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Sample records for hostile neck anatomy

  1. Outcomes and Prognostic Factors of Endovascular Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair in Patients with Hostile Neck Anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Hye Doo; Lee, Yun Young; Lee, Seung Jin; Yim, Nam Yeol; Kim, Jae Kyu; Choi, Soo Jin Na; Jung, Sang Young; Chang, Nam Kyu; Lim, Jae Hoon

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the outcomes and find the prognostic factors of endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) in patients with hostile neck anatomy of the abdominal aorta. This study was performed on 100 patients with abdominal aneurysm who were treated with EVAR between March 2006 and December 2010. We divided the patients into two groups: good neck anatomy (GNA), and hostile neck anatomy (HNA) and then compared the primary success rate and the incidence rate of complications with EVAR between the two groups. Our aim was to determine the factors related to the complications of EVAR among HNA types. There were no significant differences of primary success rate and incidence rate of complications between the two groups. Among the types of HNA, the short neck angle [odd ratio (OR), 4.23; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.21-18.70; p = 0.023] and large neck angle (OR, 2.58; 95% CI, 0.15-11.85; p = 0.031) showed a low primary success rate. The short neck angle (OR, 2.32; 95% CI, 1.18-12.29; p = 0.002) and large neck angle (OR, 4.67; 95% CI, 0.14-19.07; p = 0.032) showed a high incidence rate of early type 1 complication. In the case of the large neck angle (OR, 3.78; 95% CI, 0.96-20.80; p = 0.047), the large neck thrombus (OR, 2.23; 95% CI, 0.24-7.12; p = 0.035) and large neck calcification (OR, 2.50; 95% CI, 0.08-18.37; p 0.043) showed a high incidence rate of complications within a year. The results suggest that patients with hostile neck anatomy can be treated with EVAR successfully, although there was a higher incidence of complications in patients with a short neck length, severe neck angulation, circumferential thrombosis, and calcified proximal neck.

  2. Outcomes of Endovascular Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair in Patients with Hostile Neck Anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choke, Edward; Munneke, Graham; Morgan, Robert; Belli, Anna-Maria; Loftus, Ian; McFarland, Robert; Loosemore, Thomas; Thompson, Matthew M.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose. The principal anatomic contraindication to endovascular aneurysm repair (EVR) is an unfavorable proximal aortic neck. With increasing experience, a greater proportion of patients with unfavorable neck anatomy are being offered EVR. This study aimed to evaluate outcomes in patients with challenging proximal aortic neck anatomy. Methods. Prospectively collected data from 147 consecutive patients who underwent EVR between December 1997 and April 2005 were supplemented with a retrospective review of medical records and radiological images. Unfavorable anatomic features were defined as neck diameter >28 mm, angulation >60 deg., circumferential thrombus >50%, and length 30 days) (p = 0.57), distal type I endoleak (p = 0.40), type III endoleak (p 0.51), secondary interventions (p = 1.0), aneurysm sac expansion (p = 0.44), or 30 day mortality (p = 0.70). The good neck group had a significantly increased incidence of type II endoleak (p = 0.023). By multivariate analysis, the incidence of intraoperative adjunctive procedures was significantly increased in the presence of severe angulation (p = 0.041, OR 3.08, 95% CI 1.05-9.04). Conclusion. Patients with severely hostile proximal aortic neck anatomy may be treated with EVR, although severely angulated necks require additional intraoperative procedures. Early outcomes are encouraging and suggest that indications for EVR may be expanded to include patients with hostile neck anatomy

  3. Outcomes after open repair for ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms in patients with friendly versus hostile aortoiliac anatomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beek, S. C.; Reimerink, J. J.; Vahl, A. C.; Wisselink, W.; Reekers, J. A.; Legemate, D. A.; Balm, R.

    2014-01-01

    In patients with a ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (RAAA), anatomic suitability for endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) depends on aortic neck and iliac artery characteristics. If the aortoiliac anatomy is unsuitable for EVAR ("hostile anatomy"), open repair (OR) is the next option. We

  4. Outcome-based anatomic criteria for defining the hostile aortic neck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, William D; Ouriel, Kenneth; Mehta, Manish; Varnagy, David; Moore, William M; Arko, Frank R; Joye, James; de Vries, Jean-Paul P M

    2015-06-01

    There is abundant evidence linking hostile proximal aortic neck anatomy to poor outcome after endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR), yet the definition of hostile anatomy varies from study to study. This current analysis was undertaken to identify anatomic criteria that are most predictive of success or failure at the aortic neck after EVAR. The study group comprised 221 patients in the Aneurysm Treatment using the Heli-FX Aortic Securement System Global Registry (ANCHOR) clinical trial, a population enriched with patients with challenging aortic neck anatomy and failure of sealing. Imaging protocols were not protocol specified but were performed according to the institution's standard of care. Core laboratory analysis assessed the three-dimensional centerline-reformatted computed tomography scans. Failure at the aortic neck was defined by type Ia endoleak occurring at the time of the initial endograft implantation or during follow-up. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to assess the value of each anatomic measure in the classification of aortic neck success and failure and to identify optimal thresholds of discrimination. Binary logistic regression was performed after excluding highly intercorrelated variables, creating a final model with significant predictors of outcome after EVAR. Among the 221 patients, 121 (54.8%) remained free of type Ia endoleak and 100 (45.2%) did not. Type Ia endoleaks presented immediately after endograft deployment in 58 (58.0%) or during follow-up in 42 (42.0%). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis identified 12 variables where the classification of patients with type Ia endoleak was significantly more accurate than chance alone. Increased aortic neck diameter at the lowest renal artery (P = .013) and at 5 mm (P = .008), 10 mm (P = .008), and 15 mm (P = .010) distally; aneurysm sac diameter (P = .001), common iliac artery diameters (right, P = .012; left, P = .032), and a conical (P = .049) neck

  5. Computer tomographic anatomy of the neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, R.

    1984-01-01

    The structures in the neck which can be recognised by computer tomography, and their course, is described. The cartilagenous larynx and trachea, the oesophagus, thyroid, sternocleidomastoid muscle, common carotid arteries and internal jugular veins can be recognised regularly. In addition, one can identify smaller muscles, vessels and nerves, such as the sterno-hyoid, omo-hyoid, anterior and medial scalenus muscles, the superior and inferior thyroid arteries and the suprascapular, internal thoracic and vertebral arteries, the thyro-cervical trunk and the vagus and phrenic nerves. An accurate knowledge of the anatomy is essential for the recognition of enlarged parathyroid glands. (orig.) [de

  6. Computer tomographic anatomy of the neck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenig, R.

    1984-01-01

    The structures in the neck which can be recognised by computer tomography, and their course, is described. The cartilagenous larynx and trachea, the oesophagus, thyroid, sternocleidomastoid muscle, common carotid arteries and internal jugular veins can be recognised regularly. In addition, one can identify smaller muscles, vessels and nerves, such as the sterno-hyoid, omo-hyoid, anterior and medial scalenus muscles, the superior and inferior thyroid arteries and the suprascapular, internal thoracic and vertebral arteries, the thyro-cervical trunk and the vagus and phrenic nerves. An accurate knowledge of the anatomy is essential for the recognition of enlarged parathyroid glands.

  7. Clinical and Surgical Anatomy of the Neck

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Russo, Gustavo A.H.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: to bring relevance on morphological details pertaining to medical and surgical applicability and demonstrate its value as an unavoidable mainstay for diagnosis and mangement of head and neck pathology.Materials and method: a. standarized dissections, of preserved adult human corpses, to obtain anatomical pieces for teaching purposes in school of medicine, axial slices and its comparative study with computed tomography (CT) images. b.application of normalized surgical techniques...

  8. Midterm outcome of EndoAnchors for the prevention of endoleak and stent-graft migration in patients with challenging proximal aortic neck anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, William D; de Vries, Jean-Paul P M; Ouriel, Kenneth; Mehta, Manish; Varnagy, David; Moore, William M; Arko, Frank R; Joye, James; Henretta, John

    2015-04-01

    To explore the use of EndoAnchors as an adjunct to endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair for prevention of proximal neck complications in patients with challenging neck anatomy. Over a 28-month period, 208 patients (159 men; mean age 72±8 years) were enrolled in the ANCHOR prospective, multicenter registry (ClinicalTrials.gov; identifier NCT01534819) for prophylaxis against proximal neck complications. Patients were eligible when, in the opinion of the investigators, they were at increased risk for type Ia endoleak or migration owing to a hostile neck (length 28 mm, angulation >60°, mural thrombus or calcium >2 mm in thickness or >180° in circumference, or conical shape). Overall, 123/157 (78.3%) patients met the criteria for a hostile neck according to core laboratory assessment of 157 adequate preoperative computed tomographic (CT) images. Implantation of EndoAnchors was technically successful in 204/208 (98.1%) patients. The frequency of fracture was 0.3% (3/1118); there were no clinical sequelae associated with the fractures. Over the mean 14-month follow-up, 95.2% of patients were alive, and no deaths were attributable to EndoAnchors. There were no ruptures, migrations, or open surgical conversions. Aneurysm-related reinterventions were performed in 8 (3.8%) patients. Among 130 patients with postprocedure contrast CT studies, core laboratory analysis identified 2 (1.5%) patients with type Ia endoleaks. Aneurysm sac diameter decreased >5 mm in 42.9% of patients with CT scans at or beyond 1 year; 1.6% of patients developed sac enlargement >5 mm. Prophylactic EndoAnchor use for challenging aortic neck anatomy was associated with satisfactory midterm results. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Ultrasound comparison of external and internal neck anatomy with the LMA Unique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Steven M; Wojtczak, Jacek A; Cattano, Davide

    2017-12-01

    Internal neck anatomy landmarks and their relation after placement of an extraglottic airway devices have not been studied extensively by the use of ultrasound. Based on our group experience with external landmarks as well as internal landmarks evaluation with other techniques, we aimed use ultrasound to analyze the internal neck anatomy landmarks and the related changes due to the placement of the Laryngeal Mask Airway Unique. Observational pilot investigation. Non-obese adult patients with no evidence of airway anomalies, were recruited. External neck landmarks were measured based on a validated and standardized method by tape. Eight internal anatomical landmarks, reciprocal by the investigational hypothesis to the external landmarks, were also measured by ultrasound guidance. The internal landmarks were re-measured after optimal placement and inflation of the extraglottic airway devices cuff Laryngeal Mask Airway Unique. Six subjects were recruited. Ultrasound measurements of hyoid-mental distance, thyroid-cricoid distance, thyroid height, and thyroid width were found to be significantly ( p internal neck anatomy. The induced changes and respective specific internal neck anatomy landmarks could help to design devices that would modify their shape accordingly to areas of greatest displacement. Also, while external neck landmark measurements overestimate their respective internal neck landmarks, as we previously reported, the concordance of each measurement and their respective conversion factor could continue to be of help in sizing extraglottic airway devices. Due to the pilot nature of the study, more investigations are warranted.

  10. Ultrasound comparison of external and internal neck anatomy with the LMA Unique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven M. Lee

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Internal neck anatomy landmarks and their relation after placement of an extraglottic airway devices have not been studied extensively by the use of ultrasound. Based on our group experience with external landmarks as well as internal landmarks evaluation with other techniques, we aimed use ultrasound to analyze the internal neck anatomy landmarks and the related changes due to the placement of the Laryngeal Mask Airway Unique. Methods: Observational pilot investigation. Non-obese adult patients with no evidence of airway anomalies, were recruited. External neck landmarks were measured based on a validated and standardized method by tape. Eight internal anatomical landmarks, reciprocal by the investigational hypothesis to the external landmarks, were also measured by ultrasound guidance. The internal landmarks were re-measured after optimal placement and inflation of the extraglottic airway devices cuff Laryngeal Mask Airway Unique. Results: Six subjects were recruited. Ultrasound measurements of hyoid-mental distance, thyroid-cricoid distance, thyroid height, and thyroid width were found to be significantly (p < 0.05 overestimated using a tape measure. Sagittal neck landmark distances such as thyroid height, sternal-mental distance, and thyroid-cricoid distance significantly decreased after placement of the Laryngeal Mask Airway Unique. Conclusion: The laryngeal mask airway Unique resulted in significant changes in internal neck anatomy. The induced changes and respective specific internal neck anatomy landmarks could help to design devices that would modify their shape accordingly to areas of greatest displacement. Also, while external neck landmark measurements overestimate their respective internal neck landmarks, as we previously reported, the concordance of each measurement and their respective conversion factor could continue to be of help in sizing extraglottic airway devices. Due to the pilot nature of the study, more

  11. The functional anatomy of the neck and forelimbs of the Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The anatomy of the neck and forelimb of Chrysochloris asiatica is described and illustrated. The sequence of events during digging and modifications for fossorial action are described. Modifications include the appearance of a third bone in the forearm; the shortening and fusion of bones in the manus; enlarged processes ...

  12. High-resolution imaging of neural anatomy and pathology of the neck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jeong Hyun; Choi, Young Jun; Baek, Jung Hwan [Dept. of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cheng, Kai Lung [Dept. of Medical Imaging, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung (China)

    2017-01-15

    The neck has intricately connected neural structures, including cervical and brachial plexi, the sympathetic system, lower cranial nerves, and their branches. Except for brachial plexus, there has been little research regarding the normal imaging appearance or corresponding pathologies of neural structures in the neck. The development in imaging techniques with better spatial resolution and signal-to-noise ratio has made it possible to see many tiny nerves to predict complications related to image-guided procedures and to better assess treatment response, especially in the management of oncology patients. The purposes of this review is to present imaging-based anatomy of major nerves in the neck and explain their relevant clinical significance according to representative pathologies of regarded nerves in the neck.

  13. Magnetic resonance angiography of the neck vessels: technique and anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carriero, A.; Salute, L.

    1990-01-01

    The authors identified the standard projections for studying neck vessels with magnetic resonance angiography. Sixty volunteers underwent angio-MR of the arterial neck vessels with FISP 3D FT sequences obtained on the coronal and sagittal planes. The gradient-echo sequence (FISP 3D FT) was acquired with TR=0.04-0.08 s and TE=15 ms, with 25 grade flip angle. Single excitated slices of thickness ranging from 1-2 mm were included in the acquisition volume. Theses sequences were subsequently processed by the maximum intensity projection method. Two radiologist examined our results to choose the optimal projections. We used a semi-quantitative scale which allowed us to distinguish 3 different diagnostic levels for each projection: well-visualized vessels, poorly-visualized, and non-visualized ones. For each section axial rotations were performed ranging from 0 grade to 180 grade, with 15 grade i ntervals. On the coronal plane, rotations from 45 grade to 45 grade were the optimal ones to visualize the studied vessels. The 0 grade- 15 grade- 30 grade- 45 grade- 135 grade- 165 grade- 180 grade projections allowed the common carotids to be clearly demonstrated together with the verterbal arteries. The other projections appeared to be useless for diagnostic purposes. On the saggittal plane, rotations from 60 grade to 120 grade were the optimal ones. The 90 grade projection allowed the demonstration of all the big arterial vessel of the neck, including carotid bifurcation and internal and external carotids. The assessment of the optimal diagnostic projections for angio-MR of the neck vessels is helpful to reduce post-processing time. As a matter of fact, the immediate visualization, during the examination, of the standard projections allows further acquisitions to be obtained- if needed- to try to solve specific diagnostic doubts

  14. Head and Neck Anatomy: Effect of Focussed Near-Peer Teaching on Anatomical Confidence in Undergraduate Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Simon; Osborne, Max Sallis; Bowyer, Duncan

    2018-05-11

    To assess the effect of near-peer head and neck anatomy teaching on undergraduates and to quantify the benefit from a focussed teaching course. Near-peer teaching involves colleagues within close seniority and age proximity teaching one another on a specified topic. Small group teaching sessions were delivered to medical students on 3 key areas of ENT anatomy. Participants were given a precourse and postcourse questionnaire to determine the benefit attained from the course. An undergraduate anatomy course taking place at the University of Birmingham Medical School. A total of 30 medical students: 15 preclinical (years 1-2) and 15 clinical (years 3-5) medical students participated from a single institution. A total of 71% of students expressed inadequate teaching of head and neck anatomy in undergraduate curriculum. All students (n = 30) expressed benefit from the course, however the patterns of learning differed: preclinical students showed a significant improvement in both their ability to name anatomical structures and their application (p peer learning provides benefit to all medical undergraduates in the context of teaching anatomy which may make it a valuable teaching tool for the future of medical education. Copyright © 2018 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Paraganglioma Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Paraganglioma Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 648x576 ... View Download Large: 2700x2400 View Download Title: Paraganglioma Anatomy Description: Paraganglioma of the head and neck; drawing ...

  16. Head and Neck Margin Reduction With Adaptive Radiation Therapy: Robustness of Treatment Plans Against Anatomy Changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kranen, Simon van; Hamming-Vrieze, Olga; Wolf, Annelisa; Damen, Eugène; Herk, Marcel van; Sonke, Jan-Jakob

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: We set out to investigate loss of target coverage from anatomy changes in head and neck cancer patients as a function of applied safety margins and to verify a cone beam computed tomography (CBCT)–based adaptive strategy with an average patient anatomy to overcome possible target underdosage. Methods and Materials: For 19 oropharyngeal cancer patients, volumetric modulated arc therapy treatment plans (2 arcs; simultaneous integrated boost, 70 and 54.25 Gy; 35 fractions) were automatically optimized with uniform clinical target volume (CTV)–to–planning target volume margins of 5, 3, and 0 mm. We applied b-spline CBCT–to–computed tomography (CT) deformable registration to allow recalculation of the dose on modified CT scans (planning CT deformed to daily CBCT following online positioning) and dose accumulation in the planning CT scan. Patients with deviations in primary or elective CTV coverage >2 Gy were identified as candidates for adaptive replanning. For these patients, a single adaptive intervention was simulated with an average anatomy from the first 10 fractions. Results: Margin reduction from 5 mm to 3 mm to 0 mm generally led to an organ-at-risk (OAR) mean dose (D_m_e_a_n) sparing of approximately 1 Gy/mm. CTV shrinkage was mainly seen in the elective volumes (up to 10%), likely related to weight loss. Despite online repositioning, substantial systematic errors were present (>3 mm) in lymph node CTV, the parotid glands, and the larynx. Nevertheless, the average increase in OAR dose was small: maximum of 1.2 Gy (parotid glands, D_m_e_a_n) for all applied margins. Loss of CTV coverage >2 Gy was found in 1, 3, and 7 of 73 CTVs, respectively. Adaptive intervention in 0-mm plans substantially improved coverage: in 5 of 7 CTVs (in 6 patients) to 2 Gy in 0-mm plans may be identified early in treatment using dose accumulation. A single intervention with an average anatomy derived from CBCT effectively mitigates discrepancies.

  17. Digital Cadavers: Online 2D Learning Resources Enhance Student Learning in Practical Head and Neck Anatomy within Dental Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud M. Bakr

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Head and neck anatomy provides core concepts within preclinical dental curricula. Increased student numbers, reduced curricula time, and restricted access to laboratory-based human resources have increased technology enhanced learning approaches to support student learning. Potential advantages include cost-effectiveness, off-campus access, and self-directed review or mastery opportunities for students. This study investigated successful student learning within a first-year head and neck anatomy course at the School of Dentistry and Oral Health, Griffith University, Australia, taught by the same teaching team, between 2010 and 2015. Student learning success was compared, for cohorts before and after implementation of a supplementary, purpose-designed online digital library and quiz bank. Success of these online resources was confirmed using overall students’ performance within the course assessment tasks and Student Evaluation of Course surveys and online access data. Engagement with these supplementary 2D online resources, targeted at improving laboratory study, was positively evaluated by students (mean 85% and significantly increased their laboratory grades (mean difference 6%, P<0.027, despite being assessed using cadaveric resources. Written assessments in final exams were not significantly improved. Expanded use of supplementary online resources is planned to support student learning and success in head and neck anatomy, given the success of this intervention.

  18. Surface anatomy of major anatomical landmarks of the neck in an adult population: A Ct Evaluation of Vertebral Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badshah, Masroor; Soames, Roger; Ibrahim, Muhammad; Khan, Muhammad Jaffar; Khan, Adnan

    2017-09-01

    To compare the projectional surface anatomy of healthy individuals in an adult population with those with a thyroid mass, using computed tomography (CT). Sixteen slice CT images of 101 individuals were analyzed using a 32-bit Radiant DICOM viewer to establish the relationships among major anatomical landmarks in the neck and their vertebral levels. The structures investigated included: hard palate (HP), hyoid bone (HB) including body and lesser horns, soft palate (SP), thyroid gland (TG) (both superior and inferior poles), thyroid gland anteroposterior (APD) and superoinferior (SID) diameters, thyroid isthmus (TI) superoinferior dimension, epiglottis, vertebral arteries (right and left), and both right and left parotid glands (superior and inferior extents). The vertebral levels noted most frequently were: body of hyoid bone (C4, 42.71%); lesser horns of hyoid bone (C3, 36.46%); thyroid gland superior pole (C6, 31.25%); and thyroid gland inferior pole (T2, 30.2%). TG-ID, TG-APD, and TG-SID were not significantly different between males and females in the healthy group; however, there was a significant gender difference in thyroid gland inferior diameter in the pathology group [males 2.16(±1.16) vs. females 3.37(±1.30), P = 0.01, paired sample t-test]. Further studies are needed to determine whether neck pathology in those with a thyroid mass affects the dimensions of the thyroid gland. Moreover, the surface anatomy of the neck should be revisited using modern imaging techniques to address inconsistencies in anatomy and clinical reference texts. Clin. Anat. 30:781-787, 2017. © 2017Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Radiographic anatomy of the proximal femur: femoral neck fracture vs. transtrochanteric fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lecia Carneiro Leão de Araújo Lima

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the correlation between radiographic parameters of the proximal femur with femoral neck fractures or transtrochanteric fractures. METHODS: Cervicodiaphyseal angle (CDA, femoral neck width (FNW, hip axis length (HAL, and acetabular tear drop distance (ATD were analyzed in 30 pelvis anteroposterior view X-rays of patients with femoral neck fractures (n = 15 and transtrochanteric fractures (n = 15. The analysis was performed by comparing the results of the X-rays with femoral neck fractures and with transtrochanteric fractures. RESULTS: No statistically significant differences between samples were observed. CONCLUSION: There was no correlation between radiographic parameters evaluated and specific occurrence of femoral neck fractures or transtrochanteric fractures.

  20. Five-step neck lift: integrating anatomy with clinical practice to optimize results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimhan, Kailash; Stuzin, James M; Rohrich, Rod J

    2013-08-01

    A harmonious and youthful appearing neckline is arguably the most vital aspect of a successful facial rejuveation. Without sound principles, the neck appears skeletonized, tethered, and hollow. The anatomical studies that the authors have performed regarding the neck, jowl, and subplatysmal elements have influenced the techniques that they now use. The authors' approach modifies the classic techniques of the past, and seeks a nuanced approach to each patient by resuspension and reshaping of deeper neck elements. In this article, the authors apply their anatomical research and cadaveric studies to demonstrate and support their neck-lift techniques. The authors integrate their knowledge to describe how the technique of one of the senior authors (R.J.R.) has evolved over time. The main tenets of the authors' approach have evolved into a sequence that involves skin undermining over the neck and cheek, submental access to the neck, with possible excision of fat and midline plication of the platysma with release of the muscle inferiorly, platysmal window suspension laterally, precise release of the mandibular septum and ligament if needed, and finally redraping of the superficial musculoaponeurotic system (SMAS) by plication or SMASecomy. These five steps ensure correction of jowling, a smooth jawline, and a well-shaped neck. The five-step neck lift helps to optimize results in creating the ideal neck contour. The authors provide four points that should be considered in any neck-lift procedure. The end result is a well-defined, well-contoured neck, with an approach grounded in sound anatomical principles.

  1. 3D printing of an aortic aneurysm to facilitate decision making and device selection for endovascular aneurysm repair in complex neck anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Matthew D B S; Laycock, Stephen D; Brown, James R I; Jakeways, Matthew

    2013-12-01

    To describe rapid prototyping or 3-dimensional (3D) printing of aneurysms with complex neck anatomy to facilitate endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). A 75-year-old man had a 6.6-cm infrarenal aortic aneurysm that appeared on computed tomographic angiography to have a sharp neck angulation of ~90°. However, although the computed tomography (CT) data were analyzed using centerline of flow, the true neck length and relations of the ostial origins were difficult to determine. No multidisciplinary consensus could be reached as to which stent-graft to use owing to these borderline features of the neck anatomy. Based on past experience with rapid prototyping technology, a decision was taken to print a model of the aneurysm to aid in visualization of the neck anatomy. The CT data were segmented, processed, and converted into a stereolithographic format representing the lumen as a 3D volume, from which a full-sized replica was printed within 24 hours. The model demonstrated that the neck was adequate for stent-graft repair using the Aorfix device. Rapid prototyping of aortic aneurysms is feasible and can aid decision making and device delivery. Further work is required to test the value of 3D replicas in planning procedures and their impact on procedure time, radiation dose, and procedure cost.

  2. Adaptive radiotherapy with an average anatomy model: Evaluation and quantification of residual deformations in head and neck cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kranen, Simon van; Mencarelli, Angelo; Beek, Suzanne van; Rasch, Coen; Herk, Marcel van; Sonke, Jan-Jakob

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose: To develop and validate an adaptive intervention strategy for radiotherapy of head-and-neck cancer that accounts for systematic deformations by modifying the planning-CT (pCT) to the average misalignments in daily cone beam CT (CBCT) measured with deformable registration (DR). Methods and materials: Daily CBCT scans (808 scans) for 25 patients were retrospectively registered to the pCT with B-spline DR. The average deformation vector field ( ) was used to deform the pCT for adaptive intervention. Two strategies were simulated: single intervention after 10 fractions and weekly intervention with an from the previous week. The model was geometrically validated with the residual misalignment of anatomical landmarks both on bony-anatomy (BA; automatically generated) and soft-tissue (ST; manually identified). Results: Systematic deformations were 2.5/3.4 mm vector length (BA/ST). Single intervention reduced deformations to 1.5/2.7 mm (BA/ST). Weekly intervention resulted in 1.0/2.2 mm (BA/ST) and accounted better for progressive changes. 15 patients had average systematic deformations >2 mm (BA): reductions were 1.1/1.9 mm (single/weekly BA). ST improvements were underestimated due to observer and registration variability. Conclusions: Adaptive intervention with a pCT modified to the average anatomy during treatment successfully reduces systematic deformations. The improved accuracy could possibly be exploited in margin reduction and/or dose escalation

  3. The Head and Neck Anatomy of Sea Turtles (Cryptodira: Chelonioidea) and Skull Shape in Testudines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Marc E. H.; Werneburg, Ingmar; Curtis, Neil; Penrose, Rod; O’Higgins, Paul; Fagan, Michael J.; Evans, Susan E.

    2012-01-01

    Background Sea turtles (Chelonoidea) are a charismatic group of marine reptiles that occupy a range of important ecological roles. However, the diversity and evolution of their feeding anatomy remain incompletely known. Methodology/Principal Findings Using computed tomography and classical comparative anatomy we describe the cranial anatomy in two sea turtles, the loggerhead (Caretta caretta) and Kemp’s ridley (Lepidochelys kempii), for a better understanding of sea turtle functional anatomy and morphological variation. In both taxa the temporal region of the skull is enclosed by bone and the jaw joint structure and muscle arrangement indicate that palinal jaw movement is possible. The tongue is relatively small, and the hyoid apparatus is not as conspicuous as in some freshwater aquatic turtles. We find several similarities between the muscles of C. caretta and L. kempii, but comparison with other turtles suggests only one of these characters may be derived: connection of the m. adductor mandibulae internus into the Pars intramandibularis via the Zwischensehne. The large fleshy origin of the m. adductor mandibulae externus Pars superficialis from the jugal seems to be a characteristic feature of sea turtles. Conclusions/Significance In C. caretta and L. kempii the ability to suction feed does not seem to be as well developed as that found in some freshwater aquatic turtles. Instead both have skulls suited to forceful biting. This is consistent with the observation that both taxa tend to feed on relatively slow moving but sometimes armoured prey. The broad fleshy origin of the m. adductor mandibulae externus Pars superficialis may be linked to thecheek region being almost fully enclosed in bone but the relationship is complex. PMID:23144831

  4. The head and neck anatomy of sea turtles (Cryptodira: Chelonioidea and skull shape in Testudines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc E H Jones

    Full Text Available Sea turtles (Chelonoidea are a charismatic group of marine reptiles that occupy a range of important ecological roles. However, the diversity and evolution of their feeding anatomy remain incompletely known.Using computed tomography and classical comparative anatomy we describe the cranial anatomy in two sea turtles, the loggerhead (Caretta caretta and Kemp's ridley (Lepidochelys kempii, for a better understanding of sea turtle functional anatomy and morphological variation. In both taxa the temporal region of the skull is enclosed by bone and the jaw joint structure and muscle arrangement indicate that palinal jaw movement is possible. The tongue is relatively small, and the hyoid apparatus is not as conspicuous as in some freshwater aquatic turtles. We find several similarities between the muscles of C. caretta and L. kempii, but comparison with other turtles suggests only one of these characters may be derived: connection of the m. adductor mandibulae internus into the Pars intramandibularis via the Zwischensehne. The large fleshy origin of the m. adductor mandibulae externus Pars superficialis from the jugal seems to be a characteristic feature of sea turtles.In C. caretta and L. kempii the ability to suction feed does not seem to be as well developed as that found in some freshwater aquatic turtles. Instead both have skulls suited to forceful biting. This is consistent with the observation that both taxa tend to feed on relatively slow moving but sometimes armoured prey. The broad fleshy origin of the m. adductor mandibulae externus Pars superficialis may be linked to thecheek region being almost fully enclosed in bone but the relationship is complex.

  5. The head and neck anatomy of sea turtles (Cryptodira: Chelonioidea) and skull shape in Testudines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Marc E H; Werneburg, Ingmar; Curtis, Neil; Penrose, Rod; O'Higgins, Paul; Fagan, Michael J; Evans, Susan E

    2012-01-01

    Sea turtles (Chelonoidea) are a charismatic group of marine reptiles that occupy a range of important ecological roles. However, the diversity and evolution of their feeding anatomy remain incompletely known. Using computed tomography and classical comparative anatomy we describe the cranial anatomy in two sea turtles, the loggerhead (Caretta caretta) and Kemp's ridley (Lepidochelys kempii), for a better understanding of sea turtle functional anatomy and morphological variation. In both taxa the temporal region of the skull is enclosed by bone and the jaw joint structure and muscle arrangement indicate that palinal jaw movement is possible. The tongue is relatively small, and the hyoid apparatus is not as conspicuous as in some freshwater aquatic turtles. We find several similarities between the muscles of C. caretta and L. kempii, but comparison with other turtles suggests only one of these characters may be derived: connection of the m. adductor mandibulae internus into the Pars intramandibularis via the Zwischensehne. The large fleshy origin of the m. adductor mandibulae externus Pars superficialis from the jugal seems to be a characteristic feature of sea turtles. In C. caretta and L. kempii the ability to suction feed does not seem to be as well developed as that found in some freshwater aquatic turtles. Instead both have skulls suited to forceful biting. This is consistent with the observation that both taxa tend to feed on relatively slow moving but sometimes armoured prey. The broad fleshy origin of the m. adductor mandibulae externus Pars superficialis may be linked to thecheek region being almost fully enclosed in bone but the relationship is complex.

  6. Anatomy of the jawline, neck, and perioral area with clinical correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Anurag; Dejoseph, Louis; Silver, William

    2005-02-01

    The dramatic rise in the number of cosmetic procedures performed during the past 5 years reflects a heightened public awareness of and interest in facial rejuvenation. Concomitant with this rise has been the addition of new injectable fillers, lasers, and minimal incision techniques to the surgeon's armamentarium. Perhaps the greatest applicability of these modalities has been the rejuvenation of the perioral region, neck, and jawline, with reduced "downtime" but visible results. Signs of aging that are clearly visible in the lower third of the face include the loss of elasticity and descent of fat in the jowl region; laxity of the neck skin, muscle, and fat; development of perioral rhytids, deep nasolabial folds, and marionette lines; and the loss of definition of the lips. The purpose of this article is to highlight our approach to rejuvenation of these areas, elucidate the role of newer technologies, and provide special techniques and pearls utilized in rhytidectomy.

  7. From fish to modern humans--comparative anatomy, homologies and evolution of the head and neck musculature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diogo, R; Abdala, V; Lonergan, N; Wood, B A

    2008-10-01

    In a recent paper Diogo (2008) reported the results of the first part of an investigation of the comparative anatomy, homologies and evolution of the head and neck muscles of osteichthyans (bony fish + tetrapods). That report mainly focused on actinopterygian fish, but also compared these fish with certain non-mammalian sarcopterygians. The present paper focuses mainly on sarcopterygians, and particularly on how the head and neck muscles have evolved during the transitions from sarcopterygian fish and non-mammalian tetrapods to monotreme and therian mammals, including modern humans. The data obtained from our dissections of the head and neck muscles of representative members of sarcopterygian fish, amphibians, reptiles, monotremes and therian mammals, such as rodents, tree-shrews, colugos and primates, including modern humans, are compared with the information available in the literature. Our observations and comparisons indicate that the number of mandibular and true branchial muscles (sensu this work) present in modern humans is smaller than that found in mammals such as tree-shrews, rats and monotremes, as well as in reptiles such as lizards. Regarding the pharyngeal musculature, there is an increase in the number of muscles at the time of the evolutionary transition leading to therian mammals, but there was no significant increase during the transition leading to the emergence of higher primates and modern humans. The number of hypobranchial muscles is relatively constant within the therian mammals we examined, although in this case modern humans have more muscles than other mammals. The number of laryngeal and facial muscles in modern humans is greater than that found in most other therian taxa. Interestingly, modern humans possess peculiar laryngeal and facial muscles that are not present in the majority of the other mammalian taxa; this seems to corroborate the crucial role played by vocal communication and by facial expressions in primate and especially in

  8. Anatomy of reflux: a growing health problem affecting structures of the head and neck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipan, Michael J; Reidenberg, Joy S; Laitman, Jeffrey T

    2006-11-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) are sibling diseases that are a modern-day plague. Millions of Americans suffer from their sequelae, ranging from subtle annoyances to life-threatening illnesses such as asthma, sleep apnea, and cancer. Indeed, the recognized prevalence of GERD alone has increased threefold throughout the 1990s. Knowledge of the precise etiologies for GERD and LPR is becoming essential for proper treatment. This review focuses on the anatomical, physiological, neurobiological, and cellular aspects of these diseases. By definition, gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is the passage of gastric contents into the esophagus; when excessive and damaging to the esophageal mucosa, GERD results. Reflux that advances to the laryngopharynx and, subsequently, to other regions of the head and neck such as the larynx, oral cavity, nasopharynx, nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, and even middle ear results in LPR. While GERD has long been identified as a source of esophageal disease, LPR has only recently been implicated in causing head and neck problems. Recent research has identified four anatomical/physiological "barriers" that serve as guardians to prevent the cranial incursion of reflux: the gastroesophageal junction, esophageal motor function and acid clearance, the upper esophageal sphincter, and pharyngeal and laryngeal mucosal resistance. Sequential failure of all four barriers is necessary to produce LPR. While it has become apparent that GER must precede both GERD and LPR, the head and neck distribution of the latter clearly separates these diseases as distinct entities warranting specialized focus and treatment.

  9. Nasal Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Caregivers Contact ARS HOME ANATOMY Nasal Anatomy Sinus Anatomy Nasal Physiology Nasal Endoscopy Skull Base Anatomy Virtual Anatomy Disclosure ... Size + - Home > ANATOMY > Nasal Anatomy Nasal Anatomy Sinus Anatomy Nasal Physiology Nasal Endoscopy Skull Base Anatomy Virtual Anatomy Disclosure ...

  10. Sinus Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Caregivers Contact ARS HOME ANATOMY Nasal Anatomy Sinus Anatomy Nasal Physiology Nasal Endoscopy Skull Base Anatomy Virtual Anatomy Disclosure ... Size + - Home > ANATOMY > Sinus Anatomy Nasal Anatomy Sinus Anatomy Nasal Physiology Nasal Endoscopy Skull Base Anatomy Virtual Anatomy Disclosure ...

  11. Hostility, drinking pattern and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyle, Stephen H; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Grønbaek, Morten

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the association of hostility to drinking pattern and whether this association mediated the relation of hostility to mortality.......This study examined the association of hostility to drinking pattern and whether this association mediated the relation of hostility to mortality....

  12. Perforator anatomy of the radial forearm free flap versus the ulnar forearm free flap for head and neck reconstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hekner, D.D.; Roeling, TAP; van Cann, EM

    The aim of this study was to investigate the vascular anatomy of the distal forearm in order to optimize the choice between the radial forearm free flap and the ulnar forearm free flap and to select the best site to harvest the flap. The radial and ulnar arteries of seven fresh cadavers were

  13. The acts of hostility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordoliani, Y.S.; Renaudeau, C.; Debord, T.; Giordan, D.; Marx, J.S.; Cremniter, D.; Peton-Klein, D.; Vincent, J.P.; Drozda-Senkowska, E.; Arciszewski, T.; Verger, P.; Cosset, J.M.; Lacronique, J.F.; Gourmelon, P.

    2005-01-01

    The events of 2001 showed that all the scenarios of hostility are possible. They can arise wherever and whenever and in one or several strategic places. The weapon can be of biological, chemical or radiological origin, used only or in a combined way. The consideration of this problem is for multiple and collective constituent. It implies an organization, methods of detection, a care of the injured persons and a public information. These various points were presented and discussed throughout this day. (N.C.)

  14. Perforator anatomy of the radial forearm free flap versus the ulnar forearm free flap for head and neck reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hekner, D D; Roeling, T A P; Van Cann, E M

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the vascular anatomy of the distal forearm in order to optimize the choice between the radial forearm free flap and the ulnar forearm free flap and to select the best site to harvest the flap. The radial and ulnar arteries of seven fresh cadavers were injected with epoxy resin (Araldite) and the perforating arteries were dissected. The number of clinically relevant perforators from the radial and ulnar arteries was not significantly different in the distal forearm. Most perforators were located in the proximal half of the distal one third, making this part probably the safest location for flap harvest. Close to the wrist, i.e. most distally, there were more perforators on the ulnar side than on the radial side. The ulnar artery stained 77% of the skin surface area of the forearm, showing the ulnar forearm free flap to be more suitable than the radial forearm free flap for the restoration of large defects. Copyright © 2016 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Wind farms in hostile terrain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    This report summarises the results of a study aimed at reducing risks associated with wind farms in hostile conditions, evaluating and refining design procedures for such sites, and reviewing the results in terms of the current design practice. The scientific and technical background to the study is described, and measurements taken at two hostile sites in the UK and Italy, the wind data, wind turbine loads, the impact of icing, and wind turbine design for hostile conditions are examined, and actual and planned activities are compared.

  16. The Detection of Hostile Structures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Colton, David; Monk, Peter B

    2004-01-01

    This grant was concerned with the development of the linear sampling method to determine the location and shape of hostile structures hidden in a known background medium from measured electromagnetic scattering data...

  17. Congenital neck masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Peter A; Hirsch, David L; Dierks, Eric J

    2008-08-01

    Congenital neck lesions reflect abnormal embryogenesis in head and neck development. A thorough knowledge of embryology and anatomy is critical in the diagnosis and treatment of these lesions. The appropriate diagnosis of these lesions is necessary to provide appropriate treatment and long-term follow up, because some of these lesions may undergo malignant transformation or be harbingers of malignant disease.

  18. The influence of non-rigid anatomy and patient positioning on endoscopy-CT image registration in the head and neck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, W Scott; Yang, Jinzhong; Wendt, Richard; Beadle, Beth M; Rao, Arvind; Wang, Xin A; Court, Laurence E

    2017-08-01

    To assess the influence of non-rigid anatomy and differences in patient positioning between CT acquisition and endoscopic examination on endoscopy-CT image registration in the head and neck. Radiotherapy planning CTs and 31-35 daily treatment-room CTs were acquired for nineteen patients. Diagnostic CTs were acquired for thirteen of the patients. The surfaces of the airways were segmented on all scans and triangular meshes were created to render virtual endoscopic images with a calibrated pinhole model of an endoscope. The virtual images were used to take projective measurements throughout the meshes, with reference measurements defined as those taken on the planning CTs and test measurements defined as those taken on the daily or diagnostic CTs. The influence of non-rigid anatomy was quantified by 3D distance errors between reference and test measurements on the daily CTs, and the influence of patient positioning was quantified by 3D distance errors between reference and test measurements on the diagnostic CTs. The daily CT measurements were also used to investigate the influences of camera-to-surface distance, surface angle, and the interval of time between scans. Average errors in the daily CTs were 0.36 ± 0.61 cm in the nasal cavity, 0.58 ± 0.83 cm in the naso- and oropharynx, and 0.47 ± 0.73 cm in the hypopharynx and larynx. Average errors in the diagnostic CTs in those regions were 0.52 ± 0.69 cm, 0.65 ± 0.84 cm, and 0.69 ± 0.90 cm, respectively. All CTs had errors heavily skewed towards 0, albeit with large outliers. Large camera-to-surface distances were found to increase the errors, but the angle at which the camera viewed the surface had no effect. The errors in the Day 1 and Day 15 CTs were found to be significantly smaller than those in the Day 30 CTs (P projective measurement errors. In general, these errors are largest when the camera is in the superior pharynx, where it sees large distances and a lot of muscle motion. The

  19. The anatomy and ontogeny of the head, neck, pectoral, and upper limb muscles of Lemur catta and Propithecus coquereli (primates): discussion on the parallelism between ontogeny and phylogeny and implications for evolutionary and developmental biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diogo, Rui; Molnar, Julia L; Smith, Timothy D

    2014-08-01

    Most anatomical studies of primates focus on skeletal tissues, but muscular anatomy can provide valuable information about phylogeny, functional specializations, and evolution. Herein, we present the first detailed description of the head, neck, pectoral, and upper limb muscles of the fetal lemuriforms Lemur catta (Lemuridae) and Propithecus coquereli (Indriidae). These two species belong to the suborder Strepsirrhini, which is often presumed to possess some plesiomorphic anatomical features within primates. We compare the muscular anatomy of the fetuses with that of infants and adults and discuss the evolutionary and developmental implications. The fetal anatomy reflects a phylogenetically more plesiomorphic condition in nine of the muscles we studied and a more derived condition in only two, supporting a parallel between ontogeny and phylogeny. The derived exceptions concern muscles with additional insertions in the fetus which are lost in adults of the same species, that is, flexor carpi radialis inserts on metacarpal III and levator claviculae inserts on the clavicle. Interestingly, these two muscles are involved in movements of the pectoral girdle and upper limb, which are mainly important for activities in later stages of life, such as locomotion and prey capture, rather than activities in fetal life. Accordingly, our findings suggest that some exceptions to the "ontogeny parallels phylogeny" rule are probably driven more by ontogenetic constraints than by adaptive plasticity. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Larynx Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Larynx Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 648x576 ... View Download Large: 2700x2400 View Download Title: Larynx Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the larynx; drawing shows the ...

  1. Vulva Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Vulva Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x634 ... View Download Large: 3000x2640 View Download Title: Vulva Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the vulva; drawing shows the ...

  2. Pharynx Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Pharynx Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x576 ... View Download Large: 3000x2400 View Download Title: Pharynx Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the pharynx; drawing shows the ...

  3. Hot Temperatures, Hostile Affect, Hostile Cognition, and Arousal: Tests of a General Model of Affective Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Craig A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Used a general model of affective aggression to generate predictions concerning hot temperatures. Results indicated that hot temperatures produced increases in hostile affect, hostile cognition, and physiological arousal. Concluded that hostile affect, hostile cognitions, and excitation transfer processes may all increase the likelihood of biased…

  4. Hospitality and hostility in hospitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tina Blegind; Aanestad, Margunn

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the adoption of healthcare information systems (HIS) from a user perspective. Our case study concerns how a group of orthopaedic surgeons experienced and reacted to the adoption and mandatory use of an Electronic Patient Record system in a Danish hospital. We...... propose to use the concepts of hospitality and hostility to turn our attention to the interaction between the host (the surgeons) and the guest (the information system) and consider how the boundaries between them evolved in the everyday work practices. As an alternative to previous studies on technology...

  5. Soft-tissue anatomy of the primates: phylogenetic analyses based on the muscles of the head, neck, pectoral region and upper limb, with notes on the evolution of these muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diogo, R; Wood, B

    2011-09-01

    Apart from molecular data, nearly all the evidence used to study primate relationships comes from hard tissues. Here, we provide details of the first parsimony and Bayesian cladistic analyses of the order Primates based exclusively on muscle data. The most parsimonious tree obtained from the cladistic analysis of 166 characters taken from the head, neck, pectoral and upper limb musculature is fully congruent with the most recent evolutionary molecular tree of Primates. That is, this tree recovers not only the relationships among the major groups of primates, i.e. Strepsirrhini {Tarsiiformes [Platyrrhini (Cercopithecidae, Hominoidea)]}, but it also recovers the relationships within each of these inclusive groups. Of the 301 character state changes occurring in this tree, ca. 30% are non-homoplasic evolutionary transitions; within the 220 changes that are unambiguously optimized in the tree, ca. 15% are reversions. The trees obtained by using characters derived from the muscles of the head and neck are more similar to the most recent evolutionary molecular tree than are the trees obtained by using characters derived from the pectoral and upper limb muscles. It was recently argued that since the Pan/Homo split, chimpanzees accumulated more phenotypic adaptations than humans, but our results indicate that modern humans accumulated more muscle character state changes than chimpanzees, and that both these taxa accumulated more changes than gorillas. This overview of the evolution of the primate head, neck, pectoral and upper limb musculature suggests that the only muscle groups for which modern humans have more muscles than most other extant primates are the muscles of the face, larynx and forearm. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Anatomy © 2011 Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland.

  6. Eye Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News About Us Donate In This Section Eye Anatomy en Español email Send this article to a ... You at Risk For Glaucoma? Childhood Glaucoma Eye Anatomy Five Common Glaucoma Tests Glaucoma Facts and Stats ...

  7. Hand Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... All Topics A-Z Videos Infographics Symptom Picker Anatomy Bones Joints Muscles Nerves Vessels Tendons About Hand Surgery What is ... Hand Therapist? Media Find a Hand Surgeon Home Anatomy Bones Joints Muscles Nerves Vessels Tendons Anatomy The upper extremity is ...

  8. TH-CD-207A-10: Using the Gamma Index to Flag Changes in Anatomy During Radiation Therapy of Head and Neck Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaly, B; Battista, J [London Regional Cancer Program, London, Ontario (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, Western University, London, Ontario Canada (Canada); Kempe, J; Mitchell, S [London Regional Cancer Program, London, Ontario (Canada); Venkatesan, V [London Regional Cancer Program, London, Ontario (Canada); Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, Western University, London, Ontario (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: This article presents a fast algorithm for comparing 3-D anatomy from Cone-Beam CT (CBCT) imaging using the gamma comparison index and to demonstrate how this can be used to flag patients for possible re-planning of treatment. Methods: CBCT scans acquired on a Varian linear accelerator during treatment were used as input to the gamma comparator using thresholds of 5 mm distance to agreement and 30 Hounsfield Unit CT number difference. The fraction 1 CBCT study was initially used as the reference. Should there be a re-plan during treatment, the reference resets to the CBCT study acquired on the day 1 of the re-plan. Histograms of failing pixels (γ > 1) were generated from each 3-D gamma map. An indicator of anatomy congruence, the match quality parameter (MQP), was derived from failed pixel histograms using the 90th percentile gamma value. The MQP was plotted versus fraction number and related to actual repeat computed tomography (re-CT) order dates as decided by a radiation oncologist. From this, decision criteria were derived for the algorithm to “trigger” re-CT consideration and predictive power was scored using receiver-operator characteristic (ROC) analysis. Results: The MQP plot generally showed that the on-line match from CBCT image guidance deteriorated as the treatment progressed due to weight loss and tumor regression. The optimized MQP criteria for triggering re-CT consideration demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity, consistent with actual re-CT order dates within ± 3 fractions. Out of 20 patients that were actually re-planned, the algorithm failed to trigger a re-CT recommendation only twice and this was caused by CBCT ring artifacts. Conclusion: We have demonstrated that gamma comparisons can be used to evaluate CBCT-acquired anatomy pairs and, from this, an algorithm can be “trained” to flag patients for possible re-planning in a manner consistent with local radiation oncology practice.

  9. Social Hostility in Soccer and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Doesum, Niels J.; Van Prooijen, Jan-Willem; Verburgh, Lot; Van Lange, Paul A. M.

    2016-01-01

    Social hostility is seldom expressed overtly. More often than not, individuals try to get their hostile message across without risking violent altercations. However, subtle and relatively covert hostility is not easy to research. We suggest a novel way with the SoMi paradigm, a social decision making task that offers participants the opportunity to be socially mindful or socially hostile by leaving or limiting choice to others. Sampling a general population we find that, relative to friends and strangers, foes are indeed met with greater social hostility (Study 1). Focusing on the highly competitive environment of youth soccer, we find that rival team members elicit social hostility, whereas teammates elicit social mindfulness (Study 2). We conclude that social mindfulness and social hostility play a subtle role in the dynamics of interpersonal and/or intergroup relationships, in which leaving or limiting choice is one of the subtle ways to express benevolent versus hostile intentions; the SoMi paradigm may thus be helpful in identifying which way the ball rolls. PMID:27077379

  10. Hostile environments: Making a virtue of necessity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, E.A.; Kintner, E.E.

    1986-01-01

    Exciting opportunities are found in environments almost incomprehensibly, but not intolerably hostile. This paper reviews highlights of some of those encountered during TMI-2 core recovery efforts. Existing techniques were adapted and new ones invented as necessary to define the hostile environment in the damaged reactor and to work in it. The author describes some of these developments and the results of their application

  11. Toxic Familial Effects of Parental Hostility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buri, John R.; And Others

    In research efforts to account for the variance in parent-child interactions, two variables have been cited repeatedly for their explanatory cogency--nurturance and authority. This study was conducted to examine the relation of parents' Hostility (Ho) scores from the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-based Cook and Medley Hostility Scale…

  12. Anatomy of the trigeminal nerve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijden, T.M.G.J.; Langenbach, G.E.J.; Baart, J.A.; Brand, H.S.

    2017-01-01

    The trigeminal nerve is the fifth cranial nerve (n. V), which plays an important role in the innervation of the head and neck area, together with other cranial and spinal nerves. Knowledge of the nerve’s anatomy is very important for the correct application of local anaesthetics.

  13. Marital hostility and child sleep problems: direct and indirect associations via hostile parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoades, Kimberly A; Leve, Leslie D; Harold, Gordon T; Mannering, Anne M; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Shaw, Daniel S; Natsuaki, Misaki N; Reiss, David

    2012-08-01

    The current study examined two family process predictors of parent-reported child sleep problems at 4.5 years in an adoption sample: marital hostility and hostile parenting. Participants were 361 linked triads of birth parents, adoptive parents, and adopted children. We examined direct and indirect pathways from marital hostility to child sleep problems via hostile parenting. Mothers' marital hostility at 9 months was associated with child sleep problems at 4.5 years. Fathers' marital hostility at 9 months evidenced an indirect effect on child sleep problems at 4.5 years via fathers' hostile parenting at 27 months. Findings were significant even after controlling for genetic influences on child sleep (i.e., birth parent internalizing disorders). The findings suggest targets for prevention and intervention programs that are potentially modifiable (e.g., hostile parenting, marital hostility), and inform theory by demonstrating that relations among marital hostility, hostile parenting, and child sleep problems are significant after accounting for genetic influences. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. Paternal Hostility and Maternal Hostility in European American and African American Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ed Y; Reeb, Ben T; Martin, Monica J; Gibbons, Frederick X; Simons, Ronald L; Conger, Rand D

    2014-06-01

    The authors examined the hypothesized influence of maternal and paternal hostility on youth delinquency over time. The investigation addressed significant gaps in earlier research on parental hostility, including the neglect of father effects, especially in African American families. Using prospective, longitudinal data from community samples of European American (n = 422) and African American (n = 272) 2-parent families, the authors examined the independent effects of paternal and maternal hostility on youth delinquency. The results indicated that paternal hostility significantly predicted relative increases in youth delinquent behaviors above and beyond the effects of maternal hostility; conversely, maternal hostility did not predict youth delinquency after controlling for paternal hostility. Multiple-group analyses yielded similar results for both ethnic groups and for boys and girls. These results underscore the importance of including both parents in research on diverse families. Neglecting fathers provides an incomplete account of parenting in relation to youth development.

  15. Defensive measures against hostile takeovers in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Bertoncel

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This article summarizes the corporate takeover regime and defensive measures against hostile takeover bids in Slovenia. Although takeover legislation does not differentiate between hostile and friendly takeover, it prescribes the limitation of powers for the management of the target company, with the intention of preventing the use of defensive measures against the hostile takeover. In light of an expected rise in hostile takeover bids in Slovenia, the Corporate Act and the Takeover Act are analysed and accordingly the array of possible preventive measures as well as ad-hoc measures against hostile bids identified and evaluated for their anti-takeover effectiveness. A hostile takeover in Slovenia usually involves a hostile public tender offer at a substantial premium over the prevailing market price for a substantial percentage of the target company’s stock. Managers of target companies use in takeover battles a variety of defensive tactics, which could be controversial because they pose a conflict of interest for management. Duty of neutrality of the management of the target company during takeover process is therefore discussed in connection with the limitation of use of applicable ad hoc defence mechanisms in that period.

  16. Integer anatomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doolittle, R. [ONR, Arlington, VA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    The title integer anatomy is intended to convey the idea of a systematic method for displaying the prime decomposition of the integers. Just as the biological study of anatomy does not teach us all things about behavior of species neither would we expect to learn everything about the number theory from a study of its anatomy. But, some number-theoretic theorems are illustrated by inspection of integer anatomy, which tend to validate the underlying structure and the form as developed and displayed in this treatise. The first statement to be made in this development is: the way structure of the natural numbers is displayed depends upon the allowed operations.

  17. Hostile reception greets Bottomley Congress speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-04-04

    Health Minister Virginia Bottomley's attempts to persuade delegates that there are 'exciting' opportunities for nurses in the Government's plans for the health service failed, as she faced growing hostility from the audience at RCN Congress last week.

  18. A pain in the neck-Imaging in neck sepsis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyle, N.J.; Rutherford, E.E.; Batty, V.B.

    2011-01-01

    Deep neck infection has a high morbidity and mortality and the extent of infection is often difficult to estimate clinically. The complex anatomy and the communication between neck spaces means that infection can spread along fascial planes leading to life-threatening complications such as airway compromise, vascular erosion/thrombosis, neural dysfunction, and ultimately descending necrotizing mediastinitis. Imaging has an important role to play in identifying the extent of infection and the presence of complications.

  19. A pain in the neck-Imaging in neck sepsis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyle, N.J., E-mail: nickylyle@doctors.org.uk [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Southampton General Hospital, Southampton (United Kingdom); Rutherford, E.E.; Batty, V.B. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Southampton General Hospital, Southampton (United Kingdom)

    2011-09-15

    Deep neck infection has a high morbidity and mortality and the extent of infection is often difficult to estimate clinically. The complex anatomy and the communication between neck spaces means that infection can spread along fascial planes leading to life-threatening complications such as airway compromise, vascular erosion/thrombosis, neural dysfunction, and ultimately descending necrotizing mediastinitis. Imaging has an important role to play in identifying the extent of infection and the presence of complications.

  20. A Comparison of Soft-Tissue Implanted Markers and Bony Anatomy Alignments for Image-Guided Treatments of Head-and-Neck Cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeidan, Omar A.; Huddleston, Adam J.; Lee, Choonik; Langen, Katja M.; Kupelian, Patrick A.; Meeks, Sanford L.; Manon, Rafael R.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the geometric alignments of soft-tissue implanted markers to the traditional bony-based alignments in head-and-neck cancers, on the basis of daily image guidance. Dosimetric impact of the two alignment techniques on target coverage is presented. Methods and Materials: A total of 330 retrospective alignments (5 patients) were performed on daily megavoltage computed tomography (MVCT) image sets using both alignment techniques. Intermarker distances were tracked for all fractions to assess marker interfractional stability. Using a deformable image registration algorithm, target cumulative doses were calculated according to generated shifts on daily MVCT image sets. Target D95 was used as a dosimetric endpoint to evaluate each alignment technique. Results: Intermarker distances overall were stable, with a standard deviation of <1.5 mm for all fractions and no observed temporal trends. Differences in shift magnitudes between both alignment techniques were found to be statistically significant, with a maximum observed difference of 8 mm in a given direction. Evaluation of technique-specific dose coverage based on D95 of target clinical target volume and planning target volume shows small differences (within ±5%) compared with the kilovoltage CT plan. Conclusion: The use of daily MVCT imaging demonstrates that implanted markers in oral tongue and soft-palate cancers are stable localization surrogates. Alignments based on implanted markers generate shifts comparable overall to the traditional bony-based alignment, with no observed systematic difference in magnitude or direction. The cumulative dosimetric impact on target clinical target volume and planning target volume coverage was found to be similar, despite large observed differences in daily alignment shifts between the two techniques.

  1. An anatomy-based beam segmentation tool for intensity-modulated radiation therapy and its application to head-and-neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gersem, Werner de; Claus, Filip; Wagter, Carlos de; Neve, Wilfried de

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: In segmental intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), the beam fluences result from superposition of unmodulated beamlets (segments). In the inverse planning approach, segments are a result of 'clipping' intensity maps. At Ghent University Hospital, segments are created by an anatomy-based segmentation tool (ABST). The objective of this report is to describe ABST. Methods and Materials: For each beam direction, ABST generates segments by a multistep procedure. During the initial steps, beam's eye view (BEV) projections of the planning target volumes (PTVs) and organs at risk (OARs) are generated. These projections are used to make a segmentation grid with negative values across the expanded OAR projections and positive values elsewhere inside the expanded PTV projections. Outside these regions, grid values are set to zero. Subsequent steps transform the positive values of the segmentation grid to increase with decreasing distance to the OAR projections and to increase with longer pathlengths measured along rays from their entrance point through the skin contours to their respective grid point. The final steps involve selection of iso-value lines of the segmentation grid as segment outlines which are transformed to leaf and jaw positions of a multileaf collimator (MLC). Segment shape approximations, if imposed by MLC constraints, are done in a way that minimizes overlap between the expanded OAR projections and the segment aperture. Results: The ABST procedure takes about 3 s/segment on a Compaq Alpha XP900 workstation. In IMRT planning problems with little complexity, such as laryngeal (example shown) or thyroid cancer, plans that are in accordance with the clinical protocol can be generated by weighting the segments generated by ABST without further optimization of their shapes. For complex IMRT plans such as paranasal sinus cancer (not shown), ABST generates a start assembly of segments from which the shapes and weights are further optimized

  2. Facial anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marur, Tania; Tuna, Yakup; Demirci, Selman

    2014-01-01

    Dermatologic problems of the face affect both function and aesthetics, which are based on complex anatomical features. Treating dermatologic problems while preserving the aesthetics and functions of the face requires knowledge of normal anatomy. When performing successfully invasive procedures of the face, it is essential to understand its underlying topographic anatomy. This chapter presents the anatomy of the facial musculature and neurovascular structures in a systematic way with some clinically important aspects. We describe the attachments of the mimetic and masticatory muscles and emphasize their functions and nerve supply. We highlight clinically relevant facial topographic anatomy by explaining the course and location of the sensory and motor nerves of the face and facial vasculature with their relations. Additionally, this chapter reviews the recent nomenclature of the branching pattern of the facial artery. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Transforming Anatomy

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Anndee

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: Transforming Anatomy Studying historic books allows people to witness the transformation of the world right before their very eyes. The Bruxellensis Icones Anatomicae[1] by Andreas Vesalius is a vital piece of evidence in the movement from a more rudimentary understanding of the human body into the more complex and accurate development of modern anatomy. Vesalius’ research worked to both refute and confirm findings of his predecessor, the great historical Greek philosopher, Galen...

  4. Roentgenologic anatomy of dog arteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehak, J.; Hlava, A.; Bavor, J.

    1984-01-01

    In catheter methods in dogs the knowledge of the roentgenologic anatomy of blood vessels is very important. Because of lacking in such roentgenologic anatomic schemes 5 arterial schemes in relation to the skeleton were elaborated. The system of arteries was divided into five regions: chest, head and neck in submentooccipital and lateral projection, abdomen and pelvis. The schemes comprise 75 of the main arteries of the dog. (author)

  5. Hostility and Anger in Chronic Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Oliveira

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The affective component of pain incorporates various emotions, primarily negative in quality. A great emphasis has been traditionally given to the role of depression and anxiety in chronic pain. More recently, the focus has been directed towards hostility and anger, as fundamental components of the emotional experience of chronic pain. Objective: The aim of this article is to present a literature’s review about the association between chronic pain, anger and hostility. Discussion: Patients with several chronic disorders are characterized by high levels of trait anger and hostility. On the other hand, the manner in which angry feelings are typically handled (anger management style, especially the marked tendency to suppress or express angry feelings, is a particularly important determinant of the chronic pain severity. Conclusion: Hostility and anger are involved in the development, maintenance and treatment of chronic pain. Further research is needed to clarify its relationship with chronic pain and to evaluate the effects of anger management on treatment outcomes.

  6. Hostility and Anger in Chronic Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Ribeiro

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The affective component of pain incorporates various emotions, primarily negative in quality. A great emphasis has been traditionally given to the role of depression and anxiety in chronic pain. More recently, the focus has been directed towards hostility and anger, as fundamental components of the emotional experience of chronic pain. Objective: The aim of this article is to present a literature’s review about the association between chronic pain, anger and hostility. Discussion: Patients with several chronic disorders are characterized by high levels of trait anger and hostility. On the other hand, the manner in which angry feelings are typically handled (anger management style, especially the marked tendency to suppress or express angry feelings, is a particularly important determinant of the chronic pain severity. Conclusion: Hostility and anger are involved in the development, maintenance and treatment of chronic pain. Further research is needed to clarify its relationship with chronic pain and to evaluate the effects of anger management on treatment outcomes.

  7. Knowledge-Sharing Hostility and Governance Mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Kenneth; Michailova, Snejina; Minbaeva, Dana

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims at further developing and empirically examining the concept of knowledge-sharing hostility. It seeks to analyze reasons for hoarding knowledge, reasons for rejecting external knowledge, and attitudes towards mistakes, as well as the influence of these factors on actual k...

  8. Stereopsis, Visuospatial Ability, and Virtual Reality in Anatomy Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Luursema, Jan-Maarten; Vorstenbosch, Marc; Kooloos, Jan

    2017-01-01

    A new wave of virtual reality headsets has become available. A potential benefit for the study of human anatomy is the reintroduction of stereopsis and absolute size. We report a randomized controlled trial to assess the contribution of stereopsis to anatomy learning, for students of different visuospatial ability. Sixty-three participants engaged in a one-hour session including a study phase and posttest. One group studied 3D models of the anatomy of the deep neck in full stereoptic virtual ...

  9. Regulatory Anatomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoeyer, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    This article proposes the term “safety logics” to understand attempts within the European Union (EU) to harmonize member state legislation to ensure a safe and stable supply of human biological material for transplants and transfusions. With safety logics, I refer to assemblages of discourses, le...... they arise. In short, I expose the regulatory anatomy of the policy landscape....

  10. Stedets Anatomi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lasse Juel

    Titlen på denne ph.d.-afhandling, Stedets Anatomi – en teoretisk undersøgelse af stedets og rumlighedens betydning for leg, computerspil og læring, skitserer ikke kun afhandlingens teoretiske dimensionering, men også dens analytiske bliks tematik i forbindelse med undersøgelsen af fænomenerne leg...

  11. The Anatomy of Learning Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelmsson, Niklas; Dahlgren, Lars Owe; Hult, Hakan; Scheja, Max; Lonka, Kirsti; Josephson, Anna

    2010-01-01

    The experience of clinical teachers as well as research results about senior medical students' understanding of basic science concepts has much been debated. To gain a better understanding about how this knowledge-transformation is managed by medical students, this work aims at investigating their ways of setting about learning anatomy.…

  12. Trait hostility and hostile interpretation biases in daily smokers: associations with reasons for smoking, motivation to quit, and early smoking lapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cougle, Jesse R; Hawkins, Kirsten A; Macatee, Richard J; Zvolensky, Michael J; Sarawgi, Shivali

    2014-09-01

    Hostility has emerged as an important predictor of smoking cessation difficulties, though the mechanisms underlying the hostility and smoking relationship are poorly understood. Further, research has yet to explore relations between hostile interpretation biases and different aspects of smoking behavior. In the present study, current daily smokers (N = 106) were administered measures of smoking characteristics, smoking motivation, reasons for quitting, hostility, and hostile interpretation bias. Neither trait hostility nor hostile interpretation bias were uniquely associated with motivation to quit, reasons for quitting, nicotine dependence, or problematic symptoms following past cessation attempts. However, hostility and hostile interpretation biases were uniquely associated with different reasons for smoking. Additionally, greater hostile interpretation bias (but not hostility) was uniquely associated with early relapse following past cessation attempts. The current findings add uniquely to the growing, but still relatively small, literature on hostility and smoking and implicate hostile interpretation bias as a potential treatment target in smoking cessation interventions.

  13. Neck Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... too many hours hunched over your computer or smartphone, often triggers muscle strains. Even minor things, such ... your shoulder. The weight can strain your neck. Sleep in a good position. Your head and neck ...

  14. Remote nuclear screening system for hostile environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Addleman, R.S.; Keele, B.D.

    1996-01-01

    A remote measurement system has been constructed for in situ gamma and beta isotopic characterization of highly radioactive nuclear material in hostile environments. A small collimated, planar CdZnTe detector is used for gamma-ray spectroscopy. Spectral resolution of 2% full width at half maximum at 662 kiloelectronvolts has been obtained remotely using rise time compensation and limited pulse shape discrimination, Isotopc measurement of high-energy beta emitters was accomplished with a ruggedized, deeply depleted, surface barrier silicon dictator. The primary function of the remote nuclear screening system is to provide fast qualitative and quantitative isotopic assessment of high-level radioactive material

  15. Protection against hostile algorithms in UNIX software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radatti, Peter V.

    1996-03-01

    Protection against hostile algorithms contained in Unix software is a growing concern without easy answers. Traditional methods used against similar attacks in other operating system environments such as MS-DOS or Macintosh are insufficient in the more complex environment provided by Unix. Additionally, Unix provides a special and significant problem in this regard due to its open and heterogeneous nature. These problems are expected to become both more common and pronounced as 32 bit multiprocess network operating systems become popular. Therefore, the problems experienced today are a good indicator of the problems and the solutions that will be experienced in the future, no matter which operating system becomes predominate.

  16. Thymus Gland Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Thymus Gland, Adult, Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x576 ... Large: 3000x2400 View Download Title: Thymus Gland, Adult, Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the thymus gland; drawing shows ...

  17. Normal Female Reproductive Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x756 ... Large: 3000x3150 View Download Title: Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the female reproductive system; drawing ...

  18. Normal Pancreas Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Pancreas Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: ... 1586x1534 View Download Large: 3172x3068 View Download Title: Pancreas Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the pancreas; drawing shows ...

  19. Psychosocial antecedents of hostility in persons with coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofhauser, Cynthia D

    2003-09-01

    Although it is known that hostility precedes coronary heart disease (CHD), little is known about factors that influence the development and progression of hostile characteristics. The relations among hostility, self-esteem, self-concept, and psychosocial residual were conceptualized within the modeling and role-modeling theoretical framework and examined in a sample of 85 persons with CHD. There were significant associations between all variables. Regression analyses revealed that self-esteem, mistrust residual, isolation residual, and self-concept contributed significantly, accounting for 31% of the variation in hostility scores. These findings provide support for the belief that the development of hostility in persons with CHD is related to beliefs and attitudes about the self and others. Persons with self-esteem need deficits, and a subsequent build up of negative psychosocial residual, have poor self-concepts. This poor self-concept is hostile in nature and reflects a mistrust of others and a deep sense of isolation.

  20. Adult adiposity linked to relationship hostility for low cortisol reactors

    OpenAIRE

    Slep, Amy; Lorber, Michael; Thorson, Katherine; Heyman, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Past research on the relation between hostility in intimate relationships and adiposity has yielded mixed findings. The present study investigated whether the association between relationship hostility and adiposity is moderated by people’s biological reactions to couple conflict. Cohabiting adult couples (N = 117 couples) engaged in two conflict interactions, before and after which salivary cortisol levels were measured. Results revealed an association between relationship hostility and adip...

  1. Cross-sectional anatomy for computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkas, M.L.

    1988-01-01

    This self-study guide recognizes that evaluation and interpretation of CT-images demands a firm understanding of both cross-sectional anatomy and the principles of computed tomography. The objectives of this book are: to discuss the basic principles of CT, to stress the importance of cross-sectional anatomy to CT through study of selected cardinal transverse sections of head, neck, and trunk, to explain orientation and interpretation of CT-images with the aid of corresponding cross-sectional preparations

  2. Real-time hostile attribution measurement and aggression in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaros, Anna; Lochman, John E; Rosenbaum, Jill; Jimenez-Camargo, Luis Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Hostile attributions are an important predictor of aggression in children, but few studies have measured hostile attributions as they occur in real-time. The current study uses an interactive video racing game to measure hostile attributions while children played against a presumed peer. A sample of 75 children, ages 10-13, used nonverbal and verbal procedures to respond to ambiguous provocation by their opponent. Hostile attributions were significantly positively related to parent-rated reactive aggression, when controlling for proactive aggression. Hostile attributions using a nonverbal response procedure were negatively related to proactive aggression, when controlling for reactive aggression. Results suggest hostile attributions in real-time occur quickly and simultaneously with social interaction, which differs from the deliberative, controlled appraisals measured with vignette-based instruments. The relation between real-time hostile attributions and reactive aggression could be accounted for by the impulsive response style that is characteristic of reactive aggression, whereas children exhibiting proactive aggression may be more deliberate and intentional in their responding, resulting in a negative relation with real-time hostile attributions. These findings can be used both to identify children at risk for aggression and to enhance preventive interventions. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. An Experimental Investigation of Peer Influences on Adolescent Hostile Attributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Kim; Hadwin, Julie A.; Halligan, Sarah L.

    2011-01-01

    Aggression in young people has been associated with a bias toward attributing hostile intent to others. However, little is known about the origin of biased social information processing. The current study explored the potential role of peer contagion in the emergence of hostile attribution in adolescents. One hundred thirty-four adolescents (M age…

  4. Parental Hostility, Adolescent High Standards, and Self-Esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buri, John R.; Kircher, Annemarie

    Studies employing the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-based Cook and Medley (1954) Hostility (Ho) Scale have suggested that Hostility may be a robust psychological disposition with pervasive implications for interpersonal functioning. For example, when compared to individuals who scored low in Ho, high Ho individuals were more…

  5. Anatomy of the infant head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosma, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    This text is mainly an atlas of illustration representing the dissection of the head and upper neck of the infant. It was prepared by the author over a 20-year period. The commentary compares the anatomy of the near-term infant with that of a younger fetus, child, and adult. As the author indicates, the dearth of anatomic information about postnatal anatomic changes represents a considerable handicap to those imaging infants. In part 1 of the book, anatomy is related to physiologic performance involving the pharynx, larynx, and mouth. Sequential topics involve the regional anatomy of the head (excluding the brain), the skeleton of the cranium, the nose, orbit, mouth, larynx, pharynx, and ear. To facilitate use of this text as a reference, the illustrations and text on individual organs are considered separately (i.e., the nose, the orbit, the eye, the mouth, the larynx, the pharynx, and the ear). Each part concerned with a separate organ includes materials from the regional illustrations contained in part 2 and from the skeleton, which is treated in part 3. Also included in a summary of the embryologic and fetal development of the organ

  6. Neck Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vomiting Nausea and Vomiting in Infants and Children Neck Pain Neck Swelling Shortness of Breath Shortness of Breath ... worse or doesn’t get better. Start OverDiagnosisYour pain may be from DEGENERATIVE CERVICAL ARTHRITIS, a disorder that affects the bones and ...

  7. Penile embryology and anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiee, Jenny H; Baskin, Laurence S

    2010-06-29

    Knowledge of penile embryology and anatomy is essential to any pediatric urologist in order to fully understand and treat congenital anomalies. Sex differentiation of the external genitalia occurs between the 7th and 17th weeks of gestation. The Y chromosome initiates male differentiation through the SRY gene, which triggers testicular development. Under the influence of androgens produced by the testes, external genitalia then develop into the penis and scrotum. Dorsal nerves supply penile skin sensation and lie within Buck's fascia. These nerves are notably absent at the 12 o'clock position. Perineal nerves supply skin sensation to the ventral shaft skin and frenulum. Cavernosal nerves lie within the corpora cavernosa and are responsible for sexual function. Paired cavernosal, dorsal, and bulbourethral arteries have extensive anastomotic connections. During erection, the cavernosal artery causes engorgement of the cavernosa, while the deep dorsal artery leads to glans enlargement. The majority of venous drainage occurs through a single, deep dorsal vein into which multiple emissary veins from the corpora and circumflex veins from the spongiosum drain. The corpora cavernosa and spongiosum are all made of spongy erectile tissue. Buck's fascia circumferentially envelops all three structures, splitting into two leaves ventrally at the spongiosum. The male urethra is composed of six parts: bladder neck, prostatic, membranous, bulbous, penile, and fossa navicularis. The urethra receives its blood supply from both proximal and distal directions.

  8. Penile Embryology and Anatomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny H. Yiee

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of penile embryology and anatomy is essential to any pediatric urologist in order to fully understand and treat congenital anomalies. Sex differentiation of the external genitalia occurs between the 7thand 17th weeks of gestation. The Y chromosome initiates male differentiation through the SRY gene, which triggers testicular development. Under the influence of androgens produced by the testes, external genitalia then develop into the penis and scrotum. Dorsal nerves supply penile skin sensation and lie within Buck's fascia. These nerves are notably absent at the 12 o'clock position. Perineal nerves supply skin sensation to the ventral shaft skin and frenulum. Cavernosal nerves lie within the corpora cavernosa and are responsible for sexual function. Paired cavernosal, dorsal, and bulbourethral arteries have extensive anastomotic connections. During erection, the cavernosal artery causes engorgement of the cavernosa, while the deep dorsal artery leads to glans enlargement. The majority of venous drainage occurs through a single, deep dorsal vein into which multiple emissary veins from the corpora and circumflex veins from the spongiosum drain. The corpora cavernosa and spongiosum are all made of spongy erectile tissue. Buck's fascia circumferentially envelops all three structures, splitting into two leaves ventrally at the spongiosum. The male urethra is composed of six parts: bladder neck, prostatic, membranous, bulbous, penile, and fossa navicularis. The urethra receives its blood supply from both proximal and distal directions.

  9. [The Life Style Index: correlations with psychological distress and hostility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyphantis, T; Floros, G D; Goulia, P; Iconomou, G; Assimakopoulos, K

    2011-01-01

    The Life Style Index (LSI) was designed to assess defense mechanisms, assuming that their use is related to specific emotional states and diagnostic concepts. Aiming to further investigate the psychometric properties of the Greek version of the LSI, the aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship of specific defense mechanisms with dimensions of psychological distress and hostility features in three different populations. The sample comprised 1261 adults (410 healthy participants, 723 medical patients and 128 psychiatric patients). Along with defense mechanisms (LSI), Psychological Distress (General Health Questionnaire, GHQ-28) and Hostility features (Hostility and Direction of Hostility Questionnaire, HDHQ) were also assessed. The results showed that increased psychological distress is related with increased use of all defenses except Denial, with which psychological distress is negatively associated. Regression is constantly related with psychological distress and differentiates psychiatric patients from the other groups of participants, while Compensation and Reaction Formation are related to depressive symptomatology. In medical patients, Repression was found to increase the physical dimension of psychological distress and the social dysfunction. On the contrary,Denial was negatively associated with these dimensions of psychological distress. In the psychiatric patient and healthy participant samples, Projection plays the most detrimental role. Regarding hostility and direction of hostility, those who were found to introvert their hostility presented with higher scores in Denial, indicating that they possibly 'deny' their hostility, and the degree of the Denial was found to be negatively associated with the degree of Introverted Hostility. Those who directed their hostility towards the others, presented with higher rates of Projection, while neither Denial nor Reaction Formation seemed sufficient enough to temper the degree of Extroverted

  10. Neck pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cause of neck pain is muscle strain or tension. Most often, everyday activities are to blame. Such ... of a heart attack , such as shortness of breath, sweating, nausea, vomiting, or arm or jaw pain. ...

  11. Hostile intent in public crowded spaces: a field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eachus, Peter; Stedmon, Alex; Baillie, Les

    2013-09-01

    Hostile reconnaissance is vital to successful terrorist activity. Individuals carrying out this activity are likely to experience raised levels of stress and this will manifest itself at biological, physiological, psychological and behavioural levels, providing an opportunity for detection. A field trial was undertaken in an ecologically valid environment measuring variables considered likely to be salient during hostile intent. The parameters examined in the field trial varied in a predictable manner and suggest that stressed individuals secrete a volatile steroid based marker that could form the basis for remote detection. Thus, overall the findings of this research provide a validated model of hostile intent that can be used by other researchers to test interventions aimed at detecting or deterring hostile intent. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  12. Anatomy Journal of Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH. AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING AJOL · RESOURCES ... Anatomy Journal of Africa is the Official Journal for the Association of Anatomical Societies of Africa. ... Applied anatomy - Clinical anatomy - Morphology, - Embryology ...

  13. Violent media and hostile appraisals: A meta-analytic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushman, Brad J

    2016-11-01

    Hostile people tend to view the world as a hostile place. Although there are individual differences in hostile world-views, situational factors can also play a role. For example, scenes of violence in the mass media might influence people to view the world as a hostile place. This meta-analysis aggregates, for the first time, all studies that have investigated the link between exposure to violent media and hostile appraisals (e.g., perceiving the ambiguous actions by others as aggressive actions). This meta-analysis included 37 independent studies involving 10,410 participants. The results showed a "small" to "moderate" sized average correlation between exposure to violent media and hostile appraisals (r +  = .20, 95%CI = .14, .26). Significant correlations were found in experimental, cross-sectional, and longitudinal studies, indicating a triangulation of evidence. Effects were not correlated with participant gender. Effects were also stable over time. However, the link between exposure to violent media and hostile appraisals was positively related to age, perhaps because violent media can have cumulative effects over time. There was no evidence of publication bias. The findings from this meta-analysis are consistent with the General Aggression Model (e.g., Anderson, & Bushman, 2002; Annual Review of Psychology 53:27-51). These results compliment those from previous meta-analyses showing that violent media can increase aggressive thoughts, angry feelings, physiological arousal, and aggressive behavior. These findings also have practical significance, because people who view the world in a hostile manner are more likely to behave aggressively themselves. Aggr. Behav. 42:605-613, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Neural Correlates of Hostile Jokes: Cognitive and Motivational Processes in Humor Appreciation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chen Chan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Hostile jokes provide aggressive catharsis and a feeling of superiority. Behavioral research has found that hostile jokes are perceived as funnier than non-hostile jokes. The purpose of the present study was to identify the neural correlates of the interaction between type and humor by comparing hostile jokes (HJs, non-hostile jokes (NJs, and their corresponding hostile sentences (HSs and non-hostile sentences (NSs. Hostile jokes primarily showed activation in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC and midbrain compared with the corresponding hostile baseline. Conversely, non-hostile jokes primarily revealed activation in the ventromedial PFC (vmPFC, amygdala, midbrain, ventral anterior cingulate cortex, and nucleus accumbens (NAcc compared with the corresponding non-hostile baseline. These results support the critical role of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC for the neural correlates of social cognition and socio-emotional processing in response to different types of jokes. Moreover, the processing of hostile jokes showed increased activation in the dmPFC, which suggested cognitive operations of social motivation, whereas the processing of non-hostile jokes displayed increased activation in the vmPFC, which suggested social-affective engagement. Hostile jokes versus non-hostile jokes primarily showed increased activation in the dmPFC and midbrain, whereas non-hostile jokes versus hostile jokes primarily displayed greater activation in the amygdala and midbrain. The psychophysiological interaction (PPI analysis demonstrated functional coupling of the dmPFC-dlPFC and midbrain-dmPFC for hostile jokes and functional coupling of the vmPFC-midbrain and amygdala-midbrain-NAcc for non-hostile jokes. Surprisingly, the neural correlates of hostile jokes were not perceived as funnier than non-hostile jokes. Future studies could further investigate the neural correlates of potentially important traits of high-hostility tendencies in humor appreciation

  15. Functional Anatomy of the Feeding Apparatus of Four South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The functional anatomy of the head and anterior neck region of the cormorants Phalacrocorax lucidus. P. neglectus, P. capensis and P. africanus was investigated. There are significant differences in absolute size of the muscle and bone elements between the four species. The relative proportions of these elements are, ...

  16. Soft-tissue anatomy of the primates: phylogenetic analyses based on the muscles of the head, neck, pectoral region and upper limb, with notes on the evolution of these muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diogo, R; Wood, B

    2011-01-01

    Apart from molecular data, nearly all the evidence used to study primate relationships comes from hard tissues. Here, we provide details of the first parsimony and Bayesian cladistic analyses of the order Primates based exclusively on muscle data. The most parsimonious tree obtained from the cladistic analysis of 166 characters taken from the head, neck, pectoral and upper limb musculature is fully congruent with the most recent evolutionary molecular tree of Primates. That is, this tree recovers not only the relationships among the major groups of primates, i.e. Strepsirrhini {Tarsiiformes [Platyrrhini (Cercopithecidae, Hominoidea)]}, but it also recovers the relationships within each of these inclusive groups. Of the 301 character state changes occurring in this tree, ca. 30% are non-homoplasic evolutionary transitions; within the 220 changes that are unambiguously optimized in the tree, ca. 15% are reversions. The trees obtained by using characters derived from the muscles of the head and neck are more similar to the most recent evolutionary molecular tree than are the trees obtained by using characters derived from the pectoral and upper limb muscles. It was recently argued that since the Pan/Homo split, chimpanzees accumulated more phenotypic adaptations than humans, but our results indicate that modern humans accumulated more muscle character state changes than chimpanzees, and that both these taxa accumulated more changes than gorillas. This overview of the evolution of the primate head, neck, pectoral and upper limb musculature suggests that the only muscle groups for which modern humans have more muscles than most other extant primates are the muscles of the face, larynx and forearm. PMID:21689100

  17. Use of modified Sandwich-graft technique to preserve hypogastric artery in EVAR treatment of complex aortic aneurysm anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosquera Arochena, N; Rodríguez Feijoo, G; Carballo Fernandez, C; Molina Herrero, F; Fernandez Lebrato, R; Barrios Castro, A; Garcia Fernandez, I

    2011-10-01

    Since the introduction of the first endoprosthetic devices, continuous development in techniques and implants has occurred, such as the introduction of a stent graft with branches designed to preserve antegrade flow in the hypogastric artery, a stent-graft designed to treat extreme neck angulation and iliac tortuosity, as well as "Sandwich" and "Chimney" techniques used to maintain perfusion in branch vessels originating in the region to be treated. This paper describes how the Sandwich-Graft technique was adapted, as described by Lobato et al., employing the Aorfix™ system (Lombard Medical) and the Viabahn™ (W.L.Gore) to preserve hypogastric flow in cases with extreme neck angulation and iliac tortuosity. The study included four patients treated from April 2010 until November 2010 with the modified Sandwich technique. All patients eligible for this approach were considered unfit for open repair and were not suitable for an iliac branch graft (Z-BIS Zenith™ Cook Medical). A bifurcated endograft was implanted with specific, in-situ, branching to the target hypogastric artery and achieved clinical and technical success, in all the patients. After a 11-month follow-up in two cases and a six-month follow-up in the other two, clinical results were successful. All patients were endoleak-free, had patent hypogastric branches and had shrinking or stable aneurysms. The initial experience shows that the Sandwich technique with the Aorfix™ stent-graft demonstrated to be effective in endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms in patients with aortoiliac anatomy hostile to preserving hypogastric artery patency. This graft allows a broader group of patients to be treated with endovascular repair without potential complications of hypogastric artery occlusion; however, further studies are needed to evaluate long-term results in larger numbers of patients.

  18. Hostility Modifies the Association between TV Viewing and Cardiometabolic Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Fabio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. It was hypothesized that television viewing is predictive of cardiometabolic risk. Moreover, people with hostile personality type may be more susceptible to TV-induced negative emotions and harmful health habits which increase occurrence of cardiometabolic risk. Purpose. The prospective association of TV viewing on cardiometabolic risk was examined along with whether hostile personality trait was a modifier. Methods. A total of 3,269 Black and White participants in the coronary artery risk development in young adults (CARDIA study were assessed from age 23 to age 35. A cross-lagged panel model at exam years 5, 10, 15, and 20, covering 15 years, was used to test whether hours of daily TV viewing predicted cardiometabolic risk, controlling confounding variables. Multiple group analysis of additional cross-lagged panel models stratified by high and low levels of hostility was used to evaluate whether the association was modified by the hostile personality trait. Results. The cross-lagged association of TV viewing at years 5 and 15 on clustered cardiometabolic risk score at years 10 and 20 was significant (B=0.058 and 0.051, but not at 10 to 15 years. This association was significant for those with high hostility (B=0.068 for exam years 5 to 10 and 0.057 for exam years 15 to 20 but not low hostility. Conclusion. These findings indicate that TV viewing is positively associated with cardiometabolic risk. Further, they indicate that hostility might be a modifier for the association between TV viewing and cardiometabolic risk.

  19. Teaching Anatomy: need or taste?

    OpenAIRE

    Farrokhi, Ahmad; Nejad, Masoume Soleymani

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Anatomy is one of the core sections of Basic Medical Sciences. Given the central role of anatomy, the development of medical knowledge and reach new horizons in science is not possible without relying on anatomy. Since in the anatomy science, students are familiar with the basic terms of medical language, the anatomy's hard to know and have a negative attitude towards this course. With these conditions, anatomy professors have an important role in providing incentives...

  20. An imaging atlas of human anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weir, J.; Abrahams, P.H.

    1993-01-01

    The atlas presents pictures obtained by the various imaging techniques, showing the normal anatomy of the various body regions in healthy adults. The pictures are the major information given, accompanying texts are reduced to captions giving the Latin names of important anatomic details or a brief introduction each to the fundamental characteristics of the imaging methods used, as e.g. angiography, computerized tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and ultrasonography. The atlas is a key source of reference and a guide in interpreting radiographs. The material is arranged in chapters according to the body regions of interest: Head, neck, brain; spine and spinal cord; upper extremities; thorax; abdomen; pelvis; lower extremities. (UWA) [de

  1. The moderating effects of gender on the associations between multidimensional hostility and psychosomatic symptoms: a Chinese case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Chia-Ying; Lin, I-Mei; Jiang, Ding-Yu

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of gender on the relationship between multidimensional hostility and psychosomatic symptoms in Chinese culture. The participants in this study were 398 Chinese college students (40% female) recruited from Taiwan. Four dimensions of multidimensional hostility-hostility cognition, hostility affect, expressive hostility behavior, and suppressive hostility behavior-were measured by the Chinese Hostility Inventory. After controlling for the effects of depression and anxiety, the results of path analysis revealed that the multidimensional hostility predicted psychosomatic symptoms directly, and predicted psychosomatic symptoms indirectly through negative health behavior. Furthermore, gender moderated the relationships between multidimensional hostility and health outcomes. Expressive hostility exacerbated psychosomatic symptom in females but buffered it in males, while affective hostility exacerbated psychosomatic symptoms in males. Additionally, suppressive hostility behavior was correlated to psychosomatic symptoms indirectly through negative health behavior in females. Moreover, expressive hostility was correlated to psychosomatic symptoms indirectly through negative health behavior more in males than in females.

  2. Anatomy Comic Strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin Seo; Kim, Dae Hyun; Chung, Min Suk

    2011-01-01

    Comics are powerful visual messages that convey immediate visceral meaning in ways that conventional texts often cannot. This article's authors created comic strips to teach anatomy more interestingly and effectively. Four-frame comic strips were conceptualized from a set of anatomy-related humorous stories gathered from the authors' collective…

  3. Optical techniques for sensing and measurement in hostile environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillespie, C.H.; Greenwell, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    These proceedings collect papers on optical sensing and measurement in hostile environments. Topic include: nuclear waste storage facility monitoring, monitoring of nuclear and chemical explosions, exhaust gas monitoring, fiber-optic monitoring, temperature and radiation effects on optical fibers, and interferometers

  4. 22 CFR 192.1 - Declarations of hostile action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 192.1 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE HOSTAGE RELIEF VICTIMS OF TERRORISM COMPENSATION General § 192.1 Declarations of hostile action. (a)(1) The Secretary of State shall declare when and where individuals in the Civil Service of the United States, including members of the Foreign Service and foreign...

  5. Sexual Harassment in the Workplace: When Are Hostile Comments Actionable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmel, David

    1994-01-01

    In "Harris" the Supreme Court ruled that Title VII is violated when the workplace environment "would reasonably be perceived and is perceived as hostile or abusive." Schools and colleges, by developing appropriate policies, procedures, and educational programs, can substantially increase understanding about the legal aspects of…

  6. Hostile siblings in the abused child’s mind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grünbaum, Liselotte

    , in an experience of siblings as representing violent inner parental objects not fully differentiated from hostile sibling objects, e.g. linked to a fantasy of an inattentive breast-mother feeding herself and a violent paternal part-object, the two of them in a fused state becoming merged as an undifferentiated...

  7. Social class rank, threat vigilance, and hostile reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Michael W; Horberg, E J; Goetz, Jennifer L; Keltner, Dacher

    2011-10-01

    Lower-class individuals, because of their lower rank in society, are theorized to be more vigilant to social threats relative to their high-ranking upper-class counterparts. This class-related vigilance to threat, the authors predicted, would shape the emotional content of social interactions in systematic ways. In Study 1, participants engaged in a teasing interaction with a close friend. Lower-class participants--measured in terms of social class rank in society and within the friendship--more accurately tracked the hostile emotions of their friend. As a result, lower-class individuals experienced more hostile emotion contagion relative to upper-class participants. In Study 2, lower-class participants manipulated to experience lower subjective socioeconomic rank showed more hostile reactivity to ambiguous social scenarios relative to upper-class participants and to lower-class participants experiencing elevated socioeconomic rank. The results suggest that class affects expectations, perception, and experience of hostile emotion, particularly in situations in which lower-class individuals perceive their subordinate rank.

  8. Assertion and Overcontrolled Hostility among Mentally Disordered Murderers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinsey, Vernon L.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Studied whether men (N=19) who had committed very severe assaults and who score high on the Overcontrolled Hostility (O-H) scale had assertion deficits that could be measured behaviorally. Results showed the high O-H group was significantly less assertive than control groups in role playing tasks and on questionnaire items. (WAS)

  9. Hostile sexist male patients and female doctors: a challenging encounter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klöckner Cronauer, Christina; Schmid Mast, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    Patient characteristics and attitudes can affect how patients react to the physician's communication style, and this reaction can then influence consultation outcomes. The goal of the present study was to investigate whether the attitude of a sexist male patient affects how he perceives a female physician's nonverbal communication and whether this then results in expecting less positive consultation outcomes. Participants were analog patients who viewed four videotaped male and four videotaped female physicians in a consultation with one of their patients. Physician videos were preselected to represent a range of high and low patient-centered physician nonverbal behavior. Participants filled in questionnaires to assess how patient-centered they perceived the female and male physicians' nonverbal communication to be, and participants indicated how positive they expected the consultation outcomes to be. Moreover, we assessed the participants' sexist attitudes with a questionnaire measuring hostile and benevolent sexism. Students (N = 60) from a French-speaking university in Switzerland were recruited on campus. The main outcome measures were the extent to which analog patients expect the consultation outcomes to be positive (high satisfaction, increased trust in the physician, intention to adhere to treatment recommendations, and perceived physician competence) and the extent to which analog patients perceive physicians as patient-centered (judged from the physicians' nonverbal cues). Male analog patients' hostile sexism was negatively related to perceiving the physicians as patient-centered, and male analog patients' hostile sexism was also negatively related to expected positive consultation outcomes. For male patients viewing female physicians, mediation analysis revealed that perceived physician patient-centeredness mediated the negative relationship between hostile sexism and expected positive consultation outcomes. Male hostile sexist patients perceive a female

  10. Imaging manifestations of neck masses in the immunocompromised host

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, N.; Scarsbrook, A.F.; Conlon, C.P.; Anslow, P.A.; Phillips, R.R.

    2007-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, haematological malignancy, and immunosuppression for transplantation and autoimmune disorders have led to a large increase in immunocompromised patients. Neck masses are relatively common in this patient group and include both opportunistic and severe manifestations of common infections, benign hyperplasia, and primary or secondary malignancies. Although biopsy may be necessary for definitive diagnosis, features on cross-sectional imaging may suggest a specific diagnosis or limit the differential diagnosis and facilitate optimal patient management. This article will review critical aspects of neck anatomy, illustrate the spectrum of imaging features, and discuss the interpretative pearls and pitfalls when evaluating neck masses in immunocompromised patients

  11. Anatomy of Sarcocaulon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. L. Verhoeven

    1983-11-01

    Full Text Available The anatomy of the leaf blade, petiole, stem and root of the genus Sarcocaulon (DC. Sweet is discussed. On the basis of the leaf anatomy, the four sections recognized by Moffett (1979 can be identified: section Denticulati (dorsiventral leaves, section Multifidi (isobilateral leaves and adaxial and abaxial palisade continuous at midvein, section Crenati (isobilateral leaves, short curved trichomes and glandular hairs, section Sarcocaulon (isobilateral leaves and glandular hairs only. The anatomy of the stem is typically that of a herbaceous dicotyledon with a thick periderm. The root structure shows that the function of the root is not food storage.

  12. Applied peritoneal anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, R.R.; Planche, K.

    2013-01-01

    The peritoneal cavity is a complex anatomical structure with multiple attachments and connections. These are better understood with reference to the embryological development of this region. Armed with this knowledge, the diagnosis and assessment of a wide range of common intra-abdominal diseases becomes straightforward. This article will review and simplify the terminology, complex embryological development, and anatomy of the peritoneum, peritoneal attachments, and the reflections forming the peritoneal boundaries. Normal anatomy will be described using schematic diagrams with corresponding computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images, including CT peritoneograms. The relevance of intra- and extra-peritoneal anatomy to common pathological processes will be demonstrated

  13. Brachytherapy in the treatment of head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Seong Yul

    1999-01-01

    Brachytherapy has been proved to be an effective method for the purpose of increasing radiation dose to the tumor and reducing the dose to the surrounding normal tissue. In head and neck cancer, the rationale of brachytherapy is as follows; Firstly, early small lesion is radiocurative and the major cause of failure is local recurrence. Secondly, it can diminish evidently the dose to the normal tissue especially masseteric muscle and salivary gland. Thirdly, the anatomy of head and neck is suitable to various technique of brachytherapy. On background of accumulated experience of LDR iridium brachytherapy of head and neck cancer for the last 15 years, the author reviewed the history of radioisotope therapy, the characteristics of radionuclides, and some important things in the method, clinical technique and treatment planning. The author analyzed the clinical result of 185 cases of head and neck cancer treated in the Korea Cancer Center Hospital. Finally the future prospect of brachytherapy of head and neck cancer is discussed

  14. Responding to Hostility: Evidence-Based Guidance for Communication during Planned Organizational Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Kim Sydow; Carmichael, Pierson; Naidoo, Jefrey S.

    2015-01-01

    Hostile challenges to planned organization change are common and challenging to deal with effectively. Little research has explained successful responses to such stakeholder hostility. To address this gap, we use the concept of readiness to characterize the content of hostile challenges. We also use rhetorical strategies based on speech act theory…

  15. Comparison of a Gross Anatomy Laboratory to Online Anatomy Software for Teaching Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathiowetz, Virgil; Yu, Chih-Huang; Quake-Rapp, Cindee

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the grades, self-perceived learning, and satisfaction between occupational therapy students who used a gross anatomy laboratory versus online anatomy software (AnatomyTV) as tools to learn anatomy at a large public university and a satellite campus in the mid-western United States. The goal was to determine if…

  16. Anatomy of Memory

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    1991-01-01

    Studies of the anatomy and function of the brain system for memory in humans and animal models are reviewed from the Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Diego and the Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA.

  17. Direct participation in hostilities under international humanitarian law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Cometa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This text gives a brief account of the norms and perceptions regarding IHL (international humanitarian law and Human Rights have been applied in Colombia, and on moving the Colombian government and the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia, FARC-EP, ELN National Liberation and the Army, in which requires the exclusion of civilians from direct attacks in the context of the conduct of hostilities by armed forces in war, these settings are accompanied Martells Clause and Article 3 common.

  18. High-speed uncooled MWIR hostile fire indication sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L.; Pantuso, F. P.; Jin, G.; Mazurenko, A.; Erdtmann, M.; Radhakrishnan, S.; Salerno, J.

    2011-06-01

    Hostile fire indication (HFI) systems require high-resolution sensor operation at extremely high speeds to capture hostile fire events, including rocket-propelled grenades, anti-aircraft artillery, heavy machine guns, anti-tank guided missiles and small arms. HFI must also be conducted in a waveband with large available signal and low background clutter, in particular the mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR). The shortcoming of current HFI sensors in the MWIR is the bandwidth of the sensor is not sufficient to achieve the required frame rate at the high sensor resolution. Furthermore, current HFI sensors require cryogenic cooling that contributes to size, weight, and power (SWAP) in aircraft-mounted applications where these factors are at a premium. Based on its uncooled photomechanical infrared imaging technology, Agiltron has developed a low-SWAP, high-speed MWIR HFI sensor that breaks the bandwidth bottleneck typical of current infrared sensors. This accomplishment is made possible by using a commercial-off-the-shelf, high-performance visible imager as the readout integrated circuit and physically separating this visible imager from the MWIR-optimized photomechanical sensor chip. With this approach, we have achieved high-resolution operation of our MWIR HFI sensor at 1000 fps, which is unprecedented for an uncooled infrared sensor. We have field tested our MWIR HFI sensor for detecting all hostile fire events mentioned above at several test ranges under a wide range of environmental conditions. The field testing results will be presented.

  19. Televised relational and physical aggression and children's hostile intent attributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Nicole

    2013-12-01

    An experiment was conducted with 150 children (mean age=10.1years) in third to fifth grades to test whether exposure to different forms of aggression in the media affected hostile attributional biases in response to different forms of provocation scenarios. Children were randomly assigned to watch a clip containing physical aggression, relational aggression, or no aggression. After exposure, children were asked to respond to a series of written provocation scenarios where a character caused some form of harm (instrumental or relational) to a target person, but the intent of the provocateur was ambiguous. Results revealed that exposure to relationally aggressive portrayals resulted in a hostile attributional bias in response to relational scenarios, whereas exposure to portrayals of physical aggression was associated with a hostile attributional bias in response to instrumental scenarios. Moreover, these biases were shown to be specific to the exposure condition (physical or relational) and not simply associated with exposure to aggression in general. The findings are discussed in terms of the general aggression model and children's social information processing. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Strategies in responding to a hostile takeover bid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, R.

    1997-01-01

    This paper examines the steps to be taken by a corporation and its board in order to be properly prepared before a hostile takeover bid is made. The procedures and steps to be followed in responding to a bid with a view to maximizing value for shareholders are also outlined. Reasons why a company may become target for a hostile takeover bid are reviewed, followed by a more detailed examination of the responsibilities of a board in responding to a takeover bid. These responsibilities include the adoption of a shareholders' rights plan ('poison pill'), review of executive employment contracts, making sure that a corporate indemnification agreement and directors' and officers' liability insurance plan are in place, implementation of structural deterrents, investor communication plans, preparing the 'black book', creating or updating the list of 'white knights', designating a data room, entering into confidentiality agreements with white knights, preparation of a response timetable, review of recent takeover bids, strategies for dealing with hostile bidders, strategies for enticing one or more a white knights to enter the bidding. Sample copy of a confidentiality agreement is contained in Schedule A. A list of break-up fees in recent Canadian mergers and acquisitions transactions is provided in Schedule B. 24 refs

  1. Neck curve polynomials in neck rupture model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurniadi, Rizal; Perkasa, Yudha S.; Waris, Abdul

    2012-01-01

    The Neck Rupture Model is a model that explains the scission process which has smallest radius in liquid drop at certain position. Old fashion of rupture position is determined randomly so that has been called as Random Neck Rupture Model (RNRM). The neck curve polynomials have been employed in the Neck Rupture Model for calculation the fission yield of neutron induced fission reaction of 280 X 90 with changing of order of polynomials as well as temperature. The neck curve polynomials approximation shows the important effects in shaping of fission yield curve.

  2. Length of training, hostility and the martial arts: a comparison with other sporting groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, K; Thornton, E

    1992-01-01

    Previous research has indicated that training in the martial arts leads to a reduction in levels of hostility. However, such research has only compared hostility within martial arts groups. The present research compares two martial arts groups and two other sporting groups on levels of assaultive, verbal and indirect hostility. Moderated multiple regression analyses revealed a significant interaction between length of training in the respondent's stated sport and whether that sport was a martial art in predicting assaultive and verbal hostility. The form of the interaction suggests that participation in the martial arts is associated, over time, with decreased feelings of assaultive and verbal hostility. PMID:1422642

  3. Head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogl, S.E.

    1988-01-01

    This book contains 10 chapters. Some of the titles are: Combined Surgical Resection and Irradiation for Head and Neck Cancers; Analysis of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Head and Neck Database: Identification of Prognostic Factors and the Re-evaluation of American Joint Committee Stages; Combined Modality Approach to Head and Neck Cancer; Induction Combination Chemotherapy of Regionally Advanced Head and Neck Cancer; and Outcome after Complete Remission to Induction Chemotherapy in Head and Neck Cancer

  4. [Laurentius on anatomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawai, Tadashi; Sakai, Tatsuo

    2005-03-01

    Andreas Laurentius wrote Opera anatomica (1593) and Historia anatomica (1600). These books were composed of two types of chapters; 'historia' and 'quaestio'. His description is not original, but take from other anatomists. 'Historia' describes the structure, action and usefulness of the body parts clarified after dissection. 'Quaestio' treats those questions which could not be solved only by dissection. Laurentius cited many previous contradicting interpretations to these questions and choose a best interpretation for the individual questions. In most cases, Laurentius preferred Galen's view. Historia anatomica retained almost all the 'historia' and 'quaestio' from Opera anatomica, and added some new 'historia' and 'quaestio', especially in regard to the components of the body, such as ligaments, membranes, vessels, nerves and glands. Other new 'historia' and 'quaestio' in Historia anatomica concerned several topics on anatomy in general to comprehensively analyze the history of anatomy, methods of anatomy, and usefulness of anatomy. Historia anatomica reviewed what was anatomy by describing in 'historia' what was known and in 'quaestio' what was unresolved. Till now Laurentius's anatomical works have attracted little attention because his description contained few original findings and depended on previous books. However, the important fact that Historia anatomica was very popular in the 17th century tells us that people needed non-original and handbook style of this textbook. Historia anatomica is important for further research on the propagation of anatomical knowledge from professional anatomists to non-professionals in the 17th century.

  5. Anatomy of the Spine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... curve of the neck is described as a lordosis or lordotic curve, and looks like a “C” ... like the cervical spine, creating a normal lumbar lordosis. The five lumbar vertebral bodies are the weight- ...

  6. Variation in root wood anatomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cutler, D.F.

    1976-01-01

    Variability in the anatomy of root wood of selected specimens particularly Fraxinus excelsior L. and Acer pseudoplatanus L. in the Kew reference microscope slide collection is discussed in relation to generalised statements in the literature on root wood anatomy.

  7. Predicting Aggressive Tendencies by Visual Attention Bias Associated with Hostile Emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ping-I; Hsieh, Cheng-Da; Juan, Chi-Hung; Hossain, Md Monir; Erickson, Craig A; Lee, Yang-Han; Su, Mu-Chun

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the current study is to clarify the relationship between social information processing (e.g., visual attention to cues of hostility, hostility attribution bias, and facial expression emotion labeling) and aggressive tendencies. Thirty adults were recruited in the eye-tracking study that measured various components in social information processing. Baseline aggressive tendencies were measured using the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (AQ). Visual attention towards hostile objects was measured as the proportion of eye gaze fixation duration on cues of hostility. Hostility attribution bias was measured with the rating results for emotions of characters in the images. The results show that the eye gaze duration on hostile characters was significantly inversely correlated with the AQ score and less eye contact with an angry face. The eye gaze duration on hostile object was not significantly associated with hostility attribution bias, although hostility attribution bias was significantly positively associated with the AQ score. Our findings suggest that eye gaze fixation time towards non-hostile cues may predict aggressive tendencies.

  8. The relations of child adiposity with parent-to-child and parent-to-parent hostility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorber, Michael F; White-Ajmani, Mandi L; Dixon, Denise; Slep, Amy M S; Heyman, Richard E

    2017-11-01

    Investigate (1) the association of child adiposity with parent-to-child and parent-to-parent hostility, (2) the mediation of these associations by dietary behaviours and (3) moderation by gender. One hundred thirty-five couples with 6- to 14-year-old children completed measures of emotional and physical aggression, overreactive discipline and child diet. Parent-to-parent hostility was also coded from laboratory observations. Child adiposity was a combination of body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio. Mother-to-child hostility was associated with child adiposity. This association was concentrated in boys and was not significantly explained by child dietary factors. Mother-to-father hostility was not significantly associated with boys' or girls' adiposity. Girls' adiposity was not significantly associated with family hostility. Fathers' hostility was not linked to child adiposity. This is the first study to take a family-level approach to understanding the relation of hostility to child adiposity by examining relations among adiposity and both mothers' and fathers' hostility directed toward one another and toward their children. Our findings highlight the potential role played by mothers' emotional hostility in boys' adiposity and suggest that, if this role is further substantiated, mother-son emotional hostility may be a promising target for the prevention of child obesity.

  9. Military Jargon in the Slovenian Translation of Hostile Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Zupan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The article examines Slovenian translations of military jargon in the non-fiction novel Hostile Waters. In the introductory part, jargon is presented as a linguistic category as well as its main features in the novel. Next, select examples from the original text are compared to their Slovenian equivalents. The focus is on collocations and lexically dense nominal phrases. The comparison finds that most translation shifts in the target text occur because of incorrect interpretation of technical jargon expressions in the original. As a result, the target text reader perceives certain situations differently than the source text reader.

  10. The acts of hostility; Les actes de malveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordoliani, Y.S. [Societe Francaise de Radioprotection, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Renaudeau, C.; Debord, T. [Ecole d' Application du Service de Sante des Armees, Dir. du Service de Sante des Armees Region Terre Ile-de-France (France); Giordan, D. [Service Departemental d' Incendie et de Secours des Yvelines, 78 - Versailles (France); Marx, J.S.; Cremniter, D. [SAMU de Paris, 75 (France); Peton-Klein, D. [Direction de l' Hospitalisation et de l' Organisation des Soins, 75 - Paris (France); Vincent, J.P. [Direction Regionale des Affaires Sanitaires et Sociales - DRASS - Rhone-Alpes, 69 - Lyon (France); Drozda-Senkowska, E.; Arciszewski, T. [Paris-5 Univ., LPS, 75 (France); Verger, P. [Observatoire Regional de la Sante-PACA (France); Cosset, J.M. [Institut Curie, 75 - Paris (France); Lacronique, J.F.; Gourmelon, P. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    2005-07-01

    The events of 2001 showed that all the scenarios of hostility are possible. They can arise wherever and whenever and in one or several strategic places. The weapon can be of biological, chemical or radiological origin, used only or in a combined way. The consideration of this problem is for multiple and collective constituent. It implies an organization, methods of detection, a care of the injured persons and a public information. These various points were presented and discussed throughout this day. (N.C.)

  11. Remote calibration of torque wrenches in a hostile environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, D. M.

    1982-03-01

    A relatively simple device is described which provides the capability for remote comparison of torque wrenches over a limited range. The device, properly used, provides calibration capability for most inch pound and foot pound range torque wrenches. For purposes of this discussion, the device itself was developed specifically for adapting an existing torque measuring system with torque wrenches in hostile environment. A gloved access port is utilized to manipulate the fixture while a viewing window and mirror are used to make visual comparisons. Click type wrenches do not require use of the mirror.

  12. Synopsis of radiologic anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meschan, I.

    1987-01-01

    The book is a compact version of earlier publications that appeared in 1975 as a one- and a two-volume issue under the title 'Atlas of Radiologic Anatomy'. A chapter on computed tomography has been added as this novel technique requires a new approach to radiologic anatomy. The radiologist will find all the information on the anatomic conditions he needs for analysing radiographs and CT pictures. More than 600 radiographs and CT pictures are given that illustrate typical and rare findings. The book also is useful as a source of reference for making good radiographs and evaluating the quality of radiographs or CT pictures. With 1413 figs., 18 tabs [de

  13. Henry Gray's Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, J M S

    2009-04-01

    Little is generally known of Henry Gray, the author of Gray's Anatomy, and even less of his colleague Henry Vandyke Carter, who played a vital role in the dissections and illustrations leading to the production of the first volume in 1859. This essay attempts to sketch briefly the salient, know aspects of these two men and their divergent careers. It traces succinctly the subsequent fate of the unique anatomy book that has influenced and instructed almost every student of medicine. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Anatomy of the clitoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Helen E; Sanjeevan, Kalavampara V; Hutson, John M

    2005-10-01

    We present a comprehensive account of clitoral anatomy, including its component structures, neurovascular supply, relationship to adjacent structures (the urethra, vagina and vestibular glands, and connective tissue supports), histology and immunohistochemistry. We related recent anatomical findings to the historical literature to determine when data on accurate anatomy became available. An extensive review of the current and historical literature was done. The studies reviewed included dissection and microdissection, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), 3-dimensional sectional anatomy reconstruction, histology and immunohistochemical studies. The clitoris is a multiplanar structure with a broad attachment to the pubic arch and via extensive supporting tissue to the mons pubis and labia. Centrally it is attached to the urethra and vagina. Its components include the erectile bodies (paired bulbs and paired corpora, which are continuous with the crura) and the glans clitoris. The glans is a midline, densely neural, non-erectile structure that is the only external manifestation of the clitoris. All other components are composed of erectile tissue with the composition of the bulbar erectile tissue differing from that of the corpora. The clitoral and perineal neurovascular bundles are large, paired terminations of the pudendal neurovascular bundles. The clitoral neurovascular bundles ascend along the ischiopubic rami to meet each other and pass along the superior surface of the clitoral body supplying the clitoris. The neural trunks pass largely intact into the glans. These nerves are at least 2 mm in diameter even in infancy. The cavernous or autonomic neural anatomy is microscopic and difficult to define consistently. MRI complements dissection studies and clarifies the anatomy. Clitoral pharmacology and histology appears to parallel those of penile tissue, although the clinical impact is vastly different. Typical textbook descriptions of the clitoris lack detail and

  15. Learning Anatomy Enhances Spatial Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorstenbosch, Marc A. T. M.; Klaassen, Tim P. F. M.; Donders, A. R. T.; Kooloos, Jan G. M.; Bolhuis, Sanneke M.; Laan, Roland F. J. M.

    2013-01-01

    Spatial ability is an important factor in learning anatomy. Students with high scores on a mental rotation test (MRT) systematically score higher on anatomy examinations. This study aims to investigate if learning anatomy also oppositely improves the MRT-score. Five hundred first year students of medicine ("n" = 242, intervention) and…

  16. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Head and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed ... Head and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed ...

  17. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed with ... and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed with ...

  18. Hostile behavior during marital conflict alters pituitary and adrenal hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malarkey, W B; Kiecolt-Glaser, J K; Pearl, D; Glaser, R

    1994-01-01

    We evaluated hormonal changes and problem-solving behaviors in 90 newlywed couples who were admitted to a hospital research unit for 24 hours. The subjects were selected on the basis of stringent mental and physical health criteria, and admissions were scheduled during the follicular phase of the woman's menstrual cycle. For frequent, unobtrusive endocrine sampling during the interaction tasks, a long polyethylene tube was attached to a heparin well, allowing nurses to draw blood samples at set intervals, out of subjects' sight. Five blood samples were obtained before, during, and after a 30-minute structured problem-solving or conflict task. The conflict session was recorded on videotapes that were later scored for problem-solving behaviors using the Marital Interaction Coding System (MICS). Marital conflict and MICS-coded hostile or negative behavior during conflict was closely linked to changes in serum hormonal levels across five of the six hormones we studied, in spite of the high marital satisfaction of our newlywed couples and the healthy lifestyles demanded by our exclusion criteria. Hostile behavior was associated with decreased levels of prolactin (PRL) and increases in epinephrine (EPI), norepinephrine (NEPI), ACTH, and growth hormone (GH), but not cortisol. These data suggest that the endocrine system may be an important mediator between personal relationships and health.

  19. Flash fire and slow burn: women's cardiovascular reactivity and recovery following hostile and benevolent sexism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomon, Kristen; Burgess, Kaleena D; Bosson, Jennifer K

    2015-04-01

    Women's cardiovascular responses to sexist treatment are documented, but researchers have yet to consider these responses separately as a function of sexism type (hostile vs. benevolent). This study demonstrates distinct effects of hostile and benevolent sexism for women's cardiovascular responses that indicate increased risk for cardiovascular disease. Female participants performed a demanding insight task after exposure to a male researcher who offered them a hostilely sexist, benevolently sexist, or nonsexist comment. Women displayed heightened cardiovascular reactivity (increases from baseline) during the task following hostile sexism, and they displayed impaired cardiovascular recovery (return to baseline after the task) following benevolent sexism. The effects seen in the hostile condition were mediated by self-reported anger. These findings indicate that women's affective responses to hostile and benevolent sexism differ but that exposure to both forms of sexism may have negative cardiovascular consequences. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Hostility, job attitudes, and workplace deviance: test of a multilevel model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, Timothy A; Scott, Brent A; Ilies, Remus

    2006-01-01

    The authors tested a model, inspired by affective events theory (H. M. Weiss & R. Cropanzano, 1996), that examines the dynamic nature of emotions at work, work attitudes, and workplace deviance. Sixty-four employees completed daily surveys over 3 weeks, reporting their mood, job satisfaction, perceived interpersonal treatment, and deviance. Supervisors and significant others also evaluated employees' workplace deviance and trait hostility, respectively. Over half of the total variance in workplace deviance was within-individual, and this intraindividual variance was predicted by momentary hostility, interpersonal justice, and job satisfaction. Moreover, trait hostility moderated the interpersonal justice-state hostility relation such that perceived injustice was more strongly related to state hostility for individuals high in trait hostility. (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. Anatomy for Biomedical Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Stephen W.; Robb, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    There is a perceived need for anatomy instruction for graduate students enrolled in a biomedical engineering program. This appeared especially important for students interested in and using medical images. These students typically did not have a strong background in biology. The authors arranged for students to dissect regions of the body that…

  2. The Anatomy Puzzle Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Willis H.; Carter, Robert, III

    This document features review questions, crossword puzzles, and word search puzzles on human anatomy. Topics include: (1) Anatomical Terminology; (2) The Skeletal System and Joints; (3) The Muscular System; (4) The Nervous System; (5) The Eye and Ear; (6) The Circulatory System and Blood; (7) The Respiratory System; (8) The Urinary System; (9) The…

  3. Illustrated Speech Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, William M.

    Written for students in the fields of speech correction and audiology, the text deals with the following: structures involved in respiration; the skeleton and the processes of inhalation and exhalation; phonation and pitch, the larynx, and esophageal speech; muscles involved in articulation; muscles involved in resonance; and the anatomy of the…

  4. Neck x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    X-ray - neck; Cervical spine x-ray; Lateral neck x-ray ... There is low radiation exposure. X-rays are monitored so that the lowest amount of radiation is used to produce the image. Pregnant women and ...

  5. Can "YouTube" help students in learning surface anatomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azer, Samy A

    2012-07-01

    In a problem-based learning curriculum, most medical students research the Internet for information for their "learning issues." Internet sites such as "YouTube" have become a useful resource for information. This study aimed at assessing YouTube videos covering surface anatomy. A search of YouTube was conducted from November 8 to 30, 2010 using research terms "surface anatomy," "anatomy body painting," "living anatomy," "bone landmarks," and "dermatomes" for surface anatomy-related videos. Only relevant video clips in the English language were identified and related URL recorded. For each videotape the following information were collected: title, authors, duration, number of viewers, posted comments, and total number of days on YouTube. The data were statistically analyzed and videos were grouped into educationally useful and non-useful videos on the basis of major and minor criteria covering technical, content, authority, and pedagogy parameters. A total of 235 YouTube videos were screened and 57 were found to have relevant information to surface anatomy. Analysis revealed that 15 (27%) of the videos provided useful information on surface anatomy. These videos scored (mean ± SD, 14.0 ± 0.7) and mainly covered surface anatomy of the shoulder, knee, muscles of the back, leg, and ankle, carotid artery, dermatomes, and anatomical positions. The other 42 (73%) videos were not useful educationally, scoring (mean ± SD, 7.4 ± 1.8). The total viewers of all videos were 1,058,634. Useful videos were viewed by 497,925 (47% of total viewers). The total viewership per day was 750 for useful videos and 652 for non-useful videos. No video clips covering surface anatomy of the head and neck, blood vessels and nerves of upper and lower limbs, chest and abdominal organs/structures were found. Currently, YouTube is an inadequate source of information for learning surface anatomy. More work is needed from medical schools and educators to add useful videos on You

  6. Hostility moderates the effects of social support and intimacy on blood pressure in daily social interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella, Elizabeth J; Kamarck, Thomas W; Shiffman, Saul

    2008-03-01

    This study sought to determine the role of hostility in moderating the effects of positive social interactions on ambulatory blood pressure (ABP). Participants (341 adults) completed the Cook-Medley Hostility Scale and underwent ABP monitoring, assessed every 45 min during waking hours across 6 days. An electronic diary measuring mood and social interactions was completed at each ABP assessment. The dependent variables from the ABP monitor included systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate. Different patterns of ambulatory diastolic blood pressure (ADBP) responding to social interactions perceived as intimate or supportive among high- versus low-hostile individuals were observed. Higher intimacy ratings were linked to reductions in ADBP among low-hostile but not high-hostile individuals. Conversely, high-hostile, but not low-hostile, individuals showed increases in ADBP to situations rated high in social support. Although findings for ambulatory systolic blood pressure were nonsignificant, the pattern of results was similar to ADBP. Hostile individuals may find offers of support stressful and may fail to benefit from intimacy during daily life. The pathogenic effects of hostility may be mediated in part by responses to social interactions, both positive and negative. (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved

  7. Hostility and the risk of peptic ulcer in the GAZEL cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemogne, Cédric; Schuster, Jean-Pierre; Levenstein, Susan; Melchior, Maria; Nabi, Hermann; Ducimetière, Pierre; Limosin, Frédéric; Goldberg, Marcel; Zins, Marie; Consoli, Silla M

    2015-02-01

    Evidence for an association between hostility and peptic ulcer mainly relies on cross-sectional studies. Prospective studies are rare and have not used a validated measure of hostility. This prospective study aimed to examine the association between hostility and peptic ulcer in the large-scale French GAZEL cohort. In 1993, 14,674 participants completed the Buss and Durkee Hostility Inventory. Participants were annually followed-up from 1994 to 2011. Diagnosis of peptic ulcer was self-reported. The association between hostility scores and ulcer incidence was measured by hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals computed through Cox regression. Among 13,539 participants free of peptic ulcer history at baseline, 816 reported a peptic ulcer during a mean follow-up of 16.8 years. Adjusting for potential confounders, including smoking, occupational grade, and a proxy for nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug exposure, ulcer incidence was positively associated with total hostility (HR per SD: 1.23, confidence interval: 1.14-1.31), behavioral hostility (HR per SD: 1.13, confidence interval: 1.05-1.21), cognitive hostility (HR per SD: 1.26, confidence interval: 1.18-1.35), and irritability (HR per SD: 1.20, confidence interval: 1.12-1.29). The risk of peptic ulcer increased from the lowest to the highest quartile for all hostility measures (p for linear trend peptic ulcer. Should these results be replicated, further studies would be needed to explore the underlying mechanisms.

  8. Management of common head and neck masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, Thomas F; Muratore, Christopher S

    2007-02-01

    Head and neck masses are a common clinical concern in infants, children, and adolescents. The differential diagnosis for a head or neck mass includes congenital, inflammatory, and neoplastic lesions. An orderly and thorough examination of the head and neck with an appropriate directed workup will facilitate the diagnosis. The most common entities occur repeatedly within the various age groups and can be differentiated with a clear understanding of embryology and anatomy of the region, and an understanding of the natural history of a specific lesion. Congenital lesions most commonly found in the pediatric population include the thyroglossal duct cyst and the branchial cleft and arch anomalies. The inflammatory masses are secondary to local or systemic infections. The most common etiology for cervical adenopathy in children is reactive lymphadenopathy following a viral or bacterial illness. Persistent adenopathy raises more concerns, especially enlarged lymph nodes within the posterior triangle or supraclavicular space, nodes that are painless, firm, and not mobile, or a single dominant node that persists for more than 6 weeks should all heighten concern for malignancy. In this review, we discuss the current principles of surgical management of the most common head and neck masses that present to pediatricians and pediatric surgeons.

  9. Acute suppurative parotitis with spread to the deep neck spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, M A; Docktor, J W

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the case of an elderly, diabetic woman who became dehydrated and developed acute suppurative parotitis, which caused marked swelling of her left face and neck. The parotid infection also extended by continuity into the lateral pharyngeal space and contiguous deep neck spaces, causing airway-threatening, extensive inflammation and swelling of the epiglottis and parapharyngeal soft tissues. The differential diagnosis and diagnostic rationale is discussed. The anatomy of the stylomandibular area is reviewed to explain how infection of the parotid can spread to the pharynx.

  10. Gender influence on perceptions of hostile environment sexual harassment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, C L; Bensko, N L; Bell, P A; Viney, W; Woody, W D

    1995-08-01

    Perceptions of sexual harassment were investigated as a function of perpetrators' and recipients' gender. Undergraduate students (100 women, 98 men) were presented 34 scenarios of men and women interacting at work. Participants were asked to read carefully each scenario and indicate on a scale anchored by 1 (strongly disagree) and 7 (strongly agree) their opinions as to whether the scenario represented an incident of sexual harassment. Analysis indicated that women rated "hostile environment" scenarios as more harassing than men, and male perpetrators were rated as more harassing than female perpetrators. Even though some scenarios were rated as more harassing than others, the full range of the 7-point scale was used on every scenario, indicating a lack of agreement on what constitutes harassment. This lack of agreement highlights the debate within the legal community about whether the "reasonable person" or the "reasonable woman" standard should be used to judge sexual harassment in the workplace.

  11. Material Property Measurement in Hostile Environments using Laser Acoustics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ken L. Telschow

    2004-01-01

    Acoustic methods are well known and have been used to measure various intrinsic material properties, such as, elastic coefficients, density, crystal axis orientation, microstructural texture, and residual stress. Extrinsic properties, such as, dimensions, motion variables or temperature are also readily determined from acoustic methods. Laser acoustics, employing optical generation and detection of elastic waves, has a unique advantage over other acoustic methods-it is noncontacting, uses the sample surface itself for transduction, requires no couplant or invasive sample surface preparation and can be utilized in any hostile environment allowing optical access to the sample surface. In addition, optical generation and detection probe beams can be focused to the micron scale and/or shaped to alter the transduction process with a degree of control not possible using contact transduction methods. Laser methods are amenable to both continuous wave and pulse-echo measurements and have been used from Hz to 100's of GHz (time scales from sec to psec) and with amplitudes sufficient to fracture materials. This paper shall review recent applications of laser acoustic methods to determining material properties in hostile environments that preclude the use of contacting transduction techniques. Example environments include high temperature (>1000C) sintering and molten metal processing, thin film deposition by plasma techniques, materials moving at high velocity during the fabrication process and nuclear high radiation regions. Recent technological advances in solid-state lasers and telecommunications have greatly aided the development and implementation of laser acoustic methods, particularly at ultra high frequencies. Consequently, laser acoustic material property measurements exhibit high precision and reproducibility today. In addition, optical techniques provide methods of imaging acoustic motion that is both quantitative and rapid. Possible future directions for laser

  12. The anatomy workbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagen-Ansert, S.L.

    1986-01-01

    This is an atlas of human anatomy presented in the form of line drawings, many of which correspond to imaging planes used in ultrasound (US), computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance (MR). The book is organized into 17 sections, each covering a specific structure or organ system. Large, uncluttered drawings are labeled for identification of structures of interest. Many illustrations include captions consisting of comments explaining major divisions within organs, specific anatomic relationships and landmarks, and pertinent vascular anatomy. Most organs are first depicted in isolation or in relation to important adjacent organs or blood vessels and are rendered as if viewed from anterior, posterior, inferior, or superior perspectives. The organs are demonstrated again in serial transverse, saggital, and coronal sections, each accompanied by a drawing of a body in anatomic position denoting the plane of the section

  13. Breast development and anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, Sonali; Moore, Richard G

    2011-03-01

    In this article, the development of the female breast, as well as the functional anatomy, blood supply, innervation and lymphatic drainage are described. A thorough understanding of the breast anatomy is an important adjunct to a meticulous clinical breast examination. Breast examination is a complex skill involving key maneuvers, including careful inspection and palpation. Clinical breast examination can provide an opportunity for the clinician to educate patients about their breast and about breast cancer, its symptoms, risk factors, early detection, and normal breast composition, and specifically variability. Clinical breast examination can help to detect some cancers not found by mammography, and clinicians should not override their examination findings if imaging is not supportive of the physical findings.

  14. Anatomy of the cerebellopontine angle; Anatomie des Kleinhirnbrueckenwinkels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grunwald, I.Q.; Papanagiotou, P.; Politi, M.; Reith, W. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar (Germany). Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie; Nabhan, A. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar (Germany). Neurochirurgische Klinik

    2006-03-15

    The cerebellopontine angle (CPA) is an anatomically complex region of the brain. In this article we describe the anatomy of the CPA cisterns, of the internal auditory canal, the topography of the cerebellum and brainstem, and the neurovascular structures of this area. (orig.) [German] Der Kleinhirnbrueckenwinkel ist eine umschriebene anatomische Region. Im diesem Artikel werden die Subarachnoidalraeume im Kleinhirnbrueckenwinkel, die Anatomie der Felsenbeinflaeche, Anatomie und Topographie des Kleinhirns und des Hirnstamms, die arteriellen Beziehungen und venoese Drainage des Kleinhirnbrueckenwinkels besprochen. (orig.)

  15. Human ocular anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kels, Barry D; Grzybowski, Andrzej; Grant-Kels, Jane M

    2015-01-01

    We review the normal anatomy of the human globe, eyelids, and lacrimal system. This contribution explores both the form and function of numerous anatomic features of the human ocular system, which are vital to a comprehensive understanding of the pathophysiology of many oculocutaneous diseases. The review concludes with a reference glossary of selective ophthalmologic terms that are relevant to a thorough understanding of many oculocutaneous disease processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Pictorial essay: Vascular interventions in extra cranial head and neck

    OpenAIRE

    Suyash S Kulkarni; Nitin S Shetty; Tejas P Dharia; Ashwin M Polnaya

    2012-01-01

    Medicine is an ever changing field and interventional radiology (IR) procedures are becoming increasingly popular because of high efficacy and its minimally invasive nature of the procedure. Management of disease processes in the extra cranial head and neck (ECHN) has always been a challenge due to the complex anatomy of the region. Cross sectional imaging of the ECHN has grown and evolved tremendously and occupies a pivotal and integral position in the clinical management of variety of head ...

  17. Work Related Psychosocial and Organizational Factors for Neck Pain in Workers in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Haiou; Hitchcock, Edward; Haldeman, Scott; Swanson, Naomi; Lu, Ming-Lun; Choi, BongKyoo; Nakata, Akinori; Baker, Dean

    2016-01-01

    Background Neck pain is a prevalent musculoskeletal condition among workers in the United States. This study explores a set of workplace psychosocial and organization-related factors for neck pain. Methods Data used for this study comes from the 2010 National Health interview Survey which provides a representative sample of the US population. To account for the complex sampling design, the Taylor linearized variance estimation method was used. Logistic regression models were constructed to measure the associations. Results This study demonstrated significant associations between neck pain and a set of workplace risk factors including work-family imbalance, exposure to a hostile work environment and job insecurity, non-standard work arrangements, multiple jobs and long work hours. Conclusion Workers with neck pain may benefit from intervention programs that address issues related to these workplace risk factors. Future studies exploring both psychosocial risk factors and physical risk factors with a longitudinal design will be important. PMID:27184340

  18. Conflict and Withdrawal during Marital Interaction: The Roles of Hostility and Defensiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Tamara L.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examined whether hostile and defensive personality characteristics contribute to conflict and withdrawal within marriage. Analysis of 90 newly wed couples' discussions showed that, among husbands, high levels of hostility combined with low levels of defensiveness accompanied increased conflict. This same personality pattern led to an increase in…

  19. An Ambivalent Alliance: Hostile and Benevolent Sexism as Complementary Justifications for Gender Inequality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, Peter; Fiske, Susan T.

    2001-01-01

    Review recent theory and empirical research on hostile and benevolent sexism, discussing the nature of sexism; why benevolent prejudices matter; hostile and benevolent sexism as universal prejudices; polarized images of women; how sexist benevolence may play a significant role in justifying gender inequality; women's acceptance of sexist…

  20. Do Hostile Attribution Biases in Children and Parents Predict Relationally Aggressive Behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Nicole E.

    2012-01-01

    Relatively little is understood about the role of hostile attributions in children's use of relational aggression with peers, or about the impact of family processes on children's attributions about ambiguous provocations. This cross-sectional study investigated associations among hostile attributions made by children, mothers, and fathers, and…

  1. Hostility Ratings by Parents at Risk for Child Abuse: Impact of Chronic and Temporary Schema Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farc, Maria-Magdalena; Crouch, Julie L.; Skowronski, John J.; Milner, Joel S.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Two studies examined whether accessibility of hostility-related schema influenced ratings of ambiguous child pictures. Based on the social information processing model of child physical abuse (CPA), it was expected that CPA risk status would serve as a proxy for chronic accessibility of hostile schema, while priming procedures were used…

  2. Beyond prejudice as simple antipathy: Hostile and benevolent sexism across cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glick, P.; Fiske, S.T.; Mladinic, A.; Saiz, J.L.; Abrams, D.; Masser, B.; Adetoun, B.; Osagie, J.E.; Akande, A.; Alao, A.; Annetje, B.; Willemsen, T.M.; Chipeta, K.; Dardenne, B.; Dijksterhuis, A.J.; Wigboldus, D.H.J.; Eckes, T.; Six-Materna, I.; Expósito, F.; Moya, M.; Foddy, M.; Kim, H.J.; Lameiras, M.; Sotelo, M.J.; Mucchi-Faina, A.; Romani, M.; Sakalli, N.; Udegbe, B.; Yamamoto, M.; Ui, M.; Ferreira, M.C.; López, W.

    2000-01-01

    The authors argue that complementary hostile and benevolent components of sexism exist across cultures. Male dominance creates hostile sexism (HS), but men's dependence on women fosters benevolent sexism (BS)--subjectively positive attitudes that put women on a pedestal but reinforce their

  3. Parental Hostility as a Predictor of Parental Authority and Adolescent Self-Esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buri, John R.; And Others

    Research shows that hostility may lead to deleterious consequences for health, anger, aggressive behavior, and interpersonal relationships. This study investigated the relation of parents' hostility levels to both the self-esteem (SE) of college-aged participants and the adolescents' phenomenological assessments of parental authority. The 199…

  4. M&A in Japan: An Analysis of Merger Waves and Hostile Takeovers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. van Schaik (Dimitri)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThe number of mergers between large companies has been low and hostile takeover cases have been rare in post-war Japan. Since the 1990s total M&A activity is increasing in number of cases and value, and coinciding with this trend, hostile tender offer attempts are also more frequent.

  5. Comparison of a gross anatomy laboratory to online anatomy software for teaching anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathiowetz, Virgil; Yu, Chih-Huang; Quake-Rapp, Cindee

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the grades, self-perceived learning, and satisfaction between occupational therapy students who used a gross anatomy laboratory versus online anatomy software (AnatomyTV) as tools to learn anatomy at a large public university and a satellite campus in the mid-western United States. The goal was to determine if equivalent learning outcomes could be achieved regardless of learning tool used. In addition, it was important to determine why students chose the gross anatomy laboratory over online AnatomyTV. A two group, post-test only design was used with data gathered at the end of the course. Primary outcomes were students' grades, self-perceived learning, and satisfaction. In addition, a survey was used to collect descriptive data. One cadaver prosection was available for every four students in the gross anatomy laboratory. AnatomyTV was available online through the university library. At the conclusion of the course, the gross anatomy laboratory group had significantly higher grade percentage, self-perceived learning, and satisfaction than the AnatomyTV group. However, the practical significance of the difference is debatable. The significantly greater time spent in gross anatomy laboratory during the laboratory portion of the course may have affected the study outcomes. In addition, some students may find the difference in (B+) versus (A-) grade as not practically significant. Further research needs to be conducted to identify what specific anatomy teaching resources are most effective beyond prosection for students without access to a gross anatomy laboratory. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.

  6. Autonomic characteristics of defensive hostility: reactivity and recovery to active and passive stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella, Elizabeth J; Friedman, Bruce H

    2007-11-01

    The autonomic characteristics of hostility and defensiveness were assessed in 55 male undergraduates based on composite Cook Medley Hostility (Chost) and Marlowe Crowne Social Desirability (MC) scores to create 4 groups: Defensive Hostile (DH; high MC, high Chost), High Hostile (HH; low MC, high Chost), Defensive (Def; high MC, low Chost) and Low Hostile (LH; low MC, low Chost). All subjects engaged in a video game (VG) and hand cold pressor (CP) task. Cardiovascular responses in DH subjects were predicted to show enhanced sympathetic alpha and beta-adrenergic activity and the least vagal control compared to others across tasks. DH and LH men showed significant heart rate reactivity to the CP task compared to HH men. LH men showed significant reductions in high frequency power (vagal assessment) to the tasks compared to HH men. Future studies may employ harassment techniques and include the factors of gender and ethnicity in their assessments.

  7. Hostility and hearing protection behavior: the mediating role of personal beliefs and low frustration tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinowitz, S; Melamed, S; Feiner, M; Weisberg, E; Ribak, J

    1996-10-01

    The authors examined whether hostility would negatively be associated with occupational health behavior, namely, the use of hearing protection devices (HPDs). Also examined as possible mediators were the protection motivation theory (PMT) components and low frustration tolerance (LFT). Participants were 226 male industrial workers, all exposed to potentially hearing-damaging noise. Hostility was negatively related to HPD use. It moderately correlated with the PMT components: negatively with perceived susceptibility, severity, effectiveness, and self-efficacy and positively with perceived barriers. Hostility correlated highly with LFT. Regression analyses confirmed the mediating role of perceived barriers, low self-efficacy, and LFT in the negative relationship between hostility and the use of HPDs. Thus, intrapsychic characteristics of hostile people may be significant for hearing protection behavior.

  8. Hostile Attribution Bias as a Mediator of the Relationships of Psychopathy and Narcissism With Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Helen; Falkenbach, Diana M

    2017-11-01

    Hostile attribution bias (HAB), the tendency to perceive hostility in ambiguous situations, has been linked to aggressive outcomes, such as reactive aggression. HAB has been connected to personality types involving hostile beliefs and reactive aggression, including narcissism and psychopathy. Specifically, secondary psychopathy is associated with HAB and reactive aggression. Despite research and theory connecting these constructs, few studies have examined if HAB mediates the relationships among psychopathy, narcissism, and aggression. The current study explores this possible mediation in an urban college sample. Narcissism was associated with aggression but not hostile aggression or HAB. Reactive aggression and HAB were both associated with psychopathy, but there were no mediation relationships. The associations with aggression may be, therefore, due to underlying traits of secondary psychopathy rather than the hostile attributions to which the traits contribute; consequently, treatments focused on reducing aggressive responses by correcting interpretations of social situations may not be successful.

  9. Hostile attribution biases for relationally provocative situations and event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godleski, Stephanie A; Ostrov, Jamie M; Houston, Rebecca J; Schlienz, Nicolas J

    2010-04-01

    This exploratory study investigates how hostile attribution biases for relationally provocative situations may be related to neurocognitive processing using the P300 event-related potential. Participants were 112 (45 women) emerging adults enrolled in a large, public university in upstate New York. Participants completed self-report measures on relational aggression and hostile attribution biases and performed an auditory perseveration task to elicit the P300. It was found that hostile attribution biases for relational provocation situations was associated with a larger P300 amplitude above and beyond the role of hostile attribution biases for instrumental situations, relational aggression, and gender. Larger P300 amplitude is interpreted to reflect greater allocation of cognitive resources or enhanced "attending" to salient stimuli. Implications for methodological approaches to studying aggression and hostile attribution biases and for theory are discussed, as well as implications for the fields of developmental psychology and psychopathology. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Do hostile attributions and negative affect explain the association between authoritarian beliefs and harsh parenting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, Julie L; Irwin, Lauren M; Milner, Joel S; Skowronski, John J; Rutledge, Ericka; Davila, America L

    2017-05-01

    The present study examined the associations between authoritarian parenting beliefs, attributions of hostile intent, negative affect, and harsh parenting practices. General population parents (N=183; 31.1% fathers) completed self-report measures of authoritarian parenting beliefs and read vignettes describing children engaging in transgressions. Following each vignette, parents indicated the extent to which they would attribute hostile intent to the child, feel negative affect, and respond with harsh parenting practices (e.g., yelling, hitting). As hypothesized, parents who subscribed to higher levels of authoritarian beliefs attributed more hostile intent to the child and expected to feel more negative affect in response to the transgressions. In turn, higher levels of hostile attributions and negative affect were associated with increased likelihood of harsh parenting practices. Results from a path analysis revealed that the association between authoritarian parenting beliefs and harsh parenting practices was fully explained by attributions of hostile intent and negative affect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Stereopsis, Visuospatial Ability, and Virtual Reality in Anatomy Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-Maarten Luursema

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A new wave of virtual reality headsets has become available. A potential benefit for the study of human anatomy is the reintroduction of stereopsis and absolute size. We report a randomized controlled trial to assess the contribution of stereopsis to anatomy learning, for students of different visuospatial ability. Sixty-three participants engaged in a one-hour session including a study phase and posttest. One group studied 3D models of the anatomy of the deep neck in full stereoptic virtual reality; one group studied those structures in virtual reality without stereoptic depth. The control group experienced an unrelated virtual reality environment. A post hoc questionnaire explored cognitive load and problem solving strategies of the participants. We found no effect of condition on learning. Visuospatial ability however did impact correct answers at F(1=5.63 and p=.02. No evidence was found for an impact of cognitive load on performance. Possibly, participants were able to solve the posttest items based on visuospatial information contained in the test items themselves. Additionally, the virtual anatomy may have been complex enough to discourage memory based strategies. It is important to control the amount of visuospatial information present in test items.

  12. Stereopsis, Visuospatial Ability, and Virtual Reality in Anatomy Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luursema, Jan-Maarten; Vorstenbosch, Marc; Kooloos, Jan

    2017-01-01

    A new wave of virtual reality headsets has become available. A potential benefit for the study of human anatomy is the reintroduction of stereopsis and absolute size. We report a randomized controlled trial to assess the contribution of stereopsis to anatomy learning, for students of different visuospatial ability. Sixty-three participants engaged in a one-hour session including a study phase and posttest. One group studied 3D models of the anatomy of the deep neck in full stereoptic virtual reality; one group studied those structures in virtual reality without stereoptic depth. The control group experienced an unrelated virtual reality environment. A post hoc questionnaire explored cognitive load and problem solving strategies of the participants. We found no effect of condition on learning. Visuospatial ability however did impact correct answers at F (1) = 5.63 and p = .02. No evidence was found for an impact of cognitive load on performance. Possibly, participants were able to solve the posttest items based on visuospatial information contained in the test items themselves. Additionally, the virtual anatomy may have been complex enough to discourage memory based strategies. It is important to control the amount of visuospatial information present in test items.

  13. Comparative study of hostility in depressive patients with and without a suicide attempt history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christodoulou, Christos; Efstathiou, Vasiliki; Ferentinos, Panagiotis; Poulios, Antonios; Papadopoulou, Athanasia; Douzenis, Athanassios

    2017-08-01

    Hostility in association with depression seems to be connected to suicidal behavior. This study aimed to evaluate hostility and its dimensions in relation to depression in patients who suffered from diagnosed depression with and without a suicide attempt history. The study included 168 participants; 58 patients with depression and suicide attempt history, 55 patients with depression without a suicide attempt history and 55 healthy controls. Hostility was assessed with the Hostility and Direction of Hostility Questionnaire, while depression with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Patients with depression and a suicide attempt history compared with the patients without attempt history presented statistically significantly higher total hostility (28.71 ± 6.43 vs 24.20 ± 7.66), extroverted hostility (17.16 ± 4.37 vs 14.15 ± 4.63), acting out hostility (6.03 ± 2.09 vs 4.73 ± 1.93), and self criticism (6.95 ± 2.12 vs 5.89 ± 2.32). No statistically significant differences were found between the two clinical groups in depression according to the BDI. Moreover depressive patients with suicide attempt history scored higher in all the hostility dimensions than the controls. Therefore, it could be suggested that hostility and especially its extrapunitive dimensions are associated with suicidal behavior, since no differences in depression were recorded between the two clinical groups.

  14. Imaging of the head and neck. 2. rev. and enl. ed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mafee, M.F.; Valvassori, G.E. [University of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States); Becker, M. [Geneva University Hospital (Switzerland)

    2004-07-01

    Remarkable advances in medical diagnostic imaging have been made during the past three decades. The development of new imaging techniques and continuous improvements in the display of digital images have opened new horizons in the study of head and neck anatomy and pathology. The American Society of Head and Neck Radiology (ASHNR) and its European and Asiatic counterparts evolved because of the emerging awareness of the roles that head and neck radiologists play in the diagnosis and management of head and neck, base of the skull, neuro-ophthalmologic and neuro-otologic diseases. This edition continues the tradition of excellence set by the first edition of Valvassori's Head and Neck Imaging (which was also the first textbook in head and neck radiology), and provides a comprehensive review of the most pertinent and up-to-date knowledge in the field of head and neck imaging. The content of this edition has been organized into 12 chapters according to anatomic regions. It now includes new material on the temporomandibular joint, the lacrimal drainage system, dental scanning, fibro-osseous and cartilaginous lesions of the head and neck, MRI sialography, MR interventional technique, and thyroid and parathyroid glands. All chapters have been expanded to address new developments in the field and to stress the importance of imaging anatomy, pathologic correlation, and pertinent clinical data. For each anatomic region, the embryology and anatomy are introduced, followed by congenital and developmental disorders, inflammatory processes, benign and malignant neoplastic diseases, trauma, and postoperative changes. The detailed reference lists in each chapter include key references and are as recent as possible. Care has been taken to include exquisitely reproduced illustrations that provide the maximum of pertinent information. It is our hope that this textbook will be useful to students and physicians in the fields of radiology, otolaryngology, neurootology, rhinology

  15. Imaging of the head and neck. 2. rev. and enl. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mafee, M.F.; Valvassori, G.E.; Becker, M.

    2004-01-01

    Remarkable advances in medical diagnostic imaging have been made during the past three decades. The development of new imaging techniques and continuous improvements in the display of digital images have opened new horizons in the study of head and neck anatomy and pathology. The American Society of Head and Neck Radiology (ASHNR) and its European and Asiatic counterparts evolved because of the emerging awareness of the roles that head and neck radiologists play in the diagnosis and management of head and neck, base of the skull, neuro-ophthalmologic and neuro-otologic diseases. This edition continues the tradition of excellence set by the first edition of Valvassori's Head and Neck Imaging (which was also the first textbook in head and neck radiology), and provides a comprehensive review of the most pertinent and up-to-date knowledge in the field of head and neck imaging. The content of this edition has been organized into 12 chapters according to anatomic regions. It now includes new material on the temporomandibular joint, the lacrimal drainage system, dental scanning, fibro-osseous and cartilaginous lesions of the head and neck, MRI sialography, MR interventional technique, and thyroid and parathyroid glands. All chapters have been expanded to address new developments in the field and to stress the importance of imaging anatomy, pathologic correlation, and pertinent clinical data. For each anatomic region, the embryology and anatomy are introduced, followed by congenital and developmental disorders, inflammatory processes, benign and malignant neoplastic diseases, trauma, and postoperative changes. The detailed reference lists in each chapter include key references and are as recent as possible. Care has been taken to include exquisitely reproduced illustrations that provide the maximum of pertinent information. It is our hope that this textbook will be useful to students and physicians in the fields of radiology, otolaryngology, neurootology, rhinology, head

  16. Who Is Repeating Anatomy? Trends in an Undergraduate Anatomy Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutte, Audra F.

    2016-01-01

    Anatomy courses frequently serve as prerequisites or requirements for health sciences programs. Due to the challenging nature of anatomy, each semester there are students remediating the course (enrolled in the course for a second time), attempting to earn a grade competitive for admissions into a program of study. In this retrospective study,…

  17. Functional anatomy of the prostate: Implications for treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, Patrick W.; Troyer, Sara; Berri, Sally; Narayana, Vrinda; Meirowitz, Amichay; Roberson, Peter L.; Montie, James

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To summarize the functional anatomy relevant to prostate cancer treatment planning. Methods and Materials: Coronal, axial, and sagittal T2 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and MRI angiography were fused by mutual information and registered with computed tomography (CT) scan data sets to improve definition of zonal anatomy of the prostate and critical adjacent structures. Results: The three major prostate zones (inner, outer, and anterior fibromuscular) are visible by T2 MRI imaging. The bladder, bladder neck, and internal (preprostatic) sphincter are a continuous muscular structure and clear definition of the preprostatic sphincter is difficult by MRI. Transition zone hypertrophy may efface the bladder neck and internal sphincter. The external 'lower' sphincter is clearly visible by T2 MRI with wide variations in length. The critical erectile structures are the internal pudendal artery (defined by MRI angiogram or T2 MRI), corpus cavernosum, and neurovascular bundle. The neurovascular bundle is visible along the posterior lateral surface of the prostate on CT and MRI, but its terminal branches (cavernosal nerves) are not visible and must be defined by their relationship to the urethra within the genitourinary diaphragm. Visualization of the ejaculatory ducts within the prostate is possible on sagittal MRI. The anatomy of the prostate-rectum interface is clarified by MRI, as is the potentially important distinction of rectal muscle and rectal mucosa. Conclusion: Improved understanding of functional anatomy and imaging of the prostate and critical adjacent structures will improve prostate radiation therapy by improvement of dose and toxicity correlation, limitation of dose to critical structures, and potential improvement in post therapy quality of life

  18. [Imaging evaluation on adaptability of proximal humeral anatomy after shoulder replacement with individualized shoulder prosthesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Youxing; Tang, Kanglai; Yuan, Chengsong; Tao, Xu; Wang, Huaqing; Chen, Bo; Guo, Yupeng

    2015-03-24

    Modern shoulder prosthesis has evolved through four generations. And the fourth generation technology has a core three-dimensional design of restoring 3D reconstruction of proximal humeral anatomy. Thus a new shoulder prosthesis is developed on the basis of the technology of 3D prosthesis. Assessment of whether shoulder prosthesis can restore individualized reconstruction of proximal humeral anatomy is based on the adaptability of proximal humeral anatomy. To evaluate the adaptability of proximal humeral anatomy through measuring the parameters of proximal humeral anatomy after shoulder replacement with individualized shoulder prosthesis and compare with normal data. The parameters of proximal humeral anatomy were analyzed and evaluated for a total of 12 cases undergoing shoulder replacement with individualized shoulder prosthesis. The relevant anatomical parameters included neck-shaft angle (NSA), retroversion angle (RA), humeral head height (HH) and humeral head diameter (HD). And the anatomical parameters were compared with the data from normal side. All underwent shoulder replacement with individualized shoulder prosthesis. The postoperative parameters of proximal humeral anatomy were compared with those of normal side. And the difference of NSA was 0.05). Individualized shoulder prosthesis has excellent adaptability to shoulder. All core parameters are freely adjustable and specification models may be optimized. With matching tools, individualized shoulder prosthesis improves the accuracy and reliability in shoulder replacement.

  19. Normal cranial CT anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gado, M.H.; Rao, K.C.V.G.

    1987-01-01

    The human brain consists of well-known anatomical components. Some parts of these components have been shown to be concerned with certain functions. A complete cranial CT examination consists of a series of several slices obtained in a sequence usually from the base to the vertex of the cranial vault, in the axial mode. The ultimate goal of this chapter is to pinpoint those slices that depict a given anatomical structure or several structures that deal with a given function. To achieve this goal, the discussion of CT cranial anatomy is presented in three sections

  20. Hostility and Anger in Women with Suspected Coronary Artery Disease: The Women’s Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation (WISE) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    CAD, and measures of the cognitive aspect of hostility (Cook-Medley subscales) were not, it appears that in women the overt expression of anger toward...other persons or objects is more “toxic” than the cognitive aspect of hostility. Several studies have revealed an association between behavioral...If this is true, then a measure assessing the cognitive aspect of hostility, such as the Cook-Medley hostility scale, will be a less direct and

  1. Radiographic anatomy and pathology of the child's airway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, B.B. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The laryngotracheal airway has been considered the ''bottle-neck'' of the lungs. Any compromise of this already rather small pathway can easily result in a life-threatening situation. Rapid, accurate diagnosis is essential for proper clinical management of a compromised airway. Radiologic studies play a major role in the clinical investigation of patients with serious airway problems. There are notable differences between the anatomy of the upper airway of the adult and that of the young child or infant. In the infant, however, some differences in the radiographic patterns must be kept in mind. In the first 6 months of life, the adenoid shadow is not well defined and is normally absent until 1 month of age. During swallowing there is a lack of air in the pharynx with elevation of the larynx. Air may be seen in the cervical esophagus. All of these physiologic variations must be considered when interpreting radiographs of the neck in the young child

  2. Head, neck, and spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raval, B.; Yeakley, J.W.; Harris, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    Together these volumes form an atlas for multiplanar anatomy of the entire body - using modern computed tomography supplemented with MRI to provide the thorough knowledge of normal anatomy that's fundamental to recognizing pathological alteration. Each volume can stand alone, and each presents the material using radiologic images presented side by side with labeled drawings. There's information of the sella, temporal bone, wrist, and foot. Different window settings are used to emphasize bone and soft tissue detail. Each of the CT or MR images in the atlas have been specifically selected by the authors to illustrate particular radiologic anatomy

  3. Effective Engagement of Hostile Audiences on Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denning, A.

    2011-12-01

    In 2010 and 2011, I gave invited presentations of mainstream climate science to large conferences dismissive of climate change organized by the HEartland Institute. In this presentation I review some of the common objections raised by such audiences and outline effective strategies to rebut them in public venues or the media. Respectful engagement on a human level is much more effective than appeals from authority, scientific consensus, or numerical models. Starting from a base of agreement on basic facts helps establish a basis of trust, which is then nurtured through personal anecdotes and humor. The basic science of climate change is presented in a non-confrontational way with frequent use of examples from everyday life to explain physical principles. Although a hard core of hostile individuals may not be swayed by such an approach, my experience was that this type of engagement can be very effective with ordinary people. I strongly encourage more climate scientists to work with public audiences and the media.

  4. Male Peer Support to Hostile Sexist Attitudes Influences Rape Proclivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán, Mercedes; Megías, Jesús L; Moya, Miguel

    2018-07-01

    Sexual assault affects a large proportion of women in the world. Although most rapes are committed by one man, the act itself may be influenced by many (e.g., the peer group). Hostile sexism (HS) has repeatedly been associated with men's rape proclivity, but the influence exerted by the HS of the peer group on rape proclivity has not been investigated. In this study, we explored the impact of perceived male peer support to HS on participants' rape proclivity. A sample of Spanish undergraduate students from a university in the south of Spain ( N = 134) completed the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory. Immediately afterwards, they received feedback on the supposed sexist responses of a peer group (high vs. low in HS); we kept the benevolent sexism (BS) of the peer group at medium levels. Next, we assessed participants' rape proclivity using acquaintance rape scenarios. Results showed an interaction between participants' own levels of HS and information about the HS of the peer group. Men high in HS reported higher rape proclivity in the high-HS peer-group condition than in the low-HS peer-group condition. By contrast, information on the peer group did not affect self-reported rape proclivity of men low in HS. Results also corroborated the relationship between participants' levels of HS and rape proclivity, and expanded the literature by revealing an unexpected influence of participants' BS on rape proclivity.

  5. Orbita - Anatomy, development and deformities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, K.M.; Reith, W.; Golinski, M.; Schroeder, A.C.

    2008-01-01

    The development of the structures of the human orbita is very complex, but understanding the development makes it easier to understand normal anatomy and dysplasia. The following article first discusses the embryonic development of the eye structures and then presents the ''normal'' radiological anatomy using different investigation techniques and the most common deformities. (orig.) [de

  6. Health Instruction Packages: Cardiac Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Gwen; And Others

    Text, illustrations, and exercises are utilized in these five learning modules to instruct nurses, students, and other health care professionals in cardiac anatomy and functions and in fundamental electrocardiographic techniques. The first module, "Cardiac Anatomy and Physiology: A Review" by Gwen Phillips, teaches the learner to draw…

  7. Experienced bullying and hostile behavior in the workplace and symptoms of burnout in teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Mościcka-Teske

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the study was to assess the relationship between the exposure to workplace bullying and hostile behavior and occupational burnout in a sample of Polish teachers. Material and Methods: In our research we studied a nationwide random sample of 1214 teachers. The frequency and type of hostile behaviors against employees was measured with the use of MDM Questionnaire, (“Mobbing, dręczenie, molestowanie” – “Bullying, harrasement, maltreatment” by Mościcka, Drabek, Merecz, developed in the Department of Occupational Psychology of the Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine in Łódź (Poland, and the level of burnout was assessed with Maslach Burnout Inventory – General Survey (MBI-GS. Results: As many as 63% of teachers experienced hostile behavior in their workplace and 7% of them experienced workplace bullying. Employees affected by bullying and hostile behavior reported more symptoms of professional burnout, such as emotional exhaustion, cynicism, and lower level of professional efficacy. Conclusions: The majority of teachers in this study experienced some form of hostile behavior in the workplace. One in ten respondents was the subject of workplace bullying. The experience of hostile behavior and bullying at work was significantly connected with symptoms of professional burnout. Therefore, it is desirable to take care of good interpersonal relationships in educational institutions, strengthen teachers’ abilities to cope with difficult interpersonal situations, and implement procedures to prevent bullying and hostile behavior in the workplace. Med Pr 2014;65(4:535–542

  8. Experiences of psychiatric nurses exposed to hostility from patients in a forensic ward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tema, T R; Poggenpoel, M; Myburgh, C P H

    2011-10-01

    Hostile behaviour is becoming a way of life in South Africa. Hostility prevails at all settings, including in the health sector. In a forensic ward psychiatric nurses are subjected to hostile behaviour by the patients. The aim of the present study was to explore and describe the psychiatric nurses' experiences of hostile behaviour by patients in a forensic ward and make recommendations for nurse managers to empower these psychiatric nurses to cope with the patients' aggression. Qualitative, in-depth, phenomenological interviews were conducted with nine psychiatric nurses exposed to hostility from patients in a forensic ward. Recommendations were derived from the results from nurse managers to assist psychiatric nurses. It became apparent from the findings that psychiatric nurses in a forensic ward work in a stressful environment. Hostile behaviour in the forensic ward is consistently experienced by the psychiatric nurses as hindering therapeutic relationships. The psychiatric nurses experienced being disempowered. Psychiatric nurses experience hostile behaviour by patients in a forensic ward as disempowering. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSE MANAGEMENT: Nurse managers can facilitate psychiatric nurses' empowerment by providing them access to: information, support, resources, opportunity and growth. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Head and Neck Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Professions Site Index A-Z Head and Neck Cancer Treatment Head and neck cancer overview What are my ... and neck cancer. For updated information on new cancer treatments that are available, you should discuss these issues ...

  10. Fathering and mothering in the family system: linking marital hostility and aggression in adopted toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stover, Carla Smith; Connell, Christian M; Leve, Leslie D; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Shaw, Daniel S; Scaramella, Laura V; Conger, Rand; Reiss, David

    2012-04-01

      Previous studies have linked marital conflict, parenting, and externalizing problems in early childhood. However, these studies have not examined whether genes account for these links nor have they examined whether contextual factors such as parental personality or financial distress might account for links between marital conflict and parenting. We used an adoption design to allow for a clear examination of environmental impact rather than shared genes of parents and children, and assessments of parental personality and financial strain to assess the effects of context on relationships between marriage and parenting of both mothers and fathers.   Participants were 308 adoption-linked families comprised of an adopted child, her/his biological mother (BM), adoptive mother (AM) and adoptive father (AF). BMs were assessed 3-6 and 18 months postpartum and adoptive families were assessed when the child was 18 and 27 months old. Structural equations models were used to examine associations between marital hostility, fathers' and mothers' parenting hostility, and child aggressive behavior at 27 months of age. In addition, the contribution of financial strain and adoptive parent personality traits was examined to determine the associations with the spillover of marital hostility to hostile parenting.   A hostile marital relationship was significantly associated with hostile parenting in fathers and mothers, which were associated with aggressive behavior in toddlers. Subjective financial strain was uniquely associated with marital hostility and child aggression. Antisocial personality traits were related to a more hostile/conflicted marital relationship and to hostile parenting.   Results clarify mechanisms that may account for the success of early parent-child prevention programs that include a focus on parental economic strain and personality in addition to parent training. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2011 Association for

  11. [Head and neck adaptive radiotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, P; Huger, S; Kirby, N; Pouliot, J

    2013-10-01

    Onboard volumetric imaging systems can provide accurate data of the patient's anatomy during a course of head and neck radiotherapy making it possible to assess the actual delivered dose and to evaluate the dosimetric impact of complex daily positioning variations and gradual anatomic changes such as geometric variations of tumors and normal tissues or shrinkage of external contours. Adaptive radiotherapy is defined as the correction of a patient's treatment planning to adapt for individual variations observed during treatment. Strategies are developed to selectively identify patients that require replanning because of an intolerable dosimetric drift. Automated tools are designed to limit time consumption. Deformable image registration algorithms are the cornerstones of these strategies, but a better understanding of their limits of validity is required before adaptive radiotherapy can be safely introduced to daily practice. Moreover, strict evaluation of the clinical benefits is yet to be proven. Copyright © 2013 Société française de radiothérapie oncologique (SFRO). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. The Role of Hostile Attributions in the Associations between Child Maltreatment and Reactive and Proactive Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richey, Allora; Brown, Shaquanna; Fite, Paula J.; Bortolato, Marco

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined the relations between child maltreatment and reactive and proactive functions of aggression, and whether hostile attribution biases partially accounted for these associations in a sample of 339 college students (mean age = 19; 51% male). Child maltreatment was associated with reactive, but not proactive, aggression, and instrumental hostile attribution biases accounted for this association. Relational hostile attributions were correlated with both reactive and proactive aggression, but did not play a role in the link between child maltreatment and reactive aggression. PMID:29386881

  13. The prediction of drug dependence from expectancy for hostility while intoxicated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, D; Nagoshi, C; Muntaner, C; Haertzen, C A

    1990-10-01

    Three hundred seventy-one male substance-abusing volunteers for drug studies were administered the Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory (B-D). One hundred nineteen of these subjects were readministered the B-D with the instruction to answer the items in terms of their behavior while drinking alcohol, with 67 of these subjects also completing a heroin use condition. Expectancies for hostility under alcohol or heroin were generally uncorrelated with other measures of personality, psychopathology, antisocial personality, impulsiveness, or criminality; but expectancies for hostility under alcohol were predictive of diagnoses of alcohol, opioid, and marijuana abuse and dependence over and above the influence of these other measures.

  14. The effects of a novel hostile interpretation bias modification paradigm on hostile interpretations, mood, and aggressive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlMoghrabi, Nouran; Huijding, Jorg; Franken, Ingmar H A

    2018-03-01

    Cognitive theories of aggression propose that biased information processing is causally related to aggression. To test these ideas, the current study investigated the effects of a novel cognitive bias modification paradigm (CBM-I) designed to target interpretations associated with aggressive behavior. Participants aged 18-33 years old were randomly assigned to either a single session of positive training (n = 40) aimed at increasing prosocial interpretations or negative training (n = 40) aimed at increasing hostile interpretations. The results revealed that the positive training resulted in an increase in prosocial interpretations while the negative training seemed to have no effect on interpretations. Importantly, in the positive condition, a positive change in interpretations was related to lower anger and verbal aggression scores after the training. In this condition, participants also reported an increase in happiness. In the negative training no such effects were found. However, the better participants performed on the negative training, the more their interpretations were changed in a negative direction and the more aggression they showed on the behavioral aggression task. Participants were healthy university students. Therefore, results should be confirmed within a clinical population. These findings provide support for the idea that this novel CBM-I paradigm can be used to modify interpretations, and suggests that these interpretations are related to mood and aggressive behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Emergence of microbial networks as response to hostile environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario eMadeo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The majority of microorganisms live in complex communities under varying conditions. One pivotal question in evolutionary biology is the emergence of cooperative traits and their sustainment in altered environments or in the presence of free-riders. Co-occurrence patterns in the spatial distribution of biofilms can help define species' identities, and systems biology tools are revealing networks of interacting microorganisms. However, networks of inter-dependencies involving micro-organisms in the planktonic phase may be just as important, with the added complexity that they are not bounded in space. An integrated approach linking imaging, ``Omics'' and modeling has the potential to enable new hypothesis and working models. In order to understand how cooperation can emerge and be maintained without abilities like memory or recognition we use evolutionary game theory as the natural framework to model cell-cell interactions arising from evolutive decisions. We consider a finite population distributed in a spatial domain (biofilm, and divided into two interacting classes with different traits. This interaction can be weighted by distance, and produces physical connections between two elements allowing them to exchange finite amounts of energy and matter. Available strategies to each individual of one class in the population are the propensities or ``willingness'' to connect any individual of the other class. Following evolutionary game theory, we propose a mathematical model which explains the patterns of connections which emerge when individuals are able to find connection strategies that asymptotically optimize their fitness. The process explains the formation of a network for efficiently exchanging energy and matter among individuals and thus ensuring their survival in hostile environments.

  16. Blended learning in anatomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Gert Værge; Brogner, Heidi Marie

    behind DBR is that new knowledge is generated through processes that simultaneously develop, test and improve a design, in this case, an educational design (1) The main principles used in the project is blended learning and flipped learning (2). …"I definitely learn best in practice, but the theory...... in working with the assignments in the classroom."... External assesor, observer and interviewer Based on the different evaluations, the conclusion are that the blended learning approach combined with the ‘flipped classroom’ is a very good way to learn and apply the anatomy, both for the students......The aim of the project was to bridge the gap between theory and practice by working more collaboratively, both peer-to-peer and between student and lecturer. Furthermore the aim was to create active learning environments. The methodology of the project is Design-Based Research (DBR). The idea...

  17. Efficacy of antipsychotic drugs against hostility in the European First-Episode Schizophrenia Trial (EUFEST)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volavka, Jan; Czobor, Pal; Derks, Eske M.; Bitter, Istvan; Libiger, Jan; Kahn, René S.; Fleischhacker, W. Wolfgang; Kahn, R. S.; Fleischhacker, W. W.; Boter, H.; Keet, I. P. M.; Brugman, C.; Davidson, M.; Dollfus, S.; Gaebel, W.; Galderisi, S.; Gheorghe, M.; Gonen, I.; Grobbee, D. E.; Hranov, L. G.; Hummer, M.; Libiger, J.; Králové, Hradec; Lindefors, N.; López-Ibor, J. J.; Nijssen, K.; Peuskens, J.; Prelipceanu, D.; Riecher-Rössler, A.; Rybakowski, J. K.; Sedvall, G.; von Wilmsdorff, M.

    2011-01-01

    To compare the effects of haloperidol, amisulpride, olanzapine, quetiapine, and ziprasidone on hostility in first-episode schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or schizophreniform disorder. We used the data acquired in the European First-Episode Schizophrenia Trial, an open, randomized trial

  18. Adolescent and Parental Contributions to Parent-Adolescent Hostility across Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weymouth, Bridget B.; Buehler, Cheryl

    2015-01-01

    Early adolescence is characterized by increases in parent-adolescent hostility, yet little is known about what predicts these changes. Utilizing a fairly large sample (N = 416, 51% girls, 91% European American), this study examined the conjoint and unique influences of adolescent social anxiety symptoms and parental intrusiveness on changes in parent-adolescent hostility across early adolescence. Higher mother and father intrusiveness were associated with increased mother- and father-adolescent hostility. An examination of reciprocal effects revealed that mother- and father-adolescent hostility predicted increased mother and father intrusiveness. Significant associations were not substantiated for adolescent social anxiety symptoms. These findings suggest that intrusive parenting has important implications for subsequent parent-adolescent interactions and that similar patterns may characterize some aspects of mother- and father-adolescent relationships. PMID:26346035

  19. Hostile sexism (de)motivates women's social competition intentions: The contradictory role of emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemonaki, Elena; Manstead, Antony S R; Maio, Gregory R

    2015-09-01

    In the present research, we examine the ways in which exposure to hostile sexism influences women's competitive collective action intentions. Prior to testing our main model, our first study experimentally induced high versus low levels of security-comfort with the aim of providing experimental evidence for the proposed causal link between these emotions and intentions to engage in social competition. Results showed that lower levels of security-comfort reduced women's readiness to compete socially with men. Experiment 2 investigated the effect of hostile sexism on women's emotional reactions and readiness to engage in social competition. Consistent with the proposed model, results showed that exposure to hostile beliefs about women (1) increased anger-frustration and (2) decreased security-comfort. More specifically, exposure to hostile sexism had a positive indirect effect on social competition intentions through anger-frustration, and a negative indirect effect through security-comfort. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  20. Me against we: in-group transgression, collective shame, and in-group-directed hostility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piff, Paul K; Martinez, Andres G; Keltner, Dacher

    2012-01-01

    People can experience great distress when a group to which they belong (in-group) is perceived to have committed an immoral act. We hypothesised that people would direct hostility toward a transgressing in-group whose actions threaten their self-image and evoke collective shame. Consistent with this theorising, three studies found that reminders of in-group transgression provoked several expressions of in-group-directed hostility, including in-group-directed hostile emotion (Studies 1 and 2), in-group-directed derogation (Study 2), and in-group-directed punishment (Study 3). Across studies, collective shame-but not the related group-based emotion collective guilt-mediated the relationship between in-group transgression and in-group-directed hostility. Implications for group-based emotion, social identity, and group behaviour are discussed.

  1. Adolescent and Parental Contributions to Parent-Adolescent Hostility Across Early Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weymouth, Bridget B; Buehler, Cheryl

    2016-04-01

    Early adolescence is characterized by increases in parent-adolescent hostility, yet little is known about what predicts these changes. Utilizing a fairly large sample (N = 416, 51 % girls, 91 % European American), this study examined the conjoint and unique influences of adolescent social anxiety symptoms and parental intrusiveness on changes in parent-adolescent hostility across early adolescence. Higher mother and father intrusiveness were associated with increased mother- and father-adolescent hostility. An examination of reciprocal effects revealed that mother- and father-adolescent hostility predicted increased mother and father intrusiveness. Significant associations were not substantiated for adolescent social anxiety symptoms. These findings suggest that intrusive parenting has important implications for subsequent parent-adolescent interactions and that similar patterns may characterize some aspects of mother- and father-adolescent relationships.

  2. Anger and hostility from the perspective of the Big Five personality model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, Jesús; García-Vera, María Paz; Magán, Inés

    2010-06-01

    This study was aimed at examining the relationships of the personality dimensions of the five-factor model or Big Five with trait anger and with two specific traits of hostility (mistrust and confrontational attitude), and identifying the similarities and differences between trait anger and hostility in the framework of the Big Five. In a sample of 353 male and female adults, the Big Five explained a significant percentage of individual differences in trait anger and hostility after controlling the effects due to the relationship between both constructs and content overlapping across scales. In addition, trait anger was primarily associated with neuroticism, whereas mistrust and confrontational attitude were principally related to low agreeableness. These findings are discussed in the context of the anger-hostility-aggression syndrome and the capability of the Big Five for organizing and clarifying related personality constructs.

  3. Morbidity of the neck after head and neck cancer therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wilgen, C.P.; Dijkstra, P.U.; van der Laan, B.F.; Plukker, J.T.; Roodenburg, J.L.

    Background. Studies on morbidity of the neck after head and neck cancer therapy are scarcely described. Methods. Patients who underwent surgery, including neck dissection, with and without radiation therapy at least 1 year before the study were asked to participate. We assessed neck pain, loss of

  4. The peritoneum - anatomy and imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribarova, V.

    2017-01-01

    The peritoneum is a large and complex serous membrane The peritoneal spaces and the natural flow of peritoneal fluid determine the route of spread of the disease processes within the abdominal cavity. The goal of this article is to review the normal peritoneal anatomy and the role of the imaging in the diagnostic of the disease processes. Among the imaging methods, the computed tomography at greater extent allows the accurate examination of the complex anatomy of the peritoneal cavity and to assess the extent of the pathological processes affecting it. Key words: Peritoneal Anatomy. Imaging. CT [bg

  5. Anger, Hostility, and Re-hospitalizations in Patients with Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-08

    income, baseline creatinine levels, baseline ejection fraction, history of smoking, age, and all hostility/anger measures. 3Due to skewness, all- cause ...reported. These findings suggest that those in our study, with high total hostility may have poor medication adherence and thus cause more...health concern in the U.S., with billions of dollars spent annually on health care. The high number of re-hospitalizations significantly contributes to

  6. Optimism, Cynical Hostility, Falls, and Fractures: The Women's Health Initiative Observational Study (WHI-OS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauley, Jane A; Smagula, Stephen F; Hovey, Kathleen M; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Andrews, Christopher A; Crandall, Carolyn J; LeBoff, Meryl S; Li, Wenjun; Coday, Mace; Sattari, Maryam; Tindle, Hilary A

    2017-02-01

    Traits of optimism and cynical hostility are features of personality that could influence the risk of falls and fractures by influencing risk-taking behaviors, health behaviors, or inflammation. To test the hypothesis that personality influences falls and fracture risk, we studied 87,342 women enrolled in WHI-OS. Optimism was assessed by the Life Orientation Test-Revised and cynical hostility, the cynicism subscale of the Cook-Medley questionnaire. Higher scores indicate greater optimism and hostility. Optimism and hostility were correlated at r = -0. 31, p optimism and hostility with tests for trends; Q1 formed the referent group. The average follow-up for fractures was 11.4 years and for falls was 7.6 years. In multivariable (MV)-adjusted models, women with the highest optimism scores (Q4) were 11% less likely to report ≥2 falls in the past year (odds ratio [OR] = 0.89; 95% confidence intervals [CI] 0.85-0.90). Women in Q4 for hostility had a 12% higher risk of ≥2 falls (OR = 1.12; 95% CI 1.07-1.17). Higher optimism scores were also associated with a 10% lower risk of fractures, but this association was attenuated in MV models. Women with the greatest hostility (Q4) had a modest increased risk of any fracture (MV-adjusted hazard ratio = 1. 05; 95% CI 1.01-1.09), but there was no association with specific fracture sites. In conclusion, optimism was independently associated with a decreased risk of ≥2 falls, and hostility with an increased risk of ≥2 falls, independent of traditional risk factors. The magnitude of the association was similar to aging 5 years. Whether interventions aimed at attitudes could reduce fall risks remains to be determined. © 2016 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. © 2016 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  7. Examining the influence of psychopathy, hostility biases, and automatic processing on criminal offenders' Theory of Mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nentjes, Lieke; Bernstein, David; Arntz, Arnoud; van Breukelen, Gerard; Slaats, Mariëtte

    2015-01-01

    Theory of Mind (ToM) is a social perceptual skill that refers to the ability to take someone else's perspective and infer what others think. The current study examined the effect of potential hostility biases, as well as controlled (slow) versus automatic (fast) processing on ToM performance in psychopathy. ToM abilities (as assessed with the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test; RMET; Baron-Cohen, Wheelwright, Hill, Raste, & Plumb, 2001), was compared between 39 PCL-R diagnosed psychopathic offenders, 37 non-psychopathic offenders, and 26 nonoffender controls. Contrary to our hypothesis, psychopathic individuals presented with intact overall RMET performance when restrictions were imposed on how long task stimuli could be processed. In addition, psychopaths did not over-ascribe hostility to task stimuli (i.e., lack of hostility bias). However, there was a significant three-way interaction between hostility, processing speed, and psychopathy: when there was no time limit on stimulus presentation, psychopathic offenders made fewer errors in identifying more hostile eye stimuli compared to nonoffender controls, who seemed to be less accurate in detecting hostility. Psychopaths' more realistic appraisal of others' malevolent mental states is discussed in the light of theories that stress its potential adaptive function. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A Mutual Hostility Explanation for the Co-Occurrence of Delinquency and Depressive Mood in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Ferrer, Belén; Stattin, Håkan

    2017-10-01

    Different interpersonal experiences are related to delinquency and depressive mood. In many studies, delinquency has been associated with exposing others to hostility, while depressive mood has been associated with being a victim of others' hostility. In this study, we proposed that adolescents with a co-occurrence of high delinquency and depressive mood may be both perpetrators and victims in their relations with parents at home, peers and teachers at school, and other people encountered in leisure time. We studied a normative sample of 1452 mid-adolescents (50.61% boys and 49.38% girls). Cluster analyses found a group with a co-occurrence of high delinquency and high depressive mood. Adolescents in this cluster group were highest on being exposed to hostility, exposing others to hostility, and being involved in mutually hostile interactions with others in different everyday contexts. The findings were especially strong when we examined being a victim and a perpetrator across contexts. The results were similar for boys and girls. We conclude that the co-occurrence of high delinquency and depressive mood among some adolescents is intimately linked to the mutually hostile interactions that these adolescents experience in their everyday interpersonal contexts.

  9. Hostility, driving anger, and dangerous driving: the emerging role of hemispheric preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidron, Yori; Gaygısız, Esma; Lajunen, Timo

    2014-12-01

    Various studies have implicated psychosocial variables (e.g., hostility) in risk of dangerous driving and traffic accidents. However, whether these variables are related to more basic neurobiological factors, and whether such associations have implications for the modification of psychosocial risk factors in the context of driving, have not been examined in depth. This study examined the relationship between hemispheric preference (HP), hostility and self-reported dangerous driving, and the ability to affect driving anger via hemisphere activating cognitive exercises (HACE). In Study 1, 254 Turkish students completed questionnaires of hostility, HP and driving behavior. In Study 2, we conducted a "proof of concept" experimental study, and tested effects of left, right and neutral HACE on driving anger, by exposing N=650 Turkish students to written scenarios including either logical (left hemisphere), visuo-spatial (right hemisphere) or "mild doses" of both types of contents (control). In Study 1, left-HP was associated with higher hostility and with more dangerous driving, and hostility mediated the relationship between L-HP and reported driving behavior. In Study 2, only right-HACE led to immediate significant reductions in self-reported driving anger. Left-HP is related to hostility and to dangerous driving, and it may be possible to partly reduce driving anger by right-HACE. Future studies must replicate these findings with objective measures, more enduring interventions and longer follow-ups. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Volumetric visualization of anatomy for treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelizzari, Charles A.; Grzeszczuk, Robert; Chen, George T. Y.; Heimann, Ruth; Haraf, Daniel J.; Vijayakumar, Srinivasan; Ryan, Martin J.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: Delineation of volumes of interest for three-dimensional (3D) treatment planning is usually performed by contouring on two-dimensional sections. We explore the usage of segmentation-free volumetric rendering of the three-dimensional image data set for tumor and normal tissue visualization. Methods and Materials: Standard treatment planning computed tomography (CT) studies, with typically 5 to 10 mm slice thickness, and spiral CT studies with 3 mm slice thickness were used. The data were visualized using locally developed volume-rendering software. Similar to the method of Drebin et al., CT voxels are automatically assigned an opacity and other visual properties (e.g., color) based on a probabilistic classification into tissue types. Using volumetric compositing, a projection into the opacity-weighted volume is produced. Depth cueing, perspective, and gradient-based shading are incorporated to achieve realistic images. Unlike surface-rendered displays, no hand segmentation is required to produce detailed renditions of skin, muscle, or bony anatomy. By suitable manipulation of the opacity map, tissue classes can be made transparent, revealing muscle, vessels, or bone, for example. Manually supervised tissue masking allows irrelevant tissues overlying tumors or other structures of interest to be removed. Results: Very high-quality renditions are produced in from 5 s to 1 min on midrange computer workstations. In the pelvis, an anteroposterior (AP) volume rendered view from a typical planning CT scan clearly shows the skin and bony anatomy. A muscle opacity map permits clear visualization of the superficial thigh muscles, femoral veins, and arteries. Lymph nodes are seen in the femoral triangle. When overlying muscle and bone are cut away, the prostate, seminal vessels, bladder, and rectum are seen in 3D perspective. Similar results are obtained for thorax and for head and neck scans. Conclusion: Volumetric visualization of anatomy is useful in treatment

  11. Pitfalls in neck imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, S.B.; Phillips, C.D.; Cornett, J.B.

    1991-01-01

    CT and MR imaging have become effective imaging modalities in the evaluation of primary head and neck neoplasms. As radiologists have gained experience in head and neck imaging, certain pitfalls have become evident. Identification of pathologic lymph nodes is the critical element in staging neoplasms of the head and neck. The diagnosis of cervical lymphadenopathy may be complicated by confusion with normal structures, inadequate contrast opacification of vascular structures, and poor scanning technique. This paper illustrates these potential problem areas on both CT and MR images and offers the authors' approach to further evaluation in problem cases

  12. Multidisciplinary treatment of the neck

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bree, Remco; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Leemans, C. R.

    2016-01-01

    Since lymph node metastases are one of the most important prognostic factors, treatment of the neck is challenging. In clinically N0 neck, (super)selective neck dissection is indicated, whereas a more extensive neck dissection with preservation of important structures is performed in N2-N3 disease.

  13. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... find out more. Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed ... find out more. Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed ...

  14. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... find out more. Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed ... find out more. Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed ...

  15. Image guided IMRT dosimetry using anatomy specific MOSFET configurations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Md Nurul; Norrlinger, Bern; Heaton, Robert; Islam, Mohammad

    2008-06-23

    We have investigated the feasibility of using a set of multiple MOSFETs in conjunction with the mobile MOSFET wireless dosimetry system, to perform a comprehensive and efficient quality assurance (QA) of IMRT plans. Anatomy specific MOSFET configurations incorporating 5 MOSFETs have been developed for a specially designed IMRT dosimetry phantom. Kilovoltage cone beam computed tomography (kV CBCT) imaging was used to increase the positional precision and accuracy of the detectors and phantom, and so minimize dosimetric uncertainties in high dose gradient regions. The effectiveness of the MOSFET based dose measurements was evaluated by comparing the corresponding doses measured by an ion chamber. For 20 head and neck IMRT plans the agreement between the MOSFET and ionization chamber dose measurements was found to be within -0.26 +/- 0.88% and 0.06 +/- 1.94% (1 sigma) for measurement points in the high dose and low dose respectively. A precision of 1 mm in detector positioning was achieved by using the X-Ray Volume Imaging (XVI) kV CBCT system available with the Elekta Synergy Linear Accelerator. Using the anatomy specific MOSFET configurations, simultaneous measurements were made at five strategically located points covering high dose and low dose regions. The agreement between measurements and calculated doses by the treatment planning system for head and neck and prostate IMRT plans was found to be within 0.47 +/- 2.45%. The results indicate that a cylindrical phantom incorporating multiple MOSFET detectors arranged in an anatomy specific configuration, in conjunction with image guidance, can be utilized to perform a comprehensive and efficient quality assurance of IMRT plans.

  16. Head and Neck Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and neck include the following: Paan (betel quid) . Immigrants from Southeast Asia who use paan (betel quid) ... use this content on your website or other digital platform? Our syndication services page shows you how. ...

  17. TCGA head Neck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Investigators with The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Research Network have discovered genomic differences – with potentially important clinical implications – in head and neck cancers caused by infection with the human papillomavirus (HPV).

  18. Neck dissection - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... drain in your neck when you leave the hospital. The provider will tell you how to care for it. Healing time will depend on how much tissue was removed. Diet and Nutrition You can eat your regular foods ...

  19. Neuroembryology and functional anatomy of craniofacial clefts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewings Ember

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The master plan of all vertebrate embryos is based on neuroanatomy. The embryo can be anatomically divided into discrete units called neuromeres so that each carries unique genetic traits. Embryonic neural crest cells arising from each neuromere induce development of nerves and concomitant arteries and support the development of specific craniofacial tissues or developmental fields. Fields are assembled upon each other in a programmed spatiotemporal order. Abnormalities in one field can affect the shape and position of developing adjacent fields. Craniofacial clefts represent states of excess or deficiency within and between specific developmental fields. The neuromeric organization of the embryo is the common denominator for understanding normal anatomy and pathology of the head and neck. Tessier′s observational cleft classification system can be redefined using neuroanatomic embryology. Reassessment of Tessier′s empiric observations demonstrates a more rational rearrangement of cleft zones, particularly near the midline. Neuromeric theory is also a means to understand and define other common craniofacial problems. Cleft palate, encephaloceles, craniosynostosis and cranial base defects may be analyzed in the same way.

  20. Analyze This! Thematic Analysis: Hostility, Attribution of Intent, and Interpersonal Perception Bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadenizova, Zhana; Dahle, Klaus-Peter

    2017-11-01

    Research suggests that aggressive individuals exhibit a strong tendency to attribute hostile intent to the behavior of others when confronted with an ambiguous social situation. The vignettes method has become a standard procedure to assess hostile attributions. Vignettes represent incomplete ambiguous social stories, in which the subjects experience a negative outcome and are asked to attribute intent to the provocateur's action. This article explores the ways in which subjects perceive ambiguous social situations and other people's intentions, their tendency to refer negative outcome to oneself, and the components defining hostility in the interpersonal relationships. The sample consisted of male adolescent violent offenders ( N = 45) recruited from the Social Therapy Department of the German correctional facility for juvenile offenders in Berlin. All offenders were incarcerated for a violent or sexual crime and were currently undergoing individual and group psychotherapy. The five hypothetical vignettes used in this study were originally designed to assess hostile attributions in both institutional and noninstitutional social situations. Participants' responses were analyzed using thematic analysis. Thematic analysis revealed three key themes regarding the social perception-positive, negative, and neutral-and two themes regarding the components of hostility-provocateur-related personality features and relationship type. Although the vignettes were originally developed to detect hostility-prone perception bias, they seem to be able to reveal a wider set of different attributions of intent, both positive and negative. Thus, vignettes are not limited to assessment of hostility specifically. They much rather seem to be a measure which is sensitive to diverse attributions of intent in general. The diagnostic qualities of the vignettes, their area of application, limitations of the study, and future perspective are discussed.

  1. Neural Correlates of Hostile Jokes: Cognitive and Motivational Processes in Humor Appreciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yu-Chen; Liao, Yi-Jun; Tu, Cheng-Hao; Chen, Hsueh-Chih

    2016-01-01

    Hostile jokes (HJs) provide aggressive catharsis and a feeling of superiority. Behavioral research has found that HJs are perceived as funnier than non-hostile jokes (NJs). The purpose of the present study was to identify the neural correlates of the interaction between type and humor by comparing HJs, NJs, and their corresponding hostile sentences (HSs) and non-hostile sentences (NSs). HJs primarily showed activation in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) and midbrain compared with the corresponding hostile baseline. Conversely, NJs primarily revealed activation in the ventromedial PFC (vmPFC), amygdala, midbrain, ventral anterior cingulate cortex, and nucleus accumbens (NAcc) compared with the corresponding non-hostile baseline. These results support the critical role of the medial PFC (mPFC) for the neural correlates of social cognition and socio-emotional processing in response to different types of jokes. Moreover, the processing of HJs showed increased activation in the dmPFC, which suggested cognitive operations of social motivation, whereas the processing of NJs displayed increased activation in the vmPFC, which suggested social-affective engagement. HJs versus NJs primarily showed increased activation in the dmPFC and midbrain, whereas NJs versus HJs primarily displayed greater activation in the amygdala and midbrain. The psychophysiological interaction (PPI) analysis demonstrated functional coupling of the dmPFC-dlPFC and midbrain-dmPFC for HJs and functional coupling of the vmPFC-midbrain and amygdala-midbrain-NAcc for NJs. Surprisingly, HJs were not perceived as funnier than NJs. Future studies could further investigate the neural correlates of potentially important traits of high-hostility tendencies in humor appreciation based on the psychoanalytic and superiority theories of humor.

  2. Neural Correlates of Hostile Jokes: Cognitive and Motivational Processes in Humor Appreciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yu-Chen; Liao, Yi-Jun; Tu, Cheng-Hao

    2016-01-01

    Hostile jokes (HJs) provide aggressive catharsis and a feeling of superiority. Behavioral research has found that HJs are perceived as funnier than non-hostile jokes (NJs). The purpose of the present study was to identify the neural correlates of the interaction between type and humor by comparing HJs, NJs, and their corresponding hostile sentences (HSs) and non-hostile sentences (NSs). HJs primarily showed activation in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) and midbrain compared with the corresponding hostile baseline. Conversely, NJs primarily revealed activation in the ventromedial PFC (vmPFC), amygdala, midbrain, ventral anterior cingulate cortex, and nucleus accumbens (NAcc) compared with the corresponding non-hostile baseline. These results support the critical role of the medial PFC (mPFC) for the neural correlates of social cognition and socio-emotional processing in response to different types of jokes. Moreover, the processing of HJs showed increased activation in the dmPFC, which suggested cognitive operations of social motivation, whereas the processing of NJs displayed increased activation in the vmPFC, which suggested social-affective engagement. HJs versus NJs primarily showed increased activation in the dmPFC and midbrain, whereas NJs versus HJs primarily displayed greater activation in the amygdala and midbrain. The psychophysiological interaction (PPI) analysis demonstrated functional coupling of the dmPFC–dlPFC and midbrain–dmPFC for HJs and functional coupling of the vmPFC–midbrain and amygdala–midbrain–NAcc for NJs. Surprisingly, HJs were not perceived as funnier than NJs. Future studies could further investigate the neural correlates of potentially important traits of high-hostility tendencies in humor appreciation based on the psychoanalytic and superiority theories of humor. PMID:27840604

  3. Extending color psychology to the personality realm: interpersonal hostility varies by red preferences and perceptual biases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetterman, Adam K; Liu, Tianwei; Robinson, Michael D

    2015-02-01

    The color psychology literature has made a convincing case that color is not just about aesthetics, but also about meaning. This work has involved situational manipulations of color, rendering it uncertain as to whether color-meaning associations can be used to characterize how people differ from each other. The present research focuses on the idea that the color red is linked to, or associated with, individual differences in interpersonal hostility. Across four studies (N = 376 undergraduates), red preferences and perceptual biases were measured along with individual differences in interpersonal hostility. It was found that (a) a preference for the color red was higher as interpersonal hostility increased, (b) hostile people were biased to see the color red more frequently than nonhostile people, and (c) there was a relationship between a preference for the color red and hostile social decision making. These studies represent an important extension of the color psychology literature, highlighting the need to attend to person-based, as well as situation-based, factors. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Anxious and Hostile: Consequences of Anxious Adult Attachment in Predicting Male-Perpetrated Sexual Assault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbaro, Nicole; Parkhill, Michele R; Nguyen, David

    2018-07-01

    Attachment theory has increasingly been utilized to understand the etiology of sexual violence, and anxious attachment appears to be especially informative in this domain. We investigate the influence of general anxious attachment and specific anxious attachment on hostile masculine attitudes to predict male-perpetrated sexual assault. We hypothesize that hostile masculinity will mediate the relationship between general anxious attachment style and sexual assault perpetration (Hypothesis 1) and the relationship between specific anxious attachment to the assaulted woman and sexual assault perpetration (Hypothesis 2). Men ( N = 193) completed the Sexual Experiences Survey (SES) to determine sexual assault history and completed measures of general attachment style, specific attachment to the woman involved in the sexual activity, and measures of hostile masculine attitudes. Results support the hypothesized mediation models, such that general anxious attachment and specific anxious attachment are significantly associated with hostile masculinity, which in turn, predicts the likelihood of male-perpetrated sexual assault. The findings suggest that the unique characteristics of anxious attachment may escalate into hostile masculinity, which then increases the likelihood of sexual assault perpetration. This research is the first to investigate attachment bonds to the woman involved in the sexual activity and likelihood of sexual assault perpetration against the same woman.

  5. The place of surface anatomy in the medical literature and undergraduate anatomy textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azer, Samy A

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this review were to examine the place of surface anatomy in the medical literature, particularly the methods and approaches used in teaching surface and living anatomy and assess commonly used anatomy textbooks in regard to their surface anatomy contents. PubMed and MEDLINE databases were searched using the following keywords "surface anatomy," "living anatomy," "teaching surface anatomy," "bony landmarks," "peer examination" and "dermatomes". The percentage of pages covering surface anatomy in each textbook was calculated as well as the number of images covering surface anatomy. Clarity, quality and adequacy of surface anatomy contents was also examined. The search identified 22 research papers addressing methods used in teaching surface anatomy, 31 papers that can help in the improvement of surface anatomy curriculum, and 12 anatomy textbooks. These teaching methods included: body painting, peer volunteer surface anatomy, use of a living anatomy model, real time ultrasound, virtual (visible) human dissector (VHD), full body digital x-ray of cadavers (Lodox(®) Statscan(®) images) combined with palpating landmarks on peers and the cadaver, as well as the use of collaborative, contextual and self-directed learning. Nineteen of these studies were published in the period from 2006 to 2013. The 31 papers covered evidence-based and clinically-applied surface anatomy. The percentage of surface anatomy in textbooks' contents ranged from 0 to 6.2 with an average of 3.4%. The number of medical illustrations on surface anatomy varied from 0 to 135. In conclusion, although there has been a progressive increase in publications addressing methods used in teaching surface anatomy over the last six to seven years, most anatomy textbooks do not provide students with adequate information about surface anatomy. Only three textbooks provided a solid explanation and foundation of understanding surface anatomy. © 2013 American Association of Anatomists.

  6. An anatomy precourse enhances student learning in veterinary anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNulty, Margaret A; Stevens-Sparks, Cathryn; Taboada, Joseph; Daniel, Annie; Lazarus, Michelle D

    2016-07-08

    Veterinary anatomy is often a source of trepidation for many students. Currently professional veterinary programs, similar to medical curricula, within the United States have no admission requirements for anatomy as a prerequisite course. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the impact of a week-long precourse in veterinary anatomy on both objective student performance and subjective student perceptions of the precourse educational methods. Incoming first year veterinary students in the Louisiana State University School of Veterinary Medicine professional curriculum were asked to participate in a free precourse before the start of the semester, covering the musculoskeletal structures of the canine thoracic limb. Students learned the material either via dissection only, instructor-led demonstrations only, or a combination of both techniques. Outcome measures included student performance on examinations throughout the first anatomy course of the professional curriculum as compared with those who did not participate in the precourse. This study found that those who participated in the precourse did significantly better on examinations within the professional anatomy course compared with those who did not participate. Notably, this significant improvement was also identified on the examination where both groups were exposed to the material for the first time together, indicating that exposure to a small portion of veterinary anatomy can impact learning of anatomical structures beyond the immediate scope of the material previously learned. Subjective data evaluation indicated that the precourse was well received and students preferred guided learning via demonstrations in addition to dissection as opposed to either method alone. Anat Sci Educ 9: 344-356. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.

  7. Papilian's anatomy - celebrating six decades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitraşcu, Dinu Iuliu; Crivii, Carmen Bianca; Opincariu, Iulian

    2017-01-01

    Victor Papilian was born an artist, during high school he studied music in order to become a violinist in two professional orchestras in Bucharest. Later on he enrolled in the school of medicine, being immediately attracted by anatomy. After graduating, with a briliant dissertation, he became a member of the faculty and continued to teach in his preferred field. His masters, Gh. Marinescu and Victor Babes, proposed him for the position of professor at the newly established Faculty of Medicine of Cluj. Here he reorganized the department radically, created an anatomy museum and edited the first dissection handbook and the first Romanian anatomy (descriptive and topographic) treatise, both books received with great appreciation. He received the Romanian Academy Prize. His knowledge and skills gained him a well deserved reputation and he created a prestigious school of anatomy. He published over 250 scientific papers in national and international journals, ranging from morphology to functional, pathological and anthropological topics. He founded the Society of Anthropology, with its own newsletter; he was elected as a member of the French Society of Anatomy. In parallel he had a rich artistic and cultural activity as writer and playwright: he was president of the Transylvanian Writers' Society, editor of a literary review, director of the Cluj theater and opera, leader of a book club and founder of a symphony orchestra.

  8. [What would you do with an adult patient who complains of a neck mass?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piera-Salmerón, A; Buil-Arasanz, M E; Bobé-Armant, F; Carrión-Monllor, M

    2016-09-01

    Family physicians frequently encounter patients with neck mass. There are multiple causes that range from no clinical importance to malignant tumours. The critical challenge for the primary care physician is to identify which cases are secondary to malignancies or other serious conditions. With a good knowledge of the complex anatomy of the neck and a careful clinical history, including a complete physical examination, the different causes can be narrowed down, as well as to differentiate between significant and non-significant neck masses and select the appropriate studies. Lymphoma commonly presents as a painless enlarged lump in the neck, as in the case of the patient presented. An algorithm is provided to help practioners. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Oral complications in the head and neck radiation patient. Introduction and scope of the problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Specht, Lena

    2002-01-01

    Head and neck cancer arises in the upper aerodigestive tract, most commonly in the oral cavity, pharynx, and larynx. The anatomy and physiology of this region are uniquely complex, and the function and appearance are critical to patients' self-image and quality of life. Head and neck cancer is re...... care for these patients. New developments in radiotherapy techniques are expected to lead to even higher cure rates and fewer side effects in patients with head and neck cancer....... survival but has also increased treatment side effects. A dedicated multidisciplinary team of oncologist, head and neck surgeon, dentist, nurse, dietician, physical therapist, social worker and in some instances plastic surgeon, prosthodontist, and psychologist is needed to provide the optimal supportive...

  10. Positron emission tomography-computed tomography protocol considerations for head and neck cancer imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escott, Edward J

    2008-08-01

    Positron emission tomographic-computed tomographic (PET-CT) imaging of patients with primary head and neck cancers has become an established approach for staging and restaging, as well as radiation therapy planning. The inherent co-registration of PET and CT images made possible by the integrated PET-CT scanner is particularly valuable in head and neck cancer imaging due to the complex and closely situated anatomy in this part of the body, the varied sources of physiologic and benign 2-deoxy-2-[F-18]fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) tracer uptake that occurs in the neck, and the varied and complex posttreatment appearance of the neck. Careful optimization of both the CT and the PET portion of the examination is essential to insure the most accurate and clinically valuable interpretation of these examinations.

  11. Results of the ANCHOR prospective, multicenter registry of EndoAnchors for type Ia endoleaks and endograft migration in patients with challenging anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, William D; Mehta, Manish; Varnagy, David; Moore, William M; Arko, Frank R; Joye, James; Ouriel, Kenneth; de Vries, Jean-Paul

    2014-10-01

    were unrelated to EndoAnchors. There were no open surgical conversions, there were no aneurysm-related deaths, and no aneurysm ruptured during follow-up. Use of EndoAnchors to treat existing and acute type Ia endoleaks and endograft migration was successful in most cases. Prophylactic use of EndoAnchors in patients with hostile aortic neck anatomy appears promising, but definitive conclusions must await longer term follow-up data. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Surgical Management of Perineural Spread of Head and Neck Cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solares, C Arturo; Mason, Eric; Panizza, Benedict J

    2016-04-01

    The surgical management of perineural spread of head and neck cancers has become an integral part in the contemporary treatment of this pathology. We now understand that tumour spreads within the epineurium and in a continuous fashion. We also can rely on the accuracy of magnetic resonance neurography in detecting and defining the extent of disease. With modern skull base techniques and a greater understanding of the anatomy in this region, specific operations can be designed to help eradicate disease. We review the current approaches and techniques used that enable us to better obtain tumour free margins and hence improve survival.

  13. Hostile and benevolent reactions toward pregnant women: complementary interpersonal punishments and rewards that maintain traditional roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebl, Michelle R; King, Eden B; Glick, Peter; Singletary, Sarah L; Kazama, Stephanie

    2007-11-01

    A naturalistic field study investigated behavior toward pregnant (vs. nonpregnant) women in nontraditional (job applicant) and traditional (store customer) roles. Female confederates, who sometimes wore a pregnancy prosthesis, posed as job applicants or customers at retail stores. Store employees exhibited more hostile behavior (e.g., rudeness) toward pregnant (vs. nonpregnant) applicants and more benevolent behavior (e.g., touching, overfriendliness) toward pregnant (vs. nonpregnant) customers. A second experiment revealed that pregnant women are especially likely to encounter hostility (from both men and women) when applying for masculine as compared with feminine jobs. The combination of benevolence toward pregnant women in traditional roles and hostility toward those who seek nontraditional roles suggests a system of complementary interpersonal rewards and punishments that may discourage pregnant women from pursuing work that violates gender norms. (c) 2007 APA

  14. Ambivalent Sexism in Close Relationships: (Hostile) Power and (Benevolent) Romance Shape Relationship Ideals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tiane L.; Fiske, Susan T.; Glick, Peter; Chen, Zhixia

    2013-01-01

    Gender-based structural power and heterosexual dependency produce ambivalent gender ideologies, with hostility and benevolence separately shaping close-relationship ideals. The relative importance of romanticized benevolent versus more overtly power-based hostile sexism, however, may be culturally dependent. Testing this, northeast US (N=311) and central Chinese (N=290) undergraduates rated prescriptions and proscriptions (ideals) for partners and completed Ambivalent Sexism and Ambivalence toward Men Inventories (ideologies). Multiple regressions analyses conducted on group-specific relationship ideals revealed that benevolent ideologies predicted partner ideals, in both countries, especially for US culture’s romance-oriented relationships. Hostile attitudes predicted men’s ideals, both American and Chinese, suggesting both societies’ dominant-partner advantage. PMID:23914004

  15. Anger, hostility, and aggression among Iraq and Afghanistan War veterans reporting PTSD and subthreshold PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakupcak, Matthew; Conybeare, Daniel; Phelps, Lori; Hunt, Stephen; Holmes, Hollie A; Felker, Bradford; Klevens, Michele; McFall, Miles E

    2007-12-01

    Iraq and Afghanistan War veterans were grouped by level of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomatology and compared on self-report measures of trait anger, hostility, and aggression. Veterans who screened positive for PTSD reported significantly greater anger and hostility than those in the subthreshold-PTSD and non-PTSD groups. Veterans in the subthreshold-PTSD group reported significantly greater anger and hostility than those in the non-PTSD group. The PTSD and subthreshold-PTSD groups did not differ with respect to aggression, though both groups were significantly more likely to have endorsed aggression than the non-PTSD group. These findings suggest that providers should screen for anger and aggression among Iraq and Afghanistan War veterans who exhibit symptoms of PTSD and incorporate relevant anger treatments into early intervention strategies.

  16. The effects of racial stressors and hostility on cardiovascular reactivity in African American and Caucasian men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, C Y; Myers, H F

    2001-01-01

    This study examined the effects of race-related stressors and hostility on cardiovascular reactivity in 31 African American and 31 Caucasian men. Participants viewed 3 film excerpts that depicted neutral, anger-provoking (but race-neutral), and racist situations. Participants exhibited significantly greater diastolic blood pressure reactivity to anger-provoking and racist stimuli compared with neutral stimuli. In addition, high hostility was associated with higher recovery systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels after exposure to the films. Although the results failed to confirm previous reports of greater reactivity to racism in African Americans, the findings suggest that diastolic blood pressure levels may remain elevated after exposure to racist stimuli. These results indicate that even indirect exposure to interpersonal conflict elicits significant reactivity, which can persist after exposure to the stressor, especially among high-hostile men.

  17. Violent Video Games Don't Increase Hostility in Teens, but They Do Stress Girls Out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Christopher J; Trigani, Benjamin; Pilato, Steven; Miller, Stephanie; Foley, Kimberly; Barr, Hayley

    2016-03-01

    The impact of violent video games (VVGs) on youth remains unclear given inconsistent results in past literature. Most previous experimental studies have been done with college students, not youth. The current study examined the impact of VVGs in an experimental study of teens (12-18). Participants were randomized to play either a violent or non-violent video game. Teens also reported their levels of stress and hostility both before and after video game play. Hostility levels neither decreased nor increased following violent game play, and Bayesian analyzes confirmed that results are supportive of the null hypothesis. By contrast, VVG exposure increased stress, but only for girls. The impact of VVGs on teen hostility is minimal. However, players unfamiliar with such games may find them unpleasant. These results are put into the context of Uses and Gratifications Theory with suggestions for how medical professionals should address the issue of VVG play with concerned parents.

  18. Coronary artery anatomy and variants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malago, Roberto; Pezzato, Andrea; Barbiani, Camilla; Alfonsi, Ugolino; Nicoli, Lisa; Caliari, Giuliana; Pozzi Mucelli, Roberto [Policlinico G.B. Rossi, University of Verona, Department of Radiology, Verona (Italy)

    2011-12-15

    Variants and congenital anomalies of the coronary arteries are usually asymptomatic, but may present with severe chest pain or cardiac arrest. The introduction of multidetector CT coronary angiography (MDCT-CA) allows the detection of significant coronary artery stenosis. Improved performance with isotropic spatial resolution and higher temporal resolution provides a valid alternative to conventional coronary angiography (CCA) in many patients. MDCT-CA is now considered the ideal tool for three-dimensional visualization of the complex and tortuous anatomy of the coronary arteries. With multiplanar and volume-rendered reconstructions, MDCT-CA may even outperform CCA in determining the relative position of vessels, thus providing a better view of the coronary vascular anatomy. The purpose of this review is to describe the normal anatomy of the coronary arteries and their main variants based on MDCT-CA with appropriate reconstructions. (orig.)

  19. Vascular lesions of head and neck: A literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazia Masoom Syed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular lesions are among the most common congenital and neonatal abnormalities. These anomalies can occur throughout the whole body, with 60%, however, being located in the head and neck region probably due to its intricate vascular anatomy of region. There is a significant confusion in the literature because of the use of confusing descriptive terminology for the same vascular entity and eponyms. Correct naming of lesion, appropriate classification, and clinical appearance of vascular lesions have a direct impact on understanding of etiologies of these complex lesions, diagnosis, and in treating patients. Thus, the aim of this article is to provide comprehensive knowledge about classifications and to have an insight of various important vascular lesions affecting head and neck region based on its pathogenesis, clinical presentation, and management.

  20. [Imaging anatomy of cranial nerves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermier, M; Leal, P R L; Salaris, S F; Froment, J-C; Sindou, M

    2009-04-01

    Knowledge of the anatomy of the cranial nerves is mandatory for optimal radiological exploration and interpretation of the images in normal and pathological conditions. CT is the method of choice for the study of the skull base and its foramina. MRI explores the cranial nerves and their vascular relationships precisely. Because of their small size, it is essential to obtain images with high spatial resolution. The MRI sequences optimize contrast between nerves and surrounding structures (cerebrospinal fluid, fat, bone structures and vessels). This chapter discusses the radiological anatomy of the cranial nerves.

  1. Pocket atlas of radiographic anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, T.B.; Reif, E.; Stark, P.

    1993-01-01

    The 'Pocket Atlas of Radiographic Anatomy' presents 170 radiographs of the various body regions of adults, showing only the normal radiographic anatomy. Each radiograph is supplemented on the opposite page by a drawing of the particular body region. There is no commenting text, but the drawings are provided with captions in English. The atlas is a useful guide for interpreting radiographs. The pictures are arranged in chapters entitled as follows: Skeletal Imaging (skull, spine, upper extremity), lower extremity; Miscellaneous Plain Films (chest, mammogram, trachea, lung tomograms); Contrast Examinations (gastrointestinal tract, intravenous contrast examinations, arthrography, angiography); Special Examinations (myelograms, lymphangiograms, bronchograms, sialograms). (UWA). 348 figs [de

  2. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed with oral or pharyngeal cancer this ... and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed with oral or pharyngeal cancer this ...

  3. Exercises for mechanical neck disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kay, Theresa M.; Gross, Anita; Goldsmith, Charles H.; Rutherford, Sherrill; Voth, Sandra; Hoving, Jan L.; Brønfort, Gert; Santaguida, Pasqualina L.

    2012-01-01

    Background Neck disorders are common, disabling and costly. The effectiveness of exercise as a physiotherapy intervention remains unclear. Objectives To improve pain, disability, function, patient satisfaction, quality of life and global perceived effect in adults with neck pain. Search methods

  4. The propaganda of extreme hostility: denunciation and the regulation of the group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlay, W M L

    2007-06-01

    This paper discusses how those espousing racist or separatist ideologies seek to persuade others to conform to their beliefs. Using examples from Nazi Germany, White Power movements in the USA and the extreme fringes of Zionist politics, it illustrates how notions of identity are linked to positions of hostility, hatred or separatism from other groups. In particular, it describes how those who maintain relations with other groups or who oppose hostility are discounted through accounts of social influence. The effectiveness of this rhetoric in terms of creating climates of social and self-censure, and of silencing dissent in situations of conflict, is discussed.

  5. Heritability of neck pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fejer, R; Hartvigsen, J; Kyvik, K O

    2006-01-01

    73%) answered the questions regarding neck pain. Probandwise concordance rates, zygosity-specific odds ratios and tetrachoric correlations showed a significant genetic effect on neck pain. An overall additive genetic component of 44% was found. The genetic effect decreased with age, accounting...... for only 10% in the oldest male group and 0% in the oldest female group. There was a statistically significant difference in heritability between males and females (34 vs 52%, P... gradually less important with increasing age, and environmental factors dominate almost completely in the older age groups....

  6. External and internal anatomy of mandibular molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, L F; Sousa Neto, M D; Fidel, S R; da Costa, W F; Pécora, J D

    1996-01-01

    The external and internal anatomy of 628 extracted, mandibular first and second molars was studied. The external anatomy was studied by measuring each tooth and by observing the direction of the root curvatures from the facial surface. The internal anatomy of the pulp cavity was studied by a method of making the teeth translucent.

  7. 3D virtual table in anatomy education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Mads Ronald; Simonsen, Eivind Ortind

    The ‘Anatomage’ is a 3D virtual human anatomy table, with touchscreen functionality, where it is possible to upload CT-scans and digital. Learning the human anatomy terminology requires time, a very good memory, anatomy atlas, books and lectures. Learning the 3 dimensional structure, connections...

  8. Spouse criticism and hostility during marital interaction: effects on pain intensity and behaviors among individuals with chronic low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, John W; Post, Kristina M; Smith, David A; Porter, Laura S; Buvanendran, Asokumar; Fras, Anne Marie; Keefe, Francis J

    2017-10-30

    Individuals with chronic pain may experience negative responses from spouse, family, and friends. Responses such as overt criticism and hostility may be associated with worsening pain and function for chronic pain sufferers. We used a laboratory procedure to evaluate whether variability in spouse criticism/hostility exhibited toward chronic low back pain (CLBP) patients during a conflictual discussion predicted variability in patient pain and function during a subsequent pain-induction task. Chronic low back pain patients (n = 71) and their spouses (n = 71) participated in a 10-minute discussion followed by the patient undergoing a 10-minute structured pain behavior task (SPBT). Spouse criticism/hostility perceived by patients and patient Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI) scores correlated significantly and positively with pain intensity during the SPBT, whereas perceived spouse hostility, patient BDI scores, and spouse trait hostility correlated significantly and positively with observed pain behaviors during the SPBT. Spouse criticism/hostility coded by raters from video recordings interacted significantly with patient BDI scores, such that observed spouse criticism/hostility was related significantly and positively with pain behaviors only for patients with high BDI scores. Patient sex interacted significantly with observed spouse criticism/hostility, such that observed spouse criticism/hostility was related significantly and positively with pain behaviors only for female patients. Results support the hypothesis that spouse criticism and hostility-actually expressed or perceived-may worsen CLBP patient symptoms. Further, women patients and patients high in depressive symptoms appeared most vulnerable to spouse criticism/hostility. Thus, negative marital communication patterns may be appropriate targets for intervention, especially among these 2 at risk groups.

  9. Pictorial essay: Vascular interventions in extra cranial head and neck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suyash S Kulkarni

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Medicine is an ever changing field and interventional radiology (IR procedures are becoming increasingly popular because of high efficacy and its minimally invasive nature of the procedure. Management of disease processes in the extra cranial head and neck (ECHN has always been a challenge due to the complex anatomy of the region. Cross sectional imaging of the ECHN has grown and evolved tremendously and occupies a pivotal and integral position in the clinical management of variety of head and neck pathologies. Advances in angiographic technologies including flat panel detector systems, biplane, and 3-dimensional rotational angiography have consolidated and expanded the role of IR in the management of various ECHN pathologies. The ECHN is at cross roads between the origins of great vessels and the cerebral vasculature. Thorough knowledge of functional and technical aspects of neuroangiography is essential before embarking on head and neck vascular interventions. The vessels of the head and neck can be involved by infectious and inflammatory conditions, get irradiated during radiotherapy and injured due to trauma or iatrogenic cause. The ECHN is also a common site for various hypervascular neoplasms and vascular malformations, which can be treated with endovascular and percutaneous embolization. This pictorial essay provides a review of variety of ECHN pathologies which were managed by various IR procedures using different approaches.

  10. TC pathological Neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Fontes, M.

    2012-01-01

    This presentation is about different imaging techniques such as ultrasound, CT, RNM, PET-CT. These techniques permit to detect head and neck tumors, breast and digestive pathologies as well as congenital diseases and glandular tumor in the thyroid, parathyroid, muscles, lymphatic, nerves and vessels

  11. CONTRIBUTIONS OF SUSHRUTA TO ANATOMY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2005-08-08

    Aug 8, 2005 ... Learning anatomy through the dissected ... practice. Sushruta was the first person who had established the ... graduate had to obtain the permission of the ... importance to neuroembryology in the Sarira- .... Faculty of the History of Medicine and Pharmacy, and held at the Royal College of Physicians.

  12. Soul Anatomy: A virtual cadaver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moaz Bambi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the traditional science of medicine and medical education, teaching human anatomy in the class has always been done using human cadavers. Not only does this violate human sanctity, but according to our research, it is not adequate to provide students with the alleged educational value that it is supposed to deliver. It is very cumbersome to organise all the aspects of cadaver care. Cadavers are also very limited when it comes to controlling their structures and any benefit is almost completely altered the first time the cadaver is used (dissected, and ironically, it is very weak at delivering actual real-life scenarios of a human body to students. Virtual anatomy has been a promising solution that many are counting on. But even today, we have not found a complete solution that combines all the benefits of using human cadavers and those introduced by its technical counterparts. "Soul Anatomy" aims to do just that. It brings the best of all worlds, from a natural intuitive control system, life-like feel of organs, precise accuracy in moving and controlling bodily structures, to the smallest details of being able to show medical information overlays from various medical databases connected to the internet; thus making use of technology in teaching human anatomy by providing a modern learning experience.

  13. DAGAL: Detailed Anatomy of Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapen, Johan H.

    2017-03-01

    The current IAU Symposium is closely connected to the EU-funded network DAGAL (Detailed Anatomy of Galaxies), with the final annual network meeting of DAGAL being at the core of this international symposium. In this short paper, we give an overview of DAGAL, its training activities, and some of the scientific advances that have been made under its umbrella.

  14. Stem anatomy variation in cottonwood

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.N. Foulger; J. Hacskaylo

    1968-01-01

    Investigations of mineral nutrient-tree growth relationships have dealt mainly with associations involving foliage composition, root formation, or volume production of wood. Few studies have been concerned with changes in wood anatomy associated with element deficiency. In 1949 Davis reported that calcium deficiency was accompanied by a reduction of primary tissue and...

  15. Anger and hostility in adolescents: relationships with self-reported attachment style and perceived parental rearing styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muris, Peter; Meesters, Cor; Morren, Mattijn; Moorman, Lidwine

    2004-09-01

    To examine relationships between self-reported attachment style and parental rearing behaviors, on the one hand, and anger/hostility, on the other hand, in a sample of nonclinical adolescents (N=441). Participants completed (a) a single-item measure of attachment style; (b) a questionnaire measuring perceptions of parental rearing behaviors; and (c) two scales assessing anger and hostility. Self-reported attachment style was related to anger/hostility. That is, adolescents who defined themselves as avoidantly or ambivalently attached displayed higher levels of anger/hostility than adolescents who classified themselves as securely attached. Furthermore, perceived parental rearing was also related to anger/hostility. More specifically, low levels of emotional warmth and high levels of rejection, control, and inconsistency were accompanied by high levels of anger/hostility. Finally, regression analyses showed that both attachment status and parental rearing behaviors accounted for a unique and significant proportion of the variance in anger/hostility. These findings are in keeping with the notion that family environment factors such as attachment style and parental rearing are involved in the development of anger/hostility in youths.

  16. Negative Affect Intensity and Hostility in Individuals with Alcohol Use Disorder with or without Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandelman, Erin; Petrakis, Ismene; Kachadourian, Lorig; Ralevski, Elizabeth

    2018-02-20

    Negative affect intensity and hostility have both been implicated in alcohol use disorders (AUD) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) when they occur separately, but have neither been compared nor explored among those with dual diagnosis AUD and PTSD. This study is a secondary analysis designed to compare levels of negative affect intensity and hostility among those with AUD to those with dual diagnosis AUD and PTSD. Participants (n = 113) were recruited from the placebo-controlled groups of two distinct 12-week clinical trials (NCT00342563 and NCT00744055). The Short Affect Intensity Scale and Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory were administered at weeks 0, 4, 8 and 12 to all study participants to assess negative affect intensity and hostility levels, respectively. Dual diagnosis AUD and PTSD individuals showed significantly higher levels of negative affect intensity and hostility than individuals with single diagnosis AUD. These levels remained relatively stable over the course of the study in spite of all study participants showing clinically significant improvements in AUD severity and PTSD symptomology (for those with dual diagnosis). Our results indicate that individuals with dual diagnosis AUD and PTSD have higher levels of negative affect and higher levels of hostility compared to individuals with single diagnosis AUD. In addition, these heightened levels of negative affect intensity and hostility appear to function somewhat independently of diagnosis severity and symptomology improvement. To our knowledge, this is the first study to compare negative affect intensity and hostility levels between single diagnosis AUD and dual diagnosis AUD and PTSD individuals.

  17. Mediation and Moderation of the Association between Cynical Hostility and Systolic Blood Pressure in Low-Income Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versey, H. Shellae; Kaplan, George A.

    2012-01-01

    Hostility may be related to risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD), such as blood pressure. However, the process by which hostility affects blood pressure is not fully understood. The current study sought to evaluate abdominal obesity (waist-to-hip ratio [WHR]) as a potential mediator and modifier of the relationship between cynical…

  18. Clinical Applications of FDG PET and PET/CT in Head and Neck Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Al-Ibraheem

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available 18F-FDG PET plays an increasing role in diagnosis and management planning of head and neck cancer. Hybrid PET/CT has promoted the field of molecular imaging in head and neck cancer. This modality is particular relevant in the head and neck region, given the complex anatomy and variable physiologic FDG uptake patterns. The vast majority of 18F-FDG PET and PET/CT applications in head and neck cancer related to head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Clinical applications of 18F-FDG PET and PET/CT in head and neck cancer include diagnosis of distant metastases, identification of synchronous 2nd primaries, detection of carcinoma of unknown primary and detection of residual or recurrent disease. Emerging applications are precise delineation of the tumor volume for radiation treatment planning, monitoring treatment, and providing prognostic information. The clinical role of 18F-FDG PET/CT in N0 disease is limited which is in line with findings of other imaging modalities. MRI is usually used for T staging with an intense discussion concerning the preferable imaging modality for regional lymph node staging as PET/CT, MRI, and multi-slice spiral CT are all improving rapidly. Is this review, we summarize recent literature on 18F-FDG PET and PET/CT imaging of head and neck cancer.

  19. An integrated approach to understanding the role of the long neck in plesiosaurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie F. Noè

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The evolution and function of the long neck in plesiosaurs, and how the problems associated with stiffness or flexibility were overcome during feeding, or rapid swimming during predator avoidance, are explored, and a new interpretation for the function of the plesiosaur neck is presented. Based on the anatomy of the articular faces of contiguous cervical vertebral centra, neural arches, and cervical ribs, the plesiosaur neck was mainly adapted for ventral bending, with dorsal, lateral and rotational movements all relatively restricted. Predominant ventral bending indicates the neck was adapted for use beneath the body, suggesting feeding in the water column, close to the sea floor, or within soft sediments on the sea floor. A new model is proposed for the plesiosaur bauplan, comprising the head as a filter, straining, sieve feeding or sediment raking apparatus, mounted on a neck which acted as a stiff but ventrally flexible feeding tube, attached to the body which acted as a highly mobile feeding platform. Numerous features of plesiosaurs, including cranial and dental form, cervical vertebral morphology, body shape and limb-based propulsion, conform to this model. Comparative data from modern organisms support this novel explanation for the structure and function of the plesiosaur long neck. This integrative analysis offers an explanation for the evolution of the plesiosaur long neck as a key evolutionary novelty, and why this apparently enigmatic feature remained a prominent feature of plesiosaurs throughout their long evolutionary history.

  20. Social Anxiety Mediates the Effect of Autism Spectrum Disorder Characteristics on Hostility in Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Susan Williams; Kreiser, Nicole L.; Pugliese, Cara; Scarpa, Angela

    2012-01-01

    Problems with social anxiety are frequently reported in people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). It is possible that social anxiety, when present, exacerbates the experience of hostility and other forms of aggression in relation to ASD symptoms. This study sought to determine if social anxiety symptoms mediate the relationship between features…

  1. Hostile Intent Attributions and Relational Aggression: The Moderating Roles of Emotional Sensitivity, Gender, and Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieson, Lindsay C.; Murray-Close, Dianna; Crick, Nicki R.; Woods, Kathleen E.; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie; Geiger, Tasha C.; Morales, Julie R.

    2011-01-01

    The current study adopts a relational vulnerability model to examine the association between hostile attribution bias and relational aggression. Specifically, the relational vulnerability model implicates the interactive effects of a number of relational risk factors in the development of relational aggression. A sample of 635 3rd, 4th, and 5th…

  2. The relationship between adult reactive and proactive aggression, hostile interpretation bias, and antisocial personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobbestael, Jill; Cima, Maaike; Arntz, Arnoud

    2013-02-01

    Reactive aggression (RA) refers to angry responses to provocation or frustration, while proactive aggression (PA) denotes nonemotional, instrumental, and unprovoked aggression. The current study examined personality-related and cognitive correlates of both aggressive types. Respectively, the predictive values of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), and of hostile interpretation bias, which is the tendency to interpret ambiguous stimuli in a hostile manner, were studied. The sample consisted of n = 37 male adult patients with mixed diagnoses and n = 29 male nonpatients that responded to vignettes and pictures of ambiguous situations, using both open and closed answer formats. ASPD was assessed by means of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II disorders (SCID-II), and the Reactive Proactive Questionnaire (RPQ) measured RA and PA. Results showed that although both RA and PA types were predicted by ASPD traits, RA was additionally predicted by a hostile interpretation bias. These findings suggest that reducing hostile bias is a promising avenue for clinical treatment of ASPD-patients high in RA.

  3. Mortal Kombat: The Effects of Violent Video Technology on Males' Hostility and Cardiovascular Responding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Mary E.; Wiest, J. Rose

    A study examined differences in cardiovascular (CV) reactions and hostility following non-violent play and violent video game play. Subjects were 30 male college undergraduate students. Only male subjects were used because most video games are male oriented, males frequent videogame arcades more often than females, and the gender gap in video game…

  4. Collective narcissism moderates the effect of in-group image threat on intergroup hostility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golec de Zavala, Agnieszka; Cichocka, Aleksandra; Iskra-Golec, Irena

    2013-06-01

    Results of 4 experiments demonstrated that under in-group image threat collective narcissism predicts retaliatory intergroup hostility. Under in-group criticism (vs. praise) collective narcissists expressed intention to harm the offending out-group but not other, nonoffending out-groups. This effect was specific to collective narcissism and was replicated in studies that accounted for the overlap between collective narcissism and individual narcissism, in-group positivity (in-group identification, blind and constructive patriotism), social dominance orientation, and right wing authoritarianism. The link between collective narcissism and retaliatory intergroup hostility under in-group image threat was found in the context of national identity and international relations and in the context of a social identity defined by university affiliation. Study 4 demonstrated that the relationship between collective narcissism and intergroup hostility was mediated by the perception of in-group criticism as personally threatening. The results advance our understanding of the mechanism driving the link between collective narcissism and intergroup hostility. They indicate that threatened egotism theory can be extended into the intergroup domain. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. Relational Aggression and Hostile Attribution Biases: Testing Multiple Statistical Methods and Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godleski, Stephanie A.; Ostrov, Jamie M.

    2010-01-01

    The present study used both categorical and dimensional approaches to test the association between relational and physical aggression and hostile intent attributions for both relational and instrumental provocation situations using the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development longitudinal Study of Early Child Care and Youth…

  6. The Relationship between Psychological Contract Breach and Employee Deviance: The Moderating Role of Hostile Attributional Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Su-Fen; Peng, Jei-Chen

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the main effects and the interaction effects of psychological contract breach and hostile attributional style on employee deviance (i.e., interpersonal deviance and organizational deviance). Data were collected from 233 employees and their supervisors in eight electronic companies in Taiwan. Results demonstrate that…

  7. The Influence of Competitive and Cooperative Group Game Play on State Hostility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastin, Matthew S.

    2007-01-01

    Most research on violent video game play suggests a positive relationship with aggression-related outcomes. Expanding this research, the current study examines the impact group size, game motivation, in-game behavior, and verbal aggression have on postgame play hostility. Consistent with previous research, group size and verbal aggression both…

  8. Hostility and childhood sexual abuse as predictors of suicidal behaviour in Borderline Personality Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz, Liliana; Portella, Maria J; Vállez, Mónica; Gutiérrez, Fernando; Martín-Blanco, Ana; Martín-Santos, Rocío; Subirà, Susana

    2013-12-30

    Impulsivity is a multidimensional construct and has been previously associated with suicidal behaviour in borderline personality disorder (BPD). This study examined the associations between suicidal behaviour and impulsivity-related personality traits, as well as history of childhood sexual abuse, in 76 patients diagnosed with BPD using both the Structured Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders III (DSM-III) Axis-II diagnoses and the self-personality questionnaire. Impulsivity-related traits were measured using the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 (BIS-11), the Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory (BDHI) and the Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised (TCI-R). We found that hostility and childhood sexual abuse, but not impulsivity or other temperament traits, significantly predicted the presence, number and severity of previous suicide attempts. Hostility traits and childhood sexual abuse showed an impact on suicide attempts in BPD. Our results support previous findings indicating that high levels of hostility and having suffered sexual abuse during childhood lead to an increased risk for suicidal behaviour in BPD. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Development of the Children's Scale of Hostility and Aggression: Reactive/Proactive (C-SHARP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Cristan A.; Aman, Michael G.

    2009-01-01

    Whereas some scales exist for assessing aggression in typically developing children, they do not give a detailed analysis, and none is available for populations with developmental disabilities (DD). Parents of 365 children with DD completed the Children's Scale of Hostility and Aggression: Reactive/Proactive (C-SHARP), which surveys the severity…

  10. Basic research on intelligent robotic systems operating in hostile environments: New developments at ORNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barhen, J.; Babcock, S.M.; Hamel, W.R.; Oblow, E.M.; Saridis, G.N.; deSaussure, G.; Solomon, A.D.; Weisbin, C.R.

    1984-01-01

    Robotics and artificial intelligence research carried out within the Center for Engineering Systems Advanced Research (CESAR) is presented. Activities focus on the development and demonstration of a comprehensive methodological framework for intelligent machines operating in unstructured hostile environments. Areas currently being addressed include mathematical modeling of robot dynamics, real-time control, ''world'' modeling, machine perception and strategy planning

  11. An Experimental Investigation of News Source and the Hostile Media Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arpan, Laura M.; Raney, Arthur A.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the interaction among different news sources, individual levels of partisanship, and the hostile media effect in sports news. Explains that university students read a balanced story about their home-town college football team in one of three newspapers: the home-town, the cross-state rival university's town, or a neutral town paper.…

  12. Parental Aggression as a Predictor of Boys' Hostile Attribution across the Transition to Middle School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaros, Anna; Lochman, John E.; Wells, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Aggression among youth is a public health problem that is often studied in the context of how youth interpret social information. Social cognitive factors, especially hostile attribution biases, have been identified as risk factors for the development of youth aggression, particularly across the transition to middle school. Parental behaviors,…

  13. A Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Internet Addiction: The Role of Conscientiousness and Classroom Hostility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavropoulos, Vasilis; Kuss, Daria; Griffiths, Mark; Motti-Stefanidi, Frosso

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decade, research on Internet addiction (IA) has increased. However, almost all studies in the area are cross-sectional and do not examine the context in which Internet use takes place. Therefore, a longitudinal study examined the role of conscientiousness (as a personality trait) and classroom hostility (as a contextual factor) in…

  14. Past Victimizations and Dating Violence Perpetration in Adolescence: The Mediating Role of Emotional Distress and Hostility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boivin, Sophie; Lavoie, Francine; Hebert, Martine; Gagne, Marie-Helene

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to understand the nature of the relationships between three forms of past victimizations (exposure to interparental violence in childhood, sexual harassment by peers since beginning high school, prior experience of dating violence), physical dating violence perpetration by adolescents, and anger-hostility and emotional distress.…

  15. Hospitalization Cost Offset of a Hostility Intervention for Coronary Heart Disease Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Karina W.; Gidron, Yori; Mostofsky, Elizabeth; Trudeau, Kimberlee J.

    2007-01-01

    The authors evaluated hospitalization cost offset of hostility management group therapy for patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) from a previously published randomized controlled trial (Y. Gidron, K. Davidson, & I. Bata, 1999). Twenty-six male patients with myocardial infarction or unstable angina were randomized to either 2 months of…

  16. Intergenerational Similarity in Callous-Unemotional Traits: Contributions of Hostile Parenting and Household Chaos during Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Rachel E.; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; King-Casas, Brooks; Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen

    2016-01-01

    Extant research has examined both genetic and environmental risk involved in the transmission of callous-unemotional traits in youth populations, yet no study has examined the intergenerational similarity of these traits between parents and their offspring. The current study examined whether the association between parent callous-unemotional traits and child callous-unemotional traits was mediated by parenting behavior and whether this association was moderated by household environment. Participants included 115 dyads of adolescents (48% female; Mean age = 13.97) and their primary caregivers (87% female; Mean age = 42.54). Measures of callous-unemotional traits, hostile parenting, and household chaos were collected from both adolescents and parents. A two group structural equation modeling revealed that hostile parenting serves as a mediating process in the association between parent and adolescent callous-unemotional traits, but only in the context of high household chaos. Our findings suggest that hostile parenting practices are a mediating process that may explain intergenerational similarity in callous-unemotional traits. Additionally, household chaos may exacerbate the effects of hostile parenting on callous-unemotional traits within adolescents, resulting in heightened vulnerability to intergenerational transmission of callous-unemotional traits. PMID:28029442

  17. Hostile attribution of intent and aggressive behavior: A meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orobio de Castro, B.; Veerman, J.W.; Koops, W.; Bosch, J.D.; Monshouwer, H.J.

    2002-01-01

    A meta-analytic review was conducted to explain divergent findings on the relation between children's aggressive behavior and hostile attribution of intent to peers. Forty-one studies with 6,017 participants were included in the analysis. Ten studies concerned representative samples from the general

  18. Examining the influence of psychopathy, hostility biases, and automatic processing on criminal offenders' Theory of Mind

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nentjes, L.; Bernstein, D.; Arntz, A.; van Breukelen, G.; Slaats, M.

    2015-01-01

    Theory of Mind (ToM) is a social perceptual skill that refers to the ability to take someone else's perspective and infer what others think. The current study examined the effect of potential hostility biases, as well as controlled (slow) versus automatic (fast) processing on ToM performance in

  19. Workplace bullying as sensemaking: An analysis of target and actor perspectives on initial hostile interactions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zábrodská, Kateřina; Ellwood, C.; Zaemdaar, S.; Mudrák, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 2 (2016), s. 136-157 ISSN 1475-9551 R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP407/10/P146; GA ČR GA14-02098S Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : workplace bullying * workplace hostility * sensemaking * target * actor * collective biography * stories Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 0.489, year: 2016

  20. Intracranial arterial anatomy: evaluation by computed tomography angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regattieri, Neysa Aparecida Tinoco; Haetinger, Rainer Guilherme; Liberti, Edson Aparecido

    2010-01-01

    By many decades, the intracranial arteries study was realized exclusively by angiography through selective arterial catheterization. Nowadays, with the technologic evaluation of computerized tomography devices with multi detectors allowing acquisitions with even more thinner slices, higher speed and better resolution, it had appeared a new modality of investigation: the computed tomography angiography, less invasive and with minor morbidity than conventional arteriography. Many studies in the literature have been analyzing the sensibility of the new method for the detection of intracranial aneurysms and comparing them with the conventional arteriography. There is a necessity to recognize the normal intracranial arterial anatomy and its variations using images obtained from multiplanar reformations, in order to give important information for surgeries strategies, such as wall calcifications, aneurismatic neck position and relationships with surrounding anatomical structures. (author)

  1. Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy for Head and Neck Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-18

    Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck; Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Cancer; Head and Neck Sarcoma; Paraganglioma of Head and Neck; Chordoma of Head and Neck; Chondrosarcoma of Head and Neck; Angiofibroma of Head and Neck

  2. Hostility and social support explain physical activity beyond negative affect among young men, but not women, in college.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Karl J; James, Ashley E

    2014-01-01

    We examined social support as a moderator of cynical hostility in relation to physical activity and body mass index among college students (n = 859; M = 18.71 years (SD = 1.22); 60% women, 84% White). After controlling for negative affect in hierarchical linear regression models, greater hostility was associated with lesser physical activity among those with low social support, as expected. Greater hostility was also associated with greater physical activity among those high in social support, ps men only. Hostility and social support were unrelated to body mass index, ps > .05. Young men with a hostile disposition and low social support may be at risk for a sedentary lifestyle for reasons other than negative affect.

  3. An electronic instructor for gross anatomy dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josephson, Eleanor M; Moore, Larry J

    2006-01-01

    Gross anatomy is time consuming to teach and to learn. Because the process of dissection takes up so much student time, assistance in the form of an in-lab instructional DVD program might improve student performance. The DVD could be viewed with a portable device by individual dissection groups at their tables. Groups could dissect at their own pace, with access to step-by-step demonstrations and answers to frequently asked anatomical questions. We created an instructional DVD program demonstrating dissection of the canine ventral neck and thoracic limb. The effect on student exam scores of using the DVD versus not using it was measured in a controlled, two-sample study using incoming first-year veterinary students as volunteers. Volunteers were told the study was of two different dissection methods; the DVD was not specifically mentioned until after the students were separated into two groups (Blue/DVD group and Orange/No DVD group), and then only to volunteers in the Blue group. Except for the DVD, the two groups had the same resources. The difference in scores on an exam given after a single dissection period did not differ sufficiently to conclude that DVD use raised the mean score; however, 73% of the DVD group scored 60% or higher, while only 38% of the No DVD group scored 60% or higher. The difference in mean scores overall was 2.3 points out of a possible 49, suggesting that the DVD helped students, especially those with lower scores, to earn two to three more points than they would have otherwise.

  4. Anatomy of Teaching Anatomy: Do Prosected Cross Sections Improve Students Understanding of Spatial and Radiological Anatomy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. B. Samarakoon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Cadaveric dissections and prosections have traditionally been part of undergraduate medical teaching. Materials and Methods. Hundred and fifty-nine first-year students in the Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo, were invited to participate in the above study. Students were randomly allocated to two age and gender matched groups. Both groups were exposed to identical series of lectures regarding anatomy of the abdomen and conventional cadaveric prosections of the abdomen. The test group (n=77, 48.4% was also exposed to cadaveric cross-sectional slices of the abdomen to which the control group (n=82, 51.6% was blinded. At the end of the teaching session both groups were assessed by using their performance in a timed multiple choice question paper as well as ability to identify structures in abdominal CT films. Results. Scores for spatial and radiological anatomy were significantly higher among the test group when compared with the control group (P<0.05, CI 95%. Majority of the students in both control and test groups agreed that cadaveric cross section may be useful for them to understand spatial and radiological anatomy. Conclusion. Introduction of cadaveric cross-sectional prosections may help students to understand spatial and radiological anatomy better.

  5. Classic versus millennial medical lab anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benninger, Brion; Matsler, Nik; Delamarter, Taylor

    2014-10-01

    This study investigated the integration, implementation, and use of cadaver dissection, hospital radiology modalities, surgical tools, and AV technology during a 12-week contemporary anatomy course suggesting a millennial laboratory. The teaching of anatomy has undergone the greatest fluctuation of any of the basic sciences during the past 100 years in order to make room for the meteoric rise in molecular sciences. Classically, anatomy consisted of a 2-year methodical, horizontal, anatomy course; anatomy has now morphed into a 12-week accelerated course in a vertical curriculum, at most institutions. Surface and radiological anatomy is the language for all clinicians regardless of specialty. The objective of this study was to investigate whether integration of full-body dissection anatomy and modern hospital technology, during the anatomy laboratory, could be accomplished in a 12-week anatomy course. Literature search was conducted on anatomy text, journals, and websites regarding contemporary hospital technology integrating multiple image mediums of 37 embalmed cadavers, surgical suite tools and technology, and audio/visual technology. Surgical and radiology professionals were contracted to teach during the anatomy laboratory. Literature search revealed no contemporary studies integrating full-body dissection with hospital technology and behavior. About 37 cadavers were successfully imaged with roentograms, CT, and MRI scans. Students were in favor of the dynamic laboratory consisting of multiple activity sessions occurring simultaneously. Objectively, examination scores proved to be a positive outcome and, subjectively, feedback from students was overwhelmingly positive. Despite the surging molecular based sciences consuming much of the curricula, full-body dissection anatomy is irreplaceable regarding both surface and architectural, radiological anatomy. Radiology should not be a small adjunct to understand full-body dissection, but rather, full-body dissection

  6. Dancers' Perceived and Actual Knowledge of Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotler, Dana H; Lynch, Meaghan; Cushman, Daniel; Hu, Jason; Garner, Jocelyn

    2017-06-15

    Dancers are highly susceptible to musculoskeletal injuries and frequently require interaction with medical professionals. While many dancers have a finely tuned awareness of their bodies, their knowledge of the fundamentals of human anatomy is not uniform. There is a paucity of literature on the benefits of human anatomy education in dancers, though it seems intuitive that there should be a relationship. The purpose of this study was to assess dancers' perceived and actual knowledge of basic musculoskeletal anatomy and its relationship to function. Adult dancers at the undergraduate, pre-professional, and professional levels were surveyed through an anonymous online questionnaire. Questions included demographic information, dance techniques studied, anatomy training, and injury history. Subjects rated their perceived knowledge of anatomy and were tested with 15 multiple-choice questions on basic musculoskeletal anatomy. Four hundred seventy-five surveys were completed. Ordinal regression showed a correlation of perceived to actual knowledge of anatomy (p < 0.001). Factors that correlated with increases in both perceived and actual knowledge of anatomy included having taken an anatomy course of any type (p < 0.001) and increased age (p ≤ 0.001). Years of dance training and professional dancer status both significantly correlated with increased knowledge of anatomy (p < 0.001) but not perceived knowledge. Chi-square analysis showed that dancers with training in either modern or jazz dance had a significantly higher perceived, but not actual, knowledge when compared to those without training in those styles of dance (p < 0.001 and p = 0.011, respectively). In conclusion, dancers generally scored well on questions pertaining to basic musculoskeletal anatomy, and their perception correlated with their actual knowledge of anatomy. Factors that contribute to dancers' knowledge of anatomy include age, years of experience, professional dancer status, and anatomy training.

  7. Endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms: vascular anatomy, device selection, procedure, and procedure-specific complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryce, Yolanda; Rogoff, Philip; Romanelli, Donald; Reichle, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is abnormal dilatation of the aorta, carrying a substantial risk of rupture and thereby marked risk of death. Open repair of AAA involves lengthy surgery time, anesthesia, and substantial recovery time. Endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) provides a safer option for patients with advanced age and pulmonary, cardiac, and renal dysfunction. Successful endovascular repair of AAA depends on correct selection of patients (on the basis of their vascular anatomy), choice of the correct endoprosthesis, and familiarity with the technique and procedure-specific complications. The type of aneurysm is defined by its location with respect to the renal arteries, whether it is a true or false aneurysm, and whether the common iliac arteries are involved. Vascular anatomy can be divided more technically into aortic neck, aortic aneurysm, pelvic perfusion, and iliac morphology, with grades of difficulty with respect to EVAR, aortic neck morphology being the most common factor to affect EVAR appropriateness. When choosing among the devices available on the market, one must consider the patient's vascular anatomy and choose between devices that provide suprarenal fixation versus those that provide infrarenal fixation. A successful technique can be divided into preprocedural imaging, ancillary procedures before AAA stent-graft placement, the procedure itself, postprocedural medical therapy, and postprocedural imaging surveillance. Imaging surveillance is important in assessing complications such as limb thrombosis, endoleaks, graft migration, enlargement of the aneurysm sac, and rupture. Last, one must consider the issue of radiation safety with regard to EVAR. (©)RSNA, 2015.

  8. Effects of paliperidone extended release on hostility among Thai patients with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jariyavilas A

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Apichat Jariyavilas,1 Nuntika Thavichachart,2 Ronnachai Kongsakon,3 Sunanta Chantakarn,4 Suwanna Arunpongpaisal,5 Vasu Chantarasak,6 Piyadit Jaroensook,7 Khanogwan Kittiwattanagul,8 Osot Nerapusee9 1Srithanya Hospital, Department of Mental Health, Ministry of Public Health, Bangkok, 2Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, 3Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Bangkok, 4Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Siriraj Hospital, Bangkok, 5Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, 6Somdetchaopraya Institute of Psychiatry, Bangkok, 7Prasrimahabhodhi Hospital, Ubon Ratchathani, 8Khon Kaen Rajanagarindra Psychiatric Hospital, Khon Kaen, 9Medical Affairs, Janssen-Cilag, Bangkok, Thailand Objective: This open-label prospective study investigated the effects of paliperidone extended release (ER on hostility in Thai patients with schizophrenia. Background: Patients diagnosed with schizophrenia may be hostile or exhibit aggressive behavior, which can occasion their admission to psychiatric hospital. Antipsychotic medications are often used to treat hostility and aggression in such patients. Paliperidone ER is effective and well tolerated in the treatment of schizophrenia. However, there are no data available for paliperidone ER with regard to its efficacy on hostility and aggression among Thai patients. This study was a part of the PERFEcT study, a 6-month, open-label, multicenter, multicountry, prospective trial to explore the safety, efficacy, and functionality of paliperidone ER tablets. The current study included only the data obtained from Thai participants. Materials and methods: Flexible dosing of paliperidone ER in a range of 3–12 mg/day was used, allowing investigators to adjust the dosage of each subject individually. The 199 Thai patients had a stable Clinical Global Impression – severity score before enrollment. Demographic

  9. Clinically related anatomy for physicists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, A.E.; Boyer, A.L.

    1987-01-01

    With the advent of CT and MR imaging, delineation of malignancies and the shaping of radiation treatment fields have become much more precise. Treatment planning in more than one transverse plane is more widely practiced as the use of sophisticated computers grow. These developments emphasize the need for the physicist to have a basic knowledge of human anatomy. This course is designed to familiarize the clinical physicist with the gross anatomy and topographic landmarks used by the physician in planning three-dimensional radiation treatment volumes. The significance of the various anatomic structures and their related lymphatics in the spread of disease is discussed. Emphasis is placed on disease entities that pose particular problems due to overlying or nearby healthy structures at risk

  10. Ecological anatomy of ferns fronds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina M. Derzhavina

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Structural types of frond anatomy are distinguished on the basis of investigation of 30 species of homosporous ferns and with regard for literature: hydromorphic, hygromorphic, mesomorphic, subxeromorphic, and subsucculent (cryptic succulent. Following frond traits are of highest adaptive value: their area and thickness, type of mesophyll, dry weight of an area unit – specific superficial density, cellular volume, and number of cells per unit of frond area.

  11. Magkänslans anatomi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlström, Kristoffer

    Varför dog 1500 personer i onödan i biltrafiken efter den 11 september 2001? Vad har FBI-agenter gemensamt med barn till alkoholister? Och vad fick författaren George Orwell att börja utöva svart magi? Magkänslans anatomi är en fascinerande kartläggning av de psykologiska mekanismer som ligger...

  12. VISUALIZATION OF REGISTERED SUBSURFACE ANATOMY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    A system and method for visualization of subsurface anatomy includes obtaining a first image from a first camera and a second image from a second camera or a second channel of the first camera, where the first and second images contain shared anatomical structures. The second camera and the secon....... A visual interface displays the registered visualization of the first and second images. The system and method are particularly useful for imaging during minimally invasive surgery, such as robotic surgery....

  13. Surgical Anatomy of the Cervical Part of the Hypoglossal Nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kariuki, Brian Ngure; Butt, Fawzia; Mandela, Pamela; Odula, Paul

    2018-03-01

    Iatrogenic injuries to cranial nerves, half of which affect the hypoglossal nerve, occur in up to 20% of surgical procedures involving the neck. The risk of injury could be minimized by in-depth knowledge of its positional and relational anatomy. Forty-one hypoglossal nerves were dissected from cadaveric specimens and positions described in relation to the internal carotid artery (ICA), external carotid artery (ECA), carotid bifurcation, mandible, hyoid bone, mastoid process, and the digastric tendon. The distance of the nerve from where it crossed the ICA and ECA to the carotid bifurcation was 29.93 (±5.99) mm and 15.19 (±6.68) mm, respectively. The point where it crossed the ICA was 12.24 (±3.71) mm superior to the greater horn of hyoid, 17.16 (±4.40) mm inferior to the angle of the mandible, and 39.08 (±5.69) mm from tip of the mastoid. The hypoglossal nerve loop was inferior to the digastric tendon in 73% of the cases. The hypoglossal nerves formed high loops in this study population. Caution should be exercised during surgical procedures in the neck. The study also revealed that the mastoid process is a reliable fixed landmark to locate the hypoglossal nerve.

  14. The exacerbation of depression, hostility, and social anxiety in the course of Internet addiction among adolescents: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Chih-Hung; Liu, Tai-Ling; Wang, Peng-Wei; Chen, Cheng-Sheng; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Yen, Ju-Yu

    2014-08-01

    In adolescent populations worldwide, Internet addiction is prevalent and is often comorbid with depression, hostility, and social anxiety of adolescents. This study aimed at evaluating the exacerbation of depression, hostility, and social anxiety in the course of getting addiction to Internet or remitting from Internet addiction among adolescents. This study recruited 2293 adolescents in grade 7 to assess their depression, hostility, social anxiety and Internet addiction. The same assessments were repeated one year later. The incidence group was defined as subjects classified as non-addicted in the first assessment and as addicted in the second assessment. The remission group was defined as subjects classified as addicted in the first assessment and as non-addicted in the second assessment. The incidence group exhibited increased depression and hostility more than the non-addiction group and the effect of on depression was stronger among adolescent girls. Further, the remission group showed decreased depression, hostility, and social anxiety more than the persistent addiction group. Depression and hostility worsen in the addiction process for the Internet among adolescents. Intervention of Internet addiction should be provided to prevent its negative effect on mental health. Depression, hostility, and social anxiety decreased in the process of remission. It suggested that the negative consequences could be reversed if Internet addiction could be remitted within a short duration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A three-dimensional CT-based target definition for elective irradiation of the neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowak, Peter J.C.M.; Wijers, Oda B.; Lagerwaard, Frank J.; Levendag, Peter C.

    1999-01-01

    Introduction: Elective treatment of the clinically node-negative neck by radiation results in excellent control rates. However, radiation therapy with its organ-preserving properties is not without morbidity. Side effects of elective neck irradiation are mainly due to damage of the major and minor salivary glands, resulting in the dry mouth syndrome. Given that RT is the preferred treatment modality in case of elective treatment of the neck in many institutions, it is of utmost importance to try and reduce the associated sequelae of RT. Material and Methods: With the introduction of CT-planning systems and the development of 3D conformal radiation therapy (3D CRT) techniques, it has become feasible to deliver adequate doses of radiation to the target (neck) and at the same time saving (parts of) the salivary glands from doses beyond tolerance. A prerequisite for these techniques is that they require a precise knowledge of the target (i.e., of the elective neck) on CT. To be able to correlate borders of the surgical levels in the neck (I-VI) with structures seen on CT, an anatomical study, using two fixed (phenol, formaldehyde) human cadavers, was performed. Subsequently, the 6 potential lymph node regions in the neck on CT were defined. Results and Discussion: The reference for the current 3D CT-based definition of the lymph node regions in the neck is the official report of the American Academy of Otolaryngology, describing, based on surgical anatomy, the lymph node groups in the neck by Levels I-VI. The present investigation depicts reproducible landmarks on transversal CT images, corresponding to anatomical reference structures known from surgical levels (I-VI) and, this way, CT-based lymph node regions (1-6) were constructed

  16. The neck-tongue syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orrell, R W; Marsden, C D

    1994-01-01

    The neck-tongue syndrome, consisting of pain in the neck and altered sensation in the ipsilateral half of the tongue aggravated by neck movement, has been attributed to damage to lingual afferent fibres travelling in the hypoglossal nerve to the C2 spinal roots. The lingual afferents in the hypoglossal nerve are thought to be proprioceptive. Two further cases of the neck-tongue syndrome are described, the spectrum of its clinical manifestations is explored, and the phenomenon of lingual pseudoathetosis is illustrated as a result of the presumed lingual deafferentation. Images PMID:8158185

  17. Do depressive traits and hostility predict age-related decline in general intelligence?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Barefoot, John Calvin; Avlund, Kirsten

    2012-01-01

    on decline in general intelligence over a 30-year period. The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory was administered at a 50-year baseline exam, and from this inventory the Obvious Depression Scale and an abbreviated version of the Cook-Medley Hostility Scale were derived. At the 50-year baseline...... and at the 60-, 70-, and 80-year followups the full version of Wechsler's Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) was administered to 673, 513, 136, and 184 participants. Mixed effects statistical models were used to evaluate both the effect of the personality scores on level of intelligence and the interaction between...... the personality scores and the time since followup. Analyses were adjusted for demographic background and a wide range of lifestyle factors. Both obvious depression and hostility were negatively associated with level of intelligence, but personality scores did not influence rate of decline in general intelligence....

  18. Correlates and consequences of exposure to video game violence: hostile personality, empathy, and aggressive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholow, Bruce D; Sestir, Marc A; Davis, Edward B

    2005-11-01

    Research has shown that exposure to violent video games causes increases in aggression, but the mechanisms of this effect have remained elusive. Also, potential differences in short-term and long-term exposure are not well understood. An initial correlational study shows that video game violence exposure (VVE) is positively correlated with self-reports of aggressive behavior and that this relation is robust to controlling for multiple aspects of personality. A lab experiment showed that individuals low in VVE behave more aggressively after playing a violent video game than after a nonviolent game but that those high in VVE display relatively high levels of aggression regardless of game content. Mediational analyses show that trait hostility, empathy, and hostile perceptions partially account for the VVE effect on aggression. These findings suggest that repeated exposure to video game violence increases aggressive behavior in part via changes in cognitive and personality factors associated with desensitization.

  19. Psychological factors of propensity for alcoholism (social anxiety, hostility, Machiavellianism in depressive patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popinako A.V.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Based on the analysis of psychosocial models of alcoholism and depression the general and specific factors of occurrence and course of illness are identified in the present study. The authors put forward hypotheses regarding the mechanisms of activation of psychological addiction to alcohol as an ineffective coping strategy. The necessity of empirical research needed to refine the techniques and targets of patient care within the psychiatric and psychological care is justified. The results of the pilot study show that depressed patients who are subject to alcohol dependence feature marked distress in interpersonal relations, coupled with hostility and aim at gaining profit and pleasure by manipulating other people. These patients are hostile to others, while in interpersonal relationships personal safety is important to them, so they may be more likely to resort to manipulation. In their attitudes with respect to health the communication of these patients is characterized by hedonistic tendencies and histrionic traits in interpersonal contacts.

  20. Anatomy of Cyberterrorism: Is America Vulnerable?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ashley, Bradley

    2003-01-01

    ... it means. It also presents a model to understand the anatomy of cyberterrorism, describing some real-world cyber events, assesses cyberterrorist capabilities, and finally makes specific recommendations...

  1. Insights into Sexism: Male Status and Performance Moderates Female-Directed Hostile and Amicable Behaviour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael M Kasumovic

    Full Text Available Gender inequality and sexist behaviour is prevalent in almost all workplaces and rampant in online environments. Although there is much research dedicated to understanding sexist behaviour, we have almost no insight into what triggers this behaviour and the individuals that initiate it. Although social constructionist theory argues that sexism is a response towards women entering a male dominated arena, this perspective doesn't explain why only a subset of males behave in this way. We argue that a clearer understanding of sexist behaviour can be gained through an evolutionary perspective that considers evolved differences in intra-sexual competition. We hypothesised that female-initiated disruption of a male hierarchy incites hostile behaviour from poor performing males who stand to lose the most status. To test this hypothesis, we used an online first-person shooter video game that removes signals of dominance but provides information on gender, individual performance, and skill. We show that lower-skilled players were more hostile towards a female-voiced teammate, especially when performing poorly. In contrast, lower-skilled players behaved submissively towards a male-voiced player in the identical scenario. This difference in gender-directed behaviour became more extreme with poorer focal-player performance. We suggest that low-status males increase female-directed hostility to minimize the loss of status as a consequence of hierarchical reconfiguration resulting from the entrance of a woman into the competitive arena. Higher-skilled players, in contrast, were more positive towards a female relative to a male teammate. As higher-skilled players have less to fear from hierarchical reorganization, we argue that these males behave more positively in an attempt to support and garner a female player's attention. Our results provide the clearest picture of inter-sexual competition to date, highlighting the importance of considering an evolutionary

  2. Forecasting the presence and intensity of hostility on Instagram using linguistic and social features

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Ping; Guberman, Joshua; Hemphill, Libby; Culotta, Aron

    2018-01-01

    Online antisocial behavior, such as cyberbullying, harassment, and trolling, is a widespread problem that threatens free discussion and has negative physical and mental health consequences for victims and communities. While prior work has proposed automated methods to identify hostile comments in online discussions, these methods work retrospectively on comments that have already been posted, making it difficult to intervene before an interaction escalates. In this paper we instead consider t...

  3. Proceedings of the international topical meeting on remote systems and robotics in hostile environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of the International Topical Meeting on Remote Systems and Robotics in Hostile Environments. It is organized under the following sessions: Worldwide Applications Overview; Operating Mobile Systems; Sensors and Control Systems; Space Applications; Reactor Operations and Surveillance; Remote Equipment for Hazardous Operations; Future Mobile System; Mining and Construction Operations; Special Applications; Hot Cell Applications; Processing; Reactor Operations and Maintenance; Decontamination and Waste Handling; Remote Handling Development and Demonstration

  4. New Capabilities for Hostile Environments on Z Grand Challenge LDRD - Final Status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuneo, Michael E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Griffin, P. J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Balch, D. K. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Bell, K. S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Bierner, J. A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Coverdale, C. A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Flanagan, T. M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Hansen, S. B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Slaboszewicz, V. Harper- [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Jones, B. M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Lamppa, D. C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Martin, W. J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); McKenney, J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Moore, N. W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Parma, E. J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Peebles, H. C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Rovang, D. C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Savage, M. E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Tang, R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Vesey, R. A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this project was to develop new physical simulation capabilities in order to support the science-based qualification of nonnuclear weapon components in hostile radiation environments. The project contributes directly to the goals of maintaining a safe, secure, and effective US nuclear stockpile, maintaining strategic deterrence at lower nuclear force levels, extending the life of the nuclear deterrent capability, and to be ready for technological surprise.

  5. Hostile Environment? The Development of Sexual Harassment Law in the United States 1971-1991

    OpenAIRE

    Coukos, Pamela

    2011-01-01

    AbstractHostile Environment?The Development of Sexual Harassment Law in the United States 1971 - 1991by Pamela CoukosDoctor of Philosophy in Jurisprudence and Social PolicyUniversity of California, BerkeleyProfessor Lauren B. Edelman, ChairHow did the sexual harassment litigation campaign succeed in defining a new antidiscrimination principle in the midst of the Reagan-era backlash against civil rights? In 1986, the U.S. Supreme Court definitively established sexual harassment as a violation...

  6. Hostile urban architecture : A critical discussion of the seemingly offensive art of keeping people away

    OpenAIRE

    Persson de Fine Licht, Karl

    2017-01-01

    For many years, some urban architecture has aimed to exclude unwanted groups of people from some locations. This type of architecture is called "defensive" or "hostile" architecture and includes benches that cannot be slept on, spikes in the ground that cannot be stood on, and pieces of metal that hinder one's ability to skateboard. These defensive measures have sparked public outrage, with many thinking such measures lead to suffering, are disrespectful, and violate people's rights. In this ...

  7. Developing and operating a remotely operated work system in hostile and emergency environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorne, P.M.

    1987-01-01

    The author presents an overview of the factors that a project manager considering the use of remote work systems must keep in mind during the planning and execution of operations in hostile environments. Interfacing of the remote work system to the task and understanding mission parameters is emphasized. The author's thesis is based on many years of technical operations and project management roles using remote work systems in the subsea oil industry, military and, most recently, space and nuclear applications

  8. Insights into Sexism: Male Status and Performance Moderates Female-Directed Hostile and Amicable Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasumovic, Michael M; Kuznekoff, Jeffrey H

    2015-01-01

    Gender inequality and sexist behaviour is prevalent in almost all workplaces and rampant in online environments. Although there is much research dedicated to understanding sexist behaviour, we have almost no insight into what triggers this behaviour and the individuals that initiate it. Although social constructionist theory argues that sexism is a response towards women entering a male dominated arena, this perspective doesn't explain why only a subset of males behave in this way. We argue that a clearer understanding of sexist behaviour can be gained through an evolutionary perspective that considers evolved differences in intra-sexual competition. We hypothesised that female-initiated disruption of a male hierarchy incites hostile behaviour from poor performing males who stand to lose the most status. To test this hypothesis, we used an online first-person shooter video game that removes signals of dominance but provides information on gender, individual performance, and skill. We show that lower-skilled players were more hostile towards a female-voiced teammate, especially when performing poorly. In contrast, lower-skilled players behaved submissively towards a male-voiced player in the identical scenario. This difference in gender-directed behaviour became more extreme with poorer focal-player performance. We suggest that low-status males increase female-directed hostility to minimize the loss of status as a consequence of hierarchical reconfiguration resulting from the entrance of a woman into the competitive arena. Higher-skilled players, in contrast, were more positive towards a female relative to a male teammate. As higher-skilled players have less to fear from hierarchical reorganization, we argue that these males behave more positively in an attempt to support and garner a female player's attention. Our results provide the clearest picture of inter-sexual competition to date, highlighting the importance of considering an evolutionary perspective when

  9. Junot Díaz’s “Otravida, Otravez” and Hospitalia: The Workings of Hostile Hospitality

    OpenAIRE

    Manzanas Calvo, Ana María

    2013-01-01

    [EN]The language of hospitality and its intimate opposite, hostility, reverberates insistently in the current political climate, as countries worry about fortifying their borders against waves of migration. This framework has paved the way for the language of hospitality to return as an apt lens for anatomizing current encounters with the Other. This article argues that the hospitality at the heart of Junot Díaz’s story “Otravida, Otravez” (2012) is one that has turned against ...

  10. MMORPG gaming and hostility predict internet addiction symptoms in adolescents: an empirical multilevel longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Stavropoulos, V; Kuss, DJ; Griffiths, MD; Wilson, P; Motti-Stefanidi, F

    2017-01-01

    Internet addiction (IA) has become an increasingly researched topic. In the present study, IA symptoms in adolescents were investigated longitudinally with specific focus on the individual’s hostility, gaming use (of Massively Multiplayer Online Role Playing Games\\ud [MMORPGs]) and gaming on the classroom level (calculated using the percentage of MMORPG players within classes). The sample comprised 648 Greek adolescents who were\\ud assessed over a two-year period (aged 16-18 years). IA sympto...

  11. Remediation Trends in an Undergraduate Anatomy Course and Assessment of an Anatomy Supplemental Study Skills Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutte, Audra Faye

    2013-01-01

    Anatomy A215: Basic Human Anatomy (Anat A215) is an undergraduate human anatomy course at Indiana University Bloomington (IUB) that serves as a requirement for many degree programs at IUB. The difficulty of the course, coupled with pressure to achieve grades for admittance into specific programs, has resulted in high remediation rates. In an…

  12. State narcissism and aggression: The mediating roles of anger and hostile attributional bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Caina; Sun, Ying; Ho, Man Yee; You, Jin; Shaver, Phillip R; Wang, Zhenhong

    2016-07-01

    Prior research has documented a relationship between narcissism and aggression but has focused only on dispositional narcissism without considering situational factors that may increase narcissism temporarily. This study explored the possibility that an increase in state narcissism would foster aggressive responding by increasing anger and hostile attributional bias following unexpected provocation among 162 college students from China. We created a guided-imagination manipulation to heighten narcissism and investigated its effects on anger, aroused hostile attribution bias, and aggressive responses following a provocation with a 2 (narcissism/neutral manipulation) × 2 (unexpected provocation/positive evaluation condition) between-subjects design. We found that the manipulation did increase self-reported state narcissism. The increase in state narcissism in turn heightened aggression, and this relation was mediated by increased anger. Regardless of the level of state narcissism, individuals were more aggressive after being provoked and this effect of provocation was mediated by hostile attributional bias. The findings indicate that narcissism can be temporarily heightened in a nonclinical sample of individuals, and that the effect of state narcissism on aggression is mediated by anger. Differences between state and trait narcissism and possible influences of culture are discussed. Aggr. Behav. 42:333-345, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Melancholic features and hostility are associated with suicidality risk in Asian patients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Hong Jin; Peng, Daihui; Chua, Hong Choon; Srisurapanont, Manit; Fava, Maurizio; Bae, Jae-Nam; Man Chang, Sung; Hong, Jin Pyo

    2013-06-01

    Suicide rates are higher in East-Asians than other populations, and especially high in Koreans. However, little is known about suicidality risk and melancholic features in Asian patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Drug-free MDD outpatients were included from 13 centers across five ethnicities consisting of Chinese (n=290), Korean (n=101), Thai (n=102), Indian (n=27), and Malay (n=27). All were interviewed using the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I.), the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), and the Symptoms Checklist 90-Revised (SCL-90-R). Of 547 subjects, 177 MDD patients showed melancholic features (32.4%). These melancholic MDD patients revealed significantly higher suicidality risk (pdepression (pdifference in higher hostility. Adjusted odds ratios of melancholic features and hostility for moderate to high suicidality risk were 1.79 (95% CI=1.15-2.79) and 2.45 (95% CI=1.37-4.38), after adjusting for age, sex, education years, and depression severity. Post-hoc analyses showed that suicidality risk was higher in Korean and Chinese than that of Thai, Indian and Malay in MDD subjects with melancholic features, although depression severity showed no significant differences among the ethnicities. Suicidality risk is associated with both melancholic features and hostility and it shows cross-ethnic differences in Asian MDD patients, independent of depression severity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The challenge of executive team building in the aftermath of a hostile takeover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, R. G.

    1997-01-01

    In a hostile takeover, the executives of the acquired company are likely to have strong feelings that they may be unwanted by and considered disloyal to the the new company. They are likely to be filled with a sense that the 'new company' will 'get even with them' for the resistance put up to the merger. Therefore, the new company must be conscious of and sensitive to the fact that a strained environment exists and one of its first priorities should be to reduce that strain. Experience shows that a well informed Transition Team can minimize the emotional impacts of a hostile takeover and contribute significantly to the eventual success of the merger. To assure success, the Transition Team should be appointed early in the negotiating phase. It should have ready access to the negotiating team and the CEO to keep them fully informed of risk management issues caused by human resource. It should be involved in the strategic planning process during the pre-merger stage. It should have major responsibility for developing human resource impact studies, the development of organizational structure, the integration and implementation planning and monitoring of the progress of implementation. A list of Transition Team responsibilities and a list of proven techniques for turning a hostile environment into a productive win/win team environment are also included

  15. Developmental precursors of young school-age children's hostile attribution bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Daniel Ewon; Lane, Jonathan D; Grabell, Adam S; Olson, Sheryl L

    2013-12-01

    This prospective longitudinal study provides evidence of preschool-age precursors of hostile attribution bias in young school-age children, a topic that has received little empirical attention. We examined multiple risk domains, including laboratory and observational assessments of children's social-cognition, general cognitive functioning, effortful control, and peer aggression. Preschoolers (N = 231) with a more advanced theory-of-mind, better emotion understanding, and higher IQ made fewer hostile attributions of intent in the early school years. Further exploration of these significant predictors revealed that only certain components of these capacities (i.e., nonstereotypical emotion understanding, false-belief explanation, and verbal IQ) were robust predictors of a hostile attribution bias in young school-age children and were especially strong predictors among children with more advanced effortful control. These relations were prospective in nature-the effects of preschool variables persisted after accounting for similar variables at school age. We conclude by discussing the implications of our findings for future research and prevention. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. Neck pain or spasms - self care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pain - neck - self-care; Neck stiffness - self-care; Cervicalgia - self-care; Whiplash - self-care ... some pharmacies or retail stores. Ask your health care provider about using a soft neck collar to ...

  17. Workplace psychosocial and organizational factors for neck pain in workers in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Haiou; Hitchcock, Edward; Haldeman, Scott; Swanson, Naomi; Lu, Ming-Lun; Choi, BongKyoo; Nakata, Akinori; Baker, Dean

    2016-07-01

    Neck pain is a prevalent musculoskeletal condition among workers in the United States. This study explores a set of workplace psychosocial and organization-related factors for neck pain. Data used for this study come from the 2010 National Health Interview Survey which provides a representative sample of the US population. To account for the complex sampling design, the Taylor linearized variance estimation method was used. Logistic regression models were constructed to measure the associations. This study demonstrated significant associations between neck pain and a set of workplace risk factors, including work-family imbalance, exposure to a hostile work environment and job insecurity, non-standard work arrangements, multiple jobs, and long work hours. Workers with neck pain may benefit from intervention programs that address issues related to these workplace risk factors. Future studies exploring both psychosocial risk factors and physical risk factors with a longitudinal design will be important. Am. J. Ind. Med. 59:549-560, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Anatomy meets dentistry! Linking anatomy and clinical practice in the preclinical dental curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Rafai

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Establishing a strong link early on between preclinical coursework and the clinical context is necessary for students to be able to recognize the practical relevance of the curriculum during their preclinical anatomical courses and to transfer knowledge more easily. Our objective was to enhance the clinical relevance of a preclinical anatomy course for second-year medical students of dentistry by implementing an interdisciplinary skills training course on “Palpation of the Head and Neck Muscles” and to measure the learning outcomes. Methods For the curricular development of the expanded course module, Kern’s 6-step approach was applied including subjective evaluation. We used a peer-teaching format supported by an e-learning application. A randomized control study measured effects of the two components (skills training, e-module on learning outcomes. Four learning methods were compared: (1 lecture, (2 lecture + e-module, (3 lecture + skills training, (4 lecture + skills training + e-module. An objective structured clinical examination (OSCE was used to measure and compare learning outcomes. Results The two-way variance analysis demonstrated that participation in the skills training had a statistically significant effect on the OSCE results (p = 0.0007. Students who participated in the skills training did better (φ 107.4 ± 14.4 points than students who only attended the lecture (φ 88.8 ± 26.2 points. Students who used the e-module but did not attend the skills training earned a slightly but not significantly higher average number of points (φ 91.8 ± 31.3 points than those who only attended the lecture. The learning outcomes of the skills training were again significantly increased when the training was combined with the e-module (φ 121.8 ± 21.8 points, thus making it the ideal method for achieving the learning objectives defined in this study. Conclusions The “Palpation of

  19. Venous chest anatomy: clinical implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chasen, M.H.; Charnsangavej, C.

    1998-01-01

    This article provides a practical approach to the clinical implications and importance of understanding the collateral venous anatomy of the thorax. Routine radiography, conventional venography, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging studies provide correlative anatomic models for the demonstration of how interconnecting collateral vascular networks within the thorax maintain venous stability at all times. Five major systems comprise the collateral venous network of the thorax ( Fig. 1 ). These include the paravertebral, azygos-hemiazygos, internal mammary, lateral thoracic, and anterior jugular venous systems (AJVS). The five systems are presented in the following sequence: (a) a brief introduction to the importance of catheter position and malposition in understanding access to the thoracic venous system, (b) the anatomy of the azygos-hemiazygos systems and their relationship with the paravertebral plexus, (c) the importance of the AJVS, (d) 'loop' concepts interconnecting the internal mammary and azygos-hemiazygos systems by means of the lateral thoracic and intercostal veins, and (e) the interconnecting venous networks on the thoracic side of the thoracoabdominal junction. Certain aspects of the venous anatomy of the thorax will not be discussed in this chapter and include (a) the intra-abdominal anastomoses between the superior and inferior vena cavae (IVC) via the internal mammary, lateral thoracic, and azygos-hemiazygos systems (beyond the scope of this article), (b) potential collateral vessels involving vertebral, parascapular, thyroidal, thymic, and other smaller veins that might anastomose with the major systems, and (c) anatomic variants and pitfalls that may mimic pathologic conditions (space limitations). (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  20. Anatomy of the Corrugator Muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Kun; Lee, Jung Hun; Lim, Hee Joong

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this article is to systematically review the anatomy and action of the corrugator muscle. PubMed and Scopus were searched using the terms "corrugator" AND "anatomy." Among the 60 full texts from the 145 relevant abstracts, 34 articles without sufficient content were excluded and 4 articles drawn from the reference lists were added. Among the 30 articles analyzed (721 hemifaces), 28% classified by oblique head and transverse head, and 72% did not. Corrugator originated mostly from the medial supraorbital rim (45%), followed by the medial frontal bone (31%), the medial infraorbital rim (17%), and the upper nasal process (7%). Corrugator extended through the frontalis and orbicularis oculi (41%), only the frontalis (41%), or only the orbicularis oculi (18%). Corrugator ran superolaterally (59%), or laterally (41%). Corrugators inserted mostly to the middle of the eyebrow (57%), or the medial half of the eyebrow (36%), but also to the glabella region (7%). The length of the corrugator ranged 38 to 53 mm. The transverse head (23.38 mm) was longer than the oblique head (19.75 mm). Corrugator was thicker at the medial canthus than at the midpupillary line. Corrugator was innervated by the temporal branch of the facial nerve (66%), the zygomatic branch (17%), or the angular nerve (zygomatic branch and buccal branch, 17%). Supraorbital nerve (60%) or supratrochlear nerve (40%) penetrated the corrugator. The action was depressing, pulling the eyebrow medially (91%), or with medial eyebrow elevation and lateral eyebrow depression (9%). Surgeons must keep this anatomy in mind during surgical procedures.

  1. Parental Hostility and Its Sources in Psychologically Abusive Mothers: A Test of the Three-Factor Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesnik-Oberstein, Max; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This study of 44 psychologically abusing mothers and 128 nonabusing mothers determined that abusing mothers had higher levels of hostile feelings, associated with low marital coping skills, negative childhood upbringing, and high level of strain. (Author/JDD)

  2. Biogeometry of femoral neck for implant placement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patwa J

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Treatment of fracture neck femur with three cannulated cancellous screws in an apex proximal configuration is practised in many parts of the world. Methods : Dimensions of femoral neck at the middle of transcervical neck using CT scan (live neck and vernier caliper (dry cadeveric neck in 20 subjects respectively were measured. Results : Inferior half of the neck is narrower than superior half. Conclusion : Biogeometry of the neck of femur does not accomodate two inferior screws and thus fixation of fracture neck femur with three canulated cancellous screws in an apex distal configuration is recommended.

  3. SnapAnatomy, a computer-based interactive tool for independent learning of human anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, George W; Rajendran, Kanagasuntheram

    2008-06-01

    Computer-aided instruction materials are becoming increasing popular in medical education and particularly in the teaching of human anatomy. This paper describes SnapAnatomy, a new interactive program that the authors designed for independent learning of anatomy. SnapAnatomy is primarily tailored for the beginner student to encourage the learning of anatomy by developing a three-dimensional visualization of human structure that is essential to applications in clinical practice and the understanding of function. The program allows the student to take apart and to accurately put together body components in an interactive, self-paced and variable manner to achieve the learning outcome.

  4. Gross anatomy of network security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Thomas J.

    2002-01-01

    Information security involves many branches of effort, including information assurance, host level security, physical security, and network security. Computer network security methods and implementations are given a top-down description to permit a medically focused audience to anchor this information to their daily practice. The depth of detail of network functionality and security measures, like that of the study of human anatomy, can be highly involved. Presented at the level of major gross anatomical systems, this paper will focus on network backbone implementation and perimeter defenses, then diagnostic tools, and finally the user practices (the human element). Physical security measures, though significant, have been defined as beyond the scope of this presentation.

  5. ZBrush Digital Sculpting Human Anatomy

    CERN Document Server

    Spencer, Scott

    2010-01-01

    Taking into account that many of today?s digital artists?particularly 3D character animators?lack foundational artistic instruction, this book teaches anatomy in a coherent and succinct style. A clear writing style explains how to sculpt an accurate human figure, starting with the skeleton and working out to muscle, fat, and skin. Insightful explanations enable you to quickly and easily create and design characters that can be used in film, game, or print, and allows you to gain a strong understanding of the foundational artistic concepts.

  6. The Danish Neck Disability Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Henrik Hein; O'Neill, Lotte; Kongsted, Alice

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To (1) translate and culturally adapt and (2) determine the clinimetric properties of the Danish 8-item Neck Disability Index (NDI-8) in primary sector patients (PSPs) and secondary sector patients (SSPs). Methods: Analyses included 326 patients with neck pain. Validity and reliability...

  7. Hostile Hallways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Jacqueline

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the results of a national survey of students in grades 8-11 on the extent and impact of sexual harassment. Sexual harassment is prohibited under Title IX and by most state statutes. Recommends that schools establish and enforce a harassment policy, discuss harassment with students, and create a supportive school environment. (PKP)

  8. Frontal anatomy and reaction time in Autism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitz, Nicole; Daly, Eileen; Murphy, Declan

    2007-01-01

    Widespread frontal lobe abnormalities, encompassing anatomy and function, are known to be implicated in Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD). The correlation between neurobiology and behaviour, however, is poorly understood in ASD. The aim of this study was to investigate frontal lobe anatomy and

  9. Porcine Tricuspid Valve Anatomy and Human Compatibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waziri, Farhad; Lyager Nielsen, Sten; Hasenkam, J. Michael

    2016-01-01

    before clinical use. The study aim was to evaluate and compare the tricuspid valve anatomy of porcine and human hearts. METHODS: The anatomy of the tricuspid valve and the surrounding structures that affect the valve during a cardiac cycle were examined in detail in 100 fresh and 19 formalin...

  10. An introduction to human brain anatomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forstmann, B.U.; Keuken, M.C.; Alkemade, A.; Forstmann, B.U.; Wagenmakers, E.-J.

    2015-01-01

    This tutorial chapter provides an overview of the human brain anatomy. Knowledge of brain anatomy is fundamental to our understanding of cognitive processes in health and disease; moreover, anatomical constraints are vital for neurocomputational models and can be important for psychological

  11. Design Projects in Human Anatomy & Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polizzotto, Kristin; Ortiz, Mary T.

    2008-01-01

    Very often, some type of writing assignment is required in college entry-level Human Anatomy and Physiology courses. This assignment can be anything from an essay to a research paper on the literature, focusing on a faculty-approved topic of interest to the student. As educators who teach Human Anatomy and Physiology at an urban community college,…

  12. Journal of Experimental and Clinical Anatomy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Journal of Experimental and Clinical Anatomy accepts for publication manuscripts of high standard containing reports of original scientific research in the morphology, mechanical functioning and development of man and animals. The scope the journal embraces articles of human and comparative anatomy, embryology ...

  13. The Refugees: Threatening or Beneficial? Exploring the Effects of Positive and Negative Attitudes and Communication on Hostile Media Perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothee Arlt

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the actual debate on refugees in Germany the media’s role was heavily disputed. To understand this controversy, this study examines hostile media perceptions from the audience perspective. Building up on previous research on the hostile media phenomenon and considering literature on pro- and anti-immigrant attitudes, this study explores the effect of positive and negative attitudes towards refugees as well as of mainstream media, social media and interpersonal communication on hostile media perceptions. Using survey data (N=1005 and applying structural equation modelling, several hypotheses on the effects of attitudes and communication variables were tested. The results demonstrate that perceptions of media bias are strongly influenced by people’s negative and positive attitudes towards refugees and the basic hostile media hypothesis was confirmed. Moreover, our findings reveal that the perceived intensity of media coverage on contested aspects of the refugee issue also has an effect on perceptions of hostility. However, the various communication variables did not prove to have direct effects, whereas mainstream media use, social media use, and interpersonal communication with refugees had indirect effects on the hostile media perception.

  14. The comorbid psychiatric symptoms of Internet addiction: attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), depression, social phobia, and hostility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Ju-Yu; Ko, Chih-Hung; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Wu, Hsiu-Yueh; Yang, Ming-Jen

    2007-07-01

    To: (1) determine the association between Internet addiction and depression, self-reported symptoms of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), social phobia, and hostility for adolescents; and (2) evaluate the sex differences of association between Internet addiction and the above-mentioned psychiatric symptoms among adolescents. A total of 2114 students (1204 male and 910 female) were recruited for the study. Internet addiction, symptoms of ADHD, depression, social phobia, and hostility were evaluated by the self-report questionnaire. The results demonstrated that adolescents with Internet addiction had higher ADHD symptoms, depression, social phobia, and hostility. Higher ADHD symptoms, depression, and hostility are associated with Internet addiction in male adolescents, and only higher ADHD symptoms and depression are associated with Internet addiction in female students. These results suggest that Internet addiction is associated with symptoms of ADHD and depressive disorders. However, hostility was associated with Internet addiction only in males. Effective evaluation of, and treatment for ADHD and depressive disorders are required for adolescents with Internet addiction. More attention should be paid to male adolescents with high hostility in intervention of Internet addiction.

  15. Human fetal anatomy: MR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinreb, J C; Lowe, T; Cohen, J M; Kutler, M

    1985-12-01

    Twenty-four pregnant women carrying 26 fetuses (two sets of twins) were imaged with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging at 0.35 T following sonographic evaluation. Each study was retrospectively evaluated to determine which of 33 normal fetal structures were visible on the images and which imaging parameters were most useful for depicting fetal anatomy. Fetal motion degraded fetal images in all but two cases, both with oligohydramnios and in the third trimester of gestation. Nevertheless, many fetal structures were identifiable, particularly in the third trimester. Visualization of fetal anatomy improved with intravenous maternal sedation in five cases. Relatively T1-weighted images occasionally offered the advantage of less image degradation owing to fetal motion and improved contrast between different fetal structures. More T2 weighting was believed to be advantageous in one case for outlining the fetal head and in one case for delineation of the brain. In many cases, structures were similarly identifiable (though with different signal intensities) regardless of the parameters selected. The authors conclude that MR imaging of many fetal structures is currently unsatisfactory and is probably of limited value, particularly in the first and second trimesters. However, the relative frequency and detail with which the fetal head and liver can be depicted indicate that these may be areas for further investigation, and the potential utility of imaging fetal fat warrants further investigation.

  16. Anatomy of the Spinal Meninges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakka, Laurent; Gabrillargues, Jean; Coll, Guillaume

    2016-06-01

    The spinal meninges have received less attention than the cranial meninges in the literature, although several points remain debatable and poorly understood, like their phylogenesis, their development, and their interactions with the spinal cord. Their constancy among the chordates shows their crucial importance in central nervous system homeostasis and suggests a role far beyond mechanical protection of the neuraxis. This work provides an extensive study of the spinal meninges, from an overview of their phylogenesis and embryology to a descriptive and topographic anatomy with clinical implications. It examines their involvement in spinal cord development, functioning, and repair. This work is a review of the literature using PubMed as a search engine on Medline. The stages followed by the meninges along the phylogenesis could not be easily compared with their development in vertebrates for methodological aspects and convergence processes throughout evolution. The distinction between arachnoid and pia mater appeared controversial. Several points of descriptive anatomy remain debatable: the functional organization of the arterial network, and the venous and lymphatic drainages, considered differently by classical anatomic and neuroradiological approaches. Spinal meninges are involved in neurodevelopment and neurorepair producing neural stem cells and morphogens, in cerebrospinal fluid dynamics and neuraxis functioning by the synthesis of active molecules, and the elimination of waste products of central nervous system metabolism. The spinal meninges should be considered as dynamic functional formations evolving over a lifetime, with ultrastructural features and functional interactions with the neuraxis remaining not fully understood.

  17. Prevalance of neck pain in computer users

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabeen, F.; Bashir, M.S.; Hussain, S.I.

    2013-01-01

    Prolonged use of computers during daily work activities and recreation is often cited as a cause of neck pain. Neck pain and computer users are clearly connected due to extended periods of sitting in a certain position with no breaks to stretch the neck muscles. Pro-longed computer use with neck bent forward, will cause the anterior neck muscles to gradually get shorter and tighter, while the muscles in the back of neck will grow longer and weaker. These changes will lead to development of neck pain. Objectives: To find incidence of neck pain in computer users, association between neck pain and prolong sitting in wrong posture, association between effects of break during prolong work, association between types of chair in use in prolong sitting and occurrence of neck pain. Methodology: For this observational study data was collected through Questionnaires from office workers (computer users), and students. Results: Out of 50 persons 72% of computer users had neck pain. Strong association was found between neck pain and prolonged computer use (p = 0.001). Those who took break during their work had less neck pain. No significant association was found between type of chair in use and neck pain. Neck pain and type of system in use also had no significant association. Conclusion: So duration of computer use and frequency of breaks are associated with neck pain at work. Severe Neck pain was found in people who use computer for more than 5 hours a day. (author)

  18. KELAINAN BANGUN ANATOMIS KUKU KUDA KOLEKSI LABORATORIUM ANATOMI FKH IPB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemaz A Dewangga

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to observe the anatomical structure of horse hooves collected from the Laboratory of Anatomy FKH IPB. Twenty five hoof specimens, consisting of ten fore hooves and fifteen hind hooves were used as research materials. The external morphology such as color, angle, structure and condition of the hoof wall were described. The observation on external morphology showed that the hooves have two basic colors, black and white. Generally, all of the hoof specimens showed abnormalities in such aspect as angle, structure and condition of the wall. The structures of fore hoof and hind hoof from this study are classified into 8 categories, they are: flat foot, flared foot, knol hoef, fever rings, sand crack, club foot, contracted foot and bull nosed foot.

  19. Team-based learning in the gross anatomy laboratory improves academic performance and students' attitudes toward teamwork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huitt, Tiffany W; Killins, Anita; Brooks, William S

    2015-01-01

    As the healthcare climate shifts toward increased interdisciplinary patient care, it is essential that students become accomplished at group problem solving and develop positive attitudes toward teamwork. Team-based learning (TBL) has become a popular approach to medical education because of its ability to promote active learning, problem-solving skills, communication, and teamwork. However, its documented use in the laboratory setting and physical therapy education is limited. We used TBL as a substitute for one-third of cadaveric dissections in the gross anatomy laboratories at two Doctor of Physical Therapy programs to study its effect on both students' perceptions and academic performance. We surveyed students at the beginning and completion of their anatomy course as well as students who had previously completed a traditional anatomy course to measure the impact of TBL on students' perceptions of teamwork. We found that the inclusion of TBL in the anatomy laboratory improves students' attitudes toward working with peers (P < 0.01). Non-TBL students had significantly lower attitudes toward teamwork (P < 0.01). Comparison of academic performance between TBL and non-TBL students revealed that students who participated in TBL scored significantly higher on their first anatomy practical examination and on their head/neck written examination (P < 0.001). When asked to rate their role in a team, a 10.5% increase in the mean rank score for Problem Solver resulted after the completion of the TBL-based anatomy course. Our data indicate that TBL is an effective supplement to cadaveric dissection in the laboratory portion of gross anatomy, improving both students' grades and perceptions of teamwork. © 2014 American Association of Anatomists.

  20. Head and Neck Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, Toshiki; Imanishi, Yorihisa

    2008-01-01

    The limitation of concurrent chemo-radiotherapy (CCRT) in head and neck cancer (HNC) as the primary treatment is described based on recent findings. Limits in the application/indication involve factors of age, performance status (PS) and renal function. The first is that, as deaths in >71 years old patients are derived from other causes (41%) than HNC, CCRT is only useful for younger population; the second, patients with PS 0-1 or Karnofsky performance score >60-70 can be indicated; and third, contraindicated are those with creatinine clearance (CCr) <60 mL/min as the key drug cisplatin in CCRT has a high renal toxicity. It should be recognized that completion rates of chemotherapy and RT are as low as 66-85% and 84-92%, respectively, in CCRT. CCRT has such limiting adverse events as mucitis, dry mouth, dysohagia, weight loss, neutropenia, sepsis, etc., which are most important in CCRT application. CCRT is recommended for the primary cancers of larynx and hypopharynx because they are significantly better conserved than middle pharyngeal, oral and upper jaw cancers. Evidence of CCRT is poor for cancers in paranasal sinuses. Planned neck dissection (PND) is for the cervical metastatic lymph nodes and conducted 6-12 weeks after CCRT regardless to its outcome. In fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) negative cases, PND can be omitted. Necessity of PND is possibly inversely proportional to CCRT intensity performed. For control of remote metastasis, CCRT has obvious limits and inductive chemotherapy before it is currently considered. Salvage surgery post CCRT does not always yield a relief because of complication. Patients with advanced laryngeal cancer can be selected either to surgery or CCRT depending on results of the inductive chemotherapy. To predict the sensitivity to CCRT, some biomarkers like HPV, EGFR and VEGF have been suggested to be useful by retrospective studies. Understanding the limitation is as important as knowing the usefulness in

  1. Comparison of learning anatomy with cadaveric dissection and plastic models by medical students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qamar, K.; Ashar, A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study at Army Medical College was to assess differences in learning of students from cadaveric dissection or plastic models; and explore their perceptions about efficacy of various Instructional tools used during the gross anatomy practical time. Study Design: Two phase mixed methods sequential study. Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted at anatomy department Arm y Medical College, Rawalpindi, Pakistan over a period of three weeks In July 2013 after approval from the ethical review board. Participants and Methods: Quantiative phase 1 involved 50 second year MBBS students, selected through non probability convenience sampling. They were divided into two groups of 25 students. Group A covered head and neck gross anatomy dissection course through cadaveric dissection and group B using plastic models. At the end of course MCQ based assessment were conducted and statistically analyzed for both groups. In qualitative phase 2, two focus group discussions (FGD) with 10 second year MBBS students were conducted to explore students perspectives about and their preferences of various instructional tools used during the gross anatomy practical time. The FGDs were audio taped, transcribed, and analyzed through thematic analysis. Results: The results of a post test of group A was 24.1 +-.26 and group B 30.96 +- 6.23 (p = 0.024). Focus group discussions generated three themes (Learning techniques used by students during gross anatomy practical time; Preferred learning techniques and Non-preferred learning techniques). Students prefered small-group learning method over completely self-directed studies as the study materials were carefully chosen and objectives were clearly demonstrated with directions. Cadaveric dissection and didactic teachings were not preferred. (author)

  2. A collaborative smartphone sensing platform for detecting and tracking hostile drones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boddhu, Sanjay K.; McCartney, Matt; Ceccopieri, Oliver; Williams, Robert L.

    2013-05-01

    In recent years, not only United States Armed Services but other Law-enforcement agencies have shown increasing interest in employing drones for various surveillance and reconnaissance purposes. Further, recent advancements in autonomous drone control and navigation technology have tremendously increased the geographic extent of dronebased missions beyond the conventional line-of-sight coverage. Without any sophisticated requirement on data links to control them remotely (human-in-loop), drones are proving to be a reliable and effective means of securing personnel and soldiers operating in hostile environments. However, this autonomous breed of drones can potentially prove to be a significant threat when acquired by antisocial groups who wish to target property and life in urban settlements. To further escalate the issue, the standard detection techniques like RADARs, RF data link signature scanners, etc..., prove futile as the drones are smaller in size to evade successful detection by a RADAR based system in urban environment and being autonomous, have the capability of operating without a traceable active data link (RF). Hence, towards investigating possible practical solutions for the issue, the research team at AFRL's Tec^Edge Labs under SATE and YATE programs has developed a highly scalable, geographically distributable and easily deployable smartphone-based collaborative platform that can aid in detecting and tracking unidentified hostile drones. In its current state, this collaborative platform built on the paradigm of "Human-as-Sensors", consists primarily of an intelligent Smartphone application that leverages appropriate sensors on the device to capture a drone's attributes (flight direction, orientation, shape, color, etc..,) with real-time collaboration capabilities through a highly composable sensor cloud and an intelligent processing module (based on a Probabilistic model) that can estimate and predict the possible flight path of a hostile drone

  3. Invention of a tunable damper for use with an acoustic waveguide in hostile environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, S.C.

    1984-06-01

    A damper was invented to remove undesirable stress pulses from an acoustic waveguide. Designed to be tunable, the damper was constructed to withstand a corrosive or otherwise hostile environment. It serves to simplify the design and enhance the performance of a water-level measurement system, of which the damper and acoustic waveguide are integral parts. An experimental damper was constructed and applied to an existing level probe and measurement system. The resulting damper, properly tuned, causes acoustic stress pulses that pass into it along the waveguide to be attenuated

  4. Actinobacillus pleruropneumoniae transcriptome analysis during early infection - coping with a hostile environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Kirstine Klitgaard; Rundsten, Carsten Friis; Jensen, Tim Kåre

    2011-01-01

    in response to environmental stimuli is critical for bacterial survival within the host. The genes identified as differentially expressed in this study may represent a core set of genes which are mobilized to cope with the host immune response and adapt to the hostile environment. The potential virulence......Aim: To obtain an increased understanding of how the porcine lung pathogen Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (Ap) establish infection in the host. Understanding the means by which a pathogen establishes and maintains infection in the host organism is the first step towards controlling disease...

  5. Anatomy-Specific Virtual Reality Simulation in Temporal Bone Dissection: Perceived Utility and Impact on Surgeon Confidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locketz, Garrett D; Lui, Justin T; Chan, Sonny; Salisbury, Kenneth; Dort, Joseph C; Youngblood, Patricia; Blevins, Nikolas H

    2017-06-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of anatomy-specific virtual reality (VR) surgical rehearsal on surgeon confidence and temporal bone dissection performance. Study Design Prospective pre- and poststudy of a novel virtual surgical rehearsal platform. Setting Academic otolaryngology-head and neck surgery residency training programs. Subjects and Methods Sixteen otolaryngology-head and neck surgery residents from 2 North American training institutions were recruited. Surveys were administered to assess subjects' baseline confidence in performing 12 subtasks of cortical mastoidectomy with facial recess. A cadaver temporal bone was randomly assigned to each subject. Cadaver specimens were scanned with a clinical computed tomography protocol, allowing the creation of anatomy-specific models for use in a VR surgical rehearsal platform. Subjects then rehearsed a virtual mastoidectomy on data sets derived from their specimens. Surgical confidence surveys were administered again. Subjects then dissected assigned cadaver specimens, which were blindly graded with a modified Welling scale. A final survey assessed the perceived utility of rehearsal on dissection performance. Results Of 16 subjects, 14 (87.5%) reported a significant increase in overall confidence after conducting an anatomy-specific VR rehearsal. A significant correlation existed between perceived utility of rehearsal and confidence improvement. The effect of rehearsal on confidence was dependent on trainee experience and the inherent difficulty of the surgical subtask. Postrehearsal confidence correlated strongly with graded dissection performance. Subjects rated anatomy-specific rehearsal as having a moderate to high contribution to their dissection performance. Conclusion Anatomy-specific virtual rehearsal improves surgeon confidence in performing mastoid dissection, dependent on surgeon experience and task difficulty. The subjective confidence gained through rehearsal correlates positively with subsequent

  6. Interaction of 5-HTTLPR genotype and unipolar major depression in the emergence of aggressive/hostile traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonda, Xenia; Fountoulakis, Konstantinos N; Csukly, Gabor; Bagdy, Gyorgy; Pap, Dorottya; Molnár, Eszter; Laszik, Andras; Lazary, Judit; Sarosi, Andrea; Faludi, Gabor; Sasvari-Szekely, Maria; Szekely, Anna; Rihmer, Zoltan

    2011-08-01

    The 5-HTTLPR polymorphism has been associated both with depression and aggression/hostility. The multidirectional association between depression, aggression and the s allele may be important, since all these phenomena are related to suicidal behavior. Our aim was to investigate the association between 5-HTTLPR and aggressive/hostile traits in depressed patients and controls. 137 depressive and 118 control women completed the Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory and were genotyped for 5-HTTLPR. BDHI scores in the different groups were investigated by Generalized Linear Model Analysis. Association between dependent and independent variables in the model was tested by the likelihood ratio Chi-square statistic. Diagnosis and genotype showed a significant association with several aggressive/hostile traits. Interaction of the two main effects was also significant in case of several subscales. Post hoc analyses indicated a significant association between BDHI subscales and s allele only in the depressed group. Only women were studied and since gender differences are present both in aggressive behavior and putatively in the behavioral effects of 5-HTTLPR genotype, our findings pertain only to females. Our results indicate a robust relationship between aggression/hostility and 5-HTTLPR genotype, but this association is more marked in the presence of depression. The presence of the s allele thus not only contributes to a higher risk of depression, but in depressives also leads to higher aggression/hostility. Our results have important implications for suicide research, since the s allele is associated with violent suicide, and this association may be mediated through the emergence of increased aggression/hostility in depressed patients carrying the s allele. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. LEARNING ANATOMY WITH AUGMENTED REALITY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Cita; Dyhrberg O'Neill, Lotte; Nielsen, Kurt Gammelgaard

    An Augmented Reality (AR) app for Hololens glasses was developed to help students learn the anatomy of the human body mediastinum. In this research project, we wanted to evaluate whether AR: strengthened the students’ self-efficacy and motivation, helped students to improve learning, and provided...... a questionnaire regarding their self-efficacy and motivation, presence in the virtual room, experiences with Hololens teaching, and how they used the quizzes. In addition, students answered a test with the same 20 questions used in the app and three additional transfer questions new to students. Finally, students......’ scores on the mediastinum questions in the exam 2 month later were collected to examine the long-term memory of content. Internal consistency was estimated for all measures. Correlations between measures were examined with a correlation matrix, and group differences were examined with one-way analysis...

  8. An atlas of radiological anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weir, J.; Abrahams, P.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains a wealth of radiologic images of normal human anatomy; plain radiographs, contrast-enhanced radiographs, and computed tomography (CT) scans. There are 18 pages of magnetic resonance (MR) images, most on the brain and spinal cord, so that there are only two pages on MR imaging of the heart and two pages on abdominal and pelvic MR imaging. Twelve pages of ultrasound (US) images are included. This book has the radiologic image paired with an explanatory drawing; the image is on the left with a paragraph or two of text, and the drawing is on the right with legends. This book includes images of the brain and spinal cord obtained with arteriography, venography, myelography, encephalography, CT, and MR imaging

  9. Anterior ethmoid anatomy facilitates dacryocystorhinostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaylock, W K; Moore, C A; Linberg, J V

    1990-12-01

    The ethmoid air cell labyrinth lies adjacent to the medial orbital wall, extending even beyond the sutures of the ethmoid bone. Its anatomic relationship to the lacrimal sac fossa is important in lacrimal surgery. We evaluated computed tomographic scans of 190 orbits with normal ethmoid anatomy to define the anatomic relationship of anterior ethmoid air cells to the lacrimal sac fossa. In 93% of the orbits, the cells extended anterior to the posterior lacrimal crest, with 40% entering the frontal process of the maxilla. This anatomic relationship may be used to facilitate the osteotomy during dacryocystorhinostomy. During a 10-year period (310 cases), one of us routinely entered the anterior ethmoid air cells to initiate the osteotomy during dacryocystorhinostomy. This technique has helped to avoid lacerations of the nasal mucosa.

  10. Anatomy of the Platysma Muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Kun; Kim, Ji Yeon; Lim, Jae Hyun

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this paper was to review the anatomy the platysma systematically.The term "platysma AND anatomy" was used to search PubMed and Scopus, producing 394 and 214 papers, respectively. After excluding 95 duplicate titles, 513 abstracts and 98 full papers were reviewed. Among these 98 papers, 83 were excluded and 5 were added. Ultimately, 20 papers were analyzed.The most common aging-related change of the platysma was shortening (70.7%), followed by thinning (25.2%). The platysma most commonly originated from the upper portion of thorax anterior to clavicle (67.7%), followed by the subcutaneous tissue of the subclavicular and acromial regions (22.6%) and pectoralis (9.7%). The platysma ascended upward and medially (68.5%) or ascended from the clavicle to the face (31.5%). The platysma most commonly inserted on the cheek skin (57.5%), followed by the cutaneous muscles around the mouth (18.6%), the mandibulocutaneous ligament or zygoma (18.6%), and the parotid fascia or periosteum of the mandible (5.3%). The platysma was most commonly innervated by the cervical branch of the facial nerve (38.2%) or the cervical branch and mandibular branch of the facial nerve (60.5%), followed by the cervical plexus (0.6%), the cervical motor nucleus (0.6%), and the glossopharyngeal nerve (0.1%). The most common action of the platysma was drawing the lips inferiorly (83.3%) or posteriorly (12.9%). Four papers classified the platysma into subtypes; however, these classification strategies used arbitrary standards.Further studies will be necessary to establish the thickness of the platysma and to characterize age-related changes of the platysma.

  11. High precision anatomy for MEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troebinger, Luzia; López, José David; Lutti, Antoine; Bradbury, David; Bestmann, Sven; Barnes, Gareth

    2014-02-01

    Precise MEG estimates of neuronal current flow are undermined by uncertain knowledge of the head location with respect to the MEG sensors. This is either due to head movements within the scanning session or systematic errors in co-registration to anatomy. Here we show how such errors can be minimized using subject-specific head-casts produced using 3D printing technology. The casts fit the scalp of the subject internally and the inside of the MEG dewar externally, reducing within session and between session head movements. Systematic errors in matching to MRI coordinate system are also reduced through the use of MRI-visible fiducial markers placed on the same cast. Bootstrap estimates of absolute co-registration error were of the order of 1mm. Estimates of relative co-registration error were <1.5mm between sessions. We corroborated these scalp based estimates by looking at the MEG data recorded over a 6month period. We found that the between session sensor variability of the subject's evoked response was of the order of the within session noise, showing no appreciable noise due to between-session movement. Simulations suggest that the between-session sensor level amplitude SNR improved by a factor of 5 over conventional strategies. We show that at this level of coregistration accuracy there is strong evidence for anatomical models based on the individual rather than canonical anatomy; but that this advantage disappears for errors of greater than 5mm. This work paves the way for source reconstruction methods which can exploit very high SNR signals and accurate anatomical models; and also significantly increases the sensitivity of longitudinal studies with MEG. © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. High precision anatomy for MEG☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troebinger, Luzia; López, José David; Lutti, Antoine; Bradbury, David; Bestmann, Sven; Barnes, Gareth

    2014-01-01

    Precise MEG estimates of neuronal current flow are undermined by uncertain knowledge of the head location with respect to the MEG sensors. This is either due to head movements within the scanning session or systematic errors in co-registration to anatomy. Here we show how such errors can be minimized using subject-specific head-casts produced using 3D printing technology. The casts fit the scalp of the subject internally and the inside of the MEG dewar externally, reducing within session and between session head movements. Systematic errors in matching to MRI coordinate system are also reduced through the use of MRI-visible fiducial markers placed on the same cast. Bootstrap estimates of absolute co-registration error were of the order of 1 mm. Estimates of relative co-registration error were < 1.5 mm between sessions. We corroborated these scalp based estimates by looking at the MEG data recorded over a 6 month period. We found that the between session sensor variability of the subject's evoked response was of the order of the within session noise, showing no appreciable noise due to between-session movement. Simulations suggest that the between-session sensor level amplitude SNR improved by a factor of 5 over conventional strategies. We show that at this level of coregistration accuracy there is strong evidence for anatomical models based on the individual rather than canonical anatomy; but that this advantage disappears for errors of greater than 5 mm. This work paves the way for source reconstruction methods which can exploit very high SNR signals and accurate anatomical models; and also significantly increases the sensitivity of longitudinal studies with MEG. PMID:23911673

  13. Anatomy and function of the hypothenar muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquella, John A; Levine, Pam

    2012-02-01

    The hypothenar eminence is the thick soft tissue mass located on the ulnar side of the palm. Understanding its location and contents is important for understanding certain aspects of hand function. Variation in motor nerve distribution of the hypothenar muscles makes surgery of the ulnar side of the palm more challenging. To avoid injury to nerve branches, knowledge of these differences is imperative. This article discusses the muscular anatomy and function, vascular anatomy, and nerve anatomy and innervation of the hypothenar muscles. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Normal CT anatomy of the calcaneus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Mun Gyu; Kang, Heung Sik

    1986-01-01

    Normal sectional anatomy of the calcaneus with multiplanar CT examination was studied in 5 volunteers as the background for interpretation of various abnormalities. Major 3 sectional anatomy including plantar, coronal, sagittal and additional tuberosity planes are described. With CT examination of the calcaneus, 1. More detailed anatomy of 3 facets of subtalar joint (anterior, middle, and posterior facet) can be well visualized. 2. Its clinical applications in the tarsal trauma, tarsal coalition, subtalar infection, degenerative arthritis, club foot, pes planus and tarsal tumor could provide much more information's, which not obtained by conventional radiographic studies.

  15. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Oral Surgeries Facial Cosmetic Surgery Facial Injury / Trauma Surgery Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) Oral, Head and Neck Pathology TMJ and Facial Pain Wisdom Teeth Management Procedures Anesthesia Anesthesia Oral and maxillofacial surgeons are ...

  16. American Head and Neck Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... research and insights. Comments This field is for validation purposes and should be left unchanged. This iframe ... and Announcements Copyright ©2016 · American Head and Neck Society · Privacy and Return Policy Managed by BSC Management, ...

  17. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Neck Pathology Download Download the ebook for further information Your oral and maxillofacial surgeon (OMS) is the ... well be the key to complete recovery. The information provided here is not intended as a substitute ...

  18. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... teeth or become infected. It can also invite bacteria that lead to gum disease. Click here to find out ... and surgically treating cancer of the head, neck and mouth. The Oral Cancer Foundation estimates that close to ...

  19. Neck pain in different cephalalgias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Chechet

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews the literature related to the investigations of neck pain (cervicalgia in patients with headache (cephalalgia. Neck pain is second to lower back pain as a reason for considerable socioeconomic damage to society. The prevalence of cervicalgia in the population ranges from 5.9 to 38%; the annual incidence is 10.4–21.3%; 14.2 to 71% of people report to have neck pain at some time in their lifetime. Neck pain is concurrent with cephalalgia in 70% of cases. In patients with cervicalgia, the prevalence of headache is 20–40% higher than in those with musculoskeletal pain at another site. Neck pain is as a major risk factor for migraine and tension headache (TH. Neck pain in TH progresses with the increased intensity, frequency, and strength of headache. There is a direct relationship of the quality of life worsening associated withcervicalgia to the frequency of migraine attacks and the risk of its chronization. Neck pain is noted in cervicogenic headache belonging to secondary headaches. The identification of mixed headache in a patient with cervicalgia allows the prescription of a treatment option that may be effective in relieving both headache and neck pain. The paper discusses the causes and pathogenesis of cervicalgia in patients with headache, examination methods, and main approaches to drug and nondrug therapies in relation to the leading pathophysiological mechanism, as well as new possibilities for the effective and safe relief of pain syndrome in this category of patients. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, myorelaxants,and their combination are observed to be effective in treating patients with cervicalgia and cephalalgia.

  20. Effects of asenapine on agitation and hostility in adults with acute manic or mixed episodes associated with bipolar I disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Citrome L

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Leslie Citrome,1 Ronald Landbloom,2 Cheng-Tao Chang,3 Willie Earley4 1Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY, USA; 2Department of Neuroscience, Merck, Whitehouse Station, NJ, USA; 3Biostatistics, Allergan, Jersey City, NJ, USA; 4Clinical Development, Allergan, Jersey City, NJ, USA Background: Bipolar disorder is associated with an increased risk of aggression. However, effective management of hostility and/or agitation symptoms may prevent patients from becoming violent. This analysis investigated the efficacy of the antipsychotic asenapine on hostility and agitation in patients with bipolar I disorder.Methods: Data were pooled from three randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, Phase III trials of asenapine in adults with manic or mixed episodes of bipolar I disorder (NCT00159744, NCT00159796, and NCT00764478. Post hoc analyses assessed the changes from baseline to day 21 on the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS hostility-related item scores in asenapine- or placebo-treated patients with at least minimal or mild symptom severity and on the PANSS-excited component (PANSS-EC total score in agitated patients. Changes were adjusted for improvements in overall mania symptoms to investigate direct effects on hostility.Results: Significantly greater changes in favor of asenapine versus placebo were observed in YMRS hostility-related item scores (irritability: least squares mean difference [95% confidence interval] =–0.5 [–0.87, –0.22], P=0.001; disruptive–aggressive behavior: –0.7 [–0.99, –0.37], P<0.0001, PANSS hostility item score (–0.2 [–0.44, –0.04]; P=0.0181, and PANSS-EC total score (–1.4 [–2.4, –0.4]; P=0.0055. Changes in the YMRS disruptive–aggressive behavior score and the sum of the hostility-related items remained significant after adjusting for improvements in other YMRS item scores.Conclusion: Asenapine

  1. [Efficacy of intestinal splinting in hostile abdomen secondary to postoperative flanges in pediatric patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracho-Blanchet, Eduardo; Langarica-Bulos, Mónica; Dávila-Pérez, Roberto; Fernández-Portilla, Emilio; Zalles-Vidal, Cristian; Nieto-Zermeño, Jaime

    2016-10-01

    Objetivo: Mostrar la eficacia de la FI para prolongar el tiempo libre de oclusión intestinal quirúrgica en niños con abdomen hostil secundario a bridas posquirúrgicas. Método: Análisis retrospectivo de FI por abdomen hostil de 2000 a 2011 y su seguimiento a largo plazo. Comparamos el tiempo libre de oclusión quirúrgica antes y después de la FI. Resultados: Se incluyeron 20 FI en 19 pacientes. Predominaron las causas congénitas, la mediana de edad en la cirugía fue de 6 meses, todos tenían cirugías previas con mediana de tres, y dos de ellas fueron por oclusión intestinal previa. La férula se quitó a los 28 días (mediana). Con un seguimiento de 1-183 meses, hubo una recurrencia de oclusión quirúrgica. El tiempo libre de oclusión quirúrgica posferulización fue significativamente mayor que el preferulización mediante la prueba de Wilcoxon, con un valor Z = -3.594; p = el tiempo libre de oclusión quirúrgica.

  2. [Head masters' perception of school-based hostility in Alicante, Spain: a qualitative study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Fernández, Carmen; Hernández-Aguado, Ildefonso; Torres Cantero, Alberto M

    2006-01-01

    There is growing social concern about school violence but little is known about how this situation is experienced in the schools. The objective of this study was to know the perception that School's head masters have of the school-based hostility, on their causes, how they value current preventive strategies, and their recommendations to develop future preventive interventions. We conducted an exploratory study with 14 semistructured interviews of School's head masters. Interviews were conducted at the Schools between May and June 2003 in 1 independent school, 9 state comprehensive schools, and 4 other comprehensive schools within the city of Alicante. The perception of the head masters is that the prevalence of violence is low, more verbal than physical and within gender. They identify lack of punctuality, absenteeism and lack of interest as forms of hostility. As causes they identified age, family problems, school environment, society, media (TV and video-games) and poor language skills. Preventive methods in use were, on one hand, extra-lessons and transversal contents foreseen in the Education Law and common to all schools, and, on the other hand, ideological and pedagogical contents which were specific of some centres. Recommendations focused in demands for increased economic support and skilled human resources. School-based violence is not perceived as an alarming school issue, nor by its magnitude neither by the immediate causes and students' characteristics to which it is associated. A heavier emphasis is placed on external and environmental causes perceived as much more difficult to confront.

  3. Attachment insecurity, biased perceptions of romantic partners' negative emotions, and hostile relationship behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overall, Nickola C; Fletcher, Garth J O; Simpson, Jeffry A; Fillo, Jennifer

    2015-05-01

    In the current research, we tested the extent to which attachment insecurity produces inaccurate and biased perceptions of intimate partners' emotions and whether more negative perceptions of partners' emotions elicit the damaging behavior often associated with attachment insecurity. Perceptions of partners' emotions as well as partners' actual emotions were assessed multiple times in couples' conflict discussions (Study 1) and daily during a 3-week period in 2 independent samples (Study 2). Using partners' reports of their own emotional experiences as the accuracy benchmark, we simultaneously tested whether attachment insecurity was associated with the degree to which individuals (a) accurately detected shifts in their partners' negative emotions (tracking accuracy), and (b) perceived their partners were feeling more negative relationship-related emotions than they actually experienced (directional bias). Highly avoidant perceivers were equally accurate at tracking their partners' changing emotions compared to less avoidant individuals (tracking accuracy), but they overestimated the intensity of their partners' negative emotions to a greater extent than less avoidant individuals (directional bias). In addition, more negative perceptions of partners' emotions triggered more hostile and defensive behavior in highly avoidant perceivers both during conflict discussions (Study 1) and in daily life (Study 2). In contrast, attachment anxiety was not associated with tracking accuracy, directional bias, or hostile reactions to perceptions of their partners' negative emotions. These findings demonstrate the importance of assessing biased perceptions in actual relationship interactions and reveal that biased perceptions play an important role in activating the defenses of avoidantly attached people. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. A dangerous boomerang: Injunctive norms, hostile sexist attitudes, and male-to-female sexual aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosson, Jennifer K; Parrott, Dominic J; Swan, Suzanne C; Kuchynka, Sophie L; Schramm, Andrew T

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the interactive effects of injunctive norm exposure and hostile and benevolent sexist attitudes on men's sexually aggressive responses during a behavioral analogue paradigm in which they interacted online with a bogus female partner. Heterosexual adult men (n = 201), recruited from an online sample, read fictional information regarding other men's approval of misogynistic, paternalistic, or egalitarian treatment of women, or non-gender-relevant control information. Through a media preference survey, men then learned that their female partner disliked sexual content in films, after which they had an opportunity to send her up to 120 sec' worth of either a sexually explicit or nonsexual film clip. Validating the online sexual aggression paradigm, men with a 1-year history of sexual assault exhibited more sexually aggressive responding during the film selection paradigm. Moreover, exposure to injunctive norm information produced a boomerang effect, such that men high in hostile sexist attitudes showed an increase in sexual aggression when confronted with paternalism and gender equality norms. Conversely, exposure to paternalism and gender equality norms suppressed the otherwise protective function of high benevolent sexism in reducing men's sexually aggressive tendencies. The implications of these results for social norms interventions are discussed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. The language of racism. Textual testimonies of Jewish-Arab hostility in the Israeli Academia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamar Heger

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The persistent Jewish Arab conflict is present in every aspect of life in Israeli society and its echoes penetrate the everyday reality of higher educational institutions. Feelings of mutual hostility among Arab and Jewish students, faculty and administration are common experiences on Israeli campuses. This article analyzes two textual expressions of this mutual resentment which were circulated in 2011 in Tel Hai College, Israel. One of the texts was produced by Muslim Arab student association and the other by a Zionist Jewish organization. Both groups are present on every campus in Israel. Despite the significant difference of the political location occupied by each organization in the Israeli power structure, we argue that these texts share similar attitudes to the conflict and parallel operational strategies. The paper demonstrates the attempts by these texts to encourage the mutual hostility between Jews and Arabs by employing racist and violent discourse. The article tries to explain the silence of the college administration and faculty in the face of these racist acts, subsequently outlining a vision of a responsible academia which will banish any acts of racism.

  6. I Love You but I Cyberbully You: The Role of Hostile Sexism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Pecino, Roberto; Durán, Mercedes

    2016-04-25

    Cyberbullying is attracting social, political, and academic interest as the use of electronic devices such as computers and mobile phones by young people has increased dramatically. However, little is known about the factors involved in their perpetration, particularly in the context of college students' dating relationships. The aim of this study is to examine the involvement of college students in cyberbullying in the context of their dating relationships and to explore the impact of sexism on males' cyberbullying of their girlfriends. Participants are 219 undergraduate students from a university in the south of Spain. Results showed that 48.4% of participants reported having bullied their partners during the last year via mobile phone and 37.5% via Internet. Males reported a greater extent of cyberbullying of their girlfriends through both means. Regression analyses indicated that males' levels of hostile sexism are related to males' cyberbullying of their girlfriends. These findings suggest a modernization in the forms of violence toward women among college students and also expand current literature by revealing the influence of participants' hostile sexism on this type of cyber aggression against women in dating relationships. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. A controlled study of Hostile-Helpless states of mind among borderline and dysthymic women

    Science.gov (United States)

    LYONS-RUTH, KARLEN; MELNICK, SHARON; PATRICK, MATTHEW; HOBSON, R. PETER

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether women with borderline personality disorder (BPD) are more likely than those with dysthymia to manifest contradictory Hostile-Helpless (HH) states of mind. A reliable rater blind to diagnosis evaluated features of such mental representations in transcripts of Adult Attachment Interviews from 12 women with BPD and 11 women with dysthymia of similar socioeconomic status (SES), all awaiting psychotherapy. In keeping with three hierarchical (non-independent) a priori predictions regarding the mental representations of women with BPD, the results were that (a) all those with BPD, compared with half the group with dysthymia, displayed HH states of mind; (b) those with BPD manifested a significantly higher frequency of globally devaluing representations; and (c) they exhibited a strong trend toward identifying with the devalued hostile caregiver (58% BPD vs. 18% dysthymic). In addition, significantly more BPD than dysthymic patients made reference to controlling behavior towards attachment figures in childhood. These findings offer fresh insights into the nature of BPD and extend previous evidence concerning affected individuals’ patterns of thinking and feeling about childhood attachment figures. PMID:17364479

  8. Do Depressive Traits and Hostility Predict Age-Related Decline in General Intelligence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Lykke Mortensen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Certain personality traits are likely to be associated with stress and distress through the lifespan, and as a consequence these traits may influence the rate of age-related cognitive decline. The present study uses data from the Glostrup 1914 cohort to analyze potential effects of personality on decline in general intelligence over a 30-year period. The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory was administered at a 50-year baseline exam, and from this inventory the Obvious Depression Scale and an abbreviated version of the Cook-Medley Hostility Scale were derived. At the 50-year baseline and at the 60-, 70-, and 80-year followups the full version of Wechsler's Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS was administered to 673, 513, 136, and 184 participants. Mixed effects statistical models were used to evaluate both the effect of the personality scores on level of intelligence and the interaction between the personality scores and the time since followup. Analyses were adjusted for demographic background and a wide range of lifestyle factors. Both obvious depression and hostility were negatively associated with level of intelligence, but personality scores did not influence rate of decline in general intelligence.

  9. The London Spikes Controversy: Homelessness, Urban Securitisation and the Question of ‘Hostile Architecture’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Petty

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines an ostensibly new feature of the securitised urban landscape: ‘hostile architecture’. Following controversy in 2014 London over ‘anti-homeless spikes’– metal studs implanted at ground level designed to discourage the homeless from sleeping in otherwise unrestricted spaces – certain visible methods of environmental social control were temporarily subject to intense public scrutiny and debate. While contests over public and urban spaces are not new, the spikes controversy emerged in the context of broader socio-political and governmental shifts toward neoliberal arrangements. Using the spikes issue as a case study, I contextualise hostile architecture within these broader processes and in wider patterns of urban securitisation. The article then offers an explanatory framework for understanding the controversy itself. Ultimately the article questions whether the public backlash against the use of spikes indicates genuine resistance to patterns of urban securitisation or, counterintuitively, a broader public distaste for both the homeless and the mechanisms that regulate them. 

  10. Alcohol Use, Hostile Sexism, and Religious Self-Regulation: Investigating Risk and Protective Factors of IPV Perpetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Kellie R; Renzetti, Claire M

    2017-05-01

    Research suggests that the relationship between alcohol use and intimate partner violence (IPV) is moderated by a range of other factors. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between alcohol use, hostile sexism, and religious self-regulation with perpetration. Using a national sample of 255 men, we found that hostile sexism was associated with physical violence toward a partner and alcohol use was positively associated with psychological abuse toward a partner. With regard to religious self-regulation, we found that introjected religious self-regulation was positively associated with hostile sexism and positively associated with perpetrating physical IPV. Identified religious self-regulation was negatively associated with physical violence perpetration. We also found significant interactions among our independent measures on physical IPV perpetration. These analyses suggest that increased alcohol consumption elevates the risk for physical violence perpetration among men who are high in introjected religious self-regulation and low in hostile sexism, while reducing the risk for perpetration in men who are high in identified religious self-regulation and low in hostile sexism. Implications and limitations of the findings are discussed.

  11. Longitudinal pathways from marital hostility to child anger during toddlerhood: genetic susceptibility and indirect effects via harsh parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoades, Kimberly A; Leve, Leslie D; Harold, Gordon T; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Shaw, Daniel S; Reiss, David

    2011-04-01

    We examined direct and indirect pathways from marital hostility to toddler anger/frustration via harsh parenting and parental depressive symptoms, with an additional focus on the moderating role of genetic influences as inferred from birth parent anger/frustration. Participants were 361 linked triads of birth mothers, adoptive parents, and adopted children who were 9 (T1) and 18 (T2) months old across the study period. Results indicated an indirect effect from T1 marital hostility to T2 toddler anger/frustration via T2 parental harsh discipline. Results also indicated that the association between marital hostility and toddler anger was moderated by birth mother anger/frustration. For children whose birth mothers reported high levels of anger/frustration, adoptive parents' marital hostility at T1 predicted toddler anger/frustration at T2. This relation did not hold for children whose birth mothers reported low levels of anger/frustration. The results suggest that children whose birth mothers report elevated frustration might inherit an emotional lability that makes them more sensitive to the effects of marital hostility.

  12. Final Report: 03-LW-005 Space-Time Secure Communications for Hostile Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Candy, J V; Poggio, A J; Chambers, D H; Guidry, B L; Robbins, C L; Hertzog, C A; Dowla, F; Burke, G; Kane, R

    2005-10-31

    The development of communications for highly reverberative environments is a major concern for both the private and military sectors whether the application is aimed at the securing a stock order or stalking hostile in a tunnel or cave. Other such environments can range from a hostile urban setting populated with a multitude of buildings and vehicles to the simple complexity of a large number of sound sources that are common in the stock exchange, or military operations in an environment with a topographic features hills, valleys, mountains or even a maze of buried water pipes attempting to transmit information about any chemical anomalies in the water system servicing a city or town. These inherent obstructions cause transmitted signals to reflect, refract and disperse in a multitude of directions distorting both their shape and arrival times at network receiver locations. Imagine troops attempting to communicate on missions in underground caves consisting of a maze of chambers causing multiple echoes with the platoon leader trying to issue timely commands to neutralize terrorists. This is the problem with transmitting information in a complex environment. Waves are susceptible to multiple paths and distortions created by a variety of possible obstructions, which may exist in the particular propagation medium. This is precisely the communications problem we solve using the physics of wave propagation to not only mitigate the noxious effects created by the hostile medium, but also to utilize it in a constructive manner enabling a huge benefit in communications. We employ time-reversal (T/R) communications to accomplish this task. This project is concerned with the development of secure communications techniques that can operate even in the most extreme conditions while maintaining a secure link between host and client stations. We developed an approach based on the concept of time-reversal (T/R) signal processing. In fact, the development of T/R communication

  13. FUNCTIONAL ANATOMY OF THE FEEDING APPARATUS OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in body size and jaw force are thought to reduce competition for food between ...... through the water and prey is taken by surprise or actively pursued (Van ..... differences in limb and axial anatomy probably exist among the four South African.

  14. Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of a Cancer Treatment Scam Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam January 19, 2012 Curious about a product that claims to treat or cure cancer? According to the Federal Trade Commission, consumers should ...

  15. Understanding Colds: Anatomy of the Nose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Complications Special Features References Common Cold Understanding Colds Anatomy of the Nose The nose contains shelf-like ... white). Soft tissue, such as the eye, is gray. The maxillary sinus of adults has a volume ...

  16. Cochlear anatomy: CT and MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, Manuel; Bruno, Claudio; Martin, Eduardo; Canale, Nancy; De Luca, Laura; Spina, Juan C. h

    2002-01-01

    The authors present a brief overview of the normal cochlear anatomy with CT and MR images in order to allow a more complete identification of the pathological findings in patients with perceptive hipoacusia. (author)

  17. Ecological anatomy of some hydrophytes in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-07-20

    Jul 20, 2009 ... tissues and counter stained in Aniline Blue to increase contrast. Sections were viewed with microscope equipped with the ocular eye-piece at 100 x magnification. .... the relationship between anatomy, ecology and evolution.

  18. Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a Cancer Treatment Scam Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam January 19, 2012 Curious about a product ... and should not stop or delay their conventional treatment. Category: Scam Watch Health Download File Related Videos ...

  19. Bone Conduction: Anatomy, Physiology, and Communication

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Henry, Paula; Letowski, Tomasz R

    2007-01-01

    .... This report combines results of an extensive literature review of the anatomy and physiology of human hearing, theories behind the mechanisms of bone conduction transmission, devices for use in bone...

  20. Anatomy Ontology Matching Using Markov Logic Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunhua Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The anatomy of model species is described in ontologies, which are used to standardize the annotations of experimental data, such as gene expression patterns. To compare such data between species, we need to establish relationships between ontologies describing different species. Ontology matching is a kind of solutions to find semantic correspondences between entities of different ontologies. Markov logic networks which unify probabilistic graphical model and first-order logic provide an excellent framework for ontology matching. We combine several different matching strategies through first-order logic formulas according to the structure of anatomy ontologies. Experiments on the adult mouse anatomy and the human anatomy have demonstrated the effectiveness of proposed approach in terms of the quality of result alignment.

  1. Radiological anatomy of the groin region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, J.C. van den; Valois, J.C. de; Go, P.M.N.Y.H.; Rosenbusch, G.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to give an overview of the anatomy of the inguinal region, and to discuss the value of various imaging modalities in the diagnosis of groin hernias. After description of the gross anatomy of the groin, attention is focused on the anatomic features of conventional herniography, US, CT, and MRI. Advantages, disadvantages, and accuracy of each technique is discussed briefly. (orig.)

  2. External and internal anatomy of third molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerisoli, D M; de Souza, R A; de Sousa Neto, M D; Silva, R G; Pécora, J D

    1998-01-01

    The external and internal anatomy of 269 third molars (155 maxillary and 114 mandibular) were studied. The teeth were measured, classified according to their root number and shape and the internal anatomy was observed by the use of diaphanization. A great anatomical variability was found, with the presence of up to 5 roots in maxillary third molars and 3 roots in mandibular third molars. The number of root canals followed the same pattern.

  3. Renal anatomy as applied to uroradiologic interventions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, C.C.; Castaneda-Zuniga, W.; Miller, R.P.; Amplatz, K.

    1987-01-01

    Through the experience at the University of Minnesota with over 650 stone removals and over 1,000 percutaneous nephrostomies and ureteral manipulations, the authors developed an approach to the urinary system that has minimized their complication rate and maximized their successes. The exhibit demonstrates the salient anatomic relationships of the kidney with respect to urologic interventions. The kidney's position within the body, lobar anatomy, arterial anatomy, relationship to the ribs and pleura, and relationship to adjacent organs are shown

  4. Degrees of reality: airway anatomy of high-fidelity human patient simulators and airway trainers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schebesta, Karl; Hüpfl, Michael; Rössler, Bernhard; Ringl, Helmut; Müller, Michael P; Kimberger, Oliver

    2012-06-01

    Human patient simulators and airway training manikins are widely used to train airway management skills to medical professionals. Furthermore, these patient simulators are employed as standardized "patients" to evaluate airway devices. However, little is known about how realistic these patient simulators and airway-training manikins really are. This trial aimed to evaluate the upper airway anatomy of four high-fidelity patient simulators and two airway trainers in comparison with actual patients by means of radiographic measurements. The volume of the pharyngeal airspace was the primary outcome parameter. Computed tomography scans of 20 adult trauma patients without head or neck injuries were compared with computed tomography scans of four high-fidelity patient simulators and two airway trainers. By using 14 predefined distances, two cross-sectional areas and three volume parameters of the upper airway, the manikins' similarity to a human patient was assessed. The pharyngeal airspace of all manikins differed significantly from the patients' pharyngeal airspace. The HPS Human Patient Simulator (METI®, Sarasota, FL) was the most realistic high-fidelity patient simulator (6/19 [32%] of all parameters were within the 95% CI of human airway measurements). The airway anatomy of four high-fidelity patient simulators and two airway trainers does not reflect the upper airway anatomy of actual patients. This finding may impact airway training and confound comparative airway device studies.

  5. High resolution magnetic resonance imaging of urethral anatomy in continent nulliparous pregnant women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preyer, Oliver; Brugger, Peter C.; Laml, Thomas; Hanzal, Engelbert; Prayer, Daniela; Umek, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: To quantify the distribution of morphologic appearances of urethral anatomy and measure variables of urethral sphincter anatomy in continent, nulliparous, pregnant women by high resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Materials and methods: We studied fifteen women during their first pregnancy. We defined and quantified bladder neck and urethral morphology on axial and sagittal MR images from healthy, continent women. Results: The mean (±standard deviation) total transverse urethral diameter, anterior–posterior diameter, unilateral striated sphincter muscle thickness, and striated sphincter length were 15 ± 2 mm (range: 12–19 mm), 15 ± 2 mm (range: 11–20 mm), 2 ± 1 mm (range: 1–4 mm), and 13 ± 3 mm (range: 9–18 mm) respectively. The mean (±standard deviation) total urethral length on sagittal scans was 22 ± 3 mm (range: 17.6–26.4 mm). Discussion: Advances in MR technique combined with anatomical and histological findings will provide an insight to understand how changes in urethral anatomy might affect the continence mechanisms in pregnant and non-pregnant, continent or incontinent individuals.

  6. Relevant radiological anatomy of the pig as a training model in interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dondelinger, R.F.; Ghysels, M.P.; Brisbois, D.; Donkers, E.; Snaps, F.R.; Saunders, J.; Deviere, J.

    1998-01-01

    The use of swine for teaching purposes in medicine and surgery has largely increased in recent years. Detailed knowledge of the porcine anatomy and physiology is a prerequisite for proper use of pigs as a teaching or an experimental model in interventional radiology. A systematic study of the radiological anatomy was undertaken in more than 100 female pigs aged 6-8 weeks. All studies were performed under general anesthesia in a single session. Animals were sacrificed at the end of the study. Selective angiographies were systematically obtained in all anatomical territories. In other animals CT and MRI examinations were performed and were correlated to anatomical sections and acrylic casts of the vascular structures. Endoscopical examinations of the upper gastrointestinal tract, including retrograde opacification of the biliary and pancreatic ducts, were added in selected animals. The main angiographic aspects of the brain, head and neck, thorax, abdomen, and pelvis were recorded. Similarities and differences in comparison with human anatomy are stressed. Potential applications in interventional radiology are indicated. (orig.)

  7. Normal distal pulmonary vein anatomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiesława Klimek-Piotrowska

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. It is well known that the pulmonary veins (PVs, especially their myocardial sleeves play a critical role in the initiation and maintenance of atrial fibrillation. Understanding the PV anatomy is crucial for the safety and efficacy of all procedures performed on PVs. The aim of this study was to present normal distal PV anatomy and to create a juxtaposition of all PV ostium variants.Methods. A total of 130 randomly selected autopsied adult human hearts (Caucasian were examined. The number of PVs ostia was evaluated and their diameter was measured. The ostium-to-last-tributary distance and macroscopic presence of myocardial sleeves were also evaluated.Results. Five hundred forty-one PV ostia were identified. Four classical PV ostia patterns (two left and two right PVs were observed in 70.8% of all cases. The most common variant was the classical pattern with additional middle right PV (19.2%, followed by the common ostium for the left superior and the inferior PVs (4.44%. Mean diameters of PV ostia (for the classical pattern were: left superior = 13.8 ± 2.9 mm; left inferior = 13.3 ± 3.4 mm; right superior = 14.3 ± 2.9 mm; right inferior = 13.7 ± 3.3 mm. When present, the additional middle right PV ostium had the smallest PV ostium diameter in the heart (8.2 ± 4.1 mm. The mean ostium-to-last-tributary (closest to the atrium distances were: left superior = 15.1 ± 4.6 mm; left inferior = 13.5 ± 4.0 mm; right superior = 11.8 ± 4.0 mm; right inferior = 11.0 ± 3.7 mm. There were no statistically significant differences between sexes in ostia diameters and ostium-to-last-tributary distances.Conclusion. Only 71% of the cases have four standard pulmonary veins. The middle right pulmonary vein is present in almost 20% of patients. Presented data can provide useful information for the clinicians during interventional procedures or radiologic examinations of PVs.

  8. Maternal attitudinal inflexibility: longitudinal relations with mother-infant disrupted interaction and childhood hostile-aggressive behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najmi, Sadia; Bureau, Jean-Francois; Chen, Diyu; Lyons-Ruth, Karlen

    2009-12-01

    : The Personal Attitude Scale (PAS; Hooley, 2000) is a method that is under development for identifying individuals high in Expressed Emotion based on personality traits of inflexibility, intolerance, and norm-forming. In the current study, the goal was to measure the association between this maternal attitudinal inflexibility, early hostile or disrupted mother-infant interactions, and hostile-aggressive behavior problems in the child. In a prospective longitudinal study of 76 low-income mothers and their infants, it was predicted that maternal PAS scores, assessed at child age 20, would be related to difficulties in early observed mother-infant interaction and to hostile-aggressive behavioral difficulties in the child. Results indicated that maternal difficulties in interacting with the infant in the laboratory were associated with maternal PAS scores assessed 20 years later. Hostile-aggressive behavior problems in the child at age five were also predictive of PAS scores of mothers. However, contrary to prediction, these behavior problems did not mediate the association between mother-infant interaction difficulties and maternal PAS scores, indicating that the child's hostile-aggressive behavior problems did not produce the link between quality of early interaction and later maternal attitudinal inflexibility. The current results validate the PAS against observable mother-child interactions and child hostile-aggressive behavior problems and indicate the importance of future work investigating the maternal attitudes that are associated with, and may potentially precede, parent-infant interactive difficulties. These findings regarding the inflexible attitudes of mothers whose interactions with their infants are also disrupted have important clinical implications. First, once the stability of the PAS has been established, this measure may offer a valuable screening tool for the prenatal identification of parents at risk for difficult interactions with their children

  9. Perampanel with concomitant levetiracetam and topiramate: Post hoc analysis of adverse events related to hostility and aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Steve; Williams, Betsy; Dobrinsky, Cindy; Patten, Anna; Yang, Haichen; Laurenza, Antonio

    2017-10-01

    In 4 Phase III registration trials (3 in patients with partial seizures, N=1480; 1 in patients with PGTCS, N=163), perampanel administered to patients already receiving 1-3 concomitant antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) demonstrated statistically superior efficacy compared to placebo in reducing seizure frequency. However, use of perampanel in these studies was associated with a risk of psychiatric and behavioral adverse reactions, including aggression, hostility, irritability, anger, and homicidal ideation and threats. The present study is a post hoc analysis of pooled data from these 4 trials to determine if concomitant treatment with levetiracetam and/or topiramate increased the risk of hostility- and aggression-related AEs. Treatment-emergent AEs (TEAEs) were determined using a "Narrow & Broad" search based on the Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA) standard MedDRA query (SMQ) for hostility- and aggression-related events. The rate of hostility- and aggression-related TEAEs was observed to be similar among perampanel-treated patients: a) receiving levetiracetam (N=340) compared to those not receiving levetiracetam (N=779); b) receiving topiramate (N=223) compared to those not receiving topiramate (N=896); and c) receiving both levetiracetam and topiramate (N=47) compared to those not receiving levetiracetam and topiramate (N=1072). Severe and serious TEAEs related to hostility and aggression were rare and occurred at a similar rate regardless of concomitant levetiracetam and/or topiramate therapy. Taken together, these results suggest that concomitant treatment with levetiracetam and/or topiramate has no appreciable effect on the occurrence of hostility- or aggression-related TEAEs in patients receiving perampanel. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Robotics in hostile environment I. S. I. S. robot - automatic positioning and docking with proximity and force feed back sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gery, D

    1987-01-01

    Recent improvements in control command systems and the development of tactile proximity and force feed back sensors make it possible to robotize complex inspection and maintenance operations in hostile environment, which could have not been possible by classical remotely operated manipulators. We describe the I.S.I.S. robot characteristics, the control command system software principles and the tactile and force-torque sensors which have been developed for the different sequences of an hostile environment inspection and repair: access trajectories generation with obstacles shunning, final positioning and docking using parametric algorithms taking into account measurement of the end of arm proximity and force-torque sensors.

  11. Googling in anatomy education: Can google trends inform educators of national online search patterns of anatomical syllabi?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelan, Nigel; Davy, Shane; O'Keeffe, Gerard W; Barry, Denis S

    2017-03-01

    The role of e-learning platforms in anatomy education continues to expand as self-directed learning is promoted in higher education. Although a wide range of e-learning resources are available, determining student use of non-academic internet resources requires novel approaches. One such approach that may be useful is the Google Trends © web application. To determine the feasibility of Google Trends to gain insights into anatomy-related online searches, Google Trends data from the United States from January 2010 to December 2015 were analyzed. Data collected were based on the recurrence of keywords related to head and neck anatomy generated from the American Association of Clinical Anatomists and the Anatomical Society suggested anatomy syllabi. Relative search volume (RSV) data were analyzed for seasonal periodicity and their overall temporal trends. Following exclusions due to insufficient search volume data, 29 out of 36 search terms were analyzed. Significant seasonal patterns occurred in 23 search terms. Thirty-nine seasonal peaks were identified, mainly in October and April, coinciding with teaching periods in anatomy curricula. A positive correlation of RSV with time over the 6-year study period occurred in 25 out of 29 search terms. These data demonstrate how Google Trends may offer insights into the nature and timing of online search patterns of anatomical syllabi and may potentially inform the development and timing of targeted online supports to ensure that students of anatomy have the opportunity to engage with online content that is both accurate and fit for purpose. Anat Sci Educ 10: 152-159. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.

  12. What Do the Public Know about Anatomy? Anatomy Education to the Public and the Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Adam M.; Diggle, Peter; Wessels, Quenton

    2018-01-01

    Public knowledge of the anatomical "self" is lacking and evidence points towards a growing need for anatomy education to the wider public. The public were offered the opportunity to learn human anatomy and complete an anatomical knowledge survey afterwards. Sixty-three participants volunteered to attempt to place 20 anatomical structures…

  13. Safety and hostile use of civil nuclear power from physics to biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dautray, R.

    2007-01-01

    The work is organized in two parts describing: the possibilities of materials proliferation stemming from civil uses of the nuclear energy, in particular from waste, from plutonium isotopes and their daughter products and from equipment of the civil nuclear energy, that these proliferations are potentially connected to hostilities, to failures in the transport and the handling or to storing of the waste; the effects of radioactivity on man according to the various circumstances, by centring on the effects of the malevolent use of radioactive products. The notion of incurred risk, in the future is analyzed and the scientific methods susceptible to prevent us from it.The importance of the definitions and the rigor in the use of the units of measure is particularly recommended. The methods based on the probability theory, with the difficulties they present to lead to comparisons in term of risks are analyzed. (N.C.)

  14. Do Hostile School Environments Promote Social Deviance by Shaping Neural Responses to Social Exclusion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schriber, Roberta A; Rogers, Christina R; Ferrer, Emilio; Conger, Rand D; Robins, Richard W; Hastings, Paul D; Guyer, Amanda E

    2018-03-01

    The present study examined adolescents' neural responses to social exclusion as a mediator of past exposure to a hostile school environment (HSE) and later social deviance, and whether family connectedness buffered these associations. Participants (166 Mexican-origin adolescents, 54.4% female) reported on their HSE exposure and family connectedness across Grades 9-11. Six months later, neural responses to social exclusion were measured. Finally, social deviance was self-reported in Grades 9 and 12. The HSE-social deviance link was mediated by greater reactivity to social deviance in subgenual anterior cingulate cortex, a region from the social pain network also implicated in social susceptibility. However, youths with stronger family bonds were protected from this neurobiologically mediated path. These findings suggest a complex interplay of risk and protective factors that impact adolescent behavior through the brain. © 2018 Society for Research on Adolescence.

  15. The Palliative Function of Hostile Sexism among High and Low-Status Chilean Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Salfate, Salvador

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that justifying the social, economic, and political systems is associated with psychological well-being, which has been termed as the palliative function of ideology. However, little research has been conducted on gender stereotypes among children, comparing by socioeconomic status. This study aimed to fill this gap in the system justification literature. We present data from the Chilean version of the International Survey of Children Well-Being (ISCWeB), which was conducted in 2012. We found that the palliative function of gender stereotypes is present among this sample, being qualified by a socioeconomic status by hostile gender stereotype interaction. In other words, the effect on the psychological well-being was observed in low-status, but not in high-status students. These results extend the previous knowledge about the palliative function of the ideology, suggesting why the low-status members of a society actively engage in system justification. PMID:29046657

  16. Temperature-compensated pressure detectors and transmitter for use in hostile environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Noia, E.J.; Breunich, T.R.

    1984-01-01

    A pressure or differential pressure detector suitable for use in a hostile environment, for example, under high pressure, temperature, and radiation conditions in the containment vessel of a nuclear generating plant includes as a transducer a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) disposed within a detector housing designed to withstand temperatures of about 260 deg C. A signal detecting and conditioning circuit remote from the detector housing includes a demodulator for producing X and Y demodulated signals respectively from A and B secondary windings of the LVDT, a summing circuit for producing a temperature analog voltage X + Y, a subtractor for providing a differential pressure analog voltage X - Y, and a multiplier for multiplying the differential pressure analog voltage X - Y by a temperature compensation voltage X + Y - Ref based on the temperature analog voltage to provide a resulting temperature-compensated differential pressure analog signal. (author)

  17. The Palliative Function of Hostile Sexism among High and Low-Status Chilean Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Vargas-Salfate

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have demonstrated that justifying the social, economic, and political systems is associated with psychological well-being, which has been termed as the palliative function of ideology. However, little research has been conducted on gender stereotypes among children, comparing by socioeconomic status. This study aimed to fill this gap in the system justification literature. We present data from the Chilean version of the International Survey of Children Well-Being (ISCWeB, which was conducted in 2012. We found that the palliative function of gender stereotypes is present among this sample, being qualified by a socioeconomic status by hostile gender stereotype interaction. In other words, the effect on the psychological well-being was observed in low-status, but not in high-status students. These results extend the previous knowledge about the palliative function of the ideology, suggesting why the low-status members of a society actively engage in system justification.

  18. Interventional neuroradiology of the head and neck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turowski, Bernd; Zanella, Friedhelm E

    2003-08-01

    Vascular interventions are important and helpful for treatment of various pathologies of the head and neck. Interventional neuroradiology of the head and neck includes image-guided biopsies, vessel occlusion, and local chemotherapy. Knowledge of anatomy, functional relationships between intra- and extracranial vessels, and pathology are the basis for therapeutic success. The interventional neuroradiologist is responsible for appropriate selection of patients based on clinical information, indications, and risk assessment. Neuroradiologic imaging, especially CT and MR imaging, and appropriate analysis of angiographic findings help ensure indication for treatment and plan an intervention. Technical equipment, including an angiographic unit, catheters, needles, embolizing materials, and so forth, are important. Knowledge of hemodynamics is relevant to avoid complications and to find the optimal technique for solving the clinical problem. Indications for image-guided biopsies are preverterbal fluid-collections, spinal and paraspinal inflammations and abscesses, deep cervical malignancies, vertebral body, and skull base tumors. Special care should be taken to preserve critical structures in this region, including spinal nerve roots, cervical plexus, main peripheral nerves, and vessels. Indications for vessel occlusion are emergency situations to stop bleeding in vascular lesions (traumatic, malformation, or tumors) by reduction of pressure, preoperative reduction of blood flow to minimize the surgical risk, palliative occlusion of feeding vessels to produce tumor necrosis, or potential curative (or presurgical) occlusion of vascular malformations. Pressure reduction to support normal coagulation, such as epistaxis, in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia can be achieved by proximal vessel occlusion with large particles or platinum coils. Prevention of intraoperative bleeding requires occlusion of the microvascular bed with small particles. Examples of these

  19. Access to the Superficial Femoral Artery in the Presence of a 'Hostile Groin': A Prospective Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcus, Adrian J.; Lotzof, Kevin; Howard, Adam

    2007-01-01

    Purpose. Lower limb angioplasty is commonly performed via antegrade common femoral artery (CFA) puncture, followed by selective superficial femoral artery (SFA) catheterization. Arterial access can be complicated by a 'hostile groin' (scarring, obesity, or previous failed CFA puncture). We prospectively investigated color duplex ultrasound (CDU)-guided SFA access for radiological interventions. Methods. Antegrade CDU-guided CFA and SFA puncture were compared in 30 patients requiring intervention for severe leg ischemia who had hostile groins. Demographics, screen time, radiation dose, intervention, and complications were prospectively recorded. Results. Treatment in 30 patients involved 44 angioplasties (40 transluminal, 4 subintimal) and 2 diagnostic angiograms. Fifteen of these patients had CDU-guided CFA punctures; in 8 of these patients CDU-guided CFA puncture 'failed' (i.e., there was failure to pass a guidewire or catheter into the CFA or SFA), necessitating immediate direct CDU-guided SFA puncture. Overall, the mean screen time and radiation dosage, via direct CDU-guided SFA puncture in 30 patients, was 4.8 min and 464 Gy cm 2 respectively. With CDU-guided CFA puncture, mean screen time (10 min), radiation dose (2023 Gy cm 2 ), and complications (13%) were greater when compared with the SFA puncture results overall and in the same patients at subsequent similar procedures (2.7 min, 379 Gy cm 2 (p < 0.05), no complications in this subgroup). Five complications occurred: 2 each at CFA and SFA entry sites, and 1 angioplasty embolus. Conclusions. The CDU-guided SFA puncture technique was both more effective than CDU-guided CFA access in patients with scarred groins, obesity, or failed CFA punctures and safer, with reduced screen times, radiation doses, and complications

  20. [Lateral hostilities among emergency and critical care nurses. Survey in five hospitals of the Tuscany Region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bambi, Stefano; Becattini, Giovanni; Pronti, Fabio; Lumini, Enrico; Rasero, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Lateral hostilities among emergency and critical care nurses. Survey in five hospitals of Tuscany Region. Introduction. Lateral hostilities (LHs) are a kind of workplace violence. They are defined as varieties of cruel, rude, antagonistic interactions between people at the same hierarchical level. Nurses are affected by LH from 5.7% to 65%, leading to reduced work motivation, psycho-physical disorders, and in some cases, drop out of the nursing profession. Objective. To quantify the LHs among nurses in the emergency departments (ED) and intensive care units (ICU) in 5 hospitals of Tuscany (Italy). To show the impact on the quality of their psycho-physical and professional lives. Method. Exploratory-descriptive study, through closed-ended questionnaire. Results. 360/444 nurses (81%); 294 (81.6%) were victims of LHs during the past 12 months. Gossiping, complaints shared with others without discussing with the concerned person, and sarcastic comments were the most reported LHs. LHs occur more in EDs than ICUs (respectively 90% and 77%; p=0.0038). No statistically significant differences were observed for gender, age, or years of experience. The 17.7% of nurses asked to be moved from the ward, and 6.9% left it; 6.9% respondents had thought to leave the nursing profession; 235 (65.2%) experienced at least one LHs related disorder during the last year. Most reported symptoms were low morale, anxiety, and sleep disturbances. Conclusions. The incidence of LH and related disorders is high in EDs and ICUs, determining a low professional and psycho-physical quality of life.

  1. EVAR using the Nellix Sac-anchoring endoprosthesis: treatment of favourable and adverse anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krievins, D K; Holden, A; Savlovskis, J; Calderas, C; Donayre, C E; Moll, F L; Katzen, B; Zarins, C K

    2011-07-01

    The study aimed to review the results of endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) using a novel sac-anchoring endoprosthesis in patients with favourable and adverse anatomy. This is a prospective, multicentre, clinical trial. The Nellix endoprosthesis consists of dual, balloon-expandable endoframes, surrounded by polymer-filled endobags, which obliterate the aneurysm sac and maintain endograft position. The study reviewed worldwide clinical experience and Core Lab evaluation of computed tomography (CT) scans. From 2008 to 2010, 34 patients (age 71 ± 8 years, abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) diameter 5.8 ± 0.8 cm) were treated at four clinical sites. Seventeen patients (50%) met the inclusion criteria for Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved endografts (favourable anatomy); 17 (50%) had one or more adverse anatomic feature: neck length 60° (9%) and iliac diameter >23 mm (38%). Device deployment was successful in all patients; iliac aneurysm treatment preserved hypogastric patency. Perioperative mortality was 1/34 (2.9%); one patient died at 10 months of congestive heart failure (CHF); one patient had a secondary procedure at 15 months. During 15 ± 6 months follow-up, there were no differences in outcome between favourable and adverse anatomy patients. Follow-up CT extending up to 2 years revealed no change in aneurysm size or endograft position and no new endoleaks. Favourable and adverse anatomy patients can be successfully treated using the Nellix sac-anchoring endoprosthesis. Early results are promising but longer-term studies are needed. Copyright © 2011 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Are neck flexion, neck rotation, and sitting at work risk factors for neck pain? Results of a prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ariens, G.A.M.; Bongers, P.M.; Douwes, M.; Miedema, M.C.; Hoogendoorn, W.E.; van der Wal, G.; Bouter, L.M.; van Mechelen, W.

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To study the relation between neck pain and work related neck flexion, neck rotation, and sitting. Methods: A prospective cohort study was performed with a follow up of 3 years among 1334 workers from 34 companies. Work related physical load was assessed by analysing objectively measured

  3. Are neck flexion, neck rotation, and sitting at work risk factors for neck pain? : Results of a prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ariëns, G A; Bongers, P M; Douwes, M; Miedema, M C; Hoogendoorn, W E; van der Wal, G; Bouter, L M; van Mechelen, W

    OBJECTIVE: To study the relation between neck pain and work related neck flexion, neck rotation, and sitting. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was performed with a follow up of 3 years among 1334 workers from 34 companies. Work related physical load was assessed by analysing objectively measured

  4. Head and Neck Cancer—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head and neck cancers include cancers in the larynx (voice box), throat, lips, mouth, nose, and salivary glands. Start here to find information on head and neck cancer treatment in adults and children, causes and prevention, screening, research, and statistics.

  5. Neck and arm pain syndromes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de las Peñas, César Fernández; Cleland, Joshua; Huijbregts, Peter

    approaches.It uniquely addresses the expanding role of the various health care professions which require increased knowledge and skills in screening for contra-indications and recognizing the need for medical-surgical referral. Neck and Arm Pain Syndromes also stresses the integration of experiential......The first of its kind, Neck and Arm Pain Syndromes is a comprehensive evidence- and clinical-based book, covering research-based diagnosis, prognosis and management of neuromusculoskeletal pathologies and dysfunctions of the upper quadrant, including joint, muscle, myofascial and neural tissue...... of the most commonly seen pain syndromes in clinical practice over 800 illustrations demonstrating examination procedures and techniques....

  6. Anatomy of the ward round.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Hare, James A

    2008-07-01

    The ward round has been a central activity of hospital life for hundreds of years. It is hardly mentioned in textbooks. The ward round is a parade through the hospital of professionals where most decision making concerning patient care is made. However the traditional format may be intimidating for patients and inadequate for communication. The round provides an opportunity for the multi-disciplinary team to listen to the patient\\'s narrative and jointly interpret his concerns. From this unfolds diagnosis, management plans, prognosis formation and the opportunity to explore social, psychological, rehabilitation and placement issues. Physical examination of the patient at the bedside still remains important. It has been a tradition to discuss the patient at the bedside but sensitive matters especially of uncertainty may better be discussed elsewhere. The senior doctor as round leader must seek the input of nursing whose observations may be under-appreciated due to traditional professional hierarchy. Reductions in the working hours of junior doctors and shortened length of stay have reduced continuity of patient care. This increases the importance of senior staff in ensuring continuity of care and the need for the joint round as the focus of optimal decision making. The traditional round incorporates teaching but patient\\'s right to privacy and their preferences must be respected. The quality and form of the clinical note is underreported but the electronic record is slow to being accepted. The traditional multi-disciplinary round is disappearing in some centres. This may be regrettable. The anatomy and optimal functioning of the ward round deserves scientific scrutiny and experimentation.

  7. Constructive, collaborative, contextual, and self-directed learning in surface anatomy education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergman-de Bres, E.M.; Sieben, J.M.; Smailbegovic, I.; Bruin, A. de; Scherpbier, A.J.J.A.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der

    2013-01-01

    Anatomy education often consists of a combination of lectures and laboratory sessions, the latter frequently including surface anatomy. Studying surface anatomy enables students to elaborate on their knowledge of the cadaver's static anatomy by enabling the visualization of structures, especially

  8. 3D printed reproductions of orbital dissections: a novel mode of visualising anatomy for trainees in ophthalmology or optometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Justin W; Paxton, Lisa; Dawes, Kathryn; Burlak, Kateryna; Quayle, Michelle; McMenamin, Paul G

    2015-09-01

    The teaching of human head, neck and orbital anatomy forms a critical part of undergraduate and postgraduate medical and allied health professional training, including optometry. While still largely grounded in cadaveric dissection, this method of instruction is constrained in some countries and regional areas by access to real human cadavers, costs of cadaver bequest programmes, health and safety of students and staff and the shortage of adequate time in modern curricula. Many candidates choosing a postgraduate pathway in ophthalmological training, such as those accepted into the Royal Colleges of Ophthalmology in the UK, Australia and New Zealand programmes and the American Academy of Ophthalmologists in the USA, are compelled as adult learners to revise or revisit human orbital anatomy, ocular anatomy and select areas of head and neck anatomy. These candidates are often then faced with the issue of accessing facilities with dissected human cadaveric material. In light of these difficulties, we developed a novel means of creating high-resolution reproductions of prosected human cadaver orbits suitable for education and training. 3D printed copies of cadaveric orbital dissections (superior, lateral and medial views) showing a range of anatomical features were created. These 3D prints offer many advantages over plastinated specimens as they are suitable for rapid reproduction and as they are not human tissue they avoid cultural and ethical issues associated with viewing cadaver specimens. In addition, they are suitable for use in the office, home, laboratory or clinical setting in any part of the world for patient and doctor education. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  9. Viewing the world through “blood-red tinted glasses”: The hostile expectation bias mediates the link between violent video game exposure and aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hasan, Y.; Bègue, L.; Bushman, B.J.

    2012-01-01

    Research has clearly shown that violent video games can increase aggression. It is less clear why they do. This study investigates the mediating effect of the hostile expectation bias (i.e., tendency to perceive hostile intent on the part of others) on the link between violent video game exposure

  10. Trajectories of Adolescent Hostile-Aggressive Behavior and Family Climate: Longitudinal Implications for Young Adult Romantic Relationship Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosco, Gregory M.; Van Ryzin, Mark J.; Xia, Mengya; Feinberg, Mark E.

    2016-01-01

    The formation and maintenance of young adult romantic relationships that are free from violence and are characterized by love, connection, and effective problem-solving have important implications for later well-being and family functioning. In this study, we examined adolescent hostile-aggressive behavior (HAB) and family relationship quality as…

  11. Feeling and thinking of others: affective and cognitive empathy and emotion comprehension in prosocial/hostile preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belacchi, Carmen; Farina, Eleonora

    2012-01-01

    This study aims at investigating the affective and cognitive components of empathy in relation to both emotion comprehension and prosocial/hostile behaviors in preschoolers. A total of 219 children (54% boys; aged between 3 and 6: mean age 4.10) and 20 teachers (two for each class: group A and group B) took part in this research. Pupils' empathy and hostile/prosocial roles were assessed by teacher reports [Belacchi and Farina, 2010] and children's emotion comprehension by a nonverbal test [Test of Emotion Comprehension: Pons and Harris, 2000; adapted by Albanese and Molina; 2008]. As expected, the results showed a significant influence of gender, with girls being more empathic than boys, according to all of the teachers' perception. Contrary to our expectations, no systematic age influence emerged. Regarding the relations of children's emotion comprehension with both empathy measures and their prosocial/hostile attitudes, we have found: (1) a low significant relation with the total empathy measure, according to all the teachers, but with the cognitive empathy only according to teachers B; (2) a robust negative relationship of both affective and cognitive empathy with Hostile roles and with Outsider role, contrary to a positive correlation of only affective empathy with Prosocial roles. No relationships emerged between empathy measures and Victim role. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Parental hostility and its sources in psychologically abusive mothers: a test of the three-factor theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesnik-Oberstein, M; Koers, A J; Cohen, L

    1995-01-01

    A revised version of the three-factor theory of child abuse (Lesnik-Oberstein, Cohen, & Koers, 1982) is presented. Further, we report on a research designed to test three main hypotheses derived from Factor I (1) (a high level of hostility in abusive parents) and its sources. The three main hypotheses are: (1) that psychologically abusive mothers have a high level of hostile feelings (Factor I); (2) that the high level of hostile feelings in abusive mothers is associated with low marital coping skills (resulting in affectionless, violent marriages), a negative childhood upbringing (punitive, uncaring, over controlling), a high level of stress (objective stress), and a high level of strain (low self-esteem, depression, neurotic symptoms, social anxiety, feelings of being wronged); and (3) that maternal psychological child abuse is associated with low marital coping skills, a negative childhood upbringing, a high level of stress and a high level of strain. Forty-four psychologically abusing mothers were compared with 128 nonabusing mothers on a variety of measures and were matched for age and educational level. All the mothers had children who were hospitalized for medical symptoms. The three hypotheses were supported, with the exception of the component of hypothesis 2 concerning the association between objective stress and maternal hostility. The positive results are consistent with the three-factor theory.

  13. Lability in the Parent's Hostility and Warmth toward Their Adolescent: Linkages to Youth Delinquency and Substance Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippold, Melissa A.; Hussong, Andrea; Fosco, Gregory M.; Ram, Nilam

    2018-01-01

    According to family systems and life course theories, periods of intense change, such as early adolescence, can disrupt stable family systems, leading to changes in family relationships. In this longitudinal study, we investigate 2 types of change in parental hostility and warmth toward their children during early adolescence (Grades 6 to…

  14. Multiple regions-of-interest analysis of setup uncertainties for head-and-neck cancer radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lifei; Garden, Adam S.; Lo, Justin; Ang, K. Kian; Ahamad, Anesa; Morrison, William H.; Rosenthal, David I.; Chambers, Mark S.; Zhu, X. Ronald; Mohan, Radhe; Dong Lei

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze three-dimensional setup uncertainties for multiple regions of interest (ROIs) in head-and-neck region. Methods and Materials: In-room computed tomography (CT) scans were acquired using a CT-on-rails system for 14 patients. Three separate bony ROIs were defined: C2 and C6 vertebral bodies and the palatine process of the maxilla. Translational shifts of 3 ROIs were calculated relative to the marked isocenter on the immobilization mask. Results: The shifts for all 3 ROIs were highly correlated. However, noticeable differences on the order of 2-6 mm existed between any 2 ROIs, indicating the flexibility and/or rotational effect in the head-and-neck region. The palatine process of the maxilla had the smallest right-left shifts because of the tight lateral fit in the face mask, but the largest superior-inferior movement because of in-plane rotation and variations in jaw positions. The neck region (C6) had the largest right-left shifts. The positioning mouthpiece was found effective in reducing variations in the superior-inferior direction. There was no statistically significant improvement for using the S-board (8 out of 14 patients) vs. the short face mask. Conclusions: We found variability in setup corrections for different regions of head-and-neck anatomy. These relative positional variations should be considered when making setup corrections or designing treatment margins

  15. Muscular Variation In The Neck Region With Narrowing Of The Minor And Major Supraclavicular Fossa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Ferreira Arquez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The sternocleidomastoideus muscle is the most prominent landmarks of the surface anatomy of the neck, separates the anterior part of the neck (anterior triangle from the posterior part of the neck (posterior triangle. An accessory head of sternocleidomastoideus muscle may cause complications while trying to access vital neurovascular structures that are located in the minor and major supraclavicular fossa. The purpose of this study is to describe an anatomical variation of the sternocleidomastoideus muscle and clinical impact. Methods and Findings: The anatomical variations described were found during routine dissection conducted in the laboratory of Morphology of the University of Pamplona in two male cadavers of 47 and 75 years respectively. Measurements were taken using a Vernier caliper. Topographic details of the variations were examined, recorded and photographed. The morphological variations in the number of heads (three and four of origin of sternocleidomastoideus muscle was found in two male subjects in right and left neck, bilaterally.  The posterior cervical triangle was diminished. The bilateral narrowing of the minor and major supraclavicular fossa minimizing space needed for potential surgical access. The branching patterns of the spinal accessory nerve and arterial patterns were normal. Conclusions: The Knowledge of the presence of additional heads of sternocleidomastoideus muscle it might cause difficulties in subclavian or external jugular vein catheterization, and in surgical interventions involving structures lying under the sternocleidomastoideus muscle. These variations must be kept in mind while approaching the region to avoid complications as the classical anatomical landmarks might be misinterpreted and confuse.

  16. Head and neck computed tomography virtual endoscopy: evaluation of a new imaging technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallivan, R P; Nguyen, T H; Armstrong, W B

    1999-10-01

    To evaluate a new radiographic imaging technique: computed tomography virtual endoscopy (CTVE) for head and neck tumors. Twenty-one patients presenting with head and neck masses who underwent axial computed tomography (CT) scan with contrast were evaluated by CTVE. Comparisons were made with video-recorded images and operative records to evaluate the potential utility of this new imaging technique. Twenty-one patients with aerodigestive head and neck tumors were evaluated by CTVE. One patient had a nasal cylindrical cell papilloma; the remainder, squamous cell carcinomas distributed throughout the upper aerodigestive tract. Patients underwent complete head and neck examination, flexible laryngoscopy, axial CT with contrast, CTVE, and in most cases, operative endoscopy. Available clinical and radiographic evaluations were compared and correlated to CTVE findings. CTVE accurately demonstrated abnormalities caused by intraluminal tumor, but where there was apposition of normal tissue against tumor, inaccurate depictions of surface contour occurred. Contour resolution was limited, and mucosal irregularity could not be defined. There was very good overall correlation between virtual images, flexible laryngoscopic findings, rigid endoscopy, and operative evaluation in cases where oncological resections were performed. CTVE appears to be most accurate in evaluation of subglottic and nasopharyngeal anatomy in our series of patients. CTVE is a new radiographic technique that provides surface-contour details. The technique is undergoing rapid technical evolution, and although the image quality is limited in situations where there is apposition of tissue folds, there are a number of potential applications for this new imaging technique.

  17. The Relationship Between Family-of-Origin Violence, Hostility, and Intimate Partner Violence in Men Arrested for Domestic Violence: Testing a Mediational Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmquist, JoAnna; Shorey, Ryan C; Labrecque, Lindsay; Ninnemann, Andrew; Zapor, Heather; Febres, Jeniimarie; Wolford-Clevenger, Caitlin; Plasencia, Maribel; Temple, Jeff R; Stuart, Gregory L

    2016-09-01

    Although research has shown links between family-of-origin violence (FOV), intimate partner violence (IPV), and hostility, research has not examined whether hostility mediates the relationship between FOV and IPV. The current study examined whether hostility mediates FOV and IPV perpetration in 302 men arrested for domestic violence. Results demonstrated that hostility fully mediated the relationship between father-to-participant FOV and physical and psychological IPV, and the relationship between mother-to-participant FOV and physical IPV. Results indicated that hostility fully mediated the relationship between experiencing and witnessing FOV and physical IPV (composite FOV), and partially mediated the relationship between composite FOV and psychological aggression. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Effects of Trait Hostility, Mapping Interface, and Character Identification on Aggressive Thoughts and Overall Game Experience After Playing a Violent Video Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Younbo; Park, Namkee; Lee, Kwan Min

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the effects of trait-level hostility, interface types, and character identification on aggressive thoughts and overall game experience after playing a violent video game. Results showed that the mapping interface made participants with high trait-level hostility more readily accessible to aggressive contracts, yet it did not have any significant impact for participants with low trait-level hostility. Participants with low trait-level hostility reported more positive game experience in the mapping interface condition, while participants with high trait-level hostility in the same condition reported more negative game experience. Results also indicated that character identification has moderating effects on activating aggressive thoughts and mediating effects on overall game experience. Implications regarding possible ways of reducing potentially negative outcomes from violent games are discussed.

  19. Detailed sectional anatomy of the spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauschning, W.

    1985-01-01

    Morphologic studies on the human spine constitute a special challenge because of the spine's complex topographic anatomy and the intimate relationship between the supporting skeleton and the contiguous soft tissues (muscles, discs, joint capsules) as well as the neurovascular contents of the spinal canal and intervertebral foramina. The improving resolution and multiplanar image reformatting capabilities of modern CT scanners call for accurate anatomic reference material. Such anatomic images should be available without distortion, in natural colors, and in considerable detail. The images should present the anatomy in the correct axial, sagittal, and coronal planes and should also be sufficiently closely spaced so as to follow the thin cuts of modern CT scanners. This chapter details one of several recent attempts to correlate gross anatomy with the images depicted by high-resolution CT. The methods of specimen preparation, sectioning, and photographing have been documented elsewhere

  20. Anatomy and histology of the sacroiliac joints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egund, Niels; Jurik, Anne Grethe

    2014-07-01

    The anatomy of joints provides an important basis for understanding the nature and imaging of pathologic lesions and their imaging appearance. This applies especially to the sacroiliac (SI) joints, which play a major role in the diagnosis of spondyloarthritis. They are composed of two different joint portions, a cartilage-covered portion ventrally and a ligamentous portion dorsally, and thus rather complex anatomically. Knowledge of anatomy and the corresponding normal imaging findings are important in the imaging diagnosis of sacroiliitis, especially by MR imaging. A certain distinction between the two joint portions by MR imaging is only obtainable by axial slice orientation. Together with a perpendicular coronal slice orientation, it provides adequate anatomical information and thereby a possibility for detecting the anatomical site of disease-specific characteristics and normal variants simulating disease. This overview describes current knowledge about the normal macroscopic and microscopic anatomy of the SI joints. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  1. Maternal depression and co-occurring antisocial behaviour: testing maternal hostility and warmth as mediators of risk for offspring psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, Ruth; Harold, Gordon T; Elam, Kit; Rhoades, Kimberly A; Potter, Robert; Mars, Becky; Craddock, Nick; Thapar, Anita; Collishaw, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    Disruption in the parent-child relationship is a commonly hypothesized risk factor through which maternal depression may increase risk for offspring psychopathology. However, maternal depression is commonly accompanied by other psychopathology, including antisocial behaviour. Few studies have examined the role of co-occurring psychopathology in depressed mothers. Using a longitudinal study of offspring of mothers with recurrent depression, we aimed to test whether maternal warmth/hostility mediated links between maternal depression severity and child outcomes, and how far direct and indirect pathways were robust to controls for co-occurring maternal antisocial behaviour. Mothers with a history of recurrent major depressive disorder and their adolescent offspring (9-17 years at baseline) were assessed three times between 2007 and 2010. Mothers completed questionnaires assessing their own depression severity and antisocial behaviour at Time 1 (T1). The parent-child relationship was assessed using parent-rated questionnaire and interviewer-rated 5-min speech sample at Time 2 (T2). Offspring symptoms of depression and disruptive behaviours were assessed using the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment at Time 3 (T3). Maternal hostility and warmth, respectively, mediated the association between maternal depression severity and risk for offspring psychopathology. However, the effects were attenuated when maternal antisocial behaviour was included in the analysis. In tests of the full theoretical model, maternal antisocial behaviour predicted both maternal hostility and low warmth, maternal hostility predicted offspring disruptive behaviour disorder symptoms, but not depression, and maternal warmth was not associated with either child outcome. Parenting interventions aimed at reducing hostility may be beneficial for preventing or reducing adolescent disruptive behaviours in offspring of depressed mothers, especially when depressed mothers report co

  2. Adoptive parent hostility and children's peer behavior problems: examining the role of genetically informed child attributes on adoptive parent behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elam, Kit K; Harold, Gordon T; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Reiss, David; Shaw, Daniel S; Natsuaki, Misaki N; Gaysina, Darya; Barrett, Doug; Leve, Leslie D

    2014-05-01

    Socially disruptive behavior during peer interactions in early childhood is detrimental to children's social, emotional, and academic development. Few studies have investigated the developmental underpinnings of children's socially disruptive behavior using genetically sensitive research designs that allow examination of parent-on-child and child-on-parent (evocative genotype-environment correlation [rGE]) effects when examining family process and child outcome associations. Using an adoption-at-birth design, the present study controlled for passive genotype-environment correlation and directly examined evocative rGE while examining the associations between family processes and children's peer behavior. Specifically, the present study examined the evocative effect of genetic influences underlying toddler low social motivation on mother-child and father-child hostility and the subsequent influence of parent hostility on disruptive peer behavior during the preschool period. Participants were 316 linked triads of birth mothers, adoptive parents, and adopted children. Path analysis showed that birth mother low behavioral motivation predicted toddler low social motivation, which predicted both adoptive mother-child and father-child hostility, suggesting the presence of an evocative genotype-environment association. In addition, both mother-child and father-child hostility predicted children's later disruptive peer behavior. Results highlight the importance of considering genetically influenced child attributes on parental hostility that in turn links to later child social behavior. Implications for intervention programs focusing on early family processes and the precursors of disrupted child social development are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... cancer of the head, neck and mouth. The Oral Cancer Foundation estimates that close to 42,000 Americans ... diagnosed with oral or pharyngeal cancer this year. Oral cancer’s mortality is particularly high, not because it is ...

  4. Necked-in superdeformed nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joensson, L.O.

    1997-03-01

    In this dissertation the possibility of forming superdeformed states related to two connected spheres, having a more or less pronounced neck, is investigated. Detailed Nilsson-Strutinsky calculations with the cranked Woods-Saxon potential and a finite-range liquid drop model are carried out in the 180 Hg region, where superdeformed states related to two overlapping 90 Zr are predicted. Detailed spectroscopic properties are calculated. The effect of the necking degree of freedom on the giant dipole resonance, GDR, is investigated. The calculations are carried out with the Woods-saxon potential for the single-particle states, and the random phase approximation formalism for the phonon states. The residual interaction and coupling constants are determined by requirements of transitional invariance. The lower energy component of the GDR spectrum for superdeformed shapes, corresponding to vibrations along the symmetry axis, is diminished with increasing necking, and the mean energy of the GDR is increased. The folded Yukawa-plus-exponential liquid drop models take into account the finite range of the nuclear force, which is important when elongated and necked-in nuclear shapes are considered. However, it is shown that they are unstable towards higher multipole deformations, and that unphysical shapes are obtained in free minimizations when too high multipole deformations are included. Limits on multipolarity are given as functions of mass number. 9 refs., 4 figs

  5. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... lump in the neck Your mouth is one of your body's most important early warning systems. Don't ignore any suspicious lumps or sores. Should you discover something, make an appointment for a prompt examination. Early treatment may well be the key to complete ... Oral and maxillofacial ...

  6. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Oral, Head and Neck Pathology TMJ and Facial Pain Wisdom Teeth Management Procedures Anesthesia Anesthesia Oral and maxillofacial surgeons are ... more. TMJ and Facial Pain TMJ and Facial ... Teeth Management Wisdom Teeth Management An impacted wisdom tooth can ...

  7. Retention of anatomy knowledge by student radiographers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, A. Susanne; Durward, Brian R.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Anatomy has long been regarded as an integral part of the core curriculum. However, anecdotal evidence suggests that long-term retention of anatomy knowledge may be deficient. This study aims to evidence whether student radiographers demonstrate the same level of knowledge of anatomy after a period of time has elapsed and to correlate to approaches to learning and studying. Methodology: A repeated measures design was utilised to measure retention of anatomy knowledge for both MCQs and short-response answers to a Practical Radiographic Anatomy Examination; alpha value p < 0.05. Fifty-one students from levels 2 and 3 were retested after a time lapse of 10 and 22 months respectively. The students were not aware that their knowledge was being retested. Approaches to learning and studying were measured using the ASSIST inventory. Results: Statistical analysis found no difference in performance on MCQ assessment, in either the combined sample or levels 2 and 3 separately, from baseline to retention occasions; average retention rate being 99%. However, a statistical difference in performance on PRAE assessment was found, with level 2 experiencing a larger reduction in scores; retention rate of 67% compared to level 3 at 77%. The students perceived themselves to be principally strategic in their approach to learning and studying but no strong relationships were found when correlated to test scores. Conclusion: The student radiographers in this study demonstrated varied anatomy retention rates dependent on assessment method employed and time interval that had elapsed. It is recommended that diverse teaching and assessment strategies are adopted to encourage a deeper approach to learning and studying.

  8. Improving gross anatomy learning using reciprocal peer teaching

    OpenAIRE

    Manyama, Mange; Stafford, Renae; Mazyala, Erick; Lukanima, Anthony; Magele, Ndulu; Kidenya, Benson R.; Kimwaga, Emmanuel; Msuya, Sifael; Kauki, Julius

    2016-01-01

    Background The use of cadavers in human anatomy teaching requires adequate number of anatomy instructors who can provide close supervision of the students. Most medical schools are facing challenges of lack of trained individuals to teach anatomy. Innovative techniques are therefore needed to impart adequate and relevant anatomical knowledge and skills. This study was conducted in order to evaluate the traditional teaching method and reciprocal peer teaching (RPT) method during anatomy dissec...

  9. Anatomy, normal variants, and basic biomechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berquist, T.H.; Johnson, K.A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on the anatomy and basic functions of the foot and ankle important to physicians involved in imaging procedures, clinical medicine, and surgery. New radiographic techniques especially magnetic resonance imaging, provide more diagnostic information owing to improved tissue contrast and the ability to obtain multiple image planes (axial, sagittal, coronal, oblique). Therefore, a thorough knowledge of skeletal and soft tissue anatomy is even more essential. Normal variants must also be understood in order to distinguish normal from pathologic changes in the foot and ankle. A basic understanding of biomechanics is also essential for selecting the proper diagnostic techniques

  10. Anatomy and imaging of the normal meninges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Neel; Kirmi, Olga

    2009-12-01

    The meninges are an important connective tissue envelope investing the brain. Their function is to provide a protective coating to the brain and also participate in the formation of blood-brain barrier. Understanding their anatomy is fundamental to understanding the location and spread of pathologies in relation to the layers. It also provides an insight into the characteristics of such pathologies when imaging them. This review aims to describe the anatomy of the meninges, and to demonstrate the imaging findings of specific features.

  11. Neck control after definitive radiochemotherapy without planned neck dissection in node-positive head and neck cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Na Young; Lee, Keun-Wook; Ahn, Soon-Hyun; Kim, Jae-Sung; Ah Kim, In

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate neck control outcomes after definitive radiochemotherapy without planned neck dissection in node-positive head and neck cancer. We retrospectively reviewed medical records of fifty patients with node-positive head and neck cancer who received definitive radiochemotherapy. Twelve patients subsequently underwent neck dissection for suspicious recurrent or persistent disease. A median dose of 70 Gy (range 60-70.6) was delivered to involved nodes. Response evaluation was performed at a median of 5 weeks after completion of radiotherapy. Neck failure was observed in 11 patients and the 3-year regional control (RC) rate was 77.1%. Neck dissection was performed in 10 of the 11 patients; seven of these cases were successfully salvaged, and the ultimate rate of neck control was 92%. The remaining two patients who received neck dissection had negative pathologic results. On univariate analysis, initial nodal size > 2 cm, a less-than-complete response at the primary site, post-radiotherapy nodal size > 1.5 cm, and post-radiotherapy nodal necrosis were associated with RC. On multivariate analysis, less-than-complete primary site response and post-radiotherapy nodal necrosis were identified as independent prognostic factors for RC. The neck failure rate after definitive radiochemotherapy without planned neck dissection was 22%. Two-thirds of these were successfully salvaged with neck dissection and the ultimate neck control rate was 92%. Our results suggest that planned neck dissection might not be necessary in patients with complete response of primary site, no evidence of residual lesion > 1.5 cm, or no necrotic lymph nodes at the 1-2 months follow-up evaluation after radiotherapy

  12. Ocular anatomy in medieval arabic medicine. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laios, Konstantinos; Moschos, Marilita M; George, Androutsos

    2016-01-01

    In medieval Arabic medicine Ophthalmology had a central role. Ocular anatomy was described in many ophthalmological treatises of the physicians of the time. These physicians followed the doctrines of Galen according ocular anatomy, nevertheless their contribution to the history of ocular anatomy was the presentation of ocular anatomical sketches in their manuscripts for the fist time in medical history.

  13. Learning of Cross-Sectional Anatomy Using Clay Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Chang-Seok; Kim, Ji-Young; Choe, Yeon Hyeon

    2009-01-01

    We incorporated clay modeling into gross anatomy and neuro-anatomy courses to help students understand cross-sectional anatomy. By making clay models, cutting them and comparing cut surfaces to CT and MR images, students learned how cross-sectional two-dimensional images were created from three-dimensional structure of human organs. Most students…

  14. Magnetic resonance imaging anatomy of the anal canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashyap, P.; Bates, N.

    2004-01-01

    The anatomy of the anal canal is complex but well demonstrated by MRI. Understanding the anatomy is a prerequisite for determining the true site and the extent of pathology, especially for surgical workup. In this article, the MRI anatomy of the anal canal has been displayed using highlighted MRI images and line diagrams. Copyright (2004) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  15. Guidelines for Standard Photography in Gross and Clinical Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barut, Cagatay; Ertilav, Hakan

    2011-01-01

    Photography has a widespread usage in medicine and anatomy. In this review, authors focused on the usage of photography in gross and clinical anatomy. Photography in gross and clinical anatomy is not only essential for accurate documentation of morphological findings but also important in sharing knowledge and experience. Photographs of cadavers…

  16. Medical Students' Perception of Problem Areas in Anatomy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ranges of problems were extensive; neuro-anatomy in gross anatomy, slide review in histology, and cardiovascular embryology were amongst the most highlighted areas of concern. Most students attributed the problems in gross anatomy to difficulty with accessing the area during dissection and inability to grasp the ...

  17. Optical Inspection In Hostile Industrial Environments: Single-Sensor VS. Imaging Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cielo, P.; Dufour, M.; Sokalski, A.

    1988-11-01

    On-line and unsupervised industrial inspection for quality control and process monitoring is increasingly required in the modern automated factory. Optical techniques are particularly well suited to industrial inspection in hostile environments because of their noncontact nature, fast response time and imaging capabilities. Optical sensors can be used for remote inspection of high temperature products or otherwise inaccessible parts, provided they are in a line-of-sight relation with the sensor. Moreover, optical sensors are much easier to adapt to a variety of part shapes, position or orientation and conveyor speeds as compared to contact-based sensors. This is an important requirement in a flexible automation environment. A number of choices are possible in the design of optical inspection systems. General-purpose two-dimensional (2-D) or three-dimensional (3-D) imaging techniques have advanced very rapidly in the last years thanks to a substantial research effort as well as to the availability of increasingly powerful and affordable hardware and software. Imaging can be realized using 2-D arrays or simpler one-dimensional (1-D) line-array detectors. Alternatively, dedicated single-spot sensors require a smaller amount of data processing and often lead to robust sensors which are particularly appropriate to on-line operation in hostile industrial environments. Many specialists now feel that dedicated sensors or clusters of sensors are often more effective for specific industrial automation and control tasks, at least in the short run. This paper will discuss optomechanical and electro-optical choices with reference to the design of a number of on-line inspection sensors which have been recently developed at our institute. Case studies will include real-time surface roughness evaluation on polymer cables extruded at high speed, surface characterization of hot-rolled or galvanized-steel sheets, temperature evaluation and pinhole detection in aluminum foil, multi

  18. Neck muscle function in violinists/violists with and without neck pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmetz, Anke; Claus, Andrew; Hodges, Paul W; Jull, Gwendolen A

    2016-04-01

    Neck pain is associated with changes in neuromuscular control of cervical muscles. Violin and viola playing requires good function of the flexor muscles to stabilize the instrument. This study investigated the flexor muscle behaviour in violin/viola players with and without neck pain using the craniocervical flexion test (CCFT). In total, 12 violin/viola players with neck pain, 21 violin/viola players without neck pain in the preceding 12 weeks and 21 pain-free non-musicians were included. Activity of the sternocleidomastoid muscles (SCM) was measured with surface electromyography (EMG) during the CCFT. Violin/viola players with neck pain displayed greater normalised SCM EMG amplitudes during CCFT than the pain-free musicians and non-musicians (P neck pain in violinists/violists is associated with altered behaviour of the superficial neck flexor muscles consistent with neck pain, despite the specific use of the deep and superficial neck flexors during violin playing.

  19. Neck muscle endurance and head posture: A comparison between adolescents with and without neck pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Ana Carolina; Silva, Anabela G

    2016-04-01

    The main aims of this study were to compare the neck flexor and extensor endurance and forward head posture between adolescents with and without neck pain. The secondary aims were to explore potential associations between muscles endurance, head posture and neck pain characteristics and to assess intra-rater reliability of the measurements used. Adolescents with neck pain (n = 35) and age-matched asymptomatic adolescents (n = 35) had their forward head posture, neck flexor endurance and neck extensor endurance measured using clinical tests. Intra-rater reliability was also assessed. Forward head posture and neck flexor and extensor endurance tests showed moderate to almost perfect intra-rater reliability (ICC between 0.58 and 0.88). Adolescents with neck pain showed significantly less forward head posture (neck pain = 46.62 ± 4.92; asymptomatic = 44.18°± 3.64°, p > 0.05) and less neck flexor (neck pain = 24.50 ± 23.03s; asymptomatic = 35.89 ± 21.53s, p > 0.05) and extensor endurance (neck pain = 12.6.64 ± 77.94s; asymptomatic = 168.66 ± 74.77s, p > 0.05) than asymptomatic adolescents. Results suggest that changes in posture and neck muscle endurance are a feature of adolescents with neck pain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Computer assisted surgical anatomy mapping : applications in surgical anatomy research, tailor-made surgery and presonalized teaching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.L.A. Kerver (Anton)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractThis thesis presents a novel anatomy mapping tool named Computer Assisted Surgical Anatomy Mapping (CASAM). It allows researchers to map complex anatomy of multiple specimens and compare their location and course. Renditions such as safe zones or danger zones can be visualized,

  1. Two-Year Community: Human Anatomy Software Use in Traditional and Online Anatomy Laboratory Classes: Student-Perceived Learning Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuyatt, Brian L.; Baker, Jason D.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluates the effectiveness of human anatomy software in face-to-face and online anatomy laboratory classes. Cognitive, affective, and psychomotor perceived learning was measured for students using Pearson Education's Practice Anatomy Laboratory 2.0 software. This study determined that student-perceived learning was significantly…

  2. Systematic wood anatomy of the Rosaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Shu-Yin

    1992-01-01

    The wood anatomy of the Rosaceae is surveyed and analysed, based on the study of 280 species (c. 500 specimens) belonging to 62 genera from different parts of the world. Eighteen wood anatomical characters have been used for a phenetic and phylogenetic classification. In the phenetic classification,

  3. [Computer technologies in teaching pathological anatomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponomarev, A B; Fedorov, D N

    2015-01-01

    The paper gives experience with personal computers used at the Academician A.L. Strukov Department of Pathological Anatomy for more than 20 years. It shows the objective necessity of introducing computer technologies at all stages of acquiring skills in anatomical pathology, including lectures, students' free work, test check, etc.

  4. Cardiac anatomy and physiology: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavaghan, M

    1998-04-01

    This article reviews the normal anatomy and physiology of the heart. Understanding the normal anatomic and physiologic relationships described in this article will help perioperative nurses care for patients who are undergoing cardiac procedures. Such knowledge also assists nurses in educating patients about cardiac procedures and about activities that can prevent, reverse, or improve cardiac illness.

  5. Digital interactive learning of oral radiographic anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuchkova, J; Maybury, T; Farah, C S

    2012-02-01

    Studies reporting high number of diagnostic errors made from radiographs suggest the need to improve the learning of radiographic interpretation in the dental curriculum. Given studies that show student preference for computer-assisted or digital technologies, the purpose of this study was to develop an interactive digital tool and to determine whether it was more successful than a conventional radiology textbook in assisting dental students with the learning of radiographic anatomy. Eighty-eight dental students underwent a learning phase of radiographic anatomy using an interactive digital tool alongside a conventional radiology textbook. The success of the digital tool, when compared to the textbook, was assessed by quantitative means using a radiographic interpretation test and by qualitative means using a structured Likert scale survey, asking students to evaluate their own learning outcomes from the digital tool. Student evaluations of the digital tool showed that almost all participants (95%) indicated that the tool positively enhanced their learning of radiographic anatomy and interpretation. The success of the digital tool in assisting the learning of radiographic interpretation is discussed in the broader context of learning and teaching curricula, and preference (by students) for the use of this digital form when compared to the conventional literate form of the textbook. Whilst traditional textbooks are still valued in the dental curriculum, it is evident that the preference for computer-assisted learning of oral radiographic anatomy enhances the learning experience by enabling students to interact and better engage with the course material. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  6. Modelling vocal anatomy's significant effect on speech

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, B.

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of larynx position on the articulatory abilities of a humanlike vocal tract. Previous work has investigated models that were built to resemble the anatomy of existing species or fossil ancestors. This has led to conflicting conclusions about the relation between

  7. Anatomy, Medical Education, and Human Ancestral Variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strkalj, Goran; Spocter, Muhammad A.; Wilkinson, A. Tracey

    2011-01-01

    It is argued in this article that the human body both in health and disease cannot be fully understood without adequately accounting for the different levels of human variation. The article focuses on variation due to ancestry, arguing that the inclusion of information pertaining to ancestry in human anatomy teaching materials and courses should…

  8. Thoracic radiographic anatomy in goats | Makungu | Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to describe the normal radiographic anatomy of the thorax of small East African goats as a reference for clinical use. Radiography of the thorax was performed under general anaesthesia in 10 healthy small East African goats. Right lateral (RL), left lateral (LL), dorsoventral (DV) and ventrodorsal ...

  9. Testing to Enhance Retention in Human Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Jessica M.; Thompson, Andrew J.; Marshak, David W.

    2011-01-01

    Recent work in cognitive psychology has shown that repeatedly testing one's knowledge is a powerful learning aid and provides substantial benefits for retention of the material. To apply this in a human anatomy course for medical students, 39 fill-in-the-blank quizzes of about 50 questions each, one for each region of the body, and four about the…

  10. Wood anatomy of the Blakeeae (Melastomataceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koek-Noorman, J.; Hogeweg, P.; Maanen, van W.H.M.; Welle, ter B.J.H.

    1979-01-01

    The present paper deals with the wood anatomy of the Blakeeae (Melastomataceae). Generic descriptions of the secondary xylem of Blakea, Topobea, and Huilaea are given and compared with data on 16 genera of the Miconieae. Numerical pattern detection was undertaken. The results confirm our preliminary

  11. Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Competition Matters Tech@FTC Comment Policy Contests IoT Home Inspector Challenge Robocalls: Humanity Strikes Back DetectaRobo Zapping ... File Documents in Adjudicative Proceedings You are here Home » News & Events » Audio/Video » Anatomy of a Cancer ...

  12. Anatomy and Physiology. Revised Teacher Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Danene; And Others

    This curriculum guide contains 14 units of instruction for a course in anatomy and physiology for surgical technology students. The units cover the following topics: (1) organization of the body; (2) cells, tissues, and membranes; (3) integumentary system; (4) skeletal system; (5) muscular system; (6) nervous system; (7) special sense organs; (8)…

  13. The functional anatomy of the ureterovesical junction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomson, A. S.; Dabhoiwala, N. F.; Verbeek, F. J.; Lamers, W. H.

    1994-01-01

    To obtain a new insight into the anti-reflux mechanism of the ureterovesical junction by studying the topographical anatomy of the juxta- and intravesical ureter and its relationship to the surrounding bladder musculature. Fresh pig bladders were fixed, frozen and serially sectioned. Enzyme

  14. Anatomy and Physiology of the Small Bowel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volk, Neil; Lacy, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Comprehension of small intestine physiology and function provides a framework for the understanding of several important disease pathways of the gastrointestinal system. This article reviews the development, anatomy and histology of the small bowel in addition to physiology and digestion of key nutrients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Neuromodulators: available agents, physiology, and anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettar, Kartik; Maas, Corey

    2011-12-01

    Neuromodulators have risen to the forefront of aesthetic medicine. By reversibly relaxing target muscles, neuromodulators exhibit their effect by softening hyperfunctional lines. An understanding of their physiology, relevant facial anatomy, and current agents is imperative for a successful aesthetic practice. © Thieme Medical Publishers.

  16. Anatomy and physiology of genital organs - women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziottin, Alessandra; Gambini, Dania

    2015-01-01

    "Anatomy is destiny": Sigmund Freud viewed human anatomy as a necessary, although not a sufficient, condition for understanding the complexity of human sexual function with a solid biologic basis. The aim of the chapter is to describe women's genital anatomy and physiology, focusing on women's sexual function with a clinically oriented vision. Key points include: embryology, stressing that the "female" is the anatomic "default" program, differentiated into "male" only in the presence of androgens at physiologic levels for the gestational age; sex determination and sex differentiation, describing the interplay between anatomic and endocrine factors; the "clitoral-urethral-vaginal" complex, the most recent anatomy reading of the corpora cavernosa pattern in women; the controversial G spot; the role of the pelvic floor muscles in modulating vaginal receptivity and intercourse feelings, with hyperactivity leading to introital dyspareunia and contributing to provoked vestibulodynia and recurrent postcoital cystitis, whilst lesions during delivery reduce vaginal sensations, genital arousability, and orgasm; innervation, vessels, bones, ligaments; and the physiology of women's sexual response. Attention to physiologic aging focuses on "low-grade inflammation," genital and systemic, with its impact on women sexual function, especially after the menopause, if the woman does not or cannot use hormone replacement therapy. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Fostering Improved Anatomy and Physiology Instructor Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattheis, Allison; Jensen, Murray

    2014-01-01

    Despite widespread calls for reform in undergraduate science, technology, engineering, and mathematics education, effecting lasting change in instructor practice is challenging to achieve. This article describes the results of a 2-yr research study that involved efforts to develop the pedagogical expertise of a group of anatomy and physiology…

  18. Surgical anatomy of the nail apparatus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haneke, E.

    2006-01-01

    Nail surgery is an integral part of dermatologic surgery. An in-depth knowledge of the anatomy, biology, physiology, and gross pathology of the entire nail unit is essential. In particular, knowledge of nail histopathology is necessary to perform diagnostic nail biopsies and other nail procedures

  19. Text neck and neck pain in 18-21-year-old young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damasceno, Gerson Moreira; Ferreira, Arthur Sá; Nogueira, Leandro Alberto Calazans; Reis, Felipe José Jandre; Andrade, Igor Caio Santana; Meziat-Filho, Ney

    2018-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is an association between text neck and neck pain in young adults. Observational cross-sectional study with 150 18-21-year-old young adults from a public high school in the state of Rio de Janeiro was performed. In the self-report questionnaire, the participants answered questions on sociodemographic factors, anthropometric factors, time spent texting or playing on a mobile phone, visual impairments, and concern with the body posture. The neck posture was assessed by participants' self-perception and physiotherapists' judgment during a mobile phone texting message task. The Young Spine Questionnaire was used to evaluate the neck pain. Four multivariate logistic regression models were fitted to investigate the association between neck posture during mobile phone texting and neck pain, considering potential confounding factors. There is no association between neck posture, assessed by self-perception, and neck pain (OR = 1.66, p = 0.29), nor between neck posture, assessed by physiotherapists' judgment, and neck pain (OR = 1.23, p = 0.61). There was also no association between neck posture, assessed by self-perception, and frequency of neck pain (OR = 2.19, p = 0.09), nor between neck posture, assessed by physiotherapists' judgment, and frequency of neck pain (OR = 1.17, p = 0.68). This study did not show an association between text neck and neck pain in 18-21-year-old young adults. The findings challenge the belief that neck posture during mobile phone texting is associated to the growing prevalence of neck pain.

  20. Hostile attributional bias, negative emotional responding, and aggression in adults: moderating effects of gender and impulsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pan; Coccaro, Emil F; Jacobson, Kristen C

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined the main effects of hostile attributional bias (HAB) and negative emotional responding on a variety of aggressive behaviors in adults, including general aggression, physical aggression, relational aggression, and verbal aggression. Effects of both externalizing (anger) and internalizing (embarrassment/upset) negative emotions were considered. In addition, the moderating roles of gender and impulsivity on the effects of HAB and negative emotional responding were explored. Multilevel models were fitted to data from 2,749 adult twins aged 20-55 from the PennTwins cohort. HAB was positively associated with all four forms of aggression. There was also a significant interaction between impulsivity and HAB for general aggression. Specifically, the relationship between HAB and general aggression was only significant for individuals with average or above-average levels of impulsivity. Negative emotional responding was also found to predict all measures of aggression, although in different ways. Anger was positively associated with all forms of aggression, whereas embarrassment/upset predicted decreased levels of general, physical, and verbal aggression but increased levels of relational aggression. The associations between negative emotional responding and aggression were generally stronger for males than females. The current study provides evidence for the utility of HAB and negative emotional responding as predictors of adult aggression and further suggests that gender and impulsivity may moderate their links with aggression. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Hostile Attributional Bias, Negative Emotional Responding, and Aggression in Adults: Moderating Effects of Gender and Impulsivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pan; Coccaro, Emil F.; Jacobson, Kristen C.

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined the main effects of hostile attributional bias (HAB) and negative emotional responding on a variety of aggressive behaviors in adults, including general aggression, physical aggression, relational aggression, and verbal aggression. Effects of both externalizing (anger) and internalizing (embarrassment/upset) negative emotions were considered. In addition, the moderating roles of gender and impulsivity on the effects of HAB and negative emotional responding were explored. Multilevel models were fitted to data from 2,749 adult twins aged 20–55 from the PennTwins cohort. HAB was positively associated with all four forms of aggression. There was also a significant interaction between impulsivity and HAB for general aggression. Specifically, the relationship between HAB and general aggression was only significant for individuals with average or above-average levels of impulsivity. Negative emotional responding was also found to predict all measures of aggression, although in different ways. Anger was positively associated with all forms of aggression, whereas embarrassment/upset predicted decreased levels of general, physical, and verbal aggression but increased levels of relational aggression. The associations between negative emotional responding and aggression were generally stronger for males than females. The current study provides evidence for the utility of HAB and negative emotional responding as predictors of adult aggression and further suggests that gender and impulsivity may moderate their links with aggression. PMID:24833604

  2. Effects of interpretation training on hostile attribution bias and reactivity to interpersonal insult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Kirsten A; Cougle, Jesse R

    2013-09-01

    Research suggests that individuals high in anger have a bias for attributing hostile intentions to ambiguous situations. The current study tested whether this interpretation bias can be altered to influence anger reactivity to an interpersonal insult using a single-session cognitive bias modification program. One hundred thirty-five undergraduate students were randomized to receive positive training, negative training, or a control condition. Anger reactivity to insult was then assessed. Positive training led to significantly greater increases in positive interpretation bias relative to the negative group, though these increases were only marginally greater than the control group. Negative training led to increased negative interpretation bias relative to other groups. During the insult, participants in the positive condition reported less anger than those in the control condition. Observers rated participants in the positive condition as less irritated than those in the negative condition and more amused than the other two conditions. Though mediation of effects via bias modification was not demonstrated, among the positive condition posttraining interpretation bias was correlated with self-reported anger, suggesting that positive training reduced anger reactivity by influencing interpretation biases. Findings suggest that positive interpretation training may be a promising treatment for reducing anger. However, the current study was conducted with a non-treatment-seeking student sample; further research with a treatment-seeking sample with problematic anger is necessary. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. More hostile dyslipidaemia in chronic kidney disease patients on maintenance haemodialysis than on conservative management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathi, Teerath Kumar; Dhrolia, Murtaza Fakhruddin; Imtiaz, Salman

    2016-08-01

    To study the pattern of dyslipidaemia in patients with stage-V chronic kidney disease on conservative management and those on maintenance haemodialysis. This comparative observational study was conducted at the Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi, from February to July, 2008, and comprised stage-V chronic kidney disease patients. The patients were divided in two groups. Those who were on conservative management were placed in Group A, and those who were on maintenance haemodialysis were in Group B. Serum total lipid, cholesterol, triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein for both groups were assayed on chemical analyser and low-density lipoprotein was calculated by Friedwald equation. SPSS 17 was used for data analysis. Of the 120 patients, there were 60(50%) in each group. The mean age of patients in Group A was 46.33±14.56 years and in Group B was 43.4±14.1years. Of all, 64(53.3%) were men and 56(46.7%) were women. Mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure was 134±19.58mmHg and 83.6±14.14mmHg in Group A and 129±19.7mmHg and 79.7±12.1mmHg in Group B. Mean serum total lipid was significantly higher (pmaintenance haemodialysis was more hostile than those on conservative management, and posed increased risk of coronary heart disease.

  4. Lifetime Video Game Consumption, Interpersonal Aggression, Hostile Sexism, and Rape Myth Acceptance: A Cultivation Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Jesse; Potocki, Bridget

    2016-06-01

    Although previous research has investigated relationships between media consumption, sexism, and rape myth acceptance (RMA), limited research has investigated video games despite their emergence as one of the most popular forms of media entertainment globally. Given that video games typically feature even less diverse and more objectified representations of women than traditional mainstream media, we predicted that there would be relationships between video game consumption and negative beliefs and attitudes about women. In this study, we conducted a survey (N = 351) of male and female adults and used structural equation modeling to analyze relationships among video game consumption, trait interpersonal aggression, ambivalent sexism, and first-order (percentage of false rape accusations) and second-order cultivation effects (RMA). We found support for the hypothesized cultivation model, indicating a relationship between video game consumption and RMA via interpersonal aggression and hostile sexism. Although these findings cannot be interpreted causally, we discuss the implications of these associations and future directions for research. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. "The world's most hostile environment": how the tobacco industry circumvented Singapore's advertising ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assunta, M; Chapman, S

    2004-12-01

    To review how tobacco transnational companies conducted their business in the hostile environment of Singapore, attempting to counter some of the government's tobacco control measures; to compare the Malaysian and the Singaporean governments' stance on tobacco control and the direct bearing of this on the way the tobacco companies conduct their business. Systematic keyword and opportunistic website searches of formerly private internal industry documents. The comprehensive prohibition on advertising did not prevent the companies from advertising cigarettes to Singaporeans. Both British American Tobacco and Philip Morris used Malaysian television to advertise into Singapore. To launch a new brand of cigarettes, Alpine, Philip Morris used a non-tobacco product, the Alpine wine cooler. Other creative strategies such as innovative packaging and display units at retailers were explored to overcome the restrictions. Philip Morris experimented with developing a prototype cigarette using aroma and sweetened tipping paper to target the young and health conscious. The industry sought to weaken the strong pack warnings. The industry distributed anti-smoking posters for youth to retailers but privately salivated over their market potential.

  6. Hostility among adolescents in Switzerland? multivariate relations between excessive media use and forms of violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntsche, Emmanuel N

    2004-03-01

    To determine what kind of violence-related behavior or opinion is directly related to excessive media use among adolescents in Switzerland. A national representative sample of 4222 schoolchildren (7th- and 8th-graders; mean age 13.9 years) answered questions on the frequency of television-viewing, electronic game-playing, feeling unsafe at school, bullying others, hitting others, and fighting with others, as part of the Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) international collaborative study protocol. The Chi-square tests and multiple logistic regression analyses were applied to high-risk groups of adolescents. For the total sample, all bivariate relationships between television-viewing/electronic game-playing and each violence-related variable are significant. In the multivariate comparison, physical violence among boys ceases to be significant. For girls, only television-viewing is linked to indirect violence. Against the hypothesis, females' electronic game-playing only had a bearing on hitting others. Experimental designs are needed that take into account gender, different forms of media, and violence to answer the question of whether excessive media use leads to violent behavior. With the exception of excessive electronic game-playing among girls, this study found that electronic media are not thought to lead directly to real-life violence but to hostility and indirect violence.

  7. Metal composite as backing for ultrasonic transducers dedicated to non-destructive measurements in hostile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boubenia, R; Rosenkrantz, E; P, P; Ferrandis, J-Y; Despetis, F

    2016-01-01

    Our team is specialized in ultrasonic measurements in hostile environment especially under high temperatures. There is a need for acoustic transducers capable of continuous measurement at temperatures up to 700°C. To improve the performances of acoustic sensors we focus our works on the realisation and characterisation of transducer backings able to operate under very high temperature. Commercially, they are produced by the incorporation of tungsten powder in a plastic matrix, which limits the working temperature. The realisation of ultrasonic transducers for non-destructive measures at high temperatures requires adequate materials, manufacturing and assembly processes. To produce the backings, composites were made using very ductile metals such as tin and tungsten. These composites are manufactured by uniaxial hot pressing. First, we studied the influence of temperature and pressure on the densification of tin pellets. Then, several specimens made of tin/W were made and characterised by measuring the specific weight, speed and attenuation of sound. The acoustic measures were realised by ultrasonic spectroscopy. This test-bench was designed and tested on control samples of PMMA and on standard backings (epoxy / tungsten). (paper)

  8. Strangers on the Doorstep: Hostility and Hospitality in A Distant Shore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Ching-Huan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the rising hostility against immigrants / refugees and growing demand for hospitality, in both regional and transnational senses, in Caryl Phillips’s novel A Distant Shore, set in a local place in North England. I think that the author, in examining the parallel conditions of being a stranger in a village and an outsider to the nation, shows that the demands of hospitality are similarly urgent whether sought by nationals or foreigners though these are calibrated differently in terms of scales of belonging. My broader argument is that hospitality is an ethical practice of everyday life that requires continual renegotiation. Inspired by Levinasian ethics, I turn to Derrida’s and Rosello’s meditations on hospitality, which emphasise the metaphorical nature of the host-guest relationship and the tension it inscribes between the finiteness of politics and the infinity of ethics. By exploring the complex relationship between politics and ethics as this is made manifest in the literary representations of ordinary British citizens’ everyday practices, I suggest that this novel not only deals with the UK’s domestic tensions of multiculturalism and ethnic conflict, but also critically reflects on its bewildered (but hardly new attitude toward the ongoing transnational integration of the new Europe in the postwar period.

  9. "Digit anatomy": a new technique for learning anatomy using motor memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Chang-Seok; Won, Hyung-Sun; Kim, Kyong-Jee; Jang, Dong-Su

    2011-01-01

    Gestural motions of the hands and fingers are powerful tools for expressing meanings and concepts, and the nervous system has the capacity to retain multiple long-term motor memories, especially including movements of the hands. We developed many sets of successive movements of both hands, referred to as "digit anatomy," and made students practice the movements which express (1) the aortic arch, subclavian, and thoracoacromial arteries and their branches, (2) the celiac trunk, superior mesenteric artery and their branches, and formation of the portal vein, (3) the heart and the coronary arteries, and (4) the brachial, lumbar, and sacral plexuses. A feedback survey showed that digit anatomy was helpful for the students not only in memorizing anatomical structures but also in understanding their functions. Out of 40 students, 34 of them who learned anatomy with the help of digit anatomy were "very satisfied" or "generally satisfied" with this new teaching method. Digit anatomy that was used to express the aortic arch, subclavian, and thoracoacromial arteries and their branches was more helpful than those representing other structures. Although the movements of digit anatomy are expected to be remembered longer than the exact meaning of each movement, invoking the motor memory of the movement may help to make relearning of the same information easier and faster in the future. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Anatomists.

  10. The Use of Neck Support Pillows and Postural Exercises in the Management of Chronic Neck Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamal, Alisha N; Feldman, Brian M; Pullenayegum, Eleanor

    2016-10-01

    Chronic neck pain is a common problem with a profound effect on quality of life. Identifying evidence-based management strategies is fundamental in improving patient outcomes. This study is a reanalysis of the data from Helewa, et al to further characterize the effects of postural exercises and neck support pillows on neck pain. A full factorial model was used. All interactions were analyzed adjusting for the Northwick Park Neck Pain Questionnaire (NPQ) at baseline. Postural exercises significantly decreased NPQ scores at ≥ 3 weeks, and the use of a neck support pillow significantly decreased NPQ scores at ≥ 12 weeks. These interventions could be beneficial in reducing neck pain symptoms.

  11. SWALLOWING DISORDERS IN CLINICAL PRACTICE: FUNCTIONAL ANATOMY, ASSESSMENT AND REHABILITATION STRATEGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    STANESCU Ioana

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Swallowing is a complex process consisting in transporting food from mouth to the stomach; it involves voluntary and reflex activity of more than 30 nerves and muscles, requiring complex neuromuscular coordination and brainstem and cortical centers for controle. Dysphagia is defined as a alteration in the swallowing process, which cause difficulty in transporting saliva and aliments from the mouth trough the pharynx and esophagus into the stomach . It is a frequent symptom, affecting especially old people, people with neurological diseases, cancers of head and neck or severe reflux . Dysphagia can result from a wide variety of functional or structural deficits of the oral cavity, pharynx, larynx or esophagus, which could e caused by neurological conditions. Dysphagia carries serious health risks: malnutrition, dehydration, increase risk of infections. Effective dysphagia management requires an interdisciplinary approach; the goal of rehabilitation is to identify and treat abnormalities of swallowing while maintaining safe and efficient nutrition. KEY WORDS: swallowing, dysphagia, functional anatomy, rehabilitation, neuroplasticity

  12. Implications of Age-Related Changes in Anatomy for Geriatric-Focused Difficult Airways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Yi Lee

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The structure and function surrounding the airway change by the age, which may ultimately result in having anatomic features of difficult airways in the elderly. Hence, we reviewed the literature focusing on the age-related anatomic changes and accordingly to compare the characteristics of difficult airways. With age, teeth wear and loss, protein and collagen synthesis reduction, and bone loss and muscle atrophy results in aged face (chin protrusion, cheek retraction and drooping, jaw restriction (temporo-madibular joint disc displacement and osteoarthritis, neck and back stiffness, and kyphotic deformities (degeneration of spinal articular cartilage, intervertebral discs, and spinal osteoporosis. These age-related changes in anatomy are compatible with the predictors of a difficult airway. We hope that these age-related anatomic approaches will prospectively allow a detailed understanding of the hallmarks resulting in geriatric-focused difficult airways in the future studies.

  13. Topographic anatomy of paraclinoid carotid artery aneurysms: usefulness of MR angiographic source images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagasawa, S.; Deguchi, J.; Arai, M.; Tanaka, H.; Kawanishi, M.; Ohta, T.

    1997-01-01

    We evaluated the usefulness of magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) for showing the topography of paraclinoid carotid artery aneurysms in 27 patients with 30 paraclinoid aneurysms undergoing conventional angiography, three-dimensional time-of-flight MRA and surgery. The anatomy shown on the axial MRA source images was consistent with that found at surgery. The neck of the aneurysm could always be identified on the source images, while it could not be analysed exactly on conventional angiography in 3 cases (10 %). The optic nerves, including those displaced by the aneurysm, were recognised in all patients. The anterior clinoid process was shown as a low-intensity rim or area contiguous with the cortical bone. The source images were of great value in understanding the topography of paraclinoid carotid artery aneurysms. (orig.). With 2 figs

  14. The social nature of benevolent sexism and the antisocial nature of hostile sexism: Is benevolent sexism more likely to manifest in public contexts and hostile sexism in private contexts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisango, Tadios; Mayekiso, Thokozile; Thomae, Manuela

    2015-10-01

    Previous research converges on demonstrating that benevolent sexism (BS) is socially approved, whereas hostile sexism (HS) is socially disapproved. We postulated that a sample of married women would be likely to report that their husbands express hostile sexist attitudes and engage in related actions towards them more in private than public contexts, where they lie concealed from public censure. By contrast, the women would report that their husbands would be likely to express benevolent sexist attitudes and engage in related actions more in public than private contexts, where they are reinforced not only by their target (i.e. wife), but also by significant others and the society at large. We tested these hypotheses with a sample of Black, heterosexually married Zimbabwean women (n = 109, mean age = 31.83). Results supported our hypotheses: the women reported hostile sexist attitudes and actions to be more likely to occur in private than public contexts; on the other hand, they reported benevolent sexist attitudes and actions to be more likely in public than private contexts. We conclude that differences in social approval of BS and HS account for these results. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.

  15. Distrustful, Conventional, Entitled, and Dysregulated: PID-5 Personality Facets Predict Hostile Masculinity and Sexual Violence in Community Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Tiffany D; King, Alan R

    2017-01-01

    Psychopathy and narcissism are known predictors of sexual violence, but they are broad personality constructs with limited utility in intervention and prevention efforts. The Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5) assesses 25 specific personality facets residing in five higher order domains. The goal of this research was to test the PID-5 in a sexual aggression model, which also included hostile masculinity, juvenile delinquency, and five sexual assault indices. A nationwide sample of adult men ( N = 512) completed the online survey. Hostile masculinity and juvenile delinquency were expected to have direct paths to sexual violence in a structural equation model. Hostile masculinity was also hypothesized as a mediator between sexual violence and PID-5 facets related to narcissism and psychopathy. These hypotheses were largely supported. Overall, 29.5% of men reported perpetrating sexual violence at least once, and 24.2% reported multiple assaults. In the sexually violent sample, 45.7% endorsed completed rape as their most severe act. PID-5 Suspiciousness, Cognitive and Perceptual Dysregulation, Grandiosity, and a lack of Eccentricity emerged as indirect predictors of sexual violence. These PID-5 facets were mediated by hostile masculinity, which had a reliable path to sexual violence. Juvenile delinquency had a direct and indirect path to sexual assault. The model accounted for 48% of the variance in latent sexual violence, and the five sexual violence index R 2 s ranged from .53 to .82. This research adds specificity to sexual violence models by demonstrating the underlying maladaptive personality trait structures associated with sexual assault. It also provides a more precise personality profile for clinical use and prevention programs.

  16. Accessible or Inaccessible? Diagnostic Efficacy of CT-Guided Core Biopsies of Head and Neck Masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham, Jane D., E-mail: janecunningham0708@gmail.com; McCusker, Mark W.; Power, Sarah; PearlyTi, Joanna; Thornton, John; Brennan, Paul; Lee, Michael J.; O’Hare, Alan; Looby, Seamus [Beaumont Hospital, Department of Radiology (Ireland)

    2015-04-15

    PurposeTissue sampling of lesions in the head and neck is challenging due to complex regional anatomy and sometimes necessitates open surgical biopsy. However, many patients are poor surgical candidates due to comorbidity. Thus, we evaluated the use of CT guidance for establishing histopathological diagnosis of head and neck masses.MethodsAll consecutive patients (n = 22) who underwent CT-guided core biopsy of head or neck masses between April 2009 and August 2012 were retrospectively reviewed using the departmental CT interventional procedures database. The indication for each biopsy performed was to establish or exclude a diagnosis of neoplasia in patients with suspicious head or neck lesions found on clinical examination or imaging studies. Patients received conscious sedation and 18 G, semiautomated core needle biopsies were performed by experienced neuroradiologists using 16-slice multidetector row CT imaging guidance (Somatom Definition Siemens Medical Solutions, Germany). Histopathology results of each biopsy were analysed.ResultsSixteen of 22 biopsies that were performed (73 %) yielded a pathological diagnosis. Anatomic locations biopsied included: masticator (n = 7), parapharyngeal (n = 3), parotid (n = 3), carotid (n = 3), perivertebral (n = 3), pharyngeal (n = 2), and retropharyngeal (n = 1) spaces. Six biopsies (27 %) were nondiagnostic due to inadequate tissue sampling, particularly small biopsy sample size and failure to biopsy the true sampling site due to extensive necrosis. No major complications were encountered.ConclusionsThe use of CT guidance to perform core biopsies of head and neck masses is an effective means of establishing histopathological diagnosis and reduces the need for diagnostic open surgical biopsy and general anaesthesia.

  17. Hostile Attribution Bias Mediates the Relationship Between Structural Variations in the Left Middle Frontal Gyrus and Trait Angry Rumination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueyue Wang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Angry rumination is a common mental phenomenon which may lead to negative social behaviors such as aggression. Although numerous neuroimaging studies have focused on brain area activation during angry rumination, to our knowledge no study has examined the neuroanatomical and cognitive mechanisms of this process. In this study, we conducted a voxel-based morphometry analysis, using a region of interest analysis to identify the structural and cognitive mechanisms underlying individual differences in trait angry rumination (as measured by the Angry Rumination Scale in a sample of 82 undergraduate students. We found that angry rumination was positively correlated with gray matter density in the left middle frontal gyrus (left-MFG, which is implicated in inhibition control, working memory, and emotional regulation. The mediation analysis further revealed that hostile attribution bias (as measured by the Social Information Processing–Attribution Bias Questionnaire acted as a cognitive mechanism underlying the positive association between the left-MFG gray matter density and trait angry rumination. These findings suggest that hostile attribution bias may contribute to trait angry rumination, while the left-MFG may play an important role in the development of hostile attribution bias and trait angry rumination. The study reveals the brain mechanisms of trait angry rumination and plays a role in revealing the cognitive mechanisms of the development of trait angry rumination.

  18. The role of heavy episodic drinking and hostile sexism in men's sexual aggression toward female intimate partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisco, Claire G; Parrott, Dominic J; Tharp, Andra Teten

    2012-11-01

    Research indicates that men's heavy episodic drinking is a significant risk factor for their perpetration of sexual aggression toward intimate partners. The aim of this investigation was to examine how hostile sexism (i.e., antipathy toward women) and benevolent sexism (i.e., subjectively positive, yet patriarchal, views of women) influence the relation between men's heavy episodic drinking and their perpetration of sexual aggression toward intimate partners. Participants were 205 heterosexual drinking men who completed self-report measures of quantity of alcohol consumption during the past 12 months, hostile sexism, and sexual aggression toward an intimate partner during the past 12 months. Men's heavy episodic drinking was positively associated with sexual aggression perpetration toward intimate partners amongst men who endorsed high, but not low, levels of hostile sexism. No such interactive effect emerged for men's endorsement of benevolent sexism. These results have important implications for understanding cumulative risk factors for the perpetration of sexual aggression toward intimates. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Thyroid Emphysema Following Penetrating Neck Trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demet Karadağ

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Although traumatic thyroid gland rupture or hemorrhage is usually seen in goitrous glands, injuries of the normal thyroid gland after neck trauma have rarely been described in the literature. We describe a 44-year-old man who presented with thyroid emphysema and subcutaneous emphysema (SCE that occurred after penetrating neck trauma. CT images showed complete resolution of thyroid emphysema and subcutaneous emphysema at follow-up examination. Neck injuries can be life threatening. After penetrating neck traumas, physicians should consider subtle esophageal or tracheal laceration. Thyroid emphysema can occur as the result of penetrating neck trauma. The mechanism of emphysema of the thyroid parenchyma can be explained by the thyroid gland’s presence in a single visceral compartment that encompasses the larynx, trachea and thyroid gland. We describe an unusual case of thyroid emphysema of a normal thyroid gland following a penetrating neck injury.

  20. Head and neck position sense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Bridget; McNair, Peter; Taylor, Denise

    2008-01-01

    Traumatic minor cervical strains are common place in high-impact sports (e.g. tackling) and premature degenerative changes have been documented in sports people exposed to recurrent impact trauma (e.g. scrummaging in rugby) or repetitive forces (e.g. Formula 1 racing drivers, jockeys). While proprioceptive exercises have been an integral part of rehabilitation of injuries in the lower limb, they have not featured as prominently in the treatment of cervical injuries. However, head and neck position sense (HNPS) testing and re-training may have relevance in the management of minor sports-related neck injuries, and play a role in reducing the incidence of ongoing pain and problems with function. For efficacious programmes to be developed and tested, fundamental principles associated with proprioception in the cervical spine should be considered. Hence, this article highlights the importance of anatomical structures in the cervical spine responsible for position sense, and how their interaction with the CNS affects our ability to plan and execute effective purposeful movements. This article includes a review of studies examining position sense in subjects with and without pathology and describes the effects of rehabilitation programmes that have sought to improve position sense. In respect to the receptors providing proprioceptive information for the CNS, the high densities and complex arrays of spindles found in cervical muscles suggest that these receptors play a key role. There is some evidence suggesting that ensemble encoding of discharge patterns from muscle spindles is relayed to the CNS and that a pattern recognition system is used to establish joint position and movement. Sensory information from neck proprioceptive receptors is processed in tandem with information from the vestibular system. There are extensive anatomical connections between neck proprioceptive inputs and vestibular inputs. If positional information from the vestibular system is inaccurate or

  1. Increased neck muscle activity and impaired balance among females with whiplash-related chronic neck pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul-Kristensen, Birgit; Clausen, Brian; Ris Hansen, Inge

    2013-01-01

    To investigate neck muscle activity and postural control in patients with whiplash-associated disorder compared with healthy controls.......To investigate neck muscle activity and postural control in patients with whiplash-associated disorder compared with healthy controls....

  2. Oncologic safety of cervical nerve preservation in neck dissection for head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Keigo; Asato, Ryo; Tsuji, Jun; Miyazaki, Masakazu; Kada, Shinpei; Tsujimura, Takashi; Kataoka, Michiko

    2017-09-01

    Although the functional merits of preserving cervical nerves in neck dissection for head and neck cancer have been reported, the oncologic safety has not yet been determined. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety of cervical nerve preservation. A retrospective chart review was performed on patients with head and neck cancer who had been treated by neck dissection between 2009 and 2014 at Kyoto Medical Center. Management of cervical nerves and clinical results were analyzed. A total of 335 sides of neck dissection had been performed in 222 patients. Cervical nerves were preserved in 175 neck sides and resected in 160 sides. The 5-year overall survival (OS) rate calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method was 71%. The 5-year neck control rate was 95% in cervical nerve preserved sides and 89% in cervical nerve resected sides. Preserving cervical nerves in neck dissection is oncologically safe in selected cases. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. The history of anatomy in Persia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoja, Mohammadali M; Tubbs, R Shane

    2007-04-01

    The study of human anatomy can be found throughout the rich history of Persia. For thousands of years, morphological descriptions derived from this part of the world have contributed to and have helped form our current anatomical knowledge base. In this article we review the major influential Persian periods and the individuals who have contributed to the development of anatomy. We have divided the history of Persia into five eras: (1) the period of the Elamites, Medes, early Persians and Babylonians (10th millennium to 6th century BC); (2) following the establishment of the Persian Empire (6th century BC) to the 7th century AD; (3) after the Islamic conquest of Persia to the ascendency of Baghdad (7th to 13th century AD); (4) from the Mongol invasion of Persia to the foundations of modern anatomy (13th to 18th century AD); and (5) modern Persia/Iran (18th century AD to present). Evidence indicates that human dissection was commonplace in the first era, which led to a disciplined practice of surgery in the centuries leading to the foundation of the Persian Empire. By the emergence of Zoroastrianism in the Persian Empire, the microcosm theory was widely used to understand internal anatomy in relation to the external universe. The world's first cosmopolitan university and hospital were built in Gondishapur, south-western Persia, in the third century AD. Greek and Syriac knowledge influenced the second era. With the gradual ruin of Gondishapur and the foundation of Baghdad following the Islamic conquest of Persia (637-651 AD), a great movement took place, which led to the flourishing of the so-called Middle Age or Islamic Golden Age. Of the influential anatomists of this period, Mesue (777-857 AD), Tabbari (838-870 AD), Rhazes (865-925 AD), Joveini (?-983 AD), Ali ibn Abbas (930-994 AD), Avicenna (980-1037 AD) and Jorjani (1042-1137 AD) all hailed from Persia. There is evidence in the Persian literature as to the direct involvement of these scholars in human

  4. Detailed Surgical Anatomy of Prostate: Relationship between Urethra and Dorsal Vein Complex with Apex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunc, Lutfi; Akin, Yigit; Gumustas, Huseyin; Ak, Esat; Peker, Tuncay; Veneziano, Domenico; Guneri, Cagri

    2016-01-01

    To describe our surgical technique for dissecting the apex of prostate during robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALP) and detailed surgical anatomy of prostate including relationship between urethra and dorsal vein complex with apex. In retrospective view of prospective collected data, 73 patients underwent RALP between December 2012 and September 2014. Surgical anatomy of prostate was revealed in all procedures. Quality of life (QoL) scores were assessed before, immediately after catheter removal, and 1 month after surgery. We divided urinary continence into 3 groups, as very early continence; continence at time of urethral catheter removal, early continent; and continence 1 month after surgery. The rest of the patients were accepted as continence. The mean follow-up was 10.2 ± 5.4 months and mean age was 61.5 ± 6.6. Maximum protection of urethra could be provided in all. Mean catheter removal was 8.9 ± 1.7 days, and all patients were continent at the time of catheter removal. QoL scores before RALP could be protected after surgery (p = 0.2). Neither conversion to open/conventional laparoscopic surgery nor complications related with bladder neck were detected. Our surgical technique can be a strong candidate for being a surgical technique for preserving urethra and very early continence could be provided after surgery. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Posterior subscapular dissection: An improved approach to the brachial plexus for human anatomy students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hager, Shaun; Backus, Timothy Charles; Futterman, Bennett; Solounias, Nikos; Mihlbachler, Matthew C

    2014-05-01

    Students of human anatomy are required to understand the brachial plexus, from the proximal roots extending from spinal nerves C5 through T1, to the distal-most branches that innervate the shoulder and upper limb. However, in human cadaver dissection labs, students are often instructed to dissect the brachial plexus using an antero-axillary approach that incompletely exposes the brachial plexus. This approach readily exposes the distal segments of the brachial plexus but exposure of proximal and posterior segments require extensive dissection of neck and shoulder structures. Therefore, the proximal and posterior segments of the brachial plexus, including the roots, trunks, divisions, posterior cord and proximally branching peripheral nerves often remain unobserved during study of the cadaveric shoulder and brachial plexus. Here we introduce a subscapular approach that exposes the entire brachial plexus, with minimal amount of dissection or destruction of surrounding structures. Lateral retraction of the scapula reveals the entire length of the brachial plexus in the subscapular space, exposing the brachial plexus roots and other proximal segments. Combining the subscapular approach with the traditional antero-axillary approach allows students to observe the cadaveric brachial plexus in its entirety. Exposure of the brachial dissection in the subscapular space requires little time and is easily incorporated into a preexisting anatomy lab curriculum without scheduling additional time for dissection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Neck massage induced dural sinus thrombosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verma Ashish

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Thrombosis of the intracranial dural sinuses and internal jugular veins may occur as a complication of head and neck infections, surgery, central venous access, local malignancy, polycythemia, hyperhomocysteinemia, neck massage and intravenous drug abuse. A high degree of clinical suspicion followed by adequate imaging is prerequisite to early diagnosis and management. We report a young man who had dural sinus thrombosis with jugular venous thrombosis following neck massage.

  7. An Unusual Neck Mass: Ingested Chicken Bone

    OpenAIRE

    Demirhan, Erhan; İber, Metin; Yağız, Özlem; Kandoğan, Tolga; Çukurova, İbrahim

    2016-01-01

    Background: Foreign bodies in the upper aerodigestive tract are frequently seen in otolaryngological practice, but migration of an ingested foreign body to the neck is a very rare condition. Case Report: We present a 66-year-old woman admitted to our outpatient department with a painful neck mass. She had a history of emergency department admission 4 months prior with odynophagia after eating chicken meal. A physical examination revealed a painful and hyperemic mass on the left neck. Ant...

  8. Clinical analysis of deep neck space infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatano, Atsushi; Ui, Naoya; Shigeta, Yasushi; Iimura, Jiro; Rikitake, Masahiro; Endo, Tomonori; Kimura, Akihiro

    2009-01-01

    Deep neck space infections, which affect soft tissues and fascial compartments of the head and neck, can lead to lethal complications unless treated carefully and quickly, even with the advanced antibiotics available. We reviewed our seventeen patients with deep neck abscesses, analyzed their location by reviewing CT images, and discussed the treatment. Deep neck space infections were classified according to the degree of diffusion of infection diagnosed by CT images. Neck space infection in two cases was localized to the upper neck space above the hyoid bone (Stage I). Neck space infection in 12 cases extended to the lower neck space (Stage II), and further extended to the mediastinum in one case (Stage III). The two cases of Stage I and the four cases of Stage II were managed with incision and drainage through a submental approach. The seven cases of Stage II were managed with incision and drainage parallel to the anterior border of the sternocleidomastoid muscle, the ''Dean'' approach. The one case of Stage III received treatment through transcervicotomy and anterior mediastinal drainage through a subxiphodal incision. The parapharyngeal space played an important role in that the inflammatory change can spread to the neck space inferiorly. The anterior cervical space in the infrahyoid neck was important for mediastinal extension of parapharyngeal abscesses. It is important to diagnose deep neck space infections promptly and treat them adequately, and contrast-enhanced CT is useful and indispensable for diagnosis. The point is which kind of drainage has to be performed. If the surgical method of drainage is chosen according to the level of involvement in the neck space and mediastinum, excellent results may be obtained in terms of survival and morbidity. (author)

  9. Thyroid Emphysema Following Penetrating Neck Trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Karadağ, Demet; Doner, Egemen; Adapınar, Baki

    2014-01-01

    Although traumatic thyroid gland rupture or hemorrhage is usually seen in goitrous glands, injuries of the normal thyroid gland after neck trauma have rarely been described in the literature. We describe a 44-year-old man who presented with thyroid emphysema and subcutaneous emphysema (SCE) that occurred after penetrating neck trauma. CT images showed complete resolution of thyroid emphysema and subcutaneous emphysema at follow-up examination. Neck injuries can be life threatening. After pene...

  10. Modeling neck mobility in fossil turtles

    OpenAIRE

    Werneburg, Ingmar; Hinz, Juliane K.; Gumpenberger, Michaela; Volpato, Virginie; Natchev, Nikolay; Joyce, Walter G.

    2014-01-01

    Turtles have the unparalleled ability to retract their heads and necks within their shell but little is known about the evolution of this trait. Extensive analysis of neck mobility in turtles using radiographs, CT scans, and morphometry reveals that basal turtles possessed less mobility in the neck relative to their extant relatives, although the anatomical prerequisites for modern mobility were already established. Many extant turtles are able to achieve hypermobility by dislocating the cent...

  11. Inter-Vertebral Flexibility of the Ostrich Neck: Implications for Estimating Sauropod Neck Flexibility

    OpenAIRE

    Cobley, Matthew J.; Rayfield, Emily J.; Barrett, Paul M.

    2013-01-01

    The flexibility and posture of the neck in sauropod dinosaurs has long been contentious. Improved constraints on sauropod neck function will have major implications for what we know of their foraging strategies, ecology and overall biology. Several hypotheses have been proposed, based primarily on osteological data, suggesting different degrees of neck flexibility. This study attempts to assess the effects of reconstructed soft tissues on sauropod neck flexibility through systematic removal o...

  12. Metastasis to neck from unknown primary tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jose, B.; Bosch, A.; Caldwell, W.L.; Frias, Z.

    1979-01-01

    The records of 54 consecutive patients who were irradiated for metastatic disease in the neck from an unknown primary tumor were reviewed. The overall survival results are comparable to those of other reported series. Patients with high or posterior cervical lymph node involvement were irradiated with fields including the nasopharynx and oropharynx. Patients with high neck nodes had a better survival rate than those with low neck nodes. The size of the neck tumors and the local control after treatment also have prognostic significance. (Auth.)

  13. Subcutaneous fibrosis after whole neck irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirota, Saeko; Tsujino, Kayoko; Oshitani, Takashi; Hishikawa, Yoshio; Takada, Yoshiki; Kono, Michio; Abe, Mitsuyuki

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To identify the risk factors for moderate to severe subcutaneous fibrosis after whole neck irradiation. Methods and Materials: We analyzed 233 cases of patients who had undergone whole neck irradiation with 4-MV X-ray or 8-10-MeV electrons, or both, and had been followed with regard to their skin condition for at least 1 year. The prescribed dose to the whole neck ranged from 19.2 to 72.4 Gy (median 50). The skin-absorbed dose was specified as that at a depth of 4.1 mm (d4.1-mm depth ), and a biologically equivalent dose (BED) of d4.1-mm depth was also estimated (BED 1.8 4.1-mm depth ). Results: Univariate analysis revealed that previous neck dissection, concurrent chemotherapy, corticosteroid administration as a part of chemotherapy, fractionation, and BED 1.8 4.1-mm depth were significant prognostic variables. Multivariate analysis showed that BED 1.8 4.1-mm depth and previous neck dissection were the only prognostic variables for moderate to severe subcutaneous fibrosis. Conclusion: A high dose to a 4.1-mm depth of the skin and a history of neck dissection were identified as the predominant risk factors for moderate to severe subcutaneous fibrosis after whole neck irradiation. A subcutaneous dose should be considered in radiotherapy treatment planning involving the whole neck, especially in cases in which patients have undergone previous neck dissection

  14. Treatment results of the neck by concurrent chemoradiotherapy for advanced head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokumaru, Yutaka; Fujii, Masato; Habu, Noboru; Yajima, Yoko; Yorozu, Atsunori

    2009-01-01

    Concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) is one of the recent emerging modalities for advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (HNSCC). However some of the patients treated by CCRT have residual or recurrent cervical lymph nodes. In these cases, neck dissection is considered to be useful in the point of locolegional control and disease free survival. This study aims to analyze neck control rate by CCRT and usefulness of the neck dissection after CCRT for HNSCC. The medical records of 69 consecutive patients (stage III: 4%, stage IV: 96%) treated with CCRT for SCCHN (hypopharynx: 40, oropharynx: 25, larynx: 4) from 2003 through 2007 were reviewed. Clinical complete response (CR) rates of N1, N2a, N2b, N2c and N3 were 75%, 100%, 71%, 74% and 43% respectively. Among the patients with complete neck response, only 2 patients (5%) had an isolated neck recurrence. Eleven patients underwent surgical neck procedures including 7 planned neck dissections and 4 salvage neck dissections. All the 11 patients with neck dissections had good regional control except 1 case. There were a few minor complications such as wound infection and laryngeal edema. Patients who have a complete clinical regional response to CCRT have a low probability of an isolated recurrence in the neck. Planned and salvage neck dissections can be safely performed and considered to be useful in the point of regional control after intensive CCRT. (author)

  15. Overview of radiological anatomy and topography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed Ali Abdul Khader

    2004-01-01

    This chapter introduces the reader to the examination of the most common radiographs of the body that will be encountered by the x-ray operator. The discussion of the radiograph begins with a review of the anatomy and functions of the region. This is followed by a description of the normal anatomy that is imaged in the radiographs. The subjects discussed are follows - Skeleton; Axial Skeleton, Skull: functions, radiographic appearance. Vertebral Column, Thoracic Cage (Sternum and Ribs), The Chest Radiograph, Appendicular Skeleton, Shoulder Girdle and Upper Arm. Radiological Appearance of the Elbow, Radiological Appearance of the Wrist and Hand, Pelvic Girdle and Lower Limbs, Innominate (hip bones) Radiological Appearance of the Pelvis, Lower Extremities, Joints, Classification, Radiological Appearance of the Knee, Radiological Appearance of the Ankle and Foot, Systems and Cavities of the Body, Cranial Cavity, Thoracic Cavity, Abdominal Cavity, Pelvic Cavity

  16. Understanding chest radiographic anatomy with MDCT reformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sussmann, A.R. [Department of Radiology, Thoracic Imaging, NYU Langone Medical Center, New York, NY (United States); Ko, J.P., E-mail: jane.ko@nyumc.or [Department of Radiology, Thoracic Imaging, NYU Langone Medical Center, New York, NY (United States)

    2010-02-15

    Chest radiograph interpretation requires an understanding of the mediastinal reflections and anatomical structures. Computed tomography (CT) improves the learning of three-dimensional (3D) anatomy, and more recently multidetector CT (MDCT) technology has enabled the creation of high-quality reformations in varying projections. Multiplanar reformations (MPRs) of varying thickness in the coronal and sagittal projections can be created for direct correlation with findings on frontal and lateral chest radiographs, respectively. MPRs enable simultaneous visualization of the craniocaudal extent of thoracic structures while providing the anatomic detail that has been previously illustrated using cadaveric specimens. Emphasis will be placed on improving knowledge of mediastinal anatomy and reflections including edges, lines, and stripes that are visible on chest radiographs.

  17. Fetal anatomy revealed with fast MR sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, D; Hatabu, H; Gaa, J; Atkinson, M W; Edelman, R R

    1996-10-01

    Although all the imaging studies in this pictorial essay were done for maternal rather than fetal indications, fetal anatomy was well visualized. However, when scans are undertaken for fetal indications, fetal motion in between scout views and imaging sequences may make specific image planes difficult to obtain. Of the different techniques described in this review, we preferred the HASTE technique and use it almost exclusively for scanning pregnant patients. The T2-weighting is ideal for delineating fetal organs. Also, the HASTE technique allows images to be obtained in 430 msec, limiting artifacts arising from maternal and fetal motion. MR imaging should play a more important role in evaluating equivocal sonographic cases as fast scanning techniques are more widely used. Obstetric MR imaging no longer will be limited by fetal motion artifacts. When complex anatomy requires definition in a complicated pregnant patient, MR imaging should be considered as a useful adjunct to sonography.

  18. Pocket atlas of MRI body anatomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berquist, T.H.; Ehman, R.L.; May, G.R.

    1987-01-01

    This book is a guide to the anatomy of extracranial organs as seen in magnetic resonance images. This collection of 96 magnetic resonance images, accompanied by explanatory line drawings, covers all the major organs of the body- shoulder and humerus; elbow and forearm; hand and wrist; chest; abdomen; pelvis; thigh; knee; calf; and ankle. The images are displayed in the axial, coronal, and sagittal planes, enabling radiologists to quickly review coronal and sagittal anatomy as it applies to routine MRI practice. Special emphasis is placed on the extremities, where spatial resolution, coronal and sagittal planes, and soft tissue contrast provide important anatomic detail. Each MRI image is carefully labeled - using numbers with legends at the top of the page - to highlight key anatomic features. Where applicable, special parameters and positioning are noted below the images. Accompanying each image is a line drawing demonstrating the level and plane of the image.

  19. Patellofemoral anatomy and biomechanics: current concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZAFFAGNINI, STEFANO; DEJOUR, DAVID; GRASSI, ALBERTO; BONANZINGA, TOMMASO; MUCCIOLI, GIULIO MARIA MARCHEGGIANI; COLLE, FRANCESCA; RAGGI, FEDERICO; BENZI, ANDREA; MARCACCI, MAURILIO

    2013-01-01

    The patellofemoral joint, due to its particular bone anatomy and the numerous capsuloligamentous structures and muscles that act dynamically on the patella, is considered one of the most complex joints in the human body from the biomechanical point of view. The medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) has been demonstrated to contribute 60% of the force that opposes lateral displacement of the patella, and MPFL injury results in an approximately 50% reduction in the force needed to dislocate the patella laterally with the knee extended. For this reason, recent years have seen a growing interest in the study of this important anatomical structure, whose aponeurotic nature has thus been demonstrated. The MPFL acts as a restraint during motion, playing an active role under conditions of laterally applied stress, but an only marginal role during natural knee flexion. However, it remains extremely difficult to clearly define the anatomy of the MPFL and its relationships with other anatomical structures. PMID:25606512

  20. Interoperability between phenotype and anatomy ontologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoehndorf, Robert; Oellrich, Anika; Rebholz-Schuhmann, Dietrich

    2010-12-15

    Phenotypic information is important for the analysis of the molecular mechanisms underlying disease. A formal ontological representation of phenotypic information can help to identify, interpret and infer phenotypic traits based on experimental findings. The methods that are currently used to represent data and information about phenotypes fail to make the semantics of the phenotypic trait explicit and do not interoperate with ontologies of anatomy and other domains. Therefore, valuable resources for the analysis of phenotype studies remain unconnected and inaccessible to automated analysis and reasoning. We provide a framework to formalize phenotypic descriptions and make their semantics explicit. Based on this formalization, we provide the means to integrate phenotypic descriptions with ontologies of other domains, in particular anatomy and physiology. We demonstrate how our framework leads to the capability to represent disease phenotypes, perform powerful queries that were not possible before and infer additional knowledge. http://bioonto.de/pmwiki.php/Main/PheneOntology.