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Sample records for host-protective taenia solium

  1. Variation in the cellular localization of host-protective oncospheral antigens in Taenia saginata and Taenia solium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbar, A; Verástegui, M; Lackenby, J A; Walduck, A K; Gauci, C G; Gilman, R H; Lightowlers, M W

    2010-01-01

    Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence with confocal microscopy were used to localize the host-protective antigens of Taenia saginata (TSA9 and TSA18) and Taenia solium (TSOL16, TSOL18 and TSOL45). In nonactivated oncospheres, TSA9 and TSOL45 antigens were found primarily in the cytoplasm of the penetration gland type one (PG1) cell. A similar pattern of staining was seen for TSOL45 in oncospheres of T. solium that remained within the oncospheral membrane. In addition, there was less intense staining of TSA9 and TSOL45 in the quadri-nucleate penetration gland type 2 (PG2) cell. TSA18, TSOL16 and TSOL18 were predominantly found in the PG2 cell. In activated oncospheres that had escaped the oncospheral membrane, the antigens (other than TSA9) were seen both in the penetration gland cell locations and throughout the oncospheral parenchyma. Co-localization analyses revealed that only TSOL16 and TSOL18 antigens were co-localized in the PG2 cell of oncospheres that had not escaped the oncospheral membrane. However, in activated oncospheres that escaped the oncospheral membrane, all three antigens of T. solium were co-localized as they were present throughout the parenchyma. No positive staining was observed on the surface of nonactivated or recently activated oncospheres of T. saginata or T. solium.

  2. IN VITRO ONCOSPHERE-KILLING ASSAYS TO DETERMINE IMMUNITY TO THE LARVAE OF TAENIA PISIFORMIS, TAENIA OVIS, TAENIA SAGINATA, AND TAENIA SOLIUM

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Craig T. Kyngdon; Charles G. Gauci; Rick A. Rolfe; Jeanette C. Velásquez Guzmán; Marilú J. Farfán Salazar; Manuela R. Verástegui Pimentel; Armando E. Gonzalez; Hector H. Garcia; Robert H. Gilman; Richard A. Strugnell; Marshall W. Lightowlers

    2006-01-01

    .... Here, we describe in vitro oncosphere-killing assays for the quantification of host-protective serum antibodies against Taenia pisiformis, Taenia ovis, Taenia saginata, and Taenia solium in rabbits...

  3. Taenia solium in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Allepuz, Alberto; Dermauw, Veronique

    2017-01-01

    The pork tapeworm, Taenia solium, causes an important economic and health burden, mainly in rural or marginalized communities of sub-Saharan Africa, Asia, and Latin-America. Although improved pig rearing conditions seem to have eliminated the parasite in most Western European countries, little...... is known about the true endemicity status of T. solium throughout Europe. Three recent reviews indicate that autochthonous human T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis may be possible in Europe, but that current peer-reviewed literature is biased towards Western Europe. Officially reported data on porcine...... cysticercosis are highly insufficient. Favourable conditions for local T. solium transmission still exist in eastern parts of Europe, although the ongoing integration of the European Union is speeding up modernisation and intensification of the pig sector. Further evidence is urgently needed to fill the gaps...

  4. Intraventricular Taenia solium Neurocysticercosis: A Report of Three Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Pant

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Neurocysticercosis (NCC, caused by the pork tapeworm Taenia solium, is reported to be a common condition in Nepal. So far imaging diagnosis was mainstay of the diagnosis. In this paper, we report three patients presenting with neurological symptoms due to intraventricular NCC. We have diagnosed the causative agent as T. solium on molecular basis. Further research is warranted to assess the actual health impact of T. solium in Nepal. Keywords: Intraventricular neurocysticerosis, PCR-RELP, Taenia solium.

  5. In vitro oncosphere-killing assays to determine immunity to the larvae of Taenia pisiformis, Taenia ovis, Taenia saginata, and Taenia solium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyngdon, Craig T; Gauci, Charles G; Rolfe, Rick A; Velásquez Guzmán, Jeanette C; Farfán Salazar, Marilú J; Verástegui Pimentel, Manuela R; Gonzalez, Armando E; Garcia, Hector H; Gilmanl, Robert H; Strugnell, Richard A; Lightowlers, Marshall W

    2006-04-01

    Taeniid cestodes infect humans and livestock, causing considerable morbidity and mortality, as well as economic loss. Substantial progress has been made toward the production of recombinant vaccines against cysticercosis in livestock animals. Further development of these vaccines would be aided if a reliable in vitro test were available to measure host-protective immune responses in vaccinated animals. Here, we describe in vitro oncosphere-killing assays for the quantification of host-protective serum antibodies against Taenia pisiformis, Taenia ovis, Taenia saginata, and Taenia solium in rabbits, sheep, cattle, and pigs, respectively. Activated oncospheres of T. pisiformis, T. ovis, T. saginata, and T. solium were incubated in vitro in culture medium, test serum, and a source of complement, and oncosphere killing was assessed after 10 days of culture. In vitro oncosphere killing reflected the presence of specific antibody, and the oncosphere-killing assay typically indicated immunity to the homologous parasite that had been determined in vivo. This study describes the first reliable oncosphere-killing assays for T. pisiformis, T. ovis, T. saginata, and T. solium. These assays will be used for further research into the optimization of recombinant vaccines against cysticercosis.

  6. Control of Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gabriël, Sarah; Dorny, Pierre; Mwape, Evans Kabemba

    2017-01-01

    level, improved standards of meat inspection, pig management, treatment of individual patients and possibly human populations, and treatment and/or vaccination of porcine populations. This manuscript looks critically into currently existing control options and provides suggestions on which (combination...... of) tools would be most effective in the control of T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis in sub-Saharan Africa. Field data and disease transmission simulations suggest that implementation of a single intervention control strategy will not lead to a satisfactory reduction of disease morbidity......Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis is a neglected parasitic zoonosis with significant economic and public health impacts. Control measures can be broadly grouped into community health education, improvements in hygiene and sanitary conditions, proper meat handling at household and community...

  7. Proteomic analysis of Taenia solium metacestode excretion-secretion proteins.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Victor, B.; Kanobana, K.; Gabriel, S.; Polman, K.; Deckers, N.; Dorny, P.; Deelder, A.M.; Palmblad, M.

    2012-01-01

    The metacestode larval stage of Taenia solium is the causal agent of a zoonotic disease called cysticercosis. The disease has an important impact on pork trade (due to porcine cysticercosis) and public health (due to human neurocysticercosis). In order to improve the current diagnostic tools and to

  8. Taenia solium among Refugees in the United States

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-04-20

    Dr. Seth O’Neal, a medical epidemiologist at Oregon Health & Science University, in Portland Oregon, discusses Taenia solium among Refugees.  Created: 4/20/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/25/2012.

  9. Taenia solium metacestode preparation in rural areas of sub ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sciutto E, Martinez JJ, Huerta M, et al. Familial clustering of Taenia solium cysticercosis in the rural pigs of Mexico: hints of genetic determinants in innate and acquired resistance to infection. Vet Parasitol 2003;. 116:223-229. 20. Mutua FK, Randolph TF, Arimi SM, et al. Palpable lingual cysts, a possible indicator of porcine ...

  10. Morphologic and genetic identification of Taenia tapeworms in Tanzania and DNA genotyping of Taenia solium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Keeseon S; Chai, Jong-Yil; Yong, Tai-Soon; Min, Duk-Young; Rim, Han-Jong; Kihamia, Charles; Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu

    2011-12-01

    Species identification of Taenia tapeworms was performed using morphologic observations and multiplex PCR and DNA sequencing of the mitochondrial cox1 gene. In 2008 and 2009, a total of 1,057 fecal samples were collected from residents of Kongwa district of Dodoma region, Tanzania, and examined microscopically for helminth eggs and proglottids. Of these, 4 Taenia egg positive cases were identified, and the eggs were subjected to DNA analysis. Several proglottids of Taenia solium were recovered from 1 of the 4 cases. This established that the species were T. solium (n = 1) and T. saginata (n = 3). One further T. solium specimen was found among 128 fecal samples collected from Mbulu district in Arusha, and this had an intact strobila with the scolex. Phylegenetic analysis of the mtDNA cox1 gene sequences of these 5 isolates showed that T. saginata was basal to the T. solium clade. The mitochondrial cox1 gene sequences of 3 of these Tanzanian isolates showed 99% similarity to T. saginata, and the other 2 isolates showed 100% similarity to T. solium. The present study has shown that Taenia tapeworms are endemic in Kongwa district of Tanzania, as well as in a previously identified Mbulu district. Both T. solium isolates were found to have an "African/Latin American" genotype (cox1).

  11. Isozyme analysis of Taenia solium isolates from Mexico and Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Maravilla

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Mexican and Colombian Taenia solium cysticerci and some species of Taenia adults were assayed using cellulose acetate electrophoresis to distinguish between isolates. Isozyme patterns for ARK, GOT, G3PD, GPI, and MPI were identical in all cysticerci suggesting homozygotic profiles. G6PD and MDH showed different patterns between Mexican and Colombian cysticerci, suggesting regional differences. ME activity was mainly detected in the adult stage suggesting that this enzyme is active in anaerobic environment, while MDH, detected in cysticerci, could be related to an environment that contains oxygen. Finally, the species of taeniid adults analyzed showed different patterns among them.

  12. Sympatric occurrence of Taenia solium, T. saginata, and T. asiatica, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anantaphruti, Malinee T; Yamasaki, Hiroshi; Nakao, Minoru; Waikagul, Jitra; Watthanakulpanich, Dorn; Nuamtanong, Supaporn; Maipanich, Wanna; Pubampen, Somchit; Sanguankiat, Surapol; Muennoo, Chatree; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Sato, Marcello O; Sako, Yasuhito; Okamoto, Munehiro; Ito, Akira

    2007-09-01

    We confirmed sympatric occurrence of Taenia solium, T. saginata, and T. asiatica in western Thailand. DNA analysis of morphologically identified T. saginata, in a dual infection with T. solium, indicated it was T. asiatica. To our knowledge, this report is the first of T. asiatica and a dual Taenia infection from Thailand.

  13. Sympatric Occurrence of Taenia solium, T. saginata, and T. asiatica, Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Anantaphruti, MT; Yamasaki, H; Nakao, M; Waikagul, J; Watthanakulpanich, D; Nuamtanong, S; Maipanich, W; Pubampen, S; Sanguankiat, S; Muennoo, C; Nakaya, K; Sato, MO; Sako, Y; Okamoto, M; Ito, A

    2007-01-01

    We confirmed sympatric occurrence of Taenia solium, T. saginata, and T. asiatica in western Thailand. DNA analysis of morphologically identifi ed T. saginata, in a dual infection with T. solium, indicated it was T. asiatica. To our knowledge, this report is the first of T. asiatica and a dual Taenia infection from Thailand.

  14. Taenia solium and Taenia saginata: identification of sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Ana Karina Kerche; Aoki, Sérgio Moraes; Garcia, José Fernando; Nunes, Cáris Maroni

    2007-09-01

    Cysticercosis is one of the most important zoonosis, not only because of the effects on animal health and its economic consequences, but also due to the serious danger it poses to humans. The two main parasites involved in the taeniasis-cysticercosis complex in Brazil are Taenia saginata and Taenia solium. Differentiating between these two parasites is important both for disease control and for epidemiological studies. The purpose of this work was to identify genetic markers that could be used to differentiate these parasites. Out of 120 oligonucleotide decamers tested in random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) assays, 107 were shown to discriminate between the two species of Taenia. Twenty-one DNA fragments that were specific for each species of Taenia were chosen for DNA cloning and sequencing. Seven RAPD markers were converted into sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers with two specific for T. saginata and five specific for T. solium as shown by agarose gel electrophoresis. These markers were developed as potential tools to differentiate T. solium from T. saginata in epidemiological studies.

  15. The societal cost of Taenia solium cysticercosis in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trevisan, Chiara; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Schmidt, Veronika

    2017-01-01

    Taenia solium is a zoonotic parasite prevalent in many low income countries throughout Latin America, Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, including Tanzania. The parasite is recognized as a public health threat; however the burden it poses on populations of Tanzania is unknown. The aim of this study...... not retrievable. The health burden was assessed in terms of annual number of neurocysticercosis (NCC) associated epilepsy incident cases, deaths and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), while the economic burden was assessed in terms of direct and indirect costs imposed by NCC-associated epilepsy and potential...... losses due to porcine cysticercosis. Based on data retrieved from the systematic review and burden assessments, T. solium cysticercosis contributed to a significant societal cost for the population. The annual number of NCC-associated epilepsy incident cases and deaths were 17,853 (95% Uncertainty...

  16. Differential Diagnosis of Taenia saginata and Taenia solium Infection by PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Luis Miguel; Montero, Estrella; Harrison, Leslie J. S.; Parkhouse, R. Michael E.; Garate, Teresa

    2000-01-01

    We have designed species-specific oligonucleotides which permit the differential detection of two species of cestodes, Taenia saginata and Taenia solium. The oligonucleotides contain sequences established for two previously reported, noncoding DNA fragments cloned from a genomic library of T. saginata. The first, which is T. saginata specific (fragment HDP1), is a repetitive sequence with a 53-bp monomeric unit repeated 24 times in direct tandem along the 1,272-bp fragment. From this sequence the two oligonucleotides that were selected (oligonucleotides PTs4F1 and PTs4R1) specifically amplified genomic DNA (gDNA) from T. saginata but not T. solium or other related cestodes and had a sensitivity down to 10 pg of T. saginata gDNA. The second DNA fragment (fragment HDP2; 3,954 bp) hybridized to both T. saginata and T. solium DNAs and was not a repetitive sequence. Three oligonucleotides (oligonucleotides PTs7S35F1, PTs7S35F2, and PTs7S35R1) designed from the sequence of HDP2 allowed the differential amplification of gDNAs from T. saginata, T. solium, and Echinococcus granulosus in a multiplex PCR, which exhibits a sensitivity of 10 pg. PMID:10655377

  17. State of the art of Taenia solium as compared to Taenia asiatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flisser, Ana

    2013-02-01

    Three species of tapeworms infect humans in their adult stage (Taenia solium, Taenia saginata and Taenia asiatica). The 3 are flat, opaque white or yellowish, and exceptional long segmented parasites, measuring 1 to 12 m in their adult stage. In this review, the development of the knowledge regarding the first species, mainly focused on understanding how the larval stage or cysticercus is transmitted to humans, is described. The second species is a cosmopolitan parasite that only causes taeniosis and not cysticercosis; therefore, it will not be included. Information on the third species, which is presently being produced, since this species was recognized as such only at the end of the 20th century, will be discussed at the end of this review.

  18. Novel rat model for neurocysticercosis using Taenia solium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verastegui, Manuela R; Mejia, Alan; Clark, Taryn; Gavidia, Cesar M; Mamani, Javier; Ccopa, Fredy; Angulo, Noelia; Chile, Nancy; Carmen, Rogger; Medina, Roxana; García, Hector H; Rodriguez, Silvia; Ortega, Ynes; Gilman, Robert H

    2015-08-01

    Neurocysticercosis is caused by Taenia solium infecting the central nervous system and is the leading cause of acquired epilepsy and convulsive conditions worldwide. Research into the pathophysiology of the disease and appropriate treatment is hindered by lack of cost-effective and physiologically similar animal models. We generated a novel rat neurocysticercosis model using intracranial infection with activated T. solium oncospheres. Holtzman rats were infected in two separate groups: the first group was inoculated extraparenchymally and the second intraparenchymally, with different doses of activated oncospheres. The groups were evaluated at three different ages. Histologic examination of the tissue surrounding T. solium cysticerci was performed. Results indicate that generally infected rats developed cysticerci in the brain tissue after 4 months, and the cysticerci were observed in the parenchymal, ventricle, or submeningeal brain tissue. The route of infection did not have a statistically significant effect on the proportion of rats that developed cysticerci, and there was no dependence on infection dose. However, rat age was crucial to the success of the infection. Epilepsy was observed in 9% of rats with neurocysticercosis. In histologic examination, a layer of collagen tissue, inflammatory infiltrate cells, perivascular infiltrate, angiogenesis, spongy change, and mass effect were observed in the tissue surrounding the cysts. This study presents a suitable animal model for the study of human neurocysticercosis. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. In Vitro Study of Taenia solium Postoncospheral Form.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Chile

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The transitional period between the oncosphere and the cysticercus of Taenia solium is the postoncospheral (PO form, which has not yet been completely characterized. The aim of this work was to standardize a method to obtain T. solium PO forms by in vitro cultivation. We studied the morphology of the PO form and compared the expression of antigenic proteins among the PO form, oncosphere, and cysticerci stages.T. solium activated oncospheres were co-cultured with ten cell lines to obtain PO forms, which we studied at three stages of development--days 15, 30, and 60. A high percentage (32% of PO forms was obtained using HCT-8 cells in comparison to the other cell lines. The morphology was observed by bright field, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy. Morphology of the PO form changed over time, with the six hooks commonly seen in the oncosphere stage disappearing in the PO forms, and vesicles and microtriches observed in the tegument. The PO forms grew as they aged, reaching a diameter of 2.5 mm at 60 days of culture. 15-30 day PO forms developed into mature cysticerci when inoculated into rats. Antigenic proteins expressed in the PO forms are also expressed by the oncosphere and cysticerci stages, with more cysticerci antigenic proteins expressed as the PO forms ages.This is the first report of an in vitro production method of T. solium PO forms. The changes observed in protein expression may be useful in identifying new targets for vaccine development. In vitro culture of PO form will aid in understanding the host-parasite relationship, since the structural changes of the developing PO forms may reflect the parasite's immunoprotective mechanisms. A wider application of this method could significantly reduce the use of animals, and thus the costs and time required for further experimental investigations.

  20. The 10 kDa protein of Taenia solium metacestodes shows genus specific antigenicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seung-Kyu; Yun, Doo-Hee; Chung, Joon-Yong; Cho, Seung-Yull

    2000-01-01

    Genus specific antigenicity of the 10 kDa protein in cyst fluid (CF) of Taenia solium metacestodes was demonstrated by comparative immunoblot analysis. When CFs from taeniid metacestodes of T. saginata, T. solium, T. taeniaeformis and T. crassiceps were probed with specific monoclonal antibody (mAb) raised against 150 kDa protein of T. solium metacestodes, specific antibody reactions were observed in 7 and 10 kDa proteins of T. solium and in 7/8 kDa of T. saginata, T. taeniaeformis and T. crassiceps. The mAb did not react with any protein in hydatid fluid of Echinococcus granulosus and E. multilocularis. This result revealed that the 10 kDa peptide of T. solium metacestodes and its equivalent proteins of different Taenia metacestodes are genus specific antigens that are shared among different Taenia species. PMID:11002658

  1. Detection of cysteine protease in Taenia solium-induced brain granulomas in naturally infected pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mkupasi, Ernatus Martin; Sikasunge, Chummy Sikalizyo; Ngowi, Helena Aminiel

    2013-01-01

    In order to further characterize the immune response around the viable or degenerating Taenia solium cysts in the pig brain, the involvement of cysteine protease in the immune evasion was assessed. Brain tissues from 30 adult pigs naturally infected with T. solium cysticercosis were subjected to ...

  2. Comparison of the peptidase activity in the oncosphere excretory/secretory products of Taenia solium and Taenia saginata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimic, Mirko J; Infantes, Jesús; López, César; Velásquez, Jeanette; Farfán, Marilú; Pajuelo, Mónica; Sheen, Patricia; Verastegui, Manuela; Gonzalez, Armando; Garciá, Hector H; Gilman, Robert H

    2007-08-01

    We compared the peptidase activities of the excretory/secretory (E/S) antigens of oncospheres of Taenia solium and related, but nonpathogenic, Taenia saginata. Taenia solium and T. saginata oncospheres were cultured, and the spent media of 24-, 48-, 72-, and 96-hr fractions were analyzed. Activities for serine peptidases (chymotrypsin-, trypsin-, and elastase-like), cysteine peptidases (cathepsin B-, cathepsin L-, and calpaine-like), and aminopeptidase (B-like peptidases) were tested fluorometrically with peptides coupled to 7-amino-4-methylcoumarin. In both species, the E/S antigens showed cysteine, serine, and aminopeptidase activities. Although no particular peptidase had high activity in T. solium, and was absent in T. saginata, or vice versa, different patterns of activity were found. A chymotrypsin-like peptidase showed the highest activity in both parasites, and it had 10 times higher activity in T. solium than in T. saginata. Trypsin-like and cathepsin B-like activities were significantly higher in T. solium. Minimal levels of cathepsin B were present in both species, and higher levels of elastase-like and cathepsin L-like activity were observed in T. saginata. Taenia solium and T. saginata have different levels and temporal activities of proteolytic enzymes that could play a modulator role in the host specificity for larval invasion through penetration of the intestinal mucosa.

  3. Elimination of Taenia solium Transmission in Northern Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Hector H; Gonzalez, Armando E; Tsang, Victor C W; O'Neal, Seth E; Llanos-Zavalaga, Fernando; Gonzalvez, Guillermo; Romero, Jaime; Rodriguez, Silvia; Moyano, Luz M; Ayvar, Viterbo; Diaz, Andre; Hightower, Allen; Craig, Philip S; Lightowlers, Marshall W; Gauci, Charles G; Leontsini, Elli; Gilman, Robert H

    2016-06-16

    Taeniasis and cysticercosis are major causes of seizures and epilepsy. Infection by the causative parasite Taenia solium requires transmission between humans and pigs. The disease is considered to be eradicable, but data on attempts at regional elimination are lacking. We conducted a three-phase control program in Tumbes, Peru, to determine whether regional elimination would be feasible. We systematically tested and compared elimination strategies to show the feasibility of interrupting the transmission of T. solium infection in a region of highly endemic disease in Peru. In phase 1, we assessed the effectiveness and feasibility of six intervention strategies that involved screening of humans and pigs, antiparasitic treatment, prevention education, and pig replacement in 42 villages. In phase 2, we compared mass treatment with mass screening (each either with or without vaccination of pigs) in 17 villages. In phase 3, we implemented the final strategy of mass treatment of humans along with the mass treatment and vaccination of pigs in the entire rural region of Tumbes (107 villages comprising 81,170 people and 55,638 pigs). The effect of the intervention was measured after phases 2 and 3 with the use of detailed necropsy to detect pigs with live, nondegenerated cysts capable of causing new infection. The necropsy sampling was weighted in that we preferentially included more samples from seropositive pigs than from seronegative pigs. Only two of the strategies implemented in phase 1 resulted in limited control over the transmission of T. solium infection, which highlighted the need to intensify the subsequent strategies. After the strategies in phase 2 were implemented, no cyst that was capable of further transmission of T. solium infection was found among 658 sampled pigs. One year later, without further intervention, 7 of 310 sampled pigs had live, nondegenerated cysts, but no infected pig was found in 11 of 17 villages, including all the villages in which mass

  4. Taenia solium: Development of an Experimental Model of Porcine Neurocysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, Agnès; Trejo, Armando; Cisneros, Humberto; García-Navarrete, Roberto; Villalobos, Nelly; Hernández, Marisela; Villeda Hernández, Juana; Hernández, Beatriz; Rosas, Gabriela; Bobes, Raul J; de Aluja, Aline S; Sciutto, Edda; Fragoso, Gladis

    2015-01-01

    Human neurocysticercosis (NC) is caused by the establishment of Taenia solium larvae in the central nervous system. NC is a severe disease still affecting the population in developing countries of Latin America, Asia, and Africa. While great improvements have been made on NC diagnosis, treatment, and prevention, the management of patients affected by extraparenchymal parasites remains a challenge. The development of a T. solium NC experimental model in pigs that will allow the evaluation of new therapeutic alternatives is herein presented. Activated oncospheres (either 500 or 1000) were surgically implanted in the cerebral subarachnoid space of piglets. The clinical status and the level of serum antibodies in the animals were evaluated for a 4-month period after implantation. The animals were sacrificed, cysticerci were counted during necropsy, and both the macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of cysts were described. Based on the number of established cysticerci, infection efficiency ranged from 3.6% (1000 oncospheres) to 5.4% (500 oncospheres). Most parasites were caseous or calcified (38/63, 60.3%) and were surrounded by an exacerbated inflammatory response with lymphocyte infiltration and increased inflammatory markers. The infection elicited specific antibodies but no neurological signs. This novel experimental model of NC provides a useful tool to evaluate new cysticidal and anti-inflammatory approaches and it should improve the management of severe NC patients, refractory to the current treatments.

  5. Taenia solium Taeniasis and Cysticercosis in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aung, Ar Kar; Spelman, Denis W

    2016-05-04

    Human taeniasis/cysticercosis caused by the pork tapeworm Taenia solium has been identified as a potentially eradicable disease by the International Task Force for Disease Eradication of the World Health Organization. In southeast Asia, T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis is considered one of the major neglected tropical diseases afflicting the region. In the last few decades, a considerable effort has been invested toward establishing the epidemiology and burden of disease in several southeast Asian countries. Moreover, further evidence is emerging as to understanding the dynamics of disease transmission and cultural, political, and socioeconomic factors influencing the success of control and eradication efforts within the region. However, despite major collaborations by several champion groups, advances have been slow and little remains known about the complete epidemiology of taeniasis/cysticercosis and the barriers to programmatic success. This review article aims to address the above issues with a further focus on the challenges to control and eradicate taeniasis/cysticercosis within the southeast Asia region. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  6. Taenia solium taeniasis and cysticercosis in a Mexican village.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarti-Gutierrez, E J; Schantz, P M; Lara-Aguilera, R; Gomez Dandoy, H; Flisser, A

    1988-09-01

    One hundred and twenty-four persons, nearly the entire population of a rural village in Hidalgo State, were screened for intestinal parasites and clinical or serologic (ELISA) evidence of Taenia solium cysticercosis. Heads of households were questioned about dietary and other practices that might lead to pork tapeworm transmission, and soil samples were examined for helminth eggs. Twenty-five percent of local pigs had cysticerci visible by examination of the undersurface of their tongues. Four persons passed taeniid eggs, 7 were seropositive, and 10 gave medical histories suggestive of neurodysticercosis. Most seropositive persons were not symptomatic and the reverse was also true. The clustered distribution of infected pigs, tapeworm carriers, and persons with serologic or clinical evidence of cysticercosis suggested intrahousehold transmission. Dietary and sanitary practices were generally optimal for transmission of pork tapeworm. No cattle were kept in the village and beef was rarely eaten. This preliminary report attempts to characterize T. solium transmission in communities with endemic disease in rural Mexico and illustrates some of the methodological problems faced by epidemiologists who study this disease.

  7. Apoptosis patterns in experimental Taenia solium and Taenia crassiceps strobilae from golden hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presas, Ana María Fernández; Robert, Lilia; Jiménez, José Agustín; Willms, Kaethe

    2005-04-01

    Apoptosis or programmed cell death (PCD) patterns of two taeniid species, Taenia solium and Taenia crassiceps, were explored in adult tapeworms grown in golden hamsters. Animals were fed either ten viable T. solium cysticerci from naturally infected pigs or from T. crassiceps WFU strain maintained in Balb/c mice. Adult strobilae were recovered from the intestine at different times after infection and either frozen at -70 degrees C or fixed in paraformaldehyde-glutaraldehyde. Frozen sections were processed using the DNA fragmentation fluorescent TUNEL reagents and examined in an epifluorescent microscope. Fixed tissues were processed for light and electron microscopy. Typical apoptotic cells were found in the central core of scolex and strobilar tissues, mainly in the germinal tissue and subtegumentary areas. By the TUNEL technique, cells exhibited the characteristic fluorescent images of condensed nuclear chromatin. By light microscopy of thick sections stained with toluidine blue, we found a number of small rounded cells which had lost their cytoplasmic bridges and had shrunken nuclei with aggregated chromatin, cells which were found interspersed with normal syncytial cells. Similar cell morphology was confirmed by electron microscopy. Stunted viable worms, recovered with longer mature specimens, had very short strobilae and exhibited a large number of apoptotic cells in the germinal neck tissues. The results are consistent with the syncytial nature of these parasites, and strongly suggest that cell proliferation and PCD in these adult cestodes are continuous processes of the germinal tissue and tegumentary cytons.

  8. Ring-screening to control endemic transmission of Taenia solium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth E O'Neal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Taenia solium is a major cause of preventable epilepsy in developing nations. Screening and treatment of human intestinal stage infection (taeniasis within high-risk foci may reduce transmission and prevent epilepsy by limiting human exposure to infective eggs. We piloted a ring-strategy that involves screening and treatment for taeniasis among households located nearby pigs heavily-infected with the larval stage (cysticercosis. These pigs mark areas of increased transmission and can be identified by tongue examination.We selected two villages in northern Peru for a controlled prospective interventional cohort pilot study. In the intervention village (1,058 residents we examined the tongues of all pigs every 4 months for nodules characteristic of cysticercosis. We then screened all residents living within 100-meters of any tongue-positive pig using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect Taenia antigens in stool. Residents with taeniasis were treated with niclosamide. In both the intervention and control (753 residents we measured incidence of exposure by sampling the pig population every 4 months for serum antibodies against cysticercosis using enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot.Baseline seroincidence among pigs born during the study was 22.6 cases per 100 pigs per-month (95% confidence interval [CI] 17.0-30.0 in the intervention and 18.1 (95% CI 12.7-25.9 in the control. After one year we observed a 41% reduction in seroincidence in the intervention village compared to baseline (incidence rate ratio 0.59, 95% CI 0.41-0.87 while the seroincidence in the control village remained unchanged. At study end, the prevalence of taeniasis was nearly 4 times lower in the intervention than in the control (prevalence ratio 0.28, 95% CI 0.08-0.91.Ring-screening reduced transmission of T. solium in this pilot study and may provide an effective and practical approach for regions where resources are limited. However, this strategy requires validation

  9. Molecular analyses reveal two geographic and genetic lineages for tapeworms, Taenia solium and Taenia saginata, from Ecuador using mitochondrial DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano, Danilo; Navarro, Juan Carlos; León-Reyes, Antonio; Benítez-Ortiz, Washington; Rodríguez-Hidalgo, Richar

    2016-12-01

    Tapeworms Taenia solium and Taenia saginata are the causative agents of taeniasis/cysticercosis. These are diseases with high medical and veterinary importance due to their impact on public health and rural economy in tropical countries. The re-emergence of T. solium as a result of human migration, the economic burden affecting livestock industry, and the large variability of symptoms in several human cysticercosis, encourage studies on genetic diversity, and the identification of these parasites with molecular phylogenetic tools. Samples collected from the Ecuadorian provinces: Loja, Guayas, Manabí, Tungurahua (South), and Imbabura, Pichincha (North) from 2000 to 2012 were performed under Maximum Parsimony analyses and haplotype networks using partial sequences of mitochondrial DNA, cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and NADH subunit I (NDI), from Genbank and own sequences of Taenia solium and Taenia saginata from Ecuador. Both species have shown reciprocal monophyly, which confirms its molecular taxonomic identity. The COI and NDI genes results suggest phylogenetic structure for both parasite species from south and north of Ecuador. In T. solium, both genes gene revealed greater geographic structure, whereas in T. saginata, the variability for both genes was low. In conclusion, COI haplotype networks of T. solium suggest two geographical events in the introduction of this species in Ecuador (African and Asian lineages) and occurring sympatric, probably through the most common routes of maritime trade between the XV-XIX centuries. Moreover, the evidence of two NDI geographical lineages in T. solium from the north (province of Imbabura) and the south (province of Loja) of Ecuador derivate from a common Indian ancestor open new approaches for studies on genetic populations and eco-epidemiology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Taenia solium cysticercosis in Bali, Indonesia: serology and mtDNA analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudewi, A A R; Wandra, T; Artha, A; Nkouawa, A; Ito, A

    2008-01-01

    An active Taenia solium cysticercosis case in Bali, Indonesia, was followed-up by serology and computed tomography. Serology using semi-purified glycoprotein and recombinant antigens showed a drastic drop in titers after calcification of the cysts. Three paraffin-embedded cysts, prepared for histopathological examination, from three other patients were used for mtDNA analysis. The sequences of cox1 gene from T. solium cysticerci from Bali differed from those in Papua and other Asian countries.

  11. Identificación de células proliferativas en quistes de Taenia solium

    OpenAIRE

    Orrego-Solano, Miguel Ángel; Laboratorio de Inmunopatología en Neurocisticercosis, Laboratorios de Investigación y Desarrollo, Facultad de Ciencias y Filosofía, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú.; Cangalaya, Carla; Laboratorio de Inmunopatología en Neurocisticercosis, Laboratorios de Investigación y Desarrollo, Facultad de Ciencias y Filosofía, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú.; Nash, Theodore E.; Laboratorio de Inmunopatología en Neurocisticercosis, Laboratorios de Investigación y Desarrollo, Facultad de Ciencias y Filosofía, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health. Bethesda, Maryland, EE. UU.; Guerra-Giraldez, Cristina; Laboratorio de Inmunopatología en Neurocisticercosis, Laboratorios de Investigación y Desarrollo, Facultad de Ciencias y Filosofía, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Departamento de Ciencias Celulares y Moleculares, Facultad de Ciencias y Filosofía, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú.

    2014-01-01

    Neoblasts are totipotent cells, solely responsible for the proliferation and maturation of tissues in free-living flatworms. Similar cells have been isolated from parasitic flatworms such as Echinococcus. Taenia solium causes human taeniasis (intestinal) and cysticercosis in humans and pigs. Brain infection with larvae (cysts) of T. solium results in neurocysticercosis which is hyperendemic in Peru, and its treatment is associated with serious neurological symptoms. The proliferative capacity...

  12. Progesterone Induces Mucosal Immunity in a Rodent Model of Human Taeniosis by Taenia solium

    OpenAIRE

    Escobedo, Galileo; Camacho-Arroyo, Ignacio; Nava-Luna, Paul; Olivos, Alfonso; P?rez-Torres, Armando; Leon-Cabrera, Sonia; Carrero, J.C.; Morales-Montor, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    More than one quarter of human world's population is exposed to intestinal helminth parasites. The Taenia solium tapeworm carrier is the main risk factor in the transmission of both human neurocysticercosis and porcine cysticercosis. Sex steroids play an important role during T. solium infection, particularly progesterone has been proposed as a key immunomodulatory hormone involved in susceptibility to human taeniosis in woman and cysticercosis in pregnant pigs. Thus, we evaluated the effect ...

  13. Assessing the burden of Taenia solium cysticercosis and echinococcosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carabin, H; Torgerson, P R; Budke, C; Cowan, L D; Nash, T; Willingham, A L; Krecek, R C; Michael, L M; Schantz, P M; Dorny, P; Rodríguez-Hidalgo, R; Benitez-Ortiz, W; Geerts, S; Geyson, D; Ron-Román, J; Proaño-Pérez, F; Chávez-Larrea, M A; Barrionuevo-Samaniego, M; Celi-Erazo, M; Vizcaíno-Ordóñez, L; Brandt, J; Jenkins, D J; Lightowlers, M W; Heath, D D; Eddi, C; De Balogh, K; Lubroth, J; Amanfu, W; Speedy, A; Battaglia, D

    2004-10-28

    This collection of articles provides an account of the papers delivered at the 19th International Conference of the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP)(held in New Orleans, LA, USA, from 10 to 14 August 2003) in a symposium session on assessing the burden of Taenia solium cysticercosis and echinococcosis organised and chaired by A. Lee Willingham III from the WHO/FAO Collaborating Center for Research and Training on Emerging and other Parasitic Zoonoses in Denmark and Peter M. Schantz from the Parasitic Diseases Division of the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, USA. The focus was on the persistence of the zoonotic parasitic diseases cysticercosis, caused by the pork tapeworm T. solium, and echinococcosis,caused by species of the tapeworm Echinococcus, and why these diseases are given very little attention on the national and international agendas in spite of the availability of tools to detect, treat,control and prevent them when it is quite clear in most instances that they are clearly associated with and help perpetuate poverty. A major reason for this is that in many endemic areas the presence and impact of these diseases are not known due to the lack of investigation and information thus policymakers are not aware of their burden and benefits of their control. Documentation is also needed to help increase awareness of the international community and hopefully result in financial and technical support being made available. Thus, burden assessments of cysticercosis and echinococcosis provide an essential evidence base for securing political will and financial and technical support as well as providing a basis for cost-benefit analysis of prevention and control efforts. In order to make an appropriate and full burden assessment one must consider the health, agricultural, social and other impacts of these parasitic zoonoses comprehensively. During the symposium presentations were given concerning current ongoing

  14. The effect of oxfendazole treatment on muscle pathology in pigs infected with Taenia solium cysticercosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iburg, Tine Moesgaard; Karlsson, Madeleine; Spång, Frederic

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to test histopathologically the hypothesis that the time for clearing Taenia solium cysts in muscle tissue of pigs following treatment with oxfendazole is cyst density dependant. A total of 248 cyst lesions in the masseter muscle of 28 naturally infected pigs were...

  15. Tamoxifen Treatment in Hamsters Induces Protection during Taeniosis by Taenia solium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galileo Escobedo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Human neurocysticercosis by Taenia solium is considered an emergent severe brain disorder in developing and developed countries. Discovery of new antiparasitic drugs has been recently aimed to restrain differentiation and establishment of the T. solium adult tapeworm, for being considered a central node in the disease propagation to both pigs and humans. Tamoxifen is an antiestrogenic drug with cysticidal action on Taenia crassiceps, a close relative of T. solium. Thus, we evaluated the effect of tamoxifen on the in vitro evagination and the in vivo establishment of T. solium. In vitro, tamoxifen inhibited evagination of T. solium cysticerci in a dose-time dependent manner. In vivo, administration of tamoxifen to hamsters decreased the intestinal establishment of the parasite by 70%, while recovered tapeworms showed an 80% reduction in length, appearing as scolices without strobilar development. Since tamoxifen did not show any significant effect on the proliferation of antigen-specific immune cells, intestinal inflammation, and expression of Th1/Th2 cytokines in spleen and duodenum, this drug could exert its antiparasite actions by having direct detrimental effects upon the adult tapeworm. These results demonstrate that tamoxifen exhibits a strong cysticidal and antitaeniasic effect on T. solium that should be further explored in humans and livestock.

  16. Tamoxifen Treatment in Hamsters Induces Protection during Taeniosis by Taenia solium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobedo, Galileo; Palacios-Arreola, M. Isabel; Olivos, Alfonso; López-Griego, Lorena; Morales-Montor, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Human neurocysticercosis by Taenia solium is considered an emergent severe brain disorder in developing and developed countries. Discovery of new antiparasitic drugs has been recently aimed to restrain differentiation and establishment of the T. solium adult tapeworm, for being considered a central node in the disease propagation to both pigs and humans. Tamoxifen is an antiestrogenic drug with cysticidal action on Taenia crassiceps, a close relative of T. solium. Thus, we evaluated the effect of tamoxifen on the in vitro evagination and the in vivo establishment of T. solium. In vitro, tamoxifen inhibited evagination of T. solium cysticerci in a dose-time dependent manner. In vivo, administration of tamoxifen to hamsters decreased the intestinal establishment of the parasite by 70%, while recovered tapeworms showed an 80% reduction in length, appearing as scolices without strobilar development. Since tamoxifen did not show any significant effect on the proliferation of antigen-specific immune cells, intestinal inflammation, and expression of Th1/Th2 cytokines in spleen and duodenum, this drug could exert its antiparasite actions by having direct detrimental effects upon the adult tapeworm. These results demonstrate that tamoxifen exhibits a strong cysticidal and antitaeniasic effect on T. solium that should be further explored in humans and livestock. PMID:23509701

  17. Differentiating Taenia solium and Taenia saginata Infections by Simple Hematoxylin-Eosin Staining and PCR-Restriction Enzyme Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayta, H.; Talley, A.; Gilman, R. H.; Jimenez, J.; Verastegui, M.; Ruiz, M.; Garcia, H. H.; Gonzalez, A. E.

    2000-01-01

    Species-specific identification of human tapeworm infections is important for public health purposes, because prompt identification of Taenia solium carriers may prevent further human cysticercosis infections (a major cause of acquired epilepsy). Two practical methods for the differentiation of cestode proglottids, (i) routine embedding, sectioning, and hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining and (ii) PCR with restriction enzyme analysis (PCR-REA), were tested on samples from 40 individuals infected with T. solium (n = 34) or Taenia saginata (n = 6). Microscopic examination of HE staining of sections from 24 cases, in which conserved proglottids were recovered, clearly revealed differences in the number of uterine branches. Distinct restriction patterns for T. solium and T. saginata were observed when the PCR products containing the ribosomal 5.8S gene plus internal transcribed spacer regions were digested with either AluI, DdeI, or MboI. Both HE histology and PCR-REA are useful techniques for differentiating T. solium from T. saginata. Importantly, both techniques can be used in zones of endemicity. HE histology is inexpensive and is currently available in most regions of endemicity, and PCR-REA can be performed in most hospital centers already performing PCR without additional equipment or the use of radioactive material. PMID:10618076

  18. The association between seizures and deposition of collagen in the brain in porcine Taenia solium neurocysticercosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Nina Møller; Trevisan, Chiara; Leifsson, Páll Skúli

    2016-01-01

    tissue sections from seven pigs were examined histopathologically i.e. two pigs with epileptic seizures and T. solium cysts, four pigs without seizures but with cysts, and one non-infected control pig. Pigs with epileptic seizures had a larger amount of collagen in their brain tissue, showing as large......Neurocysticercosis caused by infection with Taenia solium is a significant cause of epilepsy and seizures in humans. The aim of this study was to assess the association between seizures and the deposition of collagen in brain tissue in pigs with T. solium neurocysticercosis. In total 78 brain...... fibrotic scars and moderate amount of collagen deposited around cysts, compared to pigs without seizures and the negative control pig. Our results indicate that collagen is likely to play a considerable part in the pathogenesis of seizures in T. solium neurocysticercosis....

  19. The association between seizures and deposition of collagen in the brain in porcine Taenia solium neurocysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Nina M; Trevisan, Chiara; Leifsson, Páll S; Johansen, Maria V

    2016-09-15

    Neurocysticercosis caused by infection with Taenia solium is a significant cause of epilepsy and seizures in humans. The aim of this study was to assess the association between seizures and the deposition of collagen in brain tissue in pigs with T. solium neurocysticercosis. In total 78 brain tissue sections from seven pigs were examined histopathologically i.e. two pigs with epileptic seizures and T. solium cysts, four pigs without seizures but with cysts, and one non-infected control pig. Pigs with epileptic seizures had a larger amount of collagen in their brain tissue, showing as large fibrotic scars and moderate amount of collagen deposited around cysts, compared to pigs without seizures and the negative control pig. Our results indicate that collagen is likely to play a considerable part in the pathogenesis of seizures in T. solium neurocysticercosis. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. LONGEVITY AND VIABILITY OF Taenia solium EGGS IN THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM OF THE BEETLE Ammophorus rubripes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Puerta, Luis Antonio; Lopez-Urbina, Maria Teresa; Garcia, Hector Hugo; Gonzalez, Armando Emiliano

    2015-01-01

    The present study evaluated the capacity of Ammophorus rubripes beetles to carry Taenia solium eggs, in terms of duration and viability of eggs in their digestive system. One hundred beetles were distributed into five polyethylene boxes, and then they were infected with T. solium eggs. Gravid proglottids of T. solium were crushed and then mixed with cattle feces. One gram of this mixture was placed in each box for 24 hours, after which each group of beetles was transferred into a new clean box. Then, five beetles were dissected every three days. Time was strongly associated with viability (r=0.89; Psystem of each beetle were counted and tested for viability. Taenia solium eggs were present in the beetle’s digestive system for up to 39 days (13th sampling day out of 20), gradually reducing in numbers and viability, which was 0 on day 36 post-infection. Egg viability was around 40% up to day 24 post-infection, with a median number of eggs of 11 per beetle at this time. Dung beetles may potentially contribute towards dispersing T. solium eggs in endemic areas. PMID:24728368

  1. Investigating a hyper-endemic focus of Taenia solium in northern Lao PDR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okello, Anna; Ash, Amanda; Keokhamphet, Chattouphone; Hobbs, Emma; Khamlome, Boualam; Dorny, Pierre; Thomas, Lian; Allen, John

    2014-03-28

    The Taenia solium cysticercosis-taeniasis complex is a Neglected Tropical Disease of significant public health importance in many impoverished communities worldwide. The parasite is suspected to be endemic in Lao PDR as a result of widespread risk factors including open human defecation, free ranging pigs and weak systems for meat inspection and carcass condemnation. Reported prevalences of human taeniasis throughout the country have ranged from 0-14%, although few of these have definitively diagnosed T. solium, grossly indistinguishable from Taenia saginata (beef tapeworm) and Taenia asiatica. This short communication details the suspicion of a hyper endemic "hotspot" of T. solium in a remote Tai Dam village in northern Lao PDR. Initial antibody serosurveillance of four provinces in Lao PDR in 2011 indicated human taeniasis and cysticercosis prevalences of 46.7% and 66.7% respectively, in the village of Om Phalong in the north of the country. Subsequent copro-antigen ELISA on 92 human faecal samples from this same village, representing a total 27.9% of the target community, indicated a taeniasis prevalence of 26.1% (95% CI?=?18.2-35.9). Subsequent PCR and sequencing of samples (n?=?5) all identified as T. solium; the other human tapeworms T. saginata and T. asiatica were not detected in any of the samples genotyped. This is potentially one of the highest documented prevalences of T. solium taeniasis to date in Lao PDR, if not the Southeast Asia region. This result raises suspicion that other "hotspots" of T. solium hyper endemicity may exist in the region, particularly in communities where the consumption of raw pork is commonplace as a result of cultural practices.

  2. Taenia solium metacestode preparation in rural areas of sub ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Generated crude antigens were applied in a standard western blot assay. Results: 46 out of 670 pigs ... University Hospital, Ludwig-Maximilians. University of Munich ..... in T. solium cyst preparation processes should be previ- ously trained in ...

  3. Serological diagnosis of Taenia solium in pigs: No measurable circulating antigens and antibody response following exposure to Taenia saginata oncospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorny, P; Dermauw, V; Van Hul, A; Trevisan, C; Gabriël, S

    2017-10-15

    Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis is a zoonosis included in the WHO's list of neglected tropical diseases. Accurate diagnostic tools for humans and pigs are needed to monitor intervention outcomes. Currently used diagnostic tools for porcine cysticercosis all have drawbacks. Serological tests are mainly confronted with problems of specificity. More specifically, circulating antigen detecting tests cross-react with Taenia hydatigena and the possibility of transient antigens as a result of aborted infections is suspected. Furthermore, the hypothesis has been raised that hatched ingested eggs of other Taenia species may lead to a transient antibody response or to the presence of circulating antigen detectable by serological tests used for porcine cysticercosis. Here we describe the results of a study that consisted of oral administration of Taenia saginata eggs to five piglets followed by serological testing during five weeks and necropsy aiming at studying possible cross reactions in serological tests used for porcine cysticercosis. The infectivity of the eggs was verified by in vitro hatching and by experimental infection of a calf. One piglet developed acute respiratory disease and died on day 6 post infection. The remaining four piglets did not show any clinical signs until euthanasia. None of the serum samples from four piglets collected between days 0 and 35 post infection gave a positive reaction in the B158/B60 Ag-ELISA and in a commercial Western blot for antibody detection. In conclusion, this study showed that experimental exposure of four pigs to T. saginata eggs did not result in positive serologies for T. solium. These results may help interpreting serological results in monitoring of T. solium control programmes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluation of the impact of a control program against taeniasis-cysticercosis (Taenia solium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline S de Aluja

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetive. The impact of a control program is evaluated to eventually eradicate taeniasis-cysticercosis (Taenia solium based on education and vaccination of pigs. Materials and methods. The prevalence of porcine cysticercosis was estimated using tongue inspection, ultrasound and determination of antibodies, before and three years after the application in three regions of the state of Guerrero. Results. A significant reduction in the prevalence of porcine cysticercosis of 7 to 0.5% and 3.6 to 0.3% estimated by tongue examination or ultrasound respectively (p menor que 0.01 and a no significant decrease in seroprevalence from 17.7 to 13.3% were observed. Conclusions. The reduction of the prevalence of taeniasis-cysticercosis establishes the program’s effectiveness in preventing infection. The sustained presence of antibodies, compatible with contact of Taenia solium or other related helminths, underlines the importance of maintaining interventionsto achieve eradication.

  5. High prevalence of Taenia saginata taeniasis and status of Taenia solium cysticercosis in Bali, Indonesia, 2002-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandra, T; Sutisna, P; Dharmawan, N S; Margono, S S; Sudewi, R; Suroso, T; Craig, P S; Ito, A

    2006-04-01

    An epidemiological survey of taeniasis/cysticercosis was carried out in one semi-urban and two urban villages in three districts of Bali, Indonesia in 2002 and 2004. In total, 398 local people from 247 families were diagnosed by anamnesis and clinical examinations, and 60 residents were suspected to be taeniasis carriers. Among 60 suspected carriers, 56 persons expelled a total of 61 taeniid adult worms after praziquantel treatment. From 398 residents, 252 stool samples were available for analysis of taeniid eggs, coproantigens or copro-DNA for identification of taeniid species, and 311 serum samples were available for detection of antibodies against Taenia solium cysticercosis. Taeniasis prevalences were highly variable among three villages (1.1-27.5%), and only one case of cysticercosis due to T. solium infection was detected. All expelled tapeworms were confirmed to be Taenia saginata by mtDNA analysis. There was no Taenia asiatica human case in Bali. Case control analysis of 106 families chosen at random from 179 families in 2004 and another 106 families from non-endemic areas revealed that risk factors of T. saginata taeniasis for families were: level of education (Pbeef lawar (P<0.01); and the source of lawar (P<0.01).

  6. Prevention and control of Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilman, Robert H; Gonzalez, Armando E; Llanos-Zavalaga, Fernando; Tsang, Victor C W; Garcia, Hector H

    2012-01-01

    Taenia solium is endemic in most of the world, causing seizures and other neurological symptoms. Transmission is mainly maintained in rural areas by a human to pig cycle. Despite claims on its eradicability, sustainable interruption of transmission has not yet been reported. This manuscript reviews the conceptual basis for control, available diagnostic and control tools, and recent experiences on control in the field performed in Peru along the past decade PMID:23265557

  7. Human neurocysticercosis case and an endemic focus of Taenia solium in Lao PDR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Yong, Tai-Soon; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Chai, Jong-Yil; Min, Duk-Young; Rim, Han-Jong; Insisiengmay, Bounnaloth; Eom, Keeseon S

    2013-10-01

    A male patient with neurocysticercosis was identified in Montai Village, Xay District, Oudomxay Province, Lao PDR in February 2004. He had a history of diagnosis for neurocysticercosis by a CT scan in Thailand after an onset of epileptic seizure in 1993. A pig in the same district was found to contain Taenia solium metacestodes (=cysticerci); the slaughtered pig body contained more than 2,000 cysticerci. In addition to morphological identification, molecular identification was also performed on the cysticerci by DNA sequencing analysis of the mitochondrial cox1 gene; they were confirmed as T. solium metacestodes. The patient is regarded as an indigenous case of neurocysticercosis infected in an endemic focus of T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis in Oudomxay Province, Lao PDR.

  8. Identificación de células proliferativas en quistes de Taenia solium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Orrego-Solano

    Full Text Available Los neoblastos son células totipotentes, únicas responsables de la proliferación y maduración de tejidos en platelmintos de vida libre. Células similares se han aislado en platelmintos parásitos como Echinococcus. Taenia solium causa la teniasis humana (intestinal y la cisticercosis en humanos y cerdos. La infección del cerebro con larvas (quistes de T. solium resulta en neurocisticercosis, hiperendémica en el Perú; su tratamiento se asocia a síntomas neurológicos graves. La capacidad proliferativa y el desarrollo de los estadios de T. solium aún no se describen, y no se ha caracterizado los neoblastos de este parásito. Se buscó células proliferativas en quistes de T. solium colectados de un cerdo infectado, que fueron identificadas al replicarse e incorporar el nucleótido bromodesoxiuridina, detectado con un anticuerpo monoclonal. Una línea celular estable de neoblastos sería útil para estudios sistemáticos in vitro sobre eficacia de drogas y sobre la biología de T. solium.

  9. Complete sequence of the mitochondrial genome of Taenia saginata: comparison with T. solium and T. asiatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Kim, Kyu-Heon; Eom, Keeseon S

    2007-09-01

    The complete sequence of the Taenia saginata mitochondrial genome was determined, and its organization and structure were compared to other human-tropic Taenia tapeworms for which complete mitochondrial sequence data were available. The mitochondrial genome was 13,670 bp long, contained 12 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs, a small and a large subunit), and 22 transfer RNAs (tRNAs). It did not encode the atp8 gene. Overlapping regions were found between nad4L and nad4, nad1 and trnN, and cox1 and trnT. The ATG initiation codon was used for 10 protein-coding genes, and the GTG initiation codon was used for the remaining 2 genes (nad4 and atp6). The size of the protein-coding genes of the three human Taenia tapeworms did not vary, except for Taenia solium nad1 (891 aa) and nad4 (1212 aa) and Taenia asiatica cox2 (576 aa). The tRNA genes were 57-75 bp long, and the predicted secondary structures of 18 of these genes had typical clover-leaf shapes with paired dihydrouridine (DHU) arms. The genes in all human Taenia tapeworms for the two mitochondrial rRNA subunits rrnL and rrnS are separated by trnC. The putative T. saginata rrnL and rrnS are 972 and 732 bp long, respectively. The non-coding regions of the mt genome of T. saginata consisted of 2 regions: a short non-coding region (SNR, 66 nucleotides) and a long non-coding region (LNR, 159 nucleotides). The overall sequence difference in the full mitochondrial genome between T. saginata and T. asiatica was 4.6%, while T. solium differed by 11%. In conclusion, the complete sequence of the T. saginata mitochondrial genome will serve as a resource for comparative mitochondrial genomics and systematic studies of the parasitic cestodes.

  10. Effect of national schistosomiasis control programme on Taenia solium taeniosis and porcine cysticercosis in rural communities of Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, Uffe Christian; Magnussen, Pascal; Harrison, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    Taenia solium is found throughout sub-Saharan Africa and co-endemic with schistosomiasis in many regions. Taenia solium leads to taeniosis and neurocysticercosis - the leading cause of preventable epilepsy globally. This study aimed to assess the effects of the National Schistosomiasis Control...

  11. Controlling Taenia solium in Nepal using the PRECEDE-PROCEED model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, D D; Poudyal, P M; Jimba, M; Mishra, P N; Neave, L A; Maharjan, M

    2001-01-01

    Taenia solium is a predominant food-borne parasitic zoonosis (FBPZ) in Nepal. Using the PRECEDE framework, as defined by Green and Kreuter, we can identify the factors behind the high incidence of this disease. Armed with this information, we can define the actions necessary to control T. solium. In accordance with the first step of PRECEDE, social assessment, we set the goal of decreasing the potential for T. solium transmission in Nepal by the year 2003. This goal has yet to be endorsed by policy makers. However, an epidemiological assessment based on hospital data alone showed that T. solium is an endemic problem in urban Nepal that must be addressed. Based on behavioral and environmental assessments (Steps 1 and 2 of PRECEDE-PROCEED), we defined the following action objectives to be achieved by 2003: 1) Train meat producers and sellers to detect contaminated pork and avoid selling it, 2) Improve pig husbandry to limit the animals' access to human feces, 3) Construct hygienic model slaughterhouses. These improvements could control the meat-producing environment, thus limiting the potential for cross-carcass contamination and other hygiene deficiencies associated with the spread of T. solium. An educational and ecological assessment shows all predisposing, reinforcing and enabling factors are present in Nepal, consistent with PRECEDE requirements. While T. solium is clearly defined as a health problem according to PRECEDE, there remain significant hurdles to controlling it. These hurdles lie in administration and policy, where standardized law-enforcement and meat inspection practices are needed. Finally, the government of Nepal must assign high priority to T. solium control, as it is a preventable, yet prevalent disease.

  12. La taeniose/ cysticercose à Taenia solium dans la Menoua (Ouest-Cameroun

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    Vondou L.

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available La présente étude a été conduite d'août 1999 à avril 2000 et avait pour objectif de déterminer la prévalence de la taeniose due à Taenia solium dans Bafou et Bamendou, deux groupements villageois de la Menoua (Ouest-Cameroun. Quatre (0,13 % sur 3 109 échantillons de matières fécales humaines ont été trouvés positifs pour des oeufs de Taenia spp. par la technique de la flottaison. Trois des quatre vers expulsés étaient des T. solium et un était T. saginata. Deux cas de cysticercose étaient présents dans une des familles où vivait un porteur de T. solium.En plus, des enquêtes coprologique et sérologique pour la taeniose et la cysticercose à T. solium ont été faites chez un groupe à risque constitué de bouchers et/ou langueyeurs (n = 137. Les résultats ont été comparés à ceux d'un groupe témoin (n = 198. Aucun porteur de Taenia n'a été détecté par l'examen microscopique. Les prévalences de la cysticercose dans les deux groupes ont été respectivement 3,6 et 4,5 %.

  13. Epidemiologia da teníase/cisticercose por Taenia solium e Taenia saginata Epidemiology of teniasis/cysticercosis by Taenia solium and Taenia saginata

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    Márcia Regina Pfuetzenreiter

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available No presente artigo, os autores fazem uma revisão dos aspectos epidemiológicos da teníase e cisticercose. A cisticercose é produzida pelo desenvolvimento da forma larval da Taenia, o Cysticercus, nos tecidos, sendo transmitida pela ingestão de ovos de Taenia. A cisticercose humana e animal são consideradas um grande problema sócio-econômico em muitos países. É considerada uma zoonose endêmica, estando distribuída nos países em desenvolvimento, especialmente nas áreas rurais. A invasão da larva no sistema nervoso central em humanos constitui uma séria complicação. A cisticercose é um dos maiores problemas de saúde pública dos países em desenvolvimento e a neurocisticercose é considerada a doença parasitária mais comum do sistema nervoso humano. A conservação da carne em temperatura inferior a -15ºC durante seis dias, sua cocção adequada, além da inspeção sanitária das carnes e o diagnóstico e tratamento da teníase humana em áreas endêmicas constituem as principais medidas de controle.Is described a review of the epidemiological aspects of teniasis and cysticercosis. Cysticercosis is caused by the development of the larval form of Taenia, wich results in the Cysticercus in tissues, and is transmitted through ingestion of Taenia eggs. Human and animal cysticercosis are a great socioeconomic problem in many countries. It is a endemic zoonosis and is widespread in developing countries especially in rural areas. Larval invasion of the central nervous system constitutes a serious complication in humans. Cysticercosis is one of the great public health problems in developing countries and the neurocysticercosis is considered the most common parasitic disease of the human central nervous system. The freezing of meat for six days in temperatures below -15ºC, its adequate cooking, meat inspection and treatment individual patients infected with adult worms in endemic areas are the main control measures.

  14. Spatial relationship between Taenia solium tapeworm carriers and necropsy cyst burden in pigs.

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    Ian W Pray

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Taenia solium, a parasite that affects humans and pigs, is the leading cause of preventable epilepsy in the developing world. Geographic hotspots of pigs testing positive for serologic markers of T. solium exposure have been observed surrounding the locations of human tapeworm carriers. This clustered pattern of seropositivity in endemic areas formed the basis for geographically targeted control interventions, which have been effective at reducing transmission. In this study, we further explore the spatial relationship between human tapeworm carriers and infected pigs using necroscopic examination as a quantitative gold-standard diagnostic to detect viable T. solium cyst infection in pigs.We performed necroscopic examinations on pigs from 7 villages in northern Peru to determine the number of viable T. solium cysts in each pig. Participating humans in the study villages were tested for T. solium tapeworm infection (i.e., taeniasis with an ELISA coproantigen assay, and the distances from each pig to its nearest human tapeworm carrier were calculated. We assessed the relationship between proximity to a tapeworm carrier and the prevalence of light, moderate, and heavy cyst burden in pigs. The prevalence of pig infection was greatest within 50 meters of a tapeworm carrier and decreased monotonically as distance increased. Pigs living less than 50 meters from a human tapeworm carrier were 4.6 times more likely to be infected with at least one cyst than more distant pigs. Heavier cyst burdens, however, were not more strongly associated with proximity to tapeworm carriers than light cyst burdens.Our study shows that human tapeworm carriers and pigs with viable T. solium cyst infection are geographically correlated in endemic areas. This finding supports control strategies that treat humans and pigs based on their proximity to other infected individuals. We did not, however, find sufficient evidence that heavier cyst burdens in pigs would serve as

  15. Spatial relationship between Taenia solium tapeworm carriers and necropsy cyst burden in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pray, Ian W; Ayvar, Viterbo; Gamboa, Ricardo; Muro, Claudio; Moyano, Luz M; Benavides, Victor; Flecker, Robert H; Garcia, Hector H; O'Neal, Seth E

    2017-04-01

    Taenia solium, a parasite that affects humans and pigs, is the leading cause of preventable epilepsy in the developing world. Geographic hotspots of pigs testing positive for serologic markers of T. solium exposure have been observed surrounding the locations of human tapeworm carriers. This clustered pattern of seropositivity in endemic areas formed the basis for geographically targeted control interventions, which have been effective at reducing transmission. In this study, we further explore the spatial relationship between human tapeworm carriers and infected pigs using necroscopic examination as a quantitative gold-standard diagnostic to detect viable T. solium cyst infection in pigs. We performed necroscopic examinations on pigs from 7 villages in northern Peru to determine the number of viable T. solium cysts in each pig. Participating humans in the study villages were tested for T. solium tapeworm infection (i.e., taeniasis) with an ELISA coproantigen assay, and the distances from each pig to its nearest human tapeworm carrier were calculated. We assessed the relationship between proximity to a tapeworm carrier and the prevalence of light, moderate, and heavy cyst burden in pigs. The prevalence of pig infection was greatest within 50 meters of a tapeworm carrier and decreased monotonically as distance increased. Pigs living less than 50 meters from a human tapeworm carrier were 4.6 times more likely to be infected with at least one cyst than more distant pigs. Heavier cyst burdens, however, were not more strongly associated with proximity to tapeworm carriers than light cyst burdens. Our study shows that human tapeworm carriers and pigs with viable T. solium cyst infection are geographically correlated in endemic areas. This finding supports control strategies that treat humans and pigs based on their proximity to other infected individuals. We did not, however, find sufficient evidence that heavier cyst burdens in pigs would serve as improved targets for

  16. Identification and Characterization of Microsatellite Markers Derived from the Whole Genome Analysis of Taenia solium.

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    Mónica J Pajuelo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Infections with Taenia solium are the most common cause of adult acquired seizures worldwide, and are the leading cause of epilepsy in developing countries. A better understanding of the genetic diversity of T. solium will improve parasite diagnostics and transmission pathways in endemic areas thereby facilitating the design of future control measures and interventions. Microsatellite markers are useful genome features, which enable strain typing and identification in complex pathogen genomes. Here we describe microsatellite identification and characterization in T. solium, providing information that will assist in global efforts to control this important pathogen.For genome sequencing, T. solium cysts and proglottids were collected from Huancayo and Puno in Peru, respectively. Using next generation sequencing (NGS and de novo assembly, we assembled two draft genomes and one hybrid genome. Microsatellite sequences were identified and 36 of them were selected for further analysis. Twenty T. solium isolates were collected from Tumbes in the northern region, and twenty from Puno in the southern region of Peru. The size-polymorphism of the selected microsatellites was determined with multi-capillary electrophoresis. We analyzed the association between microsatellite polymorphism and the geographic origin of the samples.The predicted size of the hybrid (proglottid genome combined with cyst genome T. solium genome was 111 MB with a GC content of 42.54%. A total of 7,979 contigs (>1,000 nt were obtained. We identified 9,129 microsatellites in the Puno-proglottid genome and 9,936 in the Huancayo-cyst genome, with 5 or more repeats, ranging from mono- to hexa-nucleotide. Seven microsatellites were polymorphic and 29 were monomorphic within the analyzed isolates. T. solium tapeworms were classified into two genetic groups that correlated with the North/South geographic origin of the parasites.The availability of draft genomes for T. solium represents a

  17. Short Communication: In Vitro Efficacy Testing of Praziquantel, Ivermectin, and Oxfendazole against Taenia Solium Cysts

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    S. Cederberg

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxfendazole is recommended as the drug of choice for treating porcine cysticercosis. The drug does not kill brain cysts and is not registered for use in pigs. Latest its safety in the recommended dose has been questioned. The aim of this study was to investigate two alternative anthelminthics. The efficacy of praziquantel and ivermectin was compared to oxfendazole In Vitro on Taenia solium. Cysts of T. solium were isolated from infected pork and incubated in culture media together with the drugs. The degree of evagination was used as effect measurement and determined after 6 hours. Praziquantel had a half maximal effective concentration (EC50 of value 0.006 ± 0.001 μg/mL. Ivermectin did not show any impact on the evagination in concentrations from 0.001 to 30 μg/mL and neither did oxfendazole in concentrations from 0.001 to 50 μg/mL.

  18. Taenia solium taeniosis/cysticercosis and the co-distribution with schistosomiasis in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, Uffe Christian; Saarnak, Christopher; Mukaratirwa, Samson

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study aimed to map the distribution of Taenia solium taeniosis/cysticercosis and the co-distribution with schistosomiasis in Africa. These two major neglected tropical diseases are presumed to be widely distributed in Africa, but currently the level of co-distribution is unclear...... to combine the epidemiological data on the apparent prevalence with external information on test characteristics to estimate informed district-level prevalence of taeniosis and porcine cysticercosis. Districts with T. solium taeniosis/cysticercosis presence were cross-referenced with the Global Neglected...... countries identified from OIE reports. All 31 countries were considered, on national scale, to have co-distribution with schistosomiasis. Presence of both parasites was confirmed in 124 districts in 17 countries. The informed prevalence of taeniosis and porcine cysticercosis were estimated for 14 and 41...

  19. Seroprevalence of antibodies against Taenia solium cysticerci among refugees resettled in United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neal, Seth E; Townes, John M; Wilkins, Patricia P; Noh, John C; Lee, Deborah; Rodriguez, Silvia; Garcia, Hector H; Stauffer, William M

    2012-03-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a disease caused by central nervous system infection by the larval stage of the pork tapeworm, Taenia solium. In developing countries, NCC is a leading cause of adult-onset epilepsy. Case reports of NCC are increasing among refugees resettled to the United States and other nations, but the underlying prevalence among refugee groups is unknown. We tested stored serum samples from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Migrant Serum Bank for antibodies against T. solium cysts by using the enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot. Seroprevalence was high among all 4 populations tested: refugees from Burma (23.2%), Lao People's Democratic Republic (18.3%), Bhutan (22.8%), and Burundi (25.8%). Clinicians caring for refugee populations should suspect NCC in patients with seizure, chronic headache, or unexplained neurologic manifestations. Improved understanding of the prevalence of epilepsy and other associated diseases among refugees could guide recommendations for their evaluation and treatment before, during, and after resettlement.

  20. cystiSim - an agent-based model for Taenia solium transmission and control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, Uffe Christian; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Gabriël, Sarah

    Taenia solium taeniosis/cysticercosis was declared eradicable by the International Task Force for Disease Eradication in 1993, but remains a neglected zoonosis due to limited information about its transmission and validation of intervention tools. To address this gap, we developed cysti...... and humans. Pigs acquire cysticercosis through the environment or by direct contact with a tapeworm carrier's faeces, leading to light or high infection intensities, respectively. Humans acquire taeniosis from slaughtered pigs proportional to their infection intensity. The model allows evaluation of three...

  1. Taenia solium, Taenia saginata, Taenia asiatica, their hybrids and other helminthic infections occurring in a neglected tropical diseases' highly endemic area in Lao PDR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Marcello Otake; Sato, Megumi; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Waikagul, Jitra; Pongvongsa, Tiengkham; Sako, Yasuhito; Sanguankiat, Surapol; Yoonuan, Tipparayat; Kounnavang, Sengchanh; Kawai, Satoru; Ito, Akira; Okamoto, Munehiro; Moji, Kazuhiko

    2018-02-08

    Most part of Southeast Asia is considered endemic for human-infecting Taenia tapeworms; Taenia solium, T. saginata, and T. asiatica. However, until now there was no report of the occurrence of human cases of T. asiatica in Lao PDR. This study, conducted in Savannakhet Province, Lao PDR, microscopically examined a total of 470 fecal samples by Kato Katz method and found 86% of people harboring at least one helminth. Hookworms were detected in 56% of the samples besides Opisthorchis like eggs (42%), Trichuris trichiura (27%), Ascaris spp. (14%), and Taenia spp. (4%) eggs. Serology for cysticercosis showed 6.8% positives with results varying from 3% to 14.3% in Ethnic School students and Kalouk Kao village respectively. Species-specific PCR targeting mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of 28 tapeworms, recovered from 16 patients, revealed T. solium (n = 2), T. saginata (n = 21), and T. asiatica (n = 5). Two patients were confirmed to be coinfected with T. saginata and T. asiatica, indicating the endemicity of the 3 human Taenia in Lao PDR. However, nucleotide sequencing of a nuclear DNA gene, DNA polymerase delta (pold) revealed that all the tapeworms identified as T. asiatica using mtDNA had T. saginata type allele at pold locus, demonstrating that they are not "pure T. asiatica" but the hybrid descendants between the two species, confirming the wide distribution of hybrids of T. saginata/ T. asiatica in Southeast Asia. The high prevalence of several helminthic NTDs in east Savannakhet area even with conventional control measures indicates the importance to establish wide and multifaceted health programs to sustainably improve the quality of life of the populations living in these communities.

  2. Prevalence and risk factors associated with human Taenia solium infections in Mbozi District, Mbeya Region, Tanzania.

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    Gloria Mwanjali

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Taenia solium cysticercosis/taeniosis is emerging as a serious public health and economic problem in many developing countries. This study was conducted to determine prevalence and risk factors of human T. solium infections in Mbeya Region, Tanzania. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 13 villages of Mbozi district in 2009. Sera of 830 people (mean 37.9±11.3 years (SD; 43% females were tested for circulating cysticerci antigen (Ag-ELISA and antibody (Ab-ELISA. A subset of persons found seropositive by Ag-ELISA underwent computed tomography (CT scan of the brain for evidence of neurocysticercosis. Stool samples from 820 of the same participants were tested for taeniosis by copro-antigens (copro-Ag-ELISA and formol-ether concentration technique. Cases of T. solium taeniosis were confirmed serologically by EITB assay (rES38. A questionnaire was used for identification of risk factors. Active cysticercosis by positive Ag-ELISA was found in 139 (16.7% persons while anti-cysticercal antibodies were detected in 376 (45.3% persons by Ab-ELISA. Among 55 persons positive for Ag-ELISA undergoing CT scan, 30 (54.6% were found to have structures in the brain suggestive of neurocysticercosis. Using faecal analysis, 43 (5.2% stool samples tested positive for taeniosis by copro-Ag-ELISA while Taenia eggs were detected in 9 (1.1% stool samples by routine coprology. Antibodies specifically against adult T. solium were detected in 34 copro-Ag-ELISA positive participants by EITB (rES38 indicating T. solium taeniosis prevalence of 4.1%. Increasing age and hand washing by dipping in contrast to using running water, were found associated with Ag-ELISA seropositivity by logistic regression. Gender (higher risk in females and water source were risk factors associated with Ab-ELISA seropositivity. Reported symptoms of chronic severe headaches and history of epileptic seizures were found associated with positive Ag-ELISA (p≤0

  3. Prevalence and risk factors associated with human Taenia solium infections in Mbozi District, Mbeya Region, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwanjali, Gloria; Kihamia, Charles; Kakoko, Deodatus Vitalis Conatus; Lekule, Faustin; Ngowi, Helena; Johansen, Maria Vang; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Willingham, Arve Lee

    2013-01-01

    Taenia solium cysticercosis/taeniosis is emerging as a serious public health and economic problem in many developing countries. This study was conducted to determine prevalence and risk factors of human T. solium infections in Mbeya Region, Tanzania. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 13 villages of Mbozi district in 2009. Sera of 830 people (mean 37.9±11.3 years (SD); 43% females) were tested for circulating cysticerci antigen (Ag-ELISA) and antibody (Ab-ELISA). A subset of persons found seropositive by Ag-ELISA underwent computed tomography (CT) scan of the brain for evidence of neurocysticercosis. Stool samples from 820 of the same participants were tested for taeniosis by copro-antigens (copro-Ag-ELISA) and formol-ether concentration technique. Cases of T. solium taeniosis were confirmed serologically by EITB assay (rES38). A questionnaire was used for identification of risk factors. Active cysticercosis by positive Ag-ELISA was found in 139 (16.7%) persons while anti-cysticercal antibodies were detected in 376 (45.3%) persons by Ab-ELISA. Among 55 persons positive for Ag-ELISA undergoing CT scan, 30 (54.6%) were found to have structures in the brain suggestive of neurocysticercosis. Using faecal analysis, 43 (5.2%) stool samples tested positive for taeniosis by copro-Ag-ELISA while Taenia eggs were detected in 9 (1.1%) stool samples by routine coprology. Antibodies specifically against adult T. solium were detected in 34 copro-Ag-ELISA positive participants by EITB (rES38) indicating T. solium taeniosis prevalence of 4.1%. Increasing age and hand washing by dipping in contrast to using running water, were found associated with Ag-ELISA seropositivity by logistic regression. Gender (higher risk in females) and water source were risk factors associated with Ab-ELISA seropositivity. Reported symptoms of chronic severe headaches and history of epileptic seizures were found associated with positive Ag-ELISA (p≤0.05). The present study indicates T. solium

  4. Epidemiological investigation of Taenia solium taeniasis and cysticercosis in a rural village of Michoacan state, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarti, E; Schantz, P M; Plancarte, A; Wilson, M; Gutierrez, O I; Aguilera, J; Roberts, J; Flisser, A

    1994-01-01

    We performed a survey for taeniasis and cysticercosis among persons living in a Mexican village where Taenia solium infection in pigs was known to be enzootic. A standardized questionnaire was administered in all 577 households to obtain medical histories and information on demographic and environmental factors and on risk factors associated with transmission of infection. Serum and/or stool specimens were obtained from 1005 volunteers and examined for cysticercosis antibodies and intestinal parasites. Faecal examination of 828 participants revealed infection by Taenia sp. in 2 (0.2%). Three additional cases of taeniasis were detected in individuals who evacuated proglottids after treatment with praziquantel. Of 1005 human serum specimens, 49 (4.9%) were positive in the cysticercosis immunoblot assay. Seropositivity increased with age and reached a peak in subjects aged 46-55 years (P < 0.05). A history of seizures was significantly associated with seropositivity (P < 0.05); approximately 25% of persons with such histories were seropositive. Histories of headache, dizziness, trembling, blurred vision, and vomiting were also significantly associated with positive immunoblot assays. This study has demonstrated previously undiagnosed morbidity associated with T. solium neurocysticercosis and identified community behavioural and environmental practices that must be modified to prevent continued transmission of cysticercosis and taeniasis.

  5. Impact of naturally acquired Taenia solium cysticercosis on the hormonal levels of free ranging boars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, N; Morales, J; Morales-Montor, J; Vargas-Villavicencio, A; Fleury, A; Zarco, L; de Aluja, A S; Larralde, C; Fragoso, G; Sciutto, E

    2007-10-21

    In chronically infected BALBc/AnN male mice, Taenia crassiceps cysticercosis induces changes in the host's sex steroids hormone that lead to their estrogenization and deandrogenization, with possible repercussions on their susceptibility to infections. Here reported are the serum steroid levels in free range cysticercotic male boars. Therefore, the possible effects of Taenia solium cysticerci over the pig steroid levels were evaluated. Herein are described the sex steroids and cortisol levels of non-cysticercotic (n=25) and cysticercotic (n=22) adult boars, as diagnosed by tongue inspection, all free-ranging in a typical village of an endemic rural area in Mexico. A significant reduction of testosterone (P=0.022) and a likely one of 17beta-estradiol (P=0.08) levels were found in the cysticercotic boars in comparison with those non-cysticercotic, whilst no significant differences in the cortisol and DHEA levels were detected. Serum levels of specific antibodies did not correlate with infection nor with the levels of any of the hormones measured. Results suggest that T. solium cysticercosis significantly affects the hormonal status of its porcine host independently of their antibody response.

  6. Use of expressed sequence tags as an alternative approach for the identification of Taenia solium metacestode excretion/secretion proteins.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Victor, B.; Dorny, P.; Kanobana, K.; Polman, K.; Lindh, J.; Deelder, A.M.; Palmblad, M.; Gabriel, S.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis is a zoonotic helminth infection mainly found in rural regions of Africa, Asia and Latin America. In endemic areas, diagnosis of cysticercosis largely depends on serology, but these methods have their drawbacks and require improvement. This implies

  7. Minyoo Matata - The Vicious Worm - A Taenia solium Computer-Based Health-Education Tool - in Swahili

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trevisan, Chiara; Fèvre, Eric M.; Owiny, Maurice

    2017-01-01

    Lack of knowledge is one of the main risk factors for the spread of the zoonotic parasite Taenia solium. The computer-based health-education tool 'The Vicious Worm' was developed to create awareness and provide evidence-based health education as a specific measure in control strategies. To increase...

  8. Are we ready for Taenia solium cysticercosis elimination in sub-Saharan Africa?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Maria Vang; Trevisan, Chiara; Gabriël, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    The World Health Organization announced in November 2014 at the fourth international meeting on ‘the control of neglected zoonotic diseases – from advocacy to action’, that intervention tools for eliminating Taenia solium taeniosis/cysticercosis (TSTC) are in place. The aim of this work was to el...

  9. TSOL18 Vaccine Antigen of Taenia solium: Development of Monoclonal Antibodies and Field Testing of the Vaccine in Cameroon

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    Assana, E.

    2010-01-01

    lack of knowledge of the taeniasis-cysticercosis complex and the absence of a pig pen in the household were associated with pig cysticercosis. Chapter 3 reports the investigations that were undertaken to characterise whether the principal antibody specificities raised by TSOL18 in pigs were against linear or conformational determinants. TSOL18 was expressed in two truncated forms representing either the amino terminal portion or the carboxy terminal portion, with the two truncations overlapping in sequence by 25 amino acids. The original protein (designated TSOL18N— and the two truncations (TSOL18N—-1 and TSOL18N—-2 were used in inhibition ELISA to determine their ability to inhibit the binding of protective pig antibodies to TSOL18. TSOL18N— was shown to be capable of completely inhibiting the binding of pig anti-TSOL18N— antibodies to TSOL18N— in ELISA. However, neither TSOL18N—-1 nor TSOL18N—-2, either alone or combined, was capable of inhibiting any detectable amount of reactivity of pig anti-TSOL18N— antibodies with TSOL18N—. It is concluded that the dominant antibody specificities, and likely the host-protective specificities, of TSOL18 are conformational epitopes. Chapter 4 describes the development of an antibody detection test for the specific diagnosis of porcine cysticercosis. A fraction with a major band of 14 kDa was obtained from crude cyst fluid (CF of T. solium cysticerci by 2-step chromatography. A first fraction isolated by gel filtration was purified using an anion exchange column on High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. Evaluation of the analytic sensitivity of this fraction (F3 was carried out in an antibody detection enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Ab-ELISA-F3 using serum samples from pigs experimentally infected with different doses of T. solium eggs. The cross-reactivity of F3 was evaluated with serum samples from pigs that were naturally or experimentally infected with Taenia hydatigena, Taenia saginata asiatica

  10. Status of Taenia solium cysticercosis and predisposing factors in developing countries involved in pig farming

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    Joseph M. Kungu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Taenia solium cysticercosis is a disease of pigs and humans populations considered endemic in many developing countries of Latin America, Africa, and South East Asia having serious impact on public health and agriculture. We conducted an in-depth comparative analysis of literature on the disease situation and predisposing factors in selected countries known to be at the interface of poverty-emerging livestock systems-zoonoses and with a growing small holder pig industry. Transmission, methods of diagnosis and employed control strategies of T. solium infection in pig and human populations in these countries are also discussed. Limited knowledge on porcine cysticercosis (PC by various stakeholders expected to be key players in its control has undermined efforts for eliminating this potentially eradicable condition. Poor pig production practices, poor hygiene, and sanitation habits have also been important in the maintenance of the T. solium life-cycle. The major gaps identified in this review include scanty current information on PC prevalence in pigs with hardly any reports on the condition in humans in most developing countries. Factors affecting pattern of the infection and how they interact at the different levels of the pig value chain have not been exhaustively studied. Information on socioeconomic and public health impact is inadequate and not current.

  11. Experimental and Theoretical Approaches To Investigate the Immunogenicity of Taenia solium-Derived KE7 Antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobes, Raúl J; Navarrete-Perea, José; Ochoa-Leyva, Adrián; Anaya, Víctor Hugo; Hernández, Marisela; Cervantes-Torres, Jacquelynne; Estrada, Karel; Sánchez-Lopez, Filiberto; Soberón, Xavier; Rosas, Gabriela; Nunes, Cáris Maroni; García-Varela, Martín; Sotelo-Mundo, Rogerio Rafael; López-Zavala, Alonso Alexis; Gevorkian, Goar; Acero, Gonzalo; Laclette, Juan P; Fragoso, Gladis; Sciutto, Edda

    2017-12-01

    Taenia solium cysticercosis, a parasitic disease that affects human health in various regions of the world, is preventable by vaccination. Both the 97-amino-acid-long KETc7 peptide and its carboxyl-terminal, 18-amino-acid-long sequence (GK-1) are found in Taenia crassiceps Both peptides have proven protective capacity against cysticercosis and are part of the highly conserved, cestode-native, 264-amino-acid long protein KE7. KE7 belongs to a ubiquitously distributed family of proteins associated with membrane processes and may participate in several vital cell pathways. The aim of this study was to identify the T. solium KE7 (TsKE7) full-length protein and to determine its immunogenic properties. Recombinant TsKE7 (rTsKE7) was expressed in Escherichia coli Rosetta2 cells and used to obtain mouse polyclonal antibodies. Anti-rTsKE7 antibodies detected the expected native protein among the 350 spots developed from T. solium cyst vesicular fluid in a mass spectrometry-coupled immune proteomic analysis. These antibodies were then used to screen a phage-displayed 7-random-peptide library to map B-cell epitopes. The recognized phages displayed 9 peptides, with the consensus motif Y(F/Y)PS sequence, which includes YYYPS (named GK-1M, for being a GK-1 mimotope), exactly matching a part of GK-1. GK-1M was recognized by 58% of serum samples from cysticercotic pigs with 100% specificity but induced weak protection against murine cysticercosis. In silico analysis revealed a universal T-cell epitope(s) in native TsKE7 potentially capable of stimulating cytotoxic T lymphocytes and helper T lymphocytes under different major histocompatibility complex class I and class II mouse haplotypes. Altogether, these results provide a rationale for the efficacy of the KETc7, rTsKE7, and GK-1 peptides as vaccines. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  12. CystiSim - An Agent-Based Model for Taenia solium Transmission and Control.

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    Uffe Christian Braae

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Taenia solium taeniosis/cysticercosis was declared eradicable by the International Task Force for Disease Eradication in 1993, but remains a neglected zoonosis. To assist in the attempt to regionally eliminate this parasite, we developed cystiSim, an agent-based model for T. solium transmission and control. The model was developed in R and available as an R package (http://cran.r-project.org/package=cystiSim. cystiSim was adapted to an observed setting using field data from Tanzania, but adaptable to other settings if necessary. The model description adheres to the Overview, Design concepts, and Details (ODD protocol and consists of two entities-pigs and humans. Pigs acquire cysticercosis through the environment or by direct contact with a tapeworm carrier's faeces. Humans acquire taeniosis from slaughtered pigs proportional to their infection intensity. The model allows for evaluation of three interventions measures or combinations hereof: treatment of humans, treatment of pigs, and pig vaccination, and allows for customary coverage and efficacy settings. cystiSim is the first agent-based transmission model for T. solium and suggests that control using a strategy consisting of an intervention only targeting the porcine host is possible, but that coverage and efficacy must be high if elimination is the ultimate goal. Good coverage of the intervention is important, but can be compensated for by including an additional intervention targeting the human host. cystiSim shows that the scenarios combining interventions in both hosts, mass drug administration to humans, and vaccination and treatment of pigs, have a high probability of success if coverage of 75% can be maintained over at least a four year period. In comparison with an existing mathematical model for T. solium transmission, cystiSim also includes parasite maturation, host immunity, and environmental contamination. Adding these biological parameters to the model resulted in new insights in

  13. Progesterone Induces Mucosal Immunity in a Rodent Model of Human Taeniosis by Taenia solium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobedo, Galileo; Camacho-Arroyo, Ignacio; Nava-Luna, Paul; Olivos, Alfonso; Pérez-Torres, Armando; Leon-Cabrera, Sonia; Carrero, J.C.; Morales-Montor, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    More than one quarter of human world's population is exposed to intestinal helminth parasites. The Taenia solium tapeworm carrier is the main risk factor in the transmission of both human neurocysticercosis and porcine cysticercosis. Sex steroids play an important role during T. solium infection, particularly progesterone has been proposed as a key immunomodulatory hormone involved in susceptibility to human taeniosis in woman and cysticercosis in pregnant pigs. Thus, we evaluated the effect of progesterone administration upon the experimental taeniosis in golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). Intact female adult hamsters were randomly divided into 3 groups: progesterone-subcutaneously treated; olive oil-treated as the vehicle group; and untreated controls. Animals were treated every other day during 4 weeks. After 2 weeks of treatment, all hamsters were orally infected with 4 viable T. solium cysticerci. After 2 weeks post infection, progesterone-treated hamsters showed reduction in adult worm recovery by 80%, compared to both vehicle-treated and non-manipulated infected animals. In contrast to control and vehicle groups, progesterone treatment diminished tapeworm length by 75% and increased proliferation rate of leukocytes from spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes of infected hamsters by 5-fold. The latter exhibited high expression levels of IL-4, IL-6 and TNF-α at the duodenal mucosa, accompanied with polymorphonuclear leukocytes infiltration. These results support that progesterone protects hamsters from the T. solium adult tapeworm establishment by improving the intestinal mucosal immunity, suggesting a potential use of analogues of this hormone as novel inductors of the gut immune response against intestinal helminth infections and probably other bowel-related disorders. PMID:22110394

  14. Progesterone Induces Scolex Evagination of the Human Parasite Taenia solium: Evolutionary Implications to the Host-Parasite Relationship

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    Escobedo, Galileo; Camacho-Arroyo, Ignacio; Hernández-Hernández, Olivia Tania; Ostoa-Saloma, Pedro; García-Varela, Martín; Morales-Montor, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    Taenia solium cysticercosis is a health problem in underdeveloped and developed countries. Sex hormones are involved in cysticercosis prevalence in female and male pigs. Here, we evaluated the effects of progesterone and its antagonist RU486 on scolex evagination, which is the initial step in the development of the adult worm. Interestingly, progesterone increased T. solium scolex evagination and worm growth, in a concentration-independent pattern. Progesterone effects could be mediated by a novel T. solium progesterone receptor (TsPR), since RU486 inhibits both scolex evagination and worm development induced by progesterone. Using RT-PCR and western blot, sequences related to progesterone receptor were detected in the parasite. A phylogenetic analysis reveals that TsPR is highly related to fish and amphibian progesterone receptors, whereas it has a distant relation with birds and mammals. Conclusively, progesterone directly acts upon T. solium cysticerci, possibly through its binding to a progesterone receptor synthesized by the parasite. PMID:20037735

  15. Progesterone Induces Scolex Evagination of the Human Parasite Taenia solium: Evolutionary Implications to the Host-Parasite Relationship

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    Galileo Escobedo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Taenia solium cysticercosis is a health problem in underdeveloped and developed countries. Sex hormones are involved in cysticercosis prevalence in female and male pigs. Here, we evaluated the effects of progesterone and its antagonist RU486 on scolex evagination, which is the initial step in the development of the adult worm. Interestingly, progesterone increased T. solium scolex evagination and worm growth, in a concentration-independent pattern. Progesterone effects could be mediated by a novel T. solium progesterone receptor (TsPR, since RU486 inhibits both scolex evagination and worm development induced by progesterone. Using RT-PCR and western blot, sequences related to progesterone receptor were detected in the parasite. A phylogenetic analysis reveals that TsPR is highly related to fish and amphibian progesterone receptors, whereas it has a distant relation with birds and mammals. Conclusively, progesterone directly acts upon T. solium cysticerci, possibly through its binding to a progesterone receptor synthesized by the parasite.

  16. Taenia solium infection in Peru: a collaboration between Peace Corps Volunteers and researchers in a community based study.

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    Watts, Nathaniel S; Pajuelo, Monica; Clark, Taryn; Loader, Maria-Cristina I; Verastegui, Manuela R; Sterling, Charles; Friedland, Jon S; Garcia, Hector H; Gilman, Robert H

    2014-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis is a leading cause of seizures and epilepsy in most of the world, and it occurs when Taenia solium larval cysts infect the central nervous system. T. solium tapeworm infection is endemic in much of Peru, but there are scarce data on the prevalence in many rural highland communities where it is likely to be hyper-endemic. Peace Corps Volunteers live and work in these communities; however, to our knowledge, they have not been used to facilitate public health research. We utilized Peace Corps Volunteers to estimate the prevalence of T. solium tapeworm infection in seven rural communities in northern Peru. A convenience non-random sampling frame was used. Peace Corps Volunteers facilitated the collection of stool samples (N = 2,328), which were analyzed by sedimentation and microscopy. Niclosamide treatment and purgation preceded species identification, which was done by PCR-REA. Taenia sp. egg-positive stool samples were found in three of the seven communities we surveyed. The overall prevalence of Taenia sp. egg positivity was 2.1% (49/2,328) (95% CI = 1.6-2.8%) with prevalence up to 4.3% (42/977) (95% CI = 3.1-5.8%) by community. All 34 of the specimens tested by PCR-REA were T. solium. The overall prevalence of T. solium tapeworm infection was 1.5% (34/2,328) (95% CI = 1.0-2.0%). Prevalence up to 2.9% (28/977) (95% CI = 1.9-4.1%) by community was observed. This study recorded high T. solium tapeworm prevalence, and identified hyper-endemic rural communities. It demonstrates that synergy between researchers and Peace Corps Volunteers can be an effective means to conducting large-scale, community-based studies in remote areas of Peru.

  17. Taenia solium Infection in Peru: A Collaboration between Peace Corps Volunteers and Researchers in a Community Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Nathaniel S.; Pajuelo, Monica; Clark, Taryn; Loader, Maria-Cristina I.; Verastegui, Manuela R.; Sterling, Charles; Friedland, Jon S.; Garcia, Hector H.; Gilman, Robert H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Neurocysticercosis is a leading cause of seizures and epilepsy in most of the world, and it occurs when Taenia solium larval cysts infect the central nervous system. T. solium tapeworm infection is endemic in much of Peru, but there are scarce data on the prevalence in many rural highland communities where it is likely to be hyper-endemic. Peace Corps Volunteers live and work in these communities; however, to our knowledge, they have not been used to facilitate public health research. Materials and Methods We utilized Peace Corps Volunteers to estimate the prevalence of T. solium tapeworm infection in seven rural communities in northern Peru. A convenience non-random sampling frame was used. Peace Corps Volunteers facilitated the collection of stool samples (N = 2,328), which were analyzed by sedimentation and microscopy. Niclosamide treatment and purgation preceded species identification, which was done by PCR-REA. Results Taenia sp. egg-positive stool samples were found in three of the seven communities we surveyed. The overall prevalence of Taenia sp. egg positivity was 2.1% (49/2,328) (95% CI = 1.6–2.8%) with prevalence up to 4.3% (42/977) (95% CI = 3.1–5.8%) by community. All 34 of the specimens tested by PCR-REA were T. solium. The overall prevalence of T. solium tapeworm infection was 1.5% (34/2,328) (95% CI = 1.0–2.0%). Prevalence up to 2.9% (28/977) (95% CI = 1.9–4.1%) by community was observed. Conclusion/Significance This study recorded high T. solium tapeworm prevalence, and identified hyper-endemic rural communities. It demonstrates that synergy between researchers and Peace Corps Volunteers can be an effective means to conducting large-scale, community-based studies in remote areas of Peru. PMID:25469506

  18. Efficacy and safety of anthelmintics tested against Taenia solium cysticercosis in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mkupasi, Ernatus Martin; Sikasunge, Chummy Sikalizyo; Ngowi, Helena Aminiel

    2013-01-01

    Porcine cysticercosis, an infection caused by Taenia solium metacestodes, is continuously being reported in low-income countries of Latin America, Asia, and sub-Saharan Africa. The disease was declared eradicable by the International Task Force for Diseases Eradication (ITFDE) in 1993......, and it is listed among the 17 WHO Neglected Tropical Diseases and Neglected Zoonoses that are potentially eradicable. In view of that, WHO has proposed a step-wise approach to its elimination, including chemotherapy of infected pigs. Different drugs have been tested on porcine cysticercosis with varying efficacies...... cysticercosis; however, it needs to be integrated with other control approaches. There is a need for standardised guidelines for evaluating the efficacy of anthelmintics against porcine cysticercosis, and more efficacy studies are needed since the conclusions so far are based on a limited number of studies...

  19. Genetic polymorphism in Taenia solium metacestodes from different Brazilian geographic areas

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    Ivanildes Solange da Costa Barcelos

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to investigate genetic polymorphisms in Taenia solium metacestodes from different Brazilian geographical areas and to relate them to antibody recognition in serum samples of neurocysticercosis (NC patients. Metacestodes were obtained from the Distrito Federal (DF, Bahia, Minas Gerais (MG and São Paulo (SP regions of Brazil. Samples of human sera from 49 individuals with NC, 68 individuals with other helminthiasis and 40 healthy volunteers were analysed (157 individuals in total. Antigens were prepared and used in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and western blotting assays to detect specific immunoglobulin G antibodies. Genetic distances between metacestode populations were analysed using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD analysis. Our results show that there was a higher frequency of reactivity in the DF region in the sera from NC patients (p < 0.05, while discrimination between active and inactive NC was seen only in extracts from the MG and SP regions (p < 0.05. Using RAPD, the sample from the DF region presented a greater increase compared to the other regions. A relationship between genetic polymorphisms among T. solium metacestodes from different areas in Brazil and the differences in antibody detection in patients with NC were established.

  20. Taenia solium Cysticercosis Hotspots Surrounding Tapeworm Carriers: Clustering on Human Seroprevalence but Not on Seizures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lescano, Andres G.; Garcia, Hector H.; Gilman, Robert H.; Gavidia, Cesar M.; Tsang, Victor C. W.; Rodriguez, Silvia; Moulton, Lawrence H.; Villaran, Manuel V.; Montano, Silvia M.; Gonzalez, Armando E.

    2009-01-01

    Background Neurocysticercosis accounts for 30%–50% of all late-onset epilepsy in endemic countries. We assessed the clustering patterns of Taenia solium human cysticercosis seropositivity and seizures around tapeworm carriers in seven rural communities in Peru. Methodology The presence of T. solium–specific antibodies was defined as one or more positive bands in the enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB). Neurocysticercosis-related seizures cases were diagnosed clinically and had positive neuroimaging or EITB. Principal Findings Eleven tapeworm carriers were identified by stool microscopy. The seroprevalence of human cysticercosis was 24% (196/803). Seroprevalence was 21% >50 m from a carrier and increased to 32% at 1–50 m (p = 0.047), and from that distance seroprevalence had another significant increase to 64% at the homes of carriers (p = 0.004). Seizure prevalence was 3.0% (25/837) but there were no differences between any pair of distance ranges (p = 0.629, Wald test 2 degrees of freedom). Conclusion/Significance We observed a significant human cysticercosis seroprevalence gradient surrounding current tapeworm carriers, although cysticercosis-related seizures did not cluster around carriers. Due to differences in the timing of the two outcomes, seroprevalence may reflect recent T. solium exposure more accurately than seizure frequency. PMID:19172178

  1. Some risk factors for Taenia solium cysticercosis in semi-intensively raised pigs in Zuru, Nigeria

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    Moses Gweba

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis in live pigs and at post mortem was determined in the Zuru area of Kebbi State, Nigeria. Prevalence rates of 5.85% (n = 205 and 14.40% (n = 118, respectively, were obtained from live pigs examined by lingual palpation and post-mortem examination. There was a significant (p0.05 relationship between age and infectivity. Human taeniosis was assessed by direct microscopy of stool samples from volunteers; a prevalence of 8% (n = 50 was obtained. Environmental (soil, water and water from washed vegetables samples were analysed; one of the water samples and some soil samples were positive for taeniid ova. Of the pig-rearing households that responded to the questionnaire survey 93% (n = 100 allow their pigs to scavenge freely around residential areas and refuse dumps, 2% had epileptic patients and over 80% did not have knowledge on how T. solium infection is acquired and its public health significance. To obtain baseline data for effective control and possible eradication, there is the need for a serological and epidemiological survey of this significant parasitic zoonosis in the study area and other parts of Nigeria where pigs are reared and/or pork is consumed.

  2. Hair cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone concentrations in naturally Taenia solium infected pigs in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisan, Chiara; Montillo, Marta; Prandi, Alberto; Mkupasi, Ernatus M; Ngowi, Helena A; Johansen, Maria V

    2017-05-15

    The aim of this study was to measure hair cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) concentrations in naturally Taenia solium infected and non-infected control pigs and assess the effect of an environmental change on the aforementioned parameters. Three hair patches were obtained from 13 T. solium infected and 15 non-infected controls sows, respectively corresponding to 3 time points (prior to, at and approximately two weeks after arrival at the research facility). Cortisol and DHEA were extracted using methanol and analysed by radio immune assay. Mean hair cortisol concentrations were significantly lower (pDHEA concentrations (infected pigs 253.9±82.3pg/mg, control pigs 387.7±116.4pg/mg) (pcortisol concentrations in both groups, infected and controls pigs, while DHEA was not significantly different between lean and normal animals. Results of this study have shown that an environmental change could have an effect on pigs' hormonal levels suggesting an undergoing adaptation process. After the pigs were kept under the same conditions, fed and watered ad libitum, no significant differences were observed between the groups, but a drop in DHEA concentrations was observed in all the pigs. Weight however had an effect on cortisol levels as lean animals had significantly higher cortisol concentrations in both groups, compared to normal pigs. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Host Th1/Th2 immune response to Taenia solium cyst antigens in relation to cyst burden of neurocysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharmalingam, J; Prabhakar, A T; Gangadaran, P; Dorny, P; Vercruysse, J; Geldhof, P; Rajshekhar, V; Alexander, M; Oommen, A

    2016-10-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC), Taenia solium larval infection of the brain, is an important cause of acquired seizures in endemic countries, which relate to number, location and degenerating cysts in the brain. Multicyst infections are common in endemic countries although single-cyst infection prevails in India. Single-cyst infections in an endemic country suggest a role for host immunity limiting the infection. This study examined ex vivo CD4(+) T cells and in vitro Th1 and Th2 cytokine responses to T. solium cyst antigens of peripheral blood mononuclear cells of healthy subjects from endemic and nonendemic regions and of single- and multicyst-infected patients for association with cyst burden of NCC. T. solium cyst antigens elicited a Th1 cytokine response in healthy subjects of T. solium-endemic and T. solium-non-endemic regions and those with single-cyst infections and a Th2 cytokine response from subjects with multicyst neurocysticercosis. Multicyst neurocysticercosis subjects also exhibited low levels of effector memory CD4(+) T cells. Th1 cytokine response of T. solium exposure and low infectious loads may aid in limiting cyst number. Th2 cytokines and low effector T cells may enable multiple-cyst infections to establish and persist. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Screening, diagnosis and management of human cysticercosis and Taenia solium taeniasis: technical recommendations by the COHEMI project study group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zammarchi, Lorenzo; Bonati, Maurizio; Strohmeyer, Marianne; Albonico, Marco; Requena-Méndez, Ana; Bisoffi, Zeno; Nicoletti, Alessandra; García, Hector H; Bartoloni, Alessandro

    2017-07-01

    Neurocysticercosis, the central nervous system's localised form of cysticercosis, is considered to be the leading cause of epilepsy in the developing world. In Europe, the disease is mainly imported and affects both immigrants and travellers. However, autochthonous cases of cysticercosis in low-endemic countries could also originate from Taenia solium carriers (migrants or travellers) who acquired taeniasis overseas. Management of cysticercosis is a challenge for European healthcare providers as they are often hardly aware of this infection and have little familiarity in managing this disease. This study provides a summary of recommendations concerning screening, diagnosis and management of cysticercosis and T. solium taeniasis in Europe drawn up by nine experts in migrant health and imported diseases with experience in cysticercosis and T. solium taeniasis. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. The diagnostic importance of species specific and cross-reactive components of Taenia solium, Echinococcus granulosus, and Hymenolepis nana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montenegro, T; Gilman, R H; Castillo, R; Tsang, V; Brandt, J; Guevara, A; Sanabria, H; Verastegui, M; Sterling, C; Miranda, E

    1994-01-01

    Sera from patients infected with Taenia solium, Hymenolepis nana and Echinococcus granulosus were tested against homologous and heterologous parasite antigens using an ELISA assay, and a high degree of cross-reactivity was verified. To identify polypeptides responsible for this cross reactivity, the Enzyme Linked Immunoelectro Transfer Blot (EITB) was used. Sera from infected patients with T.solium, H.nana, and E.granulosus were assessed against crude, ammonium sulphate precipitated (TSASP), and lentil-lectin purified antigens of T.solium and crude antigens of H.nana and E.granulosus. Several bands, recognized by sera from patients with T.solium, H.nana, and E.granulosus infections, were common to either two or all three cestodes. Unique reactive bands in H.nana were noted at 49 and 66 K-Da and in E.granulosus at 17-21 K-Da and at 27-32 K-Da. In the crude cysticercosis extract, a specific non glycoprotein band was present at 61-67 K-Da in addiction to specific glycoprotein bands of 50, 42, 24, 21, 18, 14, and 13 K-Da. None of the sera from patients with H.nana or E.granulosus infection cross reacted with these seven glycoprotein bands considered specific for T.solium infection.

  6. Assessing the impact of intervention strategies against Taenia solium cysticercosis using the EPICYST transmission model.

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    Winskill, Peter; Harrison, Wendy E; French, Michael D; Dixon, Matthew A; Abela-Ridder, Bernadette; Basáñez, María-Gloria

    2017-02-09

    The pork tapeworm, Taenia solium, and associated human infections, taeniasis, cysticercosis and neurocysticercosis, are serious public health problems, especially in developing countries. The World Health Organization (WHO) has set goals for having a validated strategy for control and elimination of T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis by 2015 and interventions scaled-up in selected countries by 2020. Timely achievement of these internationally-endorsed targets requires that the relative benefits and effectiveness of potential interventions be explored rigorously within a quantitative framework. A deterministic, compartmental transmission model (EPICYST) was developed to capture the dynamics of the taeniasis/cysticercosis disease system in the human and pig hosts. Cysticercosis prevalence in humans, an outcome of high epidemiological and clinical importance, was explicitly modelled. A next generation matrix approach was used to derive an expression for the basic reproduction number, R 0. A full sensitivity analysis was performed using a methodology based on Latin-hypercube sampling partial rank correlation coefficient index. EPICYST outputs indicate that chemotherapeutic intervention targeted at humans or pigs would be highly effective at reducing taeniasis and cysticercosis prevalence when applied singly, with annual chemotherapy of humans and pigs resulting, respectively, in 94 and 74% of human cysticercosis cases averted. Improved sanitation, meat inspection and animal husbandry are less effective but are still able to reduce prevalence singly or in combination. The value of R 0 for taeniasis was estimated at 1.4 (95% Credible Interval: 0.5-3.6). Human- and pig-targeted drug-focussed interventions appear to be the most efficacious approach from the options currently available. The model presented is a forward step towards developing an informed control and elimination strategy for cysticercosis. Together with its validation against field data, EPICYST will be a

  7. Analyses of an expressed sequence tag library from Taenia solium, Cysticerca.

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    Jonas Lundström

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Neurocysticercosis is a disease caused by the oral ingestion of eggs from the human parasitic worm Taenia solium. Although drugs are available they are controversial because of the side effects and poor efficiency. An expressed sequence tag (EST library is a method used to describe the gene expression profile and sequence of mRNA from a specific organism and stage. Such information can be used in order to find new targets for the development of drugs and to get a better understanding of the parasite biology. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Here an EST library consisting of 5760 sequences from the pig cysticerca stage has been constructed. In the library 1650 unique sequences were found and of these, 845 sequences (52% were novel to T. solium and not identified within other EST libraries. Furthermore, 918 sequences (55% were of unknown function. Amongst the 25 most frequently expressed sequences 6 had no relevant similarity to other sequences found in the Genbank NR DNA database. A prediction of putative signal peptides was also performed and 4 among the 25 were found to be predicted with a signal peptide. Proposed vaccine and diagnostic targets T24, Tsol18/HP6 and Tso31d could also be identified among the 25 most frequently expressed. CONCLUSIONS: An EST library has been produced from pig cysticerca and analyzed. More than half of the different ESTs sequenced contained a sequence with no suggested function and 845 novel EST sequences have been identified. The library increases the knowledge about what genes are expressed and to what level. It can also be used to study different areas of research such as drug and diagnostic development together with parasite fitness via e.g. immune modulation.

  8. Visualization and 3D reconstruction of flame cells of Taenia solium (cestoda.

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    Laura E Valverde-Islas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Flame cells are the terminal cells of protonephridial systems, which are part of the excretory systems of invertebrates. Although the knowledge of their biological role is incomplete, there is a consensus that these cells perform excretion/secretion activities. It has been suggested that the flame cells participate in the maintenance of the osmotic environment that the cestodes require to live inside their hosts. In live Platyhelminthes, by light microscopy, the cells appear beating their flames rapidly and, at the ultrastructural, the cells have a large body enclosing a tuft of cilia. Few studies have been performed to define the localization of the cytoskeletal proteins of these cells, and it is unclear how these proteins are involved in cell function. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Parasites of two different developmental stages of T. solium were used: cysticerci recovered from naturally infected pigs and intestinal adults obtained from immunosuppressed and experimentally infected golden hamsters. Hamsters were fed viable cysticerci to recover adult parasites after one month of infection. In the present studies focusing on flame cells of cysticerci tissues was performed. Using several methods such as video, confocal and electron microscopy, in addition to computational analysis for reconstruction and modeling, we have provided a 3D visual rendition of the cytoskeletal architecture of Taenia solium flame cells. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We consider that visual representations of cells open a new way for understanding the role of these cells in the excretory systems of Platyhelminths. After reconstruction, the observation of high resolution 3D images allowed for virtual observation of the interior composition of cells. A combination of microscopic images, computational reconstructions and 3D modeling of cells appears to be useful for inferring the cellular dynamics of the flame cell cytoskeleton.

  9. Visualization and 3D Reconstruction of Flame Cells of Taenia solium (Cestoda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valverde-Islas, Laura E.; Arrangoiz, Esteban; Vega, Elio; Robert, Lilia; Villanueva, Rafael; Reynoso-Ducoing, Olivia; Willms, Kaethe; Zepeda-Rodríguez, Armando; Fortoul, Teresa I.; Ambrosio, Javier R.

    2011-01-01

    Background Flame cells are the terminal cells of protonephridial systems, which are part of the excretory systems of invertebrates. Although the knowledge of their biological role is incomplete, there is a consensus that these cells perform excretion/secretion activities. It has been suggested that the flame cells participate in the maintenance of the osmotic environment that the cestodes require to live inside their hosts. In live Platyhelminthes, by light microscopy, the cells appear beating their flames rapidly and, at the ultrastructural, the cells have a large body enclosing a tuft of cilia. Few studies have been performed to define the localization of the cytoskeletal proteins of these cells, and it is unclear how these proteins are involved in cell function. Methodology/Principal Findings Parasites of two different developmental stages of T. solium were used: cysticerci recovered from naturally infected pigs and intestinal adults obtained from immunosuppressed and experimentally infected golden hamsters. Hamsters were fed viable cysticerci to recover adult parasites after one month of infection. In the present studies focusing on flame cells of cysticerci tissues was performed. Using several methods such as video, confocal and electron microscopy, in addition to computational analysis for reconstruction and modeling, we have provided a 3D visual rendition of the cytoskeletal architecture of Taenia solium flame cells. Conclusions/Significance We consider that visual representations of cells open a new way for understanding the role of these cells in the excretory systems of Platyhelminths. After reconstruction, the observation of high resolution 3D images allowed for virtual observation of the interior composition of cells. A combination of microscopic images, computational reconstructions and 3D modeling of cells appears to be useful for inferring the cellular dynamics of the flame cell cytoskeleton. PMID:21412407

  10. Taeniasis caused by Taenia saginata in Gianyar town and Taenia solium in Karangasem villages of Bali, Indonesia, 2011-2016: How to detect tapeworm carriers, anamnesis or microscopy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swastika, Kadek; Wandra, Toni; Dharmawan, Nyoman Sadra; Sudarmaja, I Made; Saragih, John Master; Diarthini, Luh Putu Eka; Ariwati, Luh; Damayanti, Putu Ayu Asri; Laksemi, Dewa Ayu Agus Sri; Kapti, Nengah; Sutisna, Putu; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Ito, Akira

    2017-10-01

    From January 2011 until September 2016, screening of taeniasis carriers was carried out in a town in Gianyar District (Taenia saginata) and in villages which consisted of several Banjars (the smallest community units) on the eastern slope of Mt. Agung, Karangasem District (Taenia solium) in Bali, Indonesia. Fecal samples from all community members who chose to participate were examined microscopically for detection of taeniid eggs each person completedwith a questionnaire to determine if they had seen whitish, noodle-like proglottids (anamnesis) in their feces. Members with egg positive feces, and those with anamnesis, were treated with niclosamide (Yomesan ® , Bayer). A total of 39T. saginata tapeworm carriers were confirmed in Gianyar after deworming based on anamnesis (100%, 39/39). Only three of them (3/39, 7.7%) and 3/173 participants (1.7%) were identified by fecal microscopy. In contrast, 20T. solium carriers including one migrated to Gianyar were confirmed from 12 patients with eggs in their feces and from another 8 persons of 12 persons suspected to be infected due anamnesis only (8/12,66.7%) in Karangasem. The majority of carriers (12/20, 60.0%) identified by microscopy included 4 (33.3%) and 8 (66.7%) carriers confirmed microscopically with and without anamnesis, respectively. The prevalence rate was 12/1090 (1.10%) of participants. The results indicate that anamnesis is reliable for detection of T. saginata carriers, whereas it is not so reliable for detection of T. solium taeniasis (8/12, 66.7%) and that microscopy is more informative than anamnesis for T. solium. Eggs were detected more frequently in T. solium carriers (4/12, 33.3%) than in patients infected with T. saginata (3/39, 7.7%). T. solium carriers have so far been confirmed from nine of 13 Banjars examined in Karangasem. This study reveals that anamnesis is highly useful for screening of T. saginata carriers, whereas microscopy is a more valuable tool for detection of T. solium carriers

  11. Epidemiology of Taenia solium in Nepal: is it influenced by the social characteristics of the population and the presence of Taenia asiatica?

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    Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Aryal, Arjun; Joshi, Durga Datt; Rijal, Suman; Sherchand, Jeevan Bahadur; Praet, Nicolas; Speybroeck, Niko; Duchateau, Luc; Vercruysse, Jozef; Dorny, Pierre

    2012-08-01

    The transmission of the zoonotic pork tapeworms Taenia solium and T. asiatica depends on a combination of specific risk factors, such as open defecation, backyard pig raising and the consumption of raw or undercooked pork and viscera. A community-based survey was conducted among 289 households in south-eastern Nepal to study the heterogeneity of these risk factor frequencies as a function of the social composition of the population. The frequency of open defecation, backyard pig raising and pork consumption differed significantly (P Nepal. A PCR-RFLP assay revealed that all collected tapeworm specimens were T. asiatica, a species thus far not known to occur in South Asia. These results can help to understand the epidemiology of T. solium in Nepal, which appears to be more complex than thought so far. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Seroprevalence and risk factors for Taenia solium cysticercosis in rural pigs of northern Peru.

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    César M Jayashi

    Full Text Available Taenia solium is a cestode parasite that causes cysticercosis in both humans and pigs. A serological survey was undertaken to assess the seroprevalence and risk factors associated with porcine cysticercosis in the rural district of Morropon, Peru. Pigs aged between 2 and 60 months were assessed by the Enzyme-linked Immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB assay to determine their serological status against porcine cysticercosis in a cross-sectional study. A total of 1,153 pigs were sampled. Porcine seroprevalence was 45.19% (42.31-48.06. The information about the animals and households was analyzed and risk factors associated with seroprevalence were determined by a multivariate logistic regression analysis. In the porcine population, the risk of being seropositive increased by 7% with every month of age (OR 1.07, 95% CI 1.05-1.09, and by 148% for pigs living in East Morropon (OR 2.48, 95% CI 1.82-3.37. Whereas, the presence of latrines in a household decreased the risk of being seropositive by 49% (OR 0.51; 95% CI 0.39-0.67. Sex and rearing system did not represent either risk or protective factors associated with the seroprevalence of porcine cysticercosis. The findings of this study could be used for further development of control programs that might focus on similar population groups within rural communities of developing countries where cysticercosis is endemic.

  13. Histological and ultrastructural localization of antigen B in the metacestode of Taenia solium

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    Laclette, J.P.; Merchant, M.T.; Willms, K.

    1987-02-01

    The morphological localization of antigen B (AgB) in the tissues of the Taenia solium metacestode was studied by immunological and biochemical methods. Indirect immunofluorescence carried out on vibratome sections showed that AgB is widely distributed throughout the tissue. A more intense fluorescence was observed in the tegumentary cytons of the bladder wall and in the lumen of the spiral canal of the invaginated scolex. Ultrastructural analysis of larvae washed in PBS after dissection from meat and then incubated with rabbit antibodies against AgB, followed by peroxidase-labeled goat anti-rabbit IgG, did not exhibit electron-dense material on the external surface. Larvae fixed in glutaraldehyde immediately after dissection and exposed to the immunoperoxidase reagents did exhibit electron-dense material on microtriches, indicating that AgB is only loosely bound to the external surface. Crude extracts of surface-radioiodinated cysticerci analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) contained no labeled proteins with the molecular weight of AgB. Autoradiography of the immunoelectrophoretograms in which the crude extract was confronted with antibodies to AgB demonstrated that this antigen was not labeled, and therefore is not exposed on the tegumentary surface. The results suggest that AgB is synthesized by the tegumentary cytons of the parasite and secreted through the tegumental membrane into the host tissues and the lumen of the spiral canal.

  14. Target product profiles for the diagnosis of Taenia solium taeniasis, neurocysticercosis and porcine cysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donadeu, Meritxell; Fahrion, Anna S; Olliaro, Piero L; Abela-Ridder, Bernadette

    2017-09-01

    Target Product Profiles (TPPs) are process tools providing product requirements to guide researchers, developers and manufacturers in their efforts to develop effective and useful products such as biologicals, drugs or diagnostics. During a WHO Stakeholders Meeting on Taenia solium diagnostics, several TPPs were initiated to address diagnostic needs for different stages in the parasite's transmission (taeniasis, human and porcine cysticercosis). Following the meeting, draft TPPs were completed and distributed for consultation to 100 people/organizations, including experts in parasitology, human and pig cysticercosis, diagnostic researchers and manufacturers, international organizations working with neglected or zoonotic diseases, Ministries of Health and Ministries of Livestock in some of the endemic countries, WHO regional offices and other interested parties. There were 53 respondents. All comments and feedback received were considered and discussions were held with different experts according to their area of expertise. The comments were consolidated and final TPPs are presented here. They are considered to be live documents which are likely to undergo review and updating in the future when new knowledge and technologies become available.

  15. Target product profiles for the diagnosis of Taenia solium taeniasis, neurocysticercosis and porcine cysticercosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meritxell Donadeu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Target Product Profiles (TPPs are process tools providing product requirements to guide researchers, developers and manufacturers in their efforts to develop effective and useful products such as biologicals, drugs or diagnostics. During a WHO Stakeholders Meeting on Taenia solium diagnostics, several TPPs were initiated to address diagnostic needs for different stages in the parasite's transmission (taeniasis, human and porcine cysticercosis. Following the meeting, draft TPPs were completed and distributed for consultation to 100 people/organizations, including experts in parasitology, human and pig cysticercosis, diagnostic researchers and manufacturers, international organizations working with neglected or zoonotic diseases, Ministries of Health and Ministries of Livestock in some of the endemic countries, WHO regional offices and other interested parties. There were 53 respondents. All comments and feedback received were considered and discussions were held with different experts according to their area of expertise. The comments were consolidated and final TPPs are presented here. They are considered to be live documents which are likely to undergo review and updating in the future when new knowledge and technologies become available.

  16. A cross-sectional study of Taenia solium in a multiple taeniid-endemic region reveals competition may be protective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlan, James V; Vongxay, Khamphouth; Khamlome, Boualam; Dorny, Pierre; Sripa, Banchob; Elliot, Aileen; Blacksell, Stuart D; Fenwick, Stanley; Thompson, R C Andrew

    2012-08-01

    We conducted cross-sectional surveys for taeniasis and cysticercosis in humans, pigs, and dogs in four northern provinces of Laos. Human cysticercosis and taeniasis prevalence was 2.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.4-3.0%) and 8.4% (95% CI = 6.9-9.9%), respectively. Eating uncooked beef, being male, province of residence, age, and ethnicity were significant risk factors for taeniasis and only province of residence was a significant risk factor for cystiercosis. Thirty-five human tapeworms were recovered during the survey and 33 (94.3%) and 2 (5.7%) were identified as Taenia saginata and T. solium, respectively. Maximum-likelihood adjusted prevalence of T. solium and T. hydatigena in pigs was 4.2% (95% CI = 0.5-7.9%) and 55.9% (95% CI = 47.5-64.3%), respectively, and T. hydatigena taeniasis in dogs was 4.8% (95% CI = 0.0-11.3%). Taenia hydatigena and T. saginata were the most prevalent taeniids in the respective pig and human populations and together may suppress T. solium transmission.

  17. Serodiagnosis of human neurocysticercosis using antigenic components of Taenia solium metacestodes derived from the unbound fraction from jacalin affinity chromatography

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    Gleyce Alves Machado

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to analyse Taenia solium metacestode antigens that were derived from the unbound fraction of jacalin affinity chromatography and subsequent tert-octylphenoxy poly (oxyethylene ethanol Triton X-114 (TX-114 partitioning in the diagnosis of human neurocysticercosis (NCC. Immunoassays were designed to detect T. solium-specific IgG antibodies by ELISA and immunoblot. Serum samples were collected from 132 individuals who were categorised as follows: 40 had NCC, 62 presented Taenia spp or other parasitic diseases and 30 were healthy individuals. The jacalin-unbound (J unbound fraction presented higher sensitivity and specificity rates than the jacalin-bound fraction and only this fraction was subjected to subsequent TX-114 partitioning, resulting in detergent (DJ unbound and aqueous (AJ unbound fractions. The ELISA sensitivity and specificity were 85% and 84.8% for J unbound , 92.5% and 93.5% for DJ unbound and 82.5% and 82.6% for AJ unbound . By immunoblot, the DJ unbound fraction showed 100% sensitivity and specificity and only serum samples from patients with NCC recognised the 50-70 kDa T. solium-specific components. We conclude that the DJ unbound fraction can serve as a useful tool for the differential immunodiagnosis of NCC by immunoblot.

  18. Generation and characterization of monoclonal antibodies specific for 18 kDa antigen from Taenia solium cysticerci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shaohua; Luo, Xuenong; Guo, Aijiang; Zhu, Xueliang; Cai, Xuepeng

    2016-07-01

    The gene encoding a mature 18 kDa glycoprotein of Taenia solium cysticerci (Ts18) was cloned and bacterially expressed with a His-tagged fusion protein. Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against the recombinant Ts18 antigen were generated in vitro by routine murine hybridoma technique of fusing splenocytes, from BALB/c mice immunized with the vesicular fluid of T. solium cysticerci (TsVF), with mouse myeloma cells (SP2/0). The reactivity and specificity of these MAbs were evaluated by indirect ELISA and immunoblotting techniques. Three stable hybridoma clones, namely 3B11, 6C5, and 6G4, were screened using His-Ts18-based ELISA, and these showed two IgG1 isotypes and one IgM isotype. All MAbs reacted with His-Ts18 at molecular weight (MW) 12.8 kDa and the native antigen at MW 18 kDa in TsVF and whole larval extracts (WLE). In a dot blotting test, MAbs 6C5 and 6G4 showed no obvious cross-reactivity with heterologous vesicular fluids from other taeniid species, including Taenia saginata (TsaVF), Taenia pisiformis (TpVF), Taenia hydatigena (ThVF), Taenia multiceps (TmVF), and Echinococcus granulosus (EgVF). Immunofluorescent assays showed that MAb 6C5 specifically reacted with the Ts18 expressed from pEGFP-N1-Ts18-transfected HeLa cells. Immunolocalization analysis, using MAb 6C5 as a probe, indicated that Ts18 was present at high concentrations in the region of the larval sucker and spiral canal. The results indicate that the Ts18 protein is an abundantly secreted parasite protein and MAbs against it might provide a step forward for improving the diagnosis of porcine cysticercosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Why latrines are not used : communities' perceptions and practices regarding latrines in a Taenia solium endemic rural area in Eastern Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Thys, Séverine; Mwape, Kabemba E; Lefevre, Pierre; Dorny, Pierre; Marcotty, Tanguy; Phiri, Andrew M; Phiri, Isaak K; Gabriël, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Taenia solium cysticercosis is a neglected parasitic zoonosis occurring in many developing countries. Socio-cultural determinants related to its control remain unclear. Studies in Africa have shown that the underuse of sanitary facilities and the widespread occurrence of free-roaming pigs are the major risk factors for porcine cysticercosis. The study objective was to assess the communities' perceptions, practices and knowledge regarding latrines in a T. solium endemic rural area in Eastern Z...

  20. Immunodiagnosis of cysticercosis in swine experimentally infected with Taenia solium eggs, using antigen of Cysticercus cellulosae scolex

    OpenAIRE

    Soares, K.A.; Silva, M.R.M.; Poleti, M.D.; Maia, A.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    Colheu-se sangue de sete suínos infectados com ovos de Taenia solium, semanalmente, durante 140 dias, para realizar ELISA no soro, utilizando antígeno de escólex (Es-Tso) de C. cellulosae. Em todos os animais, após o 21º dia pós-infecção, houve incremento significativo de anticorpos IgG, que assim se mantiveram até o final do experimento. A sensibilidade do ELISA variou entre 87,5 e 100%. À necropsia, foram identificados 238 cisticercos. Seis suínos apresentaram pelo menos um cisto no coração...

  1. Minyoo Matata - The Vicious Worm - A Taenia solium Computer-Based Health-Education Tool - in Swahili.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisan, Chiara; Fèvre, Eric M; Owiny, Maurice; Ngere, Isaac; Vang Johansen, Maria

    2017-10-01

    Lack of knowledge is one of the main risk factors for the spread of the zoonotic parasite Taenia solium. The computer-based health-education tool 'The Vicious Worm' was developed to create awareness and provide evidence-based health education as a specific measure in control strategies. To increase the reach of the tool, a new version in Swahili was developed and can now be downloaded for free from http://theviciousworm.sites.ku.dk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Diferenciação específica entre Taenia saginata e Taenia solium por ensaio de PCR e duplex-PCR

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    Jardim Eurione Antônio Garcia da Veiga

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo a padronização de protocolos e a seleção de novos primers para a identificação espécie-específica de Taenia saginata e Taenia solium através da reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR e duplex-PCR. Inicialmente, foram recuperadas seqüências depositadas no GenBank (acesso ndegrees AB020399 para T. saginata e ndegrees AB020395 para T. solium referentes ao gene da subunidade maior do ribossomo (LSU RNAr de tenídeos. A partir do alinhamento das seqüências, um primer genérico denominado TBR-3 (5'-ggcttgtttgaatggtttgacg- 3' foi selecionado de região conservada e, de diferentes regiões semi-conservadas, os primers específicos TBR-4 para T. saginata (5'-cgactcatgaagataaacaaggt-3' e TBR-5 (5'-cggtcgaacagaccataaatct-3' e TBR-6 (5'-gctactacacctaaattctaacc- 3' para T. solium. Os primers foram avaliados quanto à especificidade através da PCR empregando-se DNA total (DNAt de amostras de cisticercos e proglotes dos parasitos, previamente identificadas por critérios morfológicos. O par de primers TBR-3/TBR-4 permitiu a amplificação específica do fragmento esperado de 328 pb a partir do DNAt de T. saginata. Os pares TBR-3/TBR-5 e TBR-3/TBR-6 permitiram a amplificação, respectivamente, dos fragmentos específicos de 310pb e 286pb a partir do DNAt de T. solium. A identidade dos produtos de PCR foi comprovada comparando-se a seqüência dos amplicons obtidos às seqüências de referência do gene LSU RNAr registrado no GenBank (ndegrees AB020399 e ndegrees AB020395. As reações apresentaram sensibilidade para detecção de até 1fg do DNAt de T. solium e 0,2fg do DNAt de T. saginata. A combinação dos primers TBR-3/TBR-4 e TBR3/TBR-6 e o tamanho dos fragmentos gênicos obtidos permitiram o estabelecimento de ensaios de duplex-PCR, eficaz na detecção simultânea do DNA de T. saginata e T. solium em sistema único de reação. Os primers utilizados não geraram qualquer produto de amplificação cruzada

  3. Taenia solium Human Cysticercosis: A Systematic Review of Sero-epidemiological Data from Endemic Zones around the World.

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    Marco Coral-Almeida

    Full Text Available Taenia solium cysticercosis is a zoonotic neglected disease responsible for severe health disorders such as seizures and death. Understanding the epidemiology of human cysticercosis (HCC in endemic regions will help to expose critical information about the transmission of the disease, which could be used to design efficient control programs. This review gathered serological data on apparent prevalence of T. solium circulating antigens and/or seroprevalence of T. solium antibodies, apparent prevalence of human taeniasis and risk factors for HCC from endemic communities in order to understand the differences in exposure to the parasite and active infections with T. solium metacestodes in endemic areas around the world.Three databases were used to search sero-epidemiological data from community-based studies conducted between 1989 and 2014 in cysticercosis endemic communities worldwide. The search focused on data obtained from T. solium circulating antigen detection by monoclonal antibody-based sandwich ELISA and/or T. solium antibody seroprevalence determined by Enzyme-linked Immunoelectrotransfer Blot (EITB. A meta-analysis was performed per continent.A total of 39,271 participants from 19 countries, described in 37 articles were studied. The estimates for the prevalence of circulating T. solium antigens for Africa, Latin America and Asia were: 7.30% (95% CI [4.23-12.31], 4.08% (95% CI [2.77-5.95] and 3.98% (95% CI [2.81-5.61], respectively. Seroprevalence estimates of T. solium antibodies were 17.37% (95% CI [3.33-56.20], 13.03% (95% CI [9.95-16.88] and 15.68% (95% CI [10.25-23.24] respectively. Taeniasis reported prevalences ranged from 0 (95% CI [0.00-1.62] to 17.25% (95% CI [14.55-20.23].A significant variation in the sero-epidemiological data was observed within each continent, with African countries reporting the highest apparent prevalences of active infections. Intrinsic factors in the human host such as age and immunity were main

  4. Taenia solium metacestode fasciclin-like protein is reactive with sera of chronic neurocysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Young-An; Yeom, Joon-Sup; Wang, Hu; Kim, Seon-Hee; Ahn, Chun-Seob; Kim, Jin-Taek; Yang, Hyun-Jong; Kong, Yoon

    2014-06-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NC), an infection of the central nervous system with Taenia solium metacestodes (TsM), invokes a formidable neurological disease. A bundle of antigens is applicable for serodiagnosis of active cases, while they demonstrate fairly low reactivity against sera of chronic NC. Identification of sensitive biomarkers for chronic NC is critical for appropriate management of patients. Proteome analysis revealed several isoforms of 65- and 83-kDa TsM fasciclin-like proteins (TsMFas) to be highly reactive with sera of chronic NC. A cDNA encoding one of the 83-kDa TsMFas (TsMFas1) was isolated from a cDNA library. We expressed a recombinant protein (rTsMFas1) and evaluated its diagnostic potential employing sera from chronic NC (n = 80), tissue-invasive cestodiases (n = 169) and trematodiases (n = 80) and those of normal controls (n = 50). Secretory TsMFas1 was composed of 766 amino acid polypeptide and harboured fasciclin and fasciclin-superfamily domains. The protein was constitutively expressed in metacestode and adult stages, with preferential locality in the scolex. Bacterially expressed rTsMFas1 exhibited 78.8% sensitivity (63/80 cases) and 93% specificity (278/299 samples) in diagnosing chronic NC. Some cross-reactivity was observed with sera of cystic echinococcosis (10/56, 17.8%) and sparganosis (4/50, 8%). Positive and negative predictive values were 75% and 95.5%, respectively. TsM fasciclin-like protein may be useful for differential diagnosis of chronic NC in clinical settings, especially where both NC and other infectious cerebral granulomatoses are prevalent. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Effect of National Schistosomiasis Control Programme on Taenia solium taeniosis and porcine cysticercosis in rural communities of Tanzania

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    Uffe Christian Braae

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Taenia solium is found throughout sub-Saharan Africa and co-endemic with schistosomiasis in many regions. Taenia solium leads to taeniosis and neurocysticercosis - the leading cause of preventable epilepsy globally. This study aimed to assess the effects of the National Schistosomiasis Control Programme on prevalence of taeniosis and porcine cysticercosis over a four year period in Tanzania. School-based mass drug administration (MDA of praziquantel was carried out based on schistosomiasis endemicity. Four human and five porcine cross-sectional surveys were carried out from 2012 to 2015 in Mbozi and Mbeya district in Tanzania. Three rounds of school-based MDA of praziquantel were delivered in Mbozi and two in Mbeya. The prevalence of taeniosis and porcine cysticercosis was estimated annually. Stool samples were collected from humans and prevalence of taeniosis estimated by copro-Ag-ELISA. Blood samples from pigs were collected to estimate cysticercosis prevalence by Ag-ELISA. “Track-and-treat” of taeniosis cases was carried out after each survey. In total 12082 stool samples and 4579 porcine serum samples were collected. Significantly fewer children (≤15 from Mbozi were infected throughout the study than children from Mbeya who showed a significant decrease in copro-Ag prevalence after the first treatment only. During the final survey in Mbozi the prevalence of taeniosis in adults (1.8% was significantly lower (p = 0.031, OR 0.40, CI: 0.17–0.89, compared to baseline (4.1%. The prevalence of porcine cysticercosis (8% had also dropped significantly (p = 0.002, OR 0.49, CI: 0.32–0.76 in this district compared to baseline (13%, whereas no significant difference was seen in Mbeya compared to baseline. The study suggests that three rounds of MDA targeting schistosomiasis in school-aged children combined with ‘track-and-treat’ contributed to a reduction in prevalence of T. solium in this population, and also had a spillover effect on

  6. Spatial Distribution of Taenia solium Porcine Cysticercosis within a Rural Area of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Julio; Martínez, José Juan; Rosetti, Marcos; Fleury, Agnes; Maza, Victor; Hernandez, Marisela; Villalobos, Nelly; Fragoso, Gladis; de Aluja, Aline S.; Larralde, Carlos; Sciutto, Edda

    2008-01-01

    Cysticercosis is caused by Taenia solium, a parasitic disease that affects humans and rurally bred pigs in developing countries. The cysticercus may localize in the central nervous system of the human, causing neurocysticercosis, the most severe and frequent form of the disease. There appears to be an association between the prevalence of porcine cysticercosis and domestic pigs that wander freely and have access to human feces. In order to assess whether the risk of cysticercosis infection is clustered or widely dispersed in a limited rural area, a spatial analysis of rural porcine cysticercosis was applied to 13 villages of the Sierra de Huautla in Central Mexico. Clustering of cases in specific households would indicate tapeworm carriers in the vicinity, whereas their dispersal would suggest that the ambulatory habits of both humans and pigs contribute to the spread of cysticercosis. A total of 562 pigs were included in this study (August–December 2003). A global positioning system was employed in order to plot the geographic distribution of both cysticercotic pigs and risk factors for infection within the villages. Prevalence of pig tongue cysticercosis varied significantly in sampled villages (p = 0.003), ranging from 0% to 33.3% and averaging 13.3%. Pigs were clustered in households, but no differences in the clustering of cysticercotic and healthy pigs were found. In contrast, the presence of pigs roaming freely and drinking stagnant water correlated significantly with porcine cysticercosis (p = 0.07), as did the absence of latrines (p = 0.0008). High prevalence of porcine cysticercosis proves that transmission is still quite common in rural Mexico. The lack of significant differentiation in the geographical clustering of healthy and cysticercotic pigs weakens the argument that focal factors (e.g., household location of putative tapeworm carriers) play an important role in increasing the risk of cysticercosis transmission in pigs. Instead, it

  7. Structural and binding properties of two paralogous fatty acid binding proteins of Taenia solium metacestode.

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    Seon-Hee Kim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fatty acid (FA binding proteins (FABPs of helminths are implicated in acquisition and utilization of host-derived hydrophobic substances, as well as in signaling and cellular interactions. We previously demonstrated that secretory hydrophobic ligand binding proteins (HLBPs of Taenia solium metacestode (TsM, a causative agent of neurocysticercosis (NC, shuttle FAs in the surrounding host tissues and inwardly transport the FAs across the parasite syncytial membrane. However, the protein molecules responsible for the intracellular trafficking and assimilation of FAs have remained elusive. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We isolated two novel TsMFABP genes (TsMFABP1 and TsMFABP2, which encoded 133- and 136-amino acid polypeptides with predicted molecular masses of 14.3 and 14.8 kDa, respectively. They shared 45% sequence identity with each other and 15-95% with other related-members. Homology modeling demonstrated a characteristic β-barrel composed of 10 anti-parallel β-strands and two α-helices. TsMFABP2 harbored two additional loops between β-strands two and three, and β-strands six and seven, respectively. TsMFABP1 was secreted into cyst fluid and surrounding environments, whereas TsMFABP2 was intracellularly confined. Partially purified native proteins migrated to 15 kDa with different isoelectric points of 9.2 (TsMFABP1 and 8.4 (TsMFABP2. Both native and recombinant proteins bound to 11-([5-dimethylaminonaphthalene-1-sulfonyl]aminoundecannoic acid, dansyl-DL-α-amino-caprylic acid, cis-parinaric acid and retinol, which were competitively inhibited by oleic acid. TsMFABP1 exhibited high affinity toward FA analogs. TsMFABPs showed weak binding activity to retinol, but TsMFABP2 showed relatively high affinity. Isolation of two distinct genes from an individual genome strongly suggested their paralogous nature. Abundant expression of TsMFABP1 and TsMFABP2 in the canal region of worm matched well with the histological distributions

  8. Fasciclin-calcareous corpuscle binary complex mediated protein-protein interactions in Taenia solium metacestode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Chun-Seob; Kim, Jeong-Geun; Bae, Young-An; Kim, Seon-Hee; Shin, Joo-Ho; Yang, Yichao; Kang, Insug; Kong, Yoon

    2017-09-20

    Neurocysticercosis (NC) caused by Taenia solium metacestode (TsM) is a serious neurological disease of global concern. Diverse bioactive molecules involved in the long-term survival of TsM might contribute to disease progression. Fasciclin (Fas) is an extracellular protein that mediates adhesion, migration and differentiation of cells by interacting with other molecules. We hypothesized that TsMFas might bind to calcareous corpuscle (CC) through its adhesive property and participate in crucial protein-protein interactions, thus contributing to the creation of a symbiotic interactome network. Two paralogous TsMFas (TsMFas1 and TsMFas2) were isolated, and their molecular properties were characterized. The co-localization pattern of TsMFas1 and TsMFas2 with CC was determined. CC-TsMFas binary complex was generated by incubating CC with recombinant proteins (rTsMFas1 and 2). In vitro binding assay of CC-rTsMFas1 or CC-rTsMFas2 binary complex with TsM cellular proteins extracted from scolex and neck was conducted. Their binding partners were identified through proteomic analysis. Integrated protein-protein interaction networks were established. TsMFas1 (6072 bp long) was composed of 15 exons (841 amino acid polypeptide) interrupted by 14 introns. TsMFas2 (5201 bp long) comprised of 11 exons (597 amino acids) and 10 intervening introns. These proteins displayed 22% amino acid sequence identity to each other, but tightly conserved Fas-related domains. Several isoforms of Fas1 and Fas2 proteins might have been expressed through post-translational modifications. They showed adhesion activity with other cells. TsMFas proteins were largely distributed in parenchymal regions of the scolex and bladder wall. These molecules were co-localized with CC, a unique organelle found in platyhelminths. Subsequent proteome analysis of CC-Fas binary complex mediated protein-protein interactions revealed seven protein ligands in the TsM cellular proteins. Their functions were mainly

  9. Epidemiology of polyparasitism with Taenia solium, schistosomes and soil-transmitted helminths in the co-endemic village of Malanga, Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madinga, Joule; Polman, Katja; Kanobana, Kirezi; van Lieshout, Lisette; Brienen, Eric; Praet, Nicolas; Kabwe, Constantin; Gabriël, Sarah; Dorny, Pierre; Lutumba, Pascal; Speybroeck, Niko

    2017-07-01

    Helminth co-infections are common in sub-Saharan Africa. However, little is known about the distribution and determinants of co-infections with Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis. Building on a previous community-based study on human cysticercosis in Malanga village, we investigated co-infections with Taenia solium, soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) and Schistosoma spp and associated risk factors in a random subsample of 330 participants. Real time PCR assays were used to detect DNA of soil-transmitted helminths (STHs), T. solium and Schistosoma in stool samples and Schistosoma DNA in urine samples. Serum samples were tested for T. solium cysticercosis using the B158/B60 monoclonal antibody-based antigen ELISA. Bivariate analysis and logistic regression were applied to assess associations of single and co-infections with common risk factors (age, sex, area, hygiene) as well as pair wise associations between helminth species. Overall, 240 (72.7%) participants were infected with at least one helminth species; 128 (38.8%) harbored at least two helminth species (16.1% with STHs-Schistosoma, 14.5% with STHs-T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis and 8.2% with Schistosoma-T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis co-infections). No significant associations were found between Schistosoma-T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis co-infection and any of the risk factors studied. Males (OR=2 (95%CI=1.1-5), p=0.03) and open defecation behavior (OR=3.8 (95%CI=1.1-6.5), p=0.04) were associated with higher odds of STHs-T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis co-infection. Village districts that were found at high risk of T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis were also at high risk of co-infection with STHs and T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis (OR=3.2 (95%CI=1.1-7.8), p=0.03). Significant pair-wise associations were found between T. solium cysticerci and Necator americanus (OR=2.2 (95%CI=1.2-3.8), p<0.01) as well as Strongyloides stercoralis (OR=2.7 (95%CI=1.1-6.5), p=0.02). These findings show that co

  10. The Taenia saginata homologue of the major surface antigen of Echinococcus spp. is immunogenic and 97% identical to its Taenia solium homologue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Luis Miguel; Ferrer, Elizabeth; Spickett, Andrea; Michael, Lynne M; Vatta, Adriano F; Gárate, Teresa; Harrison, Leslie J S; Parkhouse, R Michael E

    2007-11-01

    The TEG-Tsag gene of Taenia saginata is homologous to the genes expressing the two major surface antigens of Echinococcus spp. (EM10 and EG10). Surface antigens of parasites are logical candidates for vaccines, and in this paper we demonstrate that cattle vaccinated with the recombinant TEG-Tsag protein, either used singly or in conjunction with the recombinant HP6-Tsag protein, the major 18 kDa surface/secreted antigen of T. saginata oncospheres, produce excellent antibody responses to both these recombinant proteins. Thus TEG-Tsag may have utility as a vaccine and also as a diagnostic tool for bovine cysticercosis. In addition, as we now demonstrate a 97% homology between TEG-Tsag and its Taenia solium homologue, TEG-Tsol, this latter molecule may have similar potential in the control of human and porcine cysticercosis. The TEG molecule is characterized by an N-terminal FERM domain and a C-terminal ERM domain which are found in a number of cytoskeletal-associated proteins located at the interface between the plasma membrane and the cytoskeleton and in proteins that interact with lipid membranes. The FERM domain is also postulated to bind to adhesion proteins, in a PIP2-regulated fashion, providing a link between cytoskeletal signals and membrane dynamics. Thus TEG protein may play a role in tegument function and interaction with the host.

  11. Disruption of the blood–brain barrier in pigs naturally infected with Taenia solium, untreated and after anthelmintic treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-Giraldez, Cristina; Marzal, Miguel; Cangalaya, Carla; Balboa, Diana; Orrego, Miguel Ángel; Paredes, Adriana; Gonzales-Gustavson, Eloy; Arroyo, Gianfranco; García, Hector H.; González, Armando E.; Mahanty, Siddhartha; Nash, Theodore E.

    2014-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis is a widely prevalent disease in the tropics that causes seizures and a variety of neurological symptoms in most of the world. Experimental models are limited and do not allow assessment of the degree of inflammation around brain cysts. The vital dye Evans Blue (EB) was injected into 11 pigs naturally infected with Taenia solium cysts to visually identify the extent of disruption of the blood brain barrier. A total of 369 cysts were recovered from the 11 brains and classified according to the staining of their capsules as blue or unstained. The proportion of cysts with blue capsules was significantly higher in brains from pigs that had received anthelmintic treatment 48 and 120 h before the EB infusion, indicating a greater compromise of the blood brain barrier due to treatment. The model could be useful for understanding the pathology of treatment-induced inflammation in neurocysticercosis. PMID:23684909

  12. Inflammation Caused by Praziquantel Treatment Depends on the Location of the Taenia solium Cysticercus in Porcine Neurocysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cangalaya, Carla; Zimic, Mirko; Marzal, Miguel; González, Armando E; Guerra-Giraldez, Cristina; Mahanty, Siddhartha; Nash, Theodore E; García, Hector H

    2015-12-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC), infection of the central nervous system by Taenia solium cysticerci, is a pleomorphic disease. Inflammation around cysticerci is the major cause of disease but is variably present. One factor modulating the inflammatory responses may be the location and characteristics of the brain tissue adjacent to cysticerci. We analyzed and compared the inflammatory responses to cysticerci located in the parenchyma to those in the meninges or cysticerci partially in contact with both the parenchyma and the meninges (corticomeningeal). Histological specimens of brain cysticerci (n = 196) from 11 pigs naturally infected with Taenia solium cysticerci were used. Four pigs were sacrificed after 2 days and four after 5 days of a single dose of praziquantel; 3 pigs did not receive treatment. All pigs were intravenously injected with Evans Blue to assess disruption of the blood-brain barrier. The degree of inflammation was estimated by use of a histological score (ISC) based on the extent of the inflammation in the pericystic areas as assessed in an image composed of several photomicrographs taken at 40X amplification. Parenchymal cysticerci provoked a significantly greater level of pericystic inflammation (higher ISC) after antiparasitic treatment compared to meningeal and corticomeningeal cysticerci. ISC of meningeal cysticerci was not significantly affected by treatment. In corticomeningeal cysticerci, the increase in ISC score was correlated to the extent of the cysticercus adjacent to the brain parenchyma. Disruption of the blood-brain barrier was associated with treatment only in parenchymal tissue. Inflammatory response to cysticerci located in the meninges was significantly decreased compared to parenchymal cysticerci. The suboptimal inflammatory response to cysticidal drugs may be the reason subarachnoid NCC is generally refractory to treatment compared to parenchymal NCC.

  13. Comparative evaluation of different immunoassays for the detection of Taenia solium cysticercosis in swine with low parasite burden

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    Andréia Bartachini Gomes

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Seven swine were experimentally infected with Taenia solium eggs and blood samples from each animal were periodically collected. At the end of the experiment (t140 the animals did not show clinical aspects of cysticercosis or parasites in tongue inspection. All animals were slaughtered and cut into thin slices in searching for cysts. The number of cysts found in each animal varied from 1 to 85. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA tests for antibody (Ab detection and for antigen (Ag detection were performed, which presented respectively 71 and 57% of positivity. By immunoblot (IB, using 18/14(T. crassiceps Ag or lentil-lectin-purified glycoproteins from T. solium Ag (LLGP as Ag, five (71% and six (86% animals were positive, respectively. The association between Ag-ELISA with any IB (18/14 or LLGP allowed the detection of all animals at 140 days post-experimental infection (days p.e.i.. The use of IB 18/14 combined to the Ag-ELISA allowed the detection of all animals since 70 days p.e.i., and the association between IB LLGP and Ag-ELISA allowed the detection of all animals since 112 days p.e.i. While all animals could be considered healthy by conventional screening tests, the use of immunoassays for detecting Ab and Ag showed better accuracy; therefore it would be more useful than usual clinical examination for screening cysticercosis in slightly infected pigs.

  14. Crystal Structure of Cu/Zn Superoxide Dismutase from Taenia Solium Reveals Metal-mediated Self-assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A Hernandez-Santoyo; A Landa; E Gonzalez-Mondragon; M Pedraza-Escalona; R Parra-Unda; A Rodriguez-Romero

    2011-12-31

    Taenia solium is the cestode responsible for porcine and human cysticercosis. The ability of this parasite to establish itself in the host is related to its evasion of the immune response and its antioxidant defence system. The latter includes enzymes such as cytosolic Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase. In this article, we describe the crystal structure of a recombinant T. solium Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase, representing the first structure of a protein from this organism. This enzyme shows a different charge distribution at the entrance of the active channel when compared with human Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase, giving it interesting properties that may allow the design of specific inhibitors against this cestode. The overall topology is similar to other superoxide dismutase structures; however, there are several His and Glu residues on the surface of the protein that coordinate metal ions both intra- and intermolecularly. Interestingly, one of these ions, located on the {beta}2 strand, establishes a metal-mediated intermolecular {beta}-{beta} interaction, including a symmetry-related molecule. The factors responsible for the abnormal protein-protein interactions that lead to oligomerization are still unknown; however, high metal levels have been implicated in these phenomena, but exactly how they are involved remains unclear. The present results suggest that this structure could be useful as a model to explain an alternative mechanism of protein aggregation commonly observed in insoluble fibrillar deposits.

  15. A Comparative Study of Peripheral Immune Responses to Taenia solium in Individuals with Parenchymal and Subarachnoid Neurocysticercosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iskra Tuero

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The ability of Taenia solium to modulate the immune system likely contributes to their longevity in the human host. We tested the hypothesis that the nature of the immune response is related to the location of parasite and clinical manifestations of infection.Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC were obtained from untreated patients with neurocysticercosis (NCC, categorized as having parenchymal or subarachnoid infection by the presence of cysts exclusively within the parenchyma or in subarachnoid spaces of the brain, and from uninfected (control individuals matched by age and gender to each patient. Using multiplex detection technology, sera from NCC patients and controls and cytokine production by PBMC after T. solium antigen (TsAg stimulation were assayed for levels of inflammatory and regulatory cytokines. PBMC were phenotyped by flow cytometry ex vivo and following in vitro stimulation with TsAg.Sera from patients with parenchymal NCC demonstrated significantly higher Th1 (IFN-γ/IL-12 and Th2 (IL-4/IL-13 cytokine responses and trends towards higher levels of IL-1β/IL-8/IL-5 than those obtained from patients with subarachnoid NCC. Also higher in vitro antigen-driven TNF-β secretion was detected in PBMC supernatants from parenchymal than in subarachnoid NCC. In contrast, there was a significantly higher IL-10 response to TsAg stimulation in patients with subarachnoid NCC compared to parenchymal NCC. Although no differences in regulatory T cells (Tregs frequencies were found ex vivo, there was a trend towards greater expansion of Tregs upon TsAg stimulation in subarachnoid than in parenchymal NCC when data were normalized for the corresponding controls.T. solium infection of the subarachnoid space is associated with an enhanced regulatory immune response compared to infection in the parenchyma. The resulting anti-inflammatory milieu may represent a parasite strategy to maintain a permissive environment in the host or diminish

  16. Taenia solium cysticercosis - an emerging foodborne zoonosis in sub-Saharan Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Maria Vang; Lekule, Faustin; Pondja, Alberto

    -funded projects have addressed the problem, first by assessing the prevalence, risks and impacts of T. solium taeniosis/cysticercosis in both humans and pigs in Mozambique and Tanzania from 2006-2009, and, through an on-going project, by trying to develop sustainable solutions for control of the disease......-positive for cysticercosis. Among a subgroup of the participants in Mozambique, 72% (77/107 Ag-positive) compared to 18% (8/44 Ag-negative) were having abnormal CT-scans suggestive of neurocysticercosis. Epilepsy was, in both countries, very common and strongly associated with stigmatization. Risk factors for T. solium...

  17. Assessment of a computer-based Taenia solium health education tool ‘The Vicious Worm’ on knowledge uptake among professionals and their attitudes towards the program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ertel, Rebekka Lund; Braae, Uffe Christian; Ngowi, Helena Aminiel

    2017-01-01

    Health education has been recognised as a specific intervention tool for control of Taenia solium taeniosis/cysticercosis but evaluation of the efficacy of the tool remains. The aim of our study was to assess the effect of a computer-based T. solium health education tool ‘The Vicious Worm......’ on knowledge uptake among professionals and investigate attitudes towards the program. The study was carried out between March and May 2014 in Mbeya Region, Tanzania, where T. solium is endemic. The study was a pre and post assessment of a health education tool based on questionnaire surveys and focus group...... discussions to investigate knowledge and attitudes. A total of 79 study subjects participated in the study including study subjects from both health – and agriculture sector. The health education consisted of 1½ hours individual practice with the computer program. The baseline questionnaire showed an overall...

  18. Re-visiting the detection of porcine cysticercosis based on full carcass dissections of naturally Taenia solium infected pigs

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    Mwelwa Chembensofu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Taenia solium is a neglected zoonotic parasite. The performances of existing tools for the diagnosis of porcine cysticercosis need further assessment, and their shortcomings call for alternatives. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of tongue palpation and circulating antigen detection for the detection of porcine cysticercosis in naturally infected pigs of slaughter age compared to full carcass dissections (considered the gold standard. Additionally, alternative postmortem dissection procedures were investigated. A total of 68 rural pigs of slaughter age randomly selected in the Eastern Province of Zambia were dissected. Dissections were conducted on full carcasses (or half carcass in case cysticerci were already detected in the first half, including all the organs. Total cysticercus counts, location and stages were recorded and collected cysticerci were identified morphologically and molecularly. All sera were analysed with the B158/B60 antigen detecting ELISA (Ag-ELISA. Results Key findings were the high occurrence of T. solium infected pigs (56% and the presence of T. solium cysticerci in the livers of 26% of infected animals. More than half of the infected carcasses contained viable cysticerci. Seven carcasses had T. hydatigena cysticerci (10%, out of which five carcasses were co-infected with T. hydatigena and T. solium; two carcasses (3% had only T. hydatigena cysticerci. Compared to full carcass dissection, the specificity of the Ag-ELISA to detect infected carcasses was estimated at 67%, the sensitivity at 68%, increasing to 90% and 100% for the detection of carcasses with one or more viable cysticerci, and more than 10 viable cysts, respectively. Tongue palpation only detected 10% of the cases, half carcass dissection 84%. Selective dissection of the diaphragm, tongue and heart or masseters can be considered, with an estimated sensitivity of 71%, increasing to 86% in carcasses with more than

  19. TsAg5, a Taenia solium cysticercus protein with a marginal trypsin-like activity in the diagnosis of human neurocysticercosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda, Analiz; Sifuentes, Cecilia; Gilman, Robert H.; Gutiérrez, Andrés H.; Piña, Ruby; Chile, Nancy; Carrasco, Sebastián; Larson, Sandra; Mayta, Holger; Verástegui, Manuela; Rodriguez, Silvia; Gutiérrez-Correa, Marcel; García, Héctor H.; Sheen, Patricia; Zimic, Mirko

    2011-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis is an endemic parasitic disease caused by Taenia solium larva. Although the mechanism of infection is not completely understood, it is likely driven by proteolytic activity that degrades the intestinal wall to facilitate oncosphere penetration and further infection. We analyzed the publicly available Taenia solium EST/DNA library and identified two contigs comprising a full-length cDNA fragment very similar to E. granulosus Ag5 protein. The Taenia solium cDNA sequence included a proteolytic trypsin-like-domain in the C-terminal region, and a thrombospondin type-1 adherence-domain in the N-terminal region. Both the trypsin-like and adherence domains were expressed independently as recombinant proteins in bacterial systems. TsAg5 showed marginal trypsin-like activity and high sequence similarity to Ag5. The purified antigens were tested in a Western immunoblot assay to diagnose human neurocysticercosis. The sensitivity of the trypsin-like-domain was 96.36% in patients infected with extraparenchymal cysts, 75.44% in patients infected with multiple cysts, and 39.62% in patients with a single cyst. Specificity was 76.70%. The thrombospondin type-1 adherence-domain was not specific for neurocysticercosis. PMID:21893105

  20. MicroRNAs in Taenia solium Neurocysticercosis: Insights as Promising Agents in Host-Parasite Interaction and Their Potential as Biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez-Loli, Renzo; Orrego, Miguel A.; Sevillano-Quispe, Oscar G.; Herrera-Arrasco, Luis; Guerra-Giraldez, Cristina

    2017-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short, endogenous, non-coding, single-stranded RNAs involved in post-transcriptional gene regulation. Although, several miRNAs have been identified in parasitic helminths, there is little information about their identification and function in Taenia. Furthermore, the impact of miRNAs in neurocysticercosis, the brain infection caused by larvae of Taenia solium is still unknown. During chronic infection, T. solium may activate numerous mechanisms aimed to modulate host immune responses. Helminthic miRNAs might also have effects on host mRNA expression and thus play an important role regulating host-parasite interactions. Also, the diagnosis of this disease is difficult and it usually requires neuroimaging and confirmatory serology. Since miRNAs are stable when released, they can be detected in body fluids and therefore have potential to diagnose infection, determine parasite burden, and ascertain effectiveness of treatment or disease progression, for instance. This review discusses the potential roles of miRNAs in T. solium infection, including regulation of host-parasite relationships and their eventual use as diagnostic or disease biomarkers. Additionally, we summarize the bioinformatics resources available for identification of T. solium miRNAs and prediction of their targets. PMID:29033926

  1. MicroRNAs in Taenia solium Neurocysticercosis: Insights as Promising Agents in Host-Parasite Interaction and Their Potential as Biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renzo Gutierrez-Loli

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are short, endogenous, non-coding, single-stranded RNAs involved in post-transcriptional gene regulation. Although, several miRNAs have been identified in parasitic helminths, there is little information about their identification and function in Taenia. Furthermore, the impact of miRNAs in neurocysticercosis, the brain infection caused by larvae of Taenia solium is still unknown. During chronic infection, T. solium may activate numerous mechanisms aimed to modulate host immune responses. Helminthic miRNAs might also have effects on host mRNA expression and thus play an important role regulating host-parasite interactions. Also, the diagnosis of this disease is difficult and it usually requires neuroimaging and confirmatory serology. Since miRNAs are stable when released, they can be detected in body fluids and therefore have potential to diagnose infection, determine parasite burden, and ascertain effectiveness of treatment or disease progression, for instance. This review discusses the potential roles of miRNAs in T. solium infection, including regulation of host-parasite relationships and their eventual use as diagnostic or disease biomarkers. Additionally, we summarize the bioinformatics resources available for identification of T. solium miRNAs and prediction of their targets.

  2. MicroRNAs in Taenia solium Neurocysticercosis: Insights as Promising Agents in Host-Parasite Interaction and Their Potential as Biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez-Loli, Renzo; Orrego, Miguel A; Sevillano-Quispe, Oscar G; Herrera-Arrasco, Luis; Guerra-Giraldez, Cristina

    2017-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short, endogenous, non-coding, single-stranded RNAs involved in post-transcriptional gene regulation. Although, several miRNAs have been identified in parasitic helminths, there is little information about their identification and function in Taenia. Furthermore, the impact of miRNAs in neurocysticercosis, the brain infection caused by larvae of Taenia solium is still unknown. During chronic infection, T. solium may activate numerous mechanisms aimed to modulate host immune responses. Helminthic miRNAs might also have effects on host mRNA expression and thus play an important role regulating host-parasite interactions. Also, the diagnosis of this disease is difficult and it usually requires neuroimaging and confirmatory serology. Since miRNAs are stable when released, they can be detected in body fluids and therefore have potential to diagnose infection, determine parasite burden, and ascertain effectiveness of treatment or disease progression, for instance. This review discusses the potential roles of miRNAs in T. solium infection, including regulation of host-parasite relationships and their eventual use as diagnostic or disease biomarkers. Additionally, we summarize the bioinformatics resources available for identification of T. solium miRNAs and prediction of their targets.

  3. Production of monoclonal antibodies anti-Taenia crassiceps cysticerci with cross-reactivity with Taenia solium antigens

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    ESPÍNDOLA Noeli M.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe the production of the potential monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs using BALB/c mice immunized with vesicular fluid (VF-Tcra (T. crassiceps antigen. Immune sera presented anti-VF-Tcra (<20kD IgG and IgM antibodies with cross-reactivity with T. solium (Tso antigen (8-12, 14, and 18 kD. After cell fusion, we selected 33 anti-Tcra and anti-Tso reactive IgM-clones and 53 anti-Tcra specific IgG-clones, 5 of them also recognizing Tso antigens. Two clones identified the 8-14 and 18kD peptides of VF-Tcra.

  4. Anti-Taenia solium monoclonal antibodies for the detection of parasite antigens in body fluids from patients with neurocysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes, Adriana; Sáenz, Patricia; Marzal, Miguel W; Orrego, Miguel A; Castillo, Yesenia; Rivera, Andrea; Mahanty, Siddhartha; Guerra-Giraldez, Cristina; García, Hector H; Nash, Theodore E

    2016-07-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC), an infection of the brain by Taenia solium (Ts) cysts, is the most common cause of adult-onset epilepsy in developing countries. Serological testing consists primarily of varying methods to detect antibodies in body fluids and more recently antigen (Ag) detection assays to identify individuals or animals with viable parasites. Antigen assays currently in use employ monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) raised against T. saginata, which have known cross reactivity to animal cestodes but are highly specific in human samples. We produced, characterized and tested 21 mAbs raised against T. solium whole cyst antigens, vesicular fluid or excretory secretory products. Reactivity of the TsmAbs against specific cyst structures was determined using immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry on histological sections of Ts muscle cysts. Four TsmAbs reacted to vesicular space alone, 9 to the neck and cyst wall, one to the neck and vesicular space and 7 to the neck, cyst wall and vesicular space. An in-house ELISA assay to detect circulating Ts antigen, using the TsmAbs as capture antibodies and a rabbit polyclonal anti-Ts whole cyst antibody as a detector antibody demonstrated that eight of the 21 TsmAbs detected antigens in known NCC-positive human sera and three of these also in urine samples. Reactivity was expressed as normalized ratios of optical densities (OD positive control/OD negative control). Three TsmAbs had ratios >10 and five between 2 and 10. The TsmAbs have potential utility for the diagnosis and post-treatment monitoring of patients with viable NCC infections. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A Comparative Study of Peripheral Immune Responses to Taenia solium in Individuals with Parenchymal and Subarachnoid Neurocysticercosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuero, Iskra; Palma, Sandra; Cabeza, Franco; Saleemi, Sarah; Rodriguez, Silvia; Gonzales, Isidro; Mayta, Holger; Mahanty, Siddhartha; Garcia, Hector H.; Gilman, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    Background The ability of Taenia solium to modulate the immune system likely contributes to their longevity in the human host. We tested the hypothesis that the nature of the immune response is related to the location of parasite and clinical manifestations of infection. Methodology Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were obtained from untreated patients with neurocysticercosis (NCC), categorized as having parenchymal or subarachnoid infection by the presence of cysts exclusively within the parenchyma or in subarachnoid spaces of the brain, and from uninfected (control) individuals matched by age and gender to each patient. Using multiplex detection technology, sera from NCC patients and controls and cytokine production by PBMC after T. solium antigen (TsAg) stimulation were assayed for levels of inflammatory and regulatory cytokines. PBMC were phenotyped by flow cytometry ex vivo and following in vitro stimulation with TsAg. Principal Findings Sera from patients with parenchymal NCC demonstrated significantly higher Th1 (IFN-γ/IL-12) and Th2 (IL-4/IL-13) cytokine responses and trends towards higher levels of IL-1β/IL-8/IL-5 than those obtained from patients with subarachnoid NCC. Also higher in vitro antigen-driven TNF-β secretion was detected in PBMC supernatants from parenchymal than in subarachnoid NCC. In contrast, there was a significantly higher IL-10 response to TsAg stimulation in patients with subarachnoid NCC compared to parenchymal NCC. Although no differences in regulatory T cells (Tregs) frequencies were found ex vivo, there was a trend towards greater expansion of Tregs upon TsAg stimulation in subarachnoid than in parenchymal NCC when data were normalized for the corresponding controls. Conclusions/Significance T. solium infection of the subarachnoid space is associated with an enhanced regulatory immune response compared to infection in the parenchyma. The resulting anti-inflammatory milieu may represent a parasite strategy to maintain a

  6. Prevalence of anti-Taenia solium antibodies in sera from outpatients in an Andean region of Ecuador

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    Luis Escalante

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Sera from 9,254 individuals that presented at one of three outpatient clinics in Quito, Ecuador were assayed by indirect hemagglutination for the presence of antibodies reactive with antigens from Taenia solium cysts. Immunoblot anlysis of 81 selected sera with IHA titers ranging from 0 to 1,028 showed that a titer of maior ou igual a 32 was suggestive of exposure to the parasite. Nine percent (9 % of the 9,254 patients had titers of 32 or greater. Of 3,503 sera from one clinic, which included sera from food handlers undergoing yearly physicals, 390 (11 % were positive. In addition, a correlation with age was seen in some, but not all, populations. In situations where age-related effects were noted, the highest incidence was seen in the youngest (0-20 years and in the oldest (51-60 years group. Thus, a resurgence of infection after a period of lower prevalence may be developing. Overall, this study shows that cysticercosis is relatively common and potentially a serious health problem in this region.

  7. Orally administered Taenia solium Calreticulin prevents experimental intestinal inflammation and is associated with a type 2 immune response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Rivera, Mayra; Diaz-Gandarilla, Jose Alfredo; Flores-Torres, Marco Antonio; Avila, Guillermina; Perfiliev, Maria; Salazar, Ana Maria; Arriaga-Pizano, Lourdes; Ostrosky-Wegman, Patricia; Flisser, Ana

    2017-01-01

    Intestinal helminth antigens are inducers of type 2 responses and can elicit regulatory immune responses, resulting in dampened inflammation. Several platyhelminth proteins with anti-inflammatory activity have been reported. We have identified, cloned and expressed the Taenia solium calreticulin (rTsCRT) and shown that it predominantly induces a type 2 response characterized by IgG1, IL-4 and IL-5 production in mice. Here, we report the rTsCRT anti-inflammatory activity in a well-known experimental colitis murine model. Mice were orally immunized with purified rTsCRT and colitis was induced with trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). Clinical signs of disease, macroscopic and microscopic tissue inflammation, cytokine production and micronuclei formation, as a marker of genotoxicity, were measured in order to assess the effect of rTsCRT immunization on experimentally induced colitis. rTsCRT administration prior to TNBS instillation significantly reduced the inflammatory parameters, including the acute phase cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6. Dampened inflammation was associated with increased local expression of IL-13 and systemic IL-10 and TGF-β production. Genotoxic damage produced by the inflammatory response was also precluded. Our results show that oral treatment with rTsCRT prevents excessive TNBS-induced inflammation in mice and suggest that rTsCRT has immunomodulatory properties associated with the expression of type 2 and regulatory cytokines commonly observed in other helminths. PMID:29036211

  8. Human migration and pig/pork import in the European Union: What are the implications for Taenia solium infections?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriël, S; Johansen, M V; Pozio, E; Smit, G S A; Devleesschauwer, B; Allepuz, A; Papadopoulos, E; van der Giessen, J; Dorny, P

    2015-09-30

    Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis is a neglected zoonotic disease complex occurring primarily in developing countries. Though claimed eradicated from the European Union (EU), an increasing number of human neurocysticercosis cases is being detected. Risk factors such as human migration and movement of pigs/pork, as well as the increasing trend in pig rearing with outside access are discussed in this review. The entry of a tapeworm carrier into the EU seems a lot more plausible than the import of infected pork. The establishment of local transmission in the EU is presently very unlikely. However, considering the potential changes in risk factors, such as the increasing trend in pig farming with outdoor access, the increasing human migration from endemic areas into the EU, this situation might change, warranting the establishment of an early warning system, which should include disease notification of taeniasis/cysticercosis both in human and animal hosts. As currently human-to-human transmission is the highest risk, prevention strategies should focus on the early detection and treatment of tapeworm carriers, and should be designed in a concerted way, across the EU and across the different sectors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Orally administered Taenia solium Calreticulin prevents experimental intestinal inflammation and is associated with a type 2 immune response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fela Mendlovic

    Full Text Available Intestinal helminth antigens are inducers of type 2 responses and can elicit regulatory immune responses, resulting in dampened inflammation. Several platyhelminth proteins with anti-inflammatory activity have been reported. We have identified, cloned and expressed the Taenia solium calreticulin (rTsCRT and shown that it predominantly induces a type 2 response characterized by IgG1, IL-4 and IL-5 production in mice. Here, we report the rTsCRT anti-inflammatory activity in a well-known experimental colitis murine model. Mice were orally immunized with purified rTsCRT and colitis was induced with trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS. Clinical signs of disease, macroscopic and microscopic tissue inflammation, cytokine production and micronuclei formation, as a marker of genotoxicity, were measured in order to assess the effect of rTsCRT immunization on experimentally induced colitis. rTsCRT administration prior to TNBS instillation significantly reduced the inflammatory parameters, including the acute phase cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6. Dampened inflammation was associated with increased local expression of IL-13 and systemic IL-10 and TGF-β production. Genotoxic damage produced by the inflammatory response was also precluded. Our results show that oral treatment with rTsCRT prevents excessive TNBS-induced inflammation in mice and suggest that rTsCRT has immunomodulatory properties associated with the expression of type 2 and regulatory cytokines commonly observed in other helminths.

  10. Genetic variation in the Cytb gene of human cerebral Taenia solium cysticerci recovered from clinically and radiologically heterogeneous patients with neurocysticercosis

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    Hector Palafox-Fonseca

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Neurocysticercosis (NC is a clinically and radiologically heterogeneous parasitic disease caused by the establishment of larval Taenia solium in the human central nervous system. Host and/or parasite variations may be related to this observed heterogeneity. Genetic differences between pig and human-derived T. solium cysticerci have been reported previously. In this study, 28 cysticerci were surgically removed from 12 human NC patients, the mitochondrial gene that encodes cytochrome b was amplified from the cysticerci and genetic variations that may be related to NC heterogeneity were characterised. Nine different haplotypes (Ht, which were clustered in four haplogroups (Hg, were identified. Hg 3 and 4 exhibited a tendency to associate with age and gender, respectively. However, no significant associations were found between NC heterogeneity and the different T. solium cysticerci Ht or Hg. Parasite variants obtained from patients with similar NC clinical or radiological features were genetically closer than those found in groups of patients with a different NC profile when using the Mantel test. Overall, this study establishes the presence of genetic differences in the Cytb gene of T. solium isolated from human cysticerci and suggests that parasite variation could contribute to NC heterogeneity.

  11. Human and porcine Taenia solium infection in a village in the highlands of Cusco, Peru. The Cysticercosis Working Group in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, H H; Gilman, R H; Gonzalez, A E; Pacheco, R; Verastegui, M; Tsang, V C

    1999-05-25

    A serological survey was performed using the enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot assay (EITB) in a village in the highlands of Peru where there are three distinct but close neighborhoods, to determine if there is a direct relationship between human and porcine Taenia solium infection. One hundred and eight out of 365 individuals were sampled, and 14 were seropositive (human seroprevalence 13%). Most seropositive individuals were neurologically asymptomatic. Thirty-eight out of 89 sampled pigs (43%) were seropositive. There was a clear geographical clustering of cases, and positive correlation between human and porcine seroprevalence found when comparing the three neighborhoods. Cysticercosis is an important cause of neurological morbidity in most developing countries, and control/eradication trials are now being increasingly applied. Porcine serology provides an appropriate indicator of T. solium environmental contamination and should be used to estimate the risk of infection when evaluating control measures.

  12. Assessment of the social burden of Taenia solium Cysticercosis in Angonia District, Mozambique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trevisan, Chiara; Praet, Nicolas; Pondja, Alberto

    and Methods: Epidemiological data on human and porcine cysticercosis were collected from 2008 to 2009 in Angonia district, and made available for burden assessment. Study subjects were 1723 persons and 661 pigs. Methods included a questionnaire survey, Ag-ELISA detection of human and porcine cysticercosis.......9%, respectively. Among people with reported epilepsy, 42.5% had NCC. The number of pigs diagnosed with cysticercosis corresponded to 35% of the total pig population. The estimated average number of DALYs lost due to NCC associated epilepsy and headache was 12.1 per thousand persons per year. The total annual...... costs due to T. solium cysticercosis were estimated at 1.3 million Euro of which 87% were costs linked to human cysticercosis and 13% were due to pig production losses. The annual monetary burden per case of NCC-associated epilepsy amounted at 51.0 Euro. Conclusions: Twelve DALYs per thousand persons...

  13. ELISA test for the diagnosis of cysticercosis in pigs using antigens of Taenia solium and Taenia crassiceps cysticerci Teste ELISA para diagnóstico da cisticercose suína usando antígenos de larvas de Taenia solium e Taenia crassiceps

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    Paulo Sérgio de Arruda PINTO

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present study ELISA was standardized for the diagnosis of swine cysticercosis based on necropsy parameters and confirmed positive and negative control sera. Serum samples from pigs with other infections were also assayed to determine possible cross-reactions. Four antigens were assayed: from Taenia crassiceps vesicular fluid (VF-Tcra and crude larvae extract (T-Tcra, and from Taenia solium extracts of scolex (S-Ts and of larvae (T-Ts. A checkerboard evaluation of antigen, serum and conjugate dilutions, as well as the use of Tween-20 and skim cow milk in wash and blocking solution had a marked effect on improving ELISA performance. All the antigens showed a good performance, but VF-Tcra was the best, with 96.0% and 80.0% sensitivities for cut-offs respectively at 2sd and 3sd, and corresponding specificities of 97.5% and 100.0%. Cross-reactivity was observed only with hydatidosis and ascaridiosis. In view of the high performance observed, the ELISA test should be recommended for the diagnosis of cysticercosis in suspected swine in slaughterhouses and for the screening of cysticercosis in swine production. These results will support integrated measures of cysticercosis control throughout the chain of swine production, effectively contributing to public health.Foi padronizado o teste ELISA para o diagnóstico da cisticercose suína. Após confirmação por exame post-mortem, os soros dos respectivos animais foram empregados como controles positivos e negativos. Soros de suínos portadores de infecções heterólogas foram ensaiados para determinação de reações cruzadas. Os quatro antígenos testados na fase de padronização foram líquido vesicular (VF e extrato total (T de larvas de Taenia crassiceps (Tcra e de extrato de escólex (S e de cisticercos (T de Taenia solium (Tso. A titulação em bloco das ótimas concentrações de antígenos e diluições de soros e de conjugado, bem como o emprego de Tween-20 e de leite desnatado nas

  14. Quantitative multiplexed proteomics of Taenia solium cysts obtained from the skeletal muscle and central nervous system of pigs.

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    José Navarrete-Perea

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In human and porcine cysticercosis caused by the tapeworm Taenia solium, the larval stage (cysts can infest several tissues including the central nervous system (CNS and the skeletal muscles (SM. The cyst's proteomics changes associated with the tissue localization in the host tissues have been poorly studied. Quantitative multiplexed proteomics has the power to evaluate global proteome changes in response to different conditions. Here, using a TMT-multiplexed strategy we identified and quantified over 4,200 proteins in cysts obtained from the SM and CNS of pigs, of which 891 were host proteins. To our knowledge, this is the most extensive intermixing of host and parasite proteins reported for tapeworm infections.Several antigens in cysticercosis, i.e., GP50, paramyosin and a calcium-binding protein were enriched in skeletal muscle cysts. Our results suggested the occurrence of tissue-enriched antigen that could be useful in the improvement of the immunodiagnosis for cysticercosis. Using several algorithms for epitope detection, we selected 42 highly antigenic proteins enriched for each tissue localization of the cysts. Taking into account the fold changes and the antigen/epitope contents, we selected 10 proteins and produced synthetic peptides from the best epitopes. Nine peptides were recognized by serum antibodies of cysticercotic pigs, suggesting that those peptides are antigens. Mixtures of peptides derived from SM and CNS cysts yielded better results than mixtures of peptides derived from a single tissue location, however the identification of the 'optimal' tissue-enriched antigens remains to be discovered. Through machine learning technologies, we determined that a reliable immunodiagnostic test for porcine cysticercosis required at least five different antigenic determinants.

  15. Assessment of sanitary conditions of unregistered pig slaughter slabs and post mortem examination of pigs for Taenia solium metacestodes in Kaduna metropolis, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edia-Asuke, Agnes U; Inabo, Helen I; Umoh, Veronica J; Whong, Clement Mz; Asuke, Sunday; Edeh, Richard E

    2014-01-01

    A number of studies document the prevalence of Taenia solium infections in Nigeria, yet these studies do not cover porcine cysticercosis in private home slaughter slabs where there is no routine meat inspection and backyard pig keeping, slaughtering and sale are common practice. An environmental and sanitary assessment was conducted within two unregistered home pig slaughter slabs in selected parts of the Kaduna metropolis in Nigeria. Slaughter premises were inspected for availability of basic facilities and questionnaires were used to elicit necessary informative data. Butchers were examined for taeniasis by stool microscopy and copro-antigen enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (copro-Ag ELISA) to ascertain T. solium - taeniasis. Pigs slaughtered at the premises were examined for cysticerci. Home slaughter conditions were substandard, unhygienic and lacked the basic facilities of a proper slaughterhouse. Prevalence of porcine cysticercosis was 9.3%. The butchers participating in the study had very poor knowledge of T. solium infections and 30% tested positive for taeniasis by copro-Ag ELISA at the time of the study. Home slaughter of pigs in the areas studied should be considered and integrated as a component of prevention and control programmes - particularly through educational interventions - in order to equip individuals involved with a good understanding of the risks associated with animal husbandry and human practices.

  16. Hygiene and restraint of pigs is associated with absence of Taenia solium cysticercosis in a rural community of Mexico La higiene y el confinamiento de cerdos están asociados con la ausencia de cisticercosis por Taenia solium en una comunidad rural de México

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    Sonia Vázquez-Flores

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the prevalence and risk factors associated to pig cysticercosis in a rural community of Veracruz, Mexico. Material and Methods. Swine cysticercosis was diagnosed by tongue palpation and circulating antibodies in pigs kept in 178 household backyards. Risk factors were assessed by interviewing owners to collect information on pig breeding conditions and demographic characteristics. Results. None of the 53 pigs studied showed cysts in the tongue, nor antibodies against Taenia solium in Western blot assays. Latrines were available in 91% of the houses and pigs were kept in restrained areas. Conclusions. The present study shows that pig breeding under restraint with basic hygiene and sanitary conditions, may be effective and practical interventions to restrain Taenia solium in rural communities. The English version of this paper is available too at: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.html Objetivo. Determinar la prevalencia y factores de riesgo asociados con cisticercosis porcina en una población rural de Veracruz, México. Material y métodos. Se diagnosticó cisticercosis porcina por medio de palpación lingual y anticuerpos circulantes en cerdos de traspatio en 178 casas. Se analizaron los factores de riesgo mediante una encuesta a los dueños respecto a las condiciones de crianza de los cerdos y sus características demográficas. Resultados. Los 53 cerdos estudiados fueron negativos al metacéstodo de Taenia solium por palpación lingual y para la presencia de anticuerpos contra este agente por inmunoelectrotransferencia. El 91% de las casas contaban con letrinas y los cerdos estaban confinados en zonas restringidas. Conclusiones. Este estudio muestra que el confinamiento de cerdos puede explicar la ausencia de Taenia solium en comunidades rurales, y sugiere que es factible y práctico establecer medidas de intervención. El texto completo en inglés de este artículo también está disponible en: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.html

  17. The diagnostic importance of species specific and cross-reactive components of Taenia solium, Echinococcus granulosus, and Hymenolepis nana Importância diagnóstica da reação cruzada espécie-específica de componentes da Taenia solium, Echinococcus granulosus e Hymenolepis nana

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    Teresa Montenegro

    1994-08-01

    Full Text Available Sera from patients infected with Taenia solium, Hymenolepis nana and Echinococcus granulosus were tested against homologous and heterologous parasite antigens using an ELISA assay, and a high degree of cross-reactivity was verified. To identify polypeptides responsible for this cross reactivity, the Enzyme Linked Immunoelectro Transfer Blot (EITB was used. Sera from infected patients with T.solium, H.nana, and E.granulosus were assessed against crude, ammonium sulphate precipitated (TSASP, and lentil-lectin purified antigens of T.solium and crude antigens of.H.nana and E.granulosus. Several bands, recognized by sera from patients with T.solium, H.nana, and E.granulosus infections, were common to either two or all three cestodes. Unique reactive bands in H.nana were noted at 49 and 66 K-Da and in E.granulosus at 17-21 K-Da and at 27-32 K-Da. In the crude cysticercosis extract, a specific non glycoprotein band was present at 61-67 K-Da in addiction to specific glycoprotein bands of 50, 42, 24, 21, 18, 14, and 13 K-Da. None of the sera from patients with H.nana or E.granulosus infection cross reacted with these seven glycoprotein bands considered specific for T.solium infection.Soros de pacientes infectados com Taenia solium, Hymenolepis nana e Echinococcus granulosus foram testados contra antígenos parasitários homólogos e heterólogos usando o teste de ELISA e foi verificado alto grau de reatividade cruzada. Para identificar os polipetídeos responsáveis por esta reatividade cruzada foi utilizado o teste "Enzyme Linked Immunoelectro Transfer Blot (EITB". Soros de pacientes infectados por T.solium, H.nana, e E.granulosus foram colocados em contato com precipitado de sulfato de amônia e antígenos não purificados de T.solium e os de H.nana e E.granulosus. Várias bandas reconhecidas pelos soros de pacientes com infecção por T.solium, H.nana e E.granulosus foram comuns a dois ou três destes cestódeos. Uma única banda foi notada em H

  18. Expression of adhesion molecules, chemokines and matrix metallo- proteinases (MMPs) in viable and degenerating stage of Taenia solium metacestode in swine neurocysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Satyendra K; Singh, Aloukick K; Prasad, Kashi N; Singh, Amrita; Singh, Avinash; Rai, Ravi P; Tripathi, Mukesh; Gupta, Rakesh K; Husain, Nuzhat

    2015-11-30

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a parasitic infection of central nervous system (CNS). Expression of adhesion molecules, chemokines and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) were investigated on brain tissues surrounding viable (n=15) and degenerating cysticerci (n=15) of Taenia solium in swine by real-time RT-PCR and ELISA. Gelatin gel zymography was performed for MMPs activity. ICAM-1 (intercellular adhesion molecule-1), E-selectin, MIP-1α (macrophage inflammatory protein-1α), Eotaxin-1 and RANTES (regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted) were associated with degenerating cysticerci (cysts). However, VCAM-1 (vascular cell adhesion molecule-1), MCP-1 (monocyte chemotactic protein-1), MMP-2 and MMP-9 were associated with both viable and degenerating cysts. In conclusion, viable and degenerating cysticerci have different immune molecule profiles and role of these molecules in disease pathogenesis needs to be investigated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Detección de antígenos de la larva de Taenia solium mediante la Técnica de Elisa

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    Carmenza Murillo

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Se describe la optimización de las variables en un ELISA sandwich asimétrico para la detección de antígenos circulantes de larva de Taenia solium empleado como estándar líquido intraquístico obtenido del parásito y como suero itunune anticisticerco absorbido con líquido cefalorraquídeo (LCR normal lo que permite detectar 50 ng/ mi de antígeno. Se utilizaron muestras de LCR liofilizadas; bajo estas condiciones de almacenamiento la especificidad obtenida fue del 63% al analizar 24 LCR negativos para neurocisticercosis por tromografía computarizada cerebral, y 15 LCR de pacientes que mostraban calcificaciones. El coeficiente de variación interensayo está dentro de los límites aceptados para el ELISA.

  20. Release of Glycoprotein (GP1 from the Tegumental Surface of Taenia solium by Phospholipase C from Clostridium perfringens Suggests a Novel Protein-Anchor to Membranes

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    Abraham Landa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to explore how molecules are linked to the membrane surface in larval Taenia solium, whole cysticerci were incubated in the presence of phospholipase C from Clostridium perfringens (PLC. Released material was collected and analyzed in polyacrylamide gels with sodium dodecyl sulfate. Two major bands with apparent molecular weights of 180 and 43 kDa were observed. Western blot of released material and localization assays in cysticerci tissue sections using antibodies against five known surface glycoproteins of T. solium cysticerci indicated that only one, previously called GP1, was released. Similar localization studies using the lectins wheat-germ-agglutinin and Concanavalin A showed that N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, N-acetylneuraminic, sialic acid, αmethyl-D-mannoside, D-manose/glucose, and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues are abundantly present on the surface. On the other hand, we find that treatment with PLC releases molecules from the surface; they do not reveal Cross Reacting Determinant (CRD, suggesting a novel anchor to the membrane for the glycoprotein GP1.

  1. A school based cluster randomised health education intervention trial for improving knowledge and attitudes related to Taenia solium cysticercosis and taeniasis in Mbulu district, northern Tanzania.

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    Sylvester A Mwidunda

    Full Text Available Taenia solium causes significant economic and public health impacts in endemic countries. This study determined effectiveness of a health education intervention at improving school children's knowledge and attitudes related to T. solium cysticercosis and taeniasis in Tanzania. A cluster randomised controlled health education intervention trial was conducted in 60 schools (30 primary, 30 secondary in Mbulu district. Baseline data were collected using a structured questionnaire in the 60 schools and group discussions in three other schools. The 60 schools stratified by baseline knowledge were randomised to receive the intervention or serve as control. The health education consisted of an address by a trained teacher, a video show and a leaflet given to each pupil. Two post-intervention re-assessments (immediately and 6 months post-intervention were conducted in all schools and the third (12 months post-intervention was conducted in 28 secondary schools. Data were analysed using Bayesian hierarchical log-binomial models for individual knowledge and attitude questions and Bayesian hierarchical linear regression models for scores. The overall score (percentage of correct answers improved by about 10% in all schools after 6 months, but was slightly lower among secondary schools. Monitoring alone was associated with improvement in scores by about 6%. The intervention was linked to improvements in knowledge regarding taeniasis, porcine cysticercosis, human cysticercosis, epilepsy, the attitude of condemning infected meat but it reduced the attitude of contacting a veterinarian if a pig was found to be infected with cysticercosis. Monitoring alone was linked to an improvement in how best to raise pigs. This study demonstrates the potential value of school children as targets for health messages to control T. solium cysticercosis and taeniasis in endemic areas. Studies are needed to assess effectiveness of message transmission from children to parents and

  2. Epidemiology of Taenia solium in Nepal: is it influenced by the social characteristics of the population and the presence of Taenia asiatica?; Communication brève: Épidémiologie du ténia du porc au Népal: Est-elle influencée par les caractéristiques sociales de la population?; Comunicación corta: Epidemiología de la Tenia del cerdo en Nepal: ¿Está influenciada por las características sociales de la población?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brecht Devleesschauwer; Arjun Aryal; Durga Datt Joshi; Suman Rijal; Jeevan Bahadur Sherchand; Nicolas Praet; Niko Speybroeck; Luc Duchateau; Jozef Vercruysse; Pierre Dorny

    2012-01-01

    The transmission of the zoonotic pork tapeworms Taenia solium and T. asiatica depends on a combination of specific risk factors, such as open defecation, backyard pig raising and the consumption of raw or undercooked pork and viscera...

  3. Protein profiles of Taenia solium cysts obtained from skeletal muscles and the central nervous system of pigs: Search for tissue-specific proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete-Perea, José; Moguel, Bárbara; Bobes, Raúl José; Villalobos, Nelly; Carrero, Julio César; Sciutto, Edda; Soberón, Xavier; Laclette, Juan Pedro

    2017-01-01

    Taeniasis/cysticercosis caused by the tapeworm Taenia solium is a parasite disease transmitted among humans and pigs, the main intermediate host. The larvae/cysts can lodge in several tissues of the pig, i.e. skeletal muscles and different locations of the central nervous system. The molecular mechanisms associated to tissue preferences of the cysts remain poorly understood. The major public health concern about this zoonosis is due to the human infections by the larval form in the central nervous system, causing a highly pleomorphic and debilitating disease known as neurocysticercosis. This study was aimed to explore the 2DE protein maps of T. solium cysts obtained from skeletal muscles and central nervous system of naturally infected pigs. The gel images were analyzed through a combination of PDQuest™ and multivariate analysis. Results showed that differences in the protein patterns of cysts obtained from both tissues were remarkably discrete. Only 7 protein spots were found specifically associated to the skeletal muscle localization of the cysts; none was found significantly associated to the central nervous system. The use of distinct protein fractions of cysts allowed preliminary identification of several tissue-specific antigenic bands. The implications of these findings are discussed, as well as several strategies directed to achieve the complete characterization of this parasite's proteome, in order to extend our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying tissue localization of the cysts and to open avenues for the development of immunological tissue-specific diagnosis of the disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Evans blue staining reveals vascular leakage associated with focal areas of host-parasite interaction in brains of pigs infected with Taenia solium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzal, Miguel; Guerra-Giraldez, Cristina; Paredes, Adriana; Cangalaya, Carla; Rivera, Andrea; Gonzalez, Armando E; Mahanty, Siddhartha; Garcia, Hector H; Nash, Theodore E

    2014-01-01

    Cysticidal drug treatment of viable Taenia solium brain parenchymal cysts leads to an acute pericystic host inflammatory response and blood brain barrier breakdown (BBB), commonly resulting in seizures. Naturally infected pigs, untreated or treated one time with praziquantel were sacrificed at 48 hr and 120 hr following the injection of Evans blue (EB) to assess the effect of treatment on larval parasites and surrounding tissue. Examination of harvested non encapsulated muscle cysts unexpectedly revealed one or more small, focal round region(s) of Evans blue dye infiltration (REBI) on the surface of otherwise non dye-stained muscle cysts. Histopathological analysis of REBI revealed focal areas of eosinophil-rich inflammatory infiltrates that migrated from the capsule into the tegument and internal structures of the parasite. In addition some encapsulated brain cysts, in which the presence of REBI could not be directly assessed, showed histopathology identical to that of the REBI. Muscle cysts with REBI were more frequent in pigs that had received praziquantel (6.6% of 3736 cysts; n = 6 pigs) than in those that were untreated (0.2% of 3172 cysts; n = 2 pigs). Similar results were found in the brain, where 20.7% of 29 cysts showed histopathology identical to muscle REBI cysts in praziquantel-treated pigs compared to the 4.3% of 47 cysts in untreated pigs. Closer examination of REBI infiltrates showed that EB was taken up only by eosinophils, a major component of the cellular infiltrates, which likely explains persistence of EB in the REBI. REBI likely represent early damaging host responses to T. solium cysts and highlight the focal nature of this initial host response and the importance of eosinophils at sites of host-parasite interaction. These findings suggest new avenues for immunomodulation to reduce inflammatory side effects of anthelmintic therapy.

  5. Why latrines are not used: communities' perceptions and practices regarding latrines in a Taenia solium endemic rural area in Eastern Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thys, Séverine; Mwape, Kabemba E; Lefèvre, Pierre; Dorny, Pierre; Marcotty, Tanguy; Phiri, Andrew M; Phiri, Isaak K; Gabriël, Sarah

    2015-03-01

    Taenia solium cysticercosis is a neglected parasitic zoonosis occurring in many developing countries. Socio-cultural determinants related to its control remain unclear. Studies in Africa have shown that the underuse of sanitary facilities and the widespread occurrence of free-roaming pigs are the major risk factors for porcine cysticercosis. The study objective was to assess the communities' perceptions, practices and knowledge regarding latrines in a T. solium endemic rural area in Eastern Zambia inhabited by the Nsenga ethno-linguistic group, and to identify possible barriers to their construction and use. A total of 21 focus group discussions on latrine use were organized separately with men, women and children, in seven villages of the Petauke district. The themes covered were related to perceived latrine availability (absence-presence, building obstacles) and perceived latrine use (defecation practices, latrine management, socio-cultural constraints).The findings reveal that latrines were not constructed in every household because of the convenient use of existing latrines in the neighborhood. Latrines were perceived to contribute to good hygiene mainly because they prevent pigs from eating human feces. Men expressed reluctance to abandon the open-air defecation practice mainly because of toilet-associated taboos with in-laws and grown-up children of the opposite gender. When reviewing conceptual frameworks of people's approach to sanitation, we found that seeking privacy and taboos hindering latrine use and construction were mainly explained in our study area by the fact that the Nsenga observe a traditionally matrilineal descent. These findings indicate that in this local context latrine promotion messages should not only focus on health benefits in general. Since only men were responsible for building latrines and mostly men preferred open defecation, sanitation programs should also be directed to men and address related sanitary taboos in order to be

  6. Why latrines are not used: communities' perceptions and practices regarding latrines in a Taenia solium endemic rural area in Eastern Zambia.

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    Séverine Thys

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Taenia solium cysticercosis is a neglected parasitic zoonosis occurring in many developing countries. Socio-cultural determinants related to its control remain unclear. Studies in Africa have shown that the underuse of sanitary facilities and the widespread occurrence of free-roaming pigs are the major risk factors for porcine cysticercosis. The study objective was to assess the communities' perceptions, practices and knowledge regarding latrines in a T. solium endemic rural area in Eastern Zambia inhabited by the Nsenga ethno-linguistic group, and to identify possible barriers to their construction and use. A total of 21 focus group discussions on latrine use were organized separately with men, women and children, in seven villages of the Petauke district. The themes covered were related to perceived latrine availability (absence-presence, building obstacles and perceived latrine use (defecation practices, latrine management, socio-cultural constraints.The findings reveal that latrines were not constructed in every household because of the convenient use of existing latrines in the neighborhood. Latrines were perceived to contribute to good hygiene mainly because they prevent pigs from eating human feces. Men expressed reluctance to abandon the open-air defecation practice mainly because of toilet-associated taboos with in-laws and grown-up children of the opposite gender. When reviewing conceptual frameworks of people's approach to sanitation, we found that seeking privacy and taboos hindering latrine use and construction were mainly explained in our study area by the fact that the Nsenga observe a traditionally matrilineal descent. These findings indicate that in this local context latrine promotion messages should not only focus on health benefits in general. Since only men were responsible for building latrines and mostly men preferred open defecation, sanitation programs should also be directed to men and address related sanitary taboos in

  7. Anti-Taenia solium metacestodes antibodies in serum from blood donors from four cities of Triângulo Mineiro area, Minas Gerais, Brazil, 1995 Anticorpos anti-formas metacestódeas de Taenia solium em amostras de soros de doadores de sangue de quatro cidades da região do Triângulo Mineiro, Minas Gerais, Brasil, 1995

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    Elisângela de Paula SILVEIRA-LACERDA

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Serological survey was performed to detect IgG antibodies anti-Taenia solium metacestodes in blood donors of Hemocentro Regional de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brazil. A total of 1133 sera from blood donors coming from four cities of Triângulo Mineiro area were analyzed by the indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT and the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Specific IgG antibodies were found in 5.6% of the studied population, showing differences in the positive rates according to their origin: Araguari (13.5%, Tupaciguara (5.0%, Monte Alegre de Minas (4.8% and Uberlândia (4.7%. The results indicate the probable endemicity of cysticercosis in this population.Realizou-se pesquisa sorológica para detectar anticorpos IgG anti-formas metacestódeas de Taenia solium em doadores de sangue do Hemocentro Regional de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brasil. O total de 1133 amostras de soros de doadores de sangue de quatro cidades do Triângulo Mineiro foi analisado pelo teste de imunofluorescência indireta (IFI e o teste imunoenzimático (ELISA. Anticorpos IgG específicos foram detectados em 5,6% da população estudada, mostrando diferenças nas taxas de positividade de acordo com suas cidades de origens: Araguari (13,5%, Tupaciguara (5,0%, Monte Alegre de Minas (4,8% e Uberlândia (4,7%. Os resultados indicam a provável endemicidade de cisticercose nesta população.

  8. Imunodiagnóstico da cisticercose em suíno experimentalmente infectado com ovos de Taenia solium, utilizando antígeno de escólex de Cysticercus cellulosae Immunodiagnosis of cysticercosis in swine experimentally infected with Taenia solium eggs, using antigen of Cysticercus cellulosae scolex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.A. Soares

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Colheu-se sangue de sete suínos infectados com ovos de Taenia solium, semanalmente, durante 140 dias, para realizar ELISA no soro, utilizando antígeno de escólex (Es-Tso de C. cellulosae. Em todos os animais, após o 21º dia pós-infecção, houve incremento significativo de anticorpos IgG, que assim se mantiveram até o final do experimento. A sensibilidade do ELISA variou entre 87,5 e 100%. À necropsia, foram identificados 238 cisticercos. Seis suínos apresentaram pelo menos um cisto no coração, língua ou masseter. Não se observou correlação entre concentração de anticorpos e número de cisticercos identificados.Blood samples from seven swines infected with eggs of Taenia solium, were collected weekly during a period of 140 days. The ELISA was carried out in serum, using antigen from Cysticercus cellulosae scolex (Es-Tso. The antibody levels for all animals significantly increased and maintained constant from the 21th day post-infection to the end of the experiment. The sensitivity of the ELISA test averaged between 87.5% and 100%. At the necropsy, 238 cysticerci were identified. Six swines presented at least one cysticercus in one of the organs: heart, tongue or masseter. No correlation between concentration of antibodies and number of identified cysticerci at necropsy, was observed.

  9. Anti-Taenia solium metacestode IgG antibodies in serum samples from inhabitants of a central-western region of Brazil

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    Oliveira Heliana B. de

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 354 serum samples from inhabitants who frequent the Clinical Laboratory in Catalão, Goiás, in the central-western region of Brazil, were collected from June to August, 2002. The samples were evaluated by indirect immunofluorescence antibody tests and an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay in order to detect anti-Taenia solium metacestode IgG antibodies. Reactive and inconclusive samples were tested by Western blotting (WB. Considering WB as a confirmation, the frequency of antibodies in the serum samples of the above population was 11.3% (CI 5.09 - 17.51. The immunodominant bands most frequently recognized in WB were 64-68 kDa (97.5% and 47-52 kDa (80%. The percentage of seropositivity to cysticercosis was significantly higher for individuals residing in areas without sewage systems (p < 0.0001. In conclusion, the results indicate a probable endemic situation of cysticercosis in this population. These results reinforce the urgent need for control and prevention measures to be taken by the local public health services.

  10. La inmunocromatografía para el diagnóstico de la infección por Taenia solium en Mesocricetus auratus mediante la detección de coproantígenos*

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    Hermes Escalante A

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Evaluar la técnica de inmunocromatografía para el diagnóstico de la infección por Taenia solium en Mesocricetus auratus "hámsters" mediante la detección de coproantígenos. Materiales y métodos: Se produjo en Oryctolagus cunniculus "conejo" IgG anti-antígenos de excreción/secreción (ES de T. solium y en Capra hircus "cabra" IgG anti-IgG de conejo. Parte de las IgG anti-antígenos ES de T. solium fue conjugado con oro coloidal. La inmunocromatografía se llevó a cabo utilizando tiras de nitrocelulosa en las cuáles se fijó dos bandas con anticuerpos de captura; en la primera, las IgG anti-antígenos ES de T. solium (banda de prueba, y en la segunda las IgG anti-IgG de conejo (banda control. La técnica fue evaluada con un "pool" de tres muestras de medio de cultivo con antígenos ES de T. solium, Hymenolepis nana, Dyphillobotrium pacificum y de larvas de Anisakis simplex, así como con un "pool" de tres muestras fecales de hámsters no parasitados, de parasitados por H. nana y de siete muestras fecales de hámsters parasitados por T. Solium. Resultados: La inmunocromatografía permitió detectar antígenos de T. solium en muestras de medio de cultivo con antígenos ES específicas y en heces de hámsters parasitados por T. solium mediante la coloración de la banda de prueba, siendo negativo cuando se utilizó medios con ES de otros helmintos y sin antígenos, así como con muestras de heces de hámsters infectados por otros parásitos y de no parasitados. En todas las tiras usadas se observó coloración de la banda control. Conclusión: La técnica de inmunocromatografía es capaz de detectar antígenos de T. solium, tanto en medio de cultivo como en heces de hámsters, faltando evaluar la sensibilidad y la especificidad con muestras fecales humanas para el diagnóstico de la teniosis mediante la detección de coproantígenos.

  11. Imunodiagnóstico da cisticercose em suíno experimentalmente infectado com ovos de Taenia solium, utilizando antígeno de escólex de Cysticercus cellulosae

    OpenAIRE

    Soares,K.A.; Silva,M.R.M.; Poleti,M.D.; Maia,A.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    Colheu-se sangue de sete suínos infectados com ovos de Taenia solium, semanalmente, durante 140 dias, para realizar ELISA no soro, utilizando antígeno de escólex (Es-Tso) de C. cellulosae. Em todos os animais, após o 21º dia pós-infecção, houve incremento significativo de anticorpos IgG, que assim se mantiveram até o final do experimento. A sensibilidade do ELISA variou entre 87,5 e 100%. À necropsia, foram identificados 238 cisticercos. Seis suínos apresentaram pelo menos um cisto no coração...

  12. Detection of high endemic and zoonotic risk areas regarding the infestation with Taenia solium larvae in pigs in Romania

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    Ana Maria Oleleu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In Romania, it is necessary to collect recent data on the prevalence of swine cysticercosis, to detect areas of high endemicity and zoonotic risk, to prevent economic losses through proper implementation of control programs. A retrospective epidemiological study was performed during the period 2009-2013, by accessing report/surveillance systems and management of infected animals by analyzing the temporal and spatial distribution of swine cysticercosis in Romania. The study was conducted on the reporting of cases confirmed after the macroscopic exam in slaughterhouses after slaughtering the animals, in accordance to the national epidemio-surveillance strategic program for swine cysticercosis.In term of spatial spread, outbreaks were discovered in 7 countries (16.66% of the 42 existing in Romania. During the studied period there were a total of 10 disease outbreaks. In term of temporal spread, cases of disease had been recorded every year taken under study. Links between the same different outbreaks, exist in the same year or in successive years, so we can see evolution trend of infection in the north-west of Romania, where there were discovered five of seven outbreaks.Analyzing the maintaining/recurrence of infection in outbreaks, we can mention Alba country, located in the north-west of the country, where the infestation was maintained 4 years (2009, 2010, 2012, 2013. In Cluj, the results obtained were correlated with T. solium infestation in humans by eating pork. The obtained results demonstrated that the control programs currently applied are not sufficient to diminuate and/or eradicate these diseases in Romania. Serological surveillance and molecular diagnostic tests are mandatory to be introduced, besides the slaughterhouse basic exams.

  13. Molecular Cloning of a cDNA Encoding for Taenia solium TATA-Box Binding Protein 1 (TsTBP1 and Study of Its Interactions with the TATA-Box of Actin 5 and Typical 2-Cys Peroxiredoxin Genes.

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    Oscar Rodríguez-Lima

    Full Text Available TATA-box binding protein (TBP is an essential regulatory transcription factor for the TATA-box and TATA-box-less gene promoters. We report the cloning and characterization of a full-length cDNA that encodes a Taenia solium TATA-box binding protein 1 (TsTBP1. Deduced amino acid composition from its nucleotide sequence revealed that encodes a protein of 238 residues with a predicted molecular weight of 26.7 kDa, and a theoretical pI of 10.6. The NH2-terminal domain shows no conservation when compared with to pig and human TBP1s. However, it shows high conservation in size and amino acid identity with taeniids TBP1s. In contrast, the TsTBP1 COOH-terminal domain is highly conserved among organisms, and contains the amino acids involved in interactions with the TATA-box, as well as with TFIIA and TFIIB. In silico TsTBP1 modeling reveals that the COOH-terminal domain forms the classical saddle structure of the TBP family, with one α-helix at the end, not present in pig and human. Native TsTBP1 was detected in T. solium cysticerci´s nuclear extract by western blot using rabbit antibodies generated against two synthetic peptides located in the NH2 and COOH-terminal domains of TsTBP1. These antibodies, through immunofluorescence technique, identified the TBP1 in the nucleus of cells that form the bladder wall of cysticerci of Taenia crassiceps, an organism close related to T. solium. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays using nuclear extracts from T. solium cysticerci and antibodies against the NH2-terminal domain of TsTBP1 showed the interaction of native TsTBP1 with the TATA-box present in T. solium actin 5 (pAT5 and 2-Cys peroxiredoxin (Ts2-CysPrx gene promoters; in contrast, when antibodies against the anti-COOH-terminal domain of TsTBP1 were used, they inhibited the binding of TsTBP1 to the TATA-box of the pAT5 promoter gene.

  14. Efecto de algunos agentes físicos y químicos sobre el metacéstodo de Taenia solium presente en carne adobada y chorizo Effects of some chemical and physical agents on the metacestode Taenia solium in spicy meat and sausage

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    Ma Isabel Rivera-Guerrero

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Evaluar el efecto de diferentes temperaturas y tiempos, así como de algunos condimentos sobre la viabilidad de metacéstodos de Taenia solium en chorizo y carne adobada. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Este trabajo se llevó a cabo en la Universidad Autónoma de Guerrero, en 1999. En la comunidad de Atzacoaloya, en el municipio de Chilapa de Alvarez, Guerrero, se compró carne de cerdo infectada, con la que se preparó carne adobada y chorizo; sólo se empleó aquélla en la cual se comprobó la viabilidad de los metacéstodos. Los productos obtenidos fueron sometidos a: a temperatura ambiente durante 12 a 100 horas; b temperaturas de -10 a 37 ºC por 24 horas, y c ebullición (97 ºC de 1 a 15 minutos. Para determinar el efecto de los condimentos se prepararon lotes con el doble de ingredientes de cada uno. Todas las evaluaciones se realizaron y evaluaron con tres repeticiones. Se establecieron diferencias de proporciones mediante c². RESULTADOS: A temperatura ambiente la menor evaginación fue a las 100 horas para ambos productos (pOBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of different cooking times and temperatures, as well as of some seasonings, on the viability of Taenia solium metacestodes in spicy meat and hot sausage. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study was conducted by the Universidad Autónoma de Guerrero (Guerrero State Autonomous University, Mexico in 1999. Infected pork meat was bought in the community of Azacoaloya, in the municipality of Chilapa de Alvarez, Guerrero State. It was used to prepare spicy meat (adobada and hot sausage (chorizo. Only the meat in which metacestode viability was proven was used. The products obtained underwent a room temperature for 12 to 100 hours; b temperatures of -10 to 37ºC for 24 hours; c boiling (97ºC from 1 to 15 minutes. To determine the effect of the seasonings, batches were prepared using twice the amount of a specific seasoning. Trials were done and assessed three times. Proportion differences were

  15. Cisteínoproteasas Catepsinas L de Taenia solium: Rol biológico en la infección y potencial uso para el inmunodiagnóstico de la neurocisticercosis

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    Nancy León

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Taenia solium es un helminto aplanado responsable de la teniosis y de la cisticercosis humana, siendo esta última producida por el consumo de huevos infectivos. Los cisticercos pueden desarrollarse en diferentes tejidos del hombre, frecuentemente en el sistema nervioso central causando la neurocisticercosis (NCC. Para el diagnóstico de la NCC se requiere de una adecuada interpretación de datos clínicos, resultados de neuroimagen y pruebas serológicas. Sin embargo, las pruebas serológicas podrían mejorarse con el desarrollo de antígenos candidatos capaces de incrementar su sensibilidad y especificidad. En los últimos años se han descrito una serie de proteínas de superficie y de secreción de T. solium esenciales para la interacción parásito-hospedero. Una de estas familias son las cisteínoproteasas catepsinas L, las cuales cumplen un rol preponderante para el desarrollo y supervivencia del parásito, participando en la invasión tisular, la evasión de la respuesta inmune, el desenquistamiento y enquistamiento del cisticerco. Son consideradas como antígenos potenciales para el inmunodiagnóstico de la neurocisticercosis.

  16. Immunopathology in Taenia solium neurocysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, A; Cardenas, G; Adalid-Peralta, L; Fragoso, G; Sciutto, E

    2016-03-01

    Neurocysticercosis is a clinically and radiologically heterogeneous disease, ranging from asymptomatic infection to a severe, potentially fatal clinical picture. The intensity and extension of the parasite-elicited inflammatory reaction is a key factor for such variability. The main features of the inflammatory process found in the brain and in the peripheral blood of neurocysticercosis patients will be discussed in this review, and the factors involved in its modulation will be herein presented. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Evaluation of two Taenia solium cysticercal antigenic preparations (vesicular fluid and a glycoprotein fraction with affinity for lentil lectin for the immunodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA

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    Lisandra Akemi Suzuki

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the performance of two antigenic preparations (vesicular fluid - VF and a glycoprotein fraction, LLa-Gp fraction, purified from a whole parasite extract by lentil lectin affinity chromatography from Taenia solium cysticerci for the immunodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis. METHOD: Fifty-six cerebrospinal fluid (CSF samples (22 from patients with neurocysticercosis and 34 from patients with other neurological disorders and 57 serum samples (22 from patients with neurocysticercosis, 18 from patients with other infections and 17 from presumably healthy persons were assayed for anticysticercal IgG antibodies with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. RESULTS: The VF ELISA showed 100% sensitivity and specificity in CSF and serum samples, whereas the sensitivity and specificity of the LLa-Gp ELISA were, respectively, 90.9% and 97.1%, with the CSF samples and 95.5% and 100% with serum samples. There was no significant difference in the sensitivity and specificity of the two antigenic preparations used to screen CSF and serum samples. CONCLUSION: Considering the complexity and high cost of obtaining the LLa-Gp fraction, VF could be more suitable for screening specific antibodies by ELISA in CSF and serum samples from patients with neurocysticercosis.

  18. Taenia asiatica: the most neglected human Taenia and the possibility of cysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galán-Puchades, M Teresa; Fuentes, Mario V

    2013-02-01

    Not only Taenia solium and Taenia saginata, but also Taenia asiatica infects humans. The last species is not included in the evaluation of the specificity of the immunodiagnostic techniques for taeniasis/cysticercosis. There is currently no specific immunodiagnostic method for T. asiatica available. Therefore, due to the fact that molecular techniques (the only tool to distinguish the 3 Taenia species) are normally not employed in routine diagnostic methods, the 2 questions concerning T. asiatica (its definite geographic distribution and its ability to cause human cysticercosis), remain open, turning T. asiatica into the most neglected agent of human taeniasis-cysticercosis.

  19. Evaluación de Electroinmunotransferencia utilizando antígeno mix nativo purificado de líquido de cisticerco de Taenia solium para el diagnóstico de cisticercosis humana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Ayala-Sulca

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Evaluar la eficacia de la prueba electroinmunotransferencia (EITB para la detección de cisticercosis humana utilizando antígeno mix nativo purificado de líquido de cisticerco de Taenia solium. Material y métodos. Estudio observacional de evaluación de prueba diagnóstica. El antígeno mix nativo purificado se extrajo del líquido de cisticerco de cerdos naturalmente parasitados de áreas consideradas endémicas, se evaluó y seleccionó uno de los cuatro métodos de purificación: sulfato de amonio, lecitina de lentejas-sefarosa, Sephadex G-75 y electro-elución. La sensibilidad del antígeno purificado se determinó con EITB y fue evaluada con 50 sueros positivos a cisticercosis y la especificidad con 50 sueros negativos a cisticercosis (20 libres de infección parasitaria y 30 positivos a diferentes parasitosis. Resultados. La concentración óptima del antígeno mix nativo purificado para preparar las tiras EITB fue de 0,82 µg/mm. Por cromatografía de afinidad con lectina de lentejas- sefarosa se visualizaron y purificaron ocho glicoproteínas antigénicas específicas, siendo sus masas relativas de: 13, 14, 17, 18, 23, 24, 31 y 35 kDa; los antígenos purificados obtenidos por los otros métodos no fueron evaluados por EITB, porque no correspondieron a las proteínas antigénicas específicas consideradas entre 13 y 35 KDa. La prueba de EITB utilizando antígeno mix nativo purificado presentó 100% de sensibilidad y 100% de especificidad. Conclusiones. El antígeno mix nativo purificado mejora la eficiencia diagnóstica de la prueba de EITB. Recomendamos la preparación de un kit in house y su validación en campo para que pueda transferirse e implementarse en laboratorios de zonas endémicas del Perú

  20. Phylogenetic characterisation of Taenia tapeworms in spotted hyenas and reconsideration of the "Out of Africa" hypothesis of Taenia in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terefe, Yitagele; Hailemariam, Zerihun; Menkir, Sissay; Nakao, Minoru; Lavikainen, Antti; Haukisalmi, Voitto; Iwaki, Takashi; Okamoto, Munehiro; Ito, Akira

    2014-07-01

    The African origin of hominins suggests that Taenia spp. in African carnivores are evolutionarily related to the human-infecting tapeworms Taenia solium, Taenia saginata and Taenia asiatica. Nevertheless, the hypothesis has not been verified through molecular phylogenetics of Taenia. This study aimed to perform phylogenetic comparisons between Taenia spp. from African hyenas and the congeneric human parasites. During 2010-2013, 233 adult specimens of Taenia spp. were collected from 11 spotted hyenas in Ethiopia. A screening based on short DNA sequences of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene classified the samples into four mitochondrial lineages designated as I-IV. DNA profiles of nuclear genes for DNA polymerase delta (pold) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (pepck) showed that lineages II and III can be assigned as two independent species. Common haplotypes of pold and pepck were frequently found in lineages I and IV, suggesting that they constitute a single species. Morphological observations suggested that lineage II is Taenia crocutae, but the other lineages were morphologically inconsistent with known species, suggesting the involvement of two new species. A phylogenetic tree of Taenia spp. was reconstructed by the maximum likelihood method using all protein-coding genes of their mitochondrial genomes. The tree clearly demonstrated that T. crocutae is sister to T. saginata and T. asiatica, whereas T. solium was confirmed to be sister to the brown bear tapeworm, Taenia arctos. The tree also suggested that T. solium and T. arctos are related to two species of Taenia in hyenas, corresponding to lineages I+IV and III. These results may partially support the African origin of human-infecting Taenia spp., but there remains a possibility that host switching of Taenia to hominins was not confined to Africa. Additional taxa from African carnivores are needed for further testing of the "Out of Africa" hypothesis of Taenia in humans. Copyright © 2014 Australian

  1. Morphologic descriptions of Taenia asiatica sp. n.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, K S; Rim, H J

    1993-03-01

    Among taeniid tapeworms infecting humans through pork or beef, Taenia solium Linnaeus 1758 and Taenia saginata Goeze 1782 have already been known. Based on the morphologic characteristics of adult and metacestodes of Asian Taenia saginata, the third kind of human taeniid tapeworm known to distribute in Asian countries, a new species name of Taenia asiatica is proposed. In addition to the known biology in their intermediate hosts, T. asiatica was different morphologically from Taenia saginata Goeze 1782 in having the unarmed rostellum on the scolex of adult, the large number of 'uterine twigs' and the existence of 'posterior protuberance'. These structures in the gravid proglottids were used as taxonomic keys in taeniid tapeworms for the first time. T. asiatica metacestode (Cysticercus viscerotropica) was different morphologically from T. saginata metacestode (Cysticercus bovis) in having wartlike formations on the external surface of the bladder wall.

  2. A New Parasiticidal Compound in T. solium Cysticercosis

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    Romel Hernández-Bello

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of 16α-bromoepiandrosterone (EpiBr, a dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA analogue, was tested on the cysticerci of Taenia solium, both in vitro and in vivo. In vitro treatment of T. solium cultures with EpiBr reduced scolex evagination, growth, motility, and viability in dose- and time-dependent fashions. Administration of EpiBr prior to infection with T. solium cysticerci in hamsters reduced the number and size of developed taenias in the intestine, compared with controls. These effects were associated to an increase in splenocyte proliferation in infected hamsters. These results leave open the possibility of assessing the potential of this hormonal analogue as a possible antiparasite drug, particularly in cysticercosis and taeniosis.

  3. A New Parasiticidal Compound in T. solium Cysticercosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Bello, Romel; Escobedo, Galileo; Carrero, Julio Cesar; Cervantes-Rebolledo, Claudia; Dowding, Charles; Frincke, James; Reading, Chris; Morales-Montor, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    The effect of 16α-bromoepiandrosterone (EpiBr), a dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) analogue, was tested on the cysticerci of Taenia solium, both in vitro and in vivo. In vitro treatment of T. solium cultures with EpiBr reduced scolex evagination, growth, motility, and viability in dose- and time-dependent fashions. Administration of EpiBr prior to infection with T. solium cysticerci in hamsters reduced the number and size of developed taenias in the intestine, compared with controls. These effects were associated to an increase in splenocyte proliferation in infected hamsters. These results leave open the possibility of assessing the potential of this hormonal analogue as a possible antiparasite drug, particularly in cysticercosis and taeniosis. PMID:23509732

  4. The Asian Taenia and the possibility of cysticercosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    V. Fuentes, Màrius

    2000-01-01

    In certain Asian countries, a third form of human Taenia, also known as the Asian Taenia, has been discovered. This Asian Taenia seems to be an intermediate between Taenia solium and T. saginata since in morphological terms it is similar to T. saginata, yet biologically, as it uses the same intermediate host (pigs), it is more akin to T. solium. Taenia solium causes human cysticercosis, while T. saginata does not. It is not known whether the Asian taeniid is able to develop to the larval stage in humans or not. The arguments proposed by those authors who consider it unlikely that the Asian Taenia causes human cysticercosis are: (a) its molecular similarities with T. saginata; (b) the absence of cases of human cysticercosis in populations where the Asian adult is highly prevalent; and (c) the unsupporting results derived from an experimental infestation study. These three arguments are debated, although bearing in mind that at present there is still no clear scientific data to support that human cysticercosis can be caused by the Asian Taenia. PMID:10743352

  5. Molecular identification of species of Taenia causing bovine cysticercosis in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailemariam, Z; Nakao, M; Menkir, S; Lavikainen, A; Iwaki, T; Yanagida, T; Okamoto, M; Ito, A

    2014-09-01

    Bovine cysticercosis causing damage to the beef industry is closely linked to human taeniasis due to Taenia saginata. In African countries, Taenia spp. from wildlife are also involved as possible sources of infections in livestock. To identify the aetiological agents of bovine cysticercosis in Ethiopia, cysticerci were collected from 41 cattle slaughtered in the eastern and central areas during 2010-2012. A single cysticercus per animal was subjected to the polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based DNA sequencing of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene, and the resultant sequence was compared with those of members of the genus Taenia. Although 38 out of 41 cysticerci (92.7%) were identified as T. saginata, three samples (7.3%) showed the hitherto unknown sequences of Taenia sp., which is distantly related to Taenia solium, Taenia arctos and Taenia ovis. Old literatures suggest it to be Taenia hyaenae, but morphological identification of species could not be completed by observing only the larval samples.

  6. Laboratory diagnosis of Taenia asiatica in humans and animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parija, Subhash Chandra; Ponnambath, Dinoop Korol

    2013-01-01

    Taenia asiatica is a recently described species known to cause intestinal teniasis in humans and cysticercosis in animals. This species has close morphological resemblance to Taenia saginata and has a life cycle resembling Taenia solium, hence has been posing diagnostic dilemma and had been the reason for its comparatively late discovery. Recent diagnostic tools such as serological and molecular techniques have thrown light on its exact prevalence in the endemic countries. Hence introduction of utilization of these techniques in addition to the routine morphological analysis would be helpful in diagnosis of T. asiatica infections and early implementation of preventive measures. PMID:24470995

  7. Molecular approaches to Taenia asiatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Eom, Keeseon S

    2013-02-01

    Taenia solium, T. saginata, and T. asiatica are taeniid tapeworms that cause taeniasis in humans and cysticercosis in intermediate host animals. Taeniases remain an important public health concerns in the world. Molecular diagnostic methods using PCR assays have been developed for rapid and accurate detection of human infecting taeniid tapeworms, including the use of sequence-specific DNA probes, PCR-RFLP, and multiplex PCR. More recently, DNA diagnosis using PCR based on histopathological specimens such as 10% formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded and stained sections mounted on slides has been applied to cestode infections. The mitochondrial gene sequence is believed to be a very useful molecular marker for not only studying evolutionary relationships among distantly related taxa, but also for investigating the phylo-biogeography of closely related species. The complete sequence of the human Taenia tapeworms mitochondrial genomes were determined, and its organization and structure were compared to other human-tropic Taenia tapeworms for which complete mitochondrial sequence data were available. The multiplex PCR assay with the Ta4978F, Ts5058F, Tso7421F, and Rev7915 primers will be useful for differential diagnosis, molecular characterization, and epidemiological surveys of human Taenia tapeworms.

  8. Prevalence of porcine cysticercosis and risk factors for Taenia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pit latrines were present in 83.3% of these households, which were used by adults. Pit latrines were lacking in 15% of the households while one household had a latrine, which was not used. Knowledge of Taenia solium taeniosis transmission was recorded in 37.5% of the households while 89.6% had previous tapeworm ...

  9. TAENIA SAGINATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Setiyani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Cacing pita ini adalah parasit dalam usus halusmanusia, dan sebagai inang antaranya adalah sapi.Penyakit infeksi yang disebabkan oleh cacing pitaTaenia saginata dikenal dengan nama Taeniasis. Infeksiterutama terjadi di Afrika, Timur Tengah, Eropa Barat,Meksiko, dan Amerika Selatan.

  10. Historical Overview of Taenia asiatica in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Chau-Mei; Chung, Wen-Cheng

    2013-01-01

    An overview of the epidemiological, biological, and clinical studies of Taenia and taeniasis in Taiwan for the past century is presented. The phenomenal observations that led to the discovery of Taenia asiatica as a new species, which differ from Taenia solium and Taenia saginata, are described. Parasitological surveys of the aborigines in Taiwan revealed a high prevalence of taeniasis, which might be due to the culture of eating raw liver of hunted wild boars. Chemotherapeutic deworming trials involving many patients with taeniasis were discussed. Praziquantel was found to be very effective, but sometimes complete worms could not be recovered from the feces after treatment, probably due to the dissolution of the proglottids. Atabrine, despite some side effects, can still be used, in properly controlled dosages, as the drug of choice for human T. asiatica infection if we need to recover the expelled worms for morphological examinations. Research results on the infection of T. asiatica eggs from Taiwan aborigines in experimental animals were also noted. Since the pig serve as the natural intermediate host of T. asiatica and the predilection site is the liver, a differential comparison of other parasitic pathogens that might cause apparently similar lesions is also presented. PMID:23467308

  11. The HP10 Taenia monoclonal antibody-based ELISA detects a similar protein in the vesicular fluid of Taenia hydatigena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortez, Maria M; Rojas, Glenda C; Parkhouse, R Michael E

    2017-11-16

    Diagnosis of Taenia solium cysticercosis in endemic rural communities depends on serological tests, as typically there is no access to imaging facilities. The HP10 antigen ELISA (HP10 Ag ELISA), which detects a high molecular weight secreted protein of viable metacestodes, has been employed for the diagnosis of both human and porcine cysticercosis in such communities. In this communication, we formally demonstrate that the HP10 Ag ELISA, already known to function for the detection of T. saginata and T. solium cysticercosis, also detects a similar high molecular weight antigen of T. hydatigena. Thus, the HP10 Ag assay, while specific for human cysticercosis, may not be recommended for the diagnosis of porcine cysticercosis where there is co-infection of pigs with T. solium and T. hydatigena.

  12. [Teniasis in a child with finding of Taenia saginata proglottids in the school environment: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutto, M; Giovanetti, F; Pellegrino, A

    2009-01-01

    We describe a case of teniasis in a child, associated to the finding of Taenia proglottids in a classroom of a primary school in the area of Cuneo (Local Health Unit Cn-1, Piedmont Region, Italy). Several proglottids had been repeatedly found by cleaners on the bookbox of several schooldesks in the same classroom. Laboratory investigation was able to identify Taenia saginata proglottids and cooperation of the local Public Health Unit with the school management allowed to identify and treat the affected child. Laboratory investigation was crucial to exclude a Taenia solium infection, which should have had important public health implications. In fact, infection among humans can follow the ingestion of Taenia solium eggs and in this case larval forms in several tissues can occur (cysticercosis). Moreover the disease can be particularly severe when cysticerci invade the brain, causing seizures and hydrocephalia.

  13. Immunoblot Patterns of Taenia asiatica Taeniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu

    2009-01-01

    Differential diagnosis of Taenia asiatica infection from other human taeniases by serology has been tested. An enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) was applied to subjected human sera and tapeworm materials. Thirty-eight proteins reactive to serum IgG were observed between 121 and 10 kDa in adult worms, and more than 22 serum-reactive components between 97 kDa and 21.5 kDa were observed in eggs of T. asiatica. Antigens of adult T. asiatica revealed immunoblot bands between 120 and 21.5 kDa against T. asiatica infected sera. Antigens of adult Taenia saginata revealed 110-100, 66, 58-56, and 46 kDa immunoblot bands against T. asiatica infected sera. Antigens of adult Taenia solium also revealed 99-97, 68-66, and 46 kDa bands against T. asiatica infected sera. The immunoblot band of 21.5 kDa exhibited specificity to T. asiatica. PMID:19290097

  14. Application of Taenia saginata metacestodes as an alternative antigen for the serological diagnosis of human neurocysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Heliana B; Machado, Gleyce A; Cabral, Dagmar D; Costa-Cruz, Julia M

    2007-09-01

    Serological tests are an important tool for the diagnosis of neurocysticercosis (NCC), the disease caused by Taenia solium metacestodes. The aim of the present research was to test the application of Taenia saginata metacestodes as an alternative antigen for use in the immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and Western blotting (WB) tests compared with the metacestodes antigen of T. solium in serum samples. The samples were obtained from 130 individuals: 20 from patients with definitive NCC, Group 1; 18 from individuals infected by Taenia sp., Group 2; 40 from individuals infected by various parasites, Group 3; and 40 from healthy individuals, Group 4. The sensitivity of IFAT, ELISA, and WB using antigen obtained from T. solium applied to the patients of Group 1 yielded results of 85, 95, and 95%, respectively, for the three tests. When the tests were conducted using T. saginata metacestodes, results were 75, 80, and 85%, respectively. The specificity of IFAT, ELISA, and WB using antigen obtained from T. solium yielded results of 94.9, 88.8, and 93.9%. When the tests were conducted using T. saginata metacestodes, results were 95.9, 88.8, and 93.6%, respectively. No statistical differences for sensitivity or specificity among the antigens were found. In conclusion, the results indicated that T. saginata metacestodes can be used as an alternative antigen for NCC diagnosis.

  15. Severe seizures in pigs naturally infected with Taenia solium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trevisan, Chiara; Mkupasi, Ernatus Martin; Ngowi, Helena

    days using close circuit television cameras. At the end of the recording period, the pigs were slaughtered and the brains were dissected, cysts counted and their location noted. During recording period, two infected pigs were observed having seizures. Seizures occurred on random days....... At dissection, both pigs had a high number of brain cysts (247 and 241 cysts). These two pigs were also older compared to the others. Results of this study have shown that pigs with NCC can develop clinical signs and suffer from seizures like humans with symptomatic NCC. Results of this study could potentially...

  16. Neurocysticercosis Diagnosed in a Patient with Taenia saginata Taeniasis after Administration of Praziquantel: A Case Study and Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Toni, Wandra; Raka, Sudewi; Ni Made, Susilawati; Kadek, Swastika; I Made, Sudarmaja; Luh Putu Eka, Diarthini; Ivan Elisabeth, Purba; 岡本, 宗裕; Christine M, Budke; 伊藤, 亮

    2016-01-01

    Taeniasis, caused by infection with Taenia saginata or Taenia solium, occurs on Bali due to the consumption ofundercooked beef and pork, respectively. Fieldwork conducted on Bali from 2002-2007, identified 69 taeniasis casesdue to T. saginata. In August 2007, three T. saginata tapeworm carriers in the Gianyar district of Bali were treated witha single dose of praziquantel. Within a few hours of treatment, a 47 year old man had a seizure and was admittedto a hospital in the city of Denpasar. A...

  17. Sympatric Distribution of Three Human Taenia Tapeworms Collected between 1935 and 2005 in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Kim, Kyu-Heon; Chai, Jong-Yil; Yang, Hyun-Jong; Rim, Han-Jong

    2008-01-01

    Taeniasis has been known as one of the prevalent parasitic infections in Korea. Until recently, Taenia saginata had long been considered a dominant, and widely distributed species but epidemiological profiles of human Taenia species in Korea still remain unclear. In order to better understand distribution patterns of human Taenia tapeworms in Korea, partial nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial cox1 and ITS2 (internal transcribed spacer 2) were determined, along with morphological examinations, on 68 Taenia specimens obtained from university museum collections deposited since 1935. Genomic DNA was extracted from formalin-preserved specimens. Phylogenetic relationships among the genotypes (cox1 haplotype) detected in this study were inferred using the neighbor-joining method as a tree building method. Morphological and genetic analyses identified 3 specimens as T. solium, 51 specimens as T. asiatica, and 14 specimens as T. saginata. Our results indicate that all 3 Taenia tapeworms are sympatrically distributed in Korea with T. asiatica dominating over T. saginata and T. solium. PMID:19127329

  18. Geographical Distribution of Taenia asiatica and Related Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Rim, Han-Jong

    2009-01-01

    Geographical information of Taenia asiatica is reviewed together with that of T. solium and T. saginata. Current distribution of T. asiatica was found to be mostly from Asian countries: the Republic of Korea, China, Taiwan, Indonesia, and Thailand. Molecular genotypic techniques have found out more countries with T. asiatica from Japan, the Philippines, and Vietnam. Specimens used in this paper were collected from around the world and mostly during international collaboration projects of Korean foundations for parasite control activities (1995-2009) in developing countries. PMID:19885327

  19. Taenia saginata: differential diagnosis of human taeniasis by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Cáris Maroni; Dias, Ana Karina Kerche; Dias, Francisca Elda Ferreira; Aoki, Sérgio Moraes; de Paula, Henrique Borges; Lima, Luis Gustavo Ferraz; Garcia, José Fernando

    2005-08-01

    Speciation of Taenia in human stool is important because of their different clinical and epidemiological features. DNA analysis has recently become possible which overcomes the problems of differentiating human taeniid cestodes morphologically. In the present study, we evaluated PCR coupled to restriction fragment length polymorphism to differentiate Taenia solium from Taenia saginata eggs present in fecal samples from naturally infected patients. A different DraI-RFLP pattern: a two-band pattern (421 and 100 bp) for T. saginata and a three-band pattern (234, 188, and 99 bp) for T. solium was observed allowing the two species to be separated. The lower detection limit of the PCR-RFLP using a non-infected fecal sample prepared with a given number of T. saginata eggs was 34 eggs in 2 g stool sediment. The 521 bp mtDNA fragment was detected in 8 out of 12 Taenia sp. carriers (66.6%). Of these, three showed a T. solium pattern and five a T. saginata pattern.

  20. Epidemiological understanding of Taenia tapeworm infections with special reference to Taenia asiatica in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, K S; Rim, H J

    2001-12-01

    In endemic areas of Taenia tapeworms in Korea, most of the reports showed that T. saginata was dominant over T. solium, but eating pigs is the dominant habit over eating cattle. Why do they have more T. saginata despite lower consumption of beef? This problem actually has long been recognized but until recently there has been no intensive trial to give a scientific explanation on this epidemiological enigma. By summing up the data published between the years 1963 and 1999, the ratio of armed versus unarmed tapeworms in humans was estimated at approximately 1:5. The ratio of pig-eaters versus cattle-eaters, however, was approximately 5:1. This inconsistency could be explained with the recently described T. asiatica, which infects humans through the eating of pig's viscera. We re-evaluate the importance of the consumption of visceral organ of pigs. leading us to an improved epidemiological understanding of the T. asiatica infection together with co-existing T. saginata and T. solium in Korea.

  1. Epidemiological understanding of Taenia tapeworm infections with special reference to Taenia asiatica in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rim, Han-Jong

    2001-01-01

    In endemic areas of Taenia tapeworms in Korea, most of the reports showed that T. saginata was dominant over T. solium, but eating pigs is the dominant habit over eating cattle. Why do they have more T. saginata despite lower consumption of beef? This problem actually has long been recognized but until recently there has been no intensive trial to give a scientific explanation on this epidemiological enigma. By summing up the data published between the years 1963 and 1999, the ratio of armed versus unarmed tapeworms in humans was estimated at approximately 1:5. The ratio of pig-eaters versus cattle-eaters, however, was approximately 5:1. This inconsistency could be explained with the recently described T. asiatica, which infects humans through the eating of pig's viscera. We re-evaluate the importance of the consumption of visceral organ of pigs, leading us to an improved epidemiological understanding of the T. asiatica infection together with co-existing T. saginata and T. solium in Korea. PMID:11775327

  2. First ultrastructural data on the human tapeworm Taenia asiatica eggs by scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM, TEM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galán-Puchades, M Teresa; Yang, Yichao; Marcilla, Antonio; Choe, Seongjun; Park, Hansol; Osuna, Antonio; Eom, Keeseon S

    2016-09-01

    Humans are definitive hosts of three species of the Taenia genus, namely Taenia solium, Taenia saginata and Taenia asiatica. The relative novelty of the latter explains the lack of knowledge concerning certain relevant aspects related to this parasite, such as its definite geographical distribution and whether its eggs can infect humans or not. So far, only the eggs of T. solium are known to be infective for humans, producing cysticercosis. Although eggs contain the infective stage, the oncosphere, there is a lack of research on the ultrastructure of eggs of human taeniids. We show, for the first time, the ultrastructure of eggs of T. asiatica by means of SEM and TEM analyses. We detected all the envelopes, namely the egg shell, vitelline layer, outer embryophoric membrane, embryophore, granular layer, basal membrane, oncospheral membrane and oncospheral tegument. Hooks surrounded by myofibrils and glycogen-like particles, the two types of secretory granules of the penetration glands, as well as several nuclei and mitochondria were also revealed in the oncospheres. In addition to the already known structures in eggs from other Taenia species, the presence of two types of small vesicles is described herein, possibly corresponding to exosomes and ectosomes because of their shape and size, which could participate in the host/parasite intercellular communication.

  3. Simple Identification of Human Taenia Species by Multiplex Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification in Combination with Dot Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkouawa, Agathe; Sako, Yasuhito; Okamoto, Munehiro; Ito, Akira

    2016-06-01

    For differential detection of Taenia solium, Taenia saginata, and Taenia asiatica, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay targeting the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene has been recently developed and shown to be sensitive, specific, and effective. However, to achieve differential identification, one specimen requires three reaction mixtures containing a primer set of each Taenia species separately, which is complex and time consuming and increases the risk of cross-contamination. In this study, we developed a simple differential identification of human Taenia species using multiplex LAMP (mLAMP) in combination with dot enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (dot-ELISA). Forward inner primers of T. solium, T. saginata, and T. asiatica labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC), digoxigenin (DIG), and tetramethylrhodamine (TAMRA), respectively, and biotin-labeled backward inner primers were used in mLAMP. The mLAMP assay succeeded in specific amplification of each respective target gene in a single tube. Furthermore, the mLAMP product from each species was easily distinguished by dot-ELISA with an antibody specific for FITC, DIG, or TAMRA. The mLAMP assay in combination with dot-ELISA will make identification of human Taenia species simpler, easier, and more practical. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  4. Development of Taenia pisiformis in golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maravilla Pablo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The life cycle of Taenia pisiformis includes canines as definitive hosts and rabbits as intermediate hosts. Golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus is a rodent that has been successfully used as experimental model of Taenia solium taeniosis. In the present study we describe the course of T. pisiformis infection in experimentally infected golden hamsters. Ten females, treated with methyl-prednisolone acetate were infected with three T. pisiformis cysticerci each one excised from one rabbit. Proglottids released in faeces and adults recovered during necropsy showed that all animals were infected. Eggs obtained from the hamsters' tapeworms, were assessed for viability using trypan blue or propidium iodide stains. Afterwards, some rabbits were inoculated with eggs, necropsy was performed after seven weeks and viable cysticerci were obtained. Our results demonstrate that the experimental model of adult Taenia pisiformis in golden hamster can replace the use of canines in order to study this parasite and to provide eggs and adult tapeworms to be used in different types of experiments.

  5. Detailed transcriptome description of the neglected cestode Taenia multiceps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuhang Wu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The larval stage of Taenia multiceps, a global cestode, encysts in the central nervous system (CNS of sheep and other livestock. This frequently leads to their death and huge socioeconomic losses, especially in developing countries. This parasite can also cause zoonotic infections in humans, but has been largely neglected due to a lack of diagnostic techniques and studies. Recent developments in next-generation sequencing provide an opportunity to explore the transcriptome of T. multiceps. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We obtained a total of 31,282 unigenes (mean length 920 bp using Illumina paired-end sequencing technology and a new Trinity de novo assembler without a referenced genome. Individual transcription molecules were determined by sequence-based annotations and/or domain-based annotations against public databases (Nr, UniprotKB/Swiss-Prot, COG, KEGG, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, InterPro and Pfam. We identified 26,110 (83.47% unigenes and inferred 20,896 (66.8% coding sequences (CDS. Further comparative transcripts analysis with other cestodes (Taenia pisiformis, Taenia solium, Echincoccus granulosus and Echincoccus multilocularis and intestinal parasites (Trichinella spiralis, Ancylostoma caninum and Ascaris suum showed that 5,100 common genes were shared among three Taenia tapeworms, 261 conserved genes were detected among five Taeniidae cestodes, and 109 common genes were found in four zoonotic intestinal parasites. Some of the common genes were genes required for parasite survival, involved in parasite-host interactions. In addition, we amplified two full-length CDS of unigenes from the common genes using RT-PCR. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study provides an extensive transcriptome of the adult stage of T. multiceps, and demonstrates that comparative transcriptomic investigations deserve to be further studied. This transcriptome dataset forms a substantial public information platform to achieve a fundamental understanding of

  6. taenia coli de cobaye

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AKA BOKO

    Bridelia ferruginea est utilisée dans la Pharmacopée traditionnelle africaine comme ... dans un extrait aqueux de cette plante sur la motricité de Taenia coli de Cobaye et de ..... Afrique de l'ouest, Editions Roche Basel, Switzerland, (1991) 151. ... physiopathologie vasculaire : intérêt des stocks mobilisables de no et des.

  7. Characterization of the Taenia spp HDP2 sequence and development of a novel PCR-based assay for discrimination of Taenia saginata from Taenia asiatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Luis M; Bailo, Begoña; Ferrer, Elizabeth; García, Maria D Fernandez; Harrison, Leslie Js; Parkhouse, Michael Re; McManus, Donald P; Gárate, Teresa

    2010-06-11

    A previously described Taenia saginata HDP2 DNA sequence, a 4-kb polymorphic fragment, was previously used as the basis for developing PCR diagnostic protocols for the species-specific discrimination of T. saginata from T. solium and for the differentiation of T. saginata from T. asiatica. The latter was shown subsequently to lack the required specificity, so we undertook genetic studies of the HDP2 sequence from T. saginata and T. asiatica to determine why, and to develop a novel HDP2-PCR protocol for the simultaneous unambiguous identification of human taeniids. Sequencing and further analysis of the HDP2 DNA fragments of 19 Asiatic isolates of T. saginata and T. asiatica indicated that the HDP2 sequences of both species exhibited clear genomic variability, due to polymorphic variable fragments, that could correspond to the non-transcribed region of ribosomal DNA. This newly observed polymorphism allowed us to develop a novel, reproducible and reliable HDP2-PCR protocol which permitted the simultaneous discrimination of all T. saginata and T. asiatica isolates examined. This species-specific identification was based on, and facilitated by, the clear size difference in amplicon profiles generated: fragments of 1300 bp, 600 bp and 300 bp were produced for T. asiatica, amplicons of 1300 bp and 300 bp being obtained for T. saginata. Control T. solium samples produced one amplicon of 600 bp with the HDP2-PCR protocol. The assay has the potential to prove useful as a diagnostic tool in areas such as South East Asia where T. saginata, T. asiatica and T. solium coexist.

  8. Characterization of the Taenia spp HDP2 sequence and development of a novel PCR-based assay for discrimination of Taenia saginata from Taenia asiatica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McManus Donald P

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A previously described Taenia saginata HDP2 DNA sequence, a 4-kb polymorphic fragment, was previously used as the basis for developing PCR diagnostic protocols for the species-specific discrimination of T. saginata from T. solium and for the differentiation of T. saginata from T. asiatica. The latter was shown subsequently to lack the required specificity, so we undertook genetic studies of the HDP2 sequence from T. saginata and T. asiatica to determine why, and to develop a novel HDP2-PCR protocol for the simultaneous unambiguous identification of human taeniids. Sequencing and further analysis of the HDP2 DNA fragments of 19 Asiatic isolates of T. saginata and T. asiatica indicated that the HDP2 sequences of both species exhibited clear genomic variability, due to polymorphic variable fragments, that could correspond to the non-transcribed region of ribosomal DNA. This newly observed polymorphism allowed us to develop a novel, reproducible and reliable HDP2-PCR protocol which permitted the simultaneous discrimination of all T. saginata and T. asiatica isolates examined. This species-specific identification was based on, and facilitated by, the clear size difference in amplicon profiles generated: fragments of 1300 bp, 600 bp and 300 bp were produced for T. asiatica, amplicons of 1300 bp and 300 bp being obtained for T. saginata. Control T. solium samples produced one amplicon of 600 bp with the HDP2-PCR protocol. The assay has the potential to prove useful as a diagnostic tool in areas such as South East Asia where T. saginata, T. asiatica and T. solium coexist.

  9. Epidemiology and genetic diversity of Taenia asiatica: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ale, Anita; Victor, Bjorn; Praet, Nicolas; Gabriël, Sarah; Speybroeck, Niko; Dorny, Pierre; Devleesschauwer, Brecht

    2014-01-22

    Taenia asiatica has made a remarkable journey through the scientific literature of the past 50 years, starting with the paradoxical observation of high prevalences of T. saginata-like tapeworms in non-beef consuming populations, to the full description of its mitochondrial genome. Experimental studies conducted in the 1980s and 1990s have made it clear that the life cycle of T. asiatica is comparable to that of T. saginata, except for pigs being the preferential intermediate host and liver the preferential location of the cysts. Whether or not T. asiatica can cause human cysticercosis, as is the case for Taenia solium, remains unclear. Given the specific conditions needed to complete its life cycle, in particular the consumption of raw or poorly cooked pig liver, the transmission of T. asiatica shows an important ethno-geographical association. So far, T. asiatica has been identified in Taiwan, South Korea, Indonesia, the Philippines, Thailand, south-central China, Vietnam, Japan and Nepal. Especially this last observation indicates that its distribution is not restricted to South-East-Asia, as was thought so far. Indeed, the molecular tools developed over the last 20 years have made it increasingly possible to differentiate T. asiatica from other taeniids. Such tools also indicated that T. asiatica is related more closely to T. saginata than to T. solium, feeding the debate on its taxonomic status as a separate species versus a subspecies of T. saginata. Furthermore, the genetic diversity within T. asiatica appears to be very minimal, indicating that this parasite may be on the verge of extinction. However, recent studies have identified potential hybrids between T. asiatica and T. saginata, reopening the debate on the genetic diversity of T. asiatica and its status as a separate species.

  10. Comparison of a new multiplex real-time PCR with the Kato Katz thick smear and copro-antigen ELISA for the detection and differentiation of Taenia spp. in human stools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng-Nguyen, Dinh; Stevenson, Mark A; Dorny, Pierre; Gabriël, Sarah; Vo, Tinh Van; Nguyen, Van-Anh Thi; Phan, Trong Van; Hii, Sze Fui; Traub, Rebecca J

    2017-07-01

    Taenia solium, the cause of neurocysticercosis (NCC), has significant socioeconomic impacts on communities in developing countries. This disease, along with taeniasis is estimated to infect 2.5 to 5 million people globally. Control of T. solium NCC necessitates accurate diagnosis and treatment of T. solium taeniasis carriers. In areas where all three species of Taenia tapeworms (T. solium, Taenia saginata and Taenia asiatica) occur sympatrically, conventional microscope- and copro-antigen based diagnostic methods are unable to distinguish between these three Taenia species. Molecular diagnostic tools have been developed to overcome this limitation; however, conventional PCR-based techniques remain unsuitable for large-scale deployment in community-based surveys. Moreover, a real-time PCR (qPCR) for the discrimination of all three species of Taenia in human stool does not exist. This study describes the development and validation of a new triplex Taq-Man probe-based qPCR for the detection and discrimination of all three Taenia human tapeworms in human stools collected from communities in the Central Highlands of Vietnam. The diagnostic characteristics of the test are compared with conventional Kato Katz (KK) thick smear and copro-antigen ELISA (cAgELISA) method utilizing fecal samples from a community based cross-sectional study. Using this new multiplex real-time PCR we provide an estimate of the true prevalence of taeniasis in the source population for the community based cross-sectional study. Primers and TaqMan probes for the specific amplification of T. solium, T. saginata and T. asiatica were designed and successfully optimized to target the internal transcribed spacer I (ITS-1) gene of T. solium and the cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COX-1) gene of T. saginata and T. asiatica. The newly designed triplex qPCR (T3qPCR) was compared to KK and cAgELISA for the detection of Taenia eggs in stool samples collected from 342 individuals in Dak Lak province, Central

  11. Comparison of a new multiplex real-time PCR with the Kato Katz thick smear and copro-antigen ELISA for the detection and differentiation of Taenia spp. in human stools.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinh Ng-Nguyen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Taenia solium, the cause of neurocysticercosis (NCC, has significant socioeconomic impacts on communities in developing countries. This disease, along with taeniasis is estimated to infect 2.5 to 5 million people globally. Control of T. solium NCC necessitates accurate diagnosis and treatment of T. solium taeniasis carriers. In areas where all three species of Taenia tapeworms (T. solium, Taenia saginata and Taenia asiatica occur sympatrically, conventional microscope- and copro-antigen based diagnostic methods are unable to distinguish between these three Taenia species. Molecular diagnostic tools have been developed to overcome this limitation; however, conventional PCR-based techniques remain unsuitable for large-scale deployment in community-based surveys. Moreover, a real-time PCR (qPCR for the discrimination of all three species of Taenia in human stool does not exist. This study describes the development and validation of a new triplex Taq-Man probe-based qPCR for the detection and discrimination of all three Taenia human tapeworms in human stools collected from communities in the Central Highlands of Vietnam. The diagnostic characteristics of the test are compared with conventional Kato Katz (KK thick smear and copro-antigen ELISA (cAgELISA method utilizing fecal samples from a community based cross-sectional study. Using this new multiplex real-time PCR we provide an estimate of the true prevalence of taeniasis in the source population for the community based cross-sectional study.Primers and TaqMan probes for the specific amplification of T. solium, T. saginata and T. asiatica were designed and successfully optimized to target the internal transcribed spacer I (ITS-1 gene of T. solium and the cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COX-1 gene of T. saginata and T. asiatica. The newly designed triplex qPCR (T3qPCR was compared to KK and cAgELISA for the detection of Taenia eggs in stool samples collected from 342 individuals in Dak Lak province

  12. Basic and applied immunology in cestode infections: from Hymenolepis to Taenia and Echinococcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, A

    1997-10-01

    In larval cestode infections, it is well established that the intermediate mammalian host infected with egg-derived metacestodes in the tissue becomes completely immune to reinfection with eggs, whereas autoinfection has been conceived to occur in Hymenolepis nana/mouse (and human) and Taenia solium/human systems when these hosts are initially infected with metacestode-derived adult tapeworms in the lumen. In this review paper, the first topic is immunobiology of H. nana/mouse system on the reinfection immunity in order to get critical information as to how the initially ingested parasite (eggs or metacestodes) can develop into adult worms and how autoinfection does or does not occur in immunocompetent mice, since H. nana can complete its whole life cycle in the mouse intestinal tissue and lumen. When mice are infected with eggs (= oncospheres) of H. nana, they become immune to challenge infections with eggs within a few days (early response) and with cysticercoids within two weeks (late response). The initially established adult worms are expelled later (worm expulsion response). When mice are infected with cysticercoids, either derived from beetles or mice, they become immune to challenge infection with cysticercoids but not with eggs. Therefore, autoinfection occurs in the intestinal tissue for the establishment of cysticercoids in the tissue but never occurs in the intestinal lumen for the establishment of adult worms in immunocompetent mice. The second topic is vaccination trial against challenge infection with eggs of Asian Taenia in pigs. Pigs vaccinated with frozen oncospheres of Asian Taenia from Taiwan or Korea or T. saginata showed very strong resistance, whereas pigs vaccinated with those of T. solium showed partial resistance only. It is suggested that Asian Taenia is much closer to T. saginata than T. solium from the immunobiological viewpoint. The third topic is immunodiagnosis of echinococcosis and cysticercosis. Immunoblot analysis has revealed

  13. Genetic variability of the 18 kDa/HP6 protective antigen in Taenia saginata and Taenia asiatica: implications for vaccine development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Luis M; Ramiro, Raquel; García, Luz; Parkhouse, R Michael E; McManus, Donald P; Gárate, Teresa

    2011-04-01

    Genomic characterization of the genes encoding the Taenia 18 kDa/HP6 protective antigens was carried out for Taenia saginata and T. asiatica using 42 taeniid isolates comprising 23 samples of T. saginata, 13 samples of T. asiatica and 6 samples of T. solium. The corresponding sequences from all taeniid isolates were PCR-amplified with specific primers and then sequenced. All the genes, and other described taeniid gene homologues, had the same genomic structure. Surprisingly, the T. saginata TSA18 gene showed nucleotide variability within the 23 samples analyzed. This resulted in two distinct genotypes with 96% DNA sequence similarity and deduced amino acid sequences with 21 substitutions, mainly located in the second exon which contains the fibronectin type III domain. In regards to T. asiatica, the 18 kDa gene (TASI18) was very similar to the T. saginata antigen homologues, both at the DNA and deduced amino acid sequence levels, and the TSOL18 gene was conserved among T. solium isolates as previously described. The implications of these findings on the future development of taeniid vaccines are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A systematic review on the global occurrence of Taenia hydatigena in pigs and cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Man Thi Thuy; Gabriël, Sarah; Abatih, Emmanuel Nji; Dorny, Pierre

    2016-08-15

    Taenia hydatigena, a non-zoonotic tapeworm species shares the same intermediate hosts with other Taenia zoonotic species, such as Taenia solium in pigs and Taenia saginata in cattle. The occurrence of T. hydatigena in pigs and cattle may cause cross-reactions in immunodiagnostic tests and therefore, complicate the diagnosis of the zoonotic species. This study was conducted to systematically review the data on the prevalence of T. hydatigena in pigs and cattle, with the aim to assess the potential interference in serological diagnosis of zoonotic Taenia spp. due to T. hydatigena infection. We searched PubMed, Web of Science, Africa Journal Online, website http://www.google.com and article reference lists in English, French and Vietnamese with no restriction on research time and publication status. Eligible studies included observational studies that showed the occurrence of T. hydatigena. Twenty-six studies, divided into two animal groups, i.e. pigs and cattle, met the eligibility criteria for qualitative synthesis and 17 studies were included for the meta-analysis in three continents. T. hydatigena was found by necropsy in all included studies, which mostly were abattoir surveys. Overall, results showed the worldwide occurrence of T. hydatigena cysticercosis in pigs and cattle. In pigs, there was a marked higher prevalence in Asia and South America that was 17.2% (95% CI: 10.6-26.8%) and 27.5% (CI: 20.8-35.3%), respectively, compared to a low prevalence of 3.9% (95% CI: 1.9-7.9%) in Africa. Overall, the prevalence of T. hydatigena in cattle was low with a mean of 1.1% (95% CI: 0.2-5.2%). These results show that interpretation of results of sero-diagnostic tests for zoonotic Taenia species in pigs and cattle has to take into account the prevalence of T. hydatigena infections in different settings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Taenia spp. infections in wildlife in the Bangweulu and Kafue flood plains ecosystems of Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muma, J B; Gabriël, S; Munyeme, M; Munang'andu, H M; Victor, B; Dorny, P; Nalubamba, K S; Siamudaala, V; Mwape, K E

    2014-09-15

    Taenia spp. have an indirect life cycle, cycling between a definitive and an intermediate host with zoonotic species causing public health problems in many developing countries. During the course of 2 separate surveys in Zambia (2004 and 2009), the presence of Taenia larval stages (cysticerci) was examined in Kafue lechwe (Kobus leche kafuensis), Black lechwe (Kobus leche smithermani) and other wildlife species from the Kafue and Bangweulu flood plains. Examinations involved post-mortem inspection and serum specific antigen detection. The recovered cysts from seven carcasses were characterised using PCR and DNA sequence analysis. The overall proportion of infection in wildlife on post-mortem examination was 19.0% (95% CI: 9.1-29.0%). The proportion of infected wildlife based on post-mortem examinations in the Kafue flood plains was estimated at 28.6% (95% CI: 13.3-43.9%), while the seroprevalence was estimated at 25.0% (95% CI: 2.9-47.1%). The seroprevalence for cattle in the Kafue flood plains was estimated at 61.5% (95% CI: 42.0-81.0%) while that of Kafue lechwe in the same ecosystem was estimated at 66.6% (95% CI: 45.6-85.7%). Infection rates were higher in Kafue lechwe than in Black lechwe suggesting differences in the exposure patterns. The sequencing results indicated that none of the recovered cysts were either Taenia solium or Taenia saginata. We therefore conclude they most likely belong to a less studied (wildlife) Taenia species that requires further characterisation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Recent hybridization between Taenia asiatica and Taenia saginata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamane, Kanako; Suzuki, Yumi; Tachi, Eiko; Li, Tiaoying; Chen, Xingwang; Nakao, Minoru; Nkouawa, Agathe; Yanagida, Testuya; Sako, Yasuhito; Ito, Akira; Sato, Hiroshi; Okamoto, Munehiro

    2012-06-01

    Five Taenia tapeworms collected from humans in Tibetan Plateau, Sichuan, China, where three species of human Taenia are sympatrically endemic, were examined for the mitochondrial cox1 gene and two nuclear genes, ef1 and elp. Phylogenetic analyses of these genes revealed that two adult worms showed nuclear-mitochondrial discordance, suggesting that they originated from hybridization between Taenia saginata and Taenia asiatica. One of two worms had T. asiatica-type mtDNA, whereas another worm had T. saginata-type mtDNA, indicating that reciprocal hybridization between T. saginata and T. asiatica could occur. The worm having T. asiatica-type mtDNA was heterozygous at both nuclear loci with T. saginata-type alleles and T. asiatica-type alleles. In another worm, the ef1 locus was heterozygous with a T. saginata-type alleles and T. asiatica-type alleles, while the elp locus was homozygous with T. saginata-type alleles. Self-fertilization is the main reproductive method of the genus Taenia. Since self-fertilization represents a type of inbreeding, each locus in the offspring would become homozygous over generations with genetic drift. The fact that some nuclear loci are still heterozygous means that hybridization might have occurred recently. Hybridization between T. asiatica and T. saginata is probably an ongoing event in many areas in which they are sympatrically endemic. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of recombinant HP6-Tsag, an 18 kDa Taenia saginata oncospheral adhesion protein, for the diagnosis of cysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Elizabeth; González, Luís Miguel; Martínez-Escribano, José Angel; González-Barderas, María Eugenia; Cortéz, María Milagros; Dávila, Iris; Harrison, Leslie J S; Parkhouse, R Michael E; Gárate, Teresa

    2007-08-01

    With the objective of providing inexpensive and reproducible assays for the detection of antibodies indicating exposure to Taenia saginata and Taenia solium, we have evaluated the diagnostic utility of the T. saginata oncosphere adhesion protein (HP6-Tsag), expressed in baculovirus (HP6-Bac) and bacteria (HP6-GST [glutathione S-transferase]), employing enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and sera from T. saginata infected cattle, T. solium infected pigs and serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from clinically defined T. solium neurocysticercosis (NCC) patients. The two recombinant proteins were antigenic in all three systems, with the signal to background ratio of the HP6-Bac ELISA slightly higher than that for the HP6-GST ELISA. Assay performance in cattle was similar to previously described peptide-based ELISA assays, although NCC sample sensitivity/specificity was marginally better. The sensitivity of the HP6-Bac and HP6-GST ELISAs was close for active human NCC (77.4 and 80.6% for serum and 76.9 and 73.1% for CSF samples, respectively). In inactive human NCC, however, the sensitivity of the HP6-Bac ELISA was almost twice that of the HP6-GST ELISA. Because peptides are relatively expensive and recombinant proteins are simple and economical to produce, the latter may provide useful reagents for antibody detection in countries with endemic cysticercosis/NCC.

  18. Saline extract of Taenia saginata metacestodes as an alternative antigen for the immunodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis in human cerebrospinal fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Heliana B; Machado, Gleyce A; Gonçalves-Pires, Maria do Rosário F; Moura, Leandro P; Costa-Cruz, Julia M

    2009-07-01

    The aim of the present research was to test the application of Taenia saginata metacestodes as an alternative antigen for use in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western Blotting (WB) tests compared with the use of metacestodes antigen of Taenia solium in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples. The samples were obtained from 35 patients with definitive neurocysticercosis (NCC)-group 1-and 44 patients with other neurological disorders (control)-group 2. The sensitivity and specificity of ELISA, using antigen obtained from T. solium, applied to the patients of group 1 yielded results of 100%. When the tests were conducted using T. saginata metacestodes, results were 100% and 93.2%, respectively. The 47-52-, 64-68-, and 70-kDa antigens showed high frequencies in CSF samples from patients with NCC when WB was conducted with both antigens. The results indicate that T. saginata metacestodes can be used as an alternative antigen for the diagnosis of human NCC in CSF samples.

  19. Disease behaviours of sows naturally infected with Taenia solium in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trevisan, Chiara; Johansen, Maria Vang; Mkupasi, Ernatus M.

    2017-01-01

    over the course of a whole day. Sows with NCC spent significantly less time at the feeding trough, especially during the second half of the feeding period. Infected sows were also more passive e.g. lying and standing still significantly more during a whole day period and showed social isolation...... compared to non-infected control sows by performing behaviours more distant to their nearest neighbour. Results of this study indicated that NCC changed the behaviour of infected sows. The behavioural changes are indicative of decreased welfare. Efforts to reinforce the animal welfare aspect are needed...

  20. Severe seizures in pigs naturally infected with Taenia solium in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trevisan, Chiara; Mkupasi, Ernatus M.; Ngowi, Helena A.

    2016-01-01

    blinking, walking in circles) were recorded. At the end of the recording period, pigs were slaughtered and their brains dissected, cysticerci counted and locations noted. During the recording period, two infected pigs were observed having seizures. Some of the observed autonomic signs during a seizure were...

  1. Seroprevalence of antibodies against Taenia solium cysticerci among refugees resettled in United States

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Neal, Seth E; Townes, John M; Wilkins, Patricia P; Noh, John C; Lee, Deborah; Rodriguez, Silvia; Garcia, Hector H; Stauffer, William M

    2012-01-01

    .... In developing countries, NCC is a leading cause of adult-onset epilepsy. Case reports of NCC are increasing among refugees resettled to the United States and other nations, but the underlying prevalence among refugee groups is unknown...

  2. Hair cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone concentrations in naturally Taenia solium infected pigs in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trevisan, Chiara; Montillo, Marta; Prandi, Alberto

    2017-01-01

    concentrations (infected pigs 253.9 ± 82.3 pg/mg, control pigs 387.7 ± 116.4 pg/mg) (panimals had significantly higher cortisol concentrations in both groups, infected and controls pigs, while DHEA was not significantly different between lean and normal animals. Results...... of this study have shown that an environmental change could have an effect on pigs' hormonal levels suggesting an undergoing adaptation process. After the pigs were kept under the same conditions, fed and watered ad libitum, no significant differences were observed between the groups, but a drop in DHEA...... concentrations was observed in all the pigs. Weight however had an effect on cortisol levels as lean animals had significantly higher cortisol concentrations in both groups, compared to normal pigs....

  3. Ocorrência de Taenia sp. na população atendida no laboratório central do Instituto Adolfo Lutz, São Paulo, SP, Brasil (1960/1989 Occurrence of Taenia sp. in the population attended in the central laboratory of "Instituto Adolfo Lutz", São Paulo, SP, Brazil (1960/1989

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Maria Donini Souza Dias

    1991-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram examinados retrospectivamente os relatórios mensais e anuais da Seção de Enteroparasitoses do Laboratório Central do Instituto Adolfo Lutz, São Paulo, SP, do período de 1960 a 1989, perfazendo uma série histórica de 30 anos, com 1.519.730 exames protoparasitológicos e 355 identificações de proglotes de Taenia. Pelo método da sedimentação espontânea foram diagnosticados 7.663 (0,5% casos de presença de ovos de Taenia sp. nas fezes. Das 355 proglotes enviadas para identificação, 311 (87,60% estavam em condições de serem especificadas, e dessas, 273 (87,80% eram proglotes de Taenia saginata e 38 (12,22% de T. solium.Monthly and yearly reports of the Seção de Enteroparasitoses of the Instituto Adolfo Lutz (São Paulo, SP, Brazil from 1960 to 1989 with 1,519,730 parasitological stool examinations were studied. There were also 355 identifications of Taenia sp. proglottids. Using HOFFMAN, PONS & JANER's method, 7,663 (0.5% cases of taeniasis were diagnosed, and 311 (87.60% of the 355 proglottids were on easy terms to be specified, 273 (87.80% of them were from Taenia saginata.

  4. Unusual colonoscopy finding: Taenia saginata proglottid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Nayan M; Tatar, Eric L

    2007-01-01

    Infection with tapeworms is a major problem in many parts of the world. Patients may be asymptomatic or have a significant morbidity depending on the species. Infection with Taenia species is sometimes found by expulsion of eggs or proglottids in stool. Species specific diagnosis of Taenia is difficult, but possible. We present a case of Taenia saginata incidentally discovered, and risk factors for transmission, diagnosis, symptoms, and treatment. PMID:17907306

  5. Genotypic relationships between Taenia saginata, Taenia asiatica and their hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamane, Kanako; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Li, Tiaoying; Chen, Xingwang; Dekumyoy, Paron; Waikagul, Jitra; Nkouawa, Agathe; Nakao, Minoru; Sako, Yasuhito; Ito, Akira; Sato, Hiroshi; Okamoto, Munehiro

    2013-11-01

    Partial sequences of the DNA polymerase delta (pold) gene from Taenia saginata-like adult worms were sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that pold gene sequences were clearly divided into two clades, differing from each other in five to seven nucleotides. There is little doubt that T. saginata and Taenia asiatica were once separated into two distinct taxa as has been concluded in previous studies. On the other hand, most of the adult worms, which were identified as T. asiatica using mitochondrial DNA, were homozygous for an allele that originated from the allele of T. saginata via single nucleotide substitution. These results indicate that most of the adult worms, which had been called T. asiatica, are not actually 'pure T. asiatica' but instead originated from the hybridization of 'pure T. saginata' and 'pure T. asiatica'.

  6. Antigenic fractions from Taenia crassiceps metacestodes obtained by hydrophobicity for the immunodiagnosis of active and inactive forms of neurocysticercosis in human cerebrospinal fluid samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Gabriela B; Nunes, Daniela S; de Sousa, José Eduardo N; Gonçalves-Pires, Maria do R F; Levenhagen, Marcelo A; Costa-Cruz, Julia M

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the total extract of Taenia crassiceps metacestodes (TC) and its antigenic fractions obtained by Triton X-114 fractionation techniques, such as detergent (DC) and aqueous (AC), in the immunodiagnosis of human neurocysticercosis (NCC). Cerebrospinal fluid samples were divided into two groups: Group 1 (n=40), which was further divided into active (n=20) and inactive (n=20) NCC, and Group 2 (control group), which comprised 39 CSF samples from patients who had another neurological disorder, were suffering from other infectious diseases of the brain or had other parasitic infections. The total extracts and antigenic fractions were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect human IgG anti-Taenia solium. T. crassiceps fractions (DC and AC) showed the same value of sensitivity (Se), 100%, for active and inactive NCC and a specificity (Sp) of 97.4%. The DS fraction obtained from T. solium showed 100% Se for active NCC, 95% Se for inactive NCC and a 92.3% Sp. The AS fraction obtained from T. solium showed 100% Se for both active and inactive NCC and a 94.9% Sp. There was a positive correlation between the total saline extract of T. crassiceps (TC) and T. solium (TS) and their fractions (DC, AC, DS and AS). Positive predictive value, negative predictive value, diagnostic efficiency and Youden index were calculated. In conclusion, these results demonstrated that detergent and aqueous fractions obtained from T. crassiceps metacestodes are important sources of specific antigens and are efficient for immunodiagnosis of active and inactive NCC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Tapeworm infection - beef or pork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teniasis; Pork tapeworm; Beef tapeworm; Tapeworm; Taenia saginata; Taenia solium; Taeniasis ... undercooked meat of infected animals. Cattle usually carry Taenia saginata ( T saginata ). Pigs carry Taenia solium (T solium) . ...

  8. Taeniasis unresponsive to a single dose of niclosamide: case report of persistent infection with Taenia saginata and a review of therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermund, S H; MacLeod, S; Goldstein, R G

    1986-01-01

    A patient infected in Ethiopia with the beef tapeworm Taenia saginata was unsuccessfully treated with 2 g of niclosamide on four separate occasions over four months. clinical and parasitologic cures were effected by a regimen of 2 g of niclosamide given on three consecutive days. Niclosamide is the drug of choice for treatment of T. saginata and Taenia solium (pork tapeworm) infection; cure rates are approximately 90%. It is not absorbable and thus is nontoxic. Alternative treatments of taeniasis vary in the degree of safety; tin compounds and Aspidium extracts often are toxic. Paromomycin sulfate, which is also nonabsorbable, is effective, although adverse gastrointestinal effects are common with multiple-dose regimens. A relatively safe therapy is with mebendazole, a broad-spectrum anthelmintic agent, although efficacy has varied in different trials. A number of benzimidazoles, as well as nitazoxamide, have been effective against tapeworms. Praziquantel is the best alternative to niclosamide in terms of cost, efficacy, availability, and safety.

  9. Hydrophobic fraction of Taenia saginata metacestodes, rather than hydrophilic fraction, contains immunodominant markers for diagnosing human neurocysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Flávia de Assunção; Machado, Gleyce Alves; Oliveira, Heliana Batista; Rezende, Maria Teresa Nunes Pacheco; Mineo, José Roberto; Costa-Cruz, Julia Maria

    2010-01-01

    Considering that alternative antigens for diagnosing neurocysticercosis continue to be a challenge because of the increasing difficulty in obtaining parasites from naturally infected pigs for preparation of Taenia solium homologous antigen, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the detergent (D) and aqueous (A) fractions from saline extract of Taenia saginata metacestodes for diagnosing neurocysticercosis. Taenia saginata was obtained from naturally infected bovines in the Triângulo Mineiro region, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The carcasses came from cold storage units and had been slaughtered in accordance with the inspection technique recommended by the Federal Inspection Service. The D and A fractions were obtained by using Triton X-114 (TX-114). Serum samples were obtained from 40 patients with a diagnosis of neurocysticercosis, 45 with other parasitic diseases and 30 from apparently normal individuals. IgG antibody levels were evaluated using the ELISA and immunoblotting assays. The ELISA sensitivity and specificity were 95% and 73.3%, when using saline extract; 95% and 82.6% for the D fraction; and 65% and 61.3% for the A fraction, respectively. The immunoblotting assay confirmed the ELISA results, such that the D fraction was more efficient than the other extracts, and the 70-68 kDa component was immunodominant among neurocysticercosis patients. These results demonstrated that the D fraction from Taenia saginata metacestodes obtained using TX-114 can be used as a heterologous antigenic fraction in the immunoblotting assay for serologically diagnosing human neurocysticercosis, given its ability to select immunodominant antigens.

  10. Characterization of microRNAs in Taenia saginata of zoonotic significance by Solexa deep sequencing and bioinformatics analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, L; Xu, M J; Chen, M X; Zhang, Y N; Chen, S H; Guo, J; Cai, Y C; Zhou, X N; Zhu, X Q; Chen, J X

    2012-06-01

    The beef tapeworm Taenia saginata infects human beings with symptoms ranging from nausea, abdominal discomfort to digestive disturbances and intestinal blockage. In the present study, microRNA (miRNA) expressing profile in adult T. saginata was analyzed using Solexa deep sequencing and bioinformatics analysis. A total of 15.8 million reads was obtained by Solexa sequencing, and 13.3 million clean reads (1.73 million unique sequences) was obtained after removing reads smaller than 18 nt. Ten conserved miRNAs corresponding to 607,382 reads were found when matching the reads against known miRNAs of Schistosoma japonicum in miRBase database. The miR-71 had the most abundant expression in T. saginata, followed by miR-219-5p, but some other common miRNAs such as let-7, miR-40, and miR-103 were not identified in T. saginata. Nucleotide bias analysis found that the known miRNAs showed high bias and the uracil was the dominant nucleotide, particularly at the first and 11th positions which were almost at the beginning and middle of conserved miRNAs. One novel miRNA (Tsa-miR-001) corresponding to ten precursors was identified and confirmed by stem-loop RT-PCR. To our knowledge, this is the first report of miRNA profiles in T. saginata, which will contribute to better understanding of the complex biology of this zoonotic trematode. The reported data of T. saginata miRNAs should provide valuable references for miRNA studies of closed related zoonotic Taenia cestodes such as Taenia solium and Taenia asiatica.

  11. The Influence of Socio-economic, Behavioural and Environmental Factors on Taenia spp. Transmission in Western Kenya: Evidence from a Cross-Sectional Survey in Humans and Pigs.

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    Nicola A Wardrop

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Taenia spp. infections, particularly cysticercosis, cause considerable health impacts in endemic countries. Despite previous evidence of spatial clustering in cysticercosis and the role of environmental factors (e.g. temperature and humidity in the survival of eggs, little research has explored these aspects of Taenia spp.In addition, there are significant gaps in our understanding of risk factors for infection in humans and pigs. This study aimed to assess the influence of socio-economic, behavioural and environmental variables on human and porcine cysticercosis. A cross-sectional survey for human taeniasis (T. solium and T. saginata, human cysticercosis (T. solium and pig cysticercosis (T. solium in 416 households in western Kenya was carried out. These data were linked to questionnaire responses and environmental datasets. Multi-level regression was used to examine the relationships between covariates and human and porcine cysticercosis. The HP10 Ag-ELISA sero-prevalence (suggestive of cysticercosis was 6.6% for humans (95% CI 5.6%-7.7%, and 17.2% for pigs (95% CI 10.2%-26.4%. Human taeniasis prevalence, based on direct microscopic observation of Taenia spp. eggs (i.e. via microscopy results only was 0.2% (95% CI 0.05%-0.5%. Presence of Taenia spp. antigen in both humans and pigs was significantly associated with a range of factors, including positive correlations with land cover. The presence of HP10 antigen in humans was correlated (non-linearly with the proportion of land within a 1 km buffer that was flooding agricultural land and grassland (odds ratio [OR] = 1.09 and 0.998; p = 0.03 and 0.03 for the linear and quadratic terms respectively, gender (OR = 0.58 for males compared to females, p = 0.02, level of education (OR = 0.62 for primary level education versus no formal education, p = 0.09, use of well water for drinking (OR = 2.76 for those who use well water versus those who do not, p = 0.02 and precipitation (OR = 0.998, p = 0

  12. Endoscopic discovery and capture of Taenia saginata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descombes, P; Dupas, J L; Capron, J P

    1981-01-01

    The authors report the first case of endoscopic finding and removal of a beef tapeworm (Taenia saginata). The parasite was discovered in the duodenal bulb of a 72-year-old woman, who complained of epigastric pain.

  13. Evidence of hybridization between Taenia saginata and Taenia asiatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Munehiro; Nakao, Minoru; Blair, David; Anantaphruti, Malinee T; Waikagul, Jitra; Ito, Akira

    2010-03-01

    There has long been a debate as to the specific status of the cestode Taenia asiatica, with some people regarding it as a distinct species and some preferring to recognize it as a strain of Taenia saginata. The balance of current opinion seems to be that T. asiatica is a distinct species. In this study we performed an allelic analysis to explore the possibility of gene exchange between these closely related taxa. In total, 38 taeniid tapeworms were collected from humans living in many localities including Kanchanaburi Province, Thailand where the two species are sympatric. A mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)-based multiplex PCR tentatively identified those parasites as T. asiatica (n=20) and T. saginata (n=18). Phylogenetic analyses of a mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene and two nuclear loci, for elongation factor-1 alpha (ef1) and ezrin-radixin-moesin (ERM)-like protein (elp), assigned all except two individual parasites to the species indicated by multiplex PCR. The two exceptional individuals, from Kanchanaburi Province, showed a discrepancy between the mtDNA and nuclear DNA phylogenies. In spite of their possession of sequences typical of the T. saginata cox1 gene, both were homozygous at the elp locus for one of the alleles found in T. asiatica. At the ef1 locus, one individual was homozygous for the allele found at high frequency in T. asiatica while the other was homozygous for the major allele in T. saginata. These findings are evidence of occasional hybridization between the two species, although the possibility of retention of ancestral polymorphism cannot be excluded. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Updating Taenia asiatica in humans and pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galán-Puchades, M Teresa; Fuentes, Màrius V

    2016-11-01

    An epidemiological study on taeniasis and cysticercosis in northern India has recently updated the epidemiology of Taenia asiatica. Practically, all the detected cases of taeniasis were caused by T. asiatica, cited for the first time in humans in that country. The finding widens the geographical distribution of T. asiatica, a species wrongly considered an exclusive South-Eastern Asian parasite. Due to the introduction of molecular techniques in Taenia diagnosis, the species is slowly showing its true distribution. A human Taenia species with cosmopolitan hosts (the same as the other two Taenia species) but limited to a specific geographical area and not affected by globalisation would certainly be hard to believe. Regarding cysticercosis, there is a remarkable finding concerning T. asiatica pig cysticercosis, specifically the presence of the cysticercus of T. asiatica not only in the liver (its preferential infection site) but also in muscle. This is the first time that the cysticercus of T. asiatica has been found in muscle in a naturally infected pig. This fact is actually relevant since people are at a greater risk of becoming infected by T. asiatica than previously expected since the liver is no longer the only site of pig infection. The Taenia species causing Taenia saginata-like taeniasis around the world, as well as pig and human cysticercosis, should always be molecularly confirmed since T. asiatica could be involved.

  15. Frequency of serum anti-cysticercus antibodies in the population of a rural Brazilian community (Cássia dos Coqueiros, SP determined by ELISA and immunoblotting using Taenia crassiceps antigens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BRAGAZZA Lúcia M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the impact of cysticercosis on public health, especially the neurologic form of the disease, neurocysticercosis (NC, we studied the frequency of positivity of anti-Taenia solium cysticercus antibodies in serum samples from 1,863 inhabitants of Cássia dos Coqueiros, SP, a municipal district located 80 km from Ribeirão Preto, an area considered endemic for cysticercosis. The 1,863 samples were tested by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA using an antigenic extract from Taenia crassiceps vesicular fluid (Tcra. The reactive and inconclusive ELISA samples were tested by immunoblotting. Of the 459 samples submitted to immunoblotting, 40 were strongly immunoreactive to the immunodominant 18 and 14 kD peptides. Considering the use of immunoblotting as confirmatory due to its high specificity, the anti-cysticercus serum prevalence in this population was 2.1%.

  16. Evaluación del Cisticerco Longicollis de Taenia Crassiceps como Fuente de Antígeno para el Diagnóstico de la Neurocisticercosis.

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    Jorge Humberto Botero Garcés

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available

    La cisticercosis del SNC es la infección causada por el estado larvario de Taenia solium, se produce por la ingestión de huevos a través de los alimentos o agua contaminada con materia fecal humana, principalmente en áreas con inadecuada eliminación de excretas, insuficiente abastecimiento de agua y malas condiciones higiénicas; es la más importante de las enfermedades neurológicas humanas de origen parasitario, genera una morbilidad considerable y en las áreas donde T. solium es endémica, se sabe que es una de las principales causas de epilepsia crónica, que tiene graves consecuencias individuales y sociales.

    El diagnóstico de la neurocisticercosis (NCC está basado en criterios clínicos, epidemiológicos e inmunológicos. Los estudios de neuroimagen como la resonancia magnética (RM y la tomografía computarizada (TC son los métodos más sensibles y específicos para el diagnóstico de NCC pero su alto costo y disponibilidad restringida en los países en vía de desarrollo condicionan su uso (2. La determinación de anticuerpos anti-T. solium por medio del inmunoblot es una buena herramienta para el diagnóstico de la NCC, presenta mayor sensibilidad y especificidad * Grupo Interdisciplinario para el Estudio de las Parasitosis Intestinales GIEPI. Corporación de Patologías Tropicales, Universidad de Antioquia. frente a otras metodologías como el Enzyme-Linked Immunoassay (ELISA, tanto en muestras de suero como en muestras de LCR (3,6. Esta prueba permite identificar patrones de polipéptidos antigénicos específicos de especie que posibilitan un diagnóstico de certeza al facilitar la discriminación de otras bandas de glicoproteínas compartidas por otras especies de parásitos filogenéticamente relacionados como el estadío adulto de Taenia solium y Taenia saginata, Echinococus y Strongyloides, además permite la purificación de estas moléculas para su posterior estudio y caracterización (15.

  17. Pig as a favorable animal for Taenia saginata asiatica infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ping-Chin; Chung, Win-Cheng; Lin, Chung-Yung; Wu, Chin-Cheng

    2006-01-01

    The epidemiology of Taenia saginata in some parts of Asia is confusing, in that beef does not appear to be the source of infection. In some areas, beef is either not available or not eaten raw, whereas pork at times is eaten uncooked. In light of this situation, we have exposed pigs and other animals to infection with strains of T. saginata to establish their ability to serve as intermediate hosts. Eggs of Taiwan Taenia, Korea Taenia, Indonesia Taenia, Thailand Taenia, Philippines Taenia, Ethiopia Taenia, and Madagascar Taenia were fed to 83 pigs of three strains: 43 Small-Ear Miniature (SEM), 34 Landrace Small-Ear Miniature (L-SEM), and 6 Duroc-Yorkshire-Landrace (DYL). We also fed the eggs to 10 Holstein calves, 17 Sannean goats, and 4 monkeys (Macaca cyclopis). We succeeded in infecting SEM (infection rate 88%, cysticercus recovery rate 19.1%), L-SEM (83%, 1.1%), and DYL (100%, 0.3%) pigs with Taiwan Taenia; SEM (100%, 1.7%), L-SEM (100%, 5.6%), and DYL (100%, 0.06%) pigs with Korea Taenia; SEM (100%, 22%) and L-SEM (100%, 1.6%) pigs with Indonesia Taenia; SEM (75%, 0.06%) pigs with Thailand Taenia SEM (100%, 11%) pigs with Philippines Taenia; SEM (80%, 0.005%) pigs with Ethiopia Taenia; SEM (100%, 0.2%) pigs with Madagascar Taenia. Holstein calves became infected with Taenia from Taiwan (100%, 1.1%), Korea (100%, 0.03%), Thailand (100%, 0.2%), and the Philippines (100%, 6%); however, the cysticerci of Taenia from Korea, Thailand, and the Philippines were degenerated and/or calcified. Sannean goats became infected with Taenia from Taiwan (33%, 0.01%) and Korea (50%, 0.02%), while monkeys became infected with Taenia from Taiwan (50%, 0.01%). However, the cysticerci were degenerated and/ or calcified. Therefore, these strains of pig seem to be favorable animal models for experimental studies of T. saginata-like tapeworms, with the SEM pig the most favorable.

  18. Pig as a Favorable Animal for Taenia Saginata Asiatica Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-Chin Fan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The epidemiology of Taenia saginata in some parts of Asia is confusing, in that beef does not appear to be the source of infection. In some areas, beef is either not available or not eaten raw, whereas pork at times is eaten uncooked. In light of this situation, we have exposed pigs and other animals to infection with strains of T. saginata to establish their ability to serve as intermediate hosts. Eggs of Taiwan Taenia, Korea Taenia, Indonesia Taenia, Thailand Taenia, Philippines Taenia, Ethiopia Taenia, and Madagascar Taenia were fed to 83 pigs of three strains: 43 Small-Ear Miniature (SEM, 34 Landrace Small-Ear Miniature (L-SEM, and 6 Duroc-Yorkshire-Landrace (DYL. We also fed the eggs to 10 Holstein calves, 17 Sannean goats, and 4 monkeys (Macaca cyclopis. We succeeded in infecting SEM (infection rate 88%, cysticercus recovery rate 19.1%, L-SEM (83%, 1.1%, and DYL (100%, 0.3% pigs with Taiwan Taenia; SEM (100%, 1.7%, L-SEM (100%, 5.6%, and DYL (100%, 0.06% pigs with Korea Taenia; SEM (100%, 22% and L-SEM (100%, 1.6% pigs with Indonesia Taenia; SEM (75%, 0.06% pigs with Thailand Taenia SEM (100%, 11% pigs with Philippines Taenia; SEM (80%, 0.005% pigs with Ethiopia Taenia; SEM (100%, 0.2% pigs with Madagascar Taenia. Holstein calves became infected with Taenia from Taiwan (100%, 1.1%, Korea (100%, 0.03%, Thailand (100%, 0.2%, and the Philippines (100%, 6%; however, the cysticerci of Taenia from Korea, Thailand, and the Philippines were degenerated and/or calcified. Sannean goats became infected with Taenia from Taiwan (33%, 0.01% and Korea (50%, 0.02%, while monkeys became infected with Taenia from Taiwan (50%, 0.01%. However, the cysticerci were degenerated and/or calcified. Therefore, these strains of pig seem to be favorable animal models for experimental studies of T. saginata-like tapeworms, with the SEM pig the most favorable.

  19. Usefulness of serological ELISA assay for Taenia saginata to detect naturally infected bovines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulan, Silvana de Cássia; Gonzáles, Rutilia Marisela Hernándes; Peralta, Laura Adalid; Vicentini-Oliveira, Josy Campanhã; Biondi, Germano Francisco; Conde, Edda Sciuto; Parkhouse, Robert Michael Evans; Nunes, Cáris Maroni

    2013-01-01

    Bovine cysticercosis, a cosmopolitan disease caused by Taenia saginata, leads to economic losses due to carcass devaluation at slaughter. Sanitary inspection at slaughterhouses, the routine diagnostic method in Brazil, lacks the necessary sensitivity to detect the mildly infected cattle that are typically encoutered in Brazil. In this study we have tested cattle sera from animals diagnosed as positive and negative by veterianry inspection for (1) anti-parasite antibodies using metacestodes antigens (T. solium vesicular fluid and T. saginata secretions) and (2) the HP10 secreted antigen of viable metacestodes. The cut-off values were calculated by ROC curve for intense and mild infections conditions, and by the classical method ( for negative samples). The sensitivity and specificity of these diagnostic tests were different depending on the assumed cut-off value and, importantly, whether the infection was mild or intense. In spite of these observations, however, such ELISA assays for serum antibodies and parasite antigens constitute an important tool for epidemiological porposes, and in establishing priorities for the control of bovine cysticercosis.

  20. Usefulness of serological ELISA assay forTaenia saginata to detect naturally infected bovines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana de Cássia Paulan

    Full Text Available Bovine cysticercosis, a cosmopolitan disease caused by Taenia saginata, leads to economic losses due to carcass devaluation at slaughter. Sanitary inspection at slaughterhouses, the routine diagnostic method in Brazil, lacks the necessary sensitivity to detect the mildly infected cattle that are typically encoutered in Brazil. In this study we have tested cattle sera from animals diagnosed as positive and negative by veterianry inspection for (1 anti-parasite antibodies using metacestodes antigens (T. solium vesicular fluid and T. saginata secretions and (2 the HP10 secreted antigen of viable metacestodes. The cut-off values were calculated by ROC curve for intense and mild infections conditions, and by the classical method ( for negative samples. The sensitivity and specificity of these diagnostic tests were different depending on the assumed cut-off value and, importantly, whether the infection was mild or intense. In spite of these observations, however, such ELISA assays for serum antibodies and parasite antigens constitute an important tool for epidemiological porposes, and in establishing priorities for the control of bovine cysticercosis.

  1. Effects of immunosuppression on avian coccidiosis: cyclosporin A but not hormonal bursectomy abrogates host protective immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillehoj, H S

    1987-01-01

    The effects of cyclosporin A (CsA) treatment and hormonal bursectomy on Eimeria tenella infection of chickens were investigated to evaluate the role of humoral antibody and cell-mediated immunity (CMI) in the host protective immunity to an intestinal protozoan disease, coccidiosis. Hormonal bursectomy had no significant effect on the host response to E. tenella. CsA treatment had a differential effect on the course of disease depending on how CsA was given relative to infection. Daily administration of CsA for 7 days beginning 1 day before primary infection with E. tenella enhanced disease resistance, whereas a single dose of CsA given before primary infection enhanced disease susceptibility compared with that of untreated controls. Chickens treated with CsA during the primary infection were resistant to reinfection at 5 weeks post-primary infection. Treatment of chickens immune to E. tenella with CsA at the time of secondary infection abrogated their resistance to reinfection despite the presence of high levels of coccidia-specific secretory immunoglobulin A and serum immunoglobulin G. Splenic lymphocytes obtained after CsA treatment demonstrated a substantially depressed concanavalin A response, but not a depressed lipopolysaccharide response. Because CsA was not directly toxic to parasites in vivo when administered during the secondary infection, these results suggest that CsA interacts with the immune system to allow priming during the primary infection, while interfering with the effector function of CMI during the secondary infection. Taken together, present findings indicate that CMI plays a major role in host protective immunity to E. tenella. PMID:3496277

  2. Simulating transmission and control of Taenia solium infections using a reed-frost stochastic model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyvsgaard, Niels Chr.; Johansen, Maria Vang; Carabin, Hélène

    2007-01-01

    investigated using the model: (i) interventions affecting the transmission parameters such as use of latrines, meat inspection, and cooking habits; (ii) routine interventions including rapid detection and treatment of human carriers or pig vaccination; and (iii) treatment interventions of either humans or pigs...

  3. Kitchen waste as pig feed sustains transmission of Taenia solium cysticercosis in Mbeya, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, Uffe Christian; Harrison, Wendy; Lekule, Faustin

    . This resulted in 43 farmers in the case group and 50 farmers in the control group from 20 villages. Potato peels were said to be given to pigs either raw or boiled by 46% of the farmers. Based on logistic regression porcine cysticercosis could be associated with absence or a completely open latrine (p=0.......035, OR 5.98, CI: 1.33- 43.02) compared to an enclosed latrine, and feeding potato peels to pigs (P=0.007, OR 3.45, CI: 1.43-8.79). Logistic analysis including management indicated pigs kept in elevated pens (p=0.049, OR 5.33, CI: 1.08-32.27) and on earthen floors (P=0.041, OR 9.87, CI: 1...

  4. Efficacy of ivermectin and oxfendazole against Taenia solium cysticercosis and other parasitoses in naturally infected pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mkupasi, Ernatus Martin; Ngowi, Helena Aminiel; Sikasunge, Chummy Sikalizyo

    2013-01-01

    at a recommended dose of 0.3mg/kg. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety in pigs after subcutaneous injection of ivermectin (IVM, 0.3mg/kg) and orally administration of oxfendazole (OFZ, 30mg/kg) in treatment of porcine cysticercosis and other parasitoses in naturally infected pigs. A total...... treatment and two weeks after treatment faecal samples and skin scrapings were taken to establish the burden of endo- and ectoparasites, respectively and the effect of the treatment. No adverse effect was observed in any of the treatment groups throughout the study period. Half of the pigs from each group...

  5. CystiSim - an agent-based model for Taenia solium transmission and control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, Uffe Christian; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Gabriël, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    and control. The model was developed in R and available as an R package (http://cran.r-project.org/package=cystiSim). cystiSim was adapted to an observed setting using field data from Tanzania, but adaptable to other settings if necessary. The model description adheres to the Overview, Design concepts...

  6. Usefulness of serological ELISA assay for Taenia saginata to detect naturally infected bovines Utilização de teste sorológico ELISA para a detecção de bovinos naturalmente infectados por Taenia saginata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana de Cássia Paulan

    Full Text Available Bovine cysticercosis, a cosmopolitan disease caused by Taenia saginata, leads to economic losses due to carcass devaluation at slaughter. Sanitary inspection at slaughterhouses, the routine diagnostic method in Brazil, lacks the necessary sensitivity to detect the mildly infected cattle that are typically encoutered in Brazil. In this study we have tested cattle sera from animals diagnosed as positive and negative by veterianry inspection for (1 anti-parasite antibodies using metacestodes antigens (T. solium vesicular fluid and T. saginata secretions and (2 the HP10 secreted antigen of viable metacestodes. The cut-off values were calculated by ROC curve for intense and mild infections conditions, and by the classical method ( for negative samples. The sensitivity and specificity of these diagnostic tests were different depending on the assumed cut-off value and, importantly, whether the infection was mild or intense. In spite of these observations, however, such ELISA assays for serum antibodies and parasite antigens constitute an important tool for epidemiological porposes, and in establishing priorities for the control of bovine cysticercosis.A cisticercose bovina, uma doença cosmopolita causada pela Taenia saginata, resulta em perdas econômias devido à desvalorização de carcaças durante o abate. A inspeção sanitária nos frigoríficos, método de diagnóstico de rotina no Brasil, não possui sensibilidade necessária para detectar animais levemente infectados, os quais são tipicamente encontrados no Brasil. Neste estudo testou-se soro de animais diagnosticados positivos e negativos pela inspeção veterinária por (1 anticorpos anti-parasita usando antígenos de metacestóides (fluido vesicular de T. solium e secreções de T. saginata e (2 antígeno secretado de metacestóides viáveis. Os pontos de corte foram calculados pela curva ROC, considerando condições de intensa e leve infeção, e pelo método clássico ( das amostras

  7. Taenia saginata: A Rare Cause of Gall Bladder Perforation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakeem, Suhail Yaqoob; Rashid, Arshad; Khuroo, Suhail; Bali, Rajandeep Singh

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of biliary peritonitis caused by gall bladder perforation due to Taenia saginata induced gangrenous cholecystitis. Although parasites are not unusual causes of biliary tract disorders, especially in disease endemic areas, but this is for the first time that Taenia saginata has been reported to cause gall bladder perforation. PMID:22792505

  8. Taenia saginata: A Rare Cause of Gall Bladder Perforation

    OpenAIRE

    Hakeem, Suhail Yaqoob; Rashid, Arshad; Khuroo, Suhail; Bali, Rajandeep Singh

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of biliary peritonitis caused by gall bladder perforation due to Taenia saginata induced gangrenous cholecystitis. Although parasites are not unusual causes of biliary tract disorders, especially in disease endemic areas, but this is for the first time that Taenia saginata has been reported to cause gall bladder perforation.

  9. Taenia saginata: A Rare Cause of Gall Bladder Perforation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhail Yaqoob Hakeem

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of biliary peritonitis caused by gall bladder perforation due to Taenia saginata induced gangrenous cholecystitis. Although parasites are not unusual causes of biliary tract disorders, especially in disease endemic areas, but this is for the first time that Taenia saginata has been reported to cause gall bladder perforation.

  10. Evaluación de cisticerco de taenia crassiceps como antígeno sustituto para el diagnóstico de la neurocisticercosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Agudelo

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Para el diagnóstico de la neurocisticercosis (NCC se requiere de extractos antigénicos obtenidos de los cisticercos de Taenia solium (T.so, lo cual presenta dificultades técnicas por la difícil consecución de cerdos naturalmente infectados (1. Sin embargo, los extractos antigénicos obtenidos de Taenia crassiceps (T.cra muestran una alta homología con los de T.so, brindando ventajas en la producción de antígenos para implementar en técnicas serológicas (2,3. Nuestro grupo ha venido trabajando en la búsqueda de alternativas para el diagnóstico serológico de cisticercosis humana y porcina en
    Colombia y en el establecimiento de un modelo animal de fácil mantenimiento que permita la obtención de cisticercos a gran escala.

     

     

  11. Taenia saginata Metacestode Antigenic Fractions without Affinity to Concanavalin A Are an Important Source of Specific Antigens for the Diagnosis of Human Neurocysticercosis▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Heliana B.; Machado, Gleyce A.; Mineo, José R.; Costa-Cruz, Julia M.

    2010-01-01

    Taenia saginata metacestode antigens have been constituted a useful alternative antigen for neurocysticercosis (NC) serodiagnosis, particularly due to an increasing difficulty to obtain Taenia solium homologous antigen. Cross-reactivity with Echinococcus granulosus infection occurs in homologous and heterologous antigens and could be avoided by using different purified methods. The present study evaluated antigen fractions obtained from saline extracts of T. saginata metacestodes purified by affinity chromatography with jacalin or concanavalin A (ConA) lectins to detect IgG antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunoblot analysis to diagnose human NC. Serum samples were collected from 142 individuals: 40 of them were diagnosed with NC, 62 presented Taenia sp. and other parasites, and 40 were apparently healthy individuals. The jacalin- and ConA-unbound fractions demonstrated sensitivity and specificity higher than those of bound fractions. Among unbound fractions, ConA demonstrated statistically higher sensitivity and specificity by ELISA (90% and 93.1%, respectively). By immunoblot assay, the 64- to 68-kDa component from the ConA-unbound fraction showed 100% sensitivity and specificity, making this component suitable for use as a specific antigen for diagnosis of NC. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing the relevance of using the unbound ConA fraction of T. saginata metacestodes to diagnose NC. In conclusion, the results obtained herein clearly demonstrate that antigenic fractions without affinity to ConA, obtained from T. saginata metacestodes, are an important source of specific peptides and are efficient in the diagnosis of NC when tested by immunoblot assay. PMID:20130125

  12. Taenia saginata metacestode antigenic fractions without affinity to concanavalin A are an important source of specific antigens for the diagnosis of human neurocysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Heliana B; Machado, Gleyce A; Mineo, José R; Costa-Cruz, Julia M

    2010-04-01

    Taenia saginata metacestode antigens have been constituted a useful alternative antigen for neurocysticercosis (NC) serodiagnosis, particularly due to an increasing difficulty to obtain Taenia solium homologous antigen. Cross-reactivity with Echinococcus granulosus infection occurs in homologous and heterologous antigens and could be avoided by using different purified methods. The present study evaluated antigen fractions obtained from saline extracts of T. saginata metacestodes purified by affinity chromatography with jacalin or concanavalin A (ConA) lectins to detect IgG antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunoblot analysis to diagnose human NC. Serum samples were collected from 142 individuals: 40 of them were diagnosed with NC, 62 presented Taenia sp. and other parasites, and 40 were apparently healthy individuals. The jacalin- and ConA-unbound fractions demonstrated sensitivity and specificity higher than those of bound fractions. Among unbound fractions, ConA demonstrated statistically higher sensitivity and specificity by ELISA (90% and 93.1%, respectively). By immunoblot assay, the 64- to 68-kDa component from the ConA-unbound fraction showed 100% sensitivity and specificity, making this component suitable for use as a specific antigen for diagnosis of NC. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing the relevance of using the unbound ConA fraction of T. saginata metacestodes to diagnose NC. In conclusion, the results obtained herein clearly demonstrate that antigenic fractions without affinity to ConA, obtained from T. saginata metacestodes, are an important source of specific peptides and are efficient in the diagnosis of NC when tested by immunoblot assay.

  13. The NLRP3 inflammasome contributes to host protection during Sporothrix schenckii infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Amanda Costa; Ferreira, Lucas Souza; Manente, Francine Alessandra; de Faria, Carolina Maria Quinello Gomes; Polesi, Marisa Campos; de Andrade, Cleverton Roberto; Zamboni, Dario Simões; Carlos, Iracilda Zeppone

    2017-06-01

    Sporotrichosis is a mycosis caused by fungi from the Sporothrix schenckii species complex, whose prototypical member is Sporothrix schenckii sensu stricto. Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) recognize and respond to pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and shape the following adaptive immune response. A family of PRRs most frequently associated with fungal recognition is the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor (NLR). After PAMP recognition, NLR family pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) binds to apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain (ASC) and caspase-1 to form the NLRP3 inflammasome. When activated, this complex promotes the maturation of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-18 and cell death through pyroptosis. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the importance of the NLRP3 inflammasome in the outcome of S. schenckii infection using the following three different knockout (KO) mice: NLRP3(-/-) , ASC(-/-) and caspase-1(-/-) . All KO mice were more susceptible to infection than the wild-type, suggesting that NLRP3-triggered responses contribute to host protection during S. schenckii infection. Furthermore, the NLRP3 inflammasome appeared to be critical for the ex vivo release of IL-1β, IL-18 and IL-17 but not interferon-γ. Additionally, a role for the inflammasome in shaping the adaptive immune response was suggested by the lower frequencies of type 17 helper T (Th17) cells and Th1/Th17 but not Th1 cells in S. schenckii-infected KO mice. Overall, our results indicate that the NLRP3 inflammasome links the innate recognition of S. schenckii to the adaptive immune response, so contributing to protection against this infection. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Abnormal Taenia saginata tapeworms in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maipanich, Wanna; Sato, Megumi; Pubampen, Somchit; Sanguankiat, Surapol; Kusolsuk, Teera; Thaenkham, Urusa; Waikagul, Jitra

    2011-09-01

    Sixty-eight residents of Ban Luang and Ban Pang Kae villages, in Nan Province, northern Thailand, visited our mobile field station in September 2006 and March 2007, seeking treatment for taeniasis. After treatment, 22 cases discharged tapeworm strobila in their fecal samples and 17 scolices were recovered. Among these, 3 were morphologically abnormal, with six suckers on the scolex. To confirm the species of these tapeworms, the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene was used as a molecular marker. The partial COI sequences (800 bp) of the abnormal tapeworms were identical to the sequences of Taenia saginata deposited in Genbank.

  15. Annotation of the transcriptome from Taenia pisiformis and its comparative analysis with three Taeniidae species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Deying; Fu, Yan; Wu, Xuhang; Xie, Yue; Nie, Huaming; Chen, Lin; Nong, Xiang; Gu, Xiaobin; Wang, Shuxian; Peng, Xuerong; Yan, Ning; Zhang, Runhui; Zheng, Wanpeng; Yang, Guangyou

    2012-01-01

    Taenia pisiformis is one of the most common intestinal tapeworms and can cause infections in canines. Adult T. pisiformis (canines as definitive hosts) and Cysticercus pisiformis (rabbits as intermediate hosts) cause significant health problems to the host and considerable socio-economic losses as a consequence. No complete genomic data regarding T. pisiformis are currently available in public databases. RNA-seq provides an effective approach to analyze the eukaryotic transcriptome to generate large functional gene datasets that can be used for further studies. In this study, 2.67 million sequencing clean reads and 72,957 unigenes were generated using the RNA-seq technique. Based on a sequence similarity search with known proteins, a total of 26,012 unigenes (no redundancy) were identified after quality control procedures via the alignment of four databases. Overall, 15,920 unigenes were mapped to 203 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways. Through analyzing the glycolysis/gluconeogenesis and axonal guidance pathways, we achieved an in-depth understanding of the biochemistry of T. pisiformis. Here, we selected four unigenes at random and obtained their full-length cDNA clones using RACE PCR. Functional distribution characteristics were gained through comparing four cestode species (72,957 unigenes of T. pisiformis, 30,700 ESTs of T. solium, 1,058 ESTs of Eg+Em [conserved ESTs between Echinococcus granulosus and Echinococcus multilocularis]), with the cluster of orthologous groups (COG) and gene ontology (GO) functional classification systems. Furthermore, the conserved common genes in these four cestode species were obtained and aligned by the KEGG database. This study provides an extensive transcriptome dataset obtained from the deep sequencing of T. pisiformis in a non-model whole genome. The identification of conserved genes may provide novel approaches for potential drug targets and vaccinations against cestode infections. Research can now

  16. Annotation of the transcriptome from Taenia pisiformis and its comparative analysis with three Taeniidae species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deying Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Taenia pisiformis is one of the most common intestinal tapeworms and can cause infections in canines. Adult T. pisiformis (canines as definitive hosts and Cysticercus pisiformis (rabbits as intermediate hosts cause significant health problems to the host and considerable socio-economic losses as a consequence. No complete genomic data regarding T. pisiformis are currently available in public databases. RNA-seq provides an effective approach to analyze the eukaryotic transcriptome to generate large functional gene datasets that can be used for further studies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, 2.67 million sequencing clean reads and 72,957 unigenes were generated using the RNA-seq technique. Based on a sequence similarity search with known proteins, a total of 26,012 unigenes (no redundancy were identified after quality control procedures via the alignment of four databases. Overall, 15,920 unigenes were mapped to 203 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG pathways. Through analyzing the glycolysis/gluconeogenesis and axonal guidance pathways, we achieved an in-depth understanding of the biochemistry of T. pisiformis. Here, we selected four unigenes at random and obtained their full-length cDNA clones using RACE PCR. Functional distribution characteristics were gained through comparing four cestode species (72,957 unigenes of T. pisiformis, 30,700 ESTs of T. solium, 1,058 ESTs of Eg+Em [conserved ESTs between Echinococcus granulosus and Echinococcus multilocularis], with the cluster of orthologous groups (COG and gene ontology (GO functional classification systems. Furthermore, the conserved common genes in these four cestode species were obtained and aligned by the KEGG database. CONCLUSION: This study provides an extensive transcriptome dataset obtained from the deep sequencing of T. pisiformis in a non-model whole genome. The identification of conserved genes may provide novel approaches for potential drug

  17. Taenia saginata taeniosis: copro-antigen time-course in a voluntary self-infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tembo, A; Craig, P S

    2015-09-01

    Human taeniosis due to Taenia saginata is cosmopolitan where beef is consumed; however, there is little or no information on the symptomatology over the early time-course of human infection. Copro-antigen detection is very useful in community screening for human taeniosis, particularly for T. solium, but there are no data on copro-antigen detection in pre-patent infection. In order to provide insight into this, a voluntary self-infection with T. saginata was undertaken and monitored over a 6-month period using a copro-antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that we developed using anti-T. saginata antibody based reagents. Tapeworm patency, defined as first proglottid appearance, occurred on day 86 post-infection (pi) and was followed by almost daily release of proglottids (range 1-8) until termination using praziquantel on day 180 pi. The first 10 weeks post-infection (wpi) were essentially asymptomatic, followed by main symptoms of involuntary proglottid discharge throughout the infection period, and abdominal discomfort peaking around 15-19 wpi. Copro-antigens could not be reliably detected until 2 weeks before proglottid patency but then remained highly elevated over the next 15 weeks until treatment. Copro-antigen levels reverted to negative 4 days post-treatment. This time-course study suggests that although copro-antigen ELISA is an excellent diagnostic tool for established patent infections of T. saginata, it may not be reliable for faecal antigen detection in the early infection phase prior to proglottid release for T. saginata and other human taenioses.

  18. Taenia asiatica and Taenia saginata: genetic divergence estimated from their mitochondrial genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, H K; Eom, K S

    2006-05-01

    We conducted a differential identification of Taenia asiatica and Taenia saginata, through the mapping of mitochondrial genomes and the sequencing of the cox1 and cob genes. The entire mitochondrial genomes of T. asiatica and T. saginata were amplified by long-extension PCR and cloned; each was approximately 14 kb in size. Restriction maps of T. asiatica and T. saginata mitochondrial genomes were then constructed using 13 restriction enzymes. The resulting restriction patterns enable us to estimate their genetic divergence at 4.8%. The actual sequence divergence was computed 4.5% from the cox1 gene, and 4.1% from the cob gene. These results support the designation of T. asiatica as a separate species from T. saginata.

  19. Differential diagnosis of Taenia saginata and Taenia saginata asiatica taeniasis through PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Luis Miguel; Montero, Estrella; Morakote, Nimit; Puente, Sabino; Díaz De Tuesta, Jose Luis; Serra, Teresa; López-Velez, Rogelio; McManus, Donald P; Harrison, Leslie J S; Parkhouse, R Michael E; Gárate, Teresa

    2004-07-01

    New multiplex-PCR and PCR-linked restriction fragment length polymorphism protocols, derived from Taenia saginata HDP2 DNA sequence, have been designed that allow the simultaneous and specific identification of T. saginata and Taenia saginata asiatica. Proglottids expelled from 20 different Spanish taeniasis patients, previously diagnosed as T. saginata by both morphological identification and multiplex HDP2-PCR, were also examined by the newly developed PCR protocols, and the original diagnosis of T. saginata infection was confirmed. All of the 20 T. saginata samples were negative in the T. saginata asiatica-specific PCR. Three authentic T. saginata asiatica samples were unambiguously identified as such in the T. saginata asiatica PCR. These new protocols have immediate potential for the specific, sensitive, and rapid identification of T. saginata asiatica and may assist in taxonomic studies.

  20. Intestinal obstruction due to Taenia saginata infection: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordon, L M

    1992-10-01

    Surgical complications of Taenia saginata infection, the bovine tapeworm which man acquires by eating undercooked beef, are mentioned in standard texts; however, none of these seem to give any specific reference. Reported here is one case of acute mechanical intestinal obstruction due to a bolus impaction of Taenia saginata at the level of the ileocaecal valve. The rarity of this clinical presentation as well as the probable mechanism of obstruction are discussed.

  1. Molecular identification of Taenia spp. In the Eurasian Lynx (Lynx lynx) from Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cestodes of the genus Taenia are parasites of mammals, with mainly carnivores as definitive and herbivores as intermediate hosts. Various medium-sized cats, Lynx spp., are involved in the life cycles of several species of Taenia. The aim of the present study was to identify Taenia tapeworms in the E...

  2. Immunoregulation by Taenia crassiceps and Its Antigens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto N. Peón

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Taenia crassiceps is a cestode parasite of rodents (in its larval stage and canids (in its adult stage that can also parasitize immunocompromised humans. We have studied the immune response elicited by this helminth and its antigens in mice and human cells, and have discovered that they have a strong capacity to induce chronic Th2-type responses that are primarily characterized by high levels of Th2 cytokines, low proliferative responses in lymphocytes, an immature and LPS-tolerogenic profile in dendritic cells, the recruitment of myeloid-derived suppressor cells and, specially, alternatively activated macrophages. We also have utilized the immunoregulatory capabilities of this helminth to successfully modulate autoimmune responses and the outcome of other infectious diseases. In the present paper, we review the work of others and ourselves with regard to the immune response induced by T. crassiceps and its antigens, and we compare the advances in our understanding of this parasitic infection model with the knowledge that has been obtained from other selected models.

  3. Effective antibody therapy induces host-protective antitumor immunity that is augmented by TLR4 agonist treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shangzi; Astsaturov, Igor A; Bingham, Catherine A; McCarthy, Kenneth M; von Mehren, Margaret; Xu, Wei; Alpaugh, R Katherine; Tang, Yong; Littlefield, Bruce A; Hawkins, Lynn D; Ishizaka, Sally T; Weiner, Louis M

    2012-01-01

    Toll-like receptors are potent activators of the innate immune system and generate signals leading to the initiation of the adaptive immune response that can be utilized for therapeutic purposes. We tested the hypothesis that combined treatment with a Toll-like receptor agonist and an antitumor monoclonal antibody is effective and induces host-protective antitumor immunity. C57BL/6 human mutated HER2 (hmHER2) transgenic mice that constitutively express kinase-deficient human HER2 under control of the CMV promoter were established. These mice demonstrate immunological tolerance to D5-HER2, a syngeneic human HER2-expressing melanoma cell line. This human HER2-tolerant model offers the potential to serve as a preclinical model to test both antibody therapy and the immunization potential of human HER2-targeted therapeutics. Here, we show that E6020, a Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) agonist effectively boosted the antitumor efficacy of the monoclonal antibody trastuzumab in immunodeficient C57BL/6 SCID mice as well as in C57BL/6 hmHER2 transgenic mice. E6020 and trastuzumab co-treatment resulted in significantly greater inhibition of tumor growth than was observed with either agent individually. Furthermore, mice treated with the combination of trastuzumab and the TLR4 agonist were protected against rechallenge with human HER2-transfected tumor cells in hmHER2 transgenic mouse strains. These findings suggest that combined treatment with trastuzumab and a TLR4 agonist not only promotes direct antitumor effects but also induces a host-protective human HER2-directed adaptive immune response, indicative of a memory response. These data provide an immunological rationale for testing TLR4 agonists in combination with antibody therapy in patients with cancer.

  4. Taenia saginata: production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against Taenia saginata metacestode antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicentini-Oliveira, Josy Campanhã; Golim, Marjorie A; de Cássia Paulan, Silvana; Biondi, Germano Francisco; Rossi-Ferreira, Rosana; Deffune, Elenice; Nunes, Cáris Maroni

    2010-12-01

    Cysticercosis is a major cause of economic loss in bovine production due to meat condemnation. Chemotherapy is being used in Brazilian cattle and a diagnostic test to improve the treatment program is desired. We produced monoclonal antibodies against crude (TAEB) and cyst fluid (TAEF) Taenia saginata metacestode antigens using immunized BALB/c mice. After cell fusion, 10 TAEB and nine TAEF hybrids were selected and cloned resulting in 18 IgG(1) and 32 IgM TAEB clones, and 9 IgG(1) and 9 IgM TAEF clones. Ascites was produced and Western blot testing was performed resulting in reactivity to protein fractions of low molecular weight (<18kDa), 43, 55, 66 and 100kDa. The indirect immunofluorescence test, with one monoclonal antibody against crude and one against cyst fluid antigens, recognized antigenic fractions of both the scolex and the bladder wall of metacestodes from naturally infected bovine.

  5. TAENIA SAGINATA INFECTION IN A 14-MONTH-OLD TODDLER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitcharungsil, Raweerat; Watthanakulpanich, Dorn

    2016-05-01

    A 14-month-old female toddler presented with a 3-day history of pass- ing gravid proglottids of Taenia saginata. Neither she nor her family members had a history of eating raw beef or other raw meat. Single doses of praziquantel and niclosamide were administered. To the best of our knowledge, this is the youngest described patient with T. saginata infection to date.

  6. Prevalence of Taenia Saginata in Cattle Slaughtered at Tudun ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An investigation was carried out between March and June 2009 to determine the prevalence of Taenia Saginata among different breeds of cows slaughtered at Tudun Wada Abattoir, Kaduna. Two hundred (200) specimens of the different breeds of cattle feces were screened for T. Saginata eggs. Wet mount and centrifugal ...

  7. Sero-prevalence of Taenia spp. infections in cattle and pigs in rural farming communities in Free State and Gauteng provinces, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsotetsi-Khambule, A M; Njiro, S; Katsande, T C; Thekisoe, O M M; Harrison, L J S

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine sero-prevalence of bovine and porcine cysticercosis in cattle and pigs in rural farming communities in Free State and Gauteng Provinces, Republic of South Africa. Blood samples were collected for a period of twelve months from live cattle (n=1315; 1159) and pigs (n=436; 240) and the serum extracted and stored before analysis by a monoclonal antibody based (HP10) antigen detection ELISA. Results revealed a generally high sero-prevalence and wide distribution throughout the two provinces with Free State having a higher sero-prevalence in both cattle and pigs (23% and 34%) than Gauteng province (15% and 14%). Consumption of infected meat that is either not inspected/missed at meat inspection; poor livestock management practices and limited sanitation in rural communities might have contributed to the occurrence of Taenia spp. infections in the two provinces. It is therefore, recommended that cysticercosis status of animals be established before slaughter. This would assist in ensuring that infected animals are not slaughtered for human consumption or zoonosis preventive measures are taken. Furthermore, public awareness programs on life cycles of T. saginata, T. solium and T. hydatigena and the use of more sensitive diagnostic tools are recommended as part of effective control strategies against taeniid infections. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Imunitas Protektif Mencit Terhadap Cairan Kista Taenia saginata (PROTECTIVE IMMUNITY OF MICE AGAINST CYST FLUID OF TAENIA SAGINATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyoman Sadra Dharmawan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to determine immune response of mice against vaccines derived fromcyst fluid of Taenia saginata. The study was conducted using four BALB/c mice aged 6 weeks as experimentalanimals. All experimental animals were vaccinated intra peritoneal with Taenia saginata cyst fluidemulsified in Freund’s adjuvant. Immune response in the mice was determined by detecting antibodiesusing ELISA and by the presence of lymphocytes through evaluation of blood smear. The results showedthat the cyst fluid of Taenia saginata was antigenic and capable of inducing antibody responses that weredetected by ELISA. Mean antibody titers obtained in the results of the first, second, third, and fourth ofvaccination was 3.3 units; 17.9 units; 21.2 units; and 72.1 units; respectively. Evaluation of blood smear ofvaccinated mice showed an increase in the percentage of lymphocytes after vaccination with an average66.75%, compared with the average of lymphocytes before vaccination which was 40.75%. Further researchis still required in experimental animals by vaccination followed by challenge test with Taenia saginataeggs.

  9. Bactericidal/Permeability-increasing protein fold-containing family member A1 in airway host protection and respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britto, Clemente J; Cohn, Lauren

    2015-05-01

    Bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein fold-containing family member A1 (BPIFA1), formerly known as SPLUNC1, is one of the most abundant proteins in respiratory secretions and has been identified with increasing frequency in studies of pulmonary disease. Its expression is largely restricted to the respiratory tract, being highly concentrated in the upper airways and proximal trachea. BPIFA1 is highly responsive to airborne pathogens, allergens, and irritants. BPIFA1 actively participates in host protection through antimicrobial, surfactant, airway surface liquid regulation, and immunomodulatory properties. Its expression is modulated in multiple lung diseases, including cystic fibrosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, respiratory malignancies, and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. However, the role of BPIFA1 in pulmonary pathogenesis remains to be elucidated. This review highlights the versatile properties of BPIFA1 in antimicrobial protection and its roles as a sensor of environmental exposure and regulator of immune cell function. A greater understanding of the contribution of BPIFA1 to disease pathogenesis and activity may clarify if BPIFA1 is a biomarker and potential drug target in pulmonary disease.

  10. Crude Antigen Cystisercus Taenia Saginata Isolat Bali untuk Deteksi Sistiserkosis pada Sapi

    OpenAIRE

    Hertati Anriani Lubis; I Made Damriyasa; Nyoman Sadra Dharmawan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate Taenia saginata cystisercus antigen for the detection of bovine cysticercosis. Taenia saginata cysticercus antigen was derived from local isolates, obtained from the experimental infection of Taenia saginata tape worms from Bali. The research was done by ELISA (Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay) optimized by determining the optimal concentration of antigen, the optimal dilutions of serum and the optimal dilutions of conjugate. The results showed that ...

  11. [Study on hepatocyte apoptosis of domestic pigs experimentally infected with Taenia asiatica and Taenia saginata].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mou, Rong; Bao, Huai-En; Zhang, Ke; Wu, Jia-Hong; Lang, Shu-Yuan

    2012-10-30

    To investigate apoptosis in liver tissue of the domestic pigs infected with eggs of Taenia asiatica and Taenia saginata. The adult worms of T. asiatica and T. saginata were collected and identified from the taeniasis patients in Dunyun and Congjiang districts, Guizhou province. Eggs were collected from gravid proglottids and prepared by washing and centrifugation. Nineteen 20-day hybrid domestic pigs (Duroc-Yorkshire-Landrace strain) were randomly divided into T. asiatica group (6 pigs), T. saginata group (8 pigs) and control group (5 pigs). Each animal of experimental groups was infected with 1.5 x 10(5) eggs by stomach injection. On day 15, 32, 46 and 74 after infection, animals were sacrificed and liver samples were collected for further experiments. The liver tissues were sliced for glass slides and prepared for ultrathin sections. The apoptosis of hepatocytes was identified by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick and labeling. The morphological features of liver tissue were observed under transmission electron microscope. The infection rate of two experiment groups reached 100%. Better developed cysticerci were found in liver of T. asiatica group than that of T. saginata group, but the liver pathological changes caused by cysticerci were similar. On day 15 and 32 after infection, hydropic degeneration, obvious vacuolization and some balloon-like degeneration were found in hepatocytes, and focal hepatic necrosis was observed. On day 46, spotty necrosis occurred in some local liver tissues. On day 74, main damages were granulomatous reactions surrounding cysticercus and focal liver fibrosis. On day 46, apoptosis index in T. asiatica group [(15.07 +/- 3.42)6%] and T. saginata group [(17.13 +/- 1.62)5%] was considerably higher than that in the control [(9.53 +/- 1.06)%] (P saginata group [(34.20 +/- 0.73)%] was higher than that in the control [(13.60 +/- 2.26)%] (P saginata group was significantly higher than that of T. asiatica group (P

  12. Description and life-cycle of Taenia lynciscapreoli sp. n. (Cestoda, Cyclophyllidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haukisalmi, Voitto; Konyaev, Sergey; Lavikainen, Antti; Isomursu, Marja; Nakao, Minoru

    2016-01-01

    A new species of tapeworm, Taenia lynciscapreoli sp. n. (Cestoda, Cyclophyllidea), is described from the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx), the main definitive host, and the roe deer (Capreolus capreolus and Capreolus pygargus), the main intermediate hosts, from Finland and Russia (Siberia and the Russian Far East). The new species was found once also in the wolf (Canis lupus) and the Eurasian elk/moose (Alces alces), representing accidental definitive and intermediate hosts, respectively. The conspecificity of adult specimens and metacestodes of Taenia lynciscapreoli sp. n. in various host species and regions, and their distinction from related species of Taenia, was confirmed by partial nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene. Morphologically, Taenia lynciscapreoli sp. n. can be separated unambiguously from all other species of Taenia by the shape of its large rostellar hooks, particularly the characteristically short, wide and strongly curved blade. If the large rostellar hooks are missing, Taenia lynciscapreoli may be separated from related species by a combination of morphological features of mature proglottids. It is suggested that Taenia lynciscapreoli has been present in published materials concerning the tapeworms of Lynx lynx and Lynx pardinus in Europe, but has been misidentified as Taenia pisiformis (Bloch, 1780). Taenia lynciscapreoli sp. n. has not been found in lynx outside the range of roe deer, suggesting a transmission pathway based on a specific predator-prey relationship. The present study applies a novel, simple approach to compare qualitative interspecific differences in the shape of rostellar hooks.

  13. 'Arc 5' antibodies in sera of sheep infected with Echinococcus granulosus, Taenia hydatigena and Taenia ovis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, W K; Heath, D D

    1979-01-01

    The 'arc 5' precipitin band, formed when test human serum is reacted against immunoelectophoresed hydatid cyst fluid antigen, has provided a positive diagnosis of Echinococcus granulosus infection. These antibodies to 'arc 5' antigen have now been found in the sera of sheep. They appear 2 weeks after infection with Taenia ovis, after 3 weeks with T. hydatigena and after 16 weeks with E. granulosus. An antigen similar to the 'arc 5' antigen of E. granulosus cyst fluid was also demonstrated in cyst fluid from T. hydatigena, but it would not be positively identified in T. ovis cyst fluid. The presence of 'arc 5' in immunoelectrophoresis tests is not suitable for specific immunodiagnosis of E. granulosus infections in sheep in New Zealand. 'Arc 5' antibodies were only associated with living E. granulosus cysts and were not present if cysts were dead. The location of the cysts in either liver or lungs and the onset of brood capsule production did not influence the presence of 'arc 5' antibodies.

  14. [Informatics analysis of malate dehydrogenase from Taenia saginata asiatica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiang; Hu, Xu-Chu; Huang, Yan; Yu, Xin-Bing; Bao, Huai-En; Lang, Shu-Yuan; Liao, Xing-Jiang

    2008-06-30

    Tools from bioinformatics websites such as NCBI, ExPaSy were used for the analysis. The malate dehydrogenase full-length gene from Taenia saginata asiatica was 1 212 bp in length, with a coding region of 30-1 028 bp and coding 332 amino acids. It was a complete and full-length gene compared with the homologues in GenBank. The protein showed no transmembrane region, with stable physical-chemical characteristics. Three major linear epitopes located aa95-aa100, aa322-aa327 and aa117-aa122, with certain distance from each other on the surface of spatial structure of malate dehydrogenase (MDH). The last one was the linear epitope of Taenia. This cytosolic malate dehydrogenase gene is a potential antigen for diagnosis.

  15. About human taeniasis and Taenia saginata diagnosis by endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galán Puchades, María Teresa

    2016-10-01

    La carta al editor se refiere al artículo de Canaval-Zuleta et al. aceptado para publicación, titulado "Endoscopy as an alternative diagnostic and therapeutic technique for Taenia saginata". El trabajo presenta una serie de incorrecciones que deben ser aclaradas, o al menos parte de ellas en solo 300 palabras. La información sobre las vias de infeccion en taeniasis, así como la patogenia y técnicas de diagnóstico, no se ajustan a la realidad. Asimismo, ya está publicado que el diagnóstico por endoscopia es una técnica muy sensible pero nada específica, pues no permite distinguir entre las 3 especies humanas del género Taenia.

  16. Effect of heat treatment on viability of Taenia hydatigena eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttar, Birpal S; Nelson, Mark L; Busboom, Jan R; Hancock, Dale D; Walsh, Douglas B; Jasmer, Douglas P

    2013-04-01

    Effects of heat treatments on activation and infectivity of Taenia hydatigena eggs were assessed. Eggs containing oncospheres were used for in vitro and in vivo studies to determine the response to 5min of heat treatment, ranging from room temperature (22°C) to 60°C. The study demonstrated 99.47% and 100% reduction in oncosphere activation or infectivity after 5min of heat treatment at 60°C and 57.38°C under in vitro and in vivo conditions, respectively. Similar results between the two approaches indicted the appropriateness of the in vitro methods to identify oncosphericidal treatments of practical significance. Similar heat treatments may also be effective against Taenia saginata and help to reduce occurrence of beef cysticercosis. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Predominant role of interferon-γ in the host protective effect of CD8+ T cells against Neospora caninum infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Alexandra; Ferreirinha, Pedro; Botelho, Sofia; Belinha, Ana; Leitão, Catarina; Caramalho, Íris; Teixeira, Luzia; González-Fernandéz, África; Appelberg, Rui; Vilanova, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    It is well established that CD8+ T cells play an important role in protective immunity against protozoan infections. However, their role in the course of Neospora caninum infection has not been fully elucidated. Here we report that CD8-deficient mice infected with N. caninum presented higher parasitic loads in the brain and lungs and lower spleen and brain immunity-related GTPases than their wild-type counterparts. Moreover, adoptive transfer of splenic CD8+ T cells sorted from N. caninum-primed immunosufficient C57BL/10 ScSn mice prolonged the survival of infected IL-12-unresponsive C57BL/10 ScCr recipients. In both C57BL/6 and C57BL/10 ScSn mice CD8+ T cells are activated and produce interferon-γ (IFN-γ) upon challenged with N. caninum. The host protective role of IFN-γ produced by CD8+ T cells was confirmed in N. caninum-infected RAG2-deficient mice reconstituted with CD8+ T cells obtained from either IFN-γ-deficient or wild-type donors. Mice receiving IFN-γ-expressing CD8+ T cells presented lower parasitic burdens than counterparts having IFN-γ-deficient CD8+ T cells. Moreover, we observed that N. caninum-infected perforin-deficient mice presented parasitic burdens similar to those of infected wild-type controls. Altogether these results demonstrate that production of IFN-γ is a predominant protective mechanism conferred by CD8+ T cells in the course of neosporosis. PMID:26449650

  18. Human infestation by Taenia saginata lasting over 20 years.

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, E.P.; Jain, S

    1984-01-01

    A case of a 61-year-old woman with a history of infestation by Taenia saginata lasting over 20 years is described. The patients repeatedly denied eating raw or inadequately cooked beef. Despite many attempts using different taenicides during those years, the patient continued to pass tapeworm segments until niclosamide was administered. Eighteen months after treatment with niclosamide the patient remains symptom-free.

  19. Human infestation by Taenia saginata lasting over 20 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, E P; Jain, S

    1984-07-01

    A case of a 61-year-old woman with a history of infestation by Taenia saginata lasting over 20 years is described. The patients repeatedly denied eating raw or inadequately cooked beef. Despite many attempts using different taenicides during those years, the patient continued to pass tapeworm segments until niclosamide was administered. Eighteen months after treatment with niclosamide the patient remains symptom-free.

  20. "Aplicação de genética molecular para diagnóstico de neurocisticercose e descoberta gênica em Taenia solium"

    OpenAIRE

    Carolina Rodrigues de Almeida

    2005-01-01

    Neurocisticercose (NCC) é uma infecção parasítica freqüente do sistema nervoso central, principalmente em países em desenvolvimento. Os custos elevados dos exames de neuroimagem (Ressonância Magnética e Tomografia Computadorizada), hoje em dia considerados como os métodos mais precisos no diagnóstico da doença, podem ser inviáveis nestas regiões, além disso, há que se considerar os problemas na correta interpretação dos diversos testes imunológicos disponíveis, freqüentemente difíceis e delic...

  1. Temporal fluctuations in the sero-prevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis in pigs in Mbeya Region, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, Uffe Christian; Magnussen, Pascal; Lekule, Faustin

    2014-01-01

    Background Porcine cysticercosis is an emerging agricultural problem in sub-Saharan Africa. This has been documented primarily through cross-sectional studies, however detailed knowledge of the transmission dynamics of this disease in sub-Saharan Africa is lacking. This study aims to describe sea...... a two-compartment (pig and human) model excluding the effect of the environment. Whether the disease has an endemic equilibrium, or undergoes fluctuations dependent on extrinsic and/or socio-economic factors remains to be elucidated....

  2. Inexpensive anti-cysticercosis vaccine: S3Pvac expressed in heat inactivated M13 filamentous phage proves effective against naturally acquired Taenia solium porcine cysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Julio; Martínez, José Juan; Manoutcharian, Karen; Hernández, Marisela; Fleury, Agnes; Gevorkian, Goar; Acero, Gonzalo; Blancas, Abel; Toledo, Andrea; Cervantes, Jacquelynne; Maza, Victor; Quet, Fabrice; Bonnabau, Henri; de Aluja, Aline S; Fragoso, Gladis; Larralde, Carlos; Sciutto, Edda

    2008-06-02

    In search of reducing vaccine production costs', a recombinant M13 phage version of the anti-cysticercosis tripeptide vaccine (S3Pvac) was developed. The efficacy of S3Pvac-Phage vs. placebo was evaluated in a randomized trial that included 1,047 rural pigs in 16 villages of Central Mexico. Three to five months after vaccination 530 pigs were examined by tongue inspection. At 5-27 months of age, 331 pigs (197 vaccinated/134 controls) were inspected at necropsy. Vaccination reduced 70% the frequency of tongue cysticercosis and, based on necropsy, 54% of muscle-cysticercosis and by 87% the number of cysticerci.

  3. Effect of repeated mass drug administration with praziquantel and track and treat of taeniosis cases on the prevalence of taeniosis in Taenia solium endemic rural communities of Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, Uffe Christian; Magnussen, Pascal; Ndawi, Benedict

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of mass drug administration (MDA) with praziquantel administered to school-aged children (SAC) combined with ‘track and treat’ of taeniosis cases in the general population on the copro-antigen (Ag) prevalence of taeniosis. The study was conducted in 14 villages......-Ag prevalence of taeniosis, and that annual MDA was significantly better than single MDA. The persistence of taeniosis cases illustrates that a One Health approach must be emphasized for effective control....

  4. Assessment of sanitary conditions of unregistered pig slaughter slabs and post mortem examination of pigs for Taenia solium metacestodes in Kaduna metropolis, Nigeria

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Edia-Asuke, Agnes U; Inabo, Helen I; Umoh, Veronica J; Whong, Clement Mz; Asuke, Sunday; Edeh, Richard E

    2014-01-01

    ... inspection and backyard pig keeping, slaughtering and sale are common practice. An environmental and sanitary assessment was conducted within two unregistered home pig slaughter slabs in selected parts of the Kaduna metropolis in Nigeria...

  5. Taenia taeniaeformis: aspectos da relação hospedeiro-parasita Taenia taeniaeformis: aspects of host-parasite relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evaldo Nascimento

    1982-09-01

    Full Text Available Gatos eliminam proglotes de Taenia taeniaeformis vinte dias após a ingestão de Cysticercus fasciolares obtidos de ratos albinos infectados dois meses e meio após a ingestão de ovos viáveis. A resposta imunológica humoral de gatos e ratos foi detectada a partir da segunda semana de infecção, sendo observado maiores níveis de anticorpos circulares na quarta e quinta semanas respectivamente.Cats expel proglottids of Taenia taeniaeformis twenty days after infection of Cysticercus fasciolares obtained from rats infected 2,5 months earlier with viable eggs. The humoral immunological response of cats and rats was detected in the second week after infection and the peaks of circulating antibodies occurred in the fourth and fifth weeks, respectively.

  6. O aparelho muscular dos Proglotes de Taenia Saginata The muscular texture of the proglottides of Taenia Saginata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Augusto Xavier

    1945-02-01

    Full Text Available The writers describe the muscular texture of the proglottides of Taenia saginata, Goeze, 1782, based upon microscopical preparations of mature and gravid proglottides stained by several methods. The muscular system of the proglottides of Taenia saginata is disposed mainly in two layers, a longitudinal and external one, and a deeper transverse layer, lining the body parenchym and internal organs. A circular or annular layer ranging under the cuticle is also referred. The writers emphasize the peculiar texture of the smooth muscle fibres, which only excepcionally do exist as isolated fibres, anastomosis between the fibres being the common histological appearence. Special features of the body parenchym such as calcareous bodies and globous nuclea scattered in the parenchym are also described.

  7. Molecular identification of Taenia spp. in the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) from Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavikainen, A; Haukisalmi, V; Deksne, G; Holmala, K; Lejeune, M; Isomursu, M; Jokelainen, P; Näreaho, A; Laakkonen, J; Hoberg, E P; Sukura, A

    2013-04-01

    Cestodes of the genus Taenia are parasites of mammals, with mainly carnivores as definitive and herbivores as intermediate hosts. Various medium-sized cats, Lynx spp., are involved in the life cycles of several species of Taenia. The aim of the present study was to identify Taenia tapeworms in the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) from Finland. In total, 135 tapeworms from 72 lynx were subjected to molecular identification based on sequences of 2 mtDNA regions, the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 genes. Available morphological characters of the rostellar hooks and strobila were compared. Two species of Taenia were found: T. laticollis (127 samples) and an unknown Taenia sp. (5 samples). The latter could not be identified to species based on mtDNA, and the rostellar hooks were short relative to those described among other Taenia spp. recorded in felids from the Holarctic region. In the phylogenetic analyses of mtDNA sequences, T. laticollis was placed as a sister species of T. macrocystis, and the unknown Taenia sp. was closely related to T. hydatigena and T. regis. Our analyses suggest that these distinct taeniid tapeworms represent a putative new species of Taenia. The only currently recognized definitive host is L. lynx and the intermediate host is unknown.

  8. Encysted Tenia solium larva of oral cavity: Case report with review of literature

    OpenAIRE

    Bhuvana Krishnamoorthy; N Suma Gundareddy; Manu Dhillon; Siddharth Srivastava; Manisha Lakhanpal Sharma; Sangeeta Singh Malik

    2012-01-01

    Cysticercosis is caused by the larvae of the pig tapeworm, Tenia solium. Oral cysticercosis is a rare event and is often a diagnostic challenge to the clinician. We report a 12-year-old girl who presented with a single, painless, nodule on the lower lip that was diagnosed as cysticercosis. Current literature on the clinical presentations, investigations, and treatment of the condition has been reviewed in this article. We have also proposed a set of criteria for the diagnosis of oral cysticer...

  9. A Case of Taenia asiatica Infection Diagnosed by Colonoscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Heung Up; Chung, Young-Bae

    2017-01-01

    A case of Taenia asiatica infection detected by small bowel series and colonoscopy is described. The patient was a 42-year-old Korean man accompanied by discharge of movable proglottids via anus. He used to eat raw pig liver but seldom ate beef. Small bowel series radiologic examinations showed flat tape-like filling defects on the ileum. By colonoscopy, a moving flat tapeworm was observed from the terminal ileum to the ascending colon. The tapeworm was identified as T. asiatica by mitochondr...

  10. A Case of Taenia asiatica Infection Diagnosed by Colonoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Heung Up; Chung, Young-Bae

    2017-02-01

    A case of Taenia asiatica infection detected by small bowel series and colonoscopy is described. The patient was a 42-year-old Korean man accompanied by discharge of movable proglottids via anus. He used to eat raw pig liver but seldom ate beef. Small bowel series radiologic examinations showed flat tape-like filling defects on the ileum. By colonoscopy, a moving flat tapeworm was observed from the terminal ileum to the ascending colon. The tapeworm was identified as T. asiatica by mitochondrial DNA sequencing. The patient was prescribed with a single oral dose (16 mg/kg) of praziquantel.

  11. Molecular and functional characterization of a Taenia adhesion gene family (TAF) encoding potential protective antigens of Taenia saginata oncospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Luis Miguel; Bonay, Pedro; Benitez, Laura; Ferrer, Elizabeth; Harrison, Leslie J S; Parkhouse, R Michael E; Garate, Teresa

    2007-02-01

    Two clones from an activated Taenia saginata oncosphere cDNA library, Ts45W and Ts45S, were isolated and sequenced. Both of these genes belong to the Taenia ovis 45W gene family. The Ts45W and Ts45S cDNAs are 997- and 1,004-bp-long, each corresponding to 255 amino acids and with theoretical molecular masses of 27.8 and 27.7 kDa, respectively. Southern blot profiles obtained with Ts45W cDNA as a probe suggest that these two genes are members of a multigene family with tandem organization. The full genomic sequence was determined for the Ts45W gene and a new family member, the Ts45W/2 gene. The genomic sequences of the T. saginata Ts45W and Ts45W/2 genes were at least 2.2 kb in length with four exons separated by three introns. Exons 1 and 4 coded for hydrophobic domains, while, importantly, exons 2 and 3 coded for fibronectin homologous domains. These domains are presumably responsible for the demonstrated cell adhesion and, perhaps, the protective nature of this family of molecules and the acronym TAF (Taenia adhesion family) is proposed for this group of genes. We hypothesize that these TAF proteins and another T. saginata-protective antigen, HP6, have evolved the dual functions of facilitating tissue invasion and stimulating protective immunity to first ensure primary infection and subsequently to establish a concomitant protective immunity to protect the host from death or debilitation through superinfection by subsequent infections and thus help ensure parasite survival.

  12. Genetic Variation and Population Genetics of Taenia saginata in North and Northeast Thailand in relation to Taenia asiatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anantaphruti, Malinee; Thaenkham, Urusa; Kusolsuk, Teera; Maipanich, Wanna; Saguankiat, Surapol; Pubampen, Somjit; Phuphisut, Orawan

    2013-01-01

    Taenia saginata is the most common human Taenia in Thailand. By cox1 sequences, 73 isolates from four localities in north and northeast were differentiated into 14 haplotypes, 11 variation sites and haplotype diversity of 0.683. Among 14 haplotypes, haplotype A was the major (52.1%), followed by haplotype B (21.9%). Clustering diagram of Thai and GenBank sequences indicated mixed phylogeny among localities. By MJ analysis, haplotype clustering relationships showed paired-stars-like network, having two main cores surrounded by minor haplotypes. Tajima's D values were significantly negative in T. saginata world population, suggesting population expansion. Significant Fu's F s values in Thai, as well as world population, also indicate that population is expanding and may be hitchhiking as part of selective sweep. Haplotype B and its dispersion were only found in populations from Thailand. Haplotype B may evolve and ultimately become an ancestor of future populations in Thailand. Haplotype A seems to be dispersion haplotype, not just in Thailand, but worldwide. High genetic T. saginata intraspecies divergence was found, in contrast to its sister species, T. asiatica; among 30 samples from seven countries, its haplotype diversity was 0.067, while only 2 haplotypes were revealed. This extremely low intraspecific variation suggests that T. asiatica could be an endangered species.

  13. Encysted Tenia solium larva of oral cavity: Case report with review of literature

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    Bhuvana Krishnamoorthy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cysticercosis is caused by the larvae of the pig tapeworm, Tenia solium. Oral cysticercosis is a rare event and is often a diagnostic challenge to the clinician. We report a 12-year-old girl who presented with a single, painless, nodule on the lower lip that was diagnosed as cysticercosis. Current literature on the clinical presentations, investigations, and treatment of the condition has been reviewed in this article. We have also proposed a set of criteria for the diagnosis of oral cysticercosis.

  14. Crude Antigen Cystisercus Taenia Saginata Isolat Bali untuk Deteksi Sistiserkosis pada Sapi

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    Hertati Anriani Lubis

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate Taenia saginata cystisercus antigen for the detection of bovine cysticercosis. Taenia saginata cysticercus antigen was derived from local isolates, obtained from the experimental infection of Taenia saginata tape worms from Bali. The research was done by ELISA (Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay optimized by determining the optimal concentration of antigen, the optimal dilutions of serum and the optimal dilutions of conjugate. The results showed that Taenia saginata cysticercus crude antigen (Bali isolate are antigenic and can be used to detect cattle cysticercosis. Optimal concentration of antigen: 2 ug/ml, optimal dilutions of serum: 1:80 and optimal dilution of conjugate: 1:4000.

  15. Taenia saginata: an unusual cause of post-appendectomy faecal fistula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najih, Mohammed; Laraqui, Hicham; Njoumi, Nouredine; Mouhafid, Faycel; Moujahid, Mountassir; Ehirchiou, Abdelkader; Zentar, Aziz

    2016-01-01

    Post-appendectomy faecal fistula is a rare surgical complication, associated with significant morbidity. Taenia saginata infestation is one of the most common cestode infestation in the gastrointestinal tract. It makes many complications as obstruction, perforation, anastomotic leakage or appendicular stump dehiscence. The objective of our study is to report a very rare case of post appendectomy faecal fistula caused by taenia saginata infestation and was successfully treated conservatively.

  16. History of Taenia saginata Tapeworms in Northern Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konyaev, Sergey V.; Nakao, Minoru; Ito, Akira

    2017-01-01

    Taenia saginata is the most common species of tapeworm infecting humans. Infection is acquired by eating cysticercus larvae in undercooked beef. A closely related species, T. asiatica, is found in eastern and southeastern Asia. The larvae of T. asiatica develop in viscera of pigs. In northern Russia, there is a third member of this morphologically indistinguishable group. Cysticerci of so-called northern T. saginata are found in cerebral meninges of reindeer, and the unique life cycle is dependent on a native custom of eating raw reindeer brain. We report the winding history of this mysterious tapeworm from the first reports to the present time. In addition, we confirm the position of this parasite as a strain of T. saginata by analyzing a mitochondrial DNA sequence of an archival specimen. The origin of this strain might date back to reindeer domestication and contacts between cattle-herding and reindeer-herding peoples in Asia.

  17. An immunoblot for detection of Taenia saginata cysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuseir, Sameh; Nagel-Kohl, Uschi; Wolken, Sonja; Strube, Christina

    2013-05-01

    Control measures to prevent human infections with the food-borne zoonotic helminth Taenia saginata are currently based on meat inspection, which shows rather low diagnostic sensitivity. To develop an immunoblot for detection of T. saginata-infected cattle, crude proteins of T. saginata cysts were extracted and separated with SDS-PAGE. The cyst antigens showed ten protein bands ranging from 260 to 14 kDa. T. saginata cyst proteins 260, 150, 130, 67, 60, 55, 50, and 23 kDa were immunoreactive with known positive sera of T. saginata-infected cattle but cross-reacted with sera from Echinocccus granulosus-infected ruminants. By contrast, 14- and 18-kDa cyst proteins reacted specifically with T. saginata-positive sera and thus might be potential candidates for the development of a T. saginata-specific immunoassay. Proteins of E. granulosus cysts and Taenia hydatigena cysts were also extracted and separated with SDS-PAGE. E. granulosus cysts revealed 11 protein bands ranging from 260 to 23 kDa. E. granulosus protein 60 kDa was immunoreactive with E. granulosus-positive sera only. The cyst of T. hydatigena showed 11 protein bands ranging from 290 to 14 kDa. The protein band 35 kDa showed cross-reaction with positive sera from both T. saginata- and E. granulosus-infected animals. A protein of 67 kDa was present in all three tested cestode species and was the major antigenic protein detected by sera of T. saginata- and E. granulosus-infected animals. Therefore, this protein represents a potential vaccine candidate against both cysticercosis and cystic echinococcosis in cattle.

  18. Bovine cysticercosis: Preliminary observations on the immunohistochemical detection of Taenia saginata antigens in lymph nodes of an experimentally infected calf

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Abstract A newly developed immunohistochemical test was used for the first time to demonstrate the presence of Taenia saginata (Cysticercus bovis) antigens in the lymph nodes of a heifer calf experimentally inoculated with Taenia saginata eggs. The new test should aid in the differential diagnosis of eosinophilic lymphadenitis in cattle. PMID:15532887

  19. Experimental encephalitis caused by Taenia crassiceps cysticerci in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidelberto Matos-Silva

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To present the experimental model of neurocysticercosis (NCC caused by Taenia crassiceps cysticerci, to describe the inflammatory process, susceptibility, or resistance of BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice to this infection, and to describe the host-parasite relationship. METHODS: The animals were intracranially inoculated with initial stage T. crassiceps cysticerci. They were euthanized at 7, 30, 60, and 90 days after the inoculation. Their encephala were removed for the histopathologic analysis, classification of the parasites, and inflammatory lesions. RESULTS: Experimental NCC was observed on both mice lineages. BALB/c mice presented inflammatory lesions with greater intensity, inducing necrosis on late stage parasites, and with an acute inflammation pattern, while C57BL/6 mice showed greater capability on provoking early necrosis in the cysticerci, which showed a chronic inflammation pattern. CONCLUSIONS: This experimental model induced NCC on mice with characteristic inflammation and lesions. C57BL/6 mice were able to induce precocious necrosis of the parasites presenting inflammatory lesions with lower intensity.

  20. Taenia ovis infection and its control: a Canadian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Wolf, B D; Peregrine, A S; Jones-Bitton, A; Jansen, J T; Menzies, P I

    2014-01-01

    Distributed worldwide, Taenia ovis infection is responsible for the condemnation of sheep carcasses in many countries. This review highlights the programme used in New Zealand to successfully control T. ovis in sheep, and discusses how similar approaches may be modified for use in Canada, given what is currently known about the epidemiology of T. ovis. The lifecycle of the parasite is well known, involving dogs as the definitive host and sheep or goats as the intermediate host. An effective vaccine does exist, although it is not presently commercially available. In New Zealand an industry-based, non-regulatory programme was created to educate producers about T. ovis and necessary control strategies, including the need to treat farm dogs with cestocides regularly. This programme resulted in a substantial decrease in the prevalence of T. ovis infections between 1991 and 2012. Historically, T. ovis was not a concern for the Canadian sheep industry, but more recently the percentage of lamb condemnations due to T. ovis has increased from 1.5% in 2006 to 55% in 2012. It has been suggested that coyotes may be transmitting T. ovis, but this has not been confirmed. Recommendation are made for the Canadian sheep industry to adopt a control programme similar to that used in New Zealand in order to reduce the prevalence of T. ovis infection.

  1. Neurocysticercosis: relationship between Taenia antigen levels in CSF and MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham, Ronaldo, E-mail: rnabraham@uol.com.b [University of Taubate (UNITAU), Taubate, SP (Brazil). Medicine Dept.; Livramento, Jose Antonio; Machado, Luis dos Ramos [University of Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Medical School. Neurology Dept.; Leite, Claudia da Costa [University of Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Medical School. Radiology Dept.; Pardini, Alessandra Xavier; Vaz, Adelaide Jose [University of Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Biomedical Science Institute. Immunology Dept.

    2010-02-15

    Objective: to determine the relationship between Taenia antigen (TA) detection in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in patients with definite diagnosis of neurocysticercosis (NC). Method: sixty-three patients with definite diagnosis of NC were submitted to a MRI of the brain, and to a CSF examination, with a meticulous search for TA by ELISA. Results: TA detection was positive in 36 patients (57.1%). A total of 836 lesions were analyzed, greatly within the cerebral parenchyma (98.7 of the lesions). Intact or non-degenerating cysts were the most common evolutive phase observed (50.4% of all lesions), 22.1% were degenerating cysts and 19.5% calcified cysts. We observed a significant relationship between TA levels detected and the total number of lesions and the number of non-degenerating cysts, but not with calcified lesions. Conclusion: according to our results, we propose at least four important types of contribution: TA detection may allow etiologic diagnosis in transitional phases of NC, with non-characteristic images; in final stages of evolution of cysticercoids in the CNS, lesions may not appear on CT or MRI, and TA detection may contribute to a definite etiologic diagnosis; TA detection may permit diagnosis of NC in some patients with previous negative tests for antibody detection in CSF; TA detection may represent an accurate marker of disease activity in the epileptic form of NC. (author)

  2. Genetic variability of Taenia saginata inferred from mitochondrial DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostami, Sima; Salavati, Reza; Beech, Robin N; Babaei, Zahra; Sharbatkhori, Mitra; Harandi, Majid Fasihi

    2015-04-01

    Taenia saginata is an important tapeworm, infecting humans in many parts of the world. The present study was undertaken to identify inter- and intraspecific variation of T. saginata isolated from cattle in different parts of Iran using two mitochondrial CO1 and 12S rRNA genes. Up to 105 bovine specimens of T. saginata were collected from 20 slaughterhouses in three provinces of Iran. DNA were extracted from the metacestode Cysticercus bovis. After PCR amplification, sequencing of CO1 and 12S rRNA genes were carried out and two phylogenetic analyses of the sequence data were generated by Bayesian inference on CO1 and 12S rRNA sequences. Sequence analyses of CO1 and 12S rRNA genes showed 11 and 29 representative profiles respectively. The level of pairwise nucleotide variation between individual haplotypes of CO1 gene was 0.3-2.4% while the overall nucleotide variation among all 11 haplotypes was 4.6%. For 12S rRNA sequence data, level of pairwise nucleotide variation was 0.2-2.5% and the overall nucleotide variation was determined as 5.8% among 29 haplotypes of 12S rRNA gene. Considerable genetic diversity was found in both mitochondrial genes particularly in 12S rRNA gene.

  3. Investigation of an outbreak of Taenia saginata cysts (cysticercus bovis) in dairy cattle from two farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden, A M J; Heath, D D; Morley, C M; Dorny, P

    2011-03-10

    The paper describes the epidemiological investigation carried out on two dairy farms with cattle infected with Taenia saginata cysts. On the first affected farm it was estimated using Bayesian techniques that approximately 65% of 1400 mixed-age cattle were infected with Taenia saginata cysts. The investigation aimed to determine potential exposure pathways of cattle to Taenia saginata with a view to finding the human source of infection and to describe the epidemiology of the outbreak on the affected farms. In order to determine potential exposure pathways, investigation was centred on how feed or water could have been contaminated with eggs. The plausibility of pathways was determined by examining the spatial and temporal association between factors related to the pathway and the prevalence of infection in cattle strata. We describe the investigation carried out on affected farms. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Peritonitis caused by jejunal perforation with Taenia saginata: report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekraki, Ali; Hanna, Khalil

    2016-03-01

    Complicated Taeniasis necessitating surgical intervention is extremely rare and is usually reported to occur in the distal ileal region of the Gastrointestinal tract. A case of peritonitis secondary to proximal jejunal perforation due to Taenia saginata is presented. Preoperative evaluation suggested the diagnosis of acute duodenal ulcer perforation. Although no real change in management and outcome is present, Taenia remains an exceptional direct cause of intestinal perforation, and should be kept on the list of differential diagnosis of peritonitis and acute abdomen in endemic geographical locations.

  5. Intestinal perforation and peritonitis due to Taenia saginata: A case report from Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Soosaraei

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Taenia saginata (T. saginata is one of the most common cestode in human. We report a case of intestinal perforation caused due to T. saginata infection. The patient, 54-year-old female, had intermittent abdominal pain, diarrhea and vomiting on referral. Intestinal obstruction and perforation leading to necrosis, and volvulus due to an impacted tapeworm was observed. Histopathological examinations showed acute inflammation with mucosal ulceration, and luminal exudates accompanied by an elongated and flattened segment of the helminth. Taenia infections should be considered in differential diagnosis of peritonitis and gastrointestinal tumors, particularly in endemic countries including Iran.

  6. Intestinal perforation and peritonitis due toTaenia saginata: A case report from Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soosaraei, Masoud; Alizadeh, Shahriar; Fakhar, Mahdi; Banimostafavi, Elham Sadat; Hezarjaribi, Hajar Ziaei

    2017-12-01

    Taenia saginata (T. saginata) is one of the most common cestode in human. We report a case of intestinal perforation caused due to T. saginata infection. The patient, 54-year-old female, had intermittent abdominal pain, diarrhea and vomiting on referral. Intestinal obstruction and perforation leading to necrosis, and volvulus due to an impacted tapeworm was observed. Histopathological examinations showed acute inflammation with mucosal ulceration, and luminal exudates accompanied by an elongated and flattened segment of the helminth. Taenia infections should be considered in differential diagnosis of peritonitis and gastrointestinal tumors, particularly in endemic countries including Iran.

  7. Studi Biologi Perkembangan Metacestoda Taenia Saginata Pada Sapi Bali (BIOLOGICAL STUDIES OF Taenia Saginata METACESTODA DEVELOPMENT IN BALI CATTLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyoman Sadra Dharmawan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The biological studies of Taenia saginata metacestoda development have been conducted in Bali cattle. Two Bali cattle were used as the samples; each was infected by 500.000 T. saginata eggs.  Cattle I and II were slaughtered and examined for the presence of T. saginata metacestodas,103 and 131 days post infection, respectively. All visceral organs and skeletal muscles were thoroughly inspected; incisions and inspection were done following the routine meat inspection.  In cattle I, was observed 534 metacestodas in the skeletal muscles, heart, and diaphragm.  The metacestodas had the form an oval bladder measuring around 3 x 2 mm. While, in cattle II was observed 2,249 metacestodas in the skeletal muscles, heart, diaphragm, and tongue measuring around 4 x 3 mm.  The finding of the present study may indicate that in Bali cattle the oncospheres of T. saginata might reach its optimal development (in to T. saginata metacestoda in four months post infection.

  8. Mitochondrial Thioredoxin-Glutathione Reductase from Larval Taenia crassiceps (Cysticerci

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    Alberto Guevara-Flores

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial thioredoxin-glutathione reductase was purified from larval Taenia crassiceps (cysticerci. The preparation showed NADPH-dependent reductase activity with either thioredoxin or GSSG, and was able to perform thiol/disulfide exchange reactions. At 25∘C specific activities were 437  ±  27 mU mg-1 and 840  ±  49 mU mg-1 with thioredoxin and GSSG, respectively. Apparent Km values were 0.87  ±  0.04  μM, 41  ±  6  μM and 19  ±  10  μM for thioredoxin, GSSG and NADPH, respectively. Thioredoxin from eukaryotic sources was accepted as substrate. The enzyme reduced H2O2 in a NADPH-dependent manner, although with low catalytic efficiency. In the presence of thioredoxin, mitochondrial TGR showed a thioredoxin peroxidase-like activity. All disulfide reductase activities were inhibited by auranofin, suggesting mTGR is dependent on selenocysteine. The reductase activity with GSSG showed a higher dependence on temperature as compared with the DTNB reductase activity. The variation of the GSSG- and DTNB reductase activities on pH was dependent on the disulfide substrate. Like the cytosolic isoform, mTGR showed a hysteretic kinetic behavior at moderate or high GSSG concentrations, but it was less sensitive to calcium. The enzyme was able to protect glutamine synthetase from oxidative inactivation, suggesting that mTGR is competent to contend with oxidative stress.

  9. Prevalence of Taenia saginata cysticercosis in French cattle in 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuy, Céline; Morlot, Claire; Gilot-Fromont, Emmanuelle; Mas, Michel; Grandmontagne, Claude; Gilli-Dunoyer, Pascale; Gay, Emilie; Callait-Cardinal, Marie-Pierre

    2014-06-16

    Bovine cysticercosis is a foodborne disease caused by the cestode Taenia saginata with cattle as the intermediate host and humans as the final host. This disease is responsible for direct financial losses for farmers. It is also economically important because human infestation through raw or undercooked meat consumption can have a negative impact on the confidence the consumer has in the food industry. This study aimed to determine the apparent and true prevalence of bovine cysticercosis in France and describe the locations of identified cysticercosis lesions. The study sample included 4,564,065 cattle slaughtered in 2010 in France, among which 6491 were detected as harbouring cysticercosis lesions using the current EU meat inspection process. The overall apparent prevalence (including both viable and degenerated cysticerci) was estimated at 0.142% [0.142-0.143]. The true overall prevalence defined as the estimation of the prevalence after taking into account the sensitivity of meat inspection (detection fraction) was 1.23% [0.83-1.93]. The true prevalence of cattle with at least one viable cysticercus was 0.113% [0.076-0.189]. Taking into account both our results and those of a previous study on the prevalence of human cysticercosis in France, we estimated that one carcass could infest an average of 8-20 individuals. The spatial distribution of viable cysticerci showed that the highest apparent prevalence was found in eastern France. This study, the largest survey ever conducted on bovine cysticercosis in France, indicated a low but spatially heterogeneous prevalence of the parasite among the cattle population. Considering French eating habits, according to which it is not uncommon to consume undercooked meat, the possibility of humans being infested even though viable cysticerci are not detected during meat inspection is high. Increasing the detection sensitivity of meat inspection through the use of a risk-based meat inspection procedure should improve

  10. First report of Taenia ovis infection in Danish sheep (Ovis aries)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Heidi Huus; Al-Sabi, Mohammad N.S.; Larsen, Gitte

    2018-01-01

    We report Taenia ovis infection in Danish sheep for the first time. In spring 2016, the metocestode stage of T. ovis was at slaughter observed in heart muscles, diaphragm and skeletal muscles from approx. a third of all sheep from one specific farm localised in South Jutland. The diagnosis was co...

  11. Basic and applied problems in developmental biology and immunobiology of cestode infections: Hymenolepis, Taenia and Echinococcus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ito, A

    2015-01-01

    ... article, topics in developmental biology of cestode infections will be reviewed with a focus on Hymenolepis spp., Taenia spp. and Echinococcus spp. . Some topics are directly related to immunological interests, but others are centred developmental biology which can be evaluated from an immunological and/or evolutional perspective. Topics Life c...

  12. A glance at Taenia saginata infection, diagnosis, vaccine, biological control and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Claudio V; Costa-Cruz, Julia M

    2010-10-01

    The Taenia saginata taeniasis-cysticercosis complex is a cosmopolitan zoonosis of great medical, veterinary and economic importance where humans play an important role as the carrier of adult stage and cattle as carrier of the larval stage of the parasite. Here we reviewed aspects concerning diagnosis, vaccine development, biological control and treatment of the disease.

  13. Experimental single and trickle infections of cattle with Taenia saginata: Studies of immunodiagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh, H.O.; Grønvold, J.; Maeda, G.E.

    1996-01-01

    Two groups of 12 calves were given either a single infection dose of 30,000 Taenia saginata eggs (group A) or trickle infected with 12 x 2500 T saginata eggs (group B). The calves were killed 16, 22 or 54 weeks after infection and the numbers of viable and dead parasites were counted by slicing...

  14. Four cases of Taenia saginata infection with an analysis of COX1 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jaeeun; Jung, Bong-Kwang; Lim, Hyemi; Kim, Min-Jae; Yooyen, Thanapon; Lee, Dongmin; Eom, Keeseon S; Shin, Eun-Hee; Chai, Jong-Yil

    2014-02-01

    Human taeniases had been not uncommon in the Republic of Korea (=Korea) until the 1980s. The prevalence decreased and a national survey in 2004 revealed no Taenia egg positive cases. However, a subsequent national survey in 2012 showed 0.04% (10 cases) prevalence of Taenia spp. eggs suggesting its resurgence in Korea. We recently encountered 4 cases of Taenia saginata infection who had symptoms of taeniasis that included discharge of proglottids. We obtained several proglottids from each case. Because the morphological features of T. saginata are almost indistinguishable from those of Taenia asiatica, molecular analyses using the PCR-RFLP and DNA sequencing of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) were performed to identify the species. The PCR-RFLP patterns of all of the 4 specimens were consistent with T. saginata, and the cox1 gene sequence showed 99.8-100% identity with that of T. saginata reported previously from Korea, Japan, China, and Cambodia. All of the 4 patients had the history of travel abroad but its relation with contracting taeniasis was unclear. Our findings may suggest resurgence of T. saginata infection among people in Korea.

  15. Interaction and ovicidal activity of nematophagous fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia on Taenia saginata eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Juliana M; Araújo, Jackson V; Braga, Fabio R; Carvalho, Rogério O; Silva, André R; Campos, Artur K

    2009-04-01

    The ovicidal activity of the nematophagous fungi Pochonia chlamydosporia (isolates VC1 and VC4), Duddingtonia flagrans (isolate AC001) and Monacrosporium thaumasium (isolate NF34) on Taenia saginata eggs was evaluated under laboratory conditions. T. saginata eggs were plated on 2% water-agar with fungal isolates and controls without fungus and examined after 5, 10 and 15 days. At the end of the experiment P. chlamydosporia showed ovicidal activity against T. saginata eggs (psaginata eggs unlike the other fungi.

  16. [Research progress on molecular identification and biologic behavior of Taenia saginata in Western China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Huai-En; Mou, Rong

    2009-12-01

    This article reviews the epidemiological investigation of taeniasis saginata in 10 counties of 7 provinces/ autonomous regions in western China. The morphological observation of adult worms, molecular identification of 10 isolates of the worms, experimental infection on pigs and cattle with Taenia saginata and T. asiatica, observation on development and biology behavior of cysticercus, and pathological changes in the intermediate host pig and cattle revealed that T. asiatica is a new species, instead of a subspecies of T. saginata.

  17. [Morphological observation on the adult worms of Taenia saginata in western China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mou, Rong; Bao, Huai-En; Qiu, Xue-Li; Chen, Yan; Lang, Shu-Yuan; Huang, Jiang; Li, Jian-Hua; Zhu, Wu-Jun; Zhang, Ke; Ling-Hu, Yan

    2007-02-28

    To investigate the morphological characteristics of the adult worms of Taenia saginata from four areas of Western China. 42, 41, 7 and 18 integral worms of Taenia saginata were collected from Duyun and Congjiang of Guizhou Province, Wushi of Xinjiang, and Lhasa of Tibet respectively. The length of worms was measured and the segments were counted. The specimens of scolex, mature and gravid proglottids of the worms were stained, measured and photographed. The mean length of the worms from Duyun, Congjiang, Wushi and Lasa was (1.81+/-0.69) m, (3.84+/-1.32) m, (2.76+/-0.86) m and (3.72+/-1.12) m, and with (574.64+/-189.33), (913.84+/-317.41), (971.29+/-168.30) and (940.38+/-368.26) proglottids, respectively. The mean ratio of the distance between two lateral excretory vessels and the length of vitellarium of the mature proglottids was (1.71+/-0.13), (2.23+/-0.06), (2.03+/-0.21), (2.31+/-0.15) respectively. All the 3 parameters of the worms from Duyun were significantly less than those from other 3 areas (PTaenia saginata asiatica, while those of the worms from Congjiang, Wushi and Lhasa are alike to those of Taenia saginata saginata.

  18. Application of multiplex PCR for the simultaneous detection of Taenia spp. from domestic dogs in the north of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahimi M.T.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The family Taeniidae is of great importance in the medical and veterinary fields, particularly in the tropics and subtropics. Identification of eggs of different Taenia spp. in the final host by morphological examination is difficult owing to their similarity. Therefore, a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR targeting a mitochondrial gene was applied to identify morphologically indistinguishable eggs. Fecal samples from 100 domestic dogs, from the Mazandaran province in Iran, were examined using the flotation/sieving method followed by multiplex PCR. Taeniid eggs were observed in 24 % samples, of which 12 %, 10 %, and 2 % were infected with Echinococcus granulosus, Taenia spp., and both E. granulosus and Taenia spp., respectively. E. multilocularis was absent in these samples. The prevalence of E. granulosus in the examined domestic dogs as definitive hosts in north of Iran was high (14 %. Therefore, people living in this region of Iran are in danger of acquiring hydatid cyst, which is a serious public health problem.

  19. [Epidemiological investigation of Taenia saginata asiatica in Duyun, Guizhou and detection of amino acids and elements of adult worms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan; Bao, Huai-en; Li, Jin-fu; Lang, Shu-yuan; Qiu, Xue-li; Huang, Jiang; Wu, Yuan-ming; Zhang, Chao-yun

    2003-01-01

    To study epidemiological factors of taeniasis and to detect amino acid and element components of adult worms in Duyun of Guizhou Province. 1. Traditional methods were used for epidemiological investigation. 2. Automatic amino acid analyzer and bioassay were applied for the detection. Among 70 persons with clinical symptoms, 25 patients (24 men and 1 woman) were found to have adult taenia worms in their faeces after taking Areca catechu L. and other drugs. Sixteen amino acids and 12 elements were determined in adult worms. Duyun area in Guizhou is a highly endemic area of taeniasis. The pathogenic parasite is identified as Taenia saginata asiatica. Its clinical symptoms are similar to that of Taenia saginata saginata.

  20. [Cloning and prokaryotic expression of malate dehydrogenase gene of Taenia saginata asiatica and immunogenicity analysis of the recombinant protein].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiang; Hu, Xu-Chu; Wu, Xuan; Xu, Jin; Yu, Xin-Bing; Bao, Huai-En; Lang, Shu-Yuan; Liao, Xing-Jiang

    2008-08-01

    To clone and express the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) gene of Taenia saginata asiatica and analyze the immunogenicity of the recombinant protein. By screening the full length cDNA plasmid library, the coding region of LDH was amplified with PCR, and cloned into the prokaryotic expression vector pET-30a (+), then expressed in E. coli BL21 with IPTG induction. The recombinant protein was detected by SDS-PAGE and purified by Ni-IDA affinity chromatography, and its immunogenicity was analyzed by Western blotting. PCR, double enzyme digestion and DNA sequencing confirmed that the recombinant expression plasmid was constructed. The expression products were obtained and purified by Ni-IDA affinity chromatography. Western blotting analysis of LDH recombinant protein testified that the recombinant protein could be recognized by sera of the Taenia saginata asiatica infected swine and the patient. The LDH gene of Taenia saginata asiatica has been cloned and expressed, and the purified protein has been confirmed with immunogenicity.

  1. Long-term Taenia saginata infection successfully treated with meglumine/diatrizoate sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirasaki, Shoji; Murakami, Kazutoshi; Mizushima, Takaaki; Hiramatsu, Kazuhisa; Hanayama, Yoshihisa; Kanamori, Tatsuya; Koide, Norio

    2012-01-01

    A 46-year-old Japanese man visited our hospital for chronic abdominal pain, persistent diarrhea and discharge of proglottids for 7 years. He had been living in Lao People's Democratic Republic. Ileography using meglumine/diatrizoate sodium (Gastrografin) revealed a long tapeworm. A Taenia saginata including the scolex was excreted through the intestinal tract by the administration of total 780 ml of Gastrografin. Taeniasis is an important disease in the differential diagnosis of imported diseases in Japan. Parasite infection should be suspected in patients with chronic abdominal pain or persistent diarrhea regardless of the findings for small bowel obstruction when there is a history of overseas travel.

  2. Taenia saginata a rare cause of acute cholangitis: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uygur-Bayramiçli, O; Ak, O; Dabak, R; Demirhan, G; Ozer, S

    2012-01-01

    Parasitic infestations of the galdbladder and biliary tract are quite rare. Taenia saginata is an intestinal helmint and patients harbouring adult T.saginata tapeworms are mostly asymptomatic and discharge only fecal proglottids. In some cases there might be nonspecific symptoms like vomiting, nausea, epigastric pain, diarrhea and weight loss. Tenia saginata is a also rare cause of ileus, pancreatitis, cholecystitis and cholangitis. We report a case of acute cholangitis caused by T. saginata presenting with fever, nausea, vomiting, jaundice and right upper quadrant pain. Although parasites are not an uncommon cause of cholangitis especially in diseaseendemic areas like the Far East, this is not true for T. saginata causing acute cholangitis.

  3. Infection of Taenia asiatica in a Bai Person in Dali, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Luo, Xuenong; Hou, Junling; Guo, Aijiang; Zhang, Shaohua; Li, Hailong; Cai, Xuepeng

    2016-02-01

    We report here a human case of Taenia asiatica infection which was confirmed by genetic analyses in Dali, China. A patient was found to have symptoms of taeniasis with discharge of tapeworm proglottids. By sequencing of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene, we observed nucleotide sequence identity of 99% with T. asiatica and 96% with T. saginata. Using the cytochrome b (cytb) gene, 99% identity with T. asiatica and 96% identity with T. saginata were found. Our findings suggest that taeniasis of people in Dali, China may be mainly caused by T. asiatica.

  4. Co-infection with Enterobius vermicularis and Taenia saginata mimicking acute appendicitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravi, Kasra H; Fakhar, Mahdi; Nematian, Javad; Ghasemi, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    In this report, we describe an unusual case of verminous appendicitis due to Enterobius vermicularis and Taenia saginata in a 29-year-old woman from Iran. The histopathological examinations and parasitological descriptions of both worms found in the appendix lumen are discussed. The removed appendix exhibited the macroscopic and microscopic features of acute appendicitis. Antihelminthic therapy was initiated with single doses of praziquantel for the taeniasis and mebendazole for the enterobiasis, and the patient was discharged. Copyright © 2015 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. First Report of Taenia Acinonyxi (Ortlopp, 1938 in Acinonyx Jubatus Venaticus from Iran

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    BA Zaheri

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The Asian cheetah is known as Iranian panther. A four years old female cheetah was killed in a road accident by a truck in Abbas Abad (Biarjamand County around Shahrood City in Sem­nan Province, central part of Iran. Two days after the accident the carcass of animal was autopsied and only five cestodes were obtained from its intestine. In inspection of other or­gans no other helminth was observed. Cestod samples were fixed and stained by carmine acid. Characterization of the cestodes using morphological standard key, identified the ces­todes as Taenia acinonyxi.

  6. NEUROCISTICERCOSIS: UNA ENFERMEDAD QUE NO DEBEMOS OLVIDAR.

    OpenAIRE

    RICARDO FERNÁNDEZ-RODRÍGUEZ; CORAL GONZÁLEZ FERNÁNDEZ; JORGE GUITIÁN DELTELL

    2017-01-01

    La cisticercosis es una infección causada por Cysticercus cellulosae, la larva del helminto Taenia solium o “tenia del cerdo”. Taenia solium puede producir dos formas de infección: Teniasis intestinal (tenias maduras) e infestación por cisticercos que anidan en distintos órganos y tejidos

  7. [The random amplified polymorphic DNA identification of 9 Taenia saginata isolates from four provinces].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ke; Yang, Ming; Bao, Huai-En

    2006-12-01

    To make molecular identification for 9 isolates of Taenia saginata from 4 provinces. Genomic DNA was extracted from the segments of adult tapeworms collected from Taoyuan of Taiwan (TW1), Duyun of Guizhou (DY1, DY2), Congjiang of Guizhou (CJ1, CJ2, CJ3, CJ4), Dali of Yunnan (DL1) and Wushi of Xinjiang (XJ1) respectively. PCRs were carried out with 13 random primers. A phylogenetic tree of different geographical strains was constructed. 331 DNA fragments were amplified. The number of DNA fragments amplified by single primer was between 3 and 28. The average number of amplified DNA fragments by the 13 primers was 14.15. The average number of fragments from the 9 isolates of T. saginata was 14.08. Phylogenetic tree revealed that there were two branches in the tree, DY1, DY2, DL1 and TW1 occupied one branch, while CJ1, CJ2, CJ3, CJ4 and XJ1 occupied the other one. By the RAPD analysis, the isolates DY1, DY2, DL1 and TW1 belong to Taenia saginata asiatica, and the isolates CJ1, CJ2, CJ3, CJ4 and XJ1 belong to T. saginata saginata.

  8. Taenia saginata: failure treatment in a child with 5-year long-lasting infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez-Navarro, Adrián; Cornejo-Coria, María del Carmen; Cebada-López, Flora; Sánchez-Manzano, Rosa M; Díaz-Chiguer, Dylan L; Nogueda-Torres, Benjamín

    2012-01-01

    The management of these infections requires protocols that allow the clinic and laboratory to reach a timely and accurate diagnosis through the differential identification of Taenia species and consequently determine appropriate treatment. On the other hand, the inadequate implementation of treatments and the lack of follow-up coupled with biological phenomena such as resistance to drugs contribute important risks of infection for the population. This case could be caused by a strain of T. saginata with a low sensitivity to albendazole. This case emphasizes the need of developing and implementing techniques that will help us differentiate the species of Taenia in laboratories as well as establish treatments with alternative drugs. It is important to report this kind of infection with the aim of giving laboratory personnel as well as healthcare providers a broader knowledge of these parasites in order to improve treatment with alternative drugs. In addition, improvements in the habits among individuals must be addressed to avoid the increased risk of infection.

  9. Taenia saginata Goeze, 1872 (Platyhelminthes: Cestoda: Taeniidae en un indígena de Tierra del Fuego, Chile

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    Eduardo I. Faúndez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Se entrega el primer registro del céstodo Taenia saginata en un indígena de Tierra del Fuego (Patagonia chilena, correspondiente al año 1902. Se discute la importancia del registro y se entregan ilustraciones del ejemplar.

  10. Protein Spesifik Cairan Kista Cysticercus bovis pada Sapi Bali yang Diinfeksi dengan Taenia saginata (SPECIFIC PROTEIN OF CYSTICERCUS BOVIS CYST FLUID ON BALI CATTLE EXPERIMENTALLY INFECTED WITH TAENIA SAGINATA

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    Nyoman Sadra Dharmawan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Cysticercus bovis is the larval stage of Taenia saginata, the bovine tapeworm. The infection of thislarval in cattle musculature causes Bovine cysticercosis or Cysticercosis bovis.  Bovine cysticercosis is foundworldwide, but mostly in developing countries, where unhygienic conditions, poor cattle managementpractices, and the absence of meat inspection are common.  The adult Taenia infection in man is referredto as taeniasis.  Taenia saginata taeniasis is also found almost all over the world.  The prevalence ofTaenia saginata taeniasis has reported up to 27.5% in Gianyar Bali. In order to control the diseases,vaccination against the larvae stages in cattle of Taenia saginata may play an important role in controllingthe disease in the endemic regions.  The aims of the present study were to prepare and to investigate theimmunogenic protein as vaccine candidate for controlling  Cysticercus bovis infection in in Bali cattle.Cysticercus protein from the cyst fluid was firstly used to immunize mice and the mice sera were thencollected. Cysticercus proteins then analyzed using sodium dodecyl sulfate-gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE.All cysticercus proteins were then visualized by Commasie blue staining. The proteins were also transferredonto nitrocellulose membrane and the immunogenic proteins were visualized by Western Blotting usingimmune sera raised in mice.  By Commasie blue staining, a total of 17 proteins were detected with themolecular weight of 14,86 kDa -122,40 kDa from the smallest to the largest. As many as 7 immunogenicproteins with the molecular weights of 16.81 kDa; 19.22 kDa; 20.98 kDa; 27.41 kDa; 34.02 kDa; 38.31 kDa;and 54.94kDa were detected.

  11. Experimental bovine infection with Taenia saginata eggs: recovery rates and cysticerci location

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    João Carlos Minozzo

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies were carried out on the recovery rate and cysticerci location in bovines experimentally infected with Taenia saginata eggs. Three calves of 6.5 months and one with 19 months of age were infected orally with 2 x 10(4 eggs of Taenia saginata. A fifth calf served as control. After 90 days of infection, the animals were slaughtered and organs and skeletal muscles were inspected using a slicing technique every 5 mm. From the four infected calves, 702 cysticerci were recovered, of which 570 (81.2% were alive and 132 (18.8% were degenerated. The recovery rate ranged from 0.01 to 1.43% with an average of 0.88%. The cysticerci presented the following anatomical distribution: hioideos muscles 02 (0.28%, kidneys 03 (0.43%, tongue 07 (1.00%, liver 12 (1.71%, lungs 15 (2.14%, diaphragm 18 (2.56%, mastication muscles 25 (3.56%, heart 49 (6.98%, anterior muscle 323 (46.00% and posterior muscle 248 (35.33%.Foi avaliada a taxa de recuperação e localização de cisticercos em bovinos experimentalmente infectados com ovos de Taenia saginata. Três bezerros de 6,5 meses e um adulto com 19 meses de idade foram infectados, por via oral, com 2 x 10(4 ovos de Taenia saginata. Um quinto bezerro serviu como testemunha. Após 90 dias da infecção, os animais foram abatidos. Fez-se inspeção, de todos os animais, por fatiamento de órgãos e musculatura esquelética, com intervalo entre os cortes de, no máximo, cinco milímetros. Dos quatros bezerros desafiados foram recuperados 702 cisticercos sendo 570 (81,20% vivos e 132 (18,80% degenerados. A taxa de recuperação foi de 0,01% a 1,43% com média de 0,88%. Os 702 cistos encontrados apresentaram a seguinte distribuição anatômica: músculos hióideos 02 (0,28%, rins 03 (0,43%, língua 07 (1,00%, fígado 12 (1,71%, pulmões 15 (2,14%, diafragma 18 (2,56%, músculos da mastigação 25 (3,56%, coração 49 (6,98%, musculatura dianteira 323 (46,00% e musculatura traseira 248 (35,33%. Na infecção experimental

  12. Genetic diversity of Taenia saginata (Cestoda: Cyclophyllidea) from Lao People's Democratic Republic and northeastern Thailand based on mitochondrial DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanpool, Oranuch; Rodpai, Rutchanee; Intapan, Pewpan M; Sadaow, Lakkhana; Thanchomnang, Tongjit; Laymanivong, Sakhone; Maleewong, Wanchai; Yamasaki, Hiroshi

    2017-03-11

    Taenia saginata is a tapeworm found in cattle worldwide. Analysis of genetic diversity in different geographical populations of T. saginata not only helps to understand the origin, transmission and spread of this organism, but also to evaluate the selection pressures acting on T. saginata and how it is responding to them. However, there are few reports of the genetic variability of T. saginata populations in different regions of the world, including Lao PDR and Thailand. We report the genetic diversity of T. saginata populations in Lao PDR and northeastern Thailand together with sequences of T. saginata from other countries deposited in GenBank. Mitochondrial cox1 sequence analysis revealed that 15 and 8 haplotypes were identified in 30 and 21 T. saginata isolates from Lao PDR and northeastern Thailand, respectively. Fifty-three haplotypes were identified from 98 sequences. Phylogenetic tree and haplotype network analyses revealed that global isolates of T. saginata were genetically divided into five groups (A, B, C1, C2 and D). Taenia saginata isolates from Lao PDR and northeastern Thailand belonged to either Group A or B. Taenia saginata from western Thailand clustered in groups C1, C2 and D, and populations from the northeast and western Thailand were found to be genetically distinct. Taenia saginata isolates in Lao PDR and Thailand were also found to be genetically diverse but the degree of genetic differentiation was low. Taenia saginata populations from Lao PDR and northeastern Thailand are genetically distinct from the population in western Thailand and it is proposed that T. saginata has been dispersed by different transmission routes in Southeast Asia.

  13. Detection of taeniid (Taenia spp., Echinococcus spp. eggs contaminating vegetables and fruits sold in European markets and the risk for metacestode infections in captive primates

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    Karin Federer

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to frequent cases of alveolar echinococcosis (AE in captive primates in Europe, 141 samples of food, which consisting of vegetables and fruits, were investigated for contamination with egg-DNA of taeniids. Each sample consisted of at least 40 heads of lettuce as well as various vegetables and fruits. The samples were purchased at different times of the year: either from September to November (autumn, originating from greenhouses or fields in the Basel region in the North of Switzerland, or in April and May (spring when fruit and vegetables are sourced from throughout Europe from various wholesalers. Each sample was washed, and the washing water sieved through mesh apertures of 50 μm and 21 μm, respectively. The debris, including taeniid eggs, collected on the 21 μm sieve were investigated by a multiplex PCR-analysis followed by direct sequencing. In 17 (18% of the 95 samples collected in autumn, taeniid-DNA was detected (Taenia hydatigena in four, Taenia ovis in three, Taenia polyacantha in two and Hydatigera (Taenia taeniaeformis in five cases. Similarly, in 13 (28% of the 46 samples collected during spring taeniid-DNA was detected (Echinococcus granulosus s.l. in two, Taenia crassiceps in one, T. hydatigena in two, Taenia multiceps/Taenia serialis in two, Taenia saginata in one and H. taeniaeformis in five cases. Although DNA of Echinococcus multilocularis was not found specifically in this study, the detection of other fox taeniids reveals that vegetables and fruit fed to the primates at the Zoo Basel at different times of the year and from different origin are contaminated with carnivore's faeces and therefore act as a potential source of AE infections.

  14. [Environmental spread of Taenia proglottids: an atypical yet interesting public health problem in schools].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutto, M; Sapino, G; Giovanetti, F; Pellegrino, A

    2010-01-01

    We report herein a new case of teniasis caused by Taenia saginata (tapeworm) in a pediatric patient with done-on-purpose dispersion of proglottids happened in an elementary school inside the health district ASL CN-1. This new case highlights how teniasis in children is not as rare, as it is not so rare dispersal of proglottids in the environment, made on purpose, by the same subjects that have been parasitized. The environmental dispersion of proglottids is an important public health problem that requires a rapid and joint management of the problem aiming to identify the parasite as quickly as possible, given the different pathogenic larval stage of three species of tapeworm that can infest the man.

  15. Taenia crassiceps cysticercosis in a ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzón, Mónica; de la Fuente-López, Concepción; Martínez-Nevado, Eva; Fernández-Morán, Jesús; Ponce-Gordo, Francisco

    2010-06-01

    Subcutaneous and intraperitoneal cysticercosis due to Taenia crassiceps was diagnosed in a 5-yr-old male ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) in the Madrid Zoo-Aquarium (Madrid, Spain). Under laparoscopic examination, several septated fibrous cystic structures and numerous masses of small transparent vesicles (ca. 3 mm in diameter) were observed subcutaneously and inside the peritoneal cavity. Most of the structures were extirpated but, after 2 days of postsurgical intensive care, the animal died. The loss of body weight of the animal after surgical extirpation (566 g) represented 22% of the total weight (body weight before mass removal, 2582 g). The vesicles were identified under light microscopic examination as cysticerci and by molecular diagnosis as Cysticercus longicollis, the larval form of T. crassiceps. The present report represents the first detection of T. crassiceps in the prosimian genus Lemur.

  16. Prevalence of Echinococcus granulosus and Taenia hydatigena in caribou in north-central Canada

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    Donald C. Thomas

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available There are few data on the prevalence and infection intensity of parasites in large samples of caribou (Rangifer tarandus. Therefore, differences related to sex, age, and season are unknown. The effect of parasites on the health and condition of caribou also is poorly known. From 1980 through 1987, 1258 barren-ground caribou (R.t. groenlandicus were collected from the Beverly herd in north-central Canada. The prevalence in lungs of cysts of the hydatid tapeworm (Echinococcus granulosus increased significantly with age of caribou. Prevalence in females was 2% in the 2-5 year class and 8% in older individuals. Cysts were more prevalent in young females compared with young males. Reductions in physical condition and fecundity were not statistically significant. The prevalence of Taenia hydatigena cysts in livers increased significantly with age of host but not with sex and condition of the hosts. The use of parasite prevalence as an index of predation rate is discussed.

  17. Jacalin-unbound fraction of Taenia saginata in immunodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis in human cerebrospinal fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Nunes, Daniela; da Silva Ribeiro, Vanessa; Manhani, Marianna Nascimento; Costa-Cruz, Julia Maria

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate jacalin-bound fraction (JBF) and jacalin-unbound fraction (JUF) of the total saline extract from Taenia saginata metacestodes for human neurocysticercosis (NC) immunodiagnosis in cerebrospinal fluid. Total extract, JBF, and JUF were separated by affinity chromatography using Sepharose(®)-jacalin and were tested in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blotting (WB) to detect immunoglobulin G. In ELISA test, JUF showed the higher diagnostic efficiency and specificity indexes, 92% and 100%, respectively. In WB, 5 immunodominant proteins (39-42, 47-52, 64-68, 70, and 75 kDa) were detected when using JUF. In conclusion, the results achieved demonstrate that JUF, obtained from T. saginata metacestodes, are an important source of specific peptides and are efficient in the diagnosis of NC. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Seroprevalence of Taenia saginata cysticercosis in the federal state of Lower Saxony in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuseir, Sameh; Nagel-Kohl, Uschi; Probst, Dieter; Kühne, Michael; Epe, Christian; Doherr, Marcus G; Schnieder, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Based on ELISA results from randomly selected serum samples taken from 128 cattle from different administrative and urban districts in the federal state of Lower Saxony in Germany a seroprevalence estimate of Taenia saginata cysticercosis in this area was derived. This estimate was subsequently used to calculate the sample size required in an epidemiological study to determine the actual prevalence of this infection in the cattle population (n = 2 604 767) in this federal state. The sample size was calculated as 1518 and the samples were collected according to the distribution of cattle among the 48 administrative and urban districts in Lower Saxony. The samples were tested with an evaluated antibody ELISA. The results showed a positive antibody titre rate of 8.83% from the total tested samples.

  19. In vitro stressing factors altering the TCA cycle and morphology of Taenia crassiceps cysticerci

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    Marina Clare Vinaud

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the morphological and biochemical alterations of in vitro induced Taenia crassiceps cysticerci by the presence of glucose, insulin and praziquantel isolated and in association. Methods: The cysticerci were cultured for 24 h in supplemented Roswell Park Memorial Institute culture medium and added to two different concentrations of glucose, insulin and praziquantel. The morphometrical analysis was performed through the ImageJ programme, and the biochemical one through high-performance liquid chromatography. Results: The exposure to the stressing factors led to alterations in the morphology and decrease in the growth rate of the parasite. Conclusions: The metabolic effects are related to a decrease in the tricarboxylic acid cycle and fatty acids oxidation metabolites due to the drug’s mode of action. Interestingly, the praziquantel, insulin and glucose association enhanced the drug’s mode of action with a greater decrease of the tricarboxylic acid cycle metabolites.

  20. Identification of non-cerebral cyst: Zoonotic Taenia multiceps in domestic goat in Bangladesh

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    Mohammad Omer Faruk

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was performed to identify the non-cerebral Taenia multiceps cyst through molecular phylogeny of the 12S rRNA gene. Materials and Methods: Eight cyst samples were collected from 385 examined slaughtered goats during October 2015-September 2016 from three slaughterhouses in Chittagong City Corporation. Cysts were removed from the thigh muscle, and scolices were collected for light microscopic examination and molecular identification. The DNA was extracted and analyzed by polymerase chain reaction using 12S rRNA gene primers. Cyst samples were also preserved in 10% buffered formalin for histopathological study. Results: T. multiceps non-cerebral cyst is 2.1% prevalent in goat in this area. Under light microscopic examination, scolex was found with four suckers and a rostellum with the double crown of 32 hooks and hooklets. Molecularly, all the samples were amplified with 12S rRNA gene fragments yielded 270 base pair amplicon. Zenker's necrosis with focal to diffuse infiltration of lymphocytes and eosinophil was also found around the cyst wall in histopathological examination. Conclusion: Although the non-cerebral form of the cysts produced by T. multiceps is genetically identical with the cerebral cyst, previously published data indicated that cerebral T. multiceps cyst is predominant in other parts of the world as well as in Bangladesh. This study showed that non-cerebral cyst is also prevalent in this country which is very important for public health concern. This study depicts an idea of non-cerebral form of zoonotic T. multiceps cyst which will be helpful in taenia cyst control and prevention.

  1. Distribusi Cysticercus bovis Pada Sapi Bali Tiga Bulan Pasca Infeksi Telur Taenia saginata (DISTRIBUTION CYSTICERCUS BOVIS ON BALI CATTLE OF EXPERIMENTALLY INFECTED WITH TAENIA SAGINATA THREE MONTHS POST INFECTED

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    Putu Sita Paramita Diyani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Research has been conducted to infect the eggs of Taenia saginata in Bali cattle. This studyaims to determine the location and total distribution of Cysticercus bovis found in each of theselocations 3 months post-infection. This study uses one female Bali cattle, aged six months. TheBali cattle infected with Taenia saginata eggs 500.000 (isolates Bali. Cows was necropsied threemonths (103 days after infection. Number C. bovis found recorded along with the location and distribution grouped by organ and skeletal muscle infected. Data obtained in the form of numberand location of distribution is presented in a matter of percentages, then the data were analyzeddescriptively. The results showed that a total of 534 C. bovis were found, which are distributed tothe heart (13.7%, diaphragm (16.3%, anterior skeletal muscle (12.7%, posterior (19.1% and inthe head (38.2%.

  2. First record of Calodium hepaticum and Taenia taeniaeformis liver infection in wild Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus in Serbia

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    Kataranovski Milena

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The nematode Calodium hepaticum and the cestode Taenia taeniaeformis are zoonotic helminths primarly found in the liver of common wild rats. Most reports on these helminth species with cosmopolitan distribution are from Asia, and there is paucity of data for Europe. Wild Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus from urban and suburban habitats of the Belgrade area were examined for the presence of Calodium hepaticum and Taenia taeniaeformis larvae liver infections. The presence of visible cysts and a histomorphology of parasite-related inflammatory liver responses were sought as signs of infection. The total prevalence of infection was 10.9% (C. hepaticum and 29.9% (T. taeniaeformis, with no differences between the sexes. No difference in the annual prevalence of both helminth species was noted. Data obtained in this study provide new information relevant to wild Norway rats as sources of C. hepaticum and T. taeniaeformis liver infection in this geographic area, and, in a wider context, in Europe. .

  3. Expression and immunolocalisation of TpFABP as a candidate antigen for the serodiagnosis of rabbit Taenia pisiformis cysticercosis

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Deying; Chen, Lin; Xie, Yue; Wu, Xuhang; Nong, Xiang; Peng, Xi; Lai, Weimin; Gu, Xiaobin; Wang, Shuxian; Peng, Xuerong; Yang, Guangyou

    2013-01-01

    The larval stage of Taenia pisiformis, also known as Cysticercus pisiformis, is the causative agent of cysticercosis and the cause of severe health problems in rabbits that negatively impacts on husbandry production. To date, there is no fast detection method to identify early infections in rabbits. In the present study, a new dot-ELISA-based on an endogenous antigen fatty acid-binding protein (FABP) was developed for the detection of cysticercosis, and its potential was then evaluated using ...

  4. Egg positive rate of Enterobius vermicularis and Taenia spp. by cellophane tape method in primary school children in Sivas, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aciöz, Mehmet; Değerli, Serpil; Alim, Ahmet; Aygan, Çetin

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to find out the number of students with enterobiasis and/or taeniasis in primary schools of Sivas. Among the 2,029 students in 6 primary schools, 316 (15.6%) were positive to Enterobius vermicularis eggs and 32 (1.6%) were positive to Taenia spp. eggs by the cellophane tape method. The egg positive rates of E. vermicularis and Taenia spp. ranged from 9.4% to 27.2% and from 0.8% to 2.6% respectively among six schools. The egg positive rate of E. vermicularis was found to be significantly different among these schools (χ2 = 31.96, P 0.05). The rate (18.7%) of E. vermicularis in the urban slum regions was higher than the rate (11.5%) in the urban central regions (χ2 = 19.20; P < 0.05). Above results demonstrate that the egg positive rate of E. vermicularis and Taenia spp. was still prevalent among primary school children. PMID:15951641

  5. Is the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) a competent definitive host for Taenia multiceps?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varcasia, Antonio; Tamponi, Claudia; Tosciri, Gabriele; Pipia, Anna Paola; Dore, Francesco; Schuster, Rolf Karl; Kandil, Omnia Mohamed; Manunta, Maria Lucia; Scala, Antonio

    2015-09-25

    Shepherd and stray dogs are thought to represent the primary definitive hosts of Coenurosis by Taenia multiceps, due to their feeding habits which translate into high chances of coming into contact with infected intermediate hosts. Nonetheless, little attention has been paid to the role of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in the epidemiology of coenurosis. In fact a knowledge gap exists on the role played by red foxes in the epidemiology of Taenia multiceps and the capability of this parasite to produce fertile and viable eggs in this wild canid, i.e. on the occurrence of a sylvatic cycle. This study investigates the role of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in the epidemiology of T. multiceps and related metacestodoses. The small intestine of 63 red foxes was macroscopically examined for the presence of cestodes. Adult parasites were identified morphologically as being T. multiceps. Tapeworm eggs were counted and stored at 4 °C in physiological saline solution prior to experimental infection of four sheep and one goat. Sheep were inoculated orally on Day 0 with 3000 (sheep 1), 5000 (sheep 2 and 3) or 7000 eggs (sheep 4), while the goat was infected with 5000 eggs of T. multiceps. The animals were followed-up regularly by MRI and underwent surgical treatment between days 180 to day 240 post infection. Collected coenuri were identified using morphological and molecular methods. A total of 6.3 % of red foxes were found infected with T. multiceps and the eggs obtained from the worms were determined to have a viability of 45.4 %. Two of the challenged sheep and the goat developed disease compatible with T. multiceps. Morphometrical features of the cysts were consistent with those of T. multiceps; nucleotide amplification and sequencing of mitochondrial genes (i.e., cox1 and Nd1) from the metacestode material confirmed the identification. The present study is the first to provide evidence of the role of the red fox as a competent definitive host for T. multiceps, thus changing

  6. Acute intestinal obstruction due to taenia saginata infestation: a case report

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    Soleimani A

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1":*{behavior:url(#ieooui } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Infection with Taenia saginata or taeniasis is an uncommon parasitic infection in Iran with a prevalence rate of 2-3% and it is more seen in the northern parts of the country. Epigastric pain, nervousness, dizziness, nausea and loss of appetite may be the only presenting symptoms but secondary appendicitis, acute intestinal obstruction and necrosis of the pancreas are its serious and rare complications."n"nCase presentation : A 62-year old woman was admitted to Imam Khomeini Hospital with signs of acute abdomen. She had a past history of infection with hydatid cyst and its subsequent surgery, eight years ago. At the time of admission, she suffered from persistent abdominal pain and loss of appetite for two years. Despite having the epidemiological evidence of working along the banks of rivers contaminated with human sewage and working on farms fertilized with human waste and presence of signs hinting at the disease, parasitic infection had not been considered in its diagnosis."n"nConclusion: Although signs and symptoms of taeniasis are non-specific but a complete history, physical examination and detailed patient notes, especially by considering epidemiological factors, are

  7. Effects of thymol on the electrical and mechanical properties of the guinea-pig taenia coli

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    Ito, Y.; Kuriyama, H.

    1974-01-01

    Effects of thymol (0·02-2 mM) on the electrical and mechanical activities of the smooth muscle cells of the guinea-pig taenia coli were investigated with either micro-electrode or double sucrose gap methods. 1. Thymol, in a concentration of more than 0·03 mM, reduced the amplitude and maximum rate of rise of the spikes without any change of the membrane potential. When the concentration was increased to 0·3 mM, thymol completely blocked the spontaneous and evoked spike activities. In a concentration of more than 0·1 mM, thymol reduced the membrane resistance in proportion to the concentration without any change of the membrane potential. 2. Ionic mechanisms involved in the effects of thymol on the membrane resistance were investigated in various ionic environments. The results showed that in concentrations below 0·5 mM thymol might selectively increase the Cl-conductance of the membrane. Participations of Na and K ion in the effects of thymol on the membrane resistance could be eliminated. However, at more than 1 mM, thymol increased the membrane conductance non-selectively. Excess Ca in the external solution partly suppressed the action of thymol on the taenia coli. 3. Potentiation of the twitch tension was not observed on treatment with any concentration of thymol. 4. After pre-treatment with thymol (0·5 mM), isotonic K Krebs solution depolarized the membrane and reduced the membrane resistance as observed in the absence of thymol. However, thymol completely suppressed the K-induced contracture. 5. Application of excess Ca and acetylcholine during the maintained contracture evoked by isotonic K Krebs solution induced further development of the contracture. However, on pre-treatment with thymol, neither excess Ca nor acetylcholine could evoke a mechanical response in isotonic K Krebs solution. 6. The results obtained from the present experiments are discussed in relation to the roles of Ca on the smooth muscle cells. PMID:4818488

  8. EXPERIMENTAL SUBCUTANEOUS CYSTICERCOSIS BY Taenia crassiceps IN BALB/c AND C57BL/6 MICE

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    Íria Márcia PEREIRA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY Human cysticercosis is one of the most severe parasitic infections affecting tissues. Experimental models are needed to understand the host-parasite dynamics involved throughout the course of the infection. The subcutaneous experimental model is the closest to what is observed in human cysticercosis that does not affect the central nervous system. The aim of this study was to evaluate macroscopically and microscopically the experimental subcutaneous cysticercosis caused by Taenia crassiceps cysticerci in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. Animals were inoculated in the dorsal subcutaneous region and macroscopic and microscopic aspects of the inflammatory process in the host-parasite interface were evaluated until 90 days after the inoculation (DAI. All the infected animals presented vesicles containing cysticerci in the inoculation site, which was translucent at 7 DAI and then remained opaque throughout the experimental days. The microscopic analysis showed granulation tissue in BALB/c mice since the acute phase of infection evolving to chronicity without cure, presenting 80% of larval stage cysticerci at 90 DAI. While C57BL/6 mice presented 67% of final stage cysticerci at 90 DAI, the parasites were surrounded by neutrophils evolving to the infection control. It is possible to conclude that the genetic features of susceptibility (BALB/c or resistance (C57BL/6 were confirmed in an experimental subcutaneous model of cysticercosis.

  9. Taenia crassiceps Infection Attenuates Multiple Low-Dose Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes

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    Arlett Espinoza-Jiménez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Taenia crassiceps, like other helminths, can exert regulatory effects on the immune system of its host. This study investigates the effect of chronic T. crassiceps infection on the outcome of Multiple Low Dose Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes (MLDS. Healthy or previously T. crassiceps-infected mice received MLDS and type 1 diabetes (T1D symptoms were evaluated for 6 weeks following the induction of MLDS. T. crassiceps-infected mice displayed lower blood glucose levels throughout the study. A significantly lower percentage of T. crassiceps-infected mice (40% developed T1D compared to the uninfected group (100%. Insulitis was remarkably absent in T. crassiceps-infected mice, which had normal pancreatic insulin content, whereas uninfected mice showed a dramatic reduction in pancreatic insulin. Infected mice that received MLDS did not show an increase in their regulatory T cell population, however, they had a greater number of alternatively activated macrophages, higher levels of the cytokine IL-4, and lower levels of TNF-α. Therefore, infection with T. crassiceps causes an immunomodulation that modifies the incidence and development of MLDS-induced autoimmune diabetes.

  10. An epidemiological survey on the determination of Taenia saginata cysticercosis in Iran, using a PCR assay.

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    Hosseinzadeh, S; Setayesh, A; Shekarforoush, S S; Fariman, S H

    2013-04-27

    Bovine cysticercosis caused by Taenia saginata is a zoonotic disease affirming routine inspection measures for the postmortem detection of cysticerci (cysts) in beef destined for human consumption. Detection is based on gross examination of traditional carcase predilection sites; although there is evidence to suggest that examination of other sites may offer improvements in sensitivity. In the current study, a biomolecular-based assay was employed to confirm and differentiate T saginata cysticercosis from other comparable parasitic infection in cattle carcases. Out of 7371 cattle carcases routinely inspected, 72 (0.97 per cent) were initially detected, from which 57 (79.16 per cent), 11(15.27 per cent) and 4 (5.55 per cent) were recorded in masseter muscle, heart and diaphragm, respectively. The PCR assay was also conducted to confirm different stages of the cysts, being able to detect the cyst, and to discriminate its various degenerative stages with other parasitic structures. The technique was proposed as a reliable tool to differentiate the cysticerci and, thus, could be used in further epidemiological studies as there was no difference in view of negative PCR results in lesions found by routine inspection.

  11. Experimental Infection of Taenia saginata eggs in Bali Cattle: Distribution and Density of Cysticercus bovis

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    Nyoman Sadra Dharmawan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to observe the development, distribution, and infection density ofTaenia saginata metacestodes in Bali cattle. Three Bali cattle were experimentally infected with T. saginataeggs which were collected from taeniasis patients. The experimental animal was inoculated with : i1000,00 T. saginata; ii 500,000 eggs; and iii 1,000,000 eggs, respectivelly 100,000 (cattle 1, 500,000(cattle 2, and 1,000,000 (cattle 3 T. saginata eggs, respectively. To observe the development of cysticerci,all cattle were slaughtered at 24 weeks post infection. To observe their distribution and density, slicingwas done to the cattle?s tissues. The study results showed that cysts were found distributed to all muscletissues and some visceral organs such as heart, diaphragm, lungs, and kidney of the cattle infected with100,000 and 500,000 T. saginata eggs. Density of the cyst was in the range of 11 to 95 cysts per 100 gramsof tissue. The highest density was noted in the heart (58/100 grams and in diaphragm (55/100 grams.This study has confirmed that T. saginata eggs derived from taeniasis patient in Bali, if infected to Balicattle can develop and spread to all muscle tissues and some visceral organs. From this study it wasconcluded that it is necessary to include the heart in the meat inspection at slaughter house for possibilityof T. saginata cyst infection.$?

  12. Relevant peptides of Taenia crassiceps for the diagnosis of bovine cysticercosis by immunoblot

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    L.F. Silva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Given the limited knowledge about the diagnosis of bovine cysticercosis by immunoblot, the aim of this study was to assess the applicability of this test, identifying key peptides with diagnostic value. Immunoblot assays were performed using total larval antigen of Taenia crassiceps and 60 sera of positive bovines for cysticercosis (30 naturally and 30 experimentally infected with T. saginata eggs, 30 sera of negative bovines for cysticercosis and 30 sera of bovines with other diseases (fascioliasis, hydatidosis and tuberculosis. The peptides of greater diagnostic importance, in descending order of accuracy (%, were as follows: 6-8kDa (90.8%, 129-143kDa (74.2%, 99-105kDa (71.7% and 14-19kDa (71.1%. Cross-reactions, due to fascioliasis and hydatidosis, were observed in the four intervals of peptides highlighted. The results demonstrate that the total antigen of T. crassiceps has peptides with a high diagnostic potential; therefore, the immunoblot is useful in the diagnosis of bovine cysticercosis.

  13. Effect of ensilation of potato on viability of Taenia hydatigena eggs.

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    Buttar, Birpal S; Nelson, Mark L; Busboom, Jan R; Hancock, Dale D; Walsh, Douglas B; Jasmer, Douglas P

    2013-04-01

    A Taenia hydatigena model was used to assess the effect 0, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days of ensilation of minced potato on viability of tapeworm eggs. For infection of lambs, 2,000 T. hydatigena eggs were ensiled for 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days in minced potato at 22°C and fed to recently weaned lambs (29.9±0.76 kg). At slaughter, no cysticerci were recovered from lambs infected with eggs ensiled for 28 days while a mean of 5.0±5.0 cysticerci (0.25% of the initial egg dose) were recovered from lambs infected with eggs ensiled for 21 days. For lambs fed eggs ensiled for 0 days (control), 359.3±55.6 cysticerci were recovered (18.0% of the initial egg dose). Regression analysis revealed that a 99.9% reduction in viability was attained after 18.59 days of ensilation. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Molecular cloing and bioinformatics analysis of lactate dehydrogenase from Taenia multiceps.

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    Guo, Cheng; Wang, Yu; Huang, Xing; Wang, Ning; Yan, Ming; He, Ran; Gu, Xiaobin; Xie, Yue; Lai, Weimin; Jing, Bo; Peng, Xuerong; Yang, Guangyou

    2017-10-01

    Coenurus cerebralis, the larval stage (metacestode or coenurus) of Taenia multiceps, parasitizes sheep, goats, and other ruminants and causes coenurosis. In this study, we isolated and characterized complementary DNAs that encode lactate dehydrogenase A (Tm-LDHA) and B (Tm-LDHB) from the transcriptome of T. multiceps and expressed recombinant Tm-LDHB (rTm-LDHB) in Escherichia coli. Bioinformatic analysis showed that both Tm-LDH genes (LDHA and LDHB) contain a 996-bp open reading frame and encode a protein of 331 amino acids. After determination of the immunogenicity of the recombinant Tm-LDHB, an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed for preliminary evaluation of the serodiagnostic potential of rTm-LDHB in goats. However, the rTm-LDHB-based indirect ELISA developed here exhibited specificity of only 71.42% (10/14) and sensitivity of 1:3200 in detection of goats infected with T. multiceps in the field. This study is the first to describe LDHA and LDHB of T. multiceps; meanwhile, our results indicate that rTm-LDHB is not a specific antigen candidate for immunodiagnosis of T. multiceps infection in goats.

  15. Complete mitochondrial genomes of Taenia multiceps, T. hydatigena and T. pisiformis: additional molecular markers for a tapeworm genus of human and animal health significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Mitochondrial genomes provide a rich source of molecular variation of proven and widespread utility in molecular ecology, population genetics and evolutionary biology. The tapeworm genus Taenia includes a diversity of tapeworm parasites of significant human and veterinary importance. Here we add complete sequences of the mt genomes of T. multiceps, T. hydatigena and T. pisiformis, to a data set of 4 published mtDNAs in the same genus. Seven complete mt genomes of Taenia species are used to compare and contrast variation within and between genomes in the genus, to estimate a phylogeny for the genus, and to develop novel molecular markers as part of an extended mitochondrial toolkit. Results The complete circular mtDNAs of T. multiceps, T. hydatigena and T. pisiformis were 13,693, 13,492 and 13,387 bp in size respectively, comprising the usual complement of flatworm genes. Start and stop codons of protein coding genes included those found commonly amongst other platyhelminth mt genomes, but the much rarer initiation codon GTT was inferred for the gene atp6 in T. pisiformis. Phylogenetic analysis of mtDNAs offered novel estimates of the interrelationships of Taenia. Sliding window analyses showed nad6, nad5, atp6, nad3 and nad2 are amongst the most variable of genes per unit length, with the highest peaks in nucleotide diversity found in nad5. New primer pairs capable of amplifying fragments of variable DNA in nad1, rrnS and nad5 genes were designed in silico and tested as possible alternatives to existing mitochondrial markers for Taenia. Conclusions With the availability of complete mtDNAs of 7 Taenia species, we have shown that analysis of amino acids provides a robust estimate of phylogeny for the genus that differs markedly from morphological estimates or those using partial genes; with implications for understanding the evolutionary radiation of important Taenia. Full alignment of the nucleotides of Taenia mtDNAs and sliding window analysis suggests

  16. Immunological methods for diagnosing neurocysticercosis

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    Kuhn, R.E.; Estrada, J.J.; Grogl, M.

    1989-01-31

    A method is described for diagnosing active human neurocysticercosis by detecting the presence of at least one Taenia solium larval antigen in cerebrospinal fluid, which comprises: contacting cerebrospinal fluid from a human to be diagnosed with a solid support, wherein the support binds with a Taenia solium larval antigen if present, contacting the support with a first antibody, wherein the first antibody binds with a larval Taenia solium antigen if present in the cerebrospinal fluid, contacting the solid support with a detectable second antibody which will bind with the first antibody, and detecting the second antibody bound to the support.

  17. Development of a direct PCR assay to detect Taenia multiceps eggs isolated from dog feces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Wang, Yu; Ye, Qinghua; Yang, Yingdong; Wan, Jie; Guo, Cheng; Zhan, Jiafei; Gu, Xiaobin; Lai, Weimin; Xie, Yue; Peng, Xuerong; Yang, Guangyou

    2018-02-15

    Taenia multiceps is a tapeworm that leads to the death of livestock, resulting in major economic losses worldwide. The adult stage of this parasite invades the small intestine of dogs and other canids. In the present study, we developed a direct PCR assay to detect T. multiceps eggs isolated from dog feces to help curb further outbreaks. The genomic DNA was rapidly released using a lysis buffer and the PCR reaction was developed to amplify a 433-bp fragment of the T. multiceps mitochondrial gene encoding NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5 (nad5) from eggs isolated from dog feces. The procedure could be completed within 3 h, including flotation. The sensitivity of the assay was determined by detecting DNA from defined numbers of eggs, and the specificity was determined by detecting DNA from other intestinal tapeworm and roundworm species that commonly infect dogs. In addition, 14 taeniid-positive fecal samples determined by the flotation technique were collected and further evaluated by the regular PCR and our direct PCR. The results showed that the direct PCR developed herein was sensitive enough to detect the DNA from as few as 10 T. multiceps eggs and that no cross-reactions with other tapeworm and roundworm were observed, suggesting its high sensitivity and specificity for T. multiceps detection. Moreover, 14 taeniid-positive samples were screened by the regular PCR and direct PCR, with detection rates of 78.6% and 85.7%, respectively. In conclusion, the direct PCR assay developed in the present study has high sensitivity and specificity to identify T. multiceps eggs isolated from dog feces and therefore could represent an invaluable tool to identify T. multiceps outbreaks and would contribute to future clinical applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Repeatability of standard metabolic rate (SMR) in a small fish, the spined loach (Cobitis taenia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciak, Sebastian; Konarzewski, Marek

    2010-10-01

    Significant repeatability of a trait of interest is an essential assumption for undertaking studies of phenotypic variability. It is especially important in studies on highly variable traits, such as metabolic rates. Recent publications suggest that resting/basal metabolic rate of homeotherms is repeatable across wide range of species. In contrast, studies on the consistency of standard metabolic rate (SMR) in ectotherms, particularly fish, are scarce. Here we present a comprehensive analysis of several important technical aspects of body mass-corrected SMR measurements and its repeatability in a small (average weight approximately 3g) fish, the spined loach (Cobitis taenia). First we demonstrated that release of oxygen from the walls of metabolic chambers exposed to hypoxic conditions did not confound SMR measurements. Next, using principle of propagation of measurement uncertainties we demonstrated that in aquatic systems, measurement error is significantly higher in open than closed respirometry setups. The measurement error for SMR of a small fish determined in a closed aquatic system is comparable to that obtainable using top-notch open-flow systems used for air-breathing terrestrial animals. Using a closed respirometer we demonstrated that body mass-corrected SMR in spined loaches was repeatable under both normoxia and hypoxia over a 5-month period (Pearson correlation r=0.68 and r=0.73, respectively) as well as across both conditions (intraclass correlation coefficient tau=0.30). In these analyses we accounted for possible effect of oxygen consumption of the oxygen electrode on repeatability of SMR. Significant SMR consistency was accompanied by significant repeatability of body mass (intraclass correlation coefficient tau=0.86). To our knowledge, this is the first study showing long-term repeatability of body mass and SMR in a small fish, and is consistent with the existence of heritable variation of these two traits. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The prevalence of Taenia saginata cysticercosis in the Matabeleland Provinces of Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sungirai, Marvelous; Masaka, Lawrence; Mbiba, Clifton

    2014-04-01

    Records were collected for Taenia saginata cysticercosis infections in cattle slaughtered at the Cold Storage Company Abattoir in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe, between January 2006 and December 2007. The cattle were drawn from the two Matabeleland provinces in the dry western and southern parts of the country. A total of 86,080 cattle were slaughtered during the period. The average prevalence of T. saginata cysticercosis was found to be 1.6% (n = 1 364) with Matabeleland North having a higher prevalence of 2.8% (n = 629) and Matabeleland South 1.2% (n = 735). There were no significant seasonal differences (p > 0.05) in incidences of T. saginata cysticercosis during the study although numerically, the prevalence of T. saginata cysticercosis was higher in the wet season. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) in the prevalence of T. saginata cysticercosis in different age classes of cattle slaughtered. Of the infected carcasses, a great proportion of these had live cysts (1.4%) while few had dead cysts (0.2%). Most of the cattle condemned were below the age of 2 years and some were full adults (p saginata cysticercosis with most infections being observed in the communal farming system. Though the prevalence of T. saginata cysticercosis appears to be low, there is a need to conscientize the farmers to avoid losses due to carcasses condemnation at slaughter houses which will have a negative financial impact to the individual farmer. There is also a need to investigate such cases even further to reduce zoonotic consequences due to the undetected cases in communal areas.

  20. Clinico-pathological studies in cattle experimentally infected with Taenia saginata eggs : research communication

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    A. Oryan

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Calves 1-2 months old were experimentally infected with eggs of Taenia saginata and clinical and haematological deviations, development and distribution of cysticerci and pathological changes were recorded. The calves infected with 5 000, 10 000 or 50 000 eggs showed an increase in pulse and respiratory rates. The animals that received 50 000 eggs had significantly increased pulse (p<0.05 and respiratory rates (p<0.005. The symptoms were more severe in young, 30-day-old calves infected with 50 000 eggs. Haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit values and red blood cell count decreased, but white blood cell count increased slightly. Lymphocytes and eosinophils also increased up to 88%and 14% (p<0.05, respectively. Most of the cysticerci were not fully formed 1 month post-infection, but at 2 months the cysts were fully mature and at 4 months, some cysts had degenerated. There was no uniformpattern of distribution of cysticerci in the body of infected calves, but the most commonly affected sites were masseter and heart muscles, followed by diaphragm, tongue and other skeletal muscles. The maximum concentration of 8-14 cysticerci per 10 g of tissue was recorded in masseter muscles and heart. The affected parts revealed tissue reactions that included pressure atrophy, necrosis and fibrosis. Microscopically, the lesions comprised infiltration with lymphocytes, plasma cells, eosinophils and macrophages, fibrosis, necrosis and calcification. The tissue reaction was severe in calves infected with 50 000 eggs. The severity of clinical signs, haematological and pathological changes depended mostly on the age of the animals and dose of infection.

  1. Development and field evaluation of a new serological test for Taenia saginata cysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunremi, Oladele; Benjamin, Jane

    2010-04-19

    Cattle infected with the tapeworm cyst, Taenia saginata metacestode (synonym: Cysticercus bovis) are a source of human infection if affected beef is eaten raw or undercooked. Control measures targeted at individual cattle rather than all animals in a T. saginata-exposed herd should help reduce costs and alleviate current constraints associated with managing an outbreak. To that end, we have developed a reliable diagnostic test for use in live animals that would enable veterinary regulators to focus disease control strategies. The test detects bovine anti-T. saginata immunoglobulin G1 antibodies using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) which relies on the excretory-secretory antigens of T. saginata. Animals were inoculated with 10, 100 or 1000 viable T. saginata eggs in order to simulate the parasite burden of field-infected animals (parasite load=1-86; n=28). By testing sera obtained from the inoculated animals 84 days post-inoculation, test sensitivity was estimated to be 92.9% (95% confidence interval or CI=83.4-100.0%). Another 17 animals inoculated with 5000 or 10,000 viable eggs of T. saginata and shown to harbour metacestodes at post-mortem, all tested positive in the ELISA. Test specificity estimated from a herd of field animals with no historical, epidemiological, or post-mortem evidence of infection was 90.6% (95% CI=87.0-94.2%; n=256 field cattle). Using the test on samples (n=347) from a T. saginata-infected feedlot, the Bayesian approach estimate of seroprevalence was 4.6% (95% probability intervals=0.5-10.3%). The test performance characteristics of the ELISA suggest that it will be adequate for field application in bovine cysticercosis outbreaks.

  2. Development of a biomolecular assay for postmortem diagnosis of Taenia saginata Cysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiesa, Francesco; Dalmasso, Alessandra; Bellio, Alberto; Martinetti, Manuela; Gili, Stefano; Civera, Tiziana

    2010-10-01

    Bovine cysticercosis is caused by the larval stage of the human tapeworm Taenia saginata. According to European data on meat inspection, the prevalence ranges from 0.007% to 6.8%, but the real prevalence is considered to be at least 10 times higher. Laboratory confirmation of the etiological agent is based on gross, stereomicroscopic, and histological examination of submitted specimens. False identifications may occur, possibly because of death and degeneration of cysts, or because taeniid larvae and other tissue parasites, such as Sarcocystis spp., may cause similar macroscopic morphological lesions. Therefore, tests that can warrant sure identification of taeniid lesions and calcified cysts in the muscle are needed. The focus of our study was to develop a suitable postmortem test that could be applied on putative lesions by T. saginata cysticerci, as ambiguously diagnosed after routine meat inspection. In particular, we proposed a biomolecular assay targeting the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene (COI). For developing the polymerase chain reaction assay, viable cysts of Cysticercus bovis (n = 10) were used as positive reference samples, and those of Echinococcus granulosus (n = 3), Cysticercus tenuicollis (n = 3), and Sarcocystis spp. (n = 4) as reference negative controls. Further, to evaluate the applicability of the proposed assay, 171 samples of bovine muscular tissue, obtained from local slaughterhouses and containing lesions recognized as T. saginata cysticerci by macroscopic examination, were tested. The proposed test confirmed the diagnosis at postmortem inspection in 94.7% (162/171) of samples. In conclusion, the assay developed in this study, amplifying a short fragment from the mitochondrial gene COI, showed to be suitable for samples containing both viable and degenerating T. saginata cysticerci, yielding an unequivocal diagnosis.

  3. Taenia crassiceps Antigens Control Experimental Type 1 Diabetes by Inducing Alternatively Activated Macrophages

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    Arlett Espinoza-Jiménez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 1 diabetes (T1D is an autoimmune disease caused by the selective destruction of the pancreatic β-cells, causing inability to produce insulin. Proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-12, IL-17, and NO can be released by CD4 and CD8+ lymphocytes as well as by classically activated macrophages (CAMϕs, which are important in the development of T1D. Helminth infections have been shown to prevent T1D, mainly through Th2-biased responses and increased recruitment of regulatory cell populations. Previously, we have shown that Taenia crassiceps infection in mice significantly reduces hyperglycemia, insulitis, and the incidence of T1D. In this study, we determined whether T. crassiceps-derived products such as soluble (TcS or excreted/secreted (TcES antigens might have a beneficial influence on the development of experimental T1D. Treatment with different doses before or after induction of T1D was analyzed. Mice that were pretreated with TcS were unable to develop T1D, whereas those receiving TcES early after T1D induction displayed significantly reduced insulitis and hyperglycemia along with increased recruitment of alternatively activated macrophages (AAMϕs and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs. Finally, we examined the modulatory role of AAMϕs on T1D by depleting macrophages with clodronate-loaded liposomes, demonstrating that AAMϕs are key cells in T1D regulation.

  4. Androgens Exert a Cysticidal Effect upon Taenia crassiceps by Disrupting Flame Cell Morphology and Function.

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    Javier R Ambrosio

    Full Text Available The effects of testosterone (T4 and dihydrotestosterone (DHT on the survival of the helminth cestode parasite Taenia crassiceps, as well as their effects on actin, tubulin and myosin expression and their assembly into the excretory system of flame cells are described in this paper. In vitro evaluations on parasite viability, flow cytometry, confocal microscopy, video-microscopy of live flame cells, and docking experiments of androgens interacting with actin, tubulin, and myosin were conducted. Our results show that T4 and DHT reduce T. crassiceps viability in a dose- and time-dependent fashion, reaching 90% of mortality at the highest dose used (40 ng/ml and time exposed (10 days in culture. Androgen treatment does not induce differences in the specific expression pattern of actin, tubulin, and myosin isoforms as compared with control parasites. Confocal microscopy demonstrated a strong disruption of the parasite tegument, with reduced assembly, shape, and motion of flame cells. Docking experiments show that androgens are capable of affecting parasite survival and flame cell morphology by directly interacting with actin, tubulin and myosin without altering their protein expression pattern. We show that both T4 and DHT are able to bind actin, tubulin, and myosin affecting their assembly and causing parasite intoxication due to impairment of flame cell function. Live flame cell video microscopy showing a reduced motion as well changes in the shape of flame cells are also shown. In summary, T4 and DHT directly act on T. crassiceps cysticerci through altering parasite survival as well as the assembly and function of flame cells.

  5. Androgens Exert a Cysticidal Effect upon Taenia crassiceps by Disrupting Flame Cell Morphology and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosio, Javier R.; Valverde-Islas, Laura; Nava-Castro, Karen E.; Palacios- Arreola, M. Isabel; Ostoa-Saloma, Pedro; Reynoso-Ducoing, Olivia; Escobedo, Galileo; Ruíz-Rosado, Azucena; Dominguez-Ramírez, Lenin; Morales-Montor, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    The effects of testosterone (T4) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) on the survival of the helminth cestode parasite Taenia crassiceps, as well as their effects on actin, tubulin and myosin expression and their assembly into the excretory system of flame cells are described in this paper. In vitro evaluations on parasite viability, flow cytometry, confocal microscopy, video-microscopy of live flame cells, and docking experiments of androgens interacting with actin, tubulin, and myosin were conducted. Our results show that T4 and DHT reduce T. crassiceps viability in a dose- and time-dependent fashion, reaching 90% of mortality at the highest dose used (40 ng/ml) and time exposed (10 days) in culture. Androgen treatment does not induce differences in the specific expression pattern of actin, tubulin, and myosin isoforms as compared with control parasites. Confocal microscopy demonstrated a strong disruption of the parasite tegument, with reduced assembly, shape, and motion of flame cells. Docking experiments show that androgens are capable of affecting parasite survival and flame cell morphology by directly interacting with actin, tubulin and myosin without altering their protein expression pattern. We show that both T4 and DHT are able to bind actin, tubulin, and myosin affecting their assembly and causing parasite intoxication due to impairment of flame cell function. Live flame cell video microscopy showing a reduced motion as well changes in the shape of flame cells are also shown. In summary, T4 and DHT directly act on T. crassiceps cysticerci through altering parasite survival as well as the assembly and function of flame cells. PMID:26076446

  6. First report of Taenia arctos (Cestoda: Taeniidae) from grizzly (Ursus arctos horribilis) and black bears (Ursus americanus) in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, Stefano; Lejeune, Manigandan; Verocai, Guilherme G; Duignan, Pádraig J

    2014-04-01

    The cestode Taenia arctos was found at necropsy in the small intestine of a grizzly (Ursus arctos horribilis) and a black bear (Ursus americanus) from Kananaskis Country in southwestern Alberta, Canada. The autolysis of the tapeworm specimens precluded detailed morphological characterization of the parasites but molecular analysis based on mitochondrial DNA cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene confirmed their identity as T. arctos. This is the first report of T. arctos from definitive hosts in North America. Its detection in Canadian grizzly and black bears further supports the Holarctic distribution of this tapeworm species and its specificity for ursids as final hosts. Previously, T. arctos was unambiguously described at its adult stage in brown bears (Ursus arctos arctos) from Finland, and as larval stages in Eurasian elk (Alces alces) from Finland and moose (Alces americanus) from Alaska, USA. Given the morphological similarity between T. arctos and other Taenia species, the present study underlines the potential for misidentification of tapeworm taxa in previous parasitological reports from bears and moose across North America. The biogeographical history of both definitive and intermediate hosts in the Holarctic suggests an ancient interaction between U. arctos, Alces spp., and T. arctos, and a relatively recent host-switching event in U. americanus. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Genetic diversity of Taenia asiatica from Thailand and other geographical locations as revealed by cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anantaphruti, Malinee Thairungroj; Thaenkham, Urusa; Watthanakulpanich, Dorn; Phuphisut, Orawan; Maipanich, Wanna; Yoonuan, Tippayarat; Nuamtanong, Supaporn; Pubampen, Somjit; Sanguankiat, Surapol

    2013-02-01

    Twelve 924 bp cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) mitochondrial DNA sequences from Taenia asiatica isolates from Thailand were aligned and compared with multiple sequence isolates from Thailand and 6 other countries from the GenBank database. The genetic divergence of T. asiatica was also compared with Taenia saginata database sequences from 6 different countries in Asia, including Thailand, and 3 countries from other continents. The results showed that there were minor genetic variations within T. asiatica species, while high intraspecies variation was found in T. saginata. There were only 2 haplotypes and 1 polymorphic site found in T. asiatica, but 8 haplotypes and 9 polymorphic sites in T. saginata. Haplotype diversity was very low, 0.067, in T. asiatica and high, 0.700, in T. saginata. The very low genetic diversity suggested that T. asiatica may be at a risk due to the loss of potential adaptive alleles, resulting in reduced viability and decreased responses to environmental changes, which may endanger the species.

  8. Chromosomal study of two fish species: Cobitis (C. taenia, Nemachilus tigris and Gambusia Affinis in the Orontes river

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Roukbi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Research was done during the period (October 2009 to September 2010, aiming to identify two species of Cobitis (Cobitis taenia and Nemachilus tigris belonging to Cobitidae and Gambusia affnis by using karyotype examination. Fish specimens were caught alive from the river Orontes drainage and its tributaries in Idlib and Hama departments by routine fishing gears, and submitted Colchcine treatment in Aleppo agricultural research center, General commission for Scientific Agricultural research which included an incubating in Colchicine medium (0.06% for 2.5 -3 hours. Fishes were chopped and placed in hypotonic 0.4% KCl solution for 30 min. Afterwards, tissues were fixed in fresh Carnoy solution (3 parts methanol: 1 part glacial acetic acid. Cell suspension was dropped onto slides, dried and then stained in 4% Giemsa solution. Chromosome spreads on microscope slides were examined and several metaphase plates were selected and photographed. Chromosomes of fish studied were grouping into series, i. e., meta-submetacentric and subtelocentric-acrocentric elements, and aligned serially from the larger to smaller, karyograms were constructed and chromosomal formulas and the number of arms were established, as following: Cobitis taenia: 2n=50=14m/sm+36t/st (NF=64, Nemachilus tigris: 2n=50=12m/sm+38t/st (NF=62, Gambusia affinis (female: 2n=48=1m+2sm+45t/st(NF=51, Gambusia affinis(males: 2n=48=2m+46t (NF=50(. A

  9. An epidemiological analysis of factors influencing the increase in Taenia ovis prevalence during the New Zealand Echinococcus granulosus control program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burridge, M J; Schwabe, C W

    1977-08-01

    There was an 8-fold increase in the national prevalence of Taenia ovis in dogs during the first decade of the New Zealand hydatid disease control program. The temporal patterns in the prevalence of T. ovis were similar in both rural working dogs and urban pet dogs, with the highest prevalence found in the sheep farming areas. The dramatic increase in the prevalence of T. ovis was a reflection of the change in source of food for many working dogs, from the traditional raw viscera to carcase meat of sheep, a change necessitated by hydatid disease control. Other factors influencing the rise in prevalence of T. ovis in rural dogs were investigated using stepwise multiple regression techniques. The results of the regression analyses suggested that the rate of increase in the prevalence of T. ovis was influenced by 4 major factors: Taenia hydatigena variables (initial prevalence and rate of progress in control), an ethnic variable (Maori proportion in local population), canine variables (numbers of dogs per farm and per owner), and animal husbandry variables (pasture type, sheep density and numbers of sheep per farm). The results were discussed in the light of present knowledge of the epidemiology and immunology of the taeniid cestodes.

  10. DNA extraction in Echinococcus granulosus and Taenia spp. eggs in dogs stool samples applying thermal shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Alejandro; Melo, Angélica; Romero, Fernando; Hidalgo, Víctor; Villanueva, José; Fonseca-Salamanca, Flery

    2018-02-01

    The extraction of DNA in taeniid eggs shows complications attached to the composition of stool samples and the high resistance of eggs to degradation. The objective of this study was to test a method of DNA extraction in taeniid eggs by applying a thermal shock to facilitate the chemical-enzymatic degradation of these elements. A group of six tubes containing 1 ml of dog stool sample was spiked with eggs of Echinococcus granulosus and another group of six with Taenia pisiformis. Samples were floated with supersaturated sugar solution and centrifuged. The upper portion of each tube (500 μl) was aspirated and deposited in 1.5 ml tubes. Three tubes from each group were incubated at -20 °C and then at 90 °C, the remaining three from each group, incubated at room temperature. Proteinase K and lysis buffer were added to each tube and incubated for 12 h at 58 °C. The lysis effect was evaluated by microscopy at 3, 6 and 12 h and integrity by electrophoresis in 1% agarose gels. With the same experimental scheme, the thermal shock effect was evaluated in extractions of 1, 2, 3 and 4 eggs of each species and the DNA was quantified. Additionally, the protocol was applied in samples of 4 dogs diagnosed with natural infection by Taeniidae worms. Finally, all the extractions were tested by PCR amplification. Both E. granulosus and T. pisiformis eggs showed a similar response in the tests. In samples without treatment, the lysis effect was poor and showed no differences over time, but in those subjected to thermal shock, eggs degradation increased with time. In both treatments, there was no DNA loss integrity. The protocol applied to limited amounts of eggs yielded PCR products in 100% of the samples exposed to thermal shock, allowing PCR amplifications up to 1 egg. In non-exposed samples, the results were not replicable. However, DNA quantification showed low values in both treatments. In turn, DNA extractions with thermal shock in infected dog samples

  11. Preferential infection sites of Cysticercus bovis in cattle experimentally infected with Taenia saginata eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Welber D Z; Santos, Thaís R; Soares, Vando E; Nunes, Jorge L N; Mendonça, Rafael P; de Lima, Roberto C A; Sakamoto, Cláudio A M; Costa, Gustavo H N; Thomaz-Soccol, Vanete; Oliveira, Gilson P; Costa, Alvimar J

    2011-02-01

    The preferential sites of infection of Cysticercus bovis were evaluated in the skeletal muscle and entrails of 25 cattle that were experimentally infected with Taenia saginata (2×10(4) eggs). Two other animals were not inoculated (control). Ninety days after inoculation, all the cattle were euthanized. The carcasses were deboned and dissected into 26 anatomical sections (masseter muscles, brain, tongue, esophagus, heart, diaphragm, lungs, liver, kidneys, spleen, top sirloin butt, bottom sirloin butt, outside round, top (inside) round, transversus abdominus, top sirloin cap, strip loin, full tenderloin, eye of round, knuckle, shoulder clod, foreshank, shank, chuck, back ribs, and tail muscles). The dissected tissues were sliced into 5mm sections. From the 25 cattle, 9258 C. bovis (cysticerci) were recovered; 75.02% (6946) of these were recovered from skeletal muscles and 24.98% (2312) from the entrails. A high parasitism level was found in the shoulder clod (12.55%), heart (11.02%), liver (9.48%), masseter muscles (8.51%), chuck (8.25%), strip loin and full tenderloin (7.26%), knuckle (6.63%), and back ribs (5.53%), totaling 69.23% (5738) of all of the detected cysticerci. On the other hand, there was a low C. bovis parasitism level in the brain, spleen, tail muscles, kidneys, esophagus, and diaphragm, representing just 3.9% of the total number of cysticerci. Given these results, we conclude that specific skeletal musculature regions, such as the shoulder blade, chuck, strip loin and full tenderloin, knuckle, back ribs and top round, which are not officially examined in many countries, are effective sites to efficiently screen C. bovis infection. To date, these regions have not been considered as preferential sites of C. bovis infection. Based on our work, however, these regions deserve greater attention from health inspectors because they contained a greater number of Cysticercus than the other regions of carcasses that are parasitized by T. saginata larvae

  12. Incindência de Himenolepíase nana e Taenia sp. no Instituto de Medicina Tropical da U. F. Pernambuco no período de 1968 a 1970

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    Donald Huggins

    1971-10-01

    Full Text Available Os Autores realizando um levantamento coproparasitológico no Instituto de Medicina Tropical da U.F.Pe., com relação a incidência de Hymenolepis nana e Taenia sp no período de 1968 a 1970, encontram índice de infestação muito baixo, em tôrno de 0,05% a 2,7% para Taenia sp e 0,36% para Hymenolepis nana.

  13. Tapeworm Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tapeworm (Taenia solium) is greater in areas of Latin America, China, sub-Saharan Africa or Southeast Asia where ... as well as seizures, meningitis, hydrocephalus or dementia. Death can occur in severe cases of infection. Organ ...

  14. Conocimiento y Prácticas sobre Teniasis-cisticercosis en una Comunidad Colombiana

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Agudelo-Flórez, Piedad; Restrepo, Berta N; Palacio, Luis G

    2009-01-01

    Objetivo Determinar los conocimientos y prácticas sobre teniasis-cisticercosis y la frecuencia de anticuerpos contra Taenia solium en habitantes de la localidad de Andagoya, Colombia. Métodos Se realizó...

  15. Cerebral cysticercosis in a cat : clinical communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.V. Schwan

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The metacestode of Taenia solium, Cysticercus cellulosae, was recovered from the brain of a cat showing central nervous clinical signs ante mortem. This is the first record of cerebral cysticercosis in a cat in South Africa.

  16. Identification of Taenia sp. in a mummy from a Christian Necropolis in El-Deir, Oasis of Kharga, ancient Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bailly, Matthieu; Mouze, Sidonie; da Rocha, Gino Chaves; Heim, Jean-Louis; Lichtenberg, Roger; Dunand, Françoise; Bouchet, Françoise

    2010-02-01

    For the first time, a palaeoparasitological study was performed on 12 mummies from a Christian cemetery excavated in El-Deir, Oasis of Kharga, Egypt. The analysis revealed the presence of a tapeworm, probably Taenia sp., in a single individual. The presence of just the presumed taeniid egg is surprising and raises the question of the relationship between residents of Egyptian oases and those residing in the Nile Valley. The result suggests information on the health status of the ancient oasis population and re-enforces a hypothesis regarding possible social stratification of the inhabitants. The work must be continued if we are to acquire additional knowledge dealing with life in ancient Egyptian oases.

  17. Taenia taeniaeformis: effectiveness of staining oncospheres is related to both temperature of treatment and molecular weight of dyes utilized.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapalamadugu, Kalyan C; Busboom, Jan R; Nelson, Mark L; Hancock, Dale D; Tang, Juming; Jasmer, Douglas P

    2008-02-14

    Methods to determine viability of taeniid oncospheres following treatments with potential lethality have practical application in efforts to control transmission. Here we investigated several methods, in lieu of infectivity studies, to assess oncosphere viability and determine lethal temperature treatment regimens. In the first experiment, a standard treatment to exshell oncospheres with 0.5% hypochlorite was assessed for influence on oncosphere recovery of Taenia taeniaeformis eggs. Recovery of eggs and exshelled oncospheres decreased with increasing time in hypochlorite, which indicated that hypochlorite can damage eggs and oncospheres, translating into potential overestimation of lethality of experimental treatments. Losses in hypochlorite were accentuated when eggs were pretreated at 75 degrees C, but not lower temperatures, including 65 degrees C, indicating a sharp threshhold between 65 degrees C and 75 degrees C where eggs and oncospheres became hypersensitive to subsequent hypochlorite treatment. To further investigate this change in relation to temperature, non-vital (acridine orange, AO) and vital (propidium iodide, PI; trypan blue, TB) dyes were used to assess staining of oncospheres (exshelled or not) under conditions ranging from room temperature up to 95 degrees C. The behaviors of dyes as related to internal staining of oncospheres were described using non-linear regression and a sigmoid four-parametric model to determine the inflection point (T50). Each of the dyes differed significantly in T50 estimates, e.g. AO (69.22+/-0.53), PI (73.89+/-0.52) and TB (79.43+/-0.45). For these dyes, the T50 increased in relation to the increasing molecular weight of the dyes. Collectively, the results suggested that barriers to chemical permeability exist in eggs that breakdown incrementally with increasing temperatures above 65 degrees C. This staining behavior and the likelihood that the temperatures involved are above a lethal threshhold clarify a basic

  18. Morphometric Analysis of Larval Rostellar Hooks in Taenia multiceps of Sheep in Iran and Its Association with Mitochondrial Gene Variability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima Rostami

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of the present study were morphometric characterization of rostellar hooks of Taenia multiceps and to investigate the association of hook length variation and the variability within two mitochondrial genes of sheep isolates of the parasite.Up to 4500 sheep brains were examined for the presence of C. cerebralis. Biometric characters based on the larval rostellar hook size were measured for each individual isolate. Representative mitochondrial CO1 and 12S rRNA gene sequences for each of the isolates were obtained from NCBI GenBank. Morphometric and genetic data were analyzed using cluster analysis, Interclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC and random effects model.One hundred and fourteen sheep (2.5% were found infected with the coenuri. The minimum and maximum number of scoleces per cyst was 40 and 550 respectively. Each scolex contained 22-27 hooks arranged in two rows of large and small hooks. The average total length of the large and small hooks was 158.9 and 112.1 μm, respectively. Using ICC, statistically significant clusters of different hook sizes were identified within the isolates. The length of the large and small hooks was significantly associated with the variability in mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene.Taenia multiceps, is a relatively important zoonotic infection in Iranian sheep with the prevalence rate of 2.5%. Hook length analysis revealed statistically significant difference among individual isolates. Associations between the rostellar hook length and variability in the mitochondrial 12S rRNA was documented.

  19. SHORT COMMUNICATION Cysticcrcus ccllulosae in pigs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cysticercus cel/u/o~·ae is the larval form of Tae11ia solium, the pig tape worm. Hum ans beco me infected by eating raw or ... cel/11/osae in the whole of northem Uganda and probably some parts of eastern region is likely to be ... Prevelence and risk factors for Taenia solium. Taeniasis and Cysticercosis in Humans and ...

  20. An unexpected resident in the ileum detected during robot-assisted laparoscopic radical cystoprostatectomy and intracorporeal Studer pouch formation: Taenia saginata parasite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canda, Abdullah Erdem; Asil, Erem; Balbay, Mevlana Derya

    2011-02-01

    A case of moving ileal Taenia saginata parasites is presented with demonstrative images. We came across the parasites surprisingly while performing robot-assisted laparoscopic radical cystoprostatectomy with intracorporeal Studer pouch urinary diversion. We recommend stool sample evaluation in the preoperative period for possible presence of intestinal parasitic diseases, particularly in patients with bladder cancer who are admitted from areas with an increased incidence of intestinal parasitic diseases, before opening the bowel segments during surgery to perform radical cystectomy and urinary diversion.

  1. HISTOPATHOLOGICAL DETECTION OF THE LARVAL STAGE OF TAENIA TAENIAEFORMIS (STROBILOCERCI AND ITS ASSOCIATED LESIONS IN LIVER OF LABORATORY RATS: CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remigius Ibe Onoja

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Histopathological examination of liver tissues of rats maintained in laboratory condition showed the presence of strobilocerci of Taenia taeniaformis. Infiltration of mononuclear cells such as plasma cells, lymphocytes, macrophages and occasional eosinophils were seen. Active fibroplasia was found in the surrounding tissues. The finding is having importance in zoonatic effects and also for possibility of alteration of result of biomedical research works.

  2. Epidemiology of taeniosis/cysticercosis in Europe, a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laranjo-González, Minerva; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Trevisan, Chiara

    2017-01-01

    Background:  Taenia solium and Taenia saginata are zoonotic parasites of public health importance. Data on their occurrence in humans and animals in western Europe are incomplete and fragmented. In this study, we aimed to update the current knowledge on the epidemiology of these parasites in this...

  3. Taenia crassiceps injection into the subarachnoid space of rats simulates radiological and morphological features of racemose neurocysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamamoto Filho, Pedro Tadao; Fabro, Alexandre Todorovic; Rodrigues, Marianna Vaz; Bazan, Rodrigo; Vulcano, Luiz Carlos; Biondi, Germano Francisco; Zanini, Marco Antônio

    2017-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis is a major public health concern. Although its eradication appears feasible, the disease remains endemic in developing countries and has emerged again in Europe and in the USA. Basic studies on neurocysticercosis are needed to better understand the pathophysiologic mechanisms and, consequently, to improve treatment perspectives. Much has been published on experimental parenchymal neurocysticercosis, but there are no experimental models of racemose neurocysticercosis. Cysts of Taenia crassiceps were injected into the subarachnoid space of 11 rats. After 4 months, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed to verify the occurrence of ventricular dilatation and the distribution of cysts in the cerebrospinal fluid compartments. The histologic assessment was done focusing on changes in the ependyma, choroid plexus, and brain parenchyma. MRI and histologic assessment confirmed the findings similar to those seen in human racemose neurocysticercosis including enlargement of the basal cisterns, hydrocephalus, and inflammatory infiltration through the ependyma and choroid plexus into cerebrospinal fluid spaces. We developed a simple model of racemose neurocysticercosis by injecting cysts of T. crassiceps into the subarachnoid space of rats. This model can help understand the pathophysiologic mechanisms of the disease.

  4. Fatal infection with Taenia martis metacestodes in a ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) living in an Italian zoological garden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Liberato, Claudio; Berrilli, Federica; Meoli, Roberta; Friedrich, Klaus G; Di Cerbo, Pilar; Cocumelli, Cristiano; Eleni, Claudia

    2014-10-01

    A case of fatal infection caused by larval forms of Taenia martis in a ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) living in the Rome zoological garden is described. The animal, living in a semi-natural pen with other 15 conspecific individuals and being fed with fresh fruit and vegetables, yoghurt and eggs, was transported to the Istituto Zooprofilattico of Rome for post-mortem examination. The anamnesis included, ten days before the death, apathy, lack of appetite, abdominal distension and diarrhoea. A severe exudative fibrinous-purulent peritonitis with numerous adhesions between the abdominal wall and the bowel loops was detected. After intestine removal, two free and viable, 4 cm long, whitish, leaf-like parasitic forms were pinpointed. Macroscopic examination of the two parasites allowed their identification as larval stages of cestodes, identified via molecular analysis as T. martis metacestodes. This report represents the first record of T. martis infection in the host species and in a zoological garden and for the pathological relevance of the infection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Induction of Zenk protein expression within the nucleus taeniae of the amygdala of pigeons following tone and shock stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Brito

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we evaluated the expression of the Zenk protein within the nucleus taeniae of the pigeon’s amygdala (TnA after training in a classical aversive conditioning, in order to improve our understanding of its functional role in birds. Thirty-two 18-month-old adult male pigeons (Columba livia, weighing on average 350 g, were trained under different conditions: with tone-shock associations (experimental group; EG; with shock-alone presentations (shock group; SG; with tone-alone presentations (tone group; TG; with exposure to the training chamber without stimulation (context group; CG, and with daily handling (naive group; NG. The number of immunoreactive nuclei was counted in the whole TnA region and is reported as density of Zenk-positive nuclei. This density of Zenk-positive cells in the TnA was significantly greater for the EG, SG and TG than for the CG and NG (P < 0.05. The data indicate an expression of Zenk in the TnA that was driven by experience, supporting the role of this brain area as a critical element for neural processing of aversive stimuli as well as meaningful novel stimuli.

  6. A benzimidazole derivative (RCB15) in vitro induces the alternative energetic metabolism and glycolysis in Taenia crassiceps cysticerci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade Picanço, Guaraciara; de Lima, Nayana Ferreira; Fraga, Carolina Miguel; da Costa, Tatiane Luiza; Isac, Eliana; Ambrosio, Javier; Castillo, Rafael; Vinaud, Marina Clare

    2017-12-01

    The emergence of resistance to albendazole has encouraged the search for effective alternatives for cysticercosis and other parasitosis treatment. RCB15 is a benzimidazole derivative that may be used against such diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the in vitro effect of RCB15 on the alternative energetic pathways of Taenia crassiceps cysticerci. The cysticerci were in vitro exposed to albendazole sulphoxide (ABZSO) or RCB15 at different concentrations during 24h. The cysticerci extract and the culture medium were analyzed through spectrophotometry and high performance liquid chromatography as to detect glucose, urea, creatinine and organic acids of the energetic metabolism. The drugs did not influence the protein catabolism. Fatty acids oxidation was enhanced through significantly higher acetate concentrations in the groups treated with RCB15 and ABZSO. Beta-hydroxybutyrate concentrations were decreased which indicates the use of fatty acids towards acetyl-CoA synthesis. There was a decrease in glucose uptake and pyruvate concentrations. The absence of lactate indicates the use of pyruvate in gluconeogenesis. Therefore it is possible to conclude that RCB15 enhanced the alternative energetic pathways of cysticerci in vitro exposed to different concentration, with emphasis on the fatty acids catabolism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Rodent model for long-term maintenance and development of the viable cysticerci of Taenia saginata asiatica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, I.C.; Chung, W.C.; Lu, S.C.

    2000-01-01

    Although oncospheres of Taenia saginata asiatica can develop into cysticerci in immunodeficiency, immunosuppressed, and normal mice, no detailed information on the development features of these cysticerci from SCID mice is available. In the present study, the tumor-like cyst was found in the subcutaneous tissues of each of 10 SCID mice after 38-244 days inoculation with 39,000 oncospheres of T. s. asiatica. These cysts weighed 2.0-9.6 gm and were 1.5-4.3 cm in diameter. The number of cysticerci were collected from these cysts ranged from 125 to 1,794 and the cysticercus recovery rate from 0.3% to 4.6%. All cysticerci were viable with a diameter of 1-6 mm and 9 abnormal ones each with 2 evaginated protoscoleces were also found. The mean length and width of scolex, protoscolex, and bladder were 477 × 558, 756 × 727, and 1,586 × 1,615 µm, respectively. The diameters of suckers and rostellum were 220 µm and 70 µm, respectively. All cysticerci had two rows of rostellar hooks. These findings suggest that the SCID mouse model can be employed as a tool for long-term maintenance of the biological materials for advanced studies of immunodiagnosis, vaccine development, and evaluation of cestocidal drugs which would be most benefit for the good health of the livestocks. PMID:11138316

  8. Phage-displayed peptides as capture antigens in an innovative assay for Taenia saginata-infected cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogaça, Rafaela L; Capelli-Peixoto, Janaína; Yamanaka, Isabel B; de Almeida, Rodrigo P M; Muzzi, João Carlos D; Borges, Mariangela; Costa, Alvimar J; Chávez-Olortegui, Carlos; Thomaz-Soccol, Vanete; Alvarenga, Larissa M; de Moura, Juliana

    2014-11-01

    Bovine cysticercosis is detected during the routine post mortem examination of carcasses by visual inspection (knife and eye method). However, the sensitivity of this procedure is several times lower than immunoassays, even when it is performed by qualified professionals. In the present study, a new generation capture antigens were screened from a phage display peptide library using antibodies from Taenia saginata-infected animals. Eight phage clones were selected, and one, Tsag 3 (VHTSIRPRCQPRAITPR), produced similar results to the T. saginata metacestode crude antigen (TsCa) when used as a capture antigen in an ELISA. The phage-displayed peptides competed with TsCa for binding sites, reducing the reactivity by approximately 30 %. Alanine scanning indicated that proline, arginine, and serine are important residues for antibody binding. Tsag 1 (HFYQITWLPNTFPAR), the most frequent affinity-selected clone, and Tsag 6 (YRWPSTPSASRQATL) shared similarity with highly conserved proteins from the Taeniidae family with known immunogenicity. Due to their epitopic or mimotopic properties, these affinity-selected phages could contribute to the rational design of an ante mortem immunodiagnosis method for bovine cysticercosis, as well as an epitope-based vaccine to interrupt the taeniosis/cysticercosis complex.

  9. Expression and immunolocalisation of TpFABP as a candidate antigen for the serodiagnosis of rabbit Taenia pisiformis cysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Deying; Chen, Lin; Xie, Yue; Wu, Xuhang; Nong, Xiang; Peng, Xi; Lai, Weimin; Gu, Xiaobin; Wang, Shuxian; Peng, Xuerong; Yang, Guangyou

    2013-01-01

    The larval stage of Taenia pisiformis, also known as Cysticercus pisiformis, is the causative agent of cysticercosis and the cause of severe health problems in rabbits that negatively impacts on husbandry production. To date, there is no fast detection method to identify early infections in rabbits. In the present study, a new dot-ELISA-based on an endogenous antigen fatty acid-binding protein (FABP) was developed for the detection of cysticercosis, and its potential was then evaluated using test serum samples. Immunolocalisation showed that T. pisiformis FABP (TpFABP) localised to the parenchyma of the bladder wall of the cysticercus and perinuclear cytoplasm of parenchyma of the adult parasite. After cloning and expression, recombinant TpFABP (rTpFABP) protein was used for serodiagnosis of T. pisiformis infection in rabbits by dot-ELISA. The antibody was detected 14 days post-infection in rabbits experimentally infected with T. pisiformis. Based on the necropsy results, the sensitivity and specificity of 169 serum samples tested by rTpFABP dot-ELISA were found to be 98.2% (54/55) and 92.1% (105/114), respectively. These data suggest that the dot-ELISA developed in this study has potential for detection of T. pisiformis infection in rabbits. © D. Yang et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2013.

  10. A New MAP Kinase Protein Involved in Estradiol-Stimulated Reproduction of the Helminth Parasite Taenia crassiceps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobedo, Galileo; Soldevila, Gloria; Ortega-Pierres, Guadalupe; Chávez-Ríos, Jesús Ramsés; Nava, Karen; Fonseca-Liñán, Rocío; López-Griego, Lorena; Hallal-Calleros, Claudia; Ostoa-Saloma, Pedro; Morales-Montor, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    MAP kinases (MAPK) are involved in the regulation of cellular processes such as reproduction and growth. In parasites, the role of MAPK has been scarcely studied. Here, we describe the participation of an ERK-like protein in estrogen-dependent reproduction of the helminth parasite Taenia crassiceps. Our results show that 17β-estradiol induces a concentration-dependent increase in the bud number of in vitro cultured cysticerci. If parasites are also incubated in presence of an ERK-inhibitor, the stimulatory effect of estrogen is blocked. The expression of ERK-like mRNA and its corresponding protein was detected in the parasite. The ERK-like protein was over-expressed by all treatments. Nevertheless, a strong induction of phosphorylation of this protein was observed only in response to 17β-estradiol. Cross-contamination by host cells was discarded by flow cytometry analysis. Parasite cells expressing the ERK-like protein were exclusively located at the subtegument tissue by confocal microscopy. Finally, the ERK-like protein was separated by bidimensional electrophoresis and then sequenced, showing the conserved TEY activation motif, typical of all known ERK 1/2 proteins. Our results show that an ERK-like protein is involved in the molecular signalling during the interaction between the host and T. crassiceps, and may be considered as target for anti-helminth drugs design. PMID:20145710

  11. Human taeniasis: current insights into prevention and management strategies in endemic countries

    OpenAIRE

    Okello A; Thomas LF

    2017-01-01

    Anna L Okello,1 Lian Francesca Thomas2 1Division of Infection and Pathway Medicine, Edinburgh Medical School, Biomedical Sciences College of Medicine and Veterinary Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Scotland; 2Independent Consultant, Lusaka, Zambia Abstract: Human taeniasis is a zoonotic condition resulting from infection with the adult stages of Taenia saginata (“beef tapeworm”), Taenia solium (“pork tapeworm”) or Taenia asiatica (“Asian tap...

  12. Distribution of Taenia saginata metacestodes: a comparison of routine meat inspection and carcase dissection results in experimentally infected calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, V E; De Andrade Belo, M A; Rezende, P C B; Soccol, V T; Fukuda, R T; De Ooliveira, G P; Da Costa, A J

    2011-07-01

    A comparison of techniques for detecting the presence of Cysticercus bovis in bovine carcasses was made by using carcass dissection and routine beef inspection guidelines. In the study, 28 calves were used after they were tested and found to be negative for the presence of anti-C. bovis serum antibodies and were inoculated orally with aliquots containing 6×10(4) Taenia saginata eggs. One hundred and twenty days after inoculation, the animals were slaughtered and a post mortem evaluation was done following Brazilian Federal Beef Inspection guidelines. This routine meat inspection was able to identify 71·42% of the assessed infected carcasses as being parasitized. This result implies that 28·58% of the infected carcasses would have been released as fit for human consumption since they would have been considered as free of C. bovis infection when using this method for carcass assessment. Only 3·07% of the total 2311 metacestodes present in the carcasses were identified by the conventional procedures of sanitary inspection. The assessment of different parts of the carcasses showed high infestation rates in shoulder clod (14·37%), head (11·21%), neck+chuck roll (8·05%), heart (7·75%) and top (inside) round (7·18%) which, together, were responsible for housing 48·51% of all the cysts found in the 24 beef cuts assessed. These numbers contrasted to the low incidence of cysts found in organs such as tongue (3·12%), diaphragm (1·69%) and esophagus (1·60%) which are usually described as predilection sites for the parasite.

  13. Serodiagnosis of bovine cysticercosis by detecting live Taenia saginata cysts using a monoclonal antibody-based antigen-ELISA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Wanzala

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available An ante mortem antigen-ELISA-based diagnosis of Taenia saginata cysticercosis was studied in artificially (n = 24 and naturally (n = 25 infected cattle with the objective of further validating the assay as a field diagnostic test. Based on total dissection as the definitive method of validity, the assay minimally detected 14 live cysticerci in artificially infected calves and 2 in naturally infected steers. In natural infections, the minimum number of live cysticerci consistently detected by Ag-ELISA was 5 while in artificial infections it was above 14. However, other animals with 12 and 17 live cysticerci in artificially infected calves, and 1 and 2 live cysticerci in naturally infected steers, escaped detection for unknown reasons. Animals harbouring dead cysticerci gave negative reactions in the assay as was the case in non-infected experimental control calves. There was a statistically significant positive linear correlation between Ag-ELISA optical density values and burdens of live cysticerci as obtained by total dissection of both artificially infected calves (r = 0.798, n = 24 ; P < 0.05 and naturally infected steers (r = 0.631, n = 25 ; P < 0.05. These results clearly show the potential effectiveness of ante mortem monoclonal antibody-based antigen detection ELISA in the diagnosis of bovine cysticercosis in cattle. Its value lies in the diagnosis of infection in cattle as a screening test in a herd, rather than as a diagnostic test at the individual level, due to false positive and negative reactions. In a herd of heavily infected cattle, the assay may, however, provide for individual diagnosis. Nevertheless, more work is recommended to increase its sensitivity so as to be able to diagnose light infections consistently in the field.

  14. Modification of alpha 1-receptor-operated channels by mebeverine in smooth muscle cells of guinea-pig taenia caeci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Den Hertog, A; Van den Akker, J

    1987-06-26

    Changes in the potential and contractility of smooth muscle cells of guinea-pig taenia caeci were measured (22 degrees C) in order to investigate the effect of mebeverine, a derivative of beta-phenylethylamine, on alpha 1-receptor-operated ion channels in particular. Mebeverine (6 X 10(-6) M) showed atropine-like properties by shifting to the right the concentration-response curve obtained with carbachol. Hyperpolarization and cessation of spike activity of the muscle cells, accompanied by an increased amplitude of the electrotonic potential were observed in the presence of mebeverine (6 X 10(-5] after block of the alpha 2-, beta- and muscarinic receptors. This effect of mebeverine was not observed in low-sodium solution (23.8 mM), suggesting that mebeverine decreased sodium permeability. The alpha 1-receptor-induced hyperpolarization caused by adrenaline (3 X 10(-6) M) in the presence of mebeverine declined after reaching an initial maximum. The hyperpolarization induced by a second addition of adrenaline to the preparation was decreased and sustained in the presence of mebeverine, while the decrease of the electrotonic potential evoked during the alpha 1 response was less pronounced. The transient hyperpolarization representing the alpha 1 response in the absence of extracellular calcium developed more slowly in the presence of mebeverine, the area of the response being constant. When the experiment was continued in calcium-free solution after a short exposure to calcium-containing Krebs solution still in the presence of mebeverine, the alpha 1-receptor-induced hyperpolarization was suppressed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Prevalence, predilection sites and pathological findings of Taenia multiceps coenuri in slaughtered goats from south-east Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Kheirandish

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Coenurosis is a zoonotic disease in a variety of ruminants caused by the metacestode of Taenia multiceps. The coenuri in the brain and spinal cord of sheep and goats have been identified as Coenurus cerebralis whilst those reported in other tissues have been named Coenurus gaigeri. This study was conducted during the spring and summer of 2011. Out of 25 739 goats inspected in slaughterhouses, 23 carcasses (0.09% revealed one or multiple visible swellings on the different muscles and visceral organs. The coenuri, of variable sizes, were found mainly in the muscles of the thigh, shoulder and neck, and were less common in the abdominal muscles and subcutaneous tissues. Coenuri were also found in the diaphragm, tongue, intercostal muscles, lung, parotid area and tunica adventitia of the aorta in a goat with severe infection. The brains of slaughtered goats that had coenuri in their skeletal muscles were examined and coenuri were found in two specimens (8.69%. The coenuri were located in the occipital lobe, the anterior part of the right cerebrum and the parietal lobe of the left cerebrum. Histopathologically, coenuri in the brain caused pressure atrophy and liquefactive necrosis in the surrounding tissues, hyperaemia, perivascular cuffing, neuronal degeneration, neuronophagia, satellitosis, diffuse microgliosis and astrocytosis. Coenuri in the skeletal muscles caused degenerative and necrotic changes, hyalinisation and myositis. In the lung, tissues around the coenurus revealed atelectasis and focal interstitial fibrosis. In the present study, concurrent occurrence of coenuri in the central nervous system and skeletal muscles supports the hypothesis that C. cerebralis and C. gaigeri are different names for the metacestodes of the same species of tapeworm.

  16. Evaluation of a synthetic peptide from the Taenia saginata 18kDa surface/secreted oncospheral adhesion protein for serological diagnosis of bovine cysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães-Peixoto, Rafaella Paola Meneguete; Pinto, Paulo Sérgio Arruda; Santos, Marcus Rebouças; Polêto, Marcelo Depólo; Silva, Letícia Ferreira; Silva-Júnior, Abelardo

    2016-12-01

    Bovine cysticercosis is a zoonotic infection widely spread throughout Brazil, creating a burden on hygiene maintenance and the economy. Diagnosis of cysticercosis usually relies on post mortem inspection of carcasses in slaughterhouses. This detection method provides only low sensitivity. Recent advancements have improved the performance of serologic tests, such as ELISA, providing greater sensitivity and specificity. The objective of the current study was to identify and evaluate a synthetic peptide derived from the Taenia saginata 18kDa oncospheric surface protein for the diagnosis of bovine cysticercosis in ELISA. Test performance of the identified peptide was compared to an ELISA based on a heterologous crude Taenia crassiceps antigen (Tcra), widely used for the sero-diagnosis of bovine cysticercosis. Based on the primary sequence of an in silico structural model of the 18kDa protein, an epitope region designated EP1 was selected (46-WDTKDMAGYGVKKIEV-61). The peptide derived from this region yielded 91.6% (CI=80-96%) sensitivity and 90% (CI=82-95%) specificity when used in an ELISA, whereas the crude antigen yielded 70% (CI=56-8%) sensitivity and 82% (CI=73-89%) specificity. Thus, we conclude that EP1 has higher diagnostic potential for detecting bovine cysticercosis than the crude antigen Tcra. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Taeniasis and Cysticercosis as A Zoonotic Parasitic Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarwitri Endah Estuningsih

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Taeniasis is a parasitic disease caused by tapeworms from the genus Taenia, and infection with the larvae form of Taenia is called Cysticercosis. Some species of Taenia are zoonotic, and humans serve as the definitive host, the intermediate host or both. Humans are the definitive hosts for Taenia solium, T. saginata and T. asiatica, however, humans also act as an intermediate host for T. solium and T. asiatica. Animals, such as pigs, are the intermediate host for T. solium and T. asiatica, and cattle are the intermediate host for T. saginata. Humans can be infected by taeniasis when they eat beef or pork that contains larvae (cysticercus. While, cysticercosis is transmitted via food or water contaminated with the eggs of Taenia spp. The transmission may also occur by autoinfection due to lack of hygiene. The diagnosis of taeniasis based on finding the eggs or proglotid in the human feces. For diagnosing cysticercosis in live animals can be done by tongue palpation to find the presence of cysts or nodules. Serological test may also help for diagnosing cysticercosis in humans or animals. Adult tapeworms in the intestine can be killed by anthelmintic and prevention of taeniasis can be conducted by avoiding raw or undercooked pork (T. solium and T. asiatica and beef (T. saginata. Besides that, to prevent the infection of T. solium, T. saginata or T. asiatica, pigs or cattle should not be exposed to human feces.

  18. Prebiotic Oligosaccharides Potentiate Host Protective Responses against L. Monocytogenes Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poyin Chen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Prebiotic oligosaccharides are used to modulate enteric pathogens and reduce pathogen shedding. The interactions with prebiotics that alter Listeria monocytogenes infection are not yet clearly delineated. L. monocytogenes cellular invasion requires a concerted manipulation of host epithelial cell membrane receptors to initiate internalization and infection often via receptor glycosylation. Bacterial interactions with host glycans are intimately involved in modulating cellular responses through signaling cascades at the membrane and in intracellular compartments. Characterizing the mechanisms underpinning these modulations is essential for predictive use of dietary prebiotics to diminish pathogen association. We demonstrated that human milk oligosaccharide (HMO pretreatment of colonic epithelial cells (Caco-2 led to a 50% decrease in Listeria association, while Biomos pretreatment increased host association by 150%. L. monocytogenes-induced gene expression changes due to oligosaccharide pretreatment revealed global alterations in host signaling pathways that resulted in differential subcellular localization of L. monocytogenes during early infection. Ultimately, HMO pretreatment led to bacterial clearance in Caco-2 cells via induction of the unfolded protein response and eIF2 signaling, while Biomos pretreatment resulted in the induction of host autophagy and L. monocytogenes vacuolar escape earlier in the infection progression. This study demonstrates the capacity of prebiotic oligosaccharides to minimize infection through induction of host-intrinsic protective responses.

  19. The evolution of host protection by vertically transmitted parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Edward O; White, Andrew; Boots, Michael

    2011-03-22

    Hosts are often infected by a variety of different parasites, leading to competition for hosts and coevolution between parasite species. There is increasing evidence that some vertically transmitted parasitic symbionts may protect their hosts from further infection and that this protection may be an important reason for their persistence in nature. Here, we examine theoretically when protection is likely to evolve and its selective effects on other parasites. Our key result is that protection is most likely to evolve in response to horizontally transmitted parasites that cause a significant reduction in host fecundity. The preponderance of sterilizing horizontally transmitted parasites found in arthropods may therefore explain the evolution of protection seen by their symbionts. We also find that protection is more likely to evolve in response to highly transmissible parasites that cause intermediate, rather than high, virulence (increased death rate when infected). Furthermore, intermediate levels of protection select for faster, more virulent horizontally transmitted parasites, suggesting that protective symbionts may lead to the evolution of more virulent parasites in nature. When we allow for coevolution between the symbiont and the parasite, more protection is likely to evolve in the vertically transmitted symbionts of longer lived hosts. Therefore, if protection is found to be common in nature, it has the potential to be a major selective force on host-parasite interactions.

  20. The evolution of host protection by vertically transmitted parasites

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Edward O.; White, Andrew; Boots, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Hosts are often infected by a variety of different parasites, leading to competition for hosts and coevolution between parasite species. There is increasing evidence that some vertically transmitted parasitic symbionts may protect their hosts from further infection and that this protection may be an important reason for their persistence in nature. Here, we examine theoretically when protection is likely to evolve and its selective effects on other parasites. Our key result is that protection...

  1. taenia coli de cobaye

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AKA BOKO

    physiologique dans lequel baigne l'organe étudié. Un transducteur de type F30 HSE 372 relié au vaisseau recueille son activité mécanique qui est amlpifiée par ..... In progress in inflammation research. Muscarinic receptors in the airways, Basel Birkhäuser, (2001) 63-85. [48] D. CLOAREC, S. BRULEY DES VARANNES et ...

  2. Serological evidence of exposure to globally relevant zoonotic parasites in the Estonian population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Brian; Janson, Marilin; Viltrop, Arvo

    2016-01-01

    We investigated Estonian population and its selected subgroups for serological evidence of exposure to Ascaris lumbricoides, Echinococcus spp., Taenia solium, Toxocara canis, Toxoplasma gondii, and Trichinella spiralis. Serum samples from 999 adults representing general population, 248 children...... spp. seroprevalence was higher in children. By contrast, T. gondii seroprevalence was higher in animal caretakers, and lower in children, than in the general population. In the general population, the WB-confirmed Echinococcus spp. seroprevalence was 0.5%, T. solium cysticercosis seroprevalence was 0...

  3. Diagnosis of cysticercosis in endemic regions

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia, H. H.; Martinez, M.; Gilman, R.; Herrera, G.; Tsang, V. C. W.; Pilcher, J. B.; Diaz, F; Verastegui, M.; Gallo, C.; Porras, M.; Alvarado, M.; Naranjo, J.; Miranda, E.

    1991-01-01

    Taenia solium cysticercosis is a frequent cause of neurological disease in developing countries. Specific diagnosis of cysticercosis is difficult. We obtained serum and/or CSF samples from 204 consecutive patients admitted to a neurological ward in Lima, Peru, and looked for antibodies specific for T solium with the enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) assay. 21 (12%) of 173 serum samples from these patients were EITB-positive. In contrast only 2 (1·5%) of 135 patients attending a ...

  4. Neurocisticercosis

    OpenAIRE

    Chávez M., Jorge

    2006-01-01

    La cisticercosis es una zoonosis parasitaria causada por infección con el estadio larval de la tenia del cerdo, Taenia solium. Actualmente es la enfermedad parasitaria más común del SNC que afecta a miles de personas que viven en países en desarrollo y en naciones industrializadas con alto índice de inmigrantes desde áreas endémicas. La neurocisticercosis (NCC) es la cisticercosis del SNC, causado por la larva de Taenia solium que produce un desorden clínico pleomórfico conocido como NCC y...

  5. Taenia taeniaeformis in rat favors protracted skin lesions caused by Sporothrix schenckii infection: Dectin-1 and IL-17 are dispensable for clearance of this fungus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui Zhang

    Full Text Available We occasionally found that cestode Taenia taeniaeformis in rats favored Sporothrix schenckii infection and survival, causing protracted cutaneous lesions. In this study, we compared the pathology and cytokines profile of rats co-infected with the two pathogens and infected with S. schenckii alone to explore underlying mechanisms. In the co-infection group, there was high expression of β-glucan receptor Dectin-1 in the cutaneous lesions and no multinucleated giant cells, but in the S. schenckii infection group the opposite was observed. Cytokines profiles demonstrated an expected finding that IL-4, commonly expressed in helminth and fungus infection, is undetectable in the two infection groups. In the single fungal infection group, cytokines IFN-γ, IL-10 and IL-17 kept increasing in the first few weeks of infection to a peak which was followed by gradual decrease. This study showed that Dectin-1 and IL-17, which were believed to be the major anti-fungus mechanisms, are Th2 independent and dispensable for clearance of S. schenckii infection, suggesting that S. schenckii has a different molecular recognition pattern and evokes anti-infection mechanisms other than Dectin-1 and IL-17.

  6. Hymenolepis nana: immunity against oncosphere challenge in mice previously given viable or non-viable oncospheres of H. nana, H. diminuta, H. microstoma and Taenia taeniaeformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, A; Onitake, K; Sasaki, J; Takami, T

    1991-04-01

    When mice, previously given oral inoculation with viable oncospheres of the heterologous cestode species (Hymenolepis diminuta, H. microstoma, Taenia taeniaeformis) and the homologous one (H. nana), were challenged with oncospheres of H. nana 4 days after the primary inoculation, they showed strong and complete resistance to H. nana challenge, respectively. However, the resistance was not evoked in mice given either infective eggs of Toxocara canis or non-viable oncospheres of all cestode species examined. Congenitally athymic nude mice given viable oncospheres did not show any resistance to H. nana either. Eosinophil infiltration around cysticercoids of H. nana in the intestinal villi appeared to be more prominent in mice previously given viable oncospheres of H. diminuta than in mice given non-viable oncospheres or PBS only. Some of the eosinophils in the villus harboring cysticercoid(s) of H. nana invaded the epithelia in the former, whereas all eosinophils remained in the lamina propria in the latter. There was almost no eosinophil infiltration in nude mice. Microscopic observations revealed that oncospheres of H. diminuta, which require beetles as the intermediate host like H. microstoma, could invade the mouse intestinal tissue. Therefore, it is strongly suggested that the strong cross resistance to H. nana in mice, induced by oncospheres of all heterologous cestode species, is thymus-dependent and due to oncospheral invasion into the intestinal tissue of mice.

  7. Prevalence of Infection with the Larval Form of the Cestode Parasite Taenia saginata in Cattle in Northwest Iran and its Zoonotic Importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, Mohammad; Nematolahi, Ahmad; Ashrafihelan, Javad; Rezaei, Hadi

    2016-12-01

    Bovine cysticercosis is a cattle infection caused by a tapeworm, Taenia saginata. While the condition is relatively innocuous, the parasite infects the small intestine of humans in its mature stage and causes a few specific symptoms such as abdominal pain and nausea. Between February 2013 and February 2014, a total of 640 cattle were randomly selected from all the cattle sent to the abattoir, and some internal organs and skeletal muscles of these cattle were inspected. Overall, 11 (1.71%) cattle were infected with the larval form of the cestode parasite T. saginata. In addition, the infection was more prevalent in cattle aged above 12 months than in those aged below 12 months [10 (2.06%) vs. 1 (0.64%)]. The prevalence of infection was significantly higher in female animals [8 (3.72%)] than in male animals [3 (0.70%)] (p<0.05). However, no significant difference was found between the rates in the 2 age groups or in different seasons. While the infections were detected in several visceral organs, no significant difference was found between their infection rates. The comparatively high prevalence of Cysticercus bovis infection in the cattle in Tabriz, Iran, may contribute to economic and health problems in the country's meat industry. On the other hand, the role of public health education in C. bovis infection control cannot be neglected.

  8. Anti-oxidant activity of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase enzymes in skeletal muscles from slaughter cattle infected with Taenia saginata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łuszczak, Joanna; Ziaja-Sołtys, Marta; Rzymowska, Jolanta

    2011-06-01

    It is known that highly reactive oxygene species produced during normal cellular metabolism represent a powerful effector mechanism against parasites. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) belong to the main defense anti-oxidants that prevent the formation of new free radical species. The aim of this study was to assess the activities of SOD and GPx in cattle tissues infected with Taenia saginata. We observed a statistically significant increase in the SOD and GPx activities (p=0.00003, 0.00008, respectively, Student's t-test) in skeletal muscles infected with T. saginata in spectrophotometric analysis. With the use of western blot technique, SOD synthesis stimulation has appeared in the host tissues containing cysticerci in contrast with the control samples. There was no statistically significant increase in the GPx band intensity observed in the studied samples in comparison to controls (Gene Tools Version 4.01 program). These results support the significance of anti-oxidant processes in host defense mechanism during parasitic infections. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Taenia saginata metacestode antigenic fractions obtained by ion-exchange chromatography: potential source of immunodominant markers applicable in the immunodiagnosis of human neurocysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Daniela da Silva; Gonzaga, Henrique Tomaz; Ribeiro, Vanessa da Silva; da Cunha, Jair Pereira; Costa-Cruz, Julia Maria

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to fractionate and partially characterize fractions obtained from the total saline extract (SE) of Taenia saginata metacestodes after ion-exchange procedure in carboxymethyl sepharose (CM) and diethylaminoethyl sepharose (DEAE) resins, as a source of antigenic markers applicable in the immunodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis (NCC). For IgG detection by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunoblotting, 140 serum samples were analyzed: 45 from patients with NCC (G1), 50 from patients with other parasitic infections (G2), and 45 from healthy individuals. Sensitivity (Se), specificity (Sp), area under curve (AUC), and likelihood ratios (LR) were calculated. CM S2 and DEAE S2 fractions provided high diagnostic values (Se 88.8% and 93.4%; Sp 93.7% and 92.6%; AUC 0.965 and 0.987; LR+ 14.07 and 12.67; LR- 0.11 and 0.07, respectively). In conclusion, CM S2 and DEAE S2 fractions are important sources of specific peptides, with high efficiency to diagnose NCC. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. [Epidemiologic survey of teniasis in Health and Family Program in Uberaba, MG].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteves, Flavia Maria; Silva-Vergara, Mario León; Carvalho, Angela C F Banzatto de

    2005-01-01

    An epidemiologic survey was carried out on 110,144 people from the Health Family Program to evaluate some Epidemiologic aspects of teniasis. Previous history of passing proglottides was registered in 185 (0.2%) of them, and 112 (60.5%) received praziquantel. After this 97 (86.6%) passed proglottides characterized as Taenia Saginata and Taenia Solium in 36 (37.1%) and 4 (4.1%) respectively.

  11. A Prevalence Study of Intestinal Parasites in Southern Belize

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-11-15

    Enterobius vermicularls Strongyloides stercoralis Diphyllobothrium spp. Taenia saginata Taenia solium Hymenolepis nana Hymenolepis dilllinuta Echinococcus...Belizeans has improved markedly from its colonial period. The death rate dropped from 11.5 per 1000 in 1950s to 5 per 1000 in the 1990s, while the infant ...mortality rate declined from 93 per 1000 in the 1950s to 26 per 1000 in the 1990s. However, in the rural areas of Toledo district, the infant mortality

  12. Performance of the ELISA test for the diagnosis of cysticercosis using experimentally and naturally cattle infected with metacestode of Taenia saginata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaella Paola Meneguete dos Guimarães-Peixoto

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The bovine taeniasis-cysticercosis complex can be defined as a set of pathological changes caused by the adult form of Taenia saginata in humans and their larval form in animals (Cysticercus bovis. Data on the occurrence of bovine cysticercosis comes from the records of veterinary inspection of meat in slaughterhouses under fiscalization, where some positive cases may go unnoticed, especially in moderate infections. So, it is relevant the use of serological tests that have greater sensitivity than the post-mortem routine exams. Studies have shown the possible application of the ELISA test as a tool for epidemiological studies of the parasitosis and in the identification of animals with cysts. The aim of this study is to determine the detection threshold of the indirect ELISA test, using experimentally and naturally infected animals in detecting cases of cysticercosis. The sensitivity of the test to naturally infected animals using a cut-off 1 and 2 added with 2 standart-deviation (SD was of 12% and 24.4%, respectively. However, when using the cut-off of 1 and 2 added with 3 SD, the test sensitivity dropped, represented by 14.4% and 1.99% of the test sensitivity. As for the samples from experimentally infected animals, using the cut-off 1 and 2 added with 2 SD the sensitivity was 55.9% and 92.5%; and adding 3 SD the values found were 31.2% and 86%, respectively. The specificity of the test in all situations tested was 100%. It is important to take into account the right choice of control sera used in the ELISA test, whereas, according to its application, it is necessary to increase the sensitivity or specificity.

  13. Taeniases and cysticercosis in Indonesia: past and present situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandra, Toni; Ito, Akira; Swastika, Kadek; Dharmawan, Nyoman S; Sako, Yasuhito; Okamoto, Munehiro

    2013-11-01

    The main aim of this study is to overview the past and present situations of human taeniases and cysticercosis in Indonesia and including future perspectives. Through joint projects from 1996, we have confirmed the occurrence of Taenia saginata (beef tapeworm) in Bali, of Taenia solium (pork tapeworm) mainly in Papua and sporadically in Bali, and of Taenia asiatica in North Sumatra. These taeniases were caused through eating uncooked pork and pig viscera for T. solium and T. asiatica, respectively, and beef for T. saginata. The distribution of these tapeworms in Indonesia is basically highly restricted by the traditional cultural and religious backgrounds in each island. T. saginata is relatively common in Bali although people consume pork 'lawar' more than beef 'lawar'. Taeniases due to T. saginata or T. asiatica and T. solium and cysticercosis due to T. solium have also been sporadically reported in some other islands. Among these species, T. solium is exceptional since humans can be infected not only by larval stages (cysticerci) in pork but also by eggs released from human tapeworm carriers. Cysticercosis has been confirmed in Indonesia in humans, pigs and even dogs.

  14. Neurocysticercosis—a Parasitic Brain Infection

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-08-20

    Dr. Seth O’Neal discusses his article on the economic burden of neurocysticercosis, which is a brain infection caused by Taenia solium larval cysts.  Created: 8/20/2015 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/20/2015.

  15. Neurocysticercosis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Neurocysticercosis. Causative agent: Taenia solium (pork tapeworm). Larval form: cysticercus cellulosae. Commonest parasitic infection of the brain. Prevalent in under-developed regions of the world with poor santitation. Seizures or epilepsy is the commonest (>70% of ...

  16. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Simukoko, C. Vol 15, No 1 (2015) - Articles Taenia solium metacestode preparation in rural areas of sub-Saharan Africa: a source for diagnosis and research on cysticercosis. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1680-6905. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More ...

  17. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Post traumatic stress disorder among former child soldiers attending a rehabilitative service and primary school education in northern Uganda. Abstract PDF · Vol 15, No 1 (2015) - Articles Taenia solium metacestode preparation in rural areas of sub-Saharan Africa: a source for diagnosis and research on cysticercosis

  18. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Murekefu, A. Vol 29 (2005) - Articles Prevalence of porcine cysticercosis and risk factors for Taenia solium taeniosis in Funyula Division of Busia District, Kenya Abstract. ISSN: 0256-5161. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's ...

  19. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alarakol, S. Vol 15, No 1 (2015) - Articles Taenia solium metacestode preparation in rural areas of sub-Saharan Africa: a source for diagnosis and research on cysticercosis. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1680-6905. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about ...

  20. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... (2011): Special Issue - Articles Antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus in suppurative lesions in Lacor Hospital, Uganda Abstract PDF · Vol 15, No 1 (2015) - Articles Taenia solium metacestode preparation in rural areas of sub-Saharan Africa: a source for diagnosis and research on cysticercosis. Abstract PDF.

  1. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kihamia, C. Vol 15, No 1 (2015) - Articles Taenia solium metacestode preparation in rural areas of sub-Saharan Africa: a source for diagnosis and research on cysticercosis. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1680-6905. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about ...

  2. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bretzel, G. Vol 15, No 1 (2015) - Articles Taenia solium metacestode preparation in rural areas of sub-Saharan Africa: a source for diagnosis and research on cysticercosis. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1680-6905. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about ...

  3. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Löscher, T. Vol 15, No 1 (2015) - Articles Taenia solium metacestode preparation in rural areas of sub-Saharan Africa: a source for diagnosis and research on cysticercosis. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1680-6905. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about ...

  4. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Schmidt, V. Vol 15, No 1 (2015) - Articles Taenia solium metacestode preparation in rural areas of sub-Saharan Africa: a source for diagnosis and research on cysticercosis. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1680-6905. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about ...

  5. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sikasunge, CS. Vol 15, No 1 (2015) - Articles Taenia solium metacestode preparation in rural areas of sub-Saharan Africa: a source for diagnosis and research on cysticercosis. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1680-6905. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More ...

  6. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... not be associated with circulating anti-NMDA- and anti-VGKC receptor antibodies or decreased pyridoxal phosphate serum levels-a pilot study. Abstract PDF · Vol 15, No 1 (2015) - Articles Taenia solium metacestode preparation in rural areas of sub-Saharan Africa: a source for diagnosis and research on cysticercosis

  7. Genetics of the pig tapeworm in Madagascar reveal a history of human dispersal and colonization

    Science.gov (United States)

    An intricate history of human dispersal and geographic colonization has strongly affected the distribution of obligate parasites circulating among people. Among these parasites, the pig tapeworm Taenia solium occurs throughout the world as the causative agent of cysticercosis, one of the most serio...

  8. Cysticercosis Cellulosae in Labial Mucosa: A Rare Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghavendra M Shetty

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cysticercosis is a condition in which a human acts as the intermediate host of Taenia solium, a pork tapeworm. The larvae infestation sites frequently include cerebral tissue, ocular organs and muscles. The present case report describes a rare incidence of cysticercosis cellulosae in the labial mucosa of upper lip

  9. Human cysticercosis and Indian scenario: a review

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2008-10-15

    Oct 15, 2008 ... Keywords. Active epilepsy; cysticercosis, neurocysticercosis; seizure; taeniasis; Taenia solium ... Hence it is important to know the epidemiology, pathogenesis and diagnostic criteria so as to assess the disease burden and adopt interventional strategies for its control. Literature search was done for this ...

  10. Pediatric Neurocysticercosis: Three Cases Presented in the Netherlands with Divergent Clinical Presentations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Pol, L.A.; van Doeveren, T.E.M.; van der Kuip, M.; Wolf, N.I.; Vermeulen, R.J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Neurocysticercosis is a helminthic disease that affects the central nervous system by the larvae of the Taenia solium, the pork tapeworm. Because of the growing number of immigrants from endemic areas, its incidence is increasing in Western Europe. Cases We describe three children, aged

  11. Public Health Implications of Cysticercosis Acquired in the United States

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-01-06

    In this podcast, Dr. Patricia Wilkins, a research microbiologist at CDC, discusses an infection caused by the larvae of taenia solium, the pork tapeworm.  Created: 1/6/2011 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID); National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 1/6/2011.

  12. Control of the taeniosis/cysticercosis complex: Future developments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flisser, Ana; Rodríguez-Canul, Rossanna; Willingham Iii, Arve Lee

    2006-01-01

    Cysticercosis is due to the establishment of the larval stage of the zoonotic cestode parasite Taenia solium. The infection causes substantial human morbidity and mortality, particularly in several Latin American countries and parts of Africa and Asia, as well as economic losses in pig husban dry...

  13. Current Status of Taeniasis in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Taeniasis is prevalent in all regions of Thailand, except the South. Infections were more frequently found in males than females of any age from 7-83 years. Taenia saginata is the most common species throughout the country. Taenia asiatica was reported only in the province of Kanchanaburi in the Central region. Co-infections, with Taenia solium and T. asiatica or T. solium and T. saginata, were found. Hybridization between T. asiatica and T. saginata is evidence that co-infection is never found between these 2 species. Finding more than 1 worm in a single patient was not entirely rare. Genetic variation was found without correlation to its geographic distribution in T. saginata, whereas no variation was found in T. asiatica. PMID:23467328

  14. Human taeniasis: current insights into prevention and management strategies in endemic countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okello A

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Anna L Okello,1 Lian Francesca Thomas2 1Division of Infection and Pathway Medicine, Edinburgh Medical School, Biomedical Sciences College of Medicine and Veterinary Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Scotland; 2Independent Consultant, Lusaka, Zambia Abstract: Human taeniasis is a zoonotic condition resulting from infection with the adult stages of Taenia saginata (“beef tapeworm”, Taenia solium (“pork tapeworm” or Taenia asiatica (“Asian tapeworm”. Although these parasites have a worldwide distribution, the overwhelming burden is felt by communities in low- and middle-income countries. This is particularly true for T. solium, whereby infection of the central nervous system with the larval stage of the parasite (neurocysticercosis is a major cause of acquired epilepsy in low-resource settings. With a focus on endemic countries, this review provides an insight into the prevention and management of human taeniasis, concluding with some recent case studies describing their implementation. Discussion of the opportunities and challenges regarding current fecal and serological diagnostic assays for detecting Taenia spp. highlights the importance of accurate and accessible diagnostic options for the field situation. The lack of long-term impact on the parasites’ lifecycle from human anthelmintic treatment, coupled with the propensity for adverse reactions, highlights the importance of a “two-pronged” approach that considers the relevant animal hosts, particularly in the case of T. solium. Aside from the therapeutic options, this review reiterates the importance of adequate assessment and consideration of the associated behavioral and policy aspects around sanitation, hygiene and meat inspection that have been shown to support parasite control, and potential elimination, in endemic regions. Keywords: Taenia solium, Taenia saginata, cysticercosis, zoonotic disease, neglected tropical diseases

  15. Historic of therapeutic efficacy of albendazol sulphoxide administered in different routes, dosages and treatment schemes, against Taenia saginata cysticercus in cattle experimentally infected.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Welber Daniel Zanetti; Cruz, Breno Cayeiro; Soares, Vando Edésio; Nunes, Jorge Luis N; Teixeira, Weslen Fabricio Pires; Maciel, Willian Giquelin; Buzzulini, Carolina; Pereira, João Carlos Melo; Felippelli, Gustavo; Soccol, Vanette Thomaz; de Oliveira, Gilson Pereira; da Costa, Alvimar José

    2014-02-01

    The present study aimed to notify the history of albendazole sulphoxide (ALB-SO) and albendazole (ALBZ) efficacy against Taenia saginata cysticercus (Cysticercus bovis) parasitizing experimentally infected bovines. A total of 11 efficacy trials were performed between the years of 2002 and 2010. In order to perform these trials, animals were individually inoculated with 2×10(4) eggs of T. saginata in each study's day zero (D0). For every trial, a positive control group (untreated infected animals) and a negative control group (animals that were neither infected nor treated) were used. ALB-SO or ALB were administered in the different dosages, in different days of treatments. In a last study with this formulation, this active principle was administered orally, mixed with the mineral supplement, on the 60th DPI, in a dosage of 30mg/kg. In all trials, on the 100th DPI, all animals were euthanized and submitted to the sequenced slicing of 26 anatomical segments (fragments of approximately five millimeters) for the survey of T. saginata cysticercus. With the obtained results it is possible to verify that in the first trials, conducted in 2002, ALB-SO reached, independently of dosage and treatment scheme, efficacies superior to 98% (arithmetic means). The trials conducted in 2005 (2.5mg/kg on the 30th, 60th, and 90th DPI) obtained values of efficacy all inferior to 60%. In 2008, the trials with 2.5 and 7.7mg/kg demonstrated efficacy values inferior to 40%, for both dosages and treatment schemes (30th/60th/90th DPI and 60th DPI). When this formulation was administered orally on the dosage of 30mg/kg on the 60th DPI, the efficacy against T. saginata cysticercus reached 88.28%. ALB administered orally showed efficacy values of 0.0%, 29.88% and 28.64% in the dosages of 5, 10 and 15mg/kg, respectively, using the treatment schemes described above for each dosage. Based on the results of these trials, conducted in an eight year period (2002-2010) using the sequenced slicing

  16. Human Taeniasis in the Republic of Korea: Hidden or Gone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    History and current status of human taeniasis in the Republic of Korea, due to Taenia solium, Taenia asiatica, and Taenia saginata, are briefly reviewed. Until the 1980s, human taeniasis had been quite common in various localities of Korea. A study from 1924 reported 12.0% egg prevalence in fecal examinations. Thereafter, the prevalence of Taenia spp. ranged from 3% to 14% depending on the time and locality. Jeju-do, where pigs were reared in a conventional way, was the highest endemic area of taeniasis. An analysis of internal transcribed spacer 2 and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase 1 genes of 68 taeniasis cases reported from 1935 to 2005 in Korea by a research group revealed the relative occurrence of the 3 Taenia spp. as follows: T. solium (4.4%), T. asiatica (75.0%), and T. saginata (20.6%). However, national surveys on intestinal helminths conducted every 5 years on randomly selected people revealed that the Taenia egg prevalence dropped from 1.9% in 1971 to 0.02% in 1997 and finally to 0.0% in 2004. With the exception of 3 egg-positive cases reported in 2008 and 2 worm-proven cases in 2011, no more cases have been officially recorded. Based on these surveys and also on other literature, it can be concluded that taeniasis has virtually disappeared from Korea, although a few sporadic cases may remain hidden. Human cysticercosis is also expected to disappear within a couple of decades in Korea. PMID:23467688

  17. Human taeniasis: current insights into prevention and management strategies in endemic countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okello, Anna L; Thomas, Lian Francesca

    2017-01-01

    Human taeniasis is a zoonotic condition resulting from infection with the adult stages of Taenia saginata ("beef tapeworm"), Taenia solium ("pork tapeworm") or Taenia asiatica ("Asian tapeworm"). Although these parasites have a worldwide distribution, the overwhelming burden is felt by communities in low- and middle-income countries. This is particularly true for T. solium, whereby infection of the central nervous system with the larval stage of the parasite (neurocysticercosis) is a major cause of acquired epilepsy in low-resource settings. With a focus on endemic countries, this review provides an insight into the prevention and management of human taeniasis, concluding with some recent case studies describing their implementation. Discussion of the opportunities and challenges regarding current fecal and serological diagnostic assays for detecting Taenia spp. highlights the importance of accurate and accessible diagnostic options for the field situation. The lack of long-term impact on the parasites' lifecycle from human anthelmintic treatment, coupled with the propensity for adverse reactions, highlights the importance of a "two-pronged" approach that considers the relevant animal hosts, particularly in the case of T. solium. Aside from the therapeutic options, this review reiterates the importance of adequate assessment and consideration of the associated behavioral and policy aspects around sanitation, hygiene and meat inspection that have been shown to support parasite control, and potential elimination, in endemic regions.

  18. Risk factors for Taenia saginata cysticercus infection in cattle in the United Kingdom: A farm-level case-control study and assessment of the role of movement history, age and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, L R; Prakashbabu, B Chengat; Ferreira, J Pinto; Buzdugan, S N; Stärk, K D C; Guitian, J

    2016-12-01

    Bovine cysticercosis is caused by Taenia saginata cysticercus, the larval stage of the human tapeworm Taenia saginata. Recent European initiatives have highlighted the poor sensitivity of current surveillance for this parasite in cattle at slaughter; calling for more targeted, risk based and cost effective methods of T. saginata cysticercus detection. The aim of this study was to provide evidence that could inform such improved meat inspection activities in the United Kingdom (UK). The study included three components: (i) a farm-level case control study; (ii) the characterization of the network of movements of T. saginata cysticercus infected and non-infected animals, and an assessment of the strength of association between having passed through a farm that had previously originated an infected animal and the risk of infection; (iii) the assessment of the relationship between bovine age and gender and risk of infection. Abattoir records and cattle movement history data were used to identify farms of likely acquisition of infection (case farms) and a suitable control group. A questionnaire was used to gather farm-level characteristics and logistic regression was carried out to identify farm-level risk factors for the production of cattle found to be infected at slaughter. The case-control study provided evidence that farms situated close to a permanent potential source of human faecal contamination, and farms which used manure from animals other than cattle, were at higher risk of producing cattle later found to be infected with T. saginata cysticercus at slaughter. No other farm characteristics were identified as a risk factor for this. Analysis of the networks of animal movements showed that some individual farms played a key role as a source of T. saginata cysticercus infection; it was estimated that cattle with a history of being on a farm which previously appeared in the movement history of an infected animal were 4.27 times (Psaginata cysticercus infection at

  19. Comparative genomics reveals adaptive evolution of Asian tapeworm in switching to a new intermediate host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuai; Wang, Sen; Luo, Yingfeng; Xiao, Lihua; Luo, Xuenong; Gao, Shenghan; Dou, Yongxi; Zhang, Huangkai; Guo, Aijiang; Meng, Qingshu; Hou, Junling; Zhang, Bing; Zhang, Shaohua; Yang, Meng; Meng, Xuelian; Mei, Hailiang; Li, Hui; He, Zilong; Zhu, Xueliang; Tan, Xinyu; Zhu, Xing-Quan; Yu, Jun; Cai, Jianping; Zhu, Guan; Hu, Songnian; Cai, Xuepeng

    2016-09-22

    Taenia saginata, Taenia solium and Taenia asiatica (beef, pork and Asian tapeworms, respectively) are parasitic flatworms of major public health and food safety importance. Among them, T. asiatica is a newly recognized species that split from T. saginata via an intermediate host switch ∼1.14 Myr ago. Here we report the 169- and 168-Mb draft genomes of T. saginata and T. asiatica. Comparative analysis reveals that high rates of gene duplications and functional diversifications might have partially driven the divergence between T. asiatica and T. saginata. We observe accelerated evolutionary rates, adaptive evolutions in homeostasis regulation, tegument maintenance and lipid uptakes, and differential/specialized gene family expansions in T. asiatica that may favour its hepatotropism in the new intermediate host. We also identify potential targets for developing diagnostic or intervention tools against human tapeworms. These data provide new insights into the evolution of Taenia parasites, particularly the recent speciation of T. asiatica.

  20. Comparative genomics reveals adaptive evolution of Asian tapeworm in switching to a new intermediate host

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuai; Wang, Sen; Luo, Yingfeng; Xiao, Lihua; Luo, Xuenong; Gao, Shenghan; Dou, Yongxi; Zhang, Huangkai; Guo, Aijiang; Meng, Qingshu; Hou, Junling; Zhang, Bing; Zhang, Shaohua; Yang, Meng; Meng, Xuelian; Mei, Hailiang; Li, Hui; He, Zilong; Zhu, Xueliang; Tan, Xinyu; Zhu, Xing-quan; Yu, Jun; Cai, Jianping; Zhu, Guan; Hu, Songnian; Cai, Xuepeng

    2016-01-01

    Taenia saginata, Taenia solium and Taenia asiatica (beef, pork and Asian tapeworms, respectively) are parasitic flatworms of major public health and food safety importance. Among them, T. asiatica is a newly recognized species that split from T. saginata via an intermediate host switch ∼1.14 Myr ago. Here we report the 169- and 168-Mb draft genomes of T. saginata and T. asiatica. Comparative analysis reveals that high rates of gene duplications and functional diversifications might have partially driven the divergence between T. asiatica and T. saginata. We observe accelerated evolutionary rates, adaptive evolutions in homeostasis regulation, tegument maintenance and lipid uptakes, and differential/specialized gene family expansions in T. asiatica that may favour its hepatotropism in the new intermediate host. We also identify potential targets for developing diagnostic or intervention tools against human tapeworms. These data provide new insights into the evolution of Taenia parasites, particularly the recent speciation of T. asiatica. PMID:27653464

  1. Current Status of Taeniasis and Cysticercosis in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Thanh Hoa; Lien, Phan Thi Huong; Eom, Keeseon S.

    2014-01-01

    Several reports on taeniasis and cysticercosis in Vietnam show that they are distributed in over 50 of 63 provinces. In some endemic areas, the prevalence of taeniasis was 0.2-12.0% and that of cysticercosis was 1.0-7.2%. The major symptoms of taeniasis included fidgeted anus, proglottids moving out of the anus, and proglottids in the feces. Clinical manifestations of cysticercosis in humans included subcutaneous nodules, epileptic seizures, severe headach, impaired vision, and memory loss. The species identification of Taenia in Vietnam included Taenia asiatica, Taenia saginata, and Taenia solium based on combined morphology and molecular methods. Only T. solium caused cysticercosis in humans. Praziquantel was chosen for treatment of taeniasis and albendazole for treatment of cysticercosis. The infection rate of cysticercus cellulosae in pigs was 0.04% at Hanoi slaughterhouses, 0.03-0.31% at provincial slaughterhouses in the north, and 0.9% in provincial slaughterhouses in the southern region of Vietnam. The infection rate of cysticercus bovis in cattle was 0.03-2.17% at Hanoi slaughterhouses. Risk factors investigated with regard to transmission of Taenia suggested that consumption of raw meat (eating raw meat 4.5-74.3%), inadequate or absent meat inspection and control, poor sanitation in some endemic areas, and use of untreated human waste as a fertilizer for crops may play important roles in Vietnam, although this remains to be validated. PMID:24850954

  2. Ensaio clínico com mebendazole nas teníases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naftale Katz

    1973-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram, tratados 31 pacientes com teníases pelo mebendazole. Utilizando-se os esquemas de 100 mg, duas vezes ao dia, por 4 dias consecutivos, 200 mg, duas vezes ao dia por 2 e 200 mg, duas vezes ao dia, por 4 dias, o percentual de cura foi de respectivamente 20,0, 72,7 e 90,0%. Não houve diferença significativa quando foram tratados pacientes com Taenia solium e Taenia saginata. A ausência de efeitos colaterais e a ampla atividade anti-helmíntica do mebendazole, recomendam seu uso também, como um novo agente tenicida.31 patients with Taenia have been treated with mebendazole. With the schedules of 100 mg, bid, for 4 consecutive days, 200 mg, bid for 2 and 200 mg, bid for 4, the percentages of cure were respectively, 20,0%, 72,7% and 90,0%. No significant difference could be observed when patients with Taenia solium and Taenia saginata were treated with the most active schedule. The absence of side effects and the extensive anti-helminthic activity of mebendazole highly recommend its use inclusive as a new taenicide agent

  3. Creating Centralized Reporting for Microsoft Host Protection Technologies:The Enhanced Mitigation Experience Toolkit (EMET)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-11

    copyright and “No Warranty” statements are included with all reproductions and derivative works. External use:* This material may be reproduced in its...endpoints from compromise. Microsoft offers a tool to assist in this area and is pro- vided at no cost. The Enhanced Mitigation Experience Toolkit (EMET...AppLocker can still be exploited. EMET provides an additional layer of protection by restricting techniques commonly used by malicious actors. EMET can help

  4. Early Events Leading to the Host Protective Th2 Immune Response to an Intestinal Nematode Parasite

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Affymetrix, Santa Clara, CA) at the Laboratory of Immunopathogenesis and Bioinformatics, National Cancer Institute, Frederick, MD. Fluorescently...induced during acute toxoplasmosis . J.Leukoc.Biol. 74, 1015-1025, 2003. 88. Sayles,P.C. and Johnson,L.L., Exacerbation of toxoplasmosis in...92. Bronte,V., Genetic vaccination for the active immunotherapy of cancer . Curr.Gene Ther. 1, 53-100, 2001. 93. Bronte,V., Wang,M., Overwijk

  5. Mechanistic exploration of AhR-mediated host protection against Streptococcus pneumoniae infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Wyrick, Katherine L; Pecka, Melanie R; Wills, Tamara B; Vorderstrasse, Beth A

    2012-08-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a primary cause of invasive bacterial infection and pneumonia and is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. In prior studies we showed that pre-treating mice with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), a potent agonist of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), protects against S. pneumoniae-induced mortality and reduces pulmonary bacterial burden. The current studies were conducted to help elucidate the mechanism for this protective effect, and to characterize the response in the lung during the first 10h following infection. C57Bl/6 mice were treated with TCDD one day prior to intranasal infection with serotype 3 S. pneumoniae. Monitoring of bacteria in the lung airways revealed that bacterial growth was inhibited in the TCDD-treated animals within 10h of infection. To address the mechanism of this rapid protective response, macrophages, neutrophils, and invariant Natural Killer T (iNKT) cells were quantified, and levels of natural antibodies produced by B-1 B cells were evaluated. Functional assays addressed whether AhR activation reduced the capacity of lung epithelial cells to bind bacteria, and whether TCDD treatment enhanced production of antimicrobial agents in the lung or blood. None of the hypothesized mechanisms was able to explain the protective effect. Finally, the exposure paradigm was manipulated to test whether administration of TCDD after instillation of the bacteria was also protective. Results showed that TCDD must be administered in advance of exposure to bacteria, suggesting that the lung environment is rendered inhospitable to the pathogens. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Neurocysticercosos in South-Central America and the Indian Subcontinent: a comparative evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gagandeep Singh

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Neurocysticercosis is an important public health problem in South-Central America and South Asia. A review of the differences in epidemiological and clinical attributes of cysticercosis and taeniasis in South Central America and India, respectively, is undertaken in the present communication. Intestinal taeniasis is hyperendemic in several American countries. In comparison, the prevalence of Taenia solium infestation is lower in India. The clinical manifestations in several American neurocysticercosis series comprise epilepsy, intracranial hypertension and meningeal - racemose cysticercosis, in roughly equal proportions. An overwhelming majority of the Indian subjects present with seizures. The commonest pathological substrate of the disorder in Indian patients is the solitary parenchymal degenerating cyst. The reasons for the predominance of solitary forms in India, and of multilesional forms in South Central America are discussed. The magnitude of Taenia solium infestation and the frequency of pork consumption in a given population appear to influence the quantum of cyst load in affected individuals.

  7. Prevalence and risk factors for porcine cysticercosis in rural communities of eastern Minas Gerais, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Acevedo-Nieto, Emilio C.; Paulo S.A. Pinto; Silva, Letícia F.; Guimarães-Peixoto, Rafaella P.M.; Santos, Tatiane O.; Ducas, Camilla T.S.; Bevilacqua, Paula D.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Cysticercosis is caused by Taenia solium, a parasitic zoonosis that affects human and pigs raised free-range in developing countries. The epidemiology of the taeniosis cysticercosis complex in Brazil is poorly understood especially when it comes to field research. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and identify the risk factors associated with porcine cysticercosis in rural communities located in the east of Minas Gerais (MG), Brazil. From 371 farms in the county o...

  8. Importance of ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging in diagnosis of cysticercosis of temporalis muscle mimicking temporal space infection

    OpenAIRE

    Sameer Rastogi; Pallak Arora; Parvathi Devi; Sartaj Singh Wazir; Shalini Kapoor

    2013-01-01

    Cysticercosis cellulosae, caused by the larval stage of Taenia solium is a common parasitic infection in Indian subcontinent. Although cysticercosis is common in other parts of the human body, its involvement with temporalis muscle is an extremely rare entity and demands documentation. This paper reports a case of cysticercosis cellulosae in a 35-year-old male patient within the temporalis muscle mimicking temporal space infection; due to the presence of concomitant dental infection, which wa...

  9. The many faces of cysticercosis. Pictorial review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahalkar, M.D.; Shetty, D.D.; Kelkar, A.B.; Kelkar, A.A.; Kinare, A.S.; Ambardekar, S.T

    2000-09-01

    Cysticercosis in humans results from infestation with the larval stage of the parasite Cysticercus cellulosae of the tapeworm Taenia solium. Man normally acts as a definitive host. However, man can occasionally be the intermediate host, when cysticercosis becomes clinically manifest. Larvae lodge in the target organs, the brain, eyes, spine and skeletal muscles, where their appearances are highly suggestive or specific. We present a spectrum of such images, as encountered in Western India. Rahalkar, M.D. (2000)

  10. Cysticercosis of masseter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Dilip Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cysticercosis is a parasitic infestation caused by the larval stage of Taenia solium, a cestodic paratise. It is a common disease in developing countries where it is also endemic. The most commonly infested body organs include subcutaneous tissues, brain and skeletal muscles. It is interesting to note that oral lesion of cysticercosis is a rare event. Here we report an isolated lesion of cysticercosis in the masseter muscle.

  11. Epidemiología y control de la cisticercosis en el Perú Epidemiology and control of cysticercosis in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector H. Garcia

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La neurocisticercosis, infección del sistema nervioso humano por el estadio larvario de la Taenia solium, es una causa importante de epilepsia y otras manifestaciones neurológicas en el Perú y en la mayoría de países en desarrollo. Desde 1987, el Grupo de Trabajo en Cisticercosis en Perú ha desarrollado una serie de estudios epidemiológicos que han llevado a estimar el impacto y entender la transmisión de la Taenia solium, y que posteriormente se aplicaron al diseño y ejecución de un programa de control en Tumbes, en la costa norte del país. En este artículo se revisan los principales hallazgos epidemiológicos, así como las líneas generales del programa de eliminación y las herramientas utilizadas. Los avances en el control de la teniasis/cisticercosis en nuestro país abren el camino hacia su eliminación y eventual erradicación.Neurocysticercosis, the infection of the human central nervous system by the larval stage of the cestode Taenia solium, is an important cause of epilepsy and other neurological manifestations in Peru and most developing countries. Since 1987, the Cysticercosis Working Group in Peru has performed a series of epidemiological studies which led to estimate the impact and to better understand the transmission of Taenia solium. This information was later applied to the design and execution of a control program in Tumbes, in the Northern Coast of Peru. This paper reviews the main epidemiological findings, as well as the conceptual framework of the elimination program and the tools used. Advances in the control of taeniasis/cysticercosis in our country open the road towards its elimination and potential eradication.

  12. A solitary facial nodular swelling - A case report of intramuscular cysticercosis in buccinator muscle

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    Sujatha Dysanoor

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Taenia solium, the larvae of pork tapeworm can cause the parasitic infection known as cysticercosis. It is commonly seen in developing countries. The condition rarely involves orofacial region and represents a difficulty in clinical diagnosis. We present a case report of a healthy middle aged female patient who had a painless swelling on right side of face. The ultrasound examination revealed an intramuscular cysticercosal cyst.

  13. Experimental Design and Methods for Development of Diagnostic Assays for Schistosomiasis Using Monoclonal Antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-08-25

    Sera from patients or experimental animals infected with Schistosoma , Fasciola hepatica, Trichinella spiralis, Taenia solium, Echinococcus...Approved for public release IN IS. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 19. KEY WORDS (Continue on reverse side f ,nc .. y and Identify by block number) Schistosoma ...described in this report, the investigator adhered to the "Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals ," prepared by the Commiittee on Care and Use

  14. Nodular calcified neurocysticercosis with signs of reactivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coeli, Gustavo Nunes Medina; Tiengo, Rodrigo Ribeiro; Silva, Guilherme Carlos da; Silva, Leandro Urquiza Marques Alves da, E-mail: gustavonmc@yahoo.com.br [Department of Radiology and Imaging Diagnosis, Hospital Escola de Itajuba, MG (Brazil); Silva, Afonso Carlos da [Medical Practice, Hospital Escola de Itajuba, MG (Brazil); Fernandes, Jose Otavio Meyer [Clinica Sul Mineira Tomosul and Clinica Magsul, Itajuba, MG (Brazil)

    2012-09-15

    Neurocysticercosis is a disease characterized by the involvement of the central nervous system by the intermediate larval stage of the parasite Taenia solium. The larva degeneration process and the inflammatory reaction of the body cause clinical symptoms. The authors report a case of clinical and radiological reactivation of nodular calcified neurocysticercosis in a patient who was asymptomatic for more than 20 years. Antiparasitic treatment showed a good response (author)

  15. Neurocysticercosis diagnosis and management in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Saavedra, Herbert; Servicio de Enfermedades Transmisibles, Departamento de Neuropediatria y Enfermedades Transmisibles, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Neurológicas, Ministerio de Salud. Lima, Perú. Médico neurólogo.; Gonzalez, Isidro; Departamento de Neuropediatria y Enfermedades Transmisibles, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Neurológicas, Ministerio de Salud. Lima, Perú. Médico neurólogo.; Alvarado, Manuel A.; Departamento de Neuropediatria y Enfermedades Transmisibles, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Neurológicas, Ministerio de Salud. Lima, Perú. Médico neurólogo.; Porras, Miguel A.; Departamento de Neuropediatria y Enfermedades Transmisibles, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Neurológicas, Ministerio de Salud. Lima, Perú. Médico neurólogo.; Vargas, Victor; Departamento de Neuropediatria y Enfermedades Transmisibles, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Neurológicas, Ministerio de Salud. Lima, Perú. Médico neurólogo.; Cjuno, Román A.; Departamento de Neuropediatria y Enfermedades Transmisibles, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Neurológicas, Ministerio de Salud. Lima, Perú. Médico neurólogo.; Garcia, Hector H.; Servicio de Enfermedades Transmisibles, Departamento de Neuropediatria y Enfermedades Transmisibles, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Neurológicas, Ministerio de Salud. Lima, Perú. Médico, Doctor en salud internacional.; Martinez, S. Manuel; Servicio de Enfermedades Transmisibles, Departamento de Neuropediatria y Enfermedades Transmisibles, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Neurológicas, Ministerio de Salud. Lima, Perú. Médico, Doctor en salud internacional.

    2010-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is the most common parasitic disease of the central nervous system and is caused by larvae of the tapeworn Taenia solium. NCC is endemic in almost all developing countries. It presents as intraparenchymal forms associated with seizures or as extraparenchymal forms associated with intracranial hypertension. The clinical and epidemiological suspicion are important but the diagnosis is made primarily by images and confirmed by serology. Computed tomography (CT) and m...

  16. Multi-test analysis and model-based estimation of the prevalence of Taenia saginata cysticercus infection in naturally infected dairy cows in the absence of a 'gold standard' reference test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenberger, R M; Lewis, F; Gabriël, S; Dorny, P; Torgerson, P R; Deplazes, P

    2013-09-01

    The diagnostic values of seven serological tests (ELISAs) and of the obligatory European Union-approved routine visual meat inspection for the detection of Taenia saginata cysticercosis were investigated. A total of 793 slaughtered dairy cows were selected in three European Union approved abattoirs in Switzerland, an endemic area (apparent prevalence by enhanced meat inspection up to 4.5%) with typically low parasite burdens. ELISAs based on a somatic larval antigen, isoelectric focused somatic larval antigen, larval excretory/secretory antigens, peptide HP6-2, peptide Ts45S-10, pooled peptide solution and a monoclonal antibody antigen capture assay were initially screened. As there is no perfect diagnostic 'gold standard' reference test, the obligatory meat inspection and four selected serological tests were further analysed using Bayesian inference to estimate the "true" prevalence and the diagnostic test sensitivities and specificities. The ELISA for specific antibody detection based on excretory/secretory antigens showed highest sensitivity and specificity with 81.6% (95% credible interval: 70-92) and 96.3% (95% credible interval: 94-99), respectively. The Bayesian model estimated the specificity of the ELISA, based on the synthetic peptide Ts45S-10 as 55.2% (95% credible interval: 46-65) and sensitivity as 84.7% (95% credible interval: 82-88). The sensitivity of the ELISA based on mAbs, detecting circulating antigen, was 14.3% (95% credible interval: 9-23) with a specificity of 93.7% (95% credible interval: 92-96). The diagnostic sensitivity of the obligatory standard European Union meat inspection procedure for the detection of T. saginata cysticercus infection at the abattoir was estimated to be 15.6% (95% credible interval: 10-23). Based on these data, the modelled prevalence of cysticercosis in dairy cows presented at abattoirs in Switzerland was estimated to be 16.5% (95% credible interval: 13-21). These cattle also had a high prevalence of infection with

  17. Inquérito epidemiológico sobre teníase em população do programa saúde da família no município de Uberaba, MG Epidemiologic survery of teniasis in health and family program in Uberaba, MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Maria Esteves

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado inquérito para avaliar alguns aspectos epidemiológicos da teníase em 100.144 indivíduos do Programa Saúde da Família. Foram identificados 185 (0,2% indivíduos com antecedentes de teníase. Destes, 112 (60,5% receberam tratamento com praziquantel. Em 97 (86,6% dos casos, houve eliminação de proglotes que corresponderam a Taenia saginata e Taenia solium em 36 (37,1% e 4 (4,1%, respectivamente.An epidemiologic survey was carried out on 110,144 people from the Health Family Program to evaluate some Epidemiologic aspects of teniasis. Previous history of passing proglottides was registered in 185(0.2% of them, and 112 (60.5% received praziquantel. After this 97 (86.6% passed proglottides characterized as Taenia Saginata and Taenia Solium in 36 (37.1% and 4 (4.1% respectively.

  18. CESTODES IN MAN IN INDONESIA

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    Sri S. Margono

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cestodes are found endemic in certain areas of Indonesia. The most common cestodes found are Taenia saginata and Taenia solium. Eggs of Taenia are found in stool samples during surveys in Irian Jaya (2-9 %, Nusa Tenggara Timur (7 %, Bali and resettlement areas of people from Bali (0,4 - 3,3%. Interviews, with questions concerning expelled segments, recovered a prevalence of 9,5 % in inhabitants of the island of Samosir (North Sumatra and 2 % in the people of 6 villages in Abiansemal (Bali. Cases are also reported from Jakarta. Hymenolepis nana (0,2 -1% and Hymenolepis diminuta (0,4 % are rarely found in surveys. A case of hyperinfection with H. nana has been reported in Jakarta in 1968. Occasionally there are reports of infections with Dipylidium caninum, Raillietina madagascariensis, Bertiella studeri and sparganum. Report on treatment of taeniasis in Indonesia mentioned the use of atabrine, mebendazole, bithionol and praziquantel with different results.

  19. Genetics of the pig tapeworm in madagascar reveal a history of human dispersal and colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagida, Tetsuya; Carod, Jean-François; Sako, Yasuhito; Nakao, Minoru; Hoberg, Eric P; Ito, Akira

    2014-01-01

    An intricate history of human dispersal and geographic colonization has strongly affected the distribution of human pathogens. The pig tapeworm Taenia solium occurs throughout the world as the causative agent of cysticercosis, one of the most serious neglected tropical diseases. Discrete genetic lineages of T. solium in Asia and Africa/Latin America are geographically disjunct; only in Madagascar are they sympatric. Linguistic, archaeological and genetic evidence has indicated that the people in Madagascar have mixed ancestry from Island Southeast Asia and East Africa. Hence, anthropogenic introduction of the tapeworm from Southeast Asia and Africa had been postulated. This study shows that the major mitochondrial haplotype of T. solium in Madagascar is closely related to those from the Indian Subcontinent. Parasitological evidence presented here, and human genetics previously reported, support the hypothesis of an Indian influence on Malagasy culture coinciding with periods of early human migration onto the island. We also found evidence of nuclear-mitochondrial discordance in single tapeworms, indicating unexpected cross-fertilization between the two lineages of T. solium. Analyses of genetic and geographic populations of T. solium in Madagascar will shed light on apparently rapid evolution of this organism driven by recent (<2,000 yr) human migrations, following tens of thousands of years of geographic isolation.

  20. Human Taeniasis and cysticercosis in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Akira; Nakao, Minoru; Wandra, Toni

    2003-12-06

    Human Taeniasis caused by the pork, Taenia solium, or beef, T saginata, tapeworm arises after eating pork or beef contaminated with metacestodes, the larval stage of these parasites. Taeniasis with T solium can lead to neurocysticercosis and threaten others by accidental ingestion of eggs released from asymptomatic Taeniasis patients. The 2003 World Health Assembly declared that T solium is of worldwide public-health importance, and that it is an eradicable parasitic disease worldwide. Adult taeniid tapeworms expelled from people in almost all Asian countries appeared to be T saginata (the so-called Asian Taenia), even though they ate pork. The organism is now named T asiatica, and has been found in Taiwan, Korea, China, Vietnam, and Indonesia. But it has been difficult to differentiate T saginata from beef and Asian Taenia from pork. Marshall Lightowlers and colleagues (Int J Parasitol 2003; 33: 1207-17) recently demonstrated that recombinant oncosphere vaccines against several taeniid cestodes, including T ovis, T saginata, T solium, and Echinococcus granulosus, are highly effective. Protection was almost 100%, in the laboratory and in the field. These researchers found several common features, including a predicted secretory signal sequence, and one or two copies of a fibronectin type III domain, each encoded by separate exons within the associated gene. WHERE NEXT? Molecular and immunological techniques, including vaccine research and development of animal models for differentiation of taeniid species in humans, have greatly advanced over the past decade. The clinical importance of infections by these taeniids, including T asiatica, in humans, and the potential for cysticercosis attributable to T asiatica in humans, needs further study.

  1. Images in Clinical Medicine. Taenia saginata Infestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Guo, Eping

    2016-01-21

    A 38-year-old man presented with worsening abdominal pain, vomiting, anorexia, generalized weakness, and weight loss that had begun 3 days earlier. He had a history of eating raw beef. Examination of stool showed an embryonated egg containing an oncosphere.

  2. A systematic review of taeniasis, cysticercosis and trichinellosis in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng-Nguyen, Dinh; Stevenson, Mark A; Traub, Rebecca J

    2017-03-21

    Taeniasis, cysticercosis and trichinellosis have been ranked as the most important food-borne parasites of humans in terms of public health, socioeconomic and trade impact. Despite this, information on these food-borne zoonoses in Vietnam is scarce and fragmented, and many local reports remain inaccessible to the international research community. This study aims to conduct comprehensive literature searches to report on the incidence and estimate the true prevalence of taeniasis in humans and T. solium cysticercosis in humans and pigs in Vietnam utilizing Bayesian models; in addition, to report the incidence and the distribution of trichinellosis. A Bayesian approach was used to estimate the true prevalence of taeniasis and cysticercosis based on published diagnostic test characteristics used in each published cross-sectional survey. The utilization of coproscopic-based examination of Taenia eggs in stool, although highly specific for genus-level detection, has poor sensitivity and led to an underestimation of the prevalence of human taeniasis. Similarly, post-mortem-based surveys of T. solium cysticercosis in pigs also led to the underestimation of prevalence of porcine cysticercosis. On the other hand, the low specificity of immunodiagnostic methods, in particular Ab-ELISA, led to a likely overestimation of T. solium cysticercosis in humans. Due to the use of imperfect diagnosis tests combined with poor descriptions of sampling methods, our ability to draw solid conclusions from these data is limited. We estimate that the true prevalence of taeniasis and T. solium cysticercosis in rural 'hotspots', is as high as 13% for each, in humans. Taeniasis and T. solium cysticercosis occurs in 60 of the 63 provinces of Vietnam. Most of the information relating to the distribution and prevalence of porcine cysticercosis is limited to commercial abattoir surveys. In Vietnam, Taenia asiatica appears to be confined to the north where it occurs sympatrically with T. solium and

  3. The problem of Taeniasis and Cysticercosis in Irian Jaya, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri S. Margono

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The disease, caused by the adult and larva of Taenia solium, spread to the western part of Irian Jaya crossing the border of Indonesian to Papua New Guinea. Twenty local health centers reported 638 and 945 new cases with epileptic seizures in 1994 and 1995 respectively. Questionnaires were distributed to 31 respondents with results as follows: 83.9% were illiterate, 93.6% farmers and all of them sometimes ate not well-cooked pork; no other meat was consumed. In this area no healthy drinking water was available; also there was no sanitary facilities. Pigs were roaming around the houses, rarely the pigs were put behind fences. After international collaboration with several institutions, e.g with Asahikawa Medical College, Japan, 29 serum samples were examined by immunoblot with positive results for 67% of the cases suffering from epileptic seizures and 65% with subcutaneous nodules. Moving of people to other areas personal and environmental hygiene, the importance of pigs in the daily life of the community were important issues in maintaning the disease being caused by T.Solium in this area. (Med J Indones 2001; 10: 110-4Keywords: Taenia solium, Irian Jaya, spreading, international collaboration

  4. TNF-dependent regulation and activation of innate immune cells are essential for host protection against cerebral tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, Ngiambudulu M; Hsu, Nai-Jen; Keeton, Roanne; Randall, Philippa; Sebesho, Boipelo; Allie, Nasiema; Govender, Dhirendra; Quesniaux, Valerie; Ryffel, Bernhard; Kellaway, Lauriston; Jacobs, Muazzam

    2015-06-26

    Tuberculosis (TB) affects one third of the global population, and TB of the central nervous system (CNS-TB) is the most severe form of tuberculosis which often associates with high mortality. The pro-inflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor (TNF) plays a critical role in the initial and long-term host immune protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) which involves the activation of innate immune cells and structure maintenance of granulomas. However, the contribution of TNF, in particular neuron-derived TNF, in the control of cerebral M. tuberculosis infection and its protective immune responses in the CNS were not clear. We generated neuron-specific TNF-deficient (NsTNF(-/-)) mice and compared outcomes of disease against TNF(f/f) control and global TNF(-/-) mice. Mycobacterial burden in brains, lungs and spleens were compared, and cerebral pathology and cellular contributions analysed by microscopy and flow cytometry after M. tuberculosis infection. Activation of innate immune cells was measured by flow cytometry and cell function assessed by cytokine and chemokine quantification using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Intracerebral M. tuberculosis infection of TNF(-/-) mice rendered animals highly susceptible, accompanied by uncontrolled bacilli replication and eventual mortality. In contrast, NsTNF(-/-) mice were resistant to infection and presented with a phenotype similar to that in TNF(f/f) control mice. Impaired immunity in TNF(-/-) mice was associated with altered cytokine and chemokine synthesis in the brain and characterised by a reduced number of activated innate immune cells. Brain pathology reflected enhanced inflammation dominated by neutrophil influx. Our data show that neuron-derived TNF has a limited role in immune responses, but overall TNF production is necessary for protective immunity against CNS-TB.

  5. Avian coccidiosis as a prototype intestinal disease: Recent advances in host protective immunity and novel disease control strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poultry meat consumption has increased globally by 50% since 2000, accounting for greater than 100 million tons in 2012. Multiple challenges confront the rising demand for poultry food products, including governmental restrictions on the use of antibiotic growth promoters and novel feedstuffs, high-...

  6. Type I interferon production induced by Streptococcus pyogenes-derived nucleic acids is required for host protection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Gratz

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pyogenes is a Gram-positive human pathogen that is recognized by yet unknown pattern recognition receptors (PRRs. Engagement of these receptor molecules during infection with S. pyogenes, a largely extracellular bacterium with limited capacity for intracellular survival, causes innate immune cells to produce inflammatory mediators such as TNF, but also type I interferon (IFN. Here we show that signaling elicited by type I IFNs is required for successful defense of mice against lethal subcutaneous cellulitis caused by S. pyogenes. Type I IFN signaling was accompanied with reduced neutrophil recruitment to the site of infection. Mechanistic analysis revealed that macrophages and conventional dendritic cells (cDCs employ different signaling pathways leading to IFN-beta production. Macrophages required IRF3, STING, TBK1 and partially MyD88, whereas in cDCs the IFN-beta production was fully dependent on IRF5 and MyD88. Furthermore, IFN-beta production by macrophages was dependent on the endosomal delivery of streptococcal DNA, while in cDCs streptococcal RNA was identified as the IFN-beta inducer. Despite a role of MyD88 in both cell types, the known IFN-inducing TLRs were individually not required for generation of the IFN-beta response. These results demonstrate that the innate immune system employs several strategies to efficiently recognize S. pyogenes, a pathogenic bacterium that succeeded in avoiding recognition by the standard arsenal of TLRs.

  7. CD36 Provides Host Protection Against Klebsiella pneumoniae Intrapulmonary Infection by Enhancing Lipopolysaccharide Responsiveness and Macrophage Phagocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olonisakin, Tolani F; Li, Huihua; Xiong, Zeyu; Kochman, Elizabeth J K; Yu, Minting; Qu, Yanyan; Hulver, Mei; Kolls, Jay K; St Croix, Claudette; Doi, Yohei; Nguyen, Minh-Hong; Shanks, Robert M Q; Mallampalli, Rama K; Kagan, Valerian E; Ray, Anuradha; Silverstein, Roy L; Ray, Prabir; Lee, Janet S

    2016-12-15

    Klebsiella pneumoniae remains an important cause of intrapulmonary infection and invasive disease worldwide. K. pneumoniae can evade serum killing and phagocytosis primarily through the expression of a polysaccharide capsule, but its pathogenicity is also influenced by host factors. We examined whether CD36, a scavenger receptor that recognizes pathogen and modified self ligands, is a host determinant of K. pneumoniae pathogenicity. Despite differences in serum sensitivity and virulence of 3 distinct K. pneumoniae (hypermucoviscous K1, research K2, and carbapenemase-producing ST258) strains, the absence of CD36 significantly increased host susceptibility to acute intrapulmonary infection by K. pneumoniae, regardless of strain. We demonstrate that CD36 enhances LPS responsiveness to K. pneumoniae to increase downstream cytokine production and macrophage phagocytosis that is independent of polysaccharide capsular antigen. Our study provides new insights into host determinants of K. pneumoniae pathogenicity and raises the possibility that functional mutations in CD36 may predispose individuals to K. pneumoniae syndromes. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Serum and tissue nitrate levels in murine visceral leishmaniasis correlate with parasite load but not with host protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bories, C; Scherman, E; Bories, P N

    1997-01-01

    Nitrate levels were measured in serum and in organs from Lshs BALB/c and Lshr C3H/HeN mice during the acute phase (30 d) of infection by Leishmania donovani strain LV9. Serum nitrate levels increased rapidly in BALB/c mice from a baseline level (17 +/- 4 mumol/L) to a plateau (504 +/- 129 mumol/L) at 24 d and correlated with parasite loads in the liver (r = 0.817, P HeN mice, from 31 +/- 5 mumol/L to 86 +/- 5 mumol/L at 20 d. Liver nitrate content did not differ significantly between infected and control mice (1093 +/- 83 vs. 867 +/- 104 nmol), whereas the former had a higher spleen nitrate content (145 +/- 22 vs. 40 +/- 2 nmol, P HeN strain during the acute stage of infection by L. donovani. Tissue NO overproduction in organs infected by L. donovani was related to the progression of parasitic disease and contributed to high nitrate serum levels. It would be very interesting to extend this investigation to human disease with the aim of evaluating serum nitrate as a marker of parasite load in the follow-up of patients suffering from visceral leishmaniasis.

  9. c-Myc-induced transcription factor AP4 is required for CD8+ T cell-mediated host protection

    OpenAIRE

    Chou, Chun; Pinto, Amelia K.; Curtis, Jonathan D.; Persaud, Stephen P.; Cella, Marina; Lin, Chih-Chung; Edelson, Brian T.; Allen, Paul M.; Colonna, Marco; Pearce, Erika L; Diamond, Michael S.; Egawa, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    Although c-Myc is essential to establish a metabolically active and proliferative state in T cells after priming, its expression is transient. It remains unknown how T cell activation is maintained after c-Myc down-regulation. Here, we identify AP4 as the transcription factor that is induced by c-Myc and sustains activation of antigen-specific CD8+ T cells. Despite normal priming, AP4-deficient CD8+ T cells fail to continue transcription of a broad range of c-Myc-dependent targets. Mice lacki...

  10. IL-22 is mainly produced by IFNγ-secreting cells but is dispensable for host protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen Behrends

    Full Text Available Anti-inflammatory treatment of autoimmune diseases is associated with an increased risk of reactivation tuberculosis (TB. Besides interleukin (IL-17A, IL-22 represents a classical T helper (TH17 cytokine and shares similar pathological effects in inflammatory diseases such as psoriasis or arthritis. Whereas IL-17A supports protective immune responses during mycobacterial infections, the role of IL-22 after infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb is yet poorly characterized. Therefore, we here characterize the cell types producing IL-22 and the protective function of this cytokine during experimental TB in mice. Like IL-17A, IL-22 is expressed early after infection with Mtb in an IL-23-dependent manner. Surprisingly, the majority of IL-22-producing cells are not positive for IL-17A but have rather functional characteristics of interferon-gamma-producing TH1 cells. Although we found minor differences in the number of naive and central memory T cells as well as in the frequency of TH1 and polyfunctional T cells in mice deficient for IL-22, the absence of IL-22 does not affect the outcome of Mtb infection. Our study revealed that although produced by TH1 cells, IL-22 is dispensable for protective immune responses during TB. Therefore, targeting of IL-22 in inflammatory disease may represent a therapeutic approach that does not incur the danger of reactivation TB.

  11. Type I Interferon Production Induced by Streptococcus pyogenes-Derived Nucleic Acids Is Required for Host Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratz, Nina; Hartweger, Harald; Matt, Ulrich; Kratochvill, Franz; Janos, Marton; Sigel, Stefanie; Drobits, Barbara; Li, Xiao-Dong; Knapp, Sylvia; Kovarik, Pavel

    2011-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes is a Gram-positive human pathogen that is recognized by yet unknown pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). Engagement of these receptor molecules during infection with S. pyogenes, a largely extracellular bacterium with limited capacity for intracellular survival, causes innate immune cells to produce inflammatory mediators such as TNF, but also type I interferon (IFN). Here we show that signaling elicited by type I IFNs is required for successful defense of mice against lethal subcutaneous cellulitis caused by S. pyogenes. Type I IFN signaling was accompanied with reduced neutrophil recruitment to the site of infection. Mechanistic analysis revealed that macrophages and conventional dendritic cells (cDCs) employ different signaling pathways leading to IFN-beta production. Macrophages required IRF3, STING, TBK1 and partially MyD88, whereas in cDCs the IFN-beta production was fully dependent on IRF5 and MyD88. Furthermore, IFN-beta production by macrophages was dependent on the endosomal delivery of streptococcal DNA, while in cDCs streptococcal RNA was identified as the IFN-beta inducer. Despite a role of MyD88 in both cell types, the known IFN-inducing TLRs were individually not required for generation of the IFN-beta response. These results demonstrate that the innate immune system employs several strategies to efficiently recognize S. pyogenes, a pathogenic bacterium that succeeded in avoiding recognition by the standard arsenal of TLRs. PMID:21625574

  12. Prevalence of cysticercosis in swine slaughtered under inspection at the city of Imperatriz from 2000 to 2010, Maranhão, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Carvalho Viana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The intake of meat, beef and pork, contaminated with Taenia saginata and Taenia solium, respectively, is responsible for taeniasis, whose man is the only definitive host. Cysticercosis, an infection caused by the larval form of Taenia solium is a parasitic disease that often affects the central nervous system. The objective was to verify the occurrence of cysticercosis in swine slaughtered from 2000 to 2010, the Imperatriz Municipal Abattoir, where animals are originated from areas of Southwest and southern Maranhão, supervised by the Municipal Inspection Service (MIS. We collected the files relating to reports of condemed carcass during these years and through the analysis of these data. Statistics was done for the period. The result of this work shows a satisfactory reduction in condemed rates for cysticercosis in the Imperatriz Municipal Slaughterhouse. These data demonstrate that contamination by larvae of swine cysticercosis was low, and also showed that for the last two years it was no case notification although there may be conditions for the perpetuation of the complex life cycle of taeniasis / cysticercosis.

  13. The first workshop towards the control of cestode zoonoses in Asia and Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mekonnen Sissay M

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The first workshop towards the control of cestode zoonoses in Asia and Africa was held in Asahikawa Medical University, Japan on 15 and 16 Feb 2011. This meeting was fully supported by the Asian Science and Technology Strategic Cooperation Promotion Programs sponsored by the Special Coordination Funds for Promoting Science and Technology, the Ministry of Education Japan (MEXT for 3 years from 2010 to Akira Ito. A total of 24 researchers from 9 countries joined together and discussed the present situation and problems towards the control of cestode zoonoses. As the meeting was simultaneously for the establishment of joint international, either bilateral or multilateral collaboration projects, the main purposes were directed to 1 how to detect taeniasis/cysticercosis infected patients, 2 how to differentiate Taenia solium from two other human Taenia species, T. saginata and T. asiatica, 3 how to evaluate T. asiatica based on the evidence of hybrid and hybrid-derived adult tapeworms from Thailand and China, 4 how to evaluate T. solium and T. hyaenae and other Taenia species from the wild animals in Ethiopia, and 5 how to detect echinococcosis patients and 6 how to differentiate Echinococcus species worldwide. Such important topics are summarized in this meeting report.

  14. [Taeniasis, amebiasis and other intestinal parasitosis in school age children from Michoacan State, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara-Aguilera, R; Aguilar-Bucio, M T; Martínez-Toledo, J L

    1990-03-01

    92.3% schoolchildren aged 6-13 years of a mexican rural village, suspected foci of Taenia solium cysticercosis were screened for intestinal parasites with the main purpose to know the infection rate by taeniasis. An stool sample was collected to schoolchildren of the village and 95.4% of a urban private school as comparative group. Laboratory examinations were performed with the most accurate technics, included microscopies with an ocular micrometer. The general parasitation rate was 4 times higher in the rural village, but the percentages of Taenia spp. infection were 0.6% both of them. Entamoeba histolytica was observed 1.8% and 7.2% in the city and rural village, respectively. All the cases with taeniasis passed T. saginata after treatment with niclosamide. Negative results were obtained with the same chemotherapy in a randomly selected group of 112 schoolchildren which previous stool examination was reported negative. Neither taeniasis were demonstrated in 94 adult persons. These data are suggestive of the great variability on the transmission rates of T. solium cysticercosis in endemic areas and illustrate the faced methodological problems to confirm the diagnosis of taeniasis. By other hand support the hypothesis that estimates of infection rates with E. histolytica have been overdiagnosed in the country. Taeniasis-cysticercosis; schoolchildren; Taenia saginata; amebiasis.

  15. Comparative analysis of cystatin superfamily in platyhelminths.

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    Aijiang Guo

    Full Text Available The cystatin superfamily is comprised of cysteine proteinase inhibitors and encompasses at least 3 subfamilies: stefins, cystatins and kininogens. In this study, the platyhelminth cystatin superfamily was identified and grouped into stefin and cystatin subfamilies. The conserved domain of stefins (G, QxVxG was observed in all members of platyhelminth stefins. The three characteristics of cystatins, the cystatin-like domain (G, QxVxG, PW, a signal peptide, and one or two conserved disulfide bonds, were observed in platyhelminths, with the exception of cestodes, which lacked the conserved disulfide bond. However, it is noteworthy that cestode cystatins had two tandem repeated domains, although the second tandem repeated domain did not contain a cystatin-like domain, which has not been previously reported. Tertiary structure analysis of Taenia solium cystatin, one of the cestode cystatins, demonstrated that the N-terminus of T. solium cystatin formed a five turn α-helix, a five stranded β-pleated sheet and a hydrophobic edge, similar to the structure of chicken cystatin. Although no conserved disulfide bond was found in T. solium cystatin, the models of T. solium cystatin and chicken cystatin corresponded at the site of the first disulfide bridge of the chicken cystatin. However, the two models were not similar regarding the location of the second disulfide bridge of chicken cystatin. These results showed that T. solium cystatin and chicken cystatin had similarities and differences, suggesting that the biochemistry of T. solium cystatin could be similar to chicken cystatin in its inhibitory function and that it may have further functional roles. The same results were obtained for other cestode cystatins. Phylogenetic analysis showed that cestode cystatins constituted an independent clade and implied that cestode cystatins should be considered to have formed a new clade during evolution.

  16. [Prevalence of entero-parasitosis in one Andean community in the Province of Victor Fajardo, Ayacucho, Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Milagros; Verástegui, Manuela; Cabrera, Rufino

    2005-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to find out the prevalence and distribution of entero-parasitism and determine the prevalence of coproantigens of Taenia solium in the Andean community of Huancapi, Province of Victor Fajardo, Ayacucho, Peru. In the observational, transversal-descriptive study carried out between July and September 2000, by the Ritchie and Ziehl-Neelsen methods, modified by Cryptosporidium sp., samples of feces from 312 persons of the general population were examined. In addition, the presence of coproantigens of T. solium was investigated by the ELISA method. 77.88% (243) were positive to one or more entero-parasites. The prevalence for each protozoan specie is: 66.99% for Entamoeba coli; 12,50% for Iodamoeba butschlii; 10.90% for Chilomastix mesnili and 10.57% for Giardia lamblia; for the helminthes it was: 4.49% for Ascaris lumbricoides; 3.52% for Hymenolepis nana and 1.28% for Trichuris trichiura. Coproantigens of T. solium were detected in 3.52% of the samples. The prevailing commensal protozoan indicate that there are deficiencies in the basic sanitary services, particularly in water for domestic consumption. Huancapi is a new endemic zone for infection by T. solium.

  17. Under seize: neurocysticercosis in an immigrant woman and review of a growing neglected disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Meredith; Garcia, Hector H; Chin-Hong, Peter; Baxi, Sanjiv M

    2016-01-01

    Summary Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a significantly neglected tropical disease and, with increasing globalisation, a notable emerging infection in the developed world. We describe a case of ventricular NCC in a 22-year-old Mexican-American woman with a history of seizures, who presented with 2 weeks of headaches and intermittent fevers progressing to altered mental status and vomiting. Initial imaging revealed a cystic mass at the posteroinferior aspect of the third ventricle superior to the aqueduct of Sylvius, calcifications scattered throughout the parenchyma, and enlargement of the lateral and third ventricles. Initial laboratories were unrevealing and serum investigations for Taenia solium antibody were negative, but T. solium antibody was subsequently returned positive from cerebrospinal fluid. This case highlights important issues regarding the clinical presentation, diagnostic evaluation and treatment of NCC relevant to providers not only in areas with endemic disease but, importantly, in locales with diverse immigrant populations. PMID:26682841

  18. Diagnosis of cysticercosis in endemic regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, H. H.; Martinez, M.; Gilman, R.; Herrera, G.; Tsang, V. C. W.; Pilcher, J. B.; Diaz, F.; Verastegui, M.; Gallo, C.; Porras, M.; Alvarado, M.; Naranjo, J.; Miranda, E.

    2010-01-01

    Taenia solium cysticercosis is a frequent cause of neurological disease in developing countries. Specific diagnosis of cysticercosis is difficult. We obtained serum and/or CSF samples from 204 consecutive patients admitted to a neurological ward in Lima, Peru, and looked for antibodies specific for T solium with the enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) assay. 21 (12%) of 173 serum samples from these patients were EITB-positive. In contrast only 2 (1·5%) of 135 patients attending a public endoscopy clinic and 1 (1%) of 88 patients attending a private endoscopy clinic were seropositive. 1 (1%) of 98 pregnant women living in a Lima shanty town was EITB-positive. 15 (58%) of 26 neurology patients diagnosed clinically as having cysticercosis were seronegative. Routine screening by EITB of all patients with neurological symptoms from areas of endemic cysticercosis would avoid misdiagnosis of this common and treatable disease. PMID:1678809

  19. Challenges for control of taeniasis/cysticercosis in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suroso, Thomas; Margono, Sri S; Wandra, Toni; Ito, Akira

    2006-01-01

    Taeniasis/cysticercosis has been reported from several provinces of Indonesia: Papua (=former Irian Jaya), Bali, North Sumatra, East Nusa Tenggara, South East Sulawesi, Lampung, North Sulawesi, Jakarta, West Kalimantan, and East Java. The highest level of endemicity of taeniasis/cysticercosis has been found in Papua. Recent surveys in Jayawijaya District of Papua in 2000 and 2001 showed that 5 of 58 local people (8.6%) harbored the adult tapeworm, Taenia solium, whereas 44 of 96 people (45.8%), 50 of 71 pigs (70.4%), and 7 of 64 local dogs (10.9%) were seropositive for T. solium cysticercosis. Current surveys in Bali and Samosir District, North Sumatra during 2002-2005 revealed that Taenia saginata taeniasis has increased in incidence whereas T. solium cysticercosis is now rather rare compared to one-two decades ago in Bali. Taenia asiatica taeniasis is still common in Samosir District. Data from other provinces of Indonesia are very limited or unavailable. Control of these diseases is not a priority in the health or veterinary services, neither at central or local government levels. However, limited efforts toward control of the diseases have been implemented such as training of health personnel, community education on disease prevention, and provision of anthelminthics. A working group for control of the disease in Indonesia and an international collaboration have been established among Ministry of Health, Indonesia; University of Indonesia; and Asahikawa Medical College, Asahikawa, Japan since 1996. Future goals include implementation of active case finding (active surveillance) and treatment of tapeworm carriers, sustainable public health education, establishment of a system to check the quality of beef/pork and determine the distribution of infected animals and strengthening of laboratory capacity. Efforts to motivate provinces and districts should be implemented in developing the strategic plan to control of the disease. Given the considerable differences in

  20. Transitory alexia without agraphia: a disconnection syndrome due to neurocysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Archana; Singh, N N; Misra, Surendra

    2004-09-01

    We describe a 65-year-old male who presented with acute onset inability to read, without any difficulty in writing. A clinical diagnosis of alexia without agraphia was made and the patient was subjected to routine investigations including contrast MRI. MRI showed a ring-enhancing lesion in left occipital area, suggestive of neurocysticercosis supported by quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay from purified cell fraction of taenia solium cysticerci (PCF-ELISA). Patient was treated with albendazole and prednisolone for one week. The clinical manifestation as well as the radiological finding resolved after treatment.

  1. Cisticercose muscular – correlação radiográfica-ultrassonográfica

    OpenAIRE

    Duarte, Márcio Luís; Duarte, Élcio Roberto

    2017-01-01

    A cisticercose é causada pela tênia do porco, a Taenia solium, sendo o sistema nervoso central o local mais acometido, seguido pelo olho, músculo estriado, tecido subcutâneo, e raramente, outros tecidos. A maioria dos casos de cisticercose com acometimento muscular está associada com o envolvimento do sistema nervoso central – envolvimento muscular isolado é raro, além de frequentemente assintomático.Existem três manifestações clínicas diferentes de cisticercose muscular: mialgia miopática; t...

  2. Conocimiento y prácticas sobre teniasis-cisticercosis en una comunidad colombiana

    OpenAIRE

    Agudelo Flórez, Piedad; Restrepo, Berta Nelly; Palacio, Luis Guillermo

    2009-01-01

    Objetivo Determinar los conocimientos y prácticas sobre teniasis-cisticercosis y la frecuencia de anticuerpos contra Taenia solium en habitantes de la localidad de Andagoya, Colombia. Métodos Se realizó un estudio cualitativo-cuantitativo. Las poblaciones de estudio fueron los criadores de cerdos y sus familias, población local y cerdos. Resultados La población tiene un conocimiento parcial del complejo teniasis-cisticercosis. Identifica la cisticercosis como una enfermedad sólo del cerdo y n...

  3. Neurocisticercosis en pediatría

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Malagón Valdez

    2009-01-01

    Cisticercosis: enfermedad parasitaria que afecta en México al 3% de la población. Se considera que hay más de 50 millones de infectados en el mundo, endémica en México, Centro y Sudamérica, Africa, Asia e India. Considerada la enfermedad infecciosa neurológica más importante mundialmente por sus manifestaciones clínicas. El agente causal en cerdos y humanos es el cisticerco de la Taenia solium, que puede alojarse en músculo, cerebro y ventrículos. Si se ingiere carne de cerdo contaminada con ...

  4. Imaging in neurocysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhesi, Balraj; Karia, Sumit J; Adab, Naghme; Nair, Sujit

    2015-04-01

    Neurocysticercosis is a parasitic neurological infection caused by the ingestion of larvae from the adult tapeworm Taenia solium. We describe a man who presented with generalised tonic-clonic seizures. He had been previously diagnosed with epilepsy in Malawi, where he had emigrated from 2 years before this episode. An MRI was performed to further investigate the cause of his seizures, as no previous imaging had been performed. His initial MRI showed multiple characteristic cystic lesions in keeping with neurocysticercosis. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. Extraparenchymal (Racemose) Neurocysticercosis and Its Multitude Manifestations: A Comprehensive Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Anish; Rangasetty, Srinivasa

    2015-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis is an infection of the central nervous system caused by the larval form of the pork tapeworm Taenia solium. In the brain it occurs in two forms: parenchymal and extraparenchymal or racemose cysts. The clinical presentation of racemose cysts is pleomorphic, and is quite different from parenchymal cysticercosis. The clinical diagnosis of racemose cysts is quite challenging, with neuroimaging being the mainstay. However, the advent of newer brain imaging modalities has made a more accurate diagnosis possible. The primary focus of this article is racemose neurocysticercosis and its multitude manifestations, and includes a discussion of the newer diagnostic modalities and treatment options. PMID:26022457

  6. Neurocysticercosis presenting as acute psychosis: a rare case report from rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Archana; Kumar, Alok

    2013-12-01

    Neurocysticercosis, caused by the larval stage of the tapeworm Taenia solium, is the most common parasitic infection of the central nervous system. Its clinical manifestations are varied, non specific and pleomorphic, depending on multiple factors. Seizures are the commonest presentation of neurocysticercosis. In this communication we describe an interesting case of multiple neurocysticercosis in a young presenting with psychiatric manifestations. He responded well to steroid and antipsychotic treatment. This case highlights an uncommon presentation of neurocysticercosis and significance of early recognizing this reversible cause will avoid delay in treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A Classic Neurocysticercosis Case with an Unusual Complication

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    André Rodrigues

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Cysticercosis is triggered by infection with the larval form of the tapeworm Taenia solium. The usual sites for the development of cyscticerci are the central nervous system (neurocysticercosis – NCC, subcutaneous tissue, skeletal muscle, heart muscle, and the eye. Ocular cysticercosis is caused by the growth of the larvae within ocular tissues. The extraocular muscles form is the most common type of orbital cysticercosis. We report a case of a patient admitted with seizures secondary to NCC, who developed ocular symptoms after starting combined treatment with albendazole, praziquantel and dexamethasone. The investigation revealed a cystic lesion in the lateral rectus muscle.

  8. Bruns' syndrome and racemose neurocysticercosis: a case report

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    Roberta Diehl Rodriquez

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Cysticercosis is an infection caused by the larval stage of the tapeworm Taenia solium. The parasite may infect the central nervous system, causing neurocysticercosis (NCC. The clinical manifestations depend on load, type, size, location, stage of development of the cysticerci, and the host's immune response against the parasite. The racemose variety occurs in the ventricles or basal cisterns and is a malignant form. Mobile ventricular mass can produce episodic hydrocephalus on changing head posture with attacks of headache, vomiting, and vertigo, triggered by abrupt movement of the head, a phenomenon called Bruns' syndrome (BS. We report a patient with racemose NCC and BS.

  9. A CASE SERIES OF CYSTIC LESIONS OF CONJUNCTIVA

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    Srinivas Rao

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Cysticercosis is the most common parasitic disease of the nervous system. The disease occurs when humans become the intermediate host in the life cycle of Taenia solium by ingesting its eggs from contaminated food. The most common sites of involvement of cysticerci are soft tissue , eye and central nervous system. Unusual location of the cysts may result in uncommon manifestations. Ocular cysticercosis can involve both the intraocular and extra ocular muscle. Extra ocular muscle cysticercosis is rare. PRESENTATION OF CAS ES : In the department of ophthalmology , G.S.L medical college , Rajahmundry we are reporting 6 cases of cystic lesions of eye

  10. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for the diagnosis of cerebral cysticercosis in Reunion island: comparison with computerized tomography scan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michault, A.; Coubes, P.; Laporte, J.P.; Bouillan-Linet, E.; Leroy, D.

    1988-03-01

    An immunoenzymologic (Elisa) serodiagnosis of cysticercosis is evaluated in 75 encephalic cysticercotic patients whose diagnosis of the disease and its progression is assessed by tomodensitometry. A Taenia solium antigen is used. Only Ig G are investigated. The sensibility of serodiagnosis is 85 % and specificity 87 % when there is a progression of the disease; no difference is noticed in the patients without any progression of the disease and in control normal subjects. This serodiagnosis of cysticercosis appears of value for the evaluation of the activity of the disease.

  11. Intradural spinal neurocysticercosis: case illustration

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    Balderrama Jorge

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Neurocysticercosis (NCC is a common parasitic infection of the central nervous system caused by the larvae of the Taenia solium. Spinal cord involvement is very uncommon. Clinical case: A female patient with a history of NCC presented with chronic and recurrent headache associated with motor and sensory deficit, which develops tonic-clonic convulsion, with spatial disorientation. She also had intracranial hypertension syndrome, meningitis syndrome, and pyramidal sygns suggestive of spinal NCC. Conclusions: Neurocysticercosis usually occurs in developing countries and should be considered as a differential diagnosis of neurological diseases. Early diagnosis and treatment are mandatory, as well as education to the community to primary prevention.

  12. Psychiatric manifestations of neurocysticercosis in paediatric patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejado, Laura de Anta; Pozo, Kazuhiro Tajima; Palomino, Camila Bayón; de Dios de Vega, José Luis

    2012-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis is the most frequent parasitic disease of the central nervous system and is caused by the larval stage of the tapeworm Taenia solium, in which the human being becomes the parasite’s intermediary host. The disease has a worldwide distribution, with a marked prevalence in underdeveloped or developing. However, this disease is rare in children, which is attributed to the long incubation period of the disease, ranging from several months up to 30 years. For this reason, very few cases are found in infants at the age of preschoolers, while most frequently cases are found in children between the ages of 6 and 16. PMID:22892232

  13. Diagnosis and Treatment of Neurocysticercosis

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    Christina M. Coyle

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurocysticercosis, the infection caused by the larval form of the tapeworm Taenia solium, is the most common parasitic disease of the central nervous system and the most common cause of acquired epilepsy worldwide. This has primarily been a disease that remains endemic in low-socioeconomic countries, but because of increased migration neurocysticercosis is being diagnosed more frequently in high-income countries. During the past three decades improved diagnostics, imaging, and treatment have led to more accurate diagnosis and improved prognosis for patients. This article reviews the current literature on neurocysticercosis, including newer diagnostics and treatment developments.

  14. The Vicious Worm - A One Health cysticercosis advocacy information tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saarnak, Christopher; Trevisan, Chiara; Mejer, Helena

    The Vicious Worm: A computer-based program advocating for prevention and control of Taenia solium cysticercosis – a zoonotic tapeworm disease - widespread and emerging in many low income countries due to increased pork production and bad hygiene. Available at www.theviciousworm.org + Google Play...... & iTunes app stores for smartphones. The Vicious Worm provides information on how to diagnose and treat the disease in both pigs and humans and its impact on people’s livelihood. Possible control and intervention strategies are provided using different ways of communication according to the audience...

  15. Isolated lumbar intradural extra medullary spinal cysticercosis simulating tarlov cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Sumit; Suri, Ashish; Sharma, Mehar Chand; Kakkar, Aanchal

    2017-01-01

    Spinal cysticercosis is a very uncommon manifestation of neurocysticercosis, which is caused by the larvae of Taenia solium. Here, we present a rare case of isolated lumbar intradural extramedullary neurocysticercosis, initially thought to be Tarlov cyst. A 40-year-old man, presented with low backache for 1-year with radiation of pain to right leg for 3 months. The patient was treated successfully with the surgical removal of the cyst, followed by medical treatment. Spinal neurocysticercosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis in high-risk populations, with new symptoms suggestive of a spinal mass lesion.

  16. Disseminated cysticercosis with huge muscle hypertrophy

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    Bandyopadhyay Debabrata

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cysticercosis is caused by cysticercus cellulose, which is the larva of Taenia solium , the pork tapeworm. The larvae are carried in the blood stream after penetrating the walls of the alimentary tract and they lodge in different tissues like the skin, skeletal muscles, brain, fundus and heart, to cause disseminated cysticercosis. Cases of disseminated cysticercosis have rarely been reported in the literature. They may inhabit the muscles and cause muscular hypertrophy, which, at times, may assume gross proportions. Morbidity is usually caused by the involvement of the central nervous system or the eyes.

  17. Cysticercosis in chronic psychiatric inpatients from a Venezuelan community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meza, Néstor W; Rossi, Nineth E; Galeazzi, Tatiana N; Sánchez, Nora M; Colmenares, Francisco I; Medina, Oscar D; Uzcategui, Néstor L; Alfonzo, Nacarid; Arango, Celso; Urdaneta, Haideé

    2005-09-01

    Cysticercosis due to Taenia solium infection is endemic in developing countries of the Americas, Asia, and Africa. This study was designed to establish the prevalence of cysticercosis in 158 inpatients of a psychiatric institution in the state of Tachira (Venezuela) and in 127 healthy control subjects. Positive blood tests for cysticercosis by Western blotting were recorded in 18.35% of the patients and in 1.57% of the controls. Individuals with mental retardation were found to carry an increased risk of cysticercosis (RR: 2.92; 1.22 7.0; P health care system.

  18. Epidemiologic survery of teniasis in health and family program in Uberaba, MG

    OpenAIRE

    Flavia Maria Esteves; Mario León Silva-Vergara; Ângela C.F. Banzatto de Carvalho

    2005-01-01

    Foi realizado inquérito para avaliar alguns aspectos epidemiológicos da teníase em 100.144 indivíduos do Programa Saúde da Família. Foram identificados 185 (0,2%) indivíduos com antecedentes de teníase. Destes, 112 (60,5%) receberam tratamento com praziquantel. Em 97 (86,6%) dos casos, houve eliminação de proglotes que corresponderam a Taenia saginata e Taenia solium em 36 (37,1%) e 4 (4,1%), respectivamente.An epidemiologic survey was carried out on 110,144 people from the Health Family Prog...

  19. HUMAN PARASITIC INFECTIONS IN BALI : A REVIEW

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    Putu Sutisna

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Parasitic infections in humans in Bali are well documented, especially in the population who lived in rural areas. The most common infections are those of the soil-transmitted helminthiasis which are caused by Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworm showing prevalence rates of 40 - 95%, 25 - 90% and 20 - 70% respectively. Enterobius vermicularis prevalence rate has been reported to be 18 - 53%. Taenniasis prevalence rate has been documented to be 0.8 - 23% in some villages, where Taenia saginata was found to be more prevalent than Taenia solium, and this might be due to the eating habit of the Balinese people who consumed both pork and beef lawar. Malaria is still found in Bali especially in regions along the coasts of some regencies, although generally the infection rate is low. The prevalence rates of intestinal protozoa such as Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica, Balantidium coli have been occasionally reported in low percentages.

  20. Ensaio clínico com mebendazole nas teníases

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    Naftale Katz

    1973-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram, tratados 31 pacientes com teníases pelo mebendazole. Utilizando-se os esquemas de 100 mg, duas vezes ao dia, por 4 dias consecutivos, 200 mg, duas vezes ao dia por 2 e 200 mg, duas vezes ao dia, por 4 dias, o percentual de cura foi de respectivamente 20,0, 72,7 e 90,0%. Não houve diferença significativa quando foram tratados pacientes com Taenia solium e Taenia saginata. A ausência de efeitos colaterais e a ampla atividade anti-helmíntica do mebendazole, recomendam seu uso também, como um novo agente tenicida.

  1. INFESTATION WITH INTESTINAL PARASITES IN THREE YEAR OLD CHILDREN IN LOWER CARNIOLA IN YEAR 2003

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    Jasmina Patkovič Colarič

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. There is a significant difference in a prevalence and type of intestinal parasitic diseases in former time and today. Incidence of parasitic diseases is very much in relationship to social and hygienic circumstances in the environment. Hygienic habits of people also take part of it. For this reason preschool childrens are the most involved subject.Methods. Author wanted to estimate the prevalence of intestinal parasites by preschool children in the Dolenjska region. Feces and perianal prints ware taken during the systematic examination in the pediatric practice. The samples were analyzed in the microbiological laboratory of the Institute of Public Health Novo mesto. The following parasites were searched: Enterobius vermicularis, Ascaris lumbricoides, Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium sp., Taenia solium, Taenia saginata and Trichuris trichiura.Results. Between 315 samples of feces only one contained ovum of Ascaris lumbricoides and between 307 perianal prints only one was positive to Enterobius vermicularis.

  2. Epilepsy and cysticercosis in Northwest Cameroon: a serological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Irene; Jerome, Ambanibe; Angwafor, Samuel A; Smith, Mary Lou; Takougang, Innocent; Noh, John; Tsang, Victor; Wilkins, Patricia; Cockburn, Lynn; Keystone, Jay; Njamnshi, Alfred K; Snead, O Carter

    2013-05-01

    The prevalence of epilepsy in Cameroon is higher than that of the industrialized world and other developing countries. Neurocysticercosis due to Taenia solium infestation has been reported as a major cause of epilepsy in some parts of Cameroon although there are some conflicting data. The prevalence of epilepsy is especially high in the Momo division of the North-West Province of Cameroon. We hypothesized that individuals with epilepsy in this region have a higher percentage of seropositivity to T. solium than matched controls. We conducted a case-control study in the Momo subdivision of Ngie. Individuals with epilepsy were recruited from the health centers in Ngie. Control subjects were selected from 19 Ngie villages. Potential cases of people with epilepsy (PWE) were identified through a questionnaire applied by trained field workers, using history of epileptic seizures as a key indicator. Blood samples were taken from all consenting individuals by finger prick, stored in StabilZyme Select, and assayed for antibodies to T. solium in an Atlanta based reference laboratory. We accrued 249 patients with epilepsy, of whom 237 met the inclusion criteria, and 245 age-matched controls. There was no significant difference in seropositivity to T. solium between those individuals with epilepsy (5%) and controls (4.9%). Our data do not support the hypothesis that epilepsy is associated with seropositivity to T. solium. It is highly unlikely that cysticercosis plays a causative role in the high prevalence of epilepsy in this region of Cameroon. Copyright © 2013 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Neurocysticercosis: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Brutto, Oscar H.

    2012-01-01

    Neuroysticercosis is the most common helminthic infection of the nervous system, and a leading cause of acquired epilepsy worldwide. The disease occurs when humans become intermediate hosts of Taenia solium by ingesting its eggs from contaminated food or, most often, directly from a taenia carrier by the fecal-to-oral route. Cysticerci may be located in brain parenchyma, subarachnoid space, ventricular system, or spinal cord, causing pathological changes that are responsible for the pleomorphism of neurocysticercosis. Seizures are the most common clinical manifestation, but many patients present with focal deficits, intracranial hypertension, or cognitive decline. Accurate diagnosis of neurocysticercosis is possible after interpretation of clinical data together with findings of neuroimaging studies and results of immunological tests. The introduction of cysticidal drugs have changed the prognosis of most patients with neurocysticercosis. These drugs have shown to reduce the burden of infection in the brain and to improve the clinical course of the disease in most patients. Further efforts should be directed to eradicate the disease through the implementation of control programs against all the interrelated steps in the life cycle of T. solium, including human carriers of the adult tapeworm, infected pigs, and eggs in the environment. PMID:22312322

  4. Neurocysticercosis is still prevalent in Mexico La neurocisticercosis es aún prevalente en México

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    Agnès Fleury

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we report the published cases of human and porcine cysticercosis, as well as Taenia solium taeniasis diagnosed in Mexico during the last 10 years. Numerical data allow us to state that this disease remains as a public health problem in our country. Whereas efficient tools have been developed for the diagnosis and prevention of cysticercosis, we strongly recommend further measures allowing the control and eventual eradication of this parasite in Mexico.En este trabajo reportamos los casos publicados de cisticercosis humana y porcina, así como de teniosis por Taenia solium diagnosticados en México en los últimos 10 años. Los datos numéricos nos permiten sostener que esta parasitosis continúa siendo un problema de salud pública en nuestro país. Considerando que se han desarrollado herramientas eficientes para el diagnóstico y la prevención de la cisticercosis, recomendamos enfáticamente seguir promoviendo las medidas que permitan el control y posterior erradicación de esta parasitosis en México.

  5. Oral cysticercosis: case report and review of the literature Cisticercose oral: relato de caso e revisão da literatura

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    Fernando Melhem Elias

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Cysticercosis is a condition that occurs when man is infested by the larvae of Taenia solium, acting as an intermediate host instead of definitive. Oral cysticercosis is a rare event, and it represents a difficulty in clinical diagnosis. A case of oral cysticercosis in a 23-year-old white female who presented a painless swelling in the dorsal portion of the tongue is reported. An excisional biopsy was performed and histopathological examination revealed a cystic cavity containing the tapeworm.A cisticercose é uma doença que ocorre quando o indivíduo é infectado pela larva da Taenia solium, atuando como hospedeiro intermediário ao invés de definitivo. A cisticercose em cavidade oral é rara e seu diagnóstico clínico é difícil. Neste trabalho, é relatado um caso de cisticercose oral em paciente de 23 anos, sexo feminino que apresentou um crescimento indolor na região de dorso de língua. Foi realizada uma biópsia excisional e o exame histopatológico revelou uma cavidade cística apresentando em seu interior a larva.

  6. Characterization of S3Pvac anti-cysticercosis vaccine components: implications for the development of an anti-cestodiasis vaccine.

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    Dunia Rassy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cysticercosis and hydatidosis seriously affect human health and are responsible for considerable economic loss in animal husbandry in non-developed and developed countries. S3Pvac and EG95 are the only field trial-tested vaccine candidates against cysticercosis and hydatidosis, respectively. S3Pvac is composed of three peptides (KETc1, GK1 and KETc12, originally identified in a Taenia crassiceps cDNA library. S3Pvac synthetically and recombinantly expressed is effective against experimentally and naturally acquired cysticercosis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, the homologous sequences of two of the S3Pvac peptides, GK1 and KETc1, were identified and further characterized in Taenia crassiceps WFU, Taenia solium, Taenia saginata, Echinococcus granulosus and Echinococcus multilocularis. Comparisons of the nucleotide and amino acid sequences coding for KETc1 and GK1 revealed significant homologies in these species. The predicted secondary structure of GK1 is almost identical between the species, while some differences were observed in the C terminal region of KETc1 according to 3D modeling. A KETc1 variant with a deletion of three C-terminal amino acids protected to the same extent against experimental murine cysticercosis as the entire peptide. On the contrary, immunization with the truncated GK1 failed to induce protection. Immunolocalization studies revealed the non stage-specificity of the two S3Pvac epitopes and their persistence in the larval tegument of all species and in Taenia adult tapeworms. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results indicate that GK1 and KETc1 may be considered candidates to be included in the formulation of a multivalent and multistage vaccine against these cestodiases because of their enhancing effects on other available vaccine candidates.

  7. Zoonotic foodborne parasites and their surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murrell, K D

    2013-08-01

    Humans suffer from several foodborne helminth zoonotic diseases, some of which can be deadly (e.g., trichinellosis, cerebral cysticercosis) while others are chronic and cause only mild illness (e.g., intestinal taeniosis). The route of infection is normally consumption of the parasite's natural host as a human food item (e.g., meat). The risk for infection with these parasites is highest wherever people have an inadequate knowledge of infection and hygiene, poor animal husbandry practices, and unsafe management and disposal of human and animal waste products. The design of surveillance and control strategies for the various foodborne parasite species, and the involvement of veterinary and public health agencies, vary considerably because of the different life cycles of these parasites, and epidemiological features. Trichinella spiralis, which causes most human trichinellosis, is acquired from the consumption of pork, although increasingly cases occur from eating wild game. For cysticercosis, however, the only sources for human infection are pork (Taenia solium) or beef (T. saginata). The chief risk factor for infection of humans with these parasites is the consumption of meat that has been inadequately prepared. For the pig or cow, however, the risk factors are quite different between Trichinella and Taenia. For T. spiralis the major source of infection of pigs is exposure to infected animal meat (which carries the infective larval stage), while for both Taenia species it is human faecal material contaminated with parasite eggs shed by the adult intestinal stage of the tapeworm. Consequently, the means for preventing exposure of pigs and cattle to infective stages of T. spiralis, T. solium, and T. saginata vary markedly, especially the requirements for ensuring the biosecurity of these animals at the farm. The surveillance strategies and methods required for these parasites in livestock are discussed, including the required policy-level actions and the necessary

  8. Taenia saginata (goeze,1782) In Cattle Slaughtered In Idah ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mean size of the parasite in both sexes differed significantly (P<0.05) being higher in females (91.7cm) than in males (67.7cm). The relatively high prevalence of taeniasis among the cattle hosts and its zoonotic implication are discussed. Keywords: Teaniasis, T. saginata, bulls, cows, prevalence, intensity of infections.

  9. Taenia saginata cysticercosis in Oyo State, Nigeria | Faleke ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A retrospective analysis of abattoir records in Oyo State of Nigeria showed that 0.45% the total 661,048 cattle carcasses inspected between 1989 and 1998 had Cysticercus bovis. Participatory meat inspection at Moniya slaughter slab in Ibadan between August and October, 2000 showed that 1.76% of the 1,413 carcasses ...

  10. Neurocysticercosis in a rural population with extensive pig production in Angónia district, Tete Province, Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assane, Yunus Amade; Trevisan, Chiara; Schutte, Clara Maria; Noormahomed, Emilia Virginia; Johansen, Maria Vang; Magnussen, Pascal

    2017-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is an important neurological disease in countries with high prevalence of Taenia solium infection and is emerging as a serious public health and economic problem. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of NCC in Angónia district, Tete province, Mozambique based on: prevalence of human T. solium cysticercosis assessed by antigen Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (Ag-ELISA) seropositivity, history of epilepsy, and brain computed tomography (CT) scan results. A cross sectional study was conducted between September and November 2007 in Angónia district. Questionnaires and blood samples were collected from 1,723 study subjects. Brain CT-scans were carried out on 151 study subjects with confirmed history of epilepsy. A total of 77 (51.0% (95% CI, 42.7-59.2)) and 38 (25.2% (95% CI, 18.5-32.9)) subjects met the criteria for definitive and probable diagnosis of NCC, respectively. T. solium Ag-ELISA seropositivity was found in 15.5% (95% CI, 12.8-16.2) of the study subjects. The estimated life time prevalence of epilepsy was 8.8% (95% CI, 7.5-10.2). Highly suggestive lesions of NCC were found on CT-scanning in 77 (71.9%, (95% CI, 62.4-80.2)) of the seropositive and 8 (18.1%, (95% CI, 8.2-32.7)) of the seronegative study subjects, respectively. The present findings revealed a high prevalence of NCC among people with epilepsy in Angónia district. Determination of effective strategies for prevention and control of T. solium cysticercosis are necessary to reduce the burden of NCC among the affected populations. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Integrating market chain assessments with zoonoses risk analysis in two cross-border pig value chains in Lao PDR

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    Anna L Okello

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective Lao PDR’s recent accession to the World Trade Organization necessitates a greater understanding of the patterns and risk of livestock production in order to better align national policy with the Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures. This eco-health study was conducted to improve understanding of the interrelations between market chains and zoonotic infection risks at two strategic cross border points between Lao PDR, Thailand and Viet Nam. Methods Information gained from smallholder farmer/trader interviews was integrated with serological surveys for pig-associated zoonoses—including hepatitis E virus (HEV, Taenia solium (T. solium and trichinella—to identify potential linkages between disease risk and pig production and slaughter in low input systems common across the country. Results Trichinella and HEV exposure was high in both humans and pigs in both study areas, significantly associated with pig slaughter and the subsequent consumption and handling of raw pork products. T. solium demonstrated a strong geographical and ethnic association with the northern study area bordering Vietnam. With the right knowledge and accessible, affordable inputs, the majority of smallholder farmers indicated a willingness to invest more in pig production, which could simultaneously improve livelihoods and decrease exposure to HEV, Trichinella, and T. solium through increased access to formal markets and an improved slaughter processes. Conclusion The linkages identified when assessing disease risk in the context of potential economic and cultural drivers of transmission highlight the importance of a systems-based approach for the detection and control of zoonotic disease, and contributes to an improved understanding of the Lao PDR livestock sector.

  12. Re-evaluation of porcine cysticercosis in Nsukka area of Enugu State, Nigeria

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    Idika Kalu Idika

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To re-evaluate the status of Taenia solium (T. solium cysticercosis in slaughter pigs due to the great economic and public health implication of the parasite and the increasing pig production and pork consumption in the area. Methods: The prevalence of porcine cysticercosis in Nsukka area of Enugu State, Nigeria was evaluated using structured questionnaires and postmortem examination of pigs slaughtered in three major slaughter slabs in the area, namely, Orba, Ibagwa and Nsukka slaughter slabs. Questionnaires were distributed to willing butchers and pig marketers and completed copies were retrieved and analysed. The slabs were visited every other week during which a total of 379 pigs were examined. Pig carcasses were examined in accordance with standard meat inspection procedures. Briefly, carcasses were examined visually under natural light and palpated before longitudinal incisions were made in the heart, tongue, masseter, neck, intercostal, shoulder and thigh muscles. Carcasses containing cysticerci were recorded as positive for cysticercosis. The sex, age and breed of all animals examined were recorded. Results: T. solium cysticercosis prevalence of 3.3% (4/120, 4.3% (5/117 and 0% (0/142 were recorded for Ibagwa, Orba and Nsukka slaughter slabs respectively with an overall prevalence of 2.4% in the three study areas. The type of pig husbandry practiced was the most important factor influencing the prevalence of the infection. Analysis of the questionnaire responses showed that the majority of the respondents were not aware of the zoonotic implication of porcine cysticercosis irrespective of their educational background nor were they aware that epilepsy in the family could be associated with the infection in man. Conclusions: T. solium cysticercosis remains endemic in Nsukka area and is a potential major health hazard that must be addressed by an expanded and coordinated study, and control programs.

  13. Seroepidemiological study of human cysticercosis with blood samples collected on filter paper, in Lages, State of Santa Catarina, Brazil, 2004-2005

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    Maria Márcia Imenes Ishida

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Human serofrequency of antibodies against Taenia solium antigens was determined and risk factors for cysticercosis transmission were identified. METHODS: Individuals (n=878 from periurban and rural locations of Lages, SC, were interviewed to gather demographic, sanitary and health information. Interviews and blood sample collections by finger prick on Whatman filter paper were performed from August 2004 to May 2005. Observation determined that 850 samples were suitable for analysis and were tested by ELISA using vesicular fluid of Taenia crassiceps heterologous antigen. To ensure the reliability of the results, 77 samples of the dried blood were matched with sera. The reactive samples were submitted to a serum confirmatory immunoblot (IB test using purified Taenia crassiceps glycoproteins. RESULTS: The ELISA results for the dried blood and serum samples were statistically consistent. ELISA was positive in 186 (21.9% out of 850 individuals. A group of 213 individuals were asked to collect vein blood for IB (186 with positive result in ELISA and 27 with inappropriate whole blood samples and 130 attended the request. The IB was positive in 29 (3.4% out of 850 individuals. A significant correlation (p = 0.0364 was determined among individuals who tested positive in the IB assay who practiced both pig rearing and kitchen gardening. CONCLUSIONS: ELISA with dried blood eluted from filter paper was suitable for cysticercosis population surveys. In Lages, human infection was associated with pig rearing and kitchen gardening. The prevalence index was compatible with other Latin American endemic areas.

  14. [Epidemiology of cysticercosis and neurocysticercosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouteille, B

    2014-01-01

    Within the genus Taenia, three species are human parasites: T. solium, T. saginata and a new uncommon species, T. asiatica, described recently in Asia. T. saginata and T. solium live as adult tapeworms in human intestines, where they cause taeniasis. T. saginata is widely present worldwide, in all regions where cattle are bred. T. solium is endemic in many countries where livestock and consumption of pigs are common. Cattle and pigs become infected by ingesting eggs emitted by humans into the environment and serve as the respective intermediate hosts of these helminths and host larval forms, or metacestodes or cysticerci. Cysticerci develop into adult worms in the human intestines after a person has eaten contaminated raw or undercooked meat. In the T. solium, eggs are also human contaminants. Humans, like swine, can develop cysticercosis after ingesting eggs with water or contaminated food, or via dirty hands. The clinical manifestations of cysticercosis are highly variable both in kind and in severity. The period between initial infection and the onset of symptoms can also vary. The clinical expression of cysticercosis is generally dependent on the number, size and location of the cysts, as well as the host immune response to the parasite. The preferred locations are the muscles, subcutaneous tissues, central nervous system (CNS), and eyes. Subcutaneous and muscular forms are often asymptomatic. Severe cysticercosis is due to larvae located in human CNS - neurocysticercosis. The World Health Organization (WHO) lists neurocysticercosis as a neglected tropical disease. It estimates that about 50 million people worldwide have neurocysticercosis in the world and that it causes about 50,000 deaths each year. Its most frequent clinical manifestations are seizures, intracranial hypertension, neurological deficits, and sometimes psychiatric manifestations. It is also responsible for more than 50% of the cases of late-onset epilepsy in developing countries. The T. solium

  15. Geographic Correlation between Tapeworm Carriers and Heavily Infected Cysticercotic Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neal, Seth E.; Moyano, Luz M.; Ayvar, Viterbo; Gonzalvez, Guillermo; Diaz, Andre; Rodriguez, Silvia; Wilkins, Patricia P.; Tsang, Victor C. W.; Gilman, Robert H.; Garcia, Hector H.; Gonzalez, Armando E.

    2012-01-01

    Background Neurocysticercosis is a leading cause of preventable epilepsy in the developing world. Sustainable community-based interventions are urgently needed to control transmission of the causative parasite, Taenia solium. We examined the geospatial relationship between live pigs with visible cysticercotic cysts on their tongues and humans with adult intestinal tapeworm infection (taeniasis) in a rural village in northern Peru. The objective was to determine whether tongue-positive pigs could indicate high-risk geographic foci for taeniasis to guide targeted screening efforts. This approach could offer significant benefit compared to mass intervention. Methods We recorded geographic coordinates of all village houses, collected stool samples from all consenting villagers, and collected blood and examined tongues of all village pigs. Stool samples were processed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for presence of Taenia sp. coproantigens indicative of active taeniasis; serum was processed by enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot for antibodies against T. solium cysticercosis (EITB LLGP) and T. solium taeniasis (EITB rES33). Findings Of 548 pigs, 256 (46.7%) were positive for antibodies against cysticercosis on EITB LLGP. Of 402 fecal samples, 6 (1.5%) were positive for the presence of Taenia sp. coproantigens. The proportion of coproantigen-positive individuals differed significantly between residents living within 100-meters of a tongue-positive pig (4/79, 5.1%) and residents living >100 meters from a tongue-positive pig (2/323, 0.6%) (p = 0.02). The prevalence of taeniasis was >8 times higher among residents living within 100 meters of a tongue-positive pig compared to residents living outside this range (adjusted PR 8.1, 95% CI 1.4–47.0). Conclusions Tongue-positive pigs in endemic communities can indicate geospatial foci in which the risk for taeniasis is increased. Targeted screening or presumptive treatment for taeniasis within these high

  16. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U11136-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Ostreococcus lucimarinus CCE9901 ... 70 1e-09 AY501886_1( AY501886 |pid:none) Plasmodium vivax strain Thailand...1e-08 AY833023_1( AY833023 |pid:none) Plasmodium vivax strain Thailand M... 66 1e-08 JC6009( JC6009 ) surfac...22018 |pid:none) Candidatus Phytoplasma australie... 65 3e-08 AY833011_1( AY833011 |pid:none) Plasmodium vivax strain Thailand...ne) Plasmodium vivax strain Thailand I... 63 9e-08 L13723_1( L13723 |pid:none) Taenia solium paramyosin (AgB...chr... 60 6e-07 AY833021_1( AY833021 |pid:none) Plasmodium vivax strain Thailand

  17. Cysticercosis Involving Muscle of Mastication: A Review and Report of Two Cases

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    Sarbjeet Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cysticercosis is a parasitic infection caused by the larval stages of the parasitic cestode, Taenia solium. It is a common disease in developing countries where it is also endemic. The central nervous system (CNS is the most important primary site of infection and the disease can present with solitary or multiple space occupying lesions. Cases of cysticercosis presenting as isolated muscle mass (pseudotumours without involvement of the CNS have also been recently described in the literature. We present two cases who presented to us with pain, swelling, and tenderness involving the temporalis muscle along with trismus. Ultrasonography and MRI findings were suggestive of cysticercosis involving the temporalis muscle which resolved after the albendazole therapy.

  18. Oral cysticercosis: A rare case presentation with ultrasound and MRI findings

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    Revath Vyas Devulapalli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Taenia solium , the larvae of pork tapeworm, can cause the parasitic infection known as cysticercosis. It is commonly seen in developing countries. The World Health Organization estimates that over 50,000 deaths per year are caused by neurocysticercosis worldwide. It can occur anywhere in the body. Cysticerci in the muscles generally do not cause symptoms; they present as nodules and can be felt as lumps under the skin or they can present as muscular pseudohypertrophy. The condition rarely involves musculature of the orofacial region and presents a difficulty in clinical diagnosis. Here, we present a case report of a healthy middle-aged female patient who had a painless swelling below the lower lip. The ultrasound examination revealed an intramuscular cysticercosal cyst. The diagnosis was confirmed using magnetic resonance imaging and by histopathology. The case was managed by conservative enucleation of the cyst.

  19. Neglected Parasitic Infections in the United States: Cysticercosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantey, Paul T.; Coyle, Christina M.; Sorvillo, Frank J.; Wilkins, Patricia P.; Starr, Michelle C.; Nash, Theodore E.

    2014-01-01

    Cysticercosis is a potentially fatal and preventable neglected parasitic infection caused by the larval form of Taenia solium. Patients with symptomatic disease usually have signs and symptoms of neurocysticercosis, which commonly manifest as seizures or increased intracranial pressure. Although there are many persons living in the United States who emigrated from highly disease-endemic countries and there are foci of autochthonous transmission of the parasite in the United States, little is known about burden and epidemiology of the disease in this country. In addition, despite advances in the diagnosis and management of neurocysticercosis, there remain many unanswered questions. Improving our understanding and management of neurocysticercosis in the United States will require improved surveillance or focused prospective studies in appropriate areas and allocation of resources towards answering some of the key questions discussed in this report. PMID:24808248

  20. Neurocysticercosis: Diagnostic problems & current therapeutic strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajshekhar, Vedantam

    2016-09-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is the most common single cause of seizures/epilepsy in India and several other endemic countries throughout the world. It is also the most common parasitic disease of the brain caused by the cestode Taenia solium or pork tapeworm. The diagnosis of NCC and the tapeworm carrier (taeniasis) can be relatively inaccessible and expensive for most of the patients. In spite of the introduction of several new immunological tests, neuroimaging remains the main diagnostic test for NCC. The treatment of NCC is also mired in controversy although, there is emerging evidence that albendazole (a cysticidal drug) may be beneficial for patients by reducing the number of seizures and hastening the resolution of live cysts. Currently, there are several diagnostic and management issues which remain unresolved. This review will highlight some of these issues.