Sample records for hostage rescue planning

  1. Essays on Strategy. Hostage Rescue Planning, Maritime Theater Nuclear Capability, Strategic Psychological Operations (United States)


    the helicopters, which was changing position to allow a second helicopter to refuel, collided with a C-130 and both aircraft burst into flames. Eight...missions, planners must carefully assess the operational and technical feasibility of the plan. The lack of one flyable helicopter at Desert One changed ...plannirg anduXC( Lit ion is paramount ýi n~ u indo w~if t ink mu i meteo rologicalI or cliimat oloigical co nsideration- niav rutinta plainnud operation to

  2. SERVARE VITAS- Political Consequences for Romanian National Government and Military of Hostage Deaths in a Romanian Special Operations Forces Hostage Rescue Operation (United States)


    In a third hostage rescue operation, April 22, 1997, the Peruvian Special Forces conducted Operacion Chavin de Huantar against the Japanese embassy...negotiation manual (1983), the use of a stalling-for-time tactic could have the following results: (1) increased human needs (2) reduction of anxiety and...accessed on 3 September 2005. 8 In Hostage Negotiation Manual (1983) are presented other four tactics used: obtaining information, calming a hostage

  3. The Development Of Indonesias Doctrine for Special Hostage Rescue Operations (United States)


    waiting. In some cases, the hostages can develop a special relationship or feeling toward the perpetrators known as the Stockholm syndrome .40 In...was shadowing the yacht. The close proximity of the ships may have caused a panic among pirates and further could have provoked them to act

  4. DRAGON ROUGE: The Rescue of Hostages in the Congo (United States)


    American who could be flaunted before his Simbas and jeunesse as a living, breathing example of the "thousands" of Americans against whom, as the rebel...used by the speaker indicated that the rebel leaders had fled Stanleyville, leaving the tc,,sn in the hands of the jeunesse .,6 ’ The second message...Congolese left behind to the mercy of the jeunesse and Olenga’s soldiers if the airborne rescue force went in and got out before Van de Waele arrived

  5. SERVARE VITAS- Political Consequences for Romanian National Government and Military of Hostage Deaths in a Romanian Special Operations Forces Hostage Rescue Operation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rapanu, Adrian


    ... enforcement and military are immature. This paper attempts to shed light upon the current crisis management procedures and how that arrangement can affect the effectiveness of the state response in hostage situation crises both in country and abroad...

  6. Management Plans : Search and Rescue Plan : Shiawassee National Wildlife Refuge (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A plan for search and rescue (SAR) operations on Shiawassee National Wildlife Refuge. Objectives include: (A) to carry out or assist in search and rescue (SAR) on...

  7. A Critical Examination of Planning Imperatives Applicable to Hostage Rescue Operations (United States)


    the helicopters orbiting north of Teheran would land in the vicinity of the compound (or in nearby Amjadieh soccer stadium, if the compound was...feeling of vulnerability. As Colonel " Bull " Simons, assault leader on the raid stated, "Christ, the thing was worth doing without getting them." 20 In...transcend national boundries. 27 Group composition is equally important to ascertain. Are there any women or varied nationalities within the group? The ten

  8. Expectations of a business rescue plan: international directives for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preliminary analysis of business rescue plans suggested that a significant contrast exists between international reorganisational plans and those being published under the newly formed business rescue regime in South Africa. Since the South African regime has emerged from an international insolvency framework, ...

  9. A rescue plan for UK physics funding

    CERN Multimedia

    Brumfiel, Geoff


    "Britain's most troubled research council is about to undergo radical surgery. On 4 March, UK science minister Paul Drayson unveiled his plan to reform the Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)" (0.5 page)

  10. The hostage experience: implications for negotiation strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giebels, Ellen; Noelanders, Sigrid; Vervaeke, Geert


    From a clinical and social psychological perspective, this exploratory study aims at relating the hostage experience to hostage negotiation strategies. Therefore, we conducted 11 semi-structured and in-depth interviews with victims of two types of hostage-taking: sieges and kidnappings. The results

  11. The hostage experience : Implications for negotiation strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giebels, E; Noelanders, S; Vervaeke, G


    From a clinical and social psychological perspective, this exploratory study aims at relating the hostage experience to hostage negotiation strategies. Therefore, we conducted 11 semi-structured and in-depth interviews with victims of two types of hostage-taking: sieges and kidnappings. The results

  12. Anatomy of a Hostage Rescue: What Makes Hostage Rescue Operations Successful? (United States)


    for the terrorists. On 21 January 1997, Michel Minnig arranges for a house near the residence ( Tomas Alva Edison Avenue #257), to be used by...irrational consistency is manifested in the form of post- decisional rationalization. People seek strong justification for their behavior and rearrange...their beliefs in order to lend support to their actions. Post decisional rationalization therefore makes policy-makers less responsible to the

  13. Numbered Lives. Some Statistical Observations from 77 International Hostage Episodes, (United States)


    hostages, keep a lookoat for a possible assault, negotiate, sleep , etc. The average number of men involved in the 16 barricade and hostage situations...prisoners were flown to Kuala Lumpur on August 7 where they were joined by the terrorists. Ac- companied by two Malaysian and two Japanese government

  14. Disarming People with Words: Strategies of Interactional Communication that Crisis (Hostage) Negotiators Share with Systemic Clinicians (United States)

    Charles, Laurie L.


    This qualitative study examined the interactional communication strategies used by law enforcement officers during a hostage-taking incident at a high school. The research involved analysis of the negotiation conversation between police crisis (hostage) negotiators and a hostage taker who entered his former high school to take revenge on a…

  15. Planners to the rescue: spatial planning facilitating the development of offshore wind energy. (United States)

    Jay, Stephen


    The development of offshore wind energy has started to take place surprisingly quickly, especially in North European waters. This has taken the wind energy industry out of the territory of planning systems that usually govern the siting of wind farms on land, and into the world of departmental, sectoral regulation of marine activities. Although this has favoured the expansion of offshore wind energy in some respects, evidence suggests that the practice and principles of spatial planning can make an important contribution to the proper consideration of proposals for offshore wind arrays. This is especially so when a strategic planning process is put in place for marine areas, in which offshore wind is treated as part of the overall configuration of marine interests, so that adjustments can be made in the interests of wind energy. The current process of marine planning in the Netherlands is described as an illustration of this. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Strategic Reality and Tactical Mirages: Special Operations and the Iranian Hostage Rescue, 1979-1980 (United States)


    considering Carter’s waning popularity. By 1979 oil prices were again on the rise and the President’s approval rating was analogous to Richard Nixon’s at...including access to Iranian oil and American commercial contracts. For example, companies such as Bell Helicopter had an exchange of American-made...killed Osama Bin Laden in Abbottabad, Pakistan . The shrinking of strategy and tactics is apparent in the highly publicized image. The political

  17. Dragon Operations: Hostage Rescues in the Congo, 1964-1965 (Leavenworth Papers, Number 14) (United States)


    Kasongo, the local jeunesse (disaffected youth gangs sympathetic to any attack on the govern- ment) had swollen his ranks. Armed with machetes and...clubs, the jeunesse led the assault on Kasongo, and the ANC troops fled before the ragtag attack, leaving behind nearly 200 Congolese, including all... jeunesse , ANC defenders fled the city. Stanleyville was now under rebel control. 14 If Western observers were unprepared for the sudden loss of

  18. Space Rescue (United States)

    Muratore, John F.


    Space Rescue has been a topic of speculation for a wide community of people for decades. Astronauts, aerospace engineers, diplomats, medical and rescue professionals, inventors and science fiction writers have all speculated on this problem. Martin Caidin's 1964 novel Marooned dealt with the problems of rescuing a crew stranded in low earth orbit. Legend at the Johnson Space Center says that Caidin's portrayal of a Russian attempt to save the American crew played a pivotal role in convincing the Russians to join the real joint Apollo-Soyuz mission. Space Rescue has been a staple in science fiction television and movies portrayed in programs such as Star Trek, Stargate-SG1 and Space 1999 and movies such as Mission To Mars and Red Planet. As dramatic and as difficult as rescue appears in fictional accounts, in the real world it has even greater drama and greater difficulty. Space rescue is still in its infancy as a discipline and the purpose of this chapter is to describe the issues associated with space rescue and the work done so far in this field. For the purposes of this chapter, the term space rescue will refer to any system which allows for rescue or escape of personnel from situations which endanger human life in a spaceflight operation. This will span the period from crew ingress prior to flight through crew egress postlanding. For the purposes of this chapter, the term primary system will refer to the spacecraft system that a crew is either attempting to escape from or from which an attempt is being made to rescue the crew.

  19. Scholars in the Nineties: Actors, Subjects, Spectators or Hostages?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Gil Antón


    Full Text Available Dr. Gil questions the role played by Mexican university academics in the transformation of higher education during the nineties. After outlining the general context of change and its importance, the author proposes avoiding the false dichotomy between restoring the past or installing, without reflective mediation, a schematic future. He suggests taking into consideration the current national academic body composed of several generations of scholars. Three phases are established in terms of the modification of academic activities during the last decades of the twentieth century, and the changes in the level of higher education are considered. Dr. Gil asks if the academics have been actors, subjects, spectators or hostages-both in regard to regulations governing their activity and in the modifications of university processes and structure. The essay ends by proposing a general agenda for research in the field of university studies, and emphasizes two problems: the need for a detailed description of the type and depth of changes, and the definition of the academic as a central actor in institutional life. 

  20. Taking of hostages as an offense in international law and Serbian regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cmiljanić Bajo M.


    Full Text Available In the development of international relations, hostage-taking was carried out as an insurance against fraud, not keeping obligations, or according to the rules of war law. Earlier taking hostages was more related to armed conflicts, and in modern times it is more related to terrorist acts in international terrorism. The taking of hostages is an international offense, which has its essential elements and characteristics. It is a crime punishable under the national legislation of many countries, and taking of hostages in armed conflicts is a war crime for which the International Criminal Court is responsible. International terrorism is manifested through a variety of terrorist acts, which, through fear and panic aim to achieve a political purpose. The range of these terrorist acts is wide and varied. One of these terrorist activities is the taking of hostages. As an offense established by the norms of international law, this unlawful act must be specifically investigated and clarified, which is the goal of this paper. This paper gives an overview of the features and elements of the offense in the light of international law and the laws of the Republic of Serbia.

  1. 77 FR 64050 - FMCSA Policy on the Suspension of Operating Authority for Hostage Load Violations (United States)


    ... been estimated and for which payment has been tendered. A motor carrier or broker found holding a HHG shipment hostage may be subject to suspension of registration for a period of not less than 12 months to... a broker or motor carrier's registration for a period of not less than 12 months or more than 36...

  2. Alienation and Militancy in the Niger Delta : Hostage Taking and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tional oil companies, kidnapping of oil company personnel, particularly expatriate staff, became a useful tool, as it restrains security operatives and brings in substantial money to the captors. Hostage taking by Niger Delta militants was a worrisome dimension in. 2006 due to the frequency and intensity of such events.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashir Bilyalovich Khubiev


    Full Text Available Hostage-taking see on the methods of comparative-historical analysis in the context of identifying its political, economic and social nature, as well as the social base and national nature. Russia is analyzed in terms of the essential features of the manifestation of terrorism and hostage-taking, highlights macroscale of the phenomens, they have tried to achieve political independence of terror by relying on international forces in the absence of a solid social base.In this context, also considered issues of national identity, which is in a «multi-dimensional» the Russian state can not be solved by force, but only on the matrix to achieve «social identity» of Russians as a form of community solidarity and social basis of community of a higher level – community of Russians, Russian people.

  4. Teaching Holocaust Rescue: A Problematic Pedagogy (United States)

    Lindquist, David H.


    Determining how to teach about rescue during the Holocaust presents many dilemmas to teachers as they plan Holocaust curricula. Rescue is often overemphasized, and faulty perspectives about rescuers and their actions may cause students to develop distorted views about this aspect of Holocaust history. This article explores several factors that…

  5. A Method of Rescue Flight Path Plan Correction Based on the Fusion of Predicted Low-altitude Wind Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Zhang


    Full Text Available This study proposes a low-altitude wind prediction model for correcting the flight path plans of low-altitude aircraft. To solve large errors in numerical weather prediction (NWP data and the inapplicability of high-altitude meteorological data to low altitude conditions, the model fuses the low-altitude lattice prediction data and the observation data of a specified ground international exchange station through the unscented Kalman filter (UKF-based NWP interpretation technology to acquire the predicted low-altitude wind data. Subsequently, the model corrects the arrival times at the route points by combining the performance parameters of the aircraft according to the principle of velocity vector composition. Simulation experiment shows that the RMSEs of wind speed and direction acquired with the UKF prediction method are reduced by 12.88% and 17.50%, respectively, compared with the values obtained with the traditional Kalman filter prediction method. The proposed prediction model thus improves the accuracy of flight path planning in terms of time and space.

  6. Live to tell: Narratives of methamphetamine-using women taken hostage by their intimate partners in San Diego, CA. (United States)

    Ludwig-Barron, Natasha; Syvertsen, Jennifer L; Lagare, Tiffany; Palinkas, Lawrence A; Stockman, Jamila K


    Hostage-taking, an overlooked phenomenon in public health, constitutes a severe form of intimate partner violence and may be a precursor to female homicide within relationships characterized by substance use. Criminal justice studies indicate that most hostage incidents are male-driven events with more than half of all cases associated with a prior history of violence and substance use. Methamphetamine use increases a woman's risk of partner violence, with methamphetamine-using individuals being up to nine times more likely to commit homicide. As homicide is the most lethal outcome of partner violence and methamphetamine use, this study aims to characterize the potential role of hostage-taking within these intersecting epidemics. Methamphetamine-using women enrolled in an HIV behavioural intervention trial (FASTLANE-II) who reported experiences of partner violence were purposively selected to participate in qualitative sub-studies (Women's Study I & II). Twenty-nine women, ages 26-57, participated in semi-structured interviews that discussed relationship dynamics, partner violence, drug use and sexual practices. Findings indicated four cases of women being held hostage by a partner, with two women describing two separate hostage experiences. Women discussed partner jealousy, drug withdrawal symptoms, heightened emotional states from methamphetamine use, and escalating violent incidents as factors leading up to hostage-taking. Factors influencing lack of reporting incidents to law enforcement included having a criminal record, fear of partner retaliation, and intentions to terminate the relationship when the partner is incarcerated. Educating women on the warning signs of hostage-taking within the context of methamphetamine use and promoting behaviour change among male perpetrators can contribute to reducing the risk of homicide. Furthermore, bridging the gap between health services and law enforcement agencies and providing comprehensive services that address the


    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Howard Cooke


      This article discusses the situation where a company has been given a lifeline of an approved Business Rescue Plan but has to balance the need for speed by having to engage in negotiation for reducing employment...

  8. Surf lifeguard rescues. (United States)

    Morgan, Damian; Ozanne-Smith, Joan


    This study assessed the utility of lifeguard rescue data for providing information on person and situation factors to inform surf bather drowning prevention research. The dataset comprised 872 beach-days (daily lifeguard reports) obtained from 26 beaches over a 95-day period in Victoria, Australia. The rescue rate was 128 per 100,000 in-water bathers. One or more rescues were required on 125 beach-days (14%). Rescue on a beach-day was more likely for offshore wind conditions, relatively high daily air temperatures, and high bather numbers (P < .05). Compared to female bathers, males were more frequently rescued (65%) and more likely (P < .05) to be from a younger age group (30 years or less), although being older was associated with a relatively poorer condition on rescue. Although rescues are proportional to water exposure, frequencies are also influenced by situation and person factors. Bathers at relatively high risk of rescue are hypothesized to be overrepresented in amenable sea and weather conditions, and poor patient condition on rescue may be associated with exposure to a preexisting health condition. Copyright © 2013 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Hostage (crisis) negotiation: the potential role of negotiator personality, decision-making style, coping style and emotional intelligence on negotiator success. (United States)

    Grubb, Amy; Brown, Sarah


    This article explores the potential role of hostage negotiator characteristics and the impact of psychological constructs on negotiator success. It explores the role of Personality, Decision-Making Style, Coping Style, Cognitive Coping Style and Emotion Regulation and Emotional Intelligence within high stress environments and occupations. The findings suggest that certain individual traits and characteristics may play a role in negotiator success, via the mediation of specific styles, which are conducive to effective crisis negotiation skills. It is proposed that these findings have application within the field of hostage/crisis negotiation in the format of guidance regarding the recruitment and selection of hostage negotiators and the identification of potential training needs within individual negotiators in order to maximize their efficacy within the field. In line with this, it is argued that a psychometric tool that assesses these constructs is developed in order to aid the process of hostage negotiation selection.

  10. We must rescue them. (United States)

    Leber, G


    Leber describes the motivation and goals of Operation Rescue, a pro-life activist organization. Arguing that all human life is sacred from the moment of conception until natural death, Leber blames the acceptance of abortion on the values of an affluent society. He finds justification for Operation Rescue's work in the Old and New Testaments, and calls for acceptance of biblical standards of ethics and morals in rejecting abortion.

  11. Archaeological Rescue Excavations at the Dejazmach Gebreslassie ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Archaeological rescue test excavations that were carried out by the Ethiopian Cultural Heritage Project Site Planning and Conservation sub-component at the Gebreslassie Bariya Gabir palace enclosure at the back of The Main Stelae Field in Aksum from the 5th of June to the 15th of July 2005 yielded at least four ...

  12. Pepper spray projectile/disperser for countering hostage and barricade situations (United States)

    Kelly, Roy


    An improved less-than-lethal projectile for use in hostage, barricade and tactical assault situations has been developed. The projectile is launched from a standoff position and disperse the incapacitating agent oleoresin capsicum in the form of atomized droplets. A literature search followed by an experimental study were conducted of the mechanism of barrier defeat for various shaped projectiles against the targets of interest in this work: window glass, plasterboard and plywood. Some of the trade- offs between velocity, standoff, projectile shape and size, penetration, and residual energy were quantified. Analysis of the ballistic trajectory and recoil, together with calculations of he amount of pepper spray needed to incapacitate the occupants of a typical barricaded structure, indicated the suitability of using a fin stabilized projectile fired from a conventional 37 mm riot control gas gun. Two projectile designs were considered, manufactured and tested. The results of static tests to simulate target impact, together with live firing trials against a variety of targets, showed that rear ejection of the atomized spray was more reproducible and effective than nose ejection. The performance characteristics of the finalized design were investigated in trials using the standard barrier for testing barrier penetrating tear gas agents as defined by the National Institute of Justice.

  13. Sex, Deportation and Rescue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plambech, Sine


    – facilitation, remittances, deportation, and rescue – and suggests that we have to examine multiple sites and relink these in order to more fully understand the complexity of sex work migration. Drawing upon literature within transnational feminist analysis, critical human trafficking studies, and migration...

  14. Standards for manpower in militarized mine rescue departments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krokhalev, B.G. (SPO Metallurgbezopasnost' (Russian Federation))


    Discusses the organization, duties and role of militarized mine rescue departments in the mining industry of the Russian Federation. In 1991, militarized mine rescue personnel was summoned 191 times, saving the lives of 27 workers and providing first aid to 51 injured persons. Militarized mine rescue departments ensure rapid response to a distress call, with two detachments of rescuers dispatched to the disaster site within 1-3 minutes. According to the Code of militarized mine rescue units, mines are classified into two categories with respect to safety: category one is prone to rock bumps, sudden outbursts, spontaneous combustion and dust explosions. Two techniques for calculating the required manpower of militarized mine rescue sections are described. It is pointed out that a major criterion for consideration in manning and deploying such units is a coordinated and approved plan for emergency clearing at each particular mine.

  15. Rescue therapies for seizures. (United States)

    Poukas, Valeriya S; Pollard, John R; Anderson, Christopher Todd


    Most medical therapies for epilepsy consist of daily (or multiple-daily) dose, fixed-schedule, pharmacologic oral agents. Despite adherence, many patients continue to experience seizures. Various products have been discovered, designed, and marketed to serve as seizure-abortant therapies. These agents can be administered rapidly, as a "rescue" therapy, once a clinical seizure or cluster of seizures starts. Rescue medications are given as needed in an attempt to disrupt progression of a given seizure, and forestall what would otherwise be a more prolonged or more severe clinical event. Seizure-abortants also serve to aid in the management of seizure emergencies, such as prolonged, repetitive seizures, or status epilepticus. These compounds are not appropriate for all patients. Nevertheless, they do provide therapeutic benefit to several groups of patients: 1) those who perceive the onset of their seizures and have time to perform a self-intervention, 2) patients' caregivers who administer the therapy when they witness the onset of an ictal event, and 3) patients who are in the midst of an out-of-the-hospital seizure emergency (a seizure cluster or status epilepticus). In this article we will review currently available and future rescue therapies for seizures: US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved and FDA nonapproved drugs, nonpharmacologic behavioral treatments, the vagus nerve stimulator and the NeuroPace RNS® System (Mountain View, CA).

  16. Simulation Optimization of Search and Rescue in Disaster Relief Based on Distributed Auction Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Tang


    Full Text Available In this paper, we optimize the search and rescue (SAR in disaster relief through agent-based simulation. We simulate rescue teams’ search behaviors with the improved Truncated Lévy walks. Then we propose a cooperative rescue plan based on a distributed auction mechanism, and illustrate it with the case of landslide disaster relief. The simulation is conducted in three scenarios, including “fatal”, “serious” and “normal”. Compared with the non-cooperative rescue plan, the proposed rescue plan in this paper would increase victims’ relative survival probability by 7–15%, increase the ratio of survivors getting rescued by 5.3–12.9%, and decrease the average elapsed time for one site getting rescued by 16.6–21.6%. The robustness analysis shows that search radius can affect the rescue efficiency significantly, while the scope of cooperation cannot. The sensitivity analysis shows that the two parameters, the time limit for completing rescue operations in one buried site and the maximum turning angle for next step, both have a great influence on rescue efficiency, and there exists optimal value for both of them in view of rescue efficiency.

  17. Counting Lives in a Theater of Terror - an Analysis of Media-oriented Hostage Takings in Iraq, Afghanistan, Pakistan and Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Tinnes


    Full Text Available This article summarizes key findings of a quantitative and qualitative analysis of media-oriented hostage takings involving local people and foreigners in Iraq, Afghanistan, Pakistan and Saudi Arabia during a five-year period (01-01-2004 to 12-31-2008. Based on a long-term tracking of Islamist online publications, the chosen approach did not only allow to identify static values, but also granted insights into developments over time. Characteristic patterns regarding responsible organizations, nationalities of victims, distribution channels for hostage media, etc. could in this way be identified.  The kidnappers' organizational affiliation turned out to be the most significant variable. It decisively affected other factors like number of abductions, likelihood of fatal outcome or duration of a kidnapping. As a consequence, the highest attention should be given to  this parameter when dealing with hostage situations. Another key finding is that insurgents have been increasingly refraining from broadcasting visual representations of extreme violence. This article is based on the German-language dissertation J. Tinnes. “Internetnutzung islamistischer Terror- und Insurgentengruppen unter besonderer Berücksichtigung von medialen Geiselnahmen im Irak, Afghanistan, Pakistan und Saudi-Arabien” -  in English: “Internet Usage of Islamist Terrorist and Insurgent Groups with Special Regard for Media-oriented Hostage Takings in Iraq, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Saudi Arabia”.[1] In the following I shall summarize key findings in order to make them accessible to non-German speaking readers.

  18. Reliable Rescue Routing Optimization for Urban Emergency Logistics under Travel Time Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuping Li


    Full Text Available The reliability of rescue routes is critical for urban emergency logistics during disasters. However, studies on reliable rescue routing under stochastic networks are still rare. This paper proposes a multiobjective rescue routing model for urban emergency logistics under travel time reliability. A hybrid metaheuristic integrating ant colony optimization (ACO and tabu search (TS was designed to solve the model. An experiment optimizing rescue routing plans under a real urban storm event, was carried out to validate the proposed model. The experimental results showed how our approach can improve rescue efficiency with high travel time reliability.

  19. Rescuing--a universal phenomenon. (United States)

    Little, John


    Rescuing, where the person is delivered from the immediacy of their conundrum by another, complicates management. The object of this paper is to understand the difficulty in relinquishing the rescuing role. Rescuing is a universal phenomenon in parenting, teaching and therapy that has developed over time through a variety of interwoven social, economic, psychological and clinical variables. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2014.

  20. John B. Dunlop, The 2002 Dubrovka and 2004 Beslan Hostage Crises. A Critique of Russian Counter-Terrorism. With a foreword by Donald N. Jensen. Stuttgart: Ibidem-Verlag, 2006, 166 pages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandine Regamey


    Full Text Available An author of numerous books on Russia and Chechnya, John Dunlop dedicates this study to examining the management by Russian authorities of the two main hostage crises since the beginning of the second war in Chechnya in 1999. The first part analyses the Beslan hostage-taking in September 2004, in which more than 1000 persons, mainly children, were detained in a school in a small in North Ossetian town. Officially, 317 hostages were killed in this terrorist act for which Bassaev claimed respon...

  1. Guidance of Autonomous Amphibious Vehicles for Flood Rescue Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankarachary Ragi


    Full Text Available We develop a path-planning algorithm to guide autonomous amphibious vehicles (AAVs for flood rescue support missions. Specifically, we develop an algorithm to control multiple AAVs to reach/rescue multiple victims (also called targets in a flood scenario in 2D, where the flood water flows across the scene and the targets move (drifted by the flood water along the flood stream. A target is said to be rescued if an AAV lies within a circular region of a certain radius around the target. The goal is to control the AAVs such that each target gets rescued while optimizing a certain performance objective. The algorithm design is based on the theory of partially observable Markov decision process (POMDP. In practice, POMDP problems are hard to solve exactly, so we use an approximation method called nominal belief-state optimization (NBO. We compare the performance of the NBO approach with a greedy approach.

  2. Search & Rescue Plan: Necedah National Wildlife Refuge (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Necedah National Wildlife Refuge is located in a rural environment approximately 150 miles northwest of Milwaukee, 100 miles northwest of Madison, and 150 miles...

  3. "Alien Rescue": Designing for Student-Centered Learning. (United States)

    Pedersen, Susan; Liu, Min; Williams, Douglas


    Describes the development of "Alien Rescue," a hypermedia-based program designed to engage middle school students in solving a complex problem related to the solar system and that has a science fiction premise. Discusses planning; producing and testing; theoretical influences on the design methodology; and trends in educational software…

  4. An Adaptation of an Algorithm of Search and Rescue Operations to Ship Manoeuvrability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lech Kasyk


    Full Text Available This article presents an overview of an algorithm to facilitate action when planning search and rescue operations, taking into account actual hydro-meteorological conditions and the maneuverability of ships involved in the search.

  5. Joseph Conrad's tormented Rescue (fantasy). (United States)

    Freedman, William


    Joseph Conrad was a notoriously tormented writer for whom the creative act was often a punishment severe enough to drive him into paralyzing depressions that delayed the completion of his novels, sometimes for years. By far the most agonizing of these projects was The Rescue, a novel he began in 1898, abandoned a year later, tried unsuccessfully to continue several times over the next two decades, but was only able to resume in 1918 and to complete, after another tortured two-year struggle, in 1920. An explanation for this incapacity, that is powerfully suggested by the novel's evocative title and perhaps unintentionally ironic subtitle (A Romance of the Shallows) has not yet been explored. Using Freud's 1910 essay on the rescue fantasy, "Contributions to the Psychology of Love: A Special Type of Choice of Object Made by Men," and Emanuel Berman's instructive revision and expansion of the concept in his 2003 American Imago essay, "Ferenczi, Rescue, and Utopia," I argue that a substantial explanation for Conrad's tormented history with The Rescue is ascribable to its quite remarkably faithful treatment of a rescue fantasy with deep and disabling resonance for its author. More specifically, the difficulty was compounded by the novel's dramatization of the soul-crushing conflict between two such fantasies: one in the service of the masculine ideal of unflinching dedication to a heroic purpose, the other promising satisfaction to the equally potent demands of emotional and sexual desire. Features of Conrad's narrative fit so tightly and consistently with the theory as Freud (and Abraham) proposed and as Berman elaborated it that The Rescue offers itself as one of those rare and reinforcing instances wherein the literary text seems to validate the psychoanalytic theory at least as persuasively as the theory "understands" the text.

  6. Drosophila simulans Lethal hybrid rescue mutation (Lhr) rescues ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Our results reveal that the phenotypes of the 'Lhr dependent rescued' hybrids were largely dependent on the genetic background and the dominance in species and hybrids, and not on Lhr. Cytological examination reveal that while the salivary chromosome of 'larval lethal' male carrying melanogaster X chromosome was ...

  7. GIS Support for Flood Rescue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liang, Gengsheng; Mioc, Darka; Anton, François


    Under flood events, the ground traffic is blocked in and around the flooded area due to damages to roads and bridges. The traditional transportation network may not always help people to make a right decision for evacuation. In order to provide dynamic road information needed for flood rescue, we...

  8. Self-Rescue Mask Training

    CERN Document Server


    Nine new self-rescue mask instructors have been trained since early 2013, which provides CERN with a total of 26 self-rescue mask instructors to date. This will allow us to meet the increasing training needs caused by the Long Shut Down LS1.   The self-rescue mask instructors have trained 1650 persons in 2012 and about 500 persons since the beginning of the year on how to wear the masks properly. We thank all the instructors and all the persons that made this training possible. Please remember that the self-rescue masks training sessions are scheduled as follows: Basic course: Tuesday and Thursday mornings (2 sessions – 8.30 AM and 10.30 AM), duration:  1.30 hour, in French and English – registration via CERN online training catalogue – Course code 077Y00. Refresher training : Monday mornings (2 sessions – 8.30 AM and 10.30 AM), duration: 1.30 hour , in French and English – registration via CERN online training catalogue &...

  9. CERN Fire Brigade rescue simulation

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice


    The CERN Fire Brigade is made up of experienced firemen from all of the 20 Member States. In these images they are seen at a 'Discovery Monday' held at the Microcosm exhibition. Here visitors learn how the Fire Brigade deal with various situations, including a simulated cave rescue performed by the Hazardous Environments Response Team.

  10. 46 CFR 169.517 - Rescue boat. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rescue boat. 169.517 Section 169.517 Shipping COAST... and Firefighting Equipment Primary Lifesaving Equipment § 169.517 Rescue boat. All vessels certificated for exposed or partially protected waters service must have a suitable motor rescue boat, except...

  11. Adaptive mobility for rescue robots (United States)

    Blitch, John G.


    It has often been observed that the most daunting aspect of any crisis response is managing the "unknown unknowns" that inevitably plague incident commanders and emergency personnel at all levels responsible for life and death decisions on a minute by minute basis. In structural collapse situations, for example, rescue crews rarely have even a coarse picture of the number or disposition of people or material scattered amongst the twisted beams and piles of concrete that typically entomb would-be survivors. How can the incident commander decide which beam to lift or even which section of the building to search first in the absence of information of what lies beneath. Even the slightest tug on a concrete slab can collapse potential life harboring void spaces below killing potential survivors in the process. In deploying mobile robots to assist in rescue operations we combined the traditional advantages of machine immunity to fatigue, hazardous materials and environmental controls, with the mechanical design freedom that allowed small platforms to penetrate deep into rubble to expand both situational awareness and operational influence of rescue services at the World Trade Center and mountainous snow-bound caves in Afghanistan. We learned a great deal from these experiences with regard to robot emloyment and design. This paper endeavors to share a few of our more prominent lessons learned regarding portable robot mobility as a means to manage user expectations and stimulate more innovative and adaptive design.

  12. Toward a behavioral ecology of rescue behavior. (United States)

    Hollis, Karen L; Nowbahari, Elise


    Although the study of helping behavior has revolutionized the field of behavioral ecology, scientific examination of rescue behavior remains extremely rare, except perhaps in ants, having been described as early as 1874. Nonetheless, recent work in our laboratories has revealed several new patterns of rescue behavior that appear to be much more complex than previously studied forms. This precisely-directed rescue behavior bears a remarkable resemblance to what has been labeled empathy in rats, and thus raises numerous philosophical and theoretical questions: How should rescue behavior (or empathy) be defined? What distinguishes rescue from other forms of altruism? In what ways is rescue behavior in ants different from, and similar to, rescue in other non-human animals? What selection pressures dictate its appearance? In this paper, we review our own experimental studies of rescue in both laboratory and field, which, taken together, begin to reveal some of the behavioral ecological conditions that likely have given rise to rescue behavior in ants. Against this background, we also address important theoretical questions involving rescue, including those outlined above. In this way, we hope not only to encourage further experimental analysis of rescue behavior, but also to highlight important similarities and differences in very distant taxa.

  13. Toward a Behavioral Ecology of Rescue Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen L. Hollis


    Full Text Available Although the study of helping behavior has revolutionized the field of behavioral ecology, scientific examination of rescue behavior remains extremely rare, except perhaps in ants, having been described as early as 1874. Nonetheless, recent work in our laboratories has revealed several new patterns of rescue behavior that appear to be much more complex than previously studied forms. This precisely-directed rescue behavior bears a remarkable resemblance to what has been labeled empathy in rats, and thus raises numerous philosophical and theoretical questions: How should rescue behavior (or empathy be defined? What distinguishes rescue from other forms of altruism? In what ways is rescue behavior in ants different from, and similar to, rescue in other non-human animals? What selection pressures dictate its appearance? In this paper, we review our own experimental studies of rescue in both laboratory and field, which, taken together, begin to reveal some of the behavioral ecological conditions that likely have given rise to rescue behavior in ants. Against this background, we also address important theoretical questions involving rescue, including those outlined above. In this way, we hope not only to encourage further experimental analysis of rescue behavior, but also to highlight important similarities and differences in very distant taxa.

  14. [Design and application of portable rescue vehicle]. (United States)

    Guo, Ying; Qi, Huaying; Wang, Shen


    The disease of critically ill patients was with rapid changes, and at any time faced the risk of emergency. The current commonly used rescue vehicles were larger and bulky implementation, which were not conducive to the operation, therefore the design of a portable rescue vehicle was needed. This new type of rescue vehicle is multi-layer folding structure, with small footprint, large storage space, so a variety of first aid things can be classified and put, easy to be cleaned and disinfected. In the rescue process, the portable rescue vehicles can be placed in the required position; box of various emergency items can be found at a glance with easy access; the height of the infusion stand can adjust freely according to the user height; the rescue vehicle handle can be easy to pull and adjust accord with human body mechanics principle. The portable rescue vehicle facilitates the operation of medical staff, and is worthy of clinical application.

  15. Taking nationality hostage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Mira Skadegård

    Immigration, integration, and policy This paper examines the influence of structural discrimination in regard to immigration, integration, and policy. While my use of structural discrimination builds on both the international human rights framework, as well as academic research and development...... of this term (Pincus 1996; Hill1989; Kamali 2009). Structural discrimination is defined here as discursive and constitutive discrimination expressed implicitly in underlying assumptions and attitudes (Skadegaard Thorsen 2014) and is linked to, but distinct from institutional discrimination. That is, structural...... discrimination describes discrimination that is not necessarily explicitly inscribed in laws, rules, or in other ways a result of formal processes or legal systems. It can be a result of informal institutions and practices, habit, tradition, and norms, and can have its point of departure in social, institutional...

  16. Safety in alpine helicopter rescue operations--minimal requirements of alpine skills for rescue personnel

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Küpper, Thomas; Hillebrandt, David; Steffgen, Juergen; Schöffl, Volker


    There is a lack of data to establish minimal requirements for technical alpine climbing skills needed by rescue teams involved in alpine helicopter rescue operations to perform such operations safely...

  17. 30 CFR 49.18 - Training for mine rescue teams. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Training for mine rescue teams. 49.18 Section... TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal Mines § 49.18 Training for mine rescue teams. (a) Prior to serving on a mine rescue team each member shall complete, at a minimum, an initial...

  18. Structural Basis for Ribosome Rescue in Bacteria. (United States)

    Huter, Paul; Müller, Claudia; Arenz, Stefan; Beckert, Bertrand; Wilson, Daniel N


    Ribosomes that translate mRNAs lacking stop codons become stalled at the 3' end of the mRNA. Recycling of these stalled ribosomes is essential for cell viability. In bacteria three ribosome rescue systems have been identified so far, with the most ubiquitous and best characterized being the trans-translation system mediated by transfer-messenger RNA (tmRNA) and small protein B (SmpB). The two additional rescue systems present in some bacteria employ alternative rescue factor (Arf) A and release factor (RF) 2 or ArfB. Recent structures have revealed how ArfA mediates ribosome rescue by recruiting the canonical termination factor RF2 to ribosomes stalled on truncated mRNAs. This now provides us with the opportunity to compare and contrast the available structures of all three bacterial ribosome rescue systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Hubble Space Telescope Crew Rescue Analysis (United States)

    Hamlin, Teri L.; Canga, Michael; Boyer, Roger; Thigpen, Eric


    In the aftermath of the 2003 Columbia accident NASA removed the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Servicing Mission 4 (SM4) from the Space Shuttle manifest. Reasons cited included concerns that the risk of flying the mission would be too high. There was at the time no viable technique to repair the orbiter s thermal protection system if it were to be damaged by debris during ascent. Furthermore in the event of damage, since the mission was not to the International Space Station, there was no safe haven for the crew to wait for an extended period of time for a rescue. The HST servicing mission was reconsidered because of improvements in the ascent debris environment, the development of techniques for the astronauts to perform on orbit repairs to damage thermal protection, and the development of a strategy to provide a crew rescue capability. However, leading up to the launch of servicing mission, the HST crew rescue capability was a recurring topic. For HST there was a limited amount of time available to perform a crew rescue because of the limited consumables available on the Orbiter. The success of crew rescue depends upon several factors including when a problem is identified, when and to what extent power down procedures are begun, and where the rescue vehicle is in its ground processing cycle. Severe power downs maximize crew rescue success but would eliminate the option for the orbiter servicing the HST to attempt a landing. Therefore, crew rescue success needed to be weighed against preserving the ability of the orbiter to have landing option in case there was a problem with the rescue vehicle. This paper focuses on quantification of the HST mission loss of crew rescue capability using Shuttle historical data and various power down capabilities. That work supported NASA s decision to proceed with the HST service mission, which was successfully completed on May 24th 2009.

  20. The population genetics of evolutionary rescue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Allen Orr


    Full Text Available Evolutionary rescue occurs when a population that is threatened with extinction by an environmental change adapts to the change sufficiently rapidly to survive. Here we extend the mathematical theory of evolutionary rescue. In particular, we model evolutionary rescue to a sudden environmental change when adaptation involves evolution at a single locus. We consider adaptation using either new mutations or alleles from the standing genetic variation that begin rare. We obtain several results: i the total probability of evolutionary rescue from either new mutation or standing variation; ii the conditions under which rescue is more likely to involve a new mutation versus an allele from the standing genetic variation; iii a mathematical description of the U-shaped curve of total population size through time, conditional on rescue; and iv the time until the average population size begins to rebound as well as the minimal expected population size experienced by a rescued population. Our analysis requires taking into account a subtle population-genetic effect (familiar from the theory of genetic hitchhiking that involves "oversampling" of those lucky alleles that ultimately sweep to high frequency. Our results are relevant to conservation biology, experimental microbial evolution, and medicine (e.g., the dynamics of antibiotic resistance.

  1. Rescuing a Treasure Uranium-233

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krichinsky, Alan M [ORNL; Goldberg, Dr. Steven A. [DOE SC - Chicago Office; Hutcheon, Dr. Ian D. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL)


    Uranium-233 (233U) is a synthetic isotope of uranium formed under reactor conditions during neutron capture by natural thorium (232Th). At high purities, this synthetic isotope serves as a crucial reference for accurately quantifying and characterizing natural uranium isotopes for domestic and international safeguards. Separated 233U is stored in vaults at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. These materials represent a broad spectrum of 233U from the standpoint isotopic purity the purest being crucial for precise analyses in safeguarding uranium. All 233U at ORNL currently is scheduled to be down blended with depleted uranium beginning in 2015. Such down blending will permanently destroy the potential value of pure 233U samples as certified reference material for use in uranium analyses. Furthermore, no replacement 233U stocks are expected to be produced in the future due to a lack of operating production capability and the high cost of returning to operation this currently shut down capability. This paper will describe the efforts to rescue the purest of the 233U materials arguably national treasures from their destruction by down blending.

  2. [Organization and management of mountain rescues]. (United States)

    Maupin, Thierry


    Mountain rescue is a matter for specialists. Specific training, a model of organisation under state control, emergency protocols and information and prevention campaigns have helped to improve morbidity and mortality rates in the mountains.

  3. [Nontraumatic medical emergencies in mountain rescues]. (United States)

    Sierra Quintana, Eva; Martínez Caballero, Carmen María; Batista Pardo, Sara Abigail; Abella Barraca, Salas; de la Vieja Soriano, María


    To describe the clinical and epidemiologic characteristics of patients with nontraumatic medical problems rescued by a Spanish mountain emergency response service (061 Aragon). Retrospective observational analysis of records of mountain rescues completed between July 2010 and December 2016. A total of 164 patients with nontraumatic medical emergencies were rescued; 82.3% were males. Most patients were between the ages of 50 and 59 years. Environmentally related problems, most often hypothermia, accounted for 36.6% of the emergencies. Cardiac problems led to 20.7% and digestive problems to 12.8%. Eighty-two percent of the patients were hiking or engaged in general mountain activities (other than rock climbing, canyoning, hunting, or skiing). Recent years have seen a rise in the number of patients requiring rescue from mountains for nontraumatic medical emergencies, particularly heart problems. The typical patient to expect would be a man between the ages of 50 and 59 years who is hiking in the summer.

  4. Rescuing and recovering lost or endangered data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Griffin


    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the vital importance to the scientific community of rescuing historic scientific data, presently in various informal, non-digital formats, from likely oblivion and making them accessible digitally for trend analyses. It proposes models whereby historic biodiversity and astronomical data can be recovered as Canadian initiatives, in the hope of stimulating further discussion of such simple yet essential rescue missions in the context of Canadian scientific research.

  5. Ecology. Can science rescue salmon? (United States)

    Mann, C C; Plummer, M L


    At a press conference on 27 July, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) released a long-awaited plan to save the Columbia River's endangered salmon by restoring fish habitat, overhauling hatcheries, limiting harvest, and improving river flow. What the plan did not do, however, was call for immediate breaching of four dams on the Snake River, the Columbia's major tributary--an option that has been the subject of a nationwide environmental crusade. The NMFS will hold that option in abeyance while it sees whether the less drastic measures will do the trick. Responses from both sides were immediate and outraged.

  6. 49 CFR 238.114 - Rescue access windows. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rescue access windows. 238.114 Section 238.114... § 238.114 Rescue access windows. (a) Number and location. Except as provided in paragraph (a)(1)(ii) of... rescue access windows. At least one rescue access window shall be located in each side of the car...

  7. 30 CFR 49.8 - Training for mine rescue teams. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Training for mine rescue teams. 49.8 Section 49... TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS § 49.8 Training for mine rescue teams. (a) Prior to serving on a mine rescue team each member shall complete, at a minimum, an initial 20-hour course of instruction as prescribed...

  8. 30 CFR 49.12 - Availability of mine rescue teams. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Availability of mine rescue teams. 49.12... TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal Mines § 49.12 Availability of mine rescue teams. (a) Except where alternative compliance is permitted for small and remote mines (§ 49.13), every...

  9. 30 CFR 49.15 - Mine rescue station. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mine rescue station. 49.15 Section 49.15 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal Mines § 49.15 Mine rescue station. (a) Every operator...

  10. Traumatic entrapment, appeasement and complex post-traumatic stress disorder: evolutionary perspectives of hostage reactions, domestic abuse and the Stockholm syndrome. (United States)

    Cantor, Chris; Price, John


    Evolutionary theory and cross-species comparisons are explored to shed new insights into behavioural responses to traumatic entrapment, examining their relationships to the Stockholm syndrome (a specific response to traumatic entrapment) and complex post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). A selective literature review is undertaken examining responses to traumatic entrapment (including hostage, domestic abuse and similar situations) and the Stockholm syndrome, before examining mammalian, reptilian and other defensive responses to relevant threats. Chimpanzees, the closest relatives of humans, are closely examined from this perspective and commonalities in behavioural responses are highlighted. The neurobiological basis of defensive behaviours underlying PTSD is explored with reference to the triune brain model. Victims of protracted traumatic entrapment under certain circumstances may display the Stockholm syndrome, which involves paradoxically positive relationships with their oppressors that may persist beyond release. Similar responses are observed in many mammalian species, especially primates. Ethological concepts including dominance hierarchies, reverted escape, de-escalation and conditional reconciliation appear relevant and are illustrated. These phenomena are commonly encountered in victims of severe abuse and understanding these concepts may assist clinical management. Appeasement is the mammalian defence most relevant to the survival challenge presented by traumatic entrapment and appears to be the foundation of complex PTSD. Evolutionary perspectives have considerable potential to bridge and integrate neurobiology and the social sciences with respect to traumatic stress responses.

  11. A Simple Space Station Rescue Vehicle (United States)

    Petro, Andrew


    Early in the development of the Space Station it was determined that there is a need to have a vehicle which could be used in the event that the Space Station crew need to quickly depart and return to Earth when the Space Shuttle is not available. Unplanned return missions might occur because of a medical emergency, a major Space Station failure, or if there is a long-term interruption in the delivery of logistics to the Station. The rescue vehicle ms envisioned as a simple capsule-type spacecraft which would be maintained in a dormant state at the Station for several years and be quickly activated by the crew when needed. During the assembly phase for the International Space Station, unplanned return missions will be performed by the Russian Soyuz vehicle, which can return up to three people. When the Station assembly is complete there will be a need for rescue capability for up to six people. This need might be met by an additional Soyuz vehicle or by a new vehicle which might come from a variety of sources. This paper describes one candidate concept for a Space Station rescue vehicle. The proposed rescue vehicle design has the blunt-cone shape of the Apollo command module but with a larger diameter. The rescue vehicle would be delivered to the Station in the payload bay of the Space Shuttle. The spacecraft design can accommodate six to eight people for a one-day return mission. All of the systems for the mission including deorbit propulsion are contained within the conical spacecraft and so there is no separate service module. The use of the proven Apollo re-entry shape would greatly reduce the time and cost for development and testing. Other aspects of the design are also intended to minimize development cost and simplify operations. This paper will summarize the evolution of rescue vehicle concepts, the functional requirements for a rescue vehicle, and describe the proposed design.

  12. The Nonfragile Controller with Covariance Constraint for Stable Motion of Quadruped Search-Rescue Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Wang


    Full Text Available The problem of a stable motion for the quadruped search-rescue robots is described as a variance constrained uncertainty in the discrete systems. According to the model structure of the quadruped search-rescue robot, the kinematics of the robot is analyzed on the basis of the D-H parameter. Each joint of the robot angular velocity is planned using the Jacobian matrix, because the angular velocity is directly related to the stability of walking based on the ADAMS simulation. The nonfragile control method with the covariance constraint is proposed for the gait motion control of the quadruped search-rescue robot. The motion state feedback controller and the covariance upper bounds can be given by the solutions of the linear matrix inequalities (LMI, which makes the system satisfy the covariance constrain theory. The results given by LMI indicate that the proposed control method is correct and effective.

  13. RoboCup Rescue Simulation Innovation Strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.; Ito, N.; Kleiner, A.; Bianchi, R.A.C.; Akin, H.L.; Ramamoorthy, S.; Sugiura, K.


    The RoboCup rescue simulation competitions have been held since 2001. The experience gained during these competitions has supported the development of multi-agent and robotics based solution for disaster mitigation. The league consists of three distinct competitions. These competitions are the agent

  14. Rescuing Dogs in the Frederick Community | Poster (United States)

    Many Frederick National Lab employees have a favorite cause to which they volunteer a significant amount of time. For Dianna Kelly, IT program manager/scientific program analyst, Office of Scientific Operations, and Courtney Kennedy, associate technical project manager, Business Enterprise Systems, that cause is dog rescue.

  15. Emergency Medical Rescue in a Radiation Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briesmeister, L.; Ellington, Y.; Hollis, R.; Kunzman, J.; McNaughton, M.; Ramsey, G.; Somers, B.; Turner, A.; Finn, J.


    Previous experience with emergency medical rescues in the presence of radiation or contamination indicates that the training provided to emergency responders is not always appropriate. A new course developed at Los Alamos includes specific procedures for emergency response in a variety of radiological conditions.

  16. Rescue Fantasies in Homicide-Suicide (United States)

    Selkin, James


    Homicide-suicides (N=13), events in which an individual murders one or more persons and kills himself immediately afterward, were studied, The results are interpreted to suggest that persons who commit homicide-suicide are acting out a three-party rescue fantasy in an attempt to resolve unbearable stress. (Author)

  17. Expectations of a business rescue plan: international directives for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Sep 1, 2014 ... Prof M. Pretorius and Mr W. Rosslyn-Smith are in the Department of Business Management, University of Pretoria. E-mail: ..... 2009: 3). To ensure the court is well equipped to subdue the rights of a creditor, Chapter 11 (11 USC § 1125) requires that a disclosure statement be presented. There is assurance ...

  18. Point-of-care ultrasonography during rescue operations on board a Polish Medical Air Rescue helicopter (United States)

    Gałązkowski, Robert; Sobczyk, Dorota; Żyła, Zbigniew; Drwiła, Rafał


    Point-of-care ultrasound examination has been increasingly widely used in pre-hospital care. The use of ultrasound in rescue medicine allows for a quick differential diagnosis, identification of the most important medical emergencies and immediate introduction of targeted treatment. Performing and interpreting a pre-hospital ultrasound examination can improve the accuracy of diagnosis and thus reduce mortality. The authors’ own experiences are presented in this paper, which consist in using a portable, hand-held ultrasound apparatus during rescue operations on board a Polish Medical Air Rescue helicopter. The possibility of using an ultrasound apparatus during helicopter rescue service allows for a full professional evaluation of the patient's health condition and enables the patient to be brought to a center with the most appropriate facilities for their condition. PMID:26674604

  19. [Medical rescue of China National Earthquake Disaster Emergency Search and Rescue Team in Lushan earthquake]. (United States)

    Liu, Ya-hua; Yang, Hui-ning; Liu, Hui-liang; Wang, Fan; Hu, Li-bin; Zheng, Jing-chen


    To summarize and analyze the medical mission of China National Earthquake Disaster Emergency Search and Rescue Team (CNESAR) in Lushan earthquake, to promote the medical rescue effectiveness incorporated with search and rescue. Retrospective analysis of medical work data by CNESAR from April 21th, 2013 to April 27th during Lushan earthquake rescue, including the medical staff dispatch and the wounded case been treated. The reasonable medical corps was composed by 22 members, including 2 administrators, 11 doctors [covering emergency medicine, orthopedics (joints and limbs, spinal), obstetrics and gynecology, gastroenterology, cardiology, ophthalmology, anesthesiology, medical rescue, health epidemic prevention, clinical laboratory of 11 specialties], 1 ultrasound technician, 5 nurses, 1 pharmacist, 1 medical instrument engineer and 1 office worker for propaganda. There were two members having psychological consultants qualifications. The medical work were carried out in seven aspects, including medical care assurance for the CNESAR members, first aid cooperation with search and rescue on site, clinical work in refugees' camp, medical round service for scattered village people, evacuation for the wounded, mental intervention, and the sanitary and anti-epidemic work. The medical work covered 24 small towns, and medical staff established 3 medical clinics at Taiping Town, Shuangshi Town of Lushan County and Baoxing County. Medical rescue, mental intervention for the old and kids, and sanitary and anti-epidemic were performed at the above sites. The medical corps had successful evacuated 2 severe wounded patients and treated the wounded over thousands. Most of the wounded were soft tissue injuries, external injury, respiratory tract infections, diarrhea, and heat stroke. Compared with the rescue action in 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, the aggregation and departure of rescue team in Lushan earthquake, the traffic control order in disaster area, the self-aid and buddy aid

  20. 78 FR 58567 - Criteria to Certify Coal Mine Rescue Teams (United States)


    ... Safety and Health Administration Criteria to Certify Coal Mine Rescue Teams AGENCY: Mine Safety and... mine rescue team training. MSHA prescribes training materials through the issuance of instruction guides. Existing standards for coal mine rescue teams include criteria for mine operators to certify the...

  1. 30 CFR 49.2 - Availability of mine rescue teams. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Availability of mine rescue teams. 49.2 Section... TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS § 49.2 Availability of mine rescue teams. (a) Except where alternative... teams which are available at all times when miners are underground; or (2) Enter into an arrangement for...

  2. 78 FR 79010 - Criteria to Certify Coal Mine Rescue Teams (United States)


    ... Safety and Health Administration Criteria to Certify Coal Mine Rescue Teams AGENCY: Mine Safety and... Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) has updated the coal mine rescue team certification criteria. The... rescue team is that team members are properly ] trained annually. MSHA has updated the prescribed...

  3. 30 CFR 49.5 - Mine rescue station. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mine rescue station. 49.5 Section 49.5 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS § 49.5 Mine rescue station. (a) Except where alternative compliance is permitted, every operator...

  4. Understanding Inbreeding Depression, Purging, and Genetic Rescue. (United States)

    Hedrick, Philip W; Garcia-Dorado, Aurora


    Inbreeding depression, the reduction of fitness caused by inbreeding, is a nearly universal phenomenon that depends on past mutation, selection, and genetic drift. Recent estimates suggest that its impact on individual fitness is even greater than previously thought. Genomic information is contributing to its detection and can enlighten important aspects of its genetic architecture. In natural populations, purging and genetic rescue mitigate fitness decline during inbreeding periods, and might be critical to population survival, thus, both mechanisms should be considered when assessing extinction risks. However, deliberate purging and genetic rescue involve considerable risk in the short and medium term, so that neither appears to be a panacea against high inbreeding depression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of maritime emergency rescue capability based on network analysis (United States)

    Haixiang, Pang; Yijia, Ma; Tianyu, Mao; Shengjing, Liu; Yajie, Zhang


    Maritime emergency rescue operations are complex and random, it leads to the complexity of the evaluation of maritime emergency rescue capability. In this paper, we considered the relationship between the evaluation indexes of maritime emergency rescue capability, used Analytic Network Process to determine the weight of each index, took into account the feedback relationship between indicators to determine the index weight, improved the scientific and reliability of the model, and combined with fuzzy comprehensive evaluation to evaluate the rescue capability. According to the evaluation results which combined with the index weight, maritime sector can propose a targeted improvement measures to effectively improve maritime emergency rescue capability.

  6. Virginia Beach search and rescue experiment (United States)

    Rais, Houra; Mansfield, Arthur W.; Huxtable, Barton D.; Chotoo, Kancham


    In May, 1998, the NASA Search and Rescue Mission conducted a SAR crash detection test in the swampy area south and west of Virginia Beach. A number of aircraft parts were hidden in the dense foliage. The radar used was the Navy P-3 with the ERIM XLC and UHF SAR, providing fine resolution imagery with full polarimetry and an IFSAR capability. This paper reports preliminary results of this test.

  7. Rescuing Downed Aircrews: The Value of Time (United States)


    border. The personnel who were captured in 14 hours were originally on a Royal Air Force (RAF) Tornado that was shot down by a Roland missile. The...rescued as a function of time and other factors. We then identified the relevant factors and organized them according to the SERE categorization ...air engagement and a ground explosion. The pilot was subsequently reported missing. 2. January 17, 1991, RAF GR1 Tornado : The aircraft was part of a

  8. 30 CFR 49.50 - Certification of coal mine rescue teams. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Certification of coal mine rescue teams. 49.50... TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal Mines § 49.50 Certification of coal mine rescue teams. (a) For each mine rescue team designated to provide mine rescue coverage at an underground...

  9. Evaluating the Florida Urban Search and Rescue System: Its Future Structure and Direction (United States)


    and rescue (R. Napoli, peronal communication, September 1, 2009). In Florida’s Comprehensive Emergency Management Plan, the Director of State Fire... influenced by either man-made or natural disasters. According to Roberts (2008), achieving these goals, however, requires rethinking how to...strategy setting for the program, other groups will influence the development of the US&R system in unexpected ways, creating new versions of what it

  10. Holding the Indigenous Voice Hostage (United States)

    DeSpain, Matt


    It is a point well documented in American history, and well remembered, that the firearm has been a favorite tool wielded by Euroamericans to subdue, colonize, and silence Native Americans since the two groups first met. Anyone exercising a modicum of intellect can easily compile their own mental count of past atrocities by racist-minded,…

  11. Robot-Assisted Risky Intervention, Search, Rescue and Environmental Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maki K. Habib


    Full Text Available Technology has become the solution to many long-standing problems, and while current technologies may be effective, it is far from fully addressing the hug, complex, difficult and challenging tasks associated with disaster missions and risky intervention. The challenge is in finding creative, reliable and applicable technical solutions in such highly constrained and uncertain environment. In addition, it is necessary to overcome constrains on resources by developing innovative, cost effective and practical technology. Robotics can play important intelligent and technological roles that support first response equipment in harsh and dangerous environments while replacing rescue personnel from entering unreachable or unsafe places. Robotics solutions that are well adapted to local conditions of unstructured and unknown environment can greatly improve safety and security of personnel as well as work efficiency, productivity and flexibility. Solving and fulfilling the needs of such tasks presents challenges in robotic mechanical structure and mobility, sensors and sensor fusion, autonomous and semi autonomous control, planning and navigation, and machine intelligence. This paper categorizes the source of disasters and associated missions, and highlights the needs for suitable and reliable technology and technical and functional requirements of robotic systems to fulfill task objectives. In addition, it shows that robotic technologies can be used for disasters prevention or early warning, intervention and recovery efforts during disasters with all possible kinds of relevant missions while ensuring quality of service and safety of human beings. Some of these missions may include: demining, search and rescue, surveillance, reconnaissance and risk assessment, evacuation assistance, intrusion/victim detection and assessment, etc.

  12. Motivations for volunteers in food rescue nutrition. (United States)

    Mousa, T Y; Freeland-Graves, J H


    A variety of organizations redistribute surplus food to low-income populations through food rescue nutrition. Why volunteers participate in these charitable organizations is unclear. The aim of this study is to document the participation and motivations of volunteers who are involved specifically in food rescue nutrition. A cross-sectional study was conducted in two phases. In phase 1, a new instrument, Motivations to Volunteer Scale, was developed and validated in 40 participants (aged ≥18 years). In phase 2, the new scale and a demographics questionnaire were administered to 300 participants who were volunteering in food pantries and churches. The pilot study showed that Motivations to Volunteer Scale exhibited an internal consistency of Cronbach's α of 0.73 (P  0.05). The scale was validated also by comparison to the Volunteer Function Inventory (r = 0.86, P Motivations to Volunteer Scale were requirement, career improvement, social life, and altruism. The mean motivation score of the 300 volunteers was 9.15 ± 0.17. Greater motivations were observed among participants who were aged >45 years, women, Hispanics, college/university graduates, physically inactive, non-smokers, and had an income ≥ $48,000. The Motivations to Volunteer Scale is a valid tool to assess why individuals volunteer in food rescue nutrition. The extent of motivations of participants was relatively high, and the primary reason for volunteering was altruism. Health professionals should be encouraged to participate in food redistribution. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The El Mundo hosts a mass-media duel between Chavez's mediation and Uribe position in relation to the release of hostages held by FARC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique A. Perera García,


    Full Text Available Special interests leading press editorial policies prevail over objectivity and neutrality. José Manuel de Pablos Coello, Professor of Journalism at the University of La Laguna, has devised a method to quantify and objectify degrees of neutrality in those cases in which two outstanding characters compete for a privileged position in the news. This kind of media duels usually last a relative long period, one of the contenders being eventually favoured. This paper examines the information published by the Spanish newspaper El Mundo within the period beginning on November 23rd, 2007, when the Venezuelan president Hugo Chávez and the Colombian senator Piedad Córdoba were disavowed by the Colombian president Álvaro Uribe to continue negotiating with FARC, and ending on January 11th, 2008, one day after the release of a group of hostages held by the FARC. 32 information pieces collected from El Mundo and containing references to this political process have been analyzed and quantified with respect to location, size, accompanying pictures, front page, editorial commentaries and compensation news.Los intereses de todo tipo que marcan las líneas editoriales de la prensa acaban imponiéndose a la objetividad y la neutralidad informativa. El catedrático de Periodismo de la Universidad de La Laguna José Manuel de Pablos Coello ha elaborado un método innovador para cuantificar y objetivizar la neutralidad informativa en ocasiones, como la reflejada en este artículo, cuando hay por medio una controversia entre dos personajes, que llega a convertirse en un ‘duelo mediático’ por ocupar las página de un periódico en un espacio de tiempo relativamente amplio y porque la neutralidad informativa se acaba desequilibrando a favor de uno de los contendientes. Los autores han estudiado las informaciones aparecidas en el diario español El Mundo del siglo XXI, entre el día 23 de noviembre de 2007, cuando Hugo Chávez y la senadora colombiana Piedad C

  14. The swimming literacy of women in term sof self rescue


    Vokurková, Eva


    Work name: The swimming literacy of women in term of self rescue Aim of work: To acquire and analyze data about the level of the swimming literacy and self rescue skills of women aged 18 - 72 years, whether they can handle and use them. Method: Literature search, creation of the questionnaire, implementation survey, data analysis and graphical presentation of results. Results: The analysis of the swimming literacy and self rescue skills of women. Key words: literacy, physical literacy, swimmi...

  15. Leadership lessons from the Chilean mine rescue. (United States)

    Rashid, Faaiza; Edmondson, Amy C; Leonard, Herman B


    Three years ago, when a cave-in at the San José mine in Chile trapped 33 men under 700,000 metric tons of rock, experts estimated the probability of getting them out alive at less than 1%. Yet, after spending a record 69 days underground, all 33 were hoisted up to safety. The inspiring story of their rescue is a case study in how to lead in situations where the stakes, risk, and uncertainty are incredibly high and time pressure is intense. Today executives often find themselves in similar straits. When they do, many feel torn. Should they be directive, taking charge and commanding action? Or should they be empowering, enabling innovation and experimentation? As the successful example of André Sougarret, the chief of the mine rescue operation, shows, the answer is yes--to both. The choice is a false dichotomy. Implementing this dual approach involves three key tasks. Each has directive and enabling components. The first task is envisioning, which requires instilling both realism and hope. The second task is enrolling, which means setting clear boundaries for who is on and off the team, but inviting in helpful collaborators. The third task is engaging--leading disciplined execution while encouraging innovation and experimentation. The authors of this article describe how Sougarret ably juggled all of these tasks, orchestrating the efforts of hundreds of people from different organizations, areas of expertise, and countries in an extraordinary mission that overcame impossible odds.

  16. Redefining Technical Rescue and Casualty Care for SOF: Part 1. (United States)

    McKay, S D; Johnston, J; Callaway, D W


    Trauma care in the tactical environment is complex; it requires a unique blend of situational awareness, foresight, medical skill, multitasking, and physical strength. Rescue is a critical, but often over-looked, component of nearly all tactical trauma casualty management. Successful full spectrum casualty management requires proficiency in four areas: casualty access, assessment, stabilization, and extraction. When complex rescue situations arise (casualty removal from roof tops, mountain terrain, collapsed structures, wells, or a karez), casualty care often becomes further complicated. Special Operations units have historically looked to civilian technical rescue techniques and equipment to fill this ?rescue gap.? Similar to the evolution of pre-hospital military medicine from civilian guidelines (e.g. Advanced Trauma Life Support) (ATLS)) to an evidence-based, tactical-specific guideline (Tactical Combat Casualty Care (TCCC)), an evolution is required within the rescue paradigm. This shift from civilian-based technical rescue guidelines towards an Operational Rescue? capability allows tactical variables such as minimal equipment, low light/night vision goggles (NVG) considerations, enemy threats, and variable evacuation times to permeate through the individual rescue skill set. Just as with TCCC, in which the principles of casualty care remain consistent, the practices must be adapted to end-users environment, so it is with rescue. 2012.

  17. Rescue from replication stress during mitosis. (United States)

    Fragkos, Michalis; Naim, Valeria


    Genomic instability is a hallmark of cancer and a common feature of human disorders, characterized by growth defects, neurodegeneration, cancer predisposition, and aging. Recent evidence has shown that DNA replication stress is a major driver of genomic instability and tumorigenesis. Cells can undergo mitosis with under-replicated DNA or unresolved DNA structures, and specific pathways are dedicated to resolving these structures during mitosis, suggesting that mitotic rescue from replication stress (MRRS) is a key process influencing genome stability and cellular homeostasis. Deregulation of MRRS following oncogene activation or loss-of-function of caretaker genes may be the cause of chromosomal aberrations that promote cancer initiation and progression. In this review, we discuss the causes and consequences of replication stress, focusing on its persistence in mitosis as well as the mechanisms and factors involved in its resolution, and the potential impact of incomplete replication or aberrant MRRS on tumorigenesis, aging and disease.

  18. Nitric oxide rescues thalidomide mediated teratogenicity (United States)

    Siamwala, Jamila H.; Veeriah, Vimal; Priya, M. Krishna; Rajendran, Saranya; Saran, Uttara; Sinha, Swaraj; Nagarajan, Shunmugam; T, Pradeep; Chatterjee, Suvro


    Thalidomide, a sedative drug given to pregnant women, unfortunately caused limb deformities in thousands of babies. Recently the drug was revived because of its therapeutic potential; however the search is still ongoing for an antidote against thalidomide induced limb deformities. In the current study we found that nitric oxide (NO) rescues thalidomide affected chick (Gallus gallus) and zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos. This study confirms that NO reduced the number of thalidomide mediated limb deformities by 94% and 80% in chick and zebrafish embryos respectively. NO prevents limb deformities by promoting angiogenesis, reducing oxidative stress and inactivating caspase-3 dependent apoptosis. We conclude that NO secures angiogenesis in the thalidomide treated embryos to protect them from deformities. PMID:22997553

  19. Teleautonomous Control on Rescue Robot Prototype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Son Kuswadi


    Full Text Available Robot application in disaster area can help responder team to save victims. In order to finish task, robot must have flexible movement mechanism so it can pass through uncluttered area. Passive linkage can be used on robot chassis so it can give robot flexibility. On physical experiments, robot is succeeded to move through gravels and 5 cm obstacle. Rescue robot also has specialized control needs. Robot must able to be controlled remotely. It also must have ability to move autonomously. Teleautonomous control method is combination between those methods. It can be concluded from experiments that on teleoperation mode, operator must get used to see environment through robot’s camera. While on autonomous mode, robot is succeeded to avoid obstacle and search target based on sensor reading and controller program. On teleautonomous mode, robot can change control mode by using bluetooth communication for data transfer, so robot control will be more flexible.

  20. Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration from embryo rescue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The application of tissue culture techniques, particularly in the area of embryo rescue, has had a major impact on the maintenance and development of hybrid embryo from wide crosses. Embryo rescue techniques are directed towards obtaining more efficient survival of embryos in situations where very immature embryos ...

  1. Dynamics of genetic rescue in inbred Drosophila melanogaster populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijlsma, R.; Westerhof, M. D. D.; Roekx, L. P.; Pen, I.

    Genetic rescue has been proposed as a management strategy to improve the fitness of genetically eroded populations by alleviating inbreeding depression. We studied the dynamics of genetic rescue in inbred populations of Drosophila. Using balancer chromosomes, we show that the force of heterosis that

  2. 46 CFR 131.855 - Lifeboats and rescue boats. (United States)


    ... must be plainly marked or painted on each side of the bow of each lifeboat and rescue boat in block... port whose marking on the stern is required by § 67.123 of this chapter. (b) The following must be plainly marked or painted on each side of the bow of each lifeboat and rescue boat in block capital...

  3. Emotional Reactions of Rescue Workers Following a Tornado. (United States)

    McCammon, Susan L.; And Others

    Rescue and medical workers may be at risk for negative emotional experience following intervention efforts in disaster situations. To examine this possibility, 120 rescue and hospital personnel responded to a survey of their emotional reactions and coping behaviors 3 months after a devastating tornado. Twenty-eight subjects had been involved in…

  4. 30 CFR 49.19 - Mine emergency notification plan. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mine emergency notification plan. 49.19 Section 49.19 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal Mines § 49.19 Mine emergency notification...

  5. 'Agony aunt, hostage, intruder or friend?'. The multiple personas of the interviewer during fieldwork 'Agony aunt, hostage, intruder or friend?'. The multiple personas of the interviewer during fieldwork ¿Consultor sentimental, intruso, rehén o amigo? Los múltiples papeles del entrevistador durante el trabajo de campo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie Caven


    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper examines how the role of the intervieweris manipulated by the interviewees in return for them offering their experiences, opinions and information during qualitative research interviews.Design/methodology: Semi-structured interviews in the qualitative paradigm were carried out with 55 architects from the East Midlands region of the UK. The interview data is supported by research diary evidence.Findings: A typology of four interviewer personas is presented: as ‘agony aunt, hostage, intruder or friend’.Research limitations/implications: The four personas were generated by the interviewees’ responses to one researcher which is a limitation. However, the study could be replicated with other researchers/interviewers in different interview situations.Practical implications: The research has practical value in highlighting the multiple facets of the relationship between interviewer and interviewee in qualitative research. It will be of value to both experienced and new researchers.Originality/value: The development of the typology represents the originality and value of the research. Previous research has focused more on telling the stories rather than the development of new theory relating to interviewing.Purpose: This paper examines how the role of the interviewer is manipulated by the interviewees in return for them offering their experiences, opinions and information during qualitative research interviews. Design/methodology: Semi-structured interviews in the qualitative paradigm were carried out with 55 architects from the East Midlands region of the UK. The interview data is supported by research diary evidence. Findings: A typology of four interviewer personas is presented: as ‘agony aunt, hostage, intruder or friend’. Research limitations/implications: The four personas were generated by the interviewees’ responses to one researcher which is a limitation. However, the study could be replicated with other

  6. Integrating data rescue into the classroom (United States)

    Ryan, Ciara; Ciaran, Broderick; Mary, Curley; Conor, Daly; Catriona, Duffy; Thorne, Peter; Treanor, Mairead; Walsh, Seamus; Murphy, Conor


    The availability of long-term observational data at fine time scales (e.g. daily or sub-daily) is paramount to examining changes in the magnitude, duration, intensity, and frequency of extreme events and to assess whether or not the likelihood of recent events has changed throughout the historical record. The capacity to extend current observational data holdings is, however, largely dependent on the resources available to carry out the digitisation and transcription process. This paper presents an ambitious research led teaching experiment in which undergraduate students engaged in a substantial data rescue effort to transcribe over 1 million daily rainfall values and associated metadata across Ireland for the period 1860-1939. The aim of the project was first, to motivate students by engaging them in a practical exercise whereby their contribution has considerable value to research, second, to expose students to the basic processes involved in climate data rescue, and third, to examine the potential for students to produce accurate and reliable observational data. Students were provided with digital images of annual rainfall sheets recovered from the national archives together with templates used by Met Éireann in transcribing the data. Using video and text supports, together with an online discussion forum for additional support, students double keyed more than 1400 station years of rainfall data. The assessment process was linked to creating a correct data series whereby differences in double keyed sheets were identified and a master (correct) series created by teaching staff. Three hundred station years of data previously transcribed by Met Éireann was used as a benchmark against which students showed that they were as accurate as the professionals in the process. The success of the students makes a major contribution to understanding the historic climate variability of Ireland, a sentinel location on the western margins of Europe. Given the large volumes of

  7. Science in search and rescue in the aftermath of the massive February 2006 Philippine landslide (United States)

    Lagmay, A. A.; Ong, J. T.; Rodolfo, R. S.; Tengonciang, A. P.; Soria, J. T.; Fernandez, D. D.; Lapus, M. R.; Baliatan, E. G.; Quimba, Z. P.; Uichanco, C. L.; Paguican, E. R.


    Technical advice by a team of geologists, geophysicists and meteorologists was provided during the search and rescue operations at ground zero of the February 2006 landslide in Southern Leyte, Philippines. An ad hoc geographic information system constructed from a cadastral plan, 1:50,000 topographic map, aerial imagery taken 7 days after the landslide, and a plot of the inventory of survivors, recovered bodies, personal articles and remnants of buildings, was used to narrow down the search in the large debris field. In particular, search parties were directed to transfer operations to an area where a community was believed to have been transported about 550 meters down slope of its original position. By the time rescuers concentrated their efforts to the new search site, the water table had risen, diminishing chances of finding survivors trapped under the water-drenched rubble. Improvised rain gauges placed around the debris field served as basis to call off search operations to prevent casualties among the ranks of rescue teams. The lessons learned from the Southern Leyte landslide may be applied in the construction of policies for disaster management. Because speed, accuracy and the maximum utilization of resources are required in handling search and rescue operations, a systematic and informed approach is imperative. Time is essential in such a critical situation; thus, following a standard rote of procedures can improve how civil authorities deal with large scale landslide calamities.

  8. Physical capacity of rescue personnel in the mining industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hunt Andrew P


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mining industry has one of the highest occupational rates of serious injury and fatality. Mine staff involved with rescue operations are often required to respond to physically challenging situations. This paper describes the physical attributes of mining rescue personnel. Methods 91 rescue personnel (34 ± 8.6 yrs, 1.79 ± 0.07 m, 90 ± 15.0 kg participating in the Queensland Mines Rescue Challenge completed a series of health-related and rescue-related fitness tasks. Health-related tasks comprised measurements of aerobic capacity (VO2max, abdominal endurance, abdominal strength, flexibility, lower back strength, leg strength, elbow flexion strength, shoulder strength, lower back endurance, and leg endurance. Rescue-related tasks comprised an incremental carry (IC, coal shovel (CS, and a hose drag (HD, completed in this order. Results Cardiovascular (VO2max and muscular endurance was average or below average compared with the general population. Isometric strength did not decline with age. The rescue-related tasks were all extremely demanding with heart rate responses averaging greater than 88% of age predicted maximal heart rates. Heart rate recovery responses were more discriminating than heart rates recorded during the tasks, indicating the hose drag as the most physically demanding of the tasks. Conclusion Relying on actual rescues or mining related work to provide adequate training is generally insufficient to maintain, let alone increase, physical fitness. It is therefore recommended that standards of required physical fitness be developed and mines rescue personnel undergo regularly training (and assessment in order to maintain these standards.

  9. Beaconless search and rescue using polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (United States)

    McCandless, Samuel W.; Huxtable, Barton D.; Mansfield, Arthur W.; Wallace, Ronald; Larsen, Rudolph; Rais, Houra


    In developing a beaconless search and rescue capability to quickly locate small aircraft that have crashed in remote areas, NASA's Search and Rescue (S&R) Program brings together advanced polarimetric synthetic aperture radar processing, field and laboratory tests, and state-of-the-art automated target detection algorithms. This paper provides the status of this program, which began with experiments conducted in concert with the JPL DC-8 AirSAR in 1989 at the Duke University Forest. The program is being conducted by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) under the auspices of the Search and Rescue Office.

  10. Computer Security: DNS to the rescue!

    CERN Multimedia

    Stefan Lueders, Computer Security Team


    Why you should be grateful to the Domain Name System at CERN.   Incidents involving so-called “drive-by” infections and “ransomware” are on the rise. Whilst an up-to-date and fully patched operating system is essential; whilst running anti-virus software with current virus signature files is a must; whilst “stop --- think --- don’t click” surely helps, we can still go one step further in better protecting your computers: DNS to the rescue. The DNS, short for Domain Name System, translates the web address you want to visit (like “”) to a machine-readable format (the IP address, here: “”). For years, we have automatically monitored the DNS translation requests made by your favourite web browser (actually by your operating system, but that doesn’t matter here), and we have automatically informed you if your computer tried to access a website known to hos...

  11. Equipment of medical backpacks in mountain rescue. (United States)

    Elsensohn, Fidel; Soteras, Inigo; Resiten, Oliver; Ellerton, John; Brugger, Hermann; Paal, Peter


    We conducted a survey of equipment in medical backpacks for mountain rescuers and mountain emergency physicians. The aim was to investigate whether there are standards for medical equipment in mountain rescue organizations associated with the International Commission for Mountain Emergency Medicine (ICAR MEDCOM). A questionnaire was completed by 18 member organizations from 14 countries. Backpacks for first responders are well equipped to manage trauma, but deficiencies in equipment to treat medical emergencies were found. Paramedic and physicians' backpacks were well equipped to provide advanced life support and contained suitable drugs. We recommend that medical backpacks should be equipped in accordance with national laws, the medical emergencies in a given region, and take into account the climate, geography, medical training of rescuers, and funding of the organization. Automated external defibrillator provision should be improved. The effects of temperature on the drugs and equipment should be considered. Standards for training in the use and maintenance of medical tools should be enforced. First responders and physicians should only use familiar tools and drugs.

  12. Intelligent systems for urban search and rescue: challenges and lessons learned (United States)

    Jacoff, Adam; Messina, Elena; Weiss, Brian A.


    Urban search and rescue (USAR) is one of the most dangerous and time-critical non-wartime activities. Researchers have been developing hardware and software to enable robots to perform some search and rescue functions so as to minimize the exposure of human rescue personnel to danger and maximize the survival of victims. Significant progress has been achieved, but much work remains. USAR demands a blending of numerous specialized technologies. An effective USAR robot must be endowed with key competencies, such as being able to negotiate collapsed structures, find victims and assess their condition, identify potential hazards, generate maps of the structure and victim locations, and communicate with rescue personnel. These competencies bring to bear work in numerous sub-disciplines of intelligent systems (or artificial intelligence) such as sensory processing, world modeling, behavior generation, path planning, and human-robot interaction, in addition to work in communications, mechanism design and advanced sensors. In an attempt to stimulate progress in the field, reference USAR challenges are being developed and propagated worldwide. In order to make efficient use of finite research resources, the robotic USAR community must share a common understanding of what is required, technologically, to attain each competency, and have a rigorous measure of the current level of effectiveness of various technologies. NIST is working with partner organizations to measure the performance of robotic USAR competencies and technologies. In this paper, we describe the reference test arenas for USAR robots, assess the current challenges within the field, and discuss experiences thus far in the testing effort.

  13. An application of the MEMbrain training module: Pre-hospital rescue operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, V.


    A system for training in pre-hospital emergency management is being developed and the first version of a prototype has been completed. The training system fulfils the demands from the domain of hospital emergency planning centres and medical attendants concerning increased efficiency of rescue...... efforts. This includes enhanced first aid on site and improved overall co-ordination amongst the organisations involved in coping with emergency situations. The training system is based on the Multi-User System for Training Emergency Response (MUSTER) concept which is used for the training module...... in the decision support system MEMbrain. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  14. Cardiac Arrest? Someday, Drones May Come to Your Rescue (United States)

    ... gov/news/fullstory_166543.html Cardiac Arrest? Someday, Drones May Come to Your Rescue Like something from ... 13, 2017 TUESDAY, June 13, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Drones have been proposed for some pretty mundane uses, ...

  15. It's Snakes to the Rescue for Heart Patients (United States)

    ... Rescue for Heart Patients Venom from one slithery serpent might be source of a better blood thinner, ... anti-clotting meds for humans one day. The serpent-medicine connection isn't new, one cardiologist noted, ...

  16. That Others May Live: USAF Air Rescue in Korea

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marion, Forrest L


    When the Korean War began in June 1950, the United States Air Force's Air Rescue Service was a fledgling organization possessing a variety of aircraft types, most having seen service during World War II...

  17. It's Often Family to The Rescue During Opioid ODs (United States)

    ... html It's Often Family to the Rescue During Opioid ODs Study finds increased access to antidote may ... of a loved one who has overdosed on opioids. But a new study suggests that family members ...

  18. Rescue surgical pulmonary embolectomy for acute massive pulmonary embolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Abdulrahman Elassal


    Conclusion: Surgical pulmonary embolectomy is a rescue operation in high-risk PE. It could save patients with preoperative cardiac arrest. Early diagnosis, interdisciplinary team action, appropriate and emergent treatment strategy are necessary for favorable outcome.

  19. Line drawing illustrating Skylab crew rescue mission profile (United States)


    A line drawing by North American Rockwell Space Division artist illustrating Skylab crew rescue mission profile. The standard Command Module converts from a three-seater to accommodate five astronauts for the return trip.

  20. Water Supply Systems For Aircraft Fire And Rescue Protection (United States)


    This Advisory Circular (AC) provides guidance for the selection : of a water source and standards for the design of a distribution system to : support aircraft rescue and fire fighting (ARFF) service operations on : airports.

  1. Development of an Urban Search and Rescue Robot

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hudock, Bryan


    ... and-rescue mission extremely daunting. The solution to such a complicated problem lies in creating robots capable of quickly exploring a collapsed building and pinpointing the location of any survivors...

  2. Motivation of women to cultivate thein self rescue swimming skills


    Stralczynská, Anna


    Work name: Motivation of women to cultivate thein self rescue swimming skills. Aim of work: Defining a set of basic self rescue swimming skills, motivation survey of women aged 18-60 years to cultivate these skills. Detection of awareness of theimportance of swimming skills of the interviewed women. Method: Literature search, questionnaire design, survey implementation, analysis and evaluation of data, graphical presentation of results. Results: The interviewed women realize the importance an...

  3. Maritime Mass Rescue Interventions: Availability and Associated Technology (United States)


    34 Though this ideation was field-generated by a CG rescue helicopter pilot and aviation engineer , and offered an approach to expedite multiple-person...have fire suppression system, vessel did, and fire was contained to the engine room PA/ Empress of the North Lynn Canal, SE AK [Grounding, May...rescue to a large group of survivors (greater than 25). mw\\ Acquisition Directorate ?fi IMI.AS WMW CX.-926RDC M i.cwandcmski.eiui • * ^ Public

  4. Flash flood swift water rescues, Texas, 2005–2014


    Vaidehi Shah; Katie R. Kirsch; Diana Cervantes; David F. Zane; Tracy Haywood; Jennifer A. Horney


    Although rainfall patterns are complex and difficult to predict, climate models suggest precipitation in Texas will occur less frequently and with greater intensity in the future. In combination with rapid population growth and development, extreme rainfall events are likely to lead to flash floods and necessitate swift water rescues. Swift water rescues are used to retrieve person(s) from swift water flowing at a rate of 1 knot or greater. Data were obtained from the Texas Fire Marshal’s Off...

  5. Rescue of failed filtering blebs with ab interno trephination. (United States)

    Shihadeh, Wisam A; Ritch, Robert; Liebmann, Jeffrey M


    We evaluated the effectiveness of ab interno automated trephination as a technique for rescuing failed mature filtering blebs. A retrospective chart review of 40 failed blebs of 38 patients who had a posttrephination follow-up period of at least 3 months was done. With success defined as intraocular pressure (IOP) control with other modalities of management. Complications were few. We believe that ab interno trephination is an excellent option for rescuing selected failed filtering blebs.

  6. Reconceptualising failure to rescue in midwifery: a concept analysis. (United States)

    Hastings-Tolsma, Marie; Nolte, Anna G W


    to reconceptualise the concept of failure to rescue, distinguishing it from its current scientific usage as a surveillance strategy to recognise physiologic decline. failure to rescue has been consistently defined as a failure to save a patient׳s life after development of complications. The term, however, carries a richer connotation when viewed within a midwifery context. Midwives have historically believed themselves to be the vanguards of normal, physiologic processes, including birth. This philosophy mandates careful consideration of what it means to promote normal birth and the consequences of failure to rescue women from processes which challenge that outcome. the Medline, CINAHL, PsycINFO, PubMED, Web of Science and Google Scholar databases were searched from the period of 1992-2014 using the key terms of concept analysis, failure-to-rescue, childbirth, midwifery outcomes, obstetrical outcomes, suboptimal care, and patient outcomes. English language reports were used exclusively. The search yielded 45 articles which were reviewed in this paper. a critical analysis of the published literature was undertaken as a means of determining the adequacy of the concept for midwifery practice and to detail how it relates to other concepts important in development of a conceptual framework promoting normal birth processes. failure to rescue within the context of the midwifery model of care requires robust attention to a midwifery managed setting and surveillance based on a caring presence, patient protection, and midwifery partnership with patient. clarifying the definition of failure to rescue in childbirth and defining its attributes can help inform midwifery providers throughout the world of the ethical importance of considering failure to rescue in clinical practice. Relevance to midwifery care mandates use of failure to rescue as both a process and outcome measure. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Defectors Can Create Conditions That Rescue Cooperation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam James Waite


    Full Text Available Cooperation based on the production of costly common goods is observed throughout nature. This is puzzling, as cooperation is vulnerable to exploitation by defectors which enjoy a fitness advantage by consuming the common good without contributing fairly. Depletion of the common good can lead to population collapse and the destruction of cooperation. However, population collapse implies small population size, which, in a structured population, is known to favor cooperation. This happens because small population size increases variability in cooperator frequency across different locations. Since individuals in cooperator-dominated locations (which are most likely cooperators will grow more than those in defector-dominated locations (which are most likely defectors, cooperators can outgrow defectors globally despite defectors outgrowing cooperators in each location. This raises the possibility that defectors can lead to conditions that sometimes rescue cooperation from defector-induced destruction. We demonstrate multiple mechanisms through which this can occur, using an individual-based approach to model stochastic birth, death, migration, and mutation events. First, during defector-induced population collapse, defectors occasionally go extinct before cooperators by chance, which allows cooperators to grow. Second, empty locations, either preexisting or created by defector-induced population extinction, can favor cooperation because they allow cooperator but not defector migrants to grow. These factors lead to the counterintuitive result that the initial presence of defectors sometimes allows better survival of cooperation compared to when defectors are initially absent. Finally, we find that resource limitation, inducible by defectors, can select for mutations adaptive to resource limitation. When these mutations are initially present at low levels or continuously generated at a moderate rate, they can favor cooperation by further reducing local

  8. Rescuing the ischemic penumbra: Our experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milosavljević Tamara


    Full Text Available Objectives: Over one million strokes per year are occurring in Europe. Brain stroke is one of the most important death and disability causes in Europe and USA. The main role of perfusion is to determine the border of insult core and ischemic penumbra. Penumbra can be saved with thrombolytic therapy but core have irreversible injuries and represent death of brain cells. Aim: to determine the role of CT brain perfusion in cases of acute brain stroke and following thrombolytic therapy. Methods: We examined 64 patients with acute brain stroke who received thrombolytic therapy after that. All patients were examining on 16 MDCT with 50 ml of iodine contrast agent following the standard procedure for CT perfusion. Patients were 34 male and 30 female with middle age of 64 years. MRI was made after thrombolytic therapy and compare with perfusion results before therapy. Results: Using an artery and a vein as reference three parameters were measured - blood flow (CBF, blood volume (CBV and mean transit time (MTT, for each patient. Hemorrhagic was find in 9 (14.01% patients after thrombolytic therapy. 4 (6.25% other patients develop new stroke of same but mostly other side of brain. 8 (12.50% more patients finished lethally. From other 42 patients with thrombolytic therapy we can positively say that in 31 (48.44% patients penumbra was rescued. For other 11 (17.19% stroke was same size like firstly involved core and penumbra but not bigger. Conclusion: CT perfusion plays major role by showing a curable parts of tissue in brain strokes.

  9. Medical aspects of the work of a moorland rescue team. (United States)

    Guly, H R


    To describe the work of a moorland rescue team and, in particular, the medical aspects of this work. A retrospective study of 25 years of callouts of the Dartmoor Rescue Group (DRG)-the mountain rescue team (MRT) for Dartmoor. These were analysed by cause, year, month, day of the week, and time of day. Injuries and other medical problems in casualties are described. 276 callouts are described. The most common cause was searching for missing persons, but 62 callouts were to known casualties. The most common medical problem was cold exhaustion. The most common injuries were to the lower leg. However, a wide variety of other medical problems including heat exhaustion was also seen. The Mountain Rescue Council represents MRTs in mountainous regions and those covering lower hills and moorland. It produces an annual report containing details of the incidents attended by its affiliated teams. The work of the DRG is very different from that of the Mountain Rescue Council as a whole. Medical problems other than cold exhaustion and lower leg injuries are uncommon and moorland rescue teams do not need to equip themselves to treat other medical problems but in view of the wide variety of medical problems encountered a long way from a road, good first aid training of team members is essential.

  10. Rescue Effects: Irradiated Cells Helped by Unirradiated Bystander Cells (United States)

    Lam, R. K. K.; Fung, Y. K.; Han, W.; Yu, K. N.


    The rescue effect describes the phenomenon where irradiated cells or organisms derive benefits from the feedback signals sent from the bystander unirradiated cells or organisms. An example of the benefit is the mitigation of radiation-induced DNA damages in the irradiated cells. The rescue effect can compromise the efficacy of radioimmunotherapy (RIT) (and actually all radiotherapy). In this paper, the discovery and subsequent confirmation studies on the rescue effect were reviewed. The mechanisms and the chemical messengers responsible for the rescue effect studied to date were summarized. The rescue effect between irradiated and bystander unirradiated zebrafish embryos in vivo sharing the same medium was also described. In the discussion section, the mechanism proposed for the rescue effect involving activation of the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) pathway was scrutinized. This mechanism could explain the promotion of cellular survival and correct repair of DNA damage, dependence on cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and modulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level in irradiated cells. Exploitation of the NF-κB pathway to improve the effectiveness of RIT was proposed. Finally, the possibility of using zebrafish embryos as the model to study the efficacy of RIT in treating solid tumors was also discussed. PMID:25625514

  11. 46 CFR 199.160 - Rescue boat embarkation, launching and recovery arrangements. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rescue boat embarkation, launching and recovery... Vessels § 199.160 Rescue boat embarkation, launching and recovery arrangements. (a) Each rescue boat must... be used to meet this requirement. (b) Each rescue boat embarkation and launching arrangement must...

  12. 46 CFR 160.056-4 - Approval tests of prototype rescue boat. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Approval tests of prototype rescue boat. 160.056-4..., CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Rescue Boat § 160.056-4 Approval tests of prototype rescue boat. (a) Drop test. The rescue boat, fully equipped, shall be dropped, in a...

  13. 30 CFR Appendix to Subpart B - Optional Form for Certifying Mine Rescue Teams (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Optional Form for Certifying Mine Rescue Teams... EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal Mines Pt. 49, Subpt. B, App. Appendix to Subpart B—Optional Form for Certifying Mine Rescue Teams ER08FE08.000 ER08FE08.001 ...

  14. 78 FR 35974 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Coal Mine Rescue Teams; Arrangements for... (United States)


    ... Safety and Health Administration Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Coal Mine Rescue Teams... protecting the safety and health of miners. 30 CFR Part 49, Mine Rescue Teams, Subpart B--Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal Mines, sets standards related to the availability of mine rescue teams; alternate...

  15. Development and current state of the Water Rescue Service of ČČK


    Krčma, Jakub


    Title: Water Rescue Service Goals: The goal of this bachelor thesis is to describe the history, structure and the current activities of the Water Rescue Service of Czech Red Cross. Method: This thesis is used to analyse related literature and other suitable available sources. Results: The result of this work is a description of the development and current status of the Water Rescue Service of Czech Red Cross and its activities with Integrated Rescue System in Czech Republic. Key words: Rescue...

  16. Development of a Mine Rescue Drilling System (MRDS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raymond, David W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gaither, Katherine N. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Polsky, Yarom [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Knudsen, Steven D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Broome, Scott Thomas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Su, Jiann-Cherng [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Blankenship, Douglas A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Costin, Laurence S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) has a long history in developing compact, mobile, very high-speed drilling systems and this technology could be applied to increasing the rate at which boreholes are drilled during a mine accident response. The present study reviews current technical approaches, primarily based on technology developed under other programs, analyzes mine rescue specific requirements to develop a conceptual mine rescue drilling approach, and finally, proposes development of a phased mine rescue drilling system (MRDS) that accomplishes (1) development of rapid drilling MRDS equipment; (2) structuring improved web communication through the Mine Safety & Health Administration (MSHA) web site; (3) development of an improved protocol for employment of existing drilling technology in emergencies; (4) deployment of advanced technologies to complement mine rescue drilling operations during emergency events; and (5) preliminary discussion of potential future technology development of specialized MRDS equipment. This phased approach allows for rapid fielding of a basic system for improved rescue drilling, with the ability to improve the system over time at a reasonable cost.

  17. A game theory approach for assessing risk value and deploying search-and-rescue resources after devastating tsunamis. (United States)

    Wu, Cheng-Kuang


    The current early-warning system and tsunami protection measures tend to fall short because they always underestimate the level of destruction, and it is difficult to predict the level of damage by a devastating tsunami on uncertain targets. As we know, the key to minimizing the total number of fatalities after a disaster is the deployment of search and rescue efforts in the first few hours. However, the resources available to the affected districts for emergency response may be limited. This study proposes two game theoretic models that are designed for search-and-rescue resource allocation. First, the interactions between a compounded disaster and a response agent in the affected district are modelled as a non-cooperative game, after which the risk value is derived for each district from the Nash equilibrium. The risk value represents the threat, vulnerability, and consequence of a specific disaster for the affected district. Second, the risk values for fifteen districts are collected for calculation of each district's Shapley value. Then an acceptable plan for resource deployment among all districts is made based on their expected marginal contribution. The model is verified in a simulation based upon 2011 tsunami data. The experimental results show the proposed approach to be more efficient than the proportional division of rescue resources, for dealing with compounded disaster, and is feasible as a method for planning the mobilization of resources and to improve relief efforts against devastating tsunamis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Science guides search and rescue after the 2006 Philippine landslide. (United States)

    Lagmay, Alfredo Mahar A; Tengonciang, Arlene Mae P; Rodolfo, Raymond S; Soria, Janneli Lea A; Baliatan, Eden G; Paguican, Engielle R; Ong, John Burtkenley T; Lapus, Mark R; Fernandez, Dan Ferdinand D; Quimba, Zareth P; Uichanco, Christopher L


    A rockslide-debris avalanche destroyed the remote village of Guinsaugon in Southern Leyte, Philippines, on 17 February 2006. Although search and rescue procedures were implemented immediately, the scale of the landslide and a lack of information about its nature resulted in unfocused and imprecise efforts in the early days of the operation. Technical support was only introduced five days after the event, provided by a team of volunteer geologists, geophysicists, and meteorologists. By the time search and rescue operations were transferred to specific target sites, however, the chances of finding survivors trapped under the rubble had diminished. In such critical situations, speed, accuracy, and the maximum appropriation of resources are crucial. We emphasise here the need for a systematic and technically informed approach to search and rescue missions in large-scale landslide disaster contexts, and the formulation of better disaster management policies in general. Standard procedures must be developed and enforced to improve how civil authorities respond to natural calamities.

  19. Urban search and rescue medical teams: FEMA Task Force System. (United States)

    Barbera, J A; Lozano, M


    Recent national and international disasters involving collapsed structures and trapped casualties (Mexico City; Armenia; Iran; Philippines; Charleston, South Carolina; Loma Prieta, California; and others) have provoked a heightened national concern for the development of an adequate capability to respond quickly and effectively to this type of calamity. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) has responded to this need by developing an Urban Search and Rescue (US&R) Response System, a national system of multi-disciplinary task forces for rapid deployment to the site of a collapsed structure incident. Each 56-person task force includes a medical team capable of providing advanced emergency medical care both for task force members and for victims located and reached by the sophisticated search, rescue, and technical components of the task force. This paper reviews the background and development of urban search and rescue, and describes the make-up and function of the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Task Force medical teams.

  20. Design and implementation of fishery rescue data mart system (United States)

    Pan, Jun; Huang, Haiguang; Liu, Yousong

    A novel data mart based system for fishery rescue field was designed and implemented. The system runs ETL process to deal with original data from various databases and data warehouses, and then reorganized the data into the fishery rescue data mart. Next, online analytical processing (OLAP) are carried out and statistical reports are generated automatically. Particularly, quick configuration schemes are designed to configure query dimensions and OLAP data sets. The configuration file will be transformed into statistic interfaces automatically through a wizard-style process. The system provides various forms of reporting files, including crystal reports, flash graphical reports, and two-dimensional data grids. In addition, a wizard style interface was designed to guide users customizing inquiry processes, making it possible for nontechnical staffs to access customized reports. Characterized by quick configuration, safeness and flexibility, the system has been successfully applied in city fishery rescue department.

  1. Surgical rescue: The next pillar of acute care surgery. (United States)

    Kutcher, Matthew E; Sperry, Jason L; Rosengart, Matthew R; Mohan, Deepika; Hoffman, Marcus K; Neal, Matthew D; Alarcon, Louis H; Watson, Gregory A; Puyana, Juan Carlos; Bauzá, Graciela M; Schuchert, Vaishali D; Fombona, Anisleidy; Zhou, Tianhua; Zolin, Samuel J; Becher, Robert D; Billiar, Timothy R; Forsythe, Raquel M; Zuckerbraun, Brian S; Peitzman, Andrew B


    The evolving field of acute care surgery (ACS) traditionally includes trauma, emergency general surgery, and critical care. However, the critical role of ACS in the rescue of patients with a surgical complication has not been explored. We here describe the role of "surgical rescue" in the practice of ACS. A prospective, electronic medical record-based ACS registry spanning January 2013 to May 2014 at a large urban academic medical center was screened by ICD-9 codes for acute surgical complications of an operative or interventional procedure. Long-term outcomes were derived from the Social Security Death Index. Of 2,410 ACS patients, 320 (13%) required "surgical rescue": most commonly, from wound complications (32%), uncontrolled sepsis (19%), and acute obstruction (15%). The majority of complications (85%) were related to an operation; 15% were related to interventional procedures. The most common rescue interventions required were bowel resection (23%), wound debridement (18%), and source control of infection (17%); 63% of patients required operative intervention, and 22% required surgical critical care. Thirty-six percent of complications occurred in ACS primary patients ("local"), whereas 38% were referred from another surgical service ("institutional") and 26% referred from another institution ("regional"). Hospital length of stay was longer, and in-hospital and 1-year mortalities were higher in rescue patients compared with those without a complication. Outcomes were equivalent between "local" and "institutional" patients, but hospital length of stay and discharge to home were significantly worse in "institutional" referrals. We here describe the distinct role of the acute care surgeon in the surgical management of complications; this is an additional pillar of ACS. In this vital role, the acute care surgeon provides crucial support to other providers as well as direct patient care in the "surgical rescue" of surgical and procedural complications

  2. Flash flood swift water rescues, Texas, 2005–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaidehi Shah


    Full Text Available Although rainfall patterns are complex and difficult to predict, climate models suggest precipitation in Texas will occur less frequently and with greater intensity in the future. In combination with rapid population growth and development, extreme rainfall events are likely to lead to flash floods and necessitate swift water rescues. Swift water rescues are used to retrieve person(s from swift water flowing at a rate of 1 knot or greater. Data were obtained from the Texas Fire Marshal’s Office and analyzed to describe spatial and temporal characteristics of rescues. Between 2005 and 2014, 3256 swift water rescues were reported from 136 of 254 (54% counties. Over half (54.6%, n = 1777 occurred in counties known as Flash Flood Alley, which includes Texas’ largest and fastest growing cities. Less than 1.0% (n = 18 were reported from 49 counties designated as completely rural, or with an urban population less than 2500. Increases in swift water rescues were seen between March and September and during major weather events such as tropical storms. Because county-level data was utilized and demographic data was missing in all but 2% (n = 47 of the incidents, our ability to identify populations at risk or target interventions in the future using this data is limited. Despite the frequency of flash flood events and swift water rescues in Texas, knowledge gaps persist that should be addressed through the conduct of interdisciplinary research by epidemiologists and climatologists and by disseminating evidence-based health education and safety programs, particularly in rapidly growing counties that make up Texas’ Flash Flood Alley.

  3. Search and Rescue in Southeast Asia 1961-1975. (United States)


    first U.S. Marine CH-53 spiraled onto the soccer field to disgorge the first element of the Marine security force. The leathernecks fanned out across...ADAII1 903 OFFICE OF AIR FORCE’HISTORY WASHINGTON OC F/S 6/7 SEARCH AND RESCUE IN SOUTHEAST ASIA 1961-1975.(U) 1975 f H TILFORO MC~I £PS1FTEO M...A CLA -z6 C) LU Search and Rescue in Southeast Asia , 1961-1975 EARL H. Tu.oRD, JR. OFFICE OF AIR FORCE HISTORY UNITED STATES AIR FORCE WASHINGTON

  4. Regulation of bacterial gene expression by ribosome stalling and rescuing. (United States)

    Jin, Yongxin; Jin, Shouguang; Wu, Weihui


    Ribosome is responsible for protein synthesis and is able to monitor the sequence and structure of the nascent peptide. Such ability plays an important role in determining overall gene expression profile of the bacteria through ribosome stalling and rescuing. In this review, we briefly summarize our current understanding of the regulation of gene expression through ribosome stalling and rescuing in bacteria, as well as mechanisms that modulate ribosome activity. Understanding the mechanisms of how bacteria modulate ribosome activity will provide not only fundamental insights into bacterial gene regulation, but also new candidate targets for the development of novel antimicrobial agents.

  5. Embryo rescue of crosses between diploid and tetraploid grape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi


    Dec 19, 2011 ... tetraploid grapes can be a good way to obtain new triploid germplasm. However, there exists a severe mating obstacle in crosses between diploid and tetraploid grape. The embryo rescue technique may prevent the early stage abortion of triploid young embryo, so triploid plants can be produced (Pan et al., ...

  6. Embryo rescue of crosses between diploid and tetraploid grape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Five cross combinations Jumeigui×Xinghua No.1, 87-1×Kyoho, Kyoho×Muscat Hamburg, Jumeigui× Hongqitezao and Red globle×Kyoho were used as the testing materials. Factors that affect embryo rescue from crossed seeds between diploid and tetraploid grape were studied applying L25(55) orthogonal experiment ...

  7. Rescuing a business in financial difficulties: mordern trends and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rescuing a business in financial difficulties: mordern trends and Tanzania's legal perspective. Benhaji Shabaan. Abstract. No Abstract. African Journal of Finance and Management Vol. 14(1) 2005: 60-78. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  8. Mine rescue robots requirements: Outcomes from an industry workshop

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Green, J


    Full Text Available and internationally. The paper identifies three definite robot deployments in South Africa as a) box hole deployment (vertical tunnels), b) flying drone reconnaissance and c) proto (rescue) team assistance. These represent applications where there is a market need...

  9. Autonomous underwater vehicle for research and rescue operations

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Holtzhausen S


    Full Text Available Autonomous under water vehicles are ideal platforms for search and rescue operations. They can also be used for inspection of underwater terrains. These vehicles need to be autonomous and robust to cope with unpredictable current and high pressures...

  10. Rescue Archaeology and Spanish Journalism: The Abu Simbel Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salomé Zurinaga Fernández-Toribio


    Full Text Available Building Aswan Dam brought an unprecedented campaign to rescue all the affected archaeological sites in the region. Among them, Abu Simbel, one of the Egyptian icons, whose relocation was minutely followed by the Spanish press. This paper analyzes this coverage and its impact in Spain, one of the participant countries.

  11. Eco-evolutionary feedbacks, adaptive dynamics and evolutionary rescue theory. (United States)

    Ferriere, Regis; Legendre, Stéphane


    Adaptive dynamics theory has been devised to account for feedbacks between ecological and evolutionary processes. Doing so opens new dimensions to and raises new challenges about evolutionary rescue. Adaptive dynamics theory predicts that successive trait substitutions driven by eco-evolutionary feedbacks can gradually erode population size or growth rate, thus potentially raising the extinction risk. Even a single trait substitution can suffice to degrade population viability drastically at once and cause 'evolutionary suicide'. In a changing environment, a population may track a viable evolutionary attractor that leads to evolutionary suicide, a phenomenon called 'evolutionary trapping'. Evolutionary trapping and suicide are commonly observed in adaptive dynamics models in which the smooth variation of traits causes catastrophic changes in ecological state. In the face of trapping and suicide, evolutionary rescue requires that the population overcome evolutionary threats generated by the adaptive process itself. Evolutionary repellors play an important role in determining how variation in environmental conditions correlates with the occurrence of evolutionary trapping and suicide, and what evolutionary pathways rescue may follow. In contrast with standard predictions of evolutionary rescue theory, low genetic variation may attenuate the threat of evolutionary suicide and small population sizes may facilitate escape from evolutionary traps.

  12. Intelligent Robot-assisted Humanitarian Search and Rescue System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Y. K. Lau


    Full Text Available The unprecedented scale and number of natural and man-made disasters in the past decade has urged international emergency search and rescue communities to seek for novel technology to enhance operation efficiency. Tele-operated search and rescue robots that can navigate deep into rubble to search for victims and to transfer critical field data back to the control console has gained much interest among emergency response institutions. In response to this need, a low-cost autonomous mini robot equipped with thermal sensor, accelerometer, sonar, pin-hole camera, microphone, ultra-bright LED and wireless communication module is developed to study the control of a group of decentralized mini search and rescue robots. The robot can navigate autonomously between voids to look for living body heat and can send back audio and video information to allow the operator to determine if the found object is a living human. This paper introduces the design and control of a low-cost robotic search and rescue system based on an immuno control framework developed for controlling decentralized systems. Design and development of the physical prototype and the immunity-based control system are described in this paper.

  13. How Europe’s least controversial rescue fund became controversial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, N.; Koedooder, C.


    Over the past week, UK Prime Minister David Cameron and his Chancellor of the Exchequer, George Osborne, made a fuss about emergency funding for Greece. The source of their grievances is that some of the funding comes from the European Financial Stabilisation Mechanism (EFSM). Use of this rescue

  14. Civil-military relations in disaster rescue and relief activities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Philippine disaster framework recognises the military's role in disaster relief and has existing mechanisms for accepting international assistance and procedures for military-to-military ... The US military's activities were confined to search and rescue and to providing critical logistics, which the Philippines actors lacked.

  15. Dense 3D Map Construction for Indoor Search and Rescue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellekilde, Lars-Peter; Huang, Shoudong; Miró, Jaime Valls


    The main contribution of this paper is a new simultaneous localization and mapping  SLAM algorithm for building dense three-dimensional maps using information ac- quired from a range imager and a conventional camera, for robotic search and rescue in unstructured indoor environments. A key challenge...

  16. The Rescue Mission: Assigning Guilt to a Chaotic Scene. (United States)

    Procter, David E.


    Seeks to identify rhetorical distinctiveness of the rescue mission as a form of belligerency--examining presidential discourse justifying the 1985 Lebanon intervention, the 1965 Dominican intervention, and the 1983 Grenada intervention. Argues that the distinction is in guilt narrowly assigned to a chaotic scene and the concomitant call for…

  17. Intelligent Robot-Assisted Humanitarian Search and Rescue System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert W. Y. Ko


    Full Text Available The unprecedented scale and number of natural and man-made disasters in the past decade has urged international emergency search and rescue communities to seek for novel technology to enhance operation efficiency. Tele-operated search and rescue robots that can navigate deep into rubble to search for victims and to transfer critical field data back to the control console has gained much interest among emergency response institutions. In response to this need, a low-cost autonomous mini robot equipped with thermal sensor, accelerometer, sonar, pin-hole camera, microphone, ultra-bright LED and wireless communication module is developed to study the control of a group of decentralized mini search and rescue robots. The robot can navigate autonomously between voids to look for living body heat and can send back audio and video information to allow the operator to determine if the found object is a living human. This paper introduces the design and control of a low-cost robotic search and rescue system based on an immuno control framework developed for controlling decentralized systems. Design and development of the physical prototype and the immunity-based control system are described in this paper.

  18. Hospital Delivery Volume, Severe Obstetrical Morbidity, and Failure to Rescue (United States)

    Friedman, Alexander M.; Ananth, Cande V.; Huang, Yongmei; D'Alton, Mary E.; Wright, Jason D.


    Background In the setting of persistently high risk for maternal mortality and severe obstetric morbidity, little is known about the relationship between hospital delivery volume and maternal outcomes. Objective The objectives of this analysis were (i) to determine maternal risk for severe morbidity during delivery hospitalizations by hospital delivery volume in the United States; and (ii) to characterize, by hospital volume, the risk for mortality in the setting of severe obstetrical morbidity – a concept known as failure to rescue. Study Design This cohort study evaluated 50,433,539 delivery hospitalizations across the United States from 1998 to 2010. The main outcome measures were (i) severe morbidity defined as a composite of any one of fifteen diagnoses representative of acute organ injury and critical illness, and (ii) failure to rescue, defined as death in the setting of severe morbidity. Results The prevalence of severe morbidity rose from 471.2 to 751.5 cases per 100,000 deliveries from 1998 to 2010, an increase of 59.5%. Failure to rescue was highest in 1998 (1.5%), decreased to 0.6% in 2007, and rose to 0.9% in 2010. In models adjusted for comorbid risk and hospital factors, both low and high annualized delivery volume were associated with increased risk for failure to rescue and severe morbidity. However, the relative importance of hospital volume for both outcomes compared to other factors was relatively small. Conclusions While low and high delivery volume are associated with increased risk for both failure to rescue and severe maternal morbidity, other factors, in particular characteristics of individual centers, may be more important in determining outcomes. PMID:27457112

  19. An evaluation of coordination relationships during earthquake emergency rescue using entropy theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Rong


    Full Text Available Emergency rescue after an earthquake is complex work which requires the participation of relief and social organizations. Studying earthquake emergency coordination efficiency can not only help rescue organizations to define their own rescue missions, but also strengthens inter-organizational communication and collaboration tasks, improves the efficiency of emergency rescue, and reduces loss. In this paper, collaborative entropy is introduced to study earthquake emergency rescue operations. To study the emergency rescue coordination relationship, collaborative matrices and collaborative entropy functions are established between emergency relief work and relief organizations, and the collaborative efficiency of the emergency rescue elements is determined based on this entropy function. Finally, the Lushan earthquake is used as an example to evaluate earthquake emergency rescue coordination efficiency.

  20. UvA Rescue - Team Description Paper - Virtual Robot competition - Rescue Simulation League RoboCup Iran Open 2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.


    This year the task of the UvA Rescue Team is to break up the monolith architecture of the control architecture. On the one hand this will make the existing modules reusable by other researchers; on the other hand it opens the possibility to incorporate efficient modules from other research groups. A

  1. UvA Rescue team description paper: Virtual Robot competition, Rescue Simulation League, RoboCup 2012

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.; Dijkshoorn, N.; van Noort, S.; Zwennes, O.; de Waard, M.; Katt, S.; Rozeboom, R.


    This year's contribution of the UvA Rescue Team is twofold. On the one hand a contribution is made to infrastructure of the Virtual Robot competition [1]. On the other hand progress is made with visual mapping with a ying platform. The progress was not only shown on the RoboCup, but in addition also

  2. Amsterdam Oxford joint rescue forces - Team description paper - Virtual Robot competition - Rescue Simulation league - RoboCup 2011

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkshoorn, N.; Flynn, H.; Formsma, O.; van Noort, S.; van Weelden, C.; Bastiaan, C.; Out, N.; Zwennes, O.; Otárola, S.S.; de Hoog, J.; Cameron, S.; Visser, A.


    With the progress made in active exploration, the robots of the Joint Rescue Forces are capable of making deliberative decisions about the distribution of exploration locations over the team. Experiments have been done which include information exchange between team-members at rendez-vous points and

  3. Amsterdam Oxford Joint Rescue Forces: Team description paper: Virtual Robot competition: Rescue Simulation League: RoboCup 2009

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.; Maillette de Buij Wenniger, G.E.; Nijhuis, H.; Alnajar, F.; Huijten, B.; van der Velden, M.; Josemans, W.; Terwijn, B.; Walraven, C.; Nguyen, Q.; Sobolewski, R.; Flynn, H.; Jankowska, M.; de Hoog, J.


    With the progress made in active exploration, the robots of the Joint Rescue Forces are capable of making deliberative decisions about the distributing exploration locations over the team. To navigate autonomously towards those locations, the robots gradually aggregate their experience in a

  4. Internet plan and planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kahriman Emina


    Full Text Available Paper discuss specific features of internet plan as well as planning as management process in general in the contemporary environment. No need to stress out that marketing plan and marketing planning is core activity in approaching to market. At the same time, there are a lot specific c request in preparing marketing plan comparing to business planning due to marketing plan is an essential part. The importance of internet plan and planning rely on specific features of the internet network but as a part of general corporate as well as marketing strategy.

  5. 46 CFR 133.160 - Rescue boat embarkation, launching and recovery arrangements. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rescue boat embarkation, launching and recovery...) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS LIFESAVING SYSTEMS Requirements for All OSVs § 133.160 Rescue boat embarkation, launching and recovery arrangements. (a) Each davit for a rescue boat must be approved under approval series...

  6. 46 CFR 199.220 - Survival craft and rescue boat embarkation arrangements. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Survival craft and rescue boat embarkation arrangements... Passenger Vessels § 199.220 Survival craft and rescue boat embarkation arrangements. (a) Survival craft... rescue boat must be able to be boarded and launched directly from the stowed position with the number of...

  7. 46 CFR 108.570 - Rescue boat embarkation, launching and recovery arrangements. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rescue boat embarkation, launching and recovery...-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Lifesaving Equipment § 108.570 Rescue boat embarkation, launching and recovery arrangements. (a) Each rescue boat must be capable of being launched with...

  8. 46 CFR 133.175 - Survival craft and rescue boat equipment. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Survival craft and rescue boat equipment. 133.175... LIFESAVING SYSTEMS Requirements for All OSVs § 133.175 Survival craft and rescue boat equipment. (a) All rescue boat equipment must be as follows: (1) The equipment must be secured within the boat by lashings...

  9. 46 CFR 108.575 - Survival craft and rescue boat equipment. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Survival craft and rescue boat equipment. 108.575... DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Lifesaving Equipment § 108.575 Survival craft and rescue boat equipment. (a) All lifeboat and rescue boat equipment must be as follows: (1) The equipment must be secured...

  10. 77 FR 64360 - Proposed Extension of Existing Information Collection; Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Metal... (United States)


    ... Safety and Health Administration Proposed Extension of Existing Information Collection; Mine Rescue Teams...) to publish regulations which provide that mine rescue teams be available for rescue and recovery work... arrangements for such teams are to be borne by the operator of each such mine. II. Desired Focus of Comments...

  11. 30 CFR 49.17 - Physical requirements for mine rescue team. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Physical requirements for mine rescue team. 49.17 Section 49.17 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal Mines § 49.17 Physical...

  12. 30 CFR 49.7 - Physical requirements for mine rescue team. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Physical requirements for mine rescue team. 49.7 Section 49.7 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS § 49.7 Physical requirements for mine rescue team. (a) Each member...

  13. 30 CFR 49.9 - Mine emergency notification plan. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mine emergency notification plan. 49.9 Section 49.9 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS § 49.9 Mine emergency notification plan. (a) Each underground mine shall have a...

  14. Evolutionary rescue: linking theory for conservation and medicine. (United States)

    Alexander, Helen K; Martin, Guillaume; Martin, Oliver Y; Bonhoeffer, Sebastian


    Evolutionary responses that rescue populations from extinction when drastic environmental changes occur can be friend or foe. The field of conservation biology is concerned with the survival of species in deteriorating global habitats. In medicine, in contrast, infected patients are treated with chemotherapeutic interventions, but drug resistance can compromise eradication of pathogens. These contrasting biological systems and goals have created two quite separate research communities, despite addressing the same central question of whether populations will decline to extinction or be rescued through evolution. We argue that closer integration of the two fields, especially of theoretical understanding, would yield new insights and accelerate progress on these applied problems. Here, we overview and link mathematical modelling approaches in these fields, suggest specific areas with potential for fruitful exchange, and discuss common ideas and issues for empirical testing and prediction.

  15. Combat Search and Rescue: Restoring Promise to a Sacred Assurance (United States)


    Sandys” somewhere in Southeast Asia. Source: Photo courtesy of the National Museum of the Air Force. 4 If the construct of the combat SARTF...time this window is kept open , the less chance of additional shoot downs. Furthermore, greater rescue helicopter speed gives the air component...Cambodia in the late 1960s. Source: Photo courtesy of the National Museum of the Air Force. Arming Air Force helicopters for greater survivability

  16. An analysis of leadership characteristics of search and rescue volunteers


    Gurer, Burak; ADILOGULLARI, Ilhan


    The main purpose of this study was to analyze the leadership behaviors of volunteer leaders in search and rescue field. 118 volunteer leaders attended this study on a volunteer basis. Data were collected through the use of the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire, which was developed by Bass & Avolio (1985) and adapted into Turkish by Demir & Okan. 20 items were used to measure transformational leadership while 16 of them were applied for transactional leadership. One Way Anov...

  17. Mechanisms by which heme oxygenase rescue renal dysfunction in obesity

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    Joseph Fomusi Ndisang


    Collectively, these data suggest that hemin ameliorates nephropathy by potentiating the expression of proteins of repair/regeneration, abating oxidative/inflammatory mediators, reducing renal histo-pathological lesions, while enhancing nephrin, podocin, podocalyxin, CD2AP and creatinine clearance, with corresponding reduction of albuminuria/proteinuria suggesting improved renal function in hemin-treated ZFs. Importantly, the concomitant potentiation regeneration proteins and podocyte cytoskeletal proteins are novel mechanisms by which hemin rescue nephropathy in obesity.

  18. Rescue Surgery 19 Years after Composite Root and Hemiarch Replacement

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    Konstantin von Aspern


    Full Text Available A 59-year-old male patient with Marfan's syndrome was referred to our clinic due to acute chest pain. His medical history contains complex surgery for type A aortic dissection 19 years ago including composite root replacement using a mechanical aortic valve. Immediate computed tomography indicated perforation at the distal ascending aortic anastomosis plus complete avulsion of both coronary ostia. The patient underwent successful rescue surgery with ascending aortic and arch replacement using a modified Cabrol technique.

  19. A Stem Cell-rescue Operation in a Nuclear Devastation

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    Full Text Available Dear friends, The aftermath of one of the most devastating post earthquake- tsunamis in the history of mankind, the March 2011 post-earthquake-tsunami-hitnuclear accident in Fukushima, Japan, has brought to fore several questions throughout the world on the safety of nuclearinstallations. Such Calamities,which are far beyond our comprehension, has left all nations with such installations and those planning to expand their nuclear power plant programmes in a dilemma. However, the recent news that the Japanese authorities are considering to harvest and store bone marrow stem cells for transfusion to radiation-exposed workers has ushered in a new ray of hope. The hematopoietic stem cells will be harvested before exposure and in case of bone marrow depletion after radiation exposure; these cells can be immediately retrieved from storage and transfused to the radiation-exposed worker so that they have the potential to re-constitute the entire bone marrow in the patient. This will be a great life-saver and game-changer as bone marrow depletion is one of the major consequences of high levels of radiation exposure. This strategy can be prescribed as a routine procedure in all the countries with such nuclear installations, especially for workers at very high risk of radiation exposure. In future, such preventive strategies should be considered for implementation to not only the workers in the facility, but also the rescue team and the vulnerable population in the radiation zone.The regenerative potential of hematopoietic stem cell (HSC is the key factor to be considered now. This is high time that the studies on optimal in vitro expansion of HSCs and ways of successful engraftment of the transfused cells to a niche of radiation-exposed host environment should be attempted in all earnestness by the regenerative medicine community at present. Natural calamities like this help man to realise that the millions of scientific discoveries and inventions can

  20. Efficient transgenesis mediated by pigmentation rescue in zebrafish. (United States)

    Harrold, Itrat; Carbonneau, Seth; Moore, Bethany M; Nguyen, Gina; Anderson, Nicole M; Saini, Amandeep S; Kanki, John P; Jette, Cicely A; Feng, Hui


    The zebrafish represents a revolutionary tool in large-scale genetic and small-molecule screens for gene and drug discovery. Transgenic zebrafish are often utilized in these screens. Many transgenic fish lines are maintained in the heterozygous state due to the lethality associated with homozygosity; thus, their progeny must be sorted to ensure a population expressing the transgene of interest for use in screens. Sorting transgenic embryos under a fluorescence microscope is very labor-intensive and demands fine-tuned motor skills. Here we report an efficient transgenic method of utilizing pigmentation rescue of nacre mutant fish for accurate naked-eye identification of both mosaic founders and stable transgenic zebrafish. This was accomplished by co-injecting two constructs with the I-SceI meganuclease enzyme into pigmentless nacre embryos: I-SceI-mitfa:mitfa-I-SceI to rescue the pigmentation and I-SceI-zpromoter:gene-of-interest-I-SceI to express the gene of interest under a zebrafish promoter (zpromoter). Pigmentation rescue reliably predicted transgene integration. Compared with other transgenic techniques, our approach significantly increases the overall percentage of founders and facilitates accurate naked-eye identification of stable transgenic fish, greatly reducing laborious fluorescence microscope sorting and PCR genotyping. Thus, this approach is ideal for generating transgenic fish for large-scale screens.

  1. Vulture rescue and rehabilitation in South Africa: an urban perspective. (United States)

    Naidoo, V; Wolter, K; Espie, I; Kotze, A


    South Africa is home to 9 vulture species, of which 7 are endangered. While the cause of the population declines remains largely speculative, a vast amount of effort has been dedicated towards the protection of populations by ensuring sustainable and safe food sources for the various colonies. Limited focus was placed in the past on efforts related to the rescue and/or rehabilitation (R&R) of injured birds and the release of these birds back into the wild. This paper provides an overview of the causes, the impact and success of 3 organisations involved in R&R efforts of vultures in the Magaliesberg mountain range and surrounding areas over a period of 10 years. Study material included 162 Cape griffon (CGV) and 38 African white-backed (AWBV) vultures. Datasets include the number, sex and age of birds received, the reason the vultures were brought in for R&R, surgical interventions performed and outcomes of rescue efforts. The CGV dominated the rehabilitation attempts. Results further show that a large number of apparently healthy birds were presented for veterinary treatment. The R&R data clearly indicate that the major cause of injuries was birds colliding with overhead pylons, as a high number of soft tissue and skeletal injuries were observed. The study also shows that successful releases of rescued birds are possible. It is concluded that urbanisation has had a major negative impact on vultures around the Magaliesberg mountain range.

  2. Evolutionary rescue of a parasite population by mutation rate evolution. (United States)

    Greenspoon, Philip B; Mideo, Nicole


    The risk of antibiotic resistance evolution in parasites is a major problem for public health. Identifying factors which promote antibiotic resistance evolution is thus a priority in evolutionary medicine. The rate at which new mutations enter the parasite population is one important predictor; however, mutation rate is not necessarily a fixed quantity, as is often assumed, but can itself evolve. Here we explore the possible impacts of mutation rate evolution on the fate of a disease circulating in a host population, which is being treated with drugs, the use of which varies over time. Using an evolutionary rescue framework, we find that mutation rate evolution provides a dramatic increase in the probability that a parasite population survives treatment in only a limited region, while providing little or no advantage in other regions. Both epidemiological features, such as the virulence of infection, and population genetic parameters, such as recombination rate, play important roles in determining the probability of evolutionary rescue and whether mutation rate evolution enhances the probability of evolutionary rescue or not. While efforts to curtail mutation rate evolution in parasites may be worthwhile under some circumstances, our results suggest that this need not always be the case. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Indirect evolutionary rescue: prey adapts, predator avoids extinction (United States)

    Yamamichi, Masato; Miner, Brooks E


    Recent studies have increasingly recognized evolutionary rescue (adaptive evolution that prevents extinction following environmental change) as an important process in evolutionary biology and conservation science. Researchers have concentrated on single species living in isolation, but populations in nature exist within communities of interacting species, so evolutionary rescue should also be investigated in a multispecies context. We argue that the persistence or extinction of a focal species can be determined solely by evolutionary change in an interacting species. We demonstrate that prey adaptive evolution can prevent predator extinction in two-species predator–prey models, and we derive the conditions under which this indirect evolutionary interaction is essential to prevent extinction following environmental change. A nonevolving predator can be rescued from extinction by adaptive evolution of its prey due to a trade-off for the prey between defense against predation and population growth rate. As prey typically have larger populations and shorter generations than their predators, prey evolution can be rapid and have profound effects on predator population dynamics. We suggest that this process, which we term ‘indirect evolutionary rescue’, has the potential to be critically important to the ecological and evolutionary responses of populations and communities to dramatic environmental change. PMID:26366196

  4. Vulture rescue and rehabilitation in South Africa: An urban perspective

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    V. Naidoo


    Full Text Available SouthAfrica is home to 9 vulture species, of which 7 are endangered. While the cause of the population declines remains largely speculative, a vast amount of effort has been dedicated towards the protection of populations by ensuring sustainable and safe food sources for the various colonies. Limited focus was placed in the past on efforts related to the rescue and/or rehabilitation (R&R of injured birds and the release of these birds back into the wild. This paper provides an overview of the causes, the impact and success of 3 organisations involved in R&R efforts of vultures in the Magaliesberg mountain range and surrounding areas over a period of 10 years. Study material included 162 Cape griffon (CGV and 38 African white-backed (AWBV vultures. Datasets include the number, sex and age of birds received, the reason the vultures were brought in for R&R, surgical interventions performed and outcomes of rescue efforts. The CGV dominated the rehabilitation attempts. Results further show that a large number of apparently healthy birds were presented for veterinary treatment. The R&R data clearly indicate that the major cause of injuries was birds colliding with overhead pylons, as a high number of soft tissue and skeletal injuries were observed. The study also shows that successful releases of rescued birds are possible. It is concluded that urbanisation has had a major negative impact on vultures around the Magaliesberg mountain range.

  5. Optical sensors for urban search and rescue operations (United States)

    Mäyrä, Aki P.; Agapiou, Agapios; Hildebrand, Lars; Ojala, Kai M.; Mikedi, Katerina; Statheropoulos, Milt


    The Second Generation Locator for Urban Search and Rescue Operations (SGL for USaR) is an EC-funded project solving critical problems following massive destruction and large scale structural collapses in urban locations. One part of the project is the development of a standalone portable first responder device (FIRST) for the operational rescue teams. It will combine field chemical analysis, spectral analysis with audio and video analysis capabilities for the early location of entrapped people, the detection of buried people and air quality monitoring in confined spaces for ensuring safety and security of first responders. Hardware selected for the optical sensors of the FIRST-device will be responsible for the fluorescence, visible (VIS), near infrared (NIR) and long wavelength infrared (LWIR) range detection as well as supplying required illumination. FIRST shall identify images of fires or other events, damage patterns, temperature of living humans, motion of body parts and human postures. The device requirements were based on the operational input and feedback received from European rescue teams - partners within the project (final product end-users). Some of the critical properties for the selected components were compact physical size, low power consumption, refresh rate and adequate resolution of the sensor image data. During the project, special image libraries were collected and suitable image processing algorithms based on the collected data were developed.

  6. A ground moving target emergency tracking method for catastrophe rescue (United States)

    Zhou, X.; Li, D.; Li, G.


    In recent years, great disasters happen now and then. Disaster management test the emergency operation ability of the government and society all over the world. Immediately after the occurrence of a great disaster (e.g., earthquake), a massive nationwide rescue and relief operation need to be kicked off instantly. In order to improve the organizations efficiency of the emergency rescue, the organizers need to take charge of the information of the rescuer teams, including the real time location, the equipment with the team, the technical skills of the rescuers, and so on. One of the key factors for the success of emergency operations is the real time location of the rescuers dynamically. Real time tracking methods are used to track the professional rescuer teams now. But volunteers' participation play more and more important roles in great disasters. However, real time tracking of the volunteers will cause many problems, e.g., privacy leakage, expensive data consumption, etc. These problems may reduce the enthusiasm of volunteers' participation for catastrophe rescue. In fact, the great disaster is just small probability event, it is not necessary to track the volunteers (even rescuer teams) every time every day. In order to solve this problem, a ground moving target emergency tracking method for catastrophe rescue is presented in this paper. In this method, the handheld devices using GPS technology to provide the location of the users, e.g., smart phone, is used as the positioning equipment; an emergency tracking information database including the ID of the ground moving target (including the rescuer teams and volunteers), the communication number of the handheld devices with the moving target, and the usually living region, etc., is built in advance by registration; when catastrophe happens, the ground moving targets that living close to the disaster area will be filtered by the usually living region; then the activation short message will be sent to the selected

  7. UvA Rescue - Team Description Paper - Infrastructure competition - Rescue Simulation League RoboCup 2014 - João Pessoa - Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.


    The UvA Rescue Team has several innovative ideas to further improve the infrastructure of the RoboCup Rescue Simulation League. Those ideas range from providing USARSim an interface compatible with the RoboCup@Home Simulation, to provide the possibility to specify robots in the URDF format, to

  8. 33 CFR 150.511 - What are the operational testing requirements for lifeboat and rescue boat release gear? (United States)


    ... requirements for lifeboat and rescue boat release gear? 150.511 Section 150.511 Navigation and Navigable Waters... operational testing requirements for lifeboat and rescue boat release gear? (a) Lifeboat and rescue boat... rescue boat when loaded with its full complement of persons and equipment. (b) The test must be conducted...

  9. Un analisis de la influencia de las fricciones de los campos no militares sobre las fricciones del campo militar presentes en la operacion de rescate de rehenes Chavin de Huantar (An Analysis of the Influence that Friction in Non-Military Fields of Action Had Upon Military Friction in the Hostage Rescue Operation Chavin de Huantar) (United States)


    Lima, fueron secuestrados por catorce terroristas pertenecientes al Movimiento Revolucionario Túpac Amaru (MRTA), uno de los dos grupos terroristas ...política tradicional ante los problemas del país y la creciente amenaza de los grupos terroristas Sendero Luminoso (SL) y Movimiento Revolucionario...cabecilla de un demencial grupo terrorista , responsable de la muerte de más de 25,000 peruanos y millonarias pérdidas a la infraestructura del Estado. Tras

  10. The Iran Hostages: Efforts to Obtain Compensation (United States)


    implementing the Algiers Accords extinguished any claim the plaintiff may have had. Despite having won the case, the U.S. government petitioned for...sanctions $217,000,000.00 12/22/2009 Credit Suisse of Zurich, Switzerland payments involving Iran, Sudan, Burma, Cuba, North Korea, and persons whose

  11. Tactical mobile robots for urban search and rescue (United States)

    Blitch, John; Sidki, Nahid; Durkin, Tim


    Few disasters can inspire more compassion for victims and families than those involving structural collapse. Video clips of children's bodies pulled from earthquake stricken cities and bombing sties tend to invoke tremendous grief and sorrow because of the totally unpredictable nature of the crisis and lack of even the slightest degree of negligence (such as with those who choose to ignore storm warnings). Heartbreaking stories of people buried alive for days provide a visceral and horrific perspective of some of greatest fears ever to be imagined by human beings. Current trends toward urban sprawl and increasing human discord dictates that structural collapse disasters will continue to present themselves at an alarming rate. The proliferation of domestic terrorism, HAZMAT and biological contaminants further complicates the matter further and presents a daunting problem set for Urban Search and Rescue (USAR) organizations around the world. This paper amplifies the case for robot assisted search and rescue that was first presented during the KNOBSAR project initiated at the Colorado School of Mines in 1995. It anticipates increasing technical development in mobile robot technologies and promotes their use for a wide variety of humanitarian assistance missions. Focus is placed on development of advanced robotic systems that are employed in a complementary tool-like fashion as opposed to traditional robotic approaches that portend to replace humans in hazardous tasks. Operational challenges for USAR are presented first, followed by a brief history of mobiles robot development. The paper then presents conformal robotics as a new design paradigm with emphasis on variable geometry and volumes. A section on robot perception follows with an initial attempt to characterize sensing in a volumetric manner. Collaborative rescue is then briefly discussed with an emphasis on marsupial operations and linked mobility. The paper concludes with an emphasis on Human Robot Interface

  12. Launch-Off-Need Shuttle Hubble Rescue Mission: Medical Issues (United States)

    Hamilton, Douglas; Gillis, David; Ilcus, Linda; Perchonok, Michele; Polk, James; Brandt, Keith; Powers, Edward; Stepaniak, Phillip


    The Space Shuttle Hubble repair mission (STS-125) is unique in that a rescue mission (STS-400) has to be ready to launch before STS-125 life support runs out should the vehicle become stranded. The shuttle uses electrical power derived from fuel cells that use cryogenic oxygen and hydrogen (CRYO) to run all subsystems including the Environmental Control System. If the STS-125 crew cannot return to Earth due to failure of a critical subsystem, they must power down all nonessential systems and wait to be rescued by STS-400. This power down will cause the cabin temperature to be 60 F or less and freeze the rest of the vehicle, preventing it from attempting a reentry. After an emergency has been declared, STS-125 must wait at least 7 days to power down since that is the earliest that STS-400 can be launched. Problem The delayed power down of STS-125 causes CYRO to be consumed at high rates and limits the survival time after STS-400 launches to 10 days or less. CRYO will run out sooner every day that the STS-400 launch is delayed (weather at launch, technical issues etc.). To preserve CRYO and lithium hydroxide (LiOH - carbon dioxide removal) the crew will perform no exercise to reduce their metabolic rates, yet each deconditioned STS-125 crewmember must perform an EVA to rescue himself. The cabin may be cold for 10 days, which may cause shivering, increasing the metabolic rate of the STS-125 crew. Solution To preserve LiOH, the STS-125 manifest includes nutrition bars with low carbohydrate content to maintain crew respiratory quotient (RQ) below 0.85 as opposed to the usual shuttle galley food which is rich in carbohydrates and keeps the RQ at approximately 0.95. To keep the crew more comfortable in the cold vehicle warm clothing also has been included. However, with no exercise and limited diet, the deconditioned STS-125 crew returning on STS-400 may not be able to egress the vehicle autonomously requiring a supplemented crash-and-rescue capability.

  13. Dynamics of omnidirectional unmanned rescue vehicle with mecanum wheels (United States)

    Typiak, Andrzej; Łopatka, Marian Janusz; Rykała, Łukasz; Kijek, Magdalena


    The work presents the dynamic equations of motion of a unmanned six-wheeled vehicle with mecanum wheels for rescue applications derived with the of Lagrange equations of the second kind with multipliers. Analysed vehicle through using mecanum wheels has three degrees of freedom and can move on a flat ground in any direction with any configuration of platform's frame. In order to derive dynamic equations of motion of mentioned object, kinetic potential of the system and generalized forces affecting the system are determined. The results of a solution of inverse dynamics problem are also published.

  14. Rescue and Fire Fighting on RWY 06R/24L

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    Kristýna Vaňková


    Full Text Available Rescue and firefighting service is an important and essential part at the Václav Havel Airport Prague and it has to follow the requirements stated in Commission regulations (EU, regulations and laws of Czech Republic. Construction of parallel runway 06R/24L influences runway and taxiway system significantly. Consequences of these construction changes are changes of access routes and new places of potential interventions originates. Safety risks of inaccessible areas at the airport and inability to follow response time come with operations of the new runway. These risks are assessed and mitigated if necessary.

  15. State of the art: Rescue intubation through supraglottic airways

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    R. Hofmeyr*


    Full Text Available The use of supraglottic airways as rescue devices in failed intubation and resuscitation has become well accepted in emergency practice. Many offer or advertise the possibility of intubation through the device, but techniques and success rates vary greatly. Intubation can be achieved blindly, with the use a bougie or introducer, or with fiberoptic guidance. In this review, I examine the evidence behind different devices with various techniques, present the data from our on-going research, suggest further research directions and propose practical guidelines for clinical use in emergencies.

  16. ECMO for Cardiac Rescue after Accidental Intravenous Mepivacaine Application

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    Michael Froehle


    Full Text Available Mepivacaine is a potent local anaesthetic and used for infiltration and regional anaesthesia in adults and pediatric patients. Intoxications with mepivacaine affect mainly the CNS and the cardiovascular system. We present a case of accidental intravenous mepivacaine application and intoxication of an infant resulting in seizure, broad complex bradyarrhythmia, arterial hypotension and finally cardiac arrest. The patient could be rescued by prolonged resuscitations and a rapid initiation of ECMO and survived without neurological damage. The management strategies of this rare complication including promising other treatment options with lipid emulsions are discussed.

  17. Geriatric rescue after surgery (GRAS) score to predict failure-to-rescue in geriatric emergency general surgery patients. (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad; Azim, Asad; O'Keeffe, Terence; Jehan, Faisal; Kulvatunyou, Narong; Santino, Chelsey; Tang, Andrew; Vercruysse, Gary; Gries, Lynn; Joseph, Bellal


    Geriatric-patients(GP) undergoing emergency-general-surgery(EGS) are vulnerable to develop adverse-outcomes. Impact of patient-level-factors on Failure-to-Rescue(FTR) in EGS-GP remains unclear. Aim of our study was to determine factors associated with FTR(death from major-complication) and devise simple-bedside-score that predicts FTR in EGS-GP. 3-year(2013-15) analysis of patients, age≥65y on acute-care-surgery-service and underwent EGS. Regression analysis used to analyze factors associated with FTR and natural-logarithm of significant odds-ratio used to calculate estimated-weights for each factor. Geriatric-Rescue-After-Surgery(GRAS)-score calculated for each-patient. AUROC used to assess model discrimination. 725 EGS-patients analyzed. 44.6%(n = 324) had major-complications. The FTR-rate was 11.5%. Overall-mortality rate was 15.3%. On regression, significant-factors with their estimated-weights were:Age≥80y(2), Chronic-Obstructive-Pulmonary-Disease(COPD)(1), Chronic-renal-failure(CRF)(2), Congestive-heart-failure(CHF)(1), Albumin3(2). AUROC of score was 0.787. GRAS-score is first score based on preoperative assessment that can reliably predict FTR in EGS-GP. Preoperative identification of patients at increased-risk of FTR can help in risk-stratification and timely-mobilization of resources for successful rescue of these patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Development of an improved polykaryon-based influenza virus rescue system


    Bourret Vincent; Lyall Jon; Ducatez Mariette F; Guérin Jean-Luc; Tiley Laurence


    Abstract Background Virus rescue from transfected cells is an extremely useful technique that allows defined viral clones to be engineered for the purpose of rational vaccine design or fundamental reverse genetics studies. However, it is often hindered by low primary rescue success rates or yields, especially with field-derived viral strains. Approach We investigated the possibility of enhancing influenza virus rescue by eliciting cell fusion to increase the chances of having all necessary pl...

  19. Rescue cerclage when foetal membranes prolapse into the vagina. (United States)

    Bayrak, Mehmet; Gul, Ahmet; Goynumer, Gokhan


    A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of rescue cerclage in patients with a dilated cervix and prolapsed foetal membranes. Thirty-five patients presenting with cervical dilatation and prolapsed foetal membranes were included in the study. A McDonald cerclage was placed in 27 patients. The duration of pregnancy prolongation and the number of deliveries after 28 weeks were evaluated. The median prolongation of pregnancy after cerclage placement differed significantly between the cerclage and bed-rest groups (64 days versus 13.5 days). Of the 27 patients who had cerclage, 17 (63%) delivered after 28 weeks of gestation, whereas all patients in the bed-rest group delivered before 28 weeks of gestation. The take-home baby rate was 63% in the cerclage group. When pregnancies were complicated by cervical dilatation with membrane prolapse into the vagina, placement of a McDonald cerclage in appropriately selected patients can be a beneficial therapeutic option. Impact statement Although the effectiveness and safety of rescue cerclage is controversial, our study provides strong support for the notion that cervical cerclage accompanied by long-term broad-spectrum antibiotics improves the perinatal outcomes in singleton gestations with membrane prolapsed into the vagina. Further prospective randomised trial is required to prove these findings.

  20. Lithium rescues synaptic plasticity and memory in Down syndrome mice (United States)

    Contestabile, Andrea; Greco, Barbara; Ghezzi, Diego; Tucci, Valter; Benfenati, Fabio; Gasparini, Laura


    Down syndrome (DS) patients exhibit abnormalities of hippocampal-dependent explicit memory, a feature that is replicated in relevant mouse models of the disease. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis, which is impaired in DS and other neuropsychiatric diseases, plays a key role in hippocampal circuit plasticity and has been implicated in learning and memory. However, it remains unknown whether increasing adult neurogenesis improves hippocampal plasticity and behavioral performance in the multifactorial context of DS. We report that, in the Ts65Dn mouse model of DS, chronic administration of lithium, a clinically used mood stabilizer, promoted the proliferation of neuronal precursor cells through the pharmacological activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway and restored adult neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) to physiological levels. The restoration of adult neurogenesis completely rescued the synaptic plasticity of newborn neurons in the DG and led to the full recovery of behavioral performance in fear conditioning, object location, and novel object recognition tests. These findings indicate that reestablishing a functional population of hippocampal newborn neurons in adult DS mice rescues hippocampal plasticity and memory and implicate adult neurogenesis as a promising therapeutic target to alleviate cognitive deficits in DS patients. PMID:23202733

  1. VEGETATIVE RESCUE AND CUTTINGS PROPAGATION OF Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. Kuntze

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    Ivar Wendling


    Full Text Available Brazilian pine or araucaria (Araucaria angustifolia is a coniferous tree with great economic, social and environmental importance in southern Brazil, being exploited for both wood production and for its edible pine nuts. However, no efficient cloning techniques are available and, therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of vegetative rescue methods for cuttings propagation of the species. Shoots/cuttings were generated in two ways: 26 years old trees underwent coppicing and 20 years old trees had the primary branches on the upper third of crown pruned at 2, 20 and 50 cm from the main trunk. Orthotropic shoots were rooted after application of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA at 0, 2, 4 and 6 g.L-1. Coppicing produced 47 cuttings per plant with 90% orthotropic shoots, while pruning resulted in 182 cuttings per plant with 44% orthotropic shoots. Rooting success indexes were low with no influence of IBA, although they are slightly superior to the ones available in the literature for the species, ranging from 12 to 30% for the coppice shoots and from 0 to 28% for the branches shoots. We conclude that both vegetative rescue techniques are viable and have potentially important applications. Coppicing is recommended for the propagation aiming the production of wood, while shoots derived from the side branches of the crown are more appropriate for seeds orchards formation.

  2. Native flora rescue program: GASENE project case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serricchio, Claudio; Caldas, Flaviana V. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Akahori, Lisa [Telsan, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Jacomelli Junior, Jose Almir [AGF Engenharia, Araucaria, PR (Brazil)


    Concerning the surrounding flora, the implementation of pipelines may cause fragmentation and isolation of the remaining natural vegetation, possibly changing the forest structure; thus raising the border effect; modifying the ratio of species and life forms, decreasing the vegetal diversity and/or causing a lack of connectivity among the remaining indigenous forest resources. In the case of pipelines, the most important environmental measure intended to mitigate the damage caused to the flora is the adoption of Indigenous Flora Rescue Programs. This paper is aimed at analyzing the programs currently applied during the implementation of the GASENE project, by conducting a case study. The main targets of such program are obtaining seeds and fruits with a view to subsidize the potential production of sapling to be further employed in the recovery of areas impacted by the pipeline works; and then relocate the most significant samples of species rescued from the suppressed areas in order to comprise forest areas adjacent to the pipeline's right-of-way. The programs had little differences in their methodology while being implemented, however, we consider that up to the present moment the results obtained in the preservation of species of native flora have been satisfactory. (author)

  3. Genetic rescue and inbreeding depression in Mexican wolves. (United States)

    Fredrickson, Richard J; Siminski, Peter; Woolf, Melissa; Hedrick, Philip W


    Although inbreeding can reduce individual fitness and contribute to population extinction, gene flow between inbred but unrelated populations may overcome these effects. Among extant Mexican wolves (Canis lupus baileyi), inbreeding had reduced genetic diversity and potentially lowered fitness, and as a result, three unrelated captive wolf lineages were merged beginning in 1995. We examined the effect of inbreeding and the merging of the founding lineages on three fitness traits in the captive population and on litter size in the reintroduced population. We found little evidence of inbreeding depression among captive wolves of the founding lineages, but large fitness increases, genetic rescue, for all traits examined among F1 offspring of the founding lineages. In addition, we observed strong inbreeding depression among wolves descended from F1 wolves. These results suggest a high load of deleterious alleles in the McBride lineage, the largest of the founding lineages. In the wild, reintroduced population, there were large fitness differences between McBride wolves and wolves with ancestry from two or more lineages, again indicating a genetic rescue. The low litter and pack sizes observed in the wild population are consistent with this genetic load, but it appears that there is still potential to establish vigorous wild populations.

  4. A Review of Mine Rescue Ensembles for Underground Coal Mining in the United States. (United States)

    Kilinc, F Selcen; Monaghan, William D; Powell, Jeffrey B

    The mining industry is among the top ten industries nationwide with high occupational injury and fatality rates, and mine rescue response may be considered one of the most hazardous activities in mining operations. In the aftermath of an underground mine fire, explosion or water inundation, specially equipped and trained teams have been sent underground to fight fires, rescue entrapped miners, test atmospheric conditions, investigate the causes of the disaster, or recover the dead. Special personal protective ensembles are used by the team members to improve the protection of rescuers against the hazards of mine rescue and recovery. Personal protective ensembles used by mine rescue teams consist of helmet, cap lamp, hood, gloves, protective clothing, boots, kneepads, facemask, breathing apparatus, belt, and suspenders. While improved technology such as wireless warning and communication systems, lifeline pulleys, and lighted vests have been developed for mine rescuers over the last 100 years, recent research in this area of personal protective ensembles has been minimal due to the trending of reduced exposure of rescue workers. In recent years, the exposure of mine rescue teams to hazardous situations has been changing. However, it is vital that members of the teams have the capability and proper protection to immediately respond to a wide range of hazardous situations. Currently, there are no minimum requirements, best practice documents, or nationally recognized consensus standards for protective clothing used by mine rescue teams in the United States (U.S.). The following review provides a summary of potential issues that can be addressed by rescue teams and industry to improve potential exposures to rescue team members should a disaster situation occur. However, the continued trending in the mining industry toward non-exposure to potential hazards for rescue workers should continue to be the primary goal. To assist in continuing this trend, the mining industry

  5. Mountain Search and Rescue with Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (United States)

    Silvagni, Mario; Tonoli, Andrea; Zenerino, Enrico; Chiaberge, Marcello


    Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS) also known as Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) are nowadays becoming more and more popular in several applications. Even though a complete regulation is not yet available all over the world, researches, tests and some real case applications are wide spreading. These technologies can bring many benefits also to the mountain operations especially in emergencies and harsh environmental conditions, such as Search and Rescue (SAR) and avalanche rescue missions. In fact, during last decade, the number of people practicing winter sports in backcountry environment is increased and one of the greatest hazards for recreationists and professionals are avalanches. Often these accidents have severe consequences leading, mostly, to asphyxia-related death, which is confirmed by the hard drop of survival probability after ten minutes from the burying. Therefore, it is essential to minimize the time of burial. Modern avalanche beacon (ARTVA) interface guides the rescuer during the search phase reducing its time. Even if modern avalanche beacons are valid and reliable, the seeking range influences the rescue time. Furthermore, the environment and morphologic conditions of avalanches usually complicates the rescues. The recursive methodology of this kind of searching offers the opportunity to use automatic device like drones (RPAS). These systems allow performing all the required tasks autonomously, with high accuracy and without exposing the rescuers to additional risks due to secondary avalanches. The availability of highly integrated electronics and subsystems specifically meant for the applications, better batteries, miniaturized payload and, in general, affordable prices, has led to the availability of small RPAS with very good performances that can give interesting application opportunities in unconventional environments. The present work is one of the outcome from the experience made by the authors in RPAS fields and in Mechatronics

  6. Five Geobrowsing Lesson Plans (United States)

    de Paor, D. G.; Daniels, J.; Tyagi, I.


    Virtual globes such as Google Earth or NASA World Wind may be used as is, without KML coding or inclusion of three-dimensional models, to design effective learning experiences. With KML coding and Collada modeling, sophisticated learning objects may be developed. Five examples are presented for interactive demonstration, covering a range of student levels of ability: (i) "Wait, Don't Tell Me!" Students predict locations on the globe given Lat / Lon or UTM data and then confirm their judgments using "Fly to" (ii) "Where on Earth?" Students search for features on the virtual globe given images, data, and/or models. (iii) "Tsunami!" Students react to modeled real-time data feeds and decide whether to issue an natural hazard alert. (iv) "To the Rescue!" Students estimate food, water, and housing needs resulting from a natural disater and plan rescue and relief operations. (v) "Just Map It!" Students overlay their own field data on the virtual terrain and create solid models of geological structures.

  7. Dom34 Rescues Ribosomes in 3´ Untranslated Regions (United States)

    Guydosh, Nicholas R.; Green, Rachel


    SUMMARY Ribosomes that stall before completing peptide synthesis must be recycled and returned to the cytoplasmic pool. The protein Dom34 and cofactors Hbs1 and Rli1 can dissociate stalled ribosomes in vitro, but the identity of targets in the cell is unknown. Here we extend ribosome profiling methodology to reveal a high-resolution molecular characterization of Dom34 function in vivo. Dom34 removes stalled ribosomes from truncated mRNAs, but, in contrast, does not generally dissociate ribosomes on coding sequences known to trigger stalling, such as polyproline. We also show that Dom34 targets arrested ribosomes near the ends of 3´ UTRs. These ribosomes appear to gain access to the 3 UTR via a mechanism that does not require decoding of the mRNA. These results suggest that ribosomes frequently enter downstream noncoding regions and that Dom34 carries out the important task of rescuing them. PMID:24581494

  8. Financing Corporate Rescues, Where Does the UK Stand?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akpareva Aruoriwo


    Full Text Available In this paper Akpareva Aruoriwo aims to evaluate the adequacy of the framework available for the financing of corporate rescues in the UK. She examines the legal provision made for prioritising creditors who get involved after an insolvency has been declared, with reference to examples from America and Canada. Without post-insolvency funding, companies may find it very difficult to survive, and without protection for post-insolvency creditors, those creditors may not wish to provide this sort of funding. The author examines the arguments for and against this kind of creditor protection, looking at past calls for reforms to the law and the preparedness of the UK to adopt any reforms.

  9. Test Report : GS Battery, EPC power HES RESCU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, David Martin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Schenkman, Benjamin L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Borneo, Daniel R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    The Department of Energy Office of Electricity (DOE/OE), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the Base Camp Integration Lab (BCIL) partnered together to incorporate an energy storage system into a microgrid configured Forward Operating Base to reduce the fossil fuel consumption and to ultimately save lives. Energy storage vendors will be sending their systems to SNL Energy Storage Test Pad (ESTP) for functional testing and then to the BCIL for performance evaluation. The technologies that will be tested are electro-chemical energy storage systems comprising of lead acid, lithium-ion or zinc-bromide. GS Battery and EPC Power have developed an energy storage system that utilizes zinc-bromide flow batteries to save fuel on a military microgrid. This report contains the testing results and some limited analysis of performance of the GS Battery, EPC Power HES RESCU.

  10. Manned remote work station - Safety and rescue considerations (United States)

    Nathan, C. A.


    It is noted that due to restrictions of payload and volume limitations of current and projected launch systems, space construction of ultralarge space structures is essential. The present paper discusses the concepts of a key piece of construction equipment needed to support assembly of such large structures. Attention is given to the manned remote work station (MRWS), a universal crew cabin to be used as a construction cherry picker, space crane turret, work station on a construction base rail system, or a free flyer. Concepts and safety and rescue requirements for this spacecraft are delineated for early applications in support of Shuttle operations, as well as applications in support of a mid to late 1980's space construction base. Finally, applications in support of constructing and maintaining a solar power satellite system are covered.

  11. Key Technologies in Large-scale Rescue Robot Wrists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Zhidong


    Full Text Available The full-Automatic Quick Hitch Coupling Device (full-AQHCD for short is used as the starting point, key technologies in a large-scale rescue robot wrist, which is constituted by integrating a quick hitch coupling device, a turning device, and a swaying device together, are reviewed respectively. Firstly, the semi-AQHCD made domestically for the main-Arm Claw Wrist (main-ACW for short is introduced, and the full-AQHCD imported from Oil Quick company in Sweden for the vice-Arm Cutter Wrist (vice-ACW for short is presented. Secondly, aiming at three key technologies in the full-AQHCD including rotary joint technology, automatic docking technology and precise docking technology for quick action coupling, are concisely expressed. Thirdly, the hydraulic motor driving gear type slewing bearing technology of the turning device made domestically for the main-ACW is introduced, and the hydraulic motor driving worm type slewing bearing technology of the turning device imported from HKS company in Germany for the vice-ACW is presented, especially, the existing gap in the similar domestic technology is discussed. Subsequently, the hydraulic cylinder driving 4-bar linkage technology of the swaying device made domestically for the main-ACW is introduced, and the hydraulic double spiral swing cylinder technology of the swaying device imported from HKS company in Germany for the vice-ACW is presented, especially, the existing gap in the similar domestic technology is discussed. Finally, it is emphasized that these technological gaps have seriously restricted the ability of the vice-ACW to successfully work in future actual rescue combats, therefore, it must be highly valued in the follow-up research and development (R&D through cooperating with professional manufacturers in China, thereby making technological advances.

  12. Rescuing Data from International Scientific Assessments: A Case Study (United States)

    Downs, R. R.; Chen, R. S.; Xing, X.


    International scientific assessments such as the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA) and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) assessments represent significant efforts by the global scientific community to review, synthesize, and communicate diverse scientific knowledge, data, and information to support societal decision making on pressing problems such as resource management and climate change. To support the transparency, integrity, and usability of these assessments, it is vital that the underlying data used in these assessments be made openly available and usable by diverse stakeholders. Unfortunately, due to the many geographically dispersed contributors to assessments of this kind, as well as the severe time pressures and limited resources when assessments are conducted, appropriate management and preservation of these data are not always a priority. This can lead to the need to "rescue" key data to ensure their long-term preservation, integrity, accessibility, and appropriate reuse, especially in subsequent assessments. We describe here efforts over two decades to rescue selected data from the MA and IPCC assessments, to work with assessment authors and other contributors to validate and document assessment data, and to develop appropriate levels of data stewardship in light of potential user needs and constrained resources. The IPCC efforts are supported by the IPCC Data Distribution Center (DDC), which is operated collaboratively by the Center for Environmental Data Analysis in the United Kingdom, the World Data Center-Climate in Germany, and the NASA Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center (SEDAC) in the U.S. With the sixth IPCC assessment cycle now starting, a key challenge is to help the assessment community improve data management during the assessment process to reduce the risks of data loss, inadequate documentation, incomplete provenance, unnecessary data restrictions, and other problems.

  13. Dead men walking: search and rescue in US National Parks. (United States)

    Heggie, Travis W; Amundson, Michael E


    To identify search and rescue (SAR) trends in US National Park Service (NPS) units. A retrospective review of the US National Park Service Annual Search and Rescue Reports from 1992 to 2007 and the SAR statistics for all NPS units in 2005. From 1992 to 2007 there were 78,488 individuals involved in 65,439 SAR incidents. These incidents ended with 2659 fatalities, 24,288 ill or injured individuals, and 13,212 saves. On average there were 11.2 SAR incidents each day at an average cost of $895 per operation. Total SAR costs from 1992 to 2007 were $58,572 164. In 2005, 50% of the 2430 SAR operations occurred in just 5 NPS units. Grand Canyon National Park (307) and Gateway National Recreation Area (293) reported the most SAR operations. Yosemite National Park accounted for 25% of the total NPS SAR costs ($1.2 million); Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve ($29,310) and Denali National Park and Preserve ($18,345) had the highest average SAR costs. Hiking (48%) and boating (21%) were the most common activities requiring SAR assistance. Hiking (22.8%), suicides (12.1%), swimming (10.1%), and boating (10.1%) activities were the most common activities resulting in fatalities. Without the presence of NPS personnel responding to SAR incidents, 1 in 5 (20%) of those requesting SAR assistance would be a fatality. Future research and the development of any prevention efforts should focus on the 5 NPS units where 50% of all SAR incidents are occurring.

  14. Evaluating the Feasibility of RESCUE: An Adjunctive HAI-Based Intervention for Veterans with PTSD (United States)


    Continued animal shelter collaboration. 5. Completed case series, conducted qualitative interviews, and finalized study protocol. 6. Initiated...treatment. Recovery through Engagement with Shelter Canines, Understanding, and Exposure (RESCUE), is an adjunctive, Human Animal Interaction (HAI...Using theory driven study design to examine the utility of adjunctive PTSD treatment with human- animal interaction: Methods of the RESCUE study” 5 See

  15. Business rescue: How can its success be evaluated at company level?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The question of what constitutes a successful business rescue is a very topical and unanswered one. Reports on success are contradictory and seem to lack a set of standardised evaluation criteria. The purpose of this article is to investigate how business rescue success is evaluated internationally in order to develop a set ...

  16. Business rescue decision making through verifier determinants – ask the specialists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Pretorius


    Practical/Managerial implications: Decision makers and affected persons could benefit from the insights obtained through this study. Confirming early warning signs through verifier determinants would be beneficial for entrepreneurs who are creditors, rescue practitioners, government regulators, court officials and educators alike. Contribution/Value add: Knowing the verifier determinants could assist decision making and improve the effectiveness of rescue strategies.

  17. Tasks and activities of the business rescue practitioner: a strategy as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Tasks and activities of the business rescue practitioner: a strategy as practice approach. M. Pretorius. 1ABSTRACT. 1A business rescue practitioner's (BRP) tasks are complex, vaguely stated and involve a wide range of competencies not accessible to the average business person. Details about what exactly BRPs do.

  18. Factors influencing failure to rescue after pancreaticoduodenectomy: a National Surgical Quality Improvement Project Perspective. (United States)

    Varley, Patrick R; Geller, David A; Tsung, Allan


    Failure to rescue is the concept of death after a complication, and it is an important factor driving variation in mortality rates after pancreatic surgery. The purpose of this study was to conduct a retrospective review of a large, multi-institutional data set to describe patient-level risk factors for failure to rescue in greater detail. From the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program participant use file, 14,557 patients who underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy were identified. Of these, 4514 experienced at least one complication and were therefore at risk for failure to rescue. Multivariable logistic regression models to identify factors independently associated with failure to rescue. Age, American Society of Anesthesiologists class, ascites and/or varices, and disseminated malignancy were significant independent risk factors for failure to rescue. Participation of a resident was associated with reduced odds of failure to rescue. Patients who experienced an initial complication and then accumulated additional complications were more common in the failure to rescue group (68.6% versus 31.3%, P < 0.001). Accumulation of complications after pancreaticoduodenectomy is a significant risk factor for failure to rescue. Pancreatic surgery quality improvement programs should continue developing strategies to identify and intervene on post-pancreatectomy complications, especially in high-risk patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Tasks and activities of the business rescue practitioner: a strategy as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A business rescue practitioner's (BRP) tasks are complex, vaguely stated and involve a wide range of competencies not accessible to the average business person. Details about what exactly BRPs do during a rescue need to be determined in order to guide licensing and build a qualifications framework for the education of ...

  20. 75 FR 18888 - Mine Rescue Teams and Arrangements for Emergency Medical Assistance and Transportation for... (United States)


    ... Safety and Health Administration Mine Rescue Teams and Arrangements for Emergency Medical Assistance and... teams for underground coal mines on February 8, 2008. The United Mine Workers of America challenged the... revised its requirements for mine rescue teams for underground coal mines on June 17, 2009. The 2008 mine...

  1. The wildlife research & rescue programme for mammals at Hulu Terengganu Hydroelectric Project (HTHEP), Terengganu, Peninsular Malaysia (United States)

    Nur-Syuhada, N.; Magintan, D.; Siti-Hajar, A. R.; Aisah, M. S.; Shukor, M. N.


    During the inundation of the Hulu Terengganu Hydroelectric Project in October 2014, a wildlife rescue programme was conducted to rescue animals found trapped within the expanding 61.6 km2 reservoir. A total of 244 mammals from 30 species, representing 12 families were rescued by various methods included baited live trapping, catchpoles, hoop nets and by hand. The order Rodentia recorded the highest amount of rescued individuals at 20.9%, followed by Primate (18.9), Dermoptera (11.1), Carnivora (0.8) and Pholidota (0.4). The genus Rattus recorded the highest individuals rescued (51 individuals) probably due to the rapid clear-cut logging of the forest prior to inundation. Notable mammals of high conservational value rescued included Manis javanicus (Pangolin), Presbytis melalophos siamensis (Mitred Leaf Monkey), Trachypithecus obscurus (Dusky Leaf Monkey), Hylobates lar (White Handed Gibbon), Nycticebus coucang (Slow Loris), Galeopterus variegatus (Sunda Colugo), Callosciurus nigrovittatus (Sunda Black-banded Squirrel), Ratufa spp. (Giant Squirrels), and Sundasciurus hippurus (Horse-tailed Squirrel). Various data and biological samples were collected from the mammals rescued prior to their release at the nearest forest reserves. Rescue operation enabled the inventory and comprehensive data collection of various arboreal and rare mammal species that are hard to capture using the traditional survey method.

  2. Determining the effectiveness of safety measures for self-rescue in the Built Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trijssenaar, I.J.M.; Wijnant-Timmerman, S.I.; Witberg, R.; Veldhuis, G.


    Various types of emergency situations may occur in a city, region or country. In these –safety and security- emergency situations it is important for citizens to know how to handle. Preparation of citizens in the use of appropriate self-rescue measures can save many lives. Examples of self-rescue

  3. 14 CFR 121.106 - ETOPS Alternate Airport: Rescue and fire fighting service. (United States)


    ... available at each airport listed as an ETOPS Alternate Airport in a dispatch or flight release. (1) For... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false ETOPS Alternate Airport: Rescue and fire... and Flag Operations § 121.106 ETOPS Alternate Airport: Rescue and fire fighting service. (a) Except as...

  4. Characterization of the Ac/Ds behaviour in transgenic tomato plants using plasmid rescue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rommens, Caius M.T.; Rudenko, George N.; Dijkwel, Paul P.; Haaren, Mark J.J. van; Ouwerkerk, Pieter B.F.; Blok, Karin M.; Nijkamp, H. John J.; Hille, Jacques


    We describe the use of plasmid rescue to facilitate studies on the behaviour of Ds and Ac elements in transgenic tomato plants. The rescue of Ds elements relies on the presence of a plasmid origin of replication and a marker gene selective in Escherichia coli within the element. The position within

  5. Search and rescue response to a large-scale rockfall disaster. (United States)

    Procter, Emily; Strapazzon, Giacomo; Balkenhol, Karla; Fop, Ernst; Faggionato, Alessandro; Mayr, Karl; Falk, Markus; Brugger, Hermann


    To describe the prehospital management and safety of search and rescue (SAR) teams involved in a large-scale rockfall disaster and monitor the acute and chronic health effects on personnel with severe dolomitic dust exposure. SAR personnel underwent on-site medical screening and lung function testing 3 months and 3 years after the event. The emergency dispatch center was responsible for central coordination of resources. One hundred fifty SAR members from multidisciplinary air- and ground-based teams as well as geotechnical experts were dispatched to a provisionary operation center. Acute exposure to dolomite dust with detectable silicon and magnesium concentrations was not associated with (sub)acute or chronic sequelae or a clinically significant impairment in lung function in exposed personnel. The risk for personnel involved in mountain SAR operations is rarely reported and not easily investigated or quantified. This case exemplifies the importance of a multiskilled team and additional considerations for prehospital management during natural hazard events. Safety plans should include compulsory protective measures and medical monitoring of personnel. Copyright © 2015 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Neonatal outcomes after early rescue intracytoplasmic sperm injection: an analysis of a 5-year period. (United States)

    Huang, Bo; Qian, Kun; Li, Zhou; Yue, Jing; Yang, Wei; Zhu, Guijin; Zhang, Hanwang


    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of early rescue intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Retrospective cohort study. Teaching hospital. There were 13,232 ovarian stimulation cycles (IVF, n = 9,631; ICSI, n = 2,871; early rescue ICSI, n = 730) that resulted in the delivery of 5,001 babies (IVF, n = 3,670; ICSI, n = 1,095; early rescue ICSI, n = 246) from August 2008 to August 2013. Early rescue ICSI. Clinical pregnancy rates, neonatal outcomes, and congenital birth defects were analyzed. The early rescue ICSI cycles did not seem to have a negative effect on the clinical pregnancy rate (43.42%) when IVF cycles (45.33%) were compared with ICSI cycles (44.39%). In the early rescue ICSI group, a total of 254 clinical pregnancies were achieved: 197 (33.67%) live births, 38 (6.49%) miscarriages, 2 (0.79%) induced abortions, 3 (1.18%) fetal deaths, and 4 pregnancies (1.57%) without completion at follow-up. Overall, the multiple gestations, the delivery method, mean gestational age, preterm deliveries, mean birth weight, and rate of congenital birth defects of the early rescue ICSI group were similar to those in the conventional IVF and ICSI groups. Early rescue ICSI had similar clinical pregnancy rates when compared with conventional IVF and ICSI, in addition to the delivery of healthy children. The clinical evidence from the early rescue ICSI group did not show an elevated rate of malformations. Early rescue ICSI seems to be a safe alternative method for individuals with total fertilization failure or near total fertilization failure when compared with conventional IVF treatment. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The earthquake disaster risk characteristic and the problem in the earthquake emergency rescue of mountainous southwestern Sichuan (United States)

    Yuan, S.; Xin, C.; Ying, Z.


    In recent years, earthquake disaster occurred frequently in Chinese mainland, the secondary disaster which have been caused by it is more serious in mountainous region. Because of the influence of terrain and geological conditions, the difficulty of earthquake emergency rescue work greatly increased, rescue force is also urged. Yet, it has been studied less on earthquake emergency rescue in mountainous region, the research in existing equipment whether can meet the actual needs of local earthquake emergency rescue is poorly. This paper intends to discuss and solve these problems. Through the mountainous regions Ganzi and Liangshan states in Sichuan field research, we investigated the process of earthquake emergency response and the projects for rescue force after an earthquake, and we also collected and collated local rescue force based data. By consulting experts and statistical analyzing the basic data, there are mainly two problems: The first is about local rescue force, they are poorly equipped and lack in the knowledge of medical help or identify architectural structure. There are no countries to establish a sound financial investment protection mechanism. Also, rescue equipment's updates and maintenance; The second problem is in earthquake emergency rescue progress. In the complicated geologic structure of mountainous regions, traffic and communication may be interrupted by landslides and mud-rock flows after earthquake. The outside rescue force may not arrive in time, rescue equipment was transported by manpower. Because of unknown earthquake disaster information, the local rescue force was deployed unreasonable. From the above, the local government worker should analyze the characteristics of the earthquake disaster in mountainous regions, and research how to improve their earthquake emergency rescue ability. We think they can do that by strengthening and regulating the rescue force structure, enhancing the skills and knowledge, training rescue workers

  8. 33 CFR 150.504 - When must the operator service and examine lifeboat and rescue boat launching appliances? (United States)


    ... and examine lifeboat and rescue boat launching appliances? 150.504 Section 150.504 Navigation and... and examine lifeboat and rescue boat launching appliances? (a) The operator must service launching appliances for lifeboats and rescue boats at intervals recommended in the manufacturer's instructions under...

  9. 33 CFR 150.505 - When must the operator service and examine lifeboat and rescue boat release gear? (United States)


    ... and examine lifeboat and rescue boat release gear? 150.505 Section 150.505 Navigation and Navigable... and examine lifeboat and rescue boat release gear? (a) The operator must service lifeboat and rescue boat release gear at intervals recommended in the manufacturer's instructions under § 150.502(a), or...

  10. Rapamycin Rescues the Poor Developmental Capacity of Aged Porcine Oocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Eun Lee


    Full Text Available Unfertilized oocytes age inevitably after ovulation, which limits their fertilizable life span and embryonic development. Rapamycin affects mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR expression and cytoskeleton reorganization during oocyte meiotic maturation. The goal of this study was to examine the effects of rapamycin treatment on aged porcine oocytes and their in vitro development. Rapamycin treatment of aged oocytes for 24 h (68 h in vitro maturation [IVM]; 44 h+10 μM rapamycin/24 h, 47.52±5.68 or control oocytes (44 h IVM; 42.14±4.40 significantly increased the development rate and total cell number compared with untreated aged oocytes (68 h IVM, 22.04±5.68 (p<0.05. Rapamycin treatment of aged IVM oocytes for 24 h also rescued aberrant spindle organization and chromosomal misalignment, blocked the decrease in the level of phosphorylated-p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK, and increased the mRNA expression of cytoplasmic maturation factor genes (MOS, BMP15, GDF9, and CCNB1 compared with untreated, 24 h-aged IVM oocytes (p<0.05. Furthermore, rapamycin treatment of aged oocytes decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS activity and DNA fragmentation (p<0.05, and downregulated the mRNA expression of mTOR compared with control or untreated aged oocytes. By contrast, rapamycin treatment of aged oocytes increased mitochondrial localization (p<0.05 and upregulated the mRNA expression of autophagy (BECN1, ATG7, MAP1LC3B, ATG12, GABARAP, and GABARAPL1, anti-apoptosis (BCL2L1 and BIRC5; p<0.05, and development (NANOG and SOX2; p<0.05 genes, but it did not affect the mRNA expression of pro-apoptosis genes (FAS and CASP3 compared with the control. This study demonstrates that rapamycin treatment can rescue the poor developmental capacity of aged porcine oocytes.

  11. Application of GIS-based models for delineating the UAV flight region to support Search and Rescue activities (United States)

    Jurecka, Miroslawa; Niedzielski, Tomasz


    The objective of the approach presented in this paper is to demonstrate a potential of using the combination of two GIS-based models - mobility model and ring model - for delineating a region above which an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) should fly to support the Search and Rescue (SAR) activities. The procedure is based on two concepts, both describing a possible distance/path that lost person could travel from the initial planning point (being either the point last seen, or point last known). The first approach (the ring model) takes into account the crow's flight distance traveled by a lost person and its probability distribution. The second concept (the mobility model) is based on the estimated travel speed and the associated features of the geographical environment of the search area. In contrast to the ring model covering global (hence more general) SAR perspective, the mobility model represents regional viewpoint by taking into consideration local impedance. Both models working together can serve well as a starting point for the UAV flight planning to strengthen the SAR procedures. We present the method of combining the two above-mentioned models in order to delineate UAVs flight region and increase the Probability of Success for future SAR missions. The procedure is a part of a larger Search and Rescue (SAR) system which is being developed at the University of Wrocław, Poland (research project no. IP2014 032773 financed by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education of Poland). The mobility and ring models have been applied to the Polish territory, and they act in concert to provide the UAV operator with the optimal search region. This is attained in real time so that the UAV-based SAR mission can be initiated quickly.

  12. Importance of teamwork, communication and culture on failure-to-rescue in the elderly. (United States)

    Ghaferi, A A; Dimick, J B


    Surgical mortality increases significantly with age. Wide variations in mortality rates across hospitals suggest potential levers for improvement. Failure-to-rescue has been posited as a potential mechanism underlying these differences. A review was undertaken of the literature evaluating surgery, mortality, failure-to-rescue and the elderly. This was followed by a review of ongoing studies and unpublished work aiming to understand better the mechanisms underlying variations in surgical mortality in elderly patients. Multiple hospital macro-system factors, such as nurse staffing, available hospital technology and teaching status, are associated with differences in failure-to-rescue rates. There is emerging literature regarding important micro-system factors associated with failure-to-rescue. These are grouped into three broad categories: hospital resources, attitudes and behaviours. Ongoing work to produce interventions to reduce variations in failure-to-rescue rates include a focus on teamwork, communication and safety culture. Researchers are using novel mixed-methods approaches and theories adapted from organizational studies in high-reliability organizations in an effort to improve the care of elderly surgical patients. Although elderly surgical patients experience failure-to-rescue events at much higher rates than their younger counterparts, patient-level effects do not sufficiently explain these differences. Increased attention to the role of organizational dynamics in hospitals' ability to rescue these high-risk patients will establish high-yield interventions aimed at improving patient safety. © 2015 BJS Society Ltd Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. China Medical Team: Medical rescue for “4.25” Nepal earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Lin


    Full Text Available In recent years, global natural disasters have been frequent and resulted in great casualties and property loss. Since Wenchuan earthquake, the disaster emergency rescue system of China has obtained considerable development in various aspects including team construction, task scheduling, personnel training, facilities and equipments, logistics, etc. On April 25, 2015, an earthquake that measured 8.1 on the Richter scale attacked Nepal. Chinese government firstly organized a medical team, named China Medical Team, and sent it to the attacked region in Nepal to implement medical rescue. The medical team completed the rescue mission successfully and creatively based on their experiences.

  14. Temsirolimus Partially Rescues the Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Cellular Phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Gabriel

    Full Text Available Hutchinson-Gilford syndrome (HGPS, OMIM 176670, a rare premature aging disorder that leads to death at an average age of 14.7 years due to myocardial infarction or stroke, is caused by mutations in the LMNA gene. Lamins help maintain the shape and stability of the nuclear envelope in addition to regulating DNA replication, DNA transcription, proliferation and differentiation. The LMNA mutation results in the deletion of 50 amino acids from the carboxy-terminal region of prelamin A, producing the truncated, farnesylated protein progerin. The accumulation of progerin in HGPS nuclei causes numerous morphological and functional changes that lead to premature cellular senescence. Attempts to reverse this HGPS phenotype have identified rapamycin, an inhibitor of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR, as a drug that is able to rescue the HGPS cellular phenotype by promoting autophagy and reducing progerin accumulation. Rapamycin is an obvious candidate for the treatment of HGPS disease but is difficult to utilize clinically. To further assess rapamycin's efficacy with regard to proteostasis, mitochondrial function and the degree of DNA damage, we tested temsirolimus, a rapamycin analog with a more favorable pharmacokinetic profile than rapamycin. We report that temsirolimus decreases progerin levels, increases proliferation, reduces misshapen nuclei, and partially ameliorates DNA damage, but does not improve proteasome activity or mitochondrial dysfunction. Our findings suggest that future therapeutic strategies should identify new drug combinations and treatment regimens that target all the dysfunctional hallmarks that characterize HGPS cells.

  15. CEP290 gene transfer rescues Leber congenital amaurosis cellular phenotype. (United States)

    Burnight, E R; Wiley, L A; Drack, A V; Braun, T A; Anfinson, K R; Kaalberg, E E; Halder, J A; Affatigato, L M; Mullins, R F; Stone, E M; Tucker, B A


    Mutations in CEP290 are the most common cause of Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA), a severe inherited retinal degenerative disease for which there is currently no cure. Autosomal recessive CEP290-associated LCA is a good candidate for gene replacement therapy, and cells derived from affected individuals give researchers the ability to study human disease and therapeutic gene correction in vitro. Here we report the development of lentiviral vectors carrying full-length CEP290 for the purpose of correcting the CEP290 disease-specific phenotype in human cells. A lentiviral vector containing CMV-driven human full-length CEP290 was constructed. Following transduction of patient-specific, iPSC-derived, photoreceptor precursor cells, reverse transcriptase-PCR analysis and western blotting revealed vector-derived expression. As CEP290 is important in ciliogenesis, the ability of fibroblast cultures from CEP290-associated LCA patients to form cilia was investigated. In cultures derived from these patients, fewer cells formed cilia compared with unaffected controls. Cilia that were formed were shorter in patient-derived cells than in cells from unaffected individuals. Importantly, lentiviral delivery of CEP290 rescued the ciliogenesis defect. The successful construction and viral transfer of full-length CEP290 brings us closer to the goal of providing gene- and cell-based therapies for patients affected with this common form of LCA.

  16. [Medical doctor in mountain rescue service - a profession's perspective]. (United States)

    Putzke, Matthias


    Helicopter emergency services (HEMS) carrying doctors trained in emergency medicine represent a well established system for primary care with increasing professionalism since their implementation in the seventies until now. However, considerable differences persist in Europe concerning the structure as well as integration of the system in the entire organisation of area-wide demands. Based on the particular geographic conditions in the alps which are highly associated with challenges for man and material a dense network of helicopter airbases has been established. Hence, this system accounts for the social, economical and touristic requirements of this region in terms of providing sufficient emergency medical treatment. In addition to statutory and professional provisions qualification requirements for emergency doctors comprehend extensive alpine training. Primarily this provides personal safety as well as security for the entire team and the patient which particularly applies for technical rope rescue. Advanced all-season training is compulsory due to seasonal differences in casualties. Well harmonized training with cross-border validity is not available to-date. Hence, the development of obligatory standard operating procedures should be the major goal of medical associations and societies.

  17. Metabolic engineering of lactate dehydrogenase rescues mice from acidosis. (United States)

    Acharya, Abhinav P; Rafi, Mohammad; Woods, Elliot C; Gardner, Austin B; Murthy, Niren


    Acidosis causes millions of deaths each year and strategies for normalizing the blood pH in acidosis patients are greatly needed. The lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) pathway has great potential for treating acidosis due to its ability to convert protons and pyruvate into lactate and thereby raise blood pH, but has been challenging to develop into a therapy because there are no pharmaceutical-based approaches for engineering metabolic pathways in vivo. In this report we demonstrate that the metabolic flux of the LDH pathway can be engineered with the compound 5-amino-2-hydroxymethylphenyl boronic acid (ABA), which binds lactate and accelerates the consumption of protons by converting pyruvate to lactate and increasing the NAD(+)/NADH ratio. We demonstrate here that ABA can rescue mice from metformin induced acidosis, by binding lactate, and increasing the blood pH from 6.7 to 7.2 and the blood NAD(+)/NADH ratio by 5 fold. ABA is the first class of molecule that can metabolically engineer the LDH pathway and has the potential to have a significant impact on medicine, given the large number of patients that suffer from acidosis.

  18. Reference frame congruency in search-and-rescue tasks. (United States)

    Pavlovic, Nada J; Keillor, Jocelyn; Hollands, Justin G; Chignell, Mark H


    Our aim was to investigate how the congruency between visual displays and auditory cues affects performance on various spatial tasks. Previous studies have demonstrated that spatial auditory cues, when combined with visual displays, can enhance performance and decrease workload. However, this facilitation was achieved only when auditory cues shared a common reference frame (RF) with the visual display. In complex and dynamic environments, such as airborne search and rescue (SAR), it is often difficult to ensure such congruency. In a simulated SAR operation, participants performed three spatial tasks: target search, target localization, and target recall. The interface consisted of the camera view of the terrain from the aircraft-mounted sensor, a map of the area flown over, a joystick that controlled the sensor, and a mouse. Auditory cues were used to indicate target location. While flying in the scenario, participants searched for targets, identified their locations in one of two coordinate systems, and memorized their location relative to the terrain layout. Congruent cues produced the fastest and most accurate performance. Performance advantages were observed even with incongruent cues relative to neutral cues, and egocentric cues were more effective than exocentric cues. Although the congruent cues are most effective, in cases in which the same cue is used across spatial tasks, egocentric cues are a better choice than exocentric cues. Egocentric auditory cues should be used in display design for tasks that involve RF transformations, such as SAR, air traffic control, and unmanned aerial vehicle operations.

  19. An EM Modeling for Rescue System Design of Buried People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. De Leo


    Full Text Available The development of a rescue system for buried persons is a subject of growing importance in case of occurrence of natural disasters such as earthquake, landslides, or avalanches. In this paper a fully analytical model has been developed to get some fundamental a priori design characteristics. The proposed system is based on the detection of the victim movements due to its respiratory activity: in particular, when an electromagnetic (EM wave impinges on a human body, the analysis of the reflected wave parameters such as amplitude, frequency, phase, or delay time allows for the detection of the breathing frequency. The model is simple on purpose because the great uncertainty concerning the characterization of many environmental parameters of a general situation makes a very detailed model useless. However, it is accurate enough to provide useful information about system design, filling the gap in the literature concerning the electromagnetic formulation of such kinds of problems. A system prototype was built using laboratory equipment to experimentally validate the model, and subsequently breathing frequency measurements were carried on, both in a lossless laboratory environment and in a lossy realistic scenario.

  20. Infectious diseases in dogs rescued during dogfighting investigations. (United States)

    Cannon, S H; Levy, J K; Kirk, S K; Crawford, P C; Leutenegger, C M; Shuster, J J; Liu, J; Chandrashekar, R


    Dogs used for dogfighting often receive minimal preventive health care, and the potential for spread of infectious diseases is high. The purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence of infectious diseases in dogs rescued from fighting operations to guide medical protocols for their immediate and long-term care. A total of 269 pit bull-type dogs were seized in a multi-state investigation. Fleas were present on most dogs, but few ticks were observed. Testing performed at intake included packed cell volume (PCV), serology and PCR for vector-borne pathogens, and fecal analysis. The most common infections were Babesia gibsoni (39%), 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haematoparvum' (32%), Mycoplasma haemocanis (30%), Dirofilaria immitis (12%), and Ancylostoma (23%). Anemia was associated with B. gibsoni infection (63% of infected dogs, odds ratio = 2.5, P dogs from dogfighting cases should include broad-spectrum internal and external parasiticides and monitoring for anemia. Dogfighting case responders should be prepared for mass screening and treatment of B. gibsoni and heartworm infections and should implement protocols to prevent transmission of infectious and zoonotic diseases in the shelter and following adoption. Former fighting dogs and dogs with possible dog bite scars should not be used as blood donors due to the risk of vector-borne pathogens that can escape detection and for which curative treatment is difficult to document. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. [Survey on patients' satisfaction with opioid rescue guidance by pharmacists]. (United States)

    Takase, Hisamitsu; Kawade, Yoshihiro; Iwata, Hiromi; Endo, Rika; Itoh, Toshimasa; Shiokawa, Mitsuru; Shibasaki, Yumiko; Nakamura, Masumi; Hisada, Atsuo; Sano, Motohiko; Kokubun, Hideya; Kagaya, Hajime; Suzuki, Tsutomu


    To examine the influence of drug therapy guidance by pharmacists on the use of a rescue dose (RD) for opioid analgesics (opioids) and pain as well as drug therapy guidance in cancer pain treatment, we conducted a patient satisfaction survey. The subjects were 56 cancer patients undergoing opioid therapy in hospitals belonging to the Symptom Control Research Group (SCORE-G). The survey period was 2 months (from November 1 until December 31, 2006). Drug therapy guidance regarding the use of RD was performed twice in each patient to evaluate the patients' satisfaction. RD was prescribed in 87.8% of the patients in the first guidance and in 80.5% in the second guidance periods. The proportion of patients who used RD significantly increased from 63.8% to 87.5%. Five items significantly improved in the second guidance period: "marked analgesic effects," "satisfaction with current treatment," "correct understanding of RD usage," "relief through RD," and "appropriate use of RD." On comprehensive evaluation following the second round of guidance, 81% of the patients reported overall satisfaction, and 78% reported the usefulness of guidance in pain treatment. These results suggest that positive guidance by pharmacists increases patients' satisfaction. In providing guidance, it was important to confirm the characteristics and side effects of opioids as well as the necessity of RD to patients accurately and repeatedly.

  2. Why the cognitive science of religion cannot rescue 'spiritual care'. (United States)

    Paley, John


    Peter Kevern believes that the cognitive science of religion (CSR) provides a justification for the idea of spiritual care in the health services. In this paper, I suggest that he is mistaken on two counts. First, CSR does not entail the conclusions Kevern wants to draw. His treatment of it consists largely of nonsequiturs. I show this by presenting an account of CSR, and then explaining why Kevern's reasons for thinking it rescues 'spirituality' discourse do not work. Second, the debate about spirituality-in-health is about classification: what shall count as a 'spiritual need' and what shall count as 'spiritual care'. It is about the politics of meaning, an exercise in persuasive definition. The function of 'spirituality' talk in health care is to change the denotation of 'spiritual', and attach its indelibly religious connotations to as many health-related concepts and practices as possible. CSR, however plausible it may be as a theory of the origins and pervasiveness of religious belief, is irrelevant to this debate. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Urban search and rescue robot performance standards: progress update (United States)

    Jacoff, Adam; Messina, Elena


    In this paper, we describe work in performance standards for urban search and rescue (USAR) robots, begun in 2004 by the Department of Homeland Security. This program is being coordinated by the National Institute of Standards and Technology and will result in consensus standards developed through ASTM International, under the Operational Equipment Subcommittee of their Homeland Security Committee. A comprehensive approach to performance requirements and standards development is being used in this project. Formal test methods designed by several working groups in the standards task group are validated by the stakeholders. These tests are complemented by regular exercises in which responders and robot manufacturers work together to apply robots within realistic training scenarios. This paper recaps the most recent exercise, held at the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Maryland Task Force 1 training facility, at which over twenty different robots were operated by responders from various FEMA Task Forces. The exercise included candidate standard test methods being developed for requirements in the areas of communications, mobility, sensors, and human-system interaction for USAR robots.

  4. Hydrometry data rescue, a stake for the future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pons Frédéric


    Full Text Available The knowledge of past events and long-term series is a base to understand phenomena, analyze climate change and forecast future events. To increase long term series and their accuracy, NUNIEAU software, sort of “Digitizing Table”, was developed and distributed freely since 2006 by Cerema. It is an international reference in tide gauge record, but has been improved to widespread its used for river and rainfall record. The SCHAPI (the French national service for hydrometeorology and support to flood forecasting launched a tender to rescue the old data on rainfall and rivers available. Many improvements have been done to manage different types of rainfall charts. NUNIEAU was developed in French and is also available in English and Spanish version with collaboration of foreign institutes. Main challenge is not only to digitize old data but also assess the quality of digitized data. Protocol has been done to control the digitizing process and after to allows assessing the final quality of data.

  5. Knowledge of Glasgow coma scale by air-rescue physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heim Catherine


    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To assess the theoretical and practical knowledge of the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS by trained Air-rescue physicians in Switzerland. Methods Prospective anonymous observational study with a specially designed questionnaire. General knowledge of the GCS and its use in a clinical case were assessed. Results From 130 questionnaires send out, 103 were returned (response rate of 79.2% and analyzed. Theoretical knowledge of the GCS was consistent for registrars, fellows, consultants and private practitioners active in physician-staffed helicopters. The clinical case was wrongly scored by 38 participants (36.9%. Wrong evaluation of the motor component occurred in 28 questionnaires (27.2%, and 19 errors were made for the verbal score (18.5%. Errors were made most frequently by registrars (47.5%, p = 0.09, followed by fellows (31.6%, p = 0.67 and private practitioners (18.4%, p = 1.00. Consultants made significantly less errors than the rest of the participating physicians (0%, p Conclusion Although the theoretical knowledge of the GCS by out-of-hospital physicians is correct, significant errors were made in scoring a clinical case. Less experienced physicians had a higher rate of errors. Further emphasis on teaching the GCS is mandatory.

  6. Escape, evacuation, and rescue research project : phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bercha, F.G. [Bercha Engineering Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)


    This report describes the work from the Escape, Evacuation and Rescue (EER) research project conducted between April 2001 and March 2003. The objectives were to develop EER performance-based standards (PBS) for offshore oil and gas installations in Canadian waters. It included studies of human performance under extreme conditions, reliability analysis of a specific evacuation system, and the incorporation of research findings into a computer simulation program called the Risk and Performance Tool (RPT). The newest version of the RPT was applied to make use of three major improvements and modifications. This report also discussed the application of RPT to generate information in support of the PBS development program. Methods of quantifying psychological and physiological stressors into the RPT were developed. The RPT was applied to the reliability analysis of the preferred orientation and displacement system. The results indicate the contributions of human and mechanical factors in evacuation performance. Results showed that for evacuations in calm conditions, human error and mechanical failure made the same contribution. Under moderate and severe conditions, human error contributed about twice as much to failure as mechanical failure. Under extreme conditions, both human error and mechanical failure were at the limit. A series of recommendations were proposed to improve performance-based standards. refs., tabs., figs.

  7. Strategic Step for Environmental Rescue: A Theoretical Legal Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Sutrisno


    Full Text Available Indonesia is among the developing countries that are struggling to develop in the field of industrial development. The logical consequence of any development process, especially industrial development is the emergence of associated impacts that greatly affect the durability and sustainability of the environment. Developing the equitable industry in order to create public welfare is important. However, maintaining the security and preservation of the environment is also very important, because it is only with the availability of a good environment and healthy living that human beings can perform daily living. The availability of good and healthy environment is the constitutional responsibility of the government, as well as part of the human rights of all citizens which must be given by the State. Efforts to create a good environment and healthy living will be effective if controlled by State government and institutions who understand the objective conditions on the ground. In this regard, the granting of the authority on environmental control to regional government autonomously is the right, very smart policy choice. How To Cite: Sutrisno, B. (2016. Strategic Step for Environmental Rescue: A Theoretical Legal Studies. Rechtsidee, 1(1, 27-58. doi:

  8. Genetic rescue of an insular population of large mammals. (United States)

    Hogg, John T; Forbes, Stephen H; Steele, Brian M; Luikart, Gordon


    Natural populations worldwide are increasingly fragmented by habitat loss. Isolation at small population size is thought to reduce individual and population fitness via inbreeding depression. However, little is known about the time-scale over which adverse genetic effects may develop in natural populations or the number and types of traits likely to be affected. The benefits of restoring gene flow to isolates are therefore also largely unknown. In contrast, the potential costs of migration (e.g. disease spread) are readily apparent. Management for ecological connectivity has therefore been controversial and sometimes avoided. Using pedigree and life-history data collected during 25 years of study, we evaluated genetic decline and rescue in a population of bighorn sheep founded by 12 individuals in 1922 and isolated at an average size of 42 animals for 10-12 generations. Immigration was restored experimentally, beginning in 1985. We detected marked improvements in reproduction, survival and five fitness-related traits among descendants of the 15 recent migrants. Trait values were increased by 23-257% in maximally outbred individuals. This is the first demonstration, to our knowledge, of increased male and female fitness attributable to outbreeding realized in a fully competitive natural setting. Our findings suggest that genetic principles deserve broader recognition as practical management tools with near-term consequences for large-mammal conservation.

  9. Flood Rescue: A Gender-Inclusive Integrated STEM Curriculum Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily A. Dare


    Full Text Available As national reform documents and movements in the United States, such as Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS Lead States, 2013, push K-12 educators to begin to include engineering and integration of the STEM disciplines, there is a need to create curricula that meet a multitude of different standards. Additionally, there is a need to engage a more diverse population of students to pursue STEM careers. The 6th grade curriculum presented here focuses on an example of a teacher-created integrated STEM curriculum that combines girl-friendly instructional strategies (Häussler et al., 1998; Newbill & Cennamo, 2008 with an integrated STEM framework (Moore et al., 2014. An engineering design challenge that asks students to create a prototype of a watercraft used by the National Guard to rescue people during floods engages students in learning various physics concepts (forces, buoyancy, volume, and maximum capacity. In this article, we describe the lessons of the unit with respect to the frameworks, as well as key areas that particularly impacted 6th grade girls and boys.

  10. Guide Specification For Water/Foam Aircraft Rescue and Firefighting Vehicles (United States)


    This advisory circular (AC) contains performance standards, specifications, and : recommendations for the design, construction, and testing of a family of : aircraft rescue and fire fighting (ARFF) vehicles. The guide specifications : covers two clas...

  11. Broodyear Data - Captive Broodstock Gene Rescue Program for Odd Year Class Elwha River Pink Salmon (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conduct captive brood stock gene rescue program for Elwha River odd-year class pink salmon. Data is collected by broodyear on % survival to adult, % maturity as two...

  12. Production Data - Captive Broodstock Gene Rescue Program for Odd Year Class Elwha River Pink Salmon (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conduct captive brood stock gene rescue program for Elwha River odd-year class pink salmon. Information on the number of smolts received into the program is...

  13. Marine Search and Rescue of UAV in Long-Distance Security Modeling Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Lei


    Full Text Available Long-distance safety of Marine search and rescue using drones can improve the searching speed. The current method is based on the long distance security classification of UAV.The degree of accuracy is low. A long-distance security modeling approach based on ArduinoMiniPro’s Marine search-and-rescue applying UAV is proposed. The method puts the fault tree analysis and relevant calculation for risk identification into use. The main factors affecting the safety of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV are long-distance searching and rescuing. The experimental results show that the proposed method can effectively build modeling for the long-distance safety of the Marine search and rescue UAV


    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library



    .... In this article, we review present uses of GODAE ocean forecast systems for various safety applications at sea, including search and rescue drift calculations, iceberg drift calculations, ice cover...

  15. Astronaut Rescue Air Pack (ARAP) and Emergency Egress Air Pack (EEAP) (United States)

    Barnhart, W. L.; Clew, R. D.; Waddell, H. M., Jr.


    Two designs for a lightweight, low profile, mobile rescue apparatus providing a 15-minute air supply and self-contained two-way communications assembly are described. Units are designed for astronaut use in hazardous environments.

  16. Successful rescue and field establishment of native banana varieties severely affected by rhizome rot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basawantanahalli Saddappa Sreeramu


    Full Text Available Rhizome rot disease caused by Erwinia spp. is emerging as a major problem in banana nurseries and young plantations worldwide. Management of the disease is possible only in the initial stages of development. Currently no method is available for rescuing plant material already infected with this pathogen. A total of 95 Nanjanagud Rasabale and 212 Elakki Bale suckers were collected from different growing regions of Karnataka, India. During nursery maintenance of these lines, severe Erwinia infection was noticed. We present a method to rescue infected plants and establish them under field conditions. Differences were noticed in infection severity amongst the varieties and their accessions. Field data revealed good establishment and growth of most rescued plants under field conditions. The discussed rescue protocol coupled with good field management practices resulted in 89.19 and 82.59 percent field establishment of previously infected var. Nanjanagud Rasabale and var. Elakki Bale plants, respectively.

  17. Fish Health Data - Captive Broodstock Gene Rescue Program for Odd Year Class Elwha River Pink Salmon (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conduct captive brood stock gene rescue program for Elwha River odd-year class pink salmon. All fresh mortalities larger than 100 mm are sent to Fish Health for...

  18. Growth Data - Captive Broodstock Gene Rescue Program for Odd Year Class Elwha River Pink Salmon (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conduct captive brood stock gene rescue program for Elwha River odd-year class pink salmon. The fork length to the nearest mm and weight to the nearest gram of a...

  19. Fish Culture Data - Captive Broodstock Gene Rescue Program for Odd Year Class Elwha River Pink Salmon (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conduct captive brood stock gene rescue program for Elwha River odd-year class pink salmon. Raw data on rearing density, loading density, water temperature, ration,...

  20. The Search for a Permanent Home: Explaining the Organizational Instability of Air Force Rescue (United States)


    of three specialties, the PJ (Pararescueman), Combat Rescue Officer, and Survival, Escape, Resistance and Evasion (SERE) specialists. In this context...the past 30 years, Rescue has been considered a financial opportunity or burden. When money gets tight, as in the fiscally constrained environment...of personnel collected by a SOF operated escape and evasion network. 5. Accordingly, it is the view of this headquarters that…it is inappropriate

  1. The British Government, Ernest Shackleton, and the rescue of the Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition


    J. R. Dudeney; Sheail, J.; Walton, D.W.H.


    The remarkable rescue of Shackleton's men from Elephant Island, after the sinking of Endurance, and from Ross Island, has been recounted many times by both participants and historians. There has been little critical examination of the part played by governments, nor assessment of some of Shackleton's own actions. In this paper we explore more fully from official British archival sources the extent to which the British Government was prepared to underwrite the rescue efforts; the importance of...

  2. A critical review of the Mediterranean sea turtle rescue network: a web looking for a weaver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Ullmann


    Full Text Available A key issue in conservation biology is recognizing and bridging the gap between scientific results and specific action. We examine sea turtles—charismatic yet endangered flagship species—in the Mediterranean, a sea with historically high levels of exploitation and 22 coastal nations. We take sea turtle rescue facilities as a visible measure for implemented conservation action. Our study yielded 34 confirmed sea turtle rescue centers, 8 first-aid stations, and 7 informal rescue institutions currently in operation. Juxtaposing these facilities to known sea turtle distribution and threat hotspots reveals a clear disconnect. Only 14 of the 22 coastal countries had centers, with clear gaps in the Middle East and Africa. Moreover, the information flow between centers is apparently limited. The populations of the two species nesting in the Mediterranean, the loggerhead Caretta caretta and the green turtle Chelonia mydas, are far below historical levels and face a range of anthropogenic threats at sea and on land. Sea turtle rescue centers are acknowledged to reduce mortality in bycatch hotspots, provide a wealth of scientific data, and raise public awareness. The proposal for a Mediterranean-wide rescue network as published by the Regional Activity Centre for Specially Protected Areas a decade ago has not materialized in its envisioned scope. We discuss the efficiency, gaps, and needs for a rescue network and call for establishing additional rescue centers and an accompanying common online database to connect existing centers. This would provide better information on the number and types of rescue facilities on a Mediterranean scale, improve communication between these facilities, enhance standardization of procedures, yield large-scale data on the number of treated turtles and their injuries, and thus provide valuable input for targeted conservation measures.

  3. Infliximab or cyclosporine as rescue therapy in hospitalized patients with steroid-refractory ulcerative colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjöberg, Mats; Walch, Andrea; Meshkat, Mina


    Cyclosporine (CsA) or infliximab (IFX) are used as rescue therapies in steroid-refractory, severe attacks of ulcerative colitis (UC). There are no data comparing the efficacy of these two alternatives.......Cyclosporine (CsA) or infliximab (IFX) are used as rescue therapies in steroid-refractory, severe attacks of ulcerative colitis (UC). There are no data comparing the efficacy of these two alternatives....



    Esquivel Alfaro, Elbethia; Masís Esquivel, Luis Paulino


    This paper presents the results of documentary rescue demonstrations performed in different counties present in the central area of the province of Heredia.This idea was enhanced thanks to the Organization of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) has provided the rescue and preservation of folk traditions, both tangible and intangible, throughout the world.Coupled with this, the Ministry of Education under the direction of Professor Manuel Antonio Bolañ...

  5. Model of the Search and Rescue operations in Republic of Serbia

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    Svetislav ŠoŁkic


    Definition of terms Rescue: An operation to retrieve persons in distress, provide for their initial medical or other needs and deliver them to a place of safety. Work should contribute to the establishment of thinking for model of SAR in Republic of Serbia due to the growing need of interventions in the prevention and elimination of consequences of natural disasters and better organization of search and rescue using the standards prescribed in the the world.

  6. Research on three - dimensional Cooperative Formation of Sea and Air for Cruise and Rescue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Fan


    Full Text Available Aiming at the problems of maritime traffic safety, a new model of jointing USV and UAV for Three-dimensional cruise and rescue is studied. Using the Information Fusion Technology, through the leader-follower formation mode, The collaborative fleet remote control. At the same time, it discusses how to carry out effective supervision on the responsible sea area under the complicated and changing sea conditions, especially the quick and efficient completion of the maritime search and rescue mission.

  7. Radiation rescue: mesenchymal stromal cells protect from lethal irradiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Lange

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Successful treatment of acute radiation syndromes relies on immediate supportive care. In patients with limited hematopoietic recovery potential, hematopoietic stem cell (HSC transplantation is the only curative treatment option. Because of time consuming donor search and uncertain outcome we propose MSC treatment as an alternative treatment for severely radiation-affected individuals. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Mouse mesenchymal stromal cells (mMSCs were expanded from bone marrow, retrovirally labeled with eGFP (bulk cultures and cloned. Bulk and five selected clonal mMSCs populations were characterized in vitro for their multilineage differentiation potential and phenotype showing no contamination with hematopoietic cells. Lethally irradiated recipients were i.v. transplanted with bulk or clonal mMSCs. We found a long-term survival of recipients with fast hematopoietic recovery after the transplantation of MSCs exclusively without support by HSCs. Quantitative PCR based chimerism analysis detected eGFP-positive donor cells in peripheral blood immediately after injection and in lungs within 24 hours. However, no donor cells in any investigated tissue remained long-term. Despite the rapidly disappearing donor cells, microarray and quantitative RT-PCR gene expression analysis in the bone marrow of MSC-transplanted animals displayed enhanced regenerative features characterized by (i decreased proinflammatory, ECM formation and adhesion properties and (ii boosted anti-inflammation, detoxification, cell cycle and anti-oxidative stress control as compared to HSC-transplanted animals. CONCLUSIONS: Our data revealed that systemically administered MSCs provoke a protective mechanism counteracting the inflammatory events and also supporting detoxification and stress management after radiation exposure. Further our results suggest that MSCs, their release of trophic factors and their HSC-niche modulating activity rescue endogenous hematopoiesis

  8. Radiation rescue: mesenchymal stromal cells protect from lethal irradiation. (United States)

    Lange, Claudia; Brunswig-Spickenheier, Bärbel; Cappallo-Obermann, Heike; Eggert, Katharina; Gehling, Ursula M; Rudolph, Cornelia; Schlegelberger, Brigitte; Cornils, Kerstin; Zustin, Jozef; Spiess, Andrej-Nikolai; Zander, Axel R


    Successful treatment of acute radiation syndromes relies on immediate supportive care. In patients with limited hematopoietic recovery potential, hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation is the only curative treatment option. Because of time consuming donor search and uncertain outcome we propose MSC treatment as an alternative treatment for severely radiation-affected individuals. Mouse mesenchymal stromal cells (mMSCs) were expanded from bone marrow, retrovirally labeled with eGFP (bulk cultures) and cloned. Bulk and five selected clonal mMSCs populations were characterized in vitro for their multilineage differentiation potential and phenotype showing no contamination with hematopoietic cells. Lethally irradiated recipients were i.v. transplanted with bulk or clonal mMSCs. We found a long-term survival of recipients with fast hematopoietic recovery after the transplantation of MSCs exclusively without support by HSCs. Quantitative PCR based chimerism analysis detected eGFP-positive donor cells in peripheral blood immediately after injection and in lungs within 24 hours. However, no donor cells in any investigated tissue remained long-term. Despite the rapidly disappearing donor cells, microarray and quantitative RT-PCR gene expression analysis in the bone marrow of MSC-transplanted animals displayed enhanced regenerative features characterized by (i) decreased proinflammatory, ECM formation and adhesion properties and (ii) boosted anti-inflammation, detoxification, cell cycle and anti-oxidative stress control as compared to HSC-transplanted animals. Our data revealed that systemically administered MSCs provoke a protective mechanism counteracting the inflammatory events and also supporting detoxification and stress management after radiation exposure. Further our results suggest that MSCs, their release of trophic factors and their HSC-niche modulating activity rescue endogenous hematopoiesis thereby serving as fast and effective first-line treatment to

  9. Data Management and Rescue at a State Geological Survey (United States)

    Hills, D. J.; McIntyre-Redden, M. R.


    As new technologies are developed to utilize data more fully, and as shrinking budgets mean more needs to be done with less, well-documented and discoverable legacy data is vital for continued research and economic growth. Many governmental agencies are mandated to maintain scientific data, and the Geological Survey of Alabama (GSA) is no different. As part of the mandate to explore for, characterize, and report Alabama's mineral, energy, water, and biological resources for the betterment of Alabama's citizens, communities, and businesses, the GSA has increasingly been called upon to make our data (including samples) more accessible to stakeholders. The GSA has been involved in several data management, preservation, and rescue projects, including the National Geothermal Data System and the National Geological and Geophysical Data Preservation Program. GSA staff utilizes accepted standards for metadata, such as those found at the US Geoscience Information Network (USGIN). Through the use of semi-automated workflows, these standards can be applied to legacy data records. As demand for more detailed information on samples increases, especially so that a researcher can do a preliminary assessment prior to a site visit, it has become critical for the efficiency of the GSA to have better systems in place for sample tracking and data management. Thus, GSA is in the process of registering cores and related samples for International Geo Sample Numbers (IGSNs) through the System for Earth Sample Registration. IGSNs allow the GSA to use asset management software to better curate the physical samples and provide more accurate information to stakeholders. Working with other initiatives, such as EarthCube's iSamples project, will ensure that GSA continues to use best practices and standards for sample identification, documentation, citation, curation, and sharing.

  10. Calling International Rescue: knowledge lost in literature and data landslide! (United States)

    Attwood, Teresa K; Kell, Douglas B; McDermott, Philip; Marsh, James; Pettifer, Steve R; Thorne, David


    We live in interesting times. Portents of impending catastrophe pervade the literature, calling us to action in the face of unmanageable volumes of scientific data. But it isn't so much data generation per se, but the systematic burial of the knowledge embodied in those data that poses the problem: there is so much information available that we simply no longer know what we know, and finding what we want is hard - too hard. The knowledge we seek is often fragmentary and disconnected, spread thinly across thousands of databases and millions of articles in thousands of journals. The intellectual energy required to search this array of data-archives, and the time and money this wastes, has led several researchers to challenge the methods by which we traditionally commit newly acquired facts and knowledge to the scientific record. We present some of these initiatives here - a whirlwind tour of recent projects to transform scholarly publishing paradigms, culminating in Utopia and the Semantic Biochemical Journal experiment. With their promises to provide new ways of interacting with the literature, and new and more powerful tools to access and extract the knowledge sequestered within it, we ask what advances they make and what obstacles to progress still exist? We explore these questions, and, as you read on, we invite you to engage in an experiment with us, a real-time test of a new technology to rescue data from the dormant pages of published documents. We ask you, please, to read the instructions carefully. The time has come: you may turn over your papers...

  11. Infectious diseases in dogs rescued during dogfighting investigations (United States)

    Cannon, S.H.; Levy, J.K.; Kirk, S.K.; Crawford, P.C.; Leutenegger, C.M.; Shuster, J.J.; Liu, J.; Chandrashekar, R.


    Dogs used for dogfighting often receive minimal preventive health care, and the potential for spread of infectious diseases is high. The purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence of infectious diseases in dogs rescued from fighting operations to guide medical protocols for their immediate and long-term care. A total of 269 pit bull-type dogs were seized in a multi-state investigation. Fleas were present on most dogs, but few ticks were observed. Testing performed at intake included packed cell volume (PCV), serology and PCR for vector-borne pathogens, and fecal analysis. The most common infections were Babesia gibsoni (39%), ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haematoparvum’ (32%), Mycoplasma haemocanis (30%), Dirofilaria immitis (12%), and Ancylostoma (23%). Anemia was associated with B. gibsoni infection (63% of infected dogs, Odds ratio=2.5, P<0.001), but not with hemotropic mycoplasmas or Ancylostoma. Pit bull heritage and dogfighting are known risk factors for B. gibsoni infection, possibly via blood transmission from bites and vertical transmission. Hemotropic mycoplasmas have a similar risk pattern. Empirical care for dogs from dogfighting cases should include broad-spectrum internal and external parasiticides and monitoring for anemia. Dogfighting case responders should be prepared for mass screening and treatment of B. gibsoni and heartworm infections and should implement protocols to prevent transmission of infectious and zoonotic diseases in the shelter and following adoption. Former fighting dogs and dogs with possible dog bite scars should not be used as blood donors due to the risk of vector-borne pathogens that can escape detection and for which curative treatment is difficult to document. PMID:27056107

  12. Glucocerebrosidase 2 gene deletion rescues type 1 Gaucher disease. (United States)

    Mistry, Pramod K; Liu, Jun; Sun, Li; Chuang, Wei-Lien; Yuen, Tony; Yang, Ruhua; Lu, Ping; Zhang, Kate; Li, Jianhua; Keutzer, Joan; Stachnik, Agnes; Mennone, Albert; Boyer, James L; Jain, Dhanpat; Brady, Roscoe O; New, Maria I; Zaidi, Mone


    The inherited deficiency of the lysosomal glucocerebrosidase (GBA) due to mutations in the GBA gene results in Gaucher disease (GD). A vast majority of patients present with nonneuronopathic, type 1 GD (GD1). GBA deficiency causes the accumulation of two key sphingolipids, glucosylceramide (GL-1) and glucosylsphingosine (LysoGL-1), classically noted within the lysosomes of mononuclear phagocytes. How metabolites of GL-1 or LysoGL-1 produced by extralysosomal glucocerebrosidase GBA2 contribute to the GD1 pathophysiology is not known. We recently recapitulated hepatosplenomegaly, cytopenia, hypercytokinemia, and the bone-formation defect of human GD1 through conditional deletion of Gba in Mx1-Cre(+):GD1 mice. Here we show that the deletion of Gba2 significantly rescues the GD1 clinical phenotype, despite enhanced elevations in GL-1 and LysoGL-1. Most notably, the reduced bone volume and bone formation rate are normalized. These results suggest that metabolism of GL-1 or LysoGL-1 into downstream bioactive lipids is a major contributor to the bone-formation defect. Direct testing revealed a strong inhibition of osteoblast viability by nanomolar concentrations of sphingosine, but not of ceramide. These findings are consistent with toxicity of high circulating sphingosine levels in GD1 patients, which decline upon enzyme-replacement therapy; serum ceramide levels remain unchanged. Together, complementary results from mice and humans affected with GD1 not only pinpoint sphingosine as being an osteoblast toxin, but also set forth Gba2 as a viable therapeutic target for the development of inhibitors to ameliorate certain disabling consequences of GD1.

  13. How quantum brain biology can rescue conscious free will

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart eHameroff


    OR can rescue conscious free will.

  14. How quantum brain biology can rescue conscious free will. (United States)

    Hameroff, Stuart


    Conscious "free will" is problematic because (1) brain mechanisms causing consciousness are unknown, (2) measurable brain activity correlating with conscious perception apparently occurs too late for real-time conscious response, consciousness thus being considered "epiphenomenal illusion," and (3) determinism, i.e., our actions and the world around us seem algorithmic and inevitable. The Penrose-Hameroff theory of "orchestrated objective reduction (Orch OR)" identifies discrete conscious moments with quantum computations in microtubules inside brain neurons, e.g., 40/s in concert with gamma synchrony EEG. Microtubules organize neuronal interiors and regulate synapses. In Orch OR, microtubule quantum computations occur in integration phases in dendrites and cell bodies of integrate-and-fire brain neurons connected and synchronized by gap junctions, allowing entanglement of microtubules among many neurons. Quantum computations in entangled microtubules terminate by Penrose "objective reduction (OR)," a proposal for quantum state reduction and conscious moments linked to fundamental spacetime geometry. Each OR reduction selects microtubule states which can trigger axonal firings, and control behavior. The quantum computations are "orchestrated" by synaptic inputs and memory (thus "Orch OR"). If correct, Orch OR can account for conscious causal agency, resolving problem 1. Regarding problem 2, Orch OR can cause temporal non-locality, sending quantum information backward in classical time, enabling conscious control of behavior. Three lines of evidence for brain backward time effects are presented. Regarding problem 3, Penrose OR (and Orch OR) invokes non-computable influences from information embedded in spacetime geometry, potentially avoiding algorithmic determinism. In summary, Orch OR can account for real-time conscious causal agency, avoiding the need for consciousness to be seen as epiphenomenal illusion. Orch OR can rescue conscious free will.

  15. The power of evolutionary rescue is constrained by genetic load. (United States)

    Stewart, Gavin S; Morris, Madeline R; Genis, Allison B; Szűcs, Marianna; Melbourne, Brett A; Tavener, Simon J; Hufbauer, Ruth A


    The risk of extinction faced by small isolated populations in changing environments can be reduced by rapid adaptation and subsequent growth to larger, less vulnerable sizes. Whether this process, called evolutionary rescue, is able to reduce extinction risk and sustain population growth over multiple generations is largely unknown. To understand the consequences of adaptive evolution as well as maladaptive processes in small isolated populations, we subjected experimental Tribolium castaneum populations founded with 10 or 40 individuals to novel environments, one more favorable, and one resource poor, and either allowed evolution, or constrained it by replacing individuals one-for-one each generation with those from a large population maintained in the natal environment. Replacement individuals spent one generation in the target novel environment before use to standardize effects due to the parental environment. After eight generations we mixed a subset of surviving populations to facilitate admixture, allowing us to estimate drift load by comparing performance of mixed to unmixed groups. Evolving populations had reduced extinction rates, and increased population sizes in the first four to five generations compared to populations where evolution was constrained. Performance of evolving populations subsequently declined. Admixture restored their performance, indicating high drift load that may have overwhelmed the beneficial effects of adaptation in evolving populations. Our results indicate that evolution may quickly reduce extinction risk and increase population sizes, but suggest that relying solely on adaptation from standing genetic variation may not provide long-term benefits to small isolated populations of diploid sexual species, and that active management facilitating gene flow may be necessary for longer term persistence.

  16. The alignment between spatial planning, transportation planning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Planning. Engineering. Planning. Information. Systems/ modeling. Statutory planning. Urban. Planning Theory. Regional. Planning Theory. Environmental. Planning. Zoology. Planning Law. Strategic. Spatial Development. Frameworks. Governmental. Administration. Management. Urban. Planning. Frameworks. Architecture ...

  17. Gazing toward humans: a study on water rescue dogs using the impossible task paradigm. (United States)

    D'Aniello, Biagio; Scandurra, Anna; Prato-Previde, Emanuela; Valsecchi, Paola


    Various studies have assessed the role of life experiences, including learning opportunities, living conditions and the quality of dog-human relationships, in the use of human cues and problem-solving ability. The current study investigates how and to what extent training affects the behaviour of dogs and the communication of dogs with humans by comparing dogs trained for a water rescue service and untrained pet dogs in the impossible task paradigm. Twenty-three certified water rescue dogs (the water rescue group) and 17 dogs with no training experience (the untrained group) were tested using a modified version of the impossible task described by Marshall-Pescini et al. in 2009. The results demonstrated that the water rescue dogs directed their first gaze significantly more often towards the owner and spent more time gazing toward two people compared to the untrained pet dogs. There was no difference between the dogs of the two groups as far as in the amount of time spent gazing at the owner or the stranger; neither in the interaction with the apparatus attempting to obtain food. The specific training regime, aimed at promoting cooperation during the performance of water rescue, could account for the longer gazing behaviour shown toward people by the water rescue dogs and the priority of gazing toward the owner. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The Start of the Jews Rescue Campaign by the Metropolitan Andrey Sheptytsky in August 1942

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skira, Yu. R.


    Full Text Available Start of the campaign for the rescue of the Jews by the Metropolitan Andrey Sheptytsky in August 1942 is studied in the article. The author begins with an analysis of the August campaign in 1942 as a massive Holocaust of Lvivʼs Jewish community. He focuses on the fact that a foreboding of imminent catastrophe felt by some Jews led them, in despair, to address the Head of the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church. A visit of Rabbis Dawid Kahane and Kalman Chameides started the campaign for the rescue of Jewish children from Lviv Ghetto. Active rescue efforts regarding adult Jews were made during the August operation. Some sources allow us to assert that sheltering the Jews in cellars of St. Georgeʼs Cathedral architectural complex was not a one-time act of commitment but an ongoing rescue operation under conditions of growing genocide. Events that took place in August 1942 became the turning point for Metropolitan Andrey Sheptytsky and Lviv Jews and their relationship, since they started the process of rescuing people deprived of the right to live by the Nazis. This rescuing campaign developed during the following months of autumn 1942.

  19. Gas Concentration Prediction Based on the Measured Data of a Coal Mine Rescue Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiliang Ma


    Full Text Available The coal mine environment is complex and dangerous after gas accident; then a timely and effective rescue and relief work is necessary. Hence prediction of gas concentration in front of coal mine rescue robot is an important significance to ensure that the coal mine rescue robot carries out the exploration and search and rescue mission. In this paper, a gray neural network is proposed to predict the gas concentration 10 meters in front of the coal mine rescue robot based on the gas concentration, temperature, and wind speed of the current position and 1 meter in front. Subsequently the quantum genetic algorithm optimization gray neural network parameters of the gas concentration prediction method are proposed to get more accurate prediction of the gas concentration in the roadway. Experimental results show that a gray neural network optimized by the quantum genetic algorithm is more accurate for predicting the gas concentration. The overall prediction error is 9.12%, and the largest forecasting error is 11.36%; compared with gray neural network, the gas concentration prediction error increases by 55.23%. This means that the proposed method can better allow the coal mine rescue robot to accurately predict the gas concentration in the coal mine roadway.

  20. Rescuing and Sharing Historical Vegetation Data for Ecological Analysis: The California Vegetation Type Mapping Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maggi Kelly


    Full Text Available Research efforts that synthesize historical and contemporary ecological data with modeling approaches improve our understanding of the complex response of species, communities, and landscapes to changing biophysical conditions through time and in space. Historical ecological data are particularly important in this respect. There are remaining barriers that limit such data synthesis, and technological improvements that make multiple diverse datasets more readily available for integration and synthesis are needed. This paper presents one case study of the Wieslander Vegetation Type Mapping project in California and highlights the importance of rescuing, digitizing and sharing historical datasets. We review the varied ecological uses of the historical collection: the vegetation maps have been used to understand legacies of land use change and plan for the future; the plot data have been used to examine changes to chaparral and forest communities around the state and to predict community structure and shifts under a changing climate; the photographs have been used to understand changing vegetation structure; and the voucher specimens in combination with other specimen collections have been used for large scale distribution modeling efforts. The digitization and sharing of the data via the web has broadened the scope and scale of the types of analysis performed. Yet, additional research avenues can be pursued using multiple types of VTM data, and by linking VTM data with contemporary data. The digital VTM collection is an example of a data infrastructure that expands the potential of large scale research through the integration and synthesis of data drawn from numerous data sources; its journey from analog to digital is a cautionary tale of the importance of finding historical data, digitizing it with best practices, linking it with other datasets, and sharing it with the research community.

  1. Rescuing Food from the Organics Waste Stream to Feed the Food Insecure: An Economic and Environmental Assessment of Australian Food Rescue Operations Using Environmentally Extended Waste Input-Output Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian John Reynolds


    Full Text Available In this paper we investigate the economic and environmental efficiency of charities and NGO’s “rescuing” food waste, using a 2008 case study of food rescue organisations in Australia. We quantify the tonnages, costs, and environmental impact of food rescued, and then compare food rescue to other food waste disposal methods composting and landfill. To our knowledge this is the first manuscript to comprehend the psychical flows of charity within an Input-Output framework—treating the charity donations as a waste product. We found that 18,105 tonnes of food waste was rescued, and calculate that food rescue operations generate approximately six kilograms of food waste per tonne of food rescued, at a cost of US$222 per tonne of food rescued. This a lower cost than purchasing a tonne of comparable edible food at market value. We also found that per US dollar spent on food rescue, edible food to the value of US$5.71 (1863 calories was rescued. Likewise, every US dollar spent on food rescue redirected food that represented 6.6 m3 of embodied water, 40.13 MJ of embodied energy, and 7.5 kilograms of embodied greenhouse gasses (CO2 equivalents from being sent to landfill or composting, and into mouths of the food insecure. We find that food rescue—though more economically costly than landfill or composting—is a lower cost method of obtaining food for the food insecure than direct purchasing.

  2. U.S. Coast Guard Addendum to the United States National Search and Rescue Supplement (NSS) to the International Aeronautical and Maritime Search and Rescue Manual (IAMSAR) (United States)


    for continuing search during darkness or other periods of reduced visibility. (28) Sets the Rescue 21 degree of error to be applied to...G-5 MEDICO / MEDEVAC...Starting Position and Position Error for Subsequent Drift ....................................... H-54 Figure H-16 Initial SAROPS Screen

  3. Amsterdam Oxford Joint Rescue Forces: Team description paper: Virtual Robot competition: Rescue Simulation League: RoboCup 2010 and Iran Open

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.; Nguyen, Q.; Terwijn, B.; Hueting, M.; Jurriaans, R.; van der Veen, M.; Formsma, O.; Dijkshoorn, N.; van Noort, S.; Sobolewski, R.; Flynn, H.; Jankowska, M.; Rath, S.; de Hoog, J.


    With the progress made in active exploration, the robots of the Joint Rescue Forces are capable of making deliberative decisions about the distribution of exploration locations over the team. Experiments have been done which include information exchange between team-members at rendez-vous points.

  4. Surgical rescue and Restoration of Renal Function in a Post ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The recovery of renal function following release of urinary tract obstruction with advanced azotemia determines both the need for emergency dialysis in the early postoperative period and the long term planning for chronic kidney disease management. Method and Results: The case of a 60year Old woman with a anuria ...

  5. The Polar Rock Repository: Rescuing Polar Collections for New Research (United States)

    Grunow, A.


    /spectral imaging of Transantarctic Mountains rocks. Rescuing these collections from universities that no longer want to store the rocks or from researchers who no longer need the samples has resulted in many new publications, new proposals and enormous cost and environmental savings to the U.S. Antarctic science program.

  6. Does modern helicopter construction reduce noise exposure in helicopter rescue operations? (United States)

    Küpper, Thomas; Jansing, Paul; Schöffl, Volker; van Der Giet, Simone


    During helicopter rescue operations the medical personnel are at high risk for hearing damage by noise exposure. There are two important factors to be taken into account: first, the extreme variability, with some days involving no exposure but other days with extreme exposure; second, the extreme noise levels during work outside the helicopter, e.g. during winch operations. The benefit of modern, less noisier constructions and the consequences for noise protection are still unknown. We estimated the noise exposure of the personnel for different helicopter types used during rescue operations in the Alps and in other regions of the world with special regard to the advanced types like Eurocopter EC 135 to compare the benefit of modern constructions for noise protection with earlier ones. The rescue operations over 1 year of four rescue bases in the Alps (Raron and Zermatt in Switzerland; Landeck and Innsbruck in Austria, n = 2731) were analyzed for duration of rescue operations (noise exposure). Noise levels were measured during rescue operations at defined points inside and outside the different aircraft. The setting is according to the European standard (Richtlinie 2003/10/EG Amtsblatt) and to Class 1 DIN/IEC 651. With both data sets the equivalent noise level L(eq8h) was calculated. For comparison it was assumed that all rescue operations were performed with a specific type of helicopter. Then model calculations for noise exposure by different helicopter types, such as Alouette IIIb, Alouette II 'Lama', Ecureuil AS350, Bell UH1D, Eurocopter EC135, and others were performed. Depending on modern technologies the situation for the personnel has been improved significantly. Nevertheless noise prevention, which includes noise intermissions in spare time, is essential. Medical checks of the crews by occupational medicine (e.g. 'G20' in Germany) are still mandatory.

  7. Structural view on recycling of archaeal and eukaryotic ribosomes after canonical termination and ribosome rescue. (United States)

    Franckenberg, Sibylle; Becker, Thomas; Beckmann, Roland


    Ribosome recycling usually occurs after canonical termination triggered by a stop codon. Additionally, ribosomes that are stalled by aberrant mRNAs need to be recognized and subsequently recycled. In eukaryotes and archaea, the factors involved in canonical termination and ribosome rescue are structurally and functionally related. Both termination and ribosome rescue are mediated by class I release factors (eRF1/aRF1 in eukaryotic/archaeal termination) or their paralogs (Pelota/aPelota for ribosome rescue) and homologs of translational GTPases (eRF3/aEF1α in termination, Hbs1/aEF1α in ribosome rescue). These events are followed by recycling of the ribosome. Recently the ATPase ABCE1 was shown to be the main ribosome recycling factor. In concert with eRF1 or Pelota, ABCE1 dissociates the ribosome into subunits. During the past two years, several structures of ribosome rescue and ribosome recycling complexes have been solved by cryo-electron microscopy and crystallography. These structures along with recent functional data make it possible to propose a molecular model of these late translation events in termination and recycling. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Human Cells Require Non-stop Ribosome Rescue Activity in Mitochondria. (United States)

    Feaga, Heather A; Quickel, Michael D; Hankey-Giblin, Pamela A; Keiler, Kenneth C


    Bacteria use trans-translation and the alternative rescue factors ArfA (P36675) and ArfB (Q9A8Y3) to hydrolyze peptidyl-tRNA on ribosomes that stall near the 3' end of an mRNA during protein synthesis. The eukaryotic protein ICT1 (Q14197) is homologous to ArfB. In vitro ribosome rescue assays of human ICT1 and Caulobacter crescentus ArfB showed that these proteins have the same activity and substrate specificity. Both ArfB and ICT1 hydrolyze peptidyl-tRNA on nonstop ribosomes or ribosomes stalled with ≤6 nucleotides extending past the A site, but are unable to hydrolyze peptidyl-tRNA when the mRNA extends ≥14 nucleotides past the A site. ICT1 provided sufficient ribosome rescue activity to support viability in C. crescentus cells that lacked both trans-translation and ArfB. Likewise, expression of ArfB protected human cells from death when ICT1 was silenced with siRNA. These data indicate that ArfB and ICT1 are functionally interchangeable, and demonstrate that ICT1 is a ribosome rescue factor. Because ICT1 is essential in human cells, these results suggest that ribosome rescue activity in mitochondria is required in humans.

  9. Saving the injured: Rescue behavior in the termite-hunting ant Megaponera analis (United States)

    Frank, Erik Thomas; Schmitt, Thomas; Hovestadt, Thomas; Mitesser, Oliver; Stiegler, Jonas; Linsenmair, Karl Eduard


    Predators of highly defensive prey likely develop cost-reducing adaptations. The ant Megaponera analis is a specialized termite predator, solely raiding termites of the subfamily Macrotermitinae (in this study, mostly colonies of Pseudocanthotermes sp.) at their foraging sites. The evolutionary arms race between termites and ants led to various defensive mechanisms in termites (for example, a caste specialized in fighting predators). Because M. analis incurs high injury/mortality risks when preying on termites, some risk-mitigating adaptations seem likely to have evolved. We show that a unique rescue behavior in M. analis, consisting of injured nestmates being carried back to the nest, reduces combat mortality. After a fight, injured ants are carried back by their nestmates; these ants have usually lost an extremity or have termites clinging to them and are able to recover within the nest. Injured ants that are forced experimentally to return without help, die in 32% of the cases. Behavioral experiments show that two compounds, dimethyl disulfide and dimethyl trisulfide, present in the mandibular gland reservoirs, trigger the rescue behavior. A model accounting for this rescue behavior identifies the drivers favoring its evolution and estimates that rescuing enables maintenance of a 28.7% larger colony size. Our results are the first to explore experimentally the adaptive value of this form of rescue behavior focused on injured nestmates in social insects and help us to identify evolutionary drivers responsible for this type of behavior to evolve in animals. PMID:28439543

  10. Prevalence of behaviour problems reported by owners of dogs purchased from an animal rescue shelter. (United States)

    Wells; Hepper


    This study examined the prevalence of behaviour problems exhibited by dogs within 4 weeks of acquisition from a rescue shelter in Northern Ireland. One thousand five hundred and forty-seven people who had purchased a dog from a rescue shelter in Northern Ireland were sent a postal questionnaire designed to collect information on the behaviours exhibited by their dog within the first month of acquisition. Five hundred and fifty-six people responded to the survey, representing a response rate of 37%. The majority of respondents (68.3%) reported that their dog exhibited a behaviour problem, the most common being fearfulness. Most of those respondents (89.7%) who returned their dog to the shelter did so because the animal exhibited behaviour that they considered undesirable. Male dogs showed more unacceptable behaviours than females, specifically inter-male aggression, sexual problems and straying tendencies. More stray dogs displayed undesirable behaviour than unwanteds, specifically straying tendencies. Puppies were less likely to exhibit unacceptable behaviours than juveniles or adults, particularly fearfulness, sexual problems and straying tendencies. More juvenile dogs showed excessive activity and excessive barking than puppies or adults. More adult dogs displayed aggression towards other dogs than juveniles or puppies. Findings indicate that dogs purchased from rescue shelters do exhibit behaviour problems that may lead to their return. The number of dogs admitted or returned to rescue shelters with behaviour problems may be reduced by raising public awareness regarding the value of behaviour therapy and introducing behaviour therapy schemes to rescue shelters.

  11. Heat stress is a potent stimulus for enhancing rescue efficiency of recombinant Borna disease virus. (United States)

    Kojima, Shohei; Honda, Tomoyuki; Matsumoto, Yusuke; Tomonaga, Keizo


    Recently developed vector systems based on Borna disease virus (BDV) hold promise as platforms for efficient and stable gene delivery to the central nervous system (CNS). However, because it currently takes several weeks to rescue recombinant BDV (rBDV), an improved rescue procedure would enhance the utility of this system. Heat stress reportedly enhances the rescue efficiency of other recombinant viruses. Here, heat stress was demonstrated to increase the amount of BDV genome in persistently BDV-infected cells without obvious cytotoxicity. Further analyses suggested that the effect of heat stress on BDV infection is not caused by an increase in the activity of BDV polymerase. More cells in which BDV replication occurs were obtained in the initial phase of rBDV rescue by using heat stress than when it was not used. Thus, heat stress is a useful improvement on the published rescue procedure for rBDV. The present findings may accelerate the practical use of BDV vector systems in basic science and the clinic and thus enable broader adoption of this viral vector, which is uniquely suited for gene delivery to the CNS. © 2014 The Societies and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  12. Rescue Living-donor Liver Transplantation for Liver Failure Following Hepatectomy for Hepatocellular Carcinoma. (United States)

    Chan, See Ching; Sharr, William Wei; Chan, Albert Chi Yan; Chok, Kenneth Siu Ho; Lo, Chung Mau


    Liver failure following major hepatectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma is a known but uncommon mode of early treatment failure. When post-hepatectomy liver failure becomes progressive, the only effective treatment for rescuing the patient is liver transplantation. Deceased-donor liver transplantation in this situation is often not feasible because of the shortage of deceased-donor liver grafts. Proceeding with living-donor liver transplantation is an ethical challenge because of the possibility of donor coercion. In addition, tumor status, as confirmed by histopathological examination of the resected specimen, may indicate aggressive cancer that warns against rescue transplantation because of the increased chance of tumor recurrence. Here we describe four cases of rescue living-donor liver transplantation for liver failure after hepatectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma. The patients all survived the transplantation and were free from tumor recurrence after follow-up periods ranging from 6 months to 9 years. Our experience has shown that rescue living-donor liver transplantation for post-hepatectomy liver failure is feasible. Tumor status should be considered carefully because large tumors and tumors with macrovascular invasion are strong contraindications to rescue living-donor liver transplantation.

  13. Ensemble-based computational approach discriminates functional activity of p53 cancer and rescue mutants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Demir


    Full Text Available The tumor suppressor protein p53 can lose its function upon single-point missense mutations in the core DNA-binding domain ("cancer mutants". Activity can be restored by second-site suppressor mutations ("rescue mutants". This paper relates the functional activity of p53 cancer and rescue mutants to their overall molecular dynamics (MD, without focusing on local structural details. A novel global measure of protein flexibility for the p53 core DNA-binding domain, the number of clusters at a certain RMSD cutoff, was computed by clustering over 0.7 µs of explicitly solvated all-atom MD simulations. For wild-type p53 and a sample of p53 cancer or rescue mutants, the number of clusters was a good predictor of in vivo p53 functional activity in cell-based assays. This number-of-clusters (NOC metric was strongly correlated (r(2 = 0.77 with reported values of experimentally measured ΔΔG protein thermodynamic stability. Interpreting the number of clusters as a measure of protein flexibility: (i p53 cancer mutants were more flexible than wild-type protein, (ii second-site rescue mutations decreased the flexibility of cancer mutants, and (iii negative controls of non-rescue second-site mutants did not. This new method reflects the overall stability of the p53 core domain and can discriminate which second-site mutations restore activity to p53 cancer mutants.

  14. Zebrafish fetal alcohol syndrome model: effects of ethanol are rescued by retinoic acid supplement. (United States)

    Marrs, James A; Clendenon, Sherry G; Ratcliffe, Don R; Fielding, Stephen M; Liu, Qin; Bosron, William F


    This study was designed to develop a zebrafish experimental model to examine defects in retinoic acid (RA) signaling caused by embryonic ethanol exposure. RA deficiency may be a causative factor leading to a spectrum of birth defects classified as fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). Experimental support for this hypothesis using Xenopus showed that effects of treatment with ethanol could be partially rescued by adding retinoids during ethanol treatment. Previous studies show that treating zebrafish embryos during gastrulation and somitogenesis stages with a pathophysiological concentration of ethanol (100mM) produces effects that are characteristic features of FASD. We found that treating zebrafish embryos with RA at a low concentration (10(-9)M) and 100mM ethanol during gastrulation and somitogenesis stages significantly rescued a spectrum of defects produced by treating embryos with 100mM ethanol alone. The rescued phenotype that we observed was quantitatively more similar to embryos treated with 10(-9)M RA alone (RA toxicity) than to untreated or 100mM ethanol-treated embryos. RA rescued defects caused by 100mM ethanol treatment during gastrulation and somitogenesis stages that include early gastrulation cell movements (anterior-posterior axis), craniofacial cartilage formation, and ear development. Morphological evidence also suggests that other characteristic features of FASD (e.g., neural axis patterning) are rescued by RA supplement. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Persistence in epidemic metapopulations: quantifying the rescue effects for measles, mumps, rubella and whooping cough.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Jessica E Metcalf

    Full Text Available Metapopulation rescue effects are thought to be key to the persistence of many acute immunizing infections. Yet the enhancement of persistence through spatial coupling has not been previously quantified. Here we estimate the metapopulation rescue effects for four childhood infections using global WHO reported incidence data by comparing persistence on island countries vs all other countries, while controlling for key variables such as vaccine cover, birth rates and economic development. The relative risk of extinction on islands is significantly higher, and approximately double the risk of extinction in mainland countries. Furthermore, as may be expected, infections with longer infectious periods tend to have the strongest metapopulation rescue effects. Our results quantitate the notion that demography and local community size controls disease persistence.

  16. Conservation and the 4 Rs, which are rescue, rehabilitation, release, and research. (United States)

    Pyke, Graham H; Szabo, Judit K


    Vertebrate animals can be injured or threatened with injury through human activities, thus warranting their "rescue." Details of wildlife rescue, rehabilitation, release, and associated research (our 4 Rs) are often recorded in large databases, resulting in a wealth of available information. This information has huge research potential and can contribute to understanding of animal biology, anthropogenic impacts on wildlife, and species conservation. However, such databases have been little used, few studies have evaluated factors influencing success of rehabilitation and/or release, recommended actions to conserve threatened species have rarely arisen, and direct benefits for species conservation are yet to be demonstrated. We therefore recommend that additional research be based on data from rescue, rehabilitation, and release of animals that is broader in scope than previous research and would have community support. © 2017 Society for Conservation Biology.

  17. Effect of simulation on nursing knowledge and critical thinking in failure to rescue events. (United States)

    Schubert, Carolyn R


    Failure to rescue events are hospital deaths that result from human error and unsafe patient conditions. A failure to rescue event implies that the last and best chance to avoid tragedy is not acted on in time to avoid a disaster. Patient safety is often compromised by nurses who do not perform accurate assessments (vigilance), do not detect clinical changes (surveillance), or do not display critical thinking (recognition that something is wrong). This project used simulation as a teaching strategy to enhance nursing performance. Medical-surgical nurses took part in a simulated failure to rescue event in which the patient's clinical condition deteriorated rapidly. Nursing knowledge and critical thinking improved after the simulation and showed the effectiveness of simulation as a teaching strategy to address nursing knowledge and critical thinking skills. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  18. Epistemic Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baral, Chitta; Bolander, Thomas; van Ditmarsch, Hans

    The seminar Epistemic Planning brought together the research communities of Dynamic Epistemic Logic, Knowledge Representation and Reasoning, and Automated Planning to address fundamental problems on the topic of epistemic planning. In the context of this seminar, dynamic epistemic logic...... investigates the formal semantics of communication and communicative actions, knowledge representation and reasoning focuses on theories of action and change, and automated planning investigates computational techniques and tools to generate plans. The original goals of the seminar were to develop benchmarks...... for epistemic planning, to explore the relationship between knowledge and belief in multi-agent epistemic planning, to develop models of agency and capability in epistemic planning and to explore action types and their representations (these originally separate goals were merged during the seminar), and finally...

  19. Safety Plan (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge Safety Plan discusses policies for the safety of the station employees, volunteers, and public. This plan seeks to identify...

  20. Planning ahead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farquharson, B. [Gemcom Software International (Australia)


    The paper explains how Colombian coal producer and exporter, Carbones del Cerrejon, has increased recovered coal with an end-to-end mine planning solution. It was Gemcon's Minex software for geology and mine planning. 4 photos.

  1. Glycoprotein cytoplasmic domain sequences required for rescue of a vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein mutant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitt, M.A.; Chong, L.; Rose, J.K. (Yale Univ. School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (USA))


    The authors have used transient expression of the wild-type vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) glycoprotein (G protein) from cloned cDNA to rescue a temperature-sensitive G protein mutant of VSV in cells at the nonpermissive temperature. Using cDNAs encoding G proteins with deletions in the normal 29-amino-acid cytoplasmic domain, they determined that the presence of either the membrane-proximal 9 amino acids or the membrane-distal 12 amino acids was sufficient for rescue of the temperature-sensitive mutant. G proteins with cytoplasmic domains derived from other cellular or viral G proteins did not rescue the mutant, nor did G proteins with one or three amino acids of the normal cytoplasmic domain. Rescue correlated directly with the ability of the G proteins to be incorporated into virus particles. This was shown by analysis of radiolabeled particles separated on sucrose gradients as well as by electron microscopy of rescued virus after immunogold labeling. Quantitation of surface expression showed that all of the mutated G proteins were expressed less efficiently on the cell surface than was wild-type G protein. However, they were able to correct for differences in rescue efficiency resulting from differences in the level of surface expression by reducing wild-type G protein expression to levels equivalent to those observed for the mutated G proteins. The results provide evidence that at least a portion of the cytoplasmic domain is required for efficient assembly of the VSV G protein into virions during virus budding.

  2. Post-traumatic stress disorder status in a rescue group after the Wenchuan earthquake relief. (United States)

    Huang, Junhua; Liu, Qunying; Li, Jinliang; Li, Xuejiang; You, Jin; Zhang, Liang; Tian, Changfu; Luan, Rongsheng


    Previous studies have suggested that the incidence of post-traumatic stress disorder in earthquake rescue workers is relatively high. Risk factors for this disorder include demographic characteristics, earthquake-related high-risk factors, risk factors in the rescue process, personality, social support and coping style. This study examined the current status of a unit of 1 040 rescue workers who participated in earthquake relief for the Wenchuan earthquake that occurred on May 12(th), 2008. Post-traumatic stress disorder was diagnosed primarily using the Clinician-Administered Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Scale during structured interviews. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were used to examine major risk factors that contributed to the incidence of post-traumatic stress disorder. Results revealed that the incidence of this disorder in the rescue group was 5.96%. The impact factors in univariate analysis included death of family members, contact with corpses or witnessing of the deceased or seriously injured, near-death experience, severe injury or mental trauma in the rescue process and working at the epicenter of the earthquake. Correlation analysis suggested that post-traumatic stress disorder was positively correlated with psychotic and neurotic personalities, negative coping and low social support. Impact factors in multivariate logistic regression analysis included near-death experience, severe injury or mental trauma, working in the epicenter of the rescue, neurotic personality, negative coping and low social support, among which low social support had the largest odds ratio of 20.42. Findings showed that the occurrence of post-traumatic stress disorder was the result of the interaction of multiple factors.

  3. Rock climbing rescues: causes, injuries, and trends in Boulder County, Colorado. (United States)

    Lack, Daniel A; Sheets, Alison L; Entin, Jacob M; Christenson, David C


    To describe rates and patterns of rock climbing rescue incidents, morbidity and mortality in Boulder County, CO. Rocky Mountain Rescue Group incident reports from 1998 to 2011 were reviewed to provide a 14-year statistical account of rock climbing incidents. Rock climbing rescues in Boulder accounted for 428 of a total of 2198 (19.5%) mountain and wilderness rescue victims. Most rock climbing victims were male (78%), and 46% of victims were between the ages of 20 and 29 years; most rock climbing incidents occurred on weekend days (median time of 3:30 pm) during the spring, summer, and autumn. Technical roped climbers accounted for 58% of climbing victims, whereas unroped climbers accounted for 34%. Belay incidents accounted for 12% of climbing victims, whereas rock fall incidents accounted for 4.5% of victims. Most victims were uninjured (43% stranded or lost), whereas lower extremity injuries were the most common injury (29.5% of injured victims). A total of 5.5% of climbing victims were fatally injured (23 victims: 5 from lead falls and 9 from unroped falls). The occurrence of rock climbing-related rescue victims comprised one fifth of all rescue victims in Boulder County. A large fraction of incidents and fatalities resulted from unroped climbing. Incidents of lost or uninjured stranded climbers and belay incidents account for more than half of victims, which can likely be prevented by gaining appropriate experience, seeking local information, and applying some simple safety measures for control of rope belays. Copyright © 2012 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Chemical rescue of enzymes: proton transfer in mutants of human carbonic anhydrase II. (United States)

    Maupin, C Mark; Castillo, Norberto; Taraphder, Srabani; Tu, Chingkuang; McKenna, Robert; Silverman, David N; Voth, Gregory A


    In human carbonic anhydrase II (HCA II), the mutation of position 64 from histidine to alanine (H64A) disrupts the rate limiting proton transfer (PT) event, resulting in a reduction of the catalytic activity of the enzyme as compared to the wild-type. Potential of mean force (PMF) calculations utilizing the multistate empirical valence bond (MS-EVB) methodology for H64A HCA II yields a PT free energy barrier significantly higher than that found in the wild-type enzyme. This high barrier, determined in the absence of exogenous buffer and assuming no additional ionizable residues in the PT pathway, indicates the likelihood of alternate enzyme pathways that utilize either ionizable enzyme residues (self-rescue) and/or exogenous buffers (chemical rescue). It has been shown experimentally that the catalytic activity of H64A HCA II can be chemically rescued to near wild-type levels by the addition of the exogenous buffer 4-methylimidazole (4MI). Crystallographic studies have identified two 4MI binding sites, yet site-specific mutations intended to disrupt 4MI binding have demonstrated these sites to be nonproductive. In the present work, MS-EVB simulations show that binding of 4MI near Thr199 in the H64A HCA II mutant, a binding site determined by NMR spectroscopy, results in a viable chemical rescue pathway. Additional viable rescue pathways are also identified where 4MI acts as a proton transport intermediary from the active site to ionizable residues on the rim of the active site, revealing a probable mode of action for the chemical rescue pathway.

  5. Automated external defibrillator rescues among children with diagnosed and treated long QT syndrome. (United States)

    Pundi, Kavitha N; Bos, J Martijn; Cannon, Bryan C; Ackerman, Michael J


    Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is a potentially lethal yet highly treatable cardiac channelopathy. A comprehensive LQTS-directed treatment program often includes an automated external defibrillator (AED). The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of AED rescues among children evaluated, risk-stratified, and treated in an LQTS specialty center. We performed a retrospective review of the electronic medical records to identify 1665 patients evaluated in our Genetic Heart Rhythm Clinic (1999-2013). Subset analysis was performed on 291 children managed without an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD). The average age at diagnosis was 8.3 ± 5.7 years with an average. QTc of 463 ± 40 ms (17% ≥500 ms). The represented LQTS genotypes included type 1 (LQT1) in 52%, type 2 (LQT2) in 35%, and type 3 (LQT3) in 7%. During follow-up, 3 of 291 children (1%) had a cardiac arrest with an appropriate AED rescue (2/51 symptomatic, 1/240 asymptomatic). The first AED rescue occurred during exercise in a symptomatic 3-year-old boy with compound LQT1 treated with beta-blocker and videoscopic left cardiac sympathetic denervation (LCSD). The second AED rescue occurred in a remotely symptomatic 14-year-old boy with high-risk LQT2 (QTc >550 ms) on a beta-blocker who previously declined a prophylactic ICD. The third AED rescue involved an asymptomatic 17-year-old girl with LQT3 on mexiletine who collapsed in school. An AED should seldom be necessary in an appropriately treated child with LQTS. Nevertheless, despite only 3 AED rescues in more than 1700 patient-years, an AED can be a lifesaving and cost-effective part of an LQTS patient's comprehensive sudden death prevention program. Copyright © 2015 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Predicting positive p53 cancer rescue regions using Most Informative Positive (MIP active learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel A Danziger


    Full Text Available Many protein engineering problems involve finding mutations that produce proteins with a particular function. Computational active learning is an attractive approach to discover desired biological activities. Traditional active learning techniques have been optimized to iteratively improve classifier accuracy, not to quickly discover biologically significant results. We report here a novel active learning technique, Most Informative Positive (MIP, which is tailored to biological problems because it seeks novel and informative positive results. MIP active learning differs from traditional active learning methods in two ways: (1 it preferentially seeks Positive (functionally active examples; and (2 it may be effectively extended to select gene regions suitable for high throughput combinatorial mutagenesis. We applied MIP to discover mutations in the tumor suppressor protein p53 that reactivate mutated p53 found in human cancers. This is an important biomedical goal because p53 mutants have been implicated in half of all human cancers, and restoring active p53 in tumors leads to tumor regression. MIP found Positive (cancer rescue p53 mutants in silico using 33% fewer experiments than traditional non-MIP active learning, with only a minor decrease in classifier accuracy. Applying MIP to in vivo experimentation yielded immediate Positive results. Ten different p53 mutations found in human cancers were paired in silico with all possible single amino acid rescue mutations, from which MIP was used to select a Positive Region predicted to be enriched for p53 cancer rescue mutants. In vivo assays showed that the predicted Positive Region: (1 had significantly more (p<0.01 new strong cancer rescue mutants than control regions (Negative, and non-MIP active learning; (2 had slightly more new strong cancer rescue mutants than an Expert region selected for purely biological considerations; and (3 rescued for the first time the previously unrescuable p53 cancer

  7. Awareness and Attitudes Toward Intranasal Naloxone Rescue for Opioid Overdose Prevention. (United States)

    Kirane, Harshal; Ketteringham, Michael; Bereket, Sewit; Dima, Richie; Basta, Ann; Mendoza, Sonia; Hansen, Helena


    Opioid overdose prevention is a pressing public health concern and intranasal naloxone rescue kits are a useful tool in preventing fatal overdose. We evaluated the attitudes, knowledge, and experiences of patients and providers related to overdose and naloxone rescue. Over a six month period, patients and providers within a large community hospital in Staten Island were recruited to complete tailored questionnaires for their respective groupings. 100 patients and 101 providers completed questionnaires between August, 2014 and January, 2015. Patient participants were primarily Caucasian males with a mean age of 37.7 years, of which 65% accurately identified naloxone for opioid overdose, but only 21% knew more specific clinical features. 68% of patients had previously witnessed a drug overdose. Notably, 58% of patients anticipated their behavior would change if provided access to an intranasal naloxone rescue kit, of which 83% predicted an increase in opioid use. Prior overdose was significantly correlated with anticipating no change in subsequent opioid use pattern (p=0.02). 99% of patients reported that their rapport with their health-care provider would be enhanced if offered an intranasal naloxone rescue kit. As for providers, 24% had completed naloxone rescue kit training, and 96% were able to properly identify its clinical application. 50% of providers felt naloxone access would decrease the likelihood of an overdose occurring, and 58% felt it would not contribute to high-risk behavior. Among providers, completion of naloxone training was correlated with increased awareness of where to access kits for patients (poverdose prevention. Patient-Provider discussion of overdose prevention enhances patients' rapport with providers. However, access to an intranasal naloxone rescue kit may make some patients more vulnerable to high-risk behavior. Future research efforts examining provider and patient beliefs and practices are needed to help develop and implement

  8. Fire Plans (United States)

    Power, June


    Many libraries have disaster recovery plans, but not all have prevention and action plans to prepare for an emergency in advance. This article presents the author's review of the prevention and action plans of several libraries: (1) Evergreen State College; (2) Interlochen Public Library; (3) University of Maryland, Baltimore-Marshall Law Library;…

  9. Computational Simulation of Motion of a Rescue Module During its Launching from Ship at Rough Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dymarski Czesław


    Full Text Available This paper is a continuation of the work titled: “A computational model for simulation of motion of rescue module during its launching from stern ramp of a ship at rough sea”. It presents results of computer simulations of motion of a rescue module with embarked persons during its launching on rollers along stern ramp of a ship at rough sea. Te simulations were conducted for a selected ship fitted with a launching ramp, for a few selected scenarios of sea conditions. It was assumed that during this operation the ship drifts across direction of wave propagation.

  10. Oil and Its Influence on Strategic Planning. (United States)


    price of domestically produced crude oil declined in real terms by 21 percent. The composite price of all domestically produced fossil fuels fell by 19...public is confused about the energy situation. I would like to clarify a flagrant misconception by making it perfectly clear that there is no energy...dictates moving forward, for aside from the eventual exhaustion of oil supplies (and other fossil fuels) there remains the danger of becoming hostage to

  11. Body mass index and body composition among rescue firefighters personnel in Selangor, Malaysia (United States)

    Rahimi, Nor Atiqah; Sedek, Razalee; Teh, Arnida Hani


    Obesity is a major public health problem in general population and there is no exception for firefighters. This disorder is definitely a burden for firefighters as they needed to be physically fit in order to work in dangerous situation and extinguishing fires. The purposes of this study were to determine physical characteristics and body composition among Malaysian Firefighters (MF) and to explore their association. This cross-sectional study involved 330 rescue firefighters aged between 20-50 years old from nine different districts in Selangor conducted between August and November 2015. Anthropometric measurements included height, weight and waist circumference (WC). Body composition was measured using bioelectrical impedance. The mean height, weight, body mass index (BMI), WC and body fat percentage were 169.4±5.3 cm, 74.5±12.2 kg, 25.9±3.82 kg/m2, 90.7±48.3 cm and 25.8±6.2 % respectively. The results also showed that 0.6% of them were underweight, 41.5% were normal, 44.8% were overweight and 13% were obese. The percentage of 34.8% firefighters with WC values of more than 90 cm means that they were at greater risk to have cardiovascular and diabetes disease. Body composition analysis showed that 75.5% of the subjects have high body fat level, 19.7% subjects were in healthy range but only 4.8% were considered as lean subjects. BMI was highly correlated with weight (r=0.917, pobesity were found to be more prevalent among firefighters personnel of older age, married, less educated and have longer duration of services. It can be concluded that more than half of the firefighter personnel were either overweight or obese and 35% of them were at greater risk of having non-communicable diseases. This study provides useful information and serves as a source of reference for planning health related program for MF personnel to prevent non-communicable disease among firefighters population.

  12. Design and motion planning for serpentine robots (United States)

    Choset, Howie M.; Luntz, Jonathan E.; Shammas, Ellie; Rached, Tarek; Hull, Douglas; Dent, Christina C.


    Serpentine robots offer advances over traditional mobile robots and robot arms because they have enhanced flexibility and reachability, especially in convoluted environments. These mechanisms are especially well suited for search and rescue operations where making contact with surviving victims trapped in a collapsed building is essential. The same flexibility that makes serpentine robots incredibly useful also makes them difficult to design and control. This paper will describe the current status of serpentine robot design and path planning underway in our research group and point towards future directions of research.

  13. Rescue behaviour in a social bird : removal of sticky 'bird-catcher tree' seeds by group members

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hammers, Martijn; Brouwer, Lyanne


    Rescue behaviour is a special form of cooperation in which a rescuer exhibits behaviours directed towards averting a threat to an endangered individual, thereby potentially putting itself at risk. Although rescue behaviour has been well-documented in experimental studies on rats and ants, published

  14. Analysis of factors related to military training injury and the effect of self-rescue and buddy rescue on the final result of the injury in tank crew of the armored forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong-bin ZHOU


    Full Text Available Objective To analyze the factors related to military training injury and the effect of self-rescue and buddy rescue on the result of the injury in the soldiers.Methods All data were statistically classified with cluster sampling according to the diagnosis standard of Chinese PLA for analysis.Investigation was conducted in 1028 soldiers of the armored forces with questionnaire,and non-condition logistic regression analysis was applied.Results The total incidence of military training injury was 40.2%.Of all the injured soldiers,36.80% of them served for one year only,and the incidence of injury was obviously higher than those who had served in armed forces for 2 or 3 years.Unconditioned regression analysis revealed that the main causes related to military training injury in the soldiers were as follows: the items of training,the terrain feature,motion sickness,self-rescue and buddy rescue training,and whether the action consistent with the standards.The rehabilitation rate within one month was significantly higher in those who underwent self-rescue or buddy rescue(93.8% and 94.2%,respectively than those who did not undergo self-rescue or buddy rescue(76.3%,76.7%,respectively,P < 0.001.Conclusions The incidence of military training injury in the armored forces is high.It should be emphysized that soldiers with one year of military service should be partioularly taken care to prevent from injuries.Many factors may influence the military training injury,and protective measures should be taken.Those who have the knowledge of self-rescue or undergo buddy rescue will have higher rehabilitation rate within one month.

  15. Establishing a method for the design and maintenance of emergency evacuation plans based on the computer aided facility management (CAFM) at DESY; Entwicklung und Einfuehrung eines Verfahrens zur Erstellung und Pflege von Flucht- und Rettungsplaenen auf Grundlage des computergestuetzten Facility Managements (CAFM) am Deutschen Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eucker, S.


    The present thesis describes a procedure for the design and maintenance of evacuation and rescue plans in a CAMF environment at the German Electron Synchrotron (DESY). The procedure is developed as business-process model and vizualized by the Unified Modelling Language (UML). The design of the evacuation and rescue plans and the technical design with a CAD software are presented. The introduction of the procedure pursues by the exemplary providing of a building with evacuation and rescue plans, Additionally safety informations of the evacuation and rescue plans are provided via the DESY Intranet. The termination of this thesis is the summarizing of the results and the experiences of the project as well as an outlook about future developments at DESY.

  16. Evaluating maps produced by urban search and rescue robots: Lessons learned from RoboCup

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balaguer, B.; Balakirsky, S.; Carpin, S.; Visser, A.


    This paper presents the map evaluation methodology developed for the Virtual Robots Rescue competition held as part of RoboCup. The procedure aims to evaluate the quality of maps produced by multi-robot systems with respect to a number of factors, including usability, exploration, annotation and

  17. Design, Analysis, and Experiment for Rescue Robot with Wheel-Legged Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Ning


    Full Text Available A wheel-legged rescue robot design with strong environmental adaptability is proposed. The design presented is aimed at helping rescue workers complete their missions, such as environmental and personnel search, quickly and accurately. So it has broad application prospects. In order to achieve the advantages of simple structure, easy control, small occupation space, and wide motion range, a wheel-legged rescue robot is designed in this paper, and the robot can realize three kinds of motion states, which include wheel state, rotation center lifting process, and leg state. Then the motion states are analyzed in detail, which provides a reference for motion control. Considering the wheel state and leg state share the same structure to contact with the ground, the effect of the stiffness of wheel-legged structure to the motion performance is analyzed. Then the experiment is carried out to prove the feasibility of the structure design. This study offers a design and quantitative analysis for wheel-legged rescue robot. Furthermore, a basis for future control research and engineering applications is established.

  18. A Convolutional Neural Network Approach for Assisting Avalanche Search and Rescue Operations with UAV Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesay Belete Bejiga


    Full Text Available Following an avalanche, one of the factors that affect victims’ chance of survival is the speed with which they are located and dug out. Rescue teams use techniques like trained rescue dogs and electronic transceivers to locate victims. However, the resources and time required to deploy rescue teams are major bottlenecks that decrease a victim’s chance of survival. Advances in the field of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs have enabled the use of flying robots equipped with sensors like optical cameras to assess the damage caused by natural or manmade disasters and locate victims in the debris. In this paper, we propose assisting avalanche search and rescue (SAR operations with UAVs fitted with vision cameras. The sequence of images of the avalanche debris captured by the UAV is processed with a pre-trained Convolutional Neural Network (CNN to extract discriminative features. A trained linear Support Vector Machine (SVM is integrated at the top of the CNN to detect objects of interest. Moreover, we introduce a pre-processing method to increase the detection rate and a post-processing method based on a Hidden Markov Model to improve the prediction performance of the classifier. Experimental results conducted on two different datasets at different levels of resolution show that the detection performance increases with an increase in resolution, while the computation time increases. Additionally, they also suggest that a significant decrease in processing time can be achieved thanks to the pre-processing step.

  19. 46 CFR 111.75-16 - Lighting of survival craft and rescue boats. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lighting of survival craft and rescue boats. 111.75-16... ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Lighting Circuits and Protection § 111.75-16 Lighting of survival... be adequately illuminated by lighting supplied from the emergency power source. (b) The arrangement...

  20. 50 CFR 23.79 - How may I participate in the Plant Rescue Center Program? (United States)


    ..., EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How may I participate in the Plant Rescue Center Program? 23.79 Section 23.79 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE...

  1. Exploring the ethical landscape of robot-assisted Search and Rescue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harbers, M.; Greeff, J. de; Kruijff-Korbayová, I.; Neerincx, M.A.; Hindriks, K.V.


    As robots are increasingly used in Search and Rescue (SAR) missions, it becomes highly relevant to study how SAR robots can be developed and deployed in a responsible way. In contrast to some other robot application domains, e.g. military and healthcare, the ethics of robot-assisted SAR are

  2. The potential use of unmanned aircraft systems (drones) in mountain search and rescue operations. (United States)

    Karaca, Yunus; Cicek, Mustafa; Tatli, Ozgur; Sahin, Aynur; Pasli, Sinan; Beser, Muhammed Fatih; Turedi, Suleyman


    This study explores the potential use of drones in searching for and locating victims and of motorized transportation of search and rescue providers in a mountain environment using a simulation model. This prospective randomized simulation study was performed in order to compare two different search and rescue techniques in searching for an unconscious victim on snow-covered ground. In the control arm, the Classical Line Search Technique (CLT) was used, in which the search is performed on foot and the victim is reached on foot. In the intervention arm, the Drone-snowmobile Technique (DST) was used, the search being performed by drone and the victim reached by snowmobile. The primary outcome of the study was the comparison of the two search and rescue techniques in terms of first human contact time. Twenty search and rescue operations were conducted in this study. Median time to arrival at the mannequin was 57.3min for CLT, compared to 8.9min for DST. The median value of the total searched area was 88,322.0m 2 for CLT and 228,613.0m 2 for DST. The median area searched per minute was 1489.6m 2 for CLT and 32,979.9m 2 for DST (pdrone using DST compared to the classical technique, and the victim can be located faster and reached earlier with rescuers transported by snowmobile. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Revealing unexpected effects of rescue robots’ team-membership in a virtual environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horsch, C.H.G.; Smets, N.J.J.M.; Neerincx, M.A.; Cuijpers, R.A.


    In urban search and rescue (USAR) situations resources are limited and workload is high. Robots that act as team players instead of tools could help in these situations. A Virtual Reality (VR) experiment was set up to test if team performance of a human-robot team increases when the robot act as

  4. Cueing training in the home improves gait-related mobility in Parkinson's disease: the RESCUE trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwboer, A.; Kwakkel, G.; Rochester, L.; Jones, D.; Wegen, E. van; Willems, A.M.; Chavret, F.; Hetherington, V.; Baker, K.; Lim, I.


    OBJECTIVES: Gait and mobility problems are difficult to treat in people with Parkinson's disease. The Rehabilitation in Parkinson's Disease: Strategies for Cueing (RESCUE) trial investigated the effects of a home physiotherapy programme based on rhythmical cueing on gait and gait-related activity.

  5. An Application of the Social Support Deterioration Deterrence Model to Rescue Workers (United States)

    Prati, Gabriele; Pietrantoni, Luca


    This study examined the role of social support in promoting quality of life in the aftermath of critical incidents involvement. Participants were a sample of 586 Italian rescue workers. Structural equation modelling was used to test the social support deterioration deterrence model. Results showed that the impact of critical incident involvement…

  6. The Rescue911 Emergency Response Information System (ERIS): A Systems Development Project Case (United States)

    Cohen, Jason F.; Thiel, Franz H.


    This teaching case presents a systems development project useful for courses in object-oriented analysis and design. The case has a strong focus on the business, methodology, modeling and implementation aspects of systems development. The case is centered on a fictitious ambulance and emergency services company (Rescue911). The case describes that…

  7. Rescue Arterial Revascularization Using Cryopreserved Iliac Artery Allograft in Liver Transplant Patients. (United States)

    Mohkam, Kayvan; Darnis, Benjamin; Rode, Agnès; Hetsch, Nathalie; Balbo, Gregorio; Bourgeot, Jean-Paul; Mezoughi, Salim; Demian, Hassan; Ducerf, Christian; Mabrut, Jean-Yves


    Management of hepatic arterial complications after liver transplant remains challenging. The aim of our study was to assess the efficacy of rescue arterial revascularization using cryopreserved iliac artery allografts in this setting. Medical records of patients with liver transplants who underwent rescue arterial revascularization using cryopreserved iliac artery allografts at a single institution were reviewed. From 1992 to 2015, 7 patients underwent rescue arterial revascularization using cryopreserved iliac artery allografts for hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm (3 patients), thrombosis (2 patients), aneurysm (1 patient), or stenosis (1 patient). Two patients developed severe complications, comprising one biliary leakage treated percutaneously, and one acute necrotizing pancreatitis causing death on postoperative day 29. After a median follow-up of 75 months (range, 1-269 mo), 2 patients had an uneventful long-term course, whereas 4 patients developed graft thrombosis after a median period of 120 days (range, 2-488 d). Among the 4 patients who developed graft thrombosis, 1 patient developed ischemic cholangitis, 1 developed acute ischemic hepatic necrosis and was retransplanted, and 2 patients did not develop any further complications. Despite a high rate of allograft thrombosis, rescue arterial revascularization using cryopreserved iliac artery allografts after liver transplant is an effective and readily available approach, with a limited risk of infection and satisfactory long-term graft and patient survival.

  8. The Rescue and Rehabilitation of Koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus in Southeast Queensland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Burton


    Full Text Available Koala populations in southeast Queensland are under threat from many factors, particularly habitat loss, dog attack, vehicle trauma and disease. Animals not killed from these impacts are often rescued and taken into care for rehabilitation, and eventual release back to the wild if deemed to be healthy. This study investigated current rescue, rehabilitation and release data for koalas admitted to the four major wildlife hospitals in southeast Queensland (Australia Zoo Wildlife Hospital (AZWH, Currumbin Wildlife Sanctuary Hospital (CWH, Moggill Koala Hospital (MKH and the Royal Society for the Prevention Against Cruelty to Animals Wildlife Hospital at Wacol (RSPCA, and suggests aspects of the practice that may be changed to improve its contribution to the preservation of the species. It concluded that: (a the main threats to koalas across southeast Queensland were related to urbanization (vehicle collisions, domestic animal attacks and the disease chlamydiosis; (b case outcomes varied amongst hospitals, including time spent in care, euthanasia and release rates; and (c the majority (66.5% of rescued koalas were either euthanized or died in care with only 27% released back to the wild. The results from this study have important implications for further research into koala rescue and rehabilitation to gain a better understanding of its effectiveness as a conservation strategy.

  9. Resolving Ethical Dilemmas in Suicide Prevention: The Case of Telephone Helpline Rescue Policies (United States)

    Mishara, Brian L.; Weisstub, David N.


    The ethical basis of suicide prevention is illustrated by contrasting helpline emergency rescue policies of the Samaritans and the AAS and the U.S. National Suicide Prevention Lifeline network. We contrast moralist, relativist, and libertarian ethical premises and question whether suicide can be rational. Samaritans respect a caller's right to…

  10. New refresher training in the use of self-rescue masks

    CERN Multimedia

    HSE Unit


    Photos of the training session for self-rescue mask instructors held on 21 March 2012 – 10 new instructors followed the coursePhotos of the training session for self-rescue mask instructors held on 21 March 2012 – 10 new instructors followed the course   A refresher course in the use of self-rescue masks has been added to the CERN training catalogue. Sign up! More than 3500 people have followed the course since it was introduced in 2009. Taking account of the forthcoming long shutdown, requests for follow-up training from course participants and recent changes in the course content, the HSE Unit has decided to place a three-year limit on the validity of the initial training and to introduce a refresher course. The new refresher course is open to all personnel having completed the initial course at least 2 years ago. The course, "Recyclage Formation masque auto-sauveteur » / "Refresher course Self-Rescue Mask Training", (code No. 077...

  11. Avoidable 30-day mortality analysis and failure to rescue in dysvascular lower extremity amputees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wied, Christian; Foss, Nicolai B; Tengberg, Peter T


    Background and purpose - An enhanced treatment program may decrease 30-day mortality below 20% after lower extremity amputations (LEA). The potential and limitations for further reduction are unknown. We analyzed postoperative causes of 30-day mortality, and assessed failure to rescue (FTR) rate ...

  12. Business rescue: How can its success be evaluated at company level?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Apart from Pretorius's calculation, none of the other reported statistics disclosed the criteria used for the evaluation of success. It seems that no formal set of evaluation criteria or guidelines is available. Van Schalkwyk, a team manager of the CIPC's business rescue division, confirmed the notion and indicated that research ...

  13. Experience in system design for human-robot teaming in urban search & rescue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruijff, G.J.M.; Janíček, M.; Keshavdas, S.; Larochelle, B.; Zender, H.; Smets, N.J.J.M.; Mioch, T.; Neerincx, M.A.; Diggelen, J. van; Colas, F.; Liu, M.; Pomerleau, F.; Svoboda, T.; Petriček, T.; Pirri, F.; Giannni, M.; Papadakis, P.; Sinha, A.; Balmer, P.; Tomatis, N.; WOrst, R.; Linder, T.; Surmann, H.; Tretyakov, V.; Corrao, S.; Pratzler-Wanczura, S.; Sulk, M.


    The paper describes experience with applying a user-centric design methodology in developing systems for human-robot teaming in Urban Search & Rescue. A human-robot team consists of several robots (rovers/UGVs, microcopter/UAVs), several humans at an off-site command post (mission commander, UGV

  14. Automated external defibrillator rescues among children with diagnosed and treated long QT syndrome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pundi, K.N.; Bos, J.M.; Cannon, B.C.; Ackerman, M.J.


    BACKGROUND: Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is a potentially lethal yet highly treatable cardiac channelopathy. A comprehensive LQTS-directed treatment program often includes an automated external defibrillator (AED). OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of AED rescues among

  15. Brain-specific rescue of Clock reveals system-driven transcriptional rhythms in peripheral tissue. (United States)

    Hughes, Michael E; Hong, Hee-Kyung; Chong, Jason L; Indacochea, Alejandra A; Lee, Samuel S; Han, Michael; Takahashi, Joseph S; Hogenesch, John B


    The circadian regulatory network is organized in a hierarchical fashion, with a central oscillator in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) orchestrating circadian oscillations in peripheral tissues. The nature of the relationship between central and peripheral oscillators, however, is poorly understood. We used the tetOFF expression system to specifically restore Clock function in the brains of Clock(Δ19) mice, which have compromised circadian clocks. Rescued mice showed normal locomotor rhythms in constant darkness, with activity period lengths approximating wildtype controls. We used microarray analysis to assess whether brain-specific rescue of circadian rhythmicity was sufficient to restore circadian transcriptional output in the liver. Compared to Clock mutants, Clock-rescue mice showed significantly larger numbers of cycling transcripts with appropriate phase and period lengths, including many components of the core circadian oscillator. This indicates that the SCN oscillator overcomes local circadian defects and signals directly to the molecular clock. Interestingly, the vast majority of core clock genes in liver were responsive to Clock expression in the SCN, suggesting that core clock genes in peripheral tissues are intrinsically sensitive to SCN cues. Nevertheless, most circadian output in the liver was absent or severely low-amplitude in Clock-rescue animals, demonstrating that the majority of peripheral transcriptional rhythms depend on a fully functional local circadian oscillator. We identified several new system-driven rhythmic genes in the liver, including Alas1 and Mfsd2. Finally, we show that 12-hour transcriptional rhythms (i.e., circadian "harmonics") are disrupted by Clock loss-of-function. Brain-specific rescue of Clock converted 12-hour rhythms into 24-hour rhythms, suggesting that signaling via the central circadian oscillator is required to generate one of the two daily peaks of expression. Based on these data, we conclude that 12-hour rhythms

  16. Brain-specific rescue of Clock reveals system-driven transcriptional rhythms in peripheral tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E Hughes

    Full Text Available The circadian regulatory network is organized in a hierarchical fashion, with a central oscillator in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN orchestrating circadian oscillations in peripheral tissues. The nature of the relationship between central and peripheral oscillators, however, is poorly understood. We used the tetOFF expression system to specifically restore Clock function in the brains of Clock(Δ19 mice, which have compromised circadian clocks. Rescued mice showed normal locomotor rhythms in constant darkness, with activity period lengths approximating wildtype controls. We used microarray analysis to assess whether brain-specific rescue of circadian rhythmicity was sufficient to restore circadian transcriptional output in the liver. Compared to Clock mutants, Clock-rescue mice showed significantly larger numbers of cycling transcripts with appropriate phase and period lengths, including many components of the core circadian oscillator. This indicates that the SCN oscillator overcomes local circadian defects and signals directly to the molecular clock. Interestingly, the vast majority of core clock genes in liver were responsive to Clock expression in the SCN, suggesting that core clock genes in peripheral tissues are intrinsically sensitive to SCN cues. Nevertheless, most circadian output in the liver was absent or severely low-amplitude in Clock-rescue animals, demonstrating that the majority of peripheral transcriptional rhythms depend on a fully functional local circadian oscillator. We identified several new system-driven rhythmic genes in the liver, including Alas1 and Mfsd2. Finally, we show that 12-hour transcriptional rhythms (i.e., circadian "harmonics" are disrupted by Clock loss-of-function. Brain-specific rescue of Clock converted 12-hour rhythms into 24-hour rhythms, suggesting that signaling via the central circadian oscillator is required to generate one of the two daily peaks of expression. Based on these data, we conclude

  17. A concept for optimizing avalanche rescue strategies using a Monte Carlo simulation approach (United States)

    Paal, Peter; Schweizer, Jürg


    Recent technical and strategical developments have increased the survival chances for avalanche victims. Still hundreds of people, primarily recreationists, get caught and buried by snow avalanches every year. About 100 die each year in the European Alps–and many more worldwide. Refining concepts for avalanche rescue means to optimize the procedures such that the survival chances are maximized in order to save the greatest possible number of lives. Avalanche rescue includes several parameters related to terrain, natural hazards, the people affected by the event, the rescuers, and the applied search and rescue equipment. The numerous parameters and their complex interaction make it unrealistic for a rescuer to take, in the urgency of the situation, the best possible decisions without clearly structured, easily applicable decision support systems. In order to analyse which measures lead to the best possible survival outcome in the complex environment of an avalanche accident, we present a numerical approach, namely a Monte Carlo simulation. We demonstrate the application of Monte Carlo simulations for two typical, yet tricky questions in avalanche rescue: (1) calculating how deep one should probe in the first passage of a probe line depending on search area, and (2) determining for how long resuscitation should be performed on a specific patient while others are still buried. In both cases, we demonstrate that optimized strategies can be calculated with the Monte Carlo method, provided that the necessary input data are available. Our Monte Carlo simulations also suggest that with a strict focus on the "greatest good for the greatest number", today's rescue strategies can be further optimized in the best interest of patients involved in an avalanche accident. PMID:28467434

  18. Post-traumatic stress among rescue workers after terror attacks in Norway. (United States)

    Skogstad, L; Heir, T; Hauff, E; Ekeberg, Ø


    On 22 July 2011, Norway was struck by two terror attacks. Seventy-seven people were killed, and many injured. Rescue workers from five occupational groups and unaffiliated volunteers faced death and despair to assist victims. To investigate the level of, and associations between, demographic variables, exposure and work-related variables and post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS). A cross-sectional study of general and psychosocial health care personnel, police officers, firefighters, affiliated and unaffiliated volunteers were conducted ~10 months after the terror attacks. The respondents answered a self-reported questionnaire. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) Checklist - specific (PCL-S) assessed PTSS. There were 1790 participants; response rate was 61%. About 70% of the professional rescue workers had previous work experience with similar tasks or had participated in training or disaster drills. They assessed the rescue work as a success. Firefighters and unaffiliated volunteers reported more perceived threat compared with the other groups. Among the professional personnel, the prevalence of sub-threshold PTSD (PCL 35-49) was 2% and possible PTSD (PCL ≥ 50) 0.3%. The corresponding figures among the unaffiliated volunteers were 24% and 15%, respectively. In the multivariate analysis, female gender (β = 1.7), witnessing injured/dead (β = 2.0), perceived threat (β = 1.1), perceived obstruction in rescue work (β = 1.6), lower degree of previous training (β = -0. 9) and being unaffiliated volunteers (β = 8.3) were significantly associated with PTSS. In the aftermath of a terror attack, professional rescue workers appear to be largely protected from post-traumatic stress reactions, while unaffiliated volunteers seem to be at higher risk. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  19. A concept for optimizing avalanche rescue strategies using a Monte Carlo simulation approach. (United States)

    Reiweger, Ingrid; Genswein, Manuel; Paal, Peter; Schweizer, Jürg


    Recent technical and strategical developments have increased the survival chances for avalanche victims. Still hundreds of people, primarily recreationists, get caught and buried by snow avalanches every year. About 100 die each year in the European Alps-and many more worldwide. Refining concepts for avalanche rescue means to optimize the procedures such that the survival chances are maximized in order to save the greatest possible number of lives. Avalanche rescue includes several parameters related to terrain, natural hazards, the people affected by the event, the rescuers, and the applied search and rescue equipment. The numerous parameters and their complex interaction make it unrealistic for a rescuer to take, in the urgency of the situation, the best possible decisions without clearly structured, easily applicable decision support systems. In order to analyse which measures lead to the best possible survival outcome in the complex environment of an avalanche accident, we present a numerical approach, namely a Monte Carlo simulation. We demonstrate the application of Monte Carlo simulations for two typical, yet tricky questions in avalanche rescue: (1) calculating how deep one should probe in the first passage of a probe line depending on search area, and (2) determining for how long resuscitation should be performed on a specific patient while others are still buried. In both cases, we demonstrate that optimized strategies can be calculated with the Monte Carlo method, provided that the necessary input data are available. Our Monte Carlo simulations also suggest that with a strict focus on the "greatest good for the greatest number", today's rescue strategies can be further optimized in the best interest of patients involved in an avalanche accident.

  20. Demographic costs of inbreeding revealed by sex-specific genetic rescue effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zajitschek Felix


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inbreeding can slow population growth and elevate extinction risk. A small number of unrelated immigrants to an inbred population can substantially reduce inbreeding and improve fitness, but little attention has been paid to the sex-specific effects of immigrants on such "genetic rescue". We conducted two subsequent experiments to investigate demographic consequences of inbreeding and genetic rescue in guppies. Results Populations established from pairs of full siblings that were descended either from two generations of full-sibling inbreeding or unrelated outbred guppies did not grow at different rates initially, but when the first generation offspring started breeding, outbred-founded populations grew more slowly than inbred-founded populations. In a second experiment, adding two outbred males to the inbred populations resulted in significantly faster population growth than in control populations where no immigrants were added. Adding females resulted in growth at a rate intermediate to the control and male-immigrant treatments. Conclusion The slower growth of the outbred-founded than inbred-founded populations is the opposite of what would be expected under inbreeding depression unless many deleterious recessive alleles had already been selectively purged in the inbreeding that preceded the start of the experiment, and that significant inbreeding depression occurred when the first generation offspring in outbred-founded populations started to inbreed. The second experiment revealed strong inbreeding depression in the inbred founded populations, despite the apparent lack thereof in these populations earlier on. Moreover, the fact that the addition of male immigrants resulted in the highest levels of population growth suggests that sex-specific genetic rescue may occur in promiscuous species, with male rescue resulting in higher levels of outbreeding than female rescue.

  1. A Cloud Robotics Based Service for Managing RPAS in Emergency, Rescue and Hazardous Scenarios (United States)

    Silvagni, Mario; Chiaberge, Marcello; Sanguedolce, Claudio; Dara, Gianluca


    Cloud robotics and cloud services are revolutionizing not only the ICT world but also the robotics industry, giving robots more computing capabilities, storage and connection bandwidth while opening new scenarios that blend the physical to the digital world. In this vision, new IT architectures are required to manage robots, retrieve data from them and create services to interact with users. Among all the robots this work is mainly focused on flying robots, better known as drones, UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) or RPAS (Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems). The cloud robotics approach shifts the concept of having a single local "intelligence" for every single UAV, as a unique device that carries out onboard all the computation and storage processes, to a more powerful "centralized brain" located in the cloud. This breakthrough opens new scenarios where UAVs are agents, relying on remote servers for most of their computational load and data storage, creating a network of devices where they can share knowledge and information. Many applications, using UAVs, are growing as interesting and suitable devices for environment monitoring. Many services can be build fetching data from UAVs, such as telemetry, video streaming, pictures or sensors data; once. These services, part of the IT architecture, can be accessed via web by other devices or shared with other UAVs. As test cases of the proposed architecture, two examples are reported. In the first one a search and rescue or emergency management, where UAVs are required for monitoring intervention, is shown. In case of emergency or aggression, the user requests the emergency service from the IT architecture, providing GPS coordinates and an identification number. The IT architecture uses a UAV (choosing among the available one according to distance, service status, etc.) to reach him/her for monitoring and support operations. In the meantime, an officer will use the service to see the current position of the UAV, its

  2. Mechanism of As2O3-Induced Action Potential Prolongation and Using hiPS-CMs to Evaluate the Rescue Efficacy of Drugs With Different Rescue Mechanism. (United States)

    Yan, Meng; Feng, Lifang; Shi, Yanhui; Wang, Junnan; Liu, Yan; Li, Fengmei; Li, Baoxin


    Arsenic trioxide (As2O3) has been verified as a breakthrough in the management of acute promyelocytic leukemia in recent decades. However, cardiotoxicity, especially long QT syndrome (LQTS) has become the most important issue during As2O3 treatment. The characterized mechanisms behind this adverse effect are inhibition of cardiac hERG channel trafficking and increase of cardiac calcium currents. In our study, we found a new pathway underlying As2O3-induced cardiotoxicity that As2O3 accelerates lysosomal degradation of hERG on plasma membrane after using brefeldin A (BFA) to block protein trafficking. Then we explored pharmacological rescue strategies on As2O3-induced LQTS, and found that 4 therapeutic agents exert rescue efficacy via 3 different pathways: fexofenadine and astemizole facilitate hERG trafficking via promotion of channel-chaperone formation after As2O3 incubation; ranolazine slows hERG degradation in the presence of As2O3; and resveratrol shows significant attenuation on calcium current increase triggered by As2O3. Moreover, we used human-induced pluripotent stem cell derived cardiomyocytes (hiPS-CMs) to evaluate the rescue effects of the above agents on As2O3-induced prolongation of action potential duration (APD) and demonstrated that fexofenadine and resveratrol significantly ameliorate the prolonged APD. These observations suggested that pharmacological chaperone like fexofenadine and resveratrol might have the potential to protect against the cardiotoxicity of As2O3. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail:

  3. Test plan :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dwyer, Stephen F.


    This test plan is a document that provides a systematic approach to the planned testing of rooftop structures to determine their actual load carrying capacity. This document identifies typical tests to be performed, the responsible parties for testing, the general feature of the tests, the testing approach, test deliverables, testing schedule, monitoring requirements, and environmental and safety compliance.

  4. Regional Planning. (United States)

    Bang, Bryan


    Explores ideas about regional planning and provides a framework for developing a secondary level course on regional planning. Claims that such a course can help students understand more about the world around them and improve their attitude toward contributing to the management of change. (BR)

  5. Communication Planning. (United States)

    Development Communication Report, 1978


    Communication planning in developing countries is discussed in individual articles on theory, knowledge production and utilization, planning at the regional level, software, and rural development. A nutrition education project and three experiments in developing educational materials with feedback from villagers in Africa are described in the…

  6. Systemic Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leleur, Steen

    This book presents principles and methodology for planning in a complex world. It sets out a so-called systemic approach to planning, among other things, by applying “hard” and “soft” methodologies and methods in combination. The book is written for Ph.D and graduate students in engineering......, business and other fields, and it is useful for all professionals, across a wide range of employment areas, who share an interest in renewing planning practice. Such an endeavour is seen as both important and timely, recognising that many complex planning tasks necessitate organisations – be they public...... or private – to engage in planning to prepare proactive decision-making....

  7. The emergence of the rescue effect from explicit within and between-patch dynamics in a metapopulation

    KAUST Repository

    Eriksson, Anders


    Immigration can rescue local populations from extinction, helping to stabilize a metapopulation. Local population dynamics is important for determining the strength of this rescue effect, but the mechanistic link between local demographic parameters and the rescue effect at the metapopulation level has received very little attention by modellers. We develop an analytical framework that allows us to describe the emergence of the rescue effect from interacting local stochastic dynamics. We show this framework to be applicable to a wide range of spatial scales, providing a powerful and convenient alternative to individual-based models for making predictions concerning the fate of metapopulations. We show that the rescue effect plays an important role in minimizing the increase in local extinction probability associated with high demographic stochasticity, but its role is more limited in the case of high local environmental stochasticity of recruitment or survival. While most models postulate the rescue effect, our framework provides an explicit mechanistic link between local dynamics and the emergence of the rescue effect, and more generally the stability of the whole metapopulation. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  8. Satellite-Based Technologies in Use for Extreme Nocturnal Mountain Rescue Operations: a Synergetic Approach Applying Geophysical Principles (United States)

    Buchroithner, Manfred F.; Ehlert, Guido; Hetze, Bernd; Kohlschmidt, Horst; Prechtel, Nikolas


    Mountain-rescue operations require rapid response whilst also ensuring the security of the rescue teams. Rescuing people in a big rock-face is even more difficult if night or fog prevent sight. The paper presents a technical solution to optimally support, under these aggravated conditions, the location of the casualties and the navigation of the rescue team(s) in a rock-face from a coordination station. In doing so, standard components like a smartphones with GPS functionality, a data communication on a client-server basis and VR visualisation software have been adapted to the specific requirements. Remote support of the navigation in steep rocky terrain requires a highly accurate wall model which permits the local experts of the coordination station to dependably estimate geometry and structure of the rock along the rescue route and to convey necessary directives to the retrieval team. Based on terrestrial laser-scans from different locations, such a model has been generated for the mighty Dachstein South Face (Austria) and texturised with digital photographs. Over a twelve-month period, a transdisciplinary team of the Dresden University of Technology (Informatics, Electrical Engineering, Cartography) developed and integrated the various technical modules of the mountain-rescue support-system (digital rock-face model, optimised GPS data transmission between mobile device, server and client, data filtering, and dynamic visualisation component). In summer 2011 the proper functioning of the prototype was demonstrated in a rescue exercise under foggy dusk conditions.

  9. 'Don't save her'- Sigmund Freud meets Project Pat: the rescue motif in hip-hop. (United States)

    Fulmer, Richard H


    Freud originally explicated the dynamics of rescue wishes by describing men who fell in love with prostitutes. He saw this attempt at attachment as driven by the man's wish to repay his parents for giving him life. Many subsequent writers shift this emphasis, seeing rescue wishes as motivated by aggressive oedipal competition with the father. This article highlights the attachment aspects of Freud's original conception and traces how writers in the last three decades use the family romance rather than Oedipus as a model to view rescue wishes as having a more tender aspect. Rescue wishes are especially characteristic of the developmental stage of young adulthood. They at once attempt to repay the parental debt the young adult feels and serve as practice for the vicissitudes of the couple bond and the benign sacrifices of parenthood. Popular culture contains many vivid examples of Freud 's original description of the rescue-motif. A detailed examination of the rap song, Don't save her, demonstrates all the elements of Freud's original conception and the interpersonal risks of the rescue relationship. Three additional rap songs by other artists are briefly analyzed to show the extensive occurrence of the wish to rescue and its psychic and interpersonal dangers.

  10. Emergency Preparedness and Role Clarity among Rescue Workers during the Terror Attacks in Norway July 22, 2011. (United States)

    Pedersen, May Janne Botha; Gjerland, Astrid; Rund, Bjørn Rishovd; Ekeberg, Øivind; Skogstad, Laila


    Few studies address preparedness and role clarity in rescue workers after a disaster. On July 22, 2011, Norway was struck by two terror attacks; 77 people were killed and many injured. Healthcare providers, police officers and firefighters worked under demanding conditions. The aims of this study were to examine the level of preparedness, exposure and role clarity. In addition, the relationship between demographic variables, preparedness and exposure and a) role clarity during the rescue operations and; b) achieved mastering for future disaster operations. In this cross-sectional study, healthcare providers (n = 859), police officers (n = 252) and firefighters (n = 102) returned a questionnaire approximately 10 months after the terror attacks. The rescue personnel were trained and experienced, and the majority knew their professional role (healthcare providers M = 4.1 vs. police officers: M = 3.9 vs. firefighters: M = 4.2, p 5 fatalities (OR 1.6, p clarity, together with a feeling of control, not being obstructed in work and perceiving the rescue work as a success. Moreover, independent predictors of being more prepared for future operations were arousal during the operation (OR 2.0, p < .001) and perceiving the rescue work as a success (OR 1.5, p < .001). Most of the rescue workers were experienced and knew their professional role. Training and everyday-work-experience must be a focal point when preparing rescue workers for disaster.

  11. Emergency Preparedness and Role Clarity among Rescue Workers during the Terror Attacks in Norway July 22, 2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    May Janne Botha Pedersen

    Full Text Available Few studies address preparedness and role clarity in rescue workers after a disaster. On July 22, 2011, Norway was struck by two terror attacks; 77 people were killed and many injured. Healthcare providers, police officers and firefighters worked under demanding conditions. The aims of this study were to examine the level of preparedness, exposure and role clarity. In addition, the relationship between demographic variables, preparedness and exposure and a role clarity during the rescue operations and; b achieved mastering for future disaster operations.In this cross-sectional study, healthcare providers (n = 859, police officers (n = 252 and firefighters (n = 102 returned a questionnaire approximately 10 months after the terror attacks.The rescue personnel were trained and experienced, and the majority knew their professional role (healthcare providers M = 4.1 vs. police officers: M = 3.9 vs. firefighters: M = 4.2, p 5 fatalities (OR 1.6, p < .05 were all associated with role clarity, together with a feeling of control, not being obstructed in work and perceiving the rescue work as a success. Moreover, independent predictors of being more prepared for future operations were arousal during the operation (OR 2.0, p < .001 and perceiving the rescue work as a success (OR 1.5, p < .001.Most of the rescue workers were experienced and knew their professional role. Training and everyday-work-experience must be a focal point when preparing rescue workers for disaster.

  12. Determining the need for rescue intracytoplasmic sperm injection in partial fertilisation failure during a conventional IVF cycle. (United States)

    Cao, S; Wu, X; Zhao, C; Zhou, L; Zhang, J; Ling, X


    To explore the need for rescue intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) in cases of partial fertilisation failure during a conventional in vitro fertilisation cycle, rescue ICSI was performed for cycles with a fertilisation rate of fertilisation rate: group 1 (0%), group 2 (25%). The impact of rescue ICSI on each group was then analysed in terms of ovum fertilisation, embryo development, embryo utilisation and selection of embryos for transfer. Rescue ICSI was performed on 1831 unfertilised oocytes from 313 cycles. The fertilisation rates for group 1, group 2 and group 3 were 74.66, 68.35 and 65.46%, and the rate of polyploidy in the three groups was 8.55, 11.33, and 14.47%. The percentage of embryos that can be transferred from rescue ICSI for group 2 was 38.33%, and this value was higher than those of the other two groups. It is concluded that rescue ICSI is not recommended for patients with an IVF rate of >25% as the procedure is associated with a greater risk and low returns. However, it is feasible to perform rescue ICSI for patients with IVF rates of <25%. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Linear Temporal Logic-based Mission Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Kumar


    Full Text Available In this paper, we describe the Linear Temporal Logic-based reactive motion planning. We address the problem of motion planning for mobile robots, wherein the goal specification of planning is given in complex environments. The desired task specification may consist of complex behaviors of the robot, including specifications for environment constraints, need of task optimality, obstacle avoidance, rescue specifications, surveillance specifications, safety specifications, etc. We use Linear Temporal Logic to give a representation for such complex task specification and constraints. The specifications are used by a verification engine to judge the feasibility and suitability of plans. The planner gives a motion strategy as output. Finally a controller is used to generate the desired trajectory to achieve such a goal. The approach is tested using simulations on the LTLMoP mission planning tool, operating over the Robot Operating System. Simulation results generated using high level planners and low level controllers work simultaneously for mission planning and controlling the physical behavior of the robot.

  14. Ontological Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Alkan


    • Is it possible to redefine ontology within the hierarchical structure of planning? We are going to seek answers to some of these questions within the limited scope of this paper and we are going to offer the rest for discussion by just asking them. In light of these assessments, drawing attention, based on ontological knowledge relying on the wholeness of universe, to the question, on macro level planning, of whether or not the ontological realities of man, energy and movements of thinking can provide macro data for planning on a universal level as important factors affecting mankind will be one of the limited objectives of the paper.

  15. GRIPS Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The GRIPS (Geothermal Resources Impact Projection Study) Commission was established by a Joint Powers Agreement between the California Counties of Lake, Mendocino, Napa, and Sonoma. The objectives of GRIPS are primarily to develop and use a cooperative environmental data collection and use system including natural, social, and economic considerations to facilitate their independent decisions and those of State and Federal agencies related to the environmental effects of geothermal development. This GRIPS Plan was prepared from a wide range of studies, workshops, and staff analyses. The plan is presented in four parts: summary and introduction; environmental data status report; planned programs; and budget. (MHR)

  16. First Report of Using Portable Unmanned Aircraft Systems (Drones) for Search and Rescue. (United States)

    Van Tilburg, Christopher


    Unmanned aircraft systems (UAS), colloquially called drones, are used commonly for military, government, and civilian purposes, including both commercial and consumer applications. During a search and rescue mission in Oregon, a UAS was used to confirm a fatality in a slot canyon; this eliminated the need for a dangerous rappel at night by rescue personnel. A second search mission in Oregon used several UAS to clear terrain. This allowed search of areas that were not accessible or were difficult to clear by ground personnel. UAS with cameras may be useful for searching, observing, and documenting missions. It is possible that UAS might be useful for delivering equipment in difficult areas and in communication. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. The RESCueH Programme: Testing New Non-Pharmacologic Interventions for Alcohol Use Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard Nielsen, Anette; Nielsen, Bent; Andersen, Kjeld


    Excessive alcohol consumption is one of the most important lifestyle factors affecting the disease burden in the Western world. The results of treatment in daily practice are modest at best. The aim of the RESCueH programme is to develop and evaluate methods, which are as practice-near as possible......, and therefore can be implemented quickly and easily in everyday clinical practice. It is the first clinical alcohol programme to be transatlantic in scope, with implementation in treatment centers located in Denmark, Germany and the US. The RESCueH programme comprises 5 randomized controlled trials......, and the studies can be expected to result in (1) more patients starting treatment in specialized outpatient clinics, (2) a greater number of elderly patients being treated, (3) increased patient motivation for treatment and thus improved adherence, (4) more patients with stable positive outcomes after treatment...

  18. Exogenous FGF8 rescues development of mouse diastemal vestigial tooth ex vivo (United States)

    Li, Lu; Yuan, Guohua; Liu, Chao; Zhang, Lu; Zhang, Yanding; Chen, YiPing; Chen, Zhi


    Regression of vestigial tooth buds results in the formation of the toothless diastema, a unique feature of the mouse dentition. Revitalization of the diastemal vestigial tooth bud provides an excellent model for studying tooth regeneration and replacement. It was shown previously that suppression of FGF signaling in the diastema is a causative of vestigial tooth bud regression. In this study, we report that application of exogenous FGF8 to the mouse embryonic diastemal region rescues diastemal tooth development. However, this rescue of diastemal tooth development occurs only in isolated diastemal region, but not in mandibular quadrant containing incisor and molar germs. FGF8 promotes cell proliferation and inhibits apoptosis in diastemal tooth epithelium, and revitalizes tooth developmental program, evidenced by the expression of genes critical for normal tooth development. Our results support the idea that the adjacent tooth germs contribute to the suppression of diastemal vestigial tooth buds via multiple signals. PMID:21412937

  19. Confined space medicine and the medical management of complex rescues: a case series. (United States)

    Petinaux, Bruno; Macintyre, Anthony G; Barbera, Joseph A


    A variety of hazards can precipitate the full or partial collapse of occupied structures. The rescue of entrapped survivors in these situations can be complex, require a multidisciplinary approach, and last for many hours. The modern discipline of Urban Search and Rescue, which includes an active medical component, has evolved to address such situations. This case series spans several decades of experience and highlights the medical principles in the response to collapsed structure incidents. Recurring concepts of confined space medicine include rescuer safety, inter-disciplinary coordination, patient protection, medical resuscitation in austere environments, and technical extrications. Strategies have been developed to address the varied challenges in the medical response to collapsed structure incidents.

  20. Chlamydiaceae in North Atlantic Seabirds Admitted to a Wildlife Rescue Center in Western France


    Aaziz, R.; Gourlay, P.; Vorimore, F.; Sachse, K.; Siarkou, V. I.; Laroucau, K.


    Birds are the primary hosts of Chlamydia psittaci, a bacterium that can cause avian chlamydiosis in birds and psittacosis in humans. Wild seabirds are frequently admitted to wildlife rescue centers (WRC) at European Atlantic coasts, for example, in connection with oil spills. To investigate the extent of chlamydial shedding by these birds and the resulting risk for animals in care and the medical staff, seabirds from a French WRC were sampled from May 2011 to January 2014. By use of a quantit...

  1. Final Environmental Assessment: Proposed Fire Crash Rescue Station, Hill Air Force Base, Utah (United States)


    and NFP A standards; • comply with the Public Entity Risk Institute’s guidance document, Creating and Evaluating Standards of Response Coverage...Fire Station Design Guide, National Fire Protection Association ( NFP A) standards, and Public Entity Risk Institute guidance. Scope of Review During a...provides fue crash rescue capability on Hill AFB described in this document should: • comply with the USAF Fire Station Design Guide and NFP A standards

  2. Acamprosate rescues neuronal defects in the Drosophila model of Fragile X Syndrome. (United States)

    Hutson, Russell L; Thompson, Rachel L; Bantel, Andrew P; Tessier, Charles R


    Several off-label studies have shown that acamprosate can provide some clinical benefits in youth with Fragile X Syndrome (FXS), an autism spectrum disorder caused by loss of function of the highly conserved FMR1 gene. This study investigated the ability of acamprosate to rescue cellular, molecular and behavioral defects in the Drosophila model of FXS. A high (100μM) and low (10μM) dose of acamprosate was fed to Drosophila FXS (dfmr1 null) or genetic control (w 1118 ) larvae and then analyzed in multiple paradigms. A larval crawling assay was used to monitor aberrant FXS behavior, overgrowth of the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) was quantified to assess neuronal development, and quantitative RT-PCR was used to evaluate expression of deregulated cbp53E mRNA. Acamprosate treatment partially or completely rescued all of the FXS phenotypes analyzed, according to dose. High doses rescued cellular overgrowth and dysregulated cbp53E mRNA expression, but aberrant crawling behavior was not affected. Low doses of acamprosate, however, did not affect synapse number at the NMJ, but could rescue NMJ overgrowth, locomotor defects, and cbp53E mRNA expression. This dual nature of acamprosate suggests multiple molecular mechanisms may be involved in acamprosate function depending on the dosage used. Acamprosate may be a useful therapy for FXS and potentially other autism spectrum disorders. However, understanding the molecular mechanisms involved with different doses of this drug will likely be necessary to obtain optimal results. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Median Effective Dose of Intranasal Dexmedetomidine for Rescue Sedation in Pediatric Patients Undergoing Magnetic Resonance Imaging. (United States)

    Zhang, Wenhua; Fan, Yanting; Zhao, Tianyun; Chen, Jinghui; Zhang, Gaolong; Song, Xingrong


    The median effective dose (ED50) of intranasal dexmedetomidine after failed chloral hydrate sedation has not been described for children. This study aims to determine the ED50 of intranasal dexmedetomidine for rescue sedation in children aged 1 to 36 months, who were inadequately sedated by chloral hydrate administration during magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This study was performed on 120 children, who were 1 to 36 months old and underwent MRI scanning. Intranasal dexmedetomidine was administered as a rescue sedative to children not adequately sedated after the initial oral dose of chloral hydrate (50 mg/kg). Children were stratified into four age groups. ED50 values were estimated from the up-and-down method of Dixon and Massey and probit regression. Other variables included induction time, time to wake up, vital signs, oxygen saturation, MRI scanning time, and recovery characteristics. ED50 of intranasal dexmedetomidine for rescue sedation was 0.4 μg/kg (95% CI, 0.34 to 0.50) in children aged 1 to 6 months, 0.5 μg/kg (95% CI, 0.48 to 0.56) in children aged 7 to 12 months, 0.9 μg/kg (95% CI, 0.83 to 0.89) in children aged 13 to 24 months, and 1.0 μg/kg (95% CI, 0.94 to 1.07) in children aged 25 to 36 months. There were no significant differences in sedation induction time or time to wake up between the different age groups. Additionally, no significant adverse hemodynamic or hypoxemic effects were noted. The authors determined the ED50 for rescue sedation using intranasal dexmedetomidine after failed chloral hydrate sedation in children. It was found that ED50 increases with advancing age during the first 3 yr of life.

  4. Rip current related drowning deaths and rescues in Australia 2004-2011 (United States)

    Brighton, B.; Sherker, S.; Brander, R.; Thompson, M.; Bradstreet, A.


    Rip currents are a common hazard to beachgoers found on many beaches around the world, but it has proven difficult to accurately quantify the actual number of rip current related drowning deaths in many regions and countries. Consequently, reported estimates of rip current drowning can fluctuate considerably and are often based on anecdotal evidence. This study aims to quantify the incidence of rip current related drowning deaths and rescues in Australia from 2004 to 2011. A retrospective search was undertaken for fatal and non-fatal rip-related drowning incidents from Australia's National Coronial Information System (NCIS), Surf Life Saving Australia's (SLSA, 2005-2011) SurfGuard Incident Report Database (IRD), and Media Monitors for the period 1 July 2004 to 30 June 2011. In this time, rip currents were recorded as a factor in 142 fatalities of a total of 613 coastal drowning deaths (23.2%), an average of 21 per year. Rip currents were related to 44% of all beach-related drowning deaths and were involved in 57.4% of reported major rescues in Australian locations where rips occur. A comparison with international operational statistics over the same time period describes rip-related rescues as 53.7% of the total rescues in the US, 57.9% in the UK and 49.4% in New Zealand. The range 49-58% is much lower than 80-89% traditionally cited. The results reported are likely to underestimate the size of the rip current hazard, because we are limited by the completeness of data on rip-related events; however this is the most comprehensive estimate to date. Beach safety practitioners need improved data collection and standardized definitions across organisations. The collection of drowning data using consistent categories and the routine collection of rip current information will allow for more accurate global comparisons.

  5. Ad hoc network for emergency rescue system based on unmanned aerial vehicles


    Cambra, Carlos; Sendra, Sandra; Lloret, Jaime; PARRA BORONAT, LORENA


    Intelligent Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) on emergency rescue are widely used to detect injured mountaineers in inaccessible areas. These systems should satisfy several features. It is important to know the georeference of the injured mountaineers. It is also important to have real-time images of the area where people have suffered the accident. In this paper, we present the development of a UAV integrated within a wireless ad hoc network and the communication protocol that i...

  6. The use of large-diameter boreholes for the rescue of trapped miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mangenot, G.


    This paper presents an account of research work undertaken by the French coal industry to examine ways of rescuing miners who are trapped underground. The three areas of research are: determining the exact location of the trapped men; drilling a hole for initial contact; sinking a large- diameter borehole through which the men can make their escape. The validity of the proposed solutions is determined by simulated tests. (In French)

  7. Ibuprofen Rescues Abnormalities in Periodontal Tissues in Conditional Presenilin 1 and Presenilin 2 Double Knockout Mice


    Su, Jiansheng; Gu, Jiamei; Dong, Zhuo; Mei, Bing


    We used forebrain-specific conditional presenilin 1 (PS1) and presenilin 2 (PS2) double knockout mice (dKO mice) that exhibit symptoms of neurodegenerative diseases, especially Alzheimer’s disease, to investigate whether ibuprofen can rescue brain and periodontal tissue abnormalities by attenuating the inflammatory response. Mandibles were dissected for alveolar bone-height analysis. Maxillae were fixed and decalcified for histological observation and osteoclast detection. ELISA measurements ...

  8. Rescue Living-donor Liver Transplantation for Liver Failure Following Hepatectomy for Hepatocellular Carcinoma


    Chan, See Ching; Sharr, William Wei; Chan, Albert Chi Yan; Chok, Kenneth Siu Ho; Lo, Chung Mau


    Liver failure following major hepatectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma is a known but uncommon mode of early treatment failure. When post-hepatectomy liver failure becomes progressive, the only effective treatment for rescuing the patient is liver transplantation. Deceased-donor liver transplantation in this situation is often not feasible because of the shortage of deceased-donor liver grafts. Proceeding with living-donor liver transplantation is an ethical challenge because of the possibili...

  9. Rescue Effects and Underlying Mechanisms of Intragland Shh Gene Delivery on Irradiation-Induced Hyposalivation


    Hai, Bo; Zhao, Qingguo; Qin, Lizheng; Rangaraj, Dharanipathy; Gutti, Veera R.; Liu, Fei


    Irreversible hypofunction of salivary glands is common in head and neck cancer survivors treated with radiotherapy and can only be temporarily relieved with current treatments. We found in an inducible sonic hedgehog (Shh) transgenic mouse model that transient activation of the Hedgehog pathway after irradiation rescued salivary gland function in males by preserving salivary stem/progenitor cells and parasympathetic innervation. To translate these findings into feasible clinical application, ...

  10. Exogenous FGF8 rescues development of mouse diastemal vestigial tooth ex vivo


    Li, Lu; Yuan, Guohua; Liu, Chao; Zhang, Lu; Zhang, Yanding; Chen, YiPing; Chen, Zhi


    Regression of vestigial tooth buds results in the formation of the toothless diastema, a unique feature of the mouse dentition. Revitalization of the diastemal vestigial tooth bud provides an excellent model for studying tooth regeneration and replacement. It was shown previously that suppression of FGF signaling in the diastema is a causative of vestigial tooth bud regression. In this study, we report that application of exogenous FGF8 to the mouse embryonic diastemal region rescues diastema...

  11. Design of the patent evasion and rescue manipulator based on TRIZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Hong-liang


    Full Text Available In this paper, the theoretical system and technical contradiction of TRIZ theory are analyzed. Combined with the patent law and patent law implementation rules, to determine the avoidance strategy. And through the goal of patent retrieval and determine the technical barriers, technical problems and solutions, according to the working mechanism and task, complete to the rescue robot manipulator mechanical structure design. The test results show that the stability and reliability of the manipulator are obviously improved.

  12. Does Modern Helicopter Construction Reduce Noise Exposure in Helicopter Rescue Operations?


    Küpper, Thomas; Jansing, Paul; Schöffl, Volker; van Der Giet, Simone


    Background: During helicopter rescue operations the medical personnel are at high risk for hearing damage by noise exposure. There are two important factors to be taken into account: first, the extreme variability, with some days involving no exposure but other days with extreme exposure; second, the extreme noise levels during work outside the helicopter, e.g. during winch operations. The benefit of modern, less noisier constructions and the consequences for noise protection are still unknow...

  13. The obligation to rescue captives and the Order of Santiago (1517-1535

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Andrés Porras Arboledas


    Full Text Available During the first half of the reign of the Emperor Carlos V the Order of Santiago contributed, so much of passive as active form, to the rescue of captive Christians retained in the north of Africa; for this intention it relied on a bottom of eventual income that it tried to attend to his obligations as redeeming institution, since it receives documents specially in 1525 and 1535.

  14. Birth Plans (United States)

    ... and planning to shop for baby clothes. The reality of labor and birth may seem extremely far ... all women in labor, but many now show increased flexibility in how they handle their patients. Some ...

  15. Rescue of coagulation factor VII function by the U1+5A snRNA. (United States)

    Pinotti, Mirko; Balestra, Dario; Rizzotto, Lara; Maestri, Iva; Pagani, Franco; Bernardi, Francesco


    Our previous studies with genomic minigenes have demonstrated that an engineered small nuclear RNA-U1 (U1+5a) partially rescued coagulation factor VII (FVII) mRNA processing impaired by the 9726+5G>A mutation. Here, to evaluate the U1+5a effects on FVII function, we devised a full-length FVII splicing-competent construct (pSCFVII-wt). This construct drove in COS-1 cells the synthesis of properly processed FVII transcripts and of secreted functional FVII (23 +/- 4 ng/mL), which were virtually undetectable upon introduction of the 9726+5G>A mutation (pSCFVII-9726+5a). Cotransfection of pSCFVII-9726+5a with pU1+5a resulted in a partial rescue of FVII splicing and protein biosynthesis. The level increase in medium was dose dependent and, with a molar excess (1.5x) of pU1+5a, reached 9.5% plus or minus 3.2% (5.0 +/- 2.8 ng/mL) of FVII-wt coagulant activity. These data provide the first insights into the U1-snRNA-mediated rescue of donor splice sites at protein level, thus further highlighting its therapeutic implications in bleeding disorders, which would benefit even from tiny increase of functional levels.

  16. Genetic rescue, the greater prairie chicken and the problem of conservation reliance in the Anthropocene. (United States)

    Mussmann, S M; Douglas, M R; Anthonysamy, W J B; Davis, M A; Simpson, S A; Louis, W; Douglas, M E


    A central question in conservation is how best to manage biodiversity, despite human domination of global processes (= Anthropocene). Common responses (i.e. translocations, genetic rescue) forestall potential extirpations, yet have an uncertain duration. A textbook example is the greater prairie chicken (GRPC: Tympanuchus cupido pinnatus), where translocations (1992-1998) seemingly rescued genetically depauperate Illinois populations. We re-evaluated this situation after two decades by genotyping 21 microsatellite loci from 1831 shed feathers across six leks in two counties over 4 years (2010-2013). Low migration rates (less than 1%) established each county as demographically independent, but with declining-population estimates (4 year average N = 79). Leks were genetically similar and significantly bottlenecked, with low effective population sizes (average Ne = 13.1; 4 year Ne/N = 0.166). Genetic structure was defined by 12 significantly different family groups, with relatedness r = 0.31 > half-sib r = 0.25. Average heterozygosity, indicating short-term survival, did not differ among contemporary, pre- and post-translocated populations, whereas allelic diversity did. Our results, the natural history of GRPC (i.e. few leks, male dominance hierarchies) and its controlled immigration suggest demographic expansion rather than genetic rescue. Legal protection under the endangered species act (ESA) may enhance recovery, but could exacerbate political-economic concerns on how best to manage 'conservation-reliant' species, for which GRPC is now an exemplar.

  17. Mitochondrial proteolytic stress induced by loss of mortalin function is rescued by Parkin and PINK1. (United States)

    Burbulla, L F; Fitzgerald, J C; Stegen, K; Westermeier, J; Thost, A-K; Kato, H; Mokranjac, D; Sauerwald, J; Martins, L M; Woitalla, D; Rapaport, D; Riess, O; Proikas-Cezanne, T; Rasse, T M; Krüger, R


    The mitochondrial chaperone mortalin was implicated in Parkinson's disease (PD) because of its reduced levels in the brains of PD patients and disease-associated rare genetic variants that failed to rescue impaired mitochondrial integrity in cellular knockdown models. To uncover the molecular mechanisms underlying mortalin-related neurodegeneration, we dissected the cellular surveillance mechanisms related to mitochondrial quality control, defined the effects of reduced mortalin function at the molecular and cellular levels and investigated the functional interaction of mortalin with Parkin and PINK1, two PD-related proteins involved in mitochondrial homeostasis. We found that reduced mortalin function leads to: (1) activation of the mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPR(mt)), (2) increased susceptibility towards intramitochondrial proteolytic stress, (3) increased autophagic degradation of fragmented mitochondria and (4) reduced mitochondrial mass in human cells in vitro and ex vivo. These alterations caused increased vulnerability toward apoptotic cell death. Proteotoxic perturbations induced by either partial loss of mortalin or chemical induction were rescued by complementation with native mortalin, but not disease-associated mortalin variants, and were independent of the integrity of autophagic pathways. However, Parkin and PINK1 rescued loss of mortalin phenotypes via increased lysosomal-mediated mitochondrial clearance and required intact autophagic machinery. Our results on loss of mortalin function reveal a direct link between impaired mitochondrial proteostasis, UPR(mt) and PD and show that effective removal of dysfunctional mitochondria via either genetic (PINK1 and Parkin overexpression) or pharmacological intervention (rapamycin) may compensate mitochondrial phenotypes.

  18. When transporters fail to be transported: how to rescue folding-deficient SLC6 transporters (United States)

    Sucic, Sonja; Kasture, Ameya; Mazhar Asjad, H. M.; Kern, Carina; El-Kasaby, Ali; Freissmuth, Michael


    The human dopamine transporter (hDAT) belongs to the solute carrier 6 (SLC6) gene family. Point mutations in hDAT (SLC6A3) have been linked to a syndrome of dopamine transporter deficiency or infantile dystonia/parkinsonism. The mutations impair DAT folding, causing retention of variant DATs in the endoplasmic reticulum and subsequently impair transport activity. The folding trajectory of DAT itself is not understood, though many insights have been gained from studies of folding-deficient mutants of the closely related serotonin transporter (SERT); i.e. their functional rescue by pharmacochaperoning with (nor)ibogaine or heat-shock protein inhibitors. We recently provided a proof-of-principle that folding-deficits in DAT are amenable to rescue in vitro and in vivo. As a model we used the Drosophila melanogaster DAT mutant dDAT-G108Q, which phenocopies the fumin/sleepless DAT-knockout. Treatment with noribogaine and/or HSP70 inhibitor pifithrin-μ restored folding of, and dopamine transport by, dDAT-G108Q, its axonal delivery and normal sleep time in mutant flies. The possibility of functional rescue of misfolded DATs in living flies by pharmacochaperoning grants new therapeutic prospects in the remedy of folding diseases, not only in hDAT, but also in other SLC6 transporters, in particular mutants of the creatine transporter-1, which give rise to X-linked mental retardation. PMID:28405636

  19. Redirecting N-acetylaspartate metabolism in the central nervous system normalizes myelination and rescues Canavan disease. (United States)

    Gessler, Dominic J; Li, Danning; Xu, Hongxia; Su, Qin; Sanmiguel, Julio; Tuncer, Serafettin; Moore, Constance; King, Jean; Matalon, Reuben; Gao, Guangping


    Canavan disease (CD) is a debilitating and lethal leukodystrophy caused by mutations in the aspartoacylase (ASPA) gene and the resulting defect in N-acetylaspartate (NAA) metabolism in the CNS and peripheral tissues. Recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) has the ability to cross the blood-brain barrier and widely transduce the CNS. We developed a rAAV-based and optimized gene replacement therapy, which achieves early, complete, and sustained rescue of the lethal disease phenotype in CD mice. Our treatment results in a super-mouse phenotype, increasing motor performance of treated CD mice beyond that of WT control mice. We demonstrate that this rescue is oligodendrocyte independent, and that gene correction in astrocytes is sufficient, suggesting that the establishment of an astrocyte-based alternative metabolic sink for NAA is a key mechanism for efficacious disease rescue and the super-mouse phenotype. Importantly, the use of clinically translatable high-field imaging tools enables the noninvasive monitoring and prediction of therapeutic outcomes for CD and might enable further investigation of NAA-related cognitive function.

  20. Experimental test of genetic rescue in isolated populations of brook trout (United States)

    Robinson, Zachary L.; Coombs, Jason A.; Hudy, Mark; Nislow, Keith H.; Letcher, Benjamin H.; Whiteley, Andrew R.


    Genetic rescue is an increasingly considered conservation measure to address genetic erosion associated with habitat loss and fragmentation. The resulting gene flow from facilitating migration may improve fitness and adaptive potential, but is not without risks (e.g., outbreeding depression). Here, we conducted a test of genetic rescue by translocating ten (five of each sex) brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) from a single source to four nearby and isolated stream populations. To control for the demographic contribution of translocated individuals, ten resident individuals (five of each sex) were removed from each recipient population. Prior to the introduction of translocated individuals, the two smallest above-barrier populations had substantially lower genetic diversity, and all populations had reduced effective number of breeders relative to adjacent below-barrier populations. In the first reproductive bout following translocation, 31 of 40 (78%) translocated individuals reproduced successfully. Translocated individuals contributed to more families than expected under random mating and generally produced larger full-sibling families. We observed relatively high (>20%) introgression in three of the four recipient populations. The translocations increased genetic diversity of recipient populations by 45% in allelic richness and 25% in expected heterozygosity. Additionally, strong evidence of hybrid vigour was observed through significantly larger body sizes of hybrid offspring relative to resident offspring in all recipient populations. Continued monitoring of these populations will test for negative fitness effects beyond the first generation. However, these results provide much-needed experimental data to inform the potential effectiveness of genetic rescue-motivated translocations.

  1. Rescue effects in radiobiology: Unirradiated bystander cells assist irradiated cells through intercellular signal feedback

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, S. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering, Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Zhao, Y. [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering, Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Han, W. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); Chiu, S.K. [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); Zhu, L. [Office of Admission and Careers Advisory Service, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Wu, L. [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering, Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Yu, K.N., E-mail: [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong)


    Mammalian cells respond to ionization radiation by sending out extracellular signals to affect non-irradiated neighboring cells, which is referred to as radiation induced bystander effect. In the present paper, we described a phenomenon entitled the 'rescue effects', where the bystander cells rescued the irradiated cells through intercellular signal feedback. The effect was observed in both human primary fibroblast (NHLF) and cancer cells (HeLa) using two-cell co-culture systems. After co-culturing irradiated cells with unirradiated bystander cells for 24 h, the numbers of 53BP1 foci, corresponding to the number of DNA double-strand breaks in the irradiated cells were less than those in the irradiated cells that were not co-cultured with the bystander cells (0.78 {+-} 0.04 foci/cell vs. 0.90 {+-} 0.04 foci/cell) at a statistically significant level. Similarly, both micronucleus formation and extent of apoptosis in the irradiated cells were different at statistically significant levels if they were co-cultured with the bystander cells. Furthermore, it was found that unirradiated normal cells would also reduce the micronucleus formation in irradiated cancer cells. These results suggested that the rescue effects could participate in repairing the radiation-induced DNA damages through a media-mediated signaling feedback, thereby mitigating the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of ionizing radiation.

  2. Worsening of cardiomyopathy using deflazacort in an animal model rescued by gene therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Luisa Rotundo

    Full Text Available We have previously demonstrated that gene therapy can rescue the phenotype and extend lifespan in the delta-sarcoglycan deficient cardiomyopathic hamster. In patients with similar genetic defects, steroids have been largely used to slow down disease progression. Aim of our study was to evaluate the combined effects of steroid treatment and gene therapy on cardiac function. We injected the human delta-sarcoglycan cDNA by adeno-associated virus (AAV 2/8 by a single intraperitoneal injection into BIO14.6 Syrian hamsters at ten days of age to rescue the phenotype. We then treated the hamsters with deflazacort. Treatment was administered to half of the hamsters that had received the AAV and the other hamsters without AAV, as well as to normal hamsters. Both horizontal and vertical activities were greatly enhanced by deflazacort in all groups. As in previous experiments, the AAV treatment alone was able to preserve the ejection fraction (70±7% EF. However, the EF value declined (52±14% with a combination of AAV and deflazacort. This was similar with all the other groups of affected animals. We confirm that gene therapy improves cardiac function in the BIO14.6 hamsters. Our results suggest that deflazacort is ineffective and may also have a negative impact on the cardiomyopathy rescue, possibly by boosting motor activity. This is unexpected and may have significance in terms of the lifestyle recommendations for patients.

  3. PKC and CaMK-II inhibitions coordinately rescue ischemia-induced GABAergic neuron dysfunction. (United States)

    Huang, Li; Wang, Chun; Zhao, Shidi; Ge, Rongjing; Guan, Sudong; Wang, Jin-Hui


    Cerebral ischemia leads to neuronal death for stroke, in which the imbalance between glutamatergic neurons and GABAergic neurons toward neural excitotoxicity is presumably involved. GABAergic neurons are vulnerable to pathological factors and impaired in an early stage of ischemia. The rescue of GABAergic neurons is expected to be the strategy to reserve ischemic neuronal impairment. As protein kinase C (PKC) and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMK-II) are activated during ischemia, we have investigated whether the inhibitions of these kinases rescue the ischemic impairment of cortical GABAergic neurons. The functions of GABAergic neurons were analyzed by whole-cell recording in the cortical slices during ischemia and in presence of 1-[N,O-bis(5-isoquinolinesulfonyl)-N-methyl-L-tyrosyl]-4-phenylpiperazine (CaMK-II inhibitor) and chelerythrine chloride (PKC inhibitor). Our results indicate that PKC inhibitor or CaMK-II inhibitor partially prevents ischemia-induced functional deficits of cortical GABAergic neurons. Moreover, the combination of PKC and CaMK-II inhibitors synergistically reverses this ischemia-induced deficit of GABAergic neurons. One of potential therapeutic strategies for ischemic stroke may be to rescue the ischemia-induced deficit of cortical GABAergic neurons by inhibiting PKC and CaMK-II.

  4. Rescue Effects and Underlying Mechanisms of Intragland Shh Gene Delivery on Irradiation-Induced Hyposalivation. (United States)

    Hai, Bo; Zhao, Qingguo; Qin, Lizheng; Rangaraj, Dharanipathy; Gutti, Veera R; Liu, Fei


    Irreversible hypofunction of salivary glands is common in head and neck cancer survivors treated with radiotherapy and can only be temporarily relieved with current treatments. We found in an inducible sonic hedgehog (Shh) transgenic mouse model that transient activation of the Hedgehog pathway after irradiation rescued salivary gland function in males by preserving salivary stem/progenitor cells and parasympathetic innervation. To translate these findings into feasible clinical application, we evaluated the effects of Shh gene transfer to salivary glands of wild-type mice on irradiation-induced hyposalivation. Shh or control GFP gene was delivered by noninvasive retrograde ductal instillation of corresponding adenoviral vectors. In both male and female mice, Shh gene delivery efficiently activated Hedgehog/Gli signaling, and significantly improved stimulated saliva secretion and preserved saliva-producing acinar cells after irradiation. In addition to preserving parasympathetic innervation through induction of neurotrophic factors, Shh gene delivery also alleviated the irradiation damage of the microvasculature, likely via inducing angiogenic factors, but did not expand the progeny of cells responsive to Hedgehog/Gli signaling. These data indicate that transient activation of the Hedgehog pathway by gene delivery is promising to rescue salivary function after irradiation in both sexes, and the Hedgehog/Gli pathway may function mainly in cell nonautonomous manners to achieve the rescue effect.

  5. Modeling and performance analysis of the emergency rescue logistics system based on Petri nets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingxin YANG


    Full Text Available In order to more effectively analyze the performance of logistics emergency rescue system, based on analyzing the characteristics and main functions of the Petri net and its advantage of describing asynchronous concurrent random image system, this paper introduces stochastic Petri net modeling method to establish emergency system model on the basis of serious natural disasters or emergencies, and analyzes the performance. Firstly, according to the emergency rescue system of logistics flow chart, the Petri net model is built, and through the analysis of accessibility, activity and safety, the validity of the model is verified; Secondly, the Markov chain is constructed using the characteristics of isostructuralism with the Markov stochastic process, the linear equations is established, and a numerical example is introduced, reflecting the problems of the system through the quantitative analysis of main performance indexes. Finally, some suggestions are put forward about the problems. On the one hand, this modeling can vividly describe the sequential and asynchronous concurrent relationships between the processes; on the other hand, its mature performance analysis method can effectively explore the key links which have significant impacts on the operational efficiency of the system. The system analysis theory provides a feasible method for the analysis of system flow, and the proposal provides a theoretical basis for the optimization of the entire emergency logistics rescue system.

  6. Cross-border transport of rescue dogs may spread rabies in Europe. (United States)

    Klevar, S; Høgåsen, H R; Davidson, R K; Hamnes, I S; Treiberg Berndtsson, L; Lund, A


    Harmonisation of regulations in the European Union and the European Economic Area, as of January 1, 2012, has led to an increase in the number of rescue dogs imported to Norway from Eastern European countries, in particular Romania. Today the only requirements for dogs entering Norway are rabies vaccination and prophylactic Echinococcus multilocularis treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate the antibody levels to rabies virus in vaccinated rescue dogs and to examine if the dogs had sufficient antibody response according to the recommended titre ≥0.5 IU/ml by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). A significant proportion (53%, 95% CI (41% to 65%)) of imported rescue dogs from Eastern Europe were found to have inadequate titres after rabies vaccination. Moreover, 41 per cent of the dogs had antibody levels below or equal to 0.2 IU/ml, and among these, 14 dogs had titres ≤0.1 IU/ml, which is considered negative in the fluorescent antibody virus neutralisation assay. This study indicates that the present regulation increases the risk of introducing rabies from member states where rabies is still prevalent to countries considered free from rabies. British Veterinary Association.

  7. Melatonin rescues dopamine neurons from cell death in tissue culture models of oxidative stress. (United States)

    Iacovitti, L; Stull, N D; Johnston, K


    Dopamine (DA) neurons are uniquely vulnerable to damage and disease. Their loss in humans is associated with diseases of the aged, most notably, Parkinson's Disease (PD). There is now a great deal of evidence to suggest that the destruction of DA neurons in PD involves the accumulation of harmful oxygen free radicals. Since the antioxidant hormone, melatonin, is one of the most potent endogenous scavengers of these toxic radicals, we tested its ability to rescue DA neurons from damage/death in several laboratory models associated with oxidative stress. In the first model, cells were grown in low density on serum-free media. Under these conditions, nearly all cells died, presumably due to the lack of essential growth factors. Treatment with 250 microM melatonin rescued nearly all dying cells (100% tau+ neurons), including tyrosine hydroxylase immunopositive DA neurons, for at least 7 days following growth factor deprivation. This effect was dose and time dependent and was mimicked by other antioxidants such as 2-iodomelatonin and vitamin E. Similarly, in the second model of oxidative stress, 250 microM melatonn produced a near total recovery from the usual 50% loss of DA neurons caused by neurotoxic injury from 2.5 microM 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridine (MPP+). These results indicate that melatonin possesses the remarkable ability to rescue DA neurons from cell death in several experimental paradigms associated with oxidative stress.

  8. Evaluation of Environmental Information Products for Search and Rescue Optimal Planning System (SAROPS) - Version for Public Release (United States)


    Forecast System ICON Innovative Coastal-Ocean Observing Network IGES Institute of Global Environment and Society IMARS Institute for Marine Remote...Science WFS Circulation Model M Y ⌧ B-199 USF, College of Marine Science IMaRS Observing System D Y ⌧ B-201 Weather Flow Inc...Marine Science, Institute for Marine Sensing IMaRS Observing System Frank Muller-Karger 727-553-3335 University of South

  9. ADMINISTRATIVE CIRCULAR No. 25 (REV. 3) - Special provisions for the fire and rescue service governing working and rest time

    CERN Multimedia


    Administrative Circular No. 25 (Rev. 3) entitled “Special provisions for the Fire and Rescue Service governing working and rest time”, approved by the Director-General following discussion at the Standing Concertation Committee meeting of 28 September 2012 and entering into force in October 2012, is available on the intranet site of the Human Resources Department: This Circular is applicable to staff members of the Fire and Rescue Service It cancels and replaces Administrative Circular No. 25 (Rev. 2) entitled “Shift work – Special provisions for the Fire and Rescue Service” of April 2003. This new version takes into account the new organisation of the Fire and Rescue Service, members of which will henceforth not exclusively perform their functions in the context of shift work, but also during reference working hours and during stand-by duty. Additionally, applicable limits regarding working and rest times an...

  10. Use of Recombination-Mediated Genetic Engineering for Construction of Rescue Human Cytomegalovirus Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalpana Dulal


    Full Text Available Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC technology has contributed immensely to manipulation of larger genomes in many organisms including large DNA viruses like human cytomegalovirus (HCMV. The HCMV BAC clone propagated and maintained inside E. coli allows for accurate recombinant virus generation. Using this system, we have generated a panel of HCMV deletion mutants and their rescue clones. In this paper, we describe the construction of HCMV BAC mutants using a homologous recombination system. A gene capture method, or gap repair cloning, to seize large fragments of DNA from the virus BAC in order to generate rescue viruses, is described in detail. Construction of rescue clones using gap repair cloning is highly efficient and provides a novel use of the homologous recombination-based method in E. coli for molecular cloning, known colloquially as recombineering, when rescuing large BAC deletions. This method of excising large fragments of DNA provides important prospects for in vitro homologous recombination for genetic cloning.

  11. Comparison of rescue and relief activities within 72 hours of the atomic bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. (United States)

    Matsunari, Yuko; Yoshimoto, Nao


    To clarify the factors and reasons for the differences in the outcomes of rescue and relief efforts in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, mainly focusing on the numbers of rescue/relief staffs and casualties in the period within 72 hours of the atomic bombings in August 1945. By retrieving the data and information from the records and reports concerning the disasters in the two cities, together with other publications as to the damages by the atomic bombings and subsequent rescue-relief activities, and restoration activities. It seems that there was less damage in Nagasaki, where a stronger atomic bomb was used than in Hiroshima. There were crucial geographic factors that led to the different effects in terms of the numbers of victims; however, systematic organization and mobilization of rescue and relief staffs, maintenance of functional transportation, and advanced medical knowledge and public warning with regard to disaster all may have contributed to a lower death toll and increase in survivors in Nagasaki.

  12. T‐DNA insertion, plasmid rescue and integration analysis in the model mycorrhizal fungus Laccaria bicolor (United States)

    Kemppainen, Minna; Duplessis, Sebastien; Martin, Francis; Pardo, Alejandro G.


    Summary Ectomycorrhiza is a mutualistic symbiosis formed between fine roots of trees and the mycelium of soil fungi. This symbiosis plays a key role in forest ecosystems for the mineral nutrition of trees and the biology of the fungal communities associated. The characterization of genes involved in developmental and metabolic processes is important to understand the complex interactions that control the ectomycorrhizal symbiosis. Agrobacterium‐mediated gene transfer (AMT) in fungi is currently opening a new era for fungal research. As whole genome sequences of several fungi are being released studies about T‐DNA integration patterns are needed in order to understand the integration mechanisms involved and to evaluate the AMT as an insertional mutagenesis tool for different fungal species. The first genome sequence of a mycorrhizal fungus, the basidiomycete Laccaria bicolor, became public in July 2006. Release of Laccaria genome sequence and the availability of AMT makes this fungus an excellent model for functional genomic studies in ectomycorrhizal research. No data on the integration pattern in Laccaria genome were available, thus we optimized a plasmid rescue approach for this fungus. To this end the transformation vector (pHg/pBSk) was constructed allowing the rescue of the T‐DNA right border (RB)–genomic DNA junctions in Escherichia coli. Fifty‐one Agrobacterium‐transformed fungal strains, picked up at random from a larger collection of T‐DNA tagged strains (about 500), were analysed. Sixty‐nine per cent were successfully rescued for the RB of which 87% were resolved for genomic integration sequences. Our results demonstrate that the plasmid rescue approach can be used for resolving T‐DNA integration sites in Laccaria. The RB was well conserved during transformation of this fungus and the integration analysis showed no clear sequence homology between different genomic sites. Neither obvious sequence similarities were found between these

  13. Frailty, hospital volume, and failure to rescue after head and neck cancer surgery. (United States)

    Nieman, Carrie L; Stewart, C Matthew; Eisele, David W; Pronovost, Peter J; Gourin, Christine G


    We previously reported that high-volume hospital head and neck cancer (HNCA) surgical care is associated with decreased mortality, largely explained by reduced rates of failure to rescue. Frailty is an independent predictor of mortality, but is significantly less likely in patients receiving high-volume care. We investigate whether differences in frailty rates explain the relationship between volume and outcomes in HNCA patients and whether frailty confounds the relationship between failure to rescue and mortality. Cross-sectional analysis. Discharge data from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample for 159,301 patients who underwent ablative surgery for a malignant oral cavity, laryngeal, hypopharyngeal, or oropharyngeal neoplasm in 2001 to 2010 were analyzed using cross-tabulations and multivariate regression. Failure to rescue was defined as death after a major complication. Frailty was defined using frailty-defining diagnosis clusters from the Johns Hopkins Adjusted Clinical Groups frailty-defining diagnosis indicator. High-volume hospital care was associated with a lower odds of frailty (odds ratio [OR]: 0.7 [95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.5-1.0]). Frail patients had higher odds of postoperative complications (OR: 4.1 [95% CI: 3.4-4.9]) and mortality (OR: 2.0 [95% CI: 1.3-3.2]), but no difference in failure to rescue rates (OR: 1.0 [95% CI: 0.6-1.6]). High-volume care was not associated with differences in odds of complications (OR: 1.0 [95% CI: 0.8-1.2]), but was associated with significantly decreased odds of mortality (OR: 0.6 [95% CI: 0.5-0.9]) and failure to rescue (OR: 0. 6 [95% CI: 0.3-1.0]), which was not attenuated by adjusting for frailty. High-volume HNCA surgical care is associated with a significantly lower odds of mortality, which appears to be associated with differences in the response to and management of complications rather than differences in frailty or complication rates. 2c. Laryngoscope, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological

  14. Environmental Enrichment Rescues Binocular Matching of Orientation Preference in the Mouse Visual Cortex. (United States)

    Levine, Jared N; Chen, Hui; Gu, Yu; Cang, Jianhua


    Neural circuits are shaped by experience during critical periods of development. Sensory deprivation during these periods permanently compromises an organism's ability to perceive the outside world. In the mouse visual system, normal visual experience during a critical period in early life drives the matching of individual cortical neurons' orientation preferences through the two eyes, likely a key step in the development of binocular vision. Here, in mice of both sexes, we show that the binocular matching process is completely blocked by monocular deprivation spanning the entire critical period. We then show that 3 weeks of environmental enrichment (EE), a paradigm of enhanced sensory, motor, and cognitive stimulation, is sufficient to rescue binocular matching to the level seen in unmanipulated mice. In contrast, 6 weeks of conventional housing only resulted in a partial rescue. Finally, we use two-photon calcium imaging to track the matching process chronically in individual cells during EE-induced rescue. We find that for cells that are clearly dominated by one of the two eyes, the input representing the weaker eye changes its orientation preference to align with that of the dominant eye. These results thus reveal ocular dominance as a key driver of the binocular matching process, and suggest a model whereby the dominant input instructs the development of the weaker input. Such a mechanism may operate in the development of other systems that need to integrate inputs from multiple sources to generate normal neuronal functions.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Critical periods are developmental windows of opportunity that ensure the proper wiring of neural circuits, as well as windows of vulnerability when abnormal experience could cause lasting damage to the developing brain. In the visual system, critical period plasticity drives the establishment of binocularly matched orientation preferences in cortical neurons. Here, we show that binocular matching is completely

  15. An Embedded System for Search and Rescue of Trapped in the Ruins of an Earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pantelis


    Full Text Available is an embedded system for search and rescue of trapped victims in the ruins of an earthquake. A rescue team coulduse such kind of digital assistants in order to have quick and safe information about the disaster. The proposed system is asmall size vehicle, with microcontroller based hardware and is wirelessly controlled. The operator has full control of thevehicle and is able to capture real time image of the accident place and various sensors measurements.

  16. “Helpless and a cripple”: the disabled child in children’s literature and child rescue discourses


    Hillel, Margot


    “Helpless and a cripple”: the disabled child in children’s literature and child rescue discourses.This article will explore some of the ways disabled children were represented in children’s literature and child rescue literature in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. The disabled character was often used quite didactically, teaching lessons about patience and being used to foster compassion and charity. Intersecting with these constructions were views about an ideal childhood, and f...

  17. Rescue procedures in the major trauma of upper extremities – The role of the polish medical air rescue in the therapeutic process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Gałązkowski


    Full Text Available Background: Due to the growing use of various types of industrial and agricultural machinery, occupational accidents are among the most serious ones and quite frequently result in the permanent posttraumatic disability of the injured person. In Poland, a replantation service has been operating since 2010. Each day, one out of six centres provides emergency replantation service accepting amputation calls from across the country. Patients qualified for replantation often need to be transported from places located even several hundred kilometres from the target hospital. Material and Methods: The analysis covered 174 Helicopter Emergency Medical Service (HEMS missions and 112 interhospital transports. The data were obtained as a result of a retrospective analysis of the air and medical documentation of 23 460 missions carried out by the Polish Medical Air Rescue (Samodzielny Publiczny Zakład Opieki Zdrowotnej Lotnicze Pogotowie Ratunkowe – SP ZOZ LPR aircrafts in the years 2011–2013. Results: In the period under study, the Polish Medical Air Rescue helicopters dressed 135 patients with upper extremity amputations at the scene and transported them to hospitals as part of HEMS missions. At the same time, SP ZOZ LPR aircrafts made 102 interhospital transports. Ninety patients were qualified for treatment in replantation service centres. The average air transport time was 76 min, while the total transport time was 172.3 min. With transport exceeding 300 km, the average time advantage over the ground transport was approximately 1.5 h. Conclusions: In justified cases, the use of helicopters and airplanes is an optimal method of transporting patients with the major trauma to upper extremities. Med. Pr. 2014;65(6:765–776

  18. Robot Rescue (United States)

    Morring, Frank, Jr.


    Tests with robots and the high-fidelity Hubble Space Telescope mockup astronauts use to train for servicing missions have convinced NASA managers it may be possible to maintain and upgrade the orbiting observatory without sending a space shuttle to do the job. In a formal request last week, the agency gave bidders until July 16 to sub-mit proposals for a robotic mission to the space telescope before the end of 2007. At a minimum, the mission would attach a rocket motor to deorbit the telescope safely when its service life ends. In the best case, it would use state-of-the- art robotics to prolong its life on orbit and install new instruments. With the space shuttle off-limits for the job under strict post-Columbia safety policies set by Administrator Sean O'Keefe, NASA has designed a "straw- man" robotic mission that would use an Atlas V or Delta N to launch a 20,ooO-lb. "Hubble Robotic Vehicle" to service the telescope. There, a robotic arm would grapple it, much as the shuttle does.

  19. Armed Intervention in Terrorist Hostage Situations: A Comparative Analysis (United States)


    Organizations (Coordination do Organizacions Revolucionarias Unidas-CORU) Croatian Freedom Fighters (CFF) DoBois Club George Jackson Brigade Jewish Debn e Leagu...values terms of prevailing values Sometimes delusional Realistic Realistic, often in service of unrealis- tic ends Abstract goals Concrete goals, self- Materially, not psy- Attention-getting, dramatization (psy- chologically oriented ostentatious, drama- chodrama), thera- tic , spectacular

  20. Unirradiated cells rescue cells exposed to ionizing radiation: Activation of NF-κB pathway in irradiated cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, R.K.K. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Han, Wei [Center of Medical Physics and Technology, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Yu, K.N., E-mail: [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, City University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong)


    Highlights: • Rescue effect was observed in both irradiated and HeLa and NIH/3T3 cells. • Novel setup and procedures to separate the rescue signals and the bystander signals. • Confirmed activation of NF-κB pathway in rescue effect using activation inhibitor. • Confirmed activation of NF-κB pathway in rescue effect using anti-NF-κB p65 antibody. - Abstract: We studied the involvement of NF-κB pathway activation in the rescue effect in HeLa and NIH/3T3 cells irradiated by α particles. Firstly, upon irradiation by 5 cGy of α particles, for both cell lines, the numbers of 53BP1 foci/cell at 12 h post-irradiation were significantly smaller when only 2.5% of the cell population was irradiated as compared to 100% irradiation, which demonstrated the rescue effect. Secondly, we studied the effect of NF-κB on the rescue effect through the use of the NF-κB activation inhibitor BAY-11-7082. Novel experimental setup and procedures were designed to prepare the medium (CM) which had conditioned the bystander cells previously partnered with irradiated cells, to ensure physical separation between rescue and bystander signals. BAY-11-7082 itself did not inflict DNA damages in the cells or have effects on activation of the NF-κB response pathway in the irradiated cells through direct irradiation. The rescue effect was induced in both cell lines by the CM, which was abrogated if BAY-11-7082 was added to the CM. Thirdly, we studied the effect of NF-κB on the rescue effect through staining for phosphorylated NF-κB (p-NF-κB) expression using the anti-NF-κB p65 (phospho S536) antibody. When the fraction of irradiated cells dropped from 100% to 2.5%, the p-NF-κB expression in the cell nuclei of irradiated NIH/3T3 cells increased significantly, while that in the cell nuclei of irradiated HeLa cells also increased although not significantly. Moreover, the p-NF-κB expression in the cell nuclei of irradiated HeLa cells and NIH/3T3 cells treated with CM also increased

  1. Cafeteria Plans. (United States)

    Walker, John H.


    It is no longer financially feasible to require faculty and staff to participate in benefit plans that they do not need or want and that may duplicate a spouse's benefits. Individuals should be allowed to decline to participate in certain benefits without losing the equivalent value applied to other benefits. (Author/MLW)

  2. Planning Facilities. (United States)

    Flynn, Richard B., Ed.; And Others


    Nine articles give information to help make professionals in health, physical education, recreation, dance, and athletics more knowledgeable about planning facilities. Design of natatoriums, physical fitness laboratories, fitness trails, gymnasium lighting, homemade play equipment, indoor soccer arenas, and dance floors is considered. A…

  3. Conference Planning. (United States)

    Burke, W. Warner, Ed.; Beckhard, Richard, Ed.

    This book, written to instruct in the use of a conference as a medium of social intercourse, is divided into four sections. Section I, which contains five articles, deals with factors to be considered in planning a conference. Specific techniques one can employ to improve a conference and several different techniques for evaluating the…

  4. The habitus of 'rescue' and its significance for implementation of rapid response systems in acute health care. (United States)

    Mackintosh, Nicola; Humphrey, Charlotte; Sandall, Jane


    The need to focus on patient safety and improve the quality and consistency of medical care in acute hospital settings has been highlighted in a number of UK and international reports. When patients on a hospital ward become acutely unwell there is often a window of opportunity for staff, patients and relatives to contribute to the 'rescue' process by intervening in the trajectory of clinical deterioration. This paper explores the social and institutional processes associated with the practice of rescue, and implications for the implementation and effectiveness of rapid response systems (RRSs) within acute health care. An ethnographic case study was conducted in 2009 in two UK hospitals (focussing on the medical directorates in each organisation). Data collection involved 180 h of observation, 35 staff interviews (doctors, nurses, health care assistants and managers) and documentary review. Analysis was informed by Bourdieu's logic of practice and his relational concept of the 'field' of the general medical ward. Three themes illustrated the nature of rescue work within the field and collective rules which guided associated occupational distinction practices: (1) the 'dirty work' of vital sign recording and its distinction from diagnostic (higher order) interpretive work; (2) the moral order of legitimacy claims for additional help; and (3) professional deference and the selective managerial control of rescue work. The discourse of rescue provided a means of exercising greater control over clinical uncertainty. The acquisition of 'rescue capital' enabled the social positioning of health care assistants, nurses and doctors, and shaped use of the RRS on the wards. Boundary work, professional legitimation and jurisdictional claims defined the social practice of rescue, as clinical staff had to balance safety, professional and organisational concerns within the field. This paper offers a nuanced understanding of patient safety on the front-line, challenging notions of

  5. Thujone, a component of medicinal herbs, rescues palmitate-induced insulin resistance in skeletal muscle. (United States)

    Alkhateeb, Hakam; Bonen, Arend


    Thujone is thought to be the main constituent of medicinal herbs that have antidiabetic properties. Therefore, we examined whether thujone ameliorated palmitate-induced insulin resistance in skeletal muscle. Soleus muscles were incubated for Thujone (0.01 mg/ml), in the presence of palmitate, was provided in the last 6 h of incubation. Palmitate oxidation, AMPK/acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) phosphorylation and insulin-stimulated glucose transport, plasmalemmal GLUT4, and AS160 phosphorylation were examined at 0, 6, and 12 h. Palmitate treatment for 12 h reduced fatty acid oxidation (-47%), and insulin-stimulated glucose transport (-71%), GLUT4 translocation (-40%), and AS160 phosphorylation (-26%), but it increased AMPK (+51%) and ACC phosphorylations (+44%). Thujone (6-12 h) fully rescued palmitate oxidation and insulin-stimulated glucose transport, but only partially restored GLUT4 translocation and AS160 phosphorylation, raising the possibility that an increased GLUT4 intrinsic activity may also have contributed to the restoration of glucose transport. Thujone also further increased AMPK phosphorylation but had no further effect on ACC phosphorylation. Inhibition of AMPK phosphorylation with adenine 9-beta-d-arabinofuranoside (Ara) (2.5 mM) or compound C (50 muM) inhibited the thujone-induced improvement in insulin-stimulated glucose transport, GLUT4 translocation, and AS160 phosphorylation. In contrast, the thujone-induced improvement in palmitate oxidation was only slightly inhibited (thujone, a medicinal herb component, rescues palmitate-induced insulin resistance in muscle, the improvement in fatty acid oxidation cannot account for this thujone-mediated effect. Instead, the rescue of palmitate-induced insulin resistance appears to occur via an AMPK-dependent mechanism involving partial restoration of insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation.

  6. Organization and implementation of medical rescue of mass casualties during earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-ling ZHANG


    Full Text Available Over the past century, there were more than 40 earthquakes greater than 7 magnitude occurred worldwide, 10 of which in China, which killed 600 thousand people accounting for 53% of global earthquake deaths. On May 12, 2008, an 8.0-magnitude earthquake occurred in Wenchuan, Sichuan Province, causing 69000 deaths, 18000 missings, and 370000 injuries. Among 10 thousand severe injuries, most were traumatic injuries, 74% of which were fracture. On April 14, 2010, a 7.1-magnitude earthquake occurred in Yushu, Qinghai Province. There were 2698 deaths, 270 missings and 11000 injuries. Among 3100 severe injuries, fracture accounted for 58.4%. After each earthquake, the Chinese Army Medical Services took actions and made quick response according to the law. They sent out elites with efficient command and scientific organization, fully participating in the medical rescue operations. After Wenchuan earthquake, 397 mobile medical service units and 7061 health workers were sent out. A total of 69000 people were treated, and 22000 cases of surgeries were performed. After Yushu earthquake, a total of 25 mobile medical service units and 2025 health workers were sent. They performed 1635 cases of surgeries with a miracle of "zero death" in mass earthquake casualties and altitude diseases in cold highlands. After each earthquake, injuries cured within 1 week accounted for 60% of the total, and patients evacuated accounted for 80% of the total, which owed to the effective first aid in site of Chinese Army Medical Service. They effectively played the role as the main force, making significant contributions for the final victory of earthquake relief. From the practice of medical rescue revelation after the two earthquakes, what Chinese Army Medical Services Services learned are: firstly, the theory of medical relief should be innovated; secondly, military and civilian organizations should be coordinated; thirdly, professional rescue force should be strengthened

  7. Infralimbic Neurotrophin-3 Infusion Rescues Fear Extinction Impairment in a Mouse Model of Pathological Fear. (United States)

    D'Amico, Davide; Gener, Thomas; de Lagrán, Maria Martínez; Sanchez-Vives, Maria V; Santos, Mónica; Dierssen, Mara


    The inability to properly extinguish fear memories constitutes the foundation of several anxiety disorders, including panic disorder. Recent findings show that boosting prefrontal cortex synaptic plasticity potentiates fear extinction, suggesting that therapies that augment synaptic plasticity could prove useful in rescue of fear extinction impairments in this group of disorders. Previously, we reported that mice with selective deregulation of neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor, type 3 expression (TgNTRK3) exhibit increased fear memories accompanied by impaired extinction, congruent with an altered activation pattern of the amygdala-hippocampus-medial prefrontal cortex fear circuit. Here we explore the specific role of neurotrophin 3 and its cognate receptor in the medial prefrontal cortex, and its involvement in fear extinction in a pathological context. In this study we combined molecular, behavioral, in vivo pharmacology and ex vivo electrophysiological recordings in TgNTRK3 animals during contextual fear extinction processes. We show that neurotrophin 3 protein levels are increased upon contextual fear extinction in wild-type animals but not in TgNTRK3 mice, which present deficits in infralimbic long-term potentiation. Importantly, infusion of neurotrophin 3 to the medial prefrontal cortex of TgNTRK3 mice rescues contextual fear extinction and ex vivo local application improves medial prefrontal cortex synaptic plasticity. This effect is blocked by inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation through peripheral administration of SL327, suggesting that rescue occurs via this pathway. Our results suggest that stimulating neurotrophin 3-dependent medial prefrontal cortex plasticity could restore contextual fear extinction deficit in pathological fear and could constitute an effective treatment for fear-related disorders.

  8. Analysis of Reported Balloon Malfunctions and Proposed Rescue Strategy for Malfunction during Airway Dilation. (United States)

    Strong, E Brandon; Randall, Derrick R; Cates, Daniel J; Belafsky, Peter C


    Objective The rate of balloon dilator failure is unknown, and a rescue strategy for device malfunction has not been established. The purposes of this investigation were to determine the approximate number of balloon failures in the gastrointestinal tract and airway, evaluate the parameters required to rupture balloon dilators, and develop a rescue strategy to efficiently reestablish airway patency. Study Design Retrospective cohort and basic medical research. Setting Academic tertiary care medical center. Subjects and Methods The Manufacturer and User Facility Device Experience database was queried for adverse events associated with tracheal and esophageal dilators between January 1, 2014, and January 1, 2017. A bench-top model of airway stenosis was developed, and optimal conditions for the safe removal of a malfunctioning dilator were assessed (2, 4, 6 atm). Results There were 420 reported balloon malfunctions, including 104 cases with deflation/removal issues. The bench-top model determined that device rupture allowing for immediate removal occurs with needle puncture at balloon pressures ≥8 atm. Balloons inflated to 6 atm required a median of 17.5 seconds (range, 0-55.3) for removal, in comparison with 30.2 seconds (range, 7.1-87.5) at 2 atm ( P > .05). Conclusion Balloon dilator malfunction is a significant problem that practitioners must be prepared for. Pressure ≥8 atm (~33% overinflation) is required to consistently cause complete balloon dilator rupture via needle puncture. While counterintuitive, increasing the inflation pressure of a malfunctioning balloon (8-10 atm) may expedite rupture and safe removal. A rescue strategy for balloon malfunction is proposed.

  9. Zebrafish retinal defects induced by ethanol exposure are rescued by retinoic acid and folic acid supplement (United States)

    Muralidharan, Pooja; Sarmah, Swapnalee; Marrs, James A.


    Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) is caused by prenatal alcohol exposure, producing craniofacial, sensory, motor, and cognitive defects. FASD is highly prevalent in low socioeconomic populations, which are frequently accompanied by malnutrition. FASD-associated ocular pathologies include microphthalmia, optic nerve hypoplasia, and cataracts. The present study characterizes specific retinal tissue defects, identifies ethanol-sensitive stages during retinal development, and dissects the effect of nutrient supplements, such as retinoic acid (RA) and folic acid (FA) on ethanol-induced retinal defects. Exposure to pathophysiological concentrations of ethanol (during midblastula transition through somitogenesis; 2–24 hours post fertilization [hpf]) altered critical transcription factor expression involved in retinal cell differentiation, and produced severe retinal ganglion cell, photoreceptor, and Müller glial differentiation defects. Ethanol exposure did not alter retinal cell differentiation induction, but increased retinal cell death and proliferation. RA and FA nutrient co-supplementation rescued retinal photoreceptor and ganglion cell differentiation defects. Ethanol exposure during retinal morphogenesis stages (16–24 hpf) produced retinal defects like those seen with ethanol exposure between 2–24 hpf. Significantly, during an ethanol-sensitive time window (16–24 hpf), RA co-supplementation moderately rescued these defects, whereas FA co-supplementation showed significant rescue of optic nerve and photoreceptor differentiation defects. Interestingly, RA, but not FA, supplementation after ethanol exposure could reverse ethanol-induced optic nerve and photoreceptor differentiation defects. Our results indicate that various ethanol-sensitive events underlie FASD-associated retinal defects. Nutrient supplements like retinoids and folate were effective in alleviating ethanol-induced retinal defects. PMID:25541501

  10. Helicopter emergency medical rescue for the traumatized: experience in the metropolitan region of Campinas, Brazil. (United States)

    Cardoso, Ricardo Galesso; Francischini, Carina Fontana; Ribera, Jorge Michel; Vanzetto, Ricardo; Fraga, Gustavo Pereira


    To analyze the profile of patients served by the air medical rescue system in the Metropolitan Region of Campinas, evaluating: triage and mobilization criteria; response time; on-site care and transport time; invasive procedures performed in the Pre-Hospital Care (PHC); severity of patients; morbidity and mortality. We conducted a prospective, descriptive study in which we analyzed medical records of patients rescued between July 2010 and December 2012. During this period, 242 victims were taken to the HC-Unicamp. Of the 242 patients, 22 were excluded from the study. of the 220 cases evaluated, 173 (78.6%) were male, with a mean age of 32 years. Blunt trauma was the most prevalent (207 cases - 94.1%), motorcycle accidents being the most common mechanisms of injury (66 cases - 30%), followed by motor vehicle collisions (51 cases - 23.2%). The average response time was 10 ± 4 minutes and the averaged total pre-hospital time was 42 ± 11 minutes. The mean values of the trauma indices were: RTS = 6.2 ± 2.2; ISS = 19.2 ± 12.6; and TRISS = 0.78 ± 0.3. Tracheal intubation in the pre-hospital environment was performed in 77 cases (35%); 43 patients (19.5%) had RTS of 7.84 and ISSd"9, being classified as over-triaged. Of all patients admitted, the mortality was 15.9% (35 cases). studies of air medical rescue in Brazil are required due to the investments made in the pre-hospital care in a country without an organized trauma system. The high rate of over-triage found highlights the need to improve the triage and mobilization criteria.

  11. Search and rescue trends associated with recreational travel in US national parks. (United States)

    Heggie, Travis W; Heggie, Tracey M


    National parks are popular travel destinations worldwide. Unfortunately, negative health experiences can and do occur during travel in national parks. This study investigated search and rescue (SAR) trends associated with recreational travel in US National Park Service (NPS) units. A retrospective study was conducted of the Annual US National Park Service Search and Rescue Report for the years 2003 to 2006. From 2003 to 2006, there were 12,337 SAR operations involving 15,537 visitors. The total operational costs were US$16,552,053. The operations ended with 522 fatalities, 4,860 ill or injured visitors, and 2,855 saves. Almost half (40%) of the operations occurred on Saturday and Sunday, and visitors aged 20 to 29 years were involved in 23% of the incidents. Males accounted for 66.3% of the visitors requiring SAR assistance. Day hiking, motorized boating, swimming, overnight hiking, and nonmotorized boating were the participant activities resulting in the most SAR operations. The vast majority of visitors requiring SAR assistance were located within a 24-hour period, and the most common rescue environments were mountain areas between 1,524 and 4,572 m, lakes, rivers, oceans, and coastal areas. An error in judgment, fatigue and physical conditions, and insufficient equipment, clothing, and experience were the most common contributing factors. SAR incidents can be expensive and end with severe health consequences. NPS management should develop education and preventive efforts focused on hikers, boaters, and swimmers who are males and aged 20 to 29 years, addressing issues of adequate judgment, preparation, and experience.

  12. Trichostatin A rescues the disrupted imprinting induced by somatic cell nuclear transfer in pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanjun Huan

    Full Text Available Imprinting disorders induced by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT usually lead to the abnormalities of cloned animals and low cloning efficiency. Histone deacetylase inhibitors have been shown to improve gene expression, genomic methylation reprogramming and the development of cloned embryos, however, the imprinting statuses in these treated embryos and during their subsequent development remain poorly studied. In this study, we investigated the dynamics of H19/Igf2 methylation and transcription in porcine cloned embryos treated with trichostatin A (TSA, and examined H19/Igf2 imprinting patterns in cloned fetuses and piglets. Our results showed that compared with the maintenance of H19/Igf2 methylation in fertilized embryos, cloned embryos displayed aberrant H19/Igf2 methylation and lower H19/Igf2 transcripts. When TSA enhanced the development of cloned embryos, the disrupted H19/Igf2 imprinting was largely rescued in these treated embryos, more similar to those detected in fertilized counterparts. Further studies displayed that TSA effectively rescued the disrupted imprinting of H19/Igf2 in cloned fetuses and piglets, prevented the occurrence of cloned fetus and piglet abnormalities, and enhanced the full-term development of cloned embryos. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that aberrant imprinting induced by SCNT led to the abnormalities of cloned fetuses and piglets and low cloning efficiency, and TSA rescued the disrupted imprinting in cloned embryos, fetuses and piglets, and prevented the occurrence of cloned fetus and piglet abnormalities, thereby improving the development of cloned embryos. This study would have important implications in improving cloning efficiency and the health of cloned animals.

  13. Intralipid prevents and rescues fatal pulmonary arterial hypertension and right ventricular failure in rats. (United States)

    Umar, Soban; Nadadur, Rangarajan D; Li, Jingyuan; Maltese, Federica; Partownavid, Parisa; van der Laarse, Arnoud; Eghbali, Mansoureh


    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is characterized by pulmonary vascular remodeling leading to right ventricular (RV) hypertrophy and failure. Intralipid (ILP), a source of parenteral nutrition for patients, contains γ-linolenic acid and soy-derived phytoestrogens that are protective for lungs and heart. We, therefore, investigated the therapeutic potential of ILP in preventing and rescuing monocrotaline-induced PAH and RV dysfunction. PAH was induced in male rats with monocrotaline (60 mg/kg). Rats then received daily ILP (1 mL of 20% ILP per day IP) from day 1 to day 30 for prevention protocol or from day 21 to day 30 for rescue protocol. Other monocrotaline-injected rats were left untreated to develop severe PAH by day 21 or RV failure by approximately day 30. Saline or ILP-treated rats served as controls. Significant increase in RV pressure and decrease in RV ejection fraction in the RV failure group resulted in high mortality. Therapy with ILP resulted in 100% survival and prevented PAH-induced RV failure by preserving RV pressure and RV ejection fraction and preventing RV hypertrophy and lung remodeling. In preexisting severe PAH, ILP attenuated most lung and RV abnormalities. The beneficial effects of ILP in PAH seem to result from the interplay of various factors, among which preservation and/or stimulation of angiogenesis, suppression and/or reversal of inflammation, fibrosis and hypertrophy, in both lung and RV, appear to be major contributors. In conclusion, ILP not only prevents the development of PAH and RV failure but also rescues preexisting severe PAH.

  14. Refractory Hypoxemia and Use of Rescue Strategies. A U.S. National Survey of Adult Intensivists. (United States)

    Alhurani, Rabe E; Oeckler, Richard A; Franco, Pablo Moreno; Jenkins, Sarah M; Gajic, Ognjen; Pannu, Sonal R


    The management of severe and refractory hypoxemia in critically ill adult patients is practice based. Variability across individual practitioners and institutions is not well documented. To conduct a nationwide survey of critical care physicians in the United States regarding accepted definitions and management strategies for severe and refractory hypoxemia. A web-based survey was distributed to a stratified random sample of adult intensivists listed in the American Medical Association Physician Masterfile. The survey was generated by using a mixed-methods approach. In the survey, 4,865 e-mails were sent and 791 (16.3%) were opened. Among those who opened the e-mail message, 50% (n = 396) responded, representing 8.1% of total surveys sent. Seventy-two percent stated that their institutions lacked a protocol for identification and management of severe or refractory hypoxemia in the setting of acute respiratory failure. While the majority of respondents used low-Vt ventilation (81%), high positive end-expiratory pressure (86%), recruitment maneuvers (89%), and either bolus or infusion neuromuscular blockade (94%), there was marked variability in the use of specific rescue strategies as tier 1 or 2 interventions: prone position (27.8% vs. 47.8%, respectively), extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (2.3% vs. 51.2%, respectively), airway pressure release ventilation (49% vs. 34.5%, respectively), inhaled vasodilators (30.1% vs. 40%, respectively), and high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (7.8% vs. 40%, respectively). The variability was partly explained by providers' expertise with particular rescue strategies (77.7%), advance directives (70.1%), the training of allied health staff (62.3%), and institutional availability (53.8%). U.S. adult critical care physicians predominantly employ lung-protective ventilation for severe hypoxemia. A wide variation in other rescue strategies is noted, which is partly explained by user expertise and availability. Less than 30

  15. Modulating Wnt Signaling Rescues Palate Morphogenesis in Pax9 Mutant Mice. (United States)

    Li, C; Lan, Y; Krumlauf, R; Jiang, R


    Cleft palate is a common birth defect caused by disruption of palatogenesis during embryonic development. Although mutations disrupting components of the Wnt signaling pathway have been associated with cleft lip and palate in humans and mice, the mechanisms involving canonical Wnt signaling and its regulation in secondary palate development are not well understood. Here, we report that canonical Wnt signaling plays an important role in Pax9-mediated regulation of secondary palate development. We found that cleft palate pathogenesis in Pax9-deficient embryos is accompanied by significantly reduced expression of Axin2, an endogenous target of canonical Wnt signaling, in the developing palatal mesenchyme, particularly in the posterior regions of the palatal shelves. We found that expression of Dkk2, encoding a secreted Wnt antagonist, is significantly increased whereas the levels of active β-catenin protein, the essential transcriptional coactivator of canonical Wnt signaling, is significantly decreased in the posterior regions of the palatal shelves in embryonic day 13.5 Pax9-deficent embryos in comparison with control littermates. We show that small molecule-mediated inhibition of Dickkopf (DKK) activity in utero during palatal shelf morphogenesis partly rescued secondary palate development in Pax9-deficient embryos. Moreover, we found that genetic inactivation of Wise, which is expressed in the developing palatal shelves and encodes another secreted antagonist of canonical Wnt signaling, also rescued palate morphogenesis in Pax9-deficient mice. Furthermore, whereas Pax9del/del embryos exhibit defects in palatal shelf elevation/reorientation and significant reduction in accumulation of hyaluronic acid-a high molecular extracellular matrix glycosaminoglycan implicated in playing an important role in palatal shelf elevation-80% of Pax9del/del;Wise-/- double-mutant mouse embryos exhibit rescued palatal shelf elevation/reorientation, accompanied by restored hyaluronic

  16. Neurotransmitters, KCl and antioxidants rescue striatal neurons from apoptotic cell death in culture. (United States)

    Iacovitti, L; Stull, N D; Mishizen, A


    Striatal neurons grown in low density culture on serum-free media and in the absence of glia die within 3 days of plating. In this study, we sought to determine the mechanism of cell death (e.g., apoptosis) and whether trophic influences, such as, growth factors, neurotransmitters, antioxidants or KCl-mediated depolarization could improve their survival. We found that striatal neurons grown in this manner die via apoptosis unless treated with one of several different rescuing agents. One way to prevent the death of most striatal neurons was continual treatment with 5-20 microM dopamine (DA) or other monoamines. Although the survival effect of DA was mimicked by the specific D1 receptor agonist, SKF38393, no D1 or D2 receptor antagonists blocked the effect. As with DA, chronic depolarization with KCl (12-39 mM) or treatment with antioxidants, such as the vitamin E analog, Trolox (10-10-500 microM), or the hormone, melatonin (10-10-500 microM) also rescued striatal neurons from impending cell death. Surprisingly, growth factors, such as BDNF, bFGF, GDNF, NGF, NT3 and EGF, demonstrated no ability to rescue striatal neurons in this model, suggesting that death was not solely caused by the absence of essential trophic factors. We conclude that a variety of agents, but not growth factors, can prevent the demise of striatal neurons, presumably by neutralizing damage at one or more steps in the death cascade. Copyright 1999 Elsevier Science B.V.

  17. The Airtraq as a rescue airway device following failed direct laryngoscopy: a case series.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Maharaj, C H


    We report the successful use of the Airtraq as a rescue device following failed direct laryngoscopy, in patients deemed at increased risk for difficult tracheal intubation. In a series of seven patients, repeated attempts at direct laryngoscopy with the Macintosh blade, and the use of manoeuvres to aid intubation, such as the gum elastic bougie placement, were unsuccessful. In contrast, with the Airtraq device, each patient\\'s trachea was successfully intubated on the first attempt. This report underlines the utility of the Airtraq device in these patients.

  18. USARSim: a RoboCup virtual urban search and rescue competition (United States)

    Balakirsky, Stephen; Scrapper, Chris; Carpin, Stefano; Lewis, Mike


    Research efforts in Urban Search And Rescue (USAR) robotics have grown substantially in recent years. A virtual USAR robotic competition was established in 2006 under the RoboCup umbrella to foster collaboration amongst institutions and to provide benchmark test environments for system evaluation. In this paper we describe the physics based software simulation framework that is used in this competition and the rules and performance metrics used to determine the league's winner. The framework allows for the realistic modeling of robots, sensors, and actuators, as well as complex, unstructured, dynamic environments. Multiple heterogeneous agents can be concurrently placed in the simulation environment thus allowing for team or group evaluations.

  19. Research of Tourism Rescue System based on Social-Local-Mobile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHI Beiqi


    Full Text Available Tourism Rescue System(TRSis a key issue to ensure the success of tourism service.The development of our country′s TRS showed that tourists are usually in a moving state with the geographical position information during travel accident process.So it is necessary to construct TRS using Social-Local-Mobile technology.The paper has presented the detail of Social-Local-Mobile technology,and has analyzed the motivation and practical strategy of building TRS.

  20. New Perspectives for the Rescue of Cognitive Disability in Down Syndrome. (United States)

    Bartesaghi, Renata; Haydar, Tarik F; Delabar, Jean Maurice; Dierssen, Mara; Martínez-Cué, Carmen; Bianchi, Diana W


    Down syndrome (DS) is a relatively common genetic condition caused by the triplication of human chromosome 21. No therapies currently exist for the rescue of neurocognitive impairment in DS. This review presents exciting findings showing that it is possible to restore brain development and cognitive performance in mouse models of DS with therapies that can also apply to humans. This knowledge provides a potential breakthrough for the prevention of intellectual disability in DS. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/3513843-10$15.00/0.

  1. Rescue of placental phenotype in a mechanistic model of Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Higgins Michael J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several imprinted genes have been implicated in the process of placentation. The distal region of mouse chromosome 7 (Chr 7 contains at least ten imprinted genes, several of which are expressed from the maternal homologue in the placenta. The corresponding paternal alleles of these genes are silenced in cis by an incompletely understood mechanism involving the formation of a repressive nuclear compartment mediated by the long non-coding RNA Kcnq1ot1 initiated from imprinting centre 2 (IC2. However, it is unknown whether some maternally expressed genes are silenced on the paternal homologue via a Kcnq1ot1-independent mechanism. We have previously reported that maternal inheritance of a large truncation of Chr7 encompassing the entire IC2-regulated domain (DelTel7 allele leads to embryonic lethality at mid-gestation accompanied by severe placental abnormalities. Kcnq1ot1 expression can be abolished on the paternal chromosome by deleting IC2 (IC2KO allele. When the IC2KO mutation is paternally inherited, epigenetic silencing is lost in the region and the DelTel7 lethality is rescued in compound heterozygotes, leading to viable DelTel7/IC2KO mice. Results Considering the important functions of several IC2-regulated genes in placentation, we set out to determine whether these DelTel7/IC2KO rescued conceptuses develop normal placentae. We report no abnormalities with respect to the architecture and vasculature of the DelTel7/IC2KO rescued placentae. Imprinted expression of several of the IC2-regulated genes critical to placentation is also faithfully recapitulated in DelTel7/IC2KO placentae. Conclusion Taken together, our results demonstrate that all the distal chromosome 7 imprinted genes implicated in placental function are silenced by IC2 and Kcnq1ot1 on the paternal allele. Furthermore, our results demonstrate that the methylated maternal IC2 is not required for the regulation of nearby genes. The results show the potential for

  2. Propranolol Effects on Decompression Sickness in a Simulated DISSUB Rescue in Swine. (United States)

    Forbes, Angela S; Regis, David P; Hall, Aaron A; Mahon, Richard T; Cronin, William A


    Disabled submarine (DISSUB) survivors may face elevated CO2 levels and inert gas saturation, putting them at risk for CO2 toxicity and decompression sickness (DCS). Propranolol was shown to reduce CO2 production in an experimental DISSUB model in humans but its effects on DCS in a DISSUB rescue scenario are unknown. A 100% oxygen prebreathe (OPB) reduces DCS incidence and severity and is incorporated into some DISSUB rescue protocols. We used a swine model of DISSUB rescue to study the effect of propranolol on DCS incidence and mortality with and without an OPB. In Experiment 1, male Yorkshire Swine (70 kg) were pressurized to 2.8 ATA for 22 h. Propranolol 1.0 mg · kg-1 (IV) was administered at 21.25 h. At 22 h, the animal was rapidly decompressed and observed for DCS type, onset time, and mortality. Experimental animals (N = 21; 69 ± 4.1 kg), PROP1.0, were compared to PROP1.0-OPB45 (N = 8; 69 ± 2.8 kg) with the same dive profile, except for a 45 min OPB prior to decompression. In Experiment 2, the same methodology was used with the following changes: swine pressurized to 2.8 ATA for 28 h; experimental group (N = 25; 67 ± 3.3 kg), PROP0.5 bis, propranolol 0.5 mg · kg-1 bis (twice) (IV) was administered at 22 h and 26 h. Control animals (N = 25; 67 ± 3.9 kg) received normal saline. OPB reduced mortality in PROP1.0-OBP45 compared to PROP1.0 (0% vs. 71%). PROP0.5 bis had increased mortality compared to CONTROL (60-% vs. 4%). Administration of beta blockers prior to saturation decompression appears to increase DCS and worsen mortality in a swine model; however, their effects in bounce diving remain unknown.Forbes AS, Regis DP, HallAA, Mahon RT, Cronin WA. Propranolol effects on decompression sickness in a simulated DISSUB rescue in swine. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(4):385-391.

  3. Exploring entrepreneurial learning during formal business rescue processes: Insights from the South African experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anéa Burke-le Roux


    Full Text Available Orientation: Currently, little is known about entrepreneurial learning under turnaround and rescue conditions. A better understanding of the content dimensions as well as the factors that drive or restrain entrepreneurial learning during business rescue (BR is relevant for theory and industry development.Research purpose: BR is a fairly new regime in South Africa that extends beyond turnaround practices. It is acknowledged that business failure can fuel cognitive processes and subsequently entrepreneurial learning but to what extent in the context of formal BR proceedings requires exploration. Practice suggests that the role of the business rescue practitioner (BRP as ‘disproportionate influencer’ can affect the learning of filing entrepreneurs.Motivation for the study: In the absence of guidelines, this study set out to explore and make sense of the specific content dimensions that entrepreneurs learn during such proceedings to assist role players.Research design, approach and method: The research question for this exploratory investigation obtained first-hand accounts from subjects that have been directly involved in BR proceedings. Semi-structured interviews were conducted. ‘Investigator triangulation’ was also used to extract as much richness and data as possible applying interpretative phenomenological analysis.Findings: We extracted three key content dimensions which entrepreneurs learned during BR: rescue process, business related and personal learnings. Entrepreneurs with ‘positive’ experiences of BR learned more than those with negative experiences. The key driving and restraining factors to entrepreneurial learning were both associated with the behaviour of the BRP.Practical/managerial implications: BR has introduced another dimension to learning from business failure. Understanding the content dimensions learned by entrepreneurs during BR broadens insights of the Regulator, BRPs and educators about the potential long

  4. Endovascular iliac rescue technique for complete arterial avulsion after transcatheter aortic valve replacement. (United States)

    Obon-Dent, Mauricio; Reul, Ross M; Mortazavi, Ali


    Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) has emerged as an alternative therapy to open aortic valve repair for high-risk patients with aortic stenosis, but larger delivery sheath size is associated with vascular complications. We report 2 cases in which a minimally invasive technique was used for the hybrid repair of confirmed or suspected large-bore sheath traumatic avulsion (i.e., "iliac on a stick") after TAVR. We believe our hybrid approach to rescuing the iliac artery in suspected or confirmed complete artery avulsion could improve outcomes for patients who require TAVR. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. The race to save lives: demonstrating the use of social media for search and rescue operations. (United States)

    Simon, Tomer; Adini, Bruria; El-Hadid, Mohammed; Goldberg, Avishay; Aharonson-Daniel, Limor


    Utilizing social media in an emergency can enhance abilities to locate and evacuate casualties more rapidly and effectively, and can contribute towards saving lives following a disaster, through better coordination and collaboration between search and rescue teams. An exercise was conducted in order to test a standard operating procedure (SOP) designed to leverage social media use in response to an earthquake, and study whether social media can improve joint Israeli-Jordanian search and rescue operations following a regional earthquake. First responders from both Jordan and Israel were divided into two mixed groups of eight people each, representing joint (Israeli-Jordanian) EMS teams. Simulated patients were dispersed throughout the Ben-Gurion University Campus. The first search and rescue team used conventional methods, while the second team also used social media channels (Facebook and Twitter) to leverage search and rescue operations. Eighteen EMS and medical professionals from Israel and Jordan, which are members of the Emergency Response Development and Strategy Forum working group, participated in the exercise. The social media team found significantly more mock casualties, 21 out of 22 (95.45%) while the no-media team found only 19 out of 22 (86.36%). Fourteen patients (63.63%) were found by the social media team earlier than the no-media team. The differences between the two groups were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U-test, and evacuation proved to be significantly quicker in the group that had access to social media. The differences between the three injury severities groups' extraction times in each group were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test for variance. Injury severity influenced the evacuation times in the social media team but no such difference was noted in the no-media team. Utilizing social media in an emergency situation enables to locate and evacuate casualties more rapidly and effectively. Social media can contribute towards saving

  6. A novel field search and rescue system based on SIM card location (United States)

    Zhang, Huihui; Guo, Shutao; Cui, Dejing


    Nowadays, the rapid development of outdoor sports and adventure leads to the increase of the frequency of missing accidents. On the other hand, it becomes much more convenient and efficient for the criminals to escape with the help of new technologies. So we have developed a long-distance raids targeted field search and rescue system which utilizes RSSI ranging and Kalman filtering algorithm to realize remote positioning and dynamic supervision management only by a mobile phone with a SIM card, without any additional terminal equipment.

  7. In vitro maintenance, under slow-growth conditions, of oil palm germplasm obtained by embryo rescue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julcéia Camillo


    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the in vitro maintenance of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis and E. oleifera accessions under slow-growth conditions. Plants produced by embryo rescue were subject to 1/2MS culture medium supplemented with the carbohydrates sucrose, mannitol, and sorbitol at 1, 2, and 3% under 20 and 25±2ºC. After 12 months, the temperature of 20°C reduced plant growth. Sucrose is the most appropriate carbohydrate for maintaining the quality of the plants, whereas mannitol and sorbitol result in a reduced plant survival.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeněk MAREK


    Full Text Available The paper presents results of a study focused on usability of a 3D laser scanning system by fire rescue units during emergencies, respectively during preparations for inspection and tactical exercises. The first part of the study focuses on an applicability of a 3D scanner in relation to an accurate evaluation of a fire scene through digitization and creation of virtual walk-through of the fire scene. The second part deals with detailed documentation of access road to the place of intervention, including a simulation of the fire vehicle arrival.

  9. Held Hostage by Our Students, as Told by One of the Hostages: In Memory of Mr. Jack Ellison (United States)

    Cottle, Thomas J.


    The philosopher Emmanuel Levinas suggested that the most ethical act possible is the discovery that one has assumed responsibility for the other. In fact it is the other that makes possible the genuine exploration of the self, an act dominating the adolescent era of development. Although rarely appearing in educational literature, Levinas has…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazimierz SKÓRA


    Full Text Available A sea voyage can be divided into three parts with varying degrees of risk: - from the berth at the port of departure to the pilot disembarkation point - from the pilot disembarkation to another pilot embarkation point near the port of call/destination - from the pilot embarkation point to the berth Results of statistical research into ship accidents at sea point to an increased number of incidents and accidents, including groundings, especially in restricted areas. Such areas are often narrow and have limited depths, while their short straight sections require frequent course alterations, often in varying hydrometeorological conditions. Due to all these factors, the voyage has to be carefully planned and all watchkeeping officers have to be well prepared to conduct the ship safely. The article presents the objectives, scope, legal basis and stages in the process of voyage planning. The compliance with the outlined principles will reduce the level of risk in maritime transport.

  11. Planning Inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandersheid, Katharina; Richardson, Tim


    While traces and techniques of power and contestation around the understanding and production of spaces are clearly recognized in the sociological and planning research literature, there has been little rigorous attention to how socio-spatial inequality is put at stake in strategic mobilization...... around particular spatial imaginaries. In an analysis of the German Spatial Planning Report, the paper examines how inequalities are represented in relation to space and movement in spatial strategy. The analysis shows how, in the report, the spatial dimension of the social is represented...... its adequacy and explanatory power against the background of a qualitatively and quantitatively increase of border transgressing relations and movements. However, this view covers the economic forces producing inequalities and reduces the political space of manoeuvre to redistributions within...

  12. Construction of a marker rescue system in Bacillus subtilis for detection of horizontal gene transfer in food. (United States)

    Kharazmi, Mitra; Hammes, Walter P; Hertel, Christian


    A marker rescue system based on the repair of the kanamycin resistance gene nptII was constructed for use in Gram-positive bacteria and established in Bacillus subtilis 168. Marker rescue was detected in vitro using different types of donor DNA containing intact nptII. The efficiency of marker rescue using chromosomal DNA of E. coli Sure as well as plasmids pMR2 or pSR8-30 ranged from 3.8 x 10(-8) to 1.5 x 10(-9) transformants per nptII gene. Low efficiencies of ca. 10(-12) were obtained with PCR fragments of 792 bp obtained from chromosomal DNA of E. coli Sure or DNA from a transgenic potato. B. subtilis developed competence during growth in milk and chocolate milk, and marker rescue transformation was detected with frequencies of ca. 10(-6) and 10(-8), respectively, using chromosomal DNA of E. coli Sure as donor DNA. Although the copy number of nptII genes of the plant DNA exceeded that of chromosomal E. coli DNA in the marker rescue experiments, a transfer of DNA from the transgenic plant to B. subtilis was detectable neither in vitro nor in situ.

  13. Plan Repair using a Plan Library

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Krogt, R.P.J.; De Weerdt, M.M.


    Plan library's have proven their added value to the efficiency of planning. In this paper, we present results on the use of a plan library to plan repair. We show that using a relatively simple library, we can already obtain significant improvements in efficiency compared to plan repair without a

  14. An Operational Search and Rescue Model for the Norwegian Sea and the North Sea

    CERN Document Server

    Breivik, Øyvind; 10.1016/j.jmarsys.2007.02.010


    A new operational, ensemble-based search and rescue model for the Norwegian Sea and the North Sea is presented. The stochastic trajectory model computes the net motion of a range of search and rescue objects. A new, robust formulation for the relation between the wind and the motion of the drifting object (termed the leeway of the object) is employed. Empirically derived coefficients for 63 categories of search objects compiled by the US Coast Guard are ingested to estimate the leeway of the drifting objects. A Monte Carlo technique is employed to generate an ensemble that accounts for the uncertainties in forcing fields (wind and current), leeway drift properties, and the initial position of the search object. The ensemble yields an estimate of the time-evolving probability density function of the location of the search object, and its envelope defines the search area. Forcing fields from the operational oceanic and atmospheric forecast system of The Norwegian Meteorological Institute are used as input to th...

  15. Agmatine rescues autistic behaviors in the valproic acid-induced animal model of autism. (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Woon; Seung, Hana; Kim, Ki Chan; Gonzales, Edson Luck T; Oh, Hyun Ah; Yang, Sung Min; Ko, Mee Jung; Han, Seol-Heui; Banerjee, Sourav; Shin, Chan Young


    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is an immensely challenging developmental disorder characterized primarily by two core behavioral symptoms of social communication deficits and restricted/repetitive behaviors. Investigating the etiological process and identifying an appropriate therapeutic target remain as formidable challenges to overcome ASD due to numerous risk factors and complex symptoms associated with the disorder. Among the various mechanisms that contribute to ASD, the maintenance of excitation and inhibition balance emerged as a key factor to regulate proper functioning of neuronal circuitry. Interestingly, our previous study involving the valproic acid animal model of autism (VPA animal model) has demonstrated excitatory-inhibitory imbalance (E/I imbalance) due to enhanced differentiation of glutamatergic neurons and reduced GABAergic neurons. Here, we investigated the potential of agmatine, an endogenous NMDA receptor antagonist, as a novel therapeutic candidate in ameliorating ASD symptoms by modulating E/I imbalance using the VPA animal model. We observed that a single treatment of agmatine rescued the impaired social behaviors as well as hyperactive and repetitive behaviors in the VPA animal model. We also observed that agmatine treatment rescued the overly activated ERK1/2 signaling in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus of VPA animal models, possibly, by modulating over-excitability due to enhanced excitatory neural circuit. Taken together, our results have provided experimental evidence suggesting a possible therapeutic role of agmatine in ameliorating ASD-like symptoms in the VPA animal model of ASD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Pain, health perception and sleep: impact on the quality of life of firefighters/rescue professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Silva Marconato


    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the quality of life of firefighters and rescue professionals, and characterize their socio-demographic, health, work and lifestyle profile. Methods: cross-sectional study that used a socio-demographic, lifestyle, health, work data questionnaire and the WHOQOL-BREF quality of life aspects, in Fire Department bases, Civil Air Patrol Group of the Military Police and Rescue Group of Emergency Services. Results: ninety professionals participated in this study - 71 firefighters, 9 nurses, 7 doctors and 3 flight crew members. The average age of the group was 36.4 ± 7.8 years; they worked about 63.7 hours per week; 20.2% reported pain in the last week and 72.7% had body mass index above 25 kg/m2. The average of the WHOQOL-BREF domains was: physical (74.6, psychological (75.2, social (76.5 and environmental (58.7. Significant association was found (Mann-Whitney test and Spearman correlation between the WHOQOL-BREF domains and pain in the past six months, in the last week, health perception, job satisfaction, hours of sleep, domestic tasks and study. Conclusion: the main factors related to quality of life were presence of pain, health perception, sleep and domestic activity.

  17. Rescue of Targeted Regions of Mammalian Chromosomes by in Vivo Recombination in Yeast (United States)

    Kouprina, Natalya; Kawamoto, Kensaku; Barrett, J. Carl; Larionov, Vladimir; Koi, Minoru


    In contrast to other animal cell lines, the chicken pre-B cell lymphoma line, DT40, exhibits a high level of homologous recombination, which can be exploited to generate site-specific alterations in defined target genes or regions. In addition, the ability to generate human/chicken monochromosomal hybrids in the DT40 cell line opens a way for specific targeting of human genes. Here we describe a new strategy for direct isolation of a human chromosomal region that is based on targeting of the chromosome with a vector containing a yeast selectable marker, centromere, and an ARS element. This procedure allows rescue of the targeted region by transfection of total genomic DNA into yeast spheroplasts. Selection for the yeast marker results in isolation of chromosome sequences in the form of large circular yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) up to 170 kb in size containing the targeted region. These YACs are generated by homologous recombination in yeast between common repeated sequences in the targeted chromosomal fragment. Alternatively, the targeted region can be rescued as a linear YACs when a YAC fragmentation vector is included in the yeast transformation mixture. Because the entire isolation procedure of the chromosomal region, once a target insertion is obtained, can be accomplished in ∼1 week, the new method greatly expands the utility of the homologous recombinationproficient DT40 chicken cell system. PMID:9647640

  18. A Search-and-Rescue Robot System for Remotely Sensing the Underground Coal Mine Environment. (United States)

    Zhao, Jingchao; Gao, Junyao; Zhao, Fangzhou; Liu, Yi


    This paper introduces a search-and-rescue robot system used for remote sensing of the underground coal mine environment, which is composed of an operating control unit and two mobile robots with explosion-proof and waterproof function. This robot system is designed to observe and collect information of the coal mine environment through remote control. Thus, this system can be regarded as a multifunction sensor, which realizes remote sensing. When the robot system detects danger, it will send out signals to warn rescuers to keep away. The robot consists of two gas sensors, two cameras, a two-way audio, a 1 km-long fiber-optic cable for communication and a mechanical explosion-proof manipulator. Especially, the manipulator is a novel explosion-proof manipulator for cleaning obstacles, which has 3-degree-of-freedom, but is driven by two motors. Furthermore, the two robots can communicate in series for 2 km with the operating control unit. The development of the robot system may provide a reference for developing future search-and-rescue systems.

  19. Green tea polyphenols rescue of brain defects induced by overexpression of DYRK1A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fayçal Guedj

    Full Text Available Individuals with partial HSA21 trisomies and mice with partial MMU16 trisomies containing an extra copy of the DYRK1A gene present various alterations in brain morphogenesis. They present also learning impairments modeling those encountered in Down syndrome. Previous MRI and histological analyses of a transgenic mice generated using a human YAC construct that contains five genes including DYRK1A reveal that DYRK1A is involved, during development, in the control of brain volume and cell density of specific brain regions. Gene dosage correction induces a rescue of the brain volume alterations. DYRK1A is also involved in the control of synaptic plasticity and memory consolidation. Increased gene dosage results in brain morphogenesis defects, low BDNF levels and mnemonic deficits in these mice. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG - a member of a natural polyphenols family, found in great amount in green tea leaves - is a specific and safe DYRK1A inhibitor. We maintained control and transgenic mice overexpressing DYRK1A on two different polyphenol-based diets, from gestation to adulthood. The major features of the transgenic phenotype were rescued in these mice.

  20. Ephaptic coupling rescues conduction failure in weakly coupled cardiac tissue with voltage-gated gap junctions (United States)

    Weinberg, S. H.


    Electrical conduction in cardiac tissue is usually considered to be primarily facilitated by gap junctions, providing a pathway between the intracellular spaces of neighboring cells. However, recent studies have highlighted the role of coupling via extracellular electric fields, also known as ephaptic coupling, particularly in the setting of reduced gap junction expression. Further, in the setting of reduced gap junctional coupling, voltage-dependent gating of gap junctions, an oft-neglected biophysical property in computational studies, produces a positive feedback that promotes conduction failure. We hypothesized that ephaptic coupling can break the positive feedback loop and rescue conduction failure in weakly coupled cardiac tissue. In a computational tissue model incorporating voltage-gated gap junctions and ephaptic coupling, we demonstrate that ephaptic coupling can rescue conduction failure in weakly coupled tissue. Further, ephaptic coupling increased conduction velocity in weakly coupled tissue, and importantly, reduced the minimum gap junctional coupling necessary for conduction, most prominently at fast pacing rates. Finally, we find that, although neglecting gap junction voltage-gating results in negligible differences in well coupled tissue, more significant differences occur in weakly coupled tissue, greatly underestimating the minimal gap junctional coupling that can maintain conduction. Our study suggests that ephaptic coupling plays a conduction-preserving role, particularly at rapid heart rates.

  1. [Organization of medical rescue during catastrophes with limited effects occurring in urban areas]. (United States)

    Adnet, F; Maistre, J P; Lapandry, C; Cupa, M; Lapostolle, F


    We conducted a survey regarding the organization of medical rescue during major events (catastrophes with limited effects) occurring in urban areas (Paris and immediate suburbs). The goal of this work was to study the availability of on site medical help and the real needs.Study design - Retrospective survey. Thirty-eight major events were analysed between 1988 and 2000. The median number (25th-75th percentiles) of victims per event was 42 (21-68) (range 8 to 424). The median percentage of true emergencies (TE) was 5% with regard to the total number of victims per event. Thirty minutes after the event, 92% of the sites had a number of physician-manned ambulances greater than the number of severe victims. The median time to first evacuation was 79 (62-102) min. Disasters with limited effect occurrence in Paris and its immediate suburbs are characterized by a small percentage of TE and by a constant oversupply of medical means onsite. These observations led us to propose a new organization of medical rescue during this type of catastrophe, abandoning the classical notion of forward medical command post (FMCP) for a collection point of medical services (CPMS) consisting all means of evacuation (physician-manned and other ambulances). Also, a new type of victim identification, based on hospital base-station medical direction is discussed in this paper.

  2. [Clinical characteristics of pediatric victims in the Lushan and Wenchuan earthquakes and experience of medical rescue]. (United States)

    Jiang, Xin; Xiang, Bo; Liu, Li-Jun; Liu, Min; Tang, Xue-Yang; Huang, Lu-Gang; Li, Yuan; Peng, Ming-Xing; Xin, Wen-Qiong


    To get a more comprehensive understanding of the clinical characteristics of pediatric victims in earthquake and to summarize the experience of medical rescue. The clinical information was collected from the pediatric victims who were admitted to West China Hospital, Sichuan University following the Lushan earthquake in 2013 and Wenchuan earthquake in 2008. The clinical data were compared between the pediatric victims in the two earthquakes. Thirty-four children under 14 years of age, who were injured in the Lushan earthquake, were admitted to the West China Hospital before April 30, 2013. Compared with the data in the Wenchuan earthquake, the mean age of the pediatric victims in the Lushan earthquake was significantly lower (Pearthquake to hospitalization was significantly shorter (Pearthquake, 67.6% of the injured children had variable limb fractures; traumatic brain injury was found in 29.4% of hospitalized children, versus 9.5% in the Wenchuan earthquake (Pearthquake than in the Wenchuan earthquake. But these cases recovered well, which was possibly due to timely on-site rescue and transfer and multi-sector, multi-institution, and multidisciplinary cooperation.

  3. Management of adjunctive antithrombotic therapy in STEMI patients treated with fibrinolysis undergoing rescue or delayed PCI. (United States)

    Capodanno, Davide; Angiolillo, Dominick J


    Although primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is the recommended method of reperfusion in patients presenting with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), fibrinolysis remains a beneficial alternative in patients who cannot be reperfused timely with primary PCI, and is still the preferred revascularisation strategy in many parts of the world where PCI facilities are unavailable. Because fibrinolysis is known to activate platelets and promote thrombin activity, concomitant administration of antiplatelet and anticoagulant therapies is needed to lower the risk for re-occlusion and to support mechanical interventions in patients undergoing rescue or delayed PCI. However, the addition of oral antiplatelet and parenteral anticoagulant drugs on top of fibrinolysis may come at the price of an increased risk of bleeding. The current availability of several antiplatelet and anticoagulant therapies often leads to questions about the optimal selection in STEMI patients treated with fibrinolytics. This article appraises current evidences for the management of adjunctive antiplatelet and anticoagulant therapies in patients with STEMI undergoing fibrinolysis followed by rescue or delayed PCI.

  4. D-methionine (D-met) significantly rescues noise-induced hearing loss: timing studies. (United States)

    Campbell, Kathleen; Claussen, Alex; Meech, Robert; Verhulst, Steven; Fox, Daniel; Hughes, Larry


    We have previously reported rescue from noise-induced auditory brainstem response (ABR) threshold shifts with d-methionine (d-met) administration 1 h after noise exposure. The present study investigated further d-met rescue intervals at 3, 5 and 7 h post-noise exposure. Chinchillas laniger were exposed to a 6 h 105 dB sound pressure level (dB SPL) octave band noise (OBN) and then administered d-met i.p. starting 3, 5, or 7 h after noise exposure; controls received saline i.p. immediately after noise exposure. ABR assessments were performed at baseline and on post-exposure days 1 and 21. Outer hair cell (OHC) loss was measured in cochleae obtained at sacrifice 21 days post-exposure. Administration of d-met starting at any of the delay times of 3-7 h post-noise exposure significantly reduced day 21 ABR threshold shift at 2 and 4 kHz and OHC loss at all hair cell regions measured (2, 4, 6 and 8 kHz). ABR threshold shifts in the control group at 6 and 8 kHz were only 8 and 11 dB respectively allowing little opportunity to observe protection at those 2 frequencies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Rescue of a severely bottlenecked wolf (Canis lupus) population by a single immigrant. (United States)

    Vilà, Carles; Sundqvist, Anna-Karin; Flagstad, Øystein; Seddon, Jennifer; Björnerfeldt, Susanne; Kojola, Ilpo; Casulli, Adriano; Sand, Håkan; Wabakken, Petter; Ellegren, Hans


    The fragmentation of populations is an increasingly important problem in the conservation of endangered species. Under these conditions, rare migration events may have important effects for the rescue of small and inbred populations. However, the relevance of such migration events to genetically depauperate natural populations is not supported by empirical data. We show here that the genetic diversity of the severely bottlenecked and geographically isolated Scandinavian population of grey wolves (Canis lupus), founded by only two individuals, was recovered by the arrival of a single immigrant. Before the arrival of this immigrant, for several generations the population comprised only a single breeding pack, necessarily involving matings between close relatives and resulting in a subsequent decline in individual heterozygosity. With the arrival of just a single immigrant, there is evidence of increased heterozygosity, significant outbreeding (inbreeding avoidance), a rapid spread of new alleles and exponential population growth. Our results imply that even rare interpopulation migration can lead to the rescue and recovery of isolated and endangered natural populations.

  6. Winter color polymorphisms identify global hot spots for evolutionary rescue from climate change. (United States)

    Mills, L Scott; Bragina, Eugenia V; Kumar, Alexander V; Zimova, Marketa; Lafferty, Diana J R; Feltner, Jennifer; Davis, Brandon M; Hackländer, Klaus; Alves, Paulo C; Good, Jeffrey M; Melo-Ferreira, José; Dietz, Andreas; Abramov, Alexei V; Lopatina, Natalia; Fay, Kairsten


    Maintenance of biodiversity in a rapidly changing climate will depend on the efficacy of evolutionary rescue, whereby population declines due to abrupt environmental change are reversed by shifts in genetically driven adaptive traits. However, a lack of traits known to be under direct selection by anthropogenic climate change has limited the incorporation of evolutionary processes into global conservation efforts. In 21 vertebrate species, some individuals undergo a seasonal color molt from summer brown to winter white as camouflage against snow, while other individuals remain brown. Seasonal snow duration is decreasing globally, and fitness is lower for winter white animals on snowless backgrounds. Based on 2713 georeferenced samples of known winter coat color-from eight species across trophic levels-we identify environmentally driven clinal gradients in winter coat color, including polymorphic zones where winter brown and white morphs co-occur. These polymorphic zones, underrepresented by existing global protected area networks, indicate hot spots for evolutionary rescue in a changing climate. Copyright © 2018, American Association for the Advancement of Science.


    Figueroa, Marta S; Nadal, Jeroni; Contreras, Inés


    To report the results of vitrectomy with platelet-rich plasma (PRP) application and gas tamponade as a rescue therapy in previously vitrectomized eyes with optic disk pit (ODP) maculopathy. Three patients with visual loss due to persistent or recurrent ODP maculopathy who had undergone previous vitrectomy were offered application of PRP. Platelet-rich plasma was obtained by centrifugation of a blood sample from each patient. Surgery consisted of vitrectomy and internal limiting membrane peeling if the membrane had not been already removed (in two eyes). After fluid/air exchange, three drops of PRP were applied on the ODP followed by 8% C3F8 tamponade. Immediately after surgery, the patient remained supine for 30 minutes and then kept a face-down position for 2 weeks. Optic disk pit maculopathy improved as soon as two weeks after surgery and resolved in all eyes between six and eight months after PRP application. Patients were followed up for three years, with no recurrences. Visual acuity remained stable in one eye and improved in two eyes. Vitrectomy with PRP application may be useful as a rescue therapy in patients with refractory ODP maculopathy. Platelet-rich plasma may act by promoting the closure of the communication between the vitreous and the intraretinal/subretinal space at the pit. This treatment may avoid potentially harmful maneuvers that have been used to treat ODP maculopathy.

  8. The debtor-friendly fallacy in business rescue: Agency theory moderation and quasi relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Pretorius


    Full Text Available Tension often arises when Chapter 6 business rescue practitioners (BRPs are appointed by directors to rescue their distressed businesses. Regulating by means of standard agency contracting becomes irrelevant in the resulting multiple relationships. Looking through the agency lens, using analytic autoethnography and compiling narratives, this paper explains the perceptions of what appear to be quasiagency relationships and obtains a better understanding of these. The findings suggest that the apparent principal-agent relationships suffer from asymmetries of goals, information access, informal power and diverging perceptions of moral hazard, transaction costs and adverse selection. As a solution, contracting has been shown to have limited value owing to outcome uncertainty and measurability. This is because the tasks of the BRP are non-programmable and term-dependent. The findings provide filing directors, shareholders, creditors, regulatory authorities and BRPs in this newly instituted regime, with enhanced understanding of how the relationships manifest in practice and overcome the non-contractibility of the newly formed relationships.

  9. Auxin overproduction in shoots cannot rescue auxin deficiencies in Arabidopsis roots. (United States)

    Chen, Qingguo; Dai, Xinhua; De-Paoli, Henrique; Cheng, Youfa; Takebayashi, Yumiko; Kasahara, Hiroyuki; Kamiya, Yuji; Zhao, Yunde


    Auxin plays an essential role in root development. It has been a long-held dogma that auxin required for root development is mainly transported from shoots into roots by polarly localized auxin transporters. However, it is known that auxin is also synthesized in roots. Here we demonstrate that a group of YUCCA (YUC) genes, which encode the rate-limiting enzymes for auxin biosynthesis, plays an essential role in Arabidopsis root development. Five YUC genes (YUC3, YUC5, YUC7, YUC8 and YUC9) display distinct expression patterns during root development. Simultaneous inactivation of the five YUC genes (yucQ mutants) leads to the development of very short and agravitropic primary roots. The yucQ phenotypes are rescued by either adding 5 nM of the natural auxin, IAA, in the growth media or by expressing a YUC gene in the roots of yucQ. Interestingly, overexpression of a YUC gene in shoots in yucQ causes the characteristic auxin overproduction phenotypes in shoots; however, the root defects of yucQ are not rescued. Our data demonstrate that localized auxin biosynthesis in roots is required for normal root development and that auxin transported from shoots is not sufficient for supporting root elongation and root gravitropic responses. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email:

  10. La Serra d'Almos (Tarragona): an example of phenological data rescue and preservation in Catalonia (United States)

    Busto, Montserrat; Cunillera, Jordi; de Yzaguirre, Xavi; Borrell, Josep


    The interruption of important phenological series and the progressive disappearance of phenological observations in Catalonia led the Meteorological Service of Catalonia (SMC) to design and impulse a new phenological network promoted by the Climate Change Unit of this Met Service. The "Fenocat" network was born in March 2013, and currently has around fifty observers distributed throughout Catalonia that observe plants, birds and butterflies. We are providing data from different plant phenophases to PEP725 database. Besides this new phenological network (Fenocat), one of the aims of SMC is to rescue and preserve historical data from different observation points in Catalonia. We show in this poster the example of rescue and preservation of phenological data from la Serra d'Almos (in Tivissa, near Tarragona, Catalonia, NE Iberian Peninsula), an observation series that began in 1973. After digitalization process and quality control tasks, we show preliminary results of this phenological series, and we compare them with those of similar European series. We show the evolution trends for different observed species, such as almond tree (Prunus dulcis), hazel (Corylus avellana), plum (Prunus domestica), olive tree (Olea europea), apple tree (Malus domestica) or vineyard (Vitis vinifera).

  11. A smart phone-based pocket fall accident detection, positioning, and rescue system. (United States)

    Kau, Lih-Jen; Chen, Chih-Sheng


    We propose in this paper a novel algorithm as well as architecture for the fall accident detection and corresponding wide area rescue system based on a smart phone and the third generation (3G) networks. To realize the fall detection algorithm, the angles acquired by the electronic compass (ecompass) and the waveform sequence of the triaxial accelerometer on the smart phone are used as the system inputs. The acquired signals are then used to generate an ordered feature sequence and then examined in a sequential manner by the proposed cascade classifier for recognition purpose. Once the corresponding feature is verified by the classifier at current state, it can proceed to next state; otherwise, the system will reset to the initial state and wait for the appearance of another feature sequence. Once a fall accident event is detected, the user's position can be acquired by the global positioning system (GPS) or the assisted GPS, and sent to the rescue center via the 3G communication network so that the user can get medical help immediately. With the proposed cascaded classification architecture, the computational burden and power consumption issue on the smart phone system can be alleviated. Moreover, as we will see in the experiment that a distinguished fall accident detection accuracy up to 92% on the sensitivity and 99.75% on the specificity can be obtained when a set of 450 test actions in nine different kinds of activities are estimated by using the proposed cascaded classifier, which justifies the superiority of the proposed algorithm.

  12. Exogenous fibroblast growth factor 8 rescues development of mouse diastemal vestigial tooth ex vivo. (United States)

    Li, Lu; Yuan, Guohua; Liu, Chao; Zhang, Lu; Zhang, Yanding; Chen, YiPing; Chen, Zhi


    Regression of vestigial tooth buds results in the formation of the toothless diastema, a unique feature of the mouse dentition. Revitalization of the diastemal vestigial tooth bud provides an excellent model for studying tooth regeneration and replacement. It has been previously shown that suppression of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling in the diastema results in vestigial tooth bud regression. In this study, we report that application of exogenous FGF8 to the mouse embryonic diastemal region rescues diastemal tooth development. However, this rescue of diastemal tooth development occurs only in an isolated diastemal regions and not in the mandibular quadrant, which includes the incisor and molar germs. FGF8 promotes cell proliferation and inhibits apoptosis in diastemal tooth epithelium, and revitalizes the tooth developmental program, as evidenced by the expression of genes critical for normal tooth development. Our results also support the idea that the adjacent tooth germs contribute to the suppression of diastemal vestigial tooth buds by means of multiple signals. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Rescue Procedures after Suboptimal Deep Brain Stimulation Outcomes in Common Movement Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam M. Nagy


    Full Text Available Deep brain stimulation (DBS is a unique, functional neurosurgical therapy indicated for medication refractory movement disorders as well as some psychiatric diseases. Multicontact electrodes are placed in “deep” structures within the brain with targets varying depending on the surgical indication. An implanted programmable pulse generator supplies the electrodes with a chronic, high frequency electrical current that clinically mimics the effects of ablative lesioning techniques. DBS’s efficacy has been well established for its movement disorder indications (Parkinson’s disease, essential tremor, and dystonia. However, clinical outcomes are sometimes suboptimal, even in the absence of common, potentially reversible complications such as hardware complications, infection, poor electrode placement, and poor programming parameters. This review highlights some of the rescue procedures that have been explored in suboptimal DBS cases for Parkinson’s disease, essential tremor, and dystonia. To date, the data is limited and difficult to generalize, but a large majority of published reports demonstrate positive results. The decision to proceed with such treatments should be made on a case by case basis. Larger studies are needed to clearly establish the benefit of rescue procedures and to establish for which patient populations they may be most appropriate.

  14. A neural network application to search and rescue satellite aided tracking (SARSAT) (United States)

    Taylor, Ivan W.; Vigneault, Michel O.


    The Search and Rescue Satellite Aided Tracking (SARSAT) system uses polar orbiting satellites to monitor the earth's surface for emergency locator transmitters (ELT's). A detected ELT signal is retransmitted to ground facilities for processing. The ELT location is determined by fitting a Doppler curve to the signal, and this location estimate is then sent for transmission to a rescue unit for action. The heuristic based approach to predict the location accuracy category of SARSAT hits based on the parameters of the Doppler curve fit work reasonably well but are far from ideal. They consistently have difficulty identifying very good solutions when they occur and very poor solutions when they occur. Normal data fitting techniques based on multiple linear regression do not work well because SARSAT data are inherently nonlinear. Neural networks were thus applied to SARSAT data as a nonlinear data fitting technique. A neural network program was trained on a sample of 173 observations and tested on a sample of 172 observations. Results are compared to the current method. Although the results so far have been promising, they are still far from ideal. Other artificial intelligence technologies such as fuzzy logic, expert systems, and inductive learning are being investigated to enhance the neural network approach.

  15. Search and rescue in collapsed structures: engineering and social science aspects. (United States)

    El-Tawil, Sherif; Aguirre, Benigno


    This paper discusses the social science and engineering dimensions of search and rescue (SAR) in collapsed buildings. First, existing information is presented on factors that influence the behaviour of trapped victims, particularly human, physical, socioeconomic and circumstantial factors. Trapped victims are most often discussed in the context of structural collapse and injuries sustained. Most studies in this area focus on earthquakes as the type of disaster that produces the most extensive structural damage. Second, information is set out on the engineering aspects of urban search and rescue (USAR) in the United States, including the role of structural engineers in USAR operations, training and certification of structural specialists, and safety and general procedures. The use of computational simulation to link the engineering and social science aspects of USAR is discussed. This could supplement training of local SAR groups and USAR teams, allowing them to understand better the collapse process and how voids form in a rubble pile. A preliminary simulation tool developed for this purpose is described. © 2010 The Author(s). Journal compilation © Overseas Development Institute, 2010.

  16. A chemical rescue screen identifies a Plasmodium falciparum apicoplast inhibitor targeting MEP isoprenoid precursor biosynthesis. (United States)

    Wu, Wesley; Herrera, Zachary; Ebert, Danny; Baska, Katie; Cho, Seok H; DeRisi, Joseph L; Yeh, Ellen


    The apicoplast is an essential plastid organelle found in Plasmodium parasites which contains several clinically validated antimalarial-drug targets. A chemical rescue screen identified MMV-08138 from the "Malaria Box" library of growth-inhibitory antimalarial compounds as having specific activity against the apicoplast. MMV-08138 inhibition of blood-stage Plasmodium falciparum growth is stereospecific and potent, with the most active diastereomer demonstrating a 50% effective concentration (EC50) of 110 nM. Whole-genome sequencing of 3 drug-resistant parasite populations from two independent selections revealed E688Q and L244I mutations in P. falciparum IspD, an enzyme in the MEP (methyl-d-erythritol-4-phosphate) isoprenoid precursor biosynthesis pathway in the apicoplast. The active diastereomer of MMV-08138 directly inhibited PfIspD activity in vitro with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 7.0 nM. MMV-08138 is the first PfIspD inhibitor to be identified and, together with heterologously expressed PfIspD, provides the foundation for further development of this promising antimalarial drug candidate lead. Furthermore, this report validates the use of the apicoplast chemical rescue screen coupled with target elucidation as a discovery tool to identify specific apicoplast-targeting compounds with new mechanisms of action. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  17. Disruption of microtubule network rescues aberrant actin comets in dynamin2-depleted cells.

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    Yuji Henmi

    Full Text Available A large GTPase dynamin, which is required for endocytic vesicle formation, regulates the actin cytoskeleton through its interaction with cortactin. Dynamin2 mutants impair the formation of actin comets, which are induced by Listeria monocytogenes or phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase. However, the role of dynamin2 in the regulation of the actin comet is still unclear. Here we show that aberrant actin comets in dynamin2-depleted cells were rescued by disrupting of microtubule networks. Depletion of dynamin2, but not cortactin, significantly reduced the length and the speed of actin comets induced by Listeria. This implies that dynamin2 may regulate the actin comet in a cortactin-independent manner. As dynamin regulates microtubules, we investigated whether perturbation of microtubules would rescue actin comet formation in dynamin2-depleted cells. Treatment with taxol or colchicine created a microtubule-free space in the cytoplasm, and made no difference between control and dynamin2 siRNA cells. This suggests that the alteration of microtubules by dynamin2 depletion reduced the length and the speed of the actin comet.

  18. Multiemployer Pension Plans (United States)

    Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation — This spreadsheet lists the active multiemployer pensions plans insured by PBGC. Plans are identified by name, employer identification number (EIN) and plan number...

  19. Prospects of using medium-wave band for radio communication with rescue mobile teams of EMERCOM of Russia (United States)

    Bazhukov, I. F.; Dulkejt, I. V.; Zavyalov, S. A.; Lvova, Yu V.; Lyashuk, A. N.; Puzyrev, P. I.; Rekunov, S. G.; Chaschin, E. A.; Sharapov, S. V.


    The results of tests in-situ of the prototype of medium-wave mobile radio station «Noema-SV» in Western Siberia, Omsk region and Vorkuta Arctic Integrated Emergency and Rescue Center of EMERCOM of Russia are presented. Radio paths tests in-situ in the Far North show the possibility of radio communication with rescue mobile teams of EMERCOM of Russia in the medium-wave band within distances of several tens of kilometers of rugged topography. The radio range on a flat terrain increases to several hundreds of kilometers. Shortened medium-wave band antennas developed at OmSTU and employed by rescue mobile teams of EMERCOM of Russia were used in.

  20. Rescue of foot-and-mouth disease viruses that are pathogenic for cattle from preserved viral RNA samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belsham, Graham; Jamal, Syed Muhammad; Tjørnehøj, Kirsten


    of the rescued viruses (of serotype O and Asia 1) were inoculated into bull calves under high containment conditions. Acute clinical disease was observed in each case which spread rapidly from the inoculated calves to in-contact animals. Thus the rescued viruses were highly pathogenic. The availability......Background: Foot and mouth disease is an economically important disease of cloven-hoofed animals including cattle, sheep and pigs. It is caused by a picornavirus, foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), which has a positive sense RNA genome which, when introduced into cells, can initiate virus...... replication. Principal Findings: A system has been developed to rescue infectious FMDV from RNA preparations generated from clinical samples obtained under experimental conditions and then applied to samples collected in the ‘‘field’’. Clinical samples from suspect cases of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) were...

  1. The Lantibiotic NAI-107 Efficiently Rescues Drosophila melanogaster from Infection with Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus USA300

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomasen, Thomas T.; Mojsoska, Biljana; Cruz, Joao C. S


    We used the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster as a cost-effective in vivo model to evaluate the efficacy of novel antibacterial peptides and peptoids for treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections. A panel of peptides with known antibacterial activity in vitro and....../or in vivo was tested in Drosophila. Although most peptides and peptoids that were effective in vitro failed to rescue lethal effects of S. aureus infections in vivo, we found that two lantibiotics, nisin and NAI-107, rescued adult flies from fatal infections. Furthermore, NAI-107 rescued mortality...... of infection with the MRSA strain USA300 with an efficacy equivalent to that of vancomycin, a widely applied antibiotic for the treatment of serious MRSA infections. These results establish Drosophila as a useful model for in vivo drug evaluation of antibacterial peptides....

  2. Mircea Cărtărescu en español: estado de la cuestión

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    Ioana Alexandrescu


    Full Text Available El artículo ofrece un panorama de los trayectos de la traducción de Mircea Cărtărescu al español. Se aborda el conjunto de sus traducciones desde una perspectiva plural, que pretende distinguir las particularidades del caso y construir una compleja base informativa sobre el tema aún muy poco estudiado de la representación de la obra de Mircea Cărtărescu en el ámbito hispanohablante.

  3. The Role of a Decision Maker’s Perspective in the Generation and Assessment of Actions in a Conflict Situation. (United States)


    attributions in personal communication (Taylor & Fiske, • w1975). Besides influencing the content of information retrieved from memory, schemata may also...government to do something" might suggest that the French government wanted the government of Guayaquil either to rescue the 7hostages, to demand the hostages...Steinmetz, J. L. Social explanation and social expectation: The effects of real and hypothetical explanations upon subjective likelihood. Journal of

  4. Prenatal pharmacotherapy rescues brain development in a Down's syndrome mouse model. (United States)

    Guidi, Sandra; Stagni, Fiorenza; Bianchi, Patrizia; Ciani, Elisabetta; Giacomini, Andrea; De Franceschi, Marianna; Moldrich, Randal; Kurniawan, Nyoman; Mardon, Karine; Giuliani, Alessandro; Calzà, Laura; Bartesaghi, Renata


    Intellectual impairment is a strongly disabling feature of Down's syndrome, a genetic disorder of high prevalence (1 in 700-1000 live births) caused by trisomy of chromosome 21. Accumulating evidence shows that widespread neurogenesis impairment is a major determinant of abnormal brain development and, hence, of intellectual disability in Down's syndrome. This defect is worsened by dendritic hypotrophy and connectivity alterations. Most of the pharmacotherapies designed to improve cognitive performance in Down's syndrome have been attempted in Down's syndrome mouse models during adult life stages. Yet, as neurogenesis is mainly a prenatal event, treatments aimed at correcting neurogenesis failure in Down's syndrome should be administered during pregnancy. Correction of neurogenesis during the very first stages of brain formation may, in turn, rescue improper brain wiring. The aim of our study was to establish whether it is possible to rescue the neurodevelopmental alterations that characterize the trisomic brain with a prenatal pharmacotherapy with fluoxetine, a drug that is able to restore post-natal hippocampal neurogenesis in the Ts65Dn mouse model of Down's syndrome. Pregnant Ts65Dn females were treated with fluoxetine from embryonic Day 10 until delivery. On post-natal Day 2 the pups received an injection of 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine and were sacrificed after either 2 h or after 43 days (at the age of 45 days). Untreated 2-day-old Ts65Dn mice exhibited a severe neurogenesis reduction and hypocellularity throughout the forebrain (subventricular zone, subgranular zone, neocortex, striatum, thalamus and hypothalamus), midbrain (mesencephalon) and hindbrain (cerebellum and pons). In embryonically treated 2-day-old Ts65Dn mice, precursor proliferation and cellularity were fully restored throughout all brain regions. The recovery of proliferation potency and cellularity was still present in treated Ts65Dn 45-day-old mice. Moreover, embryonic treatment restored

  5. Digoxin as a rescue drug in intra aortic balloon pump and inotrope dependent patients. (United States)

    Naqvi, Shahab; Ahmed, Iftikhar; Siddiqi, Rashad; Hussain, Syed Aqeel


    In absence of cardiac transplant program in our country, when patients with poor left ventricular (LV) functions undergo coronary revascularisation surgery, they are on one or more inotropic supports with intra aortic balloon pump (IABP) at the time of weaning off from cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Post-operatively, due to the poor LV function, many of these patients become dependent on inotropic supports and IABP and eventually have a poor outcome. We used digoxin in these patients as a rescue drug, where more than one attempts to wean them off IABP and inotropic support had failed. Objective of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of digoxin as a rescue drug in intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) and inotropic support-dependent, post-CABG patients in terms of improvement in their left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), serum lactate and mixed venous oxygen saturation. It is a descriptive case series conducted at Department of Cardiac Anesthesia & Intensive Care, Armed Forces Institute of Cardiology and National Institute of Heart Diseases, Rawalpindi, Pakistan, from 1 Nov 2002 to 31 Dec 2007. Thirty post-coronary re-vascularisation patients who were inotrope and IABP dependant and could not be weaned off from supports were given a trial of digoxin to see any improvement in the cardiac functions. Mixed venous oxygen saturation (SvO2), serum lactate levels and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) in the bed side echo were monitored at predigoxin stage and then at three intervals: at serum digoxin level of up to 0.5 nanog/ml; then up to 1.0 nanog/ml and then up to 1.5 nanog/ml. Paired sample t-test was applied and 2-tailed significance was calculated. Significant improvement was seen in the mean SvO2, serum lactate levels and LVEF when patient's serum digoxin level were around 1.5 nanog/dL. Clinically, 20 out of 30 patients (66.67%) improved with digoxin administration and were ultimately weaned off from IABP and inotropic supports. There was no significant

  6. Intergenomic arms races: detection of a nuclear rescue gene of male-killing in a ladybird.

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    Tamsin M O Majerus

    Full Text Available Many species of arthropod are infected by deleterious inherited micro-organisms. Typically these micro-organisms are inherited maternally. Consequently, some, particularly bacteria of the genus Wolbachia, employ a variety of strategies that favour female over male hosts. These strategies include feminisation, induction of parthenogenesis and male-killing. These strategies result in female biased sex ratios in host populations, which lead to selection for host factors that promote male production. In addition, the intra-genomic conflict produced by the difference in transmission of these cytoplasmic endosymbionts and nuclear factors will impose a pressure favouring nuclear factors that suppress the effects of the symbiont. During investigations of the diversity of male-killing bacteria in ladybirds (Coccinellidae, unexpected patterns of vertical transmission of a newly discovered male-killing taxon were observed in the ladybird Cheilomenes sexmaculata. Initial analysis suggested that the expression of the bacterial male-killing trait varies according to the male(s a female has mated with. By swapping males between females, a male influence on the expression of the male-killing trait was confirmed. Experiments were then performed to determine the nature of the interaction. These studies showed that a single dominant allele, which rescues male progeny of infected females from the pathological effect of the male-killer, exists in this species. The gene shows typical Mendelian autosomal inheritance and is expressed irrespective of the parent from which it is inherited. Presence of the rescue gene in either parent does not significantly affect the inheritance of the symbiont. We conclude that C. sexmaculata is host to a male-killing gamma-proteobacterium. Further, this beetle is polymorphic for a nuclear gene, the dominant allele of which rescues infected males from the pathogenic effects of the male-killing agent. These findings represent the first

  7. [Sensation seeking, traumatic stress and coping: an empirical investigation in rescue forces]. (United States)

    Tschiesner, Reinhard


    This investigation deals with sensation seeking in rescue forces. We are interested in the scores regarding this variable and relationship between these and other relevant variables. Aim of this research is to find connections between sensation seeking and traumatic stress and what is the role of coping in this connections. All in all we are going to exam Sensation Seeking as a protective factor for traumatic stress.The subjects in this investigation are firefighters and emergency-medical-technicians. We use the German Sensation-Seeking-Scale version 5 (SSS-V) and the Arnett-Inventory-of-Sensation-Seeking (AISS-D) to assess sensation seeking. To explore the traumatic stress symptoms in subjects, we use the Posttraumatic-Stress-Diagnostic-Scale (PDS) and for the coping strategies the short version of Janke and Erdmanns Coping- Questionnaire (SVF-78).We found differences between the rescue forces and the control group in reference to subscales "thrill and adventure seeking" (TAS) and "experience seeking" (ES) as well as no connections between the sensation seeking scales and subscales and traumatic stress symptoms. We found only a significance by trend correlation concerning experience seeking and avoidance. Furthermore we found correlations between AISS-scales as well as the SSS-V-subscales and coping strategies. Partial correlation showed very low coefficients regarding Experience Seeking and Avoidance if we insert coping strategies as a control variable.When we look at the reliability of the questionnaires to assess sensation seeking, we find out that values are very low. Therefore we have to keep in mind that the assessment of Sensation Seeking is defective through an error in measurement and to interpret results carefully. Nonetheless we found that rescue forces search more actively thrills and adventures and the control group more sensual and spiritual stimuli in our sample. We can't prove that sensation seeking is a personality trait which is able to protect

  8. Opioid Education and Nasal Naloxone Rescue Kits in the Emergency Department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwyer, Kristin


    Full Text Available Introduction: Emergency departments (EDs may be high-yield venues to address opioid deaths with education on both overdose prevention and appropriate actions in a witnessed overdose. In addition, the ED has the potential to equip patients with nasal naloxone kits as part of this effort. We evaluated the feasibility of an ED-based overdose prevention program and described the overdose risk knowledge, opioid use, overdoses, and overdose responses among participants who received overdose education and naloxone rescue kits (OEN and participants who received overdose education only (OE. Methods: Program participants were surveyed by telephone after their ED visit about their substance use, overdose risk knowledge, history of witnessed and personal overdoses, and actions in a witnessed overdose including use of naloxone. Results: A total of 415 ED patients received OE or OEN between January 1, 2011 and February 28, 2012. Among those, 51 (12% completed the survey; 37 (73% of those received a naloxone kit, and 14 (27% received OE only. Past 30-day opioid use was reported by 35% OEN and 36% OE, and an overdose was reported by 19% OEN and 29% OE. Among 53% (27/51 of participants who witnessed another individual experiencing an overdose, 95% OEN and 88% OE stayed with victim, 74% OEN and 38% OE called 911, 26% OEN and 25% OE performed rescue breathing, and 32% OEN (n=6 used a naloxone kit to reverse the overdose. We did not detect statistically significant differences between OEN and OE-only groups in opioid use, overdose or response to a witnessed overdose. Conclusion: This is the first study to demonstrate the feasibility of ED-based opioid overdose prevention education and naloxone distribution to trained laypersons, patients and their social network. The program reached a high-risk population that commonly witnessed overdoses and that called for help and used naloxone, when available, to rescue people. While the study was retrospective with a low

  9. Resources planning for radiological incidents management (United States)

    Hamid, Amy Hamijah binti Ab.; Rozan, Mohd Zaidi Abd; Ibrahim, Roliana; Deris, Safaai; Yunus, Muhd. Noor Muhd.


    Disastrous radiation and nuclear meltdown require an intricate scale of emergency health and social care capacity planning framework. In Malaysia, multiple agencies are responsible for implementing radiological and nuclear safety and security. This research project focused on the Radiological Trauma Triage (RTT) System. This system applies patient's classification based on their injury and level of radiation sickness. This classification prioritizes on the diagnostic and treatment of the casualties which include resources estimation of the medical delivery system supply and demand. Also, this system consists of the leading rescue agency organization and disaster coordinator, as well as the technical support and radiological medical response teams. This research implemented and developed the resources planning simulator for radiological incidents management. The objective of the simulator is to assist the authorities in planning their resources while managing the radiological incidents within the Internal Treatment Area (ITA), Reception Area Treatment (RAT) and Hospital Care Treatment (HCT) phases. The majority (75%) of the stakeholders and experts, who had been interviewed, witnessed and accepted that the simulator would be effective to resolve various types of disaster and resources management issues.

  10. Thermal requirements for surviving a mass rescue incident in the Arctic: project update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boileau, Renee [National Research Council Canada: Institute for Ocean Technology, St. John' s, Newfoundland and Labrador (Canada)], email:; DuCharme, Michel B. [Defence Research and Development Canada, Quebec, Quebec (Canada)], email:; Cheung, Stephen [Brock University Department of Physical Education and Kinesiology, St. Catherines, Ontario (Canada)], email:; Mak, Lawrence [National Research Council Canada: Institute for Ocean Technology St. John' s, Newfoundland and Labrador (Canada)], email:


    Recently the number of tourists travelling though the Arctic has risen to over 1.5 million per year, increasing the risk of accidents in these extreme conditions. With such harsh conditions, it could take several days for the rescue to arrive on site; however there are no standards specifying the thermal insulation properties that equipment should have. The aim of this paper is to assess the thermal protection afforded by the equipment available and to assess human endurance. A 3 year study was carried out with experiments being performed in simulated Arctic conditions. This study is intended to assess the likelihood of survival for victims in the Arctic with the use of equipment currently available and to identify the principal risks. Subsequent to this assessment, survival prediction tools are expected to be improved based upon the knowledge gained in this study and recommendations made for better equipment to improve the likelihood of survival in accidents in the Arctic Seas.

  11. Virtual simulation-based scene modeling of helicopter earthquake search and rescue (United States)

    Sun, Xue; Liu, Hu; Yang, Chenguang; Wang, Ning


    The characteristics of helicopter earthquake search and rescue (HESAR) oriented virtual simulation scene are summarized to guide the modeling of virtual simulation scene. Then a method of scene modeling which can satisfy the simulation requirements and simplify the modeling is proposed. The seismic influence field is first determined by inversion to get the distribution of buildings with different damage grades. And then, the division of different levels of detail (LOD) regions where the intricacy requirements of modeling are different is obtained to simplify the modeling. Besides, Unity3D is used for the three-dimensional terrain construction and scene rendering. Finally, a sample case was shown to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  12. HflX is a ribosome-splitting factor rescuing stalled ribosomes under stress conditions. (United States)

    Zhang, Yanqing; Mandava, Chandra Sekhar; Cao, Wei; Li, Xiaojing; Zhang, Dejiu; Li, Ningning; Zhang, Yixiao; Zhang, Xiaoxiao; Qin, Yan; Mi, Kaixia; Lei, Jianlin; Sanyal, Suparna; Gao, Ning


    Adverse cellular conditions often lead to nonproductive translational stalling and arrest of ribosomes on mRNAs. Here, we used fast kinetics and cryo-EM to characterize Escherichia coli HflX, a GTPase with unknown function. Our data reveal that HflX is a heat shock-induced ribosome-splitting factor capable of dissociating vacant as well as mRNA-associated ribosomes with deacylated tRNA in the peptidyl site. Structural data demonstrate that the N-terminal effector domain of HflX binds to the peptidyl transferase center in a strikingly similar manner as that of the class I release factors and induces dramatic conformational changes in central intersubunit bridges, thus promoting subunit dissociation. Accordingly, loss of HflX results in an increase in stalled ribosomes upon heat shock. These results suggest a primary role of HflX in rescuing translationally arrested ribosomes under stress conditions.

  13. Apomorphine: a rapid rescue agent for the management of motor fluctuations in advanced Parkinson disease. (United States)

    Kolls, Brad J; Stacy, Mark


    Parkinson disease is one of the most common neurodegenerative diseases in the United States, and the number of late stage patients is rising. In advance-stage disease, fluctuations in motor function, variability in response to dopaminergic therapy, and dyskinesias related to increasing doses of dopamine agonists and levodopa, present a variety of challenges to a managing physician. Traditional methods of treatment have concentrated on therapies to anticipate or prevent states of poor motor function. With the approval of apomorphine as a rapid-acting, subcutaneous injectable anti-Parkinson disease therapy, these off periods may now be treated with apomorphine as a "rescue" medication when they occur. This article reviews the pharmacology of apomorphine, the clinical data that support its use and suggest dosing and methods for initiating therapy in this challenging population of patients with Parkinson disease.

  14. Rescue of Brain Function Using Tunneling Nanotubes Between Neural Stem Cells and Brain Microvascular Endothelial Cells. (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoqing; Yu, Xiaowen; Xie, Chong; Tan, Zijian; Tian, Qi; Zhu, Desheng; Liu, Mingyuan; Guan, Yangtai


    Evidence indicates that neural stem cells (NSCs) can ameliorate cerebral ischemia in animal models. In this study, we investigated the mechanism underlying one of the neuroprotective effects of NSCs: tunneling nanotube (TNT) formation. We addressed whether the control of cell-to-cell communication processes between NSCs and brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs) and, particularly, the control of TNT formation could influence the rescue function of stem cells. In an attempt to mimic the cellular microenvironment in vitro, a co-culture system consisting of terminally differentiated BMECs from mice in a distressed state and NSCs was constructed. Additionally, engraftment experiments with infarcted mouse brains revealed that control of TNT formation influenced the effects of stem cell transplantation in vivo. In conclusion, our findings provide the first evidence that TNTs exist between NSCs and BMECs and that regulation of TNT formation alters cell function.

  15. Synchrony dynamics during initiation, failure, and rescue of the segmentation clock. (United States)

    Riedel-Kruse, Ingmar H; Müller, Claudia; Oates, Andrew C


    The "segmentation clock" is thought to coordinate sequential segmentation of the body axis in vertebrate embryos. This clock comprises a multicellular genetic network of synchronized oscillators, coupled by intercellular Delta-Notch signaling. How this synchrony is established and how its loss determines the position of segmentation defects in Delta and Notch mutants are unknown. We analyzed the clock's synchrony dynamics by varying strength and timing of Notch coupling in zebra-fish embryos with techniques for quantitative perturbation of gene function. We developed a physical theory based on coupled phase oscillators explaining the observed onset and rescue of segmentation defects, the clock's robustness against developmental noise, and a critical point beyond which synchrony decays. We conclude that synchrony among these genetic oscillators can be established by simultaneous initiation and self-organization and that the segmentation defect position is determined by the difference between coupling strength and noise.

  16. Farnesyltransferase haplodeficiency reduces neuropathology and rescues cognitive function in a mouse model of Alzheimer disease. (United States)

    Cheng, Shaowu; Cao, Dongfeng; Hottman, David A; Yuan, LiLian; Bergo, Martin O; Li, Ling


    Isoprenoids and prenylated proteins have been implicated in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer disease (AD), including amyloid-β precursor protein metabolism, Tau phosphorylation, synaptic plasticity, and neuroinflammation. However, little is known about the relative importance of the two protein prenyltransferases, farnesyltransferase (FT) and geranylgeranyltransferase-1 (GGT), in the pathogenesis of AD. In this study, we defined the impact of deleting one copy of FT or GGT on the development of amyloid-β (Aβ)-associated neuropathology and learning/memory impairments in APPPS1 double transgenic mice, a well established model of AD. Heterozygous deletion of FT reduced Aβ deposition and neuroinflammation and rescued spatial learning and memory function in APPPS1 mice. Heterozygous deletion of GGT reduced the levels of Aβ and neuroinflammation but had no impact on learning and memory. These results document that farnesylation and geranylgeranylation play differential roles in AD pathogenesis and suggest that specific inhibition of protein farnesylation could be a potential strategy for effectively treating AD.

  17. Cracking the humanitarian logistic coordination challenge: lessons from the urban search and rescue community. (United States)

    Tatham, Peter; Spens, Karen


    The challenges of achieving successful inter-agency logistic coordination in preparing for and responding to natural disasters and complex emergencies are both well understood and well documented. However, although many of these challenges remain unresolved, the literature reveals that the organisations that form the urban search and rescue (USAR) community have attained a high level of coherence and interoperability that results in a highly efficient and effective response. Therefore, this paper uses the idea of 'borrowing' from other fields as it explores how the processes and procedures used by the USAR community might be applied to improve humanitarian logistic operations. The paper analyses the USAR model and explores how the resultant challenges might be addressed in a humanitarian logistic context. The paper recommends that further research be undertaken in order to develop a modified USAR model that could be operationalised by the international community of humanitarian logisticians. © 2016 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2016.

  18. Genetic rescue of an endangered domestic animal through outcrossing with closely related breeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strønen, Astrid Vik; Salmela, Elina; Baldursdottir, Birna K.


    Genetic rescue, outcrossing with individuals from a related population, is used to augment genetic diversity in populations threatened by severe inbreeding and extinction. The endangered Norwegian Lundehund dog underwent at least two severe bottlenecks in the 1940s and 1960s that each left only...... five inbred dogs, and the approximately 1500 dogs remaining world-wide today appear to descend from only two individuals. The Lundehund has a high prevalence of a gastrointestinal disease, to which all remaining dogs may be predisposed. Outcrossing is currently performed with three Nordic Spitz breeds......: Norwegian Buhund, Icelandic Sheepdog, and Norrbottenspets. Examination of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotypes based on 165K loci in 48 dogs from the four breeds revealed substantially lower genetic diversity for the Lundehund (H-E 0.035) than for other breeds (H-E 0.209-0.284). Analyses...

  19. Isolation, Genome Phylogenetic Analysis and In vitro Rescue of a Newly Emerging Porcine Circovirus Type 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weijuan Zhu and Xiaofeng Ren*


    Full Text Available Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2 is the major causative agent of post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS. Infection by PCV2 may cause heavy losses in pig industry. In this study, we report the isolation of a newly emerging PCV2 from northeastern China. The complete genome of the PCV2 isolate named PCV2-LJR contains 1766 nucleotides and was compared with reference sequences published in GenBank followed by topology analysis of the resulting phylogenetic tree. The data indicated that the prevalent PCV2 isolates in the northeastern China had close relationship, although various genotypes of PCV2 existed. In addition, by gene recombination and transfection techniques, the PCV2 infectious clone was achieved and was able to rescue virus in vitro determined by indirect immunofluorescence assay and PCR. The obtained biological materials may be used for biological characterization of PCV2.

  20. Construction and Rescue of a Molecular Clone of Deformed Wing Virus (DWV.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Lamp

    Full Text Available European honey bees are highly important in crop pollination, increasing the value of global agricultural production by billions of dollars. Current knowledge about virulence and pathogenicity of Deformed wing virus (DWV, a major factor in honey bee colony mortality, is limited. With this study, we close the gap between field research and laboratory investigations by establishing a complete in vitro model for DWV pathogenesis. Infectious DWV was rescued from a molecular clone of a DWV-A genome that induces DWV symptoms such as crippled wings and discoloration. The expression of DWV proteins, production of infectious virus progeny, and DWV host cell tropism could be confirmed using newly generated anti-DWV monoclonal antibodies. The recombinant RNA fulfills Koch's postulates circumventing the need of virus isolation and propagation of pure virus cultures. In conclusion, we describe the development and application of a reverse genetics system for the study of DWV pathogenesis.

  1. Analysis of Cellular Tyrosine Phosphorylation via Chemical Rescue of Conditionally Active Abl Kinase. (United States)

    Wang, Zhihong; Kim, Min-Sik; Martinez Ferrando, Isabel; Koleske, Anthony John; Pandey, Akhilesh; Cole, Philip Arthur


    Identifying direct substrates targeted by protein kinases is important in understanding cellular physiology and intracellular signal transduction. Mass-spectrometry based quantitative proteomics provides a powerful tool for comprehensively characterizing the downstream substrates of protein kinases. This approach is efficiently applied to receptor kinases which can be precisely, directly, and rapidly activated by some agent, such as a growth factor. However, non-receptor tyrosine kinase Abl lacks the experimental advantage of extracellular growth factors as immediate and direct stimuli. To circumvent this limitation, we combine a chemical rescue approach with quantitative phosphoproteomics to identify targets of Abl and their phosphorylation sites with enhanced temporal resolution. Both known and novel putative substrates are identified, presenting opportunities for studying unanticipated functions of Abl under physiological and pathological conditions.

  2. NKS/SRV seminar on Barents Rescue 2001 LIVEX. Gamma search cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulvsand, T. [Swedish Defense Research Agency, Stockholm (Sweden); Finck, R.R. [Swedish Radiation Protection Authority, Stockholm (Sweden); Lauritzen, N. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)](eds.)


    At the seminar, results from the Gamma Search Cell of the Barents Rescue 2001 LIVEX were presented and the performance and experiences of airborne and car-borne teams that took part in the exercise were evaluated. In the Gamma Search Cell, the mobile teams found about 50 % of a large number of radioactive sources hidden within the exercise area. The exercise demonstrated that it is necessary to practise and test equipment under out-door conditions. By which method a source is found is important information in the evaluation of the result. Complementary methods are necessary to find hidden sources. For heavily shielded sources methods based on scattered radiation should be developed. (au)

  3. Relative Contributions of Complications and Failure to Rescue on Mortality in Older Patients Undergoing Pancreatectomy (United States)

    Tamirisa, Nina P.; Parmar, Abhishek D.; Vargas, Gabriela M.; Mehta, Hemalkumar B.; Kilbane, E. Molly; Hall, Bruce L.; Pitt, Henry A.; Riall, Taylor S.


    STRUCTURED ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE AND SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA For pancreatectomy patients, mortality increases with increasing age. Our study evaluated the relative contribution of overall postoperative complications and failure to rescue rates on the observed increased mortality in older patients undergoing pancreatic resection at specialized centers. METHODS We identified 2,694 patients who underwent pancreatic resection from the ACS-NSQIP Pancreatectomy Demonstration Project at 37 high volume centers. Overall morbidity and in-hospital mortality were determined in patients total number of patients with postoperative complications. RESULTS No significant differences were observed between patients pancreatectomy in patients ≥80 compared to patients <80 were similar. However, when complications occurred, older patients were more likely to die. Interventions to identify and aggressively treat complications are necessary to decrease mortality in vulnerable older patients. PMID:25563871

  4. Identification of MAC1: A Small Molecule That Rescues Spindle Bipolarity in Monastrol-Treated Cells. (United States)

    Al-Obaidi, Naowras; Mitchison, Timothy J; Crews, Craig M; Mayer, Thomas U


    The genetic integrity of each organism is intimately tied to the correct segregation of its genome during mitosis. Insights into the underlying mechanisms are fundamental for both basic research and the development of novel strategies to treat mitosis-relevant diseases such as cancer. Due to their fast mode of action, small molecules are invaluable tools to dissect mitosis. Yet, there is a great demand for novel antimitotic compounds. We performed a chemical genetic suppression screen to identify compounds that restore spindle bipolarity in cells treated with Monastrol, an inhibitor of the mitotic kinesin Eg5. We identified one compound-MAC1-that rescued spindle bipolarity in cells lacking Eg5 activity. Mechanistically, MAC1 induces the formation of additional microtubule nucleation centers, which allows kinesin Kif15-dependent bipolar spindle assembly in the absence of Eg5 activity. Thus, our chemical genetic suppression screen revealed novel unexpected insights into the mechanism of spindle assembly in mammalian cells.

  5. Intranasal treatment with bacteriophage rescues mice from Acinetobacter baumannii-mediated pneumonia. (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Mi, Zhiqiang; Niu, Wenkai; An, Xiaoping; Yuan, Xin; Liu, Huiying; Li, Puyuan; Liu, Yannan; Feng, Yuzhong; Huang, Yong; Zhang, Xianglilan; Zhang, Zhiyi; Fan, Hang; Peng, Fan; Tong, Yigang; Bai, Changqing


    With the emergence of drug-resistant bacteria, finding alternative agents to treat antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections is imperative. A mouse pneumonia model was developed by combining cyclophosphamide pretreatment and Acinetobacter baumannii challenge, and a lytic bacteriophage was evaluated for its therapeutic efficacy in this model by examining the survival rate, bacterial load in the lung and lung pathology. Intranasal instillation with bacteriophage rescued 100% of mice following lethal challenge with A. baumannii. Phage treatment reduced bacterial load in the lung. Microcomputed tomography indicated a reduction in lung inflammation in mice given phage. This research demonstrates that intranasal application of bacteriophage is viable, and could provide complete protection from pneumonia caused by A. baumannii.

  6. Safeguarding musical heritage. Memories of the rescue of the Hymn of Santiago de Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daylenis Blanco-Lobaina


    Full Text Available The musicality that highlights Santiago de Cuba as one of its fundamental attractions motivated one of the lines of work of the Escalinata project, focused on communication and promotion of Santiago's heritage. The city treasures several hymns composed in different periods and historical contexts, among them some dedicated to the Virgin of the Charity of the Copper and Santiago Apostle, patron of the city. However, dedicated to the city, Santiago's musical history has revealed the existence of a single anthem, which is why a process of restoration and digitization of its scores began in function of the rescue of this musical composition of the early nineteenth century. This work reveals the process of safeguarding and enhancing the value of this piece of music, considered to be the city's cultural heritage, just 88 years after it was premiered in the Municipal Government of Santiago de Cuba.

  7. A Combination of Terrain Prediction and Correction for Search and Rescue Robot Autonomous Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Guo


    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel two-step autonomous navigation method for search and rescue robot. The algorithm based on the vision is proposed for terrain identification to give a prediction of the safest path with the support vector regression machine (SVRM trained off-line with the texture feature and color features. And correction algorithm of the prediction based the vibration information is developed during the robot traveling, using the judgment function given in the paper. The region with fault prediction will be corrected with the real traversability value and be used to update the SVRM. The experiment demonstrates that this method could help the robot to find the optimal path and be protected from the trap brought from the error between prediction and the real environment.

  8. Research on Centroid Position for Stairs Climbing Stability of Search and Rescue Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Guo


    Full Text Available This paper represents the relationship between the stability of stairs climbing and the centroid position of the search and rescue robot. The robot system is considered as a mass point-plane model and the kinematics features are analyzed to find the relationship between centroid position and the maximal pitch angle of stairs the robot could climb up. A computable function about this relationship is given in this paper. During the stairs climbing, there is a maximal stability-keeping angle depends on the centroid position and the pitch angle of stairs, and the numerical formula is developed about the relationship between the maximal stability-keeping angle and the centroid position and pitch angle of stairs. The experiment demonstrates the trustworthy and correction of the method in the paper.

  9. Health Manpower Planning in Turkish Development Plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih ŞANTAŞ


    Full Text Available Health manpower planning is process that includes macro and micro planning, manpower supply and requirement, manpower distribution, personnel standards, job description, job requirements and establishing control structures related all these. Since being established the State Planning Organization has been applied nine five-year development plan. Plans in the 1960s can be said to outweigh direction of statism, in 1960-1980 mixed economy and in 1980-2000 liberal. In this study since 1963 applied objectives of the planning of health manpower in the nine development planning is evaluated.

  10. Ectopic Runx1 expression rescues Tal-1-deficiency in the generation of primitive and definitive hematopoiesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Tornack

    Full Text Available The transcription factors SCL/Tal-1 and AML1/Runx1 control the generation of pluripotent hematopoietic stem cells (pHSC and, thereby, primitive and definitive hematopoiesis, during embryonic development of the mouse from mesoderm. Thus, Runx1-deficient mice generate primitive, but not definitive hematopoiesis, while Tal-1-deficient mice are completely defective. Primitive as well as definitive hematopoiesis can be developed "in vitro" from embryonic stem cells (ESC. We show that wild type, as well as Tal-1(-/- and Runx1(-/- ESCs, induced to differentiation, all expand within 5 days to comparable numbers of Flk1(+ mesodermal cells. While wild type ESCs further differentiate to primitive and definitive erythrocytes, to c-fms(+Gr1(+Mac1(+ myeloid cells, and to B220(+CD19(+ B- and CD4(+/CD8(+ T-lymphoid cells, Runx1(-/- ESCs, as expected, only develop primitive erythrocytes, and Tal-1(-/- ESCs do not generate any hematopoietic cells. Retroviral transduction with Runx1 of Runx1(-/- ESCs, differentiated for 4 days to mesoderm, rescues definitive erythropoiesis, myelopoiesis and lymphopoiesis, though only with 1-10% of the efficiencies of wild type ESC hematopoiesis. Surprisingly, Tal-1(-/- ESCs can also be rescued at comparably low efficiencies to primitive and definitive erythropoiesis, and to myelopoiesis and lymphopoiesis by retroviral transduction with Runx1. These results suggest that Tal-1 expression is needed to express Runx1 in mesoderm, and that ectopic expression of Runx1 in mesoderm is sufficient to induce primitive as well as definitive hematopoiesis in the absence of Tal-1. Retroviral transduction of "in vitro" differentiating Tal-1(-/- and Runx1(-/- ESCs should be a useful experimental tool to probe selected genes for activities in the generation of hematopoietic progenitors "in vitro", and to assess the potential transforming activities in hematopoiesis of mutant forms of Tal-1 and Runx1 from acute myeloid leukemia and related tumors.

  11. Failure-to-rescue in patients undergoing surgery for esophageal or gastric cancer. (United States)

    Busweiler, L A; Henneman, D; Dikken, J L; Fiocco, M; van Berge Henegouwen, M I; Wijnhoven, B P; van Hillegersberg, R; Rosman, C; Wouters, M W; van Sandick, J W


    Complex surgical procedures such as esophagectomy and gastrectomy for cancer are associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to evaluate trends in postoperative morbidity, mortality, and associated failure-to-rescue (FTR), in patients who underwent a potentially curative resection for esophageal or gastric cancer in the Netherlands, and to investigate differences between the two groups. All patients with esophageal or gastric cancer who underwent a potentially curative resection, registered in the Dutch Upper GI Cancer Audit (DUCA) between 2011 and 2014, were included. Primary outcomes were (major) postoperative complications, postoperative mortality and FTR. To investigate groups' effect on the outcomes of interest a mixed model was used. Overall, 2644 patients with esophageal cancer and 1584 patients with gastric cancer were included in this study. In patients with gastric cancer, postoperative mortality (7.7% in 2011 vs. 3.8% in 2014) and FTR (38% in 2011 and 19% in 2014) decreased significantly over the years. The adjusted risk of developing a major postoperative complication was lower (OR 0.54; 95% CI 0.42-0.70), but the risk of FTR was higher (OR 1.85; 95% CI 1.05-3.27) in patients with gastric cancer compared to patients with esophageal cancer. Once a postoperative complication occurred, patients with gastric cancer were more likely to die compared to patients with esophageal cancer. Underlying mechanisms like patient selection, and differences in structure and organization of care should be investigated. Next to morbidity and mortality, failure-to-rescue should be considered as an important outcome measure after esophagogastric cancer resections. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd, BASO ~ The Association for Cancer Surgery, and the European Society of Surgical Oncology. All rights reserved.

  12. Concern over radiation exposure and psychological distress among rescue workers following the Great East Japan Earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsuoka Yutaka


    Full Text Available Abstract Background On March 11, 2011, the Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami that followed caused severe damage along Japans northeastern coastline and to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. To date, there are few reports specifically examining psychological distress in rescue workers in Japan. Moreover, it is unclear to what extent concern over radiation exposure has caused psychological distress to such workers deployed in the disaster area. Methods One month after the disaster, 424 of 1816 (24% disaster medical assistance team workers deployed to the disaster area were assessed. Concern over radiation exposure was evaluated by a single self-reported question. General psychological distress was assessed with the Kessler 6 scale (K6, depressive symptoms with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D, fear and sense of helplessness with the Peritraumatic Distress Inventory (PDI, and posttraumatic stress symptoms with the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R. Results Radiation exposure was a concern for 39 (9.2% respondents. Concern over radiation exposure was significantly associated with higher scores on the K6, CES-D, PDI, and IES-R. After controlling for age, occupation, disaster operation experience, duration of time spent watching earthquake news, and past history of psychiatric illness, these associations remained significant in men, but did not remain significant in women for the CES-D and PDI scores. Conclusion The findings suggest that concern over radiation exposure was strongly associated with psychological distress. Reliable, accurate information on radiation exposure might reduce deployment-related distress in disaster rescue workers.

  13. Promotion and Rescue of Intracellular Brucella neotomae Replication during Coinfection with Legionella pneumophila. (United States)

    Kang, Yoon-Suk; Kirby, James E


    We established a new Brucella neotomae in vitro model system for study of type IV secretion system-dependent (T4SS) pathogenesis in the Brucella genus. Importantly, B. neotomae is a rodent pathogen, and unlike B. abortus , B. melitensis , and B. suis , B. neotomae has not been observed to infect humans. It therefore can be handled more facilely using biosafety level 2 practices. More particularly, using a series of novel fluorescent protein and lux operon reporter systems to differentially label pathogens and track intracellular replication, we confirmed T4SS-dependent intracellular growth of B. neotomae in macrophage cell lines. Furthermore, B. neotomae exhibited early endosomal (LAMP-1) and late endoplasmic reticulum (calreticulin)-associated phagosome maturation. These findings recapitulate prior observations for human-pathogenic Brucella spp. In addition, during coinfection experiments with Legionella pneumophila , we found that defective intracellular replication of a B. neotomae T4SS virB4 mutant was rescued and baseline levels of intracellular replication of wild-type B. neotomae were significantly stimulated by coinfection with wild-type but not T4SS mutant L. pneumophila Using confocal microscopy, it was determined that intracellular colocalization of B. neotomae and L. pneumophila was required for rescue and that colocalization came at a cost to L. pneumophila fitness. These findings were not completely expected based on known temporal and qualitative differences in the intracellular life cycles of these two pathogens. Taken together, we have developed a new system for studying in vitro Brucella pathogenesis and found a remarkable T4SS-dependent interplay between Brucella and Legionella during macrophage coinfection. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  14. A Marine Actinomycete Rescues Caenorhabditis elegans from Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infection through Restitution of Lysozyme 7

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    Siti N. Fatin


    Full Text Available The resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to conventional antimicrobial treatment is a major scourge in healthcare. Therefore, it is crucial that novel potent anti-infectives are discovered. The aim of the present study is to screen marine actinomycetes for chemical entities capable of overcoming P. aeruginosa infection through mechanisms involving anti-virulence or host immunity activities. A total of 18 actinomycetes isolates were sampled from marine sediment of Songsong Island, Kedah, Malaysia. Upon confirming that the methanolic crude extract of these isolates do not display direct bactericidal activities, they were tested for capacity to rescue Caenorhabditis elegans infected with P. aeruginosa strain PA14. A hexane partition of the extract from one isolate, designated as Streptomyces sp. CCB-PSK207, could promote the survival of PA14 infected worms by more than 60%. Partial 16S sequence analysis on this isolate showed identity of 99.79% with Streptomyces sundarbansensis. This partition did not impair feeding behavior of C. elegans worms. Tested on PA14, the partition also did not affect bacterial growth or its ability to colonize host gut. The production of biofilm, protease, and pyocyanin in PA14 were uninterrupted, although there was an increase in elastase production. In lys-7::GFP worms, this partition was shown to induce the expression of lysozyme 7, an important innate immunity defense molecule that was repressed during PA14 infection. GC-MS analysis of the bioactive fraction of Streptomyces sp. CCB-PSK207 revealed the presence of methyl esters of branched saturated fatty acids. In conclusion, this is the first report of a marine actinomycete producing metabolites capable of rescuing C. elegans from PA14 through a lys-7 mediated activity.

  15. [Risk assessment of schistosomiasis transmission on rescue workers involved in "Oriental Star shipwreck event"]. (United States)

    Ying, Zhao-yu; Tan, Xiao-dong; Gao, Xu-dong; Ni, Zi-ling; Liu, Bei


    To assess the impact of the "Oriental Star shipwreck event" on the risk of schistosomiasis transmission in Jianli County, Hubei Province, so as to provide the evidence for formulating appropriate measures of schistosomiasis prevention and control. Based on the field observation and investigation, the data of the on-the-spot rescue and the historical endemic situation of schistosomiasis in Jianli County were collected and analyzed. Meanwhile, the focus group discussion and risk matrix were conducted to assess the risk of schistosome infection of the rescuers. Over 10 000 rescuers participated in the search operation, including the armed police forces, local people, reservists and so on. The armed police forces were the major components, which accounted for 39%. Jianli country was schistosomiasis endemic area with a high infection level in history, but the endemic situation had been mitigated significantly after years of positive prevention and treatment; the schistosome infection rate of population was 0.44% in 2014 and the Oncomelania hupensis snail area was only 6.6 hm2 around the rescue areas in the upstream and downstream. In addition, the snail density was not high, and no infected snails had been found for 11 years. The risk of schistosome infection was in the medium level. Though there exists the schistosome infection risk in the water area where the accident happened, the probability of occurrence is not high. In order to prevent the outbreak and endemic of schistosomiasis, the protection measures and health education to the rescuers as well as snail control and monitoring, and early-warning should be strengthened.

  16. A rescued pelican is released at the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge near KSC. (United States)


    A rescued white pelican, dubbed 'Fisheater' by his rescuers, takes a tentative step and stretches its wings after being let go at the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge. Looking on is Mark Epstein, with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, who had held the bird while Kat Royer, also with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, placed on it a leg band issued by the U.S. Department of the Interior's Bird Banding Laboratory. The pelican was found covered in crude oil from a contaminated ditch in northern Indiana in November, and was rescued by a local Police Department, treated, and flown to the Back to Nature Wildlife Refuge in Orlando, Fla. for care and rest. It is being released to join a flock of about 30 other white pelicans that are wintering on the refuge. White pelicans inhabit marshy lakes and along the Pacific and Texas coasts. They winter from Florida and southern California south to Panama, chiefly in coastal lagoons. They are frequently seen flying in long lines, flapping and sailing in unison, but also ride rising air currents to soar gracefully in circles. The Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which encompasses 92,000 acres that are a habitat for more than 331 species of birds, 31 mammals, 117 fishes, and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds, as well as a variety of insects.

  17. Pregnenolone rescues schizophrenia-like behavior in dopamine transporter knockout mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peiyan Wong

    Full Text Available Pregnenolone belongs to a class of endogenous neurosteroids in the central nervous system (CNS, which has been suggested to enhance cognitive functions through GABA(A receptor signaling by its metabolites. It has been shown that the level of pregnenolone is altered in certain brain areas of schizophrenic patients, and clozapine enhances pregnenolone in the CNS in rats, suggesting that pregnenolone could be used to treat certain symptoms of schizophrenia. In addition, early phase proof-of-concept clinical trials have indicated that pregnenolone is effective in reducing the negative symptoms and cognitive deficits of schizophrenia patients. Here, we evaluate the actions of pregnenolone on a mouse model for schizophrenia, the dopamine transporter knockout mouse (DAT KO. DAT KO mice mirror certain symptoms evident in patients with schizophrenia, such as the psychomotor agitation, stereotypy, deficits of prepulse inhibition and cognitive impairments. Following acute treatment, pregnenolone was found to reduce the hyperlocomotion, stereotypic bouts and pre-pulse inhibition (PPI deficits in DAT KO mice in a dose-dependent manner. At 60 mg/kg of pregnenolone, there were no significant differences in locomotor activities and stereotypy between wild-type and DAT KO mice. Similarly, acute treatment of 60 mg/kg of pregnenolone fully rescued PPI deficits of DAT KO mice. Following chronic treatment with pregnenolone at 60 mg/kg, the cognitive deficits of DAT KO mice were rescued in the paradigms of novel object recognition test and social transmission of food preference test. Pregnenolone thus holds promise as a therapeutic candidate in schizophrenia.

  18. Steroid hormones, prostanoids, and angiogenic systems during rescue of the corpus luteum in pigs. (United States)

    Przygrodzka, E; Kaczmarek, M M; Kaczynski, P; Ziecik, A J


    In order to characterize the transition of the corpora lutea (CL) from acquisition of luteolytic sensitivity to rescue of luteal function: i) the expression of 38 factors associated with steroids, prostanoids, and angiogenic systems and ii) concentrations of the main hormones responsible for maintenance of CL function in cyclic and pregnant pigs were examined. Additionally, the effect of prostaglandin (PG) E2 and F2 α on luteal function during the estrous cycle and pregnancy was evaluated in vitro. Significantly up-regulated gene expression was revealed in CL collected on day 14 of the estrous cycle (CYP19A1, ESR2, PTGS2, HIF1A, and EDN1) and on days 12-14 of pregnancy (SCARB1, PGRMC1, STAR, HSD3B1, NR5A1, PTGFR, PTGER4, and VEGFA). Elevated concentrations of estradiol-17β and PGE2 occurred in CL on days 12 and 14 of pregnancy respectively, while an increased intraluteal PGF2 α content was noted on day 14 of the estrous cycle. Both PGs increased the synthesis of progesterone by cultured luteal slices obtained on day 14 of pregnancy, in contrast to the action of PGF2 α on the corresponding day of the estrous cycle. PGE2 stimulated cAMP production via PTGER2 and PTGER4, while PGF2 α elevated the content of CREB in cultured luteal slices from CL of pregnant pigs. In silico analysis showed that infiltration of lymphocytes and apoptosis of microvascular endothelium were activated in CL on day 12 of the estrous cycle vs pregnancy. Summarizing, an abundance of E2 and PGE2 during pregnancy regulates specific pathways responsible for steroidogenesis, the prostanoid signaling system and angiogenesis during rescue from luteolysis in porcine CL. © 2016 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  19. Challenges for rescuing drill core from volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits in northern Wisconsin (United States)

    Stanley, V.; Schoephoester, P.; Lodge, R. W. D.


    Providing adequate physical care for unique lithologies can be a challenge for rock core repositories. The purpose of a repository is to preserve its collections such that they will be available and useful for current and future research. Preservation requires both documentation and physical care, including the state of the facility housing the collections, as specimens can be endangered by environmental factors. Digital documentation is a crucial first step in rescuing at-risk samples as it allows the collection to be monitored through time. Exploratory drill core from the Flambeau copper-gold mine in Ladysmith, WI was donated to the Wisconsin Geological and Natural History Survey (WGNHS). The collection includes over 4.7 km of irreplaceable core from 50 sites. The ore body is situated in the Ladysmith-Rhinelander Volcanic Complex, an Early Proterozoic greenstone belt that hosts at least 13 volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits (DeMatties, 1996), including Flambeau. Mineral assemblages include up to 50% sulfide minerals, mainly pyrite and marcasite (May and Dinkowitz, 1996). These lithologies present a unique preservation challenge - storage conditions must be temperature and humidity controlled to prevent pyrite oxidation (Newman 1998), which chemically and physically degrades the samples as well as labels, containers, and shelving. Once initiated, pyrite oxidation cannot be stopped or reversed, but may be stabilized (Howie, 1992). Although protecting these materials is a vital part of the WGNHS mission, climate-control modifications to the facility are cost-prohibitive. In order to rescue the samples, we documented the collection's present state. We developed and implemented a new database schema including IGSNs to improve metadata records, track samples, and link data. Although preservation of the physical samples remains a challenge, digital workflows and data management improvements will allow WGNHS to monitor the condition of these samples while also

  20. Neighboring genes for DNA-binding proteins rescue male sterility in Drosophila hybrids. (United States)

    Liénard, Marjorie A; Araripe, Luciana O; Hartl, Daniel L


    Crosses between closely related animal species often result in male hybrids that are sterile, and the molecular and functional basis of genetic factors for hybrid male sterility is of great interest. Here, we report a molecular and functional analysis of HMS1, a region of 9.2 kb in chromosome 3 of Drosophila mauritiana, which results in virtually complete hybrid male sterility when homozygous in the genetic background of sibling species Drosophila simulans. The HMS1 region contains two strong candidate genes for the genetic incompatibility, agt and Taf1 Both encode unrelated DNA-binding proteins, agt for an alkyl-cysteine-S-alkyltransferase and Taf1 for a subunit of transcription factor TFIID that serves as a multifunctional transcriptional regulator. The contribution of each gene to hybrid male sterility was assessed by means of germ-line transformation, with constructs containing complete agt and Taf1 genomic sequences as well as various chimeric constructs. Both agt and Taf1 contribute about equally to HMS1 hybrid male sterility. Transgenes containing either locus rescue sterility in about one-half of the males, and among fertile males the number of offspring is in the normal range. This finding suggests compensatory proliferation of the rescued, nondysfunctional germ cells. Results with chimeric transgenes imply that the hybrid incompatibilities result from interactions among nucleotide differences residing along both agt and Taf1 Our results challenge a number of preliminary generalizations about the molecular and functional basis of hybrid male sterility, and strongly reinforce the role of DNA-binding proteins as a class of genes contributing to the maintenance of postzygotic reproductive isolation.