on harvest year, and changes in the concentration profiles were found for capsaicin. Mature fruits of C. chinense harvested in the first year had the highest capsaicin concentration (2.04 mg g -1 fresh pepper), and mature fruits of C. frutescens harvested in the same first year had the highest dihydrocapsaicin content (0.95 mg g -1 fresh pepper). Mature fruits of C. frutescens harvested in the first year showed the major total phenolic compound content (2.46 mg g -1 fresh pepper). The total phenolic compound content was directly related to antioxidant activity. Our results suggest that phenolic compounds significantly contribute to the antioxidant activity of the investigated peppers. Also, these data add valued novel information that enhances current knowledge of Brazilian pepper fruits. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Seedling protection and field practices for management of insect vectors and viral diseases of hot pepper (Capsicum chinense Jacq.) in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karungi, J.; Obua, T.; Kyamanywa, S.

    2013-01-01

    The focus of this study was on nursery and field management of seed and insect vectors of viruses on hot pepper. Seedlings raised from hypochlorite-treated seeds under a net tunnel nursery were compared with seedlings raised from untreated seeds in an open nursery. The two groups of seedlings were...

  3. Hot Chili Peppers: Extraction, Cleanup, and Measurement of Capsaicin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiping; Mabury, Scott A.; Sagebiel, John C.

    2000-12-01

    Capsaicin, the pungent ingredient of the red pepper or Capsicum annuum, is widely used in food preparation. The purpose of this experiment was to acquaint students with the active ingredients of hot chili pepper (capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin), the extraction, cleanup, and analysis of these chemicals, as a fun and informative analytical exercise. Fresh peppers were prepared and extracted with acetonitrile, removing plant co-extractives by addition to a C-18 solid-phase extraction cartridge. Elution of the capsaicinoids was accomplished with a methanol-acetic acid solution. Analysis was completed by reverse-phase HPLC with diode-array or variable wavelength detection and calibration with external standards. Levels of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin were typically found to correlate with literature values for a specific hot pepper variety. Students particularly enjoyed relating concentrations of capsaicinoids to their perceived valuation of "hotness".

  4. Metabolite biodiversity in pepper (Capsicum) fruits of thirty-two diverse accessions : variation in health-related compounds and impliciations for breeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wahyuni, Y.; Ballester, A.R.; Sudarmonowati, E.; Bino, R.J.; Bovy, A.G.

    2011-01-01

    A comprehensive study on morphology and biochemical compounds of 32 Capsicum spp. accessions has been performed. Accessions represented four pepper species, Capsicum annuum, Capsicum frutescens, Capsicum chinense and Capsicum baccatum which were selected by their variation in morphological

  5. Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyase Activity in Stem of Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) Infected by Phytophthora capsici L.

    OpenAIRE

    KOC, Esra; USTUN, Ayşen Sulun

    2012-01-01

    In this study, PAL activity in stems of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) plants infected by the root rot pathogen Phytophthora capsici-22 in a resistant (PM-702) and two susceptible (Kahramanmaraş-Hot (KM-Hot) and Demre-8) cultivar were studied. The response of the PAL activity in the resistant cultivar was faster and higher than in the susceptible cultivars (p < 0.01). The increase in production of  PAL upon Phytophthora capsici-22 were higher in the infected plants compared to the non-in...

  6. Pepper EST database: comprehensive in silico tool for analyzing the chili pepper (Capsicum annuum transcriptome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Woo Taek

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is no dedicated database available for Expressed Sequence Tags (EST of the chili pepper (Capsicum annuum, although the interest in a chili pepper EST database is increasing internationally due to the nutritional, economic, and pharmaceutical value of the plant. Recent advances in high-throughput sequencing of the ESTs of chili pepper cv. Bukang have produced hundreds of thousands of complementary DNA (cDNA sequences. Therefore, a chili pepper EST database was designed and constructed to enable comprehensive analysis of chili pepper gene expression in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. Results We built the Pepper EST database to mine the complexity of chili pepper ESTs. The database was built on 122,582 sequenced ESTs and 116,412 refined ESTs from 21 pepper EST libraries. The ESTs were clustered and assembled into virtual consensus cDNAs and the cDNAs were assigned to metabolic pathway, Gene Ontology (GO, and MIPS Functional Catalogue (FunCat. The Pepper EST database is designed to provide a workbench for (i identifying unigenes in pepper plants, (ii analyzing expression patterns in different developmental tissues and under conditions of stress, and (iii comparing the ESTs with those of other members of the Solanaceae family. The Pepper EST database is freely available at http://genepool.kribb.re.kr/pepper/. Conclusion The Pepper EST database is expected to provide a high-quality resource, which will contribute to gaining a systemic understanding of plant diseases and facilitate genetics-based population studies. The database is also expected to contribute to analysis of gene synteny as part of the chili pepper sequencing project by mapping ESTs to the genome.

  7. Hybrid breeding in pepper (capsicum annuum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milkova, L.; Daskalov, S.

    1981-01-01

    Male sterile forms of peppers with gene sterility were produced by ν- and X-irradiation of dry seeds of cv. Pazarjishka kapiya 794 and Zlaten medal and subsequent selection in M 2 . Male sterile lines suitable for developing hybrid cultivars intended for various kinds of production were obtained by backcrossing with lines and cultivars having valuable economic characters and high combining ability. The promising pepper Belasitsa, Prista, Lyulin and Strouma (all of them for early field production), and Izoumroud and Prevuzhoden (for glasshouse production) are described. (authors)

  8. Ascorbic Acid Contents in Chili Peppers (Capsicum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owk ANIEL KUMAR

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Capsicum commonly known as chili pepper is a major spice crop and is almost cosmopolitan in distribution. The nutritive value of chili pepper is largely determined by ascorbic acid content. The fruits at five ripening stages viz., (M1, M2, M3, M4 and M5 from seventeen cultivars of Capsicum annuum L and one cultivar of Capsicum frutescens L were analyzed for ascorbic acid content. Among eighteen genotypes the C. annuum var. IC: 119262(CA2 showed higher ascorbic acid content (mg/100g FW i.e., 208.00.68 (M1, 231.00.66 (M2, 280.00.31 (M3, 253.00.34 (M4 and 173.70.27 (M5. The study revealed that the gradual increase in ascorbic acid content from green to red and subsequently declined in the lateral stages (red partially dried and red fully dried fruits. The variability of ascorbic acid content in the genotypes suggests that these selected genotypes may be use full as parents in hybridization programs to produce fruits with good nutritional values.

  9. Characterisation of the flavour of fresh bell peppers (Capsicum annuum) and its changes after hot-air drying : an instrumental and sensory evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luning, P.A.

    1995-01-01

    Fruits of Capsicum annuum and C. frutescens are commonly used in the diet because of their typical colour, pungency, taste. and distinct aroma. The fruits are eaten fresh or processed, as unripe (green) or ripe (e.g., red, yellow, orange, white)

  10. [Evaluation of the mercury accumulating capacity of pepper (Capsicum annuum)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Vargas, Híver M; Vidal-Durango, Jhon V; Marrugo-Negrete, José L

    2014-01-01

    To assess the mercury accumulating capacity in contaminated soils from the community of Mina Santa Cruz, in the south of the department of Bolívar, Colombia, of the pepper plant (Capsicum annuum), in order to establish the risk to the health of the consuming population. Samples were taken from tissues (roots, stems, and leaves) of pepper plants grown in two soils contaminated with mercury and a control soil during the first five months of growth to determine total mercury through cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry. Total mercury was determined in the samples of pepper plant fruits consumed in Mina Santa Cruz. The mean concentrations of total mercury in the roots were higher than in stems and leaves. Accumulation in tissues was influenced by mercury levels in soil and the growth time of the plants. Mercury concentrations in fruits of pepper plant were lower than tolerable weekly intake provided by WHO. Percent of translocation of mercury to aerial parts of the plant were low in both control and contaminated soils. Despite low levels of mercury in this food, it is necessary to minimize the consumption of food contaminated with this metal.

  11. Virus diseases of peppers (Capsicum spp.) and their control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Lawrence; Kumar, Sanjeet; Tsai, Wen-Shi; Hughes, Jacqueline d'A

    2014-01-01

    The number of virus species infecting pepper (Capsicum spp.) crops and their incidences has increased considerably over the past 30 years, particularly in tropical and subtropical pepper production systems. This is probably due to a combination of factors, including the expansion and intensification of pepper cultivation in these regions, the increased volume and speed of global trade of fresh produce (including peppers) carrying viruses and vectors to new locations, and perhaps climate change expanding the geographic range suitable for the viruses and vectors. With the increased incidences of diverse virus species comes increased incidences of coinfection with two or more virus species in the same plant. There is then greater chance of synergistic interactions between virus species, increasing symptom severity and weakening host resistance, as well as the opportunity for genetic recombination and component exchange and a possible increase in aggressiveness, virulence, and transmissibility. The main virus groups infecting peppers are transmitted by aphids, whiteflies, or thrips, and a feature of many populations of these vector groups is that they can develop resistance to some of the commonly used insecticides relatively quickly. This, coupled with the increasing concern over the impact of over- or misuse of insecticides on the environment, growers, and consumers, means that there should be less reliance on insecticides to control the vectors of viruses infecting pepper crops. To improve the durability of pepper crop protection measures, there should be a shift away from the broadscale use of insecticides and the use of single, major gene resistance to viruses. Instead, integrated and pragmatic virus control measures should be sought that combine (1) cultural practices that reduce sources of virus inoculum and decrease the rate of spread of viruliferous vectors into the pepper crop, (2) synthetic insecticides, which should be used judiciously and only when the

  12. Fruit cuticle lipid composition and water loss in a diverse collection of pepper (capsicum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepper (Capsicum spp.) fruits are covered by a relatively thick coating of cuticle that limits fruit water loss, a trait previously associated with maintenance of post-harvest fruit quality during commercial marketing. We’ve examined the fruit cuticles from 50 diverse pepper genotypes from a world c...

  13. Evaluation of antioxidant potential of pepper sauce (Capsicum frutescens L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Freire de Moura Pereira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Functional properties of substances present in in natura foods such as fruits and vegetables are well documented; however, the activity that remains after processing needs more research. The present study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant potential in fruit processed as sauce and quantify the compounds able to contribute to such activity. Three different treatments were developed varying only the concentration of pepper Capsicum frutescens L., with treatment ratios (fruit: water: vinegar: salt being: treatment 1 (0.5: 1: 0.5: 0.33, 2 (1: 1: 0.5: 0.33, and 3 (2: 1: 0.5: 0.33. By the DPPH method, the values found for EC50 (g g DPPH−1 from 3726.9 to 5425.9 for the alcoholic extract were the most significant. The content of total phenols did not vary between the three treatments. While the content of carotenoids found was significantly different in the treatment with lower content of the fruit in natura, when compared to the treatment with higher content (44.02 and 56.09 μg of β-carotene 100 g−1, respectively and the content of ascorbic acid varied between 10.95 and 21.59 mg 100−1 g. Therefore, the pepper sauce was presented as an alternative to the consumption of bioactive compounds that may have antioxidant potential.

  14. Chemical constituents of pungent spice pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) from Macedonian origin

    OpenAIRE

    Rafajlovska, Vesna; Slaveska-Raicki, Renata; Koleva Gudeva, Liljana; Mitrev, Sasa; Srbinoska, Marija

    2004-01-01

    In this paper the chemical constituents of the pungent spice pepper Capsicum annuum L.ssp. Microcarpum from Macedonian origin are estimated. Content of moisture, proteins and soluble sugar is 9.60% and 20.33%, respectively. Color capacity of the pungent spice pepper is 5.60g capsanthin/kg pepper dry matter. The influence of organic solvents on the pepper oleoresin extraction and contents of colored components and capsaicin content in it is also studied. The highest quantity of pepper oleor...

  15. Identification of whitefly resistance in tomato and hot pepper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Firdaus, S.

    2012-01-01

    Key words: Capsicum, Bemisia tabaci, trichome density, cuticle thickness
    Whitefly is economically one of the most threatening pests of pepper worldwide, which is mainly caused by its ability to transmit many different viruses. In this research, we characterized pepper germplasm to identify

  16. Influence of the heat treatment on the color of ground pepper (Capsicum annuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vračar Ljubo O.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Red pepper (Capsicum annuum L. is one of the most important vegetables in the world. The main ground pepper quality attributes are extractable color, surface color, qualitative and quantitative carotenoid content. In this work, the influence of heat treatment on ground pepper quality was investigated. Microbiological status was examined in non-sterilized and sterilized ground pepper. Color changes were assessed by measuring the extractable color (ASTA and surface color, using a photocolorimeter. The obtained results showed that at the end of experiment, non-sterilized samples had higher color values in comparison to the sterilized ones. Also, color deterioration was heightened at room temperature.

  17. Anatomical traits of sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L. fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Weryszko-Chmielewska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The micromorphology of the epidermis as well as the anatomy of the pericarp and fruit pedicle in Capsicum annuum L., cv. 'Red Knight F1', were studied using light and scanning electron microscopy. The pericarp was found to consist of an epidermis with strongly thickened outer walls, several layers of tangential and angular collenchyma as well as multi-layered parenchyma composed of cells of varying size in which very large lobed nuclei were observed. Chromoplasts were found in the cells of the above-mentioned tissues. The inner epidermis of the pericarp was characterized by thick cell walls and numerous straight pits. Among the tissues of the fruit pedicle, we observed epidermis with numerous stomata, collenchyma, chlorenchyma with very large intercellular spaces, small clusters of sclerenchyma, secondary phloem and xylem as well live and dead cells of the pith which were characterized by the presence of thin walls with numerous pits. The structural traits of the pericarp of the red pepper cultivar under study show adaptations to significantly reduced transpiration, which is an important feature during storage. At the same time, the strongly thickened and cutinized walls of the fruit contribute to a reduction in its digestibility and impede nutrient penetration in non-root feeding.

  18. Proteome analysis of bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) chromoplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddique, Muhammad Asim; Grossmann, Jonas; Gruissem, Wilhelm; Baginsky, Sacha

    2006-12-01

    We report a comprehensive proteome analysis of chromoplasts from bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.). The combination of a novel strategy for database-independent detection of proteins from tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) data with standard database searches allowed us to identify 151 proteins with a high level of confidence. These include several well-known plastid proteins but also novel proteins that were not previously reported from other plastid proteome studies. The majority of the identified proteins are active in plastid carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism. Among the most abundant individual proteins are capsanthin/capsorubin synthase and fibrillin, which are involved in the synthesis and storage of carotenoids that accumulate to high levels in chromoplasts. The relative abundances of the identified chromoplast proteins differ remarkably compared with their abundances in other plastid types, suggesting a chromoplast-specific metabolic network. Our results provide an overview of the major metabolic pathways active in chromoplasts and extend existing knowledge about prevalent metabolic activities of different plastid types.

  19. Capsicum annuum S (CaS) promotes reproductive transition and is required for flower formation in pepper (Capsicum annuum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Oded; Borovsky, Yelena; David-Schwartz, Rakefet; Paran, Ilan

    2014-05-01

    The genetic control of the transition to flowering has mainly been studied in model species, while few data are available in crop species such as pepper (Capsicum spp.). To elucidate the genetic control of the transition to flowering in pepper, mutants that lack flowers were isolated and characterized. Genetic mapping and sequencing allowed the identification of the gene disrupted in the mutants. Double mutants and expression analyses were used to characterize the relationships between the mutated gene and other genes controlling the transition to flowering and flower differentiation. The mutants were characterized by a delay in the initiation of sympodial growth, a delay in the termination of sympodial meristems and complete inhibition of flower formation. Capsicum annuum S (CaS), the pepper (Capsicum annuum) ortholog of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) COMPOUND INFLORESCENCE and petunia (Petunia hybrida) EVERGREEN, was found to govern the mutant phenotype. CaS is required for the activity of the flower meristem identity gene Ca-ANANTHA and does not affect the expression of CaLEAFY. CaS is epistatic over other genes controlling the transition to flowering with respect to flower formation. Comparative homologous mutants in the Solanaceae indicate that CaS has uniquely evolved to have a critical role in flower formation, while its role in meristem maturation is conserved in pepper, tomato and petunia. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  20. Tocopherol synthesis from homogentisate in Capsicum anuum L. (yellow pepper) chromoplast membranes: evidence for tocopherol cyclase.

    OpenAIRE

    Arango, Y; Heise, K P

    1998-01-01

    The present study shows for the first time appreciable tocopherol cyclase activities in plastidial membrane preparations of Capsicum annuum L. (yellow pepper) fruits. When chromoplast membranes from yellow peppers were incubated with [3H]homogentisate and phytyl pyrophosphate under strictly reducing conditions, all biosynthesis precursors were labelled. The main labelling was found in gamma-tocopherol. These observations contradict the hypothesis that assigns a rate-limiting function to tocop...

  1. Compositional characterization of native Peruvian chili peppers (Capsicum spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meckelmann, Sven W; Riegel, Dieter W; van Zonneveld, Maarten J; Ríos, Llermé; Peña, Karla; Ugas, Roberto; Quinonez, Lourdes; Mueller-Seitz, Erika; Petz, Michael

    2013-03-13

    The national Capsicum germplasm bank of Peru at INIA holds a unique collection of more than 700 Capsicum accessions, including many landraces. These conserved accessions have never been thoroughly characterized or evaluated. Another smaller collection exists at UNALM, and CIDRA provided taxonomically characterized fruits from the Amazon region of Ucayali. Of these collections, 147 accessions have been selected to represent the biodiversity of Peruvian Capsicum annuum , Capsicum baccatum , Capsicum chinense , and Capsicum frutescens by morphological traits as well as by agronomic characteristics and regional origin. All fruits from the selected accessions have been oven-dried and ground in Peru and analyzed in Germany. Results are reported for each accession by total capsaicinoids and capsaicinoid pattern, total polyphenol content, antioxidant capacity, specific flavonoids (quercetin, kaempferol, luteolin, apigenin), fat content, vitamin C, surface color, and extractable color. A wide variability in phytochemical composition and concentration levels was found.

  2. Abortion of reproductive organs in sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.): a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wubs, A.M.; Heuvelink, E.; Marcelis, L.F.M.

    2009-01-01

    Levels of abortion of reproductive organs (i.e., buds, flowers, and young fruits) in sweet pepper plants (Capsicum annuum L.) are high, and cyclical fluctuations occur in fruit set. Stages susceptible to abortion are very young buds (<2.5 mm), buds close to anthesis, and flowers and fruits up to

  3. The evolution of chili peppers (Capsicum-Solanaceae): a cytogenetic perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capsicum (chili peppers) is a New World genus with five crop species of great economic importance for food and spices. An up-to-date summary of the karyotypic knowledge is presented, including data on classical staining (chromosome number, size and morphology), silver impregnation (number and positi...

  4. Surveys of virus diseases on pepper ( Capsicum spp.) in South-west ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Surveys to determine the incidence, diversity and distribution of viruses infecting pepper (Capsicum spp.) were conducted in six states (Oyo, Ondo, Osun, Ogun, Ekiti and Lagos) of South-west Nigeria in 2010 and 2011. Leaf samples from symptomatic and asymptomatic plants were collected at random from farmers' fields ...

  5. Whole-genome sequencing of cultivated and wild peppers provides insights into Capsicum domestication and specialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Cheng; Yu, Changshui; Shen, Yaou; Fang, Xiaodong; Chen, Lang; Min, Jiumeng; Cheng, Jiaowen; Zhao, Shancen; Xu, Meng; Luo, Yong; Yang, Yulan; Wu, Zhiming; Mao, Likai; Wu, Haiyang; Ling-Hu, Changying; Zhou, Huangkai; Lin, Haijian; González-Morales, Sandra; Trejo-Saavedra, Diana L.; Tian, Hao; Tang, Xin; Zhao, Maojun; Huang, Zhiyong; Zhou, Anwei; Yao, Xiaoming; Cui, Junjie; Li, Wenqi; Chen, Zhe; Feng, Yongqiang; Niu, Yongchao; Bi, Shimin; Yang, Xiuwei; Li, Weipeng; Cai, Huimin; Luo, Xirong; Montes-Hernández, Salvador; Leyva-González, Marco A.; Xiong, Zhiqiang; He, Xiujing; Bai, Lijun; Tan, Shu; Tang, Xiangqun; Liu, Dan; Liu, Jinwen; Zhang, Shangxing; Chen, Maoshan; Zhang, Lu; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Yinchao; Liao, Weiqin; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Min; Lv, Xiaodan; Wen, Bo; Liu, Hongjun; Luan, Hemi; Zhang, Yonggang; Yang, Shuang; Wang, Xiaodian; Xu, Jiaohui; Li, Xueqin; Li, Shuaicheng; Wang, Junyi; Palloix, Alain; Bosland, Paul W.; Li, Yingrui; Krogh, Anders; Rivera-Bustamante, Rafael F.; Herrera-Estrella, Luis; Yin, Ye; Yu, Jiping; Hu, Kailin; Zhang, Zhiming

    2014-01-01

    As an economic crop, pepper satisfies people’s spicy taste and has medicinal uses worldwide. To gain a better understanding of Capsicum evolution, domestication, and specialization, we present here the genome sequence of the cultivated pepper Zunla-1 (C. annuum L.) and its wild progenitor Chiltepin (C. annuum var. glabriusculum). We estimate that the pepper genome expanded ∼0.3 Mya (with respect to the genome of other Solanaceae) by a rapid amplification of retrotransposons elements, resulting in a genome comprised of ∼81% repetitive sequences. Approximately 79% of 3.48-Gb scaffolds containing 34,476 protein-coding genes were anchored to chromosomes by a high-density genetic map. Comparison of cultivated and wild pepper genomes with 20 resequencing accessions revealed molecular footprints of artificial selection, providing us with a list of candidate domestication genes. We also found that dosage compensation effect of tandem duplication genes probably contributed to the pungent diversification in pepper. The Capsicum reference genome provides crucial information for the study of not only the evolution of the pepper genome but also, the Solanaceae family, and it will facilitate the establishment of more effective pepper breeding programs. PMID:24591624

  6. Natural biostimulants reduce the incidence of BER in sweet yellow pepper plants (Capsicum annuum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Parađiković

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Modern greenhouse pepper production should evolve towards more sustainable systems. The growing technique which combines soilless culture and biostimulants may reduce nutrient and water use with beneficial impact on the environment. Therefore, this work aimed to investigate effects of biostimulants application on hydroponically produced pepper plants (Capsicum annuum L. in conditions of reduced fertilization. Positive influence of biostimulant treatment on yield parameters was observed along with significant decrease in incidence of blossom-end rot (BER in two pepper cultivars. Biostimulants application resulted in overall increase in macro- and microelement content in fruits of treated pepper cultivars. Generally, biostimulants improved the yield of pepper plants grown hydroponically by increasing the nutrient uptake and decreasing the occurrence of BER. Thus, the application of biostimulants could be considered as a good production strategy for obtaining high yields of nutritionally valuable vegetables with lower impact on the environment.

  7. The effect of cadmium on phenylalanine ammonia lyase activity and lipid peroxidation in pepper (Capsicum annuum L. seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra Koç

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect on differrent concentrations (20, 40, 80µM ve 100 µM CdCl2 of cadmium (CdCl2 on the activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL and lipid peroxidation amount in leaf and stem of Kahramanmaraş- Hot (Capsicum annum L. pepper seedlings were researched. Activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL, the first enzyme in the phenylpropanoid biosynthetic pathway, was increased at 2 and 4 days in KM-Hot plants exposed to CdCl2 stress. The highest PAL activity was detected in 20 μM CdCl2 application, on the four day after the application in the leaves of KM-Hot pepper. Moreover, it was observed that treatment of pepper with Cd led to an increased the rate of lipid peroxidation (which is indicated by increasing MDA content in the leaf and stem tissues. The highest MDA content was detected in 80 μM CdCl2 application, on the four day after the application in the leaf tissues. These results suggest that the activation of PAL may be associated with increased production of MDA

  8. Copper and manganese content of the leaves of pepper ( Capsicum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The degree of Cu uptake by pepper plants was highest in the treatment on chernozem, lower on fluvisol and pseudogley, and lowest on vertisol, while the degree of Mn uptake by pepper plants was highest on chernozem and lowest on pseudogley. The Cu content of pepper leaves in all the treatments was low as compared ...

  9. Potential for breeding sweet pepper adapted to cooler growing conditions : a physiological and genetic analysis of growth traits in Capsicum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, de E.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) is an important greenhouse crop in theNetherlands. In 2005, the production area of sweet pepper in the

  10. Non-destructive quality evaluation of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) seeds using LED-induced hyperspectral reflectance imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, we develop a viability evaluation method for pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) seed based on hyperspectral reflectance imaging. The reflectance spectra of pepper seeds in the 400–700 nm range are collected from hyperspectral reflectance images obtained using blue, green, and red LED illumin...

  11. Quantification of the gene expression of bell peppers ( Capsicum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fruits can be divided into two groups according to the regulatory mechanisms underlying their ripening process. The two ripening processes are climacteric and non-climacteric process; bell peppers are part of the non-climacteric plant groups. Bell peppers are members of the Solanacaea family. The Solanacaea family is ...

  12. Nitrogen determination in pepper (Capsicum frutescens L.) plants by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-05

    Dec 5, 2011 ... significant negative relations between G/(R+G+B) ratio of coverage image and the indexes of pepper nitrogen status in this experiment. Hence, the suitable index of assessing pepper N status by color image analysis was discussed. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Experimental design. Experiment was made ...

  13. Genetic diversity in some Turkish pepper (Capsicum annuum L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-09-15

    Sep 15, 2009 ... RFLP, RAPD, AFLP, and micro-satellites have been beneficial by being ... List of pepper genotypes used in the experiment. Genotype. Type. Source. Classification of ..... Artificial selection might decrease the genetic diversity ...

  14. Changes in the protein profile of Habanero pepper (Capsicum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-06-12

    Jun 12, 2012 ... (Capsicum chinense J.) somatic embryos during ... molecular weights to those reported for storage proteins in other .... were isolated by cutting with a razor blade. ... electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE; 5% stacking gel [pH 6.8], 15% running ... Developmental stages correspond to C) globular, D) heart-shaped, ...

  15. Changes in the protein profile of Habanero pepper ( Capsicum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Protein profile was studied during the development of Capsicum chinense somatic embryos. The total protein content and profile of polypeptides (by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis) of somatic embryos at different developmental stages (globular, heart-shaped, torpedo and cotyledonary stages) ...

  16. Effect of natural biostimulants on yield and nutritional quality: an example of sweet yellow pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parađiković, Nada; Vinković, Tomislav; Vinković Vrček, Ivana; Žuntar, Irena; Bojić, Mirza; Medić-Šarić, Marica

    2011-09-01

    Modifications in growing techniques can affect the yield and nutritional quality of various cultivated plant species. Owing to its high nutritional value, pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) was used in this study as a model plant to investigate the effect of natural biostimulants on yield and fruit quality parameters under conditions of reduced fertilisation. A positive influence of biostimulant treatment on yield parameters was observed. The overall increase in the pigment content of leaves after biostimulant application agreed well with the higher total and commercial yields of treated pepper cultivars compared with their controls. The results showed that natural biostimulants had a positive effect on the vitamin C and total phenolic contents in pepper fruits during the hot summer season. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) (ABTS) antioxidant activities were also significantly higher (P hydroponically. Thus the application of biostimulants could be considered as a good production strategy for obtaining high yields of nutritionally valuable vegetables with lower impact on the environment. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Carotenoid Biosynthesis in Chili Peppers (Capsicum spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Rocío Gómez-García

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Capsicum species produce fruits that synthesize and accumulate carotenoid pigments, which are responsible for the fruits’ yellow, orange and red colors. Chili peppers have been used as an experimental model for studying the biochemical and molecular aspects of carotenoid biosynthesis. Most reports refer to the characterization of carotenoids and content determination in chili pepper fruits from different species, cultivars, varieties or genotypes. The types and levels of carotenoids differ between different chili pepper fruits, and they are also influenced by environmental conditions. Yellow-orange colors of chili pepper fruits are mainly due to the accumulation of α- and β-carotene, zeaxanthin, lutein and β-cryptoxanthin. Carotenoids such as capsanthin, capsorubin and capsanthin-5,6-epoxide confer the red colors. Chromoplasts are the sites of carotenoid pigment synthesis and storage. According to the most accepted theory, the synthesis of carotenoids in chili peppers is controlled by three loci: c1, c2 and y. Several enzymes participating in carotenoid biosynthesis in chili pepper fruits have been isolated and characterized, and the corresponding gene sequences have been reported. However, there is currently limited information on the molecular mechanisms that regulate this biosynthetic pathway. Approaches to gain more knowledge of the regulation of carotenoid biosynthesis are discussed.

  18. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Carotenoid Biosynthesis in Chili Peppers (Capsicum spp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Rocío Gómez-García, María; Ochoa-Alejo, Neftalí

    2013-01-01

    Capsicum species produce fruits that synthesize and accumulate carotenoid pigments, which are responsible for the fruits’ yellow, orange and red colors. Chili peppers have been used as an experimental model for studying the biochemical and molecular aspects of carotenoid biosynthesis. Most reports refer to the characterization of carotenoids and content determination in chili pepper fruits from different species, cultivars, varieties or genotypes. The types and levels of carotenoids differ between different chili pepper fruits, and they are also influenced by environmental conditions. Yellow-orange colors of chili pepper fruits are mainly due to the accumulation of α- and β-carotene, zeaxanthin, lutein and β-cryptoxanthin. Carotenoids such as capsanthin, capsorubin and capsanthin-5,6-epoxide confer the red colors. Chromoplasts are the sites of carotenoid pigment synthesis and storage. According to the most accepted theory, the synthesis of carotenoids in chili peppers is controlled by three loci: c1, c2 and y. Several enzymes participating in carotenoid biosynthesis in chili pepper fruits have been isolated and characterized, and the corresponding gene sequences have been reported. However, there is currently limited information on the molecular mechanisms that regulate this biosynthetic pathway. Approaches to gain more knowledge of the regulation of carotenoid biosynthesis are discussed. PMID:24065101

  19. Growth and physiological aspects of bell pepper ( Capsicum annuum )

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to evaluate growth and physiological aspects of 'All Big' bell pepper, under saline stress and exogenous application of proline on the leaves. The research was conducted in pots adapted as drainage lysimeters under greenhouse conditions, using sandy-loam eutrophic Regolithic Neosol, in the ...

  20. ToF-SIMS imaging of capsaicinoids in Scotch Bonnet peppers (Capsicum chinense).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Bonnie J; Peterson, Richard E; Lee, Therese G; Draude, Felix; Pelster, Andreas; Arlinghaus, Heinrich F

    2016-06-13

    Peppers (Capsicum spp.) are well known for their ability to cause an intense burning sensation when eaten. This organoleptic response is triggered by capsaicin and its analogs, collectively called capsaicinoids. In addition to the global popularity of peppers as a spice, there is a growing interest in the use of capsaicinoids to treat a variety of human ailments, including arthritis, chronic pain, digestive problems, and cancer. The cellular localization of capsaicinoid biosynthesis and accumulation has previously been studied by fluorescence microscopy and electron microscopy, both of which require immunostaining. In this work, ToF-SIMS has been used to image the distribution of capsaicinoids in the interlocular septum and placenta of Capsicum chinense (Scotch Bonnet peppers). A unique cryo-ToF-SIMS instrument has been used to prepare and analyze the samples with minimal sample preparation. Samples were frozen in liquid propane, cryosectioned in vacuum, and analyzed without exposure to ambient pressure. ToF-SIMS imaging was performed at -110 °C using a Bi3 (+) primary ion beam. Molecular ions for capsaicin and four other capsaicinoids were identified in both the positive and negative ToF-SIMS spectra. The capsaicinoids were observed concentrated in pockets between the outer walls of the palisade cells and the cuticle of the septum, as well as in the intercellular spaces in both the placenta and interlocular septum. This is the first report of label-free direct imaging of capsaicinoids at the cellular level in Capsicum spp. These images were obtained without the need for labeling or elaborate sample preparation. The study demonstrates the usefulness of ToF-SIMS imaging for studying the distribution of important metabolites in plant tissues.

  1. Shifts in Plant Chemical Defenses of Chile Pepper (Capsicum annuum L. Due to Domestication in Mesoamerica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose de Jesus Luna-Ruiz

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We propose that comparisons of wild and domesticated Capsicum species can serve as a model system for elucidating how crop domestication influences biotic and abiotic interactions mediated by plant chemical defenses. Perhaps no set of secondary metabolites (SMs used for plant defenses and human health have been better studied in the wild and in milpa agro-habitats than those found in Capsicum species. However, very few scientific studies on SM variation have been conducted in both the domesticated landraces of chile peppers and in their wild relatives in the Neotropics. In particular, capsaicinoids in Capsicum fruits and on their seeds differ in the specificity of their ecological effects from broad-spectrum toxins in other members of the Solanaceae. They do so in a manner that mediates specific ecological interactions with a variety of sympatric Neotropical vertebrates, invertebrates, nurse plants and microbes. Specifically, capsaicin is a secondary metabolite (SM in the placental tissues of the chile fruit that mediates interactions with seed dispersers such as birds, and with seed predators, ranging from fungi to insects and rodents. As with other Solanaceae, a wide range of SMs in Capsicum spp. function to ecologically mediate the effects of a variety of biotic and abiotic stresses on wild chile peppers in certain tropical and subtropical habitats. However, species in the genus Capsicum are the only ones found within any solanaceous genus that utilize capsaicinoids as their primary means of chemical defense. We demonstrate how exploring in tandem the evolutionary ecology and the ethnobotany of human-chile interactions can generate and test novel hypotheses with regard to how the domestication process shifts plant chemical defense strategies in a variety of tropical crops. To do so, we draw upon recent advances regarding the chemical ecology of a number of wild Capsicum species found in the Neotropics. We articulate three hypotheses regarding

  2. Changes in structure of red pepper (Capsicum annuum L. seedlings shoots under aluminum stress conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Konarska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The seedlings of the red pepper (Capsicum annuum L. cv. Trapez grown in water culture for a period of 14 days with Al (0, 10, 20 and 40 mg·dm-3 AlCl3·6 H2O. Some morphological and anatomical features of red pepper shoots were analyzed. Reduction in height and diameter of stems as well as decrease in fresh mass of shoots were observed after Al-treatment. In the hypocotyl the thickness of cortex parenchyma layer and the size of their cells were reduced. The aluminum treatment resulted in the increased in thickness of the epidermis outer cell wall. Under Al stress in the cotrex and the central cylinder parenchyma cells were present numerous enlarge plastids which contained large grains of starch and dark little bodies which were possible aluminum deposits. They weren`t observed in control seedlings.

  3. Functional study of hot pepper 26S proteasome subunit RPN7 induced by Tobacco mosaic virus from nuclear proteome analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Boo-Ja; Kwon, Sun Jae; Kim, Sung-Kyu; Kim, Ki-Jeong; Park, Chang-Jin; Kim, Young-Jin; Park, Ohkmae K.; Paek, Kyung-Hee

    2006-01-01

    Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) was applied for the screening of Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV)-induced hot pepper (Capsicum annuum cv. Bugang) nuclear proteins. From differentially expressed protein spots, we acquired the matched peptide mass fingerprint (PMF) data, analyzed by MALDI-TOF MS, from the non-redundant hot pepper EST protein FASTA database using the VEMS 2.0 software. Among six identified nuclear proteins, the hot pepper 26S proteasome subunit RPN7 (CaRPN7) was subjected to further study. The level of CaRPN7 mRNA was specifically increased during incompatible TMV-P 0 interaction, but not during compatible TMV-P 1.2 interaction. When CaRPN7::GFP fusion protein was targeted in onion cells, the nuclei had been broken into pieces. In the hot pepper leaves, cell death was exacerbated and genomic DNA laddering was induced by Agrobacterium-mediated transient overexpression of CaPRN7. Thus, this report presents that the TMV-induced CaRPN7 may be involved in programmed cell death (PCD) in the hot pepper plant

  4. Radiation sterilization of red chili pepper (Capsicum frutescens)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onyenekwe, P.C.; Ogbadu, G.H.

    1995-01-01

    The effect of radapertization using 60Co gamma radiation on the chemical and organoleptic properties of ground and whole dry pungent red pepper has been investigated. The fungal population was eliminated with a dose of 7.5 kGy and a dose of 10 kGy was required to radapertize the samples. Irradiation up to 10 kGy did not produce any significant (P 0.05) changes in the contents of capsaicin and carbohydrate. Oleoresin content was significantly (P 0.05) increased from 24.45 to 31.61% and lipid from 16.80 to 19.30%. The observed effect on apparent oleoresin and lipid contents was due to enhanced extractability. Storage time had no effect on the sensory properties of the spice but rather enhanced microbial load reduction in the medium dose (5.0 and 7.5 kGy) treated samples. A dose of 10 kGy has been certified to pose no health hazard to humans; hence decontamination of red pepper with up to 10 kGy gamma radiation does not require any further toxicological study and is therefore recommended

  5. Volatile profile and sensory quality of new varieties of Capsicum chinense pepper

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    Deborah dos Santos Garruti

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the sensory quality and the volatile compound profile of new varieties of Capsicum chinense pepper (CNPH 4080 a strain of'Cumari-do-Pará' and BRS Seriema with a known commercial variety (Biquinho. Volatiles were isolated from the headspace of fresh fruit by SPME and identified by GC-MS. Pickled peppers were produced for sensory evaluation. Aroma descriptors were evaluated by Check-All-That-Apply (CATA method, and the frequency data were submitted to Correspondence Analysis. Flavor acceptance was assessed by hedonic scale and analyzed by ANOVA. BRS Seriema showed the richest volatile profile, with 55 identified compounds, and up to 40% were compounds with sweet aroma notes. CNPH 4080 showed similar volatile profile to that of Biquinho pepper, but it had higher amounts of pepper-like and green-note compounds. The samples did not differ in terms of flavor acceptance, but they showed differences in aroma quality confirming the differences found in the volatile profiles. The C. chinense varieties developed by Embrapa proved to be more aromatic than Biquinho variety, and were well accepted by the judges.

  6. Evolution of Capsaicinoids in Peter Pepper (Capsicum annuum var. annuum) During Fruit Ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbero, Gerardo F; de Aguiar, Ana C; Carrera, Ceferino; Olachea, Ángel; Ferreiro-González, Marta; Martínez, Julian; Palma, Miguel; Barroso, Carmelo G

    2016-08-01

    The evolution of individual and total contents of capsaicinoids present in Peter peppers (Capsicum annuum var. annuum) at different ripening stages has been studied. Plants were grown in a glasshouse and the new peppers were marked in a temporal space of ten days. The extraction of capsaicinoids was performed by ultrasound-assisted extraction with MeOH. The capsaicinoids nordihydrocapsaicin (n-DHC), capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, homocapsaicin, and homodihydrocapsaicin were analyzed by ultraperformance liquid chromatography (UHPLC)-fluorescence and identified by UHPLC-Q-ToF-MS. The results indicate that the total capsaicinoids increase in a linear manner from the first point of harvest at ten days (0.283 mg/g FW) up to 90 days, at which point they reach a concentration of 1.301 mg/g FW. The evolution as a percentage of the individual capsaicinoids showed the initial predominance of capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, and n-DHC. Dihydrocapsaicin was the major capsaicinoid up to day 50 of maturation. After 50 days, capsaicin became the major capsaicinoid as the concentration of dihydrocapsaicin fell slightly. The time of harvest of Peter pepper based on the total capsaicinoids content should be performed as late as possible. In any case, harvesting should be performed before overripening of the fruit is observed. © 2016 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zürich.

  7. Effect of compost on antioxidant components and fruit quality of sweet pepper (capsicum annuum L.

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    Mohammad AMINIFARD

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the effect of compost (CO on antioxidant compounds and fruit quality of sweet pepper (Capsicum annum L., an experiment was conducted in open field. Treatments consisted of four levels of compost (0, 5, 10 and 15 ton ha-1.The experiment was designed in randomized block design with three replications. Compost treatments positively affected fruit antioxidant compounds of pepper (antioxidant activity, total phenolic and carbohydrate content.But, no significant difference was found in total flavonoid content between compost and control treatments. The highest antioxidant activity and carbohydrate content were obtained in plants treated with10 ton ha-1 of compost. Fruit quality factors (pH, total soluble solids, titratable acidity, ascorbic acid and fruit firmness were influenced by compost treatments. Total soluble solids, and fruit firmness significantly increased in response to compost treatments and the highest values were obtained from the most level of compost treatment (15 t ha-1. Thus, these results showed that compost has strong impact on fruit quality and antioxidant compounds of pepper plants under field conditions.

  8. Biochar potential in intensive cultivation of Capsicum annuum L. (sweet pepper): crop yield and plant protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Abhay; Elad, Yigal; Tsechansky, Ludmila; Abrol, Vikas; Lew, Beni; Offenbach, Rivka; Graber, Ellen R

    2018-01-01

    The influence of various biochars on crop yield and disease resistance of Capsicum annuum L. (sweet pepper) under modern, high input, intensive net house cultivation was tested over the course of 2011-2014 in the Arava desert region of Israel. A pot experiment with Lactuca sativa L. (lettuce) grown in the absence of fertilizer employed the 3-year-old field trial soils to determine if biochar treatments contributed to soil intrinsic fertility. Biochar amendments resulted in a significant increase in the number and weight of pepper fruits over 3 years. Concomitant with the increased yield, biochar significantly decreased the severity of powdery mildew (Leveillula taurica) disease and broad mite (Polyphagotarsonemus latus) pest infestation. Biochar additions resulted in increased soil organic matter but did not influence the pH, electrical conductivity or soil or plant mineral nutrients. Intrinsic fertility experiments with lettuce showed that two of the four biochar-treated field soils had significant positive impacts on lettuce fresh weight and total chlorophyll, carotenoid and anthocyanin contents. Biochar-based soil management can enhance the functioning of intensive, commercial, net house production of peppers under the tested conditions, resulting in increased crop yield and plant resistance to disease over several years. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Multiple lines of evidence for the origin of domesticated chili pepper, Capsicum annuum, in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Kraig H.; Brown, Cecil H.; Nabhan, Gary P.; Luedeling, Eike; Luna Ruiz, José de Jesús; Coppens d’Eeckenbrugge, Geo; Hijmans, Robert J.; Gepts, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The study of crop origins has traditionally involved identifying geographic areas of high morphological diversity, sampling populations of wild progenitor species, and the archaeological retrieval of macroremains. Recent investigations have added identification of plant microremains (phytoliths, pollen, and starch grains), biochemical and molecular genetic approaches, and dating through 14C accelerator mass spectrometry. We investigate the origin of domesticated chili pepper, Capsicum annuum, by combining two approaches, species distribution modeling and paleobiolinguistics, with microsatellite genetic data and archaeobotanical data. The combination of these four lines of evidence yields consensus models indicating that domestication of C. annuum could have occurred in one or both of two areas of Mexico: northeastern Mexico and central-east Mexico. Genetic evidence shows more support for the more northern location, but jointly all four lines of evidence support central-east Mexico, where preceramic macroremains of chili pepper have been recovered in the Valley of Tehuacán. Located just to the east of this valley is the center of phylogenetic diversity of Proto-Otomanguean, a language spoken in mid-Holocene times and the oldest protolanguage for which a word for chili pepper reconstructs based on historical linguistics. For many crops, especially those that do not have a strong archaeobotanical record or phylogeographic pattern, it is difficult to precisely identify the time and place of their origin. Our results for chili pepper show that expressing all data in similar distance terms allows for combining contrasting lines of evidence and locating the region(s) where cultivation and domestication of a crop began. PMID:24753581

  10. The organic fertilizers in pepper (Capsicum annuum L. and the impact on yield and its components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Reyes Pérez

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of organic fertilizers in the fertilization of crops is an alternative to the problems generated by the intensive use of chemical fertilizers. The objective of this research was to evaluate the application to soil of organics fertilizers compared with a control treatment with chemical fertilization on the yield and its components in pepper (Capsicum annuum L.. Treatments consisted in to apply worm humus, water hyacinth compost, a mixture with 50 % worm humus and 50 % of water hyacinth compost, and a chemical control. It was evaluated fruits quantity per harvest, fruit length, diameter and fruit weight per harvest and yield. Results showed that the plants that were supplemented with worm humus, followed by worm humus + water hyacinth they had significantly better response with respect to the length, diameter and weight of the fruits.

  11. SDS-Page Seed Storage Protein Profiles in Chili Peppers (Capsicum L.

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    Owk ANIEL KUMAR

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Seed protein banding patterns (SDS-PAGE were studied from eighteen genotypes of chili pepper (Capsicum L. A total of 21 protein polypeptide bands with molecular weight ranging from 18.6 to 72.0 kD were recorded. Among the genotypes CA18, CA21 and CA27 represented maximum number of protein bands (12. Band no. (11 and (5,12 are exclusive to C. annuum L. and C. frutescens L. genotypes respectively. Average percent similarity was highest (100% between CA2 and CA8 genotypes and the UPGMA dendrogram represented low genetic diversity. The study revealed that considerable intra and inter-specific differences were found in the genotypes. The variability of protein profiles in the genotypes suggested that these selected genotypes can be a good source for crop improvement through hybridization programs.

  12. Transcriptome analysis of symptomatic and recovered leaves of geminivirus-infected pepper (Capsicum annuum

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    Góngora-Castillo Elsa

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Geminiviruses are a large and important family of plant viruses that infect a wide range of crops throughout the world. The Begomovirus genus contains species that are transmitted by whiteflies and are distributed worldwide causing disease on an array of horticultural crops. Symptom remission, in which newly developed leaves of systemically infected plants exhibit a reduction in symptom severity (recovery, has been observed on pepper (Capsicum annuum plants infected with Pepper golden mosaic virus (PepGMV. Previous studies have shown that transcriptional and post-transcriptional gene silencing mechanisms are involved in the reduction of viral nucleic acid concentration in recovered tissue. In this study, we employed deep transcriptome sequencing methods to assess transcriptional variation in healthy (mock, symptomatic, and recovered pepper leaves following PepGMV infection. Results Differential expression analyses of the pepper leaf transcriptome from symptomatic and recovered stages revealed a total of 309 differentially expressed genes between healthy (mock and symptomatic or recovered tissues. Computational prediction of differential expression was validated using quantitative reverse-transcription PCR confirming the robustness of our bioinformatic methods. Within the set of differentially expressed genes associated with the recovery process were genes involved in defense responses including pathogenesis-related proteins, reactive oxygen species, systemic acquired resistance, jasmonic acid biosynthesis, and ethylene signaling. No major differences were found when compared the differentially expressed genes in symptomatic and recovered tissues. On the other hand, a set of genes with novel roles in defense responses was identified including genes involved in histone modification. This latter result suggested that post-transcriptional and transcriptional gene silencing may be one of the major mechanisms involved in the

  13. Transcriptome analysis of symptomatic and recovered leaves of geminivirus-infected pepper (Capsicum annuum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Geminiviruses are a large and important family of plant viruses that infect a wide range of crops throughout the world. The Begomovirus genus contains species that are transmitted by whiteflies and are distributed worldwide causing disease on an array of horticultural crops. Symptom remission, in which newly developed leaves of systemically infected plants exhibit a reduction in symptom severity (recovery), has been observed on pepper (Capsicum annuum) plants infected with Pepper golden mosaic virus (PepGMV). Previous studies have shown that transcriptional and post-transcriptional gene silencing mechanisms are involved in the reduction of viral nucleic acid concentration in recovered tissue. In this study, we employed deep transcriptome sequencing methods to assess transcriptional variation in healthy (mock), symptomatic, and recovered pepper leaves following PepGMV infection. Results Differential expression analyses of the pepper leaf transcriptome from symptomatic and recovered stages revealed a total of 309 differentially expressed genes between healthy (mock) and symptomatic or recovered tissues. Computational prediction of differential expression was validated using quantitative reverse-transcription PCR confirming the robustness of our bioinformatic methods. Within the set of differentially expressed genes associated with the recovery process were genes involved in defense responses including pathogenesis-related proteins, reactive oxygen species, systemic acquired resistance, jasmonic acid biosynthesis, and ethylene signaling. No major differences were found when compared the differentially expressed genes in symptomatic and recovered tissues. On the other hand, a set of genes with novel roles in defense responses was identified including genes involved in histone modification. This latter result suggested that post-transcriptional and transcriptional gene silencing may be one of the major mechanisms involved in the recovery process. Genes

  14. FISH-mapping of the 5S rDNA locus in chili peppers (Capsicum-Solanaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, Patricia M; Debat, Humberto J; Scaldaferro, Marisel A; Martí, Dardo A; Grabiele, Mauro

    2016-03-01

    We present here the physical mapping of the 5S rDNA locus in six wild and five cultivated taxa of Capsicum by means of a genus-specific FISH probe. In all taxa, a single 5S locus per haploid genome that persistently mapped onto the short arm of a unique metacentric chromosome pair at intercalar position, was found. 5S FISH signals of almost the same size and brightness intensity were observed in all the analyzed taxa. This is the first cytological characterization of the 5S in wild taxa of Capsicum by using a genus-derived probe, and the most exhaustive and comprehensive in the chili peppers up to now. The information provided here will aid the cytomolecular characterization of pepper germplasm to evaluate variability and can be instrumental to integrate physical, genetic and genomic maps already generated in the genus.

  15. Organ-specific defence strategies of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) during early phase of water deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sziderics, Astrid Heide; Oufir, Mouhssin; Trognitz, Friederike; Kopecky, Dieter; Matusíková, Ildikó; Hausman, Jean-Francois; Wilhelm, Eva

    2010-03-01

    Drought is one of the major factors that limits crop production and reduces yield. To understand the early response of plants under nearly natural conditions, pepper plants (Capsicum annuum L.) were grown in a greenhouse and stressed by withholding water for 1 week. Plants adapted to the decreasing water content of the soil by adjustment of their osmotic potential in root tissue. As a consequence of drought, strong accumulation of raffinose, glucose, galactinol and proline was detected in the roots. In contrast, in leaves the levels of fructose, sucrose and also galactinol increased. Due to the water deficit cadaverine, putrescine, spermidine and spermine accumulated in leaves, whereas the concentration of polyamines was reduced in roots. To study the molecular basis of these responses, a combined approach of suppression subtractive hybridisation and microarray technique was performed on the same material. A total of 109 unique ESTs were detected as responsive to drought, while additional 286 ESTs were selected from the bulk of rare transcripts on the array. The metabolic profiles of stressed pepper plants are discussed with respect to the transcriptomic changes detected, while attention is given to the differences between defence strategies of roots and leaves.

  16. Ontogenetic Variation of Individual and Total Capsaicinoids in Malagueta Peppers (Capsicum frutescens) during Fruit Maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayos, Oreto; de Aguiar, Ana Carolina; Jiménez-Cantizano, Ana; Ferreiro-González, Marta; Garcés-Claver, Ana; Martínez, Julián; Mallor, Cristina; Ruiz-Rodríguez, Ana; Palma, Miguel; Barroso, Carmelo G; Barbero, Gerardo F

    2017-05-03

    The ontogenetic variation of total and individual capsaicinoids (nordihydrocapsaicin (n-DHC), capsaicin (C), dihydrocapsaicin (DHC), homocapsaicin (h-C) and homodihydrocapsaicin (h-DHC)) present in Malagueta pepper ( Capsicum frutescens ) during fruit ripening has been studied. Malagueta peppers were grown in a greenhouse under controlled temperature and humidity conditions. Capsaicinoids were extracted using ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and the extracts were analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) with fluorescence detection. A significant increase in the total content of capsaicinoids was observed in the early days (between 12 and 33). Between day 33 and 40 there was a slight reduction in the total capsaicinoid content (3.3% decrease). C was the major capsaicinoid, followed by DHC, n-DHC, h-C and h-DHC. By considering the evolution of standardized values of the capsaicinoids it was verified that n-DHC, DHC and h-DHC (dihydrocapsaicin-like capsaicinoids) present a similar behavior pattern, while h-C and C (capsaicin-like capsaicinoids) show different evolution patterns.

  17. Determination of an optimal priming duration and concentration protocol for pepper seeds (Capsicum annuum L.

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    Hassen ALOUI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Seed priming is a simple pre-germination method to improve seed performance and to attenuate the effects of stress exposure. The objective of this study was to determinate an optimal priming protocol for three pepper cultivars (Capsicum annuum L.: ‘Beldi’, ‘Baklouti’ and ‘Anaheim Chili’. Seeds were primed with three solutions of NaCl, KCl and CaCl2 (0, 10, 20 and 50 mM for three different durations (12, 24 and 36h. Control seeds were soaked in distilled water for the same durations. After that, all seeds were kept to germinate in laboratory under normal light and controlled temperature. Results indicated that priming depends on concentration, duration and cultivar. The best combinations that we obtained were: KCl priming (10 mM, 36h for ‘Beldi’ cultivar, CaCl2 priming (10 mM, 36h for ‘Baklouti’ cultivar and finally NaCl priming (50 mM, 24h for ‘Anaheim Chili’ cultivar. Generally, priming had an effect on total germination percentage, mean germination time, germination index and the coefficient of velocity compared to control seeds. The beneficial effect of seed priming could be used for improving salt tolerance on germination and early seedling growth for pepper cultivar.

  18. Drying hot red pepper using solar tunnel drier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossain, M.A; Bala, B.K.

    2006-01-01

    A solar tunnel drier was used to dry red hot pepper under the tropical weather conditions of Bangladesh in order to investigate its performance and the quality of the drier product. The drier comprises a plastic sheet-covered flat plate collector and a drying tunnel. The drier is arranged to supply hot air to the drying tunnel using two small fans powered by a 40 watt PV module. Fresh red pepper was water blanched before drying. In each drying batch in the solar tunnel drier, 20 kg of dried red pepper with 4 to 6% moisture content (wb) was obtained from 80 kg of fresh red pepper with initial moisture content of 73 to 75% (wb) in 20 to 22 hours of drying while it took 32 to 34 hours to bring down the moisture content of similar sample to 8 to 10% (wb) in sun drying methods. The pepper dried in the solar tunnel drier was completely protected from dust, dirt, rain, insects, birds, rodents and microorganisms and it was a quality-dried product in term of colour and pungency. The solar tunnel drier is recommended for drying of pepper as well as vegetables and fruits in developing countries especially in Bangladesh

  19. Ripening of pepper (Capsicum annuum) fruit is characterized by an enhancement of protein tyrosine nitration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaki, Mounira; Álvarez de Morales, Paz; Ruiz, Carmelo; Begara-Morales, Juan C; Barroso, Juan B; Corpas, Francisco J; Palma, José M

    2015-09-01

    Pepper (Capsicum annuum, Solanaceae) fruits are consumed worldwide and are of great economic importance. In most species ripening is characterized by important visual and metabolic changes, the latter including emission of volatile organic compounds associated with respiration, destruction of chlorophylls, synthesis of new pigments (red/yellow carotenoids plus xanthophylls and anthocyanins), formation of pectins and protein synthesis. The involvement of nitric oxide (NO) in fruit ripening has been established, but more work is needed to detail the metabolic networks involving NO and other reactive nitrogen species (RNS) in the process. It has been reported that RNS can mediate post-translational modifications of proteins, which can modulate physiological processes through mechanisms of cellular signalling. This study therefore examined the potential role of NO in nitration of tyrosine during the ripening of California sweet pepper. The NO content of green and red pepper fruit was determined spectrofluorometrically. Fruits at the breaking point between green and red coloration were incubated in the presence of NO for 1 h and then left to ripen for 3 d. Profiles of nitrated proteins were determined using an antibody against nitro-tyrosine (NO2-Tyr), and profiles of nitrosothiols were determined by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Nitrated proteins were identified by 2-D electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF/TOF analysis. Treatment with NO delayed the ripening of fruit. An enhancement of nitrosothiols and nitroproteins was observed in fruit during ripening, and this was reversed by the addition of exogenous NO gas. Six nitrated proteins were identified and were characterized as being involved in redox, protein, carbohydrate and oxidative metabolism, and in glutamate biosynthesis. Catalase was the most abundant nitrated protein found in both green and red fruit. The RNS profile reported here indicates that ripening of pepper fruit is characterized by an enhancement of S

  20. A comprehensive characterization of simple sequence repeats in pepper genomes provides valuable resources for marker development in Capsicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jiaowen; Zhao, Zicheng; Li, Bo; Qin, Cheng; Wu, Zhiming; Trejo-Saavedra, Diana L; Luo, Xirong; Cui, Junjie; Rivera-Bustamante, Rafael F; Li, Shuaicheng; Hu, Kailin

    2016-01-07

    The sequences of the full set of pepper genomes including nuclear, mitochondrial and chloroplast are now available for use. However, the overall of simple sequence repeats (SSR) distribution in these genomes and their practical implications for molecular marker development in Capsicum have not yet been described. Here, an average of 868,047.50, 45.50 and 30.00 SSR loci were identified in the nuclear, mitochondrial and chloroplast genomes of pepper, respectively. Subsequently, systematic comparisons of various species, genome types, motif lengths, repeat numbers and classified types were executed and discussed. In addition, a local database composed of 113,500 in silico unique SSR primer pairs was built using a homemade bioinformatics workflow. As a pilot study, 65 polymorphic markers were validated among a wide collection of 21 Capsicum genotypes with allele number and polymorphic information content value per marker raging from 2 to 6 and 0.05 to 0.64, respectively. Finally, a comparison of the clustering results with those of a previous study indicated the usability of the newly developed SSR markers. In summary, this first report on the comprehensive characterization of SSR motifs in pepper genomes and the very large set of SSR primer pairs will benefit various genetic studies in Capsicum.

  1. Infection of some cayenne pepper varieties (Capsicum frustescens L.) by Tobacco mosaic virus at different growth stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiri, N.; Sofita, I. S.; Effend, T. A.; Rahim, S. E.

    2017-09-01

    This research aimed to study the infection of three varieties of cayenne pepper (Capsicum frustescens L.) by Tobacco Mosaic Virus when they were inoculated at 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 weeks old after planting. This experiment was conducted in a green house, at the Plant pests and diseases department, Agriculture Faculty, Sriwijaya University, Indralaya, South Sumatra Indonesia from March to October 2014. The study was arranged in factorial completely randomized design with three replicates. First factor was varieties of cayenne pepper namely green, white and small. Second factor was growth stage. Results of the study showed that TMV inoculated at different growth stages of three cayenne pepper varieties affected the incubation period of TMV symptom, time for flowering and productions. The infection of TMV on various ages affected the disease severity on cayenne pepper variety. The highest disease severity was taking place on small cayenne pepper variety that was inoculated at the early stages of age namely 2 weeks after planting. Inoculation of TMV at younger stages of all Cayenne peppers varieties caused a significant reduction in the number of fruits and its weights. TMV has caused a reduction of more than 50% in weight of cayenne pepper fruits regardless of the variety.

  2. Pungency Quantitation of Hot Pepper Sauces Using HPLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, Thomas A.

    1999-02-01

    A class of compounds known as capsaicinoids are responsible for the "heat" of hot peppers. To determine the pungency of a particular pepper or pepper product, one may quantify the capsaicinoids and relate those concentrations to the perceived heat. The format of the laboratory described here allows students to collectively develop an HPLC method for the quantitation of the two predominant capsaicinoids (capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin) in hot-pepper products. Each small group of students investigated one of the following aspects of the method: detector wavelength, mobile-phase composition, extraction of capsaicinoids, calibration, and quantitation. The format of the lab forced students to communicate and cooperate to develop this method. The resulting HPLC method involves extraction with acetonitrile followed by solid-phase extraction clean-up, an isocratic 80:20 methanol-water mobile phase, a 4.6 mm by 25 cm C-18 column, and UV absorbance detection at 284 nm. The method developed by the students was then applied to the quantitation of capsaicinoids in a variety of hot pepper sauces. Editor's Note on Hazards in our April 2000 issue addresses the above.

  3. Water extractable phytochemicals from Capsicum pubescens (tree pepper) inhibit lipid peroxidation induced by different pro-oxidant agents in brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oboh, G.; Rocha, J.B.T.

    2006-03-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) is the cause of neurodegenerative disorders such as Lou Gehrig's disease, Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease; one practical way to prevent and manage neurodegenerative diseases is through the eating of food rich in antioxidants (dietary means). In this study, the antioxidant and neuroprotective properties of aqueous extract of ripe and unripe Capsicum pubescens (popularly known as tree pepper) on different pro-oxidant induced lipid peroxidation in Rat's brain (in vitro) is been investigated. Aqueous extract of freshly harvested pepper was prepared, and the total phenol content, vitamin C, ferric reducing antioxidant property (FRAP) and Fe (II) chelating ability was determined. In addition, the ability of the extracts to protect the Rat's brain against some pro-oxidant FeSO 4 , Sodium nitroprusside and Quinolinic acid) - induced oxidative stress was also determined. The results of the study revealed that ripe Capsicum pubescens had a significantly higher (P 2 O 2 induced decomposition of deoxyribose. Therefore, ripe and unripe Capsicum pubescens would inhibit lipid peroxidation in vitro. However, the ripe potent was a more potent inhibitor of lipid peroxidation, which is probably due to its higher vitamin C and phenol content, reducing power and Fe (II) chelating ability. (author)

  4. Thermoluminescence characteristics of the irradiated minerals extracted from red pepper (Capsicum annum L.) spice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcazzo, J.; Cruz Z, E.; Montiel, L. [UNAM, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, A. P. 70-543, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Chernov, V. [Universidad de Sonora, Centro de Investigacion en Fisica, A. P. 5-088, 83190 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Calderon, T., E-mail: ecruz@nucleares.unam.mx [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Facultad de Ciencias, Departamento de Quimica Agricola, 28049 Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain)

    2012-06-15

    The inorganic poly mineral content in the foodstuffs allows to analyze the main thermoluminescence (Tl) characteristics that may be useful in the identification of irradiated food. The mineral fraction was separated from commercial Mexican red pepper (Capsicum annum L.). X-ray diffraction shows that the mineral composition of the samples was mainly quartz. From the mineral fraction of different grain sizes, samples of 149 {mu}m were selected for this study because of the high Tl signals. The samples were irradiated from 1 to 500 Gy by using a {sup 60}Co irradiator. The Tl characteristics like glow curve shape, dose-response, UV and sunlight bleaching and fading were analyzed. The glow curves show an intense Tl peak at 82 C followed by others with less intensity at 130, 170 and 340 C. The T{sub M}-T{sub STOP} method shows six Tl glow peaks that was taken into account for calculation the activation energies values. Because the complex structure of the glow curves, the kinetics parameters were determined by using a computerized deconvolution program assuming the general order kinetics model. (Author)

  5. Thermoluminescence characteristics of the irradiated minerals extracted from red pepper (Capsicum annum L.) spice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcazzo, J.; Cruz Z, E.; Montiel, L.; Chernov, V.; Calderon, T.

    2012-01-01

    The inorganic poly mineral content in the foodstuffs allows to analyze the main thermoluminescence (Tl) characteristics that may be useful in the identification of irradiated food. The mineral fraction was separated from commercial Mexican red pepper (Capsicum annum L.). X-ray diffraction shows that the mineral composition of the samples was mainly quartz. From the mineral fraction of different grain sizes, samples of 149 μm were selected for this study because of the high Tl signals. The samples were irradiated from 1 to 500 Gy by using a 60 Co irradiator. The Tl characteristics like glow curve shape, dose-response, UV and sunlight bleaching and fading were analyzed. The glow curves show an intense Tl peak at 82 C followed by others with less intensity at 130, 170 and 340 C. The T M -T STOP method shows six Tl glow peaks that was taken into account for calculation the activation energies values. Because the complex structure of the glow curves, the kinetics parameters were determined by using a computerized deconvolution program assuming the general order kinetics model. (Author)

  6. Effect of Red Pepper (Capsicum frutescens) Powder or Red Pepper Pigment on the Performance and Egg Yolk Color of Laying Hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huaqiang; Jin, Liji; Wu, Feifei; Thacker, Philip; Li, Xiaoyu; You, Jiansong; Wang, Xiaoyan; Liu, Sizhao; Li, Shuying; Xu, Yongping

    2012-11-01

    Two experiments were conducted to study the effects of red pepper (Capsicum frutescens) powder or red pepper pigment on the performance and egg yolk color of laying hens. In Exp. 1, 210, thirty-wk old, Hy-line Brown laying hens were fed one of seven diets containing 0.3, 0.6, 1.2, 2.0, 4.8 or 9.6 ppm red pepper pigment or 0.3 ppm carophyll red. Each diet was fed to three replicate batteries of hens with each battery consisting of a row of five cages of hens with two hens per cage (n = 3). In Exp. 2, 180, thirty-wk old, Hyline Brown laying hens, housed similarly to those in Exp. 1, were fed an unsupplemented basal diet as well as treatments in which the basal diet was supplemented with 0.8% red pepper powder processed in a laboratory blender to an average particle size of 300 μm, 0.8% red pepper powder processed as a super fine powder with a vibrational mill (44 μm) and finally 0.8% red pepper powder processed as a super fine powder with a vibrational mill but mixed with 5% Na2CO3 either before or after grinding. A diet supplemented with 0.3 ppm carophyll red pigment was also included (n = 3). In both experiments, hens were fed the red pepper powder or pigment for 14 days. After feeding of the powder or pigment was terminated, all hens were fed the basal diet for eight more days to determine if the dietary treatments had any residual effects. In Exp. 1, there were no differences in egg-laying performance, feed consumption or feed conversion ratio due to inclusion of red pepper pigment in the diet. Average egg weight was higher (pfeeding red pepper powder did not affect egg-laying performance, feed consumption or feed conversion ratio (p>0.05). However, compared with the control group, supplementation with all of the red pepper powder treatments increased egg weight (pfeed additives for improving egg yolk color for laying hens.

  7. The Effects Of Capsicum Annuum And Capsicum Frutescens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background:Peppers, containing Capsicum annuum and Capsicum frutescens are frequently consumed as spice in food. It is also known that the capsaicin content of peppers is a cause of hyper acidity. Aims:This study was undertaken to assess the mechanism of action of the extracts of Capsicum annuum and Capsicum ...

  8. Interaction of red pepper (Capsicum annum, Tepin) polyphenols with Fe(II)-induced lipid peroxidation in brain and liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oboh, G.; Rocha, J.B.T.

    2006-03-01

    Polyphenols exhibit a wide range of biological effects because of their antioxidant properties. Several types of polyphenols (phenolic acids, hydrolyzable tannins, and flavonoids) show anticarcinogenic and antimutagenic effects. Comparative studies were carried on the protective ability of free and bound polyphenol extracts of red Capsicum annuum Tepin (CAT) on brain and liver - In vitro. Free polyphenols of red Capsicum annuum Tepin (CAT) were extracted with 80% acetone, while the bound polyphenols were extracted with ethyl acetate from acid and alkaline hydrolysis of the pepper residue from free polyphenols extract. The phenol content, Fe (II) chelating ability, OH radical scavenging ability and protective ability of the extract against Fe (II)-induced lipid peroxidation in brain and liver was subsequently determined. The results of the study revealed that the free polyphenols (218.2mg/100g) content of the pepper were significantly higher than the bound polyphenols (42.5mg/100g). Furthermore, the free polyphenol extract had a significantly higher ( 2+ induced lipid peroxidation, and this is probably due to the higher Fe (II) chelating ability and OH radical scavenging ability of the free polyphenols from the pepper. (author)

  9. Effect of four growth-promoting rhizobacteria on crown blight caused by Phytophthora capsici in sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Ramírez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Crown blight, caused by Phytophthora capsici, is the most important disease of pepper (Capsicum annuum in the world and causes great economic losses in Costa Rica. Alternatives to chemical control against this disease are crucial to prevent damage to human health and the environment. The antagonism of Plant-Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR on P. capsici, and its ability to reduce wilt in pepper plants were evaluated. PGPR strains previously isolated from sugarcane and rice were identified, using 16S RNA gene sequence, as Pseudomonas fluorescens PC4, Stenotrophomonas rhizophila PC9, Pseudomonas fragi PC11 and Azospirillum lipoferum PCJ2. The inhibition of P. capcisi growth was evaluated in vitro, in the presence of the PGPR. The effect of the four bacterial strains on pepper plants inoculated with P. capsici (100 zoospores.plant-1 was evaluated in the greenhouse. P. fluorescens PC4, S. rhizophila PC9 and A. lipoferum PCJ2, inhibited in vitro growth of the oomycete by 54%, 30% and 50 % respectively, while S. rhizophila PC9 increased by 14% shoot fresh weight of pepper plants at the greenhouse. Furthermore, PCJ2 and PC9 strains reduced the shoot and root severity of the disease, and PCJ2-inoculated plants showed no symptoms at all, indicating that PC9 and PCJ2 are promising rizobacteria for the control of crown blight in pepper.

  10. Expression profiles of hot pepper (Capsicum annuum) genes under ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Levels of the plant hormone, abscisic acid (ABA), tend to increase when the plant is subjected to water stress, and. ABA has been established to ...... HVA 1, from barley confers tolerance to water deficit and salt stress in transgenic rice; Plant ...

  11. Water extractable phytochemicals from Capsicum pubescens (tree pepper) inhibit lipid peroxidation induced by different pro-oxidant agents in brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oboh, G [Biochemistry Department, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Ondo State (Nigeria); [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM), Campus Universitario - Camobi, Santa Maria RS (Brazil); [Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy)]. E-mail: goboh2001@yahoo.com; Rocha, J B.T. [Campus Universitario - Camobi, Santa Maria RS (Brazil)

    2006-03-15

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) is the cause of neurodegenerative disorders such as Lou Gehrig's disease, Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease; one practical way to prevent and manage neurodegenerative diseases is through the eating of food rich in antioxidants (dietary means). In this study, the antioxidant and neuroprotective properties of aqueous extract of ripe and unripe Capsicum pubescens (popularly known as tree pepper) on different pro-oxidant induced lipid peroxidation in Rat's brain (in vitro) is been investigated. Aqueous extract of freshly harvested pepper was prepared, and the total phenol content, vitamin C, ferric reducing antioxidant property (FRAP) and Fe (II) chelating ability was determined. In addition, the ability of the extracts to protect the Rat's brain against some pro-oxidant FeSO{sub 4}, Sodium nitroprusside and Quinolinic acid - induced oxidative stress was also determined. The results of the study revealed that ripe Capsicum pubescens had a significantly higher (P<0.05) total phenol [ripe (113.7mg/100g), unripe (70.5mg/100g)] content and ferric reducing antioxidant property than the unripe pepper. However, there was no significant difference in the vitamin C [ripe (231.5{mu}g/g), unripe (224.4{mu}g/g)] content and Fe (II) chelating ability. Furthermore, the pepper extracts caused a significant decrease (P<0.05) in 25{mu}M Fe(II), 7{mu}M Sodium Nitroprusside and 1mM Quinolinic acid induced lipid peroxidation in the Rat's brain in a dose-dependent manner. However, the ripe pepper inhibited MDA (Malondialdehyhide) production in the Rat's brain than the unripe pepper. Conversely, both extract did not significantly inhibit Fe (II)/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} induced decomposition of deoxyribose. Therefore, ripe and unripe Capsicum pubescens would inhibit lipid peroxidation in vitro. However, the ripe potent was a more potent inhibitor of lipid peroxidation, which is probably due to its higher vitamin C and phenol content, reducing power and Fe

  12. Analysis Of Factors Affecting Demand Red Chili Pepper Capsicum Annum L In Solok And Effort Fulfillment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulfitriyana

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Research on the analysis of the factors that influence the demand for red chilli Capsicum annuum L in Solok and compliance efforts implemented in March s.d April 2016. The purpose of this study consisted of 1 analyze the factors affecting the demand for red chili in Solok 2 analyze the elasticity of demand for red chili in Solok 3 know the effort that can be done to meet the demand of red chilli in Solok. To achieve the objectives of the first and second use secondary data for 15 fifteen years and to achieve the objectives the third used primary data. The method used is descriptive analytical method a method that is used to describe phenomena that exist which takes place in the present or past. The variables were observed in this study is the X1 price of red chilli X2 the price of green chili X3 onion prices X4 population X5 income and Y the number of requests red chili which is then analyzed by multiple linear regression elasticity of demand and SWOT. The results of that research addressing the factors that influence the demand for red chili in Solok is the price of red chilli itself the price of green chili as a substitute goods the number of population and income while onion prices affect the amount of red chili demand in Solok. But simultaneously variable X1 red chili prices X2 the price of green chili X3 onion prices X4 population and X5 income strongly influence demand red chili in Solok where the F test results show that F count F table 212.262 3600 with a significance level 0.000 0.010 and the most influential variable is the variable X4 population with the greatest value of beta Coefficients is 1100. Based on analysis of the elasticity of demand is known that red chili pepper is a normal good is inelastic to price elasticity coefficient value amp603p of -0.120. Green chili is substituting goods and shallots are complements of red chili with cross elasticity coefficient amp603px1 and amp603px2 respectively by 0293 and -0.635. While the

  13. Interaction of red pepper (Capsicum annum, Tepin) polyphenols with Fe(II)-induced lipid peroxidation in brain and liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oboh, G [Biochemistry Department, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Ondo State (Nigeria); [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM), Campus Universitario - Camobi, Santa Maria RS (Brazil); [Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy)]. E-mail: goboh2001@yahoo.com; Rocha, J B.T. [Campus Universitario - Camobi, Santa Maria RS (Brazil)

    2006-03-15

    Polyphenols exhibit a wide range of biological effects because of their antioxidant properties. Several types of polyphenols (phenolic acids, hydrolyzable tannins, and flavonoids) show anticarcinogenic and antimutagenic effects. Comparative studies were carried on the protective ability of free and bound polyphenol extracts of red Capsicum annuum Tepin (CAT) on brain and liver - In vitro. Free polyphenols of red Capsicum annuum Tepin (CAT) were extracted with 80% acetone, while the bound polyphenols were extracted with ethyl acetate from acid and alkaline hydrolysis of the pepper residue from free polyphenols extract. The phenol content, Fe (II) chelating ability, OH radical scavenging ability and protective ability of the extract against Fe (II)-induced lipid peroxidation in brain and liver was subsequently determined. The results of the study revealed that the free polyphenols (218.2mg/100g) content of the pepper were significantly higher than the bound polyphenols (42.5mg/100g). Furthermore, the free polyphenol extract had a significantly higher (<0.05) Fe (II) chelating ability, OH radical scavenging ability than the bound polyphenols. In addition, both extracts significantly inhibited (P<0.05) basal and 25{mu}M Fe (II)- induced lipid peroxidation in Rat's brain and liver in a dose dependent. However, the free polyphenols caused a significantly higher inhibition in the MDA (Malondialdehyde) production in the brain and liver homogenates than the bound phenols. Furthermore, the polyphenols protected the liver more than the brain. In conclusion, free polyphenols from Capsicum annuum protects both the liver and brain from Fe{sup 2+} induced lipid peroxidation, and this is probably due to the higher Fe (II) chelating ability and OH radical scavenging ability of the free polyphenols from the pepper. (author)

  14. The effects of Hot Pepper Extract and Capsaicin on Adipocyte Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching Sheng, Chu

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of hot pepper extract and capsaicin on the adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells, lipolysis in rat epididymal adipocytes and histological changes in porcine adipose tissue. Methods : Inhibiton of preadipocyte differentiation and/or stimulation of lipolysis play important roles in reducing obesity. 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were differentiated with adipogenic reagents by incubating for 3 days in the absence or presence of hot pepper extract or capsaicin ranging from 0.01 to 1㎎/㎖. The effects of hot pepper extract and capsaicin on adipogenesis were examined by measuring GPDH activity and by Oil Red O staining. Mature adipocytes from rat epididymal fat pad was incubated with hot pepper extract or capsaicin ranging from 0.01 to 1㎎/㎖ for 3 hrs. The effects of hot pepper extract and capsaicin on lipolysis were examined by measuring free glycerol released. Fat tissue from pig skin was injected with hot pepper extract or capsaicinCFP ranging from 0.1 to 10㎎/㎖ to examine the effects of hot pepper extract and capsaicin on histological changes under light microscopy. Results : The following results were obtained from present study on adipogenesis of preadipocytes, lipolysis of adipocytes and histological changes in fat tissue. 1. Hot pepper extract and capsaicin inhibited adipogenic differentiation at the concentration of 0.1 and 0.01㎎/㎖, respectively, indicating that capsaicin was more effective in inhibiting adipogenesis than hot pepper extract. 2. Hot pepper extract and capsaicin decreased the activity of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase(GPDH at the concentration of 0.1 and 0.01㎎/㎖, respectively, indicating that capsaicin was more effective in inhibiting adipogenic differentiation than hot pepper extract. 3. Hot pepper extract and capsaicin increased glycerol release at the concentration of 0.1㎎/㎖. There was no difference in lipolytic activity between hot pepper extract and

  15. Agrobacterium rhizogenes-dependent production of transformed roots from foliar explants of pepper (Capsicum annuum): a new and efficient tool for functional analysis of genes

    OpenAIRE

    Aarrouf, Jawad; Mallard, Stephanie; Caromel, Bernard; Lizzi, Y.; Lefebvre, Véronique

    2012-01-01

    Pepper is known to be a recalcitrant species to genetic transformation via Agrobacterium tumefaciens. A. rhizogenes-mediated transformation offers an alternative and rapid possibility to study gene functions in roots. In our study, we developed a new and efficient system for A. rhizogenes transformation of the cultivated species Capsicum annuum. Hypocotyls and foliar organs (true leaves and cotyledons) of Yolo Wonder (YW) and Criollo de Morelos 334 (CM334) pepper cultivars were inoculated wit...

  16. Growth, phenology and chlorophyll fluorescence of habanero pepper (Capsicum chinense Jacq. under water stress conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonzo Pérez-Gutiérrez

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The irrigation methods offer a good alternative for increasing water use efficiency. The main purpose of this study was to identify the best irrigation level for Habanero pepper (Capsicum chinense Jacq. plants based on available water capacity (AWC of substrate. An experiment carried out with three irrigation levels (20, 40 and 60% of AWC and five genotypes (H225, H241, H244, H226 and Jaguar. The irrigation level of 20% decreased the soil water potential to cause water stress in plants. At an irrigation level of 40%, average jaguar plant height (92 cm and H241 (79 cm, genotypes were greater than under the other treatments. Average leaf area of H225, H241 and H244 plants was at least 48% greater than Jaguar plants. Average total dry matter of H241 and Jaguar plants, were 30 and 28% greater than H226 plants; and values of maximum photochemical quantum yield (Fv/Fm, relative electron transport rate and effective photochemical quantum yield of photosystem II were higher in H241, H244 and H226 plants; i.e. they are less probably due to photo inhibition damage. However, flowering time was earlier in plants with an irrigation level (IL of 20% than plants with an IL of 40%, this was a consequence of stress due to water deficit. The 60% irrigation treatment caused flooding and all genotypes died before the inflorescence stage. These results suggest the enforcement of a suitable irrigation level based in available water capacity of substrate coupled with a vigorous genotype can encourage healthy plants and high water use efficiency.

  17. Distributions of the Stereoisomers of β-Mercaptoheptanones and β-Mercaptoheptanols in Cooked Bell Pepper (Capsicum annuum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nörenberg, Svenja; Kiske, Christiane; Burmann, Andrea; Poplacean, Iulia; Engel, Karl-Heinz

    2017-11-29

    2-Mercapto-4-heptanone, 4-mercapto-2-heptanone, and the corresponding mercaptoalcohols, previously identified in cooked red bell pepper (Capsicum annuum), were used as examples to determine the distributions of stereoisomers of naturally occurring polyfunctional thiols. The thiols were isolated using simultaneous distillation-extraction and enriched by affinity chromatography. Enantioselective analysis was performed via multidimensional gas chromatography. For the studied cultivar California Wonder, the investigation of different batches of cooked red bell pepper revealed consistent ratios of the stereoisomers independent of origin and date of purchase. Quantitative estimations showed that the stereoisomers were present in cooked red bell peppers at concentrations in the range of 0.04-10.2 μg/kg. Lower concentrations were observed in cooked green bell peppers. The change from green to red color was also accompanied by shifts in the proportions of stereoisomers in favor of the (S)-enantiomers of the mercaptoheptanones and of the (4S)-configured stereoisomers of 4-mercapto-2-heptanol.

  18. Genetic and biochemical analysis reveals linked QTLs determining natural variation for fruit post-harvest water loss in pepper (Capsicum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovsky-Sarid, Sigal; Borovsky, Yelena; Faigenboim, Adi; Parsons, Eugene P; Lohrey, Gregory T; Alkalai-Tuvia, Sharon; Fallik, Elazar; Jenks, Matthew A; Paran, Ilan

    2017-02-01

    Molecular markers linked to QTLs controlling post-harvest fruit water loss in pepper may be utilized to accelerate breeding for improved shelf life and inhibit over-ripening before harvest. Bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) is an important vegetable crop world-wide. However, marketing is limited by the relatively short shelf life of the fruit due to water loss and decay that occur during prolonged storage. Towards breeding pepper with reduced fruit post-harvest water loss (PWL), we studied the genetic, physiological and biochemical basis for natural variation of PWL. We performed quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping of fruit PWL in multiple generations of an interspecific cross of pepper, which resulted in the identification of two linked QTLs on chromosome 10 that control the trait. We further developed near-isogenic lines (NILs) for characterization of the QTL effects. Transcriptome analysis of the NILs allowed the identification of candidate genes associated with fruit PWL-associated traits such as cuticle biosynthesis, cell wall metabolism and fruit ripening. Significant differences in PWL between the NILs in the immature fruit stage, differentially expressed cuticle-associated genes and differences in the content of specific chemical constituents of the fruit cuticle, indicated a likely influence of cuticle composition on the trait. Reduced PWL in the NILs was associated with delayed over-ripening before harvest, low total soluble solids before storage, and reduced fruit softening after storage. Our study enabled a better understanding of the genetic and biological processes controlling natural variation in fruit PWL in pepper. Furthermore, the genetic materials and molecular markers developed in this study may be utilized to breed peppers with improved shelf life and inhibited over-ripening before harvest.

  19. Volatile profile and sensory quality of new varieties of Capsicum chinense pepper Perfil de voláteis e qualidade sensorial de novas variedades de pimentas Capsicum chinense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah dos Santos Garruti

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the sensory quality and the volatile compound profile of new varieties of Capsicum chinense pepper (CNPH 4080 a strain of'Cumari-do-Pará' and BRS Seriema with a known commercial variety (Biquinho. Volatiles were isolated from the headspace of fresh fruit by SPME and identified by GC-MS. Pickled peppers were produced for sensory evaluation. Aroma descriptors were evaluated by Check-All-That-Apply (CATA method, and the frequency data were submitted to Correspondence Analysis. Flavor acceptance was assessed by hedonic scale and analyzed by ANOVA. BRS Seriema showed the richest volatile profile, with 55 identified compounds, and up to 40% were compounds with sweet aroma notes. CNPH 4080 showed similar volatile profile to that of Biquinho pepper, but it had higher amounts of pepper-like and green-note compounds. The samples did not differ in terms of flavor acceptance, but they showed differences in aroma quality confirming the differences found in the volatile profiles. The C. chinense varieties developed by Embrapa proved to be more aromatic than Biquinho variety, and were well accepted by the judges.O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar a qualidade sensorial e o perfil de compostos voláteis de novas variedades de pimenta Capsicum (CNPH 4080, uma linhagem de cumari-do-pará, e BRS Seriema, com uma variedade comercial (Biquinho. Voláteis foram isolados do headspace dos frutos in natura por SPME e identificados por CG-EM. Conservas das pimentas foram produzidas para a análise sensorial. Descritores do aroma foram avaliados pelo método Check-All-That-Apply (CATA e os dados de frequência submetidos à Análise de Correspondência. A aceitação do sabor das amostras foi analisada por meio de ANOVA. A BRS Seriema apresentou rico perfil de voláteis, com 53 compostos identificados, sendo que cerca de 40% deles são compostos de aroma doce. A CNPH 4080 apresentou perfil semelhante ao da pimenta Biquinho, por

  20. Effects of chronic elevated ozone concentration on the redox state and fruit yield of red pepper plant Capsicum baccatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortolin, Rafael Calixto; Caregnato, Fernanda Freitas; Divan, Armando Molina; Reginatto, Flávio Henrique; Gelain, Daniel Pens; Moreira, José Cláudio Fonseca

    2014-02-01

    Ozone (O3) is one of the most harmful air pollutants to crops, contributing to high losses on crop yield. Tropospheric O3 background concentrations have increased since pre-industrial times reaching phytotoxic concentrations in many world regions. Capsicum peppers are the second most traded spice in the world, but few studies concerning the O3 effects in this genus are known. Thereby, the aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of chronic exposure to elevated O3 concentrations in red pepper plant Capsicum baccatum L. var. pendulum with especial considerations on the leaf redox state and fruit yield. Fifteen C. baccatum plants were exposed to O3 in open-top chambers during fruit ripening (62 days) at a mean concentration of 171.6 µg/m(3) from 10:00 am to 4:00 pm. We found that O3 treated plants significantly decreased the amount and the total weight of fruits, which were probably a consequence of the changes on leaf oxidative status induced by ozone exposure. Ozone exposed plants increased the reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels on the leaves, which may be associated with the observed decrease on the activity of enzymatic antioxidant defense system, as well with lower levels of polyphenol and reduced thiol groups. Enhanced ROS production and the direct O3 reaction lead to biomacromolecules damages as seen in the diminished chlorophyll content and in the elevated lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation levels. Through a correlation analysis it was possible to observe that polyphenols content was more important to protect pepper plants against oxidative damages to lipids than to proteins. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. 1H NMR-based metabolomic fingerprinting to determine metabolite levels in serrano peppers (Capsicum annum L.) grown in two different regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra-Martínez, Elvia; Florentino-Ramos, Elideth; Pérez-Hernández, Nury; Gerardo Zepeda-Vallejo, L; Villa-Ruano, Nemesio; Velázquez-Ponce, Manuel; García-Mendoza, Felipe; Bañuelos-Hernández, Angel E

    2017-12-01

    Chili pepper (Capsicum annuum) is the most important and emblematic condiment in Mexican food. Serrano pepper is a variety of C. annuum that is traditionally cultivated in Mexico and commercialized in local markets. The aim of this study was to describe the 1 H NMR metabolomic profiling of the aqueous phase of serrano peppers harvested from two distinct regions, in the states of Veracruz and Oaxaca, Mexico. According to the current results, aspartate citrate, lactate, leucine and sucrose were found at higher amount in the serrano peppers from Veracruz. On the other hand, acetate, formate, fumarate, malonate, phosphocholine, pyruvate and succinate showed the highest abundance in this product from Oaxaca. These are the main metabolites that distinguish one group from the other. The spectrometric method reported presently is characterized by great simplicity, robustness and reproducibility. Thus, this technique can be used for establishing reliable metabolomic fingerprints of serrano peppers grown under different environmental conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Non-Destructive Quality Evaluation of Pepper (Capsicum annuum L. Seeds Using LED-Induced Hyperspectral Reflectance Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changyeun Mo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we developed a viability evaluation method for pepper (Capsicum annuum L. seeds based on hyperspectral reflectance imaging. The reflectance spectra of pepper seeds in the 400–700 nm range are collected from hyperspectral reflectance images obtained using blue, green, and red LED illumination. A partial least squares–discriminant analysis (PLS-DA model is developed to classify viable and non-viable seeds. Four spectral ranges generated with four types of LEDs (blue, green, red, and RGB, which were pretreated using various methods, are investigated to develop the classification models. The optimal PLS-DA model based on the standard normal variate for RGB LED illumination (400–700 nm yields discrimination accuracies of 96.7% and 99.4% for viable seeds and nonviable seeds, respectively. The use of images based on the PLS-DA model with the first-order derivative of a 31.5-nm gap for red LED illumination (600–700 nm yields 100% discrimination accuracy for both viable and nonviable seeds. The results indicate that a hyperspectral imaging technique based on LED light can be potentially applied to high-quality pepper seed sorting.

  3. Antioxidant Systems from Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.): Involvement in the Response to Temperature Changes in Ripe Fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateos, Rosa M.; Jiménez, Ana; Román, Paloma; Romojaro, Félix; Bacarizo, Sierra; Leterrier, Marina; Gómez, Manuel; Sevilla, Francisca; del Río, Luis A.; Corpas, Francisco J.; Palma, José M.

    2013-01-01

    Sweet pepper is susceptible to changes in the environmental conditions, especially temperatures below 15 °C. In this work, two sets of pepper fruits (Capsicum annuum L.) which underwent distinct temperature profiles in planta were investigated. Accordingly, two harvesting times corresponding to each set were established: Harvest 1, whose fruits developed and ripened at 14.9 °C as average temperature; and Harvest 2, with average temperature of 12.4 °C. The oxidative metabolism was analyzed in all fruits. Although total ascorbate content did not vary between Harvests, a shift from the reduced to the oxidized form (dehydroascorbate), accompanied by a higher ascorbate peroxidase activity, was observed in Harvest 2 with respect to Harvest 1. Moreover, a decrease of the ascorbate-generating enzymatic system, the γ-galactono-lactone dehydrogenase, was found at Harvest 2. The activity values of the NADP-dependent dehydrogenases analyzed seem to indicate that a lower NADPH synthesis may occur in fruits which underwent lower temperature conditions. In spite of the important changes observed in the oxidative metabolism in fruits subjected to lower temperature, no oxidative stress appears to occur, as indicated by the lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation profiles. Thus, the antioxidative systems of pepper fruits seem to be involved in the response against temperature changes. PMID:23644886

  4. Mona F1: New pepper (Capsicum annuum L. hybrid in the Centre for Vegetable Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvikić Dejan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The planted area various ways of pepper consumption (fresh or processed, make pepper one of the most important cultivars in vegetable breeding. In our country, up until now, the producers have usually grown varieties and domestic populations of pepper, while in more developed countries the usage of F1 hybrids is much more popular. The first pepper hybrids have been created in the Centre for Vegetable Crops by crossing new lines with male sterility gene ms-3 and selected genotypes from pepper collection. Created hybrids have higher yield, quality fruits and early ripening. This paper is the result of comparative trial in controlled conditions. Pepper varieties Župska rana, Zlatna medalja, Palanačka kapija and Duga bela, as well as new hybrid Mona F1 were the research matherial in order to observe the most important pepper traits.

  5. Inhibitory effects of black pepper (Piper nigrum) extracts and compounds on human tumor cell proliferation, cyclooxygenase enzymes, lipid peroxidation and nuclear transcription factor-kappa-B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yunbao; Yadev, Vivek R; Aggarwal, Bharat B; Nair, Muraleedharan G

    2010-08-01

    Black pepper (Piper nigrum) and hot pepper (Capsicum spp.) are widely used in traditional medicines. Although hot Capsicum spp. extracts and its active principles, capsaicinoids, have been linked with anticancer and anti-inflammatory activities, whether black pepper and its active principle exhibit similar activities is not known. In this study, we have evaluated the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities of extracts and compounds from black pepper by using proinflammatory transcription factor NF-kappaB, COX-1 and -2 enzymes, human tumor cell proliferation and lipid peroxidation (LPO). The capsaicinoids, the alkylamides, isolated from the hot pepper Scotch Bonnet were also used to compare the bioactivities of alkylamides and piperine from black pepper. All compounds derived from black pepper suppressed TNF-induced NF-kappaB activation, but alkyl amides, compound 4 from black pepper and 5 from hot pepper, were most effective. The human cancer cell proliferation inhibitory activities of piperine and alklyl amides in Capsicum and black pepper were dose dependant. The inhibitory concentrations 50% (IC50) of the alklylamides were in the range 13-200 microg/mL. The extracts of black pepper at 200 microg/mL and its compounds at 25 microg/mL inhibited LPO by 45-85%, COX enzymes by 31-80% and cancer cells proliferation by 3.5-86.8%. Overall, these results suggest that black pepper and its constituents like hot pepper, exhibit anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anticancer activities.

  6. Assessment of salinity tolerance in bell pepper (capsicum annuum l.) genotypes on the basis of germination, emergence and growth attributes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tehseen, S.; Ayyub, C.M.; Amjad, M.

    2016-01-01

    Abiotic stresses are principal threat to crop growth and productivity all over the world. The most devastating one is soil salinity which adversely affects the plants, so a comprehensive study was conducted to categorize different available bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) genotypes into salt tolerant, moderately tolerant and sensitive ones on the basis of germination and emergence parameters. Genotypes were exposed to different saline treatments (2, 4, 6 and 8 dS m-1) along with control (0 dS m-1). Germination test, conducted in petri dishes in incubator, revealed that salinity stress significantly decreased final germination percentage, germination index and embryo axis length of tested genotypes. On the other hand, mean germination time and time to 50% seeds germination were increased with the increasing salinity level from 2 to 8 dS m-1. Emergence test of bell pepper genotypes conducted in pots under greenhouse conditions, shown that salinity decreased the seedlings fresh and dry biomass, number of leaves, leaf area and root and shoot length. On the basis of overall percent decrease ranking table, genotypes were grouped into comparatively salt tolerant (Zard, Tasty, Super shimla, Aristotle), moderately tolerant (Capistrano, CW-03, Kaka-01, Orable, Yolo wonder, Crusadar) and sensitive ones (PEP-311, Admiral, Lafayette, Colossol). From these results, it can be extracted that germination and emergence tests are reliable screening tools for evaluating pepper genotypes for salt stress at seedling stage. Moreover, results of this study can be useful for local farmers to utilize their marginal soils by growing relatively salt tolerant bell pepper genotypes. (author)

  7. Antioxidant, Antinociceptive, and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Carotenoids Extracted from Dried Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Ortega, Marcela; Ortiz-Moreno, Alicia; Hernández-Navarro, María Dolores; Chamorro-Cevallos, Germán; Dorantes-Alvarez, Lidia; Necoechea-Mondragón, Hugo

    2012-01-01

    Carotenoids extracted from dried peppers were evaluated for their antioxidant, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory activities. Peppers had a substantial carotenoid content: guajillo 3406 ± 4 μg/g, pasilla 2933 ± 1 μg/g, and ancho 1437 ± 6 μg/g of sample in dry weight basis. A complex mixture of carotenoids was discovered in each pepper extract. The TLC analysis revealed the presence of chlorophylls in the pigment extract from pasilla and ancho peppers. Guajillo pepper carotenoid extracts exhibited good antioxidant activity and had the best scavenging capacity for the DPPH+ cation (24.2%). They also exhibited significant peripheral analgesic activity at 5, 20, and 80 mg/kg and induced central analgesia at 80 mg/kg. The results suggest that the carotenoids in dried guajillo peppers have significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory benefits and could be useful for pain and inflammation relief. PMID:23091348

  8. 24-Epibrassinolide ameliorates the adverse effect of salt stress (NaCl on pepper (Capsicum annuum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibn Maaouia-Houimli Samira

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the role of 24-epibrassinolide (EBL in inducing plant tolerance to salinity. Seedlings of pepper (Capsicum annuum L. were grown in the presence of 70 mM NaCl and were sprayed with 10-6 M EBL at 7 days after transplantation and were sampled at 28 day. The plants exposed to NaCl exhibited a significant decline in relative growth rate, net CO2 assimilation, stomatal conductance, transpiration and water use efficiency. However, the follow up treatment with EBL significantly improved the above parameters. EBL treated plants had greater relative growth rate compared to untreated plants when exposed to salt stress. Application of EBL increased photosynthesis by increasing stomatal conductance in both control and salt stressed plants and may have contributed to the enhanced growth. The water use efficiency was improved because CO2 assimilation is more important than the transpiration.

  9. Effect of Salt Stress (NaCl on Germination and Early Seedling Parameters of Three Pepper Cultivars (Capsicum annuum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aloui Hassen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Salinity is one of the major environmental problem that lead to a deterioration of agricultural land and, as a result, to a reduction in crop productivity worldwide. This research tested the effect of different salinity levels on germination and early seedling growth of three pepper (Capsicum annuum L. cultivars which were "Beldi", "Baklouti" and "Anaheim Chili". Experimental treatment included 7 concentrations of NaCl (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 g/l. Results indicated that all investigate traits were affected by salt stress. Salt stress affected on germination parameters and radicle and plumule length. Fresh weight and dry weight of evaluated seedlings was also affected. "Anaheim Chili" cultivar was shown to be the most restraint cultivar to salt stress in comparison to "Beldi" and "Baklouti" cultivars.

  10. The effect of high hydrostatic pressure on the physiological and biochemical properties of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    İşlek, Cemil; Murat Altuner, Ergin; Alpas, Hami

    2015-10-01

    High hydrostatic pressure is a non-thermal food processing technology, which also has several successful applications in different areas besides food processing. In this study, Capsicum annuum L. (pepper) seeds are subjected to 50, 100, 200 and 300 MPa pressure for 5 min at 25°C and the seedlings of HHP processed seeds are used to compare percentage of seed germination and biochemical properties such as chlorophyll a, b and a/b, proline content, total protein, carotenoid, malondialdehyde, glucose, fructose and phenolic compounds concentrations. As a result of the study, it was observed that there are remarkable changes in terms of biochemical properties especially for seedlings, whose seeds were pressurized at 200 and 300 MPa. More detailed studies are needed to put forward the mechanism behind the changes in biochemical properties.

  11. Screening Genetic Resources of Capsicum Peppers in Their Primary Center of Diversity in Bolivia and Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zonneveld, Maarten; Ramirez, Marleni; Williams, David E; Petz, Michael; Meckelmann, Sven; Avila, Teresa; Bejarano, Carlos; Ríos, Llermé; Peña, Karla; Jäger, Matthias; Libreros, Dimary; Amaya, Karen; Scheldeman, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    For most crops, like Capsicum, their diversity remains under-researched for traits of interest for food, nutrition and other purposes. A small investment in screening this diversity for a wide range of traits is likely to reveal many traditional varieties with distinguished values. One objective of this study was to demonstrate, with Capsicum as model crop, the application of indicators of phenotypic and geographic diversity as effective criteria for selecting promising genebank accessions for multiple uses from crop centers of diversity. A second objective was to evaluate the expression of biochemical and agromorphological properties of the selected Capsicum accessions in different conditions. Four steps were involved: 1) Develop the necessary diversity by expanding genebank collections in Bolivia and Peru; 2) Establish representative subsets of ~100 accessions for biochemical screening of Capsicum fruits; 3) Select promising accessions for different uses after screening; and 4) Examine how these promising accessions express biochemical and agromorphological properties when grown in different environmental conditions. The Peruvian Capsicum collection now contains 712 accessions encompassing all five domesticated species (C. annuum, C. chinense, C. frutescens, C. baccatum, and C. pubescens). The collection in Bolivia now contains 487 accessions, representing all five domesticates plus four wild taxa (C. baccatum var. baccatum, C. caballeroi, C. cardenasii, and C. eximium). Following the biochemical screening, 44 Bolivian and 39 Peruvian accessions were selected as promising, representing wide variation in levels of antioxidant capacity, capsaicinoids, fat, flavonoids, polyphenols, quercetins, tocopherols, and color. In Peru, 23 promising accessions performed well in different environments, while each of the promising Bolivian accessions only performed well in a certain environment. Differences in Capsicum diversity and local contexts led to distinct outcomes in

  12. A new environment-friendly hot pepper variety "Shiyan No. 1"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jianming; Xu, Shuzhen; Wang, Ruiling; Zhang, Yanzhao; Yun, Chao

    2018-04-01

    Hot pepper has rich genetic diversity which is the important base of breeding of new variety, and it is also one of the important vegetable in the word. In this study, we bred the "Shiyan No. 1" environment-friendly hot pepper variety using hybrid method on the basis of hot pepper genetic diversity. "Shiyan No. 1" is a new F1 hybrid of hot pepper variety with mid-early maturity. The new variety has a high productivity of 3000-5000kg(667m2)-1 with thick oxhorn shape fruits, green skin, thick flesh, mild-hot taste, good quality and marketable characters. It can reduce chemical pesticides usage and thereby protect environment because it is resistant to virus disease, highly resistant to phytophthora blight, anthracnose and bacterial wilt. In conclusion, the new bred "Shiyan No.1" is suitable for protected cultivation and open field cultivation in China.

  13. Characterization of Capsicum annuum genetic diversity and population structure based on parallel polymorphism discovery with a 30K unigene Pepper GeneChip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Theresa A; Ashrafi, Hamid; Reyes-Chin-Wo, Sebastian; Yao, JiQiang; Stoffel, Kevin; Truco, Maria-Jose; Kozik, Alexander; Michelmore, Richard W; Van Deynze, Allen

    2013-01-01

    The widely cultivated pepper, Capsicum spp., important as a vegetable and spice crop world-wide, is one of the most diverse crops. To enhance breeding programs, a detailed characterization of Capsicum diversity including morphological, geographical and molecular data is required. Currently, molecular data characterizing Capsicum genetic diversity is limited. The development and application of high-throughput genome-wide markers in Capsicum will facilitate more detailed molecular characterization of germplasm collections, genetic relationships, and the generation of ultra-high density maps. We have developed the Pepper GeneChip® array from Affymetrix for polymorphism detection and expression analysis in Capsicum. Probes on the array were designed from 30,815 unigenes assembled from expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Our array design provides a maximum redundancy of 13 probes per base pair position allowing integration of multiple hybridization values per position to detect single position polymorphism (SPP). Hybridization of genomic DNA from 40 diverse C. annuum lines, used in breeding and research programs, and a representative from three additional cultivated species (C. frutescens, C. chinense and C. pubescens) detected 33,401 SPP markers within 13,323 unigenes. Among the C. annuum lines, 6,426 SPPs covering 3,818 unigenes were identified. An estimated three-fold reduction in diversity was detected in non-pungent compared with pungent lines, however, we were able to detect 251 highly informative markers across these C. annuum lines. In addition, an 8.7 cM region without polymorphism was detected around Pun1 in non-pungent C. annuum. An analysis of genetic relatedness and diversity using the software Structure revealed clustering of the germplasm which was confirmed with statistical support by principle components analysis (PCA) and phylogenetic analysis. This research demonstrates the effectiveness of parallel high-throughput discovery and application of genome

  14. Characterization of Capsicum annuum genetic diversity and population structure based on parallel polymorphism discovery with a 30K unigene Pepper GeneChip.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa A Hill

    Full Text Available The widely cultivated pepper, Capsicum spp., important as a vegetable and spice crop world-wide, is one of the most diverse crops. To enhance breeding programs, a detailed characterization of Capsicum diversity including morphological, geographical and molecular data is required. Currently, molecular data characterizing Capsicum genetic diversity is limited. The development and application of high-throughput genome-wide markers in Capsicum will facilitate more detailed molecular characterization of germplasm collections, genetic relationships, and the generation of ultra-high density maps. We have developed the Pepper GeneChip® array from Affymetrix for polymorphism detection and expression analysis in Capsicum. Probes on the array were designed from 30,815 unigenes assembled from expressed sequence tags (ESTs. Our array design provides a maximum redundancy of 13 probes per base pair position allowing integration of multiple hybridization values per position to detect single position polymorphism (SPP. Hybridization of genomic DNA from 40 diverse C. annuum lines, used in breeding and research programs, and a representative from three additional cultivated species (C. frutescens, C. chinense and C. pubescens detected 33,401 SPP markers within 13,323 unigenes. Among the C. annuum lines, 6,426 SPPs covering 3,818 unigenes were identified. An estimated three-fold reduction in diversity was detected in non-pungent compared with pungent lines, however, we were able to detect 251 highly informative markers across these C. annuum lines. In addition, an 8.7 cM region without polymorphism was detected around Pun1 in non-pungent C. annuum. An analysis of genetic relatedness and diversity using the software Structure revealed clustering of the germplasm which was confirmed with statistical support by principle components analysis (PCA and phylogenetic analysis. This research demonstrates the effectiveness of parallel high-throughput discovery and

  15. Molecular Mapping of PMR1, a Novel Locus Conferring Resistance to Powdery Mildew in Pepper (Capsicum annuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinkwan Jo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Powdery mildew, caused by Leveillula taurica, is a major fungal disease affecting greenhouse-grown pepper (Capsicum annuum. Powdery mildew resistance has a complex mode of inheritance. In the present study, we investigated a novel powdery mildew resistance locus, PMR1, using two mapping populations: 102 ‘VK515' F2:3 families (derived from a cross between resistant parental line ‘VK515R' and susceptible parental line ‘VK515S' and 80 ‘PM Singang' F2 plants (derived from the F1 ‘PM Singang' commercial hybrid. Genetic analysis of the F2:3 ‘VK515' and F2 ‘PM Singang' populations revealed a single dominant locus for inheritance of the powdery mildew resistance trait. Genetic mapping showed that the PMR1 locus is located on syntenic regions of pepper chromosome 4 in a 4-Mb region between markers CZ2_11628 and HRM4.1.6 in ‘VK515R'. Six molecular markers including one SCAR marker and five SNP markers were localized to a region 0 cM from the PMR1 locus. Two putative nucleotide-binding site leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR-type disease resistance genes were identified in this PMR1 region. Genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS and genetic mapping analysis revealed suppressed recombination in the PMR1 region, perhaps due to alien introgression. In addition, a comparison of species-specific InDel markers as well as GBS-derived SNP markers indicated that C. baccatum represents a possible source of such alien introgression of powdery mildew resistance into ‘VK515R'. The molecular markers developed in this study will be especially helpful for marker-assisted selection in pepper breeding programs for powdery mildew resistance.

  16. Molecular Mapping of PMR1, a Novel Locus Conferring Resistance to Powdery Mildew in Pepper (Capsicum annuum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Jinkwan; Venkatesh, Jelli; Han, Koeun; Lee, Hea-Young; Choi, Gyung Ja; Lee, Hee Jae; Choi, Doil; Kang, Byoung-Cheorl

    2017-01-01

    Powdery mildew, caused by Leveillula taurica , is a major fungal disease affecting greenhouse-grown pepper ( Capsicum annuum ). Powdery mildew resistance has a complex mode of inheritance. In the present study, we investigated a novel powdery mildew resistance locus, PMR1 , using two mapping populations: 102 'VK515' F 2:3 families (derived from a cross between resistant parental line 'VK515R' and susceptible parental line 'VK515S') and 80 'PM Singang' F 2 plants (derived from the F 1 'PM Singang' commercial hybrid). Genetic analysis of the F 2:3 'VK515' and F 2 'PM Singang' populations revealed a single dominant locus for inheritance of the powdery mildew resistance trait. Genetic mapping showed that the PMR1 locus is located on syntenic regions of pepper chromosome 4 in a 4-Mb region between markers CZ2_11628 and HRM4.1.6 in 'VK515R'. Six molecular markers including one SCAR marker and five SNP markers were localized to a region 0 cM from the PMR1 locus. Two putative nucleotide-binding site leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR)-type disease resistance genes were identified in this PMR1 region. Genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) and genetic mapping analysis revealed suppressed recombination in the PMR1 region, perhaps due to alien introgression. In addition, a comparison of species-specific InDel markers as well as GBS-derived SNP markers indicated that C. baccatum represents a possible source of such alien introgression of powdery mildew resistance into 'VK515R'. The molecular markers developed in this study will be especially helpful for marker-assisted selection in pepper breeding programs for powdery mildew resistance.

  17. H2S AND NO SIGNALING INTERACTIONS IN THALE CRESS (ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA L. AND PEPPER (CAPSICUM ANNUUM L. LEAVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Lisjak

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This research comprehends a set of experiments with several thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana L. and pepper (Capsicum annuum L. genotypes in controlled conditions using growth chambers, with the aim of determining the physiological role of hydrogen sulfide (H2S in plants, as well as its potential effect as a signaling compound, particularly in potential interaction with nitric oxide (NO signaling pathways. Special emphasis was focused on stomatal mechanisms and signaling in their opening and closing. Moreover, the effect of treatment of pepper plants with H2S was investigated in salt stress conditions. It was established that the applied H2S donors, NaHS and GYY4137, inhibit stomata closing in both plant species through the reduction of NO accumulation in stomata, which was proven to occur in SNP or ABA treatment. The effects of NO and H2S were opposite those in pepper plants response to salt stress as well, with increased antioxidative activity in leaf obtained after H2S treatments, and with NaHS in particular. In addition, GYY4137 could be considered as a convenient H2S donor for research into H2S functions in plants. The results point out the interactions of H2S and NO in plant cell signaling in both normal and salt stress conditions. Further research of this type should uncover H2S functions in plant metabolism more precisely, especially considering the potential practical value of this knowledge for plant stress resistance improvement and their productivity enhancement.

  18. Antimicrobial peptides from Capsicum sp.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-12-30

    Dec 30, 2011 ... Key words: Antimicrobial peptides, Capsicum sp, Capsicum chinense, chili pepper, agronomical options, ..... of this human activity is resumed by the simple phrase: produce .... It will be interesting to scale the AMPs extraction.

  19. Deficiency symptoms of nitrogen, phosphorus, calcium and sulphur in pepper (Capsicum spp) cv malagueta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruca, F.A.; Gouveia, P.R.; Teixeira, N.T.

    1989-01-01

    The pepper (Capsium spp) was cultivated in sand and nutritive solution to describe the deficiency symptoms of N, P, Ca and S. The deficiency symptoms and the first lack signals were clear to P and N nutrient. (author) [pt

  20. Differential inheritance of pepper (capsicum annum) fruit pigments results in black to violet fruit color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Color and appearance of fruits and vegetables are critical determinants of product quality and may afford high-value market opportunities. Exploiting the rich genetic diversity in Capsicum, we characterized the inheritance of black and violet immature fruit color and chlorophyll, carotenoid and ant...

  1. Management of blight of bell pepper (Capsicum annuum var. grossum) caused by Drechslera bicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadon, Kuldeep Singh; Shah, Rakesh; Gour, Hari Narayan; Sharma, Pankaj

    Sweet or bell pepper is a member of the Solanaceae family and is regarded as one of the most popular and nutritious vegetable. Blight, in the form of leaf and fruit blight, has been observed to infect bell pepper crops cultivated at the horticulture farm in Rajasthan College of Agriculture, Udaipur, India. Based on disease severity, we attempted to curb this newly emerged problem using different fungicides, plant extracts, bio-control agents, and commercial botanicals against the fungus in laboratory and pot experiments. Bio-control agent Trichoderma viride and plant growth promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) isolate Neist-2 were found to be quite effective against bell pepper blight. All evaluated fungicides, botanicals, commercial botanicals, and bio-control agents in vitro were further studied as seed dressers and two foliar sprays at ten days interval in pot experiments. The combinations of Vitavax, PGPR isolate Neist-2, and Mehandi extract were found to be very effective against bell pepper blight followed by Vitavax, T. viride, and Mehandi extract used individually. All treatments in the pot experiments were found to significantly reduce seedling mortality and enhance plant biomass of bell pepper. Thus, these experimental findings suggest that a better integrated management of bell pepper blight could be achieved by conducting field trials in major bell pepper- and chilli-cultivated areas of the state. Besides fungicides, different botanicals and commercial botanicals also seem to be promising treatment options. Therefore, the outcome of the present study provides an alternate option of fungicide use in minimizing loss caused by Drechslera bicolor. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  2. Extensive structural variations between mitochondrial genomes of CMS and normal peppers (Capsicum annuum L.) revealed by complete nucleotide sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Yeong Deuk; Choi, Yoomi; Kim, Dong-Hwan; Kim, Byung-Dong; Kang, Byoung-Cheorl

    2014-07-04

    Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is an inability to produce functional pollen that is caused by mutation of the mitochondrial genome. Comparative analyses of mitochondrial genomes of lines with and without CMS in several species have revealed structural differences between genomes, including extensive rearrangements caused by recombination. However, the mitochondrial genome structure and the DNA rearrangements that may be related to CMS have not been characterized in Capsicum spp. We obtained the complete mitochondrial genome sequences of the pepper CMS line FS4401 (507,452 bp) and the fertile line Jeju (511,530 bp). Comparative analysis between mitochondrial genomes of peppers and tobacco that are included in Solanaceae revealed extensive DNA rearrangements and poor conservation in non-coding DNA. In comparison between pepper lines, FS4401 and Jeju mitochondrial DNAs contained the same complement of protein coding genes except for one additional copy of an atp6 gene (ψatp6-2) in FS4401. In terms of genome structure, we found eighteen syntenic blocks in the two mitochondrial genomes, which have been rearranged in each genome. By contrast, sequences between syntenic blocks, which were specific to each line, accounted for 30,380 and 17,847 bp in FS4401 and Jeju, respectively. The previously-reported CMS candidate genes, orf507 and ψatp6-2, were located on the edges of the largest sequence segments that were specific to FS4401. In this region, large number of small sequence segments which were absent or found on different locations in Jeju mitochondrial genome were combined together. The incorporation of repeats and overlapping of connected sequence segments by a few nucleotides implied that extensive rearrangements by homologous recombination might be involved in evolution of this region. Further analysis using mtDNA pairs from other plant species revealed common features of DNA regions around CMS-associated genes. Although large portion of sequence context was

  3. Proteomic analysis reveals strong mitochondrial involvement in cytoplasmic male sterility of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jinju; Wang, Peng; Cheng, Qing; Sun, Limin; Wang, Hongyu; Wang, Yutong; Kao, Lina; Li, Yanan; Qiu, Tuoyu; Yang, Wencai; Shen, Huolin

    2017-09-25

    Although cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is widely used for developing pepper hybrids, its molecular mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we used a high-throughput proteomics method called label-free to compare protein abundance across a pepper CMS line (A-line) and its isogenic maintainer line (B-line). Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD006104. Approximately 324 differentially abundant protein species were identified and quantified; among which, 47 were up-accumulated and 140 were down-accumulated in the A-line; additionally, 75 and 62 protein species were specifically accumulated in the A-line and B-line, respectively. Protein species involved in pollen exine formation, pyruvate metabolic processes, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, the mitochondrial electron transport chain, and oxidative stress response were observed to be differentially accumulated between A-line and B-line, suggesting their potential roles in the regulation of pepper pollen abortion. Based on our data, we proposed a potential regulatory network for pepper CMS that unifies these processes. Artificial emasculation is a major obstacle in pepper hybrid breeding for its high labor cost and poor seed purity. While the use of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in hybrid system is seriously frustrated because a long time is needed to cultivate male sterility line and its isogenic restore line. Transgenic technology is an effective and rapid method to obtain male sterility lines and its widely application has very important significance in speeding up breeding process in pepper. Although numerous studies have been conducted to select the genes related to male sterility, the molecular mechanism of cytoplasmic male sterility in pepper remains unknown. In this study, we used the high-throughput proteomic method called "label-free", coupled with liquid chromatography-quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), to perform a novel comparison of expression profiles in a CMS pepper line

  4. Chromosome orientation and sterility in gamma-ray induced interchanges in chili pepper (Capsicum annuum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, O.A.; Panda, R.C.; Rao, K.G.R.

    1986-01-01

    After gamma irradiation (30 Kr) of seeds of Capsicum annuum cultivar cerasiformis (2 n = 24) two plants were recorded each carrying two interchanges. The nucleolus organiser chromosome appeared not to be involved. The interchange heterozygotes were weak and meiosis was irregular. At least one multivalent association per PMC was recorded. At metaphase I the predominant orientation was adjacent. The probable reasons for anaphase I and other meiotic irregularities and the incidence of high pollen sterility are discussed. (author)

  5. Hybrid breeding in pepper (capsicum annuum L. ). [Gamma and x radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milkova, L; Daskalov, S [Akademiya na Selskostopanskite Nauki, Sofia (Bulgaria). Inst. po Genetika

    1981-01-01

    Male sterile forms of peppers with gene sterility were produced by ..gamma..- and X-irradiation of dry seeds of cv. Pazarjishka kapiya 794 and Zlaten medal and subsequent selection in M/sub 2/. Male sterile lines suitable for developing hybrid cultivars intended for various kinds of production were obtained by backcrossing with lines and cultivars having valuable economic characters and high combining ability. The promising pepper Belasitsa, Prista, Lyulin and Strouma (all of them for early field production), and Izoumroud and Prevuzhoden (for glasshouse production) are described.

  6. BAC-derived markers converted from RFLP linked to Phytophthora capsici resistance in pepper (Capsicum annuum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyoun-Joung; Nahm, Seok-Hyeon; Lee, Heung-Ryul; Yoon, Gi-Bo; Kim, Ki-Taek; Kang, Byoung-Cheorl; Choi, Doil; Kweon, Oh Yeol; Cho, Myeong-Cheoul; Kwon, Jin-Kyung; Han, Jung-Heon; Kim, Jeong-Ho; Park, Minkyu; Ahn, Jong Hwa; Choi, Soon Ho; Her, Nam Han; Sung, Joo-Hee; Kim, Byung-Dong

    2008-12-01

    Phytophthora capsici Leonian, an oomycete pathogen, is a serious problem in pepper worldwide. Its resistance in pepper is controlled by quantitative trait loci (QTL). To detect QTL associated with P. capsici resistance, a molecular linkage map was constructed using 100 F(2) individuals from a cross between Capsicum annuum 'CM334' and C. annuum 'Chilsungcho'. This linkage map consisted of 202 restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs), 6 WRKYs and 1 simple sequence repeat (SSR) covering 1482.3 cM, with an average interval marker distance of 7.09 cM. QTL mapping of Phytophthora root rot and damping-off resistance was performed in F(2:3) originated from a cross between resistant Mexican landrace C. annuum 'CM334' and susceptible Korean landrace C. annuum 'Chilsungcho' using composite interval mapping (CIM) analysis. Four QTL explained 66.3% of the total phenotypic variations for root rot resistance and three 44.9% for damping-off resistance. Of these QTL loci, two were located close to RFLP markers CDI25 on chromosome 5 (P5) and CT211A on P9. A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library from C. annuum 'CM334' was screened with these two RFLP probes to obtain sequence information around the RFLP marker loci for development of PCR-based markers. CDI25 and CT211 probes identified seven and eight BAC clones, respectively. Nine positive BAC clones containing probe regions were sequenced and used for cytogenetic analysis. One single-nucleotide amplified polymorphism (SNAP) for the CDI25 locus, and two SSRs and cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) for CT211 were developed using sequences of the positive BAC clones. These markers will be valuable for rapid selection of genotypes and map-based cloning for resistance genes against P. capsici.

  7. Cytokinin response in pepper plants (Capsicum annuum L.) exposed to silver nanoparticles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vinković, T.; Novák, Ondřej; Strnad, Miroslav; Goessler, W.; Jurašin, D. D.; Parađiković, N.; Vrček, I. V.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 156, JUL (2017), s. 10-18 ISSN 0013-9351 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Abiotic stress * Biodistribution * Cytokinin response * Pepper * Silver nanoparticles * Uptake Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 3.835, year: 2016

  8. Diallel Analysis using Hayman Method to Study Genetic Parameters of Yield Components in Pepper(Capsicum annuum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUHAMAD SYUKUR

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available One method to obtain genetic information is the diallel cross analysis. The objective of this study was to eavluate the genetic parameters of six inbred pepper (Capsicum annuum L. using full diallel crosses. The experiment was conducted at IPB Experiment Field, Cikabayan, Darmaga. The design was randomized complete block design (RCBD using three replications as blocks. Data from generation F1 and parents were analyzed using the Hayman Method. Results indicated that no epistatic effects were significant for all the traits assessed. Additive genetic effects were larger than the dominant effects for yield per plant, fruit length, and diameter fruit traits. Dominant genetic effects were larger than the additive effects for fruit weight traits. Narrow-sense and broad-sense heritability were high for all the traits assessed. The character of the yield per plant, fruit weight and fruit diameter shows that there were more dominant genes in the parents. There were more recessive genes in parents for the fruit length character. IPB C7 parent was the most recessive genes containing control characters in the yield per plant. In the new improved varieties of high yielding, IPB C7 could be crossed with IPB C9. Employing individual or mass selection breeding should be successful in developing high-productivity lines in this population.

  9. Effects of low dose gamma irradiation on the germination and physiological activity of old red pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) seed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Sung; Back, Myung Hwa; Lee, Hae Youn; Lee, Young Keun [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-12-15

    To observe the stimulating effects of low dose gamma radiation on the germination and physiological activity of germinating seeds of old red pepper (Capsicum annuum L. cv, Jokwang and cv. Hongkwang), seeds were irradiated at the dose of 2{approx}50 Gy. The germination rate of irradiation group was higher than that of the control. Especially it was highest at the early stage of induction. The germination rate at 7 days after sowing in Jokwang and Hongkwang cultivar was high as 74% and 11% at 4 Gy and 8 Gy irradiation group, respectively. The seedling height of Jokwang cultivar was noticeably high at 4 Gy irradiation group and that of Hongkwang cultivar at 8 Gy Irradiation group. The protein contents of seedlings from seeds irradiated with low dose gamma radiation of Jokwang cultivar increased at the late stage of induction and that of Hongkwang cultivar at the early stage of induction. Catalase and peroxidase activities of seedlings from seeds irradiated with low dose gamma radiation of Jokwang cultivar increased at 4 Gy irradiation group and that of Hongkwang cultivar at 8 Gy irradiation group.

  10. Root morphological responses of three hot pepper cultivars to Cd exposure and their correlations with Cd accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Baifei; Xin, Junliang; Dai, Hongwen; Liu, Aiqun; Zhou, Wenjing; Yi, Yumei; Liao, Kebing

    2015-01-01

    Cultivars of hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) differ widely in their fruit cadmium (Cd) concentrations. Previously, we suggested that low-Cd cultivars are better able to prevent the translocation of Cd from roots to aboveground parts, but the corresponding mechanisms are still unknown. In this study, we aimed to improve understanding of the root morphological characteristics of the mechanisms involved in two low-Cd and a high-Cd cultivar. Seedlings were grown in nutrient solutions containing 0 (control), 2, and 10 μM Cd for 20 days, and Cd contents for the three cultivars were compared with changes in root morphology. The total root length (RL), root surface area (SA), number of root tips (RT), and specific root length (SRL) of all cultivars were decreased significantly by the 10 μM Cd treatment with the exception of the SA in JFZ, which showed no obvious change. For each cultivar, the 10 μM Cd treatment decreased significantly RL and SA specifically in roots with diameters (RD) of RD ≤ 0.2 mm or 0.2 mm roots with diameters of 0.6 mm root morphology. In the 10 μM Cd treatment, root volume (RV), SA, and RT of all cultivars were negatively correlated with Cd concentration and amount in roots. However, RL, SA, RV, and RT of all cultivars were positively correlated with Cd concentration and amount in shoots, and translocation rate of Cd. The two low-Cd cultivars of hot pepper had less root tips, shorter root length, and smaller root surface area than the high-Cd cultivar in 10 μM Cd treatment, which may play a vital role in reducing root-to-shoot Cd translocation.

  11. RESEARCH ON STOLBUR OF PEPPER (CAPSICUM ANNUUM L. CULTIVATED UNDER THE CONDITIONS OF ORGANIC FARMING

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    Veselka Vlahova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In Bulgaria stolbur is a disease of economic significance that affects pepper, eggplant, tomatoes, and potatoes. Stolbur is referred to the transmission diseases, i.e. the agent is being transferred via vector, namely cicada Hyalesthes obsoletus in this specific case. This research aims at following the stolbur disease of pepper of the variety of Sofiiska Kapiya. The experiment took place in 2010 and in 2011 on the experimental fields of the Agroecological Centre at the Agricultural University- Plovdiv. The occurence of Hyalesthes obsoletus was determined via visual observations of flower sticky traps (yellow, blue, and white. Route investigations were carried out for the purpose of tracking the symptoms of the disease. Reinforced migration of cicadas was established during the second ten days of July. It was established that the larger number of cicadas were reported for the yellow sticky traps, which may be recommended for practical application as a successful fight against cicada and limitation of its flight.

  12. Water use efficiency and productivity of habanero pepper (Capsicum chinense Jacq.) based on two transplanting dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-López, Rutilo; Inzunza-Ibarra, Marco Antonio; Sánchez-Cohen, Ignacio; Fierro-Álvarez, Andrés; Sifuentes-Ibarra, Ernesto

    2015-01-01

    Habanero pepper production was assessed with drip irrigation and plastic mulch, based on two transplanting dates. The objectives of the study were: (i) to evaluate the effect of two transplanting dates and the use of plastic mulch on water productivity and habanero pepper fruit yield under drip irrigation conditions; and (ii) to determine the profitability and economic viability of the product in the regional market. The work was conducted in the municipality of Huimanguillo, state of Tabasco, Mexico, in loam soils classified as Eutric Fluvisol. The Jaguar variety of habanero pepper, developed by INIFAP and possessing better genetic and productive characteristics, was used. Two transplanting dates were studied, (i) 30 January 2013 and (ii) 15 February 2013, with and without plastic mulch. The conclusions were: (i) application of irrigation depths based on crop evapotranspiration (ETc) and plastic mulch transplanted on 30 January increased the fruit yield of the crop and improved the benefit-cost ratio of the production system; and (ii) water use efficiency based on the 30 January transplanting date was 8.68 kg m⁻³ of water applied with plastic mulch, 6.51 kg m⁻³ without plastic mulch, and 3.65 kg m⁻³ for the 15 February transplanting date with plastic mulch.

  13. Coevolution of a Persistent Plant Virus and Its Pepper Hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, Maliheh; Roossinck, Marilyn J

    2018-05-30

    There are many nonpathogenic viruses that are maintained in a persistent lifestyle in plants. Plant persistent viruses are widespread, replicating in their hosts for many generations. So far, Endornaviridae is the only family of plant persistent viruses with a single-stranded RNA genome, containing one large open reading frame. Bell pepper endornavirus (BPEV), Hot pepper endornavirus, Capsicum frutescens endornavirus 1 (CFEV 1) have been identified from peppers. Peppers are native to Central and South America and, as domesticated plants, human selection accelerated their evolution. We investigated the evolution of these endornaviruses in different peppers including Capsicum annuum, C. chacoense, C.chinense, C. frutescens, C.bacccutum, and C. pubescens using two fragments from the viral helicase (Hel) and RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) domains. In addition, using single nucleotide polymorphisms, we analyzed the pepper host populations and phylogenies. The endornaviruses phylogeny was correlated with its Capsicum species host. In this study, BPEV was limited to C. annuum species, and the RdRp and Hel phylogenies identified two clades that correlated with the host pungency. No C. annuum infected with CFEV 1 was found in this study, but the CFEV 1 RdRp fragment was recovered from C. chinense, C. frutescens, C. bacccutum, and C. pubescens. Hence, during pepper speciation, the ancestor of CFEV 1 may have evolved as a new endornavirus, BPEV, in C. annuum peppers.

  14. A study on the comparison of antioxidant effects between hot pepper extract and capsaicin

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    Hyeon Min Gang

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective : The objective of this study was to compare the antioxidant effects of hot pepper extract and capsaicin. Methods : In vitro, antioxidant activities were examined by DPPH radical scavenging activity, total antioxidant capacity(TAC, oxygen radical scavenging capacity(ORAC, inhibition of induced lipid peroxidation using liver mitochonria and total phenolic contents. Results : 1. DPPH free radical scavenging actiivities at the concentrations of both 1 and 10㎎/㎖ were 1.2 to 1.9 times higher in capsaicin than in hot pepper extract. The concentration of capsaicin required for 50% radical scavenging was lower than that of hot pepper extract(3.9 vs 5.9㎎/㎖, indicating that capsaicin had higher DPPH radical scavenging activity than hot pepper extract. 2. Total antioxidant capacities of capsaicin at the concentrations of 0.1 and 1mg/ml(13.8 and 41.3 nmol Trolox equivalent were not significantly different from those at the concentrations of 1 and 10㎎/㎖(11.4 and 41.2nmol Trolox equivalent, indicating that capsaicin showed 10 times higher ABTS radical scavenging activity compared to hot pepper extract. 3. ORAC of capsaicin at the concentrations of 1, 5, 10 and 100 mg/ml were 0.04, 0.17, 0.29 and 1.74nmol gallic acid equivalent, respectively. On the other hand, ORAC of hot pepper extract at the concentrations of 1, 5, 10 and 100㎍/㎖ were 0.15, 0.44, 0.75 and 2.49nmol gallic acid equivalent, respectively, indicating that capsaicin showed higher peroxyl radical scavenging activity than hot pepper extract. 4. Inhibition of lipid peroxidation caused by hot pepper extract at the concentrations of 1 and 10mg/㎖ were 12.2 and 61.4%, respectively. Inhibition of lipid peroxidation caused by capsaicin at the concentrations of 1 and 10㎎/㎖l were 64.0 and 96.8%, respectively. Thus capsaicin showed 10 times stronger effect in inhibiton of lipid peroxidation than hot pepper extract. 5. Total phenolic contents of hot pepper extract at the

  15. HOT PEPPER REACTION TO FIELD DISEASES ABSTRACT RÉSUMÉ

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Crop Science Journal, Vol. ... College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Makerere University, P. O. Box ... Key Words: Anthracnose, Capsicum annuum, fungal diseases. RÉSUMÉ ... Genotypes, field trials and their management. ..... CV (%). 39.1. 10.2. 47. 7.9. 49.1. 28.7. 31. 1Evaluated from June 22nd to ...

  16. Diallel Crossing Analyses of Resistance to Main Diseases in Pepper(Capsicum annuum L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZOU Xue-xiao; HOU Xi-lin; CHEN Wen-chao; LIU Rong-yun; ZHANG Zhu-qing; MA Yan-qing; DAI Xiong-ze; YANG Yu-hong

    2005-01-01

    Fifteen capsicum combinations were made with 6 parents by (1/2)n(n-1) diallel crossing. Genetic parameters in the resistance to TMV, CMV, phytophthora blight, bacterial spot of these combinations were studied by Hayman. The results indicated that the resistance to TMV, CMV and bacterial spot conformed genetically to the "additive-dominant" model but the resistance to phytophthora blight did not and significant epistatic dominance effect existed in it. F1 hybrid's resistance to CMV was controlled by homozygous dominant gene (s), but resistance to bacterial spot by heterozygous one (s). There were little, or no sum of dominant effect and genomes controlling the dominant expression of F1 hybrids in its phytophthora blight resistance.

  17. Alleviation of Low-Temperature Photoinhibition in Gamma-Irradiated Red Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.H.; Kim, J.S.; An, B.C.; Chung, B.Y.

    2006-01-01

    We studied the radiation-induced stress resistance in red pepper leaves under conditions of low-temperature photoinhibition or artificially induced photo-oxidative stress. Plants irradiated with 4, 8, or 16-Gy gamma rays were more resistant to both stress factors than were the controls. However, exposure to a low temperature for 12 h with illumination or photo-oxidative treatment for 1 h differentially affected the irradiated leaves, although they had similar stress intensities as defined by their maximal photochemical efficiencies (Fv/Fm)

  18. Evaluation of different physical treatments in minimally processed green and red pepper (Capsicum annuum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L M Rodoni

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluates three different conservation methods for red and green fresh-cut peppers. Red and green fruit were processed into sticks and treated as follows: A water batch immersion (45 oC, 3 min (TT, B UV-C radiation (20 kJ m-2 or C modified atmosphere storage (AM. Other group of pepper sticks were left untreated (control. The sticks were stored at 5 oC during 12 d. Fruit decay, soft-rot and respiratory rate were evaluated during storage. The three treatments were effective to reduce sticks deterioration and the treated fruit evidenced lower respiratory rate at 7 d of storage with respect to control. While the three methods were beneficial to maintain quality, in the red sticks the best results were found with TT and UV, mainly because the AM had less control of the soft-rot at the end of storage. In green sticks all the treatments were equally effective.

  19. Virus surveys of Capsicum spp. in the Republic of Benin reveal the prevalence of pepper vein yellows virus and the identification of a previously uncharacterised polerovirus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afouda, Leonard; Kone, Daouda; Zinsou, Valerien; Dossou, Laurence; Kenyon, Lawrence; Winter, Stephan; Knierim, Dennis

    2017-06-01

    Surveys were conducted in 2014 and 2015 in Southern and Northern Benin, respectively, to identify the viruses infecting peppers (Capsicum spp.). The samples were screened by ELISA for cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), pepper veinal mottle virus (PVMV), potato virus Y (PVY) and tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV). A generic reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) was used to test for the presence of poleroviruses. ELISA tests confirmed the prevalence of all viruses, while the RT-PCR detected pepper vein yellows virus (PeVYV) which is reported for the first time in Benin. A further, divergent polerovirus isolate was detected from a single pepper sample originating from southern Benin. Screening of samples collected from solanaceous plants during virus surveys in Mali (conducted in 2009) also detected this divergent polerovirus isolate in two samples from African eggplants. The complete genome sequence was obtained from the Mali isolate using transcriptome sequencing and by conventional Sanger sequencing of overlapping RT-PCR products. Based on the sequence characteristics of this isolate we propose a new polerovirus species, African eggplant yellowing virus (AeYV).

  20. Anatomical features of pepper plants (Capsicum annuum L.) grown under red light-emitting diodes supplemented with blue or far-red light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuerger, A. C.; Brown, C. S.; Stryjewski, E. C.

    1997-01-01

    Pepper plants (Capsicum annuum L. cv., Hungarian Wax) were grown under metal halide (MH) lamps or light-emitting diode (LED) arrays with different spectra to determine the effects of light quality on plant anatomy of leaves and stems. One LED (660) array supplied 90% red light at 660 nm (25nm band-width at half-peak height) and 1% far-red light between 700-800nm. A second LED (660/735) array supplied 83% red light at 660nm and 17% far-red light at 735nm (25nm band-width at half-peak height). A third LED (660/blue) array supplied 98% red light at 660nm, 1% blue light between 350-550nm, and 1% far-red light between 700-800nm. Control plants were grown under broad spectrum metal halide lamps. Plants were gron at a mean photon flux (300-800nm) of 330 micromol m-2 s-1 under a 12 h day-night photoperiod. Significant anatomical changes in stem and leaf morphologies were observed in plants grown under the LED arrays compared to plants grown under the broad-spectrum MH lamp. Cross-sectional areas of pepper stems, thickness of secondary xylem, numbers of intraxylary phloem bundles in the periphery of stem pith tissues, leaf thickness, numbers of choloplasts per palisade mesophyll cell, and thickness of palisade and spongy mesophyll tissues were greatest in peppers grown under MH lamps, intermediate in plants grown under the 660/blue LED array, and lowest in peppers grown under the 660 or 660/735 LED arrays. Most anatomical features of pepper stems and leaves were similar among plants grown under 660 or 660/735 LED arrays. The effects of spectral quality on anatomical changes in stem and leaf tissues of peppers generally correlate to the amount of blue light present in the primary light source.

  1. Effect of seed treatment with low-potency laser in peppers plants (Capsicum annuum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Álvarez Fonseca,

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of seed treatment with low-potency laser radiation on some physiological parameters and yield of peppers plants, California Wonder variety, was studied. The seeds were irradiated with a laser He- Ne, 25 mW powers, at different exposure periods 5, 10, 20, 30 and 60 seconds, using untreated seeds as controls. We evaluated plant height (mm, root length (mm, stem diameter (mm, polar average diameter (mm equatorial mean diameter (mm, mean fruit mass (g and yield per plant (kg.plant-1. The results showed a significant increase (p?0.001 in the indicators of plants height (50 %, root length (13 %, stem diameter (17 %, equatorial mean diameter (7 %, mean fruit mass (13 % and yield per plant (67 %, compared to control.

  2. Physicochemical and antioxidant properties of jalapeño pepper (Capsicum annuum var. annuum during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana G. Mendoza-Sánchez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El chile jalapeño se consume en estado verde (inmaduro y rojo (maduro; por lo que es importante evaluar los componentes presentes en ambos. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el efecto del tiempo de almacenamiento (30 días a temperatura ambiente (25 °C, sobre los cambios fisicoquímicos, antioxidantes y los parámetros texturales de Capsicum annuum var. annuum. Durante este periodo, se produjo un aumento significativo (P ≤ 0.05 en el contenido de sólidos solubles, acidez y azúcares reductores; mientras que la humedad, las cenizas y el pH, disminuyeron. La firmeza del pericarpio varió de 5.17 a 2.88 N. La capsaicina en estado verde fue menor que la encontrada en estado rojo. Algunos de los compuestos antioxidantes mostraron incremento significativo (P ≤ 0.05 a partir del día 15 de almacenamiento. La captura de radical DPPH fue mayor (58.35 % en el estado rojo, en comparación con el estado verde de madurez (19.42 %. Algunas de las propiedades analizadas mostraron cambios significativos entre los días 15 y 20 de almacenamiento, coincidiendo con el cambio de color de verde a rojo. El chile jalapeño en estado rojo es una buena fuente de antioxidantes, incluyendo ácido ascórbico, carotenoides y polifenoles.

  3. Relationship of ascorbic acid metabolism with the cytoplasmic male sterility in pepper (Capsicum annuum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, J.; Deng, M.

    2015-01-01

    To elucidate the metabolic mechanism of Ascorbic Acid (ASA) in the CMS-pepper anthers, the metabolism changes in the reactive oxygen species (ROS) contents, antioxidants contents and ROS scavenging enzymatic activities were investigated in the anther mitochondria of CMS-9704A and maintainer-9704B. At the abortion stage, anthers of CMS-9704A had higher contents of ROS than those of the maintainer. Simultaneously, there were lower contents of ASA and glutathione (GSH) in stage 2 and 3, and the lower activities of ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione perodixase (GPX) in stage 3 in scavenging ROS in the anthers of the CMS line than maintainer. The expression level of APX and GPX in stage 3 in anthers of CMS-9704A was obviously inhibited when ROS produced with a great deal during anther stage; however the gene expression kept normal in the maintainer. Excessive accumulation of ROS, significant reduction activities and gene expression level of ROS-scavenging enzyme were coinstantaneous with CMS. (author)

  4. De novo assembly of the pepper transcriptome (Capsicum annuum): a benchmark for in silico discovery of SNPs, SSRs and candidate genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Molecular breeding of pepper (Capsicum spp.) can be accelerated by developing DNA markers associated with transcriptomes in breeding germplasm. Before the advent of next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies, the majority of sequencing data were generated by the Sanger sequencing method. By leveraging Sanger EST data, we have generated a wealth of genetic information for pepper including thousands of SNPs and Single Position Polymorphic (SPP) markers. To complement and enhance these resources, we applied NGS to three pepper genotypes: Maor, Early Jalapeño and Criollo de Morelos-334 (CM334) to identify SNPs and SSRs in the assembly of these three genotypes. Results Two pepper transcriptome assemblies were developed with different purposes. The first reference sequence, assembled by CAP3 software, comprises 31,196 contigs from >125,000 Sanger-EST sequences that were mainly derived from a Korean F1-hybrid line, Bukang. Overlapping probes were designed for 30,815 unigenes to construct a pepper Affymetrix GeneChip® microarray for whole genome analyses. In addition, custom Python scripts were used to identify 4,236 SNPs in contigs of the assembly. A total of 2,489 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were identified from the assembly, and primers were designed for the SSRs. Annotation of contigs using Blast2GO software resulted in information for 60% of the unigenes in the assembly. The second transcriptome assembly was constructed from more than 200 million Illumina Genome Analyzer II reads (80–120 nt) using a combination of Velvet, CLC workbench and CAP3 software packages. BWA, SAMtools and in-house Perl scripts were used to identify SNPs among three pepper genotypes. The SNPs were filtered to be at least 50 bp from any intron-exon junctions as well as flanking SNPs. More than 22,000 high-quality putative SNPs were identified. Using the MISA software, 10,398 SSR markers were also identified within the Illumina transcriptome assembly and primers were

  5. Effect of blanching treatments on antioxidant activity of frozen green capsicum (Capsicum annuum L. var bell pepper) using radical scavenging activity (DPPH) assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizzuddin, Norafida; Abdullah, Aminah

    2016-11-01

    Blanching treatments are needed to deactivate enzymes in frozen vegetables. Antioxidant activity using DPPH radical scavenging activity assay were evaluated in steaming, boiling water, and microwave blanching at different temperature, time and microwave power level on frozen green capsicum. Green capsicum was chosen for frozen treatment compared to other capsicum with different maturity index because of the firm texture. The objective of this study was to compare the antioxidant activity of frozen green capsicum between conventional and Oxi Count Kit® assay for DPPH radical scavenging activity. Results showed frozen green capsicum blanched using microwave at high level/90 seconds (sample J) contained higher level of DPPH in both conventional method and Oxi Count Kit® compared to other treatments. However, there were no significant differences between sample J and fresh sample (sample A). Overall, the sequences from highest to lowest in blanching treatments for both DPPH conventional method, and DPPH Oxi Count Kit® were J (microwave high level/90 seconds) > A (Fresh) > H (Microwave Medium Level/120 seconds) > D (Boiling Water 80°C/150 seconds) > K (Microwave High Level/120 seconds) > I (Microwave Medium Level/150 seconds) > F (Microwave Low Level/150 seconds)> B (Steam 100°C/150 seconds) > E (Boiling Water 100°C /120 seconds) > G (Microwave Low Level /180 seconds)> C (Steam 100°C/180 seconds). Almost all frozen green capsicum samples showed no significant differences for comparison between test using DPPH conventional method and Oxi Count Kit®. Frozen storage for 0, and 3rd months showed no significant differences which indicate no changes on antioxidant activity during frozen storage at -18°C.

  6. Changes in the free amino acid composition of Capsicum annuum (pepper) leaves in response to Myzus persicae (green peach aphid) infestation. A comparison with water stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florencio-Ortiz, Victoria; Sellés-Marchart, Susana; Zubcoff-Vallejo, José; Jander, Georg; Casas, José L

    2018-01-01

    Amino acids play a central role in aphid-plant interactions. They are essential components of plant primary metabolism, function as precursors for the synthesis of defense-related specialized metabolites, and are major growth-limiting nutrients for aphids. To quantify changes in the free amino acid content of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) leaves in response to green peach aphid (Myzus persicae Sulzer) feeding, plants were infested with a low (20 aphids/plant) or a high (200 aphids/plant) aphid density in time-course experiments ranging from 3 hours to 7 days. A parallel experiment was conducted with pepper plants that had been subjected to water stress. Factor Analysis of Mixed Data revealed a significant interaction of time x density in the free amino acid response of aphid-infested leaves. At low aphid density, M. persicae did not trigger a strong response in pepper leaves. Conversely, at high density, a large increase in total free amino acid content was observed and specific amino acids peaked at different times post-infestation. Comparing aphid-infested with water-stressed plants, most of the observed differences were quantitative. In particular, proline and hydroxyproline accumulated dramatically in response to water stress, but not in response to aphid infestation. Some additional differences and commonalities between the two stress treatments are discussed.

  7. A novel F-box protein CaF-box is involved in responses to plant hormones and abiotic stress in pepper (Capsicum annuum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rugang; Guo, Weili; Yin, Yanxu; Gong, Zhen-Hui

    2014-02-10

    The F-box protein family is characterized by an F-box motif that has been shown to play an important role in regulating various developmental processes and stress responses. In this study, a novel F-box-containing gene was isolated from leaves of pepper cultivar P70 (Capsicum annuum L.) and designated CaF-box. The full-length cDNA is 2088 bp and contains an open reading frame of 1914 bp encoding a putative polypeptide of 638 amino acids with a mass of 67.8 kDa. CaF-box was expressed predominantly in stems and seeds, and the transcript was markedly upregulated in response to cold stress, abscisic acid (ABA) and salicylic acid (SA) treatment, and downregulated under osmotic and heavy metal stress. CaF-box expression was dramatically affected by salt stress, and was rapidly increased for the first hour, then sharply decreased thereafter. In order to further assess the role of CaF-box in the defense response to abiotic stress, a loss-of-function experiment in pepper plants was performed using a virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) technique. Measurement of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and electrolyte leakage revealed stronger lipid peroxidation and cell death in the CaF-box-silenced plants than in control plants, suggesting CaF-box plays an important role in regulating the defense response to abiotic stress resistance in pepper plants.

  8. Developmental landmarks during floral ontogeny of jalapeño chili pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) and the effect of gibberellin on ovary growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval-Oliveros, R; Guevara-Olvera, L; Beltrán, J P; Gómez-Mena, C; Acosta-García, G

    2017-09-01

    Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) is an important horticultural crop in many regions of the world. The final shape and size of the fruit are known to be determined at a very early step of flower development. During flower development hormonal treatments using gibberellins seem to promote growth resulting in higher yield and fruit quality. However, the morphological changes that occur in the pepper flowers after these treatments are largely unknown. In the present study, we provide a description of floral development landmarks of jalapeño chili pepper (cultivar Huichol), divided in nine representative stages from its initiation until the opening of the bud. We established a correlation among external flower development and the time and pattern of reproductive organogenesis. Male and female gametogenesis progression was used to define specific landmarks during flower maturation. The pattern of expression of key genes involved in gibberellin metabolism and response was also evaluated in the nine flower stages. The proposed development framework was used to analyze the effect of gibberellin treatments in the development of the flower. We observed both an effect of the treatment in the histology of the ovary tissue and an increase in the level of expression of CaGA2ox1 and CaGID1b genes. The developmental stages we defined for this species are very useful to analyze the molecular and morphological changes after hormonal treatments.

  9. Genome-Wide Identification, Expression Diversication of Dehydrin Gene Family and Characterization of CaDHN3 in Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Hua; Li, Chao; Ma, Fang; Ma, Ji-Hui; Khan, Abid; Wang, Xiao; Zhao, Li-Yang; Gong, Zhen-Hui; Chen, Ru-Gang

    2016-01-01

    Dehydrins (DHNs) play a crucial role in enhancing abiotic stress tolerance in plants. Although DHNs have been identified and characterized in many plants, there is little known about Capsicum annuum L., one of the economically important vegetable crops. In this study, seven CaDHNs in the pepper genome were identified, which could be divided into two classes: YnSKn- and SKn-type, based on their highly conserved domains. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) results showed that the seven DHN genes were expressed in all tissues and might be involved in the growth and development of pepper. The gene expression profiles analysis suggested that most of the CaDHN genes were induced by various stresses (low temperature, salt and mannitol) and signaling molecules (ABA, SA and MeJA). Furthermore, the CaDHN3 (YSK2)-silenced pepper plants showed obvious lower resistance to abiotic stresses (cold, salt and mannitol) than the control plants (TRV2:00). So the CaDHN3 might act as a positive role in resisting abiotic stresses. This study lays the foundation for further studies into the regulation of their expression under various conditions.

  10. Chronic ozone exposure alters the secondary metabolite profile, antioxidant potential, anti-inflammatory property, and quality of red pepper fruit from Capsicum baccatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortolin, Rafael Calixto; Caregnato, Fernanda Freitas; Divan Junior, Armando Molina; Zanotto-Filho, Alfeu; Moresco, Karla Suzana; Rios, Alessandro de Oliveira; Salvi, Aguisson de Oliveira; Ortmann, Caroline Flach; de Carvalho, Pâmela; Reginatto, Flávio Henrique; Gelain, Daniel Pens; Moreira, José Cláudio Fonseca

    2016-07-01

    Tropospheric ozone (O3) background concentrations have increased since pre-industrial times, reaching phytotoxic concentrations in many regions globally. However, the effect of high O3 concentrations on quality of fruit and vegetables remains unknown. Here, we evaluated whether O3 pollution alters the quality of Capsicum baccatum peppers by changing the secondary compound profiles and biological activity of the fruit. C. baccatum pepper plants were exposed to ozone for 62 days in an open-top chamber at a mean O3 concentration of 171.6µg/m(3). Capsaicin levels decreased by 50% in the pericarp, but remained unchanged in the seeds. In contrast, the total carotenoid content increased by 52.8% in the pericarp. The content of total phenolic compounds increased by 17% in the pericarp. The total antioxidant potential decreased by 87% in seeds of O3-treated plants. The seeds contributed more than the pericarp to the total radical-trapping antioxidant potential and total antioxidant reactivity. O3 treatment impaired the ferric-reducing antioxidant power of the seeds and reduced NO(•)-scavenging activity in the pericarp. However, O3 treatment increased ferrous ion-chelating activity and hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity in the pericarp. Our results confirm that O3 alters the secondary metabolite profile of C. baccatum pepper fruits and, consequently, their biological activity profile. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Deposition Form and Bioaccessibility of Keto-carotenoids from Mamey Sapote (Pouteria sapota), Red Bell Pepper (Capsicum annuum), and Sockeye Salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) Filet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacón-Ordóñez, Tania; Esquivel, Patricia; Jiménez, Víctor M; Carle, Reinhold; Schweiggert, Ralf M

    2016-03-09

    The ultrastructure and carotenoid-bearing structures of mamey sapote (Pouteria sapota) chromoplasts were elucidated using light and transmission electron microscopy and compared to carotenoid deposition forms in red bell pepper (Capsicum annuum) and sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka). Globular-tubular chromoplasts of sapote contained numerous lipid globules and tubules embodying unique provitamin A keto-carotenoids in a lipid-dissolved and presumably liquid-crystalline form, respectively. Bioaccessibility of sapotexanthin and cryptocapsin was compared to that of structurally related keto-carotenoids from red bell pepper and salmon. Capsanthin from bell pepper was the most bioaccessible pigment, followed by sapotexanthin and cryptocapsin esters from mamey sapote. In contrast, astaxanthin from salmon was the least bioaccessible keto-carotenoid. Thermal treatment and fat addition consistently enhanced bioaccessibility, except for astaxanthin from naturally lipid-rich salmon, which remained unaffected. Although the provitamin A keto-carotenoids from sapote were highly bioaccessible, their qualitative and quantitative in vivo bioavailability and their conversion to vitamin A remains to be confirmed.

  12. Genome-wide analysis, expression profile of heat shock factor gene family (CaHsfs) and characterisation of CaHsfA2 in pepper (Capsicum annuum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Meng; Lu, Jin-Ping; Zhai, Yu-Fei; Chai, Wei-Guo; Gong, Zhen-Hui; Lu, Ming-Hui

    2015-06-19

    Heat shock factors (Hsfs) play crucial roles in plant developmental and defence processes. The production and quality of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.), an economically important vegetable crop, are severely reduced by adverse environmental stress conditions, such as heat, salt and osmotic stress. Although the pepper genome has been fully sequenced, the characterization of the Hsf gene family under abiotic stress conditions remains incomplete. A total of 25 CaHsf members were identified in the pepper genome by bioinformatics analysis and PCR assays. They were grouped into three classes, CaHsfA, B and C, based on highly conserved Hsf domains, were distributed over 11 of 12 chromosomes, with none found on chromosome 11, and all of them, except CaHsfA5, formed a protein-protein interaction network. According to the RNA-seq data of pepper cultivar CM334, most CaHsf members were expressed in at least one tissue among root, stem, leaf, pericarp and placenta. Quantitative real-time PCR assays showed that all of the CaHsfs responded to heat stress (40 °C for 2 h), except CaHsfC1 in thermotolerant line R9 leaves, and that the expression patterns were different from those in thermosensitive line B6. Many CaHsfs were also regulated by salt and osmotic stresses, as well as exogenous Ca(2+), putrescine, abscisic acid and methyl jasmonate. Additionally, CaHsfA2 was located in the nucleus and had transcriptional activity, consistent with the typical features of Hsfs. Time-course expression profiling of CaHsfA2 in response to heat stress revealed differences in its expression level and pattern between the pepper thermosensitive line B6 and thermotolerant line R9. Twenty-five Hsf genes were identified in the pepper genome and most of them responded to heat, salt, osmotic stress, and exogenous substances, which provided potential clues for further analyses of CaHsfs functions in various kinds of abiotic stresses and of corresponding signal transduction pathways in pepper.

  13. Evaluation of green pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) juice on the weight gain and changes in lipid profile in C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Na-Hyung; Park, Seong Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Capsicum pepper (green pepper, Capsicum annuum L.), a natural product available in many countries, is considered to be a food additive, with healthful or medical applications. The aim of this study was to evaluate green pepper juice for its potential to reduce weight gain and to determine its effects on lipid profiles in C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet. Mice given a high-fat diet with green pepper juice gained significantly less weight and showed a significant decrease in serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, low density lipoproteins, and alanine aminotransferase compared to mice given only a high-fat diet (P juice were similar to those in mice in the control group. In addition, abdominal fat volume (subcutaneous and visceral), which was quantified by using 4.7 T magnetic resonance imaging, including multi-slice spin-echo T2-weighted images, in mice administered a high-fat diet with green pepper juice tended to decrease compared to the fat volume of mice administered only a high-fat diet. These results suggest that green pepper juice, as a drink, may possibly be helpful in reducing weight gain by regulating the levels of serum lipids. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Agrobacterium rhizogenes-dependent production of transformed roots from foliar explants of pepper (Capsicum annuum): a new and efficient tool for functional analysis of genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarrouf, J; Castro-Quezada, P; Mallard, S; Caromel, B; Lizzi, Y; Lefebvre, V

    2012-02-01

    Pepper is known to be a recalcitrant species to genetic transformation via Agrobacterium tumefaciens. A. rhizogenes-mediated transformation offers an alternative and rapid possibility to study gene functions in roots. In our study, we developed a new and efficient system for A. rhizogenes transformation of the cultivated species Capsicum annuum. Hypocotyls and foliar organs (true leaves and cotyledons) of Yolo Wonder (YW) and Criollo de Morelos 334 (CM334) pepper cultivars were inoculated with the two constructs pBIN-gus and pHKN29-gfp of A. rhizogenes strain A4RS. Foliar explants of both pepper genotypes infected by A4RS-pBIN-gus or A4RS-pHKN29-gfp produced transformed roots. Optimal results were obtained using the combination of the foliar explants with A4RS-pHKN29-gfp. 20.5% of YW foliar explants and 14.6% of CM334 foliar explants inoculated with A4RS-pHKN29-gfp produced at least one root expressing uniform green fluorescent protein. We confirmed by polymerase chain reaction the presence of the rolB and gfp genes in the co-transformed roots ensuring that they integrated both the T-DNA from the Ri plasmid and the reporter gene. We also demonstrated that co-transformed roots of YW and CM334 displayed the same resistance response to Phytophthora capsici than the corresponding untransformed roots. Our novel procedure to produce C. annuum hairy roots will thus support the functional analysis of potential resistance genes involved in pepper P. capsici interaction.

  15. PHYTOPATHOLOGICAL ASSESMENT OF CAPSICUM ANNUUM L. (SWEET PEPPER AND CHILLI GERMPLASM FROM THE GENE POOL OF THE WORLD VEGETABLE CENTER (AVRDC UNDER THE CONDITIONS OF ARARAT VALLEY IN ARMENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Sarikyan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available On an experimental basis of the Scientific Center of vegetable, melon and industrial crops (Republic of Armenia 20 accessions of the world germplasm of Capsicum annuum L. (sweet pepper, chili provided by the World Vegetable Center (AVRDC have been studied. The accessions resistant to such diseases as verticillium wilt (Verticillium albo-atrum Reincke, bacterial wilt (Ralstonia solanacearum (= Pseudomonas solanacearum, tobacco mosaic virus (TMV and cucumber mosaic virus (CMV, blossom end rot of fruit, and tip-burn have been selected. These genotypes of chili and sweet pepper are the promising initial material in breeding for resistance to common diseases. In collaboration with other breeders, five varieties of peppers were developed and released: sweet pepper cultivars Natalie, Emily, Miles, and chili cultivars Zita and Gita.

  16. Effects of boarding return satellite on antioxidant enzyme activities during germination of hot pepper seed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shuifeng; Wang Bingliang; Guan Xueyu; Zhang Yan

    2006-01-01

    The effect of boarding return satellite on antioxidant enzyme activities during germination of hot pepper seed was studied. The results showed that the germination potentiality and germination rate of hot pepper seed after boarding return satellite were increased by 3.5% and 5.3%, respectively. During seed germination, soluble protein and MDA contents decreased, however, the SOD activities increased. SOD activity of treated seeds was higher than that of the control especially during the initial period of germination, while the content of soluble and MDA contents were much lower than those of control. The activities of SOD, G-POD, APX and CAT in 13d seedlings of treated seeds were increased by 14.29%, 25.23%, 1.84% and 21.52%, respectively. It was concluded that space flight enhanced antioxidant enzyme activities of seeds and seedlings, which were very important to prevent membrane lipid superoxide. (authors)

  17. Vegetative and reproductive evaluation of hot peppers under different plastic mulches in poly/plastic tunnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, Q.; Amjad, M.; Ahmad, R.

    2009-01-01

    Since the beginning of civilization, the man has developed technologies to increase the efficiency of food production. The use of plastic mulch in commercial vegetable production is one of these traditional techniques that have been used for centuries. Studies were conducted to assess the efficacy of plastic mulch on growth and yield of two hot pepper hybrids, viz. Sky Red and Maha in poly/plastic tunnel. The treatments were black plastic mulch, clear plastic mulch and bare soil as control. Both hot pepper hybrids mulched with black plastic showed significantly better vegetative growth (plant height, leaf area etc) and fruit yield. Clear plastic mulch significantly increased soil temperature and reduced the number of days to first flower than black plastic mulch and bare soil. However, fruit yield was higher by 39.56 and 36.49% respectively in both hybrids when they were grown on black and clear plastic mulch as compared to bare soil. Overall results indicated that the use of plastic mulch is an ideal option to maximize hot pepper productivity as well as to extend their production season in poly/plastic tunnels. (author)

  18. Impact of salt stress (NaCl on growth, chlorophyll content and fluorescence of Tunisian cultivars of chili pepper (Capsicum frutescens L.

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    Kaouther Zhani

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Salinity is considered as the most important abiotic stress limiting crop production and plants are known to be able continuing survive under this stress by involving many mechanisms. In this content, the present study was carried out to evaluate the impact of NaCl on some physiological and biochemical parameters in five Tunisian chili pepper (Capsicum frutescens L. cultivars: Tebourba (Tb, Somaa (Sm, Korba (Kb, Awald Haffouzz (AW and Souk jedid (Sj. Thus, an experiment of five months was carried out under greenhouse at Higher Institute of Agronomy, Chott Meriem, Tunisia and stress is induced by NaCl at 7 concentrations (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12g/l. Results showed that increasing salinity stress, for all cultivars, had a negative impact on roots (length, fresh and dry weights and leaves (number and area. Also, chlorophyll (a and b amount in addition to quantium yield (Fv/Fm decreased significantly. However, biosynthesis of proline in leaves is activated. Awlad Haffouzz and Korba cultivars succefully tolerated highest salinity level by accumulating more proline in leaves and maintaining usually higher values in all parameters in opposition to Souk jedid cultivar. Taken together, our data partly explain the mechanism used to ovoid salt stress by pepper plants when excessive in the culture medium.

  19. RESPONSE OF CHILE PEPPER (Capsicum annuum L. TO SALT STRESS AND ORGANIC AND INORGANIC NITROGEN SOURCES: III. ION UPTAKE AND TRANSLOCATION

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    Marco Antonio Huez Lopez

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The combined effect of salinity and two N sources on content, uptake rate and translocation of nutrients by chile pepper plants (Capsicum annuum L. cv. Sandia was investigated in a greenhouse experiment. Either an organic-N liquid fertilizer extracted from grass clippings or ammonium nitrate, an inorganic fertilizer, were combined with three different soil salinity treatments (1.5, 4.5, and 6.5 dS m-1. Fertilizer treatments were two rates of organic-N fertilizer (120 and 200 kg ha-1 and 120 kg ha-1 of inorganic fertilizer. The combination of each N rate and source with the three salinity levels were arranged in a randomized complete block design replicated four times. The use of the organic-N source produced greater cation contents in roots, shoots, and enhanced the uptake rates and translocation of cations to shoots compared to plants fertilized with inorganic-N. The root and shoot concentration, uptake rates and root-to-shoot transport of Cl increased at increasing salinity. Higher contents of Cl and cations in chile pepper shoots in relation to roots were observed. It was also observed that high N rate from the organic source enhanced the cation contents in both roots and shoots. Salinity diminished N content, N uptake rate and root to shoot transport in both roots and shoots

  20. RESPONSE OF CHILE PEPPER (Capsicum annuum L. TO SALT STRESS AND ORGANIC AND INORGANIC NITROGEN SOURCES: I.GROWTH AND YIELD

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    Marco Antonio Huez Lopez

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of two sources of nitrogen on plant growth, and fruit yield of chile pepper (Capsicum annuum L. cv. Sandia grown in greenhouse to increased salinity   were evaluated. An organic source extracted from grass clippings in rates of 120 and 200 kg N ha-1, and another inorganic (ammonium nitrate in rate of 120 kg ha-1 were combined with low, moderate and high (1.5, 4.5, and 6.5 dS m-1 salinity levels arranged in a randomized complete block design replicated four times. Salinity treatments reduced dry matter production, leaf area, relative growth rate and net assimilation rate but increased leaf area ratio. Mean fresh fruit yields decreased for each N rate and source combinations as soil salinity increased. The organic fertilizer produced higher fruit yields tan the inorganic fertilizer. The highest fruit yield was obtained with the increased rate of organic N.    The fruit number was more affected by salinity than the individual fruit weight. This organic fertilizer may be an effective N source for chile pepper and other vegetable crops grown under non- and salt-stressed conditions.

  1. Mechanisms of salt tolerance in habanero pepper plants (Capsicum chinense Jacq.): Proline accumulation, ions dynamics and sodium root-shoot partition and compartmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojórquez-Quintal, Emanuel; Velarde-Buendía, Ana; Ku-González, Angela; Carillo-Pech, Mildred; Ortega-Camacho, Daniela; Echevarría-Machado, Ileana; Pottosin, Igor; Martínez-Estévez, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Despite its economic relevance, little is known about salt tolerance mechanisms in pepper plants. To address this question, we compared differences in responses to NaCl in two Capsicum chinense varieties: Rex (tolerant) and Chichen-Itza (sensitive). Under salt stress (150 mM NaCl over 7 days) roots of Rex variety accumulated 50 times more compatible solutes such as proline compared to Chichen-Itza. Mineral analysis indicated that Na(+) is restricted to roots by preventing its transport to leaves. Fluorescence analysis suggested an efficient Na(+) compartmentalization in vacuole-like structures and in small intracellular compartments in roots of Rex variety. At the same time, Na(+) in Chichen-Itza plants was compartmentalized in the apoplast, suggesting substantial Na(+) extrusion. Rex variety was found to retain more K(+) in its roots under salt stress according to a mineral analysis and microelectrode ion flux estimation (MIFE). Vanadate-sensitive H(+) efflux was higher in Chichen-Itza variety plants, suggesting a higher activity of the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase, which fuels the extrusion of Na(+), and, possibly, also the re-uptake of K(+). Our results suggest a combination of stress tolerance mechanisms, in order to alleviate the salt-induced injury. Furthermore, Na(+) extrusion to apoplast does not appear to be an efficient strategy for salt tolerance in pepper plants.

  2. Spatial and temporal regulation of the metabolism of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species during the early development of pepper (Capsicum annuum) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airaki, Morad; Leterrier, Marina; Valderrama, Raquel; Chaki, Mounira; Begara-Morales, Juan C; Barroso, Juan B; del Río, Luis A; Palma, José M; Corpas, Francisco J

    2015-09-01

    The development of seedlings involves many morphological, physiological and biochemical processes, which are controlled by many factors. Some reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS, respectively) are implicated as signal molecules in physiological and phytopathological processes. Pepper (Capsicum annuum) is a very important crop and the goal of this work was to provide a framework of the behaviour of the key elements in the metabolism of ROS and RNS in the main organs of pepper during its development. The main seedling organs (roots, hypocotyls and green cotyledons) of pepper seedlings were analysed 7, 10 and 14 d after germination. Activity and gene expression of the main enzymatic antioxidants (catalase, ascorbate-glutathione cycle enzymes), NADP-generating dehydrogenases and S-nitrosoglutathione reductase were determined. Cellular distribution of nitric oxide ((·)NO), superoxide radical (O2 (·-)) and peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) was investigated using confocal laser scanning microscopy. The metabolism of ROS and RNS during pepper seedling development was highly regulated and showed significant plasticity, which was co-ordinated among the main seedling organs, resulting in correct development. Catalase showed higher activity in the aerial parts of the seedling (hypocotyls and green cotyledons) whereas roots of 7-d-old seedlings contained higher activity of the enzymatic components of the ascorbate glutathione cycle, NADP-isocitrate dehydrogenase and NADP-malic enzyme. There is differential regulation of the metabolism of ROS, nitric oxide and NADP dehydrogenases in the different plant organs during seedling development in pepper in the absence of stress. The metabolism of ROS and RNS seems to contribute significantly to plant development since their components are involved directly or indirectly in many metabolic pathways. Thus, specific molecules such as H2O2 and NO have implications for signalling, and their temporal and spatial regulation contributes

  3. Hydrogen sulfide regulates the levels of key metabolites and antioxidant defense system to counteract oxidative stress in pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) plants exposed to high zinc regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Cengiz; Ashraf, Muhammad; Akram, Nudrat Aisha

    2018-02-21

    In the present experiment, we aimed to test the impact of hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) on growth, key oxidant such as hydrogen peroxide, mineral elements, and antioxidative defense in Capia-type red sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) plants subjected to high concentration of zinc (Zn). A factorial experiment was designed with two Zn levels (0.05 and 0.5 mM) and 0.2 mM sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) as a donor of H 2 S supplied in combination plus nutrient solution through the root zone. High level of Zn led to reduce dry mass, chlorophyll pigments, fruit yield, leaf maximum fluorescence, and relative water content, but enhanced endogenous hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ), free proline, malondialdehyde (MDA), electrolyte leakage (EL), H 2 S, as well as the activities of peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzymes. Exogenously applied NaHS significantly enhanced plant growth, fruit yield, water status, the levels of H 2 S and proline as well as the activities of different antioxidant enzymes, while it significantly suppressed EL, MDA, and H 2 O 2 contents in the pepper plants receiving low level Zn. NaHS application to the control plants did not significantly change all these parameters tested except the dry matter which increased significantly. High Zn regime led to increase intrinsic Zn levels in the leaves and roots, but it lowered leaf nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and iron (Fe) concentrations. However, NaHS reduces the Zn conc. and enhances Fe and N in leaf and root organs. It can be concluded that NaHS can mitigate the harmful effects of Zn on plant growth particularly by lowering the concentrations of H 2 O 2 , Zn, EL, and MDA, and enhancing the activities of enzymatic antioxidants and levels of essential nutrients in pepper plants.

  4. Cytotoxic, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of red sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L. var. Llanerón extracts: In vitro study

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    Rosa Raybaudi-Massilia

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Alcoholic and aqueous extracts were obtained from red sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L. by different methodologies to evaluate their cytotoxic, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. Alcoholic extracts (MFP, MSd, SFP, SDP, SSd from fresh red sweet pepper (FP and dry pulp (DP and seed (Sd were obtained by maceration (M and Soxhlet (S equipment using methanol as extraction solvent; whereas aqueous extracts (LFP, LSd were obtained by decoction followed by lyophilization (L. Human tumoral cell lines from breast (MCF-7 and SKBr3, prostate (PC3 and cervix (HeLa, and fibroblasts (as control were used to determine the cytotoxic properties by the MTT assay. Antioxidant and antimicrobial properties were determined by DPPH and disc diffusion method, respectively. The extracts SDP and SFP showed the higher cytotoxic activity. The SDP extract had a significant (P < 0.05 in-vitro effect on HeLa (1.9 ± 1.4 µg/mL and PC3 (< 1 µg/mL cells with a moderated impact on fibroblasts (26.1 ± 1.2 µg/mL; whereas, SFP had a significant (p < 0.05 effect on MCF-7 cell line (2.1 ± 1.2 µg/mL with a moderated impact on fibroblasts (25.9 ± 1.0 µg/mL. The higher antioxidant activity was found for MFP (80.3 ± 0.2% and SFP extracts (75.5 ± 0.5%. Mild antimicrobial activity was only observed for alcoholic extracts. The results showed the potential of red sweet pepper (C. annuum L. as a source of antioxidant and cytotoxic compounds, and suggest the need of further studies to isolate and characterize the bioactive compounds that impart those properties.

  5. Red pepper (Capsicum annuum) carotenoids as a source of natural food colors: analysis and stability-a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arimboor, Ranjith; Natarajan, Ramesh Babu; Menon, K Ramakrishna; Chandrasekhar, Lekshmi P; Moorkoth, Vidya

    2015-03-01

    Carotenoids are increasingly drawing the attention of researchers as a major natural food color due to their inherent nutritional characteristics and the implicated possible role in prevention and protection against degenerative diseases. In this report, we review the role of red pepper as a source for natural carotenoids. The composition of the carotenoids in red pepper and the application of different methodologies for their analysis were discussed in this report. The stability of red pepper carotenoids during post-harvest processing and storage is also reviewed. This review highlights the potential of red pepper carotenoids as a source of natural food colors and also discusses the need for a standardized approach for the analysis and reporting of composition of carotenoids in plant products and designing model systems for stability studies.

  6. Characterization of capsaicin synthase and identification of its gene (csy1) for pungency factor capsaicin in pepper (Capsicum sp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, B. C. Narasimha; Kumar, Vinod; Gururaj, H. B.; Parimalan, R.; Giridhar, P.; Ravishankar, G. A.

    2006-01-01

    Capsaicin is a unique alkaloid of the plant kingdom restricted to the genus Capsicum. Capsaicin is the pungency factor, a bioactive molecule of food and of medicinal importance. Capsaicin is useful as a counterirritant, antiarthritic, analgesic, antioxidant, and anticancer agent. Capsaicin biosynthesis involves condensation of vanillylamine and 8-methyl nonenoic acid, brought about by capsaicin synthase (CS). We found that CS activity correlated with genotype-specific capsaicin levels. We purified and characterized CS (≈35 kDa). Immunolocalization studies confirmed that CS is specifically localized to the placental tissues of Capsicum fruits. Western blot analysis revealed concomitant enhancement of CS levels and capsaicin accumulation during fruit development. We determined the N-terminal amino acid sequence of purified CS, cloned the CS gene (csy1) and sequenced full-length cDNA (981 bp). The deduced amino acid sequence of CS from full-length cDNA was 38 kDa. Functionality of csy1 through heterologous expression in recombinant Escherichia coli was also demonstrated. Here we report the gene responsible for capsaicin biosynthesis, which is unique to Capsicum spp. With this information on the CS gene, speculation on the gene for pungency is unequivocally resolved. Our findings have implications in the regulation of capsaicin levels in Capsicum genotypes. PMID:16938870

  7. Successful Wide Hybridization and Introgression Breeding in a Diverse Set of Common Peppers (Capsicum annuum) Using Different Cultivated Ají (C. baccatum) Accessions as Donor Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Capsicum baccatum, commonly known as ají, has been reported as a source of variation for many different traits to improve common pepper (C. annuum), one of the most important vegetables in the world. However, strong interspecific hybridization barriers exist between them. A comparative study of two wide hybridization approaches for introgressing C. baccatum genes into C. annuum was performed: i) genetic bridge (GB) using C. chinense and C. frutescens as bridge species; and, ii) direct cross between C. annuum and C. baccatum combined with in vitro embryo rescue (ER). A diverse and representative collection of 18 accessions from four cultivated species of Capsicum was used, including C. annuum (12), C. baccatum (3), C. chinense (2), and C. frutescens (1). More than 5000 crosses were made and over 1000 embryos were rescued in the present study. C. chinense performed as a good bridge species between C. annuum and C. baccatum, with the best results being obtained with the cross combination [C. baccatum (♀) × C. chinense (♂)] (♀) × C. annuum (♂), while C. frutescens gave poor results as bridge species due to strong prezygotic and postzygotic barriers. Virus-like-syndrome or dwarfism was observed in F1 hybrids when both C. chinense and C. frutescens were used as female parents. Regarding the ER strategy, the best response was found in C. annuum (♀) × C. baccatum (♂) crosses. First backcrosses to C. annuum (BC1s) were obtained according to the crossing scheme [C. annuum (♀) × C. baccatum (♂)] (♀) × C. annuum (♂) using ER. Advantages and disadvantages of each strategy are discussed in relation to their application to breeding programmes. These results provide breeders with useful practical information for the regular utilization of the C. baccatum gene pool in C. annuum breeding. PMID:26642059

  8. Effect of growing conditions at greenhouse on vitamin E content in sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L. fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Horbowicz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The studies on effect of growing conditions on vitamin E content in fruits of two cultivars of sweet pepper (Bendigo F1 and Lamuyo F1 were carried out. The influence of growing substrate type (sphagnum peat or rockwool, Flormin, Poland, season of fruits harvesting (Summer or Autumn and dosages of mineral Iiquid nutrition were investigated. It was found that fruits of sweet pepper grown in rockwool contained more vitamin E than those from sphagnum peat substrate (ring culture, during Summer harvesting„ ln Autumn differences appeared too. but most of them were not statistically proved. The sweet pepper fruits harvested at Summer contained more vitamin E than fruits from Autumn. There were not significant differences among vitamin E level in fruits of the plants cultivated in rockwool at different dosages of fertilizers.

  9. The DnaJ Gene Family in Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.: Comprehensive Identification, Characterization and Expression Profiles

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    Yunyan Kang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The DnaJ proteins which function as molecular chaperone played critical roles in plant growth and development and response to heat stress (HS and also called heat shock protein 40 based on molecular weight. However, little was reported on this gene family in pepper. Recently, the release of the whole pepper genome provided an opportunity for identifying putative DnaJ homologous. In this study, a total of 76 putative pepper DnaJ genes (CaDnaJ01 to CaDnaJ76 were identified using bioinformatics methods and classified into five groups by the presence of the complete three domains (J-domain, zinc finger domain, and C-terminal domain. Chromosome mapping suggested that segmental duplication and tandem duplication were occurred in evolution. The multiple stress-related cis-elements were found in the promoter region of these CaDnaJ genes, which indicated that the CaDnaJs might be involved in the process of responding to complex stress conditions. In addition, expression profiles based on RNA-seq showed that the 47 CaDnaJs were expressed in at least one tissue tested. The result implied that they could be involved in the process of pepper growth and development. qRT-PCR analysis found that 80.60% (54/67 CaDnaJs were induced by HS, indicated that they could participated in pepper response to high temperature treatments. In conclusion, all these results would provide a comprehensive basis for further analyzing the function of CaDnaJ members and be also significant for elucidating the evolutionary relationship in pepper.

  10. GLYCINE-RICH RNA-BINDING PROTEIN1 interacts with RECEPTOR-LIKE CYTOPLASMIC PROTEIN KINASE1 and suppresses cell death and defense responses in pepper (Capsicum annuum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae Sung; Kim, Nak Hyun; Hwang, Byung Kook

    2015-01-01

    Plants use a variety of innate immune regulators to trigger cell death and defense responses against pathogen attack. We identified pepper (Capsicum annuum) GLYCINE-RICH RNA-BINDING PROTEIN1 (CaGRP1) as a RECEPTOR-LIKE CYTOPLASMIC PROTEIN KINASE1 (CaPIK1)-interacting partner, based on bimolecular fluorescence complementation and coimmunoprecipitation analyses as well as gene silencing and transient expression analysis. CaGRP1 contains an N-terminal RNA recognition motif and a glycine-rich region at the C-terminus. The CaGRP1 protein had DNA- and RNA-binding activity in vitro. CaGRP1 interacted with CaPIK1 in planta. CaGRP1 and CaGRP1-CaPIK1 complexes were localized to the nucleus in plant cells. CaPIK1 phosphorylated CaGRP1 in vitro and in planta. Transient coexpression of CaGRP1 with CaPIK1 suppressed the CaPIK1-triggered cell death response, accompanied by a reduced CaPIK1-triggered reactive oxygen species (ROS) burst. The RNA recognition motif region of CaGRP1 was responsible for the nuclear localization of CaGRP1 as well as the suppression of the CaPIK1-triggered cell death response. CaGRP1 silencing in pepper conferred enhanced resistance to Xanthomonas campestris pv vesicatoria (Xcv) infection; however, CaPIK1-silenced plants were more susceptible to Xcv. CaGRP1 interacts with CaPIK1 and negatively regulates CaPIK1-triggered cell death and defense responses by suppressing ROS accumulation. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  11. Effects of Different Sowing Depths and Soil Compactions on Emergence and Initial Growth of Pepper Varieties (Capsicum annum L.

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    R Shahriari

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the main problems in the mass production of pepper transplant is the stickiness of seed coat to the cotyledony leaves that can lead to no emergence or having poor emergence of pepper seedlings. Therefore, in order to evaluate the effects of different sowing depths and soil compactions on emergence and early seedlings growth of pepper, a greenhouse experiment was conducted in the Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran, in 2010, using a completely randomized design with factorial arrangement and four replications. The experimental factors included different levels of soil compactions (0 (no compaction, 150.5, 681.340 and 1201.7 Pa, different sowing depths (0 (surface, 1 and 2 cm and different pepper varieties (Olter, California Wonder, EM Bell, Anahiem and Iranian Falei. The results indicated that except the seed coat adherence to cotyledon leaves and the emergence percentage traits, the compaction treatments had a significant effect on (dry matter of seedlings, height, leaf area, number of abnormal seedling and mean emergence time were significant. In addition, sowing depth treatments had positive and significant effects on increasing the number of seedling with releasing seed coats from the cotyledony leaves.

  12. Effect of temperature on water diffusion during rehydration of sun-dried red pepper ( Capsicum annuum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demiray, Engin; Tulek, Yahya

    2017-05-01

    Rehydration, which is a complex process aimed at the restoration of raw material properties when dried material comes in contact with water. In the present research, studies were conducted to probe the kinetics of rehydration of sun-dried red peppers. The kinetics associated with rehydrating sun-dried red peppers was studied at three different temperatures (25, 35 and 45 °C). To describe the rehydration kinetics, four different models, Peleg's, Weibull, first order and exponential association, were considered. Between these four models proposed Weibull model gave a better fit for all rehydration conditions applied. The effective moisture diffusivity values of red peppers increased as water rehydration temperature increased. The values of the effective moisture diffusivity of red peppers were in the range 1.37 × 10-9-1.48 × 10-9 m2 s-1. On the other hand, the activation energy for rehydration kinetic was also calculated using Arrhenius equation and found as 3.17 kJ mol-1.

  13. Phosphite effect on hot and sweet pepper reaction to Phytophthora capsici Efeito do fosfito na reação de pimentão e pimenteira a Phytophthora capsici

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    Fernando Cesar Sala

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Phosphite has been recommended to enhance plant resistance against Phytophthora. This work evaluated the response of hot and sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L. to Phytophthora capsici from juvenile up to the adult stage following treatment with phosphite. Sweet pepper hybrids considered to be resistant to P. capsici, like Reinger, Nathalie and Athenas, were evaluated. The susceptible checks were hybrid Magali R and cvs. Myr 10 and Ikeda. Hot pepper Criollo de Morelos 328, CM 334, BGH 3756, BGH 5122, CNPH 294 and Locorte were used as referential resistant lines. Phosphite did not have an effect on the hot pepper resistant lines because of their genetic homozygozity, while no protection was observed for the Athenas hybrid claimed to be resistant. Heterozygous hybrids recognized as resistant, like Reinger and Nathalie, showed higher survival following phosphite treatment, and their reaction was equivalent to the resistant cvs. CM 328 and CM 334, except for the fruiting stage. Depending of the hybrid heterozygous genotype, phosphite possibly acts through indirect phytoalexin induction through the inhibited pathogen.Fosfito tem sido recomendado para aumentar o sistema de resistência de plantas atacadas por fitopatógenos. Este trabalho avaliou a ação do fosfito nas reações de pimentão e pimenteiras (Capsicum annuum L. a Phytophthora capsici na fase juvenil até a fase adulta, tratadas com fosfito. Os híbridos de pimentão considerados resistentes a P. capsici foram Reinger, Nathalie e Athenas, enquanto que o híbrido Magali R e as cvs. Myr 10 e Ikeda constituíram as referenciais suscetíveis. As linhagens de pimenta Criollo de Morelos 328, CM 334, BGH 3756, BGH 5122, CNPH 294 e Locorte, foram usadas como padrão referencial de resistência ao patógeno. O fosfito não afetou a reação das linhagens resistentes devido sua homozigosidade genética. Não houve ação protetora do fosfito nos hospedeiros suscetíveis, inclusive no híbrido Athenas

  14. INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT SOURCES OF WATER FOR IRRIGATION ON PEPPER (Capsicum annuum L. YIELD IN GLASSHOUSE CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasna Šoštarić

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to determine the influence of different sources of water used for irrigation on the yield of pepper hybrids Cecil F1 and Bianca F1 in the early glasshouse production for the period 1998 - 2000 in the controlled glasshouse conditions in «D.G. – PROMET», Magadenovac, Croatia. Lagoon water and well water were two main sources of water used for irrigation in this experiment. Drip irrigation system was applied for pepper production. In comparison to lagoon water, chemical analyses of well water have shown increased values of the following elements: EC, sodium, potassium, calcium, chlorine, magnesium, bicarbonate, sulphate, iron and boron. Temperature of well water was lower than the allowed minimum and therefore had direct influence on the yield decrease. Consequently, areas which have been irrigated by well water have had problems with accumulation of slime and blocking of sprinklers, disturbed soil structure, fruit deformation and decreased crop yield. Statistical data analysis was conducted by the method of covariation three factorial trial (ABC with three repetitions for each treatment. The trial showed absolute difference regarding water efficiency of irrigation water from two sources, which has also been statistically determined (P<0,05. Furthermore, statistically justified difference in the average weight of the fruit of each investigated pepper hybrid (P<0,05 has been proven. Codependence of «water for irrigation» (A and «pepper hybrid» (B, i.e. (AB is statistically significant as well, and justified at the P<0,05 limit. This means that both pepper hybrids (Cecil F1 i Bianca F1 reacted differently to lagoon water and well water. Factor «year» (C has not proven to be statistically justified, and therefore does not have any significant influence on the crop yield due to controlled conditions in the glasshouse.

  15. Study of the effect of uranium and thorium on the growing of pepper (Capsicum annuum var. longum) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus) plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uenak, T.; Yildirim, Y.; Tokucu, G.; Uenak, G.; Oecal, J.; Konyali, D.; Kilic, S.

    2007-01-01

    The transportation rate of uranium and thorium to different plants grown in soils having high level of these elements varies closely with the plant characteristics. In this study, the pepper (Capsicum annuum var. longum) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus) plants were chosen as vegetables which are commonly consumed over different regions by different populations. The results obtained can be summarized as follows: (1) High uranium concentration in the soil prevents the growing of the plants. Only the plants in the pot having the uranium concentration of about 263 ppm grew significantly. The plants in other pots having a higher concentration turned pale and died in a few weeks. (2) In the pot having thorium level of about 263 ppm, the plants were well grown and fruited in comparison to the control plants, but the increase of thorium concentration inversely influenced their growing. (3) The gross activities measured in different parts of the plants were not particularly high, however, in both cases the maximum activities were measured in the stems rather than in the fruits and leaves. (4) The plants grown in soils having thorium content lived longer than the control plants and at the greenhouse conditions indicated above, all plants lived more than one whole year flowering and fruiting. (author)

  16. Evaluation of Salt Tolerance (NaCl in Tunisian Chili Pepper (Capsicum frutescens L. on Growth, Mineral Analysis and Solutes Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhani, Kaouther

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Every year, more and more land becomes non-productive due to salinity which adversely affects the productivity and quality of most crops that is why salinity becomes a concern to be studied more to understand the mechanisms included and select the tolerant genotypes. In this context, this investigation was carried out to study the impact of NaCl on growth, mineral analysis and solutes synthesis in five Tunisian chili pepper (Capsicum frutescens L. cultivars: Tebourba (Tb, Somaa (Sm, Korba (Kb, Awald Haffouzz (Aw and Souk jedid (Sj. Thus, an experiment took place under greenhouse at Higher Institute of Agronomy, Chott Meriem, Tunisia and stress was induced during two months in water by NaCl (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 g/l. Results showed that increasing salinity stress, for all cultivars, decreases the height and biomass (dry and fresh weight of plant in addition to the relative water content. Also, a decline in K+ and Ca2+ amounts in roots and K+/Na+ ratio was recorded. However, Na+ content in roots and the biosynthesis of soluble sugars and soluble proteins in leaves increased. Awlad Haffouzz and Korba cultivars succefully tolerated highest salinity level by accumulating more K+, Ca2+ in roots and containing the highest concentrations of soluble sugars and soluble protein in their leaves contrary to Souk jedid cultivar, considered as the sensitive cultivar.

  17. Effects of fertigation with purified urban wastewater on soil and pepper plant (Capsicum annuum L.) production, fruit quality and pollutant contents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Delgado, C.; Eymar, E.; Contreras, J. I.; Segura, M. L.

    2012-11-01

    The effects, in greenhouse conditions, of Purified Urban Wastewater (PW) from Almeria (Spain), in the fertigation of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) on sandy mulch soil, were evaluated. Primary, secondary (active sludges) and tertiary (Chlorination + ozonation) purification treatments were applied to wastewater. Irrigation treatments applied were PW, natural Ground Water (GW), Fertilizer PW (FPW) and Fertilizer GW (FGW). The vegetal biomass, yield and fruit quality were controlled. Heavy metals (Cr, Cd, Pb, Ni, Mn, Cu and Zn), arsenic (As) and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) in water, soil, leaf, and fruit were analysed. The PW presented heavy metal, As and PAH contents acceptable for its use in drip irrigation. In the soil, fertigated with PW, the concentration of heavy metals and As did not increase, whilst the PAH concentration decreased. The PW treatment supplied enough nutrients to obtain yield and fruit quality equal to that of GW with fertilization. A significant saving on N, P and K fertilizers (37%, 66% and 12% respectively) was achieved by using PW. The Cd, Pb and As contents of the fruit did not show risk for human consumption. The total PAH concentrations in the fruit were low, the highest of which was phenathrene, with no carcinogenic signification. (Author) 39 refs.

  18. RESPONSE OF CHILE PEPPER (Capsicum annuum L. TO SALT STRESS AND ORGANIC AND INORGANIC NITROGEN SOURCES: II. NITROGEN AND WATER USE EFFICIENCIES, AND SALT TOLERANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Huez Lopez

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The response to two nitrogen sources on water and nitrogen use efficiencies, and tolerance of salt-stressed chile pepper plants (Capsicum annuum L. cv. Sandia was investigated in a greenhouse experiment. Low, moderate and high (1.5, 4.5, and 6.5 dS m-1 salinity levels, and two rates of organic-N fertilizer (120 and 200 kg ha-1 and 120 kg ha-1 of inorganic fertilizer as ammonium nitrate were arranged in randomized complete block designs replicated four times. The liquid organic-N source was an organic, extracted with water from grass clippings. Water use decreased about 19 and 30% in moderate and high salt-stressed plants. Water use efficiency decreased only in high salt-stressed plants. Nitrogen use efficiency decreased either by increased salinity or increased N rates. An apparent increase in salt tolerance was noted when plants were fertilized with organic-N source compared to that of inorganic-N source.

  19. Discarded seeds from red pepper (Capsicum annum) processing industry as a sustainable source of high added-value compounds and edible oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azabou, Samia; Taheur, Fadia Ben; Jridi, Mourad; Bouaziz, Mohamed; Nasri, Moncef

    2017-10-01

    The chemical composition and the antioxidant properties of Capsicum annum discarded seeds from processing industry with their corresponding extracted oil were investigated. C. annum seeds had high levels of crude proteins (18.30%), crude oil (11.04%), and dietary fibers (60.96%). The lipophilic fraction of C. annum seeds showed higher radical scavenging activity compared to their hydrophilic fraction, while this latter exhibited the highest reducing power. The results of fatty acid composition showed that fatty acids present in C. annum seed oil were mainly polyunsaturated (84.23%), with linoleic acid being the major polyunsaturated fatty acid (70.93%). The major monounsaturated fatty acid was oleic acid (12.18%), while the main saturated fatty acid was palmitic acid (11.90%). C. annum seed oil showed high absorbance in the UV-B, UV-A, and visible ranges. Owing to their composition, C. annum seeds discarded from pepper processing industry as by-product could be potentially used as high added-value ingredients in some food or nutraceutical formulations because they are well endowed with essential nutriments required for human health.

  20. Effects of different doses of organic fertilizer type bocashi in morphological and productive indicators of pepper crop (Capsicum annuum L. var. California wonder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Boudet Antomarchi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Between June and September 2012 in field condition in agroecological farm was carried out an investigation using a randomised block experimental design with four treatments and four repetitions with the objective to evaluate the effect of different doses of organic fertilizer bocashi in pepper crop (Capsicum annuum L..The treatment consisted in the application of different doses of organic fertilizer bocashi (1.66, 2.22, 2.78 tha-1 and a control treatment without application. The results were evaluated by means of the pro-gram Statistica version 8.0, for windows, where the indicators used showed significant differences multiple comparison of Tukey was applied to p ≤ 0.05. The variable evaluated were: height of the plants (cm, steam diameter (cm,yield and their components (number fruit.plant -1, average weigh of fruit (g, average diameter of fruit (cm and average large of fruit (cm. The treatment where was applied doses of 2.22 and 2.78 tha-1 of organic fertilizer bocashi was obtained the best results in productive indicator evaluated with securities in the agricultural yield of 33.4 and 32.9 tha-1

  1. Stability of Capsaicinoids and Antioxidants in Dry Hot Peppers under Different Packaging and Storage Temperatures

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    Qumer Iqbal

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The maintenance of the quality and storage life of perishable fruits and vegetables is a major challenge for the food industry. In this study, the effects of different temperatures, packaging materials and storage time on the stability of capsaicinoids and antioxidants, such as total carotenoids, ascorbic acid and total phenolic compounds, were studied in three commercially cultivated hot pepper hybrids, namely Sky Red, Maha and Wonder King. For this purpose, dry whole pods were packed in jute bags and low-density polyethylene bags (LDPE, stored for five months under controlled conditions at 20, 25 or 30 ○C and analyzed on Day 0 and at 50-day intervals until Day 150. The three hot pepper hybrids differed significantly with respect to their capsaicinoids and antioxidant concentrations, but the results indicated that with the increase in storage temperature and time, a gradual and steady decrease in these levels was equally observed for all hybrids. Overall, mean concentrations after five months were significantly reduced by 22.6% for ascorbic acid, 19.0% for phenolic compounds, 17% for carotenoids and 12.7% for capsaicinoids. The trends of capsaicinoids and antioxidants evolution were decreasing gradually during storage until Day 150, this effect being more pronounced at higher temperature. Furthermore, the disappearance rates of capsaicinoids and antioxidants were higher in peppers packed in jute bags than in those wrapped with LDPE. In conclusion, despite the sensitivity of capsaicinoids and antioxidants to oxygen, light and moisture, the packaging in natural jute or synthetic LDPE plastic bags, as well as the storage at ambient temperature preserved between 77.4% and 87.3% of the initial amounts of these health- and nutrition-promoting compounds during five months’ storage.

  2. Genome-wide analysis of the Hsp70 family genes in pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) and functional identification of CaHsp70-2 involvement in heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Meng; Liu, Jin-Hong; Ma, Xiao; Zhai, Yu-Fei; Gong, Zhen-Hui; Lu, Ming-Hui

    2016-11-01

    Hsp70s function as molecular chaperones and are encoded by a multi-gene family whose members play a crucial role in plant response to stress conditions, and in plant growth and development. Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) is an important vegetable crop whose genome has been sequenced. Nonetheless, no overall analysis of the Hsp70 gene family is reported in this crop plant to date. To assess the functionality of Capsicum annuum Hsp70 (CaHsp70) genes, pepper genome database was analyzed in this research. A total of 21 CaHsp70 genes were identified and their characteristics were also described. The promoter and transcript expression analysis revealed that CaHsp70s were involved in pepper growth and development, and heat stress response. Ectopic expression of a cytosolic gene, CaHsp70-2, regulated expression of stress-related genes and conferred increased thermotolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis. Taken together, our results provide the basis for further studied to dissect CaHsp70s' function in response to heat stress as well as other environmental stresses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. CaDMR1 Cosegregates with QTL Pc5.1 for Resistance to Phytophthora capsici in Pepper (Capsicum annuum

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    William Z. Rehrig

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A major problem for the pepper ( industry is the root rot disease caused by (, to which all commercial varieties suffer yield losses despite good management practices and available landraces with high levels of resistance. A high-density map with 3887 markers was generated in a set of recombinant inbred lines (RIL derived from the highly resistant accession Criollo de Morelos-334 and Early Jalapeño. These lines have been systematically screened for resistance against a set of isolates collected from Mexico, New Mexico, New Jersey, California, Michigan and Tennessee. Quantitative trait loci (QTL associated with effective resistance across isolates have been identified and validated with SNP markers across additional segregating populations. By leveraging transcriptomic and genomic information, we describe , a homoserine kinase (HSK, as a candidate gene responsible for the major QTL on chromosome P5 for resistance to . SNP markers for the resistant allele were validated to facilitate gene pyramiding schemes for recurrent selection in pepper.

  4. Fruit cuticle lipid composition and fruit post-harvest water loss in an advanced backcross generation of pepper (Capsicum sp.)

    KAUST Repository

    Parsons, Eugene P.; Popopvsky, Sigal; Lohrey, Gregory T.; Lu, Shiyou; Alkalai-Tuvia, Sharon; Perzelan, Yaacov; Paran, Ilan; Fallik, Elazar; Jenks, Matthew A.

    2012-01-01

    To understand the role of fruit cuticle lipid composition in fruit water loss, an advanced backcross population, the BC2F2, was created between the Capsicum annuum (PI1154) and the Capsicum chinense (USDA162), which have high and low post-harvest water loss rates, respectively. Besides dramatic differences in fruit water loss, preliminary studies also revealed that these parents exhibited significant differences in both the amount and composition of their fruit cuticle. Cuticle analysis of the BC2F2 fruit revealed that although water loss rate was not strongly associated with the total surface wax amount, there were significant correlations between water loss rate and cuticle composition. We found a positive correlation between water loss rate and the amount of total triterpenoid plus sterol compounds, and negative correlations between water loss and the alkane to triterpenoid plus sterol ratio. We also report negative correlations between water loss rate and the proportion of both alkanes and aliphatics to total surface wax amount. For the first time, we report significant correlations between water loss and cutin monomer composition. We found positive associations of water loss rate with the total cutin, total C16 monomers and 16-dihydroxy hexadecanoic acid. Our results support the hypothesis that simple straight-chain aliphatic cuticle constituents form more impermeable cuticular barriers than more complex isoprenoid-based compounds. These results shed new light on the biochemical basis for cuticle involvement in fruit water loss. © 2012 Physiologia Plantarum.

  5. Fruit cuticle lipid composition and fruit post-harvest water loss in an advanced backcross generation of pepper (Capsicum sp.)

    KAUST Repository

    Parsons, Eugene P.

    2012-03-05

    To understand the role of fruit cuticle lipid composition in fruit water loss, an advanced backcross population, the BC2F2, was created between the Capsicum annuum (PI1154) and the Capsicum chinense (USDA162), which have high and low post-harvest water loss rates, respectively. Besides dramatic differences in fruit water loss, preliminary studies also revealed that these parents exhibited significant differences in both the amount and composition of their fruit cuticle. Cuticle analysis of the BC2F2 fruit revealed that although water loss rate was not strongly associated with the total surface wax amount, there were significant correlations between water loss rate and cuticle composition. We found a positive correlation between water loss rate and the amount of total triterpenoid plus sterol compounds, and negative correlations between water loss and the alkane to triterpenoid plus sterol ratio. We also report negative correlations between water loss rate and the proportion of both alkanes and aliphatics to total surface wax amount. For the first time, we report significant correlations between water loss and cutin monomer composition. We found positive associations of water loss rate with the total cutin, total C16 monomers and 16-dihydroxy hexadecanoic acid. Our results support the hypothesis that simple straight-chain aliphatic cuticle constituents form more impermeable cuticular barriers than more complex isoprenoid-based compounds. These results shed new light on the biochemical basis for cuticle involvement in fruit water loss. © 2012 Physiologia Plantarum.

  6. Influence of Phytophthora capsici L. inoculation on disease severity, necrosis length, peroxidase and catalase activity, and phenolic content of resistant and susceptible pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) plants

    OpenAIRE

    KOÇ, Esra; ÜSTÜN, Ayşen Sülün

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the level of infection caused by different inoculum concentrations (102, 103, and 104 zoospores mL-1) of Phytophthora capsici in 3 pepper cultivars at days 2, 4, and 6. The effect that the infection induced on the peroxidase (POX), catalase (CAT), and phenolics of resistant and sensitive seedlings, as well as the defense mechanism against the pathogen, were also investigated. The resistance of PM-702 against the isolate used was high, whereas KM-Hot and DEM-8 displayed sen...

  7. Genome - wide identification, molecular characterization and expression analysis of the rop gtpase family in pepper (capsicum annum)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, D.; Li, M.; He, S.

    2015-01-01

    ROP/RAC GTPases is a plant-specific subfamily of Rho GTPases that plays a versatile role in the regulation of plant growth, development, in hormone signal transduction and response to the environment. Prior to the present study, only one Rop gene in pepper has been described. However, with the recent release of the draft genome sequence of pepper allowes us to conduct a genome wide search to identify how many Rop family members existed in pepper genome. We carried out bioinformatics analysis to establish the conserved as well as divergent regions on the protein sequences, phylogenetically analysis and the corresponding result shows that, CaROPs could be distributed into four groups as described in the literature for their homologs in Arabidopsis. To understand the function of nine Rop genes in pepper, we accordingly studied the tissue, fruit development and ripening expression patterns of CaRop genes by obtained RNA-seq data from public database. From our analysis, we realized that the expression of CaRop genes shows no total tissue or developmental specific expression. Furthermore, gene expression profiles of CaRop in response to environment stresses and hormone treatment, such as inoculated with Ralstonia solanacearum, by heat stress as well as treated with four phytohormones respectively and evaluated with real time RT-PCR. The potential involvement of specific CaRop genes in growth, fruit development, ripening, environment stresses as well as hormone responses discussed and may lay the foundation for future functional analysis to unravel their biological roles. (author)

  8. The effects of sodium azide on seed germination and seedling growth of chili pepper (Capsicum annum L. cv. Landung)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yafizham; Herwibawa, B.

    2018-01-01

    This study was aimed to determine the effects of sodium azide on the performance of chili pepper. Dry seeds from pure lines of chili pepper cv. Landung were used in this experiment. Each set containing 50 seeds was placed in nylon fishner bags, washed in flowing water and soaked in distilled water for four hours. After soaking, four sets of seeds were dabbed dry with tissue paper and were treated for two hours at 30 0C in appropriate solution of 0, 0.10, 0.20, 0.40, 0.80, 1.60 mM sodium azide with phosphate buffer at pH 3. After treatment, the seeds were germinated in plastic boxes containing sterilized sand and kept under laboratory condition by supplied with water everyday. The seeds for M1 germination percentage, seedling height, plant height and number of leaves were recorded 30 days and 60 days after treatment, respectively. Seeds which radicle emerged were considered germinated, the seedling and plant height were measured from the tip of primary root to the base of the first leaf pair, and the number of leaves were counted for only fully expanded leaves. A completely randomized block design in four replicates was used throughout the experiment. Data obtained were analysed for range, mean, standard of deviation, and percent of control using Microsoft Office Excel 2007 software. It was concluded that different doses of sodium azide influenced the performances of chili pepper cv. Landung. Very low doses of sodium azide (0-1.60 mM) might be used to study the improvement of chili pepper diversity.

  9. Process optimization and characterization of fragrant oil from red pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) seed extracted by subcritical butane extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Ling-Biao; Pang, Hui-Li; Lu, Ke-Ke; Liu, Hua-Min; Wang, Xue-De; Qin, Guang-Yong

    2017-04-01

    Red pepper seeds account for 450-500 g kg -1 of the total pepper weight and are often discarded as waste. In this study, process optimization and characterization of fragrant oil from roasted red pepper seed extracted by subcritical butane extraction were carried out. The optimal conditions of extraction were a temperature of 74.61 °C, a time of 68.65 min and a liquid/solid ratio of 30.24:1. The oil had a refractive index (25 °C) of 1.471, a relative density of 0.900, an acid value of 1.421 mg g -1 oil, an iodine value of 127.035 g per 100 g, a saponification value of 184.060 mg KOH g -1 , an unsaponifiable matter content of 12.400 g kg -1 , a peroxide value of 2.465 meq. O 2 kg -1 and a viscosity of 52.094 cP. The main fatty acids in the oil were linoleic acid (72.95%) followed by palmitic acid (11.43%) and oleic acid (10.00%). The oil showed desirable thermal and oxidative stability. A total of 19 volatile compounds, mostly aldehydes and alkenes, were identified from the oil. The results indicated that the method is appropriate for the preparation of fragrant red pepper seed oil, and the oil is suitable for used as edible oil. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Growth and Yield Responses of Green Pepper (Capsicum annum L. to Manure Rates under Field and High Tunnel Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ima-obong I. DOMINIC

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to determine growth and yield responses of green pepper to varying manure rates under field and high tunnel conditions. Experiment 1 was a pot experiment to evaluate three rates (0.5 and 10 t/ha of poultry manure (PM on green pepper production under high tunnel and open field conditions. Experiment 2 was to determine the performance of green pepper as influenced by different manure rates (0, 5 and 10 t/ha of PM, 300 kg/ha of NPK, 5 t/ha of PM + 200 kg of NPK and 10 t/ha of PM + 100 kg of NPK on the field. High tunnel produced about 3.1 fruits/plant that weighted 102.8 g, which was significantly higher than open field experiment in which 1.7 fruits/plant, with a medium weight of 32.3 g were noted. High tunnel enhanced successful production of green pepper during rainy season, whereas the open field production during the same season was near failure. Application of 10 t/ha of PM produced significantly larger fruits in the pot experiment. Good fertilizer effects on growth and yield components were recorded for the field study. Plant height, number of leaves and branches, number and weight of harvested fruit followed similar trend in 5 and 10 t/ha of PM which gave statistically similar results, and provided the best performance during the experiment. Application of 5 t/ha of PM produced the highest total fruits yield.

  11. Cloning and expression analysis of CaPIP1-1 gene in pepper (Capsicum annuum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yan-Xu; Wang, Shu-Bin; Zhang, Huai-Xia; Xiao, Huai-Juan; Jin, Jing-Hao; Ji, Jiao-Jiao; Jing, Hua; Chen, Ru-Gang; Arisha, Mohamed Hamed; Gong, Zhen-Hui

    2015-05-25

    Plant aquaporins are responsible for water transmembrane transport, which play an important role on abiotic and biotic stresses. A novel plasma membrane intrinsic protein of CaPIP1-1 was isolated from the pepper P70 according to transcriptome databases of Phytophthora capsici inoculation and chilling stress library. CaPIP1-1, which is 1155 bp in length with an open reading frame of 861 bp, encoded 286 amino acids. Three introns, exhibited CT/AC splice junctions, were observed in CaPIP1-1. The numbers and location of introns in CaPIP1-1 were the same as observed in tomato and potato. CaPIP1-1 was abundantly expressed in pepper fruit. Increased transcription levels of CaPIP1-1 were found in the different stresses, including chilling stress, salt stress, mannitol stress, salicylic acid, ABA treatment and Phytophthora capsici infection. The expression of CaPIP1-1 was downregulated by 50 μM HgCl2 and 100 μM fluridone. The pepper plants silenced CaPIP1-1 in cv. Qiemen showed growth inhibition and decreased tolerance to salt and mannitol stresses using detached leaf method. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Resistance to thrips in pepper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maharijaya, A.

    2013-01-01

    Pepper (Capsicum) production is constrained by heavy infestations of thrips, causing direct and indirect (by transmitting viruses) damage. Thrips control using chemical insecticides, biological agents, culture practices and integrated pest management has limited success. The

  13. Effect Of Gamma Rays And Growth Regulators On Explants Excised From In Vitro Shoots And Greenhouse Seedlings, Of Pepper (Capsicum Annum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maarouf, A. A.; Kassem, M.

    2004-01-01

    This experiment was conducted on pepper (Capsicum annum L.) to compare the ability of the in vitro explants with those of greenhouse grown seedlings on shoot proliferation and callus formation and their ability to form plantlets and the effect of gamma irradiation and growth regulators on the shoot tip, hypocotyls and leaf tissue was used as laboratory explants, leaf tissue nodes and internodes were taken from greenhouse seedlings. 6- benzyla-minopurine (BAP) in different concentrations was combined with Indoleacertic acid (IAA) to know their effect on shoot proliferation, 2,4 - Dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4- D) was used for callus formation, and use stimulation effect of gamma irradiation, potassium nitrat (KNO 3 ), Thidaiazurom (TDZ) and casine hydrolysate (CH) for plantlet formation. The results showed that the highest percentage of callus was obtained by in vitro hypocotyls and greenhouse grown nodes followed by in vitro leaf tissue thereafter greenhouse leaf tissue. The shoot tips were the lowest efficient explants in producing callus in both in vitro and greenhouse ones. The highest percentage of shooting resulted from shoot tip, hypocotyls and leaf tissue of in vitro explants, followed by shoot tip, nodes and internodes of greenhouse grown explants and the lowest percentage was recorded by leaf tissue. Highest percentage of shoot number was obtained form greenhouse grown shoot tip followed by in vitro shoot tip, hypocotyls and leaf tissue of greenhouse grown seedlings the internodes were the lowest efficient in producing shoots. The highest success in plantlet formation was caused by TDZ followed by gamma irradiation and the other treatments were equaled. (Authors)

  14. Mapping of a Novel Race Specific Resistance Gene to Phytophthora Root Rot of Pepper (Capsicum annuum) Using Bulked Segregant Analysis Combined with Specific Length Amplified Fragment Sequencing Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaomei; Chao, Juan; Cheng, Xueli; Wang, Rui; Sun, Baojuan; Wang, Hengming; Luo, Shaobo; Xu, Xiaowan; Wu, Tingquan; Li, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Phytophthora root rot caused by Phytophthora capsici (P. capsici) is a serious limitation to pepper production in Southern China, with high temperature and humidity. Mapping PRR resistance genes can provide linked DNA markers for breeding PRR resistant varieties by molecular marker-assisted selection (MAS). Two BC1 populations and an F2 population derived from a cross between P. capsici-resistant accession, Criollo de Morelos 334 (CM334) and P. capsici-susceptible accession, New Mexico Capsicum Accession 10399 (NMCA10399) were used to investigate the genetic characteristics of PRR resistance. PRR resistance to isolate Byl4 (race 3) was controlled by a single dominant gene, PhR10, that was mapped to an interval of 16.39Mb at the end of the long arm of chromosome 10. Integration of bulked segregant analysis (BSA) and Specific Length Amplified Fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq) provided an efficient genetic mapping strategy. Ten polymorphic Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) markers were found within this region and used to screen the genotypes of 636 BC1 plants, delimiting PhR10 to a 2.57 Mb interval between markers P52-11-21 (1.5 cM away) and P52-11-41 (1.1 cM). A total of 163 genes were annotated within this region and 31 were predicted to be associated with disease resistance. PhR10 is a novel race specific gene for PRR, and this paper describes linked SSR markers suitable for marker-assisted selection of PRR resistant varieties, also laying a foundation for cloning the resistance gene.

  15. Effect of ultrasound on the supercritical CO2 extraction of bioactive compounds from dedo de moça pepper (Capsicum baccatum L. var. pendulum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Arthur Luiz Baião; Arroio Sergio, Camilla Scarelli; Santos, Philipe; Barbero, Gerardo Fernandéz; Rezende, Camila Alves; Martínez, Julian

    2016-07-01

    Extracts with bioactive compounds were obtained from the red pepper variety "dedo de moça" (Capsicum baccatum L. var. pendulum) through supercritical fluid extraction with carbon dioxide assisted by ultrasound (SFE-US). The process was tested at pressures of 15, 20 and 25 MPa; temperatures of 40, 50 and 60 °C, and ultrasonic powers of 200, 400 and 600 W applied during 40, 60 and 80 min of extraction. The CO2 mass flow rate was fixed at 1.7569 × 10(-4) kg/s. Global yield, phenolic content, antioxidant capacity and capsaicinoid concentration were evaluated in the extracts. The application of ultrasound raised the global extraction yield of SFE up to 45%. The phenolic content of the extract increased with the application of higher ultrasound power and radiation time. The capsaicinoid yield was also enhanced with ultrasound up to 12%. However, the antioxidant capacity did not increase with the ultrasound application. The BET-based model and the broken and intact cell model fitted well to the kinetic SFE curves. The BET-based model with three adjustable parameters resulted in the best fits to the experimental data. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) images showed that SFE disturbed the vegetable matrix, releasing particles from the inner region of the plant cells to their surface. When the ultrasound was applied this effect was more pronounced. On the other hand, cracks, fissures or any sign of rupture were not identified on the sample surface. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. SNP Marker Integration and QTL Analysis of 12 Agronomic and Morphological Traits in F8 RILs of Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Fu-Hao; Kwon, Soon-Wook; Yoon, Min-Young; Kim, Ki-Taek; Cho, Myeong-Cheoul; Yoon, Moo-Kyung; Park, Yong-Jin

    2012-01-01

    Red pepper, Capsicum annuum L., has been attracting geneticists’ and breeders’ attention as one of the important agronomic crops. This study was to integrate 41 SNP markers newly developed from comparative transcriptomes into a previous linkage map, and map 12 agronomic and morphological traits into the integrated map. A total of 39 markers found precise position and were assigned to 13 linkage groups (LGs) as well as the unassigned LGe, leading to total 458 molecular markers present in this genetic map. Linkage mapping was supported by the physical mapping to tomato and potato genomes using BLAST retrieving, revealing at least two-thirds of the markers mapped to the corresponding LGs. A sum of 23 quantitative trait loci from 11 traits was detected using the composite interval mapping algorithm. A consistent interval between a035_1 and a170_1 on LG5 was detected as a main-effect locus among the resistance QTLs to Phytophthora capsici at high-, intermediate- and low-level tests, and interactions between the QTLs for high-level resistance test were found. Considering the epistatic effect, those QTLs could explain up to 98.25% of the phenotype variations of resistance. Moreover, 17 QTLs for another eight traits were found to locate on LG3, 4, and 12 mostly with varying phenotypic contribution. Furthermore, the locus for corolla color was mapped to LG10 as a marker. The integrated map and the QTLs identified would be helpful for current genetics research and crop breeding, especially in the Solanaceae family. PMID:22684870

  17. Mapping of a Novel Race Specific Resistance Gene to Phytophthora Root Rot of Pepper (Capsicum annuum Using Bulked Segregant Analysis Combined with Specific Length Amplified Fragment Sequencing Strategy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomei Xu

    Full Text Available Phytophthora root rot caused by Phytophthora capsici (P. capsici is a serious limitation to pepper production in Southern China, with high temperature and humidity. Mapping PRR resistance genes can provide linked DNA markers for breeding PRR resistant varieties by molecular marker-assisted selection (MAS. Two BC1 populations and an F2 population derived from a cross between P. capsici-resistant accession, Criollo de Morelos 334 (CM334 and P. capsici-susceptible accession, New Mexico Capsicum Accession 10399 (NMCA10399 were used to investigate the genetic characteristics of PRR resistance. PRR resistance to isolate Byl4 (race 3 was controlled by a single dominant gene, PhR10, that was mapped to an interval of 16.39Mb at the end of the long arm of chromosome 10. Integration of bulked segregant analysis (BSA and Specific Length Amplified Fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq provided an efficient genetic mapping strategy. Ten polymorphic Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR markers were found within this region and used to screen the genotypes of 636 BC1 plants, delimiting PhR10 to a 2.57 Mb interval between markers P52-11-21 (1.5 cM away and P52-11-41 (1.1 cM. A total of 163 genes were annotated within this region and 31 were predicted to be associated with disease resistance. PhR10 is a novel race specific gene for PRR, and this paper describes linked SSR markers suitable for marker-assisted selection of PRR resistant varieties, also laying a foundation for cloning the resistance gene.

  18. A Three-Year Field Validation Study to Improve the Integrated Pest Management of Hot Pepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Hoon Kim

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available To improve the integrated pest management (IPM of hot pepper, field study was conducted in Hwasung from 2010 to 2012 and an IPM system was developed to help growers decide when to apply pesticides to control anthracnose, tobacco budworm, Phytophthora blight, bacterial wilt, and bacterial leaf spot. The three field treatments consisted of IPM sprays following the forecast model advisory, a periodic spray at 7-to-10-day intervals, and no spray (control. The number of annual pesticide applications for the IPM treatment ranged from six to eight, whereas the plots subjected to the periodic treatment received pesticide 11 or 12 times annually for three years. Compared to the former strategy, our improved IPM strategy features more intense pest management, with frequent spraying for anthracnose and mixed spraying for tobacco budworm or Phytophthora blight. The incidences for no pesticide control in 2010, 2011, and 2012 were 91, 97.6, and 41.4%, respectively. Conversely, the incidences for the IPM treatment for those years were 7.6, 62.6, and 2%, and the yields from IPM-treated plots were 48.6 kg, 12.1 kg, and 48.8 kg. The incidence and yield in the IPM-treated plots were almost the same as those of the periodic treatment except in 2011, in which no unnecessary sprays were given, meaning that the IPM control was quite successful. From reviewing eight years of field work, sophisticated forecasts that optimize pesticide spray timing reveal that reliance on pesticides can be reduced without compromising yield. Eco-friendly strategies can be implemented in the pest management of hot pepper.

  19. Antimicrobial Activity of Some Synthetic Compounds on Fungi Associated with Post Harvest Rot of Red Pepper (Capsicum annum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew O. KOLAWOLE

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Rhizopus sp, Mucor sp, Collectotrichum capsici and Geotrichum candidum were isolated but pathogenic test revealed that Collectotrichum capsici and Geotrichum candidum were the most pathogenic of all the isolates. Ni2+ + Azo has the highest inhibitory effect, closely followed by Ni2+ + PAN while Copper (II complex of Thiourea has the lowest inhibitory effect. However, 10mg/ml concentration proved to be the most effective when radial mycelial growth of the test fungi was measured. The inhibitory effects of each complex on the isolates increases with increase in incubation period. There is the feasibility of using synthetic associated with the symptoms. The three synthetic compounds, Copper (II complex of Thiourea, Ni2+ + compounds as preservatives for harvested red pepper.

  20. Effect of seed treatment using low doses of X-rays in peppers plants (Capsicum annuum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez Fonseca, Alexander; Chavez Suarez, Licet; Ramirez Fernandez, Ramiro

    2013-01-01

    The influence of seed treatment with X-rays radiation on the growth and yield of peppers plants of the California Wonder variety was studied. The seeds were irradiated with X- rays irradiation source of low potency (11.47 Gy/min), with doses of 5, 10, 20 y 30 Gy, using untreated seeds as controls. Plant height (mm), root length (mm), stem diameter (mm), polar average diameter (mm) ecuatorial mean diameter (mm), mean fruit mass (g) and yield per plant (kg.plant''1 ) were evaluated. The results showed a significant improvement (p≤ 0.001) in the indicators of plants height (15%), root length (12%), stem diameter (7%), equatorial mean diameter (47%), mean fruit mass (16%) and yield per plant (107%), compared to control

  1. Response of Bemisia tabaci Genn. (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) biotype B to genotypes of pepper Capsicum annuum (Solanales: Solanaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballina-Gomez, H; Ruiz-Sanchez, E; Chan-Cupul, W; Latournerie-Moreno, L; Hernández-Alvarado, L; Islas-Flores, I; Zuñiga-Aguilar, J J

    2013-04-01

    Bemisia tabaci Genn. biotype B is a widely distributed plant pest that represents one of the major constraints for horticultural crop production. The purpose of the present work was to evaluate the oviposition preference, survivorship, and development of B. tabaci biotype B on semi-cultivated genotypes of Capsicum annuum from southeast Mexico. In free-choice experiments to evaluate the oviposition preference, lower number of eggs laid by B. tabaci biotype B was observed in the genotypes Maax and Xcat´ik relative to that in the commercial genotype Parado. Egg hatchability was significantly lower in Pico Paloma, Bolita, Blanco, Chawa, Payaso, and Xcat´ik than in the rest of the genotypes, including the commercial genotype Jalapeño. Likewise, survivorship of nymphs was significantly lower in Pico Paloma, Bolita, and Blanco than in the remaining genotypes. Nymph developmental time and the period of development from egg to adult were the shortest in Amaxito. Therefore, sources of resistance to B. tabaci biotype B by antibiosis (accumulation of plant defense compounds) might be found in the semi-cultivated genotypes Pico Paloma, Bolita, and Blanco.

  2. Productive and morphological characteristics of new capsicum varieties created in agricultural and technological research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đukić Živka

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Capsicum altogether with tomato is leading species of vegetable in our region. The claim of the marketplace and climatic conditions qualifies route of the selection. A capsicum variety has to be with high yield, to have quality and adaptability according to the ecological conditions of the region. In the Agricultural and technological research center-Zajecar during perennial research capsicum was the most important species. National committee verified two capsicum cultivars on year 2002nd as the product of this work One of them is the cultivar Julija; sweet capsicum with long fruits and the other is the cultivar Mina, chilly pepper. Variety Julija (known as L-ZA-10 were analyzing during two years on the three different locations (Novi Sad, Smederevska Palanka and Zajecar. Yield of the variety was on the level of standard - Župska rana and Gold medal. Julija always had a higher level of the yield than other varieties which were researched, especially in conditions of extremely high level of temperature and base air humidity. Variety Mina (known as L-ZA-1 was early maturing variety with higher yield and higher tolerance to plant diseases and vermins than standard variety Yellow hot chilli pepper. .

  3. Occurrence of pepper mild mottle virus in greenhousegrown pepper ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Severe systemic viral symptoms were observed on the leaves of infected pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) plants cultivated in Antalya located in the Mediterranean coast of Turkey, in 2008. The symptoms on the diseased pepper plants included, mosaic, mottle, chlorosis coupled with stunting, chlorotic spots, distortion of the ...

  4. Parthenocarpic fruit development in Capsicum annuum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiwari, A.

    2011-01-01

    Key words: Parthenocarpy, Capsicum, fruit set, hormones, cell division, cell expansion,

    auxin, gibberellin, temperature, carpel-like structures, genotype

    Parthenocarpy (fruit set without fertilization) is a much desired trait in sweet pepper

    (Capsicum

  5. Study on the technology of irradiation on hot pepper to inhibit Aspergllens flavus. Final report for the period 15 May 1987 - 15 May 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Qixun

    1988-01-01

    The effectiveness of irradiation on the sterilization of microorganisms and insects in dry hot pepper, as well as the changes in chemical composition and free radicals at different radiation doses, have been investigated

  6. Study on the technology of irradiation on hot pepper to inhibit Aspergllens flavus. Final report for the period 15 May 1987 - 15 May 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qixun, Chen [Sichuan Province Inst. of Nuclear Technology Application, Chengdu (China). Div. of Irradiation on Food

    1988-03-24

    The effectiveness of irradiation on the sterilization of microorganisms and insects in dry hot pepper, as well as the changes in chemical composition and free radicals at different radiation doses, have been investigated.

  7. Oleoresin Capsicum toxicology evaluation and hazard review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archuleta, M.M.

    1995-10-01

    Oleoresin Capsicum (OC) is an extract of the pepper plant used for centuries as a culinary spice (hot peppers). This material has been identified as a safe and effective Less-Than- Lethal weapon for use by Law enforcement and security professionals against assault. The National Institute of Justice (NIJ) is currently also evaluating its use in conjunction with other Less-Than-Lethal agents such as aqueous foam for use in corrections applications. Therefore, a comprehensive toxicological review of the literature was performed for the National Institute of Justice Less-Than-Lethal Force program to review and update the information available on the toxicity and adverse health effects associated with OC exposure. The results of this evaluation indicate that exposure to OC can result in dermatitis, as well as adverse nasal, pulmonary, and gastrointestinal effects in humans. The primary effects of OC exposure include pain and irritation of the mucous membranes of the eyes, nose, and lining of the mouth. Blistering and rash have been shown to occur after chronic or prolonged dermal exposure. Ingestion of capsicum may cause acute stinging of the lips, tongue, and oral mucosa and may lead to vomiting and diarrhea with large doses. OC vapors may also cause significant pulmonary irritation and prolonged cough. There is no evidence of long term effects associated with an acute exposure to OC, and extensive use as a culinary additive and medicinal ointment has further provided no evidence of long term adverse effects following repeated or prolonged exposure.

  8. Selection and a 3-Year Field Trial of Sorangium cellulosum KYC 3262 Against Anthracnose in Hot Pepper

    OpenAIRE

    Yun, Sung-Chul

    2014-01-01

    KYC 3262 was selected as a biocontrol agent against anthracnose on hot pepper from 813 extracts of myxobacterial isolates. Dual culture with Colletotrichum acutatum and 813 myxobacterial extracts was conducted, and 19 extracts were selected that inhibited germination and mycelial growth of C. acutatum. All selections were Sorangium cellulosum, which are cellulolytic myxobacteria from soil. With the infection bioassay on detached fruits in airtight containers, KYC 3262, KYC 3512, KYC 3279, and...

  9. Comparaison des effets des couvertures en polyéthylène des abri-serres de première et de deuxième année d'utilisation sur la croissance et le développement du piment fort (Capsicum annuum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouaouina, T.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparison of Effects Polyethylene Greenhouse Cover Age on Hot Pepper (Capsicum annuum L. Growth and Development. Hot pepper (variety Forty was grown under two plastic greenhouses S1 and S2 covered with a regular non colored polyethylene film in its first year of use for S1 and in its second year of use for S2. The microclimate of S1 compared to that of S2 yielded higher perfomences, improved the precocity, and increased the yield of green pepper.

  10. Genome-Wide Analyses of the NAC Transcription Factor Gene Family in Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.: Chromosome Location, Phylogeny, Structure, Expression Patterns, Cis-Elements in the Promoter, and Interaction Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiping Diao

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The NAM, ATAF1/2, and CUC2 (NAC transcription factors form a large plant-specific gene family, which is involved in the regulation of tissue development in response to biotic and abiotic stress. To date, there have been no comprehensive studies investigating chromosomal location, gene structure, gene phylogeny, conserved motifs, or gene expression of NAC in pepper (Capsicum annuum L.. The recent release of the complete genome sequence of pepper allowed us to perform a genome-wide investigation of Capsicum annuum L. NAC (CaNAC proteins. In the present study, a comprehensive analysis of the CaNAC gene family in pepper was performed, and a total of 104 CaNAC genes were identified. Genome mapping analysis revealed that CaNAC genes were enriched on four chromosomes (chromosomes 1, 2, 3, and 6. In addition, phylogenetic analysis of the NAC domains from pepper, potato, Arabidopsis, and rice showed that CaNAC genes could be clustered into three groups (I, II, and III. Group III, which contained 24 CaNAC genes, was exclusive to the Solanaceae plant family. Gene structure and protein motif analyses showed that these genes were relatively conserved within each subgroup. The number of introns in CaNAC genes varied from 0 to 8, with 83 (78.9% of CaNAC genes containing two or less introns. Promoter analysis confirmed that CaNAC genes are involved in pepper growth, development, and biotic or abiotic stress responses. Further, the expression of 22 selected CaNAC genes in response to seven different biotic and abiotic stresses [salt, heat shock, drought, Phytophthora capsici, abscisic acid, salicylic acid (SA, and methyl jasmonate (MeJA] was evaluated by quantitative RT-PCR to determine their stress-related expression patterns. Several putative stress-responsive CaNAC genes, including CaNAC72 and CaNAC27, which are orthologs of the known stress-responsive Arabidopsis gene ANAC055 and potato gene StNAC30, respectively, were highly regulated by treatment with

  11. Haematology and serum biochemistry of laying hens fed red pepper ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The hematology and serum biochemistry of ISA brown laying hens fed red pepper (Capsicum annum. L.) as feed additive in their diet was studied. Sixty (60) laying birds (in their 32nd week) were randomly allotted to four different dietary treatments with graded levels of red pepper (Capsicum annum. L.) as additive.

  12. Biocontrol Activity of Myxococcus sp. KYC 1126 against Phytophthora Blight on Hot Pepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Chul Yun

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Bacteriolytic myxobacteria have been known to secrete various antifungal metabolites against several soilborne phytopathogens including Phytophthora. Among the three isolates of Myxococcus spp., KYC 1126 and KYC 1136 perfectly inhibited the mycelial growth of Phytophtora capsici in vitro. In order to show the biocontrol activity on Phytophthora blight of hot pepper, we tried to find the best way of application of myxobacterial isolate. Although KYC 1126 fruiting body was easily grown on the colony of Escherichia coli as a nutrient source, it did not control the disease when it was pre-applied in soil. Before the bioassay of a liquid culture filtrate of KYC 1126 was conducted, its antifungal activity was confirmed on the seedlings applying with the mixture of the pathogen`s zoospore suspension and KYC 1126 filtrate. On greenhouse experiments with five and four replications, the control value of KYC 1126 on phyllosphere and rhizosphere was 88% and 36%, respectively. Whereas, the control value of dimetnomorph+propineb on phyllosphere was 100% and that of propamorcarb on rhizosphere was 44%. There was a phytotoxicity of the myxobacterial filtrate when seedlings were washed and soaked for 24 hours. Gummy materials were covered with roots. And stem and petiole were constricted, then a whole seedling was eventually blighted.

  13. The molluscicidal effects of extracts of Capsicum annuum (Sweet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Extracts of sweet pepper (Capsicum annum), black pepper (Piper nigrum) and scent leaves (Ocimum basilicum) were introduced to fresh water snail samples, the intermediate hosts of schistosomiasis, to test their molluscicidal effects. The materials were extracted using soxhlet extraction. Black pepper (Piper nigrum) was ...

  14. Comparison of Sensitivity to Photoinhibition and UV-B Stress between Developing and Mature Leaves of Red Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) Plants from Control and Gamma-Irradiated Seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.H.; Baek, M.H.; Chung, B.Y.; Kim, J.S.; Lee, Y.B.

    2004-01-01

    The stress-resistance of red pepper (Capsicum annuum L. cv. Yeomyung and Joheung) plants from the seeds irradiated with low doses of gamma-radiation (2, 4, 8, and 16 Gy) was examined under the conditions of photoinhibition and UV-B stress. To induce photoinhibition, the leaves acclimated overnight with a dim light were exposed to a photon flux density (PFD) of 200 μmol · m-² · s-¹ at 25℃ for 1 h. Then, they were further exposed to the same PFD with supplementary UV-B irradiance at 25℃ for 3 h (UV-B stress). The gamma-irradiation stimulated the early growth of the plants in both cultivars at 2, 4, and 8 Gy

  15. A Further Analysis of the Relationship between Yellow Ripe-Fruit Color and the Capsanthin-Capsorubin Synthase Gene in Pepper (Capsicum sp.) Indicated a New Mutant Variant in C. annuum and a Tandem Repeat Structure in Promoter Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Xiao-Ling; Chang, Xiao-Bei; Gong, Zhen-Hui

    2013-01-01

    Mature pepper (Capsicum sp.) fruits come in a variety of colors, including red, orange, yellow, brown, and white. To better understand the genetic and regulatory relationships between the yellow fruit phenotype and the capsanthin-capsorubin synthase gene (Ccs), we examined 156 Capsicum varieties, most of which were collected from Northwest Chinese landraces. A new ccs variant was identified in the yellow fruit cultivar CK7. Cluster analysis revealed that CK7, which belongs to the C. annuum species, has low genetic similarity to other yellow C. annuum varieties. In the coding sequence of this ccs allele, we detected a premature stop codon derived from a C to G change, as well as a downstream frame-shift caused by a 1-bp nucleotide deletion. In addition, the expression of the gene was detected in mature CK7 fruit. Furthermore, the promoter sequences of Ccs from some pepper varieties were examined, and we detected a 176-bp tandem repeat sequence in the promoter region. In all C. annuum varieties examined in this study, the repeat number was three, compared with four in two C. chinense accessions. The sequence similarity ranged from 84.8% to 97.7% among the four types of repeats, and some putative cis-elements were also found in every repeat. This suggests that the transcriptional regulation of Ccs expression is complex. Based on the analysis of the novel C. annuum mutation reported here, along with the studies of three mutation types in yellow C. annuum and C. chinense accessions, we suggest that the mechanism leading to the production of yellow color fruit may be not as complex as that leading to orange fruit production. PMID:23637942

  16. Non-destructive and rapid prediction of moisture content in red pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) powder using near-infrared spectroscopy and a partial least squares regression model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to develop a technique for the non-destructive and rapid prediction of the moisture content in red pepper powder using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and a partial least squares regression (PLSR) model. Methods: Three red pepper powder products were separated in...

  17. Development of a real-time PCR method for the differential detection and quantification of four solanaceae in GMO analysis: potato (Solanum tuberosum), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), eggplant (Solanum melongena), and pepper (Capsicum annuum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaouachi, Maher; El Malki, Redouane; Berard, Aurélie; Romaniuk, Marcel; Laval, Valérie; Brunel, Dominique; Bertheau, Yves

    2008-03-26

    The labeling of products containing genetically modified organisms (GMO) is linked to their quantification since a threshold for the presence of fortuitous GMOs in food has been established. This threshold is calculated from a combination of two absolute quantification values: one for the specific GMO target and the second for an endogenous reference gene specific to the taxon. Thus, the development of reliable methods to quantify GMOs using endogenous reference genes in complex matrixes such as food and feed is needed. Plant identification can be difficult in the case of closely related taxa, which moreover are subject to introgression events. Based on the homology of beta-fructosidase sequences obtained from public databases, two couples of consensus primers were designed for the detection, quantification, and differentiation of four Solanaceae: potato (Solanum tuberosum), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), pepper (Capsicum annuum), and eggplant (Solanum melongena). Sequence variability was studied first using lines and cultivars (intraspecies sequence variability), then using taxa involved in gene introgressions, and finally, using taxonomically close taxa (interspecies sequence variability). This study allowed us to design four highly specific TaqMan-MGB probes. A duplex real time PCR assay was developed for simultaneous quantification of tomato and potato. For eggplant and pepper, only simplex real time PCR tests were developed. The results demonstrated the high specificity and sensitivity of the assays. We therefore conclude that beta-fructosidase can be used as an endogenous reference gene for GMO analysis.

  18. Characterization of the pigment fraction in sweet bell peppers (Capsicum annuum L.) harvested at green and overripe yellow and red stages by offline multidimensional convergence chromatography/liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaccorsi, Ivana; Cacciola, Francesco; Utczas, Margita; Inferrera, Veronica; Giuffrida, Daniele; Donato, Paola; Dugo, Paola; Mondello, Luigi

    2016-09-01

    Offline multidimensional supercritical fluid chromatography combined with reversed-phase liquid chromatography was employed for the carotenoid and chlorophyll characterization in different sweet bell peppers (Capsicum annuum L.) for the first time. The first dimension consisted of an Acquity HSS C18 SB (100 × 3 mm id, 1.8 μm particles) column operated with a supercritical mobile phase in an ultra-performance convergence chromatography system, whereas the second dimension was performed in reversed-phase mode with a C30 (250 × 4.6 mm id, 3.0 μm particles) stationary phase combined with photodiode array and mass spectrometry detection. This approach allowed the determination of 115 different compounds belonging to chlorophylls, free xanthophylls, free carotenes, xanthophyll monoesters, and xanthophyll diesters, and proved to be a significant improvement in the pigments determination compared to the conventional one-dimensional liquid chromatography approach so far applied to the carotenoid analysis in the studied species. Moreover, the present study also aimed to investigate and to compare the carotenoid stability and composition in overripe yellow and red bell peppers collected directly from the plant, thus also evaluating whether biochemical changes are linked to carotenoid degradation in the nonclimacteric investigated fruits, for the first time. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Phytochemical Evaluation of Wild and Cultivated Pepper (Capsicum annuum L. and C. pubescens Ruiz & Pav. from Oaxaca, Mexico Evaluación Fitoquímica en Chile (Capsicum annuum L. and C. pubescens Ruiz & Pav. Silvestre y Cultivado en Oaxaca, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araceli Minerva Vera-Guzmán

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Reports of the last decade show that some types of food and spices included in the human diet, such as pepper (Capsicum annuum L. can have a positive effect on human health. The Mexican pepper germplasm is poorly documented with regard to variety and the amount of phytochemical compounds that it contains. In the present study, the variation of phytochemical compounds was evaluated in nine fruit variants (morphotypes of wild and cultivated pepper grown in Oaxaca. ANOVA detected significant differences among pepper morphotypes and ripeness stages of fruits; vitamin C, total phenols, flavonoids, P-carotene, coordinated chromatic of color, and capsaicinoids. The highest values of vitamin C were found in 'Tabaquero', 'Guero' and 'Costeño' morphotypes (151.6 to 183.2 mg 100 g-1. With regard to total phenols and flavonoids, 'Piquín' and 'Solterito' had the highest levels. Coordinates of color a* and b*, and chroma presented a positive correlation with phenol and flavonoid contents. The evaluated morphotypes differed in capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin; C. annuum had higher capsaicin content (4.9 to 142 /En la última década, se reportó que el consumo de ciertos alimentos y especias, como el chile (Capsicum annuum L., pueden tener un efecto positivo en la salud. Particularmente, los acervos genéticos mexicanos de chile están poco documentados en relación a la diversidad desde la perspectiva fitoquímica. En este trabajo se evaluó la variación de compuestos fitoquímicos en nueve morfotipos de chile silvestres y cultivados de Oaxaca. El ANDEVA detectó diferencias significativas entre morfotipos y estados de madurez en vitamina C, fenoles, flavonoides, P-caroteno, color, y capsaicinoides. Los valores más altos de vitamina C se determinaron en 'Tabaquero', 'Guero' y 'Costeño' (151.6 a 183.2 mg 100 g-1. En fenoles y flavonoides sobresalieron los tipos 'Piquin' y 'Solterito'. Las coordenadas cromáticas a* y b*, y los tonos (C* se correlacionaron

  20. Characterization of CaHsp70-1, a Pepper Heat-Shock Protein Gene in Response to Heat Stress and Some Regulation Exogenous Substances in Capsicum annuum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Meng; Zhai, Yu-Fei; Lu, Jin-Ping; Chai, Lin; Chai, Wei-Guo; Gong, Zhen-Hui; Lu, Ming-Hui

    2014-01-01

    Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) is sensitive to heat stress (HS). Heat shock proteins 70 (Hsp70s) play a crucial role in protecting plant cells against HS and control varies characters in different plants. However, CaHsp70-1 gene was not well characterized in pepper. In this study, CaHsp70-1 was cloned from the pepper thermotolerant line R9, which encoded a protein of 652 amino acids, with a molecular weight of 71.54 kDa and an isoelectric point of 5.20. CaHsp70-1 belongs to the cytosolic Hsp70 subgroup, and best matched with tomato SlHsp70. CaHsp70-1 was highly induced in root, stem, leaf and flower in R9 with HS treatment (40 °C for 2 h). In both thermosensitive line B6 and thermotolerant line R9, CaHsp70-1 significantly increased after 0.5 h of HS (40 °C), and maintained in a higher level after 4 h HS. The expression of CaHsp70-1 induced by CaCl2, H2O2 and putrescine (Put) under HS were difference between B6 and R9 lines. The different expression patterns may be related to the differences in promoters of CaHsp70-1 from the two lines. These results suggest that CaHsp70-1 as a member of cytosolic Hsp70 subgroup, may be involved in HS defense response via a signal transduction pathway contained Ca2+, H2O2 and Put. PMID:25356507

  1. Evaluación de accesiones de Capsicum spp. por su reacción al virus del mosaico deformante del pimentón (PepDMV Screening of Capsicum spp. to the deforming mosaic virus from pepper (PepDMV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Pardey R

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron 235 accesiones de Capsicum spp. procedentes del Banco de Germoplasma de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia sede Palmira en condiciones de invernadero por su reacción al Virus deformante del Pimentón (PepDMV. Solamente se identificaron 13 accesiones (5% como resistentes al virus, según la ausencia de síntomas y ausencia del virus en pruebas serológicas (PTA-ELISA y RT-PCR. Los materiales resistentes incluyen variedades de C. annuum, C. frutescens, C. chinense y C. baccatum.A total of 235 accessions of Capsicum sp from the gene bank of the Colombian National University campus Palmira’s were screened under controlled glasshouse conditions for their reaction to pepper deforming mosaic virus. Only 5.5 % 8139 of the accessions inoculated showed resistance to the Virus, as determined by symptom expression and serological (PTA-ELISA and RT-PCR. The resistant genotypes included varieties of C. annuum, C frutescens, C. chinense y C. baccatum.

  2. Screening of wild and cultivated Capsicum germplasm reveals new sources of Verticillium wilt resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verticillium wilt caused by Verticillium dahliae is an important soilborne disease of pepper (Capsicum species) worldwide. Most commercial pepper cultivars lack resistance to this pathogen. Our objective was to identify resistance to multiple V. dahliae isolates in wild and cultivated Capsicum acces...

  3. Quantification of vitamin D3 and its hydroxylated metabolites in waxy leaf nightshade (Solanum glaucophyllum Desf.), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) and bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jäpelt, Rie Bak; Silvestro, Daniele; Smedsgaard, Jørn

    2013-01-01

    Changes in vitamin D3 and its metabolites were investigated following UVB- and heat-treatment in the leaves of Solanum glaucophyllum Desf., Solanum lycopersicum L. and Capsicum annuum L. The analytical method used was a sensitive and selective liquid chromatography electrospray ionisation tandem ...

  4. 7 CFR 319.56-31 - Peppers from Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Peppers from Spain. 319.56-31 Section 319.56-31... from Spain. Peppers (fruit) (Capsicum spp.) may be imported into the United States from Spain only... subpart: (a) The peppers must be grown in the Alicante or Almeria Province of Spain in pest-proof...

  5. Visualizing Capsaicinoids: Colorimetric Analysis of Chili Peppers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Robert Q.; Chu, Christopher; Gent, Robin; Gould, Alexandra P.; Rios, Laura; Vertigan, Theresa M.

    2012-01-01

    A colorimetric method for total capsaicinoids in chili pepper ("Capsicum") fruit is described. The placental material of the pepper, containing 90% of the capsaicinoids, was physically separated from the colored materials in the pericarp and extracted twice with methanol, capturing 85% of the remaining capsaicinoids. The extract, evaporated and…

  6. Simultaneous and individual quantitative estimation of Salmonella, Shigella and Listeria monocytogenes on inoculated Roma tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum var. Pyriforme) and Serrano peppers (Capsicum annuum) using an MPN technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera-Díaz, E; Martínez-Chávez, L; Sánchez-Camarena, J; Muñiz-Flores, J A; Castillo, A; Gutiérrez-González, P; Arvizu-Medrano, S M; González-Aguilar, D G; Martínez-Gonzáles, N E

    2018-08-01

    Simultaneous and individual enumeration of Salmonella, Shigella and Listeria monocytogenes was compared on inoculated Roma tomatoes and Serrano peppers using an Most Probable Number (MPN) technique. Samples consisting of tomatoes (4 units) or peppers (8 units) were individually inoculated with a cocktail of three strains of Salmonella, Shigella or L. monocytogenes, or by simultaneous inoculation of three strains of each pathogen, at low (1.2-1.7 log CFU/sample) and high (2.2-2.7 log CFU/sample) inocula. Samples were analyzed by an MPN technique using universal pre-enrichment (UP) broth at 35 °C for 24 ± 2 h. The UP tubes from each MPN series were transferred to enrichment and plating media following adequate conventional methods for isolating each pathogen. Data were analyzed using multifactorial analysis of variance (p  simultaneous), type of bacteria (Salmonella > Shigella and L. monocytogenes), type of sample (UP broth > pepper and tomato), and inoculum level (high > low). The MPN technique was effective for Salmonella on both commodities. Shigella counts were higher on tomatoes compared to peppers, (p < 0.05), and for L. monocytogenes on peppers (p < 0.05). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Antioxidant Capacity and Total Phenolic Content in Fruit Tissues from Accessions of Capsicum chinense Jacq. (Habanero Pepper at Different Stages of Ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizbeth A. Castro-Concha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past few years, there has been a renewed interest in studying a wide variety of food products that show beneficial effects on human health. Capsicum is an important agricultural crop, not only because its economic importance, but also for the nutritional values of its pods, mainly due to the fact that they are an excellent source of antioxidant compounds, and also of specific constituents such as the pungent capsaicinoids localized in the placental tissue. This current study was designed to evaluate the antioxidant capacity and total phenolic contents from fruits tissues of two Capsicum chinense accessions, namely, Chak k’an-iik (orange and MR8H (red, at contrasting maturation stages. Results showed that red immature placental tissue, with a Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC value of 55.59 μmols TE g−1 FW, exhibited the strongest total antioxidant capacity using both the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and the CUPRAC methods. Placental tissue also had the highest total phenolic content (27 g GAE 100 g−1 FW. The antioxidant capacity of Capsicum was directly related to the total amount of phenolic compounds detected. In particular, placentas had high levels of capsaicinoids, which might be the principal responsible for their strong antioxidant activities.

  8. Antioxidant Capacity and Total Phenolic Content in Fruit Tissues from Accessions of Capsicum chinense Jacq. (Habanero Pepper) at Different Stages of Ripening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuyub-Che, Jemina; Moo-Mukul, Angel; Vazquez-Flota, Felipe A.; Miranda-Ham, Maria L.

    2014-01-01

    In the past few years, there has been a renewed interest in studying a wide variety of food products that show beneficial effects on human health. Capsicum is an important agricultural crop, not only because its economic importance, but also for the nutritional values of its pods, mainly due to the fact that they are an excellent source of antioxidant compounds, and also of specific constituents such as the pungent capsaicinoids localized in the placental tissue. This current study was designed to evaluate the antioxidant capacity and total phenolic contents from fruits tissues of two Capsicum chinense accessions, namely, Chak k'an-iik (orange) and MR8H (red), at contrasting maturation stages. Results showed that red immature placental tissue, with a Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) value of 55.59 μmols TE g−1 FW, exhibited the strongest total antioxidant capacity using both the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and the CUPRAC methods. Placental tissue also had the highest total phenolic content (27 g GAE 100 g−1 FW). The antioxidant capacity of Capsicum was directly related to the total amount of phenolic compounds detected. In particular, placentas had high levels of capsaicinoids, which might be the principal responsible for their strong antioxidant activities. PMID:24683361

  9. Detection of pyridaben residue levels in hot pepper fruit and leaves by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry: effect of household processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Woo; Abd El-Aty, A M; Rahman, Md Musfiqur; Choi, Jeong-Heui; Choi, Ok-Ja; Rhee, Gyu-Seek; Chang, Moon-Ik; Kim, Heejung; Abid, Morad D N; Shin, Sung Chul; Shim, Jae-Han

    2015-07-01

    Following quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe (QuEChERS) and LC/MS/MS analysis, pyridaben residual levels were determined in unprocessed and processed hot pepper fruit and leaves. The linearities were satisfactory with determination coefficients (R(2)) in excess of 0.995 in processed and unprocessed pepper fruit and leaves. Recoveries at various concentrations were 79.9-105.1% with relative standard deviations ≤15%. The limits of quantitation of 0.003-0.012 mg/kg were very low compared with the maximum residue limits (2-5 mg/kg) set by the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety, Republic of Korea. The effects of various household processes, including washing, blanching, frying and drying under different conditions (water volume, blanching time and temperature) on residual concentrations were evaluated. Both washing and blanching (in combination with high water volume and time factor) significantly reduced residue levels in hot pepper fruit and leaves compared with other processes. In sum, the developed method was satisfactory and could be used to accurately detect residues in unprocessed and processed pepper fruit and leaves. It is recommended that pepper fruit/leaves be blanched after washing before being consumed to protect consumers from the negative health effects of detected pesticide residues. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Chemical composition of Clinopodium menthifolium aqueous extract and its influence on antioxidant system in black nightshade (Solanum nigrum and pepper (Capsicum annuum seedlings and mortality rate of whitefly (Trialeurodes vaporariorum adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Šućur

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The use of allelochemicals as weed control agents is becoming widely investigated. However, the impact of these bioherbicides on cultivated plants is less known. This study was carried out in order to evaluate the allelopathic effects of the aqueous extract of Clinopodium menthifolium on black nightshade (Solanum nigrum antioxidant properties to explore the potential of this species in weed control and on pepper (Capsicum annuum antioxidant properties so as to assess its possible side effects when applied as bioherbicide in organic production. Taking into account that plant extracts should be an alternative source for insect control, additional aim was also to evaluate contact effect of C. menthifolium aqueous extract against the greenhouse whitefly (Trialeurodes vaporariorum. Analysis by HPLC confirmed the presence of gallic acid, caffeic acid and 2-hidroxy-cinnamic acid as major components in the C. menthifolium aqueous extract. Both tested concentrations of C. menthifolium aqueous extract induced lipid peroxidation in black nightshade leaves and roots. It was observed that the aqueous extract with a concentration of 0.1% showed a toxic effect with 50% mortality of greenhouse whitefly adults.

  11. Effect of the interaction of heat-processing style and fat type on the micellarization of lipid-soluble pigments from green and red pungent peppers (Capsicum annuum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victoria-Campos, Claudia I; Ornelas-Paz, José de Jesús; Yahia, Elhadi M; Failla, Mark L

    2013-04-17

    The high diversity of carotenoids and chlorophylls in foods contrasts with the reduced number of pigments that typically are investigated in micellarization studies. In this study, pepper samples (raw and heat-treated) contained 68 individual pigments, but only 38 of them were micellarized after in vitro digestion. The micellarization of pigments was majorly determined by the interaction effect of processing style (food matrix effect) and fat type (saturated and unsaturated). The highest micellarization was observed with raw peppers. Unsaturated fat increased the micellarization of carotenoid esters, while the impact of fat on the micellarization of free carotenoids seemed to be dependent on pigment structure. The micellarization efficiency was diminished as the esterification level of carotenoids increased. The type of fatty acid moiety and the polarity of the carotenoids modulated their micellarization. Chlorophylls were transformed into pheophytins by heat-processing and digestion, with the pheophytins being stable under gastrointestinal conditions. Micellarization of pheophytins was improved by fat.

  12. Effectiveness of the native strain of Bacillus subtilis as a suppressant agent of the nematode Meloidogyne spp knot in cultures of Capsicum annuum “piquillo pepper chili”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Mercedes Soto Deza

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In croping fields infested with nematodes, the RCBD complete blocks design was applied. 85% pure chicken manure was also incorporated, 15 t / ha and 30 t /. Spores of B. subtilis, 1 X106 eng / mL and 2 x 106 sperm / mL Capsicum annuum seeds in direct seeding were inoculated (experiment I and transplantation (experiment II. At 45 and 90 days analysis of nematode populations were determined, nodulation index, plant height and fruit number. The data was subjected to analysis of variance using the Statgraphics Plus 5.0 software. To estimate the significant differences between treatments, the Tukey test was applied. Initially, the study showed highly infested knot nematode Meloidogyne spp., 275 to 27720 soil nematodes/100 cm3, and in Trial II it was between 9 and 1 nematodes/100 cm3 of soil, with significant difference (P & 0.05. The final population recorded after the application of Bacillus subtilis, was 13 and 0 nematodes/100 cm3 of soil, the nematode  population levels, decreased significantly, showing significant difference (P & 0.05. Efficacy of B. subtilis on Meloidogyne spp., it was clear, reduced initial populations of the nematode, reaching a reproduction rate less than 1, non-galling index reached grade 3. The interaction of B. subtilis with poultry manure amendment favored the production achieved in the cultivation of Capsicum annuum.

  13. Genetic diversity, population structure, and heritability of fruit traits in Capsicum annuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cultivated pepper (Capsicum annuum) is a phenotypically diverse species grown throughout the world. Wild and landrace peppers are typically small-fruited and pungent, but contain many important traits such as insect and disease resistance. Cultivated peppers vary dramatically in size, shape, pungenc...

  14. Reversed-Phase High-Performance Liquid Chromatography for the Quantification and Optimization for Extracting 10 Kinds of Carotenoids in Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Xie, Jianming; Yu, Jihua; Lv, Jian; Zhang, Junfeng; Wang, Xiaolong; Wang, Cheng; Tang, Chaonan; Zhang, Yingchun; Dawuda, Mohammed Mujitaba; Zhu, Daiqiang; Ma, Guoli

    2017-09-27

    Carotenoids are considered to be crucial elements in many fields and, furthermore, the significant factor in pepper leaves under low light and chilling temperature. However, little literature focused on the method to determinate and extract the contents of carotenoid compositions in pepper leaves. Therefore, a time-saving and highly sensitive reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method for separation and quantification of 10 carotenoids was developed, and an optimized technological process for carotenoid composition extraction in pepper leaves was established for the first time. Our final method concluded that six xanthophylls eluted after about 9-26 min. In contrast, four carotenes showed higher retention times after nearly 28-40 min, which significantly shortened time and improved efficiency. Meanwhile, we suggested that 8 mL of 20% KOH-methanol solution should be added to perform saponification at 60 °C for 30 min. The ratio of solid-liquid was 1:8, and the ultrasound-assisted extraction time was 40 min.

  15. Melatonin and resveratrol reverse the toxic effect of high boron (B) and modulate biochemical parameters in pepper plants (Capsicum annuum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarafi, Eleana; Tsouvaltzis, Pavlos; Chatzissavvidis, Christos; Siomos, Anastasios; Therios, Ioannis

    2017-03-01

    The objectives of this research were to test a possible involvement of melatonin (MEL) and resveratrol (RES) in restoring growth and to control boron (B) toxicity in peppers. The plants were subjected to four different nutrient solution treatments as following: 1) half-strength Hoagland's nutrient solution (Control), 2) half-strength Hoagland's nutrient solution+100 μM B (100 μMB), 3) half-strength Hoagland's nutrient solution+100 μM boron+100 μMresveratrol (100 μMRES), and 4) half-strength Hoagland's nutrient solution+100 μM B+1 μMmelatonin (1 μM MEL). Pepper plants subjected to B excess (100 μM) for 68 days (d) exhibited visible B toxicity symptoms, reduced rate of photosynthesis (Pn) and reduced dry weight (DW), while their leaf and fruit had the greatest increase of B concentration. The reduction of photosynthesis was restored, the reduction of DW was prevented, while the B leaf and fruit accumulation was moderated with the application of both 100 μMresveratrol (RES) and 1 μMmelatonin (MEL). Moreover, plants exposed to MEL and/or RES displayed no visible B toxicity symptoms. The present study revealed a novel role of MEL and/or RES in the adaptation of pepper plants to B excess based on plant growth, physiological and biochemical criteria. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Analysis of the meiotic transcriptome reveals the genes related to the regulation of pollen abortion in cytoplasmic male-sterile pepper (Capsicum annuum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yilan; Liao, Lijuan; Jin, Xiaorui; Mao, Dandan; Liu, Rushi

    2018-01-30

    CMS, which refers to the inability to generate functional pollen grains while still producing a normal gynoecium, has been widely used for pepper hybrid seed production. Pepper line 8214A is an excellent CMS line exhibiting 100% male sterility and superior economic characteristics. A TUNEL assay revealed the nuclear DNA is damaged in 8214A PMCs during meiosis. TEM images indicated that the 8214A PMCs exhibited asynchronous meiosis after prophase I, and some PMCs degraded prematurely with morphological features typical of PCD. Additionally, at the end of meiosis, the 8214A PMCs formed abnormal non-tetrahedral tetrads that degraded in situ. To identify the genes involved in the pollen abortion of line 8214A, the transcriptional profiles of the 8214A and the 8214B anthers (i.e., from the fertile maintainer line) during meiosis were analyzed using an RNA-seq approach. A total of 1355 genes were determined to be differentially expressed, including 424 and 931 up- and down- regulated genes, respectively, in the 8214A anthers during meiosis relative to the expression levels in the 8214B. The expression levels of ubiquitin ligase and cell cycle-related genes were apparently down-regulated, while the expression of methyltransferase genes was up-regulated in the 8214A anthers during meiosis, which likely contributed to the PCD of these PMCs during meiosis. Thus, our results may be useful for revealing the molecular mechanism regulating the pollen abortion of CMS pepper. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Synthetic and Empirical Capsicum Annuum Image Dataset

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barth, R.

    2016-01-01

    This dataset consists of per-pixel annotated synthetic (10500) and empirical images (50) of Capsicum annuum, also known as sweet or bell pepper, situated in a commercial greenhouse. Furthermore, the source models to generate the synthetic images are included. The aim of the datasets are to

  18. Characterisation, immunolocalisation and antifungal activity of a lipid transfer protein from chili pepper (Capsicum annuum) seeds with novel α-amylase inhibitory properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diz, Mariângela S; Carvalho, Andre O; Ribeiro, Suzanna F F; Da Cunha, Maura; Beltramini, Leila; Rodrigues, Rosana; Nascimento, Viviane V; Machado, Olga L T; Gomes, Valdirene M

    2011-07-01

    Lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) were thus named because they facilitate the transfer of lipids between membranes in vitro. This study was triggered by the characterization of a 9-kDa LTP from Capsicum annuum seeds that we call Ca-LTP(1) . Ca-LTP(1) was repurified, and in the last chromatographic purification step, propanol was used as the solvent in place of acetonitrile to maintain the protein's biological activity. Bidimensional electrophoresis of the 9-kDa band, which corresponds to the purified Ca-LTP(1) , showed the presence of three isoforms with isoelectric points (pIs) of 6.0, 8.5 and 9.5. Circular dichroism (CD) analysis suggested a predominance of α-helices, as expected for the structure of an LTP family member. LTPs immunorelated to Ca-LTP(1) from C. annuum were also detected by western blotting in exudates released from C. annuum seeds and also in other Capsicum species. The tissue and subcellular localization of Ca-LTP(1) indicated that it was mainly localized within dense vesicles. In addition, isolated Ca-LTP(1) exhibited antifungal activity against Colletotrichum lindemunthianum, and especially against Candida tropicalis, causing several morphological changes to the cells including the formation of pseudohyphae. Ca-LTP(1) also caused the yeast plasma membrane to be permeable to the dye SYTOX green, as verified by fluorescence microscopy. We also found that Ca-LTP(1) is able to inhibit mammalian α-amylase activity in vitro. Copyright © Physiologia Plantarum 2011.

  19. Construction of 2 intraspecific linkage maps and identification of resistance QTLs for Phytophthora capsici root-rot and foliar-blight diseases of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogundiwin, Ebenezer A; Berke, Terry F; Massoudi, Mark; Black, Lowell L; Huestis, Gordon; Choi, Doil; Lee, Sanghyeob; Prince, James P

    2005-08-01

    Two linkage maps of pepper were constructed and used to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) conferring resistance to Phytophthora capsici. Inoculations were done with 7 isolates: 3 from Taiwan, 3 from California, and 1 from New Mexico. The first map was constructed from a set of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of the PSP-11 (susceptible) x PI201234 (resistant) cross; and the second map was from a set of F(2) lines of the Joe E. Parker' (susceptible) x 'Criollo de Morelos 334' (resistant) cross. The RIL map covered 1466.1 cM of the pepper genome, and it consisted of 144 markers -- 91 amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs), 34 random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPDs), 15 simple sequence repeats (SSRs), 1 sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR), and 3 morphological markers -- distributed over 17 linkage groups. The morphological markers mapped on this population were erect fruit habit (up), elongated fruit shape (fs(e)), and fasciculate fruit clusters (fa). The F(2) map consisted of 113 markers (51 AFLPs, 45 RAPDs, 14 SSRs, and 3 SCARs) distributed in 16 linkage groups, covering a total of 1089.2 cM of the pepper genome. Resistance to both root rot and foliar blight were evaluated in the RIL population using the 3 Taiwan isolates; the remaining isolates were used for the root-rot test only. Sixteen chromosomal regions of the RIL map contained single QTLs or clusters of resistance QTLs that had an effect on root rot and (or) foliar blight, revealing a complex set of genetics involved in resistance to P. capsici. Five QTLs were detected in the F(2) map that had an effect on resistance to root rot.

  20. Effect of serial irradiation of low dose gamma rays on the growth and photosynthesis of red pepper (capsicum annuum L.) plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Hong; Wi, Seung Gon; Chung, Byung Yeoup; Baek, Myung Hwa; Yang, Dae Hwa; Kim, Jae Sung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    Ionizing radiation at several grays can induce growth stimulation in plants. This phenomenon has been called 'radiation hormesis'. Low dose radiation also modulates photosynthesis. Although an alteration in photosynthesis has been thought to involve in the growth stimulation of irradiated plants, no reports did clarify their relationship yet. In the present study, we attempted to reveal a possible relationship between them by comparing the effects of serial gamma-irradiation on the growth and photosynthesis of red pepper. Furthermore, something beyond the dose effect of ionizing radiation is discussed by this new experimental approach.

  1. Transcriptome sequencing and de novo analysis of a cytoplasmic male sterile line and its near-isogenic restorer line in chili pepper (Capsicum annuum L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The use of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS in F1 hybrid seed production of chili pepper is increasingly popular. However, the molecular mechanisms of cytoplasmic male sterility and fertility restoration remain poorly understood due to limited transcriptomic and genomic data. Therefore, we analyzed the difference between a CMS line 121A and its near-isogenic restorer line 121C in transcriptome level using next generation sequencing technology (NGS, aiming to find out critical genes and pathways associated with the male sterility. RESULTS: We generated approximately 53 million sequencing reads and assembled de novo, yielding 85,144 high quality unigenes with an average length of 643 bp. Among these unigenes, 27,191 were identified as putative homologs of annotated sequences in the public protein databases, 4,326 and 7,061 unigenes were found to be highly abundant in lines 121A and 121C, respectively. Many of the differentially expressed unigenes represent a set of potential candidate genes associated with the formation or abortion of pollen. CONCLUSIONS: Our study profiled anther transcriptomes of a chili pepper CMS line and its restorer line. The results shed the lights on the occurrence and recovery of the disturbances in nuclear-mitochondrial interaction and provide clues for further investigations.

  2. Qualitative analysis of MDR-reversing Anastasia Black (Russian black sweet pepper, Capsicum annuum, Solanaceae) extracts and fractions by HPLC and LC-MS-MS methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelz, Zsuzsanna; Molnár, Joseph; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Ferracane, Rosalia; Pernice, Rita; Shirataki, Yoshiaki; Motohashi, Noboru

    2006-01-01

    In earlier experiments, the MDR (multidrug resistance)-reversal activities of Anastasia Black (Russian black sweet pepper) extracts had been analysed. Recently, the most effective MDR reversing extracts and fractions have been separated by HPLC (high-performance liquid chromatography, for carotenoids) and LC-MS-MS (HPLC combined with mass spectrometry, for phenolic compounds) methods. As a result of the analytical studies, the following flavonoids had been identified: feruloyl glucopyranoside, quercetin rhamnopyranoside glucopyranoside, luteolin glucopyranoside arabinopyranoside, apigenin glucopyranoside arabinopyranoside, quercetin rhamnopyranoside, luteolin arabinopyranoside diglucopy-ranoside, hesperidine and luteolin glucuronide. According to the literature, the aglycones of these phenolic compounds exhibit MDR-reversal activity in vitro, and the connection between the phenolic content of Anastasia Black and MDR-reversal action was therefore studied by different analytical methods. The results of this study revealed that the identified flavonoids of Anastasia Black may be only partially responsible for the modulation of the MDR of mouse lymphoma cells. Other lipophilic compounds, most probably carotenoids, present in Russian black sweet pepper may act as inhibitors of MDR reversal.

  3. Reúso de água residuária na produção de pimentão (Capsicum annuum L. Wastewater reuse in the production of green pepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José T. de Sousa

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Com o presente trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar o desempenho da cultura do pimentão (Capsicum annuum L., submetida a cinco tratamentos distintos: 1 irrigação com água de poço e solo sem adubação; 2 irrigação com água de poço e solo com adubação mineral completa; 3 irrigação com água de poço e solo com adubação orgânica (vermicomposto; 4 irrigação com efluente de lagoa de polimento, e 5 irrigação com efluentes de reator UASB. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições, cujos dados foram submetidos à análise de variância e ao teste de Tukey. A cultura do pimentão com adubação orgânica apresentou a maior produtividade (38,3 t ha-1; outrossim, não houve diferença significativa em relação ao peso médio dos frutos e à área foliar, entre os tratamentos 2, 3 e 5, respectivamente, adubação mineral, adubação com vermicomposto e fertirrigação com efluente do reator UASB, mas a menor produtividade ocorreu com o tratamento 4, irrigado com efluente de lagoa de polimento.In this paper an evaluation is made on the performance of cultivated green pepper submitted to five different treatments: 1 irrigation with well water and soil without fertilizer; 2 irrigation with well water and soil with mineral fertilization; 3 irrigation with well water and soil with organic fertilizer; 4 irrigation with polishing pond effluent; and 5 irrigation with UASB reactor effluent. The experiment was conducted in a randomized blocks design, with four repetitions, and data were submitted to variance analysis and Tukey test. The highest productivity of green pepper was observed when organic fertilizer was used (38.3 t ha-1. There were no significant differences between treatments 2, 3 and 5. The lowest productivity occured with treatment 4 irrigated with effluent of polishing pond.

  4. A Risk Assessment Model for Bacterial Leaf Spot of Pepper (Capsicum annuum), Caused by Xanthomonas euvesicatoria, Based on Concentrations of Macronutrients, Micronutrients, and Micronutrient Ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, B; Langston, D B; Luo, X; Carlson, S; Kichler, J; Gitaitis, R

    2017-11-01

    The phytopathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas euvesicatoria causes bacterial leaf spot (BLS) of pepper and has a worldwide distribution. BLS is difficult to control and an integrated management strategy that incorporates crop rotation, use of clean seed and clean plants, weed control, resistant varieties, applications of bactericides, biocontrol agents, and systemic acquired resistance (SAR) inducers is generally recommended. However, even with that arsenal of weapons, BLS can still be responsible for severe losses under favorable environmental conditions. Thus, additional tools need to be added to an overall integrated management strategy to combat BLS. In this article, we developed several models from 2012 to 2014 that were based on how macronutrients, micronutrients, and micronutrient ratios affect BLS severity. Factors used to select a model for validation included highly significant P values, high adjusted R 2 values, low variance inflation factor values (macronutrient and micronutrient concentrations affect plant disease resistance genes in the SAR pathway.

  5. Selection and a 3-Year Field Trial of Sorangium cellulosum KYC 3262 Against Anthracnose in Hot Pepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Chul Yun

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available KYC 3262 was selected as a biocontrol agent against anthracnose on hot pepper from 813 extracts of myxobacterial isolates. Dual culture with Colletotrichum acutatum and 813 myxobacterial extracts was conducted, and 19 extracts were selected that inhibited germination and mycelial growth of C. acutatum. All selections were Sorangium cellulosum, which are cellulolytic myxobacteria from soil. With the infection bioassay on detached fruits in airtight containers, KYC 3262, KYC 3512, KYC 3279, and KYC 3584 were selected. The listed four myxobacteria were cultured in CSG/1 liquid media, and harvested filtrates were sprayed on the infected fruits. KYC 3262 was selected from the studies of attached fruit in a greenhouse study. KYC 3262 filtrate was applied for 3 years (from 2011 to 2013 in a field study in Asan, Republic of Korea. Control values of the KYC 3262 in the field were 31%, 89%, and 82% in 2011, 2012, and 2013, whereas values of the fungicide spray treatment were 19%, 97%, and 91%, respectively. Yields (kg/20 plants of the KYC 3262 were 2.66 kg and 18.6 kg in 2011 and 2013, respectively, and those of the fungicide treatment were 2.0 kg and 20.2 kg, in 2011 and 2013, respectively.

  6. Selection and a 3-Year Field Trial of Sorangium cellulosum KYC 3262 Against Anthracnose in Hot Pepper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Sung-Chul

    2014-09-01

    KYC 3262 was selected as a biocontrol agent against anthracnose on hot pepper from 813 extracts of myxobacterial isolates. Dual culture with Colletotrichum acutatum and 813 myxobacterial extracts was conducted, and 19 extracts were selected that inhibited germination and mycelial growth of C. acutatum. All selections were Sorangium cellulosum, which are cellulolytic myxobacteria from soil. With the infection bioassay on detached fruits in airtight containers, KYC 3262, KYC 3512, KYC 3279, and KYC 3584 were selected. The listed four myxobacteria were cultured in CSG/1 liquid media, and harvested filtrates were sprayed on the infected fruits. KYC 3262 was selected from the studies of attached fruit in a greenhouse study. KYC 3262 filtrate was applied for 3 years (from 2011 to 2013) in a field study in Asan, Republic of Korea. Control values of the KYC 3262 in the field were 31%, 89%, and 82% in 2011, 2012, and 2013, whereas values of the fungicide spray treatment were 19%, 97%, and 91%, respectively. Yields (kg/20 plants) of the KYC 3262 were 2.66 kg and 18.6 kg in 2011 and 2013, respectively, and those of the fungicide treatment were 2.0 kg and 20.2 kg, in 2011 and 2013, respectively.

  7. Selection and a 3-Year Field Trial of Sorangium cellulosum KYC 3262 Against Anthracnose in Hot Pepper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Sung-Chul

    2014-01-01

    KYC 3262 was selected as a biocontrol agent against anthracnose on hot pepper from 813 extracts of myxobacterial isolates. Dual culture with Colletotrichum acutatum and 813 myxobacterial extracts was conducted, and 19 extracts were selected that inhibited germination and mycelial growth of C. acutatum. All selections were Sorangium cellulosum, which are cellulolytic myxobacteria from soil. With the infection bioassay on detached fruits in airtight containers, KYC 3262, KYC 3512, KYC 3279, and KYC 3584 were selected. The listed four myxobacteria were cultured in CSG/1 liquid media, and harvested filtrates were sprayed on the infected fruits. KYC 3262 was selected from the studies of attached fruit in a greenhouse study. KYC 3262 filtrate was applied for 3 years (from 2011 to 2013) in a field study in Asan, Republic of Korea. Control values of the KYC 3262 in the field were 31%, 89%, and 82% in 2011, 2012, and 2013, whereas values of the fungicide spray treatment were 19%, 97%, and 91%, respectively. Yields (kg/20 plants) of the KYC 3262 were 2.66 kg and 18.6 kg in 2011 and 2013, respectively, and those of the fungicide treatment were 2.0 kg and 20.2 kg, in 2011 and 2013, respectively. PMID:25289014

  8. Sodium fluxes in sweet pepper exposed to varying sodium concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom-Zandstra, M.; Vogelzang, S.A.; Veen, B.W.

    1998-01-01

    The sodium transport and distribution of sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) under saline conditions were studied after transferring the plants to a sodium-free nutrient solution. Sodium stress up to 60 mM did not affect the growth of sweet pepper, as it appears able to counteract the unfavourable

  9. First report of "Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum" on pepper in Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2012, bell pepper (Capsicum annuum) plants exhibiting symptoms that resembled those of the bacterium “Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum” infection were observed in commercial pepper fields in several departments in Honduras, including Francisco Morazán, Ocotepeque, El Paraíso, and Olancho. Man...

  10. Mutation breeding in pepper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daskalov, S [Plant Breeding Unit, Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Isotope and Radiation Applications of Atomic Energy for Food and Agricultural Development, Seibersdorf Laboratory, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    1986-03-01

    Pepper (Capsicum sp.) is an important vegetable and spice crop widely grown in tropical as well as in temperate regions. Until recently the improvement programmes were based mainly on using natural sources of germ plasma, crossbreeding and exploiting the heterosis of F{sub 1} hybrids. However, interest in using induced mutations is growing. A great number of agronomically useful mutants as well as mutants valuable for genetic, cytological and physiological studies have been induced and described. In this review information is presented about suitable mutagen treatment procedures with radiation as well as chemicals, M{sub 1} effects, handling the treated material in M{sub 1}, M{sub 2} and subsequent generations, and mutant screening procedures. This is supplemented by a description of reported useful mutants and released cultivars. Finally, general advice is given on when and how to incorporate mutation induction in Capsicum improvement programmes. (author)

  11. Mutation breeding in pepper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daskalov, S.

    1986-01-01

    Pepper (Capsicum sp.) is an important vegetable and spice crop widely grown in tropical as well as in temperate regions. Until recently the improvement programmes were based mainly on using natural sources of germ plasma, crossbreeding and exploiting the heterosis of F 1 hybrids. However, interest in using induced mutations is growing. A great number of agronomically useful mutants as well as mutants valuable for genetic, cytological and physiological studies have been induced and described. In this review information is presented about suitable mutagen treatment procedures with radiation as well as chemicals, M 1 effects, handling the treated material in M 1 , M 2 and subsequent generations, and mutant screening procedures. This is supplemented by a description of reported useful mutants and released cultivars. Finally, general advice is given on when and how to incorporate mutation induction in Capsicum improvement programmes. (author)

  12. Multiple genetic resistances in Capsicum spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bento, C S; de Souza, A G; Sudré, C P; Pimenta, S; Rodrigues, R

    2017-09-27

    This study aimed to identify Capsicum genotypes with resistance to bacterial spot (BS), anthracnose and Pepper yellow mosaic virus (PepYMV). Fifty-four genotypes of Capsicum spp were evaluated. Resistance reaction against BS was evaluated using three replicates, testing hypersensitivity and quantitative resistance in leaves. After evaluation, inoculated leaves were detached from the plants, being then cultivated until reproductive stage for evaluations anthracnose resistance in immature and mature fruit, totalizing 18 fruits per genotype. For PepYMV resistance was performed with five replications. Each genotype reaction was evaluated by a scoring scale, using the area under the disease progress curve for each pathosystem, and incubation period for the three systems. The latent period was evaluated only for the pathosystem Capsicum-Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Means were grouped by the Scott-Knott test. Measures of dissimilarity matrix among the genotypes were obtained by Gower's algorithm and the grouping was obtained by the UPGMA clustering method. The accessions belonging to the Capsicum frutescens were the most susceptible to the three diseases. At least one genotype of Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum, Capsicum annuum, and Capsicum chinense showed resistance potential to BS and PepYMV, for use in breeding programs. The accession UENF 1381 (C. annuum) was resistant to the three pathogens.

  13. After-Ripening of Red Pepper (Capsicum Annuum) as Affected by Ionizing Radiation; Effets des Rayonnements Ionisants sur le Murissement du Piment (Capsicum Annuum) Apres la Recolte; Vliyanie ioniziruyushchego izlucheniya na dozrevanie krasnogo pertsa (Capsicum Annuum); Efecto de las Radiaciones Ionizantes en la Postmaturacion del Pimiento Rojo (Capsicum Annuum)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farkas, J.; Kiss, I.; Andrassy, Eva [Central Food Research Institute, Budapest (Hungary)

    1966-11-15

    The direct effect of X-rays on freshly picked, sweet red pepper at dose levels of between 0 and 800 krad, and on the after-ripening of red pepper at dose levels of between 0 and 100 krad, was investigated. As an effect of the irradiation of between 400 and 800 krad, the pericarps softened; the carotenoid content, however, was not substantially reduced, even at a dose of 800 krad. During the nine weeks' storage period at room temperature, subsequent to irradiation, an increase of about 90% of the total pigment content, expressed as capsanthin, was observed in the samples not treated. The formation of the carotenoid pigments was accelerated, to some extent, by 80 rad, and substantially accelerated by treatment of 2 krad. The samples treated at the 2-krad level reached the same pigment content in three weeks as the control samples in eight weeks. In the radiation-treated samples, however, the pigment content decreased after the fourth to fifth week of storage. Dose levels above 10 krad slowed down or inhibited the formation of carotenoids during storage (after ripening). The reducing sugar content and the rate of drying were not affected by 0 to 100-krad doses. Since the several hundred kilorad irradiation doses needed to destroy, or substantially inhibit, the growth of moulds causing the deterioration of red pepper of high moisture content have a deleterious effect, the application of irradiation to decrease storage losses in fresh, picked red pepper does not seem to be advisable. The application, however, of the very low doses stimulating carotenoid formation does seem to be promising in view of shortening the after-ripening period and increasing the pigment content. Further investigations are needed to establish the most suitable storage conditions for the after-ripening of red peppers and the causes responsible for decrease in the carotenoid content of irradiated fruits in the second half of the storage period. (author) [French] Les auteurs ont etudie l

  14. Sistemas de preparo de solo e acúmulo de metais pesados no solo e na cultura do pimentão (Capsicum Annum L. Systems preparation of soil and accumulation of heavy metals in the soil and in the culture of pepper (Capsicum Annum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ezequiel Villarreal Núñez

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivos determinar a influência de diferentes métodos de preparo do solo sobre as perdas por erosão de metais pesados e na contaminação do solo e de frutos de pimentão (Capsicum annuum L. com esses elementos. A avaliação foi realizada durante os meses de dezembro de 1999 a março de 2000, no ciclo de cultivo do Pimentão (Capsicum annuum L.. Foram utilizadas parcelas do tipo Wischmeier, de tamanho de 22,0 x 4,0m. Os tratamentos utilizados foram os seguintes: (i aração com trator morro abaixo e queima dos resíduos vegetais (MAQ; (ii aração com trator morro abaixo e não queima dos resíduos vegetais (MANQ; (iii aração com tração animal em nível, faixas de capim colonião a cada 7,0m (AA e (iv cultivo mínimo, com preparo de covas em nível (CM. As perdas mais elevadas de metais pesados por erosão foram verificadas no tratamento MAQ, típico da região. A concentração de Pb no fruto in natura, nos quatros sistemas de preparo do solo, e de Cd no CM estiveram acima dos limites permitidos para alimentos in natura, estando impróprios para o consumo humano Os resultados obtidos neste trabalho permitem concluir que o uso intensivo de agroquímicos associados às elevadas perdas de solo por erosão pode determinar sérios riscos de contaminação do solo, água e alimentos produzidos.The objectives of this study were to determine the influence of different soil tillage methods on the loss of heavy metals by erosion, and to evaluate the level of contamination of soil and food in Paty do Alferes County, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The experiment was conducted from December of 1999 to March of 2000, and pepper (Capsicum annuum L. was the cultivated crop. Four Wichmeier plots were installed, with an area of 22 x 4m. The treatments utilized were the following: (i tillage with machinery and operation down hill and burning of the grassland (MAQ; (ii tillage with machinery and operation down and without burning

  15. Direct online extraction and determination by supercritical fluid extraction with chromatography and mass spectrometry of targeted carotenoids from red Habanero peppers (Capsicum chinense Jacq.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoccali, Mariosimone; Giuffrida, Daniele; Dugo, Paola; Mondello, Luigi

    2017-10-01

    Recently, supercritical fluid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry has gained attention as a fast and useful technology applied to the carotenoids analysis. However, no reports are available in the literature on the direct online extraction and determination by supercritical fluid extraction with chromatography and mass spectrometry. The aim of this research was the development of an online method coupling supercritical fluid extraction and supercritical fluid chromatography for a detailed targeted native carotenoids characterization in red habanero peppers. The online nature of the system, compared to offline approaches, improves run-to-run precision, enables the setting of batch-type applications, and reduces the risks of sample contamination. The extraction has been optimized using different temperatures, starting from 40°C up to 80°C. Multiple extractions, until depletion, were performed on the same sample to evaluate the extraction yield. The range of the first extraction yield, carried out at 80°C, which was the best extraction temperature, was 37.4-65.4%, with a %CV range of 2-12. Twenty-one targeted analytes were extracted and identified by the developed methodology in less than 17 min, including free, monoesters, and diesters carotenoids, in a very fast and efficient way. Quantification of the β-carotene was carried out by using the optimized conditions. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Fenotipic adaptability and stability of four lineas and six hybrids of sweet pepper, Capsicum annuum L. Adaptabilidad y estabilidad fenotípica de líneas e híbridos de pimentón, Capsicum annuum, L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estrada Salazar Edgar Iván

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available A research was carry out in Palmira and Darién (Valle, Colombia to determine fenotipic adaptability and stability of sweet pepper, Capsicum annuum L. Yield and its components was evaluated, according to the methodology proposed by Eberhart and Russel (1966. Three environments were determined according to adaptability and stability parameters: good environments (Palmira 1991-B, middle environment (Palmira 1991-A and bad environment (Darién 1991-A and B. Genotypes were classified according to yield and regression coefficient: specific genotypes for good environments (1,5,6,8 and 10 genotypes and poor adaptation genotypes (3, 4, 9 and 11 genotypes.En Palmira y Darién (Valle, Colombia se analizó la adaptabilidad y estabilidad fenotípica de diferentes genotipos de pimentón. Se evaluó el rendimiento y sus componentes utilizando la metodología propuesta por Eberhart y Russel (1966. De acuerdo a los parámetros de adaptabilidad y estabilidad se determinaron tres ambientes: bueno (Palmira 1991-B, medio (Palmira 1991-A y malo (Darién 1991-A y B. De acuerdo al rendimiento y coeficiente de regresión, los genotipos se clasificaron así: genotipos para ambientes buenos (1, 5, 6, 8 y 10 Y genotipos para ambientes pobres (3, 4, 9 y 11. De acuerdo con su adaptabilidad y estabilidad el genotipo 6 fue el más destacado, pues su comportamiento a través de las localidades fue similar y su rendimiento no varió con las épocas de siembra.

  17. Herencia de la resistencia al virus del mosaico deformante del pimentón PepDMV en Capsicum Inheritance of resistance to the deforming pepper mosaic virus, PepDMV, in Capsicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Augusto García Dávila

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available En busca de determinar el modo de herencia de la resistencia en tres materiales resistentes, se hicieron cruzamientos hacia tres líneas susceptibles. Se siguió el método del retrocruzamiento propuesto por Warner (1952 fundamentado en el modelo matemático de Fisher Immer y Tedin (1932 descrito con detalle por Mater (1949 y Jenkins (1982, 1984 en el cual se descompone la varianza genética en tres componentes: aditiva, dominancia y epistática. El modelo del retrocruzamiento incluye los dos parentales, el hibrido de la primera generación y la autofecunfación de la F1 para formar la población F2 y las retrocruzas hacia ambos padres. Las poblaciones fueron evaluadas a resistencia al virus del mosaico del pimentón PepDMV en condiciones de invernadero. Los resultados mostraron que el modelo aditivodominancia explicó la resistencia en los híbridos formados entre materiales resistentes y susceptibles. Los genes con acción heredable transmiten a la descendencia el efecto de resistencia. La ganancia de la resistencia viral se da por la presencia de parentales resistentes.With the aim to determine the mode of inheritance in three resistant materials, crosses were performed towards three susceptible lines. We followed the backcrossing method used by Warner (1952, based on the mathematical model of Fisher Immer and tedin (1932, described in detail by Mater (1949 and Jenkins (1982, 1984. In this method the genetic variance is partitioned into three components: additive, dominant and epistatic. The backcross method includes the two parents, the F1 hybrid, and the self-pollination of the F1 to form the F2 population, and the backcrosses to both parents. The populations were evaluated for resistance to the pepper mosaic virusPepDMV in greenhouse conditions. The results showed that the model additive-dominant explained the resistance in the hybrids formed between resistant and susceptible material. The genes with heritable action transmit to their

  18. Nitrate Promotes Capsaicin Accumulation in Capsicum chinense Immobilized Placentas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanny G. Aldana-Iuit

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In chili pepper’s pods, placental tissue is responsible for the synthesis of capsaicinoids (CAPs, the compounds behind their typical hot flavor or pungency, which are synthesized from phenylalanine and branched amino acids. Placental tissue sections from Habanero peppers (Capsicum chinense Jacq. were immobilized in a calcium alginate matrix and cultured in vitro, either continuously for 28 days or during two 14-day subculture periods. Immobilized placental tissue remained viable and metabolically active for up to 21 days, indicating its ability to interact with media components. CAPs contents abruptly decreased during the first 7 days in culture, probably due to structural damage to the placenta as revealed by scanning electron microcopy. CAPs levels remained low throughout the entire culture period, even though a slight recovery was noted in subcultured placentas. However, doubling the medium’s nitrate content (from 40 to 80 mM resulted in an important increment, reaching values similar to those of intact pod’s placentas. These data suggest that isolated pepper placentas cultured in vitro remain metabolically active and are capable of metabolizing inorganic nitrogen sources, first into amino acids and, then, channeling them to CAP synthesis.

  19. Effect of Arbucula Myrrhizal Fungi on an Ecological Crop of Chili Peppers (Capsicum annuum L. Efecto de los Hongos Micorrícicos Arbusculares en un Cultivo Ecológico de Ají (Capsicum annuum L. Cacho de Cabra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Castillo R

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Mapuche farmers in southern Chile have been cultivating local ecotypes of chili pepper (Capsicum annuum L., called locally “Cacho de cabra” for many decades. It is used to make “merkén”, a condiment that is consumed locally and exported. This vegetable requires a nursery stage and can obtain nutritional benefits from symbiotic associations such as mycorrhizal fungi, achieving a better adaptation to transplanting. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF are obligate biotrophes appearing in abundance in agroecosystems with conservation management. The aim of this study was to compare effectiveness of two AMF, a commercial mycorrhizal inoculant (IC, Glomus intraradices and another native (IN, Glomus claroideum with a control without inoculation (-I on the production and quality of “Cacho de cabra”. At 45 days after sowing (DAS transplanting was carried out and at 90 and 216 DAS fruit quality, fungal and edaphic parameters were evaluated. The harvest was at four stages. With IN inoculation plants and with greater foliar area were obtained. Also, precocity of fruit production was observed. The harvest started 49 days earlier and fresh weight was 177% higher than that of the control. Root colonization was low, showing significant differences between IN and IC, while a large number of spores was produced in the substrate. It was concluded that inoculation with native fungi decreased transplanting stress thus accelerating the maturation stage of plants and resulting in higher and better yield quality.En el sur de Chile, agricultores mapuches han cultivado durante décadas ecotipos locales de ají (Capsicum annuum L.“Cacho de cabra” para elaborar “merkén”, producto con reconocidas ventajas en el mercado internacional. Esta hortaliza requiere etapa de almácigo, pudiendo beneficiarse nutricionalmente con la asociación simbiótica del tipo micorrizas,logrando una mejor adaptación al trasplante. Los hongos micorrícicos arbusculares son bi

  20. Produção do pimentão (Capsicum annuum L. irrigado sob diferentes tensões de água no solo e doses de cálcio Sweet pepper production (Capsicum annuum L. under different soil water tension and calcium levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio José de Santana

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos de tensões de água no solo e doses de cálcio sobre a produção do pimentão (Capsicum annuum L., instalou-se o presente experimento em casa-de-vegetação, no Departamento de Engenharia da Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA, Lavras - MG. Foi utilizado o delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, em um esquema fatorial com seis repetições, sendo testados 4 doses de cálcio no solo (0, 200, 400 e 600 mg dm-3 e 4 tensões de água no solo (10 kPa, 30 kPa, 50 kPa e 60 kPa. Cultivou-se uma planta de pimentão por vaso com 13 dm³ de um Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico. Durante o período experimental, foram obtidos dados de altura e diâmetro do caule das plantas e produção de frutos. Pelos resultados obtidos, verifica-se que com a irrigação sendo feita diariamente, elevando-se a umidade do solo próxima à capacidade de campo (10 kPa, houve uma melhor resposta da cultura quanto à produção total, produção comercial, número de frutos totais, número de frutos comerciais, alturas das plantas e diâmetro de caule. Para as doses de cálcio e a interação cálcio x tensão, não houve diferença significativa entre os tratamentos. Com maior umidade do solo, houve uma diminuição do cálcio no solo, o que, provavelmente, deveu-se a um aumento da absorção desse nutriente pelas plantas.With the objective of evaluating the effects of water tension and calcium levels on sweet pepper production (Capsicum annuum L., a greenhouse experiment was conducted at the Engineering Department of the Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA, Lavras, MG. The statistical design was entirely randomized in a factorial outline with 4 calcium levels (0, 200, 400 and 600 mg dm-3 and 4 tensions of water in the soil (10 kPa, 30 kPa, 50 kPa and 60 kPa, with six replications. Plants were cultivated individually on 13 dm³ pots filled with a red oxisoil. Fruit production, plant height, and stem diameter were determined

  1. Prehispanic use of chili peppers in Chiapas, Mexico.

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    Terry G Powis

    Full Text Available The genus Capsicum is New World in origin and represents a complex of a wide variety of both wild and domesticated taxa. Peppers or fruits of Capsicum species rarely have been identified in the paleoethnobotanical record in either Meso- or South America. We report here confirmation of Capsicum sp. residues from pottery samples excavated at Chiapa de Corzo in southern Mexico dated from Middle to Late Preclassic periods (400 BCE to 300 CE. Residues from 13 different pottery types were collected and extracted using standard techniques. Presence of Capsicum was confirmed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC/MS-MS Analysis. Five pottery types exhibited chemical peaks for Capsicum when compared to the standard (dihydrocapsaicin. No peaks were observed in the remaining eight samples. Results of the chemical extractions provide conclusive evidence for Capsicum use at Chiapas de Corzo during a 700 year period (400 BCE-300 CE. Presence of Capsicum in different types of culinary-associated pottery raises questions how chili pepper could have been used during this early time period. As Pre-Columbian cacao products sometimes were flavored using Capsicum, the same pottery sample set was tested for evidence of cacao using a theobromine marker: these results were negative. As each vessel that tested positive for Capsicum had a culinary use we suggest here the possibility that chili residues from the Chiapas de Corzo pottery samples reflect either paste or beverage preparations for religious, festival, or every day culinary use. Alternatively, some vessels that tested positive merely could have been used to store peppers. Most interesting from an archaeological context was the presence of Capsicum residue obtained from a spouted jar, a pottery type previously thought only to be used for pouring liquids.

  2. First report of BLTVA phytoplasma in Capsicum annuum and Circulifer tenellus in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepper (Capsicum annuum) plants in Durango and Zacatecas, Mexico, in September and October, 2014, had small, chlorotic, curled leaves, plant stunting, and/or big bud symptoms characteristic of phytoplasma infection (Lee et al. 2004). Samples from symptomatic pepper fields included 33 collected near...

  3. Efecto de la fertilización en la nutrición y rendimiento de ají (Capsicum spp. en el Valle del Cauca, Colombia Effect of the fertilization on the nutrition and yield of the red pepper (Capsicum spp. in the Valley of the Cauca, Colombia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar A Rodríguez Araujo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En el estudio se evaluó el efecto de las fertilizaciones química y orgánica y biofertilización en la nutrición y rendimiento del ají (Capsicum spp. en el Valle del Cauca, Colombia, y en la producción de plántulas en vivero y en campo. Las variables evaluadas en vivero fueron: peso fresco de raíz y parte aérea, número de hojas, altura de la planta (cm, diámetro del tallo (mm, peso seco total, peso seco de raíz y parte aérea. Se evaluaron seis tratamientos, bajo un diseño estadístico de bloques completos al azar, de la forma siguiente: fertilización de síntesis química completa (testigo (FSQC, FSQC más fertilización orgánica (FSQC + O, FSQC + O más biofertilización 1 (solubilizador de fósforo con base en Penicillium janthinellum (1x10(7conidias/ml, FSQC + O más micorrizas (FSQC + O + M, FSQC + O más biofertilización 2 (fijador de nitrógeno con base en Azotobacter chroococcum (1x10(8 UFC/ml y Azospirillun sp. (1x10(8 UFC/ml, FSQC + O más biofertilización 3 (fijador de nitrógeno con base en Azotobacter chroococcum (1x10(8 UFC/ml. El experimento se instaló sobre un Typic Hapludolls. El análisis de resultados mostró que, en todos los tratamientos la fertilización de síntesis química + orgánica + micorrizas presentó los mejores resultados (P This study was realised with the purpose of to evaluate the effect of the chemical, organic fertilization and biofertilization on the nutrition and yield of the red pepper (Capsicum spp. in the Valley of the Cauca in the initial production of plants in breeding ground and final production in field. Two experiments were realized, one in stage of fish-pond and other one in field stage. In fish-pond an experiment was realized where there was evaluated the effect of the different types of fertilization in chili and other one where there was evaluated the effect of the chemical, organic fertilization and biofertilización in chili. In field there was evaluated the effect of the

  4. Genome-wide divergence and linkage disequilibrium analyses for Capsicum baccatum revealed by genome-anchored single nucleotide polymorphisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Principal component analysis (PCA) with 36,621 polymorphic genome-anchored single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified collectively for Capsicum annuum and Capsicum baccatum was used to show the distribution of these 2 important incompatible cultivated pepper species. Estimated mean nucleotide...

  5. Gene expression in isolated plastids from fruits of capsicum annum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, D.S.; Pryke, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    Plastids were obtained from the ripening fruits of Capsicum annum, and incubated in vitro in the presence of [ 35 S]methionine(Met). There was polypeptide synthesis at all stages of pepper tissue studied in both chloroplasts and chromoplasts, dependent on the addition of nuclioside triphosphates and phosphoenolpyruvate and inhibited by D-threo-chloramphenicol. l8. refs. (author)

  6. Changes in the Aggressiveness and Fecundity of Hot Pepper Anthracnose Pathogen (Colletotricum acutatum under Elevated CO₂ and Temperature over 100 Infection Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Hoon Koo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We observed the changes in aggressiveness and fecundity of the anthracnose pathogen Colletotrichum acutatum on hot pepper, under the ambient and the twice-ambient treatments. Artificial infection was repeated over 100 cycles for ambient (25°C/400 ppm CO₂ and twice-ambient (30°C/700 ppm CO₂ growth chamber conditions, over 3 years. During repeated infection cycles (ICs on green-pepper fruits, the aggressiveness (incidence [% of diseased fruits among 20 inoculated fruits] and severity [lesion length in mm] of infection and fecundity (the average number of spores per five lesions of the pathogen were measured in each cycle and compared between the ambient and twice-ambient treatments, and also between the early (ICs 31–50 and late (ICs 81–100 generations. In summary, the pathogen’s aggressiveness and fecundity were significantly lower in the late generation. It is likely that aggressiveness and fecundity of C. acutatum may be reduced as global CO₂ and temperatures increase.

  7. Absorción y distribución de nutrimentos en plantas de chile jalapeño (Capsicum annuum L. CV. HOT en alajuela, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Azofeifa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó la absorción y distribución de los nutrimentos durante el ciclo de cultivo en plantas de chile jalapeño (Capsicum annuum L. cv. Hot, en Alajuela, Costa Rica. Se determinó el peso seco y se analizó el contenido de N, P, K, Ca, Mg, y S, en cada sección de la planta. Con base en el peso seco y la concentración de nutrimentos, se estimó la absorción de los elementos por cada tejido y en toda la planta. Se calculó la extracción de los nutrimentos con una densidad de siembra de 20 833 plantas.ha-1 y un rendimiento de 15 t.ha-1 de fruta comercial fresca. El orden de extracción de nutrimentos fue K>N>Ca>S>P y Mg con valores de 79,3, 60, 31,7, 8,2, 7,6 y 7,3 kg.ha-1, respectivamente. Las cantidades de nutrimentos en las distintas partes de la planta variaron durante el ciclo de crecimiento. Al final del ciclo, la planta acumula K, Ca y Mg principalmente en la parte aérea, P y S en la fruta y N en los frutos y la parte aérea. El principal evento fenológico que reguló estas fluctuaciones fue la fructificación.

  8. Capsicum annuum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osama

    2014-12-31

    Dec 31, 2014 ... Fruits can be divided into two groups according to the regulatory ... pepper fruit during its stage of development in order to detect and identify the ... A group of genes belonging ... those of other plant species (Quinet et al., 2006; Carrari ... Several variables need to be controlled for gene-expression analysis,.

  9. Capsicum annuum transcription factor WRKYa positively regulates defense response upon TMV infection and is a substrate of CaMK1 and CaMK2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Sung Un; Lee, Gil-Je; Jung, Ji Hoon; Kim, Yunsik; Kim, Young Jin; Paek, Kyung-Hee

    2015-01-23

    Plants are constantly exposed to pathogens and environmental stresses. To minimize damage caused by these potentially harmful factors, plants respond by massive transcriptional reprogramming of various stress-related genes via major transcription factor families. One of the transcription factor families, WRKY, plays an important role in diverse stress response of plants and is often useful to generate genetically engineered crop plants. In this study, we carried out functional characterization of CaWRKYa encoding group I WRKY member, which is induced during hypersensitive response (HR) in hot pepper (Capsicum annuum) upon Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) infection. CaWRKYa was involved in L-mediated resistance via transcriptional reprogramming of pathogenesis-related (PR) gene expression and affected HR upon TMV-P0 infection. CaWRKYa acts as a positive regulator of this defense system and could bind to the W-box of diverse PR genes promoters. Furthermore, we found Capsicum annuum mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (CaMK1) and 2 (CaMK2) interacted with CaWRKYa and phosphorylated the SP clusters but not the MAPK docking (D)-domain of CaWRKYa. Thus, these results demonstrated that CaWRKYa was regulated by CaMK1 and CaMK2 at the posttranslational level in hot pepper.

  10. The effect of space mutation treatment on seed germinating ability and the biological characters of SP1 hot peppers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Bingliang; Zheng Jirong; Ma Jianbin; Huang Kaimei

    2004-01-01

    The seeds of four pepper cultivars were carried by Shenzhou No.4 spaceship. The seed germinating ability was changed after the space exposed, however, the changes varied with cultivars. The time from transplant to bloom of the first flower was 0.2-3.2 days earlier than that of control, and the variation among individual plant was somewhat larger than that of control. It was also found that the plant height and the number of leaves on which the first flower emerged were lower than that of control. Number of fruits was more, but the fruit length and diameter was smaller than that of control

  11. Genetic variability of Indonesian local chili pepper: The facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arumingtyas, Estri Laras; Kusnadi, Joni; Sari, Dewi Ratih Tirto; Ratih, Nursita

    2017-11-01

    Chili pepper (Capsicum frutescens) is one species of Solanaceae family that is very popular in Indonesia and some other tropical countries because of its pungency. Chili pepper is an important spice in Indonesia and is also eaten fresh as a pickle to increase appetite. In Indonesia, there are various local names for chili pepper includingcabai, cengek, lombok, pedesan etc. These varied local names represent the various morphological shapes of the chili pepper fruit. We have investigated the variability of some chili cultivars based on morphological characteristics, molecular markers, pungency, and capsaicin content. Some biological facts, such as the tendency of chili pepper to outbreed, have also been found. In this paper, the source of variability and the possible mechanism of increasing genetic variability of Indonesian local chili pepper are also discussed.

  12. 'BRS Mari': nova cultivar de pimenta dedo-de-moça para processamento 'BRS Mari': new hot pepper cultivar for processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Isabel C de Carvalho

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available 'BRS Mari' é uma nova cultivar de pimenta dedo-de-moça desenvolvida para uso múltiplo, como produto in natura, processada na forma de molho líquido ou desidratada em flocos, moída junto com as sementes, para a produção de pimenta tipo 'calabresa'. A cv. 'BRS Mari' foi desenvolvida a partir da população 'CNPH 0039' por meio de seis ciclos de seleção massal com autofecundação controlada. A nova cultivar apresenta plantas de polinização aberta com hábito de crescimento intermediário, com aproximadamente 90 cm de altura e 1,25 m de largura, com resistência múltipla a doenças, com destaque para o virus Pepper Yellow Mosaic Virus (PepYMV e nematóide das galhas (Meloidogyne javanica, resistência mediana ao oídio (Oidium sicula, mancha bacteriana (Xanthomonas spp. e antracnose (Colletotrichum spp.. A colheita dos frutos tem início cerca de 70 dias após o transplante. Nas condições da região Centro-Oeste, 'BRS Mari' apresentou boa uniformidade de planta, ótima qualidade de fruto e grande potencial produtivo, alcançando 35 t ha-1 em seis meses, quando cultivada no espaçamento de 1 m entre plantas e 1,5 m entre linhas. Os frutos são alongados e pendentes, típicos do tipo dedo-de-moça, com passagem de coloração verde claro, amarelo com antocianina e laranja quando imaturos e vermelho intenso quando maduros, com aproximadamente 6,0 cm de comprimento, 1,4 cm de largura e cerca de 1,7 mm de espessura da parede. A principal característica da 'BRS Mari' é o elevado teor de capsaicina, aproximadamente 90.000 SHU (Unidades de Calor Scoville, mais elevado quando comparada com outras cultivares do mesmo grupo.'BRS Mari' is a new hot pepper cultivar suitable for processing as sauce or dehydrated flakes, ordinarily known in Brazil as 'calabresa' type, as well as for fresh market. Hot pepper cv. 'BRS Mari' was obtained from population 'CNPH 0039', through six cycles of mass selection with controlled selfing of selected plants. The

  13. Molecular characterization and diversity analysis in chilli pepper ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    India is considered to be the secondary center of diversity of chilli pepper, especially of Capsicum annuum. Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) are the most widely used marker system for plant variety characterization and diversity analysis especially in cultivated species which have low levels of polymorphism. The diversity ...

  14. New insights into Capsicum spp relatedness and the diversification process of Capsicum annuum in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Pérez, Susana; Garcés-Claver, Ana; Mallor, Cristina; Sáenz de Miera, Luis E; Fayos, Oreto; Pomar, Federico; Merino, Fuencisla; Silvar, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    The successful exploitation of germplasm banks, harbouring plant genetic resources indispensable for plant breeding, will depend on our ability to characterize their genetic diversity. The Vegetable Germplasm Bank of Zaragoza (BGHZ) (Spain) holds an important Capsicum annuum collection, where most of the Spanish pepper variability is represented, as well as several accessions of other domesticated and non-domesticated Capsicum spp from all over the five continents. In the present work, a total of 51 C. annuum landraces (mainly from Spain) and 51 accessions from nine Capsicum species maintained at the BGHZ were evaluated using 39 microsatellite (SSR) markers spanning the whole genome. The 39 polymorphic markers allowed the detection of 381 alleles, with an average of 9.8 alleles per locus. A sizeable proportion of alleles (41.2%) were recorded as specific alleles and the majority of these were present at very low frequencies (rare alleles). Multivariate and model-based analyses partitioned the collection in seven clusters comprising the ten different Capsicum spp analysed: C. annuum, C. chinense, C. frutescens, C. pubescens, C. bacatum, C. chacoense and C. eximium. The data clearly showed the close relationships between C. chinense and C. frutescens. C. cardenasii and C. eximium were indistinguishable as a single, morphologically variable species. Moreover, C. chacoense was placed between C. baccatum and C. pubescens complexes. The C. annuum group was structured into three main clusters, mostly according to the pepper fruit shape, size and potential pungency. Results suggest that the diversification of C. annuum in Spain may occur from a rather limited gene pool, still represented by few landraces with ancestral traits. This ancient population would suffer from local selection at the distinct geographical regions of Spain, giving way to pungent and elongated fruited peppers in the South and Center, while sweet blocky and triangular types in Northern Spain.

  15. Management of chili pepper root rot and wilt (caused by Phytophthora nicotianae) by grafting onto resistant rootstock

    OpenAIRE

    Mourad SAADOUN; Mohamed Bechir ALLAGUI

    2013-01-01

    Root rot and plant wilting caused by Phytophthora nicotianae is a severe disease of chili pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) in open fields and under greenhouse production in Tunisia. Chili pepper grafting for disease manage- ment is attracting increased interest in recent years. Using the tube grafting technique, different compatible scion/rootstock combinations were obtained with the wild-type pepper SCM334 and the local chili pepper cultivars ‘Beldi’ and ‘Baker’. SCM334 was resistant to P. nicoti...

  16. First report of tomato chlorotic spot virus in non-solanaceous weeds erect spiderling (Boerhavia erecta) and asian spiderflower (Cleome viscosa), and sweet chili pepper (Capsicum chinense) in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV) has recently been detected in tomato, bell pepper, jimsonweed and lettuce in Puerto Rico. Observations of weeds and additional crops in 2015 and 2016 revealed TCSV-like symptoms. Testing of these symptomatic plants identified three new hosts of TCSV in Puerto Ric...

  17. Design and fabrication of a real-time measurement system for the capsaicinoid content of Korean red pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) powder by visible and near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    This research aims to design and fabricate a system to measure the capsaicinoid content of red pepper powder in a non-destructive and rapid method through visible and near infrared spectroscopy (VNIR). The developed system scans a well-leveled powder surface continuously to minimize the influence of...

  18. Assessing the status of food safety management systems for fresh produce production in East Africa: evidence from certified green bean farms in Kenya and noncertified hot pepper farms in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanyunja, J; Jacxsens, L; Kirezieva, K; Kaaya, A N; Uyttendaele, M; Luning, P A

    2015-06-01

    The farms of fresh produce farmers are major sources of food contamination by microbiological organisms and chemical pesticides. In view of their choice for farming practices, producers are influenced by food safety requirements. This study analyzes the role of food safety standard certification toward the maturity of food safety management systems (FSMS) in the primary production of fresh produce. Kenya and Uganda are two East African countries that export green beans and hot peppers, respectively, to the European Union but have contrasting features in terms of agricultural practices and certification status. In the fresh produce chain, a diagnostic instrument for primary production was used to assess context factors, core control and assurance activities, and system output to measure the performance of FSMS for certified green bean farms in Kenya and noncertified hot pepper farms in Uganda. Overall, our findings show that in Uganda, noncertified hot pepper farms revealed only a "basic level of control and assurance" activities in their FSMS, which was not satisfactory, because no insight into potential pesticide microbial contamination was presented by these farmers. On the other hand, certified green bean farms in Kenya had an "average level of control and assurance," providing insight into the delivered food safety and quality by the farmers. Farm size did not impact the maturity level of FSMS. This study confirms the role played by food safety standard certification toward the maturity of FSMS implemented in developing countries and demonstrates the possibility of Ugandan farms to upgrade agricultural practices in the fresh produce sector.

  19. Development of a sweet cherry pepper line with resistance to the southern root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita

    Science.gov (United States)

    The southern root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) is a major pathogen of pepper (Capsicum spp.), causing significant yield losses in heavily infected plants. The N-gene confers resistance to M. incognita, and has been successfully used to mitigate nematode damage in specific pepper varieties f...

  20. Measurement of Capsaicinoids in Chiltepin Hot Pepper: A Comparison Study between Spectrophotometric Method and High Performance Liquid Chromatography Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto González-Zamora

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Direct spectrophotometric determination of capsaicinoids content in Chiltepin pepper was investigated as a possible alternative to HPLC analysis. Capsaicinoids were extracted from Chiltepin in red ripe and green fruit with acetonitrile and evaluated quantitatively using the HPLC method with capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin standards. Three samples of different treatment were analyzed for their capsaicinoids content successfully by these methods. HPLC-DAD revealed that capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, and nordihydrocapsaicin comprised up to 98% of total capsaicinoids detected. The absorbance of the diluted samples was read on a spectrophotometer at 215–300 nm and monitored at 280 nm. We report herein the comparison between traditional UV assays and HPLC-DAD methods for the determination of the molar absorptivity coefficient of capsaicin (ε280=3,410 and ε280=3,720 M−1 cm−1 and dihydrocapsaicin (ε280=4,175 and ε280=4,350 M−1 cm−1, respectively. Statistical comparisons were performed using the regression analyses (ordinary linear regression and Deming regression and Bland-Altman analysis. Comparative data for pungency was determined spectrophotometrically and by HPLC on samples ranging from 29.55 to 129 mg/g with a correlation of 0.91. These results indicate that the two methods significantly agree. The described spectrophotometric method can be routinely used for total capsaicinoids analysis and quality control in agricultural and pharmaceutical analysis.

  1. Análisis de crecimiento del chile jalapeño (capsicum annuum l. cv. hot, en Alajuela, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Azofeifa

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available El patrón de crecimiento de la planta de chile jalapeño (Capsicum annuum, cv Hot, se analizó durante un ciclo de cultivo, en Alajuela, Costa Rica, de mayo a noviembre de 1995. Se utilizó un diseño de bloques completos al azar, con 4 repeticiones, los tratamientos fueron las épocas de muestreo. Cada 14 días, a partir del 85% de plántulas emergidas (26 días después de la siembra, DDS, fueron muestreadas 8 plantas, se determinó el área foliar y el peso seco en cada sección (raíz, parte aérea, flor y fruto, variables con las cuales se determinaron los índices fisiológicos y morfológicos. Las plantas presentaron una curva de crecimiento sigmoidal, con las siguientes fases: a- de 26-82 DDS: esta fase se caracterizó por un crecimiento lento, debido a que la planta era muy pequeña y apenas estaba desarrollando su sistema radical y foliar; bde 83-110 DDS: fase de rápido crecimiento vegetativo y reproductivo de las plantas. La planta presenta los valores de índice de crecimiento relativo (ICR e índice de asimilación neta (IAN más altos y los del índice de área foliar (IAF e índice de cosecha (K son crecientes. Tanto la razón de área foliar (RAF como la de peso radical (RPR presentan las reducciones más importantes; c- de 111-152 DDS: la tasa de crecimiento disminuye gradualmente. El crecimiento vegetativo y reproductivo es menor que en la fase anterior. Presenta valores de ICR, IAN y RAF decrecientes, K permanece constante; d- de 153-166 DDS, la planta alcanza la madurez y las tasas de crecimiento tienden a estabilizarse. El ICR presenta un valor cercano a cero. Los índices IAN, RAF y RPR son bajos y constantes; e- de 167-180 DDS, la planta muestra signos de senescencia y el contenido de materia seca decrece. El ICR muestra valores negativos. La producción de biomasa está ligada a la fenología de la planta, principalmente durante la floración y la fructificación. En estas fases, la planta invierte cantidades similares

  2. Avaliação da resistência a tobamovirus em acessos de Capsicum spp. Evaluation of resistance of Capsicum spp. genotypes to tobamovirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Aparecida Cezar

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available A resistência em Capsicum spp a tobamovírus é governada pelos genes L¹ a L4. Baseado na capacidade de alguns isolados suplantarem a resistência destes genes, os tobamovírus podem ser classificados nos patótipos P0, P1, P1-2 e P1-2-3. No Brasil, até o momento as três espécies de tobamovírus conhecidas são: Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV, Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV, pertencentes aos patótipos P0 e Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV pertencente ao patótipo P1-2, respectivamente e podem infectar pimentas e pimentões. Oitenta e seis genótipos de pimentão e pimenta foram avaliados quanto à resistência a tobamovírus, sendo 62 de Capsicum annuum, 18 de C. baccatum e seis de C. chinense. Oito acessos de C. annuum, seis de C. baccatum e os acessos ICA #39, Pimenta de cheiro e PI 152225 de C. chinense apresentaram reação de hipersensibilidade ao ToMV, enquanto que o acesso Ancho de C. annuum foi considerado tolerante, permanecendo assintomático, porém permitindo a recuperação do vírus quando inoculado em Nicotiana glutinosa. Para o PMMoV patótipo P1,2 foram avaliados os acessos de pimentão e pimenta considerados resistentes ao ToMV. Somente o PI 152225 de C. chinense desencadeou reação de hipersensibilidade ao PMMoV, sendo fonte potencial de resistência para programas de melhoramento a este vírus no Brasil.The resistance of Capsicum spp to tobamoviruses is conferred by the genes series L¹ to L4. Based on the ability of some isolates to overcome the resistance genes, the tobamovirus can be classificated in the pathotypes P0, P1, P1-2 and P1-2-3. In Brazil, at this moment there are three species of tobamovirus: Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV, Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV, belonging to pathotype P0 and Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV belonging to pathotype P1-2 respectively, that can infect sweet and hot peppers. Eighty-six genotypes of sweet and hot pepper were evaluated for the resistance to tobamovirus. Eigth genotypes of C. annuum, five

  3. Silencing of a Germin-Like Protein Gene (CchGLP in Geminivirus-Resistant Pepper (Capsicum chinense Jacq. BG-3821 Increases Susceptibility to Single and Mixed Infections by Geminiviruses PHYVV and PepGMV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Mejía-Teniente

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Germin-like proteins (GLPs are encoded by a family of genes found in all plants, and in terms of function, the GLPs are implicated in the response of plants to biotic and abiotic stresses. CchGLP is a gene encoding a GLP identified in a geminivirus-resistant Capsicum chinense Jacq accession named BG-3821, and it is important in geminivirus resistance when transferred to susceptible tobacco in transgenic experiments. To characterize the role of this GLP in geminivirus resistance in the original accession from which this gene was identified, this work aimed at demonstrating the possible role of CchGLP in resistance to geminiviruses in Capsicum chinense Jacq. BG-3821. Virus-induced gene silencing studies using a geminiviral vector based in PHYVV component A, displaying that silencing of CchGLP in accession BG-3821, increased susceptibility to geminivirus single and mixed infections. These results suggested that CchGLP is an important factor for geminivirus resistance in C. chinense BG-3821 accession.

  4. Silencing of a Germin-Like Protein Gene (CchGLP) in Geminivirus-Resistant Pepper (Capsicum chinense Jacq.) BG-3821 Increases Susceptibility to Single and Mixed Infections by Geminiviruses PHYVV and PepGMV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejía-Teniente, Laura; Joaquin-Ramos, Ahuizolt de Jesús; Torres-Pacheco, Irineo; Rivera-Bustamante, Rafael F; Guevara-Olvera, Lorenzo; Rico-García, Enrique; Guevara-Gonzalez, Ramon G

    2015-11-25

    Germin-like proteins (GLPs) are encoded by a family of genes found in all plants, and in terms of function, the GLPs are implicated in the response of plants to biotic and abiotic stresses. CchGLP is a gene encoding a GLP identified in a geminivirus-resistant Capsicum chinense Jacq accession named BG-3821, and it is important in geminivirus resistance when transferred to susceptible tobacco in transgenic experiments. To characterize the role of this GLP in geminivirus resistance in the original accession from which this gene was identified, this work aimed at demonstrating the possible role of CchGLP in resistance to geminiviruses in Capsicum chinense Jacq. BG-3821. Virus-induced gene silencing studies using a geminiviral vector based in PHYVV component A, displaying that silencing of CchGLP in accession BG-3821, increased susceptibility to geminivirus single and mixed infections. These results suggested that CchGLP is an important factor for geminivirus resistance in C. chinense BG-3821 accession.

  5. Metode Pengusangan Cepat untuk Pengujian Vigor Daya Simpan Benih Cabai (Capsicum AnnuumL.)

    OpenAIRE

    Ekowahyuni, Luluk Prihastuti; Sutjahjo, Surjono Hadi; Sujiprihati, Sriani; Suhartanto, Mohamad Rahmad; Syukur, Muhamad

    2012-01-01

    The ability of seed to maintain seed quality during storage is called seed vigor. Accurate method for seed vigor testing of pepper seeds is necessary to accurately determine seed storability during seed distribution. The aim of this research was to determine the best accelerated aging method (AAM) of pepper seed. Freshly harvested seeds of Capsicum annuumL., IPB C9 genotype were used in this study. The experiment used randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. The experi...

  6. Effects of ionizing radiation on Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum (Solanaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scaldaferro, M.A.; Prina, A.R.; Moscone, E.A.; Kwasniewska, J.

    2013-01-01

    Cytogenetic and somatic effects of various x-ray treatments were evaluated in pepper, Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum cv. “Cayenne”, with the aim to assess optimal conditions for obtaining viable lines. The cytogenetic effects were quantified by counting chromosome aberrations. The level of DNA fragmentation was estimated with TUNEL test (terminal transferase mediated dUTP-fluorescein nick end labeling). Irradiation to 20 Gy with 16-h presoaking can be a suitable treatment of the selected pepper cultivar for a mutagenesis program. - Highlights: • Cytogenetic and somatic effects of x-rays treatments in Capsicum were evaluated. • Frequencies of chromosome aberrations correlated with radiation doses. • Highest frequency of chromosome aberrations occurred with 20 Gy+soaking seeds. • In TUNEL test, the nuclei with DNA fragmentation were higher than in the control. • The strongest effects were observed with doses of 300 Gy or 20 Gy after soaking

  7. Short-term effect of add on bell pepper (Capsicum annuum var. grossum) juice with integrated approach of yoga therapy on blood glucose levels and cardiovascular functions in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasukeerthi, Padakandla; Mooventhan, A; Manjunath, N K

    2017-10-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a major global health problem. Though various studies have reported the beneficial effect of Yoga in patient with T2DM, there is a lack of study in combination with bell pepper and yoga. Hence, the present study aims at evaluating short-term effect of add on bell pepper juice with integrated approach of yoga therapy (IAYT) on blood glucose levels and cardiovascular variables in patients with T2DM. Fifty T2DM subjects with the age varied from 34 to 69-years were recruited and randomly divided into either study group or control group. The study group received 100-ml of bell pepper juice (twice/day) along with IAYT while the control group received only IAYT for 4-consecutive days. Baseline and post-test assessments were taken before and after the intervention. Statistical analysis was performed using statistical package for the social sciences, version-16. Results of this study showed no significant difference in overall (fasting and post prandial) blood glucose level in the study group compared with control group. However, a significant reduction in Post prandial blood glucose (PPBG), systolic blood pressure (SBP), pulse pressure (PP), rate pressure product (RPP) and Double product (Do-P) was observed in the study group compared with control group. Results of this study suggest that though an addition of 100-ml of bell pepper juice (twice/day) along with IAYT is not more effective in reducing fasting blood glucose, it may be more effective in reducing PPBG, SBP, PP, RPP and Do-P than IAYT alone. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Design and Fabrication of a Real-Time Measurement System for the Capsaicinoid Content of Korean Red Pepper (Capsicum annuum L. Powder by Visible and Near-Infrared Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jongguk Lim

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to design and fabricate a system to measure the capsaicinoid content of red pepper powder in a non-destructive and rapid method using visible and near infrared spectroscopy (VNIR. The developed system scans a well-leveled powder surface continuously to minimize the influence of the placenta distribution, thus acquiring stable and representative reflectance spectra. The system incorporates flat belts driven by a sample input hopper and stepping motor, a powder surface leveler, charge-coupled device (CCD image sensor-embedded VNIR spectrometer, fiber optic probe, and tungsten halogen lamp, and an automated reference measuring unit with a reference panel to measure the standard spectrum. The operation program includes device interface, standard reflectivity measurement, and a graphical user interface to measure the capsaicinoid content. A partial least square regression (PLSR model was developed to predict the capsaicinoid content; 44 red pepper powder samples whose measured capsaicinoid content ranged 13.45–159.48 mg/100 g by per high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and 1242 VNIR absorbance spectra acquired by the pungency measurement system were used. The determination coefficient of validation (RV2 and standard error of prediction (SEP for the model with the first-order derivative pretreatment method for Korean red pepper powder were 0.8484 and ±13.6388 mg/100 g, respectively.

  9. Design and Fabrication of a Real-Time Measurement System for the Capsaicinoid Content of Korean Red Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) Powder by Visible and Near-Infrared Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jongguk; Kim, Giyoung; Mo, Changyeun; Kim, Moon S

    2015-10-29

    This research aims to design and fabricate a system to measure the capsaicinoid content of red pepper powder in a non-destructive and rapid method using visible and near infrared spectroscopy (VNIR). The developed system scans a well-leveled powder surface continuously to minimize the influence of the placenta distribution, thus acquiring stable and representative reflectance spectra. The system incorporates flat belts driven by a sample input hopper and stepping motor, a powder surface leveler, charge-coupled device (CCD) image sensor-embedded VNIR spectrometer, fiber optic probe, and tungsten halogen lamp, and an automated reference measuring unit with a reference panel to measure the standard spectrum. The operation program includes device interface, standard reflectivity measurement, and a graphical user interface to measure the capsaicinoid content. A partial least square regression (PLSR) model was developed to predict the capsaicinoid content; 44 red pepper powder samples whose measured capsaicinoid content ranged 13.45-159.48 mg/100 g by per high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and 1242 VNIR absorbance spectra acquired by the pungency measurement system were used. The determination coefficient of validation (RV2) and standard error of prediction (SEP) for the model with the first-order derivative pretreatment method for Korean red pepper powder were 0.8484 and ±13.6388 mg/100 g, respectively.

  10. Shift in performance of food safety management systems in supply chains: case of green bean chain in Kenya versus hot pepper chain in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanyunja, Jessica; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Kirezieva, Klementina; Kaaya, Archileo N; Uyttendaele, Mieke; Luning, Pieternel A

    2016-08-01

    This study investigates the level of design and operation of food safety management systems (FSMS) of farmers and export traders in Kenya and Uganda. FSMS diagnostic tools developed for the fresh produce chain were used to assess the levels of context riskiness, FSMS activities and system output in primary production (n = 60) and trade (n = 60). High-risk context characteristics combined with basic FSMS are expected to increase the risk on unsafe produce. In Uganda both farmers and export traders of hot peppers operate in a high- to moderate-risk context but have basic FSMS and low systems output. In Kenya, both farmers and export traders of green beans operate in a low- to moderate-risk context. The farmers have average performing FSMS, whereas export trade companies showed more advanced FSMS and system output scores ranging from satisfactory to good. Large retailers supplying the EU premium market play a crucial role in demanding compliance with strict voluntary food safety standards, which was reflected in the more advanced FSMS and good system output in Kenya, especially traders. In Kenya, a clear shift in more fit-for-purpose FSMS and higher system output was noticed between farms and trade companies. In the case of Uganda, traders commonly supply to the less demanding EU wholesale markets such as ethnic specialty shops. They only have to comply with the legal phytosanitary and pesticide residue requirements for export activities, which apparently resulted in basic FSMS and low system output present with both farmers and traders. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Rhizosphere microorganisms affected by soil solarization and cover cropping in Capsicum annuum and Phaseolus lunatus agroecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of soil solarization or cover cropping on bell pepper (Capsicum annuum) and lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus, L.) rhizosphere microorganisms. In Experiment I, flat surface solarization (FSS), raised bed solarization (RBS), cowpea (Vigna unguiculat...

  12. Capsicum annuum WRKY transcription factor d (CaWRKYd) regulates hypersensitive response and defense response upon Tobacco mosaic virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Sung Un; Choi, La Mee; Lee, Gil-Je; Kim, Young Jin; Paek, Kyung-Hee

    2012-12-01

    WRKY transcription factors regulate biotic, abiotic, and developmental processes. In terms of plant defense, WRKY factors have important roles as positive and negative regulators via transcriptional regulation or protein-protein interaction. Here, we report the characterization of the gene encoding Capsicum annuum WRKY transcription factor d (CaWRKYd) isolated from microarray analysis in the Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV)-P(0)-inoculated hot pepper plants. CaWRKYd belongs to the WRKY IIa group, a very small clade in the WRKY subfamily, and WRKY IIa group has positive/negative regulatory roles in Arabidopsis and rice. CaWRKYd transcripts were induced by various plant defense-related hormone treatments and TMV-P(0) inoculation. Silencing of CaWRKYd affected TMV-P(0)-mediated hypersensitive response (HR) cell death and accumulation of TMV-P(0) coat protein in local and systemic leaves. Furthermore, expression of some pathogenesis-related (PR) genes and HR-related genes was reduced in the CaWRKYd-silenced plants compared with TRV2 vector control plants upon TMV-P(0) inoculation. CaWRKYd was confirmed to bind to the W-box. Thus CaWRKYd is a newly identified Capsicum annuum WRKY transcription factor that appears to be involved in TMV-P(0)-mediated HR cell death by regulating downstream gene expression. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Bioengineering of the Plant Culture of Capsicum frutescens with Vanillin Synthase Gene for the Production of Vanillin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee, Marcus Jenn Yang; Lycett, Grantley W; Khoo, Teng-Jin; Chin, Chiew Foan

    2017-01-01

    Production of vanillin by bioengineering has gained popularity due to consumer demand toward vanillin produced by biological systems. Natural vanillin from vanilla beans is very expensive to produce compared to its synthetic counterpart. Current bioengineering works mainly involve microbial biotechnology. Therefore, alternative means to the current approaches are constantly being explored. This work describes the use of vanillin synthase (VpVAN), to bioconvert ferulic acid to vanillin in a plant system. The VpVAN enzyme had been shown to directly convert ferulic acid and its glucoside into vanillin and its glucoside, respectively. As the ferulic acid precursor and vanillin were found to be the intermediates in the phenylpropanoid biosynthetic pathway of Capsicum species, this work serves as a proof-of-concept for vanillin production using Capsicum frutescens (C. frutescens or hot chili pepper). The cells of C. frutescens were genetically transformed with a codon optimized VpVAN gene via biolistics. Transformed explants were selected and regenerated into callus. Successful integration of the gene cassette into the plant genome was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction. High-performance liquid chromatography was used to quantify the phenolic compounds detected in the callus tissues. The vanillin content of transformed calli was 0.057% compared to 0.0003% in untransformed calli.

  14. Foliar Application of the Fungicide Pyraclostrobin Reduced Bacterial Spot Disease of Pepper

    OpenAIRE

    Beom Ryong Kang; Jang Hoon Lee; Young Cheol Kim

    2018-01-01

    Pyraclostrobin is a broad-spectrum fungicide that inhibits mitochondrial respiration. However, it may also induce systemic resistance effective against bacterial and viral diseases. In this study, we evaluated whether pyraclostrobin enhanced resistance against the bacterial spot pathogen, Xanthomonas euvesicatora on pepper (Capsicum annuum). Although pyraclostrobin alone did not suppressed the in vitro growth of X. euvesicatoria, disease severity in pepper was significantly lower by 69% after...

  15. Inoculation of the nonlegume Capsicum annuum L. with Rhizobium strains. 2. Changes in sterols, triterpenes, fatty acids, and volatile compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Luís R; Azevedo, Jessica; Pereira, Maria J; Carro, Lorena; Velazquez, Encarna; Peix, Alvaro; Valentão, Patrícia; Andrade, Paula B

    2014-01-22

    Peppers (Capsicum spp.) are consumed worldwide, imparting flavor, aroma, and color to foods, additionally containing high concentrations of biofunctional compounds. This is the first report about the effect of the inoculation of two Rhizobium strains on sterols, triterpenes, fatty acids, and volatile compounds of leaves and fruits of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) plants. Generally, inoculation with strain TVP08 led to the major changes, being observed a decrease of sterols and triterpenes and an increase of fatty acids, which are related to higher biomass, growth, and ripening of pepper fruits. The increase of volatile compounds may reflect the elicitation of plant defense after inoculation, since the content on methyl salicylate was significantly increased in inoculated material. The findings suggest that inoculation with Rhizobium strains may be employed to manipulate the content of interesting metabolites in pepper leaves and fruits, increasing potential health benefits and defense abilities of inoculated plants.

  16. Modelling the Drying Characteristics and Kinetics of Hot Air-Drying of Unblanched Whole Red Pepper and Blanched Bitter Leaf Slices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Enahoro Agarry

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the drying characteristics and kinetics of red pepper and bitter leaf under the influence of different drying temperatures. The drying experiments were carried out at dry bulb temperature of 35, 45, 55 and 75oC, respectively in an oven dryer. The results showed that as drying temperature increased, drying rate also increased and the drying time decreased. It was observed that un-sliced red pepper and sliced bitter leaf would dry within 2.5-12 h and 1.67-7 h, respectively at temperature ranging from 75 to 35oC. The drying of red pepper and bitter leaf was both in the constant and falling rate period. Four semi-empirical mathematical drying models (Newton, Page, Henderson and Pabis, and Logarithmic models were fitted to the experimental drying curves. The models were compared using the coefficient of determination (R^2 and the root mean square error (RMSE. The Page model has shown a better fit to the experimental drying data of red pepper and bitter leaf, respectively as relatively compared to other tested models. Moisture transport during drying was described by the application of Fick’s diffusion model and the effective moisture diffusivity was estimated. The value ranges from 15.69 to 84.79 × 10-9 m2/s and 0.294 to 1.263 × 10-9 m2/s for red pepper and bitter leaf, respectively. The Arrhenius-type relationship describes the temperature dependence of effective moisture diffusivity and was determined to be 37.11 kJ/mol and 32.86 kJ/mol for red pepper and bitter leaf, respectively. A correlation between the drying time and the heat transfer area was also developed.

  17. Modelling the Drying Characteristics and Kinetics of Hot Air-Drying of Unblanched Whole Red Pepper and Blanched Bitter Leaf Slices

    OpenAIRE

    Samuel Enahoro Agarry

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the drying characteristics and kinetics of red pepper and bitter leaf under the influence of different drying temperatures. The drying experiments were carried out at dry bulb temperature of 35, 45, 55 and 75oC, respectively in an oven dryer. The results showed that as drying temperature increased, drying rate also increased and the drying time decreased. It was observed that un-sliced red pepper and sliced bitter leaf would dry within 2.5-12 h a...

  18. Constraints and potential of Sweet Pepper cultivation in plastic houses in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gunadi, N.; Everaarts, A.P.; Adiyoga, W.; Moekasan, T.

    2007-01-01

    At the start of a research project on the improvement of sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum) cultivation in plastic houses in Indonesia, an inventory of the present cultivation methods and constraints was made, together with an analysis of production costs and benefits. The inventory was carried out in

  19. Construction of an integrated genetic map for Capsicum baccatum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulin, M M; Rodrigues, R; Ramos, H C C; Bento, C S; Sudré, C P; Gonçalves, L S A; Viana, A P

    2015-06-18

    Capsicum baccatum L. is one of the five Capsicum domesticated species and has multiple uses in the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. This species is also a valuable source of genes for chili pepper breeding, especially genes for disease resistance and fruit quality. However, knowledge of the genetic structure of C. baccatum is limited. A reference map for C. baccatum (2n = 2x = 24) based on 42 microsatellite, 85 inter-simple sequence repeat, and 56 random amplified polymorphic DNA markers was constructed using an F2 population consisting of 203 individuals. The map was generated using the JoinMap software (version 4.0) and the linkage groups were formed and ordered using a LOD score of 3.0 and maximum of 40% recombination. The genetic map consisted of 12 major and four minor linkage groups covering a total genome distance of 2547.5 cM with an average distance of 14.25 cM between markers. Of the 152 pairs of microsatellite markers available for Capsicum annuum, 62 were successfully transferred to C. baccatum, generating polymorphism. Forty-two of these markers were mapped, allowing the introduction of C. baccatum in synteny studies with other species of the genus Capsicum.

  20. QTL mapping of anthracnose (Colletotrichum spp.) resistance in a cross between Capsicum annuum and C-chinense

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorrips, R.E.; Finkers, H.J.; Sanjaya, L.; Groenwold, R.

    2004-01-01

    Anthracnose fruit rot is an economically important disease that affects pepper production in Indonesia. Strong resistance to two causal pathogens, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and C. capsici, was found in an accession of Capsicum chinense. The inheritance of this resistance was studied in an F2

  1. Isozyme characterization of Capsicum accessions from the Amazonian Colombian collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Quintero Barrera

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Two hundred and sixty-one accessions of the genus Capsicum were obtained from the Colombian Amazonian germplasm bank at Amazonian Institute of Scientific Research (Sinchi and were evaluated with five polymorphic enzymatic systems, including esterase (EST, peroxidase (PRX, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6-PGDH, aspartate amino transferase (GOT, and malic enzyme (ME. Using a cluster analysis (UPGMA the genetic variability of these accessions were characterized. Grouping of the species C. baccatum and C. pubescens were observed, while the species C. annuum, C. chinense and C. frutescens did not group independently, a result that has been previously reported in isoenzyme analyses of this genus. Several accessions were deemed of particular interest for future ecological and evolutive studies. Key words: Colombia, Capsicum, germplasm bank, isoenzymes, peppers.

  2. PENGARUH EKSTRAK BUNGA FLAMBOYAN (Delonix regia Hook Raf TERHADAP PERKECAMBAHAN DAN PERTUMBUHAN CABAI MERAH BESAR (Capsicum annuum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Royana Pakpahan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The reach aim to the effect of flamboyant (Delonix regia Hook Raf. flower extract on the growth of large red pepper plant (Capsicum annuum L., for use a land under of flamboyant trees. The research design used was Random Block Design, with five treatments extract concentration, control, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20%, each treatment was repeated five time. Observations were made during the 15 weeks. The results showed the percentage of germination and plant height are effect significant, while the number of leaves, root length and dry weight of the plant does not provide effect for the growth of large red pepper plant. Keywords : flamboyant, allelopathy, large red pepper

  3. Genetic diversity in Capsicum baccatum is significantly influenced by its ecogeographical distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The exotic pepper species Capsicum baccatum, also known as the aji or Peruvian hot pepper, is comprised of wild and domesticated botanical forms. The species is a valuable source of new genes useful for improving fruit quality and disease resistance in C. annuum sweet bell and hot chile pepper. However, relatively little research has been conducted to characterize the species, thus limiting its utilization. The structure of genetic diversity in a plant germplasm collection is significantly influenced by its ecogeographical distribution. Together with DNA fingerprints derived from AFLP markers, we evaluated variation in fruit and plant morphology of plants collected across the species native range in South America and evaluated these characters in combination with the unique geography, climate and ecology at different sites where plants originated. Results The present study mapped the ecogeographic distribution, analyzed the spatial genetic structure, and assessed the relationship between the spatial genetic pattern and the variation of morphological traits in a diverse C. baccatum germplasm collection spanning the species distribution. A combined diversity analysis was carried out on the USDA-ARS C. baccatum germplasm collection using data from GIS, morphological traits and AFLP markers. The results demonstrate that the C. baccatum collection covers wide geographic areas and is adapted to divergent ecological conditions in South America ranging from cool Andean highland to Amazonia rainforest. A high level of morphological diversity was evident in the collection, with fruit weight the leading variable. The fruit weight distribution pattern was compatible to AFLP-based clustering analysis for the collection. A significant spatial structure was observed in the C. baccatum gene pool. Division of the domesticated germplasm into two major regional groups (Western and Eastern) was further supported by the pattern of spatial population structure. Conclusions

  4. Influência do ácido giberélico no desenvolvimento, produção e qualidade do fruto em cultura de pimentão (Capsicum annuum L. Influence of GA3 on the development, yield and fruit quality of pepper (Capsicum annum L. crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Lucchesi

    1982-06-01

    Full Text Available Foi aplciado, na cultura de pimentão variedade híbrida Cascadura x Agronômico 10 G, ácido giberélico (GA3, 10, 20 e 40 ppm, pulverizado, uma, três e seis vezes, com intervalos de uma semana, iniciando-se a primeira aplicação sete dias após o transplante , com a finalidade de se estudar a influência desse fitorregulador no desenvolvimento, produção e qualidade do fruto, nessa cultura. Conclui-se que a aplicação de 10 ppm, uma semana após o transplante, resultou em maior produção; maior peso médio do fruto e relativa precocidade. A dose de 40 ppm em se is aplicações consecutivas, resultou em pequena produção, mais tardia, com as plantas mostrando maior desenvolvimento vegetativo, folhas maiores e de coloração verde amarelada.Gibberelic acid (GA3 was sprayed at concentrations of 10, 20, or 40 ppm, in one, three or six times, with one week intervals on pepper crop (C as cadura x Agronômico 10 G hyb rid , starting serven days afte r transp lanting in a field trial, to study its influence on development, yield an frut quality. The concentration of 10 ppm, applied seven days after transplanting, resulted in the highest yield , with highest mean fruit weig ht and precocity. The concentration of 40 ppm, with six applications resulted in a delayed lower yield with plants showing more ve getative growth, larger leaves and yellow green color.

  5. First report of new phytoplasma diseases associated with soybean, sweet pepper, and passion fruit in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new soybean disease outbreak occurred in 2002 in a soybean (Glycine max) plantation in Alajuela Province, Costa Rica. Symptoms in the affected plants included general stunting, little leaf, formation of excessive buds, and aborted seed pods. Another two diseases occurred in sweet pepper (Capsicum ...

  6. Genome-Wide Identification and Expression Analysis of WRKY Gene Family in Capsicum annuum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Wei-Ping; Snyder, John C; Wang, Shu-Bin; Liu, Jin-Bing; Pan, Bao-Gui; Guo, Guang-Jun; Wei, Ge

    2016-01-01

    The WRKY family of transcription factors is one of the most important families of plant transcriptional regulators with members regulating multiple biological processes, especially in regulating defense against biotic and abiotic stresses. However, little information is available about WRKYs in pepper (Capsicum annuum L.). The recent release of completely assembled genome sequences of pepper allowed us to perform a genome-wide investigation for pepper WRKY proteins. In the present study, a total of 71 WRKY genes were identified in the pepper genome. According to structural features of their encoded proteins, the pepper WRKY genes (CaWRKY) were classified into three main groups, with the second group further divided into five subgroups. Genome mapping analysis revealed that CaWRKY were enriched on four chromosomes, especially on chromosome 1, and 15.5% of the family members were tandemly duplicated genes. A phylogenetic tree was constructed depending on WRKY domain' sequences derived from pepper and Arabidopsis. The expression of 21 selected CaWRKY genes in response to seven different biotic and abiotic stresses (salt, heat shock, drought, Phytophtora capsici, SA, MeJA, and ABA) was evaluated by quantitative RT-PCR; Some CaWRKYs were highly expressed and up-regulated by stress treatment. Our results will provide a platform for functional identification and molecular breeding studies of WRKY genes in pepper.

  7. Effect of cultivar and roasting technique on sensory quality of Bierzo roasted pepper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Marcos; Sanz, Miguel A; Valenciano, José B; Casquero, Pedro A

    2011-10-01

    Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) is one of the main horticultural products in the world. Roasted pepper is a high quality transformed product in the Iberian Peninsula, and obtained the recognition of 'Protected Geographical Indication' (PGI) of 'Pimiento Asado del Bierzo' in 2002. Roasted pepper has been traditionally processed with a steel-sheet hob. However, there are no data available about the effect of roasting technique in the quality of roasted pepper. The objective of this work was to compare the sensory quality of roasted pepper using industrial roasting techniques. Sensory properties that showed significant differences between roasting techniques were colour, thickness and charred remains (appearance descriptors), bitterness (taste descriptor) and smokiness (after-taste descriptor). Higher value of descriptors such as colour, charred remains and smokiness for peppers elaborated in a rotary oven, helped roasted pepper to reach a higher level of overall quality, although rotary oven samples reached the lowest roast yield. Roasting technique, rather than landrace, had the greatest effect on the sensory quality of roasted pepper, so the rotary oven was the roasting technique that achieved the highest quality score. This will contribute to improve sensory quality and marketing of PGI 'Pimiento Asado del Bierzo' in high quality markets. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Detection of pathogens associated with psyllids and leafhoppers in Capsicum annuum L. in the Mexican States of Durango, Zacatecas, and Michoacán

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the fall of 2014, five to seventy-five percent of chili and bell peppers (Capsicum annuum L.) in commercial fields located in the Mexican states of Durango, Zacatecas, and Michoacán, had various symptoms of deformed, small, mosaic, curled, and chlorotic leaves, shortened internodes and plant dwar...

  9. The complete chloroplast genome of Capsicum annuum var. glabriusculum using Illumina sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raveendar, Sebastin; Na, Young-Wang; Lee, Jung-Ro; Shim, Donghwan; Ma, Kyung-Ho; Lee, Sok-Young; Chung, Jong-Wook

    2015-07-20

    Chloroplast (cp) genome sequences provide a valuable source for DNA barcoding. Molecular phylogenetic studies have concentrated on DNA sequencing of conserved gene loci. However, this approach is time consuming and more difficult to implement when gene organization differs among species. Here we report the complete re-sequencing of the cp genome of Capsicum pepper (Capsicum annuum var. glabriusculum) using the Illumina platform. The total length of the cp genome is 156,817 bp with a 37.7% overall GC content. A pair of inverted repeats (IRs) of 50,284 bp were separated by a small single copy (SSC; 18,948 bp) and a large single copy (LSC; 87,446 bp). The number of cp genes in C. annuum var. glabriusculum is the same as that in other Capsicum species. Variations in the lengths of LSC; SSC and IR regions were the main contributors to the size variation in the cp genome of this species. A total of 125 simple sequence repeat (SSR) and 48 insertions or deletions variants were found by sequence alignment of Capsicum cp genome. These findings provide a foundation for further investigation of cp genome evolution in Capsicum and other higher plants.

  10. Growth and physiological aspects of bell pepper (Capsicum annuum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuoyo Aghomotsegin

    2016-08-24

    Aug 24, 2016 ... 4Federal Rural University of Semi-Árido, Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil. Received 29 ..... (org.). (1997). Manual de métodos de análise de solo. ... do meloeiro cultivado sob diferentes níveis de salinidade, com e sem.

  11. Changes in the protein profile of Habanero pepper (Capsicum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-06-12

    Jun 12, 2012 ... been achieved for a variety of plant species, including angiosperms and .... Similar studies have been conducted on Hyoscyamus niger L. (Ebrahimzadeh et al.,. 2007) ..... Proteome reference maps of Medicago truncatula.

  12. Effect of Red Pepper ( Powder or Red Pepper Pigment on the Performance and Egg Yolk Color of Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaqiang Li

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted to study the effects of red pepper (Capsicum frutescens powder or red pepper pigment on the performance and egg yolk color of laying hens. In Exp. 1, 210, thirty-wk old, Hy-line Brown laying hens were fed one of seven diets containing 0.3, 0.6, 1.2, 2.0, 4.8 or 9.6 ppm red pepper pigment or 0.3 ppm carophyll red. Each diet was fed to three replicate batteries of hens with each battery consisting of a row of five cages of hens with two hens per cage (n = 3. In Exp. 2, 180, thirty-wk old, Hyline Brown laying hens, housed similarly to those in Exp. 1, were fed an unsupplemented basal diet as well as treatments in which the basal diet was supplemented with 0.8% red pepper powder processed in a laboratory blender to an average particle size of 300 μm, 0.8% red pepper powder processed as a super fine powder with a vibrational mill (44 μm and finally 0.8% red pepper powder processed as a super fine powder with a vibrational mill but mixed with 5% Na2CO3 either before or after grinding. A diet supplemented with 0.3 ppm carophyll red pigment was also included (n = 3. In both experiments, hens were fed the red pepper powder or pigment for 14 days. After feeding of the powder or pigment was terminated, all hens were fed the basal diet for eight more days to determine if the dietary treatments had any residual effects. In Exp. 1, there were no differences in egg-laying performance, feed consumption or feed conversion ratio due to inclusion of red pepper pigment in the diet. Average egg weight was higher (p0.05. However, compared with the control group, supplementation with all of the red pepper powder treatments increased egg weight (p<0.05. All the red pepper powder treatments also increased (p<0.05 the yolk color score compared with the control. The results of the present study suggest that both red pepper powder and pigment are effective feed additives for improving egg yolk color for laying hens.

  13. Capsaicin Synthesis Requires in Situ Phenylalanine and Valine Formation in in Vitro Maintained Placentas from Capsicum chinense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fray M. Baas-Espinola

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Capsaicinoids (CAP are nitrogenous metabolites formed from valine (Val and phenylalanine (Phe in the placentas of hot Capsicum genotypes. Placentas of Habanero peppers can incorporate inorganic nitrogen into amino acids and have the ability to secure the availability of the required amino acids for CAP biosynthesis. In order to determine the participation of the placental tissue as a supplier of these amino acids, the effects of blocking the synthesis of Val and Phe by using specific enzyme inhibitors were analyzed. Isolated placentas maintained in vitro were used to rule out external sources′ participation. Blocking Phe synthesis, through the inhibition of arogenate dehydratase, significantly decreased CAP accumulation suggesting that at least part of Phe required in this process has to be produced in situ. Chlorsulfuron inhibition of acetolactate synthase, involved in Val synthesis, decreased not only Val accumulation but also that of CAP, pointing out that the requirement for this amino acid can also be fulfilled by this tissue. The presented data demonstrates that CAP accumulation in in vitro maintained placentas can be accomplished through the in situ availability of Val and Phe and suggests that the synthesis of the fatty acid chain moiety may be a limiting factor in the biosynthesis of these alkaloids.

  14. Storage stability and irradiation effect of red pepper powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, C H; Choi, E H; Lee, S R [Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., Seoul (Republic of Korea); Kim, H S [Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Republic of Korea)

    1977-01-01

    To improve the storage stability of Korea red pepper (Capsicum annuum), the equilibrium moisture content of the powder and effects of irradiation on the capsicin, capsanthin and microorganisms were investigated during its storage. The equilibrium moisture contents of the powder at 25 /sup 0/C and relative humidities of 43.7, 53.3, 64.4, 75.4, and 84.3% were 13, 18, 25, 28, and 37%, respectively, and the larger the particle size was, the lower the equilibrium moisture content was under the same storage conditions. Cobalt-60 gamma irradiation degraded partly the capsaicin in red pepper or in solution at dose levels above 500 krad, but did not affect the moisture and capsanthin contents during its storage. Total visible cell count of the powder was around 10/sup 8/ per gram and D/sub 10/ value for the mixed organisms was 210 krad.

  15. The decrease in aqueous tear production associated with pepper spray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasier, Rifat; Kukner, Amber Senel; Sengul, Elvan Alper; Yalcin, Nazli Gul; Temizsoylu, Onur; Bahcecioglu, Halil Onder

    2015-04-01

    Pepper spray is used both by civilians and by law enforcement. Burning sensation occurs when exposed to skin, pain and temporary blindness occurs when exposed to the eyes. This study focused on the effect of pepper spray on lacrimal tear production and subsequently on corneal sensitivity in a large group after an intense exposure. Ninety-six people who were exposed to pepper spray during the Gezi park protests volunteered. Subjects were asked if they wore any protective goggles and if they irrigated their eyes after exposure. They were asked to record their symptoms regarding dry eye in a standardized questionnaire. Schirmer I and II tests were performed. Eighty-two people wore protective goggles during exposure, whereas 14 people did not have any protection. Both Schirmer results in unprotected subjects were significantly lower than that in protected subjects. Schirmer I and II results of unprotected subjects were not statistically different, whereas they were statistically different in protected subjects. Thirty-five percent of unprotected subjects and 24% of protected subjects expressed symptoms of dry eye. The active ingredient of pepper spray is oleoresin capsicum. It is randomly diffused to polymodal nerve terminals, leading to opening of non-selective cationic channels and block neuronal transmission. The lower results of both Schirmer in unprotected group emphasize the importance of a protective Google glass around the eyes during exposal, serving as a barrier minimalizing the contact of the spray with the eyes. The combination of the low results and lack of symptoms could suggest that corneal reflex lacrimation in our subjects was not abundant enough. The findings of this study could not fully represent long term findings but it could be assumed that our findings could be indicative of the sensory denervation and alterations demonstrated in studies investigating the long term effects of oleoresin capsicum.

  16. Ectopic expression of Capsicum-specific cell wall protein Capsicum annuum senescence-delaying 1 (CaSD1) delays senescence and induces trichome formation in Nicotiana benthamiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Eunyoung; Yeom, Seon-In; Jo, Sunghwan; Jeong, Heejin; Kang, Byoung-Cheorl; Choi, Doil

    2012-04-01

    Secreted proteins are known to have multiple roles in plant development, metabolism, and stress response. In a previous study to understand the roles of secreted proteins, Capsicum annuum secreted proteins (CaS) were isolated by yeast secretion trap. Among the secreted proteins, we further characterized Capsicum annuum senescence-delaying 1 (CaSD1), a gene encoding a novel secreted protein that is present only in the genus Capsicum. The deduced CaSD1 contains multiple repeats of the amino acid sequence KPPIHNHKPTDYDRS. Interestingly, the number of repeats varied among cultivars and species in the Capsicum genus. CaSD1 is constitutively expressed in roots, and Agrobacterium-mediated transient overexpression of CaSD1 in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves resulted in delayed senescence with a dramatically increased number of trichomes and enlarged epidermal cells. Furthermore, senescence- and cell division-related genes were differentially regulated by CaSD1-overexpressing plants. These observations imply that the pepper-specific cell wall protein CaSD1 plays roles in plant growth and development by regulating cell division and differentiation.

  17. Antimicrobial peptides from Capsicum sp.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-12-30

    Dec 30, 2011 ... are regarded as waste after plants' fruits or seeds have been harvested. AMPs from ... including bacteria, fungi, viruses and oomycetes causing ..... Antibacterial effect of protein fraction from seeds of Capsicum chinense Jacq.

  18. Bioactive compounds of fresh and dehydrated green pepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Marinho do Nascimento

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Pepper Capsicum annuum L., belongs to the Solanaceae family, which contains approximately 31 species. Bioactive compounds also known as phytochemicals are chemical and biochemical components that are present in most fruits and vegetables. The objective of the present study was to verify if the bioactive compounds of the green pepper remain after being submitted to the drying process. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with 2 treatments and 5 replicates. Green peppers were used from the (Economic Center of Supply Corporation of the city of Patos, Paraíba. The peppers were packed in plastic boxes and transported to the Laboratory of Chemistry, Biochemistry and Food Analysis of the Federal University of Campina Grande, Campus Pombal. Where they were selected, washed and sanitized. After that, the minimum processing was done and the drying was carried out in a circulation oven at 60 ºC. At the end of the drying, the samples were crushed and sieved. After this process, the analyzes of ascorbic acid, chlorophylls, carotenoids, anthocyanin flavonoids and phenolic compounds. It was found that there was a significant difference between treatments. The bioactive properties of green pepper were not lost after the heat treatment. Some phytochemicals as ascorbic acid, carotenoids and phenolic compounds were concentrated. Therefore the loss of water during the drying process increased the concentration of the bioactive compounds of dehydrated pepper, the product obtained with this method exhibited high levels of phytochemicals, the use of drying may be an alternative to prolong the shelf life of the vegetable.

  19. Biocontrol of certain soilborne diseases and promotion of growth of capsicum annuum using biofungicides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madbouly, A.; Abdelbacki, A.M.M.

    2017-01-01

    Colored pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) has great economic importance as a food vegetable crop in Egypt and all over the world. This crop is prone to infection with soilborne fungal pathogens such as Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium solani and Macrophomina phaseolina. These mycopathogens were isolated from diseased pepper seedlings, identified; their virulence was confirmed in the greenhouse. Eight bacterial isolates mainly; (Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas fluorescens), and many fungal isolates mainly, (Trichoderma harzianum and T. viride), were isolated from the rhizosphere soil of pepper. They caused appreciable In vitro inhibition of the radial growth of the 3 pathogens in dual culture technique, in percentages ranging from (71-79%) and (80-87%), respectively. On infestation of pepper soil with these bioagents and the 3 pathogens separately in the greenhouse, they caused In vivo reduction of disease symptoms of pepper compared with the pathogens infested and non-infested control soils. In addition, they caused significant improvement of pepper growth compared with the control soil, however, promotion exerted by B. subtilis and T. harzianum was more than that of P. fluorescens and T. viride. These promoting activities could be attributed to the production of metabolites such as growth hormones; solubilization of phosphates and improvement of nutrient uptake. This is the first record of promoting the growth of pepper in greenhouse by B. subtilis and T. harzianum in Egypt. Thus these bioagents could be formulated then applied in the future in pepper fields of this country as safe, effective, ecofriendly biofungicides to control soilborne pathogens and also could be used as biofertilizers to promote the growth and productivity of this crop. (author)

  20. ANALISIS FENETIK KULTIVAR CABAI BESAR Capsicum annuum L. DAN CABAI KECIL Capsicum frutescens L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susi Agustina

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A study on the “Phenetic analysis of Capsicum annuum L. and Capsicum frutescens L. “ has been conducted from June to August 2012. The aim of the research is to know the relationship amoung big chillis and small chillis based on morphology. The samples were taken from 5 villages in Sukamantri Sub-district, Ciamis. The method used in this research was explorative survey with purposive random sampling. The character data of big chili and small chili morphologies were analyzed descriptively to determine the relationship using UPGMA (Unweighted Pair Group Mean Arithmetic methods. The result of this study showed that there were seven cultivars of big chilli, namely C. annuum „Hot Chili‟, Gada, Fantastik, Keriting TM 888, Tanjung 2, Keriting TM 999, Hot Beauty, and four cultivars of small chilli namely C. frutescens „Cakra Ungu‟, Cakra Hijau, Bendot, and Cakra Putih. The fenogram showed that there were five groups, two groups of C. annuum and three groups of C. frutescens. The first group consisted of C. annuum „Hot Chili‟, Keriting TM 888, Fantastik, and Tanjung 2. The second group consisted of C. annuum „Gada‟, Hot Beauty, and Keriting TM 999. The third group was C. frutescens „Bendot‟. The fourth group consisted of C. frutescens „Cakra Putih‟, and C. frutescens „Cakra Hijau‟. The fifth group was C. frutescens „Ungu‟. The closest relationship was between C. annuum „Keriting TM 999‟ and C. annuum „Hot Beauty‟ and the farthest relationship was between C. frutescens „Bendot‟ and C. frutescens „Ungu‟.

  1. Analysis of sequences from field samples reveals the presence of the recently described pepper vein yellows virus (genus Polerovirus) in six additional countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knierim, Dennis; Tsai, Wen-Shi; Kenyon, Lawrence

    2013-06-01

    Polerovirus infection was detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in 29 pepper plants (Capsicum spp.) and one black nightshade plant (Solanum nigrum) sample collected from fields in India, Indonesia, Mali, Philippines, Thailand and Taiwan. At least two representative samples for each country were selected to generate a general polerovirus RT-PCR product of 1.4 kb length for sequencing. Sequence analysis of the partial genome sequences revealed the presence of pepper vein yellows virus (PeVYV) in all 13 samples. A 1990 Australian herbarium sample of pepper described by serological means as infected with capsicum yellows virus (CYV) was identified by sequence analysis of a partial CP sequence as probably infected with a potato leaf roll virus (PLRV) isolate.

  2. A novel Capsicum gene inhibits host-specific disease resistance to Phytophthora capsici.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Gregory; Monroy-Barbosa, Ariadna; Bosland, Paul W

    2013-05-01

    A novel disease resistance inhibitor gene (inhibitor of P. capsici resistance [Ipcr]), found in the chile pepper (Capsicum annuum) variety 'New Mexico Capsicum Accession 10399' (NMCA10399), inhibits resistance to Phytophthora capsici but not to other species of Phytophthora. When a highly P. capsici-resistant variety was hybridized with NMCA10399, the resultant F1 populations, when screened, were completely susceptible to P. capsici for root rot and foliar blight disease syndromes, despite the dominance inheritance of P. capsici resistance in chile pepper. The F2 population displayed a 3:13 resistant-to-susceptible (R:S) ratio. The testcross population displayed a 1:1 R:S ratio, and a backcross population to NMCA10399 displayed complete susceptibility. These results demonstrate the presence of a single dominant inhibitor gene affecting P. capsici resistance in chile pepper. Moreover, when lines carrying the Ipcr gene were challenged against six Phytophthora spp., the nonhost resistance was not overcome. Therefore, the Ipcr gene is interfering with host-specific resistance but not the pathogen- or microbe-associated molecular pattern nonhost responses.

  3. Solanum americanum: reservoir for Potato virus Y and Cucumber mosaic virus in sweet pepper crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Fecury Moura

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Weeds can act as important reservoirs for viruses. Solanum americanum (Black nightshade is a common weed in Brazil and samples showing mosaic were collected from sweet pepper crops to verify the presence of viruses. One sample showed mixed infection between Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV and Potato virus Y (PVY and one sample showed simple infection by PVY. Both virus species were transmitted by plant extract and caused mosaic in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum cv. Santa Clara, sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum cv. Magda, Nicotiana benthamiana and N. tabaccum TNN, and local lesions on Chenopodium quinoa, C. murale and C. amaranticolor. The coat protein sequences for CMV and PVY found in S. americanum are phylogenetically more related to isolates from tomato. We conclude that S. americanum can act as a reservoir for different viruses during and between sweet pepper crop seasons.

  4. Natural occurrence of mycotoxins and toxigenic capacity of Alternaria strains from mouldy peppers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Cruz Cabral, Lucía; Terminiello, Laura; Fernández Pinto, Virginia

    2016-01-01

    Sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum) is an important crop cultivated worldwide, with Argentina being one of the major producers in South America. The fruit is susceptible to several fungal diseases, leading to severe economic losses for producers. In this study, Alternaria was found as the prevalent...... genus in mouldy peppers (50% fruits infected). Morphological identification revealed that all 64 Alternaria isolates belonged to small-spored species, most of them corresponding to A. tenuissima, A. arborescens and A. alternata species-groups. Their secondary metabolite profile was evaluated in vitro......; alternariols were synthesized by most of the isolates (91% for alternariol and 92% for alternariol monomethyl ether). A high number of Alternaria spp. also produced tenuazonic acid (64%), altenuene (84%) and tentoxin (72%). In addition, damaged pepper fruits were analysed for the presence of tenuazonic acid...

  5. Foliar Application of the Fungicide Pyraclostrobin Reduced Bacterial Spot Disease of Pepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beom Ryong Kang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Pyraclostrobin is a broad-spectrum fungicide that inhibits mitochondrial respiration. However, it may also induce systemic resistance effective against bacterial and viral diseases. In this study, we evaluated whether pyraclostrobin enhanced resistance against the bacterial spot pathogen, Xanthomonas euvesicatora on pepper (Capsicum annuum. Although pyraclostrobin alone did not suppressed the in vitro growth of X. euvesicatoria, disease severity in pepper was significantly lower by 69% after treatments with pyraclostrobin alone. A combination of pyraclostrobin with streptomycin reduced disease by over 90% that of the control plants. The preventive control of the pyraclostrobin against bacterial spot was required application 1-3 days before pathogen inoculation. Our findings suggest that the fungicide pyraclostrobin can be used with a chemical pesticide to control bacterial leaf spot diseases in pepper.

  6. Extración y cuantificación de capsacina a partir de cinco especies nativas del género Capsicum existentes en el Ecuador mediante cromatografía líquida de alta definición

    OpenAIRE

    Balseca Álvarez, Diana Aurelia; Rivadeneira Herrera, Lorena Anabel

    2013-01-01

    Pepper genetic resources are important for being a natural source of capsaicin. The information about the magnitude of this feature in chili are scarce native Ecuador. The aim of this study was to identify and quantify capsaicin oleoresin Capsicum species in populations collected in the provinces of Loja, Santo Domingo de la Tsáchilas, Esmeraldas, Los Ríos and Morona Santiago. A pharmacognosy study the dry fruit of the five representative species of the genus Capsicum (C. baccatum, C. chinens...

  7. Genetic Variation of Isozyme Polyphenol Oxidase (PPO Profiles in Different Varieties of Capsicum annuum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owk ANIEL KUMAR

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Capsicum commonly known as chilli pepper is a major spice crop and is of cosmopolitan in distribution. Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (Native PAGE was used to study the polyphenol oxidase (PPO isozyme variation in 21 varieties of Capsicum annuum L. A maximum of 4 PPO bands were scored in five varieties i.e., Ca14, Ca15, Ca16, Ca19 & Ca20, while the minimum (2 bands was observed in four varieties (Ca3, Ca10, Ca13 & Ca17. 15 pair wise combinations showed highest average per cent similarity (100% and the UPGMA dendrogram represented low genetic diversity. The present study revealed that considerable intraspecific differences were found in the varieties. Thus the results obtained could be used in fingerprinting the genotypes.

  8. Untargeted Metabolomic Analysis of Capsicum spp. by GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranha, Bianca Camargo; Hoffmann, Jessica Fernanda; Barbieri, Rosa Lia; Rombaldi, Cesar Valmor; Chaves, Fábio Clasen

    2017-09-01

    In order to conserve the biodiversity of Capsicum species and find genotypes with potential to be utilised commercially, Embrapa Clima Temperado maintains an active germplasm collection (AGC) that requires characterisation, enabling genotype selection and support for breeding programmes. The objective of this study was to characterise pepper accessions from the Embrapa Clima Temperado AGC and differentiate species based on their metabolic profile using an untargeted metabolomics approach. Cold (-20°C) methanol extraction residue of freeze-dried fruit samples was partitioned into water/methanol (A) and chloroform (B) fractions. The polar fraction (A) was derivatised and both fractions (A and B) were analysed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Data from each fraction was analysed using a multivariate principal component analysis (PCA) with XCMS software. Amino acids, sugars, organic acids, capsaicinoids, and hydrocarbons were identified. Outlying accessions including P116 (C. chinense), P46, and P76 (C. annuum) were observed in a PCA plot mainly due to their high sucrose and fructose contents. PCA also indicated a separation of P221 (C. annuum) and P200 (C. chinense), because of their high dihydrocapsaicin content. Although the metabolic profiling did not allow for grouping by species, it permitted the simultaneous identification and quantification of several compounds complementing and expanding the metabolic database of the studied Capsicum spp. in the AGC. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Genetic Diversity, Population Structure, and Heritability of Fruit Traits in Capsicum annuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naegele, Rachel P.; Mitchell, Jenna; Hausbeck, Mary K.

    2016-01-01

    Cultivated pepper (Capsicum annuum) is a phenotypically diverse species grown throughout the world. Wild and landrace peppers are typically small-fruited and pungent, but contain many important traits such as insect and disease resistance. Cultivated peppers vary dramatically in size, shape, pungency, and color, and often lack resistance traits. Fruit characteristics (e.g. shape and pericarp thickness) are major determinants for cultivar selection, and their association with disease susceptibility can reduce breeding efficacy. This study evaluated a diverse collection of peppers for mature fruit phenotypic traits, correlation among fruit traits and Phytophthora fruit rot resistance, genetic diversity, population structure, and trait broad sense heritability. Significant differences within all fruit phenotype categories were detected among pepper lines. Fruit from Europe had the thickest pericarp, and fruit from Ecuador had the thinnest. For fruit shape index, fruit from Africa had the highest index, while fruit from Europe had the lowest. Five genetic clusters were detected in the pepper population and were significantly associated with fruit thickness, end shape, and fruit shape index. The genetic differentiation between clusters ranged from little to very great differentiation when grouped by the predefined categories. Broad sense heritability for fruit traits ranged from 0.56 (shoulder height) to 0.98 (pericarp thickness). When correlations among fruit phenotypes and fruit disease were evaluated, fruit shape index was negatively correlated with pericarp thickness, and positively correlated with fruit perimeter. Pepper fruit pericarp, perimeter, and width had a slight positive correlation with Phytophthora fruit rot, whereas fruit shape index had a slight negative correlation. PMID:27415818

  10. Circadian rhythm of leaf movement in Capsicum annuum observed during centrifugation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, D. K.; Brown, A. H.; Dahl, A. O.

    1975-01-01

    Plant circadian rhythms of leaf movement in seedlings of the pepper plant (Capsicum annuum L., var. Yolo Wonder) were observed at different g-levels by means of a centrifuge. Except for the chronically imposed g-force all environmental conditions to which the plants were exposed were held constant. The circadian period, rate of change of amplitude of successive oscillations, symmetry of the cycles, and phase of the rhythm all were found not to be significantly correlated with the magnitude of the sustained g-force.

  11. Genetic diversity and population structure analysis to construct a core collection from a large Capsicum germplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hea-Young; Ro, Na-Young; Jeong, Hee-Jin; Kwon, Jin-Kyung; Jo, Jinkwan; Ha, Yeaseong; Jung, Ayoung; Han, Ji-Woong; Venkatesh, Jelli; Kang, Byoung-Cheorl

    2016-11-14

    Conservation of genetic diversity is an essential prerequisite for developing new cultivars with desirable agronomic traits. Although a large number of germplasm collections have been established worldwide, many of them face major difficulties due to large size and a lack of adequate information about population structure and genetic diversity. Core collection with a minimum number of accessions and maximum genetic diversity of pepper species and its wild relatives will facilitate easy access to genetic material as well as the use of hidden genetic diversity in Capsicum. To explore genetic diversity and population structure, we investigated patterns of molecular diversity using a transcriptome-based 48 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a large germplasm collection comprising 3,821 accessions. Among the 11 species examined, Capsicum annuum showed the highest genetic diversity (H E  = 0.44, I = 0.69), whereas the wild species C. galapagoense showed the lowest genetic diversity (H E  = 0.06, I = 0.07). The Capsicum germplasm collection was divided into 10 clusters (cluster 1 to 10) based on population structure analysis, and five groups (group A to E) based on phylogenetic analysis. Capsicum accessions from the five distinct groups in an unrooted phylogenetic tree showed taxonomic distinctness and reflected their geographic origins. Most of the accessions from European countries are distributed in the A and B groups, whereas the accessions from Asian countries are mainly distributed in C and D groups. Five different sampling strategies with diverse genetic clustering methods were used to select the optimal method for constructing the core collection. Using a number of allelic variations based on 48 SNP markers and 32 different phenotypic/morphological traits, a core collection 'CC240' with a total of 240 accessions (5.2 %) was selected from within the entire Capsicum germplasm. Compared to the other core collections, CC240 displayed higher

  12. Reaction of sweet pepper to the potato virus y (PVYm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Echer Márcia de Moraes

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional sweet pepper cultivars showing susceptibility to the Potato virus Y (PVY are being replaced by resistant hybrids with higher commercial value. Despite of much information about resistance source reaction and their inheritance, there is no knowledge about the genetic background of commercial resistant hybrids. Reaction of sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L. hybrids to the Potato virus Y (PVYm such as Acuario, Magali R, Nathalie and their respective generations F2 and F3 as well as hybrids Amanda, Corteso W208, CPC-6272, Dagmar, Elisa, Magali, Margarita, Monteiro, Quantum, Vivo W205 was evaluated. Reaction to PVYm was evaluated as resistant or susceptible. Magali R and Nathalie hybrid did not show any mosaic symptoms. Magali R and Nathalie hybrids resistance is due to a single dominant gene indicating resistant versus susceptible parental lines crossing pedigree. Amanda, Acuario, Corteso W208, Dagmar, Elisa, Margarita, Monteiro, Quantum and Vivo W205, considered resistant to PVY, were highly susceptibility to PVY strain m. Hybrids, claimed as resistant to the Pepper mottle virus (PepMoV, were also resistant to PVYm.

  13. CaWRKY22 Acts as a Positive Regulator in Pepper Response to Ralstonia Solanacearum by Constituting Networks with CaWRKY6, CaWRKY27, CaWRKY40, and CaWRKY58

    OpenAIRE

    Ansar Hussain; Xia Li; Yahong Weng; Zhiqin Liu; Muhammad Furqan Ashraf; Ali Noman; Sheng Yang; Muhammad Ifnan; Shanshan Qiu; Yingjie Yang; Deyi Guan; Shuilin He

    2018-01-01

    The WRKY web, which is comprised of a subset of WRKY transcription factors (TFs), plays a crucial role in the regulation of plant immunity, however, the mode of organization and operation of this network remains obscure, especially in non-model plants such as pepper (Capsicum annuum). Herein, CaWRKY22, a member of a subgroup of IIe WRKY proteins from pepper, was functionally characterized in pepper immunity against Ralstonia Solanacearum. CaWRKY22 was found to target the nuclei, and its trans...

  14. Pengaruh Pemberian Urea, Tsp, Kcl Dan Pupuk Organik Cair (Poc) Kulit Pisang Terhadap Pertumbuhan Dan Produksi Tanaman Cabai Merah Keriting (Capsicum Annum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    adrian, Edo; Yetti, Husna

    2017-01-01

    This research to determine the interaction of inorganic fertilizer (Urea, TSP, KCl)and banana peelliquid organic fertilizer (POC) to find the best results on the growth and yield of red pepper (Capsicum annuum L.).This study was conducted for four months (March-June, 2016), the Experimental Station, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Riau Pekanbaru,using a completely randomized design (CRD) factorial,consists of two factors and three replications.The results were analyzed by analysis of va...

  15. Effect of LED light on seeds of Capsicum annuum L. var. serrano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra María Moreno-Jiménez

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Serrano pepper (Capsicum annuum L. is a crop of economic, nutritional and medicinal importance; so it is necessary to increase its production and improve its characteristics. The objective of this research was to evaluate the stimulatory effect of light emitting diodes (LEDs on serrano pepper seedlings. Germination percentage, stem length, leaf width, leaf length, number of leaves, total chlorophyll content and carotenoid content were analyzed. The seeds were exposed to white, blue and red LED light, using fluorescent light as a control and a photoperiod of 11/13 hours. Once germinated, the seedlings continued with exposure to light for 30 days. After the laboratory conditions, the seedlings were transferred to a greenhouse for 60 days. The results show that there were no significant differences between LED light treatments on seed germination. The variables stem length, leaf width and leaf length, were favored with red light. Blue and red LEDs highlighted by increasing the number of leaves. Seedlings treated with blue light showed the highest content of photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll= 0.84 mg g-1, carotenoid= 0.12 mg g-1. In conclusion, the red LED light is effective for the growth of serrano pepper seedlings, while the production of photosynthetic pigments was favored by blue LED light.   Keywords: peppers, light-emitting diodes, germination, growth, photosynthetic pigments

  16. Detection and Host Range Study of Virus Associated with Pepper Yellow Leaf Curl Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SRI SULANDARI

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available High incidence of Pepper yellow leaf curl virus (PepYLCV was observed in Indonesia since early 2000. Disease incidence in Yogyakarta, Central and West Java reached 100% on Capsicum frutescens, but only 10-35% on C. annuum. As an exception, the disease incidence on C. annuum cv. TM 999 was in the range of 70-100%. The causal agent of the disease, PepYLCV, was detected by polymerase chain reaction. Viral specific DNA fragment of the size ~1600 bp and ~550 bp was amplified from infected plants using two pairs of geminivirus universal primers pAL1v1978/pAL1c715, and pAv494/pAc1048, respectively. The PepYLCV has an intermediate host range including plants belonging to the family of Solanaceae, Leguminosae, and Compositae. The species belonging to the families of Cucurbitaceae, Malvaceae, Chenopodiaceae, and Amaranthaceae were resistant to the virus. Physalis floridana, is very prospective as a propagation host for the geminivirus infecting pepper. Nicotiana spp., cucumber, watermelon, cotton, and Sida sp. could be used as a differential host. Besides, Capsicum frutescens cv. Cakra, tomato, N. benthamiana, N. glutinosa, and Ageratum conyzoides could be used as indicator plants for the geminivirus infecting pepper.

  17. Bioactivities of anastasia black (Russian sweet pepper).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirataki, Yoshiaki; Kawase, Masami; Sakagami, Hiroshi; Nakashima, Hideki; Tani, Satoru; Tanaka, Toru; Sohara, Yoshitaka; Schelz, Zsuzsanna; Molnar, Joseph; Motohashi, Noboru

    2005-01-01

    Anastasia Black (Russian sweet pepper) of Capsicum annuum L. var. angulosum Mill. (Solanaceae) was successively extracted with hexane, acetone, methanol and 70% methanol, and the extracts were further separated into a total of twenty-three fractions by silica gel or octadecylsilane (ODS; C18) column chromatography. These extracts and fractions were investigated for their cytotoxicity, anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), anti-Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), urease inhibition and multidrug resistance (MDR) reversal activity. Some fractions of hexane and acetone extracts showed higher cytotoxic activity against three human oral tumor cell lines (squamous cell carcinoma HSC-2, HSC-3, submandibular gland carcinoma HSG) than against three normal human oral cells (gingival fibroblast HGF, pulp cell HPC, periodontal ligament fibroblast HPLF), suggesting a tumor-specific cytotoxic activity. No fractions displayed anti-HIV activity, but some hydrophobic fractions showed higher anti-H. pylori activity, urease inhibition activity and MDR reversal activity. The higher MDR activity of these fractions against MDR gene-transfected L5178 mouse lymphoma T cells may possibly be due to their higher content of carotene or polyphenol. These data suggest that Anastasia Black should be further investigated as a potent supplement for cancer chemotherapy.

  18. Aleurotrachelus trachoides (pepper whitefly)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleurotrachelus trachoides Back also known as solanum or pepper whitefly is a new addition to the list of serious whitefly pests found in Florida. According to EPPO global database, it is a pest of over 70 different crops worldwide, which include a combination of edibles, ornamentals, palms, and wee...

  19. [Growth and photochemical efficiency of photosystem ii in seedlings of two varieties of Capsicum annuum L. inoculated with rhizobacteria and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo-Castro, Azareel; Ferrera-Cerrato, Ronald; Alarcón, Alejandro; Almaraz-Suárez, Juan José; Delgadillo-Martínez, Julián; Jiménez-Fernández, Maribel; García-Barradas, Oscar

    Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are a biological alternative for the sustainable management of Capsicum annuum L. This research work evaluated the effects of both PGPR and AMF on bell pepper and jalapeno pepper plants. Five bacterial strains isolated from several locations in Estado de Mexico were used: [P61 (Pseudomonas tolaasii), A46 (P. tolaasii), R44 (Bacillus pumilus), BSP1.1 (Paenibacillus sp.), and OLs-Sf5 (Pseudomonas sp.)], and three treatments with AMF [H1 (consortium isolated from pepper crops in the State of Puebla), H2 (Rhizophagus intraradices), and H3 (consortium isolated from the rhizosphere of lemon trees, State of Tabasco)]. In addition, a fertilized treatment (Steiner nutrient solution at 25%) and an unfertilized control were included. Seedlings of "Caloro" jalapeno pepper and "California Wonder" bell pepper were inoculated with AMF at seed sowing, and PGPR were inoculated after 15 days of seedling emergence; seedlings were grown under plant growth chamber conditions. P61 bacterium and H1 AMF consortia were the most effective microorganisms for jalapeno pepper whereas R44 bacterium and AMF H3 and H1 were the most effective for bell peppers, when compared to the unfertilized control. Furthermore, P61 and R44 bacteria showed beneficial effects on PSII efficiency. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Reação de acessos de pimentão e pimentas ao oídio (Oidiopsis taurica Reaction of sweet and hot pepper accesses to powdery mildew (Oidiopsis taurica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally F. Blat

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available O oídio causado pelo fungo Oidiopsis taurica é uma das principais doenças no gênero Capsicum spp. Seus danos podem causar desfolha de até 75% e perdas de até 40% em produção. Seu controle através de fungicidas tem se mostrado ineficaz, sendo a resistência genética a melhor alternativa. Poucas fontes de resistência já foram identificadas em Capsicum annuum. Neste trabalho avaliou-se os acessos da coleção de Capsicum spp. do banco de germoplasma da USP/ESALQ quanto às suas reações ao oídio e identificar novas fontes de resistência. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação em condições severas de ocorrência do patógeno. Durante a fase de frutificação foi feita a avaliação das reações, através de uma escala de notas, de 1 (resistente a 5 (altamente suscetível. Dos 156 acessos testados, 53 foram considerados resistentes, sendo representados por 5 acessos em C. annuum, 31 em C. baccatum e 17 em C. chinense. Dentre os acessos resistentes em C. annuum, a variedade dihaploide HV-12 mostrou-se como a mais resistente. Duas novas fontes de resistência se destacaram em C. annuum, #124 e Chilli. Esses acessos mostraram um mecanismo diferenciado de resistência, apresentando uma reação de hipersensibilidade ao patógeno. Os híbridos comerciais Reinger, Nathalie, Margarita, Magali R e Magda foram classificados como suscetíveis a altamente suscetíveis. Grande parte dos acessos resistentes de C. baccatum e C. chinense apresentaram desfolha em conseqüência do mecanismo de hipersensibilidade.Powdery mildew caused by Oidiopsis taurica is one of the major diseases of Capsicum spp., causing damage due to defoliation of up to 75% and yield losses of up to 40%. Disease control with fungicide is inefficient, genetic resistance being the best way of control. Few resistant sources have been identified in Capsicum annuum. Capsicum spp. collection accesses of USP/ESALQ germplasm bank were screened in their reaction and

  1. Identification of Optimal Reference Genes for Normalization of qPCR Analysis during Pepper Fruit Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Cheng

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to its high sensitivity and reproducibility, quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR is practiced as a useful research tool for targeted gene expression analysis. For qPCR operations, the normalization with suitable reference genes (RGs is a crucial step that eventually determines the reliability of the obtained results. Although pepper is considered an ideal model plant for the study of non-climacteric fruit development, at present no specific RG have been developed or validated for the qPCR analyses of pepper fruit. Therefore, this study aimed to identify stably expressed genes for their potential use as RGs in pepper fruit studies. Initially, a total of 35 putative RGs were selected by mining the pepper transcriptome data sets derived from the PGP (Pepper Genome Platform and PGD (Pepper Genome Database. Their expression stabilities were further measured in a set of pepper (Capsicum annuum L. var. 007e fruit samples, which represented four different fruit developmental stages (IM: Immature; MG: Mature green; B: Break; MR: Mature red using the qPCR analysis. Then, based on the qPCR results, three different statistical algorithms, namely geNorm, Normfinder, and boxplot, were chosen to evaluate the expression stabilities of these putative RGs. It should be noted that nine genes were proven to be qualified as RGs during pepper fruit development, namely CaREV05 (CA00g79660; CaREV08 (CA06g02180; CaREV09 (CA06g05650; CaREV16 (Capana12g002666; CaREV21 (Capana10g001439; CaREV23 (Capana05g000680; CaREV26 (Capana01g002973; CaREV27 (Capana11g000123; CaREV31 (Capana04g002411; and CaREV33 (Capana08g001826. Further analysis based on geNorm suggested that the application of the two most stably expressed genes (CaREV05 and CaREV08 would provide optimal transcript normalization in the qPCR experiments. Therefore, a new and comprehensive strategy for the identification of optimal RGs was developed. This strategy allowed for the effective normalization of the q

  2. Consumption of red-hot chili pepper increases symptoms in patients with acute anal fissures. A prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, double blind, crossover trial Efeito da pimenta vermelha nos sintomas de pacientes com fissuras anais agudas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pravin J. Gupta

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Red-hot chili pepper and other spices have been blamed for causing or exacerbating symptoms of anal pathologies like anal fissure and hemorrhoids. AIM: To determine if consumption of chilies increases symptoms of acute anal fissures. METHODS: Individual patients were randomized to receive capsules containing chili or placebo for one week in addition to analgesics and fiber supplement. Patients were asked to note score for symptoms like pain, anal burning, and pruritus during the study period. After 1 week, cross over treatment was administered to the same group of patients with the same methodology and results were noted at the end of 2 weeks. RESULTS: Fifty subjects were recruited for this study. Forty three of them completed the trial (22 in the chili group and 21 in the placebo group. The daily mean pain score was significantly lower in the placebo group in the study period. Score 2.05 in chili group and 0.97 in placebo group. There was a significant burning sensation experienced by the patients in the chili group (score 1.85 for the chili group vs 0.71 for the placebo group. Patient’s mean recorded improvement score was significantly higher after taking placebo. Eighty one point three percent patients preferred placebo while 13.9% preferred chilies. Two patients had no preference. CONCLUSION: Consumption of chili does increase the symptoms of acute anal fissure and reduces patient compliance.RACIONAL: A pimenta vermelha e outras especiarias têm sido responsabilizadas por agravar a sintomatologia das doenças anais, tais como fissuras e hemorróidas. OBJETIVO: Determinar se o consumo de pimentas vermelhas aumentaria os sintomas em fissuras anais agudas. MÉTODOS: Pacientes foram recrutados e randomizados para receber cápsulas contendo pimenta ou placebos por 1 semana, somadas a analgésicos e suplementos de fibras. Foi solicitado que anotassem um escore de sintomas, tais como dor, queimação anal, prurido durante o per

  3. Identification and Expression Profiling of the Auxin Response Factors in Capsicum annuum L. under Abiotic Stress and Hormone Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenliang Yu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Auxin response factors (ARFs play important roles in regulating plant growth and development and response to environmental stress. An exhaustive analysis of the CaARF family was performed using the latest publicly available genome for pepper (Capsicum annuum L.. In total, 22 non-redundant CaARF gene family members in six classes were analyzed, including chromosome locations, gene structures, conserved motifs of proteins, phylogenetic relationships and Subcellular localization. Phylogenetic analysis of the ARFs from pepper (Capsicum annuum L., tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L., Arabidopsis and rice (Oryza sativa L. revealed both similarity and divergence between the four ARF families, and aided in predicting biological functions of the CaARFs. Furthermore, expression profiling of CaARFs was obtained in various organs and tissues using quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR. Expression analysis of these genes was also conducted with various hormones and abiotic treatments using qRT-PCR. Most CaARF genes were regulated by exogenous hormone treatments at the transcriptional level, and many CaARF genes were altered by abiotic stress. Systematic analysis of CaARF genes is imperative to elucidate the roles of CaARF family members in mediating auxin signaling in the adaptation of pepper to a challenging environment.

  4. Identification of Gene-Specific Polymorphisms and Association with Capsaicin Pathway Metabolites in Capsicum annuum L. Collections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abburi, Venkata L.; Alaparthi, Suresh Babu; Unselt, Desiree; Hankins, Gerald; Park, Minkyu; Choi, Doil

    2014-01-01

    Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) is an economically important crop with added nutritional value. Production of capsaicin is an important quantitative trait with high environmental variance, so the development of markers regulating capsaicinoid accumulation is important for pepper breeding programs. In this study, we performed association mapping at the gene level to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with capsaicin pathway metabolites in a diverse Capsicum annuum collection during two seasons. The genes Pun1, CCR, KAS and HCT were sequenced and matched with the whole-genome sequence draft of pepper to identify SNP locations and for further characterization. The identified SNPs for each gene underwent candidate gene association mapping. Association mapping results revealed Pun1 as a key regulator of major metabolites in the capsaicin pathway mainly affecting capsaicinoids and precursors for acyl moieties of capsaicinoids. Six different SNPs in the promoter sequence of Pun1 were found associated with capsaicin in plants from both seasons. Our results support that CCR is an important control point for the flux of p-coumaric acid to specific biosynthesis pathways. KAS was found to regulate the major precursors for acyl moieties of capsaicinoids and may play a key role in capsaicinoid production. Candidate gene association mapping of Pun1 suggested that the accumulation of capsaicinoids depends on the expression of Pun1, as revealed by the most important associated SNPs found in the promoter region of Pun1. PMID:24475113

  5. Deciphering the role of the phenylpropanoid metabolism in the tolerance of Capsicum annuum L. to Verticillium dahliae Kleb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novo, Marta; Silvar, Cristina; Merino, Fuencisla; Martínez-Cortés, Teresa; Lu, Fachuang; Ralph, John; Pomar, Federico

    2017-05-01

    Verticillium dahliae is an economically relevant soilborne pathogen that causes vascular wilt in several crops, including pepper (Capsicum annuum). Fungal infection is usually visualized as a vascular browning, likely due to the onset of phenylpropanoid metabolism, which also seems to play a crucial role in the tolerance of some pepper varieties. In the current work, the potential function of distinct phenylpropanoid derivatives (suberin, lignin and phenolic compounds) in the pepper tolerance response against V. dahliae, was investigated. Histochemical and biochemical analyses ruled out suberin as a key player in the pepper-fungus interaction. However, changes observed in lignin composition and higher deposition of bound phenolics in infected stems seemed to contribute to the reinforcement of cell walls and the impairment of V. dahliae colonization. Most importantly, this is the first time that the accumulation of the hydroxycinnamic acid amide N-feruloyltyramine was reported in pepper stems in response to a vascular fungus. Fungitoxic activity for that hydroxycinnamate-tyramine conjugate was demonstrated as well. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Gamma radiation and osmotic potential of the nutrient solution differentially affect macronutrient concentrations, pH and EC in chilhuacle pepper fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Victor Garcia-Gaytan, Libia Iris Trejo-Tellez; Olga Tejeda-Sartorius; Maribel Ramirez-Martinez; Julian Delgadillo-Martinez; Fernando Carlos Gomez-Merino; Soledad Garcia-Morales

    2018-01-01

    Chilhuacle pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) seeds were exposed to gamma radiation (GR) doses (0, 10, 80 and 120 Gy), and plants were grown in hydroponics with different osmotic potentials (OP) (- 0.036, - 0.072, - 0.092, and - 0.108 MPa) in the nutrient solution. We measured the nutrient concentrations, pH and electrical conductivity (EC) in fruits at different time points after transplanting (70, 90 and 130 dat), and found the GR, nutrient solution OP and their interactions differentially affected N, P, K, Ca, and Mg concentrations, as well as pH and EC in chilhuacle peppers. (author)

  7. Influence of nitrogen deficiency on photosynthesis and chloroplast ultrastructure of pepper plants (Research Note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. DONCHEVA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Pepper plants (Capsicum annuum L. cv. Zlaten Medal were grown on nutrient solution without nitrogen, and photosynthetic response of plants was examined by determination of leaf CO2 fixation and chlorophyll and carotenoid contents. The absence of nitrogen in the medium resulted in a decrease of the leaf area and of plant biomass accumulation, and in an increase of the root-shoot dry weight ratio. The photosynthetic activity and chlorophyll and carotenoid contents decreased significantly under nitrogen deprivation. Examination of nitrogen deficient leaves by transmission electron microscopy showed dramatic changes in chloroplast ultrastructure. The proportion of starch granules and plastoglobules in the stroma matrix was increased and internal membrane system was greatly reduced. It seems that nitrogen plays an important role in the formation of chloroplast structure and hence to the photosynthetic intensity and productivity of pepper plants.

  8. Characterization of 12 Capsicum varieties by evaluation of their carotenoid profile and pungency determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuffrida, Daniele; Dugo, Paola; Torre, Germana; Bignardi, Chiara; Cavazza, Antonella; Corradini, Claudio; Dugo, Giacomo

    2013-10-15

    In this research 12 different varieties of Capsicum cultivars belonging to three species (Capsicum chinense, Capsicum annuum, Capsicum frutescens) and of various colour, shape, and dimension have been characterised by their carotenoids and capsaicinoids content. The berries were cultivated in the region Emilia-Romagna, in Northern Italy. The native carotenoid composition was directly investigated by an HPLC-DAD-APCI-MS methodology, for the first time. In total, 52 carotenoids have been identified and considerable variation in carotenoid composition was observed among the various cultivars investigated. Among the cultivars with red colour, some Habanero, Naga morich and Sinpezon showed an high β-carotene content, whereas Serrano, Tabasco and Jalapeno showed an high capsanthin content and the absence of β-carotene. Habanero golden and Scotch Bonnet showed a high lutein, α-carotene and β-carotene amounts, and Habanero orange was rich in antheraxanthin, capsanthin and zeaxanthin. Cis-cryptocapsin was present in high amount in Habanero chocolate. The qualitative and quantitative determination of the capsaicinoids, alkaloids responsible for the pungency level, has also been estimated by a validated chromatographic procedure (HPLC-DAD) after a preliminary drying step and an opportune extraction procedure. Results have also been expressed in Scoville units. Dry matter and water activity have also been established on the fresh berries. The dried peppers of each variety were then submitted to the evaluation of the total nitrogen content, measured by a Dumas system, permitting to provide information on the protein content that was found to be in the range between 7 and 16%. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Status Penyakit Layu pada Tanaman Cabai Rawit (Capsicum Frutescens L. di Banjarangkan, Klungkung

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    I MADE SUDARMA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Status of wilt disease in pepper (Capsicum frutescens L. at Banjarangkan, Klungkung. Wilt disease in pepper , has led to a total yield loss in Banjarangkan, Klungkung regency. Until now the disease was still a threat to farmers in the area pepper. The purpose of research to study the disease includes symptoms, causes disease, the percentage of the disease and the rate of infection (r. Research using existing observations of the disease in three plots of local farmers. Each plot the observed number of diseased plants and entire plants. Samples of diseased plants put in a plastic bag, then placed in an ice box , to be observed macroscopically in the laboratory. The study was conducted in two places, namely surveys Banjarangkan disease in Klungkung , and isolation of the pathogen as well as pathogenicity test carried out in the Laboratory of Plant Pathology, Faculty of Agriculture, Udayana University, Jl. PB Sudirman Denpasar-Bali. The research was conducted from June to November 2013. The results showed that the pathogen that causes wilt disease in pepper at Banjarangkan, Klungkung regency was the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. capsici, with the disease incidence was 76.67%. Fusarium wilt disease epidemic in pepper indicated by the rate of infection, first gained 0.44 per unit per day, then decreases with time, 0.23, 0.12 and 0.11 per unit per day respectively. The rate of infection ranged from 0.11 to 0.44 per unit per day, this means that the moderate criteria.

  10. Characterization of tomato apical stunt viroid isolated from a 24-year old seed lot of Capsicum annuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, J Th J; Koenraadt, H M S; Westenberg, M; Roenhorst, J W

    2017-06-01

    Tomato apical stunt viroid (TASVd) has been identified in a 24-year old seed lot of Capsicum annuum produced in Taiwan. It is the first finding of TASVd in this plant species. The isolate could be discriminated from all reported isolates of TASVd based on its nucleotide sequence, which showed only 94.8% identity with the most related genotype of TASVd. This discrimination was substantiated by phylogenetic analysis. Inoculation of a RNA extract of contaminated seeds to healthy pepper plants showed that the infectivity of the viroid had remained over time. Nevertheless, no transmission to seedlings was observed.

  11. Inheritance of bacterial spot resistance in Capsicum annuum var. annuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, L R A; Rodrigues, R; Pimenta, S; Correa, J W S; Araújo, M S B; Bento, C S; Sudré, C P

    2017-04-20

    Since 2008, Brazil is the largest consumer of agrochemicals, which increases production costs and risks of agricultural products, environment, and farmers' contamination. Sweet pepper, which is one of the main consumed vegetables in the country, is on top of the list of the most sprayed crops. The bacterial spot, caused by Xanthomonas spp, is one of the most damaging diseases of pepper crops. Genetic resistant consists of a suitable way of disease control, but development of durable resistant cultivars as well as understanding of plant-bacterium interaction is being a challenge for plant breeders and pathologists worldwide. Inheritance of disease resistance is often variable, depending on genetic background of the parents. The knowledge of the genetic base controlling such resistance is the first step in a breeding program aiming to develop new genotypes, bringing together resistance and other superior agronomic traits. This study reports the genetic basis of bacterial spot resistance in Capsicum annuum var. annuum using mean generation analysis from crosses between accessions UENF 2285 (susceptible) and UENF 1381 (resistant). The plants of each generation were grown in a greenhouse and leaflets were inoculated with bacterial strain ENA 4135 at 10 5 CFU/mL in 1.0 cm 2 of the mesophyll. Evaluations were performed using a scoring scale whose grades ranged from 1.0 (resistant) to 5.0 (susceptible), depending on symptom manifestation. Genetic control of bacterial spot has a quantitative aspect, with higher additive effect. The quantitative analysis showed that five genes were the minimum number controlling bacterial spot resistance. Additive effect was higher (6.06) than dominant (3.31) and explained 86.36% of total variation.

  12. Genome-wide Identification and Expression Analysis of Calcium-dependent Protein Kinase and Its Closely Related Kinase Genes in Capsicum annuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hanyang ecai

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available As Ca2+ sensors and effectors, calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs play important roles in regulating the downstream components of calcium signaling, which are ubiquitously involved in plant growth, development, and response to environmental cues. However, no CDPKs have been characterized in Capsicum annuum thus far. Herein, a comprehensive analysis of genes encoding pepper CDPKs and CDPK-related protein kinases (CRKs was performed, and 31 CDPK genes and five closely related kinase genes were identified, which were phylogenetically divided into four distinct subfamilies and unevenly distributed across nine chromosomes. Conserved sequence and exon-intron structures were found to be shared by pepper CDPKs within the same subfamily, and the expansion of the CaCPK family in pepper was found to be due to segmental duplication events. Five CDPKs in the Capsicum annuum variety CM334 were found to be mutated in the Chiltepin variety, and one CDPK present in CM334 was lost in Chiltepin. The majority of CDPK and CRK genes were expressed in different pepper tissues and developmental stages, and 10, 12, and eight CDPK genes were transcriptionally modified by salt, heat, and Ralstonia solanacearum stresses, respectively. Furthermore, these genes were found to respond specifically to one stress as well as respond synergistically to two stresses or three stresses, suggesting that these CDPK genes might be involved in the specific or synergistic response of pepper to salt, heat, and R. solanacearum. Our results lay the foundation for future functional characterization of pepper CDPK and its closely related gene families.

  13. Enzymatic firming of processed red pepper by means of exogenous pectinesterase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, M.; Petersen, B.R.; Adler-Nissen, Jens

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to demonstrate that the firmness of a commercial vegetable product, diced and frozen red pepper (Capsicum annum var. Sendt), could be improved by the use of exogenous pectinesterase in an industrially relevant process. The diced pepper pieces 10 x 10 x 7 mm(3......) were infused under vacuum with a commercially available pectinesterase. The range of optimal process conditions was: 15-20degrees C, 45 min infusion time, a 10-25 mM CaCl2 infusion brine, a w/w ratio of pepper fruit to infusion brine of 1.5:1, and an enzyme dosage of 30-60 pectinesterase units (PEU......) per kg pepper fruit. The firmness as measured by back extrusion was improved by a factor of two to three. The effect of firming was robust and conserved after freezing and heating in a simulated household cooking process. The firming process seems easily adaptable to industrial conditions and may...

  14. Development of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides isolated from green pepper in different culture media, temperatures, and light regimes

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    Mello Alexandre Furtado Silveira

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Control of anthracnose in green pepper involves the use of resistant varieties and/or fungicides. The selection of varieties and efficient products demands great amounts of conidia as inoculum. It is thus necessary to optimize the production of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides conidia in the laboratory, establishing the best conditions for fungus development. The present study aimed at determining the most favorable culture media, temperature, and light conditions for the production of fungus inoculum. The fungus was isolated from green pepper fruits (Capsicum annuum L. and transferred to four culture media (PDA, oat, filtered pepper extract, and autoclaved pepper extract, under different temperatures (15, 20, 25, 30, and 35ºC and light conditions (24h dark, and 24h light. Colony growth was evaluated after 7 and 12 days of incubation. No differences were found between the culture media. However, the greatest number of conidia was obtained from colonies grown in oat medium at 25ºC. Temperatures of 20 and 25ºC were the most favorable for colony growth and sporulation. Higher sporulation was obtained under incubation in constant light. Cultivation of C. gloeosporioides in oat medium, at 25ºC, and constant light is recommended.

  15. An investigation of a defensive chitinase against Fusarium oxysporum in pepper leaf tissue

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    Khemika S. Lomthaisong

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant chitinase is classified as a PR-protein involved in a defense mechanism against a pathogen. This research aims to investigate a specific type of chitinase which is produced by pepper in response to an early defense against Fusarium oxysporum, which causes wilt disease. The changes of chitinase isozyme patterns in the inter- and intracellular fluids in the leaf of four cultivars of pepper (Capsicum annuum L. at day 1, 3, 5, 7 and 10 from fungal inoculation were analysed using SDS-PAGE in polyacrylamide gel supplemented with glycol chitin as a substrate. The levels of disease severity in the four varieties of pepper were also compared with the isozyme patterns. The results showed that the resistance of pepper to F. oxysporum attack corresponded to the expression of ~70 kDa chitinase band (Chi-3 in the intercellular fluid. Therefore, such chitinase could possibly be used as a protein marker to identify the tolerant line and as a springboard for further study of wilt disease control.

  16. Inoculation of the nonlegume Capsicum annuum (L.) with Rhizobium strains. 1. Effect on bioactive compounds, antioxidant activity, and fruit ripeness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Luís R; Azevedo, Jessica; Pereira, Maria J; Carro, Lorena; Velazquez, Encarna; Peix, Alvaro; Valentão, Patrícia; Andrade, Paula B

    2014-01-22

    Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) is an economically important agricultural crop and an excellent dietary source of natural colors and antioxidant compounds. The levels of these compounds can vary according to agricultural practices, like inoculation with plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria. In this work we evaluated for the first time the effect of the inoculation of two Rhizobium strains on C. annuum metabolites and bioactivity. The results revealed a decrease of organic acids and no effect on phenolics and capsaicinoids of leaves from inoculated plants. In the fruits from inoculated plants organic acids and phenolic compounds decreased, showing that fruits from inoculated plants present a higher ripeness stage than those from uninoculated ones. In general, the inoculation with Rhizobium did not improve the antioxidant activity of pepper fruits and leaves. Considering the positive effect on fruit ripening, the inoculation of C. annuum with Rhizobium is a beneficious agricultural practice for this nonlegume.

  17. Genetic parameters and selection for resistance to bacterial spot in recombinant F6 lines of Capsicum annuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Messias Gonzaga Pereira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to advance generations and select superior sweet pepper genotypes with resistance tobacterial spot, using the breeding method Single Seed Descent (SSD based on the segregating population derived from thecross between Capsicum annuum L. UENF 1421 (susceptible, non-pungent and UENF 1381 (resistant, pungent. Thesegregating F3 generation was grown in pots in a greenhouse until the F5 generation. The F6 generation was grown in fieldconditions. The reaction to bacterial spot was evaluated by inoculation with isolate ENA 4135 of Xanthomonas campestris pv.vesicatoria, based on a score scale and by calculating the area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC. The presence orabsence of capsaicin was also assessed. Eighteen F6 lines were bacterial leaf spot-resistant. Since no capsaicin was detectedin the F6 lines 032, 316, 399, 434, and 517, these will be used in the next steps of the sweet pepper breeding program.

  18. A Study of Selected Isozymes in Capsicum baccatum, Capsicum eximium, Capsicum cardenasii and Two Interspecific F1 Hybrids in Capsicum Species

    OpenAIRE

    ONUS, Ahmet Naci

    2014-01-01

    Selected isozymes were investigated in plants of Capsicum baccatum L. ( Solanaceae) accessions SA219 (P.G.Smith), Hawkes 6489 (P.G.Smith), Capsicum cardenasii Heiser and Smith accession SA268 (P.G.Smith), Capsicum eximium A.T.Hunz accession Hawkes 3860 (J.G.Hawkes) and two interspecific F1 hybrids, C. baccatum SA219 x C. eximium Hawkes 3860 and C. baccatum Hawkes 6489 x C. cardenasii SA 268. The standard technique of horizontal gel electrophoresis was employed. The gel was cut into severa...

  19. Physiology of pepper fruit and the metabolism of antioxidants: chloroplasts, mitochondria and peroxisomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, José M.; Sevilla, Francisca; Jiménez, Ana; del Río, Luis A.; Corpas, Francisco J.; Álvarez de Morales, Paz; Camejo, Daymi M.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Pepper (Capsicum annuum) contains high levels of antioxidants, such as vitamins A and C and flavonoids. However, information on the role of these beneficial compounds in the physiology of pepper fruit remains scarce. Recent studies have shown that antioxidants in ripe pepper fruit play a key role in responses to temperature changes, and the redox state at the time of harvest affects the nutritional value for human consumption. In this paper, the role of antioxidant metabolism of pepper fruit during ripening and in the response to low temperature is addressed, paying particular attention to ascorbate, NADPH and the superoxide dismutase enzymatic system. The participation of chloroplasts, mitochondria and peroxisomes in the ripening process is also investigated. Scope and Results Important changes occur at a subcellular level during ripening of pepper fruit. Chloroplasts turn into chromoplasts, with drastic conversion of their metabolism, and the role of the ascorbate–glutathione cycle is essential. In mitochondria from red fruits, higher ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and Mn-SOD activities are involved in avoiding the accumulation of reactive oxygen species in these organelles during ripening. Peroxisomes, whose antioxidant capacity at fruit ripening is substantially affected, display an atypical metabolic pattern during this physiological stage. In spite of these differences observed in the antioxidative metabolism of mitochondria and peroxisomes, proteomic analysis of these organelles, carried out by 2-D electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF/TOF and provided here for the first time, reveals no changes between the antioxidant metabolism from immature (green) and ripe (red) fruits. Conclusions Taken together, the results show that investigation of molecular and enzymatic antioxidants from cell compartments, especially chloroplasts, mitochondria and peroxisomes, is a useful tool to study the physiology of pepper fruit, particularly in the context of

  20. Constitutive expression of a fungus-inducible carboxylesterase improves disease resistance in transgenic pepper plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Moonkyung; Cho, Jung Hyun; Seo, Hyo-Hyoun; Lee, Hyun-Hwa; Kang, Ha-Young; Nguyen, Thai Son; Soh, Hyun Cheol; Kim, Young Soon; Kim, Jeong-Il

    2016-08-01

    Resistance against anthracnose fungi was enhanced in transgenic pepper plants that accumulated high levels of a carboxylesterase, PepEST in anthracnose-susceptible fruits, with a concurrent induction of antioxidant enzymes and SA-dependent PR proteins. A pepper esterase gene (PepEST) is highly expressed during the incompatible interaction between ripe fruits of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) and a hemibiotrophic anthracnose fungus (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides). In this study, we found that exogenous application of recombinant PepEST protein on the surface of the unripe pepper fruits led to a potentiated state for disease resistance in the fruits, including generation of hydrogen peroxide and expression of pathogenesis-related (PR) genes that encode mostly small proteins with antimicrobial activity. To elucidate the role of PepEST in plant defense, we further developed transgenic pepper plants overexpressing PepEST under the control of CaMV 35S promoter. Molecular analysis confirmed the establishment of three independent transgenic lines carrying single copy of transgenes. The level of PepEST protein was estimated to be approximately 0.002 % of total soluble protein in transgenic fruits. In response to the anthracnose fungus, the transgenic fruits displayed higher expression of PR genes, PR3, PR5, PR10, and PepThi, than non-transgenic control fruits did. Moreover, immunolocalization results showed concurrent localization of ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and PR3 proteins, along with the PepEST protein, in the infected region of transgenic fruits. Disease rate analysis revealed significantly low occurrence of anthracnose disease in the transgenic fruits, approximately 30 % of that in non-transgenic fruits. Furthermore, the transgenic plants also exhibited resistance against C. acutatum and C. coccodes. Collectively, our results suggest that overexpression of PepEST in pepper confers enhanced resistance against the anthracnose fungi by activating the defense signaling

  1. Characterization and expression profile of CaNAC2 pepper gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Li eGuo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The plant-specific NAC (NAM, ATAF, and CUC transcription factors have diverse role in development and stress regulation. A new transcript encoding NAC protein, homologous to nam-like protein 4 from Petunia was identified from an ABA-regulated subtractive cDNA library of Capsicum annuum seedling. Here, this homolog (named CaNAC2 from Capsicum annuum was characterized and investigated its role in abiotic stress tolerance. Our results indicated that a plant-specific and conserved NAC domain was located in the N-terminus domain of CaNAC2 which was predicted to encode a polypeptide of 410 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis showed that CaNAC2 belonged to the NAC2 subgroup of the orthologous group 4d. The protein CaNAC2 was subcellularly localized in the nucleus and it had transcriptional activity in yeast cell. CaNAC2 was expressed mainly in seed and root. The transcription expression of CaNAC2 was strongly induced by cold, salt and ABA treatment and inhibited by osmotic stress and SA treatment. Silence of CaNAC2 in virus-induced gene silenced pepper seedlings resulted in the increased susceptibility to cold stress and delayed the salt-induced leaf chlorophyll degradation. These results indicated that this novel CaNAC2 gene might be involved in pepper response to abiotic stress tolerance.

  2. Molecular and phenotypic characterization of Colletotrichum species associated with anthracnose disease in peppers from Sichuan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fangling; Tang, Guiting; Zheng, Xiaojuan; Li, Ying; Sun, Xiaofang; Qi, Xiaobo; Zhou, You; Xu, Jing; Chen, Huabao; Chang, Xiaoli; Zhang, Sirong; Gong, Guoshu

    2016-09-09

    The anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum species is an important disease that primarily causes fruit rot in pepper. Eighty-eight strains representing seven species of Colletotrichum were obtained from rotten pepper fruits in Sichuan Province, China, and characterized according to morphology and the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) sequence. Fifty-two strains were chosen for identification by phylogenetic analyses of multi-locus sequences, including the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region and the β-tubulin (TUB2), actin (ACT), calmodulin (CAL) and GAPDH genes. Based on the combined datasets, the 88 strains were identified as Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, C. siamense, C. fructicola, C. truncatum, C. scovillei, and C. brevisporum, and one new species was detected, described as Colletotrichum sichuanensis. Notably, C. siamense and C. scovillei were recorded for the first time as the causes of anthracnose in peppers in China. In addition, with the exception of C. truncatum, this is the first report of all of the other Colletotrichum species studied in pepper from Sichuan. The fungal species were all non-host-specific, as the isolates were able to infect not only Capsicum spp. but also Pyrus pyrifolia in pathogenicity tests. These findings suggest that the fungal species associated with anthracnose in pepper may inoculate other hosts as initial inoculum.

  3. Spicing Up the N Gene: F. O. Holmes and Tobacco mosaic virus Resistance in Capsicum and Nicotiana Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholthof, Karen-Beth G

    2017-02-01

    One of the seminal events in plant pathology was the discovery by Francis O. Holmes that necrotic local lesions induced on certain species of Nicotiana following rub-inoculation of Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) was due to a specific interaction involving a dominant host gene (N). From this, Holmes had an idea that if the N gene from N. glutinosa was introgressed into susceptible tobacco, the greatly reduced titer of TMV would, by extension, prevent subsequent infection of tomato and pepper plants by field workers whose hands were contaminated with TMV from their use of chewing and smoking tobacco. The ultimate outcome has many surprising twists and turns, including Holmes' failure to obtain fertile crosses of N. glutinosa × N. tabacum after 3 years of intensive work. Progress was made with N. digluta, a rare amphidiploid that was readily crossed with N. tabacum. And, importantly, the first demonstration by Holmes of the utility of interspecies hybridization for virus resistance was made with Capsicum (pepper) species with the identification of the L gene in Tabasco pepper, that he introgressed into commercial bell pepper varieties. Holmes' findings are important as they predate Flor's gene-for-gene hypothesis, show the use of interspecies hybridization for control of plant pathogens, and the use of the local lesion as a bioassay to monitor resistance events in crop plants.

  4. Decontamination of Black Pepper (Pepper Negrum) in grains by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, M.; Pino, J.; Zayas, M.

    1991-01-01

    The effect of irradiation with doses ranging between 3 and 10 kGy on the microbiological quality, on different chemical components and on the organoleptic quality of black pepper in grains was studied in this paper. The results showed the effectiveness of treatment in the decontamination of this spice. Piperin content, yield of essential oil and its composition as well as the organoleptic quality did not change with applied doses to black pepper in grains

  5. CAPSICUM CİNSİNE GENEL BİR BAKIŞ

    OpenAIRE

    ONUS, A. Naci

    2014-01-01

    Species of Capsicum are grown throung out the tropics and suptropics are valuable crops under protected cultivation in many temperature countries. Capsicum has been neglected by researchers when compared to tomato. Experiments conducted so far on capsicum proved that further improvement of all cultivated species of Capsicum through breeding is possible and genetic diversity to be used to achive different breeding purposes is certainly present in the genus.

  6. EFFECT OF ALLIGATOR PEPPER (ZINGIBERACEAE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Daniel Owu

    proven fertility from a pilot study were randomly paired in fifteen cages in a well ventillated room. After three days of ... Key words : Effect, Alligator pepper, Herbal remedy, Nutrition, Pregnancy. Introduction ... ad libitum. Experimental drug.

  7. Nitrogen utilization efficiencies and yield responses of drip-irrigated tomatoes and peppers as influenced by soil application and fertigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elinc, F.; Deviren, A.; Oeztuerk, A.

    1996-01-01

    These greenhouse studies conducted on a Mediterranean Terra Rose soil in an plastic greenhouse, were designed to investigate the response of drip-irrigated tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.)grown as a spring production and peppers (Capsicum annuum) heated for anti frost to four nitrogen levels continually applied with the irrigation stream. Water containing 0,50,100 or 150 mgN/l for tomatoes, 0,70,140 or 210 mgN/l for peppers as NH 4 S 2 O 4 , and uniformly supplied with 60 and 180 mg/l of P and K respectively were applied two times a week. Three adjacent plants in each plot were fertigated with N labeled NH 4 S 2 O 4 (2% a.e. enrichment). These treatments were compared with banded application of NH 4 S 2 O 4 at the rate of 320 kgN/ha for tomatoe sand 350 kgN/ha for peppers that were equivalent to the 100 mgN/l and 140 mgN/l treatments. The total amount of water applied was 345 mm for tomatoes and 260 mm for peppers. The results obtained showed that the highest yield was achieved in 100 mgN/l for tomatoes and in 140 mgN/l for peppers. The percentage fertilizer N utilization and yield increase by tomatoes and peppers were significantly increased with applying the N fertilizer by the irrigation water, fertigation, relative to the soil application of N at the same level fertilization. Evidently, the nutrient uptake efficiency as indicated by the highest yield is higher with fertigation which is extend means more environmental friendly approach. These experiments demonstrated that the amount of N fertilizer by applying in the irrigation water is to be recommended 100 mgN/l for tomatoes and 140 mgN/l for peppers to obtain high yield

  8. Viabilité et développement végétatif des plantules de piment (Capsicum annuum L. suivant différents matériels de conditionnement des semences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youmbi, E.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Germination and Seedling Development from Pepper (Capsicum annuum L. Seeds following Storage in Different Packaging Materials. A study on the germination and seedling development from pepper (Capsicum annuum L. seeds following storage in different packaging materials was carried out at the Institute of Agricultural Research for Development (IRAD, Njombe Multipurpose Research Station in Cameroon. Germination tests were conducted at 30 days intervals during 24 weeks of seed conservation in the laboratory at ambient temperature. Seeds were prepared from 4 pepper varieties (Safi, Big sun, Thailande and Local and stored in 5 packaging materials (glass vial, plastic vial, laminated aluminium foil packet, paper and plastic envelope. The experiment was laid out in a 4 x 5 factorial design (4 varieties of pepper x 5 packaging materials making 20 treatments in 5 replications. At each germination test, germinated seeds were counted everyday during 15 days. To estimate seedling development, 5 seedlings from each pepper variety issued from each packaging material was grown during each germination test in a polythene bag filled with local topsoil. Each sample was repeated 10 times. Thirty days after sowing, observations were made on seedling development parameters. The results obtained show that germination rate is higher immediately after seed preparation for all pepper varieties. Thereafter germination rate declines slowly when seeds are stored in laminated aluminium foil packets and rapidly when they are stored in paper and polythene envelopes. The other packaging materials occupy intermediary positions. Also, seedlings issued from seeds stored in laminated aluminium foil packets are more vigorous than those issued from seeds stored in paper and polythene envelopes during seed conservation period (6 months. The rapid loss of viability in pepper seeds stored in the two last packaging materials could be attributed to their permeability to air and humidity

  9. Radiocytogenetical studies on Capsicum, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katiyar, R.B.

    1978-01-01

    Dormant dry seeds of an erectly oriented fruit variety of Capsicum annuum were irradiated with gamma-ray from a 60 Co source at 5, 10, 15 and 20 kR dose levels. The plants grown from the treated and control seeds were investigated for the meiotic abnormalities and pollen sterility in M 1 and M 2 generations. Abnormal chromosomes included stickiness, clumping, altered association, breakage, bridges, unequal segregation, laggards and abnormal microspores, and their frequencies were dependent on dose. Pollen sterility increased with increase in dose. The per cent frequencies of the anomalies were more numerous in M 1 than M 2 , which could be due to the operation of recovery mechanisms or elimination of damaged chromosomes in the intervening period. (Mori, K.)

  10. Diversidade genética entre acessos de pimentas e pimentões da Embrapa Clima Temperado Genetic diversity in peppers and sweet peppers of Embrapa Clima Temperado genebank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Valli Büttow

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Os acessos de pimentas e pimentões (Capsicum annuum L. da Embrapa Clima Temperado constituem parte dos recursos genéticos de Capsicum. Contudo, é necessário conhecer o quanto esses genótipos são divergentes para que possam ser utilizados em programas de melhoramento. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram avaliar e caracterizar a divergência genética entre os acessos de C. annuum do banco ativo de germoplasma de Capsicum da Embrapa Clima Temperado. Foram caracterizados 20 acessos com base em 36 descritores morfológicos multicategóricos. A diversidade genética foi avaliada por meio do método de agrupamento de Tocher e UPGMA. O método de Tocher formou três grupos de acessos. Pelos critérios utilizados, os dois métodos foram concordantes em agrupar isoladamente o acesso P77, que apresenta caracteres morfológicos particulares em relação aos demais. O estudo realizado evidencia a existência de variabilidade genética moderada entre os 20 acessos de C. annuum estudados e apresenta acessos com características ornamentais, os quais podem ser incorporados em programas de melhoramento.Accessions of peppers and sweet peppers (Capsicum annuum of Embrapa Clima Temperado genebank (Pelotas - RS integrate Capsicum genetic resources. However, it is necessary to know how much these genotypes are different, so they can be harnessed and used in breeding programs. The aim of this study was to evaluate and characterize genetic diversity among C. annuum accessions which belongs to Capsicum Embrapa Clima Temperado genebank. Twenty accessions were characterized through 36 multicategorical morphologic descriptors. Genetic diversity was assessed using Tocher grouping method and UPGMA. Three groups of accessions were formed by Tocher. Both methods were in agreement with the isolation of P77, due to its exclusive morphological traits. The study shows moderate genetic variability among 20 accessions of C. annuum studied and introduced accession with

  11. Etude du comportement des cultures de tomate (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. et de piment (Capsicum annuum L. conduites en lignes simples et lignes jumelées sous serre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boujelben, A.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Behaviour Study of Tomato Lycopercicum esculuntum Mill. and Red Pepper Capsicum annuum L. Crops under Greenhouse Conditions Conducted in Single and Twinned Rows. Tomato (Lycopercicum esculuntum Mill. and red pepper (Capsicum annuum L. crops under greenhouse conditions and drip irrigation are widely developed in Tunisia. Although, it is known that drip irrigation permitted some water savings. Other cultural techniques such as single or twinned planting rows combined with drip irrigation system could improve the water management. In this aim we have conducted an experimental trial under greenhouse adopting drip irrigation with simple and double amounts of water and single and twinned planting rows. Some agronomic traits in the occurrence the height of plants, the fruit number and yield per plant, the precocity and the water efficiency were studied. The red pepper culture with a spacing of 80 cm between lines, gave the best results in the simple row and simple amount of irrigation treatment. On the other hand, tomato, in twinned rows (90 cm among rows with double amount of water gave the best reaps in yield and more precocious. Whereas the higher water irrigation efficiency was obtained for the treatment combining the twinned planting rows and simple amount of water.

  12. Effect of foliar application of salicylic acid, hydrogen peroxide and a xyloglucan oligosaccharide on capsiate content and gene expression associatedwith capsinoids synthesis in Capsicum annuum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zunun-Perez, A Y; Guevara-Figueroa, T; Jimenez-Garcia, S N; Feregrino-Perez, A A; Gautier, F; Guevara-Gonzalez, R G

    2017-06-01

    Capsinoids are non-pungent analogues of capsaicinoids in pepper (Capsicum spp). The absence of pungency, in addition to their biological activities similar to that of capsaicinoids such as anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and antioxidant properties, makes capsinoids an excellent option for increasing use in human and animal nutrition, as well as health and pharmaceutical industries. There are only few sources of pepper producing capsinoids, and one of them (accession 509-45-1), Capsicum annuum L., is a potential source for increasing capsinoids content using strategies as controlled elicitation during plant production in the greenhouse. In this research we evaluated the effect of weekly and one-day-before-harvest foliar applications of hydrogen peroxide, salicylic acid and a xyloglucan oligosaccharide on the concentration of capsiate in fruits of this pepper accession, as well as the gene expression of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (pal), putative aminotransferase (pamt), capsaicin synthase (at3) and β-keto acyl synthase (kas). Results showed that the two tested concentrations of H2O2 significantly increased capsiate content and gene expression associated with capsaicinoids (pamt, at3 and kas) and the phenylpropanoids (pal) pathways. Plant yield was not affected using this induction strategy. Our results indicated that the pre-harvest and weekly application of hydrogen peroxide and xyloglucan oligosaccharide improved production of capsiate in C. annuum L.

  13. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) as bio protector agents against wilt induced by Verticillium spp. in pepper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goicoechea, N.; Garmendia, I.; Sanchez-Diaz, M.; Aguirreolea, J.

    2010-07-01

    Verticillium dahliae Kleb. is a vascular pathogen that alters water status and growth of pepper plants and causes drastic reductions in yield. Its control is difficult because it can survive in field soil for several years. The application of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) as bio protector agents against V. dahliae is an alternative to the use of chemicals which, in addition, is more respectful with the environment. The establishment of the mutualistic association of plant roots and AMF involves a continuous cellular and molecular dialogue between both symbionts that includes the pre activation of plant defense responses that may enhance the resistance or tolerance of mycorrhizal plants to soil-borne pathogens. Some AMF can improve the resistance of Capsicum annuum L. against V. dahliae. This is especially relevant for pepper cultivars (i.e. cv. Piquillo) that exhibit high susceptibility to this pathogen. Compared with non-mycorrhizal plants, mycorrhizal pepper can exhibit more balanced antioxidant metabolism in leaves along the first month after pathogen inoculation, which may contribute to delay both the development of disease symptoms and the decrease of photosynthesis in Verticillium-inoculated plants with the subsequent benefit for yield. In stems, mycorrhizal pepper show earlier and higher deposition of lignin in xylem vessels than non mycorrhizal plants, even in absence of the pathogen. Moreover, AMF can induce new isoforms of acidic chitinases and superoxide dismutase in roots. Mycorrhizal-specific induction of these enzymatic activities together with enhanced peroxidase and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase in roots may also be involved in the bio protection of Verticillium-induced wilt in pepper by AMF. (Author) 81 refs.

  14. Exogenous nitrate induces root branching and inhibits primary root growth in Capsicum chinense Jacq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celis-Arámburo, Teresita de Jesús; Carrillo-Pech, Mildred; Castro-Concha, Lizbeth A; Miranda-Ham, María de Lourdes; Martínez-Estévez, Manuel; Echevarría-Machado, Ileana

    2011-12-01

    The effects of nitrate (NO₃⁻) on the root system are complex and depend on several factors, such as the concentration available to the plant, endogenous nitrogen status and the sensitivity of the species. Though these effects have been widely documented on Arabidopsis and cereals, no reports are available in the Capsicum genus. In this paper, we have determined the effect of an exogenous in vitro application of this nutrient on root growth in habanero pepper (Capsicum chinense Jacq.). Exposure to NO₃⁻ inhibited primary root growth in both, dose- and time-dependent manners. The highest inhibition was attained with 0.1 mM NO₃⁻ between the fourth and fifth days of treatment. Inhibition of primary root growth was observed by exposing the root to both homogeneous and heterogeneous conditions of the nutrient; in contrast, ammonium was not able to induce similar changes. NO₃⁻-induced inhibition of primary root growth was reversed by treating the roots with IAA or NPA, a polar auxin transport inhibitor. Heterogeneous NO₃⁻ application stimulated the formation and elongation of lateral roots in the segment where the nutrient was present, and this response was influenced by exogenous phytohormones. These results demonstrate that habanero pepper responds to NO₃⁻ in a similar fashion to other species with certain particular differences. Therefore, studies in this model could help to elucidate the mechanisms by which roots respond to NO₃⁻ in fluctuating soil environments. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Transcriptome Analysis of Capsicum Chlorosis Virus-Induced Hypersensitive Resistance Response in Bell Capsicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widana Gamage, Shirani M K; McGrath, Desmond J; Persley, Denis M; Dietzgen, Ralf G

    2016-01-01

    Capsicum chlorosis virus (CaCV) is an emerging pathogen of capsicum, tomato and peanut crops in Australia and South-East Asia. Commercial capsicum cultivars with CaCV resistance are not yet available, but CaCV resistance identified in Capsicum chinense is being introgressed into commercial Bell capsicum. However, our knowledge of the molecular mechanisms leading to the resistance response to CaCV infection is limited. Therefore, transcriptome and expression profiling data provide an important resource to better understand CaCV resistance mechanisms. We assembled capsicum transcriptomes and analysed gene expression using Illumina HiSeq platform combined with a tag-based digital gene expression system. Total RNA extracted from CaCV/mock inoculated CaCV resistant (R) and susceptible (S) capsicum at the time point when R line showed a strong hypersensitive response to CaCV infection was used in transcriptome assembly. Gene expression profiles of R and S capsicum in CaCV- and buffer-inoculated conditions were compared. None of the genes were differentially expressed (DE) between R and S cultivars when mock-inoculated, while 2484 genes were DE when inoculated with CaCV. Functional classification revealed that the most highly up-regulated DE genes in R capsicum included pathogenesis-related genes, cell death-associated genes, genes associated with hormone-mediated signalling pathways and genes encoding enzymes involved in synthesis of defense-related secondary metabolites. We selected 15 genes to confirm DE expression levels by real-time quantitative PCR. DE transcript profiling data provided comprehensive gene expression information to gain an understanding of the underlying CaCV resistance mechanisms. Further, we identified candidate CaCV resistance genes in the CaCV-resistant C. annuum x C. chinense breeding line. This knowledge will be useful in future for fine mapping of the CaCV resistance locus and potential genetic engineering of resistance into Ca

  16. Divergent evolution of multiple virus-resistance genes from a progenitor in Capsicum spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Saet-Byul; Kang, Won-Hee; Huy, Hoang Ngoc; Yeom, Seon-In; An, Jeong-Tak; Kim, Seungill; Kang, Min-Young; Kim, Hyun Jung; Jo, Yeong Deuk; Ha, Yeaseong; Choi, Doil; Kang, Byoung-Cheorl

    2017-01-01

    Plants have evolved hundreds of nucleotide-binding and leucine-rich domain proteins (NLRs) as potential intracellular immune receptors, but the evolutionary mechanism leading to the ability to recognize specific pathogen effectors is elusive. Here, we cloned Pvr4 (a Potyvirus resistance gene in Capsicum annuum) and Tsw (a Tomato spotted wilt virus resistance gene in Capsicum chinense) via a genome-based approach using independent segregating populations. The genes both encode typical NLRs and are located at the same locus on pepper chromosome 10. Despite the fact that these two genes recognize completely different viral effectors, the genomic structures and coding sequences of the two genes are strikingly similar. Phylogenetic studies revealed that these two immune receptors diverged from a progenitor gene of a common ancestor. Our results suggest that sequence variations caused by gene duplication and neofunctionalization may underlie the evolution of the ability to specifically recognize different effectors. These findings thereby provide insight into the divergent evolution of plant immune receptors. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  17. Molecular Cloning and Functional Analysis of a Na+-Insensitive K+ Transporter of Capsicum chinense Jacq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Lau, Nancy; Bojórquez-Quintal, Emanuel; Benito, Begoña; Echevarría-Machado, Ileana; Sánchez-Cach, Lucila A.; Medina-Lara, María de Fátima; Martínez-Estévez, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    High-affinity K+ (HAK) transporters are encoded by a large family of genes and are ubiquitous in the plant kingdom. These HAK-type transporters participate in low- and high-affinity potassium (K+) uptake and are crucial for the maintenance of K+ homeostasis under hostile conditions. In this study, the full-length cDNA of CcHAK1 gene was isolated from roots of the habanero pepper (Capsicum chinense). CcHAK1 expression was positively regulated by K+ starvation in roots and was not inhibited in the presence of NaCl. Phylogenetic analysis placed the CcHAK1 transporter in group I of the HAK K+ transporters, showing that it is closely related to Capsicum annuum CaHAK1 and Solanum lycopersicum LeHAK5. Characterization of the protein in a yeast mutant deficient in high-affinity K+ uptake (WΔ3) suggested that CcHAK1 function is associated with high-affinity K+ uptake, with Km and Vmax for Rb of 50 μM and 0.52 nmol mg−1 min−1, respectively. K+ uptake in yeast expressing the CcHAK1 transporter was inhibited by millimolar concentrations of the cations ammonium (NH4+) and cesium (Cs+) but not by sodium (Na+). The results presented in this study suggest that the CcHAK1 transporter may contribute to the maintenance of K+ homeostasis in root cells in C. chinense plants undergoing K+-deficiency and salt stress. PMID:28083010

  18. Antioxidant activity and prevention of pork meat lipid oxidation using traditional Mexican condiments (pasilla dry pepper, achiote, and mole sauce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Alvarez-Parrilla

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Considering the extensive use of hot peppers and spicy sauces in the Mexican cuisine, in the present paper, three widely consumed Mexican condiments (mole sauce, achiote, and pasilla hot pepper were analyzed for their total phenols, flavonoids and proanthocyanidins, antioxidant activity, and protective effect against lipid oxidation in chopped pork meat. All samples were extracted first with methanol and then with acetone, and the extracts were compared. Pasilla pepper showed the highest phenolic and flavonoid content in both solvents, followed by mole and achiote. Achiote showed the highest proanthocyanidin concentration. All samples showed high antioxidant activity, and good correlations with phenolic compounds and flavonoids, while no correlation was observed in the case of condensed tannins. Mole sauce methanolic extract showed the highest inhibition of pork meat oxidation, followed by pasilla pepper, and finally achiote paste extracts. These results suggest that these condiments are useful to prevent meat lipid oxidation during storage.

  19. Physiological changes of pepper accessions in response to salinity and water stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    López-Serrano, L.; Penella, C.; San Bautista, A.; López-Galarza, S.; Calatayud, A.

    2017-07-01

    New sources of water stress and salinity tolerances are needed for crops grown in marginal lands. Pepper is considered one of the most important crops in the world. Many varieties belong to the genus Capsicum spp., and display wide variability in tolerance/sensitivity terms in response to drought and salinity stress. The objective was to screen seven salt/drought-tolerant pepper accessions to breed new cultivars that could overcome abiotic stresses, or be used as new crops in land with water and salinity stress. Fast and effective physiological traits were measured to achieve the objective. The present study showed wide variability of the seven pepper accessions in response to both stresses. Photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and transpiration reduced mainly under salinity due to stomatal and non-stomatal (Na+ accumulation) constraints and, to a lesser extent, in the accessions grown under water stress. A positive relationship between CO2 fixation and fresh weight generation was observed for both stresses. Decreases in Ys and YW and increased proline were observed only when accessions were grown under salinity. However, these factors were not enough to alleviate salt effects and an inverse relation was noted between plant salt tolerance and proline accumulation. Under water stress, A31 was the least affected and A34 showed the best tolerance to salinity in terms of photosynthesis and biomass.

  20. Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Activity in Different Grafted Varieties of Bell Pepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia Chávez-Mendoza

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Grafting favors the presence of bioactive compounds in the bell pepper, but many species and varieties have not yet been analyzed in this sense, including commonly grafted varieties. The aim of the present study is to characterize the content in β-carotenes, vitamin C, lycopene, total phenols, and the antioxidant activity of bell pepper (Capsicum annum L. using the cultivar/rootstock combinations: Jeanette/Terrano (yellow, Sweet/Robusto (green, Fascinato/Robusto (red, Orangela/Terrano (orange, and Fascinato/Terrano (red. The plants were grown in a net-shading system and harvested on three sampling dates of the same crop cycle. The results show statistical differences (p ≤ 0.05 between cultivar/rootstock combinations and sampling dates for the content in bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity. Fascinato/Robusto presented the highest concentration of lycopene and total phenols as well as the greatest antioxidant activity of all cultivar/rootstock combinations evaluated. In addition, it was found that the best sampling time for the peppers to have the highest concentrations of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity was September.

  1. Performance of Sweet Pepper under Protective Structure in Gazipur of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GMA Halim

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of sweet pepper cultivation under different protective structures was made in two consecutive seasons of 2007-08 and 2008-09 at the experimental field of Horticulture Research Center of BARI, Gazipur. One popular commercial capsicum variety California Wonder was included in the study with four protective structures (low height poly tunnel, polytunnel with side open, poly tunnel with side closed and poly house including control (open field. Protective structures had remarkable and significant influence on plant growth and yield of sweet pepper. The plants grown under protective structures had higher plant height compared to that of plants grown in open field. The highest individual fruit weight (65.2g was recorded form the plants grown under poly house condition while it was the lowest from open field grown plant (3.34 g. More than five fruits were harvested when the plants were grown under poly tunnel (side closed or poly house. The maximum fruit yield per plant (334.0g was recorded from poly house, which was 160.4% higher than that of plants grown under open field condition. The second highest yield was recorded from the plants of poly tunnel (212.5 indicating bright scope for sweet pepper cultivation under protective structures.

  2. Effects of different irrigation methods on pepper yield and soilborne diseases incidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seral YÜCEL

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of different irrigation strategies and irrigation methods on yields and the incidence of wilt (Fusarium oxysporum and root rot (Fusarium solani and Macrophomina phaseolina diseases causing significant yield losses on field grown processing red pepper is determined. Experiments were carried out at Topçu Station of the Soil and Water Resources Research Institute of Tarsus in 2010 and 2011. Karaisalı processing pepper (Capsicum annuum L. was used in the experiments. Three furrows and five drip irrigation treatments were used in the study. The disease incidence rates were found 8.0-18.2% in furrow irrigation plots and 4.5-10.0% in drip irrigation plots in 2010, while it was 3.4-9.7% in furrow irrigation plots and 2.2-4.5% in drip irrigation plots in 2011. Pepper yields ranged from 3 416 to 4 417 kg da-1 and 3 376 to 4 779 kg da-1 in drip irrigated plots in 2010 and 2011, respectively. However, yields varied between 3 172-3 559 kg da-1 and 2 932-4 150 kg da-1 in furrow irrigated plots in 2010 and 2011 growing seasons.

  3. Isolation and Characterization of Pepper Genes Interacting with the CMV-P1 Helicase Domain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoomi Choi

    Full Text Available Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV is a destructive pathogen affecting Capsicum annuum (pepper production. The pepper Cmr1 gene confers resistance to most CMV strains, but is overcome by CMV-P1 in a process dependent on the CMV-P1 RNA1 helicase domain (P1 helicase. Here, to identify host factors involved in CMV-P1 infection in pepper, a yeast two-hybrid library derived from a C. annuum 'Bukang' cDNA library was screened, producing a total of 76 potential clones interacting with the P1 helicase. Beta-galactosidase filter lift assay, PCR screening, and sequencing analysis narrowed the candidates to 10 genes putatively involved in virus infection. The candidate host genes were silenced in Nicotiana benthamiana plants that were then inoculated with CMV-P1 tagged with the green fluorescent protein (GFP. Plants silenced for seven of the genes showed development comparable to N. benthamiana wild type, whereas plants silenced for the other three genes showed developmental defects including stunting and severe distortion. Silencing formate dehydrogenase and calreticulin-3 precursor led to reduced virus accumulation. Formate dehydrogenase-silenced plants showed local infection in inoculated leaves, but not in upper (systemic leaves. In the calreticulin-3 precursor-silenced plants, infection was not observed in either the inoculated or the upper leaves. Our results demonstrate that formate dehydrogenase and calreticulin-3 precursor are required for CMV-P1 infection.

  4. Effectiveness of biological control of Phytophthora capsici in pepper by Trichoderma asperellum strain T34

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillem SEGARRA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Pepper (Capsicum annuum L., one of the most widely grown vegetables worldwide, is susceptible to root rot caused by Phytophthora capsici. Many biocides have recently been banned in Europe because of human health and environmental concerns. Integrated pest management is a European priority, where biological control together with other agronomic practices should replace pesticide management of plant diseases in the future. Application of different concentrations of the fungus Trichoderma asperellum strain T34 (the in T34 Biocontrol® on incidence of disease caused by P. capsici in pepper was studied. Different methods of application of the microbial control agent and inoculation of the pathogen were examined. T34 and etridiazole (Terrazole® were compared for their ability to suppress P. capsici. T34 reduced disease in most of the assayed situations (up to 71% disease reduction, while etridiazole was effective only when applied at the same time as the pathogen. The results obtained are discussed on the basis of the different modes of action of T34 and etridiazole. T34 is a useful biological alternative to chemicals for the control of P. capsici in pepper.

  5. Physiological changes of pepper accessions in response to salinity and water stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    López-Serrano, L.; Penella, C.; San Bautista, A.; López-Galarza, S.; Calatayud, A.

    2017-01-01

    New sources of water stress and salinity tolerances are needed for crops grown in marginal lands. Pepper is considered one of the most important crops in the world. Many varieties belong to the genus Capsicum spp., and display wide variability in tolerance/sensitivity terms in response to drought and salinity stress. The objective was to screen seven salt/drought-tolerant pepper accessions to breed new cultivars that could overcome abiotic stresses, or be used as new crops in land with water and salinity stress. Fast and effective physiological traits were measured to achieve the objective. The present study showed wide variability of the seven pepper accessions in response to both stresses. Photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and transpiration reduced mainly under salinity due to stomatal and non-stomatal (Na+ accumulation) constraints and, to a lesser extent, in the accessions grown under water stress. A positive relationship between CO2 fixation and fresh weight generation was observed for both stresses. Decreases in Ys and YW and increased proline were observed only when accessions were grown under salinity. However, these factors were not enough to alleviate salt effects and an inverse relation was noted between plant salt tolerance and proline accumulation. Under water stress, A31 was the least affected and A34 showed the best tolerance to salinity in terms of photosynthesis and biomass.

  6. Biochemical and Molecular Analysis of Some Commercial Samples of Chilli Peppers from Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivonne Guadalupe Troconis-Torres

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Capsicum provides antioxidant compounds, such as phenolics and carotenoids, into the diet. In Mexico, there is a wide diversity of species and varieties of chilli peppers, a fruit which has local cultural and gastronomic importance. In the present study, the relationship of the carotenoid and phenolic profiles with the RAPD fingerprint of three different commercial cultivars of chilli peppers of seven regions of Mexico was investigated. Through RAPD, the species of chilli were differentiated by means of different primers (OPE-18, MFG-17, MFG-18, C51, and C52. The genetic distance found with OPE 18 was in the order of 2.6. The observed differences were maintained when the chromatographic profile of carotenoids, and the molecular markers were analyzed, which suggest a close relationship between carotenoids and the genetic profile. While the chromatographic profile of phenols and the molecular markers were unable to differentiate between genotypes of chilli peppers. In addition, by using infrared spectroscopy and statistical PCA, differences explained by geographic origin were found. Thus, this method could be an alternative for identification of chilli species with respect to their geographic origin.

  7. Analysis of gamma irradiated pepper constituents, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, Kazuko; Ochiai, Junko; Okuyama, Tsuneo

    1988-01-01

    Black pepper, white pepper, frozen green pepper and real pink pepper (kept in vinegar) were analyzed by reversed phase IIPLC. The extraction method and HPLC conditions were same as the first report, that is, the extraction from pepper was performed by Automatic Air Hammer and the extracted samples were separated on a reversed phase C 8 column with a concave gradient from 0.1% trifluoro aceticacid (TFA) in water to 75% acetonitrile - 0.1% TFA in water for 60 minutes and detected at 210 nm, 280 nm. The different constituents were observed clearly on chromatogram between black pepper and white pepper. The different constituents were observed between different producing white peppers, and as the result that the analyzed pepper was distinguished its producing district by HPLC chromatogram. In order to investigate of effect of lyophilization on white pepper extracts, lyophilized extraction was analyzed by this HPLC method. Some peaks were decreased by lyophilization. The effect of heat on white pepper constituents was examined. White pepper was heated by electronic oven and thermostat. When the former method was used, decreased peak number (peak height was lower than without heat treatment) was more than latter method. These subtle change was able to be recognized by these HPLC chromatograms. (author)

  8. Decontamination of black pepper and red pepper by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oularbi, S.; Mansouri, B.

    1993-04-01

    In the present work, it has been studied the decontamination of two types of spices (black pepper and red pepper) by gamma radiation. The initial microbial population of spices not treated is about 10 (7) to 10 (8) per gram. The population decrease exponentially with irradiation dose. By this, it has been established that a dose of 6 kGy reduces the microbial flora low than 10 (3) per gram. A total elimination of moulds is obtained at dose of 8 kGy

  9. Vacuum-assisted microwave drying characteristics of green bell pepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Kumar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Chopped green bell pepper pieces were blanched (95 °C, 5 min and chemically pretreated (1% potassium metabisulphite solution, 25 min at room temperature before drying in hot air dryer (HAD at various temperature ranges (60 – 80 °C. Three vacuum levels (200, 400, 600 mm Hg and microwave power levels (100, 200, 300 W were also used to dry green bell pepper samples in a vacuum assisted microwave (VAM (2.45 GHz, 0.8 kW dryer. VAM drying methods offered a maximum reduction by four to five times in drying time as compared to that in HAD. The logarithmic model was found to have the best fit based on high R2 and small values of reduced χ2 and RMSE.  VAM method has higher values for effective moisture diffusivity (Deff and lower values for activation energy (Ea, in comparison to the HAD method. 

  10. Cayenne pepper in a meal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, B. V.; Byrne, D. V.; Bredie, W. L.P.

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated appetite sensations, hedonics, sensory specific desires, physical- and psychological well-being sensations during and after intake of a meal with- and without increased oral heat induced by addition of cayenne pepper. Subjects (n = 66) completed a randomized cross......-over study involving a tomato soup with and without added cayenne pepper (0.593 mg capsaicin). Self-reports were evaluated at 5 min intervals during intake and at 1 h intervals until four hours post intake using VAS-scales and 9-point scales. Sensory specific desires were further studied by liking...... and wanting of food samples representing the sensory profiles: sweet, sour, salt, bitter, fat and spicy, respectively. The soup with cayenne pepper added was perceived significantly more spicy but equally liked, and resulted in significant higher satiation at the end of the meal and one hour post intake...

  11. [Spray for self-defense against subjects with aggressive behavior: review of the scientific literature on the use of oleoresin capsicum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerici, Carlo Alfredo; Pelettii, Gianfranco; Veneroni, Laura; de Micheli, Angelo

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT. In several countries oleoresin capsicum (OC) spray is being used as non lethal weapon in recent years. In 2009 in Italy a Security Act has established that self-defence spray devices can lawfully be purchased and possessed by citizens; at the same time corps of local police started to adopt these devices for self defence and aid in arresting aggressive individuals. This article analizes the multidisciplinar literature about the efficacy and possible acute and long-term health risks of pepper spray for exposed individuals and police or civilians users. The paper also reports updated considerations about correct use of this devices.

  12. Mining secreted proteins that function in pepper fruit development and ripening using a yeast secretion trap (YST)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Je Min, E-mail: jemin@knu.ac.kr [Department of Plant Science, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Department of Horticultural Science, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang-Jik [Biotechnology Institute, Nongwoo Bio Co, Ltd, Yeoju (Korea, Republic of); Department of Plant Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States); Rose, Jocelyn K.C. [Department of Plant Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States); Yeam, Inhwa [Department of Horticulture and Breeding, Andong National University, Andong (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Byung-Dong [Department of Plant Science, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-18

    Highlights: • Yeast secretion trap (YST) is a valuable tool for mining secretome. • A total of 80 secreted proteins are newly identified via YST in pepper fruits. • The secreted proteins are differentially regulated during pepper development and ripening. • Transient GFP-fusion assay and in planta secretion trap can effectively validate the secretion of proteins. - Abstract: Plant cells secrete diverse sets of constitutively- and conditionally-expressed proteins under various environmental and developmental states. Secreted protein populations, or secretomes have multiple functions, including defense responses, signaling, metabolic processes, and developmental regulation. To identify genes encoding secreted proteins that function in fruit development and ripening, a yeast secretion trap (YST) screen was employed using pepper (Capsicum annuum) fruit cDNAs. The YST screen revealed 80 pepper fruit-related genes (CaPFRs) encoding secreted proteins including cell wall proteins, several of which have not been previously described. Transient GFP-fusion assay and an in planta secretion trap were used to validate the secretion of proteins encoded by selected YST clones. In addition, RNA gel blot analyses provided further insights into their expression and regulation during fruit development and ripening. Integrating our data, we conclude that the YST provides a valuable functional genomics tool for the identification of substantial numbers of novel secreted plant proteins that are associated with biological processes, including fruit development and ripening.

  13. Mining secreted proteins that function in pepper fruit development and ripening using a yeast secretion trap (YST)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Je Min; Lee, Sang-Jik; Rose, Jocelyn K.C.; Yeam, Inhwa; Kim, Byung-Dong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Yeast secretion trap (YST) is a valuable tool for mining secretome. • A total of 80 secreted proteins are newly identified via YST in pepper fruits. • The secreted proteins are differentially regulated during pepper development and ripening. • Transient GFP-fusion assay and in planta secretion trap can effectively validate the secretion of proteins. - Abstract: Plant cells secrete diverse sets of constitutively- and conditionally-expressed proteins under various environmental and developmental states. Secreted protein populations, or secretomes have multiple functions, including defense responses, signaling, metabolic processes, and developmental regulation. To identify genes encoding secreted proteins that function in fruit development and ripening, a yeast secretion trap (YST) screen was employed using pepper (Capsicum annuum) fruit cDNAs. The YST screen revealed 80 pepper fruit-related genes (CaPFRs) encoding secreted proteins including cell wall proteins, several of which have not been previously described. Transient GFP-fusion assay and an in planta secretion trap were used to validate the secretion of proteins encoded by selected YST clones. In addition, RNA gel blot analyses provided further insights into their expression and regulation during fruit development and ripening. Integrating our data, we conclude that the YST provides a valuable functional genomics tool for the identification of substantial numbers of novel secreted plant proteins that are associated with biological processes, including fruit development and ripening

  14. Management of chili pepper root rot and wilt (caused by Phytophthora nicotianae by grafting onto resistant rootstock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mourad SAADOUN

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Root rot and plant wilting caused by Phytophthora nicotianae is a severe disease of chili pepper (Capsicum annuum L. in open fields and under greenhouse production in Tunisia. Chili pepper grafting for disease manage- ment is attracting increased interest in recent years. Using the tube grafting technique, different compatible scion/rootstock combinations were obtained with the wild-type pepper SCM334 and the local chili pepper cultivars ‘Beldi’ and ‘Baker’. SCM334 was resistant to P. nicotianae, while the cultivars Beldi and Baker were susceptible. Plant inoculations were performed with P. nicotianae zoospores, and severity of root rot was rated 30 days post- inoculation using a 0 (healthy plant to 5 (dead plant severity score. On SCM334 rootstock and with ‘Beldi’ or ‘Baker’ scions, the intensity of root rot was very low (mean score 0.1–0.2 and plants were healthy. However, with Baker or Beldi rootstocks and SCM334 scions, root rot was severe (mean score 3.1–4.6, leading to high numbers of wilting and dead plants. This severe root rot was similar to that observed on non-grafted plants of ‘Baker’ and ‘Beldi’ inoculated with the pathogen. Under greenhouse conditions, measurements of agronomic characters indicated non-consistent improvement of these features on the scion cultivar when SCM334 was the rootstock. Since plant foliage is not attacked by this pathogen, these results show that susceptible chili pepper scions grafted onto SCM334 rootstocks could be used for root rot management and improvement of pepper yields in P. nicotianae infested soils.

  15. Estimating cadmium concentration in the edible part of Capsicum annuum using hyperspectral models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting; Wei, Hong; Zhou, Cui; Gu, Yanwen; Li, Rui; Chen, Hongchun; Ma, Wenchao

    2017-10-09

    Hyperspectral remote sensing can be applied to the rapid and nondestructive monitoring of heavy-metal pollution in crops. To realize the rapid and real-time detection of cadmium in the edible part (fruit) of Capsicum annuum, the leaf spectral reflectance of plants exposed to different levels of cadmium stress was measured using hyperspectral remote sensing during four growth stages. The spectral indices or bands sensitive to cadmium stress were determined by correlation analysis, and hyperspectral estimation models for predicting the cadmium content in the fruit of C. annuum during the mature growth stage were established. The models were cross validated by taking the sensitive spectral indices in the bud stage and the sensitive spectral bands in the flowering stage as the input variables. The results indicated that cadmium accumulated in the leaves and fruit of C. annuum and leaf cadmium content in the three early growth stages were correlated with the cadmium content of the pepper in the mature stage. Leaf spectral reflectance was sensitive to cadmium stress, and the first derivative of the original spectral reflectance was strongly correlated with leaf cadmium content during all growth stages. Among the established models, the multiple regression model based on the sensitive spectral bands in the flowering stage was optimal for predicting fruit cadmium content of the pepper. This model provides a promising method to ensure food safety during the early growth stage of the plant.

  16. Silencing of the CaCP Gene Delays Salt- and Osmotic-Induced Leaf Senescence in Capsicum annuum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huai-Juan Xiao

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cysteine proteinases have been known to participate in developmental processes and in response to stress in plants. Our present research reported that a novel CP gene, CaCP, was involved in leaf senescence in pepper (Capsicum annuum L.. The full-length CaCP cDNA is comprised of 1316 bp, contains 1044 nucleotides in open reading frame (ORF, and encodes a 347 amino acid protein. The deduced protein belongs to the papain-like cysteine proteases (CPs superfamily, containing a highly conserved ERFNIN motif, a GCNGG motif and a conserved catalytic triad. This protein localized to the vacuole of plant cells. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis revealed that the expression level of CaCP gene was dramatically higher in leaves and flowers than that in roots, stems and fruits. Moreover, CaCP transcripts were induced upon during leaf senescence. CaCP expression was upregulated by plant hormones, especially salicylic acid. CaCP was also significantly induced by abiotic and biotic stress treatments, including high salinity, mannitol and Phytophthora capsici. Loss of function of CaCP using the virus-induced gene-silencing technique in pepper plants led to enhanced tolerance to salt- and osmotic-induced stress. Taken together, these results suggest that CaCP is a senescence-associated gene, which is involved in developmental senescence and regulates salt- and osmotic-induced leaf senescence in pepper.

  17. Silencing of the CaCP Gene Delays Salt- and Osmotic-Induced Leaf Senescence in Capsicum annuum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Huai-Juan; Yin, Yan-Xu; Chai, Wei-Guo; Gong, Zhen-Hui

    2014-01-01

    Cysteine proteinases have been known to participate in developmental processes and in response to stress in plants. Our present research reported that a novel CP gene, CaCP, was involved in leaf senescence in pepper (Capsicum annuum L.). The full-length CaCP cDNA is comprised of 1316 bp, contains 1044 nucleotides in open reading frame (ORF), and encodes a 347 amino acid protein. The deduced protein belongs to the papain-like cysteine proteases (CPs) superfamily, containing a highly conserved ERFNIN motif, a GCNGG motif and a conserved catalytic triad. This protein localized to the vacuole of plant cells. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis revealed that the expression level of CaCP gene was dramatically higher in leaves and flowers than that in roots, stems and fruits. Moreover, CaCP transcripts were induced upon during leaf senescence. CaCP expression was upregulated by plant hormones, especially salicylic acid. CaCP was also significantly induced by abiotic and biotic stress treatments, including high salinity, mannitol and Phytophthora capsici. Loss of function of CaCP using the virus-induced gene-silencing technique in pepper plants led to enhanced tolerance to salt- and osmotic-induced stress. Taken together, these results suggest that CaCP is a senescence-associated gene, which is involved in developmental senescence and regulates salt- and osmotic-induced leaf senescence in pepper. PMID:24823878

  18. Influence of Fruit Ripening on Color, Organic Acid Contents, Capsaicinoids, Aroma Compounds, and Antioxidant Capacity of Shimatogarashi (Capsicum frutescens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikharda; Takahashi, Makoto; Arakaki, Mika; Yonamine, Kaoru; Hashimoto, Fumio; Takara, Kensaku; Wada, Koji

    2018-01-01

    Shimatogarashi (Capsicum frutescens) is a typical chili pepper domesticated in southern Japan. Important traits of Shimatogarashi peppers, such as color; proportion of organic acids, capsaicinoids, and aromatic compounds; and antioxidant activity in three stages of maturity (green (immature), orange (turning), and red (mature) stages) were characterized. The results indicated that the concentration of organic acids, including ascorbic, citric, and malic acid, increased during ripening. In addition, the amount of capsaicinoids, which are responsible for the pungent taste of chili peppers, increased as the fruit matured to the orange and red stages. The volatile compound profile of Shimatogarashi was dominated by the presence of esters, which mainly contributed to fruity notes. The total amount of volatile compounds analyzed by gas chromatography-headspace solid-phase microextraction (GC-HS-SPME), especially esters, decreased as the fruit changed in color from green to red. This was in contrast to the amount of terpenoids, especially limonene, which increased at the red stage, denoting a change in flavor from fruity to a more citrus-like aroma. Based on the total phenolic content (TPC), the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and the diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical method, the antioxidant capacity of Shimatogarashi showed an increase at the mature red stage. However, while the red stage showed higher pungency and antioxidant capacity as well as an attractive color, the results of aromatic compound analysis revealed that the immature green stage had the advantages of having pleasant fruity smell, making it suitable for use in condiments.

  19. Insectes ravageurs du piment Capsicum chinense Jacq ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    30 sept. 2015 ... qui se retrouve sur le marché international (FAO,. 2006). Les fruits de Capsicum ... piment, l'accès facile au site et sur la base d'une expérience dans le ... comprendre le mode d'emploi des pesticides. Pesticides chimiques ...

  20. Partitioning of 14C-photosynthate in fruiting and deblossomed bell-pepper plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatt, R.M.; Srinivasa Rao, N.K.

    1993-01-01

    Radioactive carbon movement was studied after 10; 20 and 30 days of flowering in fruiting and deblossomed plants of bell-pepper (Capsicum annum L. cv. Arka Gaurav). There was a considerable difference in the distribution pattern of exported carbon among different plant organs (sink) between fruiting and deblossomed plants. With the advancement of fruit growth the first flowering node fruit acts as a major sink for carbon (10.2%) up to 20 days and afterwards becomes a weaker sink as other growing fruits imported a major amount of carbon (46.7%). In the deblossomed plants the roots imported the maximum radiocarbon which is attributed to the slow growth of other vegetative organs because of high temperature during summer season. (author). 6 refs., 1 tab

  1. Yield Traits and Water and Nitrogen Use Efficiencies of Bell Pepper Grown in Plastic-Greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Candido

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We report the results of a two-year study assessing the effects of nitrogen fertilization and irrigation regimes on yield traits and on water and nitrogen use efficiency of greenhouse-grown bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.. The trials involved the combination of four N doses (0, 100, 200, 300 kg ha-1 with two irrigation regimes (100% restitution of ETc; repeated cycles of water stress starting from fruit set. In the second year, the crop was transplanted one month earlier than in the first year and was mulched with plastic sheeting. The highest yield in both years was obtained by associating 100% restitution of ETc and the N dose of 200 kg ha-1. The marketable yields were 37 and 72 t ha-1 in 1998 and 1999, respectively. Doubling of the yield in the second year was probably due to the earlier transplantation and mulching, confirming the numerous benefits of the latter technique. The water deficit imposed during the late flowering-early fruit set phase had negative effects on the crop, with declines of the marketable yield of up to 44% due to the reduced number and weight of the fruit and the increased waste, mainly peppers with blossom-end rot, cracking, sun-burn and malformations. The peppers grown under water stress were richer in dry matter and soluble solids. The yield declines due to water deficit varied in relation to the N dose, as confirmed by the numerous interactions recorded between irrigation regime and nitrogen level.Without nitrogen fertilization, the quantity and quality of the fruits remained unchanged, while the maximum dose (300 kg ha-1 enhanced the negative effects of the water deficit on the number (-52% and weight (-161% of marketable peppers. Moreover, the waste peppers reached 31% of the total production (by weight, with over 21% affected by blossom-end rot. Water stress led to a drastic reduction of the total above-ground dry biomass (40% and a significant decrease of nitrogen absorption by the plant (54% with preferential

  2. Identification of irradiated pepper by ESR measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morishita, Norio; Kume, Tamikazu; Kawakami, Waichiro; Ishigaki, Isao

    1988-01-01

    The possibility of using electron spin resonance (ESR) for identification of irradiated black and white pepper was examined. The ESR spectra induced by irradiation with 10 kGy are clearly distinguishable from that of unirradiated samples. The intensity of signal induced by irradiation was markedly reduced during 2 weeks storage but it was slowly reduced on further storage. The difference of intensity between the irradiated and unirradiated samples can be distinguished after 13 weeks storage. In this experiment, ground black pepper, ground white pepper and whole white pepper can be identified after 13 weeks. On the other hand, whole black pepper cannot be identified after 8 weeks because of the variation of values. It suggests that the suitable method for sample preparation such as separation of pellicle of whole black pepper is required before ESR measurement. (author)

  3. Effect of gamma radiation from 60C in conservation and quality of pepper fresh and pulp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milagres, Regina Celia Rodrigues de Miranda

    2014-01-01

    Capsicum peppers are among the most used and most valued seasoning spices in the world. They are highly susceptible to post harvest decay, therefore the use of irradiation may contribute to conservation of this fruit which has significant nutritional, economic and social value. Were evaluated the effects of gamma radiation of 60 Co in increasing the shelf-life and preservation of quality of pepper 'Dedo-de-moca' (Capsicum baccatum var. Pendulum) fresh and pulp associated or not with another conservation methods. Gamma radiation doses were investigated of 0,25; 0,50; 0,75; 1,00; 1,25; 1,50; 2,00 e 3,00 kGy in fresh fruit and 1,50; 2,00; 3,00; 4,50 e 6,00 kGy in pepper pulp. The use of laboratory pasteurization (85°C/3min), the addition of citric acid (5%) and 5% NaCl were also investigated in the pepper pulp. The samples were stored at 5 °C and or 25 °C. Were performed analysis: visual (disease incidence, turgidity and color); bioactive compounds (carotenoids, capsaicinoids, antioxidant capacity and phenolic compounds); physicochemical (Weight loss, firmness, soluble solids (SS), pH, titratable acidity (TA), ratio, color and moisture); respiratory rate and ethylene production; proximate composition (moisture, soluble and insoluble fiber, ash, protein, ether extract, total and available carbohydrate); microbiological contamination (mesophilic aerobic microorganisms, coliforms at 45 °C, Salmonella spp. and yeasts and molds) and sensory (acceptance test, difference test and paired preference). Radiation doses between 0.25 and 3.00 kGy were not effective to increase shelf-life and maintain fresh pepper quality during storage. There was increased intensity of red color, of incidence of disease, decreased turgidity and changes in physical, chemical and nutritional parameters. In pulp, the doses of gamma radiation of 4.50 and 6.00 kGy and the addition of 5% NaCl no changing sensory attributes, physical-chemical and bioactive compounds. Only the antioxidant

  4. Silencing of dehydrin CaDHN1 diminishes tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses in Capsicum annuum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ru-gang; Jing, Hua; Guo, Wei-li; Wang, Shu-Bin; Ma, Fang; Pan, Bao-Gui; Gong, Zhen-Hui

    2015-12-01

    We cloned a dehydrins gene CaDHN1 from pepper and the expression of CaDHN1 was markedly upregulated by cold, salt, osmotic stresses and salicylic acid (SA) treatment. Dehydrins (DHNs) are a subfamily of group 2 late embryogenesis-abundant (LEA) proteins that are thought to play an important role in enhancing abiotic stress tolerance in plants. In this study, a DHN EST (Expressed Sequence Tag) was obtained from 6 to 8 true leaves seedlings of pepper cv P70 (Capsicum annuum L.) by our laboratory. However, the DHN gene in pepper was not well characterized. According to this EST sequence, we isolated a DHN gene, designated as CaDHN1, and investigated the response and expression of this gene under various stresses. Our results indicated that CaDHN1 has the DHN-specific and conserved K- and S- domain and encodes 219 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis showed that CaDHN1 belonged to the SKn subgroup. Tissue expression profile analysis revealed that CaDH N1 was expressed predominantly in fruits and flowers. The expression of CaDHN1 was markedly upregulated in response to cold, salt, osmotic stresses and salicylic acid (SA) treatment, but no significant change by abscisic acid (ABA) and heavy metals treatment. Loss of function of CaDHN1 using the virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) technique led to decreased tolerance to cold-, salt- and osmotic-induced stresses. Overall, these results suggest that CaDHN1 plays an important role in regulating the abiotic stress resistance in pepper plants.

  5. Mutation breeding in diffrent types of pepper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This project was carried out under the collaboration of TAEK, SANAEM, and BATEM within 1999-2005 period. The aim of this project was to create new pepper varieties in Sera Demre 8 (green pepper) and ST59 (green pepper) cultivars which are important greenhouse cultivars by using mutation breeding methods. The Effective Mutagen Dose (ED50) was calculated by linear regression analyses. According to results, 166 Gy dose was found as ED50. At the end of the breeding cycle 14 new mutant lines were obtained from mutant population. These mutant lines are still using as genitor for F1 hybrid pepper breeding programs

  6. Functional roles of the pepper RING finger protein gene, CaRING1, in abscisic acid signaling and dehydration tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Chae Woo; Hwang, Byung Kook; Lee, Sung Chul

    2015-09-01

    Plants are constantly exposed to a variety of biotic and abiotic stresses, which include pathogens and conditions of high salinity, low temperature, and drought. Abscisic acid (ABA) is a major plant hormone involved in signal transduction pathways that mediate the defense response of plants to abiotic stress. Previously, we isolated Ring finger protein gene (CaRING1) from pepper (Capsicum annuum), which is associated with resistance to bacterial pathogens, accompanied by hypersensitive cell death. Here, we report a new function of the CaRING1 gene product in the ABA-mediated defense responses of plants to dehydration stress. The expression of the CaRING1 gene was induced in pepper leaves treated with ABA or exposed to dehydration or NaCl. Virus-induced gene silencing of CaRING1 in pepper plants exhibited low degree of ABA-induced stomatal closure and high levels of transpirational water loss in dehydrated leaves. These led to be more vulnerable to dehydration stress in CaRING1-silenced pepper than in the control pepper, accompanied by reduction of ABA-regulated gene expression and low accumulation of ABA and H2O2. In contrast, CaRING1-overexpressing transgenic plants showed enhanced sensitivity to ABA during the seedling growth and establishment. These plants were also more tolerant to dehydration stress than the wild-type plants because of high ABA accumulation, enhanced stomatal closure and increased expression of stress-responsive genes. Together, these results suggest that the CaRING1 acts as positive factor for dehydration tolerance in Arabidopsis by modulating ABA biosynthesis and ABA-mediated stomatal closing and gene expression.

  7. Effect of Gamma Irradiation, Organic and Mineral Fertilizers on Growth, Yield and Fruit Quality of Sweet Pepper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fath El-Bab, T.Sh.

    2014-01-01

    Field experiment was carried out for two successive seasons 2011 and 2012, on sweet pepper ( Capsicum annuum L. ) cv. California wonder in the Research Station of Atomic Energy Authority at Inshas, Egypt. This research aimed to evaluate response of sweet pepper to chemical and organic manure (poultry or sheep) fertilizers. Organic manures were treated with gamma rays at the dose of 10 KGy to keep it free from pathogenic organism pests and weed seeds. Growth characters such as plant height, num - ber of leaves, number of stems and dry weight per plant in the two seasons were significantly respond to tested factors. The highest vegetative growth characters were induced by 100% mineral fertilizer. Meanwhile, the lowest vegetative growth characters were recorded by using 100% organic manure as compared to mineral fertilizer. On the other hand dry weight of plants treated with organic manure treatment significantly decreased as compared to mineral fertilizer in the two seasons. Furthermore, using organic manure had enhanced or improved the quality of sweet pepper fruits. In conclusion, mineral fertilizers combined with organic fertilizers were the best treatment resulted in the highest vegetative growth, yield and fruit quality of sweet pepper. This treatment resulted in not only higher total chlorophyll in leave content compared to control plants, but also the highest chemical properties values of fruits, total soluble solids, acidity, vitamin C. and carotenoids in the two seasons. Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium content non significantly increased with all treatments except that of 100% chemical fertilizer. The improvement of plant growth and production recorded with the irradiated organic manure as compared to the unirradiated one. All parameters were higher in sweet pepper fertilized with poultry manure as compared to that fertilized with sheep manure. Although the treatment of organic manure only gave to some extent, less total yield, it has great impact on the

  8. Application and bioactive properties of CaTI, a trypsin inhibitor from Capsicum annuum seeds: membrane permeabilization, oxidative stress and intracellular target in phytopathogenic fungi cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Marciele S; Ribeiro, Suzanna Ff; Taveira, Gabriel B; Rodrigues, Rosana; Fernandes, Katia Vs; Carvalho, André O; Vasconcelos, Ilka Maria; Mello, Erica Oliveira; Gomes, Valdirene M

    2017-08-01

    During the last few years, a growing number of antimicrobial peptides have been isolated from plants and particularly from seeds. Recent results from our laboratory have shown the purification of a new trypsin inhibitor, named CaTI, from chilli pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) seeds. This study aims to evaluate the antifungal activity and mechanism of action of CaTI on phytopathogenic fungi and detect the presence of protease inhibitors in other species of this genus. Our results show that CaTI can inhibit the growth of the phytopathogenic fungi Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and C. lindemuthianum. CaTI can also permeabilize the membrane of all tested fungi. When testing the inhibitor on its ability to induce reactive oxygen species, an induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) particularly in Fusarium species was observed. Using CaTI coupled to fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC), it was possible to determine the presence of the inhibitor inside the hyphae of the Fusarium oxysporum fungus. The search for protease inhibitors in other Capsicum species revealed their presence in all tested species. This paper shows the antifungal activity of protease inhibitors such as CaTI against phytopathogenic fungi. Antimicrobial peptides, among which the trypsin protease inhibitor family stands out, are present in different species of the genus Capsicum and are part of the chemical arsenal that plants use to defend themselves against pathogens. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Mycorrhizal symbiosis produces changes in specific flavonoids in leaves of pepper plant (Capsicum annum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, experiments were performed to investigate if mycorrhizal plants grown under optimal growth conditions would improve crop quality compared to the non-mycorrhizal control. The results clearly showed that while mycorrhizal plants grown under an optimal nutrient supply did not increase t...

  10. Meiose e viabilidade polínica em acessos de Capsicum annuum e Capsicum baccatum Meiosis and pollen viability in accessions of Capsicum annuum and Capsicum baccatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kellen Coutinho Martins

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o comportamento meiótico e a viabilidade polínica em quatro acessos das espécies Capsicum annuum e Capsicum baccatum. Em todos os acessos, foram observados 12 bivalentes, confirmando o número e nível de ploidia relatados na literatura para essas espécies. Os resultados mostraram uma divisão celular normal, porém algumas anormalidades foram detectadas, tais como migração precoce dos cromossomos em metáfases I e II, cromossomos retardatários em anáfase I e divisão assincrônica. Os acessos estudados apresentaram um índice meiótico variando de 75,6 a 93,6%, e a viabilidade polínica em todos os acessos foi superior a 90%, demonstrando que as irregularidades meióticas observadas não comprometeram a viabilidade destes.The objective of this research was to study the meiotic behavior and pollen viability in four accessions of species Capsicum annuum and Capsicum baccatum. In all accessions, twelve bivalents were observed, confirming the number and ploidy level reported in the literature for these species. The results showed a normal cell division although some abnormalities had been detected, as early chromosome migration at metaphases I and II, later chromosomes at anaphase I and asynchronous division. The studied accessions presented a meiotic index (MI that varied from 75.6 to 93.6% and the pollen viability in all accessions was higher than 90%, demonstrating that the meiotic irregularities observed didn't affect their viability.

  11. Race Characterization of Phytophthora root rot on Capsicum in Taiwan as a Basis for Anticipatory Resistance Breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barchenger, Derek W; Sheu, Zong-Ming; Kumar, Sanjeet; Lin, Shih-Wen; Burlakoti, Rishi R; Bosland, Paul W

    2018-02-27

    Peppers (Capsicum sp.) are an increasingly important crop because of their use as a vegetable, spice, and food colorant. The oomycete Phytophthora capsici is one of the most devastating pathogens to pepper production worldwide, causing more than $100 million in losses annually. Developing cultivars resistant to P. capsici is challenging because of the many physiological races that exist and new races that are continuously evolving. This problem is confounded by the lack of a universal system of race characterization. As a basis to develop a global anticipatory breeding program, New Mexico Recombinant Inbred Lines (NMRILs) functioned as a host differential for Phytophthora root rot to characterize the race structure of P. capsici populations in Taiwan. Using the NMRILs, 24 new races were identified, illustrating the utility and usefulness of the NMRILs for anticipatory breeding. Virulence of P. capsici was observed to be geographically specific and in two virulence clusters. Interestingly, all but two isolates collected in 2016 were the A2 mating type, which is a shift from the predominantly A1 mating type isolates collected prior to 2008. The NMRILs host differential provides an approach for scientists to work together on a global scale when breeding for resistance as well as on a local level for regional gene deployment. Additionally, we propose that the current race numbering system, which has no biological meaning, be supplemented with the virulence phenotype, based on the susceptible NMRILs to a given isolate. This work provides insights into the population dynamics of P. capsici and interactions within the highly complex Capsicum-Phytophthora pathosystem, and offers a basis for similar research in other crops.

  12. Variability among Capsicum baccatum accessions from Goiás, Brazil, assessed by morphological traits and molecular markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, A L A; Araújo, J S P; Ragassi, C F; Buso, G S C; Reifschneider, F J B

    2017-07-06

    Capsicum peppers are native to the Americas, with Brazil being a significant diversity center. Capsicum baccatum accessions at Instituto Federal (IF) Goiano represent a portion of the species genetic resources from central Brazil. We aimed to characterize a C. baccatum working collection comprising 27 accessions and 3 commercial cultivars using morphological traits and molecular markers to describe its genetic and morphological variability and verify the occurrence of duplicates. This set included 1 C. baccatum var. praetermissum and 29 C. baccatum var. pendulum with potential for use in breeding programs. Twenty-two morphological descriptors, 57 inter-simple sequence repeat, and 34 random amplified polymorphic DNA markers were used. Genetic distance was calculated through the Jaccard similarity index and genetic variability through cluster analysis using the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean, resulting in dendrograms for both morphological analysis and molecular analysis. Genetic variability was found among C. baccatum var. pendulum accessions, and the distinction between the two C. baccatum varieties was evident in both the morphological and molecular analyses. The 29 C. baccatum var. pendulum genotypes clustered in four groups according to fruit type in the morphological analysis. They formed seven groups in the molecular analysis, without a clear correspondence with morphology. No duplicates were found. The results describe the genetic and morphological variability, provide a detailed characterization of genotypes, and discard the possibility of duplicates within the IF Goiano C. baccatum L. collection. This study will foment the use of this germplasm collection in C. baccatum breeding programs.

  13. Exploring natural variation of photosynthetic, primary metabolism and growth parameters in a large panel of Capsicum chinense accessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosado-Souza, Laise; Scossa, Federico; Chaves, Izabel S; Kleessen, Sabrina; Salvador, Luiz F D; Milagre, Jocimar C; Finger, Fernando; Bhering, Leonardo L; Sulpice, Ronan; Araújo, Wagner L; Nikoloski, Zoran; Fernie, Alisdair R; Nunes-Nesi, Adriano

    2015-09-01

    Collectively, the results presented improve upon the utility of an important genetic resource and attest to a complex genetic basis for differences in both leaf metabolism and fruit morphology between natural populations. Diversity of accessions within the same species provides an alternative method to identify physiological and metabolic traits that have large effects on growth regulation, biomass and fruit production. Here, we investigated physiological and metabolic traits as well as parameters related to plant growth and fruit production of 49 phenotypically diverse pepper accessions of Capsicum chinense grown ex situ under controlled conditions. Although single-trait analysis identified up to seven distinct groups of accessions, working with the whole data set by multivariate analyses allowed the separation of the 49 accessions in three clusters. Using all 23 measured parameters and data from the geographic origin for these accessions, positive correlations between the combined phenotypes and geographic origin were observed, supporting a robust pattern of isolation-by-distance. In addition, we found that fruit set was positively correlated with photosynthesis-related parameters, which, however, do not explain alone the differences in accession susceptibility to fruit abortion. Our results demonstrated that, although the accessions belong to the same species, they exhibit considerable natural intraspecific variation with respect to physiological and metabolic parameters, presenting diverse adaptation mechanisms and being a highly interesting source of information for plant breeders. This study also represents the first study combining photosynthetic, primary metabolism and growth parameters for Capsicum to date.

  14. Structural and ultrastructural study of Capsicum annuum leaves after treatment with Uncaria tomentosa bark extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Tykarska

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of an Uncaria tomentosa extract on the development of Capsicum plants grown in green-house conditions was examined. The effect of the treatment was investigated with microscopic techniques (light and electron microscope in leaves from three levels of control plants and plants after treatment with the extract added to the soil in doses of 0.4 and 16 mg/ml (200 ml per pot/plant. In control leaves, changes typical of the subsequent phases of normal development were observed: nuclear chromatin became slightly condensed, plastoglobuli of chloroplasts increased in number and size, intragranal thylakoids were somewhat dilatated. In addition to such commonly occurring changes, some symptoms typical of pepper were observed in the ontogenesis of the examined plant: an increased number of spherical electron-dense deposits in vacuoles, an increased number of peroxisomes, the occurrence of numerous paracrystalline structures in chloroplasts of mature leaves, and, starting in mature leaves, expulsion of plastoglobuli from chloroplasts. After the treatment, most of those changes, leading to ageing, occurred much earlier and were more distinct. Chloroplasts, already in the youngest examined leaves, showed dilatation of intergranal thylakoids, which intensified with aging of the leaves and degradation of grana in the oldest leaves. Starch grains decreased in size and number and plastoglobuli became large. Vesiculation of ground cytoplasm in all leaves was stronger than in the control. No paracrystalline structures in chloroplasts or expulsion of plastoglobuli were observed. Another unusual phenomenon was the disappearance of spherical electron-dense deposits in the central vacuoles of cells. Those observations suggested that U. tomentosa extract enhanced the natural ontogenesis of Capsicum annuum leaves, by accelerating and enhancing the typical characteristics of ageing, and, additionally, it changed the structure and physiology of cells.

  15. Fine mapping of the genic male-sterile ms 1 gene in Capsicum annuum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Kyumi; Choi, Doil; Lee, Jundae

    2018-01-01

    The genomic region cosegregating with the genic male-sterile ms 1 gene of Capsicum annuum L. was delimited to a region of 869.9 kb on chromosome 5 through fine mapping analysis. A strong candidate gene, CA05g06780, a homolog of the Arabidopsis MALE STERILITY 1 gene that controls pollen development, was identified in this region. Genic male sterility caused by the ms 1 gene has been used for the economically efficient production of massive hybrid seeds in paprika (Capsicum annuum L.), a colored bell-type sweet pepper. Previously, a CAPS marker, PmsM1-CAPS, located about 2-3 cM from the ms 1 locus, was reported. In this study, we constructed a fine map near the ms 1 locus using high-resolution melting (HRM) markers in an F 2 population consisting of 1118 individual plants, which segregated into 867 male-fertile and 251 male-sterile plants. A total of 12 HRM markers linked to the ms 1 locus were developed from 53 primer sets targeting intraspecific SNPs derived by comparing genome-wide sequences obtained by next-generation resequencing analysis. Using this approach, we narrowed down the region cosegregating with the ms 1 gene to 869.9 kb of sequence. Gene prediction analysis revealed 11 open reading frames in this region. A strong candidate gene, CA05g06780, was identified; this gene is a homolog of the Arabidopsis MALE STERILITY 1 (MS1) gene, which encodes a PHD-type transcription factor that regulates pollen and tapetum development. Sequence comparison analysis suggested that the CA05g06780 gene is the strongest candidate for the ms 1 gene of paprika. To summarize, we developed a cosegregated marker, 32187928-HRM, for marker-assisted selection and identified a strong candidate for the ms 1 gene.

  16. Degradation rate of vitamin B6 on red chili pepper drying by blanching-brine-calcium pretreatment

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    Uma Fadzilia Arifin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Drying is one of the alternatives to prevent spoilage in red chili pepper by removing moisture content. Red chili pepper (Capsicum frutescens has complex nutrition components such as vitamins and bioactive compound. However, vitamin B6 content in chili can degrade significantly in drying process by heat. This research studied degradation rate of vitamin B6 in chili drying process under various pretreatments and temperatures. In this study, post-harvest chili before dried was pretreated by blanching, osmotic dehydration with brine, immersing in calcium chloride solution and the combination of all them. They were dried in tray dyer at various temperatures 40°C, 50°C, 60°C and 70°C. Degradation of vitamin B6 content was analyzed every 2 hours by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography for 8 hours. Results showed that blanching-brine-calcium pretreatment was expected to reduce drying time and retain high content of vitamin B6 in red chili pepper. The degradation rate of vitamin B6 in chili followed second-order reaction. The degradation rate was influenced by temperature change referring to Arrhenius equation with activation energy was about 31.97 kJ/ mol K and constant rate (k0 was 3.769. Therefore, the vitamin B6 retention can be estimated at various pretreatments, times and temperatures. Furthermore, the favorable drying conditions can be evaluated.

  17. Calcined Eggshell Waste for Mitigating Soil Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria/Antibiotic Resistance Gene Dissemination and Accumulation in Bell Pepper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Mao; Sun, Mingming; Feng, Yanfang; Li, Xu; Schwab, Arthur P; Wan, Jinzhong; Liu, Manqiang; Tian, Da; Liu, Kuan; Wu, Jun; Jiang, Xin

    2016-07-13

    The combined accumulation of antibiotics, heavy metals, antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB)/antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in vegetables has become a new threat to human health. This is the first study to investigate the feasibility of calcined eggshells modified by aluminum sulfate as novel agricultural wastes to impede mixed contaminants from transferring to bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.). In this work, calcined eggshell amendment mitigated mixed pollutant accumulation in bell pepper significantly, enhanced the dissipation of soil tetracycline, sulfadiazine, roxithromycin, and chloramphenicol, decreased the water-soluble fractions of antibiotics, and declined the diversity of ARB/ARGs inside the vegetable. Moreover, quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis detected that ARG levels in the bell pepper fruits significantly decreased to 10(-10) copies/16S copies, indicating limited risk of ARGs transferring along the food chain. Furthermore, the restoration of soil microbial biological function suggests that calcined eggshell is an environmentally friendly amendment to control the dissemination of soil ARB/ARGs in the soil-vegetable system.

  18. Pepper Extract 'Biquinho' as an edible coating on conservation of guavas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuelly Rodrigues Dantas

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Belonging to the species Capsicum chinense, ‘Pout’ Pepper differs from the other due to its salient characteristics of shape, color and absence of pungency, but its use is currently limited, basically in the ornamentation of dishes in cooking, being left aside the numerous other benefits chemicals existing in it. It was aimed the elaboration of edible lining with different concentrations of 'Pout’ pepper extract, besides applying it in the conservation of guavas marketed in the backwoods of Paraiba. For this, the extracts were obtained following to the method of extracting alcohol, incorporated in the coating prepared edible, applied by immersion in the steal and conducted the analyzes. The microbiological results, fruits in which there was the application of the coating, in other words, with extract present, showed a great efficiency in their conservation, especially under the action of yeasts and molds in the fungicidal action was not observed in the guavas were applied to the coating with a greater quantity of extract. Concerning to physical-chemical, all the guavas have achieved good results, especially in the quantification of vitamin C, that the application of the coating caused a lower degradation of vitamin according to the period of analysis. It remains clear then, the effective proof of the action of the edible coating elaborated, thus understanding the proposed objective.The effective proof of the antifungal action of the elaborated coating was achieved, as expected in previous studies, and could be applied in guavas and delayed in the senescence process.

  19. Flask sealing on in vitro seed germination and morphogenesis of two types of ornamental pepper explants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Silva Batista

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The influence of flask sealing and explant source on the in vitro morphogenesis of pepper, were evaluated in Capsicum annuum. Seeds were sterilized and inoculated in Murashige and Skoog media supplemented with vitamins, myo-inositol, sucrose, and agar. Gas exchange was evaluated in the germination stage by comparing 3 flask-sealing systems: rigid polypropylene lids (PLs without vents, PLs with 1 vent, and PLs with 2 vents covered with membranes. In the regeneration stage, cotyledon and hypocotyl segments were transferred to the organogenesis-inducing media, being the different sealing types also tested in a factorial scheme. Photosynthetic pigments, morphological and hystological analyses were conducted for each treatment. Plants maintained in glass flasks capped with vented lids showed more vigorous growth and differentiated anatomical structures. These treatments resulted in taller plants, higher numbers and more expanded leaves, higher fresh and dry weights, and an increase in photosynthetic pigments. Cultivation of C. annuum in flasks with reduced gas exchange was more effective on callus induction. During the regeneration stage, hypocotyls were more effective than cotyledons. Sealing type influenced the morphogenic responses of pepper, demonstrating that an increase in gas exchange has a positive effect on biomass production and acclimatization of the plantlets.

  20. Ethylene, 1-methylcyclopropene and silver thiosulfate on the post-production of ornamental pepper

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    Paula Cristina Carvalho Lima

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Species from Capsicum genus are used for different purposes and in more recent years as ornamental potted plant. Despite the increased commercial importance, there are only a few studies on the environmental factors affecting the post-production shelf life of these ornamental plants. The presence of ethylene induces various responses on potted peppers, reducing the shelf life of sensitive cultivars. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of ethylene and the inhibitors of ethylene action, 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP and silver thiosulfate (STS on the shelf life of potted 'Calypso' and 'MG 302' peppers. Cultivar 'MG 302' showed intermediate sensitivity to ethylene action, while the cultivar 'Calypso' showed complete abscission of leaves when exposed to ethylene. In both cultivars, treatment with STS + Ethylene presented symptoms of phytotoxicity in plants, while treatment with 1-MCP + Ethylene was effective in delaying senescence and abscission for the cultivar 'MG 302', while cultivar 'Calypso' showed abscission similar to control plants. Plants treated with STS showed the longest durability when compared to the other treatments, about six days for 'Calypso' and 18 days for 'MG 302'. Nevertheless, plants treated with 1-MCP also exhibited good shelf life, about six days for 'Calypso' and nine days for the 'MG 302'. Although the treatment with STS was more efficient on the plants shelf life, did not completely block the action of ethylene and exhibited some phytotoxicity, while the treatment with 1-MCP had good efficiency without inducing any toxicity.

  1. Padrão estomático de Capsicum ssp. resistentes e suscetíveis a Oidiopsis haplophylli Stomatal patterns of Capsicum genotypes resistant or susceptible to Oidiopsis haplophylli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Luiz Paz Lima

    2010-03-01

    epidermal surfaces of plants growing in greenhouse. The variable ostiolum size did not explain the genotype reaction to the mildew, neither in the upper (R²=0.16 or lower leaf surfaces (R²=0.13. Nevertheless, the number of stomata.mm-2, on the upper or lower leaf surfaces, explained 84 % to 74 % of the genotype reaction, respectively. For the relation between stomatal frequency and host reaction, a better fit was found with the number of stoma in the upper leaf surface (R²=0.76, than with number in the lower leaf surface (R²=0.48. Sweet pepper 'Magali' (highly susceptible had the largest numbers and frequency of stomata on both leaf surfaces at both experiments, which were significantly higher than in 'HV-12' (highly resistant. We suggest that the susceptibility of Capsicum to O. haplophylli may be partially related to pre-formed structural defense mechanisms, such as number of stomata, which relates to the number of infection sites. However, the low correlation of the disease and variables of the stomatal complex among some genotypes, indicates that other mechanisms might be involved with the expression of resistance in Capsicum to powdery mildew.

  2. Transformation, Conjugation, and Sequestration Following the Uptake of Triclocarban by Jalapeno Pepper Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Khang; Banach, Emily; Reinhold, Dawn

    2018-04-25

    Plant uptake and metabolism of emerging organic contaminants, such as personal-care products, pose potential risks to human health. In this study, jalapeno pepper ( Capsicum annuum) plants cultured in hydroponic media were exposed to both 14 C-labeled and unlabeled triclocarban (TCC) to investigate the accumulation, distribution, and metabolism of TCC following plant uptake. The results revealed that TCC was detected in all plant tissues; after 12 weeks, the TCC concentrations in root, stem, leaf, and fruit tissues were 19.74 ± 2.26, 0.26 ± 0.04, 0.11 ± 0.01, and 0.03 ± 0.01 mg/kg dry weight, respectively. More importantly, a substantial portion of the TCC taken up by plants was metabolized, especially in the stems, leaves, and fruits. Hydroxylated TCC (e.g., 2'-OH TCC and 6-OH TCC) and glycosylated OH-TCC were the main phase I and phase II metabolites in plant tissues, respectively. Bound (or nonextractable) residues of TCC accounted for approximately 44.6, 85.6, 69.0, and 47.5% of all TCC species that accumulated in roots, stems, leaves, and fruits, respectively. The concentrations of TCC metabolites were more than 20 times greater than the concentrations of TCC in the above-ground tissues of the jalapeno pepper plants after 12 weeks; crucially, approximately 95.6% of the TCC was present as metabolites in the fruits. Consequently, human exposure to TCC through the consumption of pepper fruits is expected to be substantially higher when phytometabolism is considered.

  3. Morphological characterization of Capsicum annuum L. accessions from southern Mexico and their response to the Bemisia tabaci-Begomovirus complex

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    Horacio Ballina-Gomez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The high diversity of chili pepper (Capsicum annuum L. in Mexico offers an excellent alternative to search for wild and semi-domesticated genotypes as sources of resistance to the complex Bemisia tabaci (Genn. (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae-Begomovirus, which has caused enormous losses in commercial production of various horticultural crops. The goal of the present work was to characterize ex situ 18 genotypes of C. annuum from southern Mexico through 47 morphological descriptors, and to evaluate its response to the B. tabaci-Begomovirus complex. Morphological characterization showed the variables calyx annular constriction (CAC, number of branch bifurcation (NBB, and calyx pigmentation (CP had the highest variation. Principal components analysis (PCA of 47 morphological characteristics showed that 12 components were selected as meaningful factors. These components explained 94% of the variation. Cluster analysis showed three major clusters and seven sub-clusters. On the other hand, evaluation of the response to B. tabaci-Begomovirus showed that the genotypes have differential susceptibility to this vector-pathogen complex. Genotypes 'Chawa', 'Blanco', 'Maax' and 'X'catic' were into the low susceptibility to B. tabaci and low severity of viral symptoms. Surprisingly, the genotype 'Simojovel' showed high susceptibility to whitefly, but was grouped into genotypes with low symptom severity. This study shows the potential of native germplasm of pepper to explore sources of resistance to the B. tabaci-Begomovirus complex.

  4. The effects of cellulase on capsaicin production in freely suspended cells and immobilized cell cultures of capsicum annuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islek, C.

    2014-01-01

    The effect of different concentrations of cellulase on the production of capsaicin in freely suspended cell and immobilized cell cultures of Kahramanmara pepper seeds (Capsicum annuum L.) were studied. Calluses were obtained from in vitro germinated hypocotyl explants of pepper seedlings and cell suspensions were prepared from these calluses. Immobilized cell suspension cultures with calcium alginate and free cell suspension cultures were obtained by using cell suspensions. Elicitor such as cellulase (5-30 micro g/ml), was applied both for the free and immobilized cell suspensions and control group without elicitor was prepared. The concentration of capsaicin in freely suspended cells, immobilized cells and their filtrates were identified by HPLC after extraction with ethyl acetate. It was found that the immobilization process had an increasing effect on the capsaicin accumulation. The concentration of capsaicin in the immobilized cells for both control groups and elicitor added samples was higher than the free cells. In general, capsaicin concentration in the filtrate for free cells was higher than the immobilized cells. When all the cellulase and the sampling hours were compared, the highest capsaicin concentration for the immobilized cells was determined as 362,91 micro g/ml f.w. at the 24th hour for 30 micro g/ml cellulase applied samples. (author)

  5. QTL mapping of fruit rot resistance to the plant pathogen Phytophthora capsici in a recombinant inbred line Capsicum annuum population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naegele, R P; Ashrafi, H; Hill, T A; Chin-Wo, S Reyes; Van Deynze, A E; Hausbeck, M K

    2014-05-01

    Phytophthora capsici is an important pepper (Capsicum annuum) pathogen causing fruit and root rot, and foliar blight in field and greenhouse production. Previously, an F6 recombinant inbred line population was evaluated for fruit rot susceptibility. Continuous variation among lines and partial and isolate-specific resistance were found. In this study, Phytophthora fruit rot resistance was mapped in the same F6 population between Criollo del Morelos 334 (CM334), a landrace from Mexico, and 'Early Jalapeno' using a high-density genetic map. Isolate-specific resistance was mapped independently in 63 of the lines evaluated and the two parents. Heritability of the resistance for each isolate at 3 and 5 days postinoculation (dpi) was high (h(2) = 0.63 to 0.68 and 0.74 to 0.83, respectively). Significant additive and epistatic quantitative trait loci (QTL) were identified for resistance to isolates OP97 and 13709 (3 and 5 dpi) and 12889 (3 dpi only). Mapping of fruit traits showed potential linkage with few disease resistance QTL. The partial fruit rot resistance from CM334 suggests that this may not be an ideal source for fruit rot resistance in pepper.

  6. Method of detecting irradiated pepper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doumaru, Takaaki; Furuta, Masakazu; Katayama, Tadashi; Toratani, Hirokazu; Takeda, Atsuhiko

    1989-01-01

    Spices represented by pepper are generally contaminated by microorganisms, and for using them as foodstuffs, some sterilizing treatment is indispensable. However, heating is not suitable to spices, accordingly ethylene oxide gas sterilization has been inevitably carried out, but its carcinogenic property is a problem. Food irradiation is the technology for killing microorganisms and noxious insects which cause the rotting and spoiling of foods and preventing the germination, which is an energy-conserving method without the fear of residual chemicals, therefore, it is most suitable to the sterilization of spices. In the irradiation of lower than 10 kGy, the toxicity test is not required for any food, and the irradiation of spices is permitted in 20 countries. However, in order to establish the international distribution organization for irradiated foods, the PR to consumers and the development of the means of detecting irradiation are the important subjects. The authors used pepper, and examined whether the hydrogen generated by irradiation remains in seeds and it can be detected or not. The experimental method and the results are reported. From the samples without irradiation, hydrogen was scarcely detected. The quantity of hydrogen generated was proportional to dose. The measuring instrument is only a gas chromatograph. (K.I.)

  7. Caractéristiques de la croissance et de la production en fruits chez trois variétés de piment (Capsicum annuum L. sous stress salin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibn Maaouia-Houimli, S.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Characteristics of the Growth and Fruits Production of Three Pepper Varieties Capsicum annuum L. under Saline Stress. This work aims to evaluate the salt tolerance of three pepper varieties differing by their precocity: pm797 early variety, beldi semi-early and baklouti late variety. The trials were carried out in pots under glazed greenhouse. The results showed that salinity reduced the growth and production. However, a varietal difference response to salt stress was observed between the studied varieties. Indeed, the varieties beldi and baklouti are characterized by their vigour in absence as in the presence of salt. On the other hand, early variety PM797 is characterized by the stability of production. This is highlighting the utility of early characters in salinity tolerance.

  8. REVIEW: Capsicum spp. (Chilli: origin, distribution, and its economical value

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    TUTIE DJARWANINGSIH

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Capsicum is consumed for the first time by Indian in 7000 before Christian early. Domestication forms are occurs in Mexico i.e. C. baccatum var pendulum, C. frutescens. In 1542, this plant is introduced to India, to reach for South East Asia including Indonesia. Based on former classification, Capsicum is divided of two species including seven varieties, while based on the new classification, it is divided of five species (C. annuum, C. baccatum, C. frutescens, C. pubescens, and C. sinense. Capsicum has significantly economical value, for example as spices, vitamine, traditionaly medicine, and as an ornamental plant.

  9. Fine Mapping of the Dominant Potyvirus Resistance Gene Pvr7 Reveals a Relationship with Pvr4 in Capsicum annuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesh, Jelli; An, Jeongtak; Kang, Won-Hee; Jahn, Molly; Kang, Byoung-Cheorl

    2018-01-01

    Pepper mottle virus (PepMoV) is the most common potyvirus infection of pepper plants and causes significant yield losses. The Pvr7 gene from Capsicum chinense PI159236 and the Pvr4 gene from C. annuum CM334 both have been reported to confer dominant resistance to PepMoV. The Pvr7 locus conferring resistance to PepMoV in C. annuum '9093' was previously mapped to chromosome 10. To develop a high-resolution map of the Pvr7 locus in 9093, we constructed an intraspecific F 2 mapping population consisting of 916 individuals by crossing PepMoV-resistant C. annuum '9093' and the PepMoV-susceptible C. annuum 'Jeju'. To delimit the Pvr7 target region, single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers derived from the Pvr4 region were used for genotyping the F 2 population. Molecular mapping delimited the Pvr7 locus to a physical interval of 258 kb, which was the same region as Pvr4 on chromosome 10. Three SNP markers derived from Pvr4 mapping perfectly cosegregated with PepMoV resistance. Sequencing analyses of the Pvr7 flanking markers and the Pvr4-specific gene indicated that Pvr7 and Pvr4 are the same gene. Resistance spectrum analysis of 9093 against pepper potyviruses showed that 9093 has a resistance spectrum similar to that of cultivar CM334. These combined results demonstrate that, unlike previously thought, the dominant PepMoV resistance in 9093 could be derived from C. annuum 'CM334', and that Pvr4 and Pvr7 should be considered as the same locus.

  10. Survival of Bemisia tabaci and activity of plant defense-related enzymes in genotypes of Capsicum annuum L.

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    Luis Latournerie-Moreno

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius, 1889 is a major plant pest of horticultural crops from the families Solanaceae, Fabaceae and Cucurbitaceae in Neotropical areas. The exploration of host plant resistance and their biochemical mechanisms offers an excellent alternative to better understand factors affecting the interaction between phytophagous insect and host plant. We evaluated the survival of B. tabaci in landrace genotypes of Capsicum annuum L., and the activity of plant defense-related enzymes (chitinase, polyphenoloxidase, and peroxidase. The landrace genotypes Amaxito, Tabaquero, and Simojovel showed resistance to B. tabaci, as we observed more than 50% nymphal mortality, while in the commercial susceptible genotype Jalapeño mortality of B. tabaci nymphs was not higher than 20%. The activities of plant defense-related enzymes were significantly different among pepper genotypes (P < 0.05. Basal activities of chitinase, polyphenoloxidase and peroxidase were significantly lower or equal in landrace genotypes than that of the commercial genotype Jalapeño. The activity of plant enzymes was differential among pepper genotypes (P < 0.05. For example, the activity of chitinase enzyme generally was higher in non-infested plants with B. tabaci than those infested. Instead polyphenoloxidase ('Amaxito' and 'Simojovel' and peroxidase enzymes activities ('Tabaquero' increased in infested plants (P < 0.05. We conclude that basal activities of plant defense-related enzymes could be act through other mechanism plant induction, since plant defense-related enzymes showed a different induction response to B. tabaci. We underlined the role of polyphenoloxidase as plant defense in the pepper genotype Simojovel related to B. tabaci.

  11. Microcystin accumulation and potential effects on antioxidant capacity of leaves and fruits of Capsicum annuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobac, Damjana; Tokodi, Nada; Kiprovski, Biljana; Malenčić, Djordje; Važić, Tamara; Nybom, Sonja; Meriluoto, Jussi; Svirčev, Zorica

    2017-01-01

    Surface water, often used for irrigation purposes, may sometimes be contaminated with blooming cyanobacteria and thereby may contain their potent and harmful toxins. Cyanotoxins adversely affect many terrestrial plants, and accumulate in plant tissues that are subsequently ingested by humans. Studies were undertaken to (1) examine the bioaccumulation of microcystins (MCs) in leaves and fruits of pepper Capsicum annuum and (2) examine the potential effects of MCs on antioxidant capacity of these organs. Plants were irrigated with water containing MCs for a period of 3 mo. Data showed that MCs did not accumulate in leaves; however, in fruits the presence of the MC-LR (0.118 ng/mg dry weight) and dmMC-LR (0.077 ng/mg dry weight) was detected. The concentrations of MC-LR in fruit approached the acceptable guideline values and tolerable daily intake for this toxin. Lipid peroxidation levels and flavonoids content were significantly enhanced in both organs of treated plants, while total phenolic concentrations were not markedly variable between control and treated plants. Significant decrease in 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging capacity was noted for both organs. The levels of superoxide anion in fruits and hydroxyl radical in leaves were markedly reduced. Data suggest that exposure to MCs significantly reduced antioxidant capacity of experimental plants, indicating that MCs affected antioxidant systems in C. annuum.

  12. Characterisation of ethylene pathway components in non-climacteric capsicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizat, Wan M; Able, Jason A; Stangoulis, James C R; Able, Amanda J

    2013-11-28

    Climacteric fruit exhibit high ethylene and respiration levels during ripening but these levels are limited in non-climacteric fruit. Even though capsicum is in the same family as the well-characterised climacteric tomato (Solanaceae), it is non-climacteric and does not ripen normally in response to ethylene or if harvested when mature green. However, ripening progresses normally in capsicum fruit when they are harvested during or after what is called the 'Breaker stage'. Whether ethylene, and components of the ethylene pathway such as 1-aminocyclopropane 1-carboxylate (ACC) oxidase (ACO), ACC synthase (ACS) and the ethylene receptor (ETR), contribute to non-climacteric ripening in capsicum has not been studied in detail. To elucidate the behaviour of ethylene pathway components in capsicum during ripening, further analysis is therefore needed. The effects of ethylene or inhibitors of ethylene perception, such as 1-methylcyclopropene, on capsicum fruit ripening and the ethylene pathway components may also shed some light on the role of ethylene in non-climacteric ripening. The expression of several isoforms of ACO, ACS and ETR were limited during capsicum ripening except one ACO isoform (CaACO4). ACS activity and ACC content were also low in capsicum despite the increase in ACO activity during the onset of ripening. Ethylene did not stimulate capsicum ripening but 1-methylcyclopropene treatment delayed the ripening of Breaker-harvested fruit. Some of the ACO, ACS and ETR isoforms were also differentially expressed upon treatment with ethylene or 1-methylcyclopropene. ACS activity may be the rate limiting step in the ethylene pathway of capsicum which restricts ACC content. The differential expression of several ethylene pathway components during ripening and upon ethylene or 1-methylclopropene treatment suggests that the ethylene pathway may be regulated differently in non-climacteric capsicum compared to the climacteric tomato. Ethylene independent pathways may

  13. Lectotypifications, synonymy, and a new name in Capsicum (Solanoideae, Solanaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barboza, Gloria E.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Considerable confusion exists within Capsicum (Solanaceae) regarding the status and typification of several names, in part due to misidentifications. Some types were destroyed in Berlin during the Second World War, some have not been found by modern systematics, while others exhibit uncertain locality data or contain material from more than one species. Fourteen lectotypes, synonyms, and a new name, Capsicum eshbaughii Barboza nom. nov.,are proposed here. PMID:22171173

  14. Foliar aphid feeding recruits rhizosphere bacteria and primes plant immunity against pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria in pepper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Boyoung; Lee, Soohyun; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2012-07-01

    Plants modulate defence signalling networks in response to different biotic stresses. The present study evaluated the effect of a phloem-sucking aphid on plant defence mechanisms in pepper (Capsicum annuum) during subsequent pathogen attacks on leaves and rhizosphere bacteria on roots. Plants were pretreated with aphids and/or the chemical trigger benzothiadiazol (BTH) 7 d before being challenged with two pathogenic bacteria, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. vesicatoria (Xav) as a compatible pathogen and X. axonopodis pv. glycines (Xag) as an incompatible (non-host) pathogen. Disease severity was noticeably lower in aphid- and BTH + aphid-treated plants than in controls. Although treatment with BTH or aphids alone did not affect the hypersensitive response (HR) against Xag strain 8ra, the combination treatment had a synergistic effect on the HR. The aphid population was reduced by BTH pretreatment and by combination treatment with BTH and bacterial pathogens in a synergistic manner. Analysis of the expression of the defence-related genes Capsicum annum pathogenesis-related gene 9 (CaPR9), chitinase 2 (CaCHI2), SAR8·2 and Lipoxygenase1 (CaLOX1) revealed that aphid infestation resulted in the priming of the systemic defence responses against compatible and incompatible pathogens. Conversely, pre-challenge with the compatible pathogen Xav on pepper leaves significantly reduced aphid numbers. Aphid infestation increased the population of the beneficial Bacillus subtilis GB03 but reduced that of the pathogenic Ralstonia solanacearum SL1931. The expression of defence-related genes in the root and leaf after aphid feeding indicated that the above-ground aphid infestation elicited salicylic acid and jasmonic acid signalling throughout the whole plant. The findings of this study show that aphid feeding elicits plant resistance responses and attracts beneficial bacterial populations to help the plant cope with subsequent pathogen attacks.

  15. Characterization, Antibacterial and Antioxidant Properties of Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized from Aqueous Extracts of Allium sativum, Zingiber officinale, and Capsicum frutescens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otunola, Gloria Aderonke; Afolayan, Anthony Jide; Ajayi, Emmanuel Olusegun; Odeyemi, Samuel Wale

    2017-01-01

    Background: Herbal drug delivery is limited by poor solubility and bioavailability which can be overcome with suitable nanomaterials that will enhance their pharmacokinetics and performance. Objective: This study aimed to analyze the synthesis, characterization, and biological activities of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from three spices. Materials and Methods: AgNPs were prepared using 0.1 M silver nitrate and aqueous extracts of Allium sativum L. (garlic), Zingiber officinale Rosc. (ginger), and Capsicum frutescens L. (cayenne pepper). The AgNPs were characterized using ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Results: The AgNPs were formed within an hour of the reaction and showed maximum UV-Vis absorption in the 375–480 nm range. SEM and TEM revealed well-dispersed spherical particles with little agglomeration, average sizes of 3–6 nm, 3–22 nm, and 3–18 nm for garlic, ginger, and cayenne pepper, respectively. FTIR showed that amine, protein, phenolic, aromatic, and alkynes groups contributed to AgNP synthesis and XRD confirmed their crystalline and face-centered cubic nature. Antibacterial action of the AgNPs was in the following order: ginger (minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC] garlic> cayenne pepper (MIC 125 μg/mL). Antioxidant action showed cayenne pepper > ginger > garlic (inhibitory concentration 50% [IC50]: 40, 240, and 250 μg/mL, respectively) against 2,2-Azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) and garlic > cayenne pepper > ginger (IC50: <31.25, 40, and 120 μg/mL, respectively) against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl. Conclusion: Optimization of this green synthesis would support the production of AgNPs with great therapeutic potentials. SUMMARY The synthesis, characterization, and biological activities of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from garlic, ginger

  16. Characterization, Antibacterial and Antioxidant Properties of Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized from Aqueous Extracts of Allium sativum, Zingiber officinale, and Capsicum frutescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otunola, Gloria Aderonke; Afolayan, Anthony Jide; Ajayi, Emmanuel Olusegun; Odeyemi, Samuel Wale

    2017-07-01

    Herbal drug delivery is limited by poor solubility and bioavailability which can be overcome with suitable nanomaterials that will enhance their pharmacokinetics and performance. This study aimed to analyze the synthesis, characterization, and biological activities of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from three spices. AgNPs were prepared using 0.1 M silver nitrate and aqueous extracts of Allium sativum L. (garlic), Zingiber officinale Rosc. (ginger), and Capsicum frutescens L. (cayenne pepper). The AgNPs were characterized using ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The AgNPs were formed within an hour of the reaction and showed maximum UV-Vis absorption in the 375-480 nm range. SEM and TEM revealed well-dispersed spherical particles with little agglomeration, average sizes of 3-6 nm, 3-22 nm, and 3-18 nm for garlic, ginger, and cayenne pepper, respectively. FTIR showed that amine, protein, phenolic, aromatic, and alkynes groups contributed to AgNP synthesis and XRD confirmed their crystalline and face-centered cubic nature. Antibacterial action of the AgNPs was in the following order: ginger (minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC] garlic> cayenne pepper (MIC 125 μg/mL). Antioxidant action showed cayenne pepper > ginger > garlic (inhibitory concentration 50% [IC50]: 40, 240, and 250 μg/mL, respectively) against 2,2-Azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) and garlic > cayenne pepper > ginger (IC50: <31.25, 40, and 120 μg/mL, respectively) against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl. Optimization of this green synthesis would support the production of AgNPs with great therapeutic potentials. The synthesis, characterization, and biological activities of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from garlic, ginger and cayenne pepper were evaluatedThe AgNPs formed were characterized using UV

  17. Genetic divergence of physiological-quality traits of seeds in a population of peppers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessoa, A M S; Barroso, P A; do Rêgo, E R; Medeiros, G D A; Bruno, R L A; do Rêgo, M M

    2015-10-16

    Brazil has a great diversity of Capsicum peppers that can be used in breeding programs. The objective of this study was to evaluate genetic variation in traits related to the physiological quality of seeds of Capsicum annuum L. in a segregating F2 population and its parents. A total of 250 seeds produced by selfing in the F1 generation resulting from crosses between UFPB 77.3 and UFPB 76 were used, with 100 seeds of both parents used as additional controls, totaling 252 genotypes. The seeds were germinated in gerboxes containing substrate blotting paper moistened with distilled water. Germination and the following vigor tests were evaluated: first count, germination velocity index, and root and shoot lengths. Data were subjected to analysis of variance, and means were compared by Scott and Knott's method at 1% probability. Tocher's clustering based on Mahalanobis distance and canonical variable analysis with graphic dispersion of genotypes were performed, and genetic parameters were estimated. All variables were found to be significant by the F test (P ≤ 0.01) and showed high heritability and a CVg/CVe ratio higher than 1.0, indicating genetic differences among genotypes. Parents (genotypes 1 and 2) formed distinct groups in all clustering methods. Genotypes 3, 104, 153, and 232 were found to be the most divergent according to Tocher's clustering method, and this was mainly due to early germination, which was observed on day 14, and would therefore be selected. Understanding the phenotypic variability among these 252 genotypes will serve as a basis for continuing the breeding program within this family.

  18. Determinação espectrofotométrica indireta de capsaicinoides em pimentas Capsicum a partir da reação com o complexo de Co(II com 4-(2-piridilazo resorcinol

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    Patrícia Tonon de Souza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Capsaicinoids (CAPS are substances responsible for pungency in Capsicum. It is important to quantify these types of compounds owing to their broad application in food, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and chemical weapons. In this work, we developed an indirect spectrophotometric method based on the colorimetric reaction between CAPS, Co(II 3.10×10-5 mol L-1 and 4-(2-pyridylazo resorcinol (PAR 6.23×10-5 and, in cachaça:water 92:8v/v solutions, for quantification of total CAPS in Capsicum peppers. The product of the reaction is CoPAR2CAPS2 and its absorption in aquo-ethanolic solution at 510 nm is proportional to the total CAPS concentration from 0.60 to 17.94 mg L-1. The values of limit of detection and limit of quantification were 0.0004 and 0.001 mg of CAPS/g of pepper, respectively, with 4% relative standard deviation. The developed method yielded similar results to those obtained from high performance liquid chromatography, with 95% of confidence.

  19. Effect of different pretreatments on dried chilli (Capsicum annum L.) quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anoraga, S. B.; Sabarisman, I.; Ainuri, M.

    2018-03-01

    Chilli (Capsicum annum L.) has significant price fluctuation. When the chilli price is declined, it causes food waste from unsold chilli. Therefore, drying chilli is a solution for this condition. Futhermore, it can be processed for various product like chilli powder, chilli sauce, etc. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different pretreatments on dried chilli quality. Chilli was blenched with hot water and steam before drying. The purpose of this pretreatments is to inactivate enzyme that prevents color and vitamin C losses. The quality parameters were moisture content, colour, vitamin C content, and capsaicin. Changes were observed by gravimetri method for moisture content, chromameter in L* a * b * colour model, and iodine titration for vitamin C. After drying for 20 hours at 60°C, chilli with steam blanching pretreatment dried rapidly than other samples. Unpretreated chilli had higher vitamin C content and better color than blanched chilli.

  20. Study on some chemical changes in irradiated pepper and parsley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josimovic, L.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of ionizing radiation on some water soluble components (carbohydrates, carbonyl compounds) of pepper and parsley, as well as on piperine in pepper and chlorophyll in parsley has been investigated. The irradiation of parsley with doses as high as 5 Mrad does not bring about any distinct qualitative and quantitative changes. In irradiated pepper qualitative changes were also not observed, but quantitative changes were measured even for doses lower than 1 Mrad. However, piperine in pepper is quite resistant against radiation. (author)

  1. Study on some chemical changes in irradiated pepper and parsley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Josimovic, L [Institut za Nuklearne Nauke Boris Kidric, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1983-05-01

    The effect of ionizing radiation on some water soluble components (carbohydrates, carbonyl compounds) of pepper and parsley, as well as on piperine in pepper and chlorophyll in parsley has been investigated. The irradiation of parsley with doses as high as 5 Mrad does not bring about any distinct qualitative and quantitative changes. In irradiated pepper qualitative changes were also not observed, but quantitative changes were measured even for doses lower than 1 Mrad. However, piperine in pepper is quite resistant against radiation.

  2. -pumping pyrophosphatase in pepper plants

    KAUST Repository

    Vigani, Gianpiero; Rolli, Eleonora; Marasco, Ramona; Dell'Orto, Marta; Michoud, Gregoire; Soussi, Asma; Raddadi, Noura; Borin, Sara; Sorlini, Claudia; Zocchi, Graziano; Daffonchio, Daniele

    2018-01-01

    It has been previously shown that the transgenic overexpression of the plant root vacuolar proton pumps H+ -ATPase (V-ATPase) and H+ -PPase (V-PPase) confer tolerance to drought. Since plant-root endophytic bacteria can also promote drought tolerance, we hypothesize that such promotion can be associated to the enhancement of the host vacuolar proton pumps expression and activity. To test this hypothesis, we selected two endophytic bacteria endowed with an array of in vitro plant growth promoting traits. Their genome sequences confirmed the presence of traits previously shown to confer drought resistance to plants, such as the synthesis of nitric oxide and of organic volatile organic compounds. We used the two strains on pepper (Capsicuum annuum L.) because of its high sensitivity to drought. Under drought conditions, both strains stimulated a larger root system and enhanced the leaves' photosynthetic activity. By testing the expression and activity of the vacuolar proton pumps, H+ -ATPase (V-ATPase) and H+ -PPase (V-PPase), we found that bacterial colonization enhanced V-PPase only. We conclude that the enhanced expression and activity of V-PPase can be favoured by the colonization of drought-tolerance-inducing bacterial endophytes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  3. -pumping pyrophosphatase in pepper plants

    KAUST Repository

    Vigani, Gianpiero

    2018-05-22

    It has been previously shown that the transgenic overexpression of the plant root vacuolar proton pumps H+ -ATPase (V-ATPase) and H+ -PPase (V-PPase) confer tolerance to drought. Since plant-root endophytic bacteria can also promote drought tolerance, we hypothesize that such promotion can be associated to the enhancement of the host vacuolar proton pumps expression and activity. To test this hypothesis, we selected two endophytic bacteria endowed with an array of in vitro plant growth promoting traits. Their genome sequences confirmed the presence of traits previously shown to confer drought resistance to plants, such as the synthesis of nitric oxide and of organic volatile organic compounds. We used the two strains on pepper (Capsicuum annuum L.) because of its high sensitivity to drought. Under drought conditions, both strains stimulated a larger root system and enhanced the leaves\\' photosynthetic activity. By testing the expression and activity of the vacuolar proton pumps, H+ -ATPase (V-ATPase) and H+ -PPase (V-PPase), we found that bacterial colonization enhanced V-PPase only. We conclude that the enhanced expression and activity of V-PPase can be favoured by the colonization of drought-tolerance-inducing bacterial endophytes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  4. Analysis of gamma irradiated pepper constituents, 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, Kazuko; Okuyama, Tsuneo; Ishikawa, Toshihiro.

    1988-01-01

    Gamma irradiated peppers (10 krad, 100 krad, 1 Mrad) were analyzed by HPLC. The extraction method and HPLC conditions were same as the first report, that is, the extraction from pepper was performed by Automatic Air Hammer and the extracted samples were separated on a reversed phase C 8 column with a concave gradient from 0.1% trifluoro aceticacid (TFA) in water to 75% acetonitrile-0.1% TFA in water for 60 minutes and detected at 210 nm, 280 nm. It is difficult to compare with irradiated and unirradiated pepper constituents by their peak height or area. And the method of multi variant statistically analysis was introduced. The 'peak n area/peak n + 1 area' ratio was calculated by computer. Each peak area was accounted by integrator. The value of these ratio were called 'parameter'. Each chromatogram has 741 parameters calculated with 39 chromatographic peaks. And these parameters were abopted to the multi variant statiscally analysis. Comparison of constituents between irradiated pepper and unirradiated pepper was done by 741 parameters. The correlation of parameters between irradiated and unirradiated was investigated by use of computer. Some parameters of irradiated case were selected as which had no correlation with unirradiated case. That is to say these parameters were thought to be changed with gamma spectrum irradiation. By this method, Coumarin was identified as a changed component with gamma irradiation. (author)

  5. Amelioration of boron toxicity in sweet pepper as affected by calcium management under an elevated CO2 concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñero, María Carmen; Pérez-Jiménez, Margarita; López-Marín, Josefa; Del Amor, Francisco M

    2017-04-01

    We investigated B tolerance in sweet pepper plants (Capsicum annuun L.) under an elevated CO 2 concentration, combined with the application of calcium as a nutrient management amelioration technique. The data show that high B affected the roots more than the aerial parts, since there was an increase in the shoot/root ratio, when plants were grown with high B levels; however, the impact was lessened when the plants were grown at elevated CO 2 , since the root FW reduction caused by excess B was less marked at the high CO 2 concentration (30.9% less). Additionally, the high B concentration affected the membrane permeability of roots, which increased from 39 to 54% at ambient CO 2 concentration, and from 38 to 51% at elevated CO 2 concentration, producing a cation imbalance in plants, which was differentially affected by the CO 2 supply. The Ca surplus in the nutrient solution reduced the nutritional imbalance in sweet pepper plants produced by the high B concentration, at both CO 2 concentrations. The medium B concentration treatment (toxic according to the literature) did not result in any toxic effect. Hence, there is a need to review the literature on critical and toxic B levels taking into account increases in atmospheric CO 2 .

  6. Characterisation and changes in the antioxidant system of chloroplasts and chromoplasts isolated from green and mature pepper fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí, M C; Camejo, D; Olmos, E; Sandalio, L M; Fernández-García, N; Jiménez, A; Sevilla, F

    2009-07-01

    Purification and characterisation of pepper (Capsicum annuum L) chloroplasts and chromoplasts isolated from commercial green, red and yellow mature fruits were undertaken. Induction of the synthesis of several antioxidants in organelles isolated from mature fruits was found. The ultrastructure of organelles and the presence and activity of SOD isozymes and enzymes involved in the ASC-GSH cycle, together with the non-enzymatic antioxidant content and some oxidative parameters, were analysed. It was found that lipids, rather than proteins, seem to be a target for oxidation in the chromoplasts. The ascorbate and glutathione contents were elicited during differentiation of chloroplasts into chromoplasts in both red and yellow fruits. The activity of SOD and of components of the ASC-GSH cycle was up-regulated, suggesting that these enzymes may play a role in the protection of plastids and could act as modulators of signal molecules such as O(2) ( -) and H(2)O(2) during fruit maturation. The presence of an Mn-SOD in chromoplasts isolated from yellow pepper fruits was also investigated in terms of structural and antioxidant differences between the two cultivars.

  7. ESR analysis of irradiated red peppers and commercial red peppers in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kameya, Hiromi; Ukai, Mitsuko

    2011-01-01

    ESR analysis of γ-ray irradiated and being treated with different processing red pepper was studied. All the red peppers were commercial expect irradiated one. Processing treatment of red pepper was sun drying, mechanical processing (heating sterilization and powdering treatment). All the samples were weighted and analyzed. The ESR spectrum of the red pepper is composed of a singlet at g=2.00. This signal was originated from organic free radical. It is suggested the effect of heating treatment on the radical formation is not so large and powdering treatment will promote the radical formation of red pepper. ESR singlet signal of the irradiated red pepper showed the large signal intensity and the dose-dependence. The singlet signal intensity of irradiated powder sample showed the almost same value as compared with that of the powder sample with heating treatment. Relaxation times (T 1 and T 2 ) of the singlet signal were calculated. The relaxation behavior and relaxation times of the irradiated sample were different from that of the non-irradiated sample. The value of T 1 , the spin lattice relaxation time, of irradiated sample was increased and T 2 , the spin-spin relaxation time, of irradiated sample was decreased. We concluded that the radical formation of the red pepper is mainly depended on the powdering treatment and irradiation. (author)

  8. Inhibition of ethylene response by 1-methylcyclopropene in potted ornamental pepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Luiz Finger

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the face of great potential of 1-MCP in blocking ethylene action, this study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of 1-MCP on ethylene action and extend the post-production of ornamental peppers Capsicum annuum potted plants. Ornamental pepper cultivar Calypso shows complete abscission of leaves when exposed to 10µL L-1 ethylene. By exposing plants to ethylene, significant drops on a, b and total chlorophyll were found at the end of the treatment. Nevertheless, no changes on leaf total carotenoid were observed after the treatment with ethylene. When the plants were treated with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP, followed or not by treatment with ethylene, contents of a, b, total chlorophyll and carotenoid remained unchanged. Control plants showed no changes in chlorophylls or carotenoid contents after 48 hours from moving the pots from greenhouse to indoor conditions illuminated with white fluorescent light. The 1-MCP was able to prolong the post production shelf life, by inhibiting the abscission of leaves. Plants treated with 1-MCP, followed by ethylene had 38% accumulated leaf abscission, after 18 days of post production life, similar to control plants. After the same period, plants treated only with 1-MCP had 22% leaf abscission. The 1-MCP partially blocked ethylene and induced leaf abscission. Regardless which treatment was applied during post production life, there was a continuous decrease on leaf chlorophyll content beyond 18th day. Thus, 1-MCP was effective in preventing leaf abscission even in the presence of ethylene, avoiding deleterious effects of ethylene by blocking its receptor sites.

  9. Soil nitrogen dynamics and Capsicum Annuum sp. plant response to biochar amendment in silt loam soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horel, Agota; Gelybo, Gyorgyi; Dencso, Marton; Toth, Eszter; Farkas, Csilla; Kasa, Ilona; Pokovai, Klara

    2017-04-01

    The present study investigated the growth of Capsicum Annuum sp. (pepper) in small-scale experiment to observe changes in plant growth and health as reflected by leaf area, plant height, yield, root density, and nitrogen usage. Based on field conditions, part of the study aimed to examine the photosynthetic and photochemical responses of plants to treatments resulting from different plant growth rates. During the 12.5 week long study, four treatments were investigated with biochar amount of 0, 0.5%, 2.5%, and 5.0% (by weight) added to silt loam soil. The plants were placed under natural environmental conditions, such that photosynthetic activities from photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and the plants photochemical reflectance index (PRI) could be continuously measured after exposure to sunlight. In this study we found that benefits from biochar addition to silt loam soil most distinguishable occurred in the BC2.5 treatments, where the highest plant yield, highest root density, and highest leaf areas were observed compared to other treatments. Furthermore, data showed that too low (0.5%) or too high (5.0%) biochar addition to the soil had diminishing effects on Capsicum Annuum sp. growth and yield over time. At the end of the 12th week, BC2.5 had 22.2%, while BC0.5 and BC5.0 showed 17.4% and 15.7% increase in yield dry weight respectively compared to controls. The collected data also showed that the PRI values of plants growing on biochar treated soils were generally lower compared to control treatments, which could relate to leaf nitrogen levels. Total nitrogen amount showed marginal changes over time in all treatments. The total nitrogen concentration showed 28.6% and 17.7% increase after the 6th week of the experiment for BC2.5 and BC5.0, respectively, while inorganic nutrients of NO3-N and NH4+-N showed a continuous decrease during the course of the study, with a substantial drop during the first few weeks. The present study provides evidence for impact

  10. [Beliefs about chili pepper consumption and health in Mexico City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Carrillo, L; Fernández-Ortega M, C; Costa-Dias, R; Franco-Marina, J; Alejandre-Badillo, T

    1995-01-01

    Eating chili peppers is a cultural tradition in Mexico. Controversial characteristics have been empirically associated to chili pepper consumption and human health. In this paper, the beliefs about the health impacts of chili pepper consumption in two independent groups of Mexico City residents are described. The results confirm, on the one hand, that there is a wide variety of health benefits and damages associated with chili pepper consumption, but on the other hand, that the levels of chili pepper consumption are not related to beliefs about its human health impact.

  11. Reproductive characterization of interspecific hybrids among Capsicum species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo da Silva Monteiro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was the reproductive characterization of Capsicum accessions as well as of interspecifichybrids, based on pollen viability. Hybrids were obtained between Capsicum species. Pollen viability was high in most accessions,indicating that meiosis is normal, resulting in viable pollen grains. The pollen viability of species C. pubescens was the lowest (27%. The interspecific hybrids had varying degrees of pollen viability, from fertile combinations (C. chinense x C. frutescens and C.annuum x C. baccatum to male sterile combinations. Pollen viability also varied within the hybrid combination according toaccessions used in the cross. Results indicate that male sterility is one of the incompatibility barriers among Capsicum species sincehybrids can be established, but may be male sterile.

  12. Characterization of Capsicum species using anatomical and molecular data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, G B; Gomes, V M; Moraes, T M S; Zottich, U P; Rabelo, G R; Carvalho, A O; Moulin, M; Gonçalves, L S A; Rodrigues, R; Da Cunha, M

    2013-02-28

    Capsicum species are frequently described in terms of genetic divergence, considering morphological, agronomic, and molecular databases. However, descriptions of genetic differences based on anatomical characters are rare. We examined the anatomy and the micromorphology of vegetative and reproductive organs of several Capsicum species. Four Capsicum accessions representing the species C. annuum var. annuum, C. baccatum var. pendulum, C. chinense, and C. frutescens were cultivated in a greenhouse; leaves, fruits and seeds were sampled and their organ structure analyzed by light and scanning electronic microscopy. Molecular accession characterization was made using ISSR markers. Polymorphism was observed among tector trichomes and also in fruit color and shape. High variability among accessions was detected by ISSR markers. Despite the species studied present a wide morphological and molecular variability that was not reflected by anatomical features.

  13. PROSPECT OF INDONESIA BLACK AND WHITE PEPPERS EXPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tavi Supriana

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThis study analyzes the behavior of pepper exports, consisting of black pepper and white pepper, to various destination countries. The results of this study showed that black pepper exports affected by the destination country's gross domestic product (GDP, the price of white pepper, the population of the country of destination and the exchange rate against the dollar. Meanwhile, white pepper exports affected by the destination country's GDP, the population of the country of destination, the price of black pepper, white pepper prices and the exchange rate against the dollar. The results also showed that black pepper and white pepper are not mutually substituted.Keywords: pepper, exports, GDP, population, exchange rate JEL Classificaiton Numbers: F14, F19AbstrakPenelitian ini menganalisis perilaku ekspor lada, terdiri dari lada hitam dan lada putih, ke berbagai negara tujuan. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa ekspor lada hitam dipengaruhi oleh Pendapatan domestik bruto (PDB negara tujuan, harga lada putih, populasi negara tujuan dan nilai tukar rupiah terhadap dolar. Sementara itu, ekspor lada putih dipengaruhi oleh PDB negara tujuan, populasi negara tujuan, harga lada hitam, harga lada putih dan nilai tukar rupiah terhadap dolar. Hasil penelitian juga menunjukkan bahwa lada hitam dan lada putih tidak saling bersubstitusi.Keywords: Lada, ekspor, PDB, populasi, kursJEL Classificaiton Numbers: F14, F19

  14. Hot Flashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hot flashes Overview Hot flashes are sudden feelings of warmth, which are usually most intense over the face, neck and chest. Your skin might redden, as if you're blushing. Hot flashes can also cause sweating, and if you ...

  15. A taste of pepper: genetics, biochemistry and prediction of sweet pepper flavor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggink, P.M.

    2013-01-01

    This PhD project started with the composition of a diverse panel of genotypes that represented, (i) roughly the flavor variation in the commercial Capsicum annuum breeding program of Rijk Zwaan, (ii) parents of available mapping populations and (iii) some genotypes that were

  16. HOT 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hannibal, Sara Stefansen

    2016-01-01

    HOT samler og formidler 21 literacykyndiges bud på, hvad der er hot, og hvad der bør være hot inden for literacy – og deres begrundelser for disse bud.......HOT samler og formidler 21 literacykyndiges bud på, hvad der er hot, og hvad der bør være hot inden for literacy – og deres begrundelser for disse bud....

  17. Determinación del requerimiento hídrico del pimentón en el municipio de Candelaria, departamento del Valle del Cauca Water requeriments of pepper in Candelaria, Valle del Cauca, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Gómez Enríquez

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un ensayo con el fin de determinar el requerimiento hídrico del pimentón Capsicum annuum variedad Unapal-Serrano, en la zona de Candelaria-Valle del Cauca (Colombia. Se determinó que el pimentón requiere 425mm de agua durante su ciclo vegetativo, obteniendo una eficiencia del uso del agua de 5.32 kg/m³ de fruto fresco y de 0.5 kg/m³ en términos de materia seca. Además, se comprobó la eficiencia del microevaporímetro 'MIEVHR' como herramienta para programación del riego y estudios hidrológicos.A trial was carried out in order to determining the water requirement of the pepper Capsicum annuum variety UNAPAL- Serrano in the zone of Candelaria -Valley of the Cauca (Colombia and to evaluate the efficiency of the microevaporímeter 'MIEVHR' as estimator of the evaporation. It was determined that the pepper requires 425mm of water during the cycle vegetative obtaining an efficiency of the use of the water of 5.32 Kg/m³ of fresh fruit and 0.5 kg/m³ in terms of dry matter. Besides, it was verified the microevaporímeter efficiency 'MIEVHR' as tool for programming of the irrigation.

  18. 'Gornooriahovska Kapia F1' - A new hybrid pepper variety based on radiation induced male sterility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daskalov, S.

    2001-01-01

    The female parent line 'Zlaten medal ms-8' was obtained by Daskalov as a gamma rays induced mutant of pepper (Capsicum annum L.). Dry seeds of the initial variety 'Zlaten medal' were irradiated with 135 Gy gamma rays and after screening of a large M 2 population (57,000 plants) 3 male sterile mutants were obtained. After an allelic test the genes responsible for male sterility were denoted as ms-6, ms-7, and ms-8. After many years of testing various male sterility sources the gene ms-8 proved to be the most suitable for hybrid seed production because it determines 100% male sterility, independent of the climatic condition or the genotype. The mutation causes the highest reduction of anthers, which allows easy distinction between male sterile and fertile flowers. The development of the mutant male sterile line Zlaten medal ms-8 is a good example of how mutation techniques can be very useful for adding or changing only one trait without altering the basic genotype

  19. Cytotoxic and multidrug resistance reversal activity of a vegetable, 'Anastasia Red', a variety of sweet pepper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motohashi, Noboru; Wakabayashi, Hidetsugu; Kurihara, Teruo; Takada, Yuko; Maruyama, Shichiro; Sakagami, Hiroshi; Nakashima, Hideki; Tani, Satoru; Shirataki, Yoshiaki; Kawase, Masami; Wolfard, Kristina; Molnár, Joseph

    2003-04-01

    The vegetable, Anastasia Red, Capsicum annuum L. var. angulosum Mill. (Solanaceae) was successively extracted with hexane, acetone, methanol and 70% methanol, and the extracts were further separated into a total of 21 fractions by silica gel or octadecylsilane (ODS) column chromatography. The biological activities of extracts and fractions were determined. These extracts showed relatively higher cytotoxic activity against two human oral tumor cell lines (HSC-2, HSG) than against normal human gingival fibroblasts (HGF), suggesting a tumor-specific cytotoxic activity. The cytotoxic activity of these extracts was enhanced by fractionation on silica gel [H2, A2, M1-M3] or ODS column chromatography [70M]. Several fractions [H2, H4, H5, A1, A2, A3, A5, A6, A7, M2] reversed the multidrug resistance (MDR) phenotype with L5178 mouse lymphoma T cells, more efficiently than (+/-)-verapamil. The extracts and fractions did not show any detectable anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or anti-Helicobacter pylori activity. Thus, this study suggests the effective and selective antitumor potential of 'Anastasia Red' of sweet pepper for further phytochemical and biological investigation. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Analysis of gamma irradiated pepper constituents, 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, Kazuko; Okuyama, Tsuneo; Yamauchi, Yoshio; Saito, Muneo.

    1988-01-01

    The extraction of pepper perfume by use of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) was investigated. Carbon dioxide was used as supercritical mobile phase. SFE was achieved by follow conditions, temperature was 40deg C, pressure was 200 kgf/cm 2 , 5 % methanol was added to mobile phase and the extraction time was 60 minutes. The extracted fraction by this method was yellow oily substance and was pepper perfume rich fraction, while the residue of extraction had not only perfume but also any pungency. And it seems that most part of pepper perfume was extracted by Supercritical fluid extraction. The perfume fraction was analyzed by two way method, that is, supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) and reversed phase HPLC. SFC conditions were same as SFE. HPLC conditions were described as the first report. By both methods, about 7 peaks were detected. According to their analysis of this fraction, the main component was identified as piperine. On the chromatogram of reversed phase HPLC of extract, most peaks were eluted later than piperine. And it is thought that most perfume components have high hydrophobicity more than piperine. The change of perfume of pepper was able to be discussed based on the extraction by SFE. (author)

  1. Effect of alligator pepper (Zingiberaceae Aframomum melegueta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fifteen male rats and fifteen female rats of proven fertility from a pilot study were randomly paired in fifteen cages in a well ventillated room. After three days of mating, the males were withdrawn from ... risk to women in their first trimester of pregnancy. Key words : Effect, Alligator pepper, Herbal remedy, Nutrition, Pregnancy ...

  2. Dissipation pattern of flubendiamide residues on capsicum fruit (Capsicum annuum L.) under field and controlled environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddidathi, Radhika; Mohapatra, Soudamini; Siddamallaiah, Lekha; Manikrao, Gourishankar; Hebbar, Shibara Shankara

    2016-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken to compare the dissipation pattern of flubendiamide in capsicum fruits under poly-house and open field after giving spray applications at the recommended and double doses of 48 g a.i. ha(-1) and 96 g a.i. ha(-1). Extraction and purification of capsicum fruit samples were carried out by the QuEChERS method. Residues of flubendiamide and its metabolite, des-iodo flubendiamide, were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array, and confirmed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry. Limit of quantification of the method was 0.05 mg kg(-1), and recovery of the insecticides was in the range of 89.6-104.3%, with relative standard deviation being 4.5-11.5%. The measurement uncertainty of the analytical method was in the range of 10.7-15.7%. Initial residue deposits of flubendiamide on capsicum fruits grown under poly-house conditions were (0.977 and 1.834 mg kg(-1)) higher than that grown in the field (0.665 and 1.545 mg kg(-1)). Flubendiamide residues persisted for 15 days in field-grown and for 25 days in poly-house-grown capsicum fruits. The residues were degraded with the half-lives of 4.3-4.7 and 5.6-6.6 days in field and poly-house respectively. Des-iodo flubendiamide was not detected in capsicum fruits or soil. The residues of flubendiamide degraded to below the maximum residue limit notified by Codex Alimentarius Commission (FAO/WHO) after 1 and 6 days in open field, and 3 and 10 days in poly-house. The results of the study indicated that flubendiamide applied to capsicum under controlled environmental conditions required longer pre-harvest interval to allow its residues to dissipate to the safe level.

  3. Genetic diversity and distribution of a distinct strain of Chili leaf curl virus and associated betasatellite infecting tomato and pepper in Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Akhtar J; Akhtar, Sohail; Al-Zaidi, Amal M; Singh, Achuit K; Briddon, Rob W

    2013-10-01

    Tomato and pepper are widely grown in Oman for local consumption. A countrywide survey was conducted during 2010-2011 to collect samples and assess the diversity of begomoviruses associated with leaf curl disease of tomato and pepper. A virus previously only identified on the Indian subcontinent, chili leaf curl virus (ChLCV), was found associated with tomato and pepper diseases in all vegetable grown areas of Oman. Some of the infected plant samples were also found to contain a betasatellite. A total of 19 potentially full-length begomovirus and eight betasatellite clones were sequenced. The begomovirus clones showed >96% nucleotide sequence identity, showing them to represent a single species. Comparisons to sequences available in the databases showed the highest levels of nucleotide sequence identity (88.0-91.1%) to isolates of the "Pakistan" strain of ChLCV (ChLCV-PK), indicating the virus from Oman to be a distinct strain, for which the name Oman strain (ChLCV-OM) is proposed. An analysis for recombination showed ChLCV-OM likely to have originated by recombination between ChLCV-PK (the major parent), pepper leaf curl Lahore virus and a third strain of ChLCV. The betasatellite sequences obtained were shown to have high levels of identity to isolates of tomato leaf curl betasatellite (ToLCB) previous shown to be present in Oman. For the disease in tomato Koch's postulates were satisfied by Agrobacterium-mediated inoculation of virus and betasatellites clones. This showed the symptoms induced by the virus in the presence of the betasatellite to be enhanced, although viral DNA levels were not affected. ChLCV-OM is the fourth begomovirus identified in tomato in Oman and the first in Capsicum. The significance of these findings is discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Pepper pathogenesis-related protein 4c is a plasma membrane-localized cysteine protease inhibitor that is required for plant cell death and defense signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nak Hyun; Hwang, Byung Kook

    2015-01-01

    Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Xcv) type III effector AvrBsT triggers programmed cell death (PCD) and activates the hypersensitive response (HR) in plants. Here, we isolated and identified the plasma membrane localized pathogenesis-related (PR) protein 4c gene (CaPR4c) from pepper (Capsicum annuum) leaves undergoing AvrBsT-triggered HR cell death. CaPR4c encodes a protein with a signal peptide and a Barwin domain. Recombinant CaPR4c protein expressed in Escherichia coli exhibited cysteine protease-inhibitor activity and ribonuclease (RNase) activity. Subcellular localization analyses revealed that CaPR4c localized to the plasma membrane in plant cells. CaPR4c expression was rapidly and specifically induced by avirulent Xcv (avrBsT) infection. Transient expression of CaPR4c caused HR cell death in pepper leaves, which was accompanied by enhanced accumulation of H2 O2 and significant induction of some defense-response genes. Deletion of the signal peptide from CaPR4c abolished the induction of HR cell death, indicating a requirement for plasma membrane localization of CaPR4c for HR cell death. CaPR4c silencing in pepper disrupted both basal and AvrBsT-triggered resistance responses, and enabled Xcv proliferation in infected leaves. H2 O2 accumulation, cell-death induction, and defense-response gene expression were distinctly reduced in CaPR4c-silenced pepper. CaPR4c overexpression in transgenic Arabidopsis plants conferred greater resistance against infection by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato and Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis. These results collectively suggest that CaPR4c plays an important role in plant cell death and defense signaling. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Genome-wide analysis of the CaHsp20 gene family in pepper: comprehensive sequence and expression profile analysis under heat stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng eGuo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Hsp20 genes are present in all plant species and play important roles in alleviating heat stress and enhancing plant thermotolerance by preventing the irreversible aggregation of denaturing proteins. However, very little is known about the CaHsp20 gene family in pepper (Capsicum annuum L., an important vegetable crop with character of temperate but thermosensitive. In this study, a total of 35 putative pepper Hsp20 genes (CaHsp20s were identified and renamed on the basis of their molecular weight, and then their gene structure, genome location, gene duplication, phylogenetic relationship and interaction network were also analyzed. The expression patterns of CaHsp20 genes in four different tissues (root, stem, leaf and flower from the thermotolerant line R9 under heat stress condition were measured using semi-quantitative RT-PCR. The transcripts of most CaHsp20 genes maintained a low level in all of the four tissues under normal temperature condition, but were highly induced by heat stress, while the expression of CaHsp16.6b, 16.7 and 23.8 were only detected in specific tissues and were not so sensitive to heat stress like other CaHsp20 genes. In addition, compared to those in thermotolerant line R9, the expression peak of most CaHsp20 genes in thermosensitive line B6 under heat stress was hysteretic, and several CaHsp20 genes (CaHsp16.4, 18.2a, 18.7, 21.2, 22.0, 25.8 and 25.9 showed higher expression levels in both line B6 and R9. These data suggest that the CaHsp20 genes may be involved in heat stress and defense responses in pepper, which provides the basis for further functional analyses of CaHsp20s in the formation of pepper acquired thermotoleance.

  6. New Insights on Eggplant/Tomato/Pepper Synteny and Identification of Eggplant and Pepper Orthologous QTL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Rinaldi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Eggplant, pepper and tomato are the most exploited berry-producing vegetables within the Solanaceae family. Their genomes differ in size, but each has 12 chromosomes which have undergone rearrangements causing a redistribution of loci. The genome sequences of all three species are available but differ in coverage, assembly quality and percentage of anchorage.Determining their syntenic relationship and QTL orthology will contribute to exploit genomic resources and genetic data for key agronomic traits.The syntenic analysis between tomato and pepper based on the alignment of 34,727 tomato CDS to the pepper genome sequence, identified 19,734 unique hits. The resulting synteny map confirmed the 14 inversions and 10 translocations previously documented, but also highlighted 3 new translocations and 4 major new inversions. Furthermore, each of the 12 chromosomes exhibited a number of rearrangements involving small regions of 0.5-0.7 Mbp.Due to high fragmentation of the publicly available eggplant genome sequence, physical localization of most eggplant QTL was not possible, thus, we compared the organization of the eggplant genetic map with the genome sequence of both tomato and pepper. The eggplant/tomato syntenic map confirmed all the 10 translocations but only 9 of the 14 known inversions; on the other hand, a newly detected inversion was recognized while another one was not confirmed. The eggplant/pepper syntenic map confirmed 10 translocations and 8 inversions already detected and suggested a putative new translocation.In order to perform the assessment of eggplant and pepper QTL orthology, the eggplant and pepper sequence-based markers located in their respective genetic map were aligned onto the pepper genome. GBrowse in pepper was used as reference platform for QTL positioning. A set of 151 pepper QTL were located as well as 212 eggplant QTL, including 76 major QTL (PVE ≥ 10% affecting key agronomic traits. Most were confirmed to cluster in

  7. Agro-Science Journal of Tropical Agriculture, Food, Environment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PC USER

    Alternaria solani with a view of recommending the potent ones to farmers for use in the control of ... aethiopicum) bell pepper and hot pepper (Capsicum ... sterile distilled water and added to molten PDA in flask ... flasks containing the different fungicides levels and ... germ tube was as long as the spore or exceeds half the.

  8. Effects of low dose gamma radiation on the early growth of red pepper and the resistance to subsquent high dose of radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J. S.; Baek, M. H.; Kim, D. H.; Lee, Y. K. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Y. B. [Chungnam National Univ., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-05-01

    Red pepper (capsicum annuum L. cv. Jokwang and cv. Johong) seeds were irradiated with the dose of 0{approx}50 Gy to investigated the effect of the low dose gamma radiation on the early growth and resistance to subsequent high dose of radiation. The effect of the low dose gamma radiation on the early growth and resistance to subsequenct high dose of radiation were enhanced in Johong cultivar but not in Jokwang cultivar. Germination rate and early growth of Johong cultivar were noticeably increased at 4 Gy-, 8 Gy- and 20 Gy irradiation group. Resistance to subsequent high dose of radiation of Johong cultivar were increased at almost all of the low dose irradiation group. Especially it was highest at 4 Gy irradiation group. The carotenoid contents and enzyme activity on the resistance to subsequent high dose of radiation of Johong cultivar were increased at the 4 Gy and 8 Gy irradiation group.

  9. Phenolic compounds and biological activity of Capsicum annuum L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate antifungal and antioxidant activities of vegetable extracts (Capsicum annuum L. cv. Dora, cv. Strizanka, cv. Morava), grown in Serbia. Different experimental models have included the determination content of total phenolics, total flavonoids, antioxidant capacity and minimum ...

  10. Molecular and functional diversity in Capsicum landraces of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study analyzed the diversity in 26 landraces of Capsicum from Andaman Islands using 20 morphological, 16 biochemical and 10 DNA markers. Significant differences were observed in tested landraces and 16 reference genotypes from mainland India. Biochemical markers grouped all the genotypes into eight ...

  11. Seed oil and fatty acid composition in Capsicum spp

    Science.gov (United States)

    The oil content and fatty acid composition of seed of 233 genebank accessions (total) of nine Capsicum species, and a single accession of Tubocapsicum anomalum, were determined. The physicochemical characteristics of oil extracted from seed of C. annuum and C. baccatum were also examined. Significan...

  12. Direct regeneration protocols of five Capsicum annuum L. varieties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The bud induction obtained is a simple and efficient protocol developed for in vitro propagation of five varieties of cultivars. Seeds of Capsicum annuum L. of five varieties red, yellow, green, purple and white were decontaminated and placed in a culture bottle containing a Murashige and Skoog medium, supplemented with ...

  13. New Sources of Tobamoviruses, CMV and Bacterial Spot Resistance in Pepper

    OpenAIRE

    Stoimenova, Elisaveta; Mitrev, Sasa; Bogatzevska, Nevena

    2005-01-01

    The pepper cultivars Zlaten medal, Alfi and Zalfi, the six Macedonian pepper accessions and the five Bulgarian lines have been screening for the resistance to cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), tobamoviruses and Xanthomonas vesicatoria pepper - tomato pathotype (XvPT).

  14. Feeding-induced phenol production in Capsicum annuum L. influences Spodoptera litura F. larval growth and physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movva, Vijaya; Pathipati, Usha Rani

    2017-05-01

    We studied the role of induced plant phenols as a defense response to insect herbivory. Phenolic compounds were induced in Capsicum annuum L., the source of many culinary peppers, after feeding by different stages of the insect pest, Spodoptera litura F. The phenols were identified and quantified using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and effects produced by these phenols on larval development were studied. Vanillic acid was identified in plants challenged by second, fourth, and fifth instar larvae, but not in plants challenged by third instar nor unchallenged plants. Syringic acid production was induced in chili plants infested with second (0.429 ± 0.003 μg/g fresh weight, fourth (0.396 ± 0.01 μg/g fresh weight), and fifth instar (5.5 ± 0.06 μg/g fresh weight) larvae, compared to untreated plants (0.303 ± 0.01 μg/g fresh weight) plants. Leaves surface treated with the rutin deterred oviposition. Dietary exposure to chlorogenic acid, vanillic acid, syringic acid, sinapic acid, and rutin led to enhanced activities of detoxifying enzymes, β-glucosidase, carboxyl esterase, glutathione S-transferase, and glutathione reductase in the midgut tissues of all the larval instars, indicating the toxic nature of these compounds. Protein carbonyl content and acetylcholinesterase activity was analyzed to appreciate the role of induced plant phenols in insect protein oxidation and terminating nerve impulses. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Analysis of TIR- and non-TIR-NBS-LRR disease resistance gene analogous in pepper: characterization, genetic variation, functional divergence and expression patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Hongjian

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pepper (Capsicum annuum L. is one of the most important vegetable crops worldwide. However, its yield and fruit quality can be severely threatened by several pathogens. The plant nucleotide-binding site (NBS-leucine-rich repeat (LRR gene family is the largest class of known disease resistance genes (R genes effective against such pathogens. Therefore, the isolation and identification of such R gene homologues from pepper will provide a critical foundation for improving disease resistance breeding programs. Results A total of 78 R gene analogues (CaRGAs were identified in pepper by degenerate PCR amplification and database mining. Phylogenetic tree analysis of the deduced amino acid sequences for 51 of these CaRGAs with typically conserved motifs ( P-loop, kinase-2 and GLPL along with some known R genes from Arabidopsis and tomato grouped these CaRGAs into the non-Toll interleukin-1 receptor (TIR-NBS-LRR (CaRGAs I to IV and TIR-NBS-LRR (CaRGAs V to VII subfamilies. The presence of consensus motifs (i.e. P-loop, kinase-2 and hydrophobic domain is typical of the non-TIR- and TIR-NBS-LRR gene subfamilies. This finding further supports the view that both subfamilies are widely distributed in dicot species. Functional divergence analysis provided strong statistical evidence of altered selective constraints during protein evolution between the two subfamilies. Thirteen critical amino acid sites involved in this divergence were also identified using DIVERGE version 2 software. Analyses of non-synonymous and synonymous substitutions per site showed that purifying selection can play a critical role in the evolutionary processes of non-TIR- and TIR-NBS-LRR RGAs in pepper. In addition, four specificity-determining positions were predicted to be responsible for functional specificity. qRT-PCR analysis showed that both salicylic and abscisic acids induce the expression of CaRGA genes, suggesting that they may primarily be involved in

  16. Nitrogen use efficiencies of drip-irrigated tomatoes and peppers as affected by soil application and fertigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elinc, F.; Deviren, A.; Oeztuerk, A.; Besiroglu, A.

    1996-01-01

    This greenhouse study conducted on a Mediterranean Terra Rose soil in an unheated plastic greenhouse was designed to investigate the response of drip-irrigated tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) and peppers (Capsicum annum) to four nitrogen levels continually applied with irrigation stream. Water containing 0,67,134 or 201 mgN/l and uniformly supplied with 80 and 240 mg/l of P and K, respectively, were applied two times a week. Three adjacent plants in each plot were fertigated with N 15 labeled NH 4 S 2 O 4 (2% a.e. enrichment). For each plant the amount of water, P, K and the N 15 applied through the bottles was to that amount applied through a single dripper. In addition to the fertigation soil application of 400 kgN/ha was included with three adjacent plants in each plot were fertilized receiving N 15 labeled (3.3 % a.e. enrichment) The total amount of water applied was 392 mm and the resulting N application totals ranged from 200 to 600 kgN/ha. According to the results obtained, the maximum yield of tomatoes and peppers were achieved with 67 mgN/l (200 kgN/ha) treatment. The percentage fertilizer utilization by tomatoes was highest with 67 mgN/l (200 kgN/ha), which was followed by 134 mgN/l (400 kgN/ha) .The percentage fertilizer utilization was the lowest with 201 mgN/l (600 kgN/ha) or soil application (400 kgN/ha). The results indicated that the percentage fertilizer utilization of tomatoes was significantly greater by the fertigation than the soil application of N at the same level fertilization (400 kgN/ha). The fertilizer N uptake by peppers was significantly greater with 134 mgN/l (400 kgN/ha) than the other applications. The results indicated that although the percentage fertilizer utilization was the same, the fertilizer N uptake by peppers was significantly greater with the fertigation than the soil application of N at the same level fertilization (400 kgN/ha)

  17. Analysis of gamma irradiated pepper constituents, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, Kazuko; Okuyama, Tsuneo

    1988-01-01

    A reversed phase high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method was developed for the analysis of many constituents of pepper at the same time. And a extraction method of ultraviolet absorbing constituents from pepper was developed for the HPLC analysis. The Ultraviolet absorbing constituents were extracted by precooled Automatic Air-Hammer from frozen pepper with 20% acetonitrile in water. The process of extraction was achieved under cooling by liquid nitrogen from start to end. The extracted constituents were separated on a reversed phase C 8 (LiChrospher 300 RP - 8 10 μm 0.4 I.D. x 0.4 cm and LiChrosorb RP - 8 SelectB 0.4 I. D. x 25 cm) column with a concave gradient from 0.1% trifluoro acetic acid (TFA) in water to 75% acetonitrile and 0.1% TFA in water for 60 minutes. The eluted constituents were detected 210 nm and 280 nm. The present method permits the detection of about 50 peaks by 280 nm. (author)

  18. Effect of garlic extract on selected pests and yield of bell pepper, Capsicum Anuum L. (var. Capistrano)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garlic-based oils and extract formulations have been used as insecticides against various insects on numerous crops, but there are contradictions in the findings on the insecticidal or repellent properties of garlic-based products. To assess garlic, Allium sativum L., extract efficacy against pests...

  19. Chlorophyll Fluorescence Sorting Method to Improve Quality of Capsicum Pepper Seed Lots Produced from Different Maturity Fruits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kenanoglu, B.B.; Demir, I.; Jalink, H.

    2013-01-01

    This work was conducted to investigate the efficacy of chlorophyll fluorescence (CF) sorting to improve seed germination, seedling emergence, and vigor of seeds produced from different maturity fruits of four different cultivars. Four harvest dates from each cultivar were evaluated by harvesting

  20. Effect of Nutrient Supply on Some Selected Parameters of Sweet Pepper (Capsicum annuum L. cv. ‘HRF’ Transplants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Jezdinský

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the trial the effect of nitrogen deficiency and potassium surplus on the dry weight, photosynthetic activity (A, transpiration (E, stomatal conductance (gs and water use efficiency (WUE were examined. The macroelement content of aboveground parts were analysed, too. The plants were grown in pots filled by pure Sphagnum peat. The top-dressing started in the 3-leave stage of plants, with different solution (every irrigation: control treatment: 0.28 g N, 0.097 g P (0.22 g P2O5, 0.42 g K (0.50 g K2O per litre; nitrogen-deficiency: 0.097 g P (0.22 g P2O5, 0.42 g K (0.50 g K2O per litre; potassium surplus: 0.28 g N, 0.097 g P (0.22 g P2O5, 0.83 g K (1.0 g K2O per litre. The transplants grown in the commercial fertilization technology (control treatment almost in every evaluated parameters shown average value. The potassium surplus resulted significantly higher transpiration activity (2.58 mmol H2O. m−2 . s−1 and photosynthetic activity (11.54 μmol CO2. m−2 . s−1 than the nitrogen deficiency (E: 1.91 mmol H2O. m−2 . s−1 and A: 9.01 μmol CO2. m−2 . s−1, but without significant differences with control treatment. The N, P and K content of aboveground parts was significantly lower in the nitrogen deficiency treatment, than in the case of the potassium surplus, too. The effect of treatments on the dry weight of the plants, the stomatal conductance and the water use efficiency was not proven statistically.

  1. Bromatologia da pimenta malagueta in natura e processada em conserva Bromatology of fresh and processed chili pepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiyoko NH Rebouças

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Sendo uma das especiarias mais consumidas no mundo, a pimenta malagueta está presente na culinária brasileira há mais de 500 anos. A crescente procura do mercado interno e externo pelas pimentas provocou a expansão da área cultivada em vários estados brasileiros. Seus teores de vitamina C são superiores aos encontrados no pimentão e demais olerícolas. Obteve-se a caracterização físico-química da pimenta malagueta (Capsicum frutescens in natura e processadas em conserva e, definiu-se, se após o processamento, a hortaliça apresentou perda na qualidade nutricional, para fornecer subsídios ao desenvolvimento da pesquisa tecnológica e divulgar a espécie. O estudo foi realizado no período de dezembro de 2010 a março de 2011, na UESB. Para a determinação das propriedades físico-químicas da matéria-prima foram avaliados o pH, acidez titulável e atividade de água (Aw. Da composição química foram determinados a umidade, cinzas, lipídeos, proteína bruta e vitamina C. Foram escolhidas pimentas in natura e processadas em conservas em estádio de maturação fisiológica completa (maduras, adquiridas dos produtores do Município de Barra do Choça-BA. As análises foram realizadas com três repetições. Foi realizada análise estatística dos dados que foram expressos como média e desvio padrão. Os resultados obtidos para amostras de pimenta in natura e processada para análise de atividade de água, pH e acidez foram (0,9893; 0,9832; (5,48; 3,76 e (0,0353%, 0,2046% respectivamente. Para umidade, lipídios, proteínas e cinzas foram (29,4%, 15,3%;(0,636%; 0,620%; (4,8%; 4,76% e (0,039%; 0,043% respectivamente e para a vitamina C 121,5 mg/100 g para a in natura e 14,5 mg/100 g para a processada. Conclui-se que, após o processamento, ocorreu perda considerável na qualidade nutricional da pimenta malagueta.Chili pepper (Capsicum frutescens, which is one of the most widely consumed spices in the world, has been present in

  2. The Capsicum annuum class IV chitinase ChitIV interacts with receptor-like cytoplasmic protein kinase PIK1 to accelerate PIK1-triggered cell death and defence responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae Sung; Kim, Nak Hyun; Hwang, Byung Kook

    2015-01-01

    The pepper receptor-like cytoplasmic protein kinase, CaPIK1, which mediates signalling of plant cell death and defence responses was previously identified. Here, the identification of a class IV chitinase, CaChitIV, from pepper plants (Capsicum annuum), which interacts with CaPIK1 and promotes CaPIK1-triggered cell death and defence responses, is reported. CaChitIV contains a signal peptide, chitin-binding domain, and glycol hydrolase domain. CaChitIV expression was up-regulated by Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Xcv) infection. Notably, avirulent Xcv infection rapidly induced CaChitIV expression in pepper leaves. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation and co-immunoprecipitation revealed that CaPIK1 interacts with CaChitIV in planta, and that the CaPIK1–CaChitIV complex is localized mainly in the cytoplasm and plasma membrane. CaChitIV is also localized in the endoplasmic reticulum. Transient co-expression of CaChitIV with CaPIK1 enhanced CaPIK1-triggered cell death response and reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) bursts. Co-silencing of both CaChitIV and CaPIK1 in pepper plants conferred enhanced susceptibility to Xcv infection, which was accompanied by a reduced induction of cell death response, ROS and NO bursts, and defence response genes. Ectopic expression of CaPIK1 in Arabidopsis enhanced basal resistance to Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis infection. Together, the results suggest that CaChitIV positively regulates CaPIK1-triggered cell death and defence responses through its interaction with CaPIK1. PMID:25694549

  3. Morphophysiological and productive indicators of the pepper planted in the greenhouse and in the open field in the conditions of the Ecuadorian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinaldo Demesio Alemán Pérez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Ecuadorian Amazon is the poorest region of Ecuador, particularly the province of Pastaza. The production of vegetables in the region is very limited and only established in the greenhouse. The pepper (Capsicum annuum L. is a horticultural product very demanded, however, there is a criterion that cannot be grown in the area. Therefore, since 2014, the Center for Research, Posgraduate and Conservation of Amazonian Biodiversity (CIPCA, belonging to Universidad Estatal Amazonica initiated a research program to evaluate the adaptation of different horticultural species plants to conditions in the region, in order to contribute to food sustainability. The study consisted of determining the behavior of the Nathalie hybrid pepper crop, planted in greenhouse and open field conditions, for which a randomized block design was used. Productions, physiological and morphological indicators of the crop were evaluated and the results obtained were made a statistical comparison of means. The results suggest that better morphophysiological indicators are obtained when it was sown in the greenhouse, with height of 136 cm and a foliar area of 0.95 m2. However, the best productive and agricultural performance indicators were obtained outside the greenhouse, with 9 fruits per plant, with an average fruit weight of 975.80 g and an average yield of 6.42 kg m-2. This indicates the convenience of establishing this crop in the Ecuadorian Amazon without sow in the greenhouse.

  4. A bell pepper cultivar tolerant to chilling enhanced nitrogen allocation and stress-related metabolite accumulation in the roots in response to low root-zone temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aidoo, Moses Kwame; Sherman, Tal; Lazarovitch, Naftali; Fait, Aaron; Rachmilevitch, Shimon

    2017-10-01

    Two bell pepper (Capsicum annuum) cultivars, differing in their response to chilling, were exposed to three levels of root-zone temperatures. Gas exchange, shoot and root phenology, and the pattern of change of the central metabolites and secondary metabolites caffeate and benzoate in the leaves and roots were profiled. Low root-zone temperature significantly inhibited gaseous exchange, with a greater effect on the sensitive commercial pepper hybrid (Canon) than on the new hybrid bred to enhance abiotic stress tolerance (S103). The latter was less affected by the treatment with respect to plant height, shoot dry mass, root maximum length, root projected area, number of root tips and root dry mass. More carbon was allocated to the leaves of S103 than nitrogen at 17°C, while in the roots at 17°C, more nitrogen was allocated and the ratio between C/N decreased. Metabolite profiling showed greater increase in the root than in the leaves. Leaf response between the two cultivars differed significantly. The roots accumulated stress-related metabolites including γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), proline, galactinol and raffinose and at chilling (7°C) resulted in an increase of sugars in both cultivars. Our results suggest that the enhanced tolerance of S103 to root cold stress, reflected in the relative maintenance of shoot and root growth, is likely linked to a more effective regulation of photosynthesis facilitated by the induction of stress-related metabolism. © 2017 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  5. Complete genome sequence of a Chinese isolate of pepper vein yellows virus and evolutionary analysis based on the CP, MP and RdRp coding regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Maoyan; Liu, Xiangning; Li, Xun; Zhang, Deyong; Dai, Liangyin; Tang, Qianjun

    2016-03-01

    The genome sequence of pepper vein yellows virus (PeVYV) (PeVYV-HN, accession number KP326573), isolated from pepper plants (Capsicum annuum L.) grown at the Hunan Vegetables Institute (Changsha, Hunan, China), was determined by deep sequencing of small RNAs. The PeVYV-HN genome consists of 6244 nucleotides, contains six open reading frames (ORFs), and is similar to that of an isolate (AB594828) from Japan. Its genomic organization is similar to that of members of the genus Polerovirus. Sequence analysis revealed that PeVYV-HN shared 92% sequence identity with the Japanese PeVYV genome at both the nucleotide and amino acid levels. Evolutionary analysis based on the coat protein (CP), movement protein (MP), and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) showed that PeVYV could be divided into two major lineages corresponding to their geographical origins. The Asian isolates have a higher population expansion frequency than the African isolates. Negative selection and genetic drift (founder effect) were found to be the potential drivers of the molecular evolution of PeVYV. Moreover, recombination was not the distinct cause of PeVYV evolution. This is the first report of a complete genomic sequence of PeVYV in China.

  6. Toward Valid Measurement of Stephen Pepper's World Hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, John A.

    Two measures of the "world hypotheses" of Stephen Pepper were mailed to 100 sociobiologists, 87 behaviorists, 79 personality psychologists, and 45 human developmentalists. The World Hypothesis Scale (WHS) was designed to measure Pepper's four world views: (1) formism; (2) mechanism; (3) organicism; and (4) contextualism. The…

  7. Emittance formula for slits and pepper-pot measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, M.

    1996-10-01

    In this note, a rigid formula for slits and pepper-pot emittance measurement is derived. The derivation is based on the one- dimensional slit measurement setup. A mathematical generalization of the slit emittance formula to the pepper-pot measurement is discussed

  8. Physicochemical properties of black pepper (Piper nigrum) starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fan; Mojel, Reuben; Li, Guantian

    2018-02-01

    Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is among the most popular spices around the world. Starch is the major component of black pepper. However, little is known about functional properties of this starch. In this study, swelling, solubility, thermal properties, rheology, and enzyme susceptibility of 2 black pepper starches were studied and compared with those of maize starch. Pepper starch had lower water solubility and swelling power than maize starch. It had higher viscosity during pasting event. In dynamic oscillatory analysis, pepper starch had lower storage modulus. Thermal analysis showed that pepper starch had much higher gelatinization temperatures (e.g., conclusion temperature of 94°C) than maize starch. The susceptibility to α-amylolysis of pepper starch was not very different from that of maize starch. Overall, the differences in the physicochemical properties of the 2 pepper starches are non-significant. The relationships between structure (especially amylopectin internal molecular structure) and properties of starch components are highlighted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Production of cell wall enzymes in pepper seedlings, inoculated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pepper seedlings inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal AM fungus, Glomus etunicatum, produced cellulase, polygal-acturonase and pectin methylestrase enzymes. The activities of the enzymes increased as the pepper seedlings matured in age, showing that the activity of the enzymes in the seedlings was age mediated.

  10. Occurrence of pepper mild mottle virus in greenhouse- grown ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-06-08

    Jun 8, 2011 ... Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV) is one of the most ... Figure 1. Map of the West Mediterranean region of Turkey showing areas in which the surveys were conducted. showing virus-like symptoms were taken from symptomatic pepper .... SM, Maniloff J, Mayo MA, McGeoch D, Pringle CR, Wickner RB (eds).

  11. Serological detection of viruses infecting tomato and pepper in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... one tomato leaf sample while PVMV + CMV occurred on three pepper leaf samples. The control of aphid vectors that transmit these viruses and good sanitary practices against soil borne ToMV would minimize disease incidences and subsequent yield loss. Keywords: Tomato, Pepper, virus distribution, PVMV, CMV, PVY ...

  12. Effect of aqueous extract of alligator pepper ( Aframomum malegueta )

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... concentration 7days post intervention; and a significant decrease in Cl− concentration 14 days post-intervention. Our findings suggest that intraperitoneally injected aqueous extract of alligator pepper induces reversible changes in serum electrolytes. Key words: Alligator pepper, Electrolytes, Homeostasis, Renal function ...

  13. Unilateral incompatibility in Capsicum (Solanaceae): occurrence and taxonomic distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onus, A Naci; Pickersgill, Barbara

    2004-08-01

    Unilateral incompatibility (UI) occurs when pollinations between species are successful in one direction but not in the other. Self-incompatible (SI) species frequently show UI with genetically related, self-compatible (SC) species, as pollen of SI species is compatible on the SC pistil, but not vice versa. Many examples of unilateral incompatibility, and all those which have been studied most intensively, are found in the Solanaceae, particularly Lycopersicon, Solanum, Nicotiana and Petunia. The genus Capsicum is evolutionarily somewhat distant from Lycopersicon and Solanum and even further removed from Nicotiana and Petunia. Unilateral incompatibility has also been reported in Capsicum; however, this is the first comprehensive study of crosses between all readily available species in the genus. All readily available (wild and domesticated) species in the genus are used as plant material, including the three genera from the Capsicum pubescens complex plus eight other species. Pollinations were made on pot-grown plants in a glasshouse. The number of pistils pollinated per cross varied (from five to 40 pistils per plant), depending on the numbers of flowers available. Pistils were collected 24 h after pollination and fixed for 3-24 h. After staining, pistils were mounted in a drop of stain, squashed gently under a cover slip and examined microscopically under ultra-violet light for pollen tube growth. Unilateral incompatibility is confirmed in the C. pubescens complex. Its direction conforms to that predominant in the Solanaceae and other families, i.e. pistils of self-incompatible species, or self-compatible taxa closely related to self-incompatible species, inhibit pollen tubes of self-compatible species. Unilateral incompatibility in Capsicum does not seem to have arisen to prevent introgression of self-compatibility into self-incompatible taxa, but as a by-product of divergence of the C. pubescens complex from the remainder of the genus.

  14. Investigations of the surviving microflora in irradiated black pepper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkas, J.; Andrassy, E.

    1983-01-01

    The sensitizing effect of irradiation on the microflora of ground black pepper was studied with respect to heat, reduced pH-value, salt and nitrite, and the possible relationship between the sensitizing effects of irradiation and the water activity of the spice. The change of the sensitizing effect of irradiation after irradiation during storage of the black pepper was also studied at different storage temperatures and under various conditions of humidity. The effectivity of irradiation depends to a much lesser extent on the conditions of humidity than that of ethylene-oxide treatment. Following decontamination, the remaining microflora of irradiated black pepper would be more sensitive to antimicrobial influences predominating during its use in the food industry than that of ethylene-oxide treated black pepper. The increased sensitivity of the remaining microflora of the irradiated black pepper remains unchanged for at least 6 months. (author)

  15. Detection of gamma irradiated pepper and papain by chemiluminescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sattar, Abdus; Delincee, H.; Diehl, J.F.

    1987-01-01

    Chemiluminescence (CL) measurements of black pepper and of papain using luminol and lucigenin reactions were studied. Effects of grinding, irradiation (5-20 kGy) and particle size (750-140 μm) on CL of pepper, and of irradiation (10-30 kGy) on CL of papain, were investigated. All the tested treatments affected the luminescence response in both the luminol and lucigenin reactions; however, the pattern of changes in each case, was inconsistent. Optimum pepper size for maximum luminescence was 560 μm, and optimum irradiation doses were > 15 kGy for pepper and > 20 kGy for papain. Chemiluminescence may possibly be used as an indicator or irradiation treatment for pepper and papain at a dose of 10 kGy or higher, but further research is needed to establish the reliability of this method. (author)

  16. Efecto del follaje de Tagetes minutasobre la nodulación radicular de Meloidogyne incognitaen Capsicum annuum, en invernadero Effect of the foliage of Tagetes minutaon Meloidogyne incognitaroot-galling on Capsicum annuumin a greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Nélida Murga-Gutiérrez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Se investigó el efecto del follaje del “huacatay” Tagetes minutasobre la nodulación radicular producida por el nematodo Meloidogyne incognitaque parasita el “pimiento páprika” Capsicum annuumcultivado en invernadero, con la finalidad de obtener una alternativa de control de este nematodo. Se utilizaron tres grupos experimentales y un testigo, con 12 macetas cada uno, las cuales contenían suelo y arena estériles (1:1. A este substrato se adicionó el follaje de T. minutaal 20, 35 y 50% (v/v según grupo experimental, y el testigo no recibió esta enmienda. En cada maceta se sembró una plántula de C. annuum, y a la semana postsiembra se inoculó 5000 huevos de M. incognita.A las ocho semanas, se evaluaron los nódulos en sus raíces. Todas las plantas presentaron nódulos; aunque, en aquellas de los grupos experimentales el número de éstos fue menor que en las plantas testigo, con diferencia estadística significativa (p 0,05. Se concluye que el follaje de T. minutaadicionado como enmienda orgánica al 20, 35 y 50% al suelo de cultivo de plantas de C. annuum limita la nodulación radicular ocasionada por M. incognita. Lo cual sugiere su uso potencial en el control de este nematodo.The effect of the foliage of Tagetes minuta"huacatay" on Meloidogyne incognitaroot-galling on Capsicum annuum"paprika pepper" cultured in a greenhouse was researched, to obtain a control strategy for this nema-tode. Three experimental groups and one control with 12 pots each were used, which contained sterilized soil and sand (1:1. To this substrate was added cut foliage of T. minutaat 20, 35 and 50% (v/v according to the experimental group, and the control group remained without this amendment. In each pot a seedling of C. annuum was sown, and one week post-seeding was inoculated with 5000 eggs of M. incognita. Eight weeks later the root galling was evaluated. All the plants had root galling; although the number of galls in plants of the experimental

  17. 7 CFR 457.148 - Fresh market pepper crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fresh market pepper crop insurance provisions. 457.148... pepper crop insurance provisions. The fresh market pepper crop insurance provisions for the 1999 and... Fresh Market Pepper Crop Provisions If a conflict exists among the policy provisions, the order of...

  18. Evaluation of diversity in Bulgarian pepper cultivars by agronomical traits and ISSR markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsonev Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Information about the genetic variation among cultivars of vegetable crops is of vital importance for improvement of plant breeding programmes worldwide. The objectives of this study were to group 19 pepper (Capsicum annuum L. cultivars from the collection of Maritsa Vegetable Crops Research Institute, Plovdiv, Bulgariainto clusters according to their distances as estimated by agronomic traits and 9 di-and tri -nucleotide inter simple sequence repeat polymorphism (ISSR markers and to assess the relationships between them. The phenotypic characterization during 3 consecutive years revealed significant differences among Bulgarian cultivars for the studied 13 phenotypic traits. The biplot analysis of quantitative traits showed that the most strongly correlating traits with the first axis (55.6% of variance were fruit width, fruit weight and pericarp thickness (in the negative direction of the axis, and plant height (PH (in the positive direction. The most discriminative traits, considering the second axis (22.6% of variance were fruit length (FL and to a lesser extent the stem height (StH. The correspondence analysis of the qualitative traits showed that the intensity of the colour of the fruit (before and at maturity, fruit colourbefore maturity and fruit shape in longitudinal section were the most discriminative characteristics for the first two dimensions. The agronomic traits data and 7 dinucleotide ISSR primers were used to estimate the pairwise genetic distances. Higher mean phenotypic distance (0.414 in comparison to the genotypic ones (0.214 among the cultivars was observed, indicating higher phenotypic diversity among them. A highly significant, positive correlation between the agronomic data and ISSR marker-based matrices (r=0.41, p=0.001was detected. This indicates that ISSR distance tended to reflect that of the agronomics ones. However, additional molecular studies and large collection of highly diverse genotypes are needed to reveal

  19. IMPROVED METHODS OF OBTAINING PEPPER SEEDLINGS

    OpenAIRE

    Florina Uleanu

    2012-01-01

    This paper refers to the effect of different types of pots on the level of growth and development of the pepper seedlings in order to clarify the influences caused by use of different recipes transplanters pots. Different biocomposites from renewable resources biodegradable nutritive support were studied. Seedlings were grown in 4 variants of pots M1 (V1), M2 (V2), M3 (V3) and jiffy- pots (V4). The height of the aerial part varied from 14.5 (V1) to 17.4 cm (V4), whereas the root length varied...

  20. A comprehensive view of expression profiles dynamics of capsaicinoid biosynthesis-related genes during pepper fruit development and under meja treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, M.; Huo, J.; Zhu, H.; Zhang, Z.

    2018-01-01

    Capsaicinoids are a group of secondary plant metabolites which are synthesized and accumulated only in the fruits of peppers (Capsicum annuum L.). In this paper, the fruits of nadao chili peppers were used as experiment materials and the mechanism of capsaicinoid biosynthesis was studied. HPLC studies revealed that capsaicinoid accumulation in the developing fruits initially occurred at 24 days after pollination (DAP), was increasing at 36 DAP, and peaked at 48 DAP. Eleven genes that encoded enzymes involved in capsaicinoid biosynthesis were isolated and characterized. Gene expression with quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis demonstrated that capsaicin synthase (CaCS) was expressed only in the placenta of the fruit, while the other ten genes were expressed in all tissues tested, with nine of the eleven genes (with the exception of cinnamic acid-4-hydroxylase [CaCa4H] and p-coumaric acid-3-hydroxylase [CaCa3H]) being strongly expressed in placenta tissue. Spatial expression analysis demonstrated that the 11 genes could be grouped into four categories, based on the patterns of relative expression of the genes during fruit development. Category I contained two genes, which displayed a bell-shaped expression pattern, with peak expression at 24 DAP. Category II contained five genes, the expression of which increased steadily from 0 to 36 DAP, peaking at 36 DAP. Category III comprises two genes, expression of which peaked at 48 DAP. Category IV consists of two genes, which were not expressed from 0 to 12 DAP, but then showed a high level of expression at 36 and 48 DAP. Treatment of the developing fruit with methyl jasmonate (MeJA) resulted in upregulation of the expression of each of the 11 genes. These results provide the first information on capsaicinoid biosynthesis and regulation during pepper fruit development. (author)