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Sample records for hospital southern ethiopia

  1. Skin problems in children under five years old at a rural hospital in Southern Ethiopia

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    José Manuel Ramos

    2016-07-01

    Conclusions: Skin problems, mainly scabies, impetigo, and eczema were common in young children attended at a rural hospital in Southern Ethiopia. Children under 5 years should be examined thoroughly to rule out skin diseases, especially scabies.

  2. Cost-effectiveness of anti-retroviral therapy at a district hospital in southern Ethiopia

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    Robberstad Bjarne

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As the resource implications of expanding anti-retroviral therapy (ART are likely to be large, there is a need to explore its cost-effectiveness. So far, there is no such information available from Ethiopia. Objective To assess the cost-effectiveness of ART for routine clinical practice in a district hospital setting in Ethiopia. Methods We estimated the unit cost of HIV-related care from the 2004/5 fiscal year expenditure of Arba Minch Hospital in southern Ethiopia. We estimated outpatient and inpatient service use from HIV-infected patients who received care and treatment at the hospital between January 2003 and March 2006. We measured the health effect as life years gained (LYG for patients receiving ART compared with those not receiving such treatment. The study adopted a health care provider perspective and included both direct and overhead costs. We used Markov model to estimate the lifetime costs, health benefits and cost-effectiveness of ART. Findings ART yielded an undiscounted 9.4 years expected survival, and resulted in 7.1 extra LYG compared to patients not receiving ART. The lifetime incremental cost is US$2,215 and the undiscounted incremental cost per LYG is US$314. When discounted at 3%, the additional LYG decreases to 5.5 years and the incremental cost per LYG increases to US$325. Conclusion The undiscounted and discounted incremental costs per LYG from introducing ART were less than the per capita GDP threshold at the base year. Thus, ART could be regarded as cost-effective in a district hospital setting in Ethiopia.

  3. SOUTHERN WELO, ETHIOPIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    between soils and geomorphic processes on the piedmont slopes of the Wurgo valley of southern Welo, Ethiopia. The results revealed that slope processes have played major role in the development of Eutric Cambisols with typical A/Bw/Bb horizon sequences on the convergent footslopes, Luvic Phaeozems with A/Bt/Cr.

  4. Chronic kidney disease and underdiagnosis of renal insufficiency among diabetic patients attending a hospital in Southern Ethiopia.

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    Fiseha, Temesgen; Kassim, Mehidi; Yemane, Tilahun

    2014-12-15

    Diabetic patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), as defined by a reduced glomerular filtration rate (GFR), are at greater risk for cardiovascular and renal events and mortality. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of CKD among diabetic patients attending a hospital in southern Ethiopia, and to assess underdiagnosis of renal insufficiency among those with normal serum creatinine. A total of 214 randomly selected diabetics attending the follow-up clinic at Butajira hospital of southern Ethiopia participated in this study during the period from September 1 to October 31, 2013. All patients completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire and underwent clinical assessment. The simplified Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) and Cockroft-Gault (C-G) equations were used to estimate GFR (eGFR) from serum creatinine. CKD, defined as eGFR1.5 mg/dl. Normal serum creatinine was observed in 90.2% of participants attending the hospital. A large proportion of participants ranging from 38.9-56.5% have shown to have mild to moderate renal insufficiency (stage 2-3 CKD) despite normal creatinine levels. CKD, eGFRinsufficiency corresponding to stages 2-3 CKD despite normal creatinine levels. Therefore, GFR should be considered as an estimate of renal insufficiency, regardless of serum creatinine levels being in normal range.

  5. Management and transference of patients diagnosed with tuberculosis in a rural hospital in Southern Ethiopia.

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    Ramos, José Manuel; Tesfamariam, Abraham; Balcha, Sable; Biru, Dejene; Reyes, Francisco; Górgolas, Miguel

    2013-06-01

    Treatment of new tuberculosis (TB) cases in Directly Observed Treatment Short Course (DOTS) programmes is believed to be the most valuable strategy for TB control. The aim of this study is to describe the experience of diagnosed cases of TB in a district hospital situated in a rural zone of Ethiopia and of "transferred out" TB cases from the hospital to their local health facilities using the DOTS programme spanning a period of 8years. Data collection was obtained by using a TB register book in a rural district hospital from 2004 to 2011. The collected information included the type of TB, age, HIV status, and treatment outcomes using standardized definitions; 6459 patients with all forms of TB were diagnosed. Twenty-eight percent were smear-positive pulmonary TB (PTB) cases, 28.97% were smear-negative PTB cases, and 42.8% were extra-pulmonary TB (EPTB). The global "transferred out" rate was 78.5% (5073/6459); the "transferred out" rate after diagnosis at hospital and before starting DOTS was 72.6% (4689/6459), and after finishing the intensive phase and admission was 21.8% (385/1770). The proportion of total cases "transferred out" in smear-negative PTB cases (70.2%) was less than smear-positive PTB cases (79.2%) (odd ratio [OR]: 0.81; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.76-0.87) and was higher in EPTB cases (83.3%) (OR: 1.15; 95% CI: 1.05-1.19). The percentage of "transferred out" after hospital admission was higher in HIV-positive cases (16.8%) than in HIV-negative cases (8.5%) (OR: 2.13; 95% CI: 1.28-3.53). In conclusion, district hospitals are still important facilities for the diagnosis of TB cases, particularly EPTB. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Management and transference of patients diagnosed with tuberculosis in a rural hospital in Southern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Ramos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of new tuberculosis (TB cases in Directly Observed Treatment Short Course (DOTS programmes is believed to be the most valuable strategy for TB control. The aim of this study is to describe the experience of diagnosed cases of TB in a district hospital situated in a rural zone of Ethiopia and of “transferred out” TB cases from the hospital to their local health facilities using the DOTS programme spanning a period of 8 years. Data collection was obtained by using a TB register book in a rural district hospital from 2004 to 2011. The collected information included the type of TB, age, HIV status, and treatment outcomes using standardized definitions; 6459 patients with all forms of TB were diagnosed. Twenty-eight percent were smear-positive pulmonary TB (PTB cases, 28.97% were smear-negative PTB cases, and 42.8% were extra-pulmonary TB (EPTB. The global “transferred out” rate was 78.5% (5073/6459; the “transferred out” rate after diagnosis at hospital and before starting DOTS was 72.6% (4689/6459, and after finishing the intensive phase and admission was 21.8% (385/1770. The proportion of total cases “transferred out” in smear-negative PTB cases (70.2% was less than smear-positive PTB cases (79.2% (odd ratio [OR]: 0.81; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.76–0.87 and was higher in EPTB cases (83.3% (OR: 1.15; 95% CI: 1.05–1.19. The percentage of “transferred out” after hospital admission was higher in HIV-positive cases (16.8% than in HIV-negative cases (8.5% (OR: 2.13; 95% CI: 1.28–3.53. In conclusion, district hospitals are still important facilities for the diagnosis of TB cases, particularly EPTB.

  7. Spoligotyping of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from tuberculosis diagnosed patients at Dilla University Referral Hospital and other private clinics, Southern Ethiopia

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    Gebremedhin Gebrezgabiher

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis strains exsisting in Gedeo zone and the surrounding areas of the Southern Ethiopia using spoligotyping. Methods: A cross sectional study was carried out from February, 2012 to June, 2013 and 97 (76 sputum and 21 fine needle aspirate samples were taken from tuberculosis diagnosed patients at Dilla University Referral Hospital and other private clinics. Culturing, region of difference (RD9 deletion typing and spoligotyping techniques were employed to isolate M. tuberculosis strains. Results: Growth of mycobacteria was observed in 35.1% (34/97. Speciation of isolates showed that 91.2% (31/34 of the isolates were M. tuberculosis. Further characterization led to the identification of 23 different spoligotype patterns of M. tuberculosis of which 61% and 39% displayed unique and cluster patterns, respectively. The most dominant shared type was spoligotype international type 53. Of the 23 strains, 12 have not been registered in the international spoligotyping database (SpolDB4. Seventy one percent of the strains belonged to the Euro-American lineage. Conclusions: This study revealed the existence of both genetically diverse and clustered M. tuberculosis strains from tuberculosis patients in the area, suggesting reactivation of infection and recent transmission, respectively. Molecular epidemiology of M. tuberculosis should be done nationwide in order to set appropriate control measures.

  8. Cost estimates of HIV care and treatment with and without anti-retroviral therapy at Arba Minch Hospital in southern Ethiopia

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    Robberstad Bjarne

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the costs of HIV care in Ethiopia. Objective To estimate the average per person year (PPY cost of care for HIV patients with and without anti-retroviral therapy (ART in a district hospital. Methods Data on costs and utilization of HIV-related services were taken from Arba Minch Hospital (AMH in southern Ethiopia. Mean annual outpatient and inpatient costs and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated. We adopted a district hospital perspective and focused on hospital costs. Findings PPY average (95% CI costs under ART were US$235.44 (US$218.11–252.78 and US$29.44 (US$24.30–34.58 for outpatient and inpatient care, respectively. Estimates for the non-ART condition were US$38.12 (US$34.36–41.88 and US$80.88 (US$63.66–98.11 for outpatient and inpatient care, respectively. The major cost driver under the ART scheme was cost of ART drugs, whereas it was inpatient care and treatment in the non-ART scheme. Conclusion The cost profile of ART at a district hospital level may be useful in the planning and budgeting of implementing ART programs in Ethiopia. Further studies that focus on patient costs are warranted to capture all patterns of service use and relevant costs. Economic evaluations combining cost estimates with clinical outcomes would be useful for ranking of ART services.

  9. Evaluation of trends of drug-prescribing patterns based on WHO prescribing indicators at outpatient departments of four hospitals in southern Ethiopia

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    Summoro TS

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Temesgen Sidamo Summoro,1 Kassa Daka Gidebo,2 Zewde Zemma Kanche,1 Eskinder Wolka Woticha2 1School of Medicine, College of Health Sciences and Medicine, Wolaita Sodo University, Wolaita Sodo, Ethiopia; 2School of Public Health, College of Health Sciences and Medicine, Wolaita Sodo University, Wolaita Sodo, Ethiopia Background: Rational prescribing is a primary step to ensure rational drug use. Often, half of the medicines are prescribed irrationally and half of these are even used incorrectly as the patients fail to take their medicines appropriately. The aim of this research was to evaluate drug-prescribing patterns of four hospitals in southern Ethiopia.Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted between May 15 and June 25, 2014, to evaluate the drug-prescribing patterns based on the World health Organization (WHO prescribing indicators. The prescription papers, kept for the last 1 year in the outpatient departments of the four hospitals, were analyzed according to WHO guidelines. Also, prescriptions in the hospitals were analyzed to determine the most frequently prescribed drugs. All the statistical calculations were performed using SPSS® version 20.0 software.Results and discussion: The average number of drugs per prescription ranges from 1.82±0.90 to 2.28±0.90, whereas the percentage of use of antibiotics and injections ranged from 46.7 to 85 and 15 to 61.7, respectively. The average percentages of drugs prescribed by generic name and from the essential drugs list were 95.8 and 94.1, respectively. Anti-infective and analgesic drugs are found to be the most frequently prescribed medicines. In terms of polypharmacy, there was a slight deviation in prescribing patterns from what is acceptable according to the WHO criteria. Prescribing by generic name and from essential drug list was almost optimal. There was a significant deviation in the use of injectables in two of the four hospitals (50%, whereas their use in the other

  10. Assessment of client satisfaction on emergency department services in Hawassa University Referral Hospital, Hawassa, Southern Ethiopia.

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    Worku, Mesfin; Loha, Eskindir

    2017-06-27

    Satisfaction refers to a state of pleasure or contentment with an action, event or service, especially one that was previously desired. Regarding to client, satisfaction is the level of happiness that clients experience having used a service. It therefore reflects the gap between the expected service and the experience of the service, from the client's point of view. Information was unavailable regarding the level of satisfaction of patients towards emergency health care servicesat Hawassa University Referral Hospital thatserve a huge catchment area; and this study addressed this gap. Cross-sectional study was conducted from March 13 to May 15/2014. Systematic sampling method was used to enroll study participants. The data was collected by trained data collectors using pre-structured questionnaire. A total 407 clients were enrolled under this study with respondent rate of 96.9%. Nearly two third of study participants were male, 270 (66.3%). 86.7% of study participants were satisfied by services provided in Emergency Out Patient Department (OPD). The percentage of study satisfaction with physical examination by Doctor, nursing, laboratory and pharmacy services were 95.6%, 89.9%, 84.7% and 67.6%, respectively. Only 31.9% were satisfied with availability of drugs in the pharmacy. Regarding to staff courtesy, 91.7% of study participants were satisfied by the manner shown by the staffs working in Emergency OPD. The vast majority of the participants (97%) were satisfied with the courtesy of Medical laboratory personnel and the least satisfaction (79.4%) was recorded for security guards. This study showed low level of patient satisfaction in pharmacy services specifically due to unavailability of drugs due to lack of sustained supply of drugs.

  11. Asymptomatic urinary tract infection among pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic of Hawassa Referral Hospital, Southern Ethiopia.

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    Tadesse, Endale; Teshome, Million; Merid, Yared; Kibret, Belayhun; Shimelis, Techalew

    2014-03-17

    Untreated asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) during pregnancy may cause serious complications including pyelonephritis and delivery of premature or low-birth-weight infants. However, little is known about asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy in Ethiopia. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria, bacterial agents, and their antibiotic susceptibility pattern in pregnant women attending antenatal clinic of the Hawassa Teaching and Referral Hospital. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a total of 244 pregnant women with no sign and symptom of urinary tract infection from March 2012 to September 2012. Clean catch mid-stream urine samples were collected from all study participants using sterile containers. Urine samples were cultured using standard bacteriological methods. Identification of suspected colonies and antibiotic sensitivity testing were done. Out of 244 pregnant women, 46(18.8%) were positive for asymptomatic bacteriuria (Colony Forming Unit ≥ 105/mL). There was no difference in prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria with respect to age (p = 0.07) and trimester (p = 0.27).The most frequently isolated bacteria were coagulase negative Staphylococcus (32.6%), followed by Escherichia coli (26.1%), and Staphylococcus auerus (13%). The susceptibility rate of bacterial isolate was highest for norfloxacin (64.7%) and lowest for ampicillin (17.6%). The high prevalence of ASB in pregnant women warrant the need to screen all pregnant women and treat those infected with appropriate antimicrobial regimens in order to reduce its complications.

  12. Detection of high levels of mutations involved in anti-malarial drug resistance in Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax at a rural hospital in southern Ethiopia

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    González Vicenta

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Ethiopia, malaria is caused by Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax, and anti-malarial drug resistance is the most pressing problem confronting control of the disease. Since co-infection by both species of parasite is common and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP has been intensively used, resistance to these drugs has appeared in both P. falciparum and P. vivax populations. This study was conducted to assess the prevalence of anti-malarial drug resistance in P. falciparum and P. vivax isolates collected at a rural hospital in southern Ethiopia. Methods A total of 1,147 patients with suspected malaria were studied in different months across the period 2007-2009. Plasmodium falciparum dhfr and dhps mutations and P. vivax dhfr polymorphisms associated with resistance to SP, as well as P. falciparum pfcrt and pfmdr1 mutations conferring chloroquine resistance, were assessed. Results PCR-based diagnosis showed that 125 of the 1147 patients had malaria. Of these, 52.8% and 37.6% of cases were due to P. falciparum and P. vivax respectively. A total of 10 cases (8% showed co-infection by both species and two cases (1.6% were infected by Plasmodium ovale. Pfdhfr triple mutation and pfdhfr/pfdhps quintuple mutation occurred in 90.8% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 82.2%-95.5% and 82.9% (95% CI: 72.9%-89.7% of P. falciparum isolates, respectively. Pfcrt T76 was observed in all cases and pfmdr1 Y86 and pfmdr1 Y1246 in 32.9% (95% CI: 23.4%-44.15% and 17.1% (95% CI: 10.3-27.1%, respectively. The P. vivax dhfr core mutations, N117 and R58, were present in 98.2% (95% CI: 89.4-99.9% and 91.2% (95% CI: 80.0-96.7%, respectively. Conclusion Current molecular data show an extraordinarily high frequency of drug-resistance mutations in both P. falciparum and P. vivax in southern Ethiopia. Urgent surveillance of the emergence and spread of resistance is thus called for. The level of resistance indicates the need for implementation of entire

  13. VEGETATION OF CHENCHA HIGHLANDS IN SOUTHERN ETHIOPIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADMIN

    ABSTRACT: The relationship between environmental factors and plant communities identified using multivariate numerical analyses were investigated in the highlands of southern Ethiopia. Vegetation data were obtained from relevés placed in belt transects along altitudinal gradients on the mountain slopes following the ...

  14. Patients' satisfaction towards radiological service and associated factors in Hawassa University Teaching and referral hospital, Southern Ethiopia.

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    Mulisa, Teshome; Tessema, Fasil; Merga, Hailu

    2017-06-26

    Patient satisfaction, one of the main components of quality of care, is a crucial phenomenon for the overall health care delivery system. Even though a number of studies have been conducted about patient satisfaction in different health services, studies in radiology services are flimsy in Ethiopia. This study aimed at assessing patient satisfaction towards radiological service and associated factors in Hawassa University Teaching and Referral hospital. An institution based cross-sectional study was conducted among 321 adult patients presented for radiological service in the study area using stratified sampling technique. Patient satisfaction was measured using SERVQUAL (Service Quality) tool that consisted of seven items: accessibility, quality of radiological service, courtesy of radiology staff, existence of good communication with service provider and desk worker, physical environment and privacy technique. Exit interviews of patients were conducted using a structured and pretested questionnaire. Data was collected by three grade ten completed trained data collectors from May 12 to May 28, 2016. Multiple logistic regressions were used to identify independent factors associated with patient satisfaction on radiological services using SPSS version 21. The overall patient satisfaction towards radiological service was 71.6%. Satisfaction to accessibility of the service was 84.5% while it was 80.6% to courtesy of the staff. Similarly, 81.6% reported satisfied with quality of the service and 59.4% and 71% of reported satisfied with physical environment and radiological service provider respectively. On the other hand, 99.7% of the respondents were dissatisfied with privacy of the service. The study revealed that patients who attended primary school (AOR = 0.317, 95% CI: 0.11-0.88), unemployed patients (AOR = 0.067, 95% CI: 0.007-0.622) and patients who had short waiting time to enter into examination room less than one hour (AOR = 4.12, 95% CI: 1.4-11.62) were

  15. (Vicia faba) IN SOUTHERN ETHIOPIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Win7Ent

    2013-06-03

    Jun 3, 2013 ... iron, zinc, calcium, riboflavin, vitamin A, and vitamin C [4]. Although Ethiopia has a fairly large livestock population, availability of meat and milk for local human consumption is limited, especially in rural areas where wealth index values are in the lower quintiles, according to the most recent Demographic ...

  16. (Vicia faba) IN SOUTHERN ETHIOPIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Win7Ent

    2013-06-03

    Jun 3, 2013 ... in 22.5, 4.7, and 8.3% of study children, respectively. Questionnaires ..... this study, however, requires preparation of the raw ingredients. .... Survey 2009/10 Report for the National Nutrition Program of Ethiopia. Ethiopian ...

  17. The exposure rate to hepatitis B and C viruses among medical waste handlers in three government hospitals, southern Ethiopia.

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    Amsalu, Anteneh; Worku, Mesfin; Tadesse, Endale; Shimelis, Techalew

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the rate of and risk factors for exposure to hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) among medical waste handlers. A cross-sectional study was conducted from December 2014 to January 2015. A total of 152 medical waste handlers (MWH) and 82 non-medical waste handlers (NMWH) were studied. Serum samples were collected from participants and screened for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc) and anti-HCV using rapid immunochromatography assay. MWH were also screened for hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs). The respective prevalence of HBsAg, anti-HBc and anti-HCV was 1.3%, 39.4%, and 0.7% in MWH, compared to 2.4%, 17.1%, and 1.2%, respectively, in NMWH. Among MWH, 58.6% were susceptible to HBV infection. There was a significant difference in the rate of lifetime exposure to HBV in MWH compared with NMWH (odds ratio [OR], 3.17; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.64 to 6.13). However, there was no significant difference between participant groups with respect to current HBV infection (OR, 0.53; 95%CI, 0.07 to 3.86) or anti-HCV (OR, 0.54; 95%CI, 0.03 to 8.69). Age older than 40 years and working in a hospital laundry were independent predictors of lifetime exposure to HBV infection. Eleven (7.2%) respondents were vaccinated against HBV. Lifetime exposure to HBV infection was significantly higher in MWH than in NMWH. The majority of MWH was not vaccinated against HBV and thus remains susceptible to contracting the infection. Screening upon hire followed by vaccination of MWH is recommended to reduce the transmission of HBV.

  18. Waste Management Problems in Jimma, Southern Ethiopia *Filaba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Choice-Academy

    Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management Vol.1 No.2 June. 2008. * Faculty of Education, Jimma University, P. O. Box 378, Jimma, Ethiopia mfilaba@yahoo.co.uk. 8. Waste Management Problems in Jimma, Southern Ethiopia. *Filaba M. A.. Abstract .... perspective is elaborately discussed in the works of ...

  19. Land Access and Youth Livelihood Opportunities in Southern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Bezu, Sosina; Holden, Stein T.

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to examine current land access and youth livelihood opportunities in Southern Ethiopia. Access to agricultural land is a constitutional right for rural residents of Ethiopia. We used survey data from the relatively land abundant districts of Oromia Region and from the land scarce districts of Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples’ (SNNP) Region. We found that youth in the rural south have limited potential to obtain agricultural land that can be a basis for viable liveli...

  20. Detection and molecular characterisation of Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp. and Entamoeba spp. among patients with gastrointestinal symptoms in Gambo Hospital, Oromia Region, southern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flecha, María J; Benavides, Cynthia M; Tissiano, Gabriel; Tesfamariam, Abraham; Cuadros, Juan; de Lucio, Aida; Bailo, Begoña; Cano, Lourdes; Fuentes, Isabel; Carmena, David

    2015-09-01

    To assess the prevalence and genetic diversity of the enteric protozoa species G. duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp. and Entamoeba histolytica in individuals with gastrointestinal symptoms compatible with infections by these pathogens seeking medical attention in a rural area in southern Ethiopia. A total of 92 stool samples were initially screened by direct microscopy and immunochromatography and further confirmed by molecular methods. G. duodenalis-positive samples were molecularly characterised by multilocus genotyping of the glutamate dehydrogenase and β-giardin genes of the parasite. PCR and DNA sequence analysis of the gene encoding the 60-kDa glycoprotein was used for the subtyping of Cryptosporidium isolates. Detection and differential diagnosis of E. histolytica/dispar were conducted by real-time PCR. PCR-based prevalences were 10.9% for G. duodenalis, 1.1% for Cryptosporidium spp. and 3.3% for Entamoeba spp. Seven (four novel and three known) subtypes of G. duodenalis assemblage B were identified at the GDH locus and 5 (one novel and four known) at the BG locus. A novel variant of C. hominis subtype IbA9G3 was also identified. Two Entamoeba isolates were assigned to E. dispar and an additional one to E. histolytica. Although preliminary, our results strongly suggest that giardiasis, cryptosporidiosis and amoebiasis represent a significant burden in Ethiopian rural population. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Malnutrition among children in Southern Ethiopia: Levels and risk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malnutrition among children in Southern Ethiopia: Levels and risk factors. ... Ethiopian Journal of Health Development ... Using data collected in the Community and Family Survey of the Southern Nations Nationalities and Peoples Region, this study estimates the level of child malnutrition and identifies the factors associated ...

  2. Gambella Hospital, South West Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    completed week of gestational age as attributed for nearly 40% of all maternal calculated from the last menstrual period deaths (6). ..... HIV-1 infection, gonorrhea and syphilis at Five Hospital in the city of Addis Ababa: was not found to be significantly different WHO, Multi-center Survey by abortionists, in patients with ...

  3. Seroprevalence and associated risk factors of hepatitis B virus among pregnant women in southern Ethiopia: a hospital-based cross-sectional study.

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    Metaferia, Yeshi; Dessie, Walelign; Ali, Ibrahim; Amsalu, Anteneh

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a major blood-borne and sexually transmitted infectious agent that is a significant global public health issue. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence and risk factors of HBV among pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic of the Hawassa University referral hospital in Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted from April to May, 2015. A total of 269 consecutive pregnant women attending antenatal consultations were enrolled. Sociodemographic information and data regarding possible risk factors were collected using a structured questionnaire. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) screening was performed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the data were analyzed. The overall seroprevalence of HBsAg among the 269 participants enrolled in the study was 7.8% (n=21). The prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection was 5.2% (n=14), of whom two participants (14.2%) were also positive for HBsAg. Study participants with no formal education (odds ratio [OR], 3.68; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.27 to 10.68; ppregnant women who had multiple exposure factors (8.8%, n=13) than in pregnant women who had not experienced possible risk factors (4%, n=1), this difference was not statistically significant (OR, 2.33; 95%CI, 0.29 to 18.63). A high prevalence of HBV infection was detected in the study population. Neither the type of risk factors nor exposure to multiple risk factors was significantly associated with HBV infection. Hence, screening pregnant women regardless of risk factors and improving awareness of the transmission routes of HBV within this group may reduce the risk of HBV infections.

  4. Seroprevalence and associated risk factors of hepatitis B virus among pregnant women in southern Ethiopia: a hospital-based cross-sectional study

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    Yeshi Metaferia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Hepatitis B virus (HBV is a major blood-borne and sexually transmitted infectious agent that is a significant global public health issue. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence and risk factors of HBV among pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic of the Hawassa University referral hospital in Ethiopia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted from April to May, 2015. A total of 269 consecutive pregnant women attending antenatal consultations were enrolled. Sociodemographic information and data regarding possible risk factors were collected using a structured questionnaire. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg screening was performed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the data were analyzed. RESULTS: The overall seroprevalence of HBsAg among the 269 participants enrolled in the study was 7.8% (n=21. The prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection was 5.2% (n=14, of whom two participants (14.2% were also positive for HBsAg. Study participants with no formal education (odds ratio [OR], 3.68; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.27 to 10.68; p<0.05 were more likely to be infected with HBV than those who had completed at least secondary school. Although HBsAg was detected more often in pregnant women who had multiple exposure factors (8.8%, n=13 than in pregnant women who had not experienced possible risk factors (4%, n=1, this difference was not statistically significant (OR, 2.33; 95%CI, 0.29 to 18.63. CONCLUSIONS: A high prevalence of HBV infection was detected in the study population. Neither the type of risk factors nor exposure to multiple risk factors was significantly associated with HBV infection. Hence, screening pregnant women regardless of risk factors and improving awareness of the transmission routes of HBV within this group may reduce the risk of HBV infections.

  5. Growth and Visual Information Processing in Infants in Southern Ethiopia

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    Kennedy, Tay; Thomas, David G.; Woltamo, Tesfaye; Abebe, Yewelsew; Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Sykova, Vladimira; Stoecker, Barbara J.; Hambidge, K. Michael

    2008-01-01

    Speed of information processing and recognition memory can be assessed in infants using a visual information processing (VIP) paradigm. In a sample of 100 infants 6-8 months of age from Southern Ethiopia, we assessed relations between growth and VIP. The 69 infants who completed the VIP protocol had a mean weight z score of -1.12 plus or minus…

  6. Waste Management Problems in Jimma, Southern Ethiopia *Filaba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Choice-Academy

    Waste Management Problems in Jimma, Southern Ethiopia. *Filaba M. A.. Abstract. The major objective of the project was to design an approach to the problem of indiscriminate and non- clearance of generated wastes in the slums in Jimma town. The project, therefore, aimed to orient Jimma inhabitants to be hygienic, and ...

  7. Improving pulse crop production in Southern Ethiopia

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Ethiopia's ability to produce more and better food and to help reduce poverty. Expected outcomes. • Improved varieties and increased yields of lentils, chickpeas, and faba beans. • Increased soil fertility and improved soil conservation techniques. • More opportunities for local farmers to generate income. • Better nutrition and ...

  8. Governmentality and the Family: Neoliberal Choices and Emergent Kin Relations in Southern Ethiopia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    ELLISON, JAMES

    2009-01-01

    .... People in southern Ethiopia who use ideologies of ascribed social statuses to define local social hierarchies have employed these discourses in reshaping relatedness through an expansive trade...

  9. Lice Infestation On Cattle In Endegagn District, Southern Ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lice Infestation On Cattle In Endegagn District, Southern Ethiopia: Species Composition, Prevalence And Seasonal Pattern. ... L'étude a indiqué que la prévalence globale de l'infestation par les poux des bovins dans le district était très forte pendant les mois de février (6,4%) ; mars (5%) et janvier (4,8%), et très faible ...

  10. Perinatal mortality audit at Jimma hospital, South- Western Ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A retrospective review of perinatal deaths that occurred during 1990-1999 at Jimma hospital, a teaching hospital in South-Western Ethiopia was conducted with the objective of determining the overall perinatal mortality rate and trend, identifying major causes and suggest possible preventive strategies. Record books of the ...

  11. The quality of hospital services in eastern Ethiopia: Patient's

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rate and hence meeting patient satisfaction improves the utilization of health services. Methodology. In Harari region there are two secondary (Zonal) hospitals under the Regional Health Bureau, which act as major referral hospitals for the whole of the eastern part of Ethiopia. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in.

  12. Predictors of hospitalization among children on ART in Ethiopia: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study, therefore, was to assess predictors of hospitalization in children on ART in seven university referral hospitals in Ethiopia. Methods: A prospective cohort study design was employed on children age 0-18 years as part of a multisite observational study. ART-experienced eligible and ART-naïve ...

  13. Disaster, relief and political change in southern Ethiopia : developments from within Suri society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink, G.J.; Sorenson, J.

    1995-01-01

    This chapter describes responses to the ecological crisis and political changes in Ethiopia in the early 1990s among the Suri, an agropastoral group in K„fa Region, southern Ethiopia. Data are derived from fieldwork carried out in the area after the change of regime in 1991. Attention is paid to

  14. Technical efficiency of selected hospitals in Eastern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Murad; Debela, Megersa; Bamud, Tewfik

    2017-12-01

    This study examines the relative technical efficiency of 12 hospitals in Eastern Ethiopia. Using six-year-round panel data for the period between 2007/08 and 2012/13, this study examines the technical efficiency, total factor productivity, and determinants of the technical inefficiency of hospitals. Data envelopment analysis (DEA) and DEA- based Malmquist productivity index used to estimate relative technical efficiency, scale efficiency, and total factor productivity index of hospitals. Tobit model used to examine the determinants of the technical inefficiency of hospitals. The DEA Variable Returns to Scale (VRS) estimate indicated that 6 (50%), 5 (42%), 3 (25%), 3 (25%), 4 (33%), and 3 (25%) of the hospitals were technically inefficient while 9 (75%), 9 (75%), 7 (58%), 7 (58%), 7 (58%) and 8 (67%) of hospitals were scale inefficient between 2007/08 and 2012/13, respectively. On average, Malmquist Total Factor Productivity (MTFP) of the hospitals decreased by 3.6% over the panel period. The Tobit model shows that teaching hospital is less efficiency than other hospitals. The Tobit regression model further shows that medical doctor to total staff ratio, the proportion of outpatient visit to inpatient days, and the proportion of inpatients treated per medical doctor were negatively related with technical inefficiency of hospitals. Hence, policy interventions that help utilize excess capacity of hospitals, increase doctor to other staff ratio, and standardize number of inpatients treated per doctor would contribute to the improvement of the technical efficiency of hospitals.

  15. Flow regime change in an endorheic basin in southern Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worku, F. F.; Werner, M.; Wright, N.; van der Zaag, P.; Demissie, S. S.

    2014-09-01

    Endorheic basins, often found in semi-arid and arid climates, are particularly sensitive to variation in fluxes such as precipitation, evaporation and runoff, resulting in variability of river flows as well as of water levels in end-point lakes that are often present. In this paper we apply the indicators of hydrological alteration (IHA) to characterise change to the natural flow regime of the Omo-Ghibe Basin in southern Ethiopia. Little water resource infrastructure has been developed in the basin to date, and it is considered pristine. The basin is endorheic and is the main source of flow to Lake Turkana in the East African Rift Valley. The water level in Lake Turkana shows significant fluctuation, but increase of its level can be observed over the past 20 years. The reasons are currently not well understood. Of the five groups of hydrological characteristics in the IHA (magnitude, timing, duration, frequency and variability), only those related to magnitude were found to show significant trends, with the main trend being the increase of flow during the dry season. This trend was not reflected in climatological drivers such as rainfall, evaporation and temperature (which shows a positive trend), but rather is attributed to the substantial changes in land use and land cover in the basin. The change in the basin hydrology is apparent mainly in the more humid part of the basin. The significant shift from forest and woodland to grassland and cropland results in a decrease of actual evaporation and subsequent increase in (dry season) runoff. The long-term trend of the increasing levels in Lake Turkana are related to these trends in dry season flows, while shorter-term fluctuations of the lake levels are attributed primarily to anomalies in consecutive wet and dry season rainfall.

  16. Famine in southern Ethiopia 1985-1986. Malnutrition, diarrhoea and death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindtjørn, B

    1990-10-01

    During the 1985-86 famine children from two areas in Southern Ethiopia were studied to assess a possible association between malnutrition and diarrhoeal disease. Malnutrition did not increase the incidence of diarrhoeal disease. However, malnourished children were more severely affected by the infection. Nutritional rehabilitation reduced the demand for treatment of diarrhoea and probably contributed to a decrease in crude childhood mortality.

  17. Ritual and political forms of violent practice among the Suri of southern Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink, J.

    1998-01-01

    This article presents an account of the ideological form and practical exercise of violence among the Chai, a subgroup of the Suri (or Surma) people, agropastoralists in southern Ethiopia. In theoretical terms, the general question is addressed of how, on the elementary level of small-scale,

  18. Competing practices of drinking and power : alcoholic 'hegemonism' in southern Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink, G.J.

    1997-01-01

    This paper focuses on problems and dilemmas of changing alcohol use among the Surma, a group of lowland agropastoralists in Maji, southern Ethiopia. The area under discussion is inhabited by indigenous agriculturalists, descendants of northern immigrants of mixed origin, and Surma and Me'en

  19. Impact of HIV Status on Treatment Outcome of Tuberculosis Patients Registered at Arsi Negele Health Center, Southern Ethiopia: A Six Year Retrospective Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gebremariam, Gebreslassie; Asmamaw, Getachew; Hussen, Muktar; Hailemariam, Mengistu Z; Asegu, Demissie; Astatkie, Ayalew; Amsalu, Anteneh G

    2016-01-01

    ...)-associated tuberculosis (TB) remains a challenge in Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of HIV status on treatment outcome of tuberculosis patients registered at Arsi Negele Health Center, Southern Ethiopia...

  20. Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semaan, Leslie

    This document is a text dealing mainly with Ethiopia's rich cultural heritage and current lifestyles. It gives students the opportunity to go beyond the media coverage that has led to the perception of the whole of Ethiopia as a famine stricken land, and to discover the realities of this new nation, that about 15 percent of the population, mainly…

  1. Intimate partners' violence in Southern Ethiopia: Examining the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The high level of intimate partner violence (IPV) against women in many population groups in Ethiopia and the risk factors associated with the practice is not well understood among scholars and decision makers. This study examined the prevalence and risk factors associated with intimate partner violence in Sidama, ...

  2. Hemoglobin, Growth, and Attention of Infants in Southern Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubuchon-Endsley, Nicki L.; Grant, Stephanie L.; Berhanu, Getenesh; Thomas, David G.; Schrader, Sarah E.; Eldridge, Devon; Kennedy, Tay; Hambidge, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Male and female infants from rural Ethiopia were tested to investigate relations among hemoglobin (Hb), anthropometry, and attention. A longitudinal design was used to examine differences in attention performance from 6 (M = 24.9 weeks, n = 89) to 9 months of age (M = 40.6 weeks, n = 85), differences hypothesized to be related to changes in iron…

  3. Bovine Mastitis in Selected Districts of Borena Zone, Southern Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional study was conducted on 397 lactating Boran cows in pastoral areas of Borana Zone, Ethiopia to determine the prevalence of mastitis, major causes and ... The prevalence of mastitis was significantly higher (p=0.00) among animals with tick infestation and those with history of previous exposure to mastitis ...

  4. Newborn care seeking practices in Central and Southern Ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: In Ethiopia, close to 120,000 newborns die annually and newborn mortality now constitutes 42% of under-five deaths. The use of health care for newborn illnesses is very limited. Objective: To investigate local perspectives and practices related to newborn care-seeking and the factors affecting them. Methods: ...

  5. What Community Participation in Schooling Means: Insights from Southern Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift-Morgan, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    Community participation is a term frequently used and often cited in international educational development. In this article, Jennifer Swift-Morgan investigates the definition and impact of community participation in schooling in rural Ethiopia. Although national governments, development agencies, and nongovernmental organizations across the…

  6. Level and differentials of fertility in Awassa town, Southern Ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional, descriptive study with internal comparison was conducted among 1376 women of reproductive age with the objective of assessing the level and determinants of fertility in Awassa town, Ethiopia. Total Fertility Rate (TFR) was 3.4 and the mean Child Ever Born (CEB) was 1.72 and 3.02 among all women ...

  7. Bovine Mastitis in Selected Districts of Borena Zone, Southern Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional study was conducted on 397 lactating Boran cows in pastoral areas of Borana Zone, Ethiopia to determine the prevalence of mastitis, major causes and associated risk factors of mastitis using California mastitis test and bacteriology. The study showed an overall prevalence of 70.8%; out of which 12.4% ...

  8. Comparative study of Widal test against stool culture for typhoid fever suspected cases in southern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameya G

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Gemechu Ameya,1 Edemew Atalel,2 Berhanu Kebede,3 Bethel Yohannes4 1Department of Medical Laboratory Science, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Arba Minch University, Arba Minch, 2Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Durbetie Primary Hospital, Amahara, 3Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Dalifage Primary Hospital, Afar, 4Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Hayilemariyam Hospital, Adama, Ethiopia Introduction: Infection caused by Salmonella enterica subsp. serotype Typhi remains an important public health problem in developing countries. Culture is an effective diagnostic method of confirming this infection. Diagnosis in developing countries is mostly done by Widal test, which is nonreliable. The aim of this study was to compare the Widal test against stool culture in typhoid-suspected cases and to evaluate the agreement between test methods.Methodology: A cross-sectional study design was conducted on typhoid-suspected cases in southern Ethiopia. Collected data were entered into Epi-Info version 3.5.1 and exported to SPSS version 20.0 for further analysis. Kappa test was used to assess the agreement between the tests. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV, and negative predictive value (NPV were calculated to compare the Widal test against stool culture.Results: A total of 95 patients participated in the study, of whom 49 (51.6% were females and 46 (48.4% were males. The age range of the suspected cases were between 10 and 62 years, with mean age of 27.9 years. Of the examined cases, 65 (68.4% were positive for slide agglutination Widal test, whereas only 19 (20.0% were positive for S. enterica serotype Typhi by stool culture. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of slide agglutination test against stool culture were 84.2%, 35.5%, 24.6%, and 90.0%, respectively. Slide agglutination test has a poor agreement with the stool culture (kappa = 0.103, but tube titration test has a fair agreement with the

  9. Role of traditional enclosures on the diversity of herbaceous vegetation in a semi-arid rangeland, southern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Angassa, A.; Oba, G.; Treydte, A.C.; Weladji, R. B.

    2010-01-01

    Grazing management and seasonality strongly influence the recovery potential of herbaceous vegetation in semi-arid rangelands of southern Ethiopia after history of heavy grazing. We investigated effects of management (enclosures versus grazed landscapes), age of enclosures and seasonality related to rainfall (i.e., independent variables) on herbaceous biomass, grass basal cover, herbaceous species abundance, species richness and diversity in a savanna rangeland of southern Ethiopia. We furthe...

  10. Determinants of treatment adherence among smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients in Southern Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estifanos Biru Shargie

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Defaulting from treatment remains a challenge for most tuberculosis control programmes. It may increase the risk of drug resistance, relapse, death, and prolonged infectiousness. The aim of this study was to determine factors predicting treatment adherence among smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A cohort of smear-positive tuberculosis patients diagnosed and registered in Hossana Hospital in southern Ethiopia from 1 September 2002 to 30 April 2004 were prospectively included. Using a structured questionnaire, potential predictor factors for defaulting from treatment were recorded at the beginning of treatment, and patients were followed up until the end of treatment. Default incidence rate was calculated and compared among preregistered risk factors. Of the 404 patients registered for treatment, 81 (20% defaulted from treatment. A total of 91% (74 of 81 of treatment interruptions occurred during the continuation phase of treatment. On a Cox regression model, distance from home to treatment centre (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.97; p 25 y (HR = 1.71; p = 0.02, and necessity to use public transport to get to a treatment centre (HR = 1.59; p = 0.06 were found to be independently associated with defaulting from treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Defaulting due to treatment noncompletion in this study setting is high, and the main determinants appear to be factors related to physical access to a treatment centre. The continuation phase of treatment is the most crucial time for treatment interruption, and future interventions should take this factor into consideration.

  11. ETHIOPIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethiopia). Assale, also called Reged, is located in the Danakil plain depression, Afar Regional National. State. Assale is about 180 km northeast of Mekelle, and the road passes through Agulae –. Berahle – Reged (Assale Lake) (Figure 1) [1].

  12. Trauma registry in Tikur Anbessa Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taye, Mulat; Munie, Tadios

    2003-07-01

    A simplified trauma registry was tested in Tikur anbessa hospital, with the aim of obtaining preliminary data on the patterns and magnitude of injuries and establishing the basis towards surveillance system. All injured patients presented to the surgical and pediatric emergency department between January 1, 1999 and June 31, 1999 were included. Interns completed the registry forms, which include demographic, injury event specific, severity and outcome data. The severity was assessed by new scoring system, Kampla Trauma Score (KTS). Among the 3822 injured patients 2869(75%) were males and 953(25%) were females and 80% were below the age of 40 years. 77% of the injuries were unintentional and motor vehicle injuries accounted for 41% of all causes among which 93% of them were pedestrians. Accidental fall and interpersonal assault accounted for 21% and 20% respectively. Admitted cases were 11.6%, while 20 (.5%) died at the outpatient department with the overall mortality of 1.47%. Though burn and gunshot accounted only for 6%, the case fatality rate was highest (4%) accounting for 20% of all deaths. The magnitude of fatal injuries is underestimated and the pattern of injuries may only reflect the situation in the big cities. Motor vehicle injuries, especially pedestrian injuries are serious problem in Addis as seen in patients in Tikur Anbessa hospital and require further situational studies and urgent intervention. Establishing hospital based simplified injury surveillance system is possible in Ethiopia and it is essential to asses the magnitude of the problem and identify priority area for injury prevention and control.

  13. Challenges and opportunities for Moringa growers in southern Ethiopia and Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Kumssa, Diriba B.; Joy, Edward J. M.; Young, Scott D.; Odee, David W; Ander, E. Louise; Magare, Charles; Gitu, James; Broadley, Martin R.

    2017-01-01

    Moringa oleifera (MO) and M. stenopetala (MS) are two commonly cultivated species of the Moringaceae family. Some households in southern Ethiopia (S. ETH) and Kenya (KEN) plant MS and MO, respectively. The edible parts of these species are rich in amino acids, vitamins and minerals, especially selenium. Despite their nutritional value, Moringa is sometimes considered as a "famine food". The aim of this study was to determine the extent of dietary utilization of these plants by Moringa Growing...

  14. Preliminary results of natural radioactivity measurements in the southern part of Ethiopia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wollel Tiruneh, Getachew [Ethiopian Radiation Protection Authority, PO Box 20486 code 1000, Addis-Ababa (Ethiopia)], E-mail: gwollel@yahoo.com; Wodaje Kebede, Worku [Ethiopian Radiation Protection Authority, PO Box 20486 code 1000, Addis-Ababa (Ethiopia)

    2008-11-15

    The paper presents the first results of natural radioactivity measurements in the Southern part of Ethiopia (Bale Zone-Oromiya Regional State). The preliminary results indicate that radiation levels in the mining areas of Kallido Mountain are elevated compared with those in the town of Negele Borena (background area). Both external gamma radiation and alpha surface contamination levels are significantly elevated above local background levels.

  15. Challenges and opportunities for Moringa growers in southern Ethiopia and Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Kumssa, Diriba B.; Joy, Edward J. M.; Young, Scott D.; Odee, David W.; Ander, E. Louise; Magare, Charles; Gitu, James; Broadley, Martin R.

    2017-01-01

    Moringa oleifera (MO) and M. stenopetala (MS) are two commonly cultivated species of the Moringaceae family. Some households in southern Ethiopia (S. ETH) and Kenya (KEN) plant MS and MO, respectively. The edible parts of these species are rich in amino acids, vitamins and minerals, especially selenium. Despite their nutritional value, Moringa is sometimes considered as a "famine food". The aim of this study was to determine the extent of dietary utilization of these plants by Morin...

  16. Determinants of active pulmonary tuberculosis in Ambo Hospital, West Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tenna Ephrem

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine factors associated with active pulmonary tuberculosis seen in cases in Ambo Hospital, Ethiopia.Design: A facility-based prospective case-control study.Setting: Patients attending Ambo Hospital from 01 December 2011 to 29 March 2012.Participants: The sample included 312 adult patients attending Ambo Hospital. The main outcome measure was presence of active pulmonary tuberculosis (TB.Explanatory measures: Age, gender, occupation, educational status, marital status, place of residence, patient history of TB, family history of TB, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection, smoking, alcohol intake, khat chewing, body mass index (BMI, employment, diabetes, history of asthma, previous history of worm infestation, history of hospitalisation, number of adults living in the household (HH, person per room, housing condition.Results: A total of 312 study participants, including 104 active pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB cases (cases and 208 non-active PTB cases (controls, were recruited for the present study. Having one or more family member with a history of TB (OR = 4.4; 95% CI: 1.50–12.90, marital status (OR = 7.6; 95% CI: 2.2–12.6, male gender (OR = 3.2; 95% CI: 1.4–7, rural residence (OR = 3.3; P = 0.012, being a current or past smoker (OR = 2.8; 95% CI: 1.1–7.2, BMI < 18.5 (OR = 2.1; 95% CI: 1.03–4.2, HIV infection (OR = 8.8; 95% CI: 2.4–23.8 and a history of worm infestation (OR = 6.4; 95% CI: 2.6–15.4 remained significant independent host-related factors for active PTB.Conclusion: Patients who came from a compound with more than two HHs were more likely to develop active PTB than those who came from a compound with only one HH. Those who lived in houses with no windows were more likely to develop active PTB than those who lived in houses with one or more windows, had a family history of TB, lived in rural areas. Sex of the patient was a predicting factor. Not being the owner of the house

  17. Epidemiological and clinical correlates of malaria-helminth co-infections in Southern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulu, Andargachew; Legesse, Mengistu; Erko, Berhanu; Belyhun, Yeshambel; Nugussie, Demise; Shimelis, Techalew; Kassu, Afework; Elias, Daniel; Moges, Beyene

    2013-07-03

    In many areas of the world, including Ethiopia, malaria and helminths are co-endemic, therefore, co-infections are common. However, little is known how concurrent infections affect the epidemiology and/or pathogenesis of each other. Therefore, this study was conducted to assess the effects of intestinal helminth infections on the epidemiology and clinical patterns of malaria in southern Ethiopia where both infections are prevalent. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2006 at Wondo Genet Health Center and Bussa Clinic, southern Ethiopia. Consecutive blood film positive malaria patients (N=230) and malaria negative asymptomatic individuals (N=233) were recruited. Malaria parasite detection and quantification was diagnosed using Giemsa-stained thick and thin blood films, respectively. Helminths were detected using direct microscopy and formol-ether concentration techniques. Coarse quantification of helminths ova was made using Kato Katz method. The over all magnitude of intestinal parasitic infection was high irrespective of malaria infection (67% among malaria positive patients versus 53.1% among malaria non-infected asymptomatic individuals). Trichuris trichiura infection was associated with increased malaria prevalence while increased worm burden of helminths as expressed by egg intensity was associated with increased malaria parasitaemia which could be a potential factor for development of severe malarial infection with the course of the disease. Majority (77%) of the subjects had multiple helminths infection. T. trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides, Schistosoma mansoni, and hookworm infestation accounted for 64.5, 57.7 %, 28.4%, and 12.2% of the infections, respectively. Populations in malaria-endemic areas of southern Ethiopia are multi-parasitized with up to four helminths. Mass deworming may be a simple practical approach in endemic areas in reducing the risk of severe malarial attack particularly for those at high risk of both infections.

  18. Ethiopia "

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and control programs face serious problem of lack of recognition of the problem and challenges in tracking achievements towards program goals. Objective: To determine the prevalence of blindness and low vision at the national and regional levels in Ethiopia. Method: A national survey was conducted on a representative ...

  19. Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1998-07-02

    COMPARATIVE STUDY ON SOIL POLLUTION WITH TOXIC SUBSTANCES. ON FARMLANDS CLOSE TO OLD AND NEW INDUSTRIAL SITES IN. ETIHOPIA. Fisseha Itanna. Department of Biology, Addis Ababa University, P.O. Box 1176, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. (Received July 2, 1998; revised November 13, 1998).

  20. Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Background: The magnitude and causes of eye diseases in Ethiopia has been derived from small scale studies. This information became no longer useful in tracking the suCcess of intensified efforts in preventing and controlling avoidable causes of blindness and eye diseases in line with the goals ofVision 2020: ...

  1. High prevalence of drug-resistance mutations in Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax in southern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Löscher Thomas

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Ethiopia, malaria is caused by both Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax. Drug resistance of P. falciparum to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP and chloroquine (CQ is frequent and intense in some areas. Methods In 100 patients with uncomplicated malaria from Dilla, southern Ethiopia, P. falciparum dhfr and dhps mutations as well as P. vivax dhfr polymorphisms associated with resistance to SP and P. falciparum pfcrt and pfmdr1 mutations conferring CQ resistance were assessed. Results P. falciparum and P. vivax were observed in 69% and 31% of the patients, respectively. Pfdhfr triple mutations and pfdhfr/pfdhps quintuple mutations occurred in 87% and 86% of P. falciparum isolates, respectively. Pfcrt T76 was seen in all and pfmdr1 Y86 in 81% of P. falciparum. The P. vivax dhfr core mutations N117 and R58 were present in 94% and 74%, respectively. Conclusion These data point to an extraordinarily high frequency of drug-resistance mutations in both P. falciparum and P. vivax in southern Ethiopia, and strongly support that both SP and CQ are inadequate drugs for this region.

  2. Boxwood Borer Heterobostrychus brunneus (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) Infesting Dried Cassava: A Current Record from Southern Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Aditya; Kirchner, Sascha M.; Langguth, Henning; Döring, Thomas F.; Hensel, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Insect specimens of adult beetles and larvae of 7–9 and 9–10 mm length, respectively were collected from infested dry cassava at two locations from multiple stores in southern Ethiopia. The specimens were identified as Heterobostrychus brunneus (Murray, 1867) commonly known as boxwood borer and auger beetle. The study presents a current record of H. brunneus in Ethiopia, particularly in the context of infesting food products. Additionally, a wide geographical distribution of the pest was reviewed and presented in this article. Current evidence suggests that H. brunneus is a serious pest of forest wood, structural timbers, and dried food products and that it carries a risk to be introduced into various other parts of the world via global trade. PMID:28130456

  3. Obstructed Labour in Adigrat Zonal Hospital, Tigray Region, Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Obstructed labour is a common cause of maternal and pernatal morbidity and mortality in developing countries. There are few data from Ethiopia, although the problem is believed to be common. Objective: To describe the frequency, causes, complications and treatment outcome of mothers with obstructed ...

  4. 21 Goitre in a Teaching Hospital in North Western Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2006-12-02

    Dec 2, 2006 ... type of thyroid cancer was the commonest variant. This might be because follicular carcinoma is said to arise from a long standing simple goitres, which are very common in. Ethiopia. It is interesting to note that 7 (77.7%) of the thyroid cancer patients and all of those with follicular carcinoma had a blood ...

  5. louse-borne relapsing fever profile at jimma hospital, ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dell

    ABSTRACT. Background: Louse-borne relapsing fever has been restricted to countries with poor socio economic status, the most important foci being Burundi, Rwanda and Ethiopia. Borrelia recurrentis is the etiologic agent for louse-borne relapsing fever and occurs as epidemic under conditions of overcrowding, poverty, ...

  6. Paleoanthropology of the Kibish Formation, southern Ethiopia: Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleagle, John G; Assefa, Zelalem; Brown, Francis H; Shea, John J

    2008-09-01

    Cranial and skeletal remains of modern humans, Homo sapiens, were discovered in the Kibish Formation in 1967 by a team from the Kenya National Museums directed by Richard Leakey. Omo I, from Kamoya's Hominid Site (KHS), consists of much of a skeleton, including most of the cranial vault, parts of the face and mandible, and many postcranial elements. Omo II, from Paul's Hominid Site (PHS), is a virtually complete calvaria. Only a limited fauna and a few stone artifacts attributed to the Middle Stone Age were recovered in conjunction with the fossil hominids. The available dating techniques suggested a very early age, over 100 ka, for Member I, from which the Omo I and Omo II fossils were recovered. However, in subsequent decades, the reliability of the dates and the provenance of the Kibish hominids were repeatedly questioned. The papers in this volume provide a detailed stratigraphic analysis of the Kibish Formation and a series of new radiometric dates that indicate an age of 196+/-2 ka for Member I and 104+/-1 for Member III, confirming the antiquity of the lower parts of the Kibish Formation and, in turn, the fossils from Member I. Studies of the postcranial remains of Omo I indicate an overall modern human morphology with a number of primitive features. Studies of an extensive lithic record from Members I and III indicate a Middle Stone Age technology comparable to assemblages of similar age elsewhere in Ethiopia. Studies of the mammalian, avian, and fish faunas indicate overall similarities to those found in the region today, with a few distinctive differences.

  7. Climate Variability and Household Adaptation Strategies in Southern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Wassie Berhanu; Fekadu Beyene

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the determinants and implied economic impacts of climate change adaptation strategies in the context of traditional pastoralism. It is based on econometric analysis of survey data generated from household level interviews in southern Ethiopian rangelands. Pastoralists’ perception of climate change in the region is found to be very consistent with the actually recorded trends of increased temperature and the evident secular declines in precipitation. Not only long-term decl...

  8. Low case notification rates of childhood tuberculosis in southern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangisso, Mesay Hailu; Datiko, Daniel Gemechu; Lindtjørn, Bernt

    2015-10-01

    Childhood tuberculosis (TB) is a public health concern causing considerable mortality. However, control of childhood TB receives little attention. The control efforts could be inadequate because of challenges associated with difficulties in diagnosing the disease in children. Understanding the burden of the disease among children is important to assess the ongoing transmission of the disease in a community and improving TB control efforts. This study was carried out to assess TB case notification rates (CNRs) and treatment outcomes in children aged less than 15 years over a ten-year period. Data were collected from unit TB registers from all health facilities providing TB treatment in the Sidama Zone in Ethiopia. We analysed the CNRs and treatment outcomes by age category, gender, and place of residence. We used logistic regression analysis to identify factors associated with treatment outcomes and to control for confounding. A total of 4,656 cases of children less than 15 years of age were notified as diagnosed and treated for TB, constituting 13% of all notified TB cases in the study area. The mean CNRs per 100,000 children less than 15 years were 30 for all new cases of TB, 28 for rural cases, 67 for urban cases, 28 in boys, and 32 in girls. The proportions of treatment success were 82% for new and 77% for retreatment cases for the entire study period and increased to 93% for new cases in 2012 (X(2) trend, P < 0.001). Children less than five years old had a lower treatment success [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 0.64 (95% CI, 0.52-0.80)] and higher deaths [AOR 2 (95% CI, 1.27-3.12)]. The proportion of children who died during treatment among children in the less than 2-year-old age group was three times higher than children in the 2 year and above age groups [AOR 3.34 (95% CI, 1.92-5.82)]. The CNRs of childhood TB were low in Sidama. Children less than 5 years old had a higher proportion of deaths. Efforts need to be made to improve the diagnosis and treatment of TB

  9. Climate Variability and Household Adaptation Strategies in Southern Ethiopia

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    Wassie Berhanu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the determinants and implied economic impacts of climate change adaptation strategies in the context of traditional pastoralism. It is based on econometric analysis of survey data generated from household level interviews in southern Ethiopian rangelands. Pastoralists’ perception of climate change in the region is found to be very consistent with the actually recorded trends of increased temperature and the evident secular declines in precipitation. Not only long-term declines, trends in the region’s rainfall also appear to have taken a shift towards the direction of more unpredictability. Pastoralist adaptation response strategies broadly involve adjustments in pastoral practices and shifts to non-pastoral livelihoods. Results of the estimated models confirm that pastoral mobility is still quite essential in the present context of climate-induced household vulnerabilities. Increased mobility and diversification of pastoral herd portfolios in favor of a drought-tolerant species (camel are found to be positively associated with pastoral household net income. A policy stance that ignores the detrimental impacts of the currently pervasive private rangeland enclosures or intends to hasten pastoralist sedentarization in the area is simply untenable in the present context of climate-induced risks and pastoral livelihood vulnerability.

  10. Status of bovine tuberculosis and its zoonotic implications in Borana zone, Southern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duguma, Ararsa; Abera, Shubisa; Zewdie, Wubishet; Belina, Dinaol; Haro, Godana

    2017-03-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out from April 2015 to June 2016 to estimate the status of bovine tuberculosis (BTB), assessment of community's current knowledge, and zoonotic importance on this disease in Borana zone, southern Ethiopia. In this study, comparative intradermal tuberculin (CIDT) test, structured questionnaires, and retrospective data were used, while the result indicated 3.8% prevalence at individual animal level with 5.6% (31/554) of doubtful reactors. Among related risk factors included, old animals were significantly infected by BTB than young one (χ 2  = 32.005, P = 0.001). Parity number again showed significant difference (χ 2  = 29.163, P = 0.001) where animals with many parity were more reactive to conducted test than few parity numbers. Animals born in the breeding center managed under semi-intensive production system were more infected (χ 2  = 10.795, P = 0.029) than those brought from outside of the center. Questionnaire survey in this study indicated that out of 130 interviewed respondents, only 30% pastoralists knew what BTB mean; whereas the level of individual knowledge from interviewed showed about 72.3% of respondents had poor understanding of BTB and only about 11.5% of them knew its zoonotic importance. Meat eating habit of communities in the area were culturally inhabited to eat cooked meat and only 12.3% (16/130) of respondents gave response on habit of eating both raw and cooked meat. Milk drinking habit of pastoralist in the area showed about 79.2% drunk raw milk and the rest 20.8% used both raw and boiled milk. A retrospective data from Yabello Hospital indicated that current prevalence of human TB as 38.79% and showing the disease was highly increasing from year to year in the study area. This implies a great importance of human tuberculosis and its future concern in Borana zone. From this, there should be detail awareness of communities on BTB, its zoonotic importance, and the need of further

  11. Teachers of Poor Communities: The Tale of Instructional Media Use in Primary Schools of "Gedeo" Zone, Southern Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdo, Mehadi; Semela, Tesfaye

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of working conditions at school on teachers' level of instructional media use in the primary school system of Gedeo Zone, southern Ethiopia. The survey was made on a sample of 139 (24.4% female and male 75.6%) teachers who were randomly drawn from 9 primary schools (four rural and five urban…

  12. Farmers’ common bean variety and seed management in the face of drought and climate instability in southern Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asfaw, A.; Almekinders, C.J.M.; Struik, P.C.; Blair, M.W.

    2013-01-01

    This study reports the various elements and contexts that characterize the farmers’ use and management of common bean seed and varieties in southern Ethiopia. The study used focus group discussions, contact-farmer interviews and surveys. The results demonstrate that farmers’ cropping systems and

  13. Growth, radiation use efficiency and yield potential of enset (Ensete ventricosum) at different sites in southern Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsegaye, A.; Struik, P.C.

    2003-01-01

    Knowledge on the physiological parameters that determine the growth of enset (Ensete ventricosum) and on how these parameters develop over time and affect yield under field conditions is scarce. Field experiments were carried out at three sites in southern Ethiopia using suckers of several clones to

  14. The Relationship between Teachers Commitment and Female Students Academic Achievements in Some Selected Secondary School in Wolaita Zone, Southern Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibiso, Abyot; Olango, Menna; Bibiso, Mesfin

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between teacher's commitment and female students academic achievement in selected secondary school of Wolaita zone, Southern Ethiopia. The research method employed was survey study and the sampling techniques were purposive, simple random and stratified random sampling. Questionnaire…

  15. Wild and semi-wild leafy vegetables used by the Maale and Ari ethnic communities in southern Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kidane, Berhane; Maesen, van der L.J.G.; Asfaw, Zemede; Sosef, M.S.M.; Andel, van Tinde

    2015-01-01

    We studied wild and semi-wild leafy vegetables used by the Maale and Ari ethnic communities in southern Ethiopia. Quantitative and qualitative ethnobotanical methods, including individual and focus group (n = 18) discussions, field observations, and individual interviews (n = 144), were used in

  16. Indigenous multiplication and production practices of the tuber crop Plectranthus edulis in Chencha and Wolaita, Southern Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taye, M.; Lommen, W.J.M.; Struik, P.C.

    2007-01-01

    Plectranthus edulis (syn. Coleus edulis) is a tuber-bearing labiate species cultivated in parts of southern Ethiopia. To learn about traditional cultural practices and their rationale, a survey was conducted among farmers from Chencha and Wolaita experienced in growing this crop. A pre-tested

  17. Role of traditional enclosures on the diversity of herbaceous vegetation in a semi-arid rangeland, southern Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Angassa, A.; Oba, G.; Treydte, A.C.; Weladji, R.B.

    2010-01-01

    Grazing management and seasonality strongly influence the recovery potential of herbaceous vegetation in semi-arid rangelands of southern Ethiopia after history of heavy grazing. We investigated effects of management (enclosures versus grazed landscapes), age of enclosures and seasonality related to

  18. Rangeland dynamics in South Omo Zone of Southern Ethiopia: Assessment of rangeland condition in relation to altitude and Grazing types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terefe, A.; Ebro, A.; Tessema, Z.K.

    2010-01-01

    A study was undertaken in Hamer and Benna-Tsemay districts of the Southern Ethiopia with the objective to determine the condition of the rangelands for grazing animals as influenced by altitude and grazing types. The rangelands in each of the study districts were stratified based on altitude and

  19. Adherence to WHO breastfeeding guidelines among HIV positive mothers in Southern Ethiopia: implication for intervention

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    Haile D

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Demewoz Haile,1 Tesfaye Setegn,2 Sibhatu Biadgilign31Department of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Madawalabu University, Bale Goba, Ethiopia; 2Department of Reproductive Health, School of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Bahir Dar University, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia; 3Independent Public Health Research Consultants, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Background: Breastfeeding reduces major causes of infant mortality and morbidity. On the other hand, it is a major mode of vertical HIV transmission. In developing countries like Ethiopia, HIV positive mothers are advised to continue breastfeeding up to 12 months. But there is scarce literature regarding the mothers' adherence to continued breastfeeding recommendations. Therefore, the objective of this study is to assess HIV positive mothers' adherence to the infant feeding recommendations of the new World Health Organization (WHO guidelines for HIV-exposed infants aged ≥6 months. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in health institutions with antiretroviral therapy and prevention of mother to child transmission facilities in Sidama Zone, Southern Ethiopia. Health institutions were considered as clusters and cluster sampling technique was employed. A total of 184 HIV positive mothers with their infants registered at respective health institutions were recruited and assessed for their infant breastfeeding practices. Descriptive statistics (frequency, mean, median, and standard deviation were computed to describe the breastfeeding practices of HIV positive mothers. Result: Almost all (181 [98.4%] of the HIV-exposed infants were “ever breastfed”. Among those mothers who had ever breastfed, 158 (87.3% initiated breastfeeding within an hour of delivery and 157 (85.8% had fed their babies colostrum while 31 (16.8% gave prelacteal food to their infants. The prevalence of continued breastfeeding at 1 year was (54.5% (46.9% for urban mothers and 75% for rural

  20. The Effect of Job Demand-Control-Social Support Model on Nurses' Job Satisfaction in Specialized Teaching Hospitals, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Negussie, Nebiat; Kaur, Geetinder

    2016-01-01

    Background The job demand-control-social support model has been widely studied in western countries but has not been theoretically addressed on health workers of sub-Saharan African countries. Therefore, this study investigates the relationship between Job Demand-Control-Support Model and job satisfaction in specialized teaching hospitals in Ethiopia. Method A cross-sectional survey was conducted from September 2014 to May 2015 in three public specialized teaching hospitals in Ethiopia. Among...

  1. Who takes the medicine? Adherence to antiretroviral therapy in Southern Ethiopia

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    Teshome W

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Wondu Teshome,1 Mihretu Belayneh,1 Mathewos Moges,1 Misganu Endriyas,2 Emebet Mekonnen,2 Sinafiksh Ayele,2 Tebeje Misganaw,2 Mekonnen Shiferaw,2 Palanivel Chinnakali,3 Sven Gudmund Hinderaker,4 Ajay MV Kumar5 1School of Public and Environmental Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Hawassa University, Hawassa, Ethiopia; 2Research Technology Transfer Process Unit, SNNP Regional Health Bureau, Hawassa, Ethiopia; 3Department of Preventive and Social Medicine, Jawaharlal Institute of Post-graduate Medical Education and Research, Puducherry, India; 4Centre for International Health, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway; 5The International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, South-East Asia Regional Office, New Delhi, India Background: Treatment adherence is critical for the success of antiretroviral therapy (ART for people living with HIV. There is limited representative information on ART drug adherence and its associated factors from Southern Ethiopia. We aimed at estimating the level of adherence to ART among people living with HIV and factors associated with it in 20 randomly selected ART clinics of Southern Ethiopia.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we interviewed consecutive HIV patients on first-line antiretroviral regimen attending the clinics in June 2014 using a pretested and structured questionnaire. For measuring adherence, we used 4-day recall method based on “The AIDS Clinical Trial Group adherence assessment tool”. Patients were classified as “Incomplete adherence” if they missed any of the doses in the last 4 days. Data were singly entered using EpiData and descriptive analysis, and unadjusted odds ratios were calculated using EpiDataStat software. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed using Stata v12.0.Results: Of 974 patients interviewed, 539 (56% were females, and mean age was 35 years. The proportion of patients with incomplete adherence was 13% (95% confidence interval: 11%–15

  2. Changing handwashing behaviour in southern Ethiopia: a longitudinal study on infrastructural and commitment interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contzen, Nadja; Meili, Iara Helena; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Improved hand hygiene efficiently prevents the major killers of children under the age of five years in Ethiopia and globally, namely diarrhoeal and respiratory diseases. Effective handwashing interventions are thus in great demand. Evidence- and theory-based interventions, especially when matched to the target population's needs, are expected to perform better than common practice. To test this hypothesis, we selected two interventions drawing on a baseline questionnaire-study that applied the RANAS (Risk, Attitudes, Norms, Abilities, Self-regulation) approach and focused on the primary caregivers of households in four rural, water-scarce kebeles (smallest administrative units of Ethiopia) in southern Ethiopia (N = 462). The two interventions were tested in combination with a standard education intervention in a quasi-experiment, as follows: kebele 1, education intervention, namely an f-diagram exercise, (n = 23); kebele 2, education intervention and public-commitment (n = 122); kebele 3, education intervention and tippy-tap-promotion (i.e. handwashing-station-promotion; n = 150); kebele 4, education intervention, public-commitment and tippy-tap-promotion (n = 113). In kebeles 3 and 4, nearly 100% of the households followed the promotion and invested material and time to construct for themselves a tippy-tap. Three months after intervention termination, the tippy-taps were in use with water and soap being present in up to 83% of the households (kebele 4). Pre-post data analysis on self-reported handwashing revealed that the population-tailored interventions, and especially the tippy-tap-promotion, performed better than the standard education intervention. Tendencies in observed behaviour and a recently developed implicit self-measure pointed to similar results. Changing people's hand hygiene is known to be a challenging task, especially in a water-scarce environment. The present project suggests not only to apply theory and evidence to improve handwashing

  3. Induced abortion and associated factors in health facilities of Guraghe zone, southern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesfaye, Gezahegn; Hambisa, Mitiku Teshome; Semahegn, Agumasie

    2014-01-01

    Unsafe abortion is one of the major medical and public health problems in developing countries including Ethiopia. However, there is a lack of up-to-date and reliable information on induced abortion distribution and its determinant factors in the country. This study was intended to assess induced abortion and associated factors in health facilities of Guraghe zone, Southern Ethiopia. Institution based cross-sectional study was conducted in eight health facilities in Guraghe zone. Client exit interview was conducted on 400 patients using a structured questionnaire. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with induced abortion. Out of 400 women, 75.5% responded that the current pregnancy that ended in abortion is unwanted. However, only 12.3% of the respondents have admitted interference to the current pregnancy. Having more than four pregnancies (AOR = 4.28, CI: (1.24-14.71)), age of 30-34 years (AOR = 0.15, CI: (0.04-0.55)), primary education (AOR = 0.26, CI: (0.13-0.88)), and wanted pregnancy (AOR = 0.44, CI: (0.14-0.65)) were found to have association with induced abortion. The study revealed high level of induced abortion which is underpinned by high magnitude of unwanted pregnancy. There is requirement for widespread expansion of increased access to high quality family planning service and post-abortion care.

  4. Unwanted Pregnancy and Associated Factors among Pregnant Married Women in Hosanna Town, Southern Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belayneh Hamdela

    Full Text Available Of an estimated 210 million pregnancies that occur in the world each year, 38% are unplanned, out of which 22% end in abortion. In Ethiopia, the estimates of unintended pregnancy indicate that it is one of the major reproductive health problems with all its adverse outcomes. Women risk their lives in by seeking illegal abortions following unintended pregnancies. Thus, this study aims to determine the prevalence of unintended pregnancy and associated factors among pregnant married women residing in Hossana, Southern Ethiopia. A community-based cross-sectional study involving both qualitative and quantitative data collection methods was carried out in Hossana from April 02 to 15, 2011. 385 pregnant married women randomly selected from the census were included for the quantitative data and took in-depth interviews for the qualitative. Descriptive, binary and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed using SPSS version 16. Out of the total pregnancies, 131 (34% were unintended and 254 (66% were reported to be intended. A history of previous unintended pregnancy, the husband not wanting to limit family size, a desire for at least two children, the number of pregnancy 3–4 and parity of 5 and above were factors significantly associated with unintended pregnancy. With over one third of pregnancies unintended, having a previous unintended pregnancy, the number of previous pregnancies, and husbands’ disagreement over family size, and the desired number of children are factors that reproductive health programs should aim to focus on to reduce unintended pregnancy.

  5. Factors related to discontinued clinic attendance by patients with podoconiosis in southern Ethiopia: a qualitative study

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    Tora Abebayehu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Podoconiosis is a lymphoedema of non-infectious cause which results in long-term ill health in affected individuals. Simple, effective treatment is available in certain parts of Ethiopia, but evidence indicates that not all patients continue collecting treatment supplies from clinic sites once started. We used qualitative techniques to explore factors related to discontinued attendance at outreach clinics of a non-government organization in southern Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional qualitative study was conducted in four clinic sites through unstructured in-depth interviews, key informant interviews and focus group discussions with the involvement of 88 study subjects. Results Discontinuation of clinic visits is common among podoconiosis patients. The reasons were: remoteness from the clinic sites, unrealistic expectation of ‘special’ aid, worry about increasing stigma, illness and misconceptions about treatment. Conclusions Several of these factors are remediable through community and individual information and education. Appropriate routes to deliver this information must be identified. Certain factors (such as distance to clinic sites and stigma require substantial expansion of services or liaison with village-level government health services.

  6. Prevalence of unrecognized depression and associated factors among patients attending medical outpatient department in Adare Hospital, Hawassa, Ethiopia

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    Tilahune AB

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Asres Bedaso Tilahune,1 Gezahegn Bekele,1 Nibretie Mekonnen,2 Eyerusalem Tamiru2 1School of Nursing and Midwifery, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Hawassa University, Hawassa, Ethiopia; 2Department of Medical Case Team, Hawassa University Comprehensive Specialized Hospital, Hawassa, Ethiopia Abstract: Depression is an illness that involves the body, mood, and thoughts and that affects the way a person eats, sleeps, feels about him or herself and thinks about things. Depression is one of the most common mental disorders affecting 121 million people in the world, and it frequently goes unrecognized among patients. It is estimated that 5%–10% of the population at any given time is suffering from identifiable depression needing psychiatric or psychosocial intervention. An institution-based cross-sectional study design was implemented to determine the magnitude and associated factors of unrecognized depression among patients attending the adult medical outpatient department in Adare Hospital, Hawassa, Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ Region, Ethiopia, among 326 patients selected using systematic random sampling technique. Data were collected using the interviewer-administered technique. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data on sociodemographic characteristics and other independent variables. Depression was assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire 9. Data were entered and analyzed using SPSS 20. The level of significance was determined at P<0.05. About 326 patients were interviewed, of whom 186 (57.1% were males. The mean age of participant was 34 with standard deviation of ±13.1 years. Current substance users accounted for 106 (32.5% of the total participants. Of 326 respondents, 80 (24.5% had significant depressive symptoms, while the detection rate of depression by the clinician was 0%. Depression was associated with female sex (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =1.63 [1.14–2.34], age >60 years (AOR =4

  7. southern Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Psegment pathology O O O O construction heavy vehicles passing through. Nystagmus 2 0. O O the town daily. Both schools didn't have. Unknown 1 0.05% 1 0.05% S. Total 50 3.9%. 22 1.2% proper fence. Some of the class-rooms were. Unilateral blindness, however, was detected in. 6(0.84%) of the students, the leading ...

  8. Sheep production and marketing system in southern Ethiopia: the case of Awassazuria district.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadesse, Estefanos; Negesse, Tegene; Abebe, Girma

    2015-10-01

    A survey was conducted in Awassazuria district of southern Ethiopia to characterize sheep production system. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Using purposive sampling, a total of 120 households from the district were included in the survey. Collected data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Result indicated that Kajima neighbourhood has more (pbanana, Ensete ventricosum), banana leaf and private grazing land were major feed resources for sheep. Lake Awassa and tap water were permanent water sources. Watering frequency of sheep varies from once a day to once in 4 days. Sheep are primarily kept to generate income and equilibrate benefit and risk and for home consumption. The criteria used by the households for purchase and sale of sheep are physical characteristics (coat colour, horn and tail) (46.7 %), body conformation (35 %), age (10.8 %) and known local ecotype (7.5 %). The reasons of slaughter of sheep include festival (55 %), childbirth (18.3 %), wedding (12.5 %), mutton for home (9 %), circumcision (5 %) and for guest (1.7 %). Farmers fatten sheep for New Year (60 %), Easter (30.8 %), Christmas and Arefa (Eid al-Adha celebration (Feast of the Sacrifice); benefits and risks and suitability for home consumption, ranked in decreasing order of importance. The sheep production in southern Ethiopia is constrained by shortage of grazing land (23.3 %), recurrent drought (17.5 %), disease and parasite (15 %), marketing (10.8 %), water shortage (9 %) and other constraints including predators and lack of input, capital and lack of extension service. The presence of diversified and environmentally adaptable sheep breeds, high demand of mutton in the Awassa town and presence of nutritious and unutilized feed resources like fish meal and poultry litter were some of the opportunities for sheep production in the area.

  9. Household food insecurity and hunger among households in Sidama district, southern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regassa, Nigatu; Stoecker, Barbara J

    2012-07-01

    To examine household food insecurity and hunger in Sidama Zone, one of the most populous zones in southern Ethiopia. Cross-sectional survey administered individually by trained interviewers. Food insecurity was calculated with both the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS) and the Household Hunger Scale (HHS), developed by the Food and Nutrition Technical Assistance Project. Rural households from ten kebeles (the smallest administrative district) selected from two agro-climatic zones in Sidama, southern Ethiopia, from December 2010 to January 2011. Men and women respondents from 1094 rural households were selected using multistage sampling techniques. Using the HFIAS, 17·7 % of households were food secure. The percentage of households that were mildly, moderately and severely food insecure was 6·8 %, 27·7 % and 47·8 %, respectively. Using the HHS, 29·0 % and 5·6 % of households fell into the moderate and severe household hunger categories. Using multivariate statistical techniques, five variables were significant predictors of both food insecurity and hunger. These variables were migration of a household member, agro-climatic zone, and younger age, less education and lower radio access for the woman. Being eligible for safety-net credit programmes also was a predictor of hunger, while limited animal ownership and household wealth as well as alcohol use by the household head added to the prediction of food insecurity. The study documented that food insecurity is a major concern of smallholder farming households in the study area. A substantial majority of the households were facing mild to severe food insecurity and hunger for an extended period of time.

  10. Determinants of crop diversity and composition in Enset-coffee agroforestry homegardens of Southern Ethiopia

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    Tesfaye Abebe

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Households in much of the tropics depend for their livelihoods on the variety and continued production of food and other products that are provided by their own farms. In such systems, maintenance of agrobiodiversity and ensuring food security are important for the well being of the population. The enset-coffee agroforestry homegardens of Southern Ethiopia that are dominated by two native perennial crops, Coffee (Coffea arabica L. and Enset (Enset ventricosum Welw. Cheesman, are examples of such agricultural systems. This study was conducted in Sidama administrative zone of Southern Ethiopia to determine the factors that influence the diversity and composition of crops in the systems. Data were collected from 144 sample homegardens selected from four districts. Stepwise multiple regression analysis was used to relate indices of crop diversity and area share of major crops with the physical and socioeconomic factors. The study revealed that socioeconomic factors, mainly proximity to markets, affected negatively crop species richness. The production area of the main crops enset and coffee decreased with increasing proximity to market and road while that of maize and khat increased. At household level, farm size had a significant effect on area share of enset and coffee. As farm size increased the share of the cash crop, coffee increased but that of the staple, enset declined. Enset, which is the backbone of the system in terms of food security, is declining on small farms and the share of monoculture maize system is increasing. The trend towards declining agrobiodiversity, and reduction in the production area of the main perennial crops and their gradual replacement with monoculture fields could make the systems liable to instability and collapse. As these sites are high potential agricultural areas, intensification can be achieved by integrating high-value and more productive crops, such as fruits, spices and vegetables, while maintaining the

  11. Factors affecting women’s intention to use long acting and permanent contraceptive methods in Wolaita Zone, Southern Ethiopia: A cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Meskele,Mengistu; Mekonnen, Wubegzier

    2014-01-01

    Background The use of long acting and permanent contraceptive methods (LAPMs) has not kept step with that of short-acting methods such as oral pills and injectable in Africa. This study explores the association between women’s awareness, attitude and barriers with their intention to use LAPMs among users of short term methods, in Southern Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study design of mixed methods was conducted in the public health facilities of Wolaita zone, Southern Ethiopia, in Janua...

  12. Ocular manifestation and their associated factors among HIV/AIDS patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy in Southern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amsalu, Anteneh; Desta, Kindie; Nigussie, Demiss; Delelegne, Demoze

    2017-01-01

    To assess the pattern of ocular manifestation and associated factors among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) at Hawassa University Referral Hospital, Southern Ethiopia. A cross sectional study was conducted from January 2014 to April 2015. After obtaining informed written consent, 240 adult HIV/AIDS patients on HAART were randomly selected regardless of their ophthalmic symptoms, WHO status or CD4 count. Data were collected using structured questionnaires and ophthalmologic clinical examination. Data were entered and analyzed using SPSS version 20.0 software. The mean duration of HAART was 62.5mo. The prevalence of HIV related ocular manifestation was 14.2%. Seborrheic blepharitis (5%) was the most common ocular manifestation, followed by squamoid conjunctival growth (3.8%). The rate of ocular manifestation was significantly higher among study participants who had CD4+ count manifestation in HIV/AIDS patients in the study area. Ophthalmologic screening of HIV/AIDS patients, especially those with CD4 counts of <200/µL cells and in the first five years of HAART follow-up is recommended to reduce visual impairment and/or blindness.

  13. Predictors of Hospitalization among Children on ART in Ethiopia: a Cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haileamlak, Abraham; Hagos, Tesfalem; Abebe, Workeabeba; Abraham, Loko; Asefa, Henok; Teklu, Alula M

    2017-02-01

    Substantial progress has been made in the management of pediatric HIV infection in Ethiopia with the implementation of mother-to-child-prevention programs. Since the introduction of HAART in 2005, mortality among HIV-infected children has reduced while the rate of hospitalization was expected to rise. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to assess predictors of hospitalization in children on ART in seven university referral hospitals in Ethiopia. A prospective cohort study design was employed on children age 0-18 years as part of a multisite observational study. ART-experienced eligible and ART-naïve children with HIV/AIDS were enrolled into the Advanced Clinical Monitoring (ACM) till December 31, 2012 were included. From the database, information on hospitalization and other independent variables were extracted. Analysis was done using both SPSS for Windows version 16.0 and STATA. Descriptive analyses and modeling was done using logistic regression. Of the 405 children on ART (174 experienced, 231 naive), 86 (20.7%) were hospitalized for various reasons; two children were excluded since they were hospitalized for unrelated conditions (appendicitis and burn). Fifty one (60.7%) of the eighty four admitted children were hospitalized in the first six months of ART initiation. Of the independent variables, only the presence of opportunistic infections and duration on ART were significantly associated with hospitalization both on bi-variable and multivariable analyses (P-value ART increased by one month, the risk of hospitalization decreased by 5.4%, which is statistically significant (P study showed that nearly two-third of the hospitalization was within 6 months of initiation of ART; and presence of OI and duration on ART were the only predictors of hospitalization.

  14. HIV positive status disclosure among women attending art clinic at Hawassa University Referral Hospital, South Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gari, Taye; Habte, Dereje; Markos, Endrias

    2010-03-01

    Disclosure of Human Immune Virus (HIV) positive status may increase opportunities of obtaining social support, implementation of HIV risk reduction with partners and improving access to treatment and motivate partners for voluntary counseling and testing (VCT). Thus, status disclosure is an issue to be addressed for HIV prevention & treatment. The objective of this study is to determine the magnitude, outcome and determinants of HIV positive status disclosure to sexual partners among women people living with HIV/AIDS at Hawassa University Referral Hospital, Southern Ethiopia. A cross sectional survey was conducted on HIV positive women who were attending ART clinic at Hawassa University Referral Hospital from March to April 2008. Single population proportion formula was used to determine sample size. Convenient sampling was used to recruit patients. Using a structured and pre-tested questionnaire, data were collected through patient interview consecutively until the required number of patients was obtained over one month period. Statistical analysis was done to determine the magnitude and factors associated with HIV positive status disclosure. Overall 85.7% the women had disclosed their HIV positive status to their sexual partners. The common barriers reported for non disclosure of HIV status were fear of abandonment; fear of break-up in relationship and fear of stigma. The negative partner reaction reported by those women who disclosed to sexual partner in this study was found to be high (59.3%). Majority (77.9%) had sexual intercourse in the past 6 month. 9.1% of the women were pregnant since they tested for HIV and significant number of women reported inconsistent use of condom. Being married, being on ART for more than one year and knowing the HIV status of the partner were found to be predictors of HIV positive status disclosure. Even though, the magnitude of HIV positive status disclosure to sexual partner in this study is encouraging, risk behaviors and

  15. Anemia among adult HIV patients in Ethiopia: a hospital-based cross-sectional study

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    Melese H

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Hermela Melese,1 Molla Mesele Wassie,2 Haile Woldie,2 Abilo Tadesse,3 Nebiyu Mesfin3 1HIV Follow-up Care Clinic, Debre-Tabor Hospital, Debre‑Tabor, 2Department of Human Nutrition, Institute of Public Health, 3Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia Background: Anemia is a major public health problem in HIV patients around the world. It has a negative effect on the quality of life of HIV patients and progression of the HIV disease. In the sub-Saharan African setting, including Ethiopia where both HIV infection and under-nutrition are expected to be high, there is a paucity of data on the matter. This study was aimed to reveal the magnitude and factors associated with anemia among adult HIV patients in Debre-Tabor Hospital, northwest Ethiopia. Methods: A hospital-based cross-sectional study was used among adult HIV patients in Debre-Tabor Hospital from April 1 to May 30, 2015. The diagnosis of anemia was made following the 2011 World Health Organization recommendation on hemoglobin cut-off points. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression was carried out to assess factors associated with anemia. Results: A total of 377 patients’ charts were reviewed. Most of the participants (n=237, 62.9% were taking antiretroviral treatment (ART. The overall prevalence of anemia was 23% (95% CI: 19.1, 27.6. Being ART-naïve (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 3.37; 95% CI: 1.59, 7.14, having treatment history with anti-tuberculosis (TB drug (AOR: 3.2; 95% CI: 1.19, 8.67, taking zidovudine (ZDV-containing ART regimen (AOR: 2.14; 95% CI: 1.03, 4.57, and having recent CD4+ T-lymphocytes count of <200 cells/µL (AOR: 2.13; 95% CI: 1.04, 4.36 were associated with occurrence of anemia among adult HIV patients. Conclusion and recommendation: Anemia continues to be a major co-morbidity among adult HIV patients in Ethiopia. Adult HIV patients who are taking ZDV-containing ART

  16. Motivation of health workers and associated factors in public hospitals of West Amhara, Northwest Ethiopia

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    Weldegebriel Z

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Zemichael Weldegebriel,1 Yohannes Ejigu,2 Fitsum Weldegebreal,3 Mirkuzie Woldie2 1Public Planning Department, Debark Hospital, Debark, North Gondar, Amhara Region, 2Department of Health Services Management, College of Public Health and Medical Sciences, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia; 3Department of Medical Laboratory Science, College of Health and Medical Science, Haramaya University, Harar, Ethiopia Background: Health professionals’ motivation reflects the interaction between health professionals and their work environment. It can potentially affect the provision of health services; however, this important attribute of the workplace climate in public hospitals is not usually given serious attention to the desired level. For this reason, the authors of this study have assessed the level of motivation of health professionals and associated factors in public hospitals of West Amhara, Northwest Ethiopia.  Methods: A facility based cross-sectional study was conducted in eight public hospitals of West Amhara from June 1 to July 30, 2013. A total of 304 health professionals were included in this study. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS software version 20. The reliability of the instrument was assessed through Cronbach’s α. Factor scores were generated for the items found to represent the scales (eigenvalue greater than one in varimax rotation used in the measurement of the variables. The scores were further analyzed using one-way analysis of variance, t-tests, Pearson’s correlation, and hierarchical multiple linear regression analyses. The cut-off point for the regression analysis to determine significance was set at β (95% confidence interval, P<0.05.  Results: Mean motivation scores (as the percentage of maximum scale scores were 58.6% for the overall motivation score, 71.0% for the conscientiousness scale, 52.8% for the organizational commitment scale, 58.3% for the intrinsic motivation scale, and 64.0% for organizational

  17. Seroepidemiology of Human Brucellosis Among Blood Donors in Southern Ethiopia: Calling Attention to a Neglected Zoonotic Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workalemahu, Bereket; Sewunet, Tsegaye; Astatkie, Ayalew

    2017-01-11

    Human brucellosis is neglected in southern Ethiopia. Although traditional food processing practices and animal husbandry which increase the risk of brucellosis are common, it has not been properly studied yet. This study was conducted to determine the seroepidemiology of brucellosis among apparently healthy individuals in southern Ethiopia. In the study, blood samples were collected to screen for serum agglutinins reactive to stained antigen of Brucella abortus Standard tube titration was performed for reactive serum to determine the titer of the agglutinin. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data on possible risk factors for brucellosis. The seroprevalence of human brucellosis in this study was found to be 10.6% (95% confidence interval = 7.0, 14.0). Possession of domestic ruminant animals, contact with ruminant animals, and husbandry practices at home were associated with seropositivity. The higher seroprevalence of human brucellosis in the study area needs attention and additional confirmatory investigation. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  18. The lived experience of patients regarding patients' rights practice at hospitals in Amhara Region, northern Ethiopia

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    Berhane A

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Adugnaw Berhane,1 Fikre Enquselassie2 1College of Health Sciences, Debre Berhan University, Debre Berhan, 2School of Public Health, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, EthiopiaBackground: There are a number of different international guidelines promoting the practice of observing patients’ rights in the health care service. Patients experience greater satisfaction in the health care service when their rights are protected. The purpose of this study was to examine patients’ experiences regarding their rights in hospital settings in northern Ethiopia.Patients and methods: Data were collected using semistructured interviews of 22 patients, who have had experience of health care service in the hospital setting. The patients were selected from the outpatient and inpatient departments of referral and district hospitals in northern Ethiopia. The interview data were tape-recorded, transcribed, translated, reviewed, and analyzed using a phenomenographic approach. Categories of descriptions were constructed based on the patients’ conceptions and ways of understanding the phenomenon of patients’ rights practice.Results: The findings revealed four main qualitatively different ways of understanding patients’ rights practice from the patients’ perspective. These main categories of description were patient-centered practice, being secured, respecting patients’ dignity, and getting referral.Conclusion: The different conceptions of patient rights give us a deeper understanding of how patients may experience patients’ rights practice. The result provides a foundation for developing health care practice that equips the patient with a positive experience, thus contributing in drafting patients’ bill of rights in the local context.Keywords: patient rights, phenomenography, hospital health care, patient experience

  19. Symbiotic Efficiency of Native and Exotic Rhizobium Strains Nodulating Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) in Soils of Southern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Wondwosen Tena; Endalkachew Wolde-Meskel; Fran Walley

    2016-01-01

    Lentil plays a major role in the food and nutritional security of low income Ethiopian families because of the high protein content of their seed; however, their productivity typically is low largely due to soil fertility limitations. Field and pot experiments were conducted during the 2011 cropping season to determine the effectiveness of Rhizobium strains on two cultivars of lentil in Southern Ethiopia. Six rhizobial inoculant treatments (four indigenous and two commercial inoculants), a ni...

  20. Malaria and helminth co-infections in outpatients of Alaba Kulito Health Center, southern Ethiopia: a cross sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Legesse Mengistu; Animut Abebe; Degarege Abraham; Erko Berhanu

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Distribution of malaria and intestinal helminths is known to overlap in developing tropical countries of the world. Co-infections with helminth and malaria parasites cause a significant and additive problem against the host. The aim of this study was to asses the prevalence of malaria/helminth co-infection and the associated problems among febrile outpatients that attended Alaba Kulito Health Center, southern Ethiopia November and December 2007. A total of 1802 acute febri...

  1. Intervention pathways towards improving the resilience of pastoralists: A study from Borana communities, southern Ethiopia

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    Argaw Ambelu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Building resilient communities towards recurrent droughts is increasingly becoming an important element in development endeavours, particularly among communities vulnerable to shocks and stresses. Despite decades of remarkable efforts made by governmental and non-governmental organization, the resilience capacity of pastoralists in Ethiopia remains poor. The aim of this study is to test the statistical relationships among the resilience dimensions that emerged through community consultations, and to identify the intervention pathways for effective resilience building efforts. Data were collected from 1058 randomly sampled households in Arero and Dhas districts of Borana Zone, Southern Ethiopia. The data were collected through interviewer administered structured questionnaire and observational checklist. Principal component analyses were done to develop composite scores of the different resilience dimensions. Structural equation model (SEM verified the theoretical model. The SEM also revealed that resilience towards impact of recurrent droughts was multi-dimensional and showed statistically significant (p < 0.05 relationships. Consequently, household food insecurity manifested as ultimate outcome of poor resilience. Infrastructure and social services (β = −0.24, livestock dimension (β = −0.21, human capital (β = −0.12, psychosocial distress (β = −0.1 dimensions significantly (p < 0.05 affected the status of household food insecurity. Furthermore, livestock and wealth (β = 0.16, wealth and infrastructure (β = 0.06, infrastructure and human capital (β = 0.18, livestock and psychosocial distress (β = −0.09 dimensions have structural relationships and significantly influence each other. Environment, and peace and security are found to be major underlying resilience factors and significantly associated with pastoralists’ resilience which affect other resilience dimensions. The intervention pathway indicated that

  2. Accessibility to tuberculosis control services and tuberculosis programme performance in southern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangisso, Mesay Hailu; Datiko, Daniel Gemechu; Lindtjørn, Bernt

    2015-01-01

    Despite the expansion of health services and community-based interventions in Ethiopia, limited evidence exists about the distribution of and access to health facilities and their relationship with the performance of tuberculosis (TB) control programmes. We aim to assess the geographical distribution of and physical accessibility to TB control services and their relationship with TB case notification rates (CNRs) and treatment outcome in the Sidama Zone, southern Ethiopia. We carried out an ecological study to assess physical accessibility to TB control facilities and the association of physical accessibility with TB CNRs and treatment outcome. We collected smear-positive pulmonary TB (PTB) cases treated during 2003-2012 from unit TB registers and TB service data such as availability of basic supplies for TB control and geographic locations of health services. We used ArcGIS 10.2 to measure the distance from each enumeration location to the nearest TB control facilities. A linear regression analysis was employed to assess factors associated with TB CNRs and treatment outcome. Over a decade the health service coverage (the health facility-to-population ratio) increased by 36% and the accessibility to TB control facilities also improved. Thus, the mean distance from TB control services was 7.6 km in 2003 (ranging from 1.8 to 25.5 km) between kebeles (the smallest administrative units) and had decreased to 3.2 km in 2012 (ranging from 1.5 to 12.4 km). In multivariate linear regression, as distance from TB diagnostic facilities (b-estimate=-0.25, pcontrol facilities (b-estimate=-0.27, pcontrol services improved despite the geographic variations. TB CNRs were higher in areas where people had better access to diagnostic and treatment centres. Community-based interventions also played an important role for the increased CNRs in most areas.

  3. Goitre in a Teaching Hospital in North Western Ethiopia | Bekele ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The patients' history, physical findings and relevant laboratory results were recorded using a standard uniform format. Operative findings, postoperative course and follow up ... Cosmetic disfigurement and respiratory symptoms were the leading reasons for hospital visit. Simple goitres, thyroid carcinoma and toxic goitres ...

  4. Rehabilitation for cancer patients at Black Lion hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worku, Teshager; Mengistu, Zuriash; Semahegn, Agumasie; Tesfaye, Gezahegn

    2017-11-16

    In Ethiopia, there were greater than 2000 adult and 200 pediatric cancer patients annually in 2010, but the estimated number of cancer patients were increasing. Oncologic rehabilitation treatment may result in improved physical and mental impairment. There is a paucity of information about rehabilitation service utilization among cancer patients in Ethiopia. Hence, the purpose of this study was to assess the rehabilitation service for cancer patient and associated factors at Black Lion hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A hospital-based cross-sectional quantitative study was conducted from March to April 2014. Convenient sampling method was employed to recruit the study participants. Interviewer administered questionnaire was used to collect data. Data were entered into EPI data version 3.1 and exported to SPSS (16.0) software for analysis. Descriptive analysis, binary and multiple logistic regression were carried out. Significance association was interpreted using adjusted odds ratio at 95% confidence interval and p-value less than 0.05. A sample of 423 patients aged 18 years and older were involved in the study. Breast cancer (25%), colorectal cancer (20.6%), cervical cancer (14.7%), lymphoma (7.7%), lung (7.2%), leukemia (5.4%), kidney (3.6%) and prostate cancer (2.6%) were the common forms of cancer diagnosed at cancer unit of the Black Lion Hospital. Twenty six percent of cancer patients received rehabilitation service at least once. The main rehabilitation services given were nutritional and psychological support. Unavailability of supplies, lack of professionals and cost of service were among the barriers to receiving rehabilitation services. Only a few cancer patients received cancer rehabilitation services. Increasing the knowledge of the professionals, stocking cancer units with necessary supplies, and other comprehensive programs are needed.

  5. Structural evidence for the allochthonous nature of the Bulbul terrane in southern Ethiopia: A west-verging thrust nappe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yihunie, Tadesse; Tesfaye, Melaku

    2002-02-01

    The Neoproterozoic basement of southern Ethiopia links the low-grade Pan-African province of the Arabian-Nubian Shield to the high-grade Mozambique Belt to the south. In this intervening area, a northward terminating low-grade metavolcano-sedimentary and mafic-ultramafic sequence of the Bulbul terrane gently overlies moderately to steeply dipping granitic migmatites of the Alghe gneissic terrane. The contact between the two terranes is a right lateral thrust. In the Bulbul terrane, rocks are part of an overturned sequence with a gently east-dipping composite D1/D2 foliation containing downdip and NE-plunging stretching lineations and westerly verging intrafolial folds. These structures are interpreted to have been developed during westward thrusting. The Bulbul sequence was therefore detached and tectonically transported to the west as a thrust nappe of which the lower inverted limb is still preserved. Structural evidence suggest yet another smaller nappe sequence (terrane) is present in southern Ethiopia and further suggest that Neoproterozoic obducted crust of the Arabian-Nubian Shield in eastern Ethiopia may be located beneath Phanerozoic cover.

  6. Ten-year experiences of the tuberculosis control programme in the southern region of Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassin, M A; Datiko, D G; Shargie, E B

    2006-10-01

    The tuberculosis control programme, southern region of Ethiopia. To assess the impact of the expansion of the DOTS strategy on tuberculosis (TB) case finding and treatment outcome. Reports of TB patients treated since the introduction of DOTS in the region were reviewed. Patients were diagnosed and treated according to World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations. Case notification and treatment outcome reports were compiled quarterly at district level and submitted to the regional programme. Of 136,572 cases registered between 1995 and 2004, 47% were smear-positive, 25% were smear-negative and 28% had extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB). In 2004, 94% of the health institutions were covered by DOTS. Between 1995 and 2004, the smear-positive case notification rate increased from 45 to 143 per 100,000 population, the case detection rate from 22% to 45%, and the treatment success rate from 53% to 85%. The default and failure rates decreased from 26% to 6% and from 7% to 1%, respectively. There was a steady increase in the treatment success rate with the decentralisation of DOTS. Although 94% coverage was achieved after 10 years, the stepwise scale-up was important in securing resources and dealing with challenges. The programme achieved 85% treatment success; however, with the current low case detection rate (45%), the 70% WHO target seems unachievable in the absence of alternative case-finding mechanisms.

  7. Tuberculosis recurrence in smear-positive patients cured under DOTS in southern Ethiopia: retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datiko, Daniel G; Lindtjørn, Bernt

    2009-09-18

    Decentralization of DOTS has increased the number of cured smear-positive tuberculosis (TB) patients. However, the rate of recurrence has increased mainly due to HIV infection. Recurrence rate could be taken as an important measure of long-term success of TB treatment. We aimed to find out the rate of recurrence in smear-positive patients cured under DOTS in southern Ethiopia. We did a retrospective cohort study on cured smear-positive TB patients who were treated from 1998 to 2006. Recurrence of smear-positive TB was used as an outcome measure. Person-years of observation (PYO) were calculated per 100 PYO from the date of cure to date of interview. Kaplan-Meier and Cox-regression methods were used to determine the survival and the hazard ratio (HR). 368 cured smear-positive TB patients which were followed for 1463 person-years. Of these, 187 patients (50.8%) were men, 277 patients (75.5%) were married, 157 (44.2%) were illiterate, and 152 patients (41.3%) were farmers. 15 of 368 smear-positive patients had recurrence. The rate of recurrence was 1 per 100 PYO (0.01 per annum). Recurrence was not associated with age, sex, occupation, marital status and level of education. High recurrence rate occurred among smear-positive patients cured under DOTS. Further studies are required to identify factors contributing to high recurrence rates to improve disease free survival of TB patients after treatment.

  8. Study on the prevalence of Foot and Mouth Disease in Borana and Guji Zones, Southern Ethiopia

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    Ashenafi Feyisa and Fufa Abunna

    Full Text Available A cross sectional study was conducted on Borana plateau and Guji highlands of southern Ethiopia to determine the prevalence of Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD in bovine species. Seroprevalence investigation was performed using 3ABC- ELISA technique. The result indicated that the overall prevalence of Foot and Mouth Disease was 24.6 %(113/460. Significantly higher prevalence was recorded in Borana 53.6 % ( 82/153 compared to Guji 10.1 %( 31/307. From the various risk factors, geographical distribution (÷²=104.26, P<0.05 and age (÷²=6.68, P<0.05 were seen to be significantly associated with the seroprevalence. The result of this study indicated that FMD is highly prevalent in lowland area (Borana than highland (Guji due to contact of different origin cattle in search of feed and water. The presence of higher prevalence of Foot and Mouth Disease in pastoralists\\\\\\\\\\\\\\' cattle of the area warrants further investigation and characterization of the circulating virus serotype to apply effective control and prevention measures. [Vet. World 2011; 4(7.000: 293-296

  9. Perceptions and attitudes toward SLMTA amongst laboratory and hospital professionals in Ethiopia

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    Adino D. Lulie

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Strengthening Laboratory Management Toward Accreditation (SLMTA is a competency-based management training programme. Assessing health professionals’ views of SLMTA provides feedback to inform program planning, implementation and evaluation of SLMTA's training, communication and mentorship components.Objectives: To assess laboratory professionals’ and hospital chief executive officers’ (CEOs perceptions and attitudes toward the SLMTA programme in Ethiopia.Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive survey was conducted in March 2013 using a structured questionnaire to collect qualitative data from 72 laboratory professionals and hospital CEOs from 17 health facilities, representing all regions and two city administrations in Ethiopia. Focus groups were conducted with laboratory professionals and hospital administration to gain insight into the strengths and challenges of the SLMTA programme so as to guide future planning and implementation.Results: Ethiopian laboratory professionals at all levels had a supportive attitude toward the SLMTA programme. They believed that SLMTA substantially improved laboratory services and acted as a catalyst for total healthcare reform and improvement. They also noted that the SLMTA programme achieved marked progress in laboratory supply chain, sample referral, instrument maintenance and data management systems. In contrast, nearly half of the participating hospital CEOs, especially those associated with low-scoring laboratories, were sceptical about the SLMTA programme, believing that the benefits of SLMTA were outweighed by the level of human resources and time commitment required. They also voiced concerns about the cost and sustainability of SLMTA.Conclusion: This study highlights the need for stronger engagement and advocacy with hospital administration and the importance of addressing concerns about the cost and sustainability of the SLMTA programme.

  10. Perceptions and attitudes toward SLMTA amongst laboratory and hospital professionals in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adino D. Lulie

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Strengthening Laboratory Management Toward Accreditation (SLMTA is a competency-based management training programme. Assessing health professionals’ views of SLMTA provides feedback to inform program planning, implementation and evaluation of SLMTA's training, communication and mentorship components. Objectives: To assess laboratory professionals’ and hospital chief executive officers’ (CEOs perceptions and attitudes toward the SLMTA programme in Ethiopia. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive survey was conducted in March 2013 using a structured questionnaire to collect qualitative data from 72 laboratory professionals and hospital CEOs from 17 health facilities, representing all regions and two city administrations in Ethiopia. Focus groups were conducted with laboratory professionals and hospital administration to gain insight into the strengths and challenges of the SLMTA programme so as to guide future planning and implementation. Results: Ethiopian laboratory professionals at all levels had a supportive attitude toward the SLMTA programme. They believed that SLMTA substantially improved laboratory services and acted as a catalyst for total healthcare reform and improvement. They also noted that the SLMTA programme achieved marked progress in laboratory supply chain, sample referral, instrument maintenance and data management systems. In contrast, nearly half of the participating hospital CEOs, especially those associated with low-scoring laboratories, were sceptical about the SLMTA programme, believing that the benefits of SLMTA were outweighed by the level of human resources and time commitment required. They also voiced concerns about the cost and sustainability of SLMTA. Conclusion: This study highlights the need for stronger engagement and advocacy with hospital administration and the importance of addressing concerns about the cost and sustainability of the SLMTA programme.

  11. Perceptions and attitudes toward SLMTA amongst laboratory and hospital professionals in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lulie, Adino D; Hiwotu, Tilahun M; Mulugeta, Achamyeleh; Kebede, Adisu; Asrat, Habtamu; Abebe, Abnet; Yenealem, Dereje; Abose, Ebise; Kassa, Wondwossen; Kebede, Amha; Linde, Mary K; Ayana, Gonfa

    2014-01-01

    Strengthening Laboratory Management Toward Accreditation (SLMTA) is a competency-based management training programme. Assessing health professionals' views of SLMTA provides feedback to inform program planning, implementation and evaluation of SLMTA's training, communication and mentorship components. To assess laboratory professionals' and hospital chief executive officers' (CEOs) perceptions and attitudes toward the SLMTA programme in Ethiopia. A cross-sectional descriptive survey was conducted in March 2013 using a structured questionnaire to collect qualitative data from 72 laboratory professionals and hospital CEOs from 17 health facilities, representing all regions and two city administrations in Ethiopia. Focus groups were conducted with laboratory professionals and hospital administration to gain insight into the strengths and challenges of the SLMTA programme so as to guide future planning and implementation. Ethiopian laboratory professionals at all levels had a supportive attitude toward the SLMTA programme. They believed that SLMTA substantially improved laboratory services and acted as a catalyst for total healthcare reform and improvement. They also noted that the SLMTA programme achieved marked progress in laboratory supply chain, sample referral, instrument maintenance and data management systems. In contrast, nearly half of the participating hospital CEOs, especially those associated with low-scoring laboratories, were sceptical about the SLMTA programme, believing that the benefits of SLMTA were outweighed by the level of human resources and time commitment required. They also voiced concerns about the cost and sustainability of SLMTA. This study highlights the need for stronger engagement and advocacy with hospital administration and the importance of addressing concerns about the cost and sustainability of the SLMTA programme.

  12. 'Green famine' in Ethiopia: understanding the causes of increasing vulnerability to food insecurity and policy responses in the Southern Ethiopian highlands

    OpenAIRE

    Handino, Mulugeta Lolamo

    2014-01-01

    This thesis examines the underlying causes of food insecurity, famine in general and green famine in particular in the enset-dominant livelihood zones of Kambata land in southern Ethiopia, which are historically considered more resilient and less vulnerable to food insecurity and famine than other parts of Ethiopia. Given Ethiopia’s long-standing history of food insecurity and famines, the discourse of food insecurity and famine is dominated by natural and demographic factors as the main caus...

  13. Impact of HIV Status on Treatment Outcome of Tuberculosis Patients Registered at Arsi Negele Health Center, Southern Ethiopia: A Six Year Retrospective Study

    OpenAIRE

    Gebreslassie Gebremariam; Getachew Asmamaw; Muktar Hussen; Hailemariam, Mengistu Z.; Demissie Asegu; Ayalew Astatkie; Amsalu, Anteneh G.

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite implementation of different strategies, the burden and mortality of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated tuberculosis (TB) remains a challenge in Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of HIV status on treatment outcome of tuberculosis patients registered at Arsi Negele Health Center, Southern Ethiopia. Methods A six-year retrospective data (from September 2008 to August 2014) of tuberculosis patients (n = 1649) registered at the directly observed...

  14. Ocular manifestation and their associated factors among HIV/AIDS patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy in Southern Ethiopia

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    Anteneh Amsalu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To assess the pattern of ocular manifestation and associated factors among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV /acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART at Hawassa University Referral Hospital, Southern Ethiopia. METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted from January 2014 to April 2015. After obtaining informed written consent, 240 adult HIV/AIDS patients on HAART were randomly selected regardless of their ophthalmic symptoms, WHO status or CD4 count. Data were collected using structured questionnaires and ophthalmologic clinical examination. Data were entered and analyzed using SPSS version 20.0 software. RESULTS: The mean duration of HAART was 62.5mo. The prevalence of HIV related ocular manifestation was 14.2%. Seborrheic blepharitis (5% was the most common ocular manifestation, followed by squamoid conjunctival growth (3.8%. The rate of ocular manifestation was significantly higher among study participants who had CD4+ count <200 cells/μL (AOR=3.83; 95%CI: 1.315-11.153, low duration of HAART (AOR=3.0; 95%CI: 1.305-6.891 and who had primary school education [odds ratio (OR =2.8; 95%CI: 1.105-7.099]. Prevalence of visual impairment and blindness was 10.9% and 5.8%, respectively. CONCLUSION: HAART may be the reason for the decline in the prevalence of ocular manifestation in HIV/AIDS patients in the study area. Ophthalmologic screening of HIV/AIDS patients, especially those with CD4 counts of <200/μL cells and in the first five years of HAART follow-up is recommended to reduce visual impairment and/or blindness.

  15. Spatio-temporal analysis of smear-positive tuberculosis in the Sidama Zone, southern Ethiopia.

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    Mesay Hailu Dangisso

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB is a disease of public health concern, with a varying distribution across settings depending on socio-economic status, HIV burden, availability and performance of the health system. Ethiopia is a country with a high burden of TB, with regional variations in TB case notification rates (CNRs. However, TB program reports are often compiled and reported at higher administrative units that do not show the burden at lower units, so there is limited information about the spatial distribution of the disease. We therefore aim to assess the spatial distribution and presence of the spatio-temporal clustering of the disease in different geographic settings over 10 years in the Sidama Zone in southern Ethiopia.A retrospective space-time and spatial analysis were carried out at the kebele level (the lowest administrative unit within a district to identify spatial and space-time clusters of smear-positive pulmonary TB (PTB. Scan statistics, Global Moran's I, and Getis and Ordi (Gi* statistics were all used to help analyze the spatial distribution and clusters of the disease across settings.A total of 22,545 smear-positive PTB cases notified over 10 years were used for spatial analysis. In a purely spatial analysis, we identified the most likely cluster of smear-positive PTB in 192 kebeles in eight districts (RR= 2, p<0.001, with 12,155 observed and 8,668 expected cases. The Gi* statistic also identified the clusters in the same areas, and the spatial clusters showed stability in most areas in each year during the study period. The space-time analysis also detected the most likely cluster in 193 kebeles in the same eight districts (RR= 1.92, p<0.001, with 7,584 observed and 4,738 expected cases in 2003-2012.The study found variations in CNRs and significant spatio-temporal clusters of smear-positive PTB in the Sidama Zone. The findings can be used to guide TB control programs to devise effective TB control strategies for the geographic areas

  16. Use and management of traditional medicinal plants by Maale and Ari ethnic communities in southern Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Around 80% of the people of Ethiopia are estimated to be relying on medicinal plants for the treatment of different types of human health problems. The purpose of this study was to describe and analyse the use and management of medicinal plants used for the treatment of human health problems by the Maale and Ari communities in southern Ethiopia. Methods Quantitative and qualitative ethnobotanical field inquiries and analytical methods including individual and focus group discussions (18), observations, individual interviews (n = 74), preference ranking and paired comparison were used. Data were collected in three study sites and from two markets; the latter surveyed every 15 days from February 2011 to February 2012. Results A total of 128 medicinal plant species, belonging to 111 genera and 49 families, used as herbal medicine by Maale and Ari communities were documented. Predominantly harvested plant parts were leaves, which are known to have relatively low impact on medicinal plant resources. Species with high familiarity indices included Solanum dasyphyllum, Indigofera spicata, Ruta chalepensis, Plumbago zeylanica and Meyna tetraphylla. Low Jaccards similarity indices (≤ 0.33) indicated little correspondence in medicinal plant use among sites and between ethnic communities. The dominant ways of medicinal plant knowledge acquisition and transfer is vertical: from parents to children through oral means. Gender and site significantly influenced the number of human medicinal plants known currently in the study sites. Age was only a factor of significance in Maale. Marketing of medicinal plants harvested from wild and semi-wild stands is not common. Expansion of agricultural land and lack of cultivation efforts by local communities are mentioned by locals to affect the availability of medicinal plant resources. Conclusion S. dasyphyllum, I. spicata, P. zeylanica, M. tetraphylla, and Oxalis radicosa need to be considered for phytochemical and

  17. Accessibility to tuberculosis control services and tuberculosis programme performance in southern Ethiopia

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    Mesay Hailu Dangisso

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite the expansion of health services and community-based interventions in Ethiopia, limited evidence exists about the distribution of and access to health facilities and their relationship with the performance of tuberculosis (TB control programmes. We aim to assess the geographical distribution of and physical accessibility to TB control services and their relationship with TB case notification rates (CNRs and treatment outcome in the Sidama Zone, southern Ethiopia. Design: We carried out an ecological study to assess physical accessibility to TB control facilities and the association of physical accessibility with TB CNRs and treatment outcome. We collected smear-positive pulmonary TB (PTB cases treated during 2003–2012 from unit TB registers and TB service data such as availability of basic supplies for TB control and geographic locations of health services. We used ArcGIS 10.2 to measure the distance from each enumeration location to the nearest TB control facilities. A linear regression analysis was employed to assess factors associated with TB CNRs and treatment outcome. Results: Over a decade the health service coverage (the health facility–to-population ratio increased by 36% and the accessibility to TB control facilities also improved. Thus, the mean distance from TB control services was 7.6 km in 2003 (ranging from 1.8 to 25.5 km between kebeles (the smallest administrative units and had decreased to 3.2 km in 2012 (ranging from 1.5 to 12.4 km. In multivariate linear regression, as distance from TB diagnostic facilities (b-estimate=−0.25, p<0.001 and altitude (b-estimate=−0.31, p<0.001 increased, the CNRs of TB decreased, whereas a higher population density was associated with increased TB CNRs. Similarly, distance to TB control facilities (b-estimate=−0.27, p<0.001 and altitude (b-estimate=−0.30, p<0.001 were inversely associated with treatment success (proportion of treatment completed or cured cases

  18. A national system for monitoring the performance of hospitals in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNatt, Zahirah; Linnander, Erika; Endeshaw, Abraham; Tatek, Dawit; Conteh, David; Bradley, Elizabeth H

    2015-10-01

    Many countries struggle to develop and implement strategies to monitor hospitals nationally. The challenge is particularly acute in low-income countries where resources for measurement and reporting are scarce. We examined the experience of developing and implementing a national system for monitoring the performance of 130 government hospitals in Ethiopia. Using participatory observation, we found that the monitoring system resulted in more consistent hospital reporting of performance data to regional health bureaus and the federal government, increased transparency about hospital performance and the development of multiple quality-improvement projects. The development and implementation of the system, which required technical and political investment and support, would not have been possible without strong hospital-level management capacity. Thorough assessment of the health sector's readiness to change and desire to prioritize hospital quality can be helpful in the early stages of design and implementation. This assessment may include interviews with key informants, collection of data about health facilities and human resources and discussion with academic partners. Aligning partners and donors with the government's vision for quality improvement can enhance acceptability and political support. Such alignment can enable resources to be focused strategically towards one national effort - rather than be diluted across dozens of potentially competing projects. Initial stages benefit from having modest goals and the flexibility for continuous modification and improvement, through active engagement with all stakeholders.

  19. Rangeland dynamics in South Omo Zone of Southern Ethiopia: Assessment of rangeland condition in relation to altitude and Grazing types

    OpenAIRE

    Terefe, A.; Ebro, A.; Tessema, Z.K.

    2010-01-01

    A study was undertaken in Hamer and Benna-Tsemay districts of the Southern Ethiopia with the objective to determine the condition of the rangelands for grazing animals as influenced by altitude and grazing types. The rangelands in each of the study districts were stratified based on altitude and grazing types. In the study districts, a total of 32, 3, 2, 7 and 29 species of grasses, legumes, sedges, other herbaceous plants and woody species were identified, respectively. The common and/or dom...

  20. Geochronology of the Turkana depression of northern Kenya and southern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Francis H; McDougall, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Mesozoic and Cenozoic sedimentary rocks in the Turkana Depression of northern Kenya and southern Ethiopia rest on basement rocks that yield K/Ar cooling ages between 433 and 522 Ma. Proven Cretaceous strata are exposed in Lokitaung Gorge in northwest Kenya. Eocene basalts and rhyolites in Lokitaung Gorge, the Nabwal Hills, and at Kangamajoj, date between 34 and 36 Ma, recording the earliest volcanism in the region. Oligocene volcanic rocks, with associated fossiliferous sedimentary strata at Eragaleit, Nakwai, and Lokone, all west of Lake Turkana, are 23 to 28 Ma old, as is the Langaria Formation east of Lake Turkana. Lower and Middle Miocene volcanic and sedimentary sequences are present both east and west of Lake Turkana, where ages from 17.9 to 9.1 Ma have been measured at many levels. Upper Miocene strata are presently known only at Lothagam, with ages ranging from 7.4 to 6.5 Ma. Deposition of Pliocene strata of the Omo Group begins in the Omo-Turkana, Kerio, and South Turkana basins -4.3 Ma ago and continues in parts of those basins until nearly the present time, but with some gaps. These strata are linked through volcanic ash correlations at many levels, as are Pleistocene strata of the Omo Group (principally the Shungura, Koobi Fora, and Nachukui formations). (40) Ar/(39) Ar dates on many volcanic ash layers within the Omo Group, supplemented by K/Ar ages on intercalated basalts and paleomagnetic polarity stratigraphy, provide excellent age control from 4.2 to 0.75 Ma, although there is a gap in the record between -1 Ma and 0.8 Ma. Members I to III of the Kibish Formation in the lower Omo Valley record deposition between 0.2 and 0.1 Ma ago; Member IV, correlative with the Galana Boi Formation, was deposited principally between 12 and 7 ka BP. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Determinants of use of health facility for childbirth in rural Hadiya zone, Southern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asseffa, Netsanet Abera; Bukola, Fawole; Ayodele, Arowojolu

    2016-11-16

    Maternal mortality remains a major global public health concern despite many international efforts. Facility-based childbirth increases access to appropriate skilled attendance and emergency obstetric care services as the vast majority of obstetric complications occur during delivery. The purpose of the study was to determine the proportion of facility delivery and assess factors influencing utilization of health facility for childbirth. A cross-sectional study was conducted in two rural districts of Hadiya zone, southern Ethiopia. Participants who delivered within three years of the survey were selected by stratified random sampling. Trained interviewers administered a pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire. We employed bivariate analysis and logistic regression to identify determinants of facility-based delivery. Data from 751 participants showed that 26.9% of deliveries were attended in health facilities. In bivariate analysis, maternal age, education, husband's level of education, possession of radio, antenatal care, place of recent ANC attended, planned pregnancy, wealth quintile, parity, birth preparedness and complication readiness, being a model family and distance from the nearest health facility were associated with facility delivery. On multiple logistic regression, age, educational status, antenatal care, distance from the nearest health facility, wealth quintile, being a model family, planned pregnancy and place of recent ANC attended were the determinants of facility-based childbirth. Efforts to improve institutional deliveries in the region must strengthen initiatives that promote female education, opportunities for wealth creation, female empowerment and increased uptake of family planning among others. Service related barriers and cultural influences on the use of health facility for childbirth require further evaluation.

  2. Duration and determinants of birth interval among women of child bearing age in Southern Ethiopia

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    Abera Mulumebet

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Longer intervals between consecutive births decrease the number of children a woman can have. This results in beneficial effects on population size and on the health status of mothers and children. Therefore, understanding the practice of birth interval and its determinants is helpful to design evidence based strategies for interventions. The objective of this study was to determine duration and determinants of birth interval among women of child bearing age in Lemo district, southern Ethiopia in March 2010. Methods A community based cross sectional study design with stratified multistage sampling technique was employed. A sample of 844 women of child bearing age were selected by using simple random sampling technique after complete census was conducted in selected kebeles prior to data collection. Structured interviewer administered questionnaire was used for data collection. Actual birth interval was measured with the respondents' memory since majority of the women or their children in the area had no birth certificate. Results Majority (57% of women were practicing short birth interval length with the median birth interval length of 33 months. Actual birth interval length is significantly shorter than preferred birth interval length. Birth interval showed significant variation by contraceptive use, residence, wealth index, breast feeding and occupation of husbands. Conclusion low proportion of optimal birth spacing practices with short actual birth interval length and longer preferred birth interval lengths were evident among the study subjects. Hence interventions to enhance contraceptive utilization behaviors among women in Lemo district would be helpful to narrow the gap between optimal and actual birth spacing.

  3. Challenges and opportunities for Moringa growers in southern Ethiopia and Kenya.

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    Diriba B Kumssa

    Full Text Available Moringa oleifera (MO and M. stenopetala (MS are two commonly cultivated species of the Moringaceae family. Some households in southern Ethiopia (S. ETH and Kenya (KEN plant MS and MO, respectively. The edible parts of these species are rich in amino acids, vitamins and minerals, especially selenium. Despite their nutritional value, Moringa is sometimes considered as a "famine food". The aim of this study was to determine the extent of dietary utilization of these plants by Moringa Growing Households (MGHs. Moringa growing households were surveyed in 2015. Twenty-four and 56 heads of MGHs from S. ETH and KEN, respectively, were interviewed using semi-structured questionnaires. Subsistence agriculture was the main source of livelihood for all MGHs in S. ETH and 71% of those in KEN. All MGHs in S. ETH cultivated MS while those in KEN cultivated MO. Of the MGH heads in S. ETH, 71% had grown MS as long as they remember; the median cultivation period of MO in KEN was 15 years. All MGHs in S. ETH and 79% in KEN used Moringa leaves as a source of food. Forms of consumption of leaves were boiled fresh leaves, and leaf powder used in tea or mixed with other dishes. Other uses of Moringa include as medicine, fodder, shade, agroforestry, and as a source of income. Although MO and MS have multiple uses, MGHs face several challenges, including a lack of reliable information on nutritional and medicinal values, inadequate access to markets for their products, and pest and disease stresses to their plants. Research and development to address these challenges and to promote the use of these species in the fight against hidden hunger are necessary.

  4. Challenges and opportunities for Moringa growers in southern Ethiopia and Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumssa, Diriba B; Joy, Edward J M; Young, Scott D; Odee, David W; Ander, E Louise; Magare, Charles; Gitu, James; Broadley, Martin R

    2017-01-01

    Moringa oleifera (MO) and M. stenopetala (MS) are two commonly cultivated species of the Moringaceae family. Some households in southern Ethiopia (S. ETH) and Kenya (KEN) plant MS and MO, respectively. The edible parts of these species are rich in amino acids, vitamins and minerals, especially selenium. Despite their nutritional value, Moringa is sometimes considered as a "famine food". The aim of this study was to determine the extent of dietary utilization of these plants by Moringa Growing Households (MGHs). Moringa growing households were surveyed in 2015. Twenty-four and 56 heads of MGHs from S. ETH and KEN, respectively, were interviewed using semi-structured questionnaires. Subsistence agriculture was the main source of livelihood for all MGHs in S. ETH and 71% of those in KEN. All MGHs in S. ETH cultivated MS while those in KEN cultivated MO. Of the MGH heads in S. ETH, 71% had grown MS as long as they remember; the median cultivation period of MO in KEN was 15 years. All MGHs in S. ETH and 79% in KEN used Moringa leaves as a source of food. Forms of consumption of leaves were boiled fresh leaves, and leaf powder used in tea or mixed with other dishes. Other uses of Moringa include as medicine, fodder, shade, agroforestry, and as a source of income. Although MO and MS have multiple uses, MGHs face several challenges, including a lack of reliable information on nutritional and medicinal values, inadequate access to markets for their products, and pest and disease stresses to their plants. Research and development to address these challenges and to promote the use of these species in the fight against hidden hunger are necessary.

  5. Challenges and opportunities for Moringa growers in southern Ethiopia and Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumssa, Diriba B.; Joy, Edward J. M.; Young, Scott D.; Odee, David W.; Ander, E. Louise; Magare, Charles; Gitu, James

    2017-01-01

    Moringa oleifera (MO) and M. stenopetala (MS) are two commonly cultivated species of the Moringaceae family. Some households in southern Ethiopia (S. ETH) and Kenya (KEN) plant MS and MO, respectively. The edible parts of these species are rich in amino acids, vitamins and minerals, especially selenium. Despite their nutritional value, Moringa is sometimes considered as a “famine food”. The aim of this study was to determine the extent of dietary utilization of these plants by Moringa Growing Households (MGHs). Moringa growing households were surveyed in 2015. Twenty-four and 56 heads of MGHs from S. ETH and KEN, respectively, were interviewed using semi-structured questionnaires. Subsistence agriculture was the main source of livelihood for all MGHs in S. ETH and 71% of those in KEN. All MGHs in S. ETH cultivated MS while those in KEN cultivated MO. Of the MGH heads in S. ETH, 71% had grown MS as long as they remember; the median cultivation period of MO in KEN was 15 years. All MGHs in S. ETH and 79% in KEN used Moringa leaves as a source of food. Forms of consumption of leaves were boiled fresh leaves, and leaf powder used in tea or mixed with other dishes. Other uses of Moringa include as medicine, fodder, shade, agroforestry, and as a source of income. Although MO and MS have multiple uses, MGHs face several challenges, including a lack of reliable information on nutritional and medicinal values, inadequate access to markets for their products, and pest and disease stresses to their plants. Research and development to address these challenges and to promote the use of these species in the fight against hidden hunger are necessary. PMID:29121079

  6. Dietary behaviour, food and nutrient intake of women do not change during pregnancy in Southern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asayehu, Tamene Taye; Lachat, Carl; Henauw, Stefaan De; Gebreyesus, Seifu Hagos

    2017-04-01

    Although pregnant women are required to increase food and nutrient intake to accommodate for the increased nutritional demands, information on dietary behaviour and nutrient intake is limited. This study aimed to identify the adequacy and differences in intake between pregnant and non-pregnant women in a rural community of Butajira district, Southern Ethiopia. Simple random sampling was used to recruit 159 pregnant and 164 non-pregnant women. An interactive multiple pass 24-h recall survey was used to evaluate the food and nutrient intake of the study participants. Except for iron, vitamin A and C, intakes of macro and micronutrient were below the recommendations. Almost all study participants were deficient in energy, protein, calcium, folate and niacin intakes. There was no significant difference in the mean dietary intake of all nutrients between pregnant and non-pregnant women (p > 0.05). The prevalence of inadequacy was comparable between pregnant and non-pregnant women in all of the nutrient intakes except for Zn, where the prevalence of inadequacy was much higher among the pregnant women. Nearly all (99.0%) of the pregnant women were deficient in niacin, folate and calcium. Although all pregnant women considered it important to increase food intake during pregnancy, only a quarter of women reported to do so. In conclusion, pregnant women in the rural community of Butajira district do not make significant dietary intake adjustments to account for increased nutrient needs during pregnancy. In food insecure areas, such as ours, nutritional counselling complemented with supplementary feeding programmes could be key to ensure adequate dietary intake. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Spectrum of cardiovascular diseases in six main referral hospitals of Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadeta, Dejuma; Guteta, Senbeta; Alemayehu, Bekele; Mekonnen, Dufera; Gedlu, Etsegenet; Benti, Henock; Tesfaye, Hagazi; Berhane, Samuel; Hailu, Abraha; Luel, Abadi; Hailu, Tedros; Daniel, Wandimu; Haileamlak, Abraham; Gudina, Esayas Kebede; Negeri, Gari; Mekonnen, Desalew; Woubeshet, Kindie; Egeno, Tariku; Lemma, Kinfe; Kshettry, Vibhu R; Tefera, Endale

    2017-01-01

    The spectrum of cardiovascular diseases varies between and within countries, depending on the stage of epidemiological transition and risk factor profiles. Understanding this spectrum requires regional and national data for each region or country. This study was designed to determine the spectrum of cardiovascular diseases in six university hospitals in Ethiopia. This is a cross-sectional study of the spectrum of cardiovascular diseases in six main referral/teaching hospitals located in different parts of the country. Consecutive patients visiting the follow-up cardiac clinics of these hospitals from 1 January to 30 June 2015 were included in the study. Data were collected on a pretested questionnaire. A total of 6275 patients (58.5% females) were included in the study. Nearly 61% of the patients were from urban areas. The median age was 33 years (IQR 14-55 years). Valvular heart disease was the most common diagnosis, accounting for 40.5% of the cases. Of 2541 patents with valvular heart disease, 2184 (86%) were cases of chronic rheumatic heart disease. Our study shows that chronic rheumatic valvular heart disease is the most common cardiovascular diagnosis among patients seen at cardiology clinics of six referral/teaching hospitals in the country, followed by congenital heart diseases. Hypertensive and ischaemic heart diseases also accounted for a significant proportion of the cases. Therefore, strategies directed towards primary and secondary prevention of acute rheumatic fever as well as prevention of risk factors for hypertension and ischaemic heart disease may need to be strengthened.

  8. Prophylactic procurement of university students in Southern Ethiopia: stigma and the value of condom machines on campus.

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    Christopher J Wells

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Risky sexual behavior among Ethiopian university students, especially females, is a major contributor to young adult morbidity and mortality. Ambaw et al. found that female university students in Ethiopia may fear the humiliation associated with procuring condoms. A study in Thailand suggests condom machines may provide comfortable condom procurement, but the relevance to a high-risk African context is unknown. The objective of this study was to examine if the installation of condom machines in Ethiopia predicts changes in student condom uptake and use, as well as changes in procurement related stigma. METHODS: Students at a large urban university in Southern Ethiopia completed self reported surveys in 2010 (N  = 2,155 surveys and again in 2011 (N =  2,000, six months after the installation of condom machines. Mann-Whitney and Chi-square tests were conducted to evaluate significant changes in student sexual behavior, as well as condom procurement and associated stigma over the subsequent one year period. RESULTS: After installing condom machines, the average number of trips made to procure condoms on-campus significantly increased 101% for sexually active females and significantly decreased 36% for sexually active males. Additionally, reports of condom use during last sexual intercourse showed a non-significant 4.3% increase for females and a significant 9.0% increase for males. During this time, comfort procuring condoms and ability to convince sexual partners to use condoms were significantly higher for sexually active male students. There was no evidence that the condom machines led to an increase in promiscuity. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that condom machines may be associated with more condom procurement among vulnerable female students in Ethiopia and could be an important component of a comprehensive university health policy.

  9. Patterns of mortality in public and private hospitals of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

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    Misganaw Awoke

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ethiopia is encountering a growing burden of non-communicable diseases along with infectious diseases, perinatal and nutritional problems that have long been considered major problems of public health importance. This retrospective analysis was carried out to examine the mortality patterns from communicable diseases and non communicable diseases in public and private hospitals of Addis Ababa. Methods Approximately 47,153 deaths were captured over eight years (2002–2010 in forty three public and private hospitals of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Data collectors (43 hospital clerks and coordinators (3 nurses had been extensively trained on how to review hospital death records. Information obtained included: dates of admission and death, age, sex, address, and principal cause of death. Only the diseases responsible for deaths are taken as the cause of death. Cause of death was coded using International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10 and data were double entered. Diseases were classified into: Group I (communicable diseases, maternal conditions and nutritional deficiencies; Group II (non-communicable causes; and Group III (injuries. Percentages, proportional mortality ratios, 95% confidence intervals (CI and Adjusted odd ratios (OR were calculated. Results Overall, 59% of the deaths were attributed to Group I diseases, and 31% to Group II diseases and 12% to injuries. Nearly 56% of the males and 68% of the females deaths were due to five leading causes (conditions arising during perinatal period, HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, cardiovascular diseases and respiratory infections. Significantly larger proportions of females died from Group I (67% and Group II diseases (32% compared with males (where the respective proportions were 52% and 30%. Significantly higher proportion of males (17% than females (6% were dying from Group III diseases. Deaths due to Group I diseases decreased while those due to Group II diseases increased with age

  10. Famine in southern Ethiopia 1985-6: population structure, nutritional state, and incidence of death among children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindtjørn, B

    1990-11-17

    To assess the effects of drought on mortality in children. Prospective epidemiological study forming part of nutritional monitoring during famine relief work. 24 Food distribution sites in Arero and Borana provinces in southern Ethiopia. A monthly average of 14,173 and 5,334 children under 5 were examined in 1985 and 1986, respectively. Altogether 148,966 child months (105,872 for 1985 and 43,094 for 1986) were available for analysis. The families of all children were supplied with food each month. Basic medical care was also provided. Mortality in children under 5. A 40% increase in crude mortality was observed among children living in traditional and stable societies. The severe consequences were observed mainly among children living in relief shelters, where a threefold to fourfold increase in crude mortality was recorded among children. Increased childhood mortality was also associated with high prevalence of malnutrition, living in the most arid areas, and the dry season. A long period of food aid was needed to normalise the nutritional state, especially for children living in relief shelters. The most severe consequences of the widespread famine that occurred in the Arero and Borana provinces of southern Ethiopia during 1985-6 were seen among children living in relief shelters. Early food intervention may decrease the scale of migration and thus also reduce the severe consequences of a famine.

  11. Lack of adherence to isoniazid chemoprophylaxis in children in contact with adults with tuberculosis in Southern Ethiopia.

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    Kefyalew T Garie

    Full Text Available SETTING: Hawassa, Southern Region of Ethiopia. OBJECTIVES: To determine compliance to isoniazid (INH preventive therapy (IPT and its effectiveness in preventing (TB disease in children in contact with adults with pulmonary TB (PTB. DESIGN: This was a prospective cohort study of children 5 years old were given advice but did not receive IPT, as recommended by the National TB control programme. Compliance to IPT and incidence of clinical TB were determined monthly for six months and then quarterly for up to 30 months. RESULTS: One hundred and eighty four children in contact with 83 smear-positive PTB cases were identified. Eighty two were ≤5 and 102>5 years old. Only 27 (33% of 82 children given IPT took it for >4 months and 10 (12% completed the 6-month course. The main reason for non-compliance was the perception that drugs were not necessary when the child was healthy. Eleven children (all except one >5 years old developed symptoms of TB disease and initiated treatment, resulting in an incidence of 28.6 cases for all and 53.5 for children >5 years old per 1000 children-year. CONCLUSION: Compliance to IPT in children is poor in Southern Region of Ethiopia and this was associated with the parents' perception of the low importance of chemoprophylaxis in asymptomatic children. Poor compliance might be an important barrier for the wider implementation of IPT. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00456469.

  12. Factors affecting performance of public hospital nurses in Addis Ababa region, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negussie, Nebiat; Berehe, Costantinos

    2016-03-01

    Nurses have a major role to play in providing timely, quality health services in hospitals. It is important to identify factors influencing the performance of nurses to improve the quality of healthcare delivered in healthcare organizations. The objective of this study was to identify factors influencing job performance of nurses in public hospitals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A cross-sectional survey was conducted from June 2010 to December 2010 in five public hospitals in Addis Ababa. Among 658 nurses meeting the inclusion criteria, the estimated sample size of 290 nurses was selected using a simple random sampling technique. Data were collected using self-administered questionnaire. A total of 230 (80%) questionnaires were returned of the 290 questionnaires distributed to respondents. The results of the study indicated that nurses have rated the following as below average: job performance (mean=2.71, SD=0.48), job satisfaction (mean=2.55, SD=0.39), and organizational commitment (mean=2.45, SD=0.36). Organizational commitment (β=0.69, Pcareer development (β=0.39, Pfactors that contribute to job satisfaction and organizational commitments to improve nurses' job performance.

  13. Cross Sectional Characterization of Factors Associated with Pediatric HIV Status Disclosure in Southern Ethiopia.

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    Birkneh Tilahun Tadesse

    Full Text Available Disclosure of HIV positive status to children and adolescents is a complex process. However, disclosure has been found to be associated with improved outcomes. The objective of the current study was to identify the predictors that facilitate disclosure of HIV status to children and adolescents and to study the reasons for non-disclosure.Interviews of caregivers and reviews of records were done to collect data on caregiver and child information and details regarding the disclosure status of children. Bivariate analysis was done to test the association between HIV status disclosure and different caregiver and child factors. To identify the independent predictors of disclosure, we did multivariable logistic regression.A total of 177 children attending an HIV clinic were included. The mean age of the participants was 10.1 years (SD = 2.8, and about half (50.8% were female. Most caregivers, 137 (77.8% stated that disclosure of HIV status to children is important and should be done. However, disclosure had only been made to 59 (33.3% of the participants. Child age more than 10 years [AOR = 6.7; 95%CI: 1.73-26.01], duration of HIV diagnosis of 5 years or more [AOR = 4.4; 95%CI: 1.26-15.06] and taking a zidovudin (AZT based regimen [AOR = 3.5; 95%CI: 1.31-9.53] predicted HIV positive status disclosure. Additionally, length of treatment of caregivers of more than 14 years [AOR = 3.9; 95%CI: 1.07-14.61], disclosure of caregiver's HIV status to children and/or others [AOR = 4.7; 95%CI: 1.19-18.74], and the child's inquiry about their condition [AOR = 4.5; 95%CI: 1.16-17.43] increased the odds of disclosure.The rate of disclosure among HIV infected children in southern Ethiopia is low. Primarily time-based factors were associated with the probability of HIV positive status disclosure and a specific regimen which has not been found previously. Further qualitative research may elucidate more on these factors; educational strategies may address some of these

  14. Pattern and prognostic factor of ocular injuries in southwest Ethiopia: a hospital based prospective study

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    Sisay Bekele

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To determine the pattern, severity, and prognostic factors of ocular injuries in the southwest Ethiopia.METHODS:A prospective hospital based study was done on all patients presented with ocular injury to Jimma University Specialized Hospital from Apr. to Sep. 2009. Each patient underwent a detailed interview and a standard comprehensive ocular examination. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 13 and PRESULTS:The overall prevalence of ocular injury was 3.03%. Nearly 99% of ocular injuries were mechanical. The majority of the ocular injuries(53.2%were work-related and none of these patients had eye protection at the time of injury. Out of 170 globe injuries, 57.6% were closed globe injury and 42.4% were open globe injuries. Closed globe injuries were less severe and had significantly better visual outcome than open globe injuries(PPCONCLUSION: Most ocular injuries occurred in the workplace,and a significantly larger proportion of patients with ocular injury developed monocular blindness. For the prevention of serious injuries, eye health education and safety strategies should be applied both at home and work place.

  15. Prevalence of alcohol use disorders and associated factors among people with epilepsy attending Amanuel Mental Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Waja T; Ebrahim J; Yohannis Z; Bedaso A

    2016-01-01

    Tsegereda Waja,1 Jemal Ebrahim,2 Zegeye Yohannis,1 Asres Bedaso2 1Department of Psychiatry, Amanuel Mental Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, 2School of Nursing and Midwifery, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Hawassa University, Hawassa, SNNPR, Ethiopia Introduction: Alcohol use disorders represent one of the leading causes of preventable death, illness, and injury in many societies throughout the world. Heavy alcohol consumption has multiple negative consequences for people with ep...

  16. Indigenous knowledge, use and on-farm management of enset (Ensete ventricosum (Welw.) Cheesman) diversity in Wolaita, Southern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olango, Temesgen Magule; Tesfaye, Bizuayehu; Catellani, Marcello; Pè, Mario Enrico

    2014-05-08

    Ensete ventricosum (Welw.) Cheesman is a major food security crop in Southern Ethiopia, where it was originally domesticated and during millennia became pivotal crop around which an entire farming system has developed. Although its cultivation is highly localized, the enset-based farming system provides sustenance to more than 20 million people. Precise ethnobotanical information of intra-specific enset diversity and local knowledge on how communities maintain, manage and benefit from enset genetic resources is imperative for the promotion, conservation and improvement of this crop and its farming system. This study was conducted in Southern Ethiopia among the Wolaita 'enset culture' community. The research sample consisted of 270 households from 12 Kebeles (villages) representing three agro-ecological ranges. By establishing Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) based interactions and applying ethnobotanical interviewing methods of free-listing and open-ended questionnaires, information on the use and management of enset diversity, and its associated folk-biosystematics, food traditions and material culture was collected and analyzed. While enset agriculture is seen as cultural heritage and identity for the Wolaita, enset intra-specific diversity holds scenic, prestige and symbolic values for the household. In the present study we recorded 67 enset landraces under cultivation, and through a comprehensive literature review we identified 28 landraces reported from other areas of Wolaita, but not encountered in our survey. Landraces, identified using 11 descriptors primarily related to agro-morphological traits, are named after perceived places of origin, agro-morphological characteristics and cooking quality attributes. Folk classification of enset is based on its domestication status, 'gender', agro-ecological adaptability and landrace suitability for different food and other uses (fiber, feed, medicinal). Enset as a food crop is used to prepare 10 different dishes

  17. Impact of multiple certification on smallholder coffee farmers' livelihoods: Evidence from southern Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woubie, A.A.; Muradian Sarache, R.P.; Ruben, R.; Ruben, R.; Hoebink, P.

    2015-01-01

    Coffee is – next to petroleum – one of the most valuable agricultural commodities traded at international markets (Arslan and Reicher, 2010; Rodriquez, 2012). Today, coffee remains one of the most important sources of export income for East African nations (i.e. Ethiopia, Uganda, Kenya, and

  18. Impact of multiple certification on smallholder coffee farmers’ livelihoods: evidence from southern Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woubie, Amsaya Anteneh; Muradian, Roldan; Ruben, R.

    2015-01-01

    Coffee is – next to petroleum – one of the most valuable agricultural commodities traded at international markets (Arslan and Reicher, 2010; Rodriquez, 2012). Today, coffee remains one of the most important sources of export income for East African nations (i.e. Ethiopia, Uganda, Kenya, and

  19. Coffee marketing cooperatives and rural poverty alleviation: Evidence from Southern Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woubie, A.A.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Agricultural cooperatives in Ethiopia are increasing across time in terms of number, type, and membership size due to the supportive policy environment. In addition, there are also encouraging developments in terms of the consolidation of cooperative unions (second-tier level of

  20. Ethnoveterinary medicinal plants used by the Maale and Ari ethnic communities in southern Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kidane, B.; Maesen, van der L.J.G.; Andel, van T.; Asfaw, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance: Livestock production is an integral part of the agricultural system in Ethiopia. Medicinal plants are used and are important for rural communities for the treatment of livestock diseases. We studied and analysed the traditional medicinal plants used for the treatment

  1. Coffee marketing cooperatives and rural poverty alleviation: evidence from Southern Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woubie, A.A.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Agricultural cooperatives in Ethiopia are increasing across time in terms of number, type, and membership size due to the supportive policy environment. In addition, there are also encouraging developments in terms of the consolidation of cooperative unions (second-tier level of

  2. Omotic Peoples and the Early History of Agriculture in Southern Ethiopia

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    Assefa, Shiferaw Alemu

    2011-01-01

    The primary objective of this dissertation is to reconstruct the history of the Omotic societies of southwestern Ethiopia. Although historical, anthropological, and linguistic studies exist for this region, the gaps in our knowledge are great. Information on the history of Omotic people, their economic and political systems, beliefs and values,…

  3. Impact of multiple certification on smallholder coffee farmers' livelihoods: Evidence from southern Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woubie, A.A.; Muradian Sarache, R.P.; Ruben, R.

    2015-01-01

    Coffee is - next to petroleum - one of the most valuable agricultural commodities traded at international markets (Arslan and Reicher, 2010; Rodriquez, 2012). Today, coffee remains one of the most important sources of export income for East African nations (i.e. Ethiopia, Uganda, Kenya, and

  4. Magnitude and associated factors of Atopic dermatitis among children in Ayder referral hospital, Mekelle, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelbore, Abraham Getachew; Alemu, Workalemahu; Shumye, Ashenafi; Getachew, Sefonias

    2015-08-25

    Atopic Dermatitis (AD) is now a day's increasing in prevalence globally. A Prevalence of 5-25 % have been reported in different country. Even if its prevalence is known in most countries especially in developing countries there is scarcity with regard to prevalence and associated risk factors of AD among children in Ethiopia settings. The aim of this study was to determine the magnitude and associated factors of atopic dermatitis among children in Ayder referral hospital, Mekelle, Ethiopia. A facility-based cross-sectional study design was conducted among 477 children aged from 3 months to 14 years in Ayder referral hospital from July to September, 2014. A systematic random sampling technique was used to identify study subjects. Descriptive analysis was done to characterize the study population. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with AD. The OR with 95 % CI was used to show the strength of the association and a P value atopic dermatitis was found to be 9.6 % (95 % CI: 7.2, 12.5). In multivariate logistic regression model, those who had maternal asthma (AOR: 11.5, 95 % CI:3.3-40.5), maternal hay fever history (AOR: 23.5, 95 % CI: 4.6-118.9) and atopic dermatitis history (AOR: 6.0, 95 % CI:1.0-35.6), Paternal asthma (AOR: 14.4, 95 % CI:4.0-51.7), Paternal hay fever history (AOR: 13.8, 95 % CI: 2.4-78.9) and personal asthma (AOR: 10.5, 95 % CI:1.3-85.6), and hay fever history (AOR: 12.9, 95 % CI:2.7-63.4), age at 3 months to 1 year (OR: 6.8, 95 % CI: 1.1-46.0) and weaning at 4 to 6 months age (AOR: 3.9, 95 % CI:1.2-13.3) were a significant predictors of atopic dermatitis. In this study the magnitude of atopic dermatitis was high in relation to other studies conducted so far in the country. Maternal, paternal, personal asthma, hay fever histories, maternal atopic dermatitis history, age of child and age of weaning were independent predicators of atopic dermatitis. Hence, the finding alert a needs of

  5. Predictors of multidrug resistant tuberculosis among adult patients at Saint Peter Hospital Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessalegn, Muluken; Daniel, Ermias; Behailu, Sileshi; Wagnew, Maereg; Nyagero, Josephat

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) has become a major public health concern that threatens advances made in global TB control efforts. Though the problem is prevalent, it did not receive major attention to generate supportive evidence for the prevention and control of MDR-TB. The aim of this study was to identify predictors of MDR-TB in a national TB referral centre in Ethiopia. An unmatched, case-control study was conducted at St. Peter Hospital to assess risk factors associated with MDR-TB. The study included 103 culture proven, MDR-TB patients referred to the hospital during the study period (cases) and 103 randomly-selected TB patients with confirmed TB who turned negative after treatment (controls). Regressions analyses were used to determine the association of variables. The mean age among cases and controls was 30.5 (±9.26) and 34.73 (±11.28) years, respectively. The likelihood of having MDR-TB was 20.3 times higher among those who had a any previous history of TB treatment (AOR=20.3 [CI 5.13, 80.58]), 15.7 times higher among those who had TB more than once (AOR=15.7 [CI 4.18, 58.71]) compared those who had once, 6.8 times higher among those who had pulmonary TB (AOR=6.8 [CI 1.16, 40.17]) and 16.1 times higher for those who had experienced treatment with a Category II regimen (AOR=16.1 [CI 2.40, 108.56]). HIV infection was less common among cases than controls. This study concluded that special attention should be given to patients with a history of the following: TB more than once, presence of pulmonary TB, and used a Category II treatment regimen, as these were all determining factors for MDR-TB. Thus, this study urges the development and implementation of well-planned and integrated strategies for MDR-TB control and prevention in Ethiopia.

  6. Parasitic contamination of raw vegetables and fruits collected from selected local markets in Arba Minch town, Southern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekele, Fitsum; Tefera, Tamirat; Biresaw, Gelila; Yohannes, Tsegaye

    2017-03-07

    One way that people get infected with intestinal parasites is through the consumption of contaminated vegetables and fruits. This study aimed at determining the prevalence and predictors of parasitic contamination of fruits and vegetables collected from four local markets in Arba Minch town, Southern Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted from 1 to 21 September 2014 to determine the level of parasitic contamination of fruits and vegetables sold in Arba Minch town. A total of 360 samples of different types of fruits and vegetables were soaked in physiological saline, followed by vigorous shaking with the aid of a mechanical shaker for 15 minutes and then examined using the sedimentation concentration technique. Out of the 360 samples examined, 196 (54.4%) were contaminated with at least one type of parasite. Ascaris lumbricoides (20.83%) was the most frequently detected parasite and Isospora belli (3.06%) was the least frequently detected one. It was also observed that decreased parasitic contamination was significantly associated with washing the products before displaying it for selling (P vegetables and fruits in Arba Minch, Ethiopia. The authors believe that an effort should be made by the relevant bodies to reduce the rate of contamination of products with medically important parasites by educating the vendors and the community.

  7. Long-term indigenous soil conservation technology in the Chencha area, southern Ethiopia: origin, characteristics, and sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engdawork, Assefa; Bork, Hans-Rudolf

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the origin, development, and characteristics of terraces (kella), plus their potentials and determinants for sustainable use in the Chencha-Dorze Belle area of southern Ethiopia. Field surveys were conducted to determine the various parameters of the indigenous terraces and in order to collect samples for radiocarbon dating. To identify farmers' views of the terrace systems, semi-structured interviews and group discussions were also carried out. Terraces were built and used-as radiocarbon dating proves-at least over the last 800 years. The long-term continued usage of the indigenous terraces is the result of social commitments, the structural features of the terraces, and the farmers' responses to the dynamics of social and cultural circumstances. We dubbed that the terraces are a success story of fruitful environmental management over generations. Thus, a strong need is to preserve and develop this important cultural heritage and example of sustainable land use.

  8. “Tree Is Life”: The Rising of Dualism and the Declining of Mutualism among the Gedeo of Southern Ethiopia

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    Asebe Regassa Debelo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates ecocultural discourses and practices among the Gedeo in southern Ethiopia within the contexts of globalizing commodification of nature, successive governmental extractivist and conservationist discourses, and increasingly influential colonial present religious systems. Our analysis illustrates ways in which indigenous Gedeo understandings of reciprocal ecological coexistence are rooted in cultural knowledge, values, and customs. However, competing forms of knowledge introduced in the form of governance, commerce, conservation, and religion have resulted in an in-process shift from traditionally, spiritually maintained mutualist human–environment relations to dualist commodified relations, particularly among youth, and dualist expert-reliant conservationist relations emanating from governmental bodies. By examining a traditional meaning system during an explicit process of erasure, the study points to ways local meanings of, and narratives about, ecocultural interactions are produced and communicated within wider contexts of power, and illustrates tensions among traditional, governmental, capitalist, conservationist, and religious environmental ontologies in everyday and institutional practice.

  9. Health extension workers improve tuberculosis case detection and treatment success in southern Ethiopia: a community randomized trial.

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    Daniel G Datiko

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: One of the main strategies to control tuberculosis (TB is to find and treat people with active disease. Unfortunately, the case detection rates remain low in many countries. Thus, we need interventions to find and treat sufficient number of patients to control TB. We investigated whether involving health extension workers (HEWs: trained community health workers in TB control improved smear-positive case detection and treatment success rates in southern Ethiopia. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: We carried out a community-randomized trial in southern Ethiopia from September 2006 to April 2008. Fifty-one kebeles (with a total population of 296, 811 were randomly allocated to intervention and control groups. We trained HEWs in the intervention kebeles on how to identify suspects, collect sputum, and provide directly observed treatment. The HEWs in the intervention kebeles advised people with productive cough of 2 weeks or more duration to attend the health posts. Two hundred and thirty smear-positive patients were identified from the intervention and 88 patients from the control kebeles. The mean case detection rate was higher in the intervention than in the control kebeles (122.2% vs 69.4%, p<0.001. In addition, more females patients were identified in the intervention kebeles (149.0 vs 91.6, p<0.001. The mean treatment success rate was higher in the intervention than in the control kebeles (89.3% vs 83.1%, p = 0.012 and more for females patients (89.8% vs 81.3%, p = 0.05. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The involvement of HEWs in sputum collection and treatment improved smear-positive case detection and treatment success rate, possibly because of an improved service access. This could be applied in settings with low health service coverage and a shortage of health workers. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00803322.

  10. Health extension workers improve tuberculosis case detection and treatment success in southern Ethiopia: a community randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datiko, Daniel G; Lindtjørn, Bernt

    2009-01-01

    One of the main strategies to control tuberculosis (TB) is to find and treat people with active disease. Unfortunately, the case detection rates remain low in many countries. Thus, we need interventions to find and treat sufficient number of patients to control TB. We investigated whether involving health extension workers (HEWs: trained community health workers) in TB control improved smear-positive case detection and treatment success rates in southern Ethiopia. We carried out a community-randomized trial in southern Ethiopia from September 2006 to April 2008. Fifty-one kebeles (with a total population of 296, 811) were randomly allocated to intervention and control groups. We trained HEWs in the intervention kebeles on how to identify suspects, collect sputum, and provide directly observed treatment. The HEWs in the intervention kebeles advised people with productive cough of 2 weeks or more duration to attend the health posts. Two hundred and thirty smear-positive patients were identified from the intervention and 88 patients from the control kebeles. The mean case detection rate was higher in the intervention than in the control kebeles (122.2% vs 69.4%, pcontrol kebeles (89.3% vs 83.1%, p = 0.012) and more for females patients (89.8% vs 81.3%, p = 0.05). The involvement of HEWs in sputum collection and treatment improved smear-positive case detection and treatment success rate, possibly because of an improved service access. This could be applied in settings with low health service coverage and a shortage of health workers. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00803322.

  11. Use of herbal medicine among pregnant women on antenatal care at nekemte hospital, Western ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayisa, Bodena; Tatiparthi, Ramanjireddy; Mulisa, Eshetu

    2014-11-01

    Investigations across the world confirm dramatic increment in the use of complementary and alternative medicine in pregnant women. The most important aspect is lack of awareness of pregnant women about potential effects of using traditional medicine on fetus; some herbal products may be teratogenic in human and animal models. In this area, so far, no research has been conducted in Ethiopia to assess traditional medicine use in pregnant women. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence and use of herbal drugs among pregnant women attending Nekemte Hospital to provide baseline information for future studies. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted by quantitative and qualitative approaches to identify the prevalence of using herbal medicines among pregnant women. About 50.4% of study participants used herbal drugs during their pregnancy. The proportion of herbal drug usage was gradually decreased along with the first, second and third trimesters of pregnancy. The most and least commonly used herbs were ginger (44.36%) and tenaadam (9.15 %), respectively. The common indications of herbal remedies use during pregnancy were nausea (23.90%) and morning sickness (21.05%). The result of the present study confirmed wide use of herbal drugs use during pregnancy that need to report the safety concerns of these drugs during pregnancy. To achieve the requirements of pregnant women, it is vital for health care workers to be familiar with the effect of herbal medicine in pregnancy.

  12. Health care decision making autonomy of women from rural districts of Southern Ethiopia: a community based cross-sectional study

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    Alemayehu M

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Mihiretu Alemayehu, Mengistu Meskele School of Public Health, College of Health Sciences and Medicine, Wolaita Sodo University, Wolaita Sodo, Ethiopia Introduction: Millions of women have little health care decision making autonomy in many cultures and tribes. African women are often perceived to have little participation in health care decisions. However, little has been investigated to identify factors contributing to decision making autonomy. Hence, it is important to obtain information on the contributing factors of decision making autonomy and disparities across different socio-cultural contexts. Methodology: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Wolaita and Dawro zones, Southern Ethiopia from February to March 2015. A total of 967 women were selected through multi-stage sampling. A survey was administered face-to-face through an interview format. EpiData v1.4.4.0 and SPSS version 20 were used to enter and analyze data, respectively. Proportions and means were used to describe the study population. Variables with P-value <0.2 in bivariate analysis were selected for multivariable regression. Finally, variables with P-value <0.05 in multivariable logistic regressions were identified as independent predictors. Odds ratios along with confidence intervals were used to determine the presence of association. Result: It was determined that 58.4% of women have autonomy, while 40.9% of study participants’ health care decisions were made by their husbands. The husband’s education (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =1.91 [1.10, 3.32], wealth index (AOR =0.62 [0.42, 0.92], age (AOR =2.42 [1.35, 4.32] and AOR =7 [3.45, 14.22], family size (AOR =0.53 [0.33, 0.85] and AOR =0.42 [0.23, 0.75], and occupation (AOR =1.66 [1.14, 2.41], were predictors of health care decision making autonomy. Conclusion: Even though every woman has the right to participate in her own health care decision making, more than two fifths of them have no role in making health care

  13. Fungal keratitis in patients with corneal ulcer attending Minilik II Memorial Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

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    Kibret, Tihtina; Bitew, Adane

    2016-08-30

    Fungal keratitis is an important cause of corneal blindness all over the world. Although there are several reports on fungal keratitis from developing and developed countries, fungal keratitis in Ethiopia is poorly known. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of fungal keratitis and spectrum of fungi implicated in causing the infection. The present study was a single institutional cross-sectional study carried out in Minilik II Memorial Hospital eye clinic, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia from September 2014 to August 2015. Corneal scraping was obtained under aseptic condition with sterile 21 gauge needle by an ophthalmologist from patients suspected of microbial keratitis. Each scraping was inoculated onto Sabouraud Dextrose Agar in C-shaped streaks and incubated at 25 °C aerobically for four weeks. Cultures of mycelia fungi were identified by examining macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of their colonies. Yeasts were identified by employing biochemical and assimilation test procedures and using CHROMagar Candida culture. All data were coded, double entered and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Out of 153 cases of microbial keratitis, fungi were recovered from 69 patients giving fungal keratitis prevalence of 45.1. Patients from rural areas were significantly affected than patients in urban regions (P = 0.005). Age groups of 25-34 (P = 0.017) and 15-24 years (P = 0.008) were significantly affected. Fungal keratitis was significantly associated with farmers (P = 0.0001), daily laborers (P = 0.0001), unemployed (P = 0001) and students (P = 0.004). Fungal keratitis was statistically associated with trauma (P = 0.006), and diabetes (P = 0.024). Seventy six fungal isolates were recovered, of which molds accounted 63 (82.9 %) of the total isolates. Fusarium and Aspergillus species were the two predominant molds accounting 27.6 and 25 % of the total isolates respectively. Yeast isolates accounted only 17.1 %. High

  14. Increasing trends of diabetes mellitus and body weight: a ten year observation at gondar university teaching referral hospital, northwest ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abebe, Solomon Mekonnen; Berhane, Yemane; Worku, Alemayehu; Alemu, Shitay

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is becoming one of the major causes of premature adult mortality in developing countries. However, there is a very little documentation of the morbidity trend in such countries. To assess the ten-year trend of diabetes mellitus at Gondar University Teaching Referral Hospital, northwest Ethiopia. A hospital-based retrospective record review was done at the main referral hospital in northwest Ethiopia. Data were obtained from medical records of all registered diabetic patients in the Diabetic Follow up Clinic between 2000 and 2009. An Extended Mantel-Haenzel chi-square test for the linear trend was used to examine the trend over time. Out of the total 354,524 patients who visited the Outpatient Department of the hospital during the study period, 1553 (4.4/1000) were diabetes patients, of which 50.1% was type 1 and 49.9% type 2 diabetes mellitus. The average increase in the proportion of both Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes mellitus cases between 2000 and 2009 was 125%. The mean (±SD) age for Type 1 diabetes mellitus was 29.1 (±12), and 53.5 (±12) for Type 2 diabetes. Overall 42.5% of the diabetes mellitus patients were female and 31.7% were rural residents. The mean body mass index for both type of diabetes mellitus increased from 15.9 to 18.3 kg for type 1 and from 23.8 to 24.6 for type 2 between 2000 and 2009, respectively. The number of diabetes mellitus cases seen at Gondar Referral Hospital is rising steadily. A comprehensive diabetes prevention, treatment, and care program is needed to improve the quality of life of the increasing diabetes mellitus cases in Ethiopia.

  15. Prevalence of intestinal parasites among food handlers at cafeteria of Jimma University Specialized Hospital, Southwest Ethiopia

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    Hundaol Girma

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the prevalence of intestinal parasites and associated risk factors among food-handlers working at cafeteria of Jimma University Specialized Hospital, Jimma, Ethiopia. Methods: Socio-demographic and associated risk factors data were collected using a pretested structured questionnaire. Stool and finger-nail specimens were screened for intestinal parasites using direct wet mount and formol-ether concentration sedimentation techniques. Data were edited, cleaned, entered and analyzed using statistical package for social science (SPSS version 20. P ≤ 0.05 was taken as statistically significant. Results: A total of 94 food-handlers working at cafeteria of Jimma University Specialized Hospital were participated in the study. From the total 148 samples (94 stool and 54 fingernails content examined, 31 (33% were positive for one or more parasites. Over all eight types of intestinal parasites were identified. The most prevalent parasite identified was Ascaris lumbricoides (16% followed by Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (4.3%. There was significant association between parasitic infection and food handlers who did not practice hand washing after defecation and before serving food. Conclusions: Relatively high prevalence of intestinal parasites is detected indicating poor hygiene practice of the food-handlers at the study site. The study also identified finger-nail status, hand washing after defecation and before serving food as determinants of intestinal parasitic infection. It is crucial for provision of regular training on strict adherence to good personal hygiene and hygienic food-handling practices as well as regular inspection and medical checkup of food-handlers.

  16. Poisoning cases and their management in emergency centres of government hospitals in northwest Ethiopia

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    Getnet Mequanint Adinew

    2017-06-01

    Discussion: Young females comprise a group at increased risk for suicidal poisonings. As a developing nation, pesticide and bleaching agents remain a significant cause of acute poisonings in Ethiopia. Intentional poisoning remains the most significant identified cause of poisoning overall.

  17. Implementation of the WHO multimodal Hand Hygiene Improvement Strategy in a University Hospital in Central Ethiopia

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    Frieder Pfäfflin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The burden of health-care associated infections in low-income countries is high. Adequate hand hygiene is considered the most effective measure to reduce the transmission of nosocomial pathogens. We aimed to assess compliance with hand hygiene and perception and knowledge about hand hygiene before and after the implementation of a multimodal hand hygiene campaign designed by the World Health Organization. Methods The study was carried out at Asella Teaching Hospital, a university hospital and referral centre for a population of about 3.5 million in Arsi Zone, Central Ethiopia. Compliance with hand hygiene during routine patient care was measured by direct observation before and starting from six weeks after the intervention, which consisted of a four day workshop accompanied by training sessions and the provision of locally produced alcohol-based handrub and posters emphasizing the importance of hand hygiene. A second follow up was conducted three months after handing over project responsibility to the Ethiopian partners. Health-care workers’ perception and knowledge about hand hygiene were assessed before and after the intervention. Results At baseline, first, and second follow up we observed a total of 2888, 2865, and 2244 hand hygiene opportunities, respectively. Compliance with hand hygiene was 1.4% at baseline and increased to 11.7% and 13.1% in the first and second follow up, respectively (p < 0.001. The increase in compliance with hand hygiene was consistent across professional categories and all participating wards and was independently associated with the intervention (adjusted odds ratio, 9.18; 95% confidence interval 6.61-12.76; p < 0.001. After the training, locally produced alcohol-based handrub was used in 98.4% of all hand hygiene actions. The median hand hygiene knowledge score overall was 13 (interquartile range 11–15 at baseline and increased to 17 (15–18 after training (p < 0.001. Health

  18. Effectiveness of interventions to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV in Southern Ethiopia

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    Merdekios B

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Behailu Merdekios1, Adebola A Adedimeji2 1College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Arba Minch University, Ethiopia; 2Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Jack and Pearl Resnick Campus, New York, USA Background: In Ethiopia, Progress in Reducing Mother-to-Child-Transmission (PMTCT of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV is being curtailed by behavioral and cultural factors that continue to put unborn children at risk, and mother-to-child transmission is responsible for more than 90% of HIV infection in children. The objective of this study was to assess PMTCT services by examining knowledge about reducing vertical transmission among pregnant women. Methods: A multistaged sampling institution-based survey was conducted in 113 pregnant women in Arba Minch. Qualitative and quantitative data were obtained. Results: Of the 113 respondents, 89.4% were from Arba Minch, 43.4% were at least 25 years of age, 73.4% had formal education at primary level or above, 100% reported acceptance of voluntary counseling and testing, 92.0% were knowledgeable about mother-to-child transmission, and 90.3% were aware of the availability of the PMTCT service in the health facility. Of 74 HIV-positive women in PMTCT, only three (4.1% had had skilled birth attendants at delivery. There was an unacceptable degree of loss of women from PMTCT. Maternal educational level had a statistical association with income (P < 0.001 and voluntary counseling and testing for pregnant women (P < 0.05. Factors that determined use of PMTCT included culture, socioeconomic status, and fear of stigma and discrimination. Conclusion: In the area studied, intervention to reduce mother-to-child transmission of HIV is failing to reach its goal. This is an alarming discovery requiring quick reconsideration and strengthening of preventive strategies at all levels. Keywords: human immunodeficiency virus, mother-to-child transmission, pregnant women, Ethiopia

  19. Comparative Phytochemical Analyses of Resins of Boswellia Species (B. papyrifera (Del.) Hochst., B. neglecta S. Moore, and B. rivae Engl.) from Northwestern, Southern, and Southeastern Ethiopia

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    Deribachew Bekana; Tesfahun Kebede; Mulugeta Assefa; Habtemariam Kassa

    2014-01-01

    Oleogum resins of B. papyrifera, B. neglecta, and B. rivae were collected from northwestern, southern, and southeastern Ethiopia, and their respective methanol extracts and essential oils were extracted and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The investigation on essential oils led to the identification of 6, 7, and 8 constituents for B. papyrifera, B. neglecta, and B. rivae, respectively. The essential oil of B. papyrifera is mainly character...

  20. Procedure of brewing alcohol as a staple food: case study of the fermented cereal liquor ?Parshot? as a staple food in Dirashe special woreda, southern Ethiopia

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    Sunano, Yui

    2015-01-01

    Abstract For most brews, alcohol fermentation and lactic fermentation take place simultaneously during the brewing process, and alcohol fermentation can progress smoothly because the propagation of various microorganisms is prevented by lactic fermentation. It is not necessary to cause lactic fermentation with a thing generated naturally and intentionally. The people living in the Dirashe area in southern Ethiopia drink three types of alcoholic beverages that are prepared from cereals. From t...

  1. The influence of land use and cover changes on the pastoral rangeland systems of southern Ethiopia : how much woody cover is enough?

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    Mohammed, Hasen Yusuf

    2014-01-01

    The Borana rangelands in southern Ethiopia are facing deterioration caused by intensification of grazing and woody plant encroachment, resulting in marked reductions in pastoral production. This process affects the food security and livelihoods of the Borana pastoral people negatively. Woody plant encroachment might result in an increase in carbon (C) storage in these rangelands, which represents an important aspect for climate change mitigation potentials. However, it is unclear how much C i...

  2. Assessment of exposure to sexually explicit materials and factors associated with exposure among preparatory school youths in Hawassa City, Southern Ethiopia: a cross-sectional institution based survey

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    Habesha, Tony; Aderaw, Zewdie; Lakew, Serawit

    2015-01-01

    Background According to the 2007 Ethiopian census, youths aged 15–24 years were more than 15.2 million which contributes to 20.6 % of the whole population. These very large and productive groups of the population are exposed to various sexual and reproductive health risks. The aim of this study was to assess exposure to Sexually Explicit Materials (SEM) and factors associated with exposure among preparatory school students in Hawassa city, Southern Ethiopia. Methodology A cross-sectional inst...

  3. Epidemiology of intestinal helminthiasis among school children with emphasis on Schistosoma mansoni infection in Wolaita zone, Southern Ethiopia

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    Bereket Alemayehu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intestinal helminth infections are major parasitic diseases causing public health problems in Ethiopia. Although the epidemiology of these infections are well documented in Ethiopia, new transmission foci for schistosomiasis are being reported in different parts of the country. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni and other intestinal helminth infections among school children and determine the endemicity of schistosomiasis in Wolaita Zone, southern Ethiopia. Methods Cross-sectional parasitological and malacological surveys were conducted by collecting stool samples for microscopic examination and snails for intermediate host identification. Stool samples were collected from 503 children and processed for microscopic examination using Kato-Katz and formalin-ether concentration methods. Snails collected from aquatic environments in the study area were identified to species level and Biomphalaria pfeifferi snails, the intermediate host of S. mansoni,, were individually exposed to artificial light in order to induce cercariae shedding. Cercariae shed from snails were used to infect laboratory-bred Swiss albino mice in order to identify the schistosome to species level. Results The overall prevalence of intestinal helminth infections was 72.2% among school children. S. mansoni infection prevalence was 58.6%. The prevalence and intensity of S. mansoni infections varied among schools and sex of children. Swimming was the only factor reported to be significantly associated with S. mansoni infection (AOR = 2.954, 95% CI:1.962-4.449. Other intestinal helminth species identified were hookworms (27.6%, Ascaris lumbricoides (8.7%, E. vermicularis (2.8%, Taenia species (2.6%, T. trichiura (1.2% and H. nana (0.6%. Only B. pfeifferi snails collected from streams shed schistosome cercariae and 792 adult S. mansoni worms were harvested from mice exposed to cercariae shed from B. pfeifferi on the 6th

  4. Epidemiology of intestinal helminthiasis among school children with emphasis on Schistosoma mansoni infection in Wolaita zone, Southern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemayehu, Bereket; Tomass, Zewdneh; Wadilo, Fiseha; Leja, Dawit; Liang, Song; Erko, Berhanu

    2017-06-20

    Intestinal helminth infections are major parasitic diseases causing public health problems in Ethiopia. Although the epidemiology of these infections are well documented in Ethiopia, new transmission foci for schistosomiasis are being reported in different parts of the country. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni and other intestinal helminth infections among school children and determine the endemicity of schistosomiasis in Wolaita Zone, southern Ethiopia. Cross-sectional parasitological and malacological surveys were conducted by collecting stool samples for microscopic examination and snails for intermediate host identification. Stool samples were collected from 503 children and processed for microscopic examination using Kato-Katz and formalin-ether concentration methods. Snails collected from aquatic environments in the study area were identified to species level and Biomphalaria pfeifferi snails, the intermediate host of S. mansoni,, were individually exposed to artificial light in order to induce cercariae shedding. Cercariae shed from snails were used to infect laboratory-bred Swiss albino mice in order to identify the schistosome to species level. The overall prevalence of intestinal helminth infections was 72.2% among school children. S. mansoni infection prevalence was 58.6%. The prevalence and intensity of S. mansoni infections varied among schools and sex of children. Swimming was the only factor reported to be significantly associated with S. mansoni infection (AOR = 2.954, 95% CI:1.962-4.449). Other intestinal helminth species identified were hookworms (27.6%), Ascaris lumbricoides (8.7%), E. vermicularis (2.8%), Taenia species (2.6%), T. trichiura (1.2%) and H. nana (0.6%). Only B. pfeifferi snails collected from streams shed schistosome cercariae and 792 adult S. mansoni worms were harvested from mice exposed to cercariae shed from B. pfeifferi on the 6th week post-exposure. The present study found high

  5. Variation in Complexity of Infection and Transmission Stability between Neighbouring Populations of Plasmodium vivax in Southern Ethiopia.

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    Sisay Getachew

    Full Text Available P. vivax is an important public health burden in Ethiopia, accounting for almost half of all malaria cases. Owing to heterogeneous transmission across the country, a stronger evidence base on local transmission dynamics is needed to optimise allocation of resources and improve malaria interventions.In a pilot evaluation of local level P. vivax molecular surveillance in southern Ethiopia, the diversity and population structure of isolates collected between May and November 2013 were investigated. Blood samples were collected from microscopy positive P. vivax patients recruited to clinical and cross-sectional surveys from four sites: Arbaminch, Halaba, Badawacho and Hawassa. Parasite genotyping was undertaken at nine tandem repeat markers. Eight loci were successfully genotyped in 197 samples (between 36 and 59 per site. Heterogeneity was observed in parasite diversity and structure amongst the sites. Badawacho displayed evidence of unstable transmission, with clusters of identical clonal infections. Linkage disequilibrium in Badawacho was higher (IAS = 0.32, P = 0.010 than in the other populations (IAS range = 0.01-0.02 and declined markedly after adjusting for identical infections (IAS = 0.06, P = 0.010. Other than Badawacho (HE = 0.70, population diversity was equivalently high across the sites (HE = 0.83. Polyclonal infections were more frequent in Hawassa (67% than the other populations (range: 8-44%. Despite the variable diversity, differentiation between the sites was low (FST range: 5 x 10-3-0.03.Marked variation in parasite population structure likely reflects differing local transmission dynamics. Parasite genotyping in these heterogeneous settings has potential to provide important complementary information with which to optimise malaria control interventions.

  6. Prevalence of khat chewing and its effect on academic performance in Sidama zone, Southern Ethiopia.

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    Kassa, Andargachew; Loha, Eskindir; Esaiyas, Atkilt

    2017-03-01

    Khat use is a well-established public health problem in Yemen, Arabian Peninsula, and Ethiopia. Along with its large scale production, the magnitude of khat use is increasing among students. This study was intended to assess the prevalence, determinants, and effect of khat use on academic performance of high school students in Sidama Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted from April to June 2015. We used a stratified sampling technique to draw a total of 1,577 students. The data was collected using self-administered questionnaires and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression models were used to determine the prevalence, effects, and predictors of khat use. The life time and current prevalence of khat use were 14.6% and 13%, respectively. Smoking cigarette (AOR=5.1, 95% C.I: 2.3-14.3), drinking alcohol (AOR=3.0, 95% C.I: 1.4-6.3), having a family growing khat (AOR=2.0, 95% C.I: 1.1-2.5), having friend chewing khat (AOR=3. 95% C.I: 2.0-4.6), were some of factors that increased the odds of students' khat use. Student's khat use increased the odds of student's poor academic performance (AOR=2.1, 95% C.I: 1.1-3.9). The prevalence of khat use in high khat producing districts of Sidama and its contribution to poor academic performance demand prompt intervention.

  7. Evolution of the broadly rifted zone in southern Ethiopia through gravitational collapse and extension of dynamic topography

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    Emishaw, Luelseged; Laó-Dávila, Daniel A.; Abdelsalam, Mohamed G.; Atekwana, Estella A.; Gao, Stephen S.

    2017-03-01

    The Broadly Rifted Zone (BRZ) is a 315 km wide zone of extension in southern Ethiopia. It is located between the Southern Main Ethiopian Rift and the Eastern Branch of the East African Rift System (EARS) represented by the Kenya-Turkana Rift. The BRZ is characterized by NE-trending ridges and valleys superimposed on regionally uplifted ( 2 km average elevation) terrain. Previous studies proposed that the BRZ is an overlap zone resulted from northward propagation of the Kenya-Turkana Rift and southward propagation of the Southern Main Ethiopian Rift. To understand the relationship between the BRZ's extensional style and its crustal and upper mantle structures, this work first estimated the Moho depth using the two-dimensional (2D) radially-averaged power spectral analysis of the World Gravity Map. Verification of these results was accomplished through lithospheric-scale 2D forward gravity models along E-W profiles. This work found that the Moho topography beneath the BRZ depicts a dome-like shape with a minimum depth of 27 km in the center of the dome. This work proposes that the Moho doming, crustal arching underlying the BRZ and associated topographic uplift are the result of asthenospheric mantle upwelling beneath the BRZ. This upwelling changed to a NE-directed lateral mantle flow at shallower depth. This is supported by seismic tomography imaging which shows slow S-wave velocity anomaly at lithospheric depth of 75 km to 150 km stretching in a NE-SW direction from beneath the BRZ to the Afar Depression. This work proposes that the asthenospheric upwelling created gravitationally unstable dynamic topography that triggered extensional gravitational collapse leading to the formation of the BRZ as a wide rift within the narrow rift segments of the EARS.

  8. Clients’ perception and satisfaction toward service provided by pharmacy professionals at a teaching hospital in Ethiopia

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    Teshome Kefale A

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Adane Teshome Kefale, Gebru Hagos Atsebah, Teshale Ayele Mega Department of Pharmacy, College of Health Sciences, Mizan-Tepi University, Mizan-Aman, Ethiopia Background: Evaluation of client’s perception and satisfaction with pharmacy services is important to identify specific areas of the service that need improvement in achieving high-quality pharmacy services. It also helps to detect the gaps in the current pharmaceutical services provision.Objective: To assess clients’ perception and satisfaction toward service provided by pharmacy professionals at Mizan-Tepi University Teaching Hospital.Methods: A cross-sectional study design was employed from March 8 to 24, 2016. A semistructured questionnaire was used to assess clients’ perception and satisfaction toward service provided by pharmacy professionals. The data collected were entered into Epi data 3.1, cleaned, and transported into and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Logistic regression was employed to determine associated factors, and statistical significance was considered at p-value <0.05.Results: Among 384 respondents, 53.1% were male. Of the total participants, 63.8% had good perception and 36.2% had poor perception toward pharmacy services. With regard to satisfaction, 52.6% of the respondents were satisfied and 47.4% were unsatisfied by the pharmaceutical services. Sociodemographic variables such as educational level (p=0.000, occupation (p=0.031, payment for service (p=0.002, and reasons the respondents seek service (p=0.001 showed statistically significant association with the level of perception. Clients’ satisfaction was found to be significantly associated with educational level (p=0.002 and reason for seeking service (p=0.016.Conclusion and recommendation: This study showed that the overall mean perception and satisfaction of clients in Mizan-Tepi University Teaching Hospital was low, even though it was above the mean level of perception and satisfaction. Action has to

  9. Innovative community-based approaches doubled tuberculosis case notification and improve treatment outcome in Southern Ethiopia.

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    Mohammed A Yassin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: TB Control Programmes rely on passive case-finding to detect cases. TB notification remains low in Ethiopia despite major expansion of health services. Poor rural communities face many barriers to service access. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A community-based intervention package was implemented in Sidama zone, Ethiopia. The package included advocacy, training, engaging stakeholders and communities and active case-finding by female Health Extension Workers (HEWs at village level. HEWs conducted house-to-house visits, identified individuals with a cough for two or more weeks, with or without other symptoms, collected sputum, prepared smears and supervised treatment. Supervisors transported smears for microscopy, started treatment, screened contacts and initiated Isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT for children. Outcomes were compared with the pre-implementation period and a control zone. Qualitative research was conducted to understand community and provider perceptions and experiences. HEWs screened 49,857 symptomatic individuals (60% women from October 2010 to December 2011. 2,262 (4·5% had smear-positive TB (53% women. Case notification increased from 64 to 127/100,000 population/year resulting in 5,090 PTB+ and 7,071 cases of all forms of TB. Of 8,005 contacts visited, 1,949 were symptomatic, 1,290 symptomatic were tested and 69 diagnosed with TB. 1,080 children received IPT. Treatment success for smear-positive TB increased from 77% to 93% and treatment default decreased from 11% to 3%. Service users and providers found the intervention package highly acceptable. CONCLUSIONS: Community-based interventions made TB diagnostic and treatment services more accessible to the poor, women, elderly and children, doubling the notification rate and improving treatment outcome. This approach could improve TB diagnosis and treatment in other high burden settings.

  10. Determinants of diabetic nephropathy in Ayder Referral Hospital, Northern Ethiopia: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintsa, Solomon; Dube, Lamessa; Abay, Mebrahtu; Angesom, Teklit; Workicho, Abdulhalik

    2017-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is the most serious complication of diabetes which leads to end-stage renal failure and other complication of diabetes mellitus. Determinants of Diabetic nephropathy are not consistent in different studies and associated factors to chronic complications of diabetes are not specific and there are limited studies specific to diabetic nephropathy. Thus, the aim of this study is to identify determinants of diabetic nephropathy in Ayder Referral Hospital, Northern Ethiopia. A case-control study was conducted from February 14 to May 8 2016. Diabetic patients who developed nephropathy in the last two years were the cases and diabetic patients free of nephropathy were controls. Cases and controls were identified detailed review of the chronic care follow up chart. Then simple random sampling was used to select sample of 420 (with control to case ratio of 4:1) resulting in 84 cases and 336 controls. Record review and interviewer administered questionnaire were used to collect data. Data was coded and entered in to Epi-Data version 3.1 and then exported to STATA 12 for analysis. Variables with P-valuesdiabetic nephropathy. OR was calculated with 95% CI to show strength of association. The mean age (±Standard deviation) for the cases and the controls were 52(SD: ±1.34) and 42.4(SD: ±0.8) respectively. In multiple logistic regressions age of patient (AOR: 1.037 95%CI: 1.01-1.064), duration of diabetes after diagnosis (AOR for one year increase: 1.09 95%CI: 1.036-1.15), not-adhered to blood glucose measurement at home (AOR: 6.81 95%CI: 1.15-40.24), having Systolic Hypertension (AOR;2.13 (1.002-4.51), poor glycemic control (AOR;2.71 95%CI: (1.49-4.95), being overweight(AOR;2.7(1.47-4.96) were the independent predictors of diabetic nephropathy. In the light of these findings, targeted interventions should be designed at the follow up clinic to address the risk of developing diabetic nephropathy among the risk groups.

  11. Intestinal parasitosis and shigellosis among diarrheal patients in Gondar teaching hospital, northwest Ethiopia

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    Huruy Kahsay

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diarrheal diseases are the major causes of morbidity and mortality in developing world. Understanding the etiologic agents of diarrheal diseases and their association with socio-demographic characteristics of patients would help to design better preventive measures. Thus, this study was aimed to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites and enteropathogenic bacteria in diarrheic patients. Methods A cross-sectional study involving 384 consecutive diarrheal patients who visited Gondar teaching hospital, Gondar, Ethiopia from October 2006 to March 2007 was conducted. Stool specimens were collected and examined for intestinal parasites and enteropathogenic bacteria following standard parasitological and microbiological procedures. Results Intestinal parasites were diagnosed in 36.5% of the patients. The most frequently encountered protozoan parasite was Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (7.3% followed by Giardia lamblia (5.0%, Cryptosporidium parvum (1.8% and Isospora belli (1.3%. The dominant helminthic parasite identified was Ascaris lumbricoides (5.5% followed by Strongyloides stercoralis and Schistosoma mansoni (3.1% each, hookworm infection (1.8%, and Hymenolepis species (1.3%. Multiple infections of intestinal parasites were also observed in 6.3% of the patients. Among the enteropathogenic bacteria Shigella and Salmonella species were isolated from 15.6% and 1.6%, respectively, of the patients. Escherichia coli O57:H7 was not found in any of the stool samples tested. Eighty eight percent and 83.3% of the Shigella and Salmonella isolates were resistant to one or more commonly used antibiotics, respectively. Intestinal parasitosis was higher in patients who live in rural area, in patients who were washing their hands after visiting toilet either irregularly with soap and without soap or not at all, in patients who used well and spring water for household consumption, and in patients who had nausea (P P Conclusions The high

  12. Seroprevalence and Predictors of Hepatitis B Virus Infection among Pregnant Women Attending Routine Antenatal Care in Arba Minch Hospital, South Ethiopia

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    Tsegaye Yohanes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B virus (HBV is a serious cause of liver disease affecting millions of people throughout the world. When HBV is acquired during pregnancy, prenatal transmission can occur to the fetus. Therefore, this study is aimed at estimating seroprevalence and associated factors of HBV infection among pregnant women attending Antenatal Clinic (ANC of Arba Minch Hospital, Southern Ethiopia. A facility based cross-sectional study was conducted on 232 pregnant women visiting ANC from February to April, 2015. Data regarding sociodemographic and associated factors were gathered using questionnaire. Serum samples were tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg by Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 20. The overall seroprevalence of HBV infection was 4.3% (95% CI: 2.2–6.9%. Multivariate analysis showed that history of abortion (AOR = 7.775; 95% CI: 1.538–39.301 and having multiple sexual partners (AOR = 7.189; 95% CI: 1.039–49.755 were independent predictors of HBsAg seropositivity. In conclusion, the prevalence of HBV infection is intermediate. Therefore, screening HBV infection should be routine part of ANC; health information on having single sexual partner for women of childbearing age and on following aseptic techniques during abortion should be provided to health facilities working on abortion.

  13. Louse-Borne Relapsing Fever Profile at Jimma Hospital, Ethiopia: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Louse-borne relapsing fever has been restricted to countries with poor socio economic status, the most important foci being Burundi, Rwanda and Ethiopia. Borrelia recurrentis is the etiologic agent for louse-borne relapsing fever and occurs as epidemic under conditions of overcrowding, poverty, draught and ...

  14. Seroprevalence of human immunodeficiency virus among voluntary counseling and testing clients at the University of Gondar Teaching Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia

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    Sinku Y

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Yohannes Sinku,1,2 Takele Gezahegn,1 Yalewayiker Gashaw,1 Meseret Workineh,1 Tekalign Deressa1 1School of Biomedical and Laboratory Sciences, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, 2Diagnostic Laboratory Case Team, University of Gondar Teaching Hospital, Gondar, Ethiopia Background: The epidemiology of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection in Ethiopia varies with regions, study population, and time. Thus, timely information on HIV epidemiology is critical for the combat of the epidemic. In this study, we aim to update HIV prevalence and risk factors among voluntary counseling and testing (VCT clients at the University of Gondar Teaching Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia.Methods: A total of 2,120 VCT clients’ records from September 2007 to August 2010 were analyzed retrospectively. Bivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify significant predictors. Odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated. Statistical significance was set at P-value <0.05.Results: Of 2,120 VCT clients, 363 (17.1% were seropositive for HIV. A higher rate of HIV positivity was observed among female clients (20.4% than that in male clients (14.0% (OR 1.58, 95% CI 1.26–1.98, P=0.00. Widowed (95% CI 10.42–34.92, P=0.00, married (95% CI 3.42–5.94, P=0.00, divorced (95% CI 2.79–5.32, P=0.00, and illiterate (95% CI 2.33–5.47, P=0.00 clients were associated with HIV infection with the odds ratios of 19.07, 4.51, 3.85, and 3.57, respectively. Clients within the age category of 35–49 years (OR 5.03, 95% CI 3.56–7.12, P=0.00 and above the age of 50 years (OR 4.99, 95% CI 2.67–9.34, P=0.00 were more likely to be infected with HIV.Conclusion: HIV is still the major concern of public health in the Gondar area as evidenced by our data. Being female, widowed, married, illiterate, and older age were the identified risk factors for HIV infection. Thus, consideration of these factors in future intervention and

  15. The role of rk39 serologic test in the diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis in a Tertiary Hospital, Northern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiros, Yazezew Kebede; Regassa, Bethlhem Feleke

    2017-04-26

    The study is done in Ayder Referral Hospital in Northern Ethiopia. Ethiopia is one of the countries where visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is endemic. Diagnosis of VL in Ethiopia is primarily based on rK39 immunochromatographic (rk39-ICT) strip. This test has been shown to have variable sensitivity and specificity in different countries. Hence the objective of the study is to determine the sensitivity and specificity of rk39-ICT in the diagnosis of VL in our set up. The study participants were VL suspected patients admitted to the hospital. A cross sectional study design was used. The study was conducted from January 14, 2013 to June 26, 2015. The rK39-ICT strip used was the InBios brand. Ethical clearance was obtained from the IRB of the college and written consent was obtained from the individual patients. A total of 62 VL suspects were involved in the study. The mean age was 26.3 years (SD = 6.94 years) with a median age of 25.5 years. Sixty-one (98.4%) of the patients was males. The rK39-ICT was positive in 50 (80.6%) of the patients. Splenic aspiration was positive in 44 (71%) of the patients. In 37 (59.7%) of the patients both rK39 and splenic aspiration were positive. Thirteen (21%) of the patients had positive rK39 but negative splenic aspiration. Five (8.1%) of the patients had both negative rK39 and splenic aspiration however seven (11.3%) of the patients had rk39 negative but splenic aspiration positive. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and the negative predictive value of rK39-ICT, taking splenic aspiration as a gold standard test, is 84.1% (95% CI 69.9-93.4%), 27.8% (95% CI 9.7-53.5%), 74.0% (95% CI 60-85.4%) and 41.7% (95% CI 15.2-72.3%) respectively. Sensitivity of rK39-ICT is low and its specificity is poor in our set up. Significant number of patients with confirmed VL did not have travel history to endemic areas. We recommend that the rK39-ICT needs improvement for clinical use in our set up and case definition for visceral

  16. Symbiotic Efficiency of Native and Exotic Rhizobium Strains Nodulating Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik. in Soils of Southern Ethiopia

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    Wondwosen Tena

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Lentil plays a major role in the food and nutritional security of low income Ethiopian families because of the high protein content of their seed; however, their productivity typically is low largely due to soil fertility limitations. Field and pot experiments were conducted during the 2011 cropping season to determine the effectiveness of Rhizobium strains on two cultivars of lentil in Southern Ethiopia. Six rhizobial inoculant treatments (four indigenous and two commercial inoculants, a nitrogen (N fertilizer treatment (50 kg·urea·ha−1 and an absolute control (non-inoculated non-fertilized were used. Inoculated plants produced significantly higher nodule number, nodule dry weight, grain yield and yield components than non-inoculated non-fertilized plants. Inoculation of field grown lentil with rhizobia strain Lt29 and Lt5 enhanced seed yield by 59% and 44%, respectively. Whereas urea fertilization enhanced yields by 40%. Similarly, grain yields were increased during the pot experiment by 92% and 67% over the control treatments by inoculation with Lt29 and Lt5, respectively. The highest levels of N fixation were achieved in plants inoculated with Lt29 (65.7% Ndfa. Both field and pot investigations indicate that inoculation of lentil with native rhizobial strains replace the need for inorganic N fertilization to optimize lentil yields.

  17. Soil Fertility in Relation to Slope Position and Agricultural Land Use: A Case Study of Umbulo Catchment in Southern Ethiopia

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    Moges, Awdenegest; Holden, Nicholas M.

    2008-11-01

    A study was conducted in southern Ethiopia to evaluate the nutrient status on smallholder farms with respect to land use class (garden, grassland, and outfield) and slope position (upper, middle, and lower). Soil physical and chemical properties were quantified using soil samples collected at two depths (0 15 and 15 30 cm). Available phosphorous was significantly different among the three land use classes. However, organic carbon and total nitrogen were lower in the outfield compared to the garden and grass land but not significantly different. The lower than expected nutrient status of the garden and grassland, which receive almost all available organic supplements, was attributed to the overall low availability of these inputs. Similarly, pH and cation exchange capacity were not significantly different among the different land use classes. However, the sum of the exchangeable cations was significantly higher in the garden compared to the outfields. Comparison at landscape level revealed that the sand fraction was significantly greater, whereas the silt fractions were significantly smaller, on the lower slopes relative to the middle slopes. Moreover, the organic carbon, total nitrogen, cation exchange capacity, Ca, and Mg values were significantly less on lower slopes than upper and middle slopes. Perhaps this is because of leaching and the effect of deposition of coarser sediments from the prevailing gully system. Overall, the fertility of the soil was adequate for supporting smallholder farming, but consideration must be given to reducing pressure on the land resources, addressing erosion problems, and providing a line of credit for purchasing inputs.

  18. Malaria and helminth co-infections in outpatients of Alaba Kulito Health Center, southern Ethiopia: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degarege, Abraham; Animut, Abebe; Legesse, Mengistu; Erko, Berhanu

    2010-05-25

    Distribution of malaria and intestinal helminths is known to overlap in developing tropical countries of the world. Co-infections with helminth and malaria parasites cause a significant and additive problem against the host. The aim of this study was to asses the prevalence of malaria/helminth co-infection and the associated problems among febrile outpatients that attended Alaba Kulito Health Center, southern Ethiopia November and December 2007. A total of 1802 acute febrile patients were diagnosed for malaria. 458 Giemsa-stained thick and thin blood films were used for identification of Plasmodium species and Stool samples prepared using Kato-Katz technique were used to examine for intestinal helminths. Haemoglobin concentration was measured using a portable spectrophotometer (Hemocue HB 201). Anthropometry-based nutritional assessment of the study participants was done by measuring body weight to the nearest 0.1 kg and height to the nearest 0.1 cm. 458 of the total febrile patients were positive for malaria. Co infection with Plasmodium and helminth parasites is associated with significantly (p malaria infections and malaria/helminth co infections are undernourished. However the statistics for the difference is not significant. Malaria and soil-transmitted helminthiasis obviously contribute to anaemia and low weight status and these conditions are more pronounced in individuals concurrently infected with malaria and soil-transmitted helminths. Hence, simultaneous combat against the two parasitic infections is very crucial to improve health of the affected communities.

  19. LEAF AREA DYNAMICS AND ABOVEGROUND BIOMASS OF SPECIFIC VEGETATION TYPES OF A SEMI-ARID GRASSLAND IN SOUTHERN ETHIOPIA

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    Bosco Kidake Kisambo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Leaf Area Index (LAI dynamics and aboveground biomass of a semi-arid grassland region in Southern Ethiopia were determined over a long rain season. The vegetation was categorized into four distinct vegetation types namely Grassland (G, Tree-Grassland (TG, Bushed-Grassland (BG and Bush-Tree grassland (BT. LAI was measured using a Plant Canopy Analyzer (LAI2000. Biomass dynamics of litter and herbaceous components were determined through clipping while the above ground biomass of trees and shrubs were estimated using species-specific allometric equations from literature. LAI showed a seasonal increase over the season with the maximum recorded in the BG vegetation (2.52. Total aboveground biomass for the different vegetation types ranged from 0.61 ton C/ha in areas where trees were non-existent to 8.80 ± 3.81ton C/ha in the Tree-Grassland vegetation in the study site. A correlation of LAI and AGB yielded a positive relationship with an R2 value of 0.55. The results demonstrate the importance of tropical semi-arid grasslands as carbon sinks hence their potential in mitigation of climate change.

  20. Measuring Job Satisfaction Patterns in Saudi ArabiaÕs Southern Regions Hospitals: Implications for Hospital Staff Retention

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    Alshahrani Bander Sayaf

    2015-01-01

    Saudi Arabia Southern Region hospitals have shortage of health professionals especially doctors. Retention of quality doctors and minimizing staff turnover has, therefore, become a major priority for hospitals. Job satisfaction is recognized as key factor influencing retention of doctors. In our paper special emphasis is put on doctors working is Southern Region hospitals of Saudi Arabia. By conducting correlation analysis we determine the most important factors conducive to job satisfaction....

  1. How Dry was too Dry? Evaluating the Impact of Climatic Stress on Prehistoric Human Populations in southern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foerster, V. E.; Asrat, A.; Cohen, A. S.; Junginger, A.; Lamb, H. F.; Schaebitz, F.; Trauth, M. H.; Vogelsang, R.

    2016-12-01

    What role did abrupt climate shifts play in human evolution and the dispersal of Homo sapiens within and beyond the African continent? How did gradual climatic transitions on the other hand affect cultural and technological innovations in the source region of modern humans? In order to evaluate the effect of environmental instability on human evolution, with their cultural and technological innovations, and with their expansion out of Africa, it is essential to understand how the east African climate switches from dry to wet and back to dry. Determining the timespan of both long-term transitions and climate flickers eventually provides the much needed environmental information how much time early humans had to react (evolution, migration, adaption) to the profound changes in their living environment. As a contribution to providing an environmental context to these central questions on human-climate interaction, the Hominin Sites and Paleolakes Drilling Project (HSPDP) has successfully completed coring five fluvio-lacustrine archives of climate change during the last 3.5 Ma in East Africa. The five high-priority areas in Ethiopia and Kenya are located in close proximity to key paleoanthropological sites covering various steps in evolution. Here we present a comparison between the youngest part of our continuous climate reconstruction (temporal resolution of up to 3 years) from the Chew Bahir site in southern Ethiopia and the available archaeological record of human presence in the source region of modern humans for the past 20 ka. The results contribute to test hypotheses on the impact of climatic stress on migration, the role of human decision-making and environmental thresholds (Foerster et al., 2015, 2016). Furthermore, we match key technological innovations in the area with the profound environmental changes during the highly debated mid-Holocene wet-dry transition. Finally, we give a first overview over possible phases of climatic stress during the last >500 ka

  2. Effectiveness of a simple lymphoedema treatment regimen in podoconiosis management in southern ethiopia: one year follow-up.

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    Catherine Sikorski

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Podoconiosis is a non-filarial elephantiasis caused by long-term barefoot exposure to volcanic soils in endemic areas. Irritant silicate particles penetrate the skin, causing a progressive, debilitating lymphoedema of the lower leg, often starting in the second decade of life. A simple patient-led treatment approach appropriate for resource poor settings has been developed, comprising (1 education on aetiology and prevention of podoconiosis, (2 foot hygiene (daily washing with soap, water and an antiseptic, (3 the regular use of emollient, (4 elevation of the limb at night, and (5 emphasis on the consistent use of shoes and socks.We did a 12-month, non-comparative, longitudinal evaluation of 33 patients newly presenting to one clinic site of a non-government organization (the Mossy Foot Treatment & Prevention Association, MFTPA in southern Ethiopia. Outcome measures used for the monitoring of disease progress were (1 the clinical staging system for podoconiosis, and (2 the Amharic Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI, both of which have been recently validated for use in this setting. Digital photographs were also taken at each visit. Twenty-seven patients completed follow up. Characteristics of patients completing follow-up were not significantly different to those not. Mean clinical stage and lower leg circumference decreased significantly (mean difference -0.67 (95% CI -0.38 to -0.96 and -2.00 (95% CI -1.26 to -2.74, respectively, p<0.001 for both changes. Mean DLQI diminished from 21 (out of a maximum of 30 to 6 (p<0.001. There was a non-significant change in proportion of patients with mossy lesions (p = 0.375.This simple, resource-appropriate regimen has a considerable impact both on clinical progression and self-reported quality of life of affected individuals. The regimen appears ideal for scaling up to other endemic regions in Ethiopia and internationally. We recommend that further research in the area include analysis of cost

  3. Treatment Outcome of Tuberculosis Patients under Directly Observed Treatment Short Course and Factors Affecting Outcome in Southern Ethiopia: A Five-Year Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebrezgabiher, Gebremedhin; Romha, Gebremedhin; Ejeta, Eyasu; Asebe, Getahun; Zemene, Endalew; Ameni, Gobena

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the major public health and socio-economic issues in the 21st century globally. Assessment of TB treatment outcomes, and monitoring and evaluation of its risk factors in Directly Observed Treatment Short Course (DOTS) are among the major indicators of the performance of a national TB control program. Hence, this institution-based retrospective study was conducted to determine the treatment outcome of TB patients and investigate factors associated with unsuccessful outcome at Dilla University Referral Hospital, southern Ethiopia. Five years (2008 to 2013) TB record of TB clinic of the hospital was reviewed. A total 1537 registered TB patients with complete information were included. Of these, 942 (61.3%) were male, 1015 (66%) were from rural areas, 544 (35.4%) were smear positive pulmonary TB (PTB+), 816 (53.1%) were smear negative pulmonary TB (PTB-) and 177(11.5%) were extra pulmonary TB (EPTB) patients. Records of the 1537 TB patients showed that 181 (11.8%) were cured, 1129(73.5%) completed treatment, 171 (11.1%) defaulted, 52 (3.4%) died and 4 (0.3%) had treatment failure. The overall mean treatment success rate of the TB patients was 85.2%. The treatment success rate of the TB patients increased from 80.5% in September 2008-August 2009 to 84.8% in September 2012-May 2013. Tuberculosis type, age, residence and year of treatment were significantly associated with unsuccessful treatment outcome. The risk of unsuccessful outcome was significantly higher among TB patients from rural areas (AOR = 1.63, 95% CI: 1.21-2.20) compared to their urban counterparts. Unsuccessful treatment outcome was also observed in PTB- patients (AOR = 1.77, 95% CI: 1.26-2.50) and EPTB (AOR = 2.07, 95% CI: 1.28-3.37) compared to the PTB+ patients. In conclusion, it appears that DOTS have improved treatment success in the hospital during five years. Regular follow-up of patients with poor treatment outcome and provision of health information on TB treatment to

  4. Treatment Outcome of Tuberculosis Patients under Directly Observed Treatment Short Course and Factors Affecting Outcome in Southern Ethiopia: A Five-Year Retrospective Study.

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    Gebremedhin Gebrezgabiher

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB is one of the major public health and socio-economic issues in the 21st century globally. Assessment of TB treatment outcomes, and monitoring and evaluation of its risk factors in Directly Observed Treatment Short Course (DOTS are among the major indicators of the performance of a national TB control program. Hence, this institution-based retrospective study was conducted to determine the treatment outcome of TB patients and investigate factors associated with unsuccessful outcome at Dilla University Referral Hospital, southern Ethiopia. Five years (2008 to 2013 TB record of TB clinic of the hospital was reviewed. A total 1537 registered TB patients with complete information were included. Of these, 942 (61.3% were male, 1015 (66% were from rural areas, 544 (35.4% were smear positive pulmonary TB (PTB+, 816 (53.1% were smear negative pulmonary TB (PTB- and 177(11.5% were extra pulmonary TB (EPTB patients. Records of the 1537 TB patients showed that 181 (11.8% were cured, 1129(73.5% completed treatment, 171 (11.1% defaulted, 52 (3.4% died and 4 (0.3% had treatment failure. The overall mean treatment success rate of the TB patients was 85.2%. The treatment success rate of the TB patients increased from 80.5% in September 2008-August 2009 to 84.8% in September 2012-May 2013. Tuberculosis type, age, residence and year of treatment were significantly associated with unsuccessful treatment outcome. The risk of unsuccessful outcome was significantly higher among TB patients from rural areas (AOR = 1.63, 95% CI: 1.21-2.20 compared to their urban counterparts. Unsuccessful treatment outcome was also observed in PTB- patients (AOR = 1.77, 95% CI: 1.26-2.50 and EPTB (AOR = 2.07, 95% CI: 1.28-3.37 compared to the PTB+ patients. In conclusion, it appears that DOTS have improved treatment success in the hospital during five years. Regular follow-up of patients with poor treatment outcome and provision of health information on TB treatment to

  5. The Quest for Resolution of Guji-Gedeo Conflicts in Southern Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study draws an argumentative conclusion that the Federal Government and authorities of the Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples' Region (SNNPR) and Oromiya Regional State need to boost their close cooperation, engagement in early warning and conflict management endeavors in addressing the conflict ...

  6. Determinants of patient satisfaction with outpatient health services at public and private hospitals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

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    Tayue Tateke

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients have explicit desires or requests for services when they visit hospitals. However, inadequate discovery of their needs may result in patient dissatisfaction. This study aimed to determine the levels and determinants of patient satisfaction with outpatient health services provided at public and private hospitals in Addis Ababa, Central Ethiopia.Methods: A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted from 27 March to 30 April 2010. The study included 5 private and 5 public hospitals. Participants were selected using systematic random sampling. A pre-tested and contextually prepared structured questionnaire was used to conduct interviews. Descriptive statistics, analysis of variance, factor analysis and multiple linear regressions were performed using computer software (SPSS 16.0.Results: About 18.0% of the patients at the public hospitals were very satisfied whilst 47.9% were just satisfied with the corresponding proportions a bit higher at private hospitals. Selfjudged health status, expectation about the services, perceived adequacy of consultation duration, perceived providers’ technical competency, perceived welcoming approach and perceived body signalling were determinants of satisfaction at both public and private hospitals.Conclusions: Although patients at the private hospitals were more satisfied than those at the public hospitals with the health care they received, five of the predictors of patient satisfaction in this study were common to both settings. Thus, hospitals in both categories should work to improve the competencies of their employees, particularly health professionals, to win the interests of the clients and have a physical structure that better fits the expectations of the patients.

  7. Prevalence of thrombocytopenia among pregnant women attending antenatal care service at Gondar University Teaching Hospital in 2014, northwest Ethiopia

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    Asrie F

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Fikir Asrie, Bamlaku Enawgaw, Zegeye Getaneh Department of Hematology and Immunohematology, School of Biomedical and Laboratory Sciences, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia Introduction: Thrombocytopenia is a common hematologic abnormality during pregnancy. Pregnant women with thrombocytopenia have a higher risk of bleeding excessively during or after childbirth, particularly if they need to have a cesarean section or other surgical intervention during pregnancy, labor or in the puerperium. The main aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of thrombocytopenia among pregnant women attending antenatal care service at Gondar University Hospital, northwest Ethiopia.Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study was used to assess the prevalence of thrombocytopenia among pregnant women attending antenatal care service at Gondar University Hospital from January to April 2015. A total of 217 pregnant women were included in the study and a structured pretested questionnaire was used to obtain sociodemographic information, nutritional factors, obstetrics and gynecological factors, history and clinical condition. Blood samples were collected for platelet count and other platelet parameters, which were determined by using SysmexKX 21 automation. The data were entered to Epi info version 6 software and analyzed using SPSS version 20 software. Bivariable and multivariable statistical analyses were used to evaluate the effect of independent variable over the dependent variable. A p-value of <0.05 was considered as statistically significant.Result: A total of 217 women receiving antenatal care service at Gondar University Hospital participated in the study. Thrombocytopenia among 19 pregnant women showed a prevalence of 8.8%. The mean ± standard deviation platelet count was 238.85×109/L (±74.57. Thrombocytopenia was significantly associated with patients who lived rurally (crude odds ratio =4.3, 95

  8. Association between Maternal and Child Nutritional Status in Hula, Rural Southern Ethiopia: A Cross Sectional Study.

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    Negash, Canaan; Whiting, Susan J; Henry, Carol J; Belachew, Tefera; Hailemariam, Tewodros G

    2015-01-01

    Maternal and child under nutrition is highly prevalent in low-income and middle-income countries, resulting in substantial increases in mortality and overall disease burden. The aim of this baseline survey was to determine the association between selected maternal characteristics, maternal nutritional status and children's nutritional status. A survey with a cross sectional design was conducted between September and October 2012 in Hula, Ethiopia. The study subjects were 197 mothers of children between the ages of 6 and 23 months. Weight and height (mothers) or recumbent length (children) were measured using calibrated, standardized techniques. Seven percent of children were below -2 weight for height Z score (WHZ), 11.5% were below -2 height for age Z score (HAZ) and 9.9% were below -2 weight for age Z score (WAZ). Maternal anthropometrics were associated with child nutritional status in the bivariate analysis. Maternal BMI (r = 0.16 P = 0.02) and educational status (r = 0.25 P = 0.001) were correlated with WHZ of children while maternal height (r = 0.2 P = 0.007) was correlated with HAZ of children. After multivariate analysis, children whose mothers had salary from employment had a better WHZ score (P = 0.001) and WAZ score (Pnutritional status and salaried employment is a benefit for the nutritional status of the child. The interrelationship between maternal and child nutritional status stresses the value of improving maternal nutritional status as this should improve both maternal and child health outcomes. Therefore strategies to improve nutritional status of children should also include improving the nutritional status of the mother and empowering her financially.

  9. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and associated risk factors among pregnant women attending antenatal care center at Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital, northwest Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Derso, Adane; Nibret, Endalkachew; Munshea, Abaineh

    2016-01-01

    Background Parasitic infections affect tens of millions of pregnant women worldwide, and directly or indirectly lead to a spectrum of adverse maternal and fetal/placental effects. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of intestinal parasite infections and associated risk factors among pregnant women attending antenatal care center in Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital, Bahir Dar city, northwest Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional hospital based study was conducted from November...

  10. Pattern of Bacterial Pathogens and Their Susceptibility Isolated from Surgical Site Infections at Selected Referral Hospitals, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

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    Walelign Dessie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The emergence of multidrug resistant bacterial pathogens in hospitals is becoming a challenge for surgeons to treat hospital acquired infections. Objective. To determine bacterial pathogens and drug susceptibility isolated from surgical site infections at St. Paul Specialized Hospital Millennium Medical College and Yekatit 12 Referral Hospital Medical College, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted between October 2013 and March 2014 on 107 surgical site infected patients. Wound specimens were collected using sterile cotton swab and processed as per standard operative procedures in appropriate culture media; and susceptibility testing was done using Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion technique. The data were analyzed by using SPSS version 20. Result. From a total of 107 swabs collected, 90 (84.1% were culture positive and 104 organisms were isolated. E. coli (24 (23.1% was the most common organism isolated followed by multidrug resistant Acinetobacter species (23 (22.1%. More than 58 (75% of the Gram negative isolates showed multiple antibiotic resistance (resistance ≥ 5 drugs. Pan-antibiotic resistance was noted among 8 (34.8% Acinetobacter species and 3 (12.5% E. coli. This calls for abstinence from antibiotic abuse. Conclusion. Gram negative bacteria were the most important isolates accounting for 76 (73.1%. Ampicillin, amoxicillin, penicillin, cephazoline, and tetracycline showed resistance while gentamicin and ciprofloxacin were relatively effective antimicrobials.

  11. Effect of Biochar Application on Growth of Garden Pea (Pisum sativum L.) in Acidic Soils of Bule Woreda Gedeo Zone Southern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Berihun, Tariku; Tolosa, Shiferaw; Tadele, Muluken; Kebede, Firew

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this experiment was to study the effect of types and rates of biochar on growth, yield, and yield component of garden pea at Bule wereda, Southern Ethiopia. The treatments consist of two types of biochar (corncobs and Lantana camara) and four rates of biochar (0, 6, 12, and 18 t ha−1). The experiment was laid out as a randomized complete block design in a factorial arrangement with three replications. Soil samples were collected at a depth of 0–30 cm and germination parameter and p...

  12. Malaria and helminth co-infections in outpatients of Alaba Kulito Health Center, southern Ethiopia: a cross sectional study

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    Legesse Mengistu

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Distribution of malaria and intestinal helminths is known to overlap in developing tropical countries of the world. Co-infections with helminth and malaria parasites cause a significant and additive problem against the host. The aim of this study was to asses the prevalence of malaria/helminth co-infection and the associated problems among febrile outpatients that attended Alaba Kulito Health Center, southern Ethiopia November and December 2007. A total of 1802 acute febrile patients were diagnosed for malaria. 458 Giemsa-stained thick and thin blood films were used for identification of Plasmodium species and Stool samples prepared using Kato-Katz technique were used to examine for intestinal helminths. Haemoglobin concentration was measured using a portable spectrophotometer (Hemocue HB 201. Anthropometry-based nutritional assessment of the study participants was done by measuring body weight to the nearest 0.1 kg and height to the nearest 0.1 cm. Findings 458 of the total febrile patients were positive for malaria. Co infection with Plasmodium and helminth parasites is associated with significantly (p Plasmodium parasites. And this difference was also significant for haemoglobin concentration (F = 10.18, p = 0.002, in which patients co infected with Plasmodium and helminth parasites showed lower mean haemoglobin concentration. More than one-third of the infected cases in both malaria infections and malaria/helminth co infections are undernourished. However the statistics for the difference is not significant. Conclusion Malaria and soil-transmitted helminthiasis obviously contribute to anaemia and low weight status and these conditions are more pronounced in individuals concurrently infected with malaria and soil-transmitted helminths. Hence, simultaneous combat against the two parasitic infections is very crucial to improve health of the affected communities.

  13. Feeding styles of caregivers of children 6-23 months of age in Derashe special district, Southern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wondafrash, Mekitie; Amsalu, Tseganeh; Woldie, Mirkuzie

    2012-03-23

    Apart from basic determinants, appropriate child care practices are important in prevention of growth faltering and undernutrition. Providing safe and appropriate quality complementary foods is crucial to child growth and development. However, some children in low-income communities grow normally mainly due to proper caregiver feeding behaviors. Hence, the objective of this study was to determine caregivers' feeding styles as well as to indentify predictors in Derashe special district, Southern Ethiopia. A community based cross-sectional study design was employed in the seven randomly selected Kebeles (smallest administrative unit) of Derashe special district. A total of 826 caregivers provided data pertaining to socio-demographic variables. However, 764 caregivers had complete data for the outcome variable (caregiver feeding style). A multistage stratified sampling technique was used to identify study subjects. An adapted Caregiver's Feeding Styles Questionnaire (CFSQ) was used to gather information about caregivers' feeding styles. Multivariate multinomial logistic regression was employed to identify predictors of caregivers' feeding style. The majority (80.6%) of caregivers were biological mothers. Nearly seventy-six percent of the caregivers practiced a responsive feeding style. Caregivers other than the biological mother favoured a laissez-faire feeding style, while caregivers residing in rural Kebeles were more responsive. Caregivers with a breastfeeding frequency of more than eight times predicted both laissez-faire (RRR = 1.88; 95% CI = 1.03-3.41) and controlling (RRR = 1.7; 95% CI = 1.02-2.85) feeding styles as compared to responsive feeding. Responsive feeding was the commonest style practiced by the caregivers. Many of the caregivers who were rural residents and birth parents have been responsive in child feeding. The instruments needed to be validated in the Ethiopian context and an additional prospective study based on direct observation of caregiver

  14. Feeding styles of caregivers of children 6-23 months of age in Derashe special district, Southern Ethiopia

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    Wondafrash Mekitie

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Apart from basic determinants, appropriate child care practices are important in prevention of growth faltering and undernutrition. Providing safe and appropriate quality complementary foods is crucial to child growth and development. However, some children in low-income communities grow normally mainly due to proper caregiver feeding behaviors. Hence, the objective of this study was to determine caregivers' feeding styles as well as to indentify predictors in Derashe special district, Southern Ethiopia. Methods A community based cross-sectional study design was employed in the seven randomly selected Kebeles (smallest administrative unit of Derashe special district. A total of 826 caregivers provided data pertaining to socio-demographic variables. However, 764 caregivers had complete data for the outcome variable (caregiver feeding style. A multistage stratified sampling technique was used to identify study subjects. An adapted Caregiver's Feeding Styles Questionnaire (CFSQ was used to gather information about caregivers' feeding styles. Multivariate multinomial logistic regression was employed to identify predictors of caregivers' feeding style. Results The majority (80.6% of caregivers were biological mothers. Nearly seventy-six percent of the caregivers practiced a responsive feeding style. Caregivers other than the biological mother favoured a laissez-faire feeding style, while caregivers residing in rural Kebeles were more responsive. Caregivers with a breastfeeding frequency of more than eight times predicted both laissez-faire (RRR = 1.88; 95% CI = 1.03-3.41 and controlling (RRR = 1.7; 95% CI = 1.02-2.85 feeding styles as compared to responsive feeding. Conclusion Responsive feeding was the commonest style practiced by the caregivers. Many of the caregivers who were rural residents and birth parents have been responsive in child feeding. The instruments needed to be validated in the Ethiopian context and an additional

  15. Health beliefs of school-age rural children in podoconiosis-affected families: A qualitative study in Southern Ethiopia.

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    Abebayehu Tora

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have suggested investigation of health beliefs in children to be an important pre-condition for primary prevention of disease. However, little effort has been made to understand these in the context of podoconiosis. This study therefore aimed to explore the health beliefs of school-age rural children in podoconiosis-affected families.A cross sectional qualitative study was conducted in March 2016 in Wolaita Zone, Southern Ethiopia. Data were collected through in-depth individual interviews (IDIs and focus group discussions (FGDs, with a total of one hundred seventeen 9 to15-year-old children recruited from podoconiosis affected families. The study revealed various misconceptions regarding risk factors for podoconiosis. Most children believed barefoot exposure to dew, worms, snake bite, frog urine, other forms of poison, and contact with affected people to be major causes of the disease. Their knowledge about the role of heredity and that of long term barefoot exposure to irritant mineral particles was also weak. Though most participants correctly appraised their susceptibility to podoconiosis in relation to regular use of footwear and foot hygiene, others based their risk perceptions on factors they think beyond their control. They described several barriers to preventive behaviour, including uncomfortable footwear, shortage and poor adaptability of footwear for farm activities and sports, and shortage of soap for washing. Children also perceived low self-efficacy to practice preventive behaviour in spite of the barriers.Health education interventions may enhance school-age children's health literacy and be translated to preventive action. Overcoming practical challenges such as shortage of footwear and other hygiene facilities requires other forms of interventions such as livelihood strengthening activities. Linking podoconiosis-affected families with local governmental or non-governmental organizations providing socio

  16. Bovine Tuberculosis at the Wildlife-Livestock-Human Interface in Hamer Woreda, South Omo, Southern Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschopp, Rea; Aseffa, Abraham; Schelling, Esther; Berg, Stefan; Hailu, Elena; Gadisa, Endalamaw; Habtamu, Meseret; Argaw, Kifle; Zinsstag, Jakob

    2010-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is endemic in cattle in the Ethiopian Highlands but no studies have been done so far in pastoralists in South Omo. This study assessed the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) at an intensive interface of livestock, wildlife and pastoralists in Hamer Woreda (South Omo), Ethiopia. A cross-sectional survey including a comparative intradermal skin testing (CIDT) was conducted in 499 zebu cattle and 186 goats in 12 settlements. Sputum samples from 26 symptomatic livestock owners were cultured for TB. Fifty-one wildlife samples from 13 different species were also collected in the same area and tested with serological (lateral flow assay) and bacteriological (culture of lymph nodes) techniques. Individual BTB prevalence in cattle was 0.8% (CI: 0.3%–2%) with the >4 mm cut-off and 3.4% (CI: 2.1%–5.4%) with the >2 mm cut-off. Herd prevalence was 33.3% and 83% when using the >4 and the >2 mm cut-off respectively. There was no correlation between age, sex, body condition and positive reactors upon univariate analysis. None of the goats were reactors for BTB. Acid fast bacilli (AFB) were detected in 50% of the wildlife cultures, 79.2% of which were identified as Mycobacterium terrae complex. No M. bovis was detected. Twenty-seven percent of tested wildlife were sero-positive. Four sputum cultures (15.4%) yielded AFB positive colonies among which one was M. tuberculosis and 3 non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). The prevalence of M. avium-complex (MAC) was 4.2% in wildlife, 2.5% in cattle and 0.5% in goats. In conclusion, individual BTB prevalence was low, but herd prevalence high in cattle and BTB was not detected in goats, wildlife and humans despite an intensive contact interface. On the contrary, NTMs were highly prevalent and some Mycobacterium spp were more prevalent in specific species. The role of NTMs in livestock and co-infection with BTB need further research. PMID:20808913

  17. Bovine tuberculosis at the wildlife-livestock-human interface in Hamer Woreda, South Omo, Southern Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rea Tschopp

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Bovine tuberculosis (BTB is endemic in cattle in the Ethiopian Highlands but no studies have been done so far in pastoralists in South Omo. This study assessed the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis (BTB at an intensive interface of livestock, wildlife and pastoralists in Hamer Woreda (South Omo, Ethiopia. A cross-sectional survey including a comparative intradermal skin testing (CIDT was conducted in 499 zebu cattle and 186 goats in 12 settlements. Sputum samples from 26 symptomatic livestock owners were cultured for TB. Fifty-one wildlife samples from 13 different species were also collected in the same area and tested with serological (lateral flow assay and bacteriological (culture of lymph nodes techniques. Individual BTB prevalence in cattle was 0.8% (CI: 0.3%-2% with the >4 mm cut-off and 3.4% (CI: 2.1%-5.4% with the >2 mm cut-off. Herd prevalence was 33.3% and 83% when using the >4 and the >2 mm cut-off respectively. There was no correlation between age, sex, body condition and positive reactors upon univariate analysis. None of the goats were reactors for BTB. Acid fast bacilli (AFB were detected in 50% of the wildlife cultures, 79.2% of which were identified as Mycobacterium terrae complex. No M. bovis was detected. Twenty-seven percent of tested wildlife were sero-positive. Four sputum cultures (15.4% yielded AFB positive colonies among which one was M. tuberculosis and 3 non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM. The prevalence of M. avium-complex (MAC was 4.2% in wildlife, 2.5% in cattle and 0.5% in goats. In conclusion, individual BTB prevalence was low, but herd prevalence high in cattle and BTB was not detected in goats, wildlife and humans despite an intensive contact interface. On the contrary, NTMs were highly prevalent and some Mycobacterium spp were more prevalent in specific species. The role of NTMs in livestock and co-infection with BTB need further research.

  18. Cattle brucellosis in traditional livestock husbandry practice in Southern and Eastern Ethiopia, and its zoonotic implication

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    Niguse Fekadu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cattle brucellosis has significant economic and zoonotic implication for the rural communities in Ethiopia in consequence of their traditional life styles, feeding habits and disease patterns. Hence, knowledge of brucellosis occurrence in traditional livestock husbandry practice has considerable importance in reducing the economic and public health impacts of the disease. Methods A total of 1623 cattle sera were serially tested using the rose Bengal test as screening and complement fixation test as confirmatory tests. The Stata survey command was used to establish prevalences for the overall and individual variables, while potential risk factors for seropositivity were analyzed using a multivariable logistic regression analysis. Results The results showed that 3.5% (95% CI = 2.4, 4.5% of the animals and 26.1% (95% CI = 18.6, 33.7 of the herds tested had antibodies against Brucella species. Village level seroprevalence ranged from 0% to 100%. A higher seroprevalence was observed in pastoral system than mixed farming although this variable was not significant in the final model. The final logistic regression model identified herd size; with large (odd ratio (OR = 8.0, 95% CI = 1.9, 33.6 and medium herds (OR = 8.1, 95% CI = 1.9, 34.2 showing higher risk of Brucella infection when compared to small herds. Similarly, the odds of Brucella infection was higher in cattle aged above 4 years when compared to age groups of 1-2 (OR = 5.4, 2.1, 12.9 and 3-4 years (OR = 3.1, 95% CI = 1.0, 9.6. Herd level analysis of the risk factors revealed that large and medium herds as well as herds kept with multiple livestock species were at higher risk of acquiring Brucella infection. Brucellosis in traditional livestock husbandry practices certainly poses a zoonotic risk to the public, in consequence of raw milk consumption, close contact with animals and provision of assistance during parturition. Due to lack of diagnostic facilities and

  19. Prevalence and associated factors of hypertension among adults in Durame Town, Southern Ethiopia.

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    Tsegab Paulose Helelo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To date, non-communicable diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases, are becoming severe public health challenges particularly in developing countries. Hypertension is a modifiable risk factor that contributes the leading role for mortality. The problem is significant in low- and middle-income countries like sub-Saharan Africa. However, there are limited studies in developing countries, particularly in Ethiopia. Hence, determining the magnitude of hypertension and identifying risk groups are important. METHODS: A community based cross sectional study was conducted in April 2013 among adults (age>31 years old. A systematic sampling technique was used to select a total of 518 study participants. Data were collected after full verbal informed consent was obtained from each participant. Multivariable logistic regressions were fitted to control the effect of confounding. Adjusted Odds ratios (OR with their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI were calculated to measure associations. Variables having P-value <0.05 were considered as significant. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of hypertension in Durame town was 22.4% (95% CI: 18.8-26.0. Nearly 40% of hypertensive patients were newly screened. Male sex [AOR = 2.03, 95% CI; 1.05-3.93], age [AOR  = 29.49, 95% CI; 10.60-81.27], salt use [AOR = 6.55, 95% CI; 2.31-18.53], eating vegetable three or fewer days per week [AOR  = 2.3,95% CI; 1.17-4.51], not continuously walking at least for 10 minutes per day [AOR = 7.82, 95% CI; 2.37-25.82], having family history of hypertension [AOR = 2.46, 95%CI; 1.31-4.61] and being overweight/obese [AOR = 15.7, 95% CI 7.89-31.21] were found to be risk factors for hypertension. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of hypertension is found to be high. Older age, male sex, having family history of hypertension, physical inactivity, poor vegetable diet, additional salt consumption and obesity were important risk factors associated with hypertension among adults. Community

  20. The diagnostic performance evaluation of the SD BIOLINE HIV/syphilis Duo rapid test in southern Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimelis, Techalew; Tadesse, Endale

    2015-04-23

    To determine the diagnostic performance of the SD BIOLINE HIV/syphilis Duo rapid test. A hospital-based cross-sectional study. This evaluation was conducted at one of the largest hospitals in southern Ethiopia. Serum samples obtained from clients attending the antiretroviral therapy and voluntary counselling and testing centres were used. Sera were originally collected for the purpose of investigating syphilis epidemiology. The performance of the test to detect HIV was evaluated using 400 sera (200 HIV positives and 200 HIV negatives). Also, its performance to detect syphilis was evaluated using 85 syphilis positive and 100 syphilis negative serum samples. Individuals HIV screening was carried out according to the national rapid diagnostic testing (RDT) algorithm: Shenghai Kehua Bioengineering (KHB) test kit as a screening test, followed by the HIV1/2 STAT-PAK assay if positive. Where the result of the STAT-PAK is discordant with KHB, Unigold HIV is used as a tiebreaker to determine the result. We also used ELISA to resolve discordant HIV results. Syphilis serostatus was determined using the Treponema pallidum haemagglutination assay (TPHA). The respective sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of the SD BIOLINE HIV/syphilis Duo test were 100, 99.5, 99.5 and 100% for HIV and 97.6, 96, 95.4 and 98% for syphilis testing, respectively. In reference to TPHA, the test kit reported 4 false positives and 2 false negative results for syphilis. The κ values were 0.99 for HIV testing and 0.94 for syphilis testing. The excellent performance of the SD BIOLINE HIV/syphilis Duo test to detect HIV as well as syphilis facilitates the integration of syphilis testing and treatment to the already established HIV prevention programme, ultimately contributing to the dual HIV and syphilis elimination goal. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  1. Evidence-based practice and its associated factors among medical laboratory professionals in West Amhara hospitals, Northwest Ethiopia.

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    Wassie, Meseret A; Zeleke, Atinkut A; Dachew, Berihun A; Kebede, Mihiretu

    2017-09-20

    Healthcare and clinical laboratory practices are constantly evolving, leading a need for evidence-based practice (EBP) among all laboratory professionals. However, EBP among laboratory professionals has not yet been studied in Ethiopia. This study aimed to determine EBP and associated factors among medical laboratory professionals in West Amhara hospitals, Northwest Ethiopia. An analytic and descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in West Amhara hospitals from February to March 2014. Data were collected using a pretested, structured self-administered questionnaire. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions were performed to identify factors associated with evidence-based laboratory practice. Odds ratios with 95% confidence interval (CI) were computed and the level of significance determined. A total of 169 respondents completed the questionnaire (response rate 95.4%), 40.8% (n = 69) of whom had a good level of EBP. Knowledge about EBP [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 2.22, 95% CI: 1.10-4.49], internet access (AOR = 2.43, 95% CI: 1.12-5.29), adoption EBP (AOR = 2.79, 95% CI: 1.41-5.52) and being single in marital status (AOR = 2.21, 95% CI: 1.08-4.51) were factors associated with EBP in multivariable logistic regression after controlling the effects of the confounding variables. EBP among laboratory professionals was found to be low. Having good knowledge towards EBP, organizational adoption of EBP, having internet access in their organization and being single in marital status were factors associated with EBP.

  2. Prevalence of alcohol use disorders and associated factors among people with epilepsy attending Amanuel Mental Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

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    Waja T

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Tsegereda Waja,1 Jemal Ebrahim,2 Zegeye Yohannis,1 Asres Bedaso2 1Department of Psychiatry, Amanuel Mental Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, 2School of Nursing and Midwifery, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Hawassa University, Hawassa, SNNPR, Ethiopia Introduction: Alcohol use disorders represent one of the leading causes of preventable death, illness, and injury in many societies throughout the world. Heavy alcohol consumption has multiple negative consequences for people with epilepsy such as precipitation of seizure, exacerbation of seizure, poor seizure control, increased side effects of antiepileptic drugs, noncompliance to antiepileptic drugs, alcohol withdrawal seizures, long-term hospital admission, status epilepticus, sudden unexpected death, and premature mortality. Methods: An institution-based cross sectional study was conducted from April 15, 2014 to May 15, 2014 with the aim of assessing prevalence of alcohol use disorders and associated factors among people with epilepsy attending Amanuel Mental Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A total of 413 randomly selected epileptic patients were included in this study. Data were structured using the 10-item Alcohol Use Disorders Identification questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS Version 20. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to study the association, and variables with P-value <0.05 were considered as having a statistically significant association at 95% confidence interval. Results: A total of 423 study participants were selected, of whom 413 completely filled the questionnaire making the response rate 97.6%. The mean age of the respondents was 31.9 years with standard deviation of ±10.97, and 248 (60% were males. The prevalence of alcohol use disorder was 17.4%. Educational status (grade 9–12 (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =3.25, [1.21, 8.69], not living with family members (AOR =1.89, [1.06, 3.39], availability of house (AOR

  3. Factors Associated with Occupational Needle Stick and Sharps Injuries among Hospital Healthcare Workers in Bale Zone, Southeast Ethiopia.

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    Tolesa Bekele

    Full Text Available Needle stick and sharps injuries are occupational hazards to healthcare workers. Every day healthcare workers are exposed to deadly blood borne pathogens through contaminated needles and other sharp objects. About twenty blood borne pathogens can be transmitted through accidental needle stick and sharp injury. The study was conducted to determine the lifetime and past one year prevalence of needle stick and sharps injuries and factors associated with the past one year injuries among hospital healthcare workers in Southeast Ethiopia.An institutional based cross sectional study was conducted in December 2014 among healthcare workers in four hospitals of Bale zone, Southeast of Ethiopia. A total of 362 healthcare workers were selected randomly from each department in the hospitals. Data were collected using self-administered questionnaire. The collected data were entered into Epi-Info version 3.5 and analyzed using SPSS version 20.0. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify the independent effect of each independent variable on the outcome variable. Written informed consent was secured from the participants.The prevalence of lifetime needle stick and sharp injury was 37.1% with 95% CI of 32.0% to 42.5%. The prevalence of injury within the past one year was 19.1% with 95% CI of 14.9% to 23.3%. Emergency ward was a department with highest needle stick and sharp injury (31.7%. The main cause of injury was syringe needles (69.8%. Participants who practiced needle recapping had higher odds of needle stick and sharp injury within the past 12 months (AOR = 3.23, 95% CI: 1.78, 5.84 compared to their counterparts.Nearly one out of five respondents had experienced needle stick and/or sharp injury at least once within past one year. There were practices and behaviors that put healthcare workers at risk of needle stick and sharp injury at the study area. Needle recapping was key modifiable risk behavior. Health policy makers and hospital

  4. A three year retrospective study on seroprevalence of syphilis among pregnant women at Gondar University Teaching Hospital, Ethiopia.

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    Assefa, Abate

    2014-03-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are a serious public health problem in low income countries, including Ethiopia. Syphilis caused by Treponema pallidum remains a major cause of reproductive morbidity and poor pregnancy outcomes in low income countries. Stillbirth, perinatal death, serious neonatal infection and low-birth weight babies are common among seropositive mothers. To assess the seroprevalence of syphilis and risk factor correlates of this infection at Gondar University Teaching Hospital, Ethiopia. The study was done on 2385 pregnant women attending the antenatal care clinic (ANC) from January 2009 to December 2011. Data was abstracted from the antenatal care clinic medical database. Chi-square test was used, using SPSS version 16 and significance level was chosen at 0.05 level with a two-tailed test. Of the total, 69(2. 9%) of pregnant women were confirmed as seropositive for syphilis. Pregnant women with an age group of 21-25 years of old were the most seropositive (3.4%), followed by 26-30 years of old (3.1%). The prevalence of syphilis infection was 3.2% in urban and 2.2% in rural pregnant women. Relatively high prevalence of syphilis infection were identified among students (4.2%) followed by governmental employees (3.8%). The seroprevalence of syphilis among pregnant women attending ANC is declining. However, syphilis is more prevalent in the young and urban pregnant women. Emphasis on education to young people on STI risk behavioral change and partner follow up and notification for exposure to syphilis and treatment should be given.

  5. Evaluation of quality of life of adult cancer patients attending Tikur Anbessa specialized referral hospital, Addis Ababa Ethiopia.

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    Tadele, Niguse

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the quality of life of cancer patients in the Ethiopian context. This study evaluated quality of life of cancer patients in Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Addis Ababa University Tikur Anbessa Specialized Referral Hospital Addis Ababa, Ethiopia (TASRH) from March to May 2013. A total of 388 cancer patients were included. Translated in to Amharic, the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QOL C-30) was used to measure Quality of life (QoL). The data was analyzed with SPSS Version 17.0. Among the participants, 251(64.7%) were men and 138(35.6%) were below the age of 40 years. Large proportion of patients were diagnosed with breast cancer, 114(29.4%), and cervical cancer, 102(26.3%), and the clinical stages during the beginning of therapy were at stage II a 133(34.3%). The mean of global health status/QoL was 57.28 (SD= 25.28). Quality of life was found to be associated with some functional scales as role functioning, P≤0.001, social function, P=0.00, and symptom scales as pain, P=0.00, loss of appetite, P=0.004, and financial impact, P=0.02, but no associations were noted in relation to socio demographic characteristics. Quality of life assessments should be included in patient treatment protocols to improve their quality of life since being a cancer patient may be associated with a high level of impairment in different aspects of life.

  6. Appropriateness of hospitalization for CAP-affected pediatric patients: report from a Southern Italy General Hospital

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    Antonelli Fabio

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP is a common disease, responsible for significant healthcare expenditures, mostly because of hospitalization. Many practice guidelines on CAP have been developed, including admission criteria, but a few on appropriate hospitalization in children. The aim of this study was to evaluate appropriate hospital admission for CAP in a pediatric population. Methods We evaluated appropriate admission to a Pediatric Unit performing a retrospective analysis on CAP admitted pediatric patients from a Southern Italy area. Diagnosis was made based on clinical and radiological signs. Appropriate hospital admission was evaluated following clinical and non-clinical international criteria. Family ability to care children was assessed by evaluating social deprivation status. Results In 2 winter seasons 120 pediatric patients aged 1-129 months were admitted because of CAP. Median age was 28.7 months. Raised body temperature was scored in 68.3% of patients, cough was present in 100% of cases, and abdominal pain was rarely evidenced. Inflammatory indices (ESR and CRP were found elevated in 33.3% of cases. Anti-Mycoplasma pneumoniae antibodies were found positive in 20.4%. Trans-cutaneous (TC SaO2 was found lower than 92% in 14.6%. Dyspnoea was present in 43.3%. Dehydration requiring i.v. fluid supplementation was scored in 13.3%. Evaluation of familial ability to care their children revealed that 76% of families (derived from socially depressed areas were "at social risk", thus not able to appropriately care their children. Furthermore, analysis of CAP patients revealed that "at social risk" people accessed E.D. and were hospitalized more frequently than "not at risk" patients (odds ratio = 3.59, 95% CI: 1,15 to 11,12; p = 0.01, and that admitted "at social risk" people presented without clinical signs of severity (namely dyspnoea, and/or SaO2 ≤ 92%, and/or dehydration more frequently than "not at risk" population

  7. Cattle-rangeland management practices and perceptions of pastoralists towards rangeland degradation in the Borana zone of southern Ethiopia.

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    Solomon, T B; Snyman, H A; Smit, G N

    2007-03-01

    A survey was conducted in the Borana pastoral areas of southern Ethiopia to assess current livestock production systems, rangeland management practices and the perceptions of the pastoralists towards rangeland degradation. This information is considered vital to future pastoral development planning and interventions. Data were collected from a total of 20 villages that were identified from 5 peasant associations, namely Did Yabello, Moyatte, Did Harra, Dubuluk and Melbana. The average household size in the study area was 7.23. The majority of the pastoralists relied on both livestock and crop farming. The average livestock holding per household was 14 cattle, 10 goats, 6 sheep and 2 camels. Livestock holdings, with the exception of camels, has shown a declining trend over time. The two most important traditional rangeland management strategies adopted by the pastoralists included burning and mobility, but since 1974/75 burning has no longer been practised. With regard to mobility, the livestock herding falls in two categories, namely: home based and satellite herding. The former involves the herding of milking cows, calves and immature animals (2 years) further away from the encampments. Based on the pastoralists' perceptions, the major constraints on livestock production in descending order, were recurrent drought, feed and water scarcity, animal diseases, predators and communal land ownership. All the respondents considered the condition of the rangelands to have declined dramatically over time. In the past most development policies were based on equilibrium theories that opposed the communal use of the rangelands and traditional range management practices. The way in which the pastoral system affects the rangeland ecosystem functioning is contentious to this theory and the 'tragedy of the commons'. There was also a perceived problem of bush encroachment and the ban on traditional burning practices and recurrent droughts were seen as aggravating factors to this

  8. Molecular typing of mycobacteria isolated from extrapulmonary tuberculosis patients at Debre Birhan Referral Hospital, central Ethiopia.

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    Garedew, Legesse; Mihret, Adane; Ameni, Gobena

    2013-07-01

    Extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) constitutes about 10% to 20% of all cases of tuberculosis in immunocompetent patients and more than 50% of the cases in HIV-positive individuals worldwide. Little information is available on the clonal diversity of Mycobacterium species in Ethiopia from EPTB. This study was carried out on smear-negative EPTB patients to molecularly characterize Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex strains. A questionnaire, smear staining, culture, deletion typing, and spoligotyping were employed. The proportional distribution of EPTB and isolates did not vary substantially (p > 0.05) amongst the socio-demographic parameters considered in the current investigation. Out of 98 fine needle aspirates processed for culture, 36.7% (36/98) were positive for mycobacterial growth. Further speciation of those culture-positive isolates showed that 88.9% were M. tuberculosis and the remaining could be non-tuberculous mycobacterial species. Spoligotyping revealed 16 clusters out of which 2 were new to the SITVIT database. The most dominant spoligotypes were SIT54, SIT53, and SIT149 in decreasing order. SIT54, SIT134, SIT173, SIT345, SIT357, SIT926, SIT91088, and SIT1580 were reported for the first time in Ethiopia. The family with the highest frequency identified was M. tuberculosis family T1, followed by family 33. Most of the strains belonged to Euro-American (61.4%) and Indo-Oceanic (36.3%) lineages. The present study shows the importance of M. tuberculosis as a major cause of EPTB in the study area. Moreover, the majority of isolates of M. tuberculosis were found in clusters, suggesting the possibility of the existence of recent transmission. This warrants strengthening of the control programs for EPTB in the study area.

  9. Healthcare associated infection and its risk factors among patients admitted to a tertiary hospital in Ethiopia: longitudinal study.

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    Ali, Solomon; Birhane, Melkamu; Bekele, Sisay; Kibru, Gebre; Teshager, Lule; Yilma, Yonas; Ahmed, Yesuf; Fentahun, Netsanet; Assefa, Henok; Gashaw, Mulatu; Gudina, Esayas Kebede

    2018-01-01

    Healthcare associated infection (HAI) is alarmingly increasing in low income settings. In Ethiopia, the burden of HAI is still not well described. Longitudinal study was conducted from May to September, 2016. All wards of Jimma University Medical Centre were included. The incidence, prevalence and risk factors of healthcare associated infection were determined. A total of 1015 admitted patients were followed throughout their hospital stay. Biological specimens were collected from all patients suspected to have hospital aquired infection. The specimens were processed by standard microbiological methods to isolate and identify bacteria etiology. Clinical and laboratory data were collected using structured case report formats. The incidence rate of hospital acquired infection was 28.15 [95% C.I:24.40,32.30] per 1000 patient days while the overall prevalence was 19.41% (95% C.I: (16.97-21.85). The highest incidence of HAI was seen in intensive care unit [207.55 (95% C.I:133.40,309.1) per 1000 patient days] and the lowest incidence was reported from ophthalmology ward [0.98 (95% C.I: 0.05,4.90) per 1000patient days]. Among patients who underwent surgical procedure, the risk of HAI was found to be high in those with history of previous hospitalization (ARR = 1.65, 95% C.I:1.07, 2.54). On the other hand, young adults (18 to 30-year-old) had lower risk of developing HAI (ARR = 0.54 95% C.I: 0.32,0.93) Likewise, among non-surgical care groups, the risk of HAI was found to be high in patients with chest tube (ARR = 4.14, 95% C.I: 2.30,7.46), on mechanical ventilation (ARR = 1.99, 95% C.I: 1.06,3.74) and with underlying disease (ARR = 2.01, 95% C.I: 1.33,3.04). Furthermore, hospital aquired infection at the hosoital was associated with prolonged hospital stay [6.3 more days, 95% C.I: (5.16,7.48), t = 0.000] and increased in hospital mortality (AOR, 2.23, 95% CI:1.15,4.29). This study revealed high burden and poor discharge outcomes of healthcare

  10. A cross sectional study on factors influencing professionalism in nursing among nurses in Mekelle Public Hospitals, North Ethiopia, 2012

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    2014-01-01

    Background Professionalism is defined as the conceptualization of obligations, attributes, interactions, attitudes, and role behaviors required of professionals in relationship to individual clients and to society as a whole. Professionalism attributes include knowledge, spirit of inquiry, accountability, autonomy, advocacy, innovation and visionary, collaboration and collegiality, and ethics. The study assessed level and attributes of professionalism in nursing in Mekelle, Tigray, Ethiopia. Methods Institutional based cross sectional study supplemented by qualitative design was employed. Self administered semi structured questionnaire developed from RANO guideline was used. The FGD guideline was developed from different literatures. Data was analyzed using SPSS 16.0. Descriptive statistics and significance was checked at p Professionalism was measured using ANOVA. Qualitative of data were analyzed using coding technique. Written informed consent was obtained from the nurses and confidentiality was assured for all the information provide. Results The mean scores for the nurses in Mekelle public hospitals on the professionalism were 140.50, knowledge (25.06), followed by ethics (25.00). The attitudes of respondents on professionalism were at high, moderate, low and very low level. Pearson product–moment correlation analysis revealed small yet significant associations among several professionalism attributes and characteristics of nurses in Mekelle Public hospitals. Age of respondents and work experience were significantly correlated with total professionalism. Work setting in Mekelle hospital was significantly associated with professionalism. Depending on FGD, the major factors were workload, had no vision, FMOH did not focused nursing as a profession, Weakness of the Ethiopian Nursing Association, lack of life insurance as well as the Health professionals and society’s views of the profession. Conclusion Nurses with longer years of experience and the older

  11. Relapse and hospitalization in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder at the St Amanuel Mental Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: a comparative quantitative cross-sectional study.

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    Ayano, Getnet; Duko, Bereket

    2017-01-01

    Relapse and hospital admission are common among, and carry a heavy burden in, patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. The aim of this study was to assess the risk of relapse and hospitalizations in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder at the St Amanuel Mental Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A hospital-based comparative cross-sectional study was conducted in June 2016. Systematic random sampling technique was used to recruit 521 (260 schizophrenia cases and 261 bipolar disorder cases) study participants. Face-to-face interviews were conducted by trained psychiatry professionals. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) criteria and Structured Clinical Interview of DSM-IV (SCID) were used. The risk of relapse and hospitalizations was slightly higher in patients with bipolar disorder than in patients with schizophrenia. A majority of schizophrenic (213 [81.92%]) and bipolar (215 [82.37%]) patients had a history of hospital admission, and 228 (87.69%) schizophrenic and 230 (88.12%) bipolar patients had a history of relapse. Patients who had a history of hospitalizations also had co-occurring substance use disorders compared to those who had no history of hospitalizations for schizophrenia (81.5% vs 37.9%) and bipolar disorder (82.56% vs 38.2%), respectively. Similarly, those patients who had a history of relapse had high comorbid substance use disorders than those who had no history of relapse for both schizophrenia (87.88% vs 47.37%) and bipolar disorder (88.37% vs 47.19%), respectively. It is vital that, in the local context, mental health professionals strengthen their therapeutic relationships with patients and their caregivers. This might enable patients and their caregivers to express their needs and concerns to them, as well as help to plan proper interventions for patients. Attention needs to be given to screening for comorbid substance use disorders in patients with

  12. Prevalence and factors associated with trachoma among children aged 1–9 years in Zala district , Gamo Gofa zone, Southern Ethiopia

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    Mengistu K

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Kassahun Mengistu1 Mulugeta Shegaze2 Kifle Woldemichael3 Hailay Gesesew3,4 Yohannes Markos5 1Department of Zonal Health Office, Gamo Goffa Zone, Arba Minch, Ethiopia; 2Department of Nursing, Arba Minch University, Arba Minch, Ethiopia; 3Department of Epidemiology, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia; 4Discipline of Public Health, Flinders University, Adelaide, Australia; 5Department of Medical Physiology, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia Background: Trachoma is the leading cause of preventable blindness worldwide. It is common in areas where people are socioeconomically deprived. Globally, approximately 1.2 billion people live in trachoma-endemic areas, in which, 40.6 million individuals have active trachoma and 8.2 million have trichiasis. According to the World Health Organization’s 2007 report, globally close to 1.3 million people are blind due to trachoma, while approximately 84 million suffer from active trachoma. The National Survey (2007 of Ethiopia showed a prevalence of 40.1% active trachoma among children aged 1–9 years. Trachoma is still endemic in most parts of Ethiopia.Objective: To assess prevalence of trachoma and factors associated with it among children aged 1–9 years in Zala district, Gamo Gofa Zone, Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ Region.Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Zala district from February 28 to March 26, 2014. A total of 611 children were examined for trachoma based on the simplified World Health Organization 1983 classification. A multistage stratified sampling technique with a systematic random sampling technique was used to select study participants. Data were collected by using a semistructured pretested questionnaire and clinical eye examination. The data were entered using EpiData version 3.1 and analyzed using SPSS version 16. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify independently associated factors.Results: The overall prevalence of

  13. Treatment outcome of tuberculosis patients at Gondar University Teaching Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia. A five--year retrospective study.

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    Tessema, Belay; Muche, Abebe; Bekele, Assegedech; Reissig, Dieter; Emmrich, Frank; Sack, Ulrich

    2009-10-04

    In Gondar University Teaching Hospital standardized tuberculosis prevention and control programme, incorporating Directly Observed Treatment, Short Course (DOTS) started in 2000. According to the proposal of World Health Organization (WHO), treatment outcome is an important indicator of tuberculosis control programs. This study investigated the outcome of tuberculosis treatment at Gondar University Teaching Hospital in Northwest Ethiopia. We analyzed the records of 4000 tuberculosis patients registered at Gondar University Teaching Hospital from September 2003 to May 2008. Treatment outcome and tuberculosis type were categorized according to the national tuberculosis control program guideline. Multivariate analysis using logistic regression model was used to analyse the association between treatment outcome and potential predictor variables. From the total of 4000 patients, tuberculosis type was categorized as extrapulmonary in 1133 (28.3%), smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis in 2196 (54.9%) and smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis in 671 (16.8%) cases. Of all patients, treatment outcome was classified as successfully treated in 1181(29.5%), defaulted in 730 (18.3%), died in 403 (10.1%), treatment failed in six (0.2%) and transferred out in 1680 (42.0%) patients. Males had the trend to be more likely to experience death or default than females, and the elderly were more likely to die than younger. The proportion of default rate was increased across the years from 97(9.2%) to 228(42.9%). Being female, age group 15-24 years, smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis and being urban resident were associated with higher treatment success rate. The treatment success rate of tuberculosis patients was unsatisfactorily low (29.5%). A high proportion of patients died (10.1%) or defaulted (18.3%), which is a serious public health concern that needs to be addressed urgently.

  14. Treatment outcome of tuberculosis patients at Gondar University Teaching Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia. A five - year retrospective study

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    Tessema, Belay; Muche, Abebe; Bekele, Assegedech; Reissig, Dieter; Emmrich, Frank; Sack, Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    Background In Gondar University Teaching Hospital standardized tuberculosis prevention and control programme, incorporating Directly Observed Treatment, Short Course (DOTS) started in 2000. According to the proposal of World Health Organization (WHO), treatment outcome is an important indicator of tuberculosis control programs. This study investigated the outcome of tuberculosis treatment at Gondar University Teaching Hospital in Northwest Ethiopia. Methods We analyzed the records of 4000 tuberculosis patients registered at Gondar University Teaching Hospital from September 2003 to May 2008. Treatment outcome and tuberculosis type were categorized according to the national tuberculosis control program guideline. Multivariate analysis using logistic regression model was used to analyse the association between treatment outcome and potential predictor variables. Results From the total of 4000 patients, tuberculosis type was categorized as extrapulmonary in 1133 (28.3%), smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis in 2196 (54.9%) and smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis in 671 (16.8%) cases. Of all patients, treatment outcome was classified as successfully treated in 1181(29.5%), defaulted in 730 (18.3%), died in 403 (10.1%), treatment failed in six (0.2%) and transferred out in 1680 (42.0%) patients. Males had the trend to be more likely to experience death or default than females, and the elderly were more likely to die than younger. The proportion of default rate was increased across the years from 97(9.2%) to 228(42.9%). Being female, age group 15-24 years, smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis and being urban resident were associated with higher treatment success rate. Conclusion The treatment success rate of tuberculosis patients was unsatisfactorily low (29.5%). A high proportion of patients died (10.1%) or defaulted (18.3%), which is a serious public health concern that needs to be addressed urgently. PMID:19799801

  15. Prevalence of thrombocytopenia among pregnant women attending antenatal care service at Gondar University Teaching Hospital in 2014, northwest Ethiopia.

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    Asrie, Fikir; Enawgaw, Bamlaku; Getaneh, Zegeye

    2017-01-01

    Thrombocytopenia is a common hematologic abnormality during pregnancy. Pregnant women with thrombocytopenia have a higher risk of bleeding excessively during or after childbirth, particularly if they need to have a cesarean section or other surgical intervention during pregnancy, labor or in the puerperium. The main aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of thrombocytopenia among pregnant women attending antenatal care service at Gondar University Hospital, northwest Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was used to assess the prevalence of thrombocytopenia among pregnant women attending antenatal care service at Gondar University Hospital from January to April 2015. A total of 217 pregnant women were included in the study and a structured pretested questionnaire was used to obtain sociodemographic information, nutritional factors, obstetrics and gynecological factors, history and clinical condition. Blood samples were collected for platelet count and other platelet parameters, which were determined by using SysmexKX 21 automation. The data were entered to Epi info version 6 software and analyzed using SPSS version 20 software. Bivariable and multivariable statistical analyses were used to evaluate the effect of independent variable over the dependent variable. A p-value of service at Gondar University Hospital participated in the study. Thrombocytopenia among 19 pregnant women showed a prevalence of 8.8%. The mean ± standard deviation platelet count was 238.85×10(9)/L (±74.57). Thrombocytopenia was significantly associated with patients who lived rurally (crude odds ratio =4.3, 95% confidence interval 1.48-12.76). The prevalence of thrombocytopenia was 8.8% predominantly with mild type of thrombocytopenia. Thrombocytopenia was higher among pregnant women who lived rurally. Therefore, health care providers should screen routinely for thrombocytopenia to avoid excessive bleeding during pregnancy, especially in women who live rurally.

  16. Treatment outcome of tuberculosis patients at Gondar University Teaching Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia. A five - year retrospective study

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    Bekele Assegedech

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Gondar University Teaching Hospital standardized tuberculosis prevention and control programme, incorporating Directly Observed Treatment, Short Course (DOTS started in 2000. According to the proposal of World Health Organization (WHO, treatment outcome is an important indicator of tuberculosis control programs. This study investigated the outcome of tuberculosis treatment at Gondar University Teaching Hospital in Northwest Ethiopia. Methods We analyzed the records of 4000 tuberculosis patients registered at Gondar University Teaching Hospital from September 2003 to May 2008. Treatment outcome and tuberculosis type were categorized according to the national tuberculosis control program guideline. Multivariate analysis using logistic regression model was used to analyse the association between treatment outcome and potential predictor variables. Results From the total of 4000 patients, tuberculosis type was categorized as extrapulmonary in 1133 (28.3%, smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis in 2196 (54.9% and smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis in 671 (16.8% cases. Of all patients, treatment outcome was classified as successfully treated in 1181(29.5%, defaulted in 730 (18.3%, died in 403 (10.1%, treatment failed in six (0.2% and transferred out in 1680 (42.0% patients. Males had the trend to be more likely to experience death or default than females, and the elderly were more likely to die than younger. The proportion of default rate was increased across the years from 97(9.2% to 228(42.9%. Being female, age group 15-24 years, smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis and being urban resident were associated with higher treatment success rate. Conclusion The treatment success rate of tuberculosis patients was unsatisfactorily low (29.5%. A high proportion of patients died (10.1% or defaulted (18.3%, which is a serious public health concern that needs to be addressed urgently.

  17. Epidemiology of anti-tuberculosis drug resistance patterns and trends in tuberculosis referral hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

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    Abate Dereje

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Drug-resistant TB has emerged as a major challenge facing TB prevention and control efforts. In Ethiopia, the extent/trend of drug resistance TB is not well known. The aim of this study was to determine the pattern and trend of resistance to first line anti-TB drugs among culture positive retreatment cases at St.Peter’s TB Specialized Hospital. Findings A hospital based retrospective study was used to assess the pattern of anti-TB drug resistance among previously treated TB patients referred to St.Peter’s TB Specialized Hospital from January 2004-December 2008 Gregorian calendar(GC for better diagnosis and treatment. Among 376 culture positive for M. tuberculosis one hundred and two (27.1% were susceptible to all of the four first line anti-TB drugs -Isoniazid (INH, Rifampicin (RIF, Ethambutol (ETB & Streptomycin (STM. While 274 (72.9% were resistant to at least one drug. Any resistance to STM (67.3% was found to be the most common and the prevalence of MDR-TB was 174 (46.3%. Trend in resistance rate among re-treatment cases from 2004 to 2008 showed a significant increase for any drug as well as for INH, RIF, and MDR resistance (P Conclusions There has been an increasing trend in drug resistance in recent years, particularly in retreatment cases. Therefore, establishing advanced diagnostic facilities for early detection of MDR-TB and expanding second line treatment center to treat MDR-TB patients and to prevent its transmission is recommended.

  18. Epidemiology of anti-tuberculosis drug resistance patterns and trends in tuberculosis referral hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

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    Abate, Dereje; Taye, Bineyam; Abseno, Mohammed; Biadgilign, Sibhatu

    2012-08-28

    Drug-resistant TB has emerged as a major challenge facing TB prevention and control efforts. In Ethiopia, the extent/trend of drug resistance TB is not well known. The aim of this study was to determine the pattern and trend of resistance to first line anti-TB drugs among culture positive retreatment cases at St.Peter's TB Specialized Hospital. A hospital based retrospective study was used to assess the pattern of anti-TB drug resistance among previously treated TB patients referred to St.Peter's TB Specialized Hospital from January 2004-December 2008 Gregorian calendar(GC) for better diagnosis and treatment. Among 376 culture positive for M. tuberculosis one hundred and two (27.1%) were susceptible to all of the four first line anti-TB drugs -Isoniazid (INH), Rifampicin (RIF), Ethambutol (ETB) & Streptomycin (STM). While 274 (72.9%) were resistant to at least one drug. Any resistance to STM (67.3%) was found to be the most common and the prevalence of MDR-TB was 174 (46.3%). Trend in resistance rate among re-treatment cases from 2004 to 2008 showed a significant increase for any drug as well as for INH, RIF, and MDR resistance (P <0.05 for trend). There has been an increasing trend in drug resistance in recent years, particularly in retreatment cases. Therefore, establishing advanced diagnostic facilities for early detection of MDR-TB and expanding second line treatment center to treat MDR-TB patients and to prevent its transmission is recommended.

  19. Allometric equations for yield predictions of enset (Ensete ventricosum) and khat (Catha edulis) grown in home gardens of southern Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mellisse, B.T.; Descheemaeker, K.; Mourik, M.J.; Ven, van de G.W.J.

    2017-01-01

    Enset is a large, single-stemmed perennial herbaceous plant domesticated as a staple food crop only in Ethiopia. Khat is a perennial plant cultivated for its economically important leaves and twigs that are the sources of stimulant when chewed. We address the issue of yield estimation of both crops,

  20. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance in Salmonella and Shigella Species Isolated from Outpatients, Jimma University Specialized Hospital, Southwest Ethiopia

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    Tesfahun Lamboro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the prevalence of Salmonella and Shigella among outpatients in Jimma University Specialized Hospital, Southwest Ethiopia. Cross-sectional study was conducted involving a total of 176 outpatients. Stool specimens from both adult and pediatric outpatients were collected and analyzed for the presence of presumptive Salmonella and Shigella colonies followed by confirmation by biochemical tests. Pure cultures of Salmonella and Shigella species were further subjected to test for antibiotic resistance against the commonly used antibiotics. Furthermore, growth potential of the isolates in selected foods items was assessed following standard procedures. The result indicated that the prevalence of Salmonella and Shigella among outpatients in the study area was 19 (10.8% and 2 (1.1%, respectively. In addition, Salmonella species were resistant to ampicillin (100% followed by tetracycline (47.4% and nalidixic acid (26.3% while Shigella species were highly resistant to ampicillin and tetracycline (100%, each. Multidrug resistance towards maximum of four drugs was observed in both pathogens. The pathogens were observed growing to their infective dose within 24 hours. In conclusion, Salmonella and Shigella are still among microbes of public health importance in the study area. Thus, this calls for frequent monitory and evaluation of their prevalence and drug resistance patterns besides awareness development on water sanitation and hygienic food handling practices to the public at large.

  1. Prevalence of Depression among Type 2 Diabetic Outpatients in Black Lion General Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

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    Tesfa Dejenie Habtewold

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The emotional consequences of diabetes have been scrutinized by a number of investigative teams and there are varying reports about the association of depression with type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, there is limited data about this in Ethiopia. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of comorbid depression among type 2 diabetic outpatients. Methods and Materials. Institution based cross-sectional study design was conducted on a random sample of 276 type 2 diabetic outpatients from Black Lion General Specialized Hospital. Systematic random sampling technique was used to get these individual patients from 920 type 2 diabetic outpatients who have an appointment during the data collection period. Patients’ depression status was measured using Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (PHQ 9. Result. Totally 264 type 2 diabetic outpatients were interviewed with a response rate of 95.6%. The prevalence of depression among type 2 diabetic outpatients was 13%. Based on PHQ 9 score, 28.4% (75 fulfilled the criteria for mild depression, 12.1% (32 for moderate depression, 2.7% (7 for moderately severe depression, and 1.5% (4 for severe depression. But 45.8% (121 of patients had no clinically significant depression. Conclusion. This study demonstrated that depression is a common comorbid health problem in type 2 diabetic outpatients with a prevalence rate of 13%.

  2. Prevalence of Smear-Positive Tuberculosis among Patients Who Visited Saint Paul’s Specialized Hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

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    Dinna Abera Nugussie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Tuberculosis (TB continues to be a health problem in both developed and developing countries, including Ethiopia. Objective. In this study, the prevalence of smear-positive tuberculosis among presumptive TB cases who visited the hospital was assessed. Method. Acid fast bacilli (AFB test was performed on samples collected from 200 presumptive TB cases. Data were analyzed using appropriate statistical tools. Result. Among 200 presumptive TB cases, 10% (20 individuals (60% were male and 40% were female were found to be positive for the AFB. Of these AFB positive subjects, 11.2% and 6.3% were from urban and rural areas, respectively. Among 20 AFB positive cases, 45% (9, 45% (9, and 10% (2 were HIV positive, HIV negative, and with HIV status unknown, respectively. The highest AFB positive cases were found within age group between 25 and 44 years (70% and followed by age above 40 years (30%. It was found out that 75% (15, 15% (3, 5% (1, and 5% (1 were unemployed, government employed, student, and nongovernment employed, accordingly. Conclusion. This study indicated higher level of AFB positive cases within age groups of 25–44 and 65–74 years and also exhibited higher prevalence of TB cases from urban areas.

  3. Predictors of HIV/AIDS Related Ocular Manifestations among HIV/AIDS Patients in Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia

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    Guadie Sharew

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Ocular manifestations in people living with HIV/AIDS are varied and affect almost all the structures of eye leading to visual impairment or blindness. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify the predictors of HIV related ocular manifestation among ART clinic clients. Methods. Institution based cross-sectional study was employed among ART clients at Felege Hiwot referral hospital, northwest Ethiopia. The study was conducted from 1 January 2013 to 30 January 2013. A total of 369 systematically and randomly selected clients were included in the study. Data were collected using structured questionnaires and ophthalmologic clinical examination. Data were entered and analyzed using SPSS version 16.0. Binary and multivariable logistic regression analyses were computed to identify independent predictors of HIV related ocular manifestation. Results. Twenty-five percent (25.7% of HIV patients had ocular manifestations. The three most frequent signs were Squamoid Conjuctival growth (26.9%, ophthalmic herpes zoster (22.1%, and Bacterial Conjuctivitis (17.2%. History of eye problem, CD4 count, and visual acuity of the eye were the predictors of HIV related ocular manifestation. Conclusion. In this study, a higher proportion of ocular manifestations were detected in HIV/AIDS patients. Visual acuity and CD4 counts were the independent predictors of ocular manifestations. This finding gives an insight for policy makers and concerned body to integrate ophthalmic examination in ART clinics to improve the health condition of HIV/ADIS patients.

  4. Prevalence of Bacteriuria and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns among Diabetic and Nondiabetic Patients Attending at Debre Tabor Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia

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    Seble Worku

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Urinary tract infection is a major health problem especially in developing countries. Information about bacterial pathogens isolated from urinary tract infection in diabetic patients and their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns is limited in Ethiopia. Therefore, this study aimed at isolating bacterial pathogens and their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. Methods. A hospital based comparative cross-sectional study was conducted at Debre Tabor. Urine sample was inoculated onto cysteine lysine electrolyte deficient (CLED medium. Bacterial pathogens were identified using standard bacteriological methods. The data were cleaned and entered into SPSS version 20. P value less than 0.05 is considered statistically significant. Result. A total of 384 study participants were included in the study. Of them, 21 (10.9% were from diabetics and 9 (4.7% of them were from nondiabetics. Large proportion of gram positive bacteria at 18 (58.1% were isolated compared to gram negatives at 13 (41.9%. Gram positive isolates were resistant to cotrimoxazole 10 (58.8%. Conclusion. The isolation rates of bacterial pathogens were higher in diabetic than nondiabetic patients. Bacteriuria was significantly associated with sex and type of diabetes. Multidrug resistance to two or more antibiotics was observed in 56.7% of bacterial isolates. Rational use of antimicrobial agent should be thought of to prevent the emergence of multidrug resistance.

  5. Malaria in the southern highlands of Tanzania: a review of hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Outpatient attendance and inpatient admission records were examined to assess malaria situation in ten hospitals in Mbeya and Iringa Regions in southern highlands of Tanzania for a period of fifteen years from 1986-2000. Generally, records were deficient, some hospitals with entire annual records missing for one or ...

  6. Bacterial Meningitis: a five year retrospective study among patients who had attended at University of Gondar Teaching Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia

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    Birehanemeskel Tegene

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Acute Bacterial Meningitis (ABM is an important cause of death and long-term neurological disability. Recent Information on the relative frequency of the isolation and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of these pathogens is scarce in Ethiopia. This study was to document the microbial characteristics, the antibacterial sensitivity pattern, and seasonal variation of community acquired acute bacterial meningitis. The study was retrospective, conducted at university of Gondar referral hospital, serving the rural population of the northwest parts of Ethiopia. A total of three thousand and eighty five cerebrospinal fluid specimens submitted to the bacteriology laboratory for culture and antibiotic susceptibility patterns in a period between January 2006 and December 2010. Analysis of extracted data was performed using SPSS statistical software (Version 17. The etiological agent had been identified in 120 (3.8% of the total 3,085 CSF samples by culture. Thirty-nine (32.5% of them were infants below the age of 12 months. S. pneumoniae was the predominant pathogen accounting for 52 (43.3% of the cases. Whereas N. meningitidis and H. influenzae accounted for 27(22.5%, and 12(10%, respectively. Other gram negative bacilli and S. aureus were isolated from 21(17.2%, and 11(9.2% cases, respectively. Among gram positive organisms S.pneumoniae showed a high level of drug resistance against co-trimoxazole 44(84.3%. Among gram negative bacteria, N.meningitidis was found to be resistant to co-trimoxazole in 25(92.5%. E. coli and salmonella spp. were found to be resistant to most antibiotics except ciprofloxacin. Multiple drug resistance was observed in 58.3% of the isolates. S. pneumoniae remains the major etiological agent of Community Acquired Acute Bacterial Meningitis (CAABM both in adults and children in the study area. 5.7% of S. pneumoniae were resistances to penicillin. Further research should focus on preventable aspects CAABM of, especially pneumococcal

  7. Blood/Body Fluid Exposure and Needle Stick/Sharp Injury among Nurses Working in Public Hospitals; Southwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belachew, Yeshitila Belay; Lema, Tefera Belachew; Germossa, Gugssa Nemera; Adinew, Yohannes Mehretie

    2017-01-01

    Every health professional around the world is at risk of blood/body fluid exposure and needle stick/sharp injury as a result of exposure to blood or body fluids and needle or sharp injuries. However, the extent of these hazards and their driving forces are not well documented in Ethiopia. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess determinants of blood/body fluid exposure and needle stick/sharp injury among nurses working in Jimma zone, southwest Ethiopia. An institution-based census was conducted among 318 nurses working in Jimma zone public hospitals from March 10 to 30, 2016. Data were collected by using pretested self-administered questionnaire. Epi info and SPSS were used for data entry and analysis, respectively. Descriptive statistics were done. Bivariate and inter multivariate logistic regression analysis was also carried out to identify predictors of occupational hazards. The overall prevalence of blood/body fluid exposure and needle stick/sharp injury was found to be 249 (78.3%). Blood/body fluid exposure and needle stick/sharp injury incidents were reported by 62.6 and 58.8% of respondents, respectively. Majority of the hazards occurred during morning shift. Being male [AOR: 2.20, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.09, 4.4], being single (AOR: 2.26, 95% CI: 1.09, 4.69), and having no training on infection prevention (AOR: 5.99, 95% CI: 3.14, 11.41) were positively associated with blood/body fluid exposure and needle stick/sharp injury; while working in chronic illness follow-up clinic (AOR: 0.19, 95% CI: 0.05, 0.71) showed negative association at p value of 0.05. Prevalence of blood/body fluid exposure and needle stick/sharp injury was high among the nurses. The safety of nurses depends directly on the degree to which nurses can identify and control the varied occupational hazards specific to jobs. Thus, working unit specific safety precautions and basic infection prevention in-service training might improve nurses' safety practice and thereby decrease the

  8. Blood/Body Fluid Exposure and Needle Stick/Sharp Injury among Nurses Working in Public Hospitals; Southwest Ethiopia

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    Yeshitila Belay Belachew

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundEvery health professional around the world is at risk of blood/body fluid exposure and needle stick/sharp injury as a result of exposure to blood or body fluids and needle or sharp injuries. However, the extent of these hazards and their driving forces are not well documented in Ethiopia. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess determinants of blood/body fluid exposure and needle stick/sharp injury among nurses working in Jimma zone, southwest Ethiopia.MethodsAn institution-based census was conducted among 318 nurses working in Jimma zone public hospitals from March 10 to 30, 2016. Data were collected by using pretested self-administered questionnaire. Epi info and SPSS were used for data entry and analysis, respectively. Descriptive statistics were done. Bivariate and inter multivariate logistic regression analysis was also carried out to identify predictors of occupational hazards.ResultsThe overall prevalence of blood/body fluid exposure and needle stick/sharp injury was found to be 249 (78.3%. Blood/body fluid exposure and needle stick/sharp injury incidents were reported by 62.6 and 58.8% of respondents, respectively. Majority of the hazards occurred during morning shift. Being male [AOR: 2.20, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.09, 4.4], being single (AOR: 2.26, 95% CI: 1.09, 4.69, and having no training on infection prevention (AOR: 5.99, 95% CI: 3.14, 11.41 were positively associated with blood/body fluid exposure and needle stick/sharp injury; while working in chronic illness follow-up clinic (AOR: 0.19, 95% CI: 0.05, 0.71 showed negative association at p value of 0.05.ConclusionPrevalence of blood/body fluid exposure and needle stick/sharp injury was high among the nurses. The safety of nurses depends directly on the degree to which nurses can identify and control the varied occupational hazards specific to jobs. Thus, working unit specific safety precautions and basic infection prevention in-service training might improve

  9. A low pulse food intake may contribute to the poor nutritional status and low dietary intakes of adolescent girls in rural southern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roba, Alemzewed C; Gabriel-Micheal, Kebebush; Zello, Gordon A; Jaffe, Joann; Whiting, Susan J; Henry, Carol J

    2015-01-01

    Poor nutrition in adolescent girls poses critical health risks on future pregnancy and birth outcomes especially in developing countries. Our purpose was to assess nutritional status and dietary intake of rural adolescent girls and determine pulse and food intake patterns associated with poor nutritional status. A cross-sectional community-based study was conducted in a traditional pulse growing region of southern Ethiopia on 188 girls between 15 to 19 years of age, with 70% being from food insecure families. Prevalence of stunting (30.9%) and underweight (13.3%) were associated with low food and nutrient intake. Diets were cereal-based, with both animal source foods and pulses rarely consumed. Improving dietary intakes of female adolescents with nutrient dense foods would ensure better health for themselves and for the next generation.

  10. southern Welo, Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT: The morphological, physical, chemical and mineralogical characteristics of six pedons were investigated to ... weathered volcanic clasts and laterite nodules. All of the characteristics used as indices of weathering suggest that the three soil units are at different stages of pedogenesis - the Cambisols being the ...

  11. in Southern Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bernt Lindtjorn

    Refractive error was wrongly perceived by most (77%) as only a ... a PEC worker is expected to perform three tasks (6, 7):. 1. Identify and treat .... J. Health Dev. 2009;23(2). Table 1: General characteristics of a sample of Health. Extension workers in Gurage Zone, 2007. Variable (n=111). Frequency %. Age. 15-19. 22. 19.8.

  12. Adult Patients’ Satisfaction with Inpatient Nursing Care and Associated Factors in an Ethiopian Referral Hospital, Northeast, Ethiopia

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    Kokeb Haile Eyasu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Patient satisfaction with nursing care is considered as an important factor in explaining patients’ perceptions of service quality. Care assessed to be high quality according to clinical, economic, or other provider-defined criteria is far from ideal if as a result of that care the patient is unhappy or dissatisfied. Objective. The aim of this study was to assess adult patients’ satisfaction with inpatient nursing care and associated factors in Dessie Referral Hospital, Northeast Ethiopia. Methods. Institution based quantitative cross-sectional study was conducted among patients admitted in medical, surgical, orthopedics, gynecology, and ophthalmology wards of the hospital from March 24 to April 30, 2013. All admitted patients who stayed in the study wards for at least two days during the data collection time were interviewed. Newcastle Satisfaction with Nursing Scale questionnaire was used to collect the data and was analyzed using SPSS version 20. Odds ratios with their 95% confidence intervals and p values in a multiple logistic regression were used to identify factors associated with patient satisfaction with nursing care. Result. The overall patient satisfaction was 52.5%. Respondents’ sex, age, admission ward, self-reported health status, and class of admission were the variables significantly associated with patient satisfaction with nursing care. Conclusion and Recommendation. The rate of patient satisfaction with nursing care was found to be low in this study. Being female, younger age group (18–30 years, good self-reported current health status, being admitted in ophthalmology ward, and first class of admission were significantly associated with better patient satisfaction with nursing care. In-service training programs for nurses, with special emphasis on communication skills, are recommended.

  13. Prevalence of alcohol use disorders and associated factors among people with epilepsy attending Amanuel Mental Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waja, Tsegereda; Ebrahim, Jemal; Yohannis, Zegeye; Bedaso, Asres

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol use disorders represent one of the leading causes of preventable death, illness, and injury in many societies throughout the world. Heavy alcohol consumption has multiple negative consequences for people with epilepsy such as precipitation of seizure, exacerbation of seizure, poor seizure control, increased side effects of antiepileptic drugs, noncompliance to antiepileptic drugs, alcohol withdrawal seizures, long-term hospital admission, status epilepticus, sudden unexpected death, and premature mortality. An institution-based cross sectional study was conducted from April 15, 2014 to May 15, 2014 with the aim of assessing prevalence of alcohol use disorders and associated factors among people with epilepsy attending Amanuel Mental Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A total of 413 randomly selected epileptic patients were included in this study. Data were structured using the 10-item Alcohol Use Disorders Identification questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS Version 20. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to study the association, and variables with P -value disorder was 17.4%. Educational status (grade 9-12) (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =3.25, [1.21, 8.69]), not living with family members (AOR =1.89, [1.06, 3.39]), availability of house (AOR =2.04, [1.10, 3.78]), taking carbamazepine (AOR =2.38, [1.13, 5.01]), and drinking alcohol to find relief from stress (AOR =4.28, [1.89, 9.67]) were significantly associated with alcohol use disorder among people with epilepsy. The findings of this study revealed that the prevalence of alcohol use disorder among people with epilepsy was high. Routine screening of epileptic patients with the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test is recommended.

  14. Generalized psychological distress among HIV-infected patients enrolled in antiretroviral treatment in Dilla University Hospital, Gedeo zone, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesfaye, Solomon H; Bune, Girma T

    2014-01-01

    Psychological disorders like depression and anxiety are potentially dangerous conditions. In the context of HIV/AIDS, this can influence health-seeking behavior or uptake of diagnosis and treatment for HIV/AIDS, add to the burden of disease for HIV patients, create difficulty in adherence to treatment, and increase the risk of mortality and morbidity. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence and correlates of generalized psychological distress among HIV-infected subjects on antiretroviral treatment (ART). An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted. Interviews were conducted with 500 patients initiating ART at Dilla Referral Hospital. Generalized psychological distress was measured using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). A cutoff score ≥19 was used to identify possible cases of patients with generalized psychological distress. Multivariable logistic regression analysis using SPSS Version 20 was performed to identify factors associated with psychological distress. The prevalence of generalized psychological distress among the population of this study was 11.2% (HADS≥19). Factors independently associated with generalized psychological distress were moderate stress (OR=6.87, 95% CI 2.27-20.81), low social support (OR=10.17, 95% CI 2.85-36.29), number of negative life events of six and above (OR=3.99, 95% CI 1.77-8.99), not disclosing HIV status (OR=5.24, 95% CI 1.33-20.62), and CD4 cell count of prevalence of psychological distress lower than the prevalence of common mental disorders in Ethiopia and comparable to some other studies in sub-Saharan Africa. The findings are important in terms of their relevance to identifying high-risk groups for generalized psychological distress and preventing distress through integrating mental health services with HIV/AIDS care and support program.

  15. Women health extension workers: Capacities, opportunities and challenges to use eHealth to strengthen equitable health systems in Southern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusabe-Richards, John N; Tesfaye, Hayley Teshome; Mekonnen, Jarso; Kea, Aschenaki; Theobald, Sally; Datiko, Daniel G

    2016-12-27

    This study assesses the feasibility of female health extension workers (HEWs) using eHealth within their core duties, supporting both the design and capacity building for an eHealth system project focussed initially on tuberculosis, maternal child health, and gender equity. Health extension workers, Health Centre Heads, District Health Officers, Zonal Health Department and Regional Health Bureau representatives in Southern Ethiopia. The study was undertaken in Southern Ethiopia with three districts in Sidama zone (population of 3.5 million) and one district in Gedeo zone (control zone with similar health service coverage and population density). Mixed method baseline data collection was undertaken, using quantitative questionnaires (n = 57) and purposively sampled qualitative face-to-face semi-structured interviews (n = 10) and focus group discussions (n = 3). Themes were identified relating to HEW commitment and role, supervision, and performance management. The Health Management Information System (HMIS) was seen as important by all participants, but with challenges of information quality, accuracy, reliability and timeliness. Participants' perceptions varied by group regarding the purpose and benefits of HMIS as well as the potential of an eHealth system. Mobile phones were used regularly by all participants. eHealth technology presents a new opportunity for the Ethiopian health system to improve data quality and community health. Front-line female HEWs are a critical bridge between communities and health systems. Empowering HEWs, supporting them and responding to the challenges they face will be an important part of ensuring the sustainability and responsiveness of eHealth strategies. Findings have informed the subsequent eHealth technology design and implementation, capacity strengthening approach, supervision, and performance management approach.

  16. Determinants of adaptation choices to climate change by sheep and goat farmers in Northern Ethiopia: the case of Southern and Central Tigray, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feleke, Fikeremaryam Birara; Berhe, Melaku; Gebru, Getachew; Hoag, Dana

    2016-01-01

    The livestock sector serves as a foremost source of revenue for rural people, particularly in many developing countries. Among the livestock species, sheep and goats are the main source of livelihood for rural people in Ethiopia; they can quickly multiply, resilient and are easily convertible to cash to meet financial needs of the rural producers. The multiple contributions of sheep and goat and other livestock to rural farmers are however being challenged by climate change and variability. Farmers are responding to the impacts of climate change by adopting different mechanisms, where choices are largely dependent on many factors. This study, therefore, aims to analyze the determinants of choices of adaptation practices to climate change that causes scarcity of feed, heat stress, shortage of water and pasture on sheep and goat production. The study used 318 sample households drawn from potential livestock producing districts representing 3 agro-ecological settings. Data was analyzed using simple descriptive statistical tools, a multivariate probit model and Ordinary Least Squares (OLS). Most of the respondents (98.6 %) noted that climate is changing. Respondents' perception is that climate change is expressed through increased temperature (88 %) and decline in rainfall (73 %) over the last 10 years. The most commonly used adaptation strategy was marketing during forage shock (96.5 %), followed by home feeding (89.6 %). The estimation from the multivariate probit model showed that access to information, farming experience, number of households in one village, distance to main market, income of household, and agro-ecological settings influenced farmers' adaptation choices to climate change. Furthermore, OLS revealed that the adaptation strategies had positive influence on the household income.

  17. Comprehensive evaluation of electronic medical record system use and user satisfaction at five low-resource setting hospitals in ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilahun, Binyam; Fritz, Fleur

    2015-05-25

    Electronic medical record (EMR) systems are increasingly being implemented in hospitals of developing countries to improve patient care and clinical service. However, only limited evaluation studies are available concerning the level of adoption and determinant factors of success in those settings. The objective of this study was to assess the usage pattern, user satisfaction level, and determinants of health professional's satisfaction towards a comprehensive EMR system implemented in Ethiopia where parallel documentation using the EMR and the paper-based medical records is in practice. A quantitative, cross-sectional study design was used to assess the usage pattern, user satisfaction level, and determinant factors of an EMR system implemented in Ethiopia based on the DeLone and McLean model of information system success. Descriptive statistical methods were applied to analyze the data and a binary logistic regression model was used to identify determinant factors. Health professionals (N=422) from five hospitals were approached and 406 responded to the survey (96.2% response rate). Out of the respondents, 76.1% (309/406) started to use the system immediately after implementation and user training, but only 31.7% (98/309) of the professionals reported using the EMR during the study (after 3 years of implementation). Of the 12 core EMR functions, 3 were never used by most respondents, and they were also unaware of 4 of the core EMR functions. It was found that 61.4% (190/309) of the health professionals reported over all dissatisfaction with the EMR (median=4, interquartile range (IQR)=1) on a 5-level Likert scale. Physicians were more dissatisfied (median=5, IQR=1) when compared to nurses (median=4, IQR=1) and the health management information system (HMIS) staff (median=2, IQR=1). Of all the participants, 64.4% (199/309) believed that the EMR had no positive impact on the quality of care. The participants indicated an agreement with the system and information

  18. Retrospective assessment of the status and determinants of tuberculosis treatment outcome among patients treated in government hospitals in North Shoa Administrative Zone, Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailemeskel S

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Solomon Hailemeskel,1 Osman Yimer Mohammed,1 Abdurahman Mohammed Ahmed2 1Department of Midwifery, 2Department of Nursing, College of Health Sciences, Institute of Medicine and Health Science, Debre Berhan University, Debre Berhan, Ethiopia Background: One of the specific targets of Directly Observed Treatment, Short-course detailed in the updated Global Plan (2011–2015 was to achieve a treatment success rate of 87% by 2015. This strategy was introduced to Ethiopia in 1995 to reach full coverage in 2005; however, by 2009, treatment had not been as successful as expected.Objective: This study was conducted to determine treatment success rate and identify risk factors for tuberculosis (TB treatment outcomes in North Shoa Administrative Zone, Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia.Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted on all TB patients (739 who registered for TB treatment from September 1, 2012 to August 31, 2014 at public hospitals in North Shoa Administrative Zone, Ethiopia. Data were gathered by using a pretested structured medical record checklist. Four data collectors and two supervisors were involved in gathering the data. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and logistic regression and were entered into Epi Info and analyzed by using the SPSS software package version 20.Results: This study revealed that the TB treatment success rate was 86.1% (169 [22.9%] cured and 467 [63.2%] completed. In addition, 22 (3% of the study participants defaulted their treatment of which 19 (86.4% withdrew during the intensive phase. The multiple logistic regression model revealed that the study year of treatment, sputum smear positivity at the second-month follow-up, history of treatment default, and subsequent hospitalization were significantly associated with the TB treatment outcome.Conclusion: The TB treatment success rate in the study area was low compared to that estimated by World Health Organization to achieve by 2015. Therefore

  19. Motivation and Factors Affecting It among Health Professionals in the Public Hospitals, Central Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagne, Tesfaye; Beyene, Waju; Berhanu, Negalign

    2015-07-01

    Motivation is an individual's degree of willingness to exert and maintain an effort towards organizational goals. This study assessed motivational status and factors affecting it among health professionals in public hospitals of West Shoa Zone, Oromia Region. Facility based cross-sectional survey was employed. All health professionals who served at least for 6 months in Ambo, Gedo and Gindeberet hospitals were included. Self-administered Likert scale type questionnaire was used. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20. Mean motivation calculated as percentage of maximum scale score was used. Bivariate and multiple linear regression analyses were done to see the independent effects of explanatory variables. The overall motivation level of health professionals was 63.63%. Motivation level of health professionals varied among the hospitals. Gindeberet Hospital had lower motivation score as compared to Ambo Hospital (B = -0.54 and 95% CI; -0.08,-0.27). The mean motivation score of health professionals who got monthly financial benefit was significantly higher than those who did not (B = 0.71 and 95% CI; 0.32, 1.10). Environmental factors had higher impact on doctors' motivation compared to nurses' (B = 0.51 and 95% CI; 0.10, 0.92). Supervisor-related factors highly varied in motivation relative to other variables. Motivation of health professionals was affected by factors related to supervisor, financial benefits, job content and hospital location. Efforts should be made to provide financial benefits to health professionals as appropriate especially, to those who did not get any such benefits. Officially recognizing best performance is also suggested.

  20. Rifampicin-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis among tuberculosis-presumptive cases at University of Gondar Hospital, northwest Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaleta KN

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Kefyalew N Jaleta,1,* Mucheye Gizachew,1 Baye Gelaw,1 Habtie Tesfa,2 Alem Getaneh,1 Belete Biadgo3,* 1Department of Medical Microbiology, 2Department of Medical Parasitology, 3Department of Clinical Chemistry, School of Biomedical and Laboratory Sciences, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Various studies have reported that the emergence of drug-resistant tuberculosis poses a significant threat to tuberculosis-control programs worldwide. Rifampicin resistance is a surrogate marker of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, since it reveals the presence of greater than 90% isoniazid resistance. Evidence on rifampicin-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis is scarce in the literature. Objective: To determine the prevalence of rifampicin-resistant M. tuberculosis among tuberculosis-presumptive cases at the University of Gondar Hospital. Materials and methods: A retrospective study was conducted at the University of Gondar Hospital from January 2013 to August 2015. Data were collected from registration books using a data-extraction format after securing ethical approval and checking the completeness of necessary information. Data were double-entered and rechecked to ensure accuracy and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Results were summarized using descriptive statistics. Associations were assessed using Fisher’s exact test, and P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: A total of 1,820 M. tuberculosis-presumptive patients were included in the study. The majority of the study participants were males (59.2%. The mean age of the participants was 36.6±15.8 years. The preponderant age-group was 24–30 years, with 477 (23.5% patients. The overall prevalence of M. tuberculosis-confirmed cases was 448 (24.6%, 95% CI 0.23–0.27. Of the 448 M. tuberculosis-confirmed cases, 71 (15.8%, 95% CI 1.12–1.19 were resistant to rifampicin. Rifampicin

  1. Knowledge, attitude and practice of emergency contraceptive among women who seek abortion care at Jimma University specialized hospital, southwest Ethiopia

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    Tesfaye Tatek

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Ethiopia maternal mortality rate is very high more than one in five women die from pregnancy or pregnancy related causes. The use of contraceptives to prevent unwanted pregnancies and unsafe abortion is an important strategy to minimize maternal mortality rate. Among various forms of contraception, emergency contraceptives are the only one that can be used after sexual intercourse offering chance to prevent unwanted pregnancy. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of emergency contraceptive among women who seek abortion care at Jimma University specialized hospital (JUSH. Methods Institution base cross-sectional study on knowledge, attitude and practice of emergency contraceptive was conducted at JUSH from April to June, 2011Data was collected using structured questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS version 17.0. Results In this study 89 women were interviewed. More than half of them (48 were from urban area and 41 were from rural area.46 (51.7% of them were single. Of all the respondents only nine women had awareness about emergency contraceptive. Seven of the women mentioned pills as emergency contraception and only two of them mentioned both pills and injectable as emergency contraception. All of them have positive attitude towards emergency contraception but none of them have ever used emergency contraceptives. Conclusion and recommendation The finding revealed pregnancy among women of 15-19 years was very common. The knowledge and practice of emergency contraception is very low. But there is high positive attitude towards emergency contraceptives. Since there is much deficit on knowledge of women on emergency contraceptives, in addition to making them accessible; programs targeted at promotion and education of emergency contraceptives is helpful to prevent unwanted pregnancy.

  2. Nonadherence and factors affecting adherence of diabetic patients to anti-diabetic medication in Assela General Hospital, Oromia Region, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassahun, Ashebir; Gashe, Fanta; Mulisa, Eshetu; Rike, Wote Amelo

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a major global health problem covering approximately 347 million persons worldwide. Glycemic control has a main role in its management which mainly depends upon patient adherence to the treatment plan. Accurate assessment of medication adherence is necessary for effective management of diabetes. To assess nonadherence and factors affecting adherence of diabetic patients to anti-diabetic medication in Assela General Hospital (AGH), Oromia Region, Ethiopia. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on patients seeking anti-diabetic drug treatment and follow-up at AGH using structured questionnaire and reviewing the patient record card using check list from January 24, 2014 to February 7, 2014. Descriptive analysis was used to describe the percentages and number of distributions of the variables in the study; and association was identified for categorical data. P ≤ 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Of all respondents, 149 (52.3%) and 136 (47.7%) were female and male, respectively. The majority of the study participants 189 (66.3%) were in the age group of 30-60 years. Two-hundred nineteen (76.8%) of respondents were married currently. The majority, 237 (83.2%) of respondents did not have blood glucose self-monitoring equipment (glucometer). A total of 196 (68.8%) respondents were adhered to anti-diabetic medication. There was a significant association between adherence to the medication and side effect, level of education, monthly income and presence of glucometer at home (P anti-diabetic medications with nonadherence rate of 31.2%. Different factors of medication nonadherence were identified such as side effect and complexity of regimen, failure to remember, and sociodemographic factors such as educational level and monthly income.

  3. Medication administration error reporting and associated factors among nurses working at the University of Gondar referral hospital, Northwest Ethiopia, 2015.

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    Bifftu, Berhanu Boru; Dachew, Berihun Assefa; Tiruneh, Bewket Tadesse; Beshah, Debrework Tesgera

    2016-01-01

    Medication administration is the final step/phase of medication process in which its error directly affects the patient health. Due to the central role of nurses in medication administration, whether they are the source of an error, a contributor, or an observer they have the professional, legal and ethical responsibility to recognize and report. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of medication administration error reporting and associated factors among nurses working at The University of Gondar Referral Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia. Institution based quantitative cross - sectional study was conducted among 282 Nurses. Data were collected using semi-structured, self-administered questionnaire of the Medication Administration Errors Reporting (MAERs). Binary logistic regression with 95 % confidence interval was used to identify factors associated with medication administration errors reporting. The estimated medication administration error reporting was found to be 29.1 %. The perceived rates of medication administration errors reporting for non-intravenous related medications were ranged from 16.8 to 28.6 % and for intravenous-related from 20.6 to 33.4 %. Education status (AOR =1.38, 95 % CI: 4.009, 11.128), disagreement over time - error definition (AOR = 0.44, 95 % CI: 0.468, 0.990), administrative reason (AOR = 0.35, 95 % CI: 0.168, 0.710) and fear (AOR = 0.39, 95 % CI: 0.257, 0.838) were factors statistically significant for the refusal of reporting medication administration errors at p-value definition, administrative reason and fear were factors statistically significant for the refusal of errors reporting at p-value definition of reportable errors and strengthen the educational status of nurses by the health care organization.

  4. Assessment of isoniazid preventive therapy in the reduction of tuberculosis among ART patients in Arba Minch Hospital, Ethiopia

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    Abossie A

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Ashenafi Abossie, Tsegaye Yohanes Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Arba Minch University, Arba Minch, Ethiopia Background: Tuberculosis (TB is the most frequent life-threatening opportunistic disease among people living with HIV and remains a leading cause of mortality, even among persons receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART. Isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT and cotrimoxazole prophylaxis have been recommended for the benefit of HIV/AIDS-infected individuals to prevent opportunistic infections. The aim of this study was to assess IPT prophylaxis in the reduction of TB among ART patients. Methods: The study was a hospital-based retrospective study. A total of 271 study participants’ available information such as demographic data, the type of prophylaxis used, and TB/HIV coinfection status as well as other variables were collected from clinical laboratory and HIV care/ART follow-up clinic. Data analysis was performed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS version 20.0. Results: TB-infected ART patients were higher among non-IPT group (37 [27.8%] compared to IPT group (12 [8.7%]. The finding showed that IPT prophylaxis significantly reduces acquiring TB with the relative risk =0.31 (95% confidence interval =0.122, 0.49 in ART patients of this study site where the tuberculosis prevalence is prominent. ART had significant contribution for CD4+ T-cell lymphocyte count improvement in both IPT and non-IPT groups (P<0.05 in this study. Conclusion: IPT had significant contributions to reduce the burden of TB in ART patients than non-IPT group. This result highlights the use of IPT for the prevention of TB, especially for all ART patients. Other longitudinal studies are needed to observe the benefits and side effects of IPT prophylaxis in tuberculin skin test-positive individuals. Keywords: IPT prophylaxis, ART patients, tuberculosis, CD4+ T-cell count, opportunistic disease

  5. Predictors of preoperative anxiety among surgical patients in Jimma University Specialized Teaching Hospital, South Western Ethiopia.

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    Nigussie, Seifu; Belachew, Tefera; Wolancho, Wadu

    2014-09-05

    Hospitalization and surgery are critical negative life events that lead to the experience of considerable anxiety in patients. Patients may perceive the day of surgery as the biggest and the most threatening day in their lives. There is paucity of information on predictors of anxiety in the current study area. The main objective of this study is to assess predictors of preoperative anxiety among patients scheduled for surgery in Jimma University Specialized Teaching Hospital. A facility based cross-sectional study was conducted using quantitative data collection technique in Jimma University Specialized Teaching Hospital from February 13 to April 13, 2012 on 239 patients scheduled for surgery. The data were collected by five trained diploma nurses using structured interviewer administered questionnaires that were prepared based on state trait anxiety inventory measurement scale. The quantitative data were entered into SPSS for windows version 16. 0 and descriptive, simple and multiple linear regression analyses were performed. A total of 239 patients were enrolled in the study with a response rate of 93.0%. Their mean age was 42.7 ± 1.8 years (range 16 to 85 years). Nearly over half 53.6% were females, while 48.1% illiterate, 72.4% Oromo and 56.5% were Muslim followers. Significant preoperative anxiety was seen in 70.3% patients. The most common factors that lead to anxiety were fear of death 38.1% and fear of unknown origin 24.3% and the most common strategy mentioned by patient in reducing anxiety were talking to other patient 79.8% and religious belief. In the present study, two third 70.3% of preoperative patients had anxiety. Factors which were positively correlated with anxiety were trait anxiety, single and divorced, time of operation and income. Factors which were shown to reduce anxiety were preoperative anxiety related information provision and afternoon operation. Health professionals working in the hospital should provide anxiety related

  6. Multiple antimicrobial resistance in gram negative bacilli isolated from clinical specimens, Jimma Hospital, southwest Ethiopia.

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    Tenssaie, Z W

    2001-10-01

    A total of 413 clinical specimens (pus, blood, urine, and stool) collected from patients admitted to Jimma Hospital were cultured for isolation and identification of aerobic bacteria and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Out of these, 124 specimens yielded one or more Gram-negative bacilli strains. Frequent Gram negative bacterial isolates were Proteus species 34(27%), Klebsiella species 26(21%), Enterobacter species 24(19%), and E. coli 24(19%). Antimicrobial susceptibility test results showed that all E. coli, Klebsiella, and Enterobacter species were resistant to ampicillin. Ninety-two percent of Enterbacter sp., 85% of Klebisiella and 79% of E. coli were resistant to tetracycline. Almost all the isolates were found to be multi-resistant to the commonly used antimicrobials, ampicillin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, and trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole. Antimicrobial resistant strains of bacteria are increasing and may contribute to spread of serious infectious diseases in Jimma Hospital and elsewhere in the country. Therefore, if we are to prevent and control infections by emerging antimicrobial resistant bacterial strains, measures such as strengthening clinical microbiology laboratory, increased emphasis on effective infection control, emphasis on hygienic practices in hospital, and prudent use of existing antimicrobial agents is recommended.

  7. Poverty, inequality and health: the challenge of the double burden of disease in a non-profit hospital in rural Ethiopia.

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    Accorsi, Sandro; Kedir, Nejmudin; Farese, Pasquale; Dhaba, Shallo; Racalbuto, Vincenzo; Seifu, Abera; Manenti, Fabio

    2009-05-01

    This study was aimed at describing disease patterns in a rural zone of Oromiya region, Ethiopia through a retrospective analysis of discharge records for 22,377 inpatients of St. Luke Hospital, Wolisso, Ethiopia in the period 2005-2007. The leading cause of admission was childbirth, followed by injuries, malaria and pneumonia. Injuries were the leading cause of in-hospital deaths, followed by pneumonia, malaria, cardiovascular disease and AIDS. Vulnerable groups (infants, children and women) accounted for 73.3% of admissions. Most of the disease burden resulted from infectious diseases, the occurrence of which could be dramatically reduced by cost-effective preventive and curative interventions. Furthermore, a double burden of disease is already emerging at the early stage of the epidemiological transition, with a mix of persistent, emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases and increasing prevalence of chronic conditions and injuries. This will lead to fundamental changes in the volume and composition of demand for healthcare, with a more complex case mix and more costly service utilization patterns. The challenge is to address the double burden of disease, while focusing on poverty-related conditions and targeting vulnerable groups. Monitoring disease and service utilization patterns through routine hospital information systems can provide sustainable, low-cost support for evidence-based health practice.

  8. Prevalence of Malnutrition and Associated Factors among Hospitalized Patients with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome in Jimma University Specialized Hospital, Ethiopia.

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    Mulu, Habtamu; Hamza, Leja; Alemseged, Fesehaye

    2016-05-01

    HIV/AIDS predisposes to malnutrition. Malnutrition exacerbates HIV/AIDS progression resulting in increased morbidity and mortality. The magnitude of malnutrition in HIV/AIDS patients has not been well studied in Ethiopian setup. Our objective was to assess the prevalence of malnutrition and associated factors among HIV/AIDS patients admitted to Jimma University Specialized Hospital (JUSH). A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the nutritional status of 109 HIV/AIDS patients admitted from November 2013 to July 2014. Cohort design was also used for outcome assessment. Serum levels of hemoglobin, albumin and CD4 counts were determined. Data were organized, coded, cleaned, entered into a computer and analyzed using SPSS version 16.0. Descriptive analysis was done initially. Those variables in the bivariate analysis with P-value prevalence of malnutrition was 46.8% (BMIprevalence of malnutrition was found to be high. WHO Stage 4 disease and CD4 count malnutrition.

  9. Occupational Health and Safety in Ethiopia: A review of Situational ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kim

    2Pesticide Action Network (PAN) Nexus, Ethiopia;. 3Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, USA;. 4Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs, Ethiopia. Review Article. Occupational Health and Safety in Ethiopia: A review of. Situational Analysis and Needs Assessment.

  10. Land Conversion Dynamics in the Borana Rangelands of Southern Ethiopia: An Integrated Assessment Using Remote Sensing Techniques and Field Survey Data

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    Michael Elias

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Conversion of rangelands into cultivated land is one of the main challenges affecting the management of rangelands in Ethiopia. In order to inform policy makers about trends in land-use conversion, this study examined the drivers, trends, and impacts of land conversions in five locations selected in the Borana rangelands of Southern Ethiopia. This study integrated survey interviews from agro-pastoralists, participatory appraisals, rainfall data, and remotely sensed satellite data from Landsat images taken in 1985 and 2011. Results indicate that there is a marked increase in cultivated land in some of the study sites while in the other sites there is a slight reduction. The bare lands increased in some parts of the study sites though there was slight recovery of grassland in some of the degraded areas. Settlement areas with permanent housing increased. Woodland vegetation decreased except on mountain escarpments where there were slight gains. The results further show that, during this period, bushland decreased while at the same time grassland increased. Shrub/grassland with seasonally flooded areas increased in the bottomlands. Inhabitants interviewed in the study areas perceived land use and land cover changes to be driven by interplay of recurrent drought, loss of pasture, food insecurity, and decline in income. Changes in policies that govern natural resources have influence the land use change in this area and the expansion of cultivation. Expansion of cultivation practices upon rangelands has resulting in significant loss of vegetation biomass and soil erosion, thereby precipitating rangeland degradation. The results provide comprehensive insights regarding the influence of internal and external drivers of land conversion that should be considered when making decisions for land use planning.

  11. Prevalence of dyslipidemia among HIV-infected patients using first-line highly active antiretroviral therapy in Southern Ethiopia: a cross-sectional comparative group study

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    Tadewos Agete

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data on lipid profile abnormalities among patients receiving highly active antiretroviral treatment in Ethiopia are very limited. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of dyslipidemia and characteristics of lipid profiles among patients living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV using first-line highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART in Southern Ethiopia. Methods This cross sectional comparative group study was conducted between March and May 2012, and included 113 HIV infected patients treated for a minimum of one year with first-line HAART regimens that included Efavirenz and Nevirapine (HAART group and others 113 who had never received HAART (pre-HAART group. Serum lipid profiles were determined after overnight fasting and dyslipidemia was assessed according to the United State National Cholesterol Education program-III guideline. For statistical analysis Chi-square, student’s t-test, and logistic regression were used using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS Version 20. Result Ninety-three (82.3% of HAART and 87 (76.9% pre-HAART patients had at least one laboratory abnormality, which is compatible with a diagnosis of dyslipidemia. Total cholesterol ≥ 200 mg/dl occurred in 43.4% of HAART and 15.9% pre-HAART patients (p= Conclusion Use of first-line antiretroviral therapy regimens that contain Efavirenz and Nevirapine were associated with raised total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides, an established atherogenic lipid profiles. Lipid profiles should be performed at baseline before commencement of antiretroviral therapy and then periodically through treatment follow-up to monitor any rising trends.

  12. Estimating Access to Drinking Water Supply, Sanitation, and Hygiene Facilities in Wolaita Sodo Town, Southern Ethiopia, in Reference to National Coverage

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    Debebe, Ashenafi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. The coverage of sanitation and access to safe drinking water in Ethiopia especially in Wolaita Sodo town are not well studied. Therefore, the main objective of this study was estimating access to drinking water supply, sanitation, and hygiene facilities in Wolaita Sodo town, southern Ethiopia, in reference to national coverage. Methods. A community based cross-sectional study design method was employed in the study in 588 households of Wolaita Sodo town inhabitants. Face-to-face interview to household owners, in-depth interview to key informants, reviewing secondary data, and observational check lists were used to collect data. Districts were selected using simple random sampling techniques, while systematic random sampling technique was applied to select households. Data was analyzed using Epi Info version 3.5.4 and SPSS version 16 statistical software. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analysis were carried out. Results. The community has access to improved water supply which was estimated to be 67.9%. The main water sources of the town were tap water within the yard, which was estimated to be 44.7%, and tap water in the community was 40.0% followed by private protected well which was 14.5%. Ninety-one percent of the households had at least one type of latrine in their homes. The most common type of latrine available to households was pit latrine with superstructure which was estimated to be 75.9% followed by a pit without superstructure, 21.3%, and more than half of the respondents had hand washing facilities in their compound. Occupational status, educational status, and training on water, sanitation, and hygiene related topics were significantly associated with use of improved water source, improved sanitation, and hygiene facilities. Conclusion. In order to address the demand of the town, additional water, sanitation, and hygiene programs are required. PMID:28025598

  13. Estimating Access to Drinking Water Supply, Sanitation, and Hygiene Facilities in Wolaita Sodo Town, Southern Ethiopia, in Reference to National Coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Admasie, Amha; Debebe, Ashenafi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. The coverage of sanitation and access to safe drinking water in Ethiopia especially in Wolaita Sodo town are not well studied. Therefore, the main objective of this study was estimating access to drinking water supply, sanitation, and hygiene facilities in Wolaita Sodo town, southern Ethiopia, in reference to national coverage. Methods. A community based cross-sectional study design method was employed in the study in 588 households of Wolaita Sodo town inhabitants. Face-to-face interview to household owners, in-depth interview to key informants, reviewing secondary data, and observational check lists were used to collect data. Districts were selected using simple random sampling techniques, while systematic random sampling technique was applied to select households. Data was analyzed using Epi Info version 3.5.4 and SPSS version 16 statistical software. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analysis were carried out. Results. The community has access to improved water supply which was estimated to be 67.9%. The main water sources of the town were tap water within the yard, which was estimated to be 44.7%, and tap water in the community was 40.0% followed by private protected well which was 14.5%. Ninety-one percent of the households had at least one type of latrine in their homes. The most common type of latrine available to households was pit latrine with superstructure which was estimated to be 75.9% followed by a pit without superstructure, 21.3%, and more than half of the respondents had hand washing facilities in their compound. Occupational status, educational status, and training on water, sanitation, and hygiene related topics were significantly associated with use of improved water source, improved sanitation, and hygiene facilities. Conclusion. In order to address the demand of the town, additional water, sanitation, and hygiene programs are required.

  14. Time to first consultation, diagnosis and treatment of TB among patients attending a referral hospital in Northwest, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Early detection and treatment of TB is essential for the success of TB control program performance. The aim of this study was to determine the length and analyze predictors of patients’, health systems’ and total delays among patients attending a referral hospital in Bahir Dar, Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among newly diagnosed TB cases ≥ 15 years of age. Delay was analyzed at three levels: the periods between 1) onset of TB symptoms and first visit to medical provider, i.e. patients’ delay, 2) the first visit to a medical provider and the initiation of treatment i.e. health systems’ delay and 3) onset of TB symptoms and initiation of treatment i.e. total delay. Uni- and multi-variate logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate predictors of patients’, health systems’ and total delays. Results The median time of patients’ delay was 21 days [(interquartile range (IQR) (7 days, 60 days)]. The median health systems’ delay was 27 days (IQR 8 days, 60 days) and the median total delay was 60 days (IQR 30 days, 121 days). Patients residing in rural areas had a three-fold increase in patients’ delay compared to those from urban areas [Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) 3.4; 95% (CI 1.3, 8.9)]. Extra-pulmonary TB (EPTB) cases were more likely to experience delay in seeking treatment compared to pulmonary (PTB) cases [(AOR 2.6; 95% (CI 1.3, 5.4)]. Study subjects who first visited health centres [(AOR) 5.1; 95% (CI 2.1, 12.5)], private facilities [(AOR) 3.5; 95% (CI 1.3, 9.7] and health posts [(AOR) 109; 95% (CI 12, 958], were more likely to experience an increase in health systems’ delay compared to those who visited hospitals. Conclusions The majority of TB patients reported to medical providers within an acceptable time after the onset of symptoms. Rural residence was associated with patients’ and total delays. Providing the population with information about TB symptoms and the importance of early

  15. Generalized psychological distress among HIV-infected patients enrolled in antiretroviral treatment in Dilla University Hospital, Gedeo zone, Ethiopia

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    Solomon H. Tesfaye

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Psychological disorders like depression and anxiety are potentially dangerous conditions. In the context of HIV/AIDS, this can influence health-seeking behavior or uptake of diagnosis and treatment for HIV/AIDS, add to the burden of disease for HIV patients, create difficulty in adherence to treatment, and increase the risk of mortality and morbidity. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence and correlates of generalized psychological distress among HIV-infected subjects on antiretroviral treatment (ART. Design: An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted. Interviews were conducted with 500 patients initiating ART at Dilla Referral Hospital. Generalized psychological distress was measured using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS. A cutoff score ≥19 was used to identify possible cases of patients with generalized psychological distress. Multivariable logistic regression analysis using SPSS Version 20 was performed to identify factors associated with psychological distress. Results: The prevalence of generalized psychological distress among the population of this study was 11.2% (HADS≥19. Factors independently associated with generalized psychological distress were moderate stress (OR=6.87, 95% CI 2.27–20.81, low social support (OR=10.17, 95% CI 2.85–36.29, number of negative life events of six and above (OR=3.99, 95% CI 1.77–8.99, not disclosing HIV status (OR=5.24, 95% CI 1.33–20.62, and CD4 cell count of <200 cells/mm3 (OR=1.98, 95% CI 0.45–0.83 and 200–499 cells/mm3 (OR=3.53, 95% CI 1.62–7.73. Conclusions: This study provides prevalence of psychological distress lower than the prevalence of common mental disorders in Ethiopia and comparable to some other studies in sub-Saharan Africa. The findings are important in terms of their relevance to identifying high-risk groups for generalized psychological distress and preventing distress through integrating mental health

  16. Treatment Outcomes of Tuberculosis Patients at Debre Berhan Hospital, Amhara Region, Northern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tefera, Firdie; Dejene, Tariku; Tewelde, Tsegaye

    2016-01-01

    Directly observed treatment remains one of the most widely-accepted global health interventions for tuberculosis. Tuberculosis treatment outcome is one of the performance indicators of the programme set by World Health Organization. Therefore, evaluating the treatment success rate of Debre Berhan Hospital was mandatory to show the achievement and to indicate where the hospital is against the World Health Organization target. A register based cross sectional study covering the period of January 2009 to December 2013 was employed. All clients with complete records of the treatment outcome were included in the study. A checklist was prepared to extract data from patient charts. Data were entered into Epi-info version 3.2.2andanalyzed using SPSS version 16 for windows. Between January 2009 and December 2013, a total of 1280 tuberculosis cases that had complete records on treatment outcome were included in the analysis. Four in five (79.4%) of the patients had favorable treatment outcome; 15.8% were cured and 63.5%completed their treatment. There was a continuous increment of treatment success rate from 2010 to 2013 in the area and the treatment success rate in the year 2013 was 84.4%. Despite the recent improvements in treatment success rate, treatment completed and defaulting rate, further efforts should be made by responsible bodies to identify and improve possible promoting factors for successful tuberculosis treatment outcome.

  17. Antibiogram of nosocomial urinary tract infections in Felege Hiwot referral hospital, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melaku, S; Kibret, M; Abera, B; Gebre-Sellassie, S

    2012-06-01

    Nosocomial infections increase the cost of medical care, extend hospital stay and reflect on the morbidity and mortality of the admitted patients. Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are one of the most common nosocomial infections in humans. To determine the prevalence and antibiogram of nosocomial UITs from a referral hospital. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 1 254 patients from April to August 2010. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were done using disc diffusion technique as per the standard of Kirby-Bauer method. Of the 1 254 patients, 118 (9.4%) developed nosocomial UTIs. Seventy three (61.9%) and 44 (37.1%) of the bacterial isolates were gram negative and gram positive, respectively. One patient had a mixed infection. E. coli, S.aureus and K. pneumonia were the most predominant isolates. Gender, catheterization and pre-operative antimicrobial prophylaxis and underlying diseases were significantly associated with the occurrence of nosocomial UTIs (p=0.001). Most bacterial isolates showed high resistance rates (>80%) to ampicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, chloramphenicol and cloxacillin. Catheterization and preoperative antibiotic prophylaxis were found to be the risk factors for nosocomial infection. Effective infection prevention measures should be in place to reduce the prevalence of nosocomial UTIs.

  18. Physicians' and nurses' satisfaction with the clinical laboratory service of Gondar University Hospital, northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addis, Zelalem; Birhan, Wubet; Derseh, Dejene; Sahle, Biruktawit; Gizaw, Netsanet

    2013-09-01

    To assess physicians' and nurses' satisfaction with the service provided by the laboratory at Gondar University Hospital. We conducted a cross-sectional study involving 196 nurses and physicians. Overall level of satisfaction was 51.1% for nurses and 51.5% for physicians. Lack of consistency in the quality of laboratory work, absence of a timely report of critical values, test turnaround time, acceptability of results released, and reporting of reference ranges with test results were areas mentioned as sources of dissatisfaction. The study showed wide room for improvement. In addition to taking intervention, root causes of dissatisfaction need to be investigated and means of improving the satisfaction level should be designed and implemented.

  19. Psychological morbidity and substance use among patients with hypertension: a hospital-based cross-sectional survey from South West Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soboka, Matiwos; Gudina, Esayas Kebede; Tesfaye, Markos

    2017-01-01

    Psychological morbidity and substance use disorders have been linked to cardiovascular diseases; affecting patients' medical outcome and quality of life. However, little is known about psychological morbidity and substance use among patients with hypertension in Ethiopia. Therefore, we aimed to assess psychological comorbidity and substance use among hypertensive patients in Southwest Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 396 hypertensive patients on follow-up at Jimma University Teaching Hospital in Ethiopia during the study period. Structured questionnaires were used to assess alcohol use, khat chewing and cigarette smoking. Psychological morbidity was assessed using the Kessler-6 scale. Multiple logistic regression analysis was carried out to identify the independent association between outcome and explanatory variables. The prevalence of psychological morbidity among hypertensive patients was 31.6%. Of the total participants, 31 (7.8%) of them had alcohol use disorders and 79 (19.9%) of them were using khat regularly at the time of the study. Singles were more likely to have psychological morbidity than married participants (AOR = 4.72; 95% CI 1.83, 12.20, p = 0.001), whereas those who were able to 'read and write' were less likely to have psychological morbidity than non-literate ones (AOR = 0.46; 95% CI 0.24, 0.89, p = 0.02). However, no association was seen between psychological morbidity and substance use (khat chewing, alcohol use and cigarette smoking), belief about hypertension, ever discontinuation of medication and lifestyle (exercise, salt consumption). Psychological morbidity and substance use are prevalent among hypertensive patients on follow-up at the hospital. The findings of the study imply that there is a need for further studies to understand the effect of psychological morbidity on the clinical outcomes of hypertensive patients.

  20. Antihypertensive drug prescription patterns and their impact on outcome of blood pressure in Ethiopia: a hospital-based cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abegaz TM

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tadesse Melaku Abegaz, Yonas Getaye Tefera, Tamrat Befekadu Abebe Department of Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia Background: Irrational prescription is strongly associated with poor control of hypertension. The present study aimed to evaluate antihypertensive drug prescription trends and to measure their impact on the level of blood pressure (BP control in Gondar University Hospital, Gondar, Ethiopia.Methods: A hospital-based retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted from May 30 to June 30, 2016. All hypertensive patients on medication were included. A structured data abstraction form was prepared to gather the necessary information. The prescription patterns and BP level was measured retrospectively. A binary logistic regression was computed to determine the effect of different prescription patterns on BP control.Results: A total of 596 hypertension patients were recruited for the study; of them, 561(94% met the study criteria. The mean age of the respondents was 55.96±14.6 years. Females constituted 58.2% of the study population. Approximately fifty percent of the prescriptions were monotherapies. Twice-daily dosing was associated with lower risk of uncontrolled hypertension (crude odds ratio [COR] =0.51[0.15–0.73], adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =0.69[0.163–0.91]. Monthly appointment was linked with a nearly 90% reduced incidence of uncontrolled BP (COR =0.15[0.04–0.73], AOR =0.093[0.024–0.359].Conclusion: Monotherapies were the most frequently prescribed regimens. Twice-daily dosing and monthly appointments were associated with low incidence of uncontrolled BP. Clinicians should be vigilant in adjusting the frequency of dosing and should fix appointment date in consultation with their patients. Keywords: prescription patterns, blood pressure, Ethiopia

  1. Smear positive extra pulmonary tuberculosis disease at University of Gondar Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background While pulmonary tuberculosis is the most common presentation, extra pulmonary tuberculosis is also an important clinical problem. However, no adequate information had been made available on the prevalence of smear positive extra pulmonary tuberculosis in Gondar. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and possible risk factors of smear positive extra pulmonary tuberculosis among suspected patients at University of Gondar Hospital. Methods A cross-sectional study on extra pulmonary tuberculosis suspected patients was conducted at University of Gondar Hospital from January 2012 to April, 2012. Specimens of patients suspected of extra pulmonary tuberculosis were obtained from fine needle aspiration and body fluid samples collected by pathologist. Demographic characteristics and other variables were collected using a pretested semi-structured questionnaire. Smears were prepared from each sample and stained by Ziehel Neelson and Wright stain. The result of the study was analyzed with bivariate and multivariate logistic regression. Result A total of 344 extra pulmonary tuberculosis suspected clients were included in the study and specimens were taken from lymph node aspirates and body fluids. The overall prevalence of smear positive extra pulmonary tuberculosis was 34 (9.9%). Of these cases of extra pulmonary tuberculosis, lymph node tuberculosis constituted the largest proportion (82.4%). Among the 34 extra pulmonary tuberculosis patients, over half of them (52.9%) were positive for human immunodeficiency virus. The largest proportion of tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus cases occurred among persons with in the age group of 31–40 years. Previous history of tuberculosis (OR = 4.77, 95% CI 1.86-12.24), contact to a known tuberculosis cases (OR = 6.67 95% CI 2.78-16.90), history of underlying diseases (OR = 2.79 95% CI 1.15-6.78) and income (OR = 12.9 95% CI 2.25-68.02) were significantly associated with extra pulmonary

  2. Smear positive extra pulmonary tuberculosis disease at University of Gondar Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia

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    Zenebe Yohannes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While pulmonary tuberculosis is the most common presentation, extra pulmonary tuberculosis is also an important clinical problem. However, no adequate information had been made available on the prevalence of smear positive extra pulmonary tuberculosis in Gondar. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and possible risk factors of smear positive extra pulmonary tuberculosis among suspected patients at University of Gondar Hospital. Methods A cross-sectional study on extra pulmonary tuberculosis suspected patients was conducted at University of Gondar Hospital from January 2012 to April, 2012. Specimens of patients suspected of extra pulmonary tuberculosis were obtained from fine needle aspiration and body fluid samples collected by pathologist. Demographic characteristics and other variables were collected using a pretested semi-structured questionnaire. Smears were prepared from each sample and stained by Ziehel Neelson and Wright stain. The result of the study was analyzed with bivariate and multivariate logistic regression. Result A total of 344 extra pulmonary tuberculosis suspected clients were included in the study and specimens were taken from lymph node aspirates and body fluids. The overall prevalence of smear positive extra pulmonary tuberculosis was 34 (9.9%. Of these cases of extra pulmonary tuberculosis, lymph node tuberculosis constituted the largest proportion (82.4%. Among the 34 extra pulmonary tuberculosis patients, over half of them (52.9% were positive for human immunodeficiency virus. The largest proportion of tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus cases occurred among persons with in the age group of 31–40 years. Previous history of tuberculosis (OR = 4.77, 95% CI 1.86-12.24, contact to a known tuberculosis cases (OR = 6.67 95% CI 2.78-16.90, history of underlying diseases (OR = 2.79 95% CI 1.15-6.78 and income (OR = 12.9 95% CI 2.25-68.02 were significantly associated

  3. Smear positive extra pulmonary tuberculosis disease at University of Gondar Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenebe, Yohannes; Anagaw, Belay; Tesfay, Wogahta; Debebe, Tewodros; Gelaw, Baye

    2013-01-18

    While pulmonary tuberculosis is the most common presentation, extra pulmonary tuberculosis is also an important clinical problem. However, no adequate information had been made available on the prevalence of smear positive extra pulmonary tuberculosis in Gondar. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and possible risk factors of smear positive extra pulmonary tuberculosis among suspected patients at University of Gondar Hospital. A cross-sectional study on extra pulmonary tuberculosis suspected patients was conducted at University of Gondar Hospital from January 2012 to April, 2012. Specimens of patients suspected of extra pulmonary tuberculosis were obtained from fine needle aspiration and body fluid samples collected by pathologist. Demographic characteristics and other variables were collected using a pretested semi-structured questionnaire. Smears were prepared from each sample and stained by Ziehel Neelson and Wright stain. The result of the study was analyzed with bivariate and multivariate logistic regression. A total of 344 extra pulmonary tuberculosis suspected clients were included in the study and specimens were taken from lymph node aspirates and body fluids. The overall prevalence of smear positive extra pulmonary tuberculosis was 34 (9.9%). Of these cases of extra pulmonary tuberculosis, lymph node tuberculosis constituted the largest proportion (82.4%). Among the 34 extra pulmonary tuberculosis patients, over half of them (52.9%) were positive for human immunodeficiency virus. The largest proportion of tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus cases occurred among persons with in the age group of 31-40 years. Previous history of tuberculosis (OR = 4.77, 95% CI 1.86-12.24), contact to a known tuberculosis cases (OR = 6.67 95% CI 2.78-16.90), history of underlying diseases (OR = 2.79 95% CI 1.15-6.78) and income (OR = 12.9 95% CI 2.25-68.02) were significantly associated with extra pulmonary tuberculosis infection. The prevalence of

  4. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Shigella among acute diarrheal outpatients in Mekelle hospital, Northern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebrekidan, Atsebaha; Dejene, Tsehaye Asmelash; Kahsay, Getahun; Wasihun, Araya Gebreysus

    2015-10-28

    Emergence of increased antimicrobial resistance of Shigella species is a global challenge, particularly in developing countries where increased misuse of antimicrobial agents occurs. There is no published data in the study area on the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Shigella among acute diarrheal patients. This study was therefore, under taken to fill this gap. Using cross sectional study method, stool specimens were collected from 216 patients with acute diarrhea at Mekelle Hospital from August to November 2014. Standard bacteriological methods were used to isolate and determine the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of the isolates, and data were analyzed using SPSS version 20. Out of the total 216 participants, Shigella was isolated from 15 (6.9 %) of the participants. Ten (66.7 %) of the positive isolates were from children Shigella showed 100, 86.7 and 66.7 % resistance to amoxicillin, amoxicillin and cotrimoxazole respectively. Low levels of resistance were observed for norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin (6.7 % each). Overall, 80 % of the isolates showed multidrug resistance. Shigella isolates were highly resistant to amoxicillin, amoxicillin and cotrimoxazole. However, ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin were effective. Antibiotic surveillance is needed to prevent further emergence of drug resistant Shigella strains. More has to be done in the availability of latrine, supply of safe drinking water to the community to reduce the disease burden.

  5. Assessment of the structural and process aspects of pharmaceutical care at a university hospital in Ethiopia

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    Abdrrahman Shemsu Surur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the structural and process components of the pharmaceutical care at Gondar University Referral Hospital (GURH. Materials and Methods: An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted on all the four pharmacies at GURH from October 1 to December 31, 2013. By adopting data collection instruments from a previously done study, the structural aspects of the pharmacies were assessed using an observation checklist and the process of pharmaceutical care delivery using a self-administered questionnaire. The data collected was entered to and analyzed using Statistical Packages for Social Sciences (SPSS version 16.0. Results: none of the pharmacies had a private counseling room, fire extinguisher and meeting area. None of the pharmacy stores were equipped with fan and air ventilation system and had no cross aisles. The mean values for documentation, patient assessment and implementation of therapeutic objective were 12.14, 14.03 and 5.64 respectively. Many pharmacists (64.29% did not participate in ward rotation with physicians. The overall pharmacy professionals′ level of job satisfaction was found to be 2.77. Conclusion: There were gaps in the structure and the process of the provision of pharmaceutical care in GURH.

  6. Time series analysis of trends in malaria cases and deaths at hospitals and the effect of antimalarial interventions, 2001-2011, Ethiopia.

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    Maru Aregawi

    Full Text Available The Government of Ethiopia and its partners have deployed artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACT since 2004 and long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs since 2005. Malaria interventions and trends in malaria cases and deaths were assessed at hospitals in malaria transmission areas during 2001-2011.Regional LLINs distribution records were used to estimate the proportion of the population-at-risk protected by LLINs. Hospital records were reviewed to estimate ACT availability. Time-series analysis was applied to data from 41 hospitals in malaria risk areas to assess trends of malaria cases and deaths during pre-intervention (2001-2005 and post-interventions (2006-2011 periods.The proportion of the population-at-risk potentially protected by LLINs increased to 51% in 2011. The proportion of facilities with ACTs in stock exceeded 87% during 2006-2011. Among all ages, confirmed malaria cases in 2011 declined by 66% (95% confidence interval [CI], 44-79% and SPR by 37% (CI, 20%-51% compared to the level predicted by pre-intervention trends. In children under 5 years of age, malaria admissions and deaths fell by 81% (CI, 47%-94% and 73% (CI, 48%-86% respectively. Optimal breakpoint of the trendlines occurred between January and June 2006, consistent with the timing of malaria interventions. Over the same period, non-malaria cases and deaths either increased or remained unchanged, the number of malaria diagnostic tests performed reflected the decline in malaria cases, and rainfall remained at levels supportive of malaria transmission.Malaria cases and deaths in Ethiopian hospitals decreased substantially during 2006-2011 in conjunction with scale-up of malaria interventions. The decrease could not be accounted for by changes in hospital visits, malaria diagnostic testing or rainfall. However, given the history of variable malaria transmission in Ethiopia, more data would be required to exclude the possibility that the decrease is due to other factors.

  7. Time Series Analysis of Trends in Malaria Cases and Deaths at Hospitals and the Effect of Antimalarial Interventions, 2001–2011, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aregawi, Maru; Lynch, Michael; Bekele, Worku; Kebede, Henok; Jima, Daddi; Taffese, Hiwot Solomon; Yenehun, Meseret Aseffa; Lilay, Abraham; Williams, Ryan; Thomson, Madeleine; Nafo-Traore, Fatoumata; Admasu, Kesetebirhan; Gebreyesus, Tedros Adhanom; Coosemans, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Background The Government of Ethiopia and its partners have deployed artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACT) since 2004 and long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) since 2005. Malaria interventions and trends in malaria cases and deaths were assessed at hospitals in malaria transmission areas during 2001–2011. Methods Regional LLINs distribution records were used to estimate the proportion of the population-at-risk protected by LLINs. Hospital records were reviewed to estimate ACT availability. Time-series analysis was applied to data from 41 hospitals in malaria risk areas to assess trends of malaria cases and deaths during pre-intervention (2001–2005) and post-interventions (2006–2011) periods. Findings The proportion of the population-at-risk potentially protected by LLINs increased to 51% in 2011. The proportion of facilities with ACTs in stock exceeded 87% during 2006–2011. Among all ages, confirmed malaria cases in 2011 declined by 66% (95% confidence interval [CI], 44–79%) and SPR by 37% (CI, 20%–51%) compared to the level predicted by pre-intervention trends. In children under 5 years of age, malaria admissions and deaths fell by 81% (CI, 47%–94%) and 73% (CI, 48%–86%) respectively. Optimal breakpoint of the trendlines occurred between January and June 2006, consistent with the timing of malaria interventions. Over the same period, non-malaria cases and deaths either increased or remained unchanged, the number of malaria diagnostic tests performed reflected the decline in malaria cases, and rainfall remained at levels supportive of malaria transmission. Conclusions Malaria cases and deaths in Ethiopian hospitals decreased substantially during 2006–2011 in conjunction with scale-up of malaria interventions. The decrease could not be accounted for by changes in hospital visits, malaria diagnostic testing or rainfall. However, given the history of variable malaria transmission in Ethiopia, more data would be required to exclude the

  8. (SPHMMC), Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GB

    2017-11-01

    Nov 1, 2017 ... HIV-1/2, syphilis and hepatitis B antibodies in their serum were the inclusion criterias. ... gestational age, smoking habit and the use of alcohol consumption. Clinical data .... with their gestational category at St. Paul's Hospital Millennium Medical College (SPHMMC), Addis. Ababa, Ethiopia, From 01/03/2016 ...

  9. Factors affecting women’s intention to use long acting and permanent contraceptive methods in Wolaita Zone, Southern Ethiopia: A cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The use of long acting and permanent contraceptive methods (LAPMs) has not kept step with that of short-acting methods such as oral pills and injectable in Africa. This study explores the association between women’s awareness, attitude and barriers with their intention to use LAPMs among users of short term methods, in Southern Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study design of mixed methods was conducted in the public health facilities of Wolaita zone, Southern Ethiopia, in January 2013. Women who were using short term contraceptive methods were the study population (n = 416). Moreover, 12 in-depth interviews were conducted among family planning providers and women who have been using short term methods. Data were entered into EPI Info version 3.5.3 and exported to SPSS version 16.0 for analysis. The odds ratios in the binary logistic regression model along with 95% confidence interval were used. Results One hundred fifty six (38%) of women had the intention to use LAPMs while nearly half of them (n = 216) had a negative attitude to use such methods. Moreover, two-third of study participants (n = 276) held myths and misconceptions about such methods. The women who had a positive attitude were found to be 2.5 times more intention to use LAPMs compared to women who had a negative attitude (AOR =2. 47; 95% CI: 1.48- 4.11). Women who had no myths and misconceptions on LAPMs were found to be 1.7 times more intention to use LAPMs compared to women who had myths and misconceptions (AOR = 1.71; 95% CI: 1.08- 2.72). Likewise, women who attained secondary and higher level of education were found to be 2 and 2.8 times more intention to use LAPMs compared to women with no education, respectively (AOR = 2. 10; 95% CI: 1.11- 3.98) and AOR = 2. 80; 95% CI: 1.15- 6.77). Conclusions Intention to use LAPMs was low and nearly half of women had a negative attitude to use such methods. Positive attitude, absence of myths and misconceptions on

  10. Factors affecting women's intention to use long acting and permanent contraceptive methods in Wolaita Zone, Southern Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meskele, Mengistu; Mekonnen, Wubegzier

    2014-09-12

    The use of long acting and permanent contraceptive methods (LAPMs) has not kept step with that of short-acting methods such as oral pills and injectable in Africa. This study explores the association between women's awareness, attitude and barriers with their intention to use LAPMs among users of short term methods, in Southern Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study design of mixed methods was conducted in the public health facilities of Wolaita zone, Southern Ethiopia, in January 2013. Women who were using short term contraceptive methods were the study population (n = 416). Moreover, 12 in-depth interviews were conducted among family planning providers and women who have been using short term methods. Data were entered into EPI Info version 3.5.3 and exported to SPSS version 16.0 for analysis. The odds ratios in the binary logistic regression model along with 95% confidence interval were used. One hundred fifty six (38%) of women had the intention to use LAPMs while nearly half of them (n = 216) had a negative attitude to use such methods. Moreover, two-third of study participants (n = 276) held myths and misconceptions about such methods. The women who had a positive attitude were found to be 2.5 times more intention to use LAPMs compared to women who had a negative attitude (AOR =2. 47; 95% CI: 1.48- 4.11). Women who had no myths and misconceptions on LAPMs were found to be 1.7 times more intention to use LAPMs compared to women who had myths and misconceptions (AOR = 1.71; 95% CI: 1.08- 2.72). Likewise, women who attained secondary and higher level of education were found to be 2 and 2.8 times more intention to use LAPMs compared to women with no education, respectively (AOR = 2. 10; 95% CI: 1.11- 3.98) and AOR = 2. 80; 95% CI: 1.15- 6.77). Intention to use LAPMs was low and nearly half of women had a negative attitude to use such methods. Positive attitude, absence of myths and misconceptions on LAPMs and secondary and plus level of

  11. Predictors of mortality among children on Antiretroviral Therapy at a referral hospital, Northwest Ethiopia: A retrospective follow up study

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    Koye Digsu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An estimated 2.5 million children were living with HIV/AIDS at the end of 2009, 2.3 million (92% in sub-Saharan Africa. Without treatment, a third of children with HIV will die of AIDS before their first birthday, half dying before two years of age. Hence, this study aimed to assess magnitude and predictors of mortality among children on Antiretroviral Therapy (ART at a referral hospital in North-West Ethiopia. Methods Institution based retrospective follow up study was carried out among HIV-positive children from January 1st, 2006 - March 31st, 2011. Information on relevant variables was collected from patients’ charts and registries. Life table was used to estimate the cumulative survival of children. Log rank tests were employed to compare survival between the different categories of the explanatory variables. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards model was fitted to identify predictors of mortality. Results A total of 549 records were included in the analysis. The mean age at initiation of treatment was 6.35 ±3.78 SD years. The median follow up period was 22 months. At the end of the follow up, 41(7.5% were dead and 384(69.9% were alive. Mortality was 4.0 deaths per 100 child-years of follow-up period. The cumulative probabilities of survival at 3, 6, 12, 24, and 60 months of ART were 0.96, 0.94, 0.93, 0.92 and 0.83 respectively. Majority (90.2% of the deaths occurred within the first year of treatment. Absence of cotrimoxazole preventive therapy (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] = 4.74, 95% CI: 2.17, 10.34, anaemia (haemoglobin level Conclusions There was a high rate of early mortality. Hence, starting ART very early reduces disease progression and early mortality; close follow up of all children of HIV-positive mothers is recommended to make the diagnosis and start treatment at an earlier time before they develop severe immunodeficiency.

  12. Clinico-pathological features of erythema nodosum leprosum: A case-control study at ALERT hospital, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negera, Edessa; Walker, Stephen L; Girma, Selfu; Doni, Shimelis N; Tsegaye, Degafe; Lambert, Saba M; Idriss, Munir H; Tsegay, Yohanis; Dockrell, Hazel M; Aseffa, Abraham; Lockwood, Diana N

    2017-10-01

    Leprosy reactions are a significant cause of morbidity in leprosy population. Erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL) is an immunological complication affecting approximately 50% of patients with lepromatous leprosy (LL) and 10% of borderline lepromatous (BL) leprosy. ENL is associated with clinical features such as skin lesions, neuritis, arthritis, dactylitis, eye inflammation, osteitis, orchitis, lymphadenitis and nephritis. ENL is treated mainly with corticosteroids and corticosteroids are often required for extended periods of time which may lead to serious adverse effects. High mortality rate and increased morbidity associated with corticosteroid treatment of ENL has been reported. For improved and evidence-based treatment of ENL, documenting the systems affected by ENL is important. We report here the clinical features of ENL in a cohort of patients with acute ENL who were recruited for a clinico-pathological study before and after prednisolone treatment. A case-control study was performed at ALERT hospital, Ethiopia. Forty-six LL patients with ENL and 31 non-reactional LL matched controls were enrolled to the study and followed for 28 weeks. Clinical features were systematically documented at three visits (before, during and after predinsolone treatment of ENL cases) using a specifically designed form. Skin biopsy samples were obtained from each patient before and after treatment and used for histopathological investigations to supplement the clinical data. Pain was the most common symptom reported (98%) by patients with ENL. Eighty percent of them had reported skin pain and more than 70% had nerve and joint pain at enrolment. About 40% of the patients developed chronic ENL. Most individuals 95.7% had nodular skin lesions. Over half of patients with ENL had old nerve function impairment (NFI) while 13% had new NFI at enrolment. Facial and limb oedema were present in 60% patients. Regarding pathological findings before treatment, dermal neutrophilic infiltration was

  13. Determination of the sources and antimicrobial resistance patterns of Salmonella isolated from the poultry industry in Southern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdi, Reta Duguma; Mengstie, Fisseha; Beyi, Ashenafi Feyisa; Beyene, Takele; Waktole, Hika; Mammo, Bedasso; Ayana, Dinka; Abunna, Fufa

    2017-05-18

    Ethiopia set an ambitious masterplan to increase chicken meat and egg production from 2015 to 2020. Poultry breeding, multiplication and distribution centers in the country have received executive order to import, amplify and distribute commercial chickens to end users. The biosecurity and the pathogen fauna of the centers have not been evaluated as to whether the centers could implement the mission effectively without any risk. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the biosecurity practices and the pathogen prevalence, risk factors and their antimicrobial resistance (AMR) using Salmonella as case study. Routine farm workers of the centers were interviewed about the different management (biosecurity) practices using a checklist. Samples (n = 270) from different sources consisting of chicken's cloacal swab (n = 244), personnel hand swab (n = 9) and bedding (n = 17) were collected from three chicken multiplication centers. Standard bacteriological methods were used for the isolation of Salmonella. Disk diffusion method was used for drug sensitivity testing. Antimicrobials were often over prescribed without confirming the cause of ill health and without susceptibility testing. The general biosecurity and flock management practices were substandard. Salmonella was isolated from 45 (16.7%) of the 270 samples. Its prevalence was significantly (pSalmonella isolation from (i) bedding, (ii) personnel hand swabs (iii) chickens, (iv) presence of more MDR isolates, (v) coupled with poor biosecurity practices in the centers could pose a risk for spreading of pathogens and drug resistant genes to the smallholder chicken producers and the public. We conclude that the poultry breeding, multiplication and distribution centers in Ethiopia, as they stand currently, seem to be a source of pathogens and AMR isolates at least for Salmonella. Therefore, strict biosecurity, personnel safety, prudent drug use, regular monitoring and traceability of Salmonella serotypes or genotypes

  14. Molecular epidemiology and spatiotemporal analysis of hospital-acquired Acinetobacter baumannii infection in a tertiary care hospital in southern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chusri, S; Chongsuvivatwong, V; Rivera, J I; Silpapojakul, K; Singkhamanan, K; McNeil, E; Doi, Y

    2017-01-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii is a major hospital-acquired pathogen in Thailand that has a negative effect on patient survival. The nature of its transmission is poorly understood. To investigate the genotypic and spatiotemporal pattern of A. baumannii infection at a hospital in Thailand. The medical records of patients infected with A. baumannii at an 800-bed tertiary care hospital in southern Thailand between January 2010 and December 2011 were reviewed retrospectively. A. baumannii was identified at the genomospecies level. Carbapenemase genes were identified among carbapenem-resistant isolates associated with A. baumannii infection. A spatiotemporal analysis was performed by admission ward, time of infection and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) groups of A. baumannii. Nine PFGE groups were identified among the 197 A. baumannii infections. All A. baumannii isolates were assigned to International Clonal Lineage II. blaOXA-23 was the most prevalent carbapenemase gene. Outbreaks were observed mainly in respiratory and intensive care units. The association between PFGE group and hospital unit was significant. Spatiotemporal analysis identified 20 clusters of single PFGE group infections. Approximately half of the clusters involved multiple hospital units simultaneously. A. baumannii transmitted both within and between hospital wards. Better understanding and control of the transmission of A. baumannii are needed. Copyright © 2016 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of Biochar Application on Growth of Garden Pea (Pisum sativum L. in Acidic Soils of Bule Woreda Gedeo Zone Southern Ethiopia

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    Tariku Berihun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this experiment was to study the effect of types and rates of biochar on growth, yield, and yield component of garden pea at Bule wereda, Southern Ethiopia. The treatments consist of two types of biochar (corncobs and Lantana camara and four rates of biochar (0, 6, 12, and 18 t ha−1. The experiment was laid out as a randomized complete block design in a factorial arrangement with three replications. Soil samples were collected at a depth of 0–30 cm and germination parameter and phonology of garden pea were recorded. The result showed that soil bulk density, porosity, pH, and exchangeable acidity were significantly (P<0.001 affected by biochar application. The result also showed that maximum germination percentage of garden pea seeds (95.23% was recorded at 18 t ha−1 of Lantana biochar. The shoot length was significantly (P<0.05 affected at 15 days and 30 days of biochar application. Moreover, fresh shoot weight and dry root biomass, number of seeds per pod, and grain yield of garden pea were significantly affected (P<0.05. Of the substrate and application rate applied, Lantana camara 12 t ha−1 and Lantana camara 18 t ha−1 significantly increased yield of garden pea. Thus, further studies on effect of different biochars and their specific role are suggested to increase crop production.

  16. Use of pulse crops in complementary feeding of 6-23-month-old infants and young children in Taba Kebele, Damot Gale District, Southern Ethiopia

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    Addisalem Mesfin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Poor complementary feeding practices contribute to infants and young children (IYC malnutrition, with lack of protein-containing food and micronutrients as major concerns. A cross-sectional survey was conducted to assess the dietary diversity, nutrient contents and use of pulse crops in complementary feeding at Taba kebele, Southern Ethiopia. A questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic and dietary diversity data from a random sample of 128 mother-child pairs. A one day weighed food record assessed IYC median nutrient intake. Focus group discussion explored mothers’ perceptions and use of pulse crops in complementary food preparation. Dietary diversity assessment found that 43.7% consumed pulses, and only 18.7% consumed meat and 26.6% eggs. Focus group discussion showed that mothers had little interest in incorporating pulses into complementary foods. Raising awareness of mothers/caregivers on food diversification and promoting the inclusion of pulses in food preparation for infants and young children are vital to nutritional status of IYC.

  17. Utilization Status of Electronic Information Sources (EIS) for HIV/AIDS Care and Treatment in Specialized Teaching Hospitals of Ethiopia, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramo, Senait Samuel; Agago, Tesfamichael Alaro

    2017-09-01

    According to the World Health Organization, the use of Electronic Information Sources (EIS) in healthcare is not merely about application of technology, but it is also a foundation to provide higher quality clinical care. This study was aimed to assess Utilization Status of EIS for HIV/AIDS Care and Treatment in specialized teaching hospitals of Ethiopia, 2016. A facility based cross-sectional study design was used. The study populations were 352 healthcare professionals selected by using simple random sampling technique from three randomly selected specialized teaching hospitals of Ethiopia. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected and analyzed by fitting multivariate logistic regression model and thematically by bringing similar themes together respectively. This study revealed that only 33.2% of the health professionals used EIS as supporting tool in their clinical practice including HIV/AIDS care and treatment. The main reasons for not using EIS were having no training 285(89.9%), followed by preferring print resources 20(6.3 %). Furthermore, there was statistically significant association between use of EIS and perceived electronic information retrieval skills AOR = 3.271, CI (1.942, 4.051), perceived quality of electronic information content retrieved AOR= 2.069, CI (1.051, 3.925) and limited access to computer and internet connection AOR = 5.072, CI (1.834, 5.931). In this study, only one-third of health professionals used EIS as supporting tool in their clinical practice. Hence, hospital boards should devise strategies to improve utilization of EIS.

  18. Determinants of virological failure among patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy in University of Gondar Referral Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayu, Belete; Tariku, Amare; Bulti, Abera Balcha; Habitu, Yohannes Ayanaw; Derso, Terefe; Teshome, Destaw Fetene

    2017-01-01

    Viral load monitoring is used as an important biomarker for diagnosing treatment failure in patients with HIV infection/AIDS. Ethiopia has started targeted viral load monitoring. However, factors leading to virological failure are not well understood and studied. Thus, the aim of this study was to identify the determinants of virological failure among HIV-infected patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy at the University of Gondar Referral Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia. A case-control study was conducted from May to June 2015. Cases were subjects who had already experienced virological failure; controls were those without virological failure. Data were extracted from 153 cases and 153 controls through chart review. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was carried out to identify factors associated with virological failure, and variables with a p-value failure was observed among patients aged failure. Therefore, evidence-based intervention should be implemented to improve adherence to ART, which in turn helps to boost immunity (CD4) and suppresses viral replication and load. Moreover, attention should be given to younger patients who have had ART for longer periods.

  19. Impact of HIV Status on Treatment Outcome of Tuberculosis Patients Registered at Arsi Negele Health Center, Southern Ethiopia: A Six Year Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebremariam, Gebreslassie; Asmamaw, Getachew; Hussen, Muktar; Hailemariam, Mengistu Z; Asegu, Demissie; Astatkie, Ayalew; Amsalu, Anteneh G

    2016-01-01

    Despite implementation of different strategies, the burden and mortality of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated tuberculosis (TB) remains a challenge in Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of HIV status on treatment outcome of tuberculosis patients registered at Arsi Negele Health Center, Southern Ethiopia. A six-year retrospective data (from September 2008 to August 2014) of tuberculosis patients (n = 1649) registered at the directly observed therapy short-course (DOTS) clinic of Arsi Negele Health Center was reviewed. Treatment outcome and tuberculosis type were categorized according to the national tuberculosis control program guideline. Data were entered and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to examine the effect of HIV status separately on default/failure and death in relation to those who were successfully treated. Odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were used to check the presence and strength of association between TB treatment outcome and HIV status and other independent variables. Out of the 1649 TB patients, 94.7% (1562) have been tested for HIV of whom 156(10%) were HIV co-infected. The mean (standard deviation) age of the patients was 28.5(15.5) years. The majority were new TB cases (96.7%), male (53.7%), urban (54.7%), and had smear negative pulmonary TB (44.1%). Overall, the treatment success rate of TB patients with or without HIV was 87.3%. Using cure/completion as reference, patients without known HIV status had significantly higher odds of default /failure [aOR, 4.26; 95%CI, 1.684-10.775] and transfer-out [aOR, 2.92; 95%CI, 1.545-5.521] whereas those who tested positive for HIV had a significantly higher odds of death [aOR, 6.72; 95%CI, 3.704-12.202] and transfer-out [aOR, 2.02; 95%CI, 1.111-3.680]. Overall, treatment outcome and HIV testing coverage for TB patients is promising to reach the WHO target in the study area. However, default/failure among patients

  20. Impact of HIV Status on Treatment Outcome of Tuberculosis Patients Registered at Arsi Negele Health Center, Southern Ethiopia: A Six Year Retrospective Study.

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    Gebreslassie Gebremariam

    Full Text Available Despite implementation of different strategies, the burden and mortality of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-associated tuberculosis (TB remains a challenge in Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of HIV status on treatment outcome of tuberculosis patients registered at Arsi Negele Health Center, Southern Ethiopia.A six-year retrospective data (from September 2008 to August 2014 of tuberculosis patients (n = 1649 registered at the directly observed therapy short-course (DOTS clinic of Arsi Negele Health Center was reviewed. Treatment outcome and tuberculosis type were categorized according to the national tuberculosis control program guideline. Data were entered and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to examine the effect of HIV status separately on default/failure and death in relation to those who were successfully treated. Odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were used to check the presence and strength of association between TB treatment outcome and HIV status and other independent variables.Out of the 1649 TB patients, 94.7% (1562 have been tested for HIV of whom 156(10% were HIV co-infected. The mean (standard deviation age of the patients was 28.5(15.5 years. The majority were new TB cases (96.7%, male (53.7%, urban (54.7%, and had smear negative pulmonary TB (44.1%. Overall, the treatment success rate of TB patients with or without HIV was 87.3%. Using cure/completion as reference, patients without known HIV status had significantly higher odds of default /failure [aOR, 4.26; 95%CI, 1.684-10.775] and transfer-out [aOR, 2.92; 95%CI, 1.545-5.521] whereas those who tested positive for HIV had a significantly higher odds of death [aOR, 6.72; 95%CI, 3.704-12.202] and transfer-out [aOR, 2.02; 95%CI, 1.111-3.680].Overall, treatment outcome and HIV testing coverage for TB patients is promising to reach the WHO target in the study area. However, default/failure among

  1. Trends of tuberculosis case notification and treatment outcomes in the Sidama Zone, southern Ethiopia: ten-year retrospective trend analysis in urban-rural settings.

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    Dangisso, Mesay Hailu; Datiko, Daniel Gemechu; Lindtjørn, Bernt

    2014-01-01

    Ethiopia is one of the high tuberculosis (TB) burden countries. An analysis of trends and differentials in case notifications and treatment outcomes of TB may help improve our understanding of the performance of TB control services. A retrospective trend analysis of TB cases was conducted in the Sidama Zone in southern Ethiopia. We registered all TB cases diagnosed and treated during 2003-2012 from all health facilities in the Sidama Zone, and analysed trends of TB case notification rates and treatment outcomes. The smear positive (PTB+) case notification rate (CNR) increased from 55 (95% CI 52.5-58.4) to 111 (95% CI 107.4-114.4) per 105 people. The CNRs of PTB+ in people older than 45 years increased by fourfold, while the mortality of cases during treatment declined from 11% to 3% for smear negative (PTB-) (X2trend, P<0.001) and from 5% to 2% for PTB+ (X2trend, P<0.001). The treatment success was higher in rural areas (AOR 1.11; CI 95%: 1.03-1.2), less for PTB- (AOR 0.86; CI 95%: 0.80-0.92) and higher for extra-pulmonary TB (AOR 1.10; CI 95%: 1.02-1.19) compared to PTB+. A higher lost-to-follow up was observed in men (AOR 1.15; CI 95%: 1.06-1.24) and among PTB- cases (AOR 1.14; CI 95%: 1.03-1.25). More deaths occurred in PTB-cases (AOR 1.65; 95% CI: 1.44-1.90) and among cases older than 65 years (AOR 3.86; CI 95%: 2.94-5.10). Lastly, retreatment cases had a higher mortality than new cases (6% vs 3%). Over the past decade TB CNRs and treatment outcomes improved, whereas the disparities of disease burden by gender and place of residence reduced and mortality declined. Strategies should be devised to address higher risk groups for poor treatment outcomes.

  2. Trends of tuberculosis case notification and treatment outcomes in the Sidama Zone, southern Ethiopia: ten-year retrospective trend analysis in urban-rural settings.

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    Mesay Hailu Dangisso

    Full Text Available Ethiopia is one of the high tuberculosis (TB burden countries. An analysis of trends and differentials in case notifications and treatment outcomes of TB may help improve our understanding of the performance of TB control services.A retrospective trend analysis of TB cases was conducted in the Sidama Zone in southern Ethiopia. We registered all TB cases diagnosed and treated during 2003-2012 from all health facilities in the Sidama Zone, and analysed trends of TB case notification rates and treatment outcomes.The smear positive (PTB+ case notification rate (CNR increased from 55 (95% CI 52.5-58.4 to 111 (95% CI 107.4-114.4 per 105 people. The CNRs of PTB+ in people older than 45 years increased by fourfold, while the mortality of cases during treatment declined from 11% to 3% for smear negative (PTB- (X2trend, P<0.001 and from 5% to 2% for PTB+ (X2trend, P<0.001. The treatment success was higher in rural areas (AOR 1.11; CI 95%: 1.03-1.2, less for PTB- (AOR 0.86; CI 95%: 0.80-0.92 and higher for extra-pulmonary TB (AOR 1.10; CI 95%: 1.02-1.19 compared to PTB+. A higher lost-to-follow up was observed in men (AOR 1.15; CI 95%: 1.06-1.24 and among PTB- cases (AOR 1.14; CI 95%: 1.03-1.25. More deaths occurred in PTB-cases (AOR 1.65; 95% CI: 1.44-1.90 and among cases older than 65 years (AOR 3.86; CI 95%: 2.94-5.10. Lastly, retreatment cases had a higher mortality than new cases (6% vs 3%.Over the past decade TB CNRs and treatment outcomes improved, whereas the disparities of disease burden by gender and place of residence reduced and mortality declined. Strategies should be devised to address higher risk groups for poor treatment outcomes.

  3. Impact assessment of a community-based animal health project in Dollo Ado and Dollo Bay districts, southern Ethiopia.

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    Admassu, B; Nega, S; Haile, T; Abera, B; Hussein, A; Catley, A

    2005-01-01

    Participatory methods were used to assess the impact of a community-based animal health worker (CAHW) project in two remote pastoralist districts of Ethiopia. The CAHW project had been operating for 3 years at the time of the assessment. Participatory methods were standardized and repeated with 10 groups of informants in the project area. The assessment showed significant reductions in disease impact for diseases handled by CAHWs compared with diseases not handled by CAHWs. In camels, there was significant reduction (p impact of mange, trypanosomosis, helminthosis, anthrax and non-specific respiratory disease. In cattle there was a signficant reduction (p impact of blackleg, anthrax and helminthosis. In sheep and goats there was a sign reduction (p impact of mange, helminthosis, contagious caprine pleuropneumonia, orf and non-specific diarrhoea. In order of importance, these reductions in disease impact were attributed to (1) increased use of modern veterinary services provided by CAHWs, (2) vaccination campaigns involving CAHWs, (3) good rainfall and availability of grazing and (4) decreased herd mobility. Decreased herd mobility was also associated with negative impact of tick infestation. Community-based animal health workers were considered to be highly accessible, available, affordable and trustworthy relative to other service providers. They were also perceived to be suppliers of a good quality service. Specific types of positive impact attributed to CAHW activities were increases in milk, meat, income and draught power.

  4. Level of sustained glycemic control and associated factors among patients with diabetes mellitus in Ethiopia: a hospital-based cross-sectional study

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    Abebe SM

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Solomon Mekonnen Abebe,1 Yemane Berhane,2 Alemayehu Worku,3 Shitaye Alemu,1 Nebiyu Mesfin1 1University of Gondar, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, School of Medicine, Gondar, Ethiopia; 2Addis Continental Institute of Public Health, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; 3School of Public Health, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Background: The level of sustained glycemic control in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM is a major determinant of the occurrence of both acute and chronic complications. However, information about the level of glycemic control among patients in the follow-up care at the University of Gondar Referral Hospital is scanty. The study assessed the degree of glycemic control and associated factors among diabetic patients in the study area. Method: A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted at the University of Gondar Referral Hospital. All diabetic patients aged ≥18 years who visited the Diabetes Clinic in January and February 2013 for follow-up medical evaluation and medication participated in the study. Patients with glycosylated hemoglobin test (HbA1c of ≥7% were classified as having a poor level of glycemic control. Propensity score was used to estimate the treatment effect. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was applied to determine the associated factors. Result: Two hundred and fifty three (64.7% of the 391 diabetic patients included in the study had a poor level of glycemic control, as evidenced by HbA1c ≥7%. Poor glycemic control was much higher among Type 1 patients (82.9% compared with Type 2 patients (57.5%. Being on insulin treatment (AOR =2.51; 95% CI =1.25, 5.04 and reporting poor medication adherence (AOR =3.19; 95% CI =1.76, 5.80 were found to be associated with poor glycemic control among Type 2 DM patients. High waist circumference was inversely associated with a poor level of glycemic control in Type 1 DM patients (AOR =0.05; 95% CI =0.01, 0.85. Conclusion: The proportion of

  5. Expectation and satisfaction of HIV/AIDS patients toward the pharmaceutical care provided at Gondar University Referral Hospital, Northwestern Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study

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    Abebe TB

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Tamrat Befekadu Abebe,1 Daniel Asfaw Erku,2 Begashaw Melaku Gebresillassie,1 Kaleab Taye Haile,3 Abebe Basazn Mekuria4 1Department of Clinical Pharmacy, 2Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, 3Department of Pharmaceutics, 4Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia Purpose: Measurements of patient satisfaction help to assess the performance of health service provision and predict treatment adherence and outcomes. This study aimed to assess human HIV/AIDS patients’ expectation of and satisfaction with the pharmaceutical service delivered at Gondar University Referral Hospital, Ethiopia. Patients and methods: An institution-based cross-sectional study was performed from May 11 to 25, 2015. A total of 291 patients living with HIV/AIDS were included using a simple random sampling method. Data were collected using structured questionnaires measuring expectation and satisfaction of respondents using a Likert scale of 1–5 through face-to-face interviews. The data collected were entered into and analyzed using Statistical Packages for Social Sciences. Comparison was made between those respondents who lived in and outside the town. Results: The overall mean expectation and satisfaction of respondents toward pharmacy setting and services were 3.62 and 3.13, respectively. More than half (56.1% of the participants were dissatisfied with the comfort and convenience of waiting area and private counseling room. Similarly, 69.3% of the respondents claimed that pharmacy professionals did not give information about side effects and drug–drug and drug–food interactions of antiretroviral medications. There was a statistically significant difference between respondents who live in and outside Gondar town in overall expectation (t=3.415, P=0.001 with the pharmacy setting and services. Conclusion: In this study, the overall satisfaction level of respondents with pharmaceutical service (pharmacy setting and services

  6. Quality of care at ART clinic in Shashamanne referral hospital, West Arsi zone, Oromina National Regional State, South Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Melese Belayneh

    2017-01-01

    Background Low income nations like Ethiopia, which are heavily affected by HIV pandemic, health system needs to provide comprehensive services for escalating numbers of HIV positive patients. While demand is increasing, resources are not expanding at desirable rates to meet these demands. This leads to the risk of running poor quality antiretroviral therapy in resource limited health facilities. However, there is paucity of research based evidences on the quality of health services in the ...

  7. Prevalence of dry eye disease in southern Egypt: a hospital-based outpatient clinic study

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    Engy M Mostafa

    2016-01-01

    This is the first observational study of DED in southern Egypt on a large sample population. The prevalence of DED among ophthalmic outpatients at Sohag University Hospital, Egypt, was 22.8% depending on both symptoms and signs. Older age patients and females were more susceptible to DED. DED is an existing entity that can compound any eye condition causing incomplete recovery, and therefore high index of suspicion is greatly advised.

  8. Pattern of chemotherapy-related adverse effects among adult cancer patients treated at Gondar University Referral Hospital, Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study

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    Belachew SA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sewunet Admasu Belachew,1 Daniel Asfaw Erku,2 Abebe Basazn Mekuria,3 Begashaw Melaku Gebresillassie1 1Department of Clinical Pharmacy, 2Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 3Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia Background: Adverse drug reactions (ADRs are a global problem and constitute a major clinical problem in terms of human suffering. The high toxicity and narrow therapeutic index of chemotherapeutic agents makes oncology pharmacovigilance essential. The objective of the present study was to assess the pattern of ADRs occurring in cancer patients treated with chemotherapy in a tertiary care teaching hospital in Ethiopia.Methods: A cross-sectional study over a 2-year period from September 2013 to August 2015 was conducted on cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy at Gondar University Referral Hospital Oncology Center. Data were collected directly from patients and their medical case files. The reported ADRs were assessed for causality using the World Health Organization’s causality assessment scale and Naranjo’s algorithm. The severities of the reported reactions were also assessed using National Cancer Institute Common Terminology CTCAE version 4.0. The Pearson’s chi-square test was employed to examine the association between two categorical variables.Results: A total of 815 ADRs were identified per 203 patients included in the study. The most commonly occurring ADRs were nausea and vomiting (18.9%, infections (16.7%, neutropenia (14.7%, fever and/or chills (11.3%, and anemia (9.3%. Platinum compounds (31.4% were the most common group of drugs causing ADRs. Of the reported ADRs, 65.8% were grades 3–4 (severe level, 29.9% were grades 1–2 (mild level, and 4.3% were grade 5 (toxic level. Significant association was found between age, number of chemotherapeutic agents, as well as dose of chemotherapy with the occurrence of grades 3–5 toxicity.Conclusion: The high incidence of

  9. Factors influencing the exit knowledge of patients for dispensed drugs at outpatient pharmacy of Hiwot Fana Specialized University Hospital, Eastern Ethiopia

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    Hirko N

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Nigatu Hirko,1 Dumessa Edessa2 1Department of Pharmacy, Bisidimo Hospital, East Hararghe Zone, Oromia, Ethiopia; 2Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, College of Health and Medical Sciences, Haramaya University, Harar, Ethiopia Background: A satisfactory counseling process between the patient and pharmacist is critical for rational use of dispensed drug(s and is highly influenced by many factors including the experience of pharmacist in dispensing process. To improve patients’ knowledge of dispensed drugs, it is necessary to understand the factors that optimize a pharmacist interaction with a patient in each activity of the dispensing process. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify the pharmacist and patient factors that influence knowledge of dispensed drugs by ambulatory patients at Hiwot Fana Specialized University Hospital, Harar, Ethiopia.Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 422 respondents. Data were collected by interviews using a structured questionnaire that measures “exit knowledge” of the ambulatory patients for dispensed drugs. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS Version 20.0. Potential covariates were identified using χ2 test, and logistic regression analyses were undertaken to adjust for the covariates.Results: Our findings showed significant proportions of the patients did not recall the name of their dispensed medication (53.6%, major side effects (66.4%, and what to do in case of missed doses (65.4%. Patients’ knowledge of dispensed drugs was significantly associated with their educational level (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 1.97; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01–3.84 [primary], AOR: 2.04; 95% CI: 1.04–4.04 [secondary], and AOR: 2.71; 95% CI: 1.35–5.46 [tertiary]; clear instruction from the pharmacist (AOR: 3.36; 95% CI: 1.16–9.72; and the politeness of the pharmacist (AOR: 2.02; 95% CI: 1.04–4.04.Conclusion: We found that the

  10. Dietary diversity and associated factors among children 6-23 months of age in Gorche district, Southern Ethiopia: Cross-sectional study.

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    Dangura, Dalecha; Gebremedhin, Samson

    2017-01-09

    Dietary diversity (DD) is useful indicator of dietary quality and nutrient adequacy. In developing countries limited evidence is available regarding predictors of DD during the critical complementary feeding period. The purpose of the study is to assess DD and predictors among children 6-23 months of age in rural Gorche district, Southern Ethiopia. A community based cross-sectional study was conducted among 417 children aged 6-23 months in Gorche district. The children were selected using a stratified two-stage cluster sampling technique. DD in the preceding day of the survey was assessed using the standard 7-food group score without imposing a minimum intake restriction. Factors associated with DD were identified by modeling dietary diversity score (DDS) using linear regression analysis. Only 10.6% (95% CI: 7.6-13.6) of the children had the minimum recommended DD (≥4 food groups). In children born to literate fathers, the DD was increased by 0.26 as compared to their counterparts (p = 0.026). Children from households that grow vegetables and own livestock, the DDS was significantly increased by 0.32 (p = 0.032) and 0.51 (p = 0.001). As the age of the child increases by a month, the DD also increased by 0.04 (p = 0.001). Mothers that received Infant and Young Child Feeding (IYCF) education during their post-natal care, the DDS was increased by 0.21 (p = 0.037). Unit increase in maternal knowledge on IYCF was associated with 0.41 rise in DDS (p = 0.001). Other factors that showed positive association were: mother's participation in cooking demonstration, exposure to IYCF information on the mass media and husband involvement in IYCF. Nutrition education, promotion of husbands' involvement in IYCF and implementation of nutrition sensitive agriculture can significantly enhance DD of children.

  11. Constraints on interpretation of geochemical data for gold exploration in multiply deformed and metamorphosed areas: an example from Legadembi gold deposit, southern Ethiopia

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    Tolessa, Dandena; Pohl, Walter

    1999-08-01

    The Legadembi Au deposit, situated in southern Ethiopia, is hosted in sheared metamorphic rocks of Pan-African age. The ore minerals and country rocks were subjected to multiple phases of deformation, metamorphism and mineralisation. Correlation studies and factor analysis are applied to test whether geostatistical studies can identify factors responsible for element relationships and pathfinder elements for Au. The results are compared with mineral paragenetic studies to decipher the temporal relationships between minerals and to further constrain possible pathfinder elements for Au. Spearman correlation coefficients identify NiCuPbAu, AgAuPb, BaZnTiPb and CdZnYbTiVSrScNiCuCrY correlations at 95 and 99% confidence levels. A four-factor model explains 99% of the data variability. Factor 1 (BaCdScSrTiVYr) is a lithological factor. Factor 2 (AuCuZnPbCdNiCo) is an overlap of mineralisation factor. Factor 3 (CrNiPbAgSrV) and Factor 4 (CdCrCuVYb) are due to the overlap of lithological and mineralisation factors. Even though the data are not normally distributed, geostatistical data processing using factor analysis gives geologically meaningful results. Mineral paragenetic studies show two main phases of mineralisation. The early phase is represented by chalcopyrite, pyrite, pyrrhotite and sphalerite. The later phase includes Au, galena and electrum. Based on geochemical factors and mineral paragenetic studies, Ag and Pb are potential pathfinder elements for Au for Legadembi-type Au deposits. The correlation of other elements with Au is due to the spatial overlap of mineralisation events with different metal associations.

  12. An integrated community-based outpatient therapeutic feeding programme for severe acute malnutrition in rural Southern Ethiopia: Recovery, fatality, and nutritional status after discharge.

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    Tadesse, Elazar; Worku, Amare; Berhane, Yemane; Ekström, Eva-Charlotte

    2017-10-10

    A scaled up and integrated outpatient therapeutic feeding programme (OTP) brings the treatment of severely malnourished children closer to the community. This study assessed recovery from severe acute malnutrition (SAM), fatality, and acute malnutrition up to 14 weeks after admission to a programme integrated in the primary health care system. In this cohort study, 1,048 children admitted to 94 OTPs in Southern Ethiopia were followed for 14 weeks. Independent anthropometric measurements and information on treatment outcome were collected at four home visits. Only 32.7% (248/759) of children with SAM on admission fulfilled the programme recovery criteria at the time of discharge (i.e., gained 15% in weight, or oedema, if present at admission, was resolved at discharge). Of all children admitted to the programme for whom nutritional assessment was done 14 weeks later, 34.6% (321/928) were severely malnourished, and 37.5% (348/928) were moderately malnourished; thus, 72.1% were acutely malnourished. Of the children, 27/982 (2.7%) had died by 14 weeks, of whom all but one had SAM on admission. Children with severe oedema on admission had the highest fatality rate (12.0%, 9/75). The median length of admission to the programme was 6.6 weeks (interquartile range: 5.3, 8.4 weeks). Despite children participating for the recommended duration of the programme, many children with SAM were discharged still acutely malnourished and without reaching programme criteria for recovery. For better outcome of OTP, constraints in service provision by the health system as well as challenges of service utilization by the beneficiaries should be identified and addressed. © 2017 The Authors. Maternal and Child Nutrition Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. The association between multiple intestinal helminth infections and blood group, anaemia and nutritional status in human populations from Dore Bafeno, southern Ethiopia.

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    Degarege, A; Animut, A; Medhin, G; Legesse, M; Erko, B

    2014-06-01

    In this cross-sectional study, the associations between helminth infections and ABO blood group, anaemia and undernutrition were investigated in 480 febrile outpatients who visited Dore Bafeno Health Centre, southern Ethiopia, in December 2010. Stool specimens were processed using the Kato-Katz method and examined for intestinal helminth infections. Haemoglobin level was measured using a HemoCue machine and blood group was determined using an antisera haemagglutination test. Nutritional status of the study participants was assessed using height and weight measurements. Among the study participants, 50.2% were infected with intestinal helminths. Ascaris lumbricoides (32.7%), Trichuris trichiura (12.7%), Schistosoma mansoni (11.9%) and hookworm (11.0%) were the most frequently diagnosed helminths. The odds of infection and mean eggs per gram of different intestinal helminth species were comparable between the various blood groups. Among individuals who were infected with intestinal helminth(s), the mean haemoglobin level was significantly lower in individuals harbouring three or more helminth species and blood type AB compared to cases with double or single helminth infection and blood type O, respectively. The odds of being underweight was significantly higher in A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura infected individuals of age ≤ 5 and ≥ 20 years, respectively, when compared to individuals of the matching age group without intestinal helminths. In conclusion, infection with multiple intestinal helminths was associated with lower haemoglobin level, which was more severe in individuals with blood type AB. Future studies should focus on mechanisms by which blood group AB exacerbates the helminth-related reduction in mean haemoglobin level.

  14. Stability of infant and child feeding index over time and its association with nutritional status of HIV exposed infants in Sidama Zone, Southern Ethiopia: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haile, Demewoz; Belachew, Tefera; Berhanu, Getenesh; Setegn, Tesfaye; Biadgilign, Sibhatu

    2014-12-01

    Even though many studies showed that infant and child feeding index has a statistically significant association with nutritional status, there is paucity of studies on stability of infant and child feeding index over time and its association with nutritional status of HIV exposed infants. This study aimed to investigate the stability of infant and child feeding index over time that is developed based on the current recommendations and its association with nutritional status of HIV exposed infants in Sidama Zone, Southern Ethiopia. A panel study design was conducted in health institutions in Sidama Zone from February to July, 2012. Three repeated measurements of data were collected from each HIV exposed infant aged 6-17 months over the 6 month follow-up period approximately per 2 month interval. The cross-sectional index was found stable overtime with the repeatability coefficient of 0.802 which differed significantly from zero (95% CI: 0.75-0.85). A longitudinal infant and child feeding index (L-ICFI) has a statistically significant association with length for age Z scores (LAZ) and weight for age Z scores (WAZ) at visit three (β=0.262, p=0.007; β=0.226, p=0.017), respectively. But the longitudinal index has no statistically significant association with WLZ score (p=0.552). There was no significant difference in change of LAZ and WAZ over time between L-ICFI tertiles for both female and male HIV exposed infants. The index is stable overtime at individual level even though one third of the index components were not stable. The L-CFI was associated with LAZ and WAZ but not with WLZ. However there was no significant difference in change of HAZ and WAZ over time between L-ICFI tertiles for both female and male HIV exposed infants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Malaria prevalence pattern observed in the highland fringe of Butajira, Southern Ethiopia: a longitudinal study from parasitological and entomological survey.

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    Tesfaye, Solomon; Belyhun, Yeshambel; Teklu, Takele; Mengesha, Tesfaye; Petros, Beyene

    2011-06-07

    In Ethiopia, information regarding highland malaria transmission is scarce, and no report has been presented from Butajira highland so far whether the appearance of malaria in the area was due to endemicity or due to highland malaria transmission. Thus this study aimed to determine the presence and magnitude of malaria transmission in Butajira. For parasitological survey, longitudinal study was conducted from October to December 2006. The entomological surveys were done from October to December 2006 and continued from April to May 2007. Both parasitological and entomological surveys were done using standard procedures. The parasitological result in all the survey months (October-December) showed an overall detection rate of 4.4% (48/1082) (CI 95%; 3.2-5.7%) malaria parasite. Among infected individuals, 32 (3.0%) of the infection was due to Plasmodium vivax and the rest 16 (1.5%) were due to Plasmodium falciparum. The highest prevalence 39(3.6%) of the parasite was observed in age groups of above 15 years old. Among the total tested, 25(2.3%) of males and 23(2.1%) of females had malaria infection. Among tested individuals, 38(5.3%) and 10 (2.7%) of infection was occurred in Misrak-Meskan (2100 m a.s.l) and Mirab-Meskan (2280 m a.s.l), respectively which was statistically significant (X2=3.72, P0.05). The entomological survey showed a collection of 602 larvae and 80 adult Anopheles. Anopheles christyi was the dominant species both in the first (45.3%) and in the second (35.4%) surveys; where as, Anopheles gambiae sensu lato comprised 4.7% and 14.6%, in the first and second surveys, respectively. Anopheles gambiae s.l comprises 55% of the adult collection, and both species were collected more from outdoors (57.5%). The number of An. christyi was higher in Mirab-Meskan (58. 3%) than Misrak-Meskan (41.7%) (Prisk of malaria and its control programme in the area must be given adequate attention to minimize potential epidemics. In addition, the current study should be

  16. Field Evaluation of Malaria Microscopy, Rapid Malaria Tests and Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification in a Rural Hospital in South Western Ethiopia.

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    Juan Cuadros

    Full Text Available In up to one third of the hospitals in some rural areas of Africa, laboratory services in malaria diagnosis are limited to microscopy by thin film, as no capability to perform thick film exists (gold standard in terms of sensitivity for malaria diagnosis. A new rapid molecular malaria diagnostic test called Loop-mediated isothermal DNA amplification (LAMP has been recently validated in clinical trials showing exceptional sensitivity and specificity features. It could be a reliable diagnostic tool to be implemented without special equipment or training.The objective of this proof of concept study was to confirm the feasibility of using LAMP technique for diagnosis of malaria in a rural Ethiopian hospital with limited resources.This study was carried out in Gambo General Hospital, West Arsi Province (Ethiopia, from November 1st to December 31st 2013. A total of 162 patients with a non-focal febrile syndrome were investigated. The diagnostic capability (sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive and negative predictive values of rapid malaria tests and microscopy by thin film was evaluated in comparison with LAMP. Eleven (6.79% out of the 162 patients with fever and suspected malaria, tested positive for LAMP, 3 (1.85% for rapid malaria tests and none of the eleven cases was detected by thin film microscopy.LAMP can be performed in basic rural laboratories without the need for specialized infrastructure and it may set a reliable tool for malaria control to detect a low level parasitemia.

  17. Knowledge, attitude, and practice towards blood donation among health care providers in hospitals at Bahir Dar City, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abera, Bayeh; Mohammed, Beyan; Betela, Wendmagegn; Yimam, Reshid; Oljira, Adam; Ahmed, Merhab; Tsega, Wubet; Mulu, Wondemagegn; Yizengaw, Endalew

    2017-06-01

    Like other sub-Saharan Africa, in Ethiopia there is a shortage of adequate and safe blood supplies. Health care providers are potential resource and promoter of voluntary blood donation. This study was conducted to determine the knowledge, attitude and practice towards blood donation among health care providers in Bahir Dar City, Ethiopia. Paper based questionnaire was distributed to 276 health care providers from May 01 to June 30, 2016. Overall, 42.8% had donated blood at least once. Of these, males accounted for 60%. The median age of blood donors was 26 years. Voluntary-unpaid donation was 21.2%. Overall, 75.5% health care providers were knowledgeable. The levels of knowledge were significantly different among different disciplines (One-way ANOVA; F=69.7; P=0.004). Males were more knowledgeable than females (Pattitude was 78.6%. Previous practice of blood donation determined the odds of favorable attitude to be a future regular voluntary-unpaid blood donor (OR: 5.7, 95% CI: 3.2-10.4). Majority of health care providers had adequate knowledge and favorable attitude. However, voluntary-unpaid donation practice (21.1%) was lower compared to 100% target of voluntary-unpaid donation. There should be motivation packages to enhance voluntary-unpaid blood donation among health care professionals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluation of rational drug use based on World Health Organization core drug use indicators in selected public hospitals of eastern Ethiopia: a cross sectional study.

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    Sisay, Mekonnen; Mengistu, Getnet; Molla, Bereket; Amare, Firehiwot; Gabriel, Tesfaye

    2017-02-23

    Despite the complexity of drug use, a number of indicators have been developed, standardized and evaluated by the World Health Organization (WHO). These indicators are grouped in to three categories namely: prescribing indicators, patient care indicators and facility indicators. The study was aimed to evaluate rational drug use based on WHO-core drug use indicators in Dilchora referral hospital, Dire Dawa; Hiwot Fana specialized university hospital, Harar and Karamara general hospital, Jigjiga, eastern Ethiopia. Hospital based quantitative cross sectional study design was employed to evaluate rational drug use based on WHO core drug use indicators in selected hospitals. Systematic random sampling for prescribing indicators and convenient sampling for patient care indicators was employed. Taking WHO recommendations in to account, a total of 1,500 prescription papers (500 from each hospitals) were investigated. In each hospital, 200 outpatient attendants and 30 key essential drugs were also selected using the WHO recommendation. Data were collected using retrospective and prospective structured observational check list. Data were entered to EPI Data Version 3.1, exported and analyzed using SPSS version 16.0. Besides, the data were evaluated as per the WHO guidelines. Statistical significance was determined by one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) for some variables. P-value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Finally, tabular presentation was used to present the data. Mean, 2.34 (±1.08) drugs were prescribed in the selected hospitals. Prescriptions containing antibiotics and that of injectables were 57.87 and 10.9% respectively. The average consultation and dispensing time were 276.5 s and 61.12 s respectively. Besides, 75.77% of the prescribed drugs were actually dispensed. Only 3.3% of prescriptions were adequately labeled and 75.7% patients know about the dosage of the prescription. Not more than, 20(66.7%) key drugs were available in

  19. Malaria prevalence pattern observed in the highland fringe of Butajira, Southern Ethiopia: A longitudinal study from parasitological and entomological survey

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    Mengesha Tesfaye

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Ethiopia, information regarding highland malaria transmission is scarce, and no report has been presented from Butajira highland so far whether the appearance of malaria in the area was due to endemicity or due to highland malaria transmission. Thus this study aimed to determine the presence and magnitude of malaria transmission in Butajira. Methods For parasitological survey, longitudinal study was conducted from October to December 2006. The entomological surveys were done from October to December 2006 and continued from April to May 2007. Both parasitological and entomological surveys were done using standard procedures. Results The parasitological result in all the survey months (October-December showed an overall detection rate of 4.4% (48/1082 (CI 95%; 3.2-5.7% malaria parasite. Among infected individuals, 32 (3.0% of the infection was due to Plasmodium vivax and the rest 16 (1.5% were due to Plasmodium falciparum. The highest prevalence 39(3.6% of the parasite was observed in age groups of above 15 years old. Among the total tested, 25(2.3% of males and 23(2.1% of females had malaria infection. Among tested individuals, 38(5.3% and 10 (2.7% of infection was occurred in Misrak-Meskan (2100 m a.s.l and Mirab-Meskan (2280 m a.s.l, respectively which was statistically significant (X2 = 3.72, P Plasmodium species declined from October to December, the trend was non-significant (X2 for trend = 0.49, P > 0.05. The entomological survey showed a collection of 602 larvae and 80 adult Anopheles. Anopheles christyi was the dominant species both in the first (45.3% and in the second (35.4% surveys; where as, Anopheles gambiae sensu lato comprised 4.7% and 14.6%, in the first and second surveys, respectively. Anopheles gambiae s.l comprises 55% of the adult collection, and both species were collected more from outdoors (57.5%. The number of An. christyi was higher in Mirab-Meskan (58. 3% than Misrak-Meskan (41.7% (P Conclusion

  20. Prevalence and drug resistance profile of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated from pulmonary tuberculosis patients attending two public hospitals in East Gojjam zone, northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adane, Kelemework; Ameni, Gobena; Bekele, Shiferaw; Abebe, Markos; Aseffa, Abraham

    2015-06-20

    The spread of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) strains has become a challenge to the global TB control and prevention program. In Ethiopia, particularly in rural areas, information on drug-resistant TB is very limited. In this study, we determined the drug resistance patterns of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) isolates from pulmonary TB patients attending two public hospitals in the East Gojjam zone of northwest Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted between May 2011 and January 2012 using Region of difference-9 (RD9) typing for the identification of species mycobacterium. Drug susceptibility testing (DST) of M. tuberculosis isolates to the first-line drugs: isoniazid, rifampicin, ethambutol and streptomycin was performed by the indirect proportion method on Middle brook 7H10 Agar media. Out of 385 pulmonary TB suspects studied, 124 (32.2%) were culture positive among which 120 were M. tuberculosis strains. Susceptibility testing was performed for 89 isolates. Resistance to at least one drug was 15.58% ([12/77], 95% CI: 7.48-23.68) among newly diagnosed and 50.0% ([6/12], 95% CI: 21.71-78.29) among previously treated cases. Resistance among newly diagnosed patients was most common for streptomycin 5.19% (4/77) and ethambutol 5.19% (4/77) followed by rifampicin 3.89% (3/77). Among retreatment cases, isoniazid resistance was most frequent in which 33.33% (4/12) of the isolates were resistant. MDR prevalence was 1.29% (1/77) for newly diagnosed and 16.67% (2/12) for retreatment cases. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, age group of 25-34 years (adjusted OR = 4.24; 95% CI: 1.02-17.5; P = 0.046) and previous history of treatment (adjusted OR = 5.42; 95% CI: 1.56-27.49; P = 0.01) were independently associated with anti-TB drug resistance. In general, the magnitude of anti-TB drug resistance including MDR-TB was comparable to previous studies in other areas of Ethiopia. However, rifampicin resistance was high

  1. Determinants of maternal near miss among women in public hospital maternity wards in Northern Ethiopia: A facility based case-control study.

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    Dejene Ermias Mekango

    Full Text Available In Ethiopia, 20,000 women die each year from complications related to pregnancy, childbirth and post-partum. For every woman that dies, 20 more experience injury, infection, disease, or disability. "Maternal near miss" (MNM, defined by the World Health Organization (WHO as a woman who nearly dies, but survives a complication during pregnancy, childbirth or within 42 days of a termination, is a proxy indicator of maternal mortality and quality of obstetric care. In Ethiopia, few studies have examined MNM. This study aims to identify determinants of MNM among a small population of women in Tigray, Ethiopia.Unmatched case-control study was conducted in hospitals in Tigray Region, Northern Ethiopia, from January 30-March 30, 2016. The sample included 103 cases and 205 controls recruited from among women seeking obstetric care at six (6 public hospitals. Clients with life-threatening obstetric complications, including hemorrhage, hypertensive diseases of pregnancy, dystocia, infection, and anemia or clinical signs of severe anemia (in women without hemorrhage were taken as cases and those with normal obstetric outcomes were controls. Cases were selected based on proportion to size allocation while systematic sampling was employed for controls. Binary and multiple variable logistic regression ("odds ratio" analyses were calculated at 95% CI.Roughly 90% of cases and controls were married and 25% experienced their first pregnancy before the age of 16 years. About two-thirds of controls and 45.6% of cases had gestational ages between 37-41 weeks. Among cases, severe obstetric hemorrhage (44.7%, hypertensive disorders (38.8%, dystocia (17.5%, sepsis (9.7% and severe anemia (2.9% were leading causes of MNM. Histories of chronic maternal medical problems like hypertension, diabetes were reported in 55.3% of cases and 33.2% of controls. Women with no formal education [AOR = 3.2;95%CI:1.24, 8.12], being less than 16 years of age at first pregnancy [AOR = 2

  2. Determinants of maternal near miss among women in public hospital maternity wards in Northern Ethiopia: A facility based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekango, Dejene Ermias; Alemayehu, Mussie; Gebregergs, Gebremedhin Berhe; Medhanyie, Araya Abrha; Goba, Gelila

    2017-01-01

    In Ethiopia, 20,000 women die each year from complications related to pregnancy, childbirth and post-partum. For every woman that dies, 20 more experience injury, infection, disease, or disability. "Maternal near miss" (MNM), defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as a woman who nearly dies, but survives a complication during pregnancy, childbirth or within 42 days of a termination, is a proxy indicator of maternal mortality and quality of obstetric care. In Ethiopia, few studies have examined MNM. This study aims to identify determinants of MNM among a small population of women in Tigray, Ethiopia. Unmatched case-control study was conducted in hospitals in Tigray Region, Northern Ethiopia, from January 30-March 30, 2016. The sample included 103 cases and 205 controls recruited from among women seeking obstetric care at six (6) public hospitals. Clients with life-threatening obstetric complications, including hemorrhage, hypertensive diseases of pregnancy, dystocia, infection, and anemia or clinical signs of severe anemia (in women without hemorrhage) were taken as cases and those with normal obstetric outcomes were controls. Cases were selected based on proportion to size allocation while systematic sampling was employed for controls. Binary and multiple variable logistic regression ("odds ratio") analyses were calculated at 95% CI. Roughly 90% of cases and controls were married and 25% experienced their first pregnancy before the age of 16 years. About two-thirds of controls and 45.6% of cases had gestational ages between 37-41 weeks. Among cases, severe obstetric hemorrhage (44.7%), hypertensive disorders (38.8%), dystocia (17.5%), sepsis (9.7%) and severe anemia (2.9%) were leading causes of MNM. Histories of chronic maternal medical problems like hypertension, diabetes were reported in 55.3% of cases and 33.2% of controls. Women with no formal education [AOR = 3.2;95%CI:1.24, 8.12], being less than 16 years of age at first pregnancy [AOR = 2.5;95%CI:1

  3. Anemia and Associated Factors Among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Care Clinic in Wolayita Sodo Town, Southern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Gedefaw, Lealem; Ayele, Asrat; Asres, Yaregal; Mossie, Andualem

    2015-01-01

    Background Anemia during pregnancy is a common problem which affects both the mother's and her child's health. The main aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors of anemia among pregnant women. Methods We conducted a facility based cross-sectional study on 363 pregnant women attending antenatal care clinic in Wolayita Soddo Otona Hospital from January to March 2014. Sociodemographic data were collected through questionnaire based interview. Four milliliter o...

  4. Determinants of pre-eclampsia/Eclampsia among women attending delivery Services in Selected Public Hospitals of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grum, Teklit; Seifu, Abiy; Abay, Mebrahtu; Angesom, Teklit; Tsegay, Lidiya

    2017-09-15

    Pre-eclampsia is a pregnancy-specific hypertensive disorder usually occurs after 20 weeks of gestation. It is one of the leading causes of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. In Ethiopia, the major direct obstetric complications including pre-eclampsia/eclampsia account for 85% of the maternal deaths. Unlike deaths due to other direct causes, pre-eclampsia/ eclampsia related deaths appear to be increasing and linked to multiple factors, making prevention of the disease a continuous challenge. The aim of this study is to assess determinants of pre-eclampsia/eclampsiaamong women attending delivery services in selected public hospitals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Hospital based unmatched case control study design was employed. The study wasconducted in Addis Ababa among women attending delivery services in two public hospitals from December, 2015 G.C. to February, 2016 G.C. with sample size of 291 (97 cases and 194 controls). Women with pre-eclampsia/eclampsia were cases and women who had not diagnosed for pre-eclampsia/eclampsia were controls. Case-control incidence density sampling followed by interviewer administered was conducted using pretested questionnaire. The data was entered in Epi Info 7 software and exported to STATA 14 for cleaning and analysis. Descriptive statistics were used todisplay the data using tables compared between cases and controls. To compare categorical variables between cases and controls Chi-squared testwas used. Both bivariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were computed to identify the determinants of pre-eclampsia/eclampsia. Factors that were found to have statistically significant association with pre-eclampsia or eclampsia were primigravida (AOR: 2.68, 95% CI: 1.38, 5.22), history of preeclampsia on prior pregnancy (AOR: 4.28, 95% CI: 1.61, 11.43), multiple pregnancy (AOR: 8.22, 95% CI: 2.97, 22.78), receiving nutritional counseling during pregnancy (AOR: 0.22, 95% CI: 0.1, 0.48) and drinking

  5. Patient safety culture and associated factors: A quantitative and qualitative study of healthcare workers' view in Jimma zone Hospitals, Southwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wami, Sintayehu Daba; Demssie, Amsalu Feleke; Wassie, Molla Mesele; Ahmed, Ansha Nega

    2016-09-20

    Patient safety culture is an important aspect for quality healthcare delivery and is an issue of high concern globally. In Ethiopia health system little is known and information is limited in scope about patient safety culture. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the level of patient safety culture and associated factors in Jimma zone Hospitals, southwest Ethiopia. Facility based cross sectional quantitative study triangulated with qualitative approaches was employed from March to April 30/2015. Stratified sampling technique was used to select 637 study participants among 4 hospitals. The standardized tool which measures 12 patient safety culture composites was used for data collection. Bivariate and multivariate linear regression analyses were performed using SPSS version 20. Significance level was obtained at 95 % CI and p-value safety culture was 46.7 % (95 % CI: 43.0, 51.2). Hours worked per week (β =-0.06, 95 % CI:-0.12,-0.001), reporting adverse event (β = 3.34, 95 % CI: 2.12, 4.57), good communication (β = 2.78, 95 % CI: 2.29, 3.28), teamwork within hospital (β = 1.91, 95 % CI: 1.37, 2.46), level of staffing (β = 1.32, 95 % CI: 0.89, 1.75), exchange of feedback about error (β = 1.37, 95 % CI: 0.91, 1.83) and participation in patient safety program (β = 1.3, 95 % CI: 0.57, 2.03) were factors significantly associated with the patient safety culture. The in depth interview indicated incident reporting, resources, healthcare worker attitude and patient involvement as important factors that influence patient safety culture. The overall level of patient safety culture was low. Working hours, level of staffing, teamwork, communications openness, reporting an event and exchange of feedback about error were associated with patient safety culture. Therefore, interventions of systemic approach through facilitating opportunities for communication openness, cooperation and exchange of ideas between healthcare

  6. Prevalence of herbal medicine use and associated factors among pregnant women attending antenatal care at public health facilities in Hossana Town, Southern Ethiopia: facility based cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laelago, Tariku; Yohannes, Tadele; Lemango, Fiseha

    2016-01-01

    The use of herbal medicine has been on increase in many developing and industrialized countries. More pregnant women use herbal remedies to treat pregnancy related problems due to cost-effectiveness of therapy and easy access of these products. We sought to assess the prevalence of herbal medicine use and associated factors among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics of public health facilities. Facility based cross sectional study was conducted among 363 pregnant women attending antenatal clinics from May to June 2015 at public health facilities in Hossana town, Hadiya zone, Southern Ethiopia. Pretested structured questionnaire was used to collect data from each study subject. Bivariate logistic regression analysis was used to see significance of association between the outcome and independent variables. Odds ratios at 95 % CI were computed to measure the strength of the association between the outcome and the independent variables. P-value herbal medicine during current pregnancy . The herbal medicines commonly taken during current pregnancy were ginger (55.8 %), garlic (69.8 %), eucalyptus (11.6 %), tenaadam (rutachalenssis) (26.4 %), damakesse (ocimumlamiifolium) (22.8 %), feto (3.5 %) and omore (3.1 %). Being students (AOR: (5.68, 95 % CI: (1.53, 21.13), second trimester of pregnancy (AOR: 0.22, 95 % CI: (0.08, 0.76), sufficient knowledge on herbal medicine (AOR: 0.37, 95 % CI: (0.19, 0.79), no formal education (AOR: 4.41, 95 % CI: (1.11, 17.56), primary education (AOR: 4.15, 95 % CI: (1.51, 11.45) and secondary education (AOR: 2.55, 95 % CI: (1.08,6.03) were significantly associated with herbal medicine use. The findings of this study showed that herbal medicine use during pregnancy is a common experience. Commonly used herbal medicines during current pregnancy were garlic, ginger, tenaadam, damakasse and eucalyptus. Educational status, occupation, knowledge on herbal medicine and second trimester of pregnancy were the major factors

  7. Prevalence of prenatal zinc deficiency and its association with socio-demographic, dietary and health care related factors in Rural Sidama, Southern Ethiopia: A cross-sectional study

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    Gebremedhin Samson

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies witnessed that prenatal zinc deficiency (ZD predisposes to diverse pregnancy complications. However, scientific evidences on the determinants of prenatal ZD are scanty and inconclusive. The purpose of the present study was to assess the prevalence and determinants of prenatal ZD in Sidama zone, Southern Ethiopia. Methods A community based, cross-sectional study was conducted in Sidama zone in January and February 2011. Randomly selected 700 pregnant women were included in the study. Data on potential determinants of ZD were gathered using a structured questionnaire. Serum zinc concentration was measured using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. Statistical analysis was done using logistic regression and linear regression. Results The mean serum zinc concentration was 52.4 (+/-9.9 μg/dl (95% CI: 51.6-53.1 μg/dl. About 53.0% (95% CI: 49.3-56.7% of the subjects were zinc deficient. The majority of the explained variability of serum zinc was due to dietary factors like household food insecurity level, dietary diversity and consumption of animal source foods. The risk of ZD was 1.65 (95% CI: 1.02-2.67 times higher among women from maize staple diet category compared to Enset staple diet category. Compared to pregnant women aged 15-24 years, those aged 25-34 and 35-49 years had 1.57 (95% CI: 1.04-2.34 and 2.18 (95% CI: 1.25-3.63 times higher risk of ZD, respectively. Women devoid of self income had 1.74 (95% CI: 1.11-2.74 time increased risk than their counterparts. Maternal education was positively associated to zinc status. Grand multiparas were 1.74 (95% CI: 1.09-3.23 times more likely to be zinc deficient than nulliparas. Frequency of coffee intake was negatively association to serum zinc level. Positive association was noted between serum zinc and hemoglobin concentrations. Altitude, history of iron supplementation, maternal workload, physical access to health service, antenatal care and nutrition education were

  8. Knowledge of obstetric danger signs and associated factors among pregnant women attending antenatal care at health facilities of Yirgacheffe town, Gedeo zone, Southern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibstu, Desalegn Tsegaw; Siyoum, Yadeshi Demisse

    2017-01-01

    Obstetric danger signs are not the literal obstetric complications, merely symptoms that are well named by non-clinical personnel. The identification of these danger signs and its relation with complications during pregnancy would increase the capacity of women, their partners and families to seek for timely health care, following the appropriate steps to insure a safe birth and post-partum. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge of obstetric danger signs and associated factors among pregnant women attending antenatal care in Yirgacheffe town, Gedeo zone, Southern Ethiopia. Institutional-based cross-sectional study was conducted from March 15-April 15, 2016. Data on pregnant women were collected using a pre-tested and interviewer administered structured questionnaire from 342 women using systematic random sampling technique. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression was performed using SPSS version 20.0 software. A total of 342 (90%) pregnant women were included in the study. The level of obstetric knowledge of danger signs was 21.9% (95% CI: 20.2-55.65%). Maternal education (AOR = 0.26, CI: 0.08, 0.88), paternal education (AOR = 0.13, CI; 0.04, 04) and time taken to reach health facilities on foot (AOR = 0.06, CI: 0.02, 0.17) were negatively associated factors while maternal age (AOR = 3.68, CI: 1.30, 10.46), paternal occupation (AOR = 4.65, CI: 1.82, 11.87), place of residence (AOR = 2.61, CI: 1.35, 5.04) were positively associated factors with knowledge of obstetric danger signs. Maternal and paternal education, maternal age, paternal occupation, place of residence and time taken to reach health facility on foot were the main factors for knowledge of obstetric danger signs. Increasing knowledge of key danger signs, creating and promoting income generating mechanisms need to be continuously done at the health facility and the community as it makes ready women and their families for prompt and appropriate decisions and measures in case

  9. The association between malaria and malnutrition among under-five children in Shashogo District, Southern Ethiopia: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gone, Terefe; Lemango, Fiseha; Eliso, Endale; Yohannes, Samuel; Yohannes, Tadele

    2017-01-13

    Recent studies have presented conflicting findings about whether malaria is associated with an increased or decreased risk of malnutrition. Therefore, assessing the relationship between these two disastrous diseases in the most vulnerable groups, such as in children aged below 5 years (under-five children), may lead to the discovery of new low-cost and effective aides to current methods of malnutrition prevention in malaria-endemic areas. Therefore, this study was conducted to assess the relationship between malaria and malnutrition among under five children in an area with a high degree of malaria transmission. The study involved comparing malnourished children aged 6-59 months and nourished children of the same age for their past exposure to malaria, in Shashogo District, Southern Ethiopia. A validated structured questionnaire was used to collect home to home socioeconomic data and anthropometric instruments for clinical data. The collected data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics by means of EpiData entry software and STATA data analysis software. A total of 356 (89 malnourished and 267 nourished) under-five children participated in the study. Previous exposure to Plasmodium infection was found to be a predictor for the manifestation of malnutrition in under-five children (P = 0.02 [OR = 1.87, CI = 1.115-3.138]). Children from a household with a monthly income of less than USD 15 were 4.5 more likely to be malnourished as compared to the other children (P = 0.001 [OR = 0.422, CI = 0.181-0.978]). This study found that exposure to Plasmodium has a significant impact on the nutritional status of children. In addition, socio-demographic factors, such as family income, may play a role in determining whether children are malnourished or not and may lead to increased morbidity due to malnourishment in children living in malaria-endemic areas. Therefore, malnutrition control interventions should be consolidated with

  10. Is the role of Health Extension Workers in the delivery of maternal and child health care services a significant attribute? The case of Dale district, southern Ethiopia.

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    Negussie, Abel; Girma, Gedion

    2017-09-11

    The Health Extension Program (HEP) is one of the most innovative community based health program launched by the Ethiopian Federal Ministry of Health to make health services accessible to rural communities by setting-out women Health Extension Workers (HEWs) in rural Health Posts. The HEWs are premised to provide basic, largely preventive, primary health services to rural villages and the program gives special attention to children and mothers. The objective of the study was to assess the contribution made by the Health Extension Workers in maternal and child health care service delivery in Dale district, southern Ethiopia. Using a community based cross-sectional data; the study assessed the status of mother's health service utilization and estimated the role of HEWs in maternal and child health care delivery. Mothers of reproductive age (15-49), having at least one under-five age child, were eligible for the study. The total sample size was 617 and systemic random sampling method was used to select the study subjects from each randomly selected kebeles (lower administrative units). Structured questionnaire was applied to collect data through interviewing of the selected mothers and the data were analysed using SPSS version 16 statistical software. Health Posts are important health care delivery settings and their share from the overall service delivery of ANC, Family planning and child treatment services were pivotal. However, overall service coverage of ANC (four and more visits), delivery and PNC services were low in the district as compared to the national status; and the input from the HEWs, in this regard, was unsatisfactory. The number of home visits was also inadequate for the necessary support of the mothers. The results of the multiple logistic regression indicated that mothers who listen to the radio (AOR 4.62; CI 1.66-12.85) and who had received information about the MCH services by HEWs (AOR 2.09; CI 1.06-4.14) were significantly associated with good

  11. Sanitation, hookworm, anemia, stunting, and wasting in primary school children in southern Ethiopia: Baseline results from a study in 30 schools.

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    Jack E T Grimes

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Inadequate nutrition; neglected topical diseases; and insufficient water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH are interrelated problems in schools in low-income countries, but are not routinely tackled together. A recent three-year longitudinal study investigated integrated school health and nutrition approaches in 30 government primary schools in southern Ethiopia. Here, we report on baseline associations between sanitation, hookworm infection, anemia, stunting, and wasting.In each school, the Schistosoma mansoni, S. haematobium, and soil-transmitted helminth infection intensities; blood hemoglobin concentrations; heights; and weights of approximately 125 students were assessed. Of these 125 students, approximately 20 were randomly selected for student WASH surveys. Of these 20, approximately 15 were randomly selected for household sanitation observations. School WASH was also assessed through a combination of observations and questions to the headteacher. Mixed-effects logistic regression was used to compare household sanitation with hookworm infection (the other parasites being much less prevalent; and hookworm infection with anemia, stunting, and wasting.Blood, stool, and urine samples were provided by 3,729 children, and student WASH and household WASH surveys were conducted with 596 and 448 of these students, respectively. Hookworm, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and S. mansoni infections had prevalences of 18%, 4.8%, 0.6%, and 0.3%, respectively, and no S. haematobium infections were found. Anemia, stunting, and wasting had prevalences of 23%, 28%, and 14%, respectively. No statistically significant associations were found between latrine absence or evidence of open defecation at home, and hookworm infection (adjusted odds ratio, OR = 1.28, 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.476-3.44; and adjusted OR = 1.21, 95% CI: 0.468-3.12; respectively; or between hookworm infection and anemia, stunting, or wasting (adjusted OR = 1.24, 95% CI: 0

  12. Sanitation, hookworm, anemia, stunting, and wasting in primary school children in southern Ethiopia: Baseline results from a study in 30 schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Jack E T; Tadesse, Gemechu; Gardiner, Iain A; Yard, Elodie; Wuletaw, Yonas; Templeton, Michael R; Harrison, Wendy E; Drake, Lesley J

    2017-10-01

    Inadequate nutrition; neglected topical diseases; and insufficient water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) are interrelated problems in schools in low-income countries, but are not routinely tackled together. A recent three-year longitudinal study investigated integrated school health and nutrition approaches in 30 government primary schools in southern Ethiopia. Here, we report on baseline associations between sanitation, hookworm infection, anemia, stunting, and wasting. In each school, the Schistosoma mansoni, S. haematobium, and soil-transmitted helminth infection intensities; blood hemoglobin concentrations; heights; and weights of approximately 125 students were assessed. Of these 125 students, approximately 20 were randomly selected for student WASH surveys. Of these 20, approximately 15 were randomly selected for household sanitation observations. School WASH was also assessed through a combination of observations and questions to the headteacher. Mixed-effects logistic regression was used to compare household sanitation with hookworm infection (the other parasites being much less prevalent); and hookworm infection with anemia, stunting, and wasting. Blood, stool, and urine samples were provided by 3,729 children, and student WASH and household WASH surveys were conducted with 596 and 448 of these students, respectively. Hookworm, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and S. mansoni infections had prevalences of 18%, 4.8%, 0.6%, and 0.3%, respectively, and no S. haematobium infections were found. Anemia, stunting, and wasting had prevalences of 23%, 28%, and 14%, respectively. No statistically significant associations were found between latrine absence or evidence of open defecation at home, and hookworm infection (adjusted odds ratio, OR = 1.28, 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.476-3.44; and adjusted OR = 1.21, 95% CI: 0.468-3.12; respectively); or between hookworm infection and anemia, stunting, or wasting (adjusted OR = 1.24, 95% CI: 0

  13. Total delay in treatment among smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients in five primary health centers, southern Ethiopia: a cross sectional study.

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    Anteneh Asefa

    Full Text Available The global burden of Tuberculosis (TB remains enormous. Delay in TB diagnosis may lead to a higher infectious pool in the community and a more advanced disease state at presentation increasing the risk of mortality. This study is conducted to determine the total delay before treatment among smear positive Pulmonary Tuberculosis (PTB patients.A health institution based cross sectional study was conducted in five primary health centers in southern Ethiopia from June to December 2012. A total of 328 smear positive PTB patients were enrolled in the study. A structured and pre-tested questionnaire was used. Median patient, diagnostic, and treatment delays were calculated to determine the total delay. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with total delay.The median patient, diagnostic, treatment and total delays measured in days were 30 (IQR 20.2, 60, 7 (IQR: 3, 14, 3 (IQR: 1, 4 and 45 (IQR: 34.5, 69.5 days respectively. Patients for whom treatment was not initiated within 45 days of onset of symptom(s (total delay constituted 49% of the study participants (59.5% among males and 39.2% among females; P<0.001. Total delay was found to be associated with: being female [AOR  = 0.34, 95% CI: 0.18-0.62], having attended tertiary level education [AOR  = 0.11, 95% CI: 0.02-0.55], perceived severity of stigma during the current TB disease course [AOR = 2. 18, 95% CI: 1.07, 4.42] and living in houses with higher family size [AOR = 0.26, 95% CI: 0.11, 0.61].Total delay in treatment of TB is still high in the study area. Patient's sex, perceived stigma, educational status and family size are significantly contributing for total delay. Therefore, a concerted effort should be taken in order to improve health seeking behavior of the community on TB and to reduce delays from seeking care after experiencing TB symptoms.

  14. Decentralised paediatric HIV care in Ethiopia: a comparison between outcomes of patients managed in health centres and in a hospital clinic

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    Oskar Hagströmer

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: In order to increase access to antiretroviral therapy (ART in HIV-infected children, paediatric HIV care has been introduced in health centres in Ethiopia, where patients are managed by health professionals with limited training. Objective: To compare outcomes of paediatric HIV care in hospital and health centre clinics and to determine risk factors for death and loss to follow-up (LTFU. Design: Retrospective comparison of patient characteristics and outcomes among children managed in a public hospital and all five public health centres in the uptake area. Results: Among 1,960 patients (health centres 572, hospital clinic 1,388, 34% were lost to follow-up, 2% died, 14% were transferred out, and 46% remained in care. Children initiating ART in the hospital clinic had lower median CD4 cell counts (age <1 year: 575 vs. 1,183 cells/mm3, p=0.024; age 1–5 years: 370 vs. 598 cells/mm3, p<0.001; age >5 years: 186 vs. 259 cells/mm3, p<0.001, and a higher proportion were <1 year of age (22% vs. 15%, p=0.025. ART initiation rates and retention in care were similar between children managed in health centres and in the hospital clinic (36% vs. 37% and 47% vs. 46%, respectively. Among patients starting ART, mortality was associated with age <1 year [hazard ratio (HR 12.0; 95% confidence interval (CI: 3.5, 41]. LTFU was associated with CD4 cell counts <350 cells/mm3 (HR 1.8; 95% CI: 1.2, 3.0, weight-for-age z-scores below −4 (HR 2.8; 95% CI: 1.4, 5.6, and age <5 years (1–5 years: HR 1.6; 95% CI: 1.0, 2.5; <1 year: HR 3.3; 95% CI: 1.6, 6.6. Conclusions: Outcomes of HIV care were similar for Ethiopian children managed in a hospital clinic or in health centres. However, patients treated at the hospital clinic had characteristics of more advanced disease. Rates of LTFU were high in both types of health facility.

  15. Acute poisonings during pregnancy and in other non-pregnant women in emergency departments of four government hospitals, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: 2010-2015.

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    Eyasu, Mebrahtu; Dida, Tolesa; Worku, Yoseph; Worku, Solomon; Shafie, Mensur

    2017-10-01

    To characterise acute poisonings in pregnant and non-pregnant women treated at emergency departments of government hospitals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, between 2010 and 2015. All data for acutely poisoned women were retrospectively collected from patient medical charts at the emergency departments of Saint Paul's Hospital Millennium Medical College, Ras Desta Memorial Hospital, Yekatit 12 Hospital Medical College and Zewditu Memorial Hospital. Data were collected by extraction questionnaire and analysed using SPSSv. 20 statistical software. During the study period, 998 cases of acutely poisoned women were listed in the hospital registries. Of these, complete data for inclusion in the study were available for 592. 36.3% of the study participants were in the age group of 20-24, with a mean (±SD) age of 23.03 (±6.3) years. 80.9% were from Addis Ababa; 4.6% were pregnant. The mean arrival time of all cases was 4.14 h. 85.5% of all study cases were due to intentional self-poisoning, of whom 42.1% were discharged without complications. The most common poisons were bleach and organophosphates; 25.9% of pregnant cases and 32.6% of non-pregnant cases were poisoned by bleach; and 18.5% of pregnant cases and 18.9% of non-pregnant cases had organophosphate poisoning. 0.7% had a history of poisoning; all were non-pregnant women. The common route of poison exposure was oral, and the case fatality rate of organophosphate poisoning in pregnant and non-pregnant women was 20 and 1.87%, respectively. The pre-hospital intervention for the majority of the women was milk, in 12.0% of cases. Acute poisoning remains a public health problem in our community. Bleach is the most common poisons. Our present findings indicate the necessity of educational programmes on preventable reasons of acute poisonings and their outcomes on pregnant and non-pregnant women. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Bacterial profile and drug susceptibility pattern of urinary tract infection in pregnant women at University of Gondar Teaching Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia

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    Alemu Agersew

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Urinary tract infection (UTI is a common health problem among pregnant women. Proper investigation and prompt treatment are needed to prevent serious life threatening condition and morbidity due to urinary tract infection that can occur in pregnant women. Recent report in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia indicated the prevalence of UTI in pregnant women was 11.6 % and Gram negative bacteria was the predominant isolates and showed multi drug resistance. This study aimed to assess bacterial profile that causes urinary tract infection and their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern among pregnant women visiting antenatal clinic at University of Gondar Teaching Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted at University of Gondar Teaching Hospital from March 22 to April 30, 2011. Mid stream urine samples were collected and inoculated into Cystine Lactose Electrolyte Deficient medium (CLED. Colony counts yielding bacterial growth of 105/ml of urine or more of pure isolates were regarded as significant bacteriuria for infection. Colony from CLED was sub cultured onto MacConkey agar and blood agar plates. Identification was done using cultural characteristics and a series of biochemical tests. A standard method of agar disc diffusion susceptibility testing method was used to determine susceptibility patterns of the isolates. Results The overall prevalence of UTI in pregnant women was 10.4 %. The predominant bacterial pathogens were Escherichia coli 47.5 % followed by coagulase-negative staphylococci 22.5 %, Staphylococcus aureus 10 %, and Klebsiella pneumoniae 10 %. Gram negative isolates were resulted low susceptibility to co-trimoxazole (51.9 % and tetracycline (40.7 % whereas Gram positive showed susceptibility to ceftriaxon (84.6 % and amoxicillin–clavulanic acid (92.3 %. Multiple drug resistance (resistance to two or more drugs was observed in 95 % of the isolates. Conclusion

  17. Adherence to recommended lifestyle modifications and factors associated for hypertensive patients attending chronic follow-up units of selected public hospitals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

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    Tibebu A

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abel Tibebu,1 Daniel Mengistu,2 Lemma Negesa1 1School of Nursing and Midwifery, Haramaya University College of Health and Medical Sciences, Harar, 2School of Nursing and Midwifery, College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Introduction: One of the most prevalent noncommunicable diseases is hypertension (HTN. The availability of effective antihypertensive medications does not result in the expected outcomes in terms of controlling blood pressure. The rationale for these and other findings of uncontrolled HTN points toward poor adherence. The most neglected causes of uncontrolled HTN are unhealthy lifestyles. Few studies have been conducted to show the gap and magnitude of self-management adherence.Objective: This study aimed to assess adherence to recommended lifestyle modifications of hypertensive patients undergoing follow-up at chronic follow-up units of public health hospitals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2016.Methods: Institutional-based cross-sectional study was conducted in four public health hospitals which were selected by drawing lots. Systematic random sampling was used to select study subjects. The results of the descriptive statistics were expressed as percentages and frequencies. Associations between lifestyle modification and independent variables were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. The study was conducted from February 15, 2016 to April 15, 2016.Results: The study included 404 respondents with a 97% response rate; 210 (52% were male and the mean age was 54.00±10.77 years. The respondents’ adherence to lifestyle modifications was 23%. The lifestyle adherence was found to be better in females, patients who had comorbidities, and had been knowledgeable about the disease and was poor among young adult respondents.Conclusion: The rates of adherence to lifestyle changes were generally found to be low. Educational sessions that especially focus on lifestyle

  18. Survival and predictors of mortality among human immunodeficiency virus patients on anti-retroviral treatment at Jinka Hospital, South Omo, Ethiopia: a six years retrospective cohort study.

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    Tachbele, Erdaw; Ameni, Gobena

    2016-01-01

    The survival rate of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients receiving treatment in Ethiopia is poorly understood. This study aimed to determine the survival rate and predictors of mortality among HIV-infected adults on antiretroviral therapy (ART) at Jinka Hospital, South Omo, Ethiopia. A 6-year retrospective cohort study was conducted using 350 patient records drawn from 1,899 patients on ART at Jinka Hospital from September 2010 to August 2015. The data were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier statistics and Cox regression models. Of the 350 study participants, 315 (90.0%) were censored and 35 (10.0%) died. Twenty-two (62.9%) of the deaths occurred during the first year of treatment. The total follow-up encompassed 1,995 person-years, with an incidence rate of 1.75 deaths per 100 person-years. The mean survival time of patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) was 30.84±19.57 months. The overall survival of patients on HAART was 64.00% (95% confidence interval [CI], 61.85 to 66.21%) at 72 months of follow-up. The significant predictors of mortality included non-disclosure of HIV status (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 5.82; 95% CI, 1.91 to 17.72), a history of tuberculosis (aHR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.41 to 3.51), and ambulatory (aHR, 2.97; 95% CI, 1.20 to 8.86) or bedridden (aHR, 4.67; 95% CI, 1.30 to 17.27) functional status, World Health Organization (WHO) clinical stage IV illness (aHR, 24.97; 95% CI, 2.75 to 26.45), and substance abusers (aHR, 3.72; 95% CI, 1.39 to 9.97). Patients with a history of tuberculosis treatment, ambulatory or bedridden functional status, or advanced WHO clinical stage disease, as well substance abusers, should be carefully monitored, particularly in the first few months after initiating antiretroviral therapy. Patients should also be encouraged to disclose their status to their relatives.

  19. Expectation and satisfaction of HIV/AIDS patients toward the pharmaceutical care provided at Gondar University Referral Hospital, Northwestern Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study.

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    Abebe, Tamrat Befekadu; Erku, Daniel Asfaw; Gebresillassie, Begashaw Melaku; Haile, Kaleab Taye; Mekuria, Abebe Basazn

    2016-01-01

    Measurements of patient satisfaction help to assess the performance of health service provision and predict treatment adherence and outcomes. This study aimed to assess human HIV/AIDS patients' expectation of and satisfaction with the pharmaceutical service delivered at Gondar University Referral Hospital, Ethiopia. An institution-based cross-sectional study was performed from May 11 to 25, 2015. A total of 291 patients living with HIV/AIDS were included using a simple random sampling method. Data were collected using structured questionnaires measuring expectation and satisfaction of respondents using a Likert scale of 1-5 through face-to-face interviews. The data collected were entered into and analyzed using Statistical Packages for Social Sciences. Comparison was made between those respondents who lived in and outside the town. The overall mean expectation and satisfaction of respondents toward pharmacy setting and services were 3.62 and 3.13, respectively. More than half (56.1%) of the participants were dissatisfied with the comfort and convenience of waiting area and private counseling room. Similarly, 69.3% of the respondents claimed that pharmacy professionals did not give information about side effects and drug-drug and drug-food interactions of antiretroviral medications. There was a statistically significant difference between respondents who live in and outside Gondar town in overall expectation (t=3.415, P=0.001) with the pharmacy setting and services. In this study, the overall satisfaction level of respondents with pharmaceutical service (pharmacy setting and services) provided at Gondar University Referral Hospital was found to be low, while the overall respondents' expectation from the pharmaceutical services were exceedingly high. The hospital should implement good dispensing practice systems in relation to the services and continuing professional development to professionals in order to improve the satisfaction of patients.

  20. Perceived Nurse—Physician Communication in Patient Care and Associated Factors in Public Hospitals of Jimma Zone, South West Ethiopia: Cross Sectional Study

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    Hailu, Fikadu Balcha; Kassahun, Chanyalew Worku; Kerie, Mirkuzie Woldie

    2016-01-01

    Background Nurse–physician communication has been shown to have a significant impact on the job satisfaction and retention of staff. In areas where it has been studied, communication failure between nurses and physicians was found to be one of the leading causes of preventable patient injuries, complications, death and medical malpractice claims. Objective The objective of this study is to determine perception of nurses and physicians towards nurse-physician communication in patient care and associated factors in public hospitals of Jimma zone, southwest Ethiopia. Methods Institution based cross-sectional survey was conducted from March 10 to April 16, 2014 among 341 nurses and 168 physicians working in public hospitals in Jimma zone. Data was collected using a pre-tested self-administered questionnaire; entered into EpiData version 3.1 and exported to Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16.0 for analysis. Factor analysis was carried out. Descriptive statistics, independent sample t-test, linear regression and one way analysis of variance were used. Variables with P-value nurse-physician communication scores were 50.88±19.7% for perceived professional respect and satisfaction, and 48.52±19.7% for perceived openness and sharing of patient information on nurse-physician communication. Age, salary and organizational factors were statistically significant predictors for perceived respect and satisfaction. Whereas sex, working hospital, work attitude individual factors and organizational factors were significant predictors of perceived openness and sharing of patient information in nurse-physician communication during patient care. Conclusion Perceived level of nurse-physician communication mean score was low among nurses than physicians and it is attention seeking gap. Hence, the finding of our study suggests the need for developing and implementing nurse-physician communication improvement strategies to solve communication mishaps in patient

  1. Enhancing emergency medicine initiatives with a quality improvement program: lessons learned in the emergency department of Tikur Anbessa Hospital, Addis Ababa Ethiopia.

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    Azazh, Aklilu; Brown, Lori Di Prete; Ayele, Roman Aydiko; Teklu, Sisay; W/Tsadik, Assefu; Tefera, Muluwork; Bacha, Tigist; Geremew, Haymanot; Tefera, Girma; Busse, Heidi

    2014-07-01

    A Twinning Partnership between the University of Wisconsin-Madison (UW) and Addis Ababa University (AAU) in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia was formed to strengthen the development of emergency medical services at AAU's Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital (TASHI) through medical education and exchanges. The Twinning philosophy which emphasizes collaboration and joint learning was an ideal program in which QI program was incorporated to maximize success, promote sustainability, and reinforce basic principles for effective healthcare service delivery. This article describes the QI methodology, capacity building strategy, implementation approach, and lessons learned. QI initiative at TASH ED started during EM fellowship in 2010 when Priority problems in the department were identified, and root cause analysis and possible strategies for improvement were devised. Then Baseline and sensitization was undertaken which was followed by Quality Improvement Projects cycles. The Federal Ministry of health key performance indicators (KPI) were used as standard and measurement tool when it was relevant. The findings were analyzed and trends presented to the ED staff and other stakeholders. In the past four years Since QI initiatives started in TASH EM department different achievements have been registered. The main developments were capacity building with QI training of EM fellows, EM residents and EM and critical care nurses. QI Training was also conducted to Tikur Anbessa Hospital and college of health sciences leadership. In addition, various QI projects have been designed and started, while some are finalized and the rest are on implementation. The QI experience in the department suggests that a QI program can effectively support, complement, and enhance health system strengthening partnerships, and that establishment of a QI program at the department level is feasible and beneficial, enhancing the adoption and sustainability of health care improvements such as marked improvements in

  2. Perceived Nurse-Physician Communication in Patient Care and Associated Factors in Public Hospitals of Jimma Zone, South West Ethiopia: Cross Sectional Study.

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    Fikadu Balcha Hailu

    Full Text Available Nurse-physician communication has been shown to have a significant impact on the job satisfaction and retention of staff. In areas where it has been studied, communication failure between nurses and physicians was found to be one of the leading causes of preventable patient injuries, complications, death and medical malpractice claims.The objective of this study is to determine perception of nurses and physicians towards nurse-physician communication in patient care and associated factors in public hospitals of Jimma zone, southwest Ethiopia.Institution based cross-sectional survey was conducted from March 10 to April 16, 2014 among 341 nurses and 168 physicians working in public hospitals in Jimma zone. Data was collected using a pre-tested self-administered questionnaire; entered into EpiData version 3.1 and exported to Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 16.0 for analysis. Factor analysis was carried out. Descriptive statistics, independent sample t-test, linear regression and one way analysis of variance were used. Variables with P-value < 0.05 were considered as statistically significant.The response rate of the study was 91.55%. The mean perceived nurse-physician communication scores were 50.88±19.7% for perceived professional respect and satisfaction, and 48.52±19.7% for perceived openness and sharing of patient information on nurse-physician communication. Age, salary and organizational factors were statistically significant predictors for perceived respect and satisfaction. Whereas sex, working hospital, work attitude individual factors and organizational factors were significant predictors of perceived openness and sharing of patient information in nurse-physician communication during patient care.Perceived level of nurse-physician communication mean score was low among nurses than physicians and it is attention seeking gap. Hence, the finding of our study suggests the need for developing and implementing nurse

  3. Anemia and Associated Factors Among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Care Clinic in Wolayita Sodo Town, Southern Ethiopia.

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    Gedefaw, Lealem; Ayele, Asrat; Asres, Yaregal; Mossie, Andualem

    2015-04-01

    Anemia during pregnancy is a common problem which affects both the mother's and her child's health. The main aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors of anemia among pregnant women. We conducted a facility based cross-sectional study on 363 pregnant women attending antenatal care clinic in Wolayita Soddo Otona Hospital from January to March 2014. Sociodemographic data were collected through questionnaire based interview. Four milliliter of venous blood and five grams of fecal samples were collected from each pregnant woman. Hematological parameters were determined using CELL DYN 1800(®) (Abott, USA) Hematology analyzer. Stool samples were checked for intestinal parasites using both direct wet mount and formol-ether concentration techniques. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20 software. Overall, the prevalence of anemia was 39.94% (95% CI: 34.7 - 45.2%), of which the majority (60%) had moderate anemia. The mean hemoglobin concentration was 11.55±2.97 g/dl. Age 15-24 years (AOR: 9.89, 95%CI:2.68-21.41), family size >5 (AOR:7.74, 95%CI:4.15-16.47), multigravida (AOR:2.66, 95%CI:1.1.31-4.53), having low income (AOR:5.81, 95%CI:2.93-14.11), current clinical illness (AOR: 6.38, 95%CI:3.13-13.00), intestinal parasitic infection (AOR:2.41, 95%CI:1.08-5.81), no history of contraceptive usage (AOR:5.02 95%CI:2.21-11.47), being in third trimesters (AOR:11.37, 95%CI:4.56-24.82), history of excess menstrual bleeding (AOR:9.82, 95%CI:3.27-21.35) and low body mass index (AOR:9.44, 95%CI:7.79-22.18) were identified as independent predictors of anemia among pregnant women. Anemia prevalence was found out to be moderate public health importance. Identified risk factors should be considered for prevention and control of anemia among pregnant women.

  4. Compliance with Standard Precautions and Associated Factors among Healthcare Workers in Gondar University Comprehensive Specialized Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia.

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    Haile, Tariku Gebre; Engeda, Eshetu Haileselassie; Abdo, Abdella Amano

    2017-01-01

    Background. In many studies, compliance with standard precautions among healthcare workers was reported to be inadequate. Objective. The aim of this study was to assess compliance with standard precautions and associated factors among healthcare workers in northwest Ethiopia. Methods. An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted from March 01 to April 30, 2014. Simple random sampling technique was used to select participants. Data were entered into Epi info 3.5.1 and were exported to SPSS version 20.0 for statistical analysis. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were computed and adjusted odds ratio with 95% confidence interval was calculated to identify associated factors. Results. The proportion of healthcare workers who always comply with standard precautions was found to be 12%. Being a female healthcare worker (AOR [95% CI] 2.18 [1.12-4.23]), higher infection risk perception (AOR [95% CI] 3.46 [1.67-7.18]), training on standard precautions (AOR [95% CI] 2.90 [1.20-7.02]), accessibility of personal protective equipment (AOR [95% CI] 2.87 [1.41-5.86]), and management support (AOR [95% CI] 2.23 [1.11-4.53]) were found to be statistically significant. Conclusion and Recommendation. Compliance with standard precautions among the healthcare workers is very low. Interventions which include training of healthcare workers on standard precautions and consistent management support are recommended.

  5. Improving Nutrition in Ethiopia through Plant Breeding and Soil ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Ethiopia has one of the highest rates of malnutrition in the world. The problem is especially acute in southern Ethiopia, due to low agricultural productivity and diets heavily dependent on cereals and root crops. Nearly half of all child deaths in this region stem from deficiencies in protein and micronutrients such as vitamin A, ...

  6. Factors associated with late Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) diagnosis among peoples living with it, Northwest Ethiopia: hospital based unmatched case-control study.

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    Aniley, Abebayehu Bitew; Ayele, Tadesse Awoke; Zeleke, Ejigu Gebeye; Kassa, Assefa Andargie

    2016-10-12

    Early HIV diagnosis and access to treatment is one of the most effective ways to prevent its further spread and to protect the health of those living with the virus. However, delay in diagnosis is the major risk factor for uptake of and response to antiretroviral therapy. Institution-based unmatched case-control study design was used in the study. The study was conducted in Debre-Markos and Finote-Selam Hospitals, Northwest Ethiopia. Cases were people living with HIV who had CD4 count HIV diagnosis. About 95.9 % of study participants provided complete response. Having no understanding, compared to having understanding, about HIV/AIDS (AOR = 1.7, 95 %CI = 1.08-2.79) and ART (AOR = 2.1, 95 %CI: 1.25-3.72), being tested as a result of symptoms/ illness, compared to being tested for risk exposure (inverted AOR =2.5, 95 %CI: 1.64-4.76), and acquiring HIV through sexual contact, compared to acquiring it through other modes (AOR = 2.5, 95 %CI = 1.52-4.76) were positively and independently associated with late HIV diagnosis. Unlike perceived HIV stigma, having no understanding about HIV and ART, being tested for presence of symptoms/illness, and acquiring HIV through sexual contact were independent and significant factors for late HIV diagnosis.

  7. Adherence and Associated Factors towards Antidiabetic Medication among Type II Diabetic Patients on Follow-Up at University of Gondar Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia

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    Mastewal Abebaw

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM is rising worldwide and is more in the developing countries which unfortunately are already suffering from communicable diseases. The aim of this study was to assess adherence and associated factors towards antidiabetic medication among type II diabetic patients in University of Gondar Hospital, Diabetic Clinic, Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia. Methods. Institutional based cross-sectional study was conducted. Systematic sampling technique was used. Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS scores were used for labeling patients as adherent or nonadherent. Data were entered and analyzed using SPSS version 20. To see the association of variables logistic regression with OR and 95% CI was done. Results. A total of 288 study participants were interviewed with response rate of 100%. The level of adherence was found to be 85.1%. Factors found to be significantly associated with antidiabetic medication adherence were level of education (AOR = 14.27, 95% CI = 3.0, 67.82, duration of diabetes (AOR = 6.10, 95% CI = 2.03, 18.34, and knowledge about DM and its medications (AOR = 28.05, 95% CI = 8.96, 87.8. Conclusions and Recommendations. Large proportion of respondents in this study were found to be adherent to their antidiabetic medications. Level of education, duration of diabetes, and knowledge about DM and its medication were significantly associated with antidiabetic medication adherence of patients. Health education including adherence counseling to create awareness towards DM and its medications is mandatory.

  8. Self-care practice and glycaemic control amongst adults with diabetes at the Jimma University Specialized Hospital in south-west Ethiopia: A cross-sectional study

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    Endalew Hailu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The main goal in diabetes care is to improve the patient’s quality of life, to maintain satisfactory metabolic control and to retain minimal complications caused by diabetes mellitus (DM. Thus, this study has assessed self-care practice and glycaemic control amongst adults with diabetes mellitus. Setting: A facility-based study amongst the diabetic follow-up clinic at Jimma University Specialized Hospital in Ethiopia.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from 01 April to 30 April 30 2010. A total of 343 diabetic patients were selected using a systematic sampling method. The data were collected by structured questionnaires and a medical card review; anthropometric measurement was done by trained nurses.Results: The study showed that 53% of the respondents had diabetes related knowledge. The study also found that 64% of the respondents were physically less active, and 17% of the respondents were walking on foot for less than 30 minutes per a day. Only 18.1% of the respondents were able to control their Fasting Blood Sugar (FBS to level below 126 mg/dL.Conclusion: The present study illustrates that the level of knowledge about diabetes and selfcare practices amongst diabetic patients were meager. In addition, it showed that respondents’ level of physical activity, their educational status, and the dose of oral hypoglycaemic agents taken by the respondents significantly affected glycaemic control.

  9. Associated Factors and Outcome of Uterine Rupture at Suhul General Hospital, Shire Town, North West Tigray, Ethiopia 2016: A Case-Control Study

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    Tefera Marie Bereka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Uterine rupture is tearing of the uterine wall during pregnancy or delivery. It may extend to partial or whole thickness of the uterine wall. It is usually a case where obstetric care is poor. In extensive damage, death of the baby and sometimes even maternal death are evident. Objective. This study assesses associated factors and outcome of uterine rupture at Suhul General Hospital, Tigray Region, Ethiopia, 2016. Methodology. A case-control study was conducted by review of data from September 2012 to August 2016. A total of 336 samples were studied after calculating by EPI-INFO using proportion of multiparity (53% and ratio of 1 : 2 for cases and controls, respectively. Analysis was done using SPSS version 20. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression was applied with p<0.05. Result. ANC, grand multiparity, malpresentation, and obstructed labor had association, but previous cesarean delivery was not significant. Perinatal mortality was 105 (93% versus 13 (5.8% in cases and controls, respectively. Anemia was highest for both groups (53.7% versus 32.1%. Conclusion. Majority of uterine rupture is attributed to prolonged or obstructed labor. Cases of uterine rupture had prompt management preventing maternal mortality, but burden of perinatal death is still high.

  10. Proportion and factors associated with low fifth minute Apgar score among singleton newborn babies in Gondar University referral hospital; North West Ethiopia.

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    Gudayu, Temesgen Worku

    2017-03-01

    New born babies with low Apgar scores are at an increased risk of perinatal morbidity and mortality. To assess proportion and factors associated with low 5th minute Apgar Apgar score among singleton newborn babies in Gondar University referral hospital; North West Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted on singleton 261 live births from March - May, 2013. Data was collected from mother/newborn index using a structured and pre-tested questionnaire. It was then cleaned, coded and entered using EPI INFO version 3.4.3, then analyzed with IBM SPSS statistics versions 20.0. Logistic regression was used to identify significant variables with low 5th minute Apgar score. The proportion of low 5th minute Apgar score in this study was 13.8%. Factors that were significantly associated with low 5th minute Apgar score were: non-vertex fetal presentation, prolonged labor, presence of meconium stained liquor, induced/augmented labor and low birth weight. Mainly obstetric factors contribute to low Apgar score. Improving labor management through implementing regular use of partograph, 1:1 midwife-client ratio and advanced electronic fetal monitoring technology is recommended.

  11. High load of multi-drug resistant nosocomial neonatal pathogens carried by cockroaches in a neonatal intensive care unit at Tikur Anbessa specialized hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilahun Birkneh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cockroaches have been described as potential vectors for various pathogens for decades; although studies from neonatal intensive care units are scarce. This study assessed the vector potential of cockroaches (identified as Blatella germanica in a neonatal intensive care unit setup in Tikur Anbessa Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods A total of 400 Blatella germanica roaches were aseptically collected for five consecutive months. Standard laboratory procedures were used to process the samples. Results From the external and gut homogenates, Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Citrobacter spp. Enterobacter cloacae, Citrobacter diversus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Providencia rettgeri, Klebsiella ozaenae, Enterobacter aeruginosa, Salmonella C1, Non Group A streptococcus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter spp. and Shigella flexneri were isolated. Multi-drug resistance was seen in all organisms. Resistance to up to all the 12 antimicrobials tested was observed in different pathogens. Conclusion Cockroaches could play a vector role for nosocomial infections in a neonatal intensive care unit and environmental control measures of these vectors is required to reduce the risk of infection. A high level of drug resistance pattern of the isolated pathogens was demonstrated.

  12. Exploratory Analysis of Time from HIV Diagnosis to ART Start, Factors and effect on survival: A longitudinal follow up study at seven teaching hospitals in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teklu, Alula M; Delele, Kesetebirhan; Abraha, Mulu; Belayhun, Bekele; Gudina, Esayas Kebede; Nega, Abiy

    2017-02-01

    The HIV care in Ethiopia has reached 79% coverage. The timeliness of the care provided at the different levels in the course of the disease starting from knowing HIV positive status to ART initiation is not well known. This study intends to explore the timing of the care seeking, the care provision and associated factors. This is a longitudinal follow-up study at seven university hospitals. Patients enrolled in HIV care from September 2005 to December 2013 and aged ≥14 years were studied. Different times in the cascade of HIV care were examined including the duration from date HIV diagnosed to enrollment in HIV care, duration from enrollment to eligibility for ART and time from eligibility to initiation of ART. Ordinal logistic regression was used to investigate their determinants while the effect of these periods on survival of patients was determined using cox-proportional hazards regression. 4159 clients were studied. Time to enrollment after HIV test decreased from 39 days in 2005 to 1 day after 2008. It took longer if baseline CD4 was higher, and eligibility for ART was assessed late. Young adults, lower baseline CD4, HIV diagnosisART initiation. Male gender, advanced disease stage and lower baseline CD4 were consistent risk factors for mortality. Time to enrollment and duration of ART eligibility assessment as well as ART initiation time after eligibility is improving. Further study is required to identify why mortality is slightly increasing after 2010.

  13. Perceptions of Parents Towards the Academic Performance of Female Students: The Case of Kutto Sorfella Primary School, Sodo Zuria Woreda, Southern Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regasa, Guta; Taha, Mukerem

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to assess the current status of the academic performance of females in grade seven and eight and to study how perception of parents affect the academic performance of female students in Kutto Sorfella Primary School, Sodo Zuria Woreda, SNNPR, Ethiopia. To achieve the objectives of this research both qualitative and…

  14. Fertility desire and associated factors among clients on highly active antiretroviral treatment at finoteselam hospital Northwest Ethiopia: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbawa, Fassika; Awoke, Worku; Alemu, Yayehirad

    2015-08-11

    The accessibility of antiretroviral treatment changed the lives of persons living with HIV from hopelessness to hopefulness. Thus, many of them decided to have children. In Ethiopia, where there is high prevalence of HIV, level of fertility desire among persons living with HIV could have significant part in safe motherhood and child health. The aim of this study was to assess the level of fertility desire and identify factors associated with it among clients on highly active antiretroviral treatment at Finoteselam Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study design supplemented by in-depth interview was conducted on 422 clients on Highly Active Antiretroviral Treatment from July 1 to August 12, 2013. Structured questionnaire was used to collect the data. Data were entered in to EPi Info version 3.5.1 and exported to SPSS software version 16 for further analysis. Descriptive and summary statistics were computed. Proportions were calculated to estimate fertility desire level. Binary logistic regression model was fitted to identify factors associated with fertility desire. A total of 422 clients were included in the study of which 217 (51.4%) were males. The median age was 33 (IQR = 12) years. A total of 141(33.4%) of clients had desire for having children. Male clients desire children than their female counterparts [AOR = 3.19, 95 % CI: (1.56, 6.51)]. Clients who had no child had more desire for having children than those who had three or more children [AOR = 6.78, 95 % CI: (2.38, 19.27)] and those who had ≤2 years duration on ART had more desire than those with >2 years duration on ART [AOR = 3.64, 95 % CI: (1.74, 7.64)]. Clients who had discussion with ART service provider about sexuality, Fertility desire and family planning had more child desire [AOR = 3.12, 95 % CI: (1.54, 6.32)]. One third of clients have desire to have a child/children in the future. Male clients and clients who have less than or equal to 2 years ART follow up

  15. Prevalence and associated factors of herbal medicine use among pregnant women on antenatal care follow-up at University of Gondar referral and teaching hospital, Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekuria, Abebe Basazn; Erku, Daniel Asfaw; Gebresillassie, Begashaw Melaku; Birru, Eshetie Melese; Tizazu, Balem; Ahmedin, Alima

    2017-02-01

    Improving maternal and child health is one of the public health priorities in several African countries including Ethiopia. However, research on herbal medicine use during pregnancy is scarce in Ethiopia. The present study aimed at assessing the prevalence and correlates of herbal medicine use among pregnant women on antenatal care (ANC) follow-up at Gondar university referral hospital, Ethiopia METHODS: An institutional-based cross sectional study was conducted on 364 pregnant women attending ANC clinic from March to May 2016 at University of Gondar referral and teaching hospital, northwest Ethiopia. Data on socio-demography, pregnancy related information as well as herbal medicine use was collected through an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Descriptive statistics, univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis were performed to determine prevalence and associated factors of herbal medicine use. From 364 respondents, 48.6% used herbal medicine during current pregnancy. ginger (40.7%) and garlic (19%) were the two most commonly used herbs in pregnancy. Common cold (66%) and inflammation (31.6%) were the most common reasons for herbal use. Majority of herbal medicine users (89.8%) had not consulted their doctors about their herbal medicine use. Rural residency (Adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 3.15, Confidence interval (CI): 1.17-6.14), illiteracy (AOR: 4.05, CI: 2.47-6.62) and average monthly income less than 100 USD (AOR: 3.08CI: 1.221-7.77) were found to be strong predictors of herbal medicine use. The use of herbal medicine during pregnancy is a common practice and associated with residency, level of education and average monthly income. From the stand point of high prevalence and low disclosure rate, the health care providers should often consult pregnant women regarding herbal medicine use.

  16. Magnitude and associated factors of aggressive behaviour among patients with bipolar disorder at Amanual Mental Specialized Hospital, outpatient department, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belete, Habte; Mulat, Haregwoin; Fanta, Tolesa; Yimer, Solomon; Shimelash, Takele; Ali, Tilahun; Tewabe, Tilahun

    2016-12-12

    Aggressive behavior is a challenging behavior among bipolar patients that causes poor social interaction and hospitalization. But, there is no information regards of the magnitude and contributing factors for aggressive behaviour among bipolar patients in Ethiopia. Therefore, this study was designed to assess the prevalence and associated factors of aggressive behaviour among patients with bipolar disorder. An institutional based cross sectional study was conducted at Amanual Mental Specialized Hospital from May 1 to June 1, 2015 among 411 participants who were selected by systematic random sampling technique. Data was collected by interview technique by using Modified Overt Aggression Scale, entered and analyzed by using Epi Data 3.1 and Statistical Package for Social Science version 20, respectively. Adjusted Odd Ratio (AOR) with 95% Confidence Interval (CI) were used to show the odd and P-value prevalence of aggressive behaviour was 29.4%. Significant associated factors for aggression were, having two or more episode [AOR = 2.35 95% CI (1.18, 4.69)], previous history of aggression, [AOR = 3.72, 95% CI (1.54, 8.98)], depressive symptoms [AOR = 3.63, 95% CI (1.89, 6.96)], psychotic symptoms [AOR = 5.41,95% CI (2.88, 10.1)], manic symptoms [AOR = 3.85,95% CI (2.06, 7.19)], poor medication adherence [AOR = 3.73 95% CI (1.71, 8.13)], poor social support [AOR = 2.99 95% CI (1.30, 6.91)] and current use of substance[AOR = 2.17 95% CI (1.16, 4.06)]. Prevalence of aggression is high among bipolar patients and associated with many factors. So it needs public health attention to decrease aggression among bipolar patients.

  17. Magnitude of Anemia and Associated Factors among Pediatric HIV/AIDS Patients Attending Zewditu Memorial Hospital ART Clinic, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hylemariam Mihiretie

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Anemia is one of the most commonly observed hematological abnormalities and an independent prognostic marker of HIV disease. The aim of this study was to determine the magnitude of anemia and associated factors among pediatric HIV/AIDS patients attending Zewditu Memorial Hospital (ZMH ART Clinic in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted among pediatric HIV/AIDS patients of Zewditu Memorial Hospital (ZMH between August 05, 2013, and November 25, 2013. A total of 180 children were selected consecutively. Stool specimen was collected and processed. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data on sociodemographic characteristics and associated risk factors. Data were entered into EpiData 3.1.1. and were analyzed using SPSS version 16 software. Logistic regressions were applied to assess any association between explanatory factors and outcome variables. Results. The total prevalence of anemia was 22.2% where 21 (52.5%, 17 (42.5%, and 2 (5.0% patients had mild, moderate, and severe anemia. There was a significant increase in severity and prevalence of anemia in those with CD4+ T cell counts below 350 cells/μL (P<0.05. Having intestinal parasitic infections (AOR = 2.7, 95% CI, 1.1–7.2, having lower CD4+ T cell count (AOR = 3.8, 95% CI, 1.6–9.4, and being HAART naïve (AOR = 2.3, 95% CI, 1.6–9.4 were identified as significant predictors of anemia. Conclusion. Anemia was more prevalent and severe in patients with low CD4+ T cell counts, patients infected with intestinal parasites/helminthes, and HAART naïve patients. Therefore, public health measures and regular follow-up are necessary to prevent anemia.

  18. Application of Nursing Process and Its Affecting Factors among Nurses Working in Mekelle Zone Hospitals, Northern Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagos, Fisseha; Alemseged, Fessehaye; Balcha, Fikadu; Berhe, Semarya; Aregay, Alemseged

    2014-01-01

    Background. Nursing process is considered as appropriate method to explain the nursing essence, its scientific bases, technologies and humanist assumptions that encourage critical thinking and creativity, and permits solving problems in professional practice. Objective. To assess the application of nursing process and it's affecting factors in Mekelle Zone Hospitals. Methods. A cross sectional design employing quantitative and qualitative methods was conducted in Mekelle zone hospitals March 2011. Qualitative data was collected from14 head nurses of six hospitals and quantitative was collected from 200 nurses selected by simple random sampling technique from the six hospitals proportional to their size. SPSS version 16.1 and thematic analysis was used for quantitative and qualitative data respectively. Results. Majority 180 (90%) of the respondents have poor knowledge and 99.5% of the respondents have a positive attitude towards the nursing process. All of the respondents said that they did not use the nursing process during provision of care to their patients at the time of the study. Majority (75%) of the respondent said that the nurse to patient ratio was not optimal to apply the nursing process. Conclusion and Recommendation. The nursing process is not yet applied in all of the six hospitals. The finding revealed that the knowledge of nurses on the nursing process is not adequate to put it in to practice and high patient nurse ratio affects its application. The studied hospitals should consider the application of the nursing process critically by motivating nurses and monitor and evaluate its progress. PMID:24649360

  19. Carbapenemases-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in hospitals of two regions of Southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calia, Carla; Pazzani, Carlo; Oliva, Marta; Scrascia, Maria; Lovreglio, Piero; Capolongo, Carmen; Dionisi, Anna Maria; Chiarelli, Adriana; Monno, Rosa

    2017-05-01

    Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae infections are reported with increasing frequency elsewhere in the world, representing a worrying phenomenon for global health. In Italy, there are hotspot data on the diffusion and type of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae and K. pneumoniae in particular, with very few data coming from Apulia and Basilicata, two regions of Southern Italy. This study was aimed at characterizing by phenotypic and genotypic methods carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae isolated from several Hospitals of Apulia and Basilicata, Southern Italy. Antibiotic susceptibility was also evaluated. The relatedness of carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniae strains was established by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Among the 150 K. pneumoniae carbapenemase producers, KPC-3 genotype was the most predominant (95%), followed by VIM-1 (5%). No other genotypes were found and no co-presence of two carbapenemase genes was found. A full concordance between results obtained by both the phenotypic and the genotypic tests was observed. All strains were resistant to β-lactam antibiotics including carbapenems, and among antibiotics tested, only tetracycline and gentamycin showed low percentage of resistance (18% and 15%, respectively). Resistance to colistin was detected in 17.3% of strains studied. The analysis of PFGE profiles of the carbapenemases-positive strains shows that one group (B) of the five (A to E) main groups identified was the most prevalent and detected in almost all the hospitals considered, while the other groups were randomly distributed. Three different sequence types (ST 307, ST 258, and ST 512) were detected with the majority of isolates belonging to the ST 512. Our results demonstrated the wide diffusion of K. pneumoniae KPC-3 in the area considered, the good concordance between phenotypic and genotypic tests. Gentamicin and colistin had a good activity against these strains. © 2017 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons

  20. Assessment of exposure to sexually explicit materials and factors associated with exposure among preparatory school youths in Hawassa City, Southern Ethiopia: a cross-sectional institution based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habesha, Tony; Aderaw, Zewdie; Lakew, Serawit

    2015-09-14

    According to the 2007 Ethiopian census, youths aged 15-24 years were more than 15.2 million which contributes to 20.6% of the whole population. These very large and productive groups of the population are exposed to various sexual and reproductive health risks. The aim of this study was to assess exposure to Sexually Explicit Materials (SEM) and factors associated with exposure among preparatory school students in Hawassa city, Southern Ethiopia. A cross-sectional institution based study involving 770 randomly selected youth students of preparatory schools at Hawassa city. Multi stage sampling technique was used to select study subjects. Data was collected using pre-tested and self-administered questionnaire. Data was entered by EPI INFO version 3.5.1 and analyzed using SPSS version 20.0 statistical software packages. The result was displayed using descriptive, bivariate and multivariate analysis. Statistical association was done for independent predictors (at p sexual issues with in their family. Furthermore, About 450 (60.0%) respondents complained for having no sexual and reproductive health education at their school. Male students had faced almost two times higher exposure to SEM than female students (95 % CI: AOR 1.84(C.I = 1.22, 2.78). Students who attended private school were more than two times more likely exposed to SEM than public schools (95 % CI: AOR 2.07(C.I = 1.29, 3.30). Students who drink alcohol and labelled as 'sometimes' were two times more likely exposed to SEM than those who never drink alcohol (95 % CI = AOR 2.33(C.I = 1.26, 4.30). Khat chewers who labelled "rarely", "sometimes" and "often" had shown higher exposure (95 % CI: AOR 3.02(CI = 1.65, 5.52), (95 % CI: AOR 3.40(CI = 1.93, 6.00) and (95 % CI: AOR 2.67(CI = 1.46, 4.86) than those who never chew khat, respectively. Regarding SEM access, school youths with label 'easy access were exposed in odds of six folds than youths of no access (95 % CI: AOR 5.64(C

  1. Improving Nutrition in Ethiopia through Plant Breeding and Soil ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ecological zones of southern Ethiopia, combining innovative agricultural practices with the introduction of bio-fortified pulses and human nutrition programs. The project trains smallholder farmers in the use of more sustainable farming practices that ...

  2. Early successes in Ethiopia's war on hunger | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2013-11-08

    Nov 8, 2013 ... More nutritious crops, bigger yields, more diverse diets: Ethiopian and Canadian researchers are working toward these goals in southern Ethiopia, where drought and poor soil have threatened farmers' livelihoods and led to widespread malnutrition.

  3. Assessment of knowledge, attitude and practice and associated factors towards palliative care among nurses working in selected hospitals, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassa, Hiwot; Murugan, Rajalakshmi; Zewdu, Fissiha; Hailu, Mignote; Woldeyohannes, Desalegn

    2014-03-04

    To provide quality care at the end of life or for chronically sick patients, nurses must have good knowledge, attitude and practice about palliative care (PC). In Ethiopia PC is new and very little is known about the type of services offered and the readiness of nurses to provide PC. A cross sectional quantitative study design was carried out using 341 nurses working in selected hospitals in Addis Ababa from January 2012 to May 2012. Systematic random sampling was the method employed to select two governmental and two non-governmental hospitals. The researchers used triangulation in their study method making use of: Frommelt's Attitude Toward Care of the Dying (FATCOD) Scale, Palliative Care Quiz for Nursing (PCQN) and practice questions. This led to enhanced validity of the data. EPI-INFO and SPSS software statistical packages were applied for data entry and analysis. Of the total 365 nurses selected, a response rate of 341 (94.2%) were registered. Out of the total study participants, 104 (30.5%) had good knowledge and 259 (76%) had favorable attitude towards PC. Medical and surgical wards as well as training on PC were positively associated with knowledge of nurses. Institution, individuals' level of education, working in medical ward and the training they took part on PC were also significantly associated with the attitude the nurses had. Nurses working in Hayat Hospital (nongovernmental) had a 71.5% chance of having unfavorable attitude towards PC than those working in Black Lion Hospital (governmental). Regarding their knowledge aspect of practice, the majority of the respondents 260 (76.2%) had poor implementation, and nearly half of the respondents had reported that the diagnosis of patients was usually performed at the terminal stage. In line with this, spiritual and medical conditions were highly taken into consideration while dealing with terminally ill patients. The nurses had poor knowledge and knowledge aspect of practice, but their attitude towards PC

  4. Assessment of knowledge, attitude and practice and associated factors towards palliative care among nurses working in selected hospitals, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background To provide quality care at the end of life or for chronically sick patients, nurses must have good knowledge, attitude and practice about palliative care (PC). In Ethiopia PC is new and very little is known about the type of services offered and the readiness of nurses to provide PC. Methods A cross sectional quantitative study design was carried out using 341 nurses working in selected hospitals in Addis Ababa from January 2012 to May 2012. Systematic random sampling was the method employed to select two governmental and two non-governmental hospitals. The researchers used triangulation in their study method making use of: Frommelt’s Attitude Toward Care of the Dying (FATCOD) Scale, Palliative Care Quiz for Nursing (PCQN) and practice questions. This led to enhanced validity of the data. EPI-INFO and SPSS software statistical packages were applied for data entry and analysis. Result Of the total 365 nurses selected, a response rate of 341 (94.2%) were registered. Out of the total study participants, 104 (30.5%) had good knowledge and 259 (76%) had favorable attitude towards PC. Medical and surgical wards as well as training on PC were positively associated with knowledge of nurses. Institution, individuals’ level of education, working in medical ward and the training they took part on PC were also significantly associated with the attitude the nurses had. Nurses working in Hayat Hospital (nongovernmental) had a 71.5% chance of having unfavorable attitude towards PC than those working in Black Lion Hospital (governmental). Regarding their knowledge aspect of practice, the majority of the respondents 260 (76.2%) had poor implementation, and nearly half of the respondents had reported that the diagnosis of patients was usually performed at the terminal stage. In line with this, spiritual and medical conditions were highly taken into consideration while dealing with terminally ill patients. Conclusion The nurses had poor knowledge and knowledge aspect

  5. in Hossana Town, southern Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reported joint decision-making on 'when to have another child', and 80.9% reported agreement between spouses on a decision 'when .... In addition, the association between dependent and independent variables- was determined using odds ratio with 95% confidence interval. Logistic regression analysis was performed to.

  6. in Hossana Town, southern Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    children (32%), opposition from the respondents (husband opposition) (23.2%), and fear of side effects (15%). ... reported joint decision-making on 'when to have another child', and 80.9% reported agreement between spouses on a ... Discussion between spouses and their joint decision-making on contraceptive use was.

  7. Knowledge and experience sharing practices among health professionals in hospitals under the Addis Ababa health bureau, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asemahagn, Mulusew Andualem

    2014-09-24

    Health professionals need updated health information from credible sources to improve their knowledge and provide evidence based health care services. Various types of medical errors have occurred in resource-limited countries because of poor knowledge and experience sharing practices among health professionals. The aim of this study was to assess knowledge-sharing practices and determinants among health professionals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. An institutional based cross-sectional study was conducted among 320 randomly selected health professionals from August12-25/2012. A pretested, self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data about different variables. Data entry and analysis were done using Epi-Info version 3.5.4 and SPSS version20 respectively. Descriptive statistics and multivariate regression analyses were applied to describe study objectives and identify the determinants of knowledge sharing practices respectively. Odds ratio at 95% CI was used to describe the strength of association between the study and outcome variables. Most of the respondents approved the need of knowledge and experience sharing practices in their routine activities. Nearly half, 152 (49.0%) of the study participants had knowledge and experience sharing practices. A majority, 219 (70.0%) of the respondents showed a willingness to share their knowledge and experiences. Trust on others' knowledge, motivation, supportive leadership, job satisfaction, awareness, willingness and resource allocation are the determinants of knowledge and experience sharing practices. Supportive leadership, resources, and trust on others' knowledge can enhance knowledge and experience sharing by OR = 3.12, 95% CI = [1.89 - 5.78], OR = 2.3, 95% CI = [1.61- 4.21] and OR = 2.78, 95% CI = [1.66 - 4.64] times compared with their counterparts respectively. Even though most of the respondents knew the importance of knowledge and experience sharing practices, only a limited number

  8. Low coverage of hepatitis B vaccine and determinants among health professionals working in Amhara regional state hospitals, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berhanu Elfu Feleke

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available More than two billion people have been infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV, 360 million have chronic infection and 600,000 die each year from HBV-related liver disease or hepatocellular carcinoma. Each year more than 66,000 health professionals are infected by hepatitis b virus and vaccination against hepatitis B saves the life’s of these health professionals. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and associated factors of hepatitis B vaccine coverage in a resource limited settings. A cross sectional study design was conducted. The study was conducted on 1184 health professionals at Amhara national regional state, Ethiopia. Simple random sampling technique was used. Structured questionnaire was used to collect the data. Descriptive statistics were used to identify the prevalence while Binary logistic regression was used to assess the determinants of hepatitis B vaccine coverage. The coverage of hepatitis B vaccine was 4%. Vaccination were affected by work load (AOR=0.19, 95%CI= 0.08-0.46; P<0.01, negligence (AOR=0.04, 95%CI=0.01- 0.11: P<0.01, universal precaution training (AOR=14.75, 95%CI=5.66-38.44: P<0.01, perception that they are not at risk of infection (AOR=0.34, 95%CI=0.15-0.79: P=0.01, unaffordable cost (AOR=0.12, 95%CI=0.05-0.28: P<0.01, awareness about the vaccine (AOR=4.55, 95%CI=1.53-13.49: P<0.01, peer pressure (AOR=3.8, 95%CI=1.34-10.74: P=0.01, knowledge about where to get the vaccine (AOR=5.13, 95%CI=1.87-14.11: P=0.02, unavailability of the vaccine (AOR=0.25, 95%CI=0.1-0.63: P=0.03, year of experience (AOR=7.27, 95%CI=2.23-23.72: P<0.01. Low hepatitis B vaccine coverage was observed. The ministry of health should avail the vaccine to all those health professionals, develop awareness on HBV and improve the affordability of the vaccine.

  9. Blood donation practice and its associated factors among health professionals of University of Gondar Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia: a cross sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Arage, Getachew; Ibrahim, Seada; Adimasu, Endeshaw

    2017-01-01

    Background Blood donation has remained a challenge in developing countries, like Ethiopia. In Ethiopia there is a high reliance on family surrogate and waged blood donors which carries an attendant increased risk of transfusion transmissible infection. Health workers are expected to practice blood donation so as to create a good image to the public. A study on blood donation behavior may improve successful implementation of the blood donation programs. Methods An institution based cross-secti...

  10. Application of Nursing Process and Its Affecting Factors among Nurses Working in Mekelle Zone Hospitals, Northern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fisseha Hagos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Nursing process is considered as appropriate method to explain the nursing essence, its scientific bases, technologies and humanist assumptions that encourage critical thinking and creativity, and permits solving problems in professional practice. Objective. To assess the application of nursing process and it’s affecting factors in Mekelle Zone Hospitals. Methods. A cross sectional design employing quantitative and qualitative methods was conducted in Mekelle zone hospitals March 2011. Qualitative data was collected from14 head nurses of six hospitals and quantitative was collected from 200 nurses selected by simple random sampling technique from the six hospitals proportional to their size. SPSS version 16.1 and thematic analysis was used for quantitative and qualitative data respectively. Results. Majority 180 (90% of the respondents have poor knowledge and 99.5% of the respondents have a positive attitude towards the nursing process. All of the respondents said that they did not use the nursing process during provision of care to their patients at the time of the study. Majority (75% of the respondent said that the nurse to patient ratio was not optimal to apply the nursing process. Conclusion and Recommendation. The nursing process is not yet applied in all of the six hospitals. The finding revealed that the knowledge of nurses on the nursing process is not adequate to put it in to practice and high patient nurse ratio affects its application. The studied hospitals should consider the application of the nursing process critically by motivating nurses and monitor and evaluate its progress.

  11. Prevalence of potential drug–drug interactions among internal medicine ward in University of Gondar Teaching Hospital, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akshaya Srikanth Bhagavathula

    2014-05-01

    Conclusion: We have recorded a high rate of prevalence of potential DDI in the internal medicine ward of UOG hospital and a high number of clinically significant DDIs which the most prevalent DDI were of moderate severity. Careful selection of drugs and active pharmaceutical care is encouraged in order to avoid negative consequences of these interactions.

  12. Prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus infection in a cohort of tuberculosis patients at Metema Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia: a 3 years retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarekegne, Daniel; Jemal, Muhabaw; Atanaw, Tadesse; Ebabu, Ashenafi; Endris, Mengistu; Moges, Feleke; Tessema, Belay; Deressa, Tekalign

    2016-03-29

    Ethiopia is one of the countries that are highly affected by dual epidemics of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and tuberculosis (TB). HIV infection is a known risk factor for the development of active TB and it challenges in diagnosis and treatment of TB. Thus, it is essential to determine the epidemiology of HIV infection among TB patients to guide clinical actions and inform the policy makers. This study was aimed to assess the prevalence of HIV infection among TB patients and to describe the associated risk factors for HIV seropositivity. A retrospective study was conducted on TB registries at Metema Hospital directly observed therapy short-course (DOTS) clinic. Binary and multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine the association of HIV seropositivity among TB patients. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. P value less than 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Of the total 2096 patients, 2005 (95.7%) were tested for HIV. The overall HIV-TB co-infection rate was 20.1% (404), 12.3% (246) in males and 7.9% (158) in females. The highest proportion of co-infection rate was observed among the patients in the age group of 25-34 years (32.4%) and smear negative pulmonary TB patients (59.7%). A declining trend of HIV-TB co-infection was observed during the study period, from 22.1% (185) in 2009/10 to 12.8% (52) in 2011/12 (X(2) = 17.07, P < 0.001). This study found that HIV-TB co-infection is still high in the Metema area; and occurs more frequently in males than females, and among patients in age group of 25-34 years. Thus, concerted efforts and interventions methods that target these at risk groups are recommended.

  13. Risky sexual practices and related factors among ART attendees in Addis Ababa Public Hospitals, Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Dessie, Yadeta; Gerbaba, Mulusew; Bedru, Abdo; Davey, Gail

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Many HIV-positive persons avoid risky sexual practices after testing HIV sero-positive. However, a substantial number continue to engage in risky sexual practices that may further transmit the virus, put them at risk of contracting secondary sexually transmitted infections and lead to problems with drug resistance. Thus, this study was intended to assess risky sexual practices and related factors among HIV- positive ART attendees in public hospitals of Addis Ababa. Methods...

  14. Knowledge and utilization of computer among health workers in Addis Ababa hospitals, Ethiopia: computer literacy in the health sector.

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    Mohammed, Ebrahim; Andargie, Gashaw; Meseret, Solomon; Girma, Eshetu

    2013-03-20

    Incorporation of information technology advancements in healthcare has gained wide acceptance in the last two decades. Developed countries have successfully incorporated information technology advancements in their healthcare system thus, improving healthcare. However, only a limited application of information technology advancements is seen in developing countries in their healthcare system. Hence, this study was aimed at assessing knowledge and utilization of computer among health workers in Addis Ababa hospitals. A quantitative cross-sectional study was conducted among 304 health workers who were selected using stratified sampling technique from all governmental hospitals in Addis Ababa. Data was collected from April 15 to April 30, 2010 using a structured, self-administered, and pre-tested questionnaire from five government hospitals in Addis Ababa. The data was entered into Epi Info version 3.5.1 and exported to SPSS version 16. Analysis was done using multinomial logistic regression technique. A total of 270 participants, age ranging from 21 to 60 years responded to the survey (88.8% response rate). A total of 91 (33.7%) respondents had an adequate knowledge of computers while 108 (40.0%) had fair knowledge and 71(26.3%) of the respondents showed inadequate knowledge. A total of 38(14.1%) were adequately utilizing computers, 14(5.2%) demonstrated average or fair utilization and majority of the respondents 218(80.7%) inadequately utilized computers. Significant predictor variables were average monthly income, job satisfaction index and own computer possession. Computer knowledge and utilization habit of health workers were found to be very low. Increasing accessibility to computers and delivering training on the use of computers for workers will increases the knowledge and utilization of computers. This will facilitate the rate of diffusion of the technology to the health sector. Hence, programs targeted at enhancing knowledge and skill of computer use and

  15. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from clinical samples at Yekatit 12 Hospital Medical College, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

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    Dilnessa, Tebelay; Bitew, Adane

    2016-08-09

    Staphylococcus aureus particularly MRSA strains are one of the major causes of community and hospital acquired bacterial infections. They are also becoming increasingly multi-drug resistant and have recently developed resistance to vancomycin, which has been used successfully to treat MRSA for many years. In-vitro determination of drug resistance patterns of S. aureus is critical for the selection of effective drugs for the treatment of staphylococci infections. The main aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of methicillin resistant S. aureus strains from different clinical specimens from patients referred for routine culture and sensitivity testing. A cross sectional study was conducted among 1360 participants at Yekatit 12 Hospital Medical College in Ethiopia from September 2013 to April 2014. Clinical samples from various anatomical sites of study participants were cultured on blood agar and mannitol salt agar and identified to be S. aureus by using catalase, coagulase and DNAse tests. S. aureus isolates then were screened for MRSA using 30 μg cefoxitin disc and other 11 antimicrobial drugs by disc diffusion procedure, and agar dilution and E tests for vancomycin. All S. aureus isolates examined for beta-lactamase production by employing nitrocefin. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20 software and logistic regressions were applied to assess any association between dependent and independent variables. Of 1360 clinical specimens analyzed S. aureus was recovered from (194, 14.3 %). Rate of isolation of S. aureus with regard to clinical specimens was the highest in pus (118, 55.4 %).No S. aureus was isolated from CSF and urethral discharge. Out of 194 S. aureus isolates, (34, 17.5 %) were found out to be MRSA and the remaining (160, 82.5 %) were MSSA. Ninety eight (50.5 %) S. aureus were multi drug resistant and the highest isolates were resistant to penicillin (187, 96.4 %) and least resistant for clindamycin (23, 11.9 %) and vancomycin

  16. Anti-tuberculosis drug induced hepatotoxicity among TB/HIV co-infected patients at Jimma University Hospital, Ethiopia: nested case-control study.

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    Alima Hassen Ali

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study was carried out to determine the incidence and predictors of anti-tuberculosis drug induced hepatotoxicity among TB/HIV co-infected patients at Jimma University Hospital, Ethiopia. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A nested case-control study was conducted by reviewing charts of all TB/HIV co-infected patients who commenced anti-TB treatment from January 2008 to December 2011 at Jimma University Hospital. Patients who had developed hepatotoxicity after at least 5 days of standard doses of anti-TB drug therapy were labeled as "cases" and those without hepatotoxicity were "controls". Each case with anti-TB drug induced hepatotoxicity was compared with 3 controls selected randomly from the cohort. From a cohort of 296 TB/HIV co-infected patients 8 were excluded from the study as the causality between anti-TB drugs and hepatotoxicity was not confirmed, 33 had developed hepatotoxicity. On bivariate logistic regression analysis, body mass index (BMI <18.5 Kg/m(2 [P = 0.01; OR (95%CI: 3.6 (1.4-9.5], disseminated pulmonary TB [P = 0.00; OR (95%CI: 5.6 (2.2-14.6], CD4 count ≤50 [P = 0.016; OR (95%CI: 3.6(1.27-10.23] and WHO stage 4 [P = 0.004, OR (95%CI: 3.8 (1.68-8.77] were significantly associated with anti-TB drug induced hepatotoxicity. Predictor variables with p-value <0.05 by bivariate analysis were analyzed using multivariable logistic regression analysis and identified disseminated pulmonary TB [P = 0.001; AOR (95%CI = 5.6 (2.1-15.0] and BMI <18.5 [P = 0.014; AOR (95%CI= 3.6 (1.3-10.1] as independent predictors of anti-TB drug induced hepatotoxicity. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of anti-TB drug induced hepatotoxicity was 11.5%. The results suggest that in the presence of disseminated pulmonary TB and/or BMI <18.5 Kg/m(2, TB/HIV co-infected patients should be closely followed for the occurrence of hepatotoxicity during the intensive phase of TB treatment to prevent morbidity and mortality.

  17. Anti-tuberculosis drug induced hepatotoxicity among TB/HIV co-infected patients at Jimma University Hospital, Ethiopia: nested case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassen Ali, Alima; Belachew, Tefera; Yami, Alemeshet; Ayen, Wubeante Yenet

    2013-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the incidence and predictors of anti-tuberculosis drug induced hepatotoxicity among TB/HIV co-infected patients at Jimma University Hospital, Ethiopia. A nested case-control study was conducted by reviewing charts of all TB/HIV co-infected patients who commenced anti-TB treatment from January 2008 to December 2011 at Jimma University Hospital. Patients who had developed hepatotoxicity after at least 5 days of standard doses of anti-TB drug therapy were labeled as "cases" and those without hepatotoxicity were "controls". Each case with anti-TB drug induced hepatotoxicity was compared with 3 controls selected randomly from the cohort. From a cohort of 296 TB/HIV co-infected patients 8 were excluded from the study as the causality between anti-TB drugs and hepatotoxicity was not confirmed, 33 had developed hepatotoxicity. On bivariate logistic regression analysis, body mass index (BMI) <18.5 Kg/m(2) [P = 0.01; OR (95%CI): 3.6 (1.4-9.5)], disseminated pulmonary TB [P = 0.00; OR (95%CI): 5.6 (2.2-14.6)], CD4 count ≤50 [P = 0.016; OR (95%CI): 3.6(1.27-10.23)] and WHO stage 4 [P = 0.004, OR (95%CI): 3.8 (1.68-8.77)] were significantly associated with anti-TB drug induced hepatotoxicity. Predictor variables with p-value <0.05 by bivariate analysis were analyzed using multivariable logistic regression analysis and identified disseminated pulmonary TB [P = 0.001; AOR (95%CI) = 5.6 (2.1-15.0)] and BMI <18.5 [P = 0.014; AOR (95%CI)= 3.6 (1.3-10.1)] as independent predictors of anti-TB drug induced hepatotoxicity. The incidence of anti-TB drug induced hepatotoxicity was 11.5%. The results suggest that in the presence of disseminated pulmonary TB and/or BMI <18.5 Kg/m(2), TB/HIV co-infected patients should be closely followed for the occurrence of hepatotoxicity during the intensive phase of TB treatment to prevent morbidity and mortality.

  18. Dyslipidemia and associated factors among diabetic patients attending Durame General Hospital in Southern Nations, Nationalities, and People’s Region

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    Bekele S

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Shiferaw Bekele, Tagesech Yohannes, Abdurehman Eshete Mohammed Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia Background: Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic disorders that are caused by deficiency in insulin secretion or the decreased ability of insulin to act effectively on target tissues, particularly muscle, liver, and fat. As a result of insulin resistance in the target tissues, particularly in the adipocytes, free fatty acid flux is increased, leading to increased lipid synthesis in hepatocytes, which is responsible for diabetic dyslipidemia.Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and associated factors of dyslipidemia among diabetic patients in Durame General Hospital in Kembata Tembaro zone.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from September 2015 to April 2016. In total, 224 subjects were involved in the study by using convenient sampling techniques. Face-to-face interview–administered questionnaire was used to collect sociodemographic data and other possible clinical data associated with the prevalence of dyslipidemia. Fasting venous blood specimens were collected to assess serum lipid profiles. Blood pressure (BP, weight, height, and waist circumference were measured.Results: The prevalence of dyslipidemia was 65.6%. Individual lipid abnormality of elevated LDL-C, TC, TG, and reduced HDL-C were identified in 43.8%, 23.7%, 40.6%, and 41.9% of study subjects, respectively. The prevalence of dyslipidemia was significantly associated with high BP, high body mass index, aging, and longer duration of diabetes mellitus. Conclusion: High prevalence of dyslipidemia was found among diabetic patients in the study area. Therefore, a compressive mechanism is required to screen, treat, and prevent dyslipidemia. Keywords: diabetes, lipid profile, Jimma, Ethiopia

  19. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of nasal Staphylococcus aureus among Dessie Referral Hospital health care workers, Dessie, Northeast Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibabaw, Agumas; Abebe, Tamrat; Mihret, Adane

    2014-08-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major pathogen in skin and soft tissue infections. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) is prevalent in most of the countries in which it is sought. MRSA is one of the important pathogens implicated in hospital-acquired infections. The main objectives of this study were to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of S. aureus isolates, the prevalence of MRSA, and the nasal carriage rate in healthy hospital staff members. A total of 118 health care workers (HCWs) were enrolled using a cross-sectional study design. Nasal swabs were collected and cultured on mannitol salt agar (MSA). The slide coagulase test was performed. Susceptibility testing was carried out on Mueller-Hinton agar using the modified Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method with 10 antibiotics. Of the 118 HCWs, 34 had S. aureus and 15 had MRSA, with overall positivity rates of 28.8% and 12.7%, respectively. None of the S. aureus isolates were sensitive to penicillin. MRSA isolates were resistant to commonly available antibiotics. Only two (13.3%) of the nasal isolates were vancomycin-resistant. A high rate of nasal carriage and multidrug-resistant S. aureus was found in this study, indicating the need for standard infection control to prevent transmission in our health care setting. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Rate of Nonadherence to Antipsychotic Medications and Factors Leading to Nonadherence among Psychiatric Patients in Gondar University Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia

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    Abyot Endale Gurmu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The main aim of this study was to assess the rate of medication nonadherence among psychiatry patients at University of Gondar Hospital. Materials and Methods. Cross-sectional, descriptive method was conducted over a period of one month in May, 2013, at University of Gondar Hospital. Rate of nonadherence was computed using Medication Adherence Rating Scale questionnaire and self-reporting via a structured patient interview. Chi-square was used to determine the statistical significance of the association of variables with adherence. Result. Out of 209 respondents, 105 (50.2% were found to be nonadherent. Patients who were forced to take their medication against their will (P<0.001, those who did not believe they require medication (P=0.026, and those who discontinued their medication without consulting their prescriber (P<0.001 had significant association with nonadherence. Adherence among schizophrenia was 75.7%; psychotic was 46.7%; bipolar disorder was 37.5%; and psychosis with depression was 52.6%. Reasons for nonadherence included recovery from the illness (26.7%, seeking alternative therapy and unavailability of drugs (18.1% each, adverse drug reaction (12.7%, forgetfulness (10.6%, and being busy (8.6%. Conclusion. The observed rate of antipsychotic medication nonadherence in this study was high. Interventions to increase adherence are therefore crucial.

  1. Exploration of healthcare workers' perceptions on occupational risk of HIV transmission at the University of Gondar Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemie, Getahun Asres

    2012-12-29

    HIV/AIDS has several means of transmission. Exposure to blood and other body fluids is a very important means of transmission. Healthcare workers are exposed to this disease mainly due to the nature of their work. This is an exploration of the perceptions of healthcare workers of the University of Gondar Hospital. Based on purposive sampling seven healthcare workers were selected from different departments in the hospital so that they could reflect on their perceptions. The selected healthcare workers were asked about the risks related to their work, their experience of HIV related hazards and their general views on the transmission of HIV. The main themes were identified for analysis and the views were summarized under the themes. All the respondents were aware of the risk of acquiring HIV in healthcare settings. Some had experienced accidents that made them take post-exposure prophylaxis, and most witnessed accidents like needle-stick injuries to their colleagues. They also expressed their feelings that their workplace was not the best place to work at. Health professionals are well aware of the possibility of HIV transmission associated with their practice. Accidents like needle stick injuries are apparently common; and at the same time, the practice of healthcare workers towards using universal precautions looks poor.

  2. Childhood and adult tuberculosis in a rural hospital in Southeast Ethiopia: a ten-year retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Jose Manuel; Reyes, Francisco; Tesfamariam, Abraham

    2010-04-27

    Many DOTS experiences in developing countries have been reported. However, experience in a rural hospital and information on the differences between children and adults are limited. We described the epidemiology and treatment outcome of adult and childhood tuberculosis (TB) cases, and identified risk factors associated with defaulting and dying during TB treatment in a rural hospital over a 10-year period (1998 to 2007). Retrospective data collection using TB registers and treatment cards in a rural private mission hospital. Information was collected on number of cases, type of TB and treatment outcomes using standardised definitions. 2225 patients were registered, 46.3% of whom were children. A total of 646 patients had smear-positive pulmonary TB (PTB), [132 (20.4%) children]; 816 had smear-negative PTB [556 (68.2%) children], and 763 extra-PTB (EPTB) [341 (44.8%) children]. The percentage of treatment defaulters was higher in paediatric (13.9%) than in adult patients (9.3%) (p = 0.001). The default rate declined from 16.8% to 3.5%, and was independently positively associated with TB meningitis (AOR: 2.8; 95% CI: 1.2-6.6) and negatively associated with smear-positive PTB (AOR: 0.6; 95% CI: 0.4-0.8). The mortality rate was 5.3% and the greatest mortality was associated with adult TB (AOR: 1.7; 95% CI: 1.1-2.5), TB meningitis (AOR: 3.6; 95% CI:1.2-10.9), and HIV infection (AOR: 4.3; 95% CI: 1.9-9.4). Decreased mortality was associated with TB lymphadenitis (AOR: 0.24; 95% CI: 0.11-0.57). (1) The registration of TB cases can be useful to understand the epidemiology of TB in local health facilities. (2) The defaulter and mortality rate of childhood TB is different to that of adult TB. (3) The rate of defaulting from treatment has declined over time.

  3. Childhood and adult tuberculosis in a rural hospital in Southeast Ethiopia: a ten-year retrospective study

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    Ramos Jose

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many DOTS experiences in developing countries have been reported. However, experience in a rural hospital and information on the differences between children and adults are limited. We described the epidemiology and treatment outcome of adult and childhood tuberculosis (TB cases, and identified risk factors associated with defaulting and dying during TB treatment in a rural hospital over a 10-year period (1998 to 2007. Methods Retrospective data collection using TB registers and treatment cards in a rural private mission hospital. Information was collected on number of cases, type of TB and treatment outcomes using standardised definitions. Results 2225 patients were registered, 46.3% of whom were children. A total of 646 patients had smear-positive pulmonary TB (PTB, [132 (20.4% children]; 816 had smear-negative PTB [556 (68.2% children], and 763 extra-PTB (EPTB [341 (44.8% children]. The percentage of treatment defaulters was higher in paediatric (13.9% than in adult patients (9.3% (p = 0.001. The default rate declined from 16.8% to 3.5%, and was independently positively associated with TB meningitis (AOR: 2.8; 95% CI: 1.2-6.6 and negatively associated with smear-positive PTB (AOR: 0.6; 95% CI: 0.4-0.8. The mortality rate was 5.3% and the greatest mortality was associated with adult TB (AOR: 1.7; 95% CI: 1.1-2.5, TB meningitis (AOR: 3.6; 95% CI:1.2-10.9, and HIV infection (AOR: 4.3; 95% CI: 1.9-9.4. Decreased mortality was associated with TB lymphadenitis (AOR: 0.24; 95% CI: 0.11-0.57. Conclusion (1 The registration of TB cases can be useful to understand the epidemiology of TB in local health facilities. (2 The defaulter and mortality rate of childhood TB is different to that of adult TB. (3 The rate of defaulting from treatment has declined over time.

  4. Establishing the validity of a spiritual distress scale for cancer patients hospitalized in southern Taiwan.

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    Ku, Ya-Lie; Kuo, Shih-Ming; Yao, Ching-Yi

    2010-03-01

    The present study was conducted to establish the validity of the spiritual distress scale (SDS), a scale developed as part of a qualitative study in which 20 cancer patients were interviewed about spiritual needs in 2003-2004. The SDS has four domains: relationship with self, relationship with others, relationship with God, and attitude towards death A measurement study was conducted whereby 85 patients completed the SDS during their hospitalization in the oncology unit of a medical centre in southern Taiwan. The SDS, including four domains of sub-scales, was broader than other spiritual scales in the literature that only contained one or two domains and focused on the health area. The SDS has established the adequate content and construct validity. Further training of nurses for assessing spiritual distress of cancer patients using the SDS would be recommended for future study. The established content and construct validity of the SDS could be applied in oncology for nurses to assess spiritual distress of cancer patients.

  5. Current trends in treatment outcomes of orbital cellulitis in a tertiary hospital in Southern Nigeria

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    Odarosa M Uhumwangho

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Orbital cellulitis refers to the inflammation or infection of the soft tissues of the orbit located behind the orbital septum. Aim: To determine the current trends in the outcomes following the management of orbital cellulitis in a tertiary hospital in Southern Nigeria. Patients and Methods: A retrospective review of medical records of patients with orbital cellulitis from January 2008 to December 2014 was conducted. The age, sex, duration of symptoms, predisposing factors, clinical findings, laboratory/radiological investigations, treatment provided, complications, and follow-up were recorded. Results were analyzed with SPSS Version 21 program. Results: Forty-two patients were seen made of 17 (40.5% males and 25 (59.5% females with a mean age of 18.2 ± 18.7 years of which children 6/18 at presentation, 38 (82.6% and at discharge, 39 (84.8%. The mean duration of presenting complaints was 15.5 ± 31.6 days. Patients who presented early were less likely to develop complications, P = 0.003. The most common complication was exposure keratopathy in 8 (44.4% eyes. The only surgical intervention performed was incision and drainage of abscess in 3 (7.1% eyes. No patient came for follow-up. Conclusion: Prompt institution of effective antibiotics and management of complications that may arise improves prognosis of orbital cellulitis.

  6. Imported Malaria in Southern Taiwan from 1991 to 2002: A Single Hospital's Experience

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    Jing-Shia Tang

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Malaria, a major public health problem worldwide, is a predominant infectious disease in most tropical and subtropical countries. Before 1965, Taiwan was a hyperendemic area, but most cases are now imported. We present our experience of dealing with various malaria infections. Charts of malaria patients visiting university hospitals in southern Taiwan between January 1991 and June 2002 were available for review. All diagnoses were made by positive blood smear and detailed history that included countries visited, paroxysm of symptoms, and medical treatment. Seventeen patients, 6 women and 11 men (mean age, 32.3 ± 11.8 years, were enrolled. Six were infected with Plasmodium falciparum, eight with Plasmodium vivax, two with a combination of P. falciparum and P. vivax, and one with an unidentified infection. All Taiwanese patients infected with P. falciparum (n = 5 contracted the disease in Africa or Indonesia. All Taiwanese patients infected with P. vivax (n = 4 contracted the disease in Southeast Asia or Oceania. Fever and chills were the leading symptoms of malaria. P. falciparum infection was treated with quinine and doxycycline/tetracycline, with the addition of artesunate for cerebral malaria. P. vivax infection was treated with chloroquine and primaquine. Maintaining a high degree of suspicion in patients with a history of travel to malaria-endemic areas is the major cornerstone of malaria diagnosis. Erroneous diagnosis and improper treatment leads to greater morbidity and even mortality.

  7. Readiness of Health Centers and Primary Hospitals for the Implementation of Proposed Health Insurance Schemes in Southwest Ethiopia.

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    Abazinab, Sabit; Woldie, Mirkuzie; Alaro, Tesfamichael

    2016-09-01

    In response to the 2005 World Health Assembly, many low income countries developed different healthcare financing mechanisms with risk pooling stategy to ensure universal coverage of health services. Accordingly, service availability and readiness of the health system to bear the responsibility of providing service have critical importance. The objective of this study was to assess service availability and readiness of health centers and primary hospitals to bear the responsibility of providing service for the members of health insurance schemes. A facility based cross sectional study design with quantitative data collection methods was employed. Of the total 18 districts in Jimma Zone, 6(33.3%) districts were selected randomly. In the selected districts, there were 21 functional public health facilities (health centers and primary hospitals) which were included in the study. Data were collected by interviewer administered questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were calculated by using SPSS version 20.0. Prior to data collection, ethical clearance was obtained. Among the total 21 public health facilities surveyed, only 38.1% had all the categories of health professionals as compared to the national standards. The majority, 85.2%, of the facilities fulfilled the criteria for basic equipment, but 47.7% of the facilities did not fulfill the criteria for infection prevention supplies. Moreover, only two facilities fulfilled the criteria for laboratory services, and 95.2% of the facilities had no units/departmenst to coordinate the health insurance schemes. More than nine out of ten facilities did not fulfill the criteria for providing healthcare services for insurance beneficiaries and are not ready to provide general services according to the standard. Hence, policy makers and implementers should devise strategies to fill the identified gaps for successful and sustainable implementation of the proposed insurance scheme.

  8. Authority and leadership in Surma society (Ethiopia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink, G.J.

    1997-01-01

    This article examines recent developments of local authority and 'leadership' among the Surma of southern Ethiopia, where the author carried out field research over the years 1990-1995. The intention is to analyse the nature of 'authority' in a non-State social formation, in which 'chiefs' in the

  9. The role of surgery for peptic ulcer in eastern Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rrgical Resident. I:aculty of Med~cine, University of Addis Ababa. Key words: peptic ulcer, Ethiopia. This was a retrospective study of 90 patients operated on for peptic ulcer disease (PUD) in. Karamara Hospital, Ethiopia, between 1st April.

  10. Social impact of HIV/AIDS on clients attending a teaching hospital in Southern Nigeria.

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    Johnson, Ofonime E

    2012-01-01

    People living with human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (PLWHA) face numerous social challenges. The objectives of this study were to assess the level of self-disclosure of status by PLWHA, to describe the level and patterns of stigma and discrimination, if any, experienced by the PLWHA and to assess the effect of sero-positivity on the attitude of friends, family members, health workers, colleagues and community. This was a cross-sectional descriptive study carried out among PLWHA attending the University of Uyo Teaching Hospital, Uyo, Southern Nigeria. Information was obtained using an interviewer-administered semi-structured questionnaire, which was analysed using the Epi 6 software. A total of 331 respondents were interviewed. A majority, 256 (77.3%), of the respondents were within the age range of 25-44 years. A total of 121 (36.6%) PLWHA were single and 151 (46.6%) were married, while the rest were widowed, divorced or separated. A majority, 129 (85.4%), of the married respondents disclosed their status to their spouses and 65 (50.4%) were supportive. Apart from spouses, disclosure to mothers (39.9%) was highest. Most clients (57.7%) did not disclose their status to people outside their immediate families for fear of stigmatization. Up to 111 (80.4%) of the respondents working for others did not disclose their status to their employers. Among those whose status was known, discrimination was reported to be highest among friends (23.2%) and at the workplace (20.2%). Attitudes such as hostility (14.5%), withdrawal (11.7%) and neglect (6.8%) were reported from the private hospitals. Apart from disclosure to spouses, the level of disclosure to others was very low. Those whose status was known mainly received acceptance from their families but faced discriminatory attitudes such as hostility, neglect and withdrawal from friends, colleagues and hospital workers. There is a need for more enlightenment campaigns on HIV/AIDS by

  11. Knowledge, attitude and practice for cervical cancer prevention and control among women of childbearing age in Hossana Town, Hadiya zone, Southern Ethiopia: Community-based cross-sectional study.

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    Aweke, Yitagesu Habtu; Ayanto, Samuel Yohannes; Ersado, Tariku Laelago

    2017-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common female cancer which Ethiopia put a strategic goal to reduce its incidence and mortality by 2020. Lack of knowledge and poor attitude towards the disease and risk factors can affect screening practice and development of preventive behavior for cervical cancer. The aim of this study was to assess knowledge, attitude, practices and factors for each domain for cervical cancer among women of child bearing age in Hossana town, Southern, Ethiopia. Community based cross sectional study was carried out in June 2015. A total of 583 participants were selected using systematic random sampling technique. Pretested structured interviewer administered questionnaire was used to gather the data. Data were entered in to Epi Info software version 3.5.4 and exported to SPSS version 16 for descriptive and logistic regression analysis. Two hundred seventy (46.3%) of the respondents had poor comprehensive knowledge. Only 58 (9.9%) of participants had been screed for the cervical cancer before the survey. Two hundred three (34.8%) of participants had negative attitude towards selected proxy variables. Not having health seeking behavior for cervical cancer [AOR: 5.45, 95% CI: (1.18, 30.58), P knowledge. Poor knowledge score was associated with poor attitude [AOR: 56.51, 95%CI: (23.76, 134.37), P knowledge, promoting active searching for health information and experiences of receiving information from any information sources regarding cervical cancer. Therefore, it will be essential to integrate cervical cancer prevention strategies with other reproductive health services at all level of health care delivery system.

  12. High prevalence of diarrhoegenic intestinal parasite infections among non-ART HIV patients in Fitche Hospital, Ethiopia.

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    Haileeyesus Adamu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: HIV infection has been modifying both the epidemiology and outcome of parasite infections. Hence, this study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of Cryptosporidium and other intestinal parasite infections among HIV positives with and without Antiretroviral Treatment(ART and its association with CD4+ T-cell count. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted at Fitche hospital focusing on HIV positives who came to hospital for follow-ups. A total of 378 HIV positive persons with and without ART participated in the study. Data on socio-demographic factors and diarrhoea status were obtained by interviewing all 214 with ART and 164 without ART. Stool samples were collected from all patients and examined for intestinal parasites using direct, formol-ether and modified acid-fast staining techniques. RESULTS: The prevalence of intestinal parasite infections in this study was significantly higher among HIV positive persons not on ART. Specifically, the rate of infection with Cryptosporidium species, Blastocystis spp., Giardia lamblia, and Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar were higher, particularly in those with CD4+ T-cell counts less than 200 cells/µL. Fifty seven percent of the study participants were on ART. Out of these 164/378 (43% of the non-ART study participants were infected with at least one intestinal parasite species. Significant association was observed between lower CD4+ T-cell count (<200 cells/µL and the prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Blastocystis spp. The two parasites were significantly more prevalent in HIV positive non-ART patients. CONCLUSION: HIV infection increased the risk of having Cryptosporidium and other intestinal parasites and diarrhoea. Therefore, raising HIV positive's immune status and screening for intestinal parasites is important. This study showed that patients who are taking ART had a lower prevalence of diarrhoea causing parasites and Cryptosporidium suggesting that ART through

  13. Women's satisfaction with childbirth care in Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital, Bahir Dar city, Northwest Ethiopia, 2014: cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonnen, Mesafint Ewunetu; Yalew, Worku Awoke; Anteneh, Zelalem Alamrew

    2015-10-01

    Globally, each year more than half million women die from pregnancy-related causes and an estimated 10 million experience injuries, infections and disease that can cause lifelong suffering attributed to poor quality care. Client satisfaction on health care delivery is an indication of quality care and reported to affect health service utilization. Individuals happy with the care received comply with services and follow up. The aim of this study was to assess women's satisfaction with care during child birth and associated factors. Hospital based cross-sectional study was conducted on women delivering their baby in April to May 2014. Systematic sampling procedure was used to select 594 eligible women, and face to face interview technique was used to collect the data. The data were coded, entered into EPI-INFO (3.5.1) and analyzed using SPSS version 20 software package. The findings of this study revealed that the proportion of women satisfied with childbirth care service was 74.9 %. Mothers whose age less than 20, and 20-34 years were less likely to satisfy with the care during child birth compared to mothers whose age was above 35 years (AOR = 0.17, 95 % CI 0.04-0.68, and AOR = 0.13.95 % CI 0.13-0.85). Besides, women who did not attend ANC were more than 3 times likely to satisfy with care compared to women attended ANC (AOR = 3.75, 95 % CI 1.12-12.59). Moreover, who who gave birth for the first time, and two to five times were more than 4 times likely to satisfy compared to women who gave birth for more than 5 times (AOR = 4.68, 95 % CI 1.75-12.54, and AOR = 4.38, 95 % CI 1.91-12.22). Only 75 % of women gave birth satisfied with the care they received. Moreover, age of women, antenatal care follow-up and the number of deliveries were important predictors of level of satisfaction. Therefore, the hospital administration and health professionals need to offer patient oriented service to increase level of satisfaction, as it is one of the measures of quality care.

  14. Prevalence of Antipsychotic Polypharmacy and Associated Factors among Outpatients with Schizophrenia Attending Amanuel Mental Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

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    Tesfaye, Siranesh; Debencho, Nigussie; Kisi, Teresa; Tareke, Minale

    2016-01-01

    Background. Despite recommendations by guidelines to avoid combinations of antipsychotics unless after multiple trials of antipsychotic monotherapy, it is quite a common practice to use combinations. This practice leads to unnecessary expenses and exposes the patient to severe drug adverse effects. Methods. An institution based cross-sectional study was conducted from April to May 2014. Systematic random sampling technique was used to select 423 study subjects. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to identify associated factors of antipsychotic polypharmacy among schizophrenia outpatients. Result. The overall prevalence of antipsychotic polypharmacy was found to be 28.2%. Extra pyramidal side effects (AOR = 2.80; 95% CI: 1.38, 5.71), repeated psychiatric hospitalization (AOR = 2.83; 95% CI: 1.45, 5.50), history of substance use (AOR = 2.82; 95% CI: 1.36, 5.88), longer duration of treatment (AOR = 2.10; 95% CI: 1.14, 3.87), and drug nonadherence (AOR = 1.84; 95% CI: 1.14, 2.98) were found to be significantly associated with antipsychotic polypharmacy. Conclusion. Prevalence of antipsychotic polypharmacy was found to be high among the current study participants. Individuals who had extra pyramidal side effects, admission, substance use, duration of treatment, and drug nonadherence were associated with antipsychotic polypharmacy.

  15. Prevalence of Dermatophytic Infection and the Spectrum of Dermatophytes in Patients Attending a Tertiary Hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

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    Gebreabiezgi Teklebirhan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Dermatophytosis is common worldwide and continues to increase. Objective. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of dermatophytosis and the spectrum of ringworm fungi in patients attending a tertiary hospital. Methods. Samples were collected from 305 patients. A portion of each sample was examined microscopically and the remaining portion of each sample was cultured onto plates of Sabouraud’s dextrose agar containing chloramphenicol with and without cycloheximide. Dermatophyte isolates were identified by studying macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of their colonies. Result. Of 305 samples, fungi were detected in 166 (54.4% by KOH of which 95 were dermatophytes while 242 (79.4% samples were culture positive of which 130 isolates were dermatophytes. Among dermatophyte isolates T. violaceum was the most common (37.7% cause of infection. Tinea unguium was the predominant clinical manifestation accounting for 51.1% of the cases. Patients with age group 25–44 and 45–64 years were more affected. T. violaceum was the most common pathogen in tinea unguium and tinea capitis, whereas T. mentagrophytes was the most common pathogen in tinea pedis. Conclusion. Further intensive epidemiological studies of ring worm fungus induced dermatophytosis which have public health significance are needed.

  16. Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites and Associated Factors among Pulmonary Tuberculosis Suspected Patients Attending University of Gondar Hospital, Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia

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    Yalewayker Tegegne

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Intestinal parasitic infections are among the major public health problems in developing countries. Hence, it is significant to explore coinfection with intestinal parasites and pulmonary tuberculosis because coinfection increases the complexity of control and prevention of pulmonary tuberculosis and parasitic diseases. Objective. To assess the prevalence of intestinal parasites among pulmonary tuberculosis suspected patients. Method. Institutional based cross-sectional study was conducted at University of Gondar Hospital from March to May, 2017. Stool samples were taken from each participant and examined by direct microscopy and concentration technique. Descriptive statistics was performed and chi-square test was used to show the association between variables. P values of <0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results. Intestinal parasites were detected in 50 (19.6% among a total of 256 pulmonary tuberculosis suspected patients who were included in the study, whereas the prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis was 16.8% (43/256. Pulmonary tuberculosis and intestinal parasite coinfection was detected in 5 (2.0% of the participants. The most prevalent intestinal parasites infection in this study was Ascaris lumbricoides, 15 (5.85%, followed by Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, 14 (5.46%, and Hookworm, 13 (5.1%. Conclusion. The prevalence of intestinal parasites and their coinfection rate with pulmonary tuberculosis among pulmonary tuberculosis suspected patients were considerable.

  17. Prevalence of Antipsychotic Polypharmacy and Associated Factors among Outpatients with Schizophrenia Attending Amanuel Mental Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

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    Siranesh Tesfaye

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Despite recommendations by guidelines to avoid combinations of antipsychotics unless after multiple trials of antipsychotic monotherapy, it is quite a common practice to use combinations. This practice leads to unnecessary expenses and exposes the patient to severe drug adverse effects. Methods. An institution based cross-sectional study was conducted from April to May 2014. Systematic random sampling technique was used to select 423 study subjects. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to identify associated factors of antipsychotic polypharmacy among schizophrenia outpatients. Result. The overall prevalence of antipsychotic polypharmacy was found to be 28.2%. Extra pyramidal side effects (AOR = 2.80; 95% CI: 1.38, 5.71, repeated psychiatric hospitalization (AOR = 2.83; 95% CI: 1.45, 5.50, history of substance use (AOR = 2.82; 95% CI: 1.36, 5.88, longer duration of treatment (AOR = 2.10; 95% CI: 1.14, 3.87, and drug nonadherence (AOR = 1.84; 95% CI: 1.14, 2.98 were found to be significantly associated with antipsychotic polypharmacy. Conclusion. Prevalence of antipsychotic polypharmacy was found to be high among the current study participants. Individuals who had extra pyramidal side effects, admission, substance use, duration of treatment, and drug nonadherence were associated with antipsychotic polypharmacy.

  18. Reproductive disorders in relation to Neospora caninum, Brucella spp. and bovine viral diarrhoea virus serostatus in breeding and dairy farms of central and southern Ethiopia.

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    Asmare, K; Regassa, F; Robertson, L J; Martin, A D; Skjerve, E

    2013-08-01

    Abortion and stillbirth are important reproductive disorders in the dairy industry and are often caused by infectious agents. This study investigated whether bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV), Brucella spp., and Neospora caninum are associated with abortion and/or stillbirth in dairy cattle in Ethiopia. Dairy cattle from 99 farms were categorized as cases (n=134) or controls (n=268) according to reproductive data. Blood samples were screened for antibodies for these infectious agents. The overall proportion of cattle that were seropositive for BVDV, Brucella spp., and N. caninum was 11∙7%, 3∙2%, and 17∙2%, respectively. Seropositivity for BVDV and Brucella spp. was similar for cases and controls, but significantly more cases were seropositive for N. caninum (29∙8%) than controls (10∙8%). This is the first report demonstrating N. caninum is common in dairy cattle in Ethiopia, and is probably a greater impediment to reproductive success in Ethiopian dairy farms than either BVDV or Brucella spp.

  19. Epidemiology of animal bites and other potential rabies exposures and anti-rabies vaccine utilization in a rural area in Southern Ethiopia

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    José M Ramos

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The presented report describes the epidemiology of potential rabies exposures and examines the utilization of anti-rabies vaccine in a rural area of Ethiopia during a period of 43 months. A total of 683 persons (51.1% females, 73% children with animal- related bites were included in the retrospective, registry-based study. The most common site of exposure was the leg (66.8%. In children under 8 years of age the face was more often involved than in adults (9.5% vs. 4.8%; p=0.03. The main type of exposure was a bite with bleeding (66.3% followed by contamination of mucous membranes with saliva (19.7%. The primary sources were dogs (93.4% followed by cats (2.6%. Children under 15 years were more likely to be exposed to dogs (94.9% than adults (88.7% (p=0.01. The most common way of coming in contact with animals was ‘walking by’ (83.9%. Children came in contact with animals while ‘playing with’ (10.7% more often than adults (1.1% (p<0.001. All the patients received an anti-rabies nervous-tissue vaccine, 99% of whom completed the vaccination course. Animal bites continue to be a problem in rural Ethiopia, mainly among children. Efforts to protect children against animal bites must be of paramount importance in preventing rabies in this population.

  20. Epidemiology of animal bites and other potential rabies exposures and anti-rabies vaccine utilization in a rural area in Southern Ethiopia

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    José M Ramos

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The presented report describes the epidemiology of potential rabies exposures and examines the utilization of anti-rabies vaccine in a rural area of Ethiopia during a period of 43 months. A total of 683 persons (51.1% females, 73% children with animal- related bites were included in the retrospective, registry-based study. The most common site of exposure was the leg (66.8%. In children under 8 years of age the face was more often involved than in adults (9.5% vs. 4.8%; p=0.03. The main type of exposure was a bite with bleeding (66.3% followed by contamination of mucous membranes with saliva (19.7%. The primary sources were dogs (93.4% followed by cats (2.6%. Children under 15 years were more likely to be exposed to dogs (94.9% than adults (88.7% (p=0.01. The most common way of coming in contact with animals was ‘walking by’ (83.9%. Children came in contact with animals while ‘playing with’ (10.7% more often than adults (1.1% (p<0.001. All the patients received an anti-rabies nervous-tissue vaccine, 99% of whom completed the vaccination course. Animal bites continue to be a problem in rural Ethiopia, mainly among children. Efforts to protect children against animal bites must be of paramount importance in preventing rabies in this population.

  1. High Levels of Dual-Class Drug Resistance in HIV-Infected Children Failing First-Line Antiretroviral Therapy in Southern Ethiopia.

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    Tadesse, Birkneh Tilahun; Kinloch, Natalie N; Baraki, Bemuluyigza; Lapointe, Hope R; Cobarrubias, Kyle D; Brockman, Mark A; Brumme, Chanson J; Foster, Byron A; Jerene, Degu; Makonnen, Eyasu; Aklillu, Eleni; Brumme, Zabrina L

    2018-02-01

    Clinical monitoring of pediatric HIV treatment remains a major challenge in settings where drug resistance genotyping is not routinely available. As a result, our understanding of drug resistance, and its impact on subsequent therapeutic regimens available in these settings, remains limited. We investigate the prevalence and correlates of HIV-1 drug resistance among 94 participants of the Ethiopia Pediatric HIV Cohort failing first-line combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) using dried blood spot-based genotyping. Overall, 81% (73/90) of successfully genotyped participants harbored resistance mutations, including 69% (62/90) who harbored resistance to both Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NRTIs) and Non-nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NNRTIs). Strikingly, 42% of resistant participants harbored resistance to all four NRTIs recommended for second-line use in this setting, meaning that there are effectively no remaining cART options for these children. Longer cART duration and prior regimen changes were significantly associated with detection of drug resistance mutations. Replicate genotyping increased the breadth of drug resistance detected in 34% of cases, and thus is recommended for consideration when typing from blood spots. Implementation of timely drug resistance testing and access to newer antiretrovirals and drug classes are urgently needed to guide clinical decision-making and improve outcomes for HIV-infected children on first-line cART in Ethiopia.

  2. Assessment of isoniazid preventive therapy in the reduction of tuberculosis among ART patients in Arba Minch Hospital, Ethiopia.

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    Abossie, Ashenafi; Yohanes, Tsegaye

    2017-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is the most frequent life-threatening opportunistic disease among people living with HIV and remains a leading cause of mortality, even among persons receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART). Isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) and cotrimoxazole prophylaxis have been recommended for the benefit of HIV/AIDS-infected individuals to prevent opportunistic infections. The aim of this study was to assess IPT prophylaxis in the reduction of TB among ART patients. The study was a hospital-based retrospective study. A total of 271 study participants' available information such as demographic data, the type of prophylaxis used, and TB/HIV coinfection status as well as other variables were collected from clinical laboratory and HIV care/ART follow-up clinic. Data analysis was performed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20.0. TB-infected ART patients were higher among non-IPT group (37 [27.8%]) compared to IPT group (12 [8.7%]). The finding showed that IPT prophylaxis significantly reduces acquiring TB with the relative risk =0.31 (95% confidence interval =0.122, 0.49) in ART patients of this study site where the tuberculosis prevalence is prominent. ART had significant contribution for CD4 + T-cell lymphocyte count improvement in both IPT and non-IPT groups ( P ART patients than non-IPT group. This result highlights the use of IPT for the prevention of TB, especially for all ART patients. Other longitudinal studies are needed to observe the benefits and side effects of IPT prophylaxis in tuberculin skin test-positive individuals.

  3. Smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis and AFB examination practices according to the standard checklist of WHO's tuberculosis laboratory assessment tool in three governmental hospitals, Eastern Ethiopia.

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    Mekonnen, Abiyu

    2014-05-13

    Using the Directly Observed Treatment-Short course (DOTS) program the World Health Organization's global target was to detect 70% of new sputum-smear positive PTB cases. Smear positive PTB cases are more infectious than the smear negative cases. The TB case detection rate remains very low in Ethiopia, but there are increases in smear-negative PTB diagnosis which could be attributed to several factors including poor quality of sputum smear-microscopy. A five years retrospective record review of data between September, 2007 and August, 2012 and an in-depth assessment of AFB staining practices of sputum smear using a standard checklist were made. The proportion of smear positive cases relative to overall Acid Fast Bacilli (AFB) screened was determined over a five year period to indicate the overall prevalence and the trend. Odds ratio with 95 percent confidence interval was calculated for categorical variables using multivariate Logistic Regression model to assess the strength of association. A total of 1266 individuals' data were reviewed. The majority of the study participants were male, 704 (55.6%), and rural residents, 690 (54.5%). The overall prevalence rate of smear positive PTB was 21.6%. Age categories between 15-24 and 25-34 years were independent predictors of smear positive PTB with adjusted odds ratio of 2.246 [95% CI (1.098-4.597)] and 2.267 [95% CI (1.107-4.642)], respectively. More males were affected by PTB than females with an adjusted odds ratio of 1.426 [95% CI (1.083-1.879)]. An in-depth interview with the respective laboratory chiefs showed that quality control measures for sputum smear microscopy were used at different levels of the testing activities; however, equipment function verification as a quality control measure was not accomplished regularly in all of the study hospital laboratories. The smear positive PTB case detection rate indicated in this study is significantly lower than the countries which met the 70% target of the World Health

  4. Attitude, reporting behavour and management practice of occupational needle stick and sharps injuries among hospital healthcare workers in Bale zone, Southeast Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study.

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    Bekele, Tolesa; Gebremariam, Alem; Kaso, Muhammedawel; Ahmed, Kemal

    2015-01-01

    Although the prevalence of blood borne pathogens in many developing countries is high, documentation of infections due to occupational exposure is limited. Seventy percent of the world's HIV infected population lives in Sub-Saharan Africa, but only 4 % of cases are reported from this region. Under reporting of needle stick and/or sharps injuries in healthcare facilities was common. An institutional based cross-sectional study was conducted in December 2014 among healthcare workers in four hospitals of Bale zone, Southeast Ethiopia. A total of 362 healthcare workers were selected randomly from each of the working departments. Data were collected using self-administered questionnaire and were entered using Epi-Info version 3.5 and analysed using SPSS version 20.0. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify independent effect of each variable on the reporting behaviour of needle stick and/or sharp injury. Nearly six out of ten injuries (58.7 %) were not reported to the concerned body. The main reasons for not reporting the injuries were time constraint (35.1 %), sharps which caused injury were not used on any patient (27.0 %), the source patients did not have disease of concern (20.3 %), and lack of knowledge that it should be reported (14.9 %). Half of healthcare workers (HCWs) those who experienced injury had sought medical care next to self based action. Respondents with monthly salary of 450 to 1000 Ethiopian Birr (1 US Dollar = 22.00 Ethiopian Birr) were about six times more likely to report occupational needle stick and/or sharps injury (NSSI) than HCWs with salary of 2001 to 8379 birr (AOR = 5.73). However, HCWs who had no knowledge about probability of infection transmission through NSSI and not taking any self based measures after occurrence of injury were 45 % (AOR = 0.55) and 93 % (AOR = 0.07) less likely to report occupational injury than their counterparts, respectively. Occupational needle stick and/or sharps

  5. CARDIAC SURGERY FOR VALVULAR HEART DISEASE AT A REFERRAL HOSPITAL IN ETHIOPIA: A REVIEW OF CASES OPERATED IN THE LAST 30 YEARS.

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    Guteta, Senbeta; Yadeta, Dejuma; Azazh, Aklilu; Mekonnen, Dufera

    2016-04-01

    Valvular heart disease has been a significant cause of heart disease worldwide. In Ethiopia, it particularly affects young individuals and constitutes the major cause of cardiovascular disease. Factors associated with choice of treatment for advanced valvular heart disease are variable. The objective of this study is to review surgery done for Ethiopian patients with valvular heart disease. We analyzed data on patients who had valve surgery and follow-up at the Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital cardiology unit. We collected data on sociodemographic characteristics, the pre-operative status of effected valves and co-morbidities, and assessed their associations with patient management options. A total of 157 valve surgeries were done from 1983 to 2013. Mean age at time of surgery was 26.7 years and females constituted 66% of the cases. Patients with rheumatic heart disease were younger, more likely to be female and have atrial fibrillation, but less likely to have impaired left ventricular systolic function when compared to patients with non-rheumatic heart disease. More than 75% of the surgical procedures done were mechanical valve replacement. Mechanical valves, compared with bioprosthetic valves, were more likely to be used in patients with rheumatic heart disease. The median age of those receiving mechanical valves, 24 (IQR 22-28) years, was lower than those receiving bioprosthetic valves, 31.5 (IQR 29.9-37.9) years. Mechanical valve replacement was significantly higher in those under the age of 20 years (Adjusted Odds Ratio 41.0, 95% CI: 3.0-557.2) and in those between 20 and 29 years of age (Adjusted Odds Ratio 14.3, 95% CI: 2.3-88.6). Valve surgery for valvular heart diseases has been more common performed for young and female patients. A great majority of the replacements done have been with mechanical valves. As many of the patients have been younger and female, the choice of valve surgery and the need for anticoagulation impacts subsequent management of

  6. A cross sectional study on nursing process implementation and associated factors among nurses working in selected hospitals of Central and Northwest zones, Tigray Region, Ethiopia.

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    Baraki, Zeray; Girmay, Fiseha; Kidanu, Kalayou; Gerensea, Hadgu; Gezehgne, Dejen; Teklay, Hafte

    2017-01-01

    The nursing process is a systematic method of planning, delivering, and evaluating individualized care for clients in any state of health or illness. Many countries have adopted the nursing process as the standard of care to guide nursing practice; however, the problem is its implementation. If nurses fail to carry out the necessary nursing care through the nursing process; the effectiveness of patient progress may be compromised and can lead to preventable adverse events. This study was aimed to assess the implementation of nursing process and associated factors among nurses working in selected hospitals of central and northwest zones of Tigray, Ethiopia, 2015. A cross sectional observational study design was utilized. Data was collected from 200 participants using structured self-administered questionnaire which was contextually adapted from standardized, reliable and validated measures. The data were entered using Epi Info version 7 and analyzed using SPSS version 20 software. Data were summarized and described using descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the relationship of independent and dependent variable. Then, finally, data were presented in tables, graphs, frequency percentage of different variables. Seventy (35%) of participants have implemented nursing process. Different factors showed significant association. Nurses who worked in a stressful atmosphere of the workplace were 99% less likely to implement the nursing process than nurses who worked at a very good atmosphere. The nurses with an educational level of BSc. Degree were 6.972 times more likely to implement the nursing process than those who were diploma qualified. Nurses with no consistent material supply to use the nursing process were 95.1% less likely to implement the nursing process than nurses with consistent material supply. The majority of the participants were not implementing the nursing process properly. There are many factors that hinder them

  7. Learning from developing countries in strengthening health systems: an evaluation of personal and professional impact among global health volunteers at Addis Ababa University's Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital (Ethiopia).

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    Busse, Heidi; Aboneh, Ephrem A; Tefera, Girma

    2014-09-05

    The positive impact of global health activities by volunteers from the United States in low-and middle-income countries has been recognized. Most existing global health partnerships evaluate what knowledge, ideas, and activities the US institution transferred to the low- or middle-income country. However, what this fails to capture are what kinds of change happen to US-based partners due to engagement in global health partnerships, both at the individual and institutional levels. "Reverse innovation" is the term that is used in global health literature to describe this type of impact. The objectives of this study were to identify what kinds of impact global partnerships have on health volunteers from developed countries, advance this emerging body of knowledge, and improve understanding of methods and indicators for assessing reverse innovation. The study population consisted of 80 US, Canada, and South Africa-based health care professionals who volunteered at Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital in Ethiopia. Surveys were web-based and included multiple choice and open-ended questions to assess global health competencies. The data were analyzed using IBRM SPSS® version 21 for quantitative analysis; the open-ended responses were coded using constant comparative analysis to identify themes. Of the 80 volunteers, 63 responded (79 percent response rate). Fifty-two percent of the respondents were male, and over 60 percent were 40 years of age and older. Eighty-three percent reported they accomplished their trip objectives, 95 percent would participate in future activities and 96 percent would recommend participation to other colleagues. Eighty-nine percent reported personal impact and 73 percent reported change on their professional development. Previous global health experience, multiple prior trips, and the desire for career advancement were associated with positive impact on professional development. Professionally and personally meaningful learning happens often

  8. Light-emitting diode fluorescent microscopy and Xpert MTB/RIF® assay for diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis among patients attending Ambo hospital, west-central Ethiopia.

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    Gelalcha, Alemu Gadissa; Kebede, Abebaw; Mamo, Hassen

    2017-09-11

    The relatively simple and cheaper light-emitting diode fluorescent microscopy (LED-FM) was recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) to replace the conventional tuberculosis (TB) microscopy in both high- and low-volume laboratories. More recently the WHO also endorsed one more technique, Xpert MTB/RIF® assay (Xpert), for improved TB diagnosis particularly among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected cases. However, the relative performance of both of these tools differs from setting to setting in reference to the conventional TB diagnostics. This study thus aimed to evaluate these tools for TB detection in individuals visiting Ambo Hospital, west-central Ethiopia. Cross-sectional early-morning sputum samples were collected from presumptive TB patients between January and August 2015. Socio-demographic data were captured using a structured questionnaire. Clinical information was gathered from patients' medical records. The sputum samples were diagnosed using LED-FM, Xpert, concentrated Ziehl-Neelsen (cZN) staining and Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ) culture as the gold standard. Drug sensitivity test (DST) was also conducted. Out of 362 sputum samples collected and processed, 36(9.9%) were positive by LED-FM, 42(11.6%) by cZN and 50(13.8%) by Xpert. But, only 340 samples could be declared culture positive or negative for mycobacteria. Of these 340, eight were non-tubercle mycobacteria (NTM). Out of the remaining 332 samples, 45(13.6%) had culture-confirmed TB with 11(24.4%) being HIV co-infected. LED-FM, Xpert and culture detected 54.5% (6/11), 90.9% (10/11) and 100% (11/11) mycobacteria in HIV-positive individuals and 81.3% (26/32), 73.7% (28/38), 78.8% (26/33) and 73.2% (30/41), in HIV negatives respectively. Two samples were rifampicin resistant by both Xpert and DST. The overall sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of LED-FM and Xpert were 77.8, 100, 100 and 96; and 93.3, 98, 97.5 and 98.9% respectively. The data demonstrated

  9. Bacterial etiologies, antibiotic susceptibility patterns and risk factors among patients with ear discharge at the University of Gondar Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia

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    Seble Worku

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the etiologic agent, antibiotic susceptibility patterns and possible risk factors among patients who had ear infection. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted between February 2014 and June 2014 at the University of Gondar Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia among patients with ear discharge. Data were collected by using a semi-structured questionnaire. Ear discharge was inoculated on blood agar, chocolate agar and MacConkey agar plates. Standard procedures were used for identification of etiologic agents. Antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed on MuellerHinton agar. Data were entered and analyzed by using SPSS version 20 and P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Out of 167 patients, 97 (58.1% were males. The mean age of the study participants was 23.3 years with the age ranging form 4 months to 78 years. Among the 167 study participants with ear discharge, 154 (92.2% were showed bacterial growth. Gram-negative bacteria were commonly isolated from 100 (58.5% participants. Of the 167 ear infection cases, 68.9% and 31.1% were from patients with chronic and acute otitis media, respectively. A total of 125 (73.1% and 46 (24.9% bacterial isolates were recovered from patients with chronic otitis media and acute otits media, respectively. The most commonly isolated Grampositive bacterium was Staphylococcus aureus [43 (25.1%]. Among the Gram-negative isolates, Proteus species [43 (25.1%] were the most common isolate. Age and sex had statically significant association with ear infection (P = 0.013. Multidrug resistances were observed in 100% and 88.4% Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial isolates, respectively. Conclusions: The prevalence of Gram-negative bacteria was high. Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus and Pseudomonas species were the most predominant. Alarmingly high rates of multiple drug resistance to majority of the commonly used antimicrobial agents were found. Therefore, treatment of ear

  10. Factors associated with late Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV diagnosis among peoples living with it, Northwest Ethiopia: hospital based unmatched case-control study

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    Abebayehu Bitew Aniley

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early HIV diagnosis and access to treatment is one of the most effective ways to prevent its further spread and to protect the health of those living with the virus. However, delay in diagnosis is the major risk factor for uptake of and response to antiretroviral therapy. Methods Institution-based unmatched case-control study design was used in the study. The study was conducted in Debre-Markos and Finote-Selam Hospitals, Northwest Ethiopia. Cases were people living with HIV who had CD4 count <350cells/mm3 or WHO clinical stage III and IV regardless of the CD4 count at first presentation and controls were those who had CD4 count ≥350cells/mm3 or WHO clinical stage I and II. If both criteria were available, the CD4 count was used in the study as World Health Organization recommended. A total of 392 respondents (196 cases and 196 controls were recruited and selected systematically. The data were collected by trained nurses using chart review and interviewer administered structured questionnaire. Binary Logistic Regression Model was used to identify the factors associated with late HIV diagnosis. Results About 95.9 % of study participants provided complete response. Having no understanding, compared to having understanding, about HIV/AIDS (AOR = 1.7, 95 %CI = 1.08–2.79 and ART (AOR = 2.1, 95 %CI: 1.25–3.72, being tested as a result of symptoms/ illness, compared to being tested for risk exposure (inverted AOR =2.5, 95 %CI: 1.64–4.76, and acquiring HIV through sexual contact, compared to acquiring it through other modes (AOR = 2.5, 95 %CI = 1.52–4.76 were positively and independently associated with late HIV diagnosis. Conclusions Unlike perceived HIV stigma, having no understanding about HIV and ART, being tested for presence of symptoms/illness, and acquiring HIV through sexual contact were independent and significant factors for late HIV diagnosis.

  11. Hepatitis B Virus Infections and Associated Factors among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Care Clinic at Deder Hospital, Eastern Ethiopia.

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    Umare, Abdi; Seyoum, Berhanu; Gobena, Tesfaye; Haile Mariyam, Tamirat

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a serious public health problem worldwide. Reports have shown that 68,600 people die of HBV infection and more than 300,000 deaths due to liver cancer secondary to hepatitis B every year globally. Women who are infected with HBV can vertically transmit the infection to their infants. This study aims to determine the prevalence of HBV infection and associated factors among pregnant women. A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted among pregnant women who attended antenatal care clinic (ANC) for routine pregnancy check-up between 18 March 2015 and 15 May 2015. Data were collected by face to face interview using a pre-tested questionnaire. Serum was withdrawn for each study subject and used to test for Hepatitis B Surface Antigen (HBsAg) by an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test kit. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between explanatory variables and outcome variable. The prevalence of HBV infection was found to be 6.9%. Interestingly, the history of abortion (AOR 10.9; 95% CI: 2.2-53.9), nose piercing (AOR 9.1; 95% CI: 1.34-61.79), surgical procedure (AOR 12.8; 95% CI: 1.68-97.06) and history of multiple sexual partners (AOR 16.8; 95% CI: 3.18-89.06) were significant predictors of HBV infection. This study determined that the prevalence of HBV infection among pregnant women was 6.9%, implying that it is high-intermediate endemic area, which is important public health issue needs to be addressed. History of abortion, nose piercing, surgical procedures and multiple sexual partners were significantly associated with this viral infection. Accordingly we advocate that health education programs on the mode of HBV transmission, high-risk behaviors and methods of preventions should be instituted at antenatal care clinics to raise the awareness of mothers and limit the spread of infection. It is also advisable to implement nosocomial infection prevention strategies to prevent the

  12. Neisseria gonorrhoeae among suspects of sexually transmitted infection in Gambella hospital, Ethiopia: risk factors and drug resistance.

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    Ali, Seada; Sewunet, Tsegaye; Sahlemariam, Zewdineh; Kibru, Gebre

    2016-09-13

    Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a bacterium responsible for one of the classic sexually transmitted infection (STI) gonorrhea. Antibiotic resistant strains are emerging at alarming rate. Multiple sexual partners, unsafe sex and substance use habits are the main host related risk factors for acquiring the infection. Thus, this study aimed at determining the magnitude, its determinants and antimicrobial resistance profile of N. gonorrhoeae in a place where there is risk related cultural practices and relatively high HIV prevalence. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 186 STI suspected patients seen in Gambella hospital from March to July 2015. Data on socio-demographic characteristics and associated risk factors was collected using pre-designed questionnaire. Urethral or endo-cervical swabs were collected aseptically by trained nurses. Then, samples were transported to laboratory and processed within 15 min following standard microbiological culture techniques. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed by using Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. Data entry, transforming and analysis was done using SPSS version 20. In this study 11.3 % of the STI suspected patients were confirmed to have N. gonorrhoeae. The rate of infection in males was four times higher than in females accounting 16.0 and 5.0 % respectively (p = 0.049). It was also higher (18.9 %) in 20-24 years age group (p = 0.439). Alcohol intake (p = 0.013), less frequent condom use (p = 0.031), and multiple sex partners (p = 0.024) were associated with increased odds of infection. All N. gonorrhoeae isolates were susceptible to ceftriaxone and cefoxitin but all were resistant to penicillin and tetracycline. Alarmingly, 28.6 % of the isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin. The proportion of urogenital symptoms attributable to N. gonorrhoeae was high (11 %), with highest prevalence among males and young adults. Hence, prevention efforts should consider behavioral risk reduction. Ceftriaxone

  13. Risky sexual practices and related factors among ART attendees in Addis Ababa Public Hospitals, Ethiopia: A cross-sectional study

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    Bedru Abdo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many HIV-positive persons avoid risky sexual practices after testing HIV sero-positive. However, a substantial number continue to engage in risky sexual practices that may further transmit the virus, put them at risk of contracting secondary sexually transmitted infections and lead to problems with drug resistance. Thus, this study was intended to assess risky sexual practices and related factors among HIV- positive ART attendees in public hospitals of Addis Ababa. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among ART attendees from February to March, 2009. Questionnaire-based face-to-face interviews were used to gather data. SPSS software was used to perform descriptive and logistic regression analyses. Results Six hundred and one ART attendees who fulfilled the inclusion criteria was included in the study and interviewed. More than one-third (36.9% had a history of risky sexual practices in the three months prior to the study. The major reasons given for not using condoms were: partner's dislike of them, both partners being positive for HIV and the desire to have a child. Factors associated with risky sexual practices included: lack of discussion about condom use (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR = 7.23, 95% CI: 4.14, 12.63; lack of self-efficacy in using condoms (AOR = 3.29, 95% CI: 2.07, 5.23; lack of sexual pleasure when using a condom (AOR = 2.39, 95% CI: 1.52, 3.76; and multiple sexual partners (AOR = 2.67, 95% CI: 1.09, 6.57. Being with a negative sero-status partner (AOR = 0.33, 95% CI: 0.14, 0.80, or partners of unknown sero-status (AOR = 0.19, 95% CI: 0.09, 0.39 were associated with less risky practice. Conclusions A considerable proportion (36.9% of respondents engaged in unprotected sexual intercourse, potentially resulting in re-infection by a new virus strain, other sexually transmitted infections and onward transmission of the HIV virus. Health education and counseling which focuses on the identified factors has to

  14. The relationship of respiratory and cardiovascular hospital admissions to the southern California wildfires of 2003.

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    Delfino, R J; Brummel, S; Wu, J; Stern, H; Ostro, B; Lipsett, M; Winer, A; Street, D H; Zhang, L; Tjoa, T; Gillen, D L

    2009-03-01

    There is limited information on the public health impact of wildfires. The relationship of cardiorespiratory hospital admissions (n = 40 856) to wildfire-related particulate matter (PM(2.5)) during catastrophic wildfires in southern California in October 2003 was evaluated. Zip code level PM(2.5) concentrations were estimated using spatial interpolations from measured PM(2.5), light extinction, meteorological conditions, and smoke information from MODIS satellite images at 250 m resolution. Generalised estimating equations for Poisson data were used to assess the relationship between daily admissions and PM(2.5), adjusted for weather, fungal spores (associated with asthma), weekend, zip code-level population and sociodemographics. Associations of 2-day average PM(2.5) with respiratory admissions were stronger during than before or after the fires. Average increases of 70 microg/m(3) PM(2.5) during heavy smoke conditions compared with PM(2.5) in the pre-wildfire period were associated with 34% increases in asthma admissions. The strongest wildfire-related PM(2.5) associations were for people ages 65-99 years (10.1% increase per 10 microg/m(3) PM(2.5), 95% CI 3.0% to 17.8%) and ages 0-4 years (8.3%, 95% CI 2.2% to 14.9%) followed by ages 20-64 years (4.1%, 95% CI -0.5% to 9.0%). There were no PM(2.5)-asthma associations in children ages 5-18 years, although their admission rates significantly increased after the fires. Per 10 microg/m(3) wildfire-related PM(2.5), acute bronchitis admissions across all ages increased by 9.6% (95% CI 1.8% to 17.9%), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease admissions for ages 20-64 years by 6.9% (95% CI 0.9% to 13.1%), and pneumonia admissions for ages 5-18 years by 6.4% (95% CI -1.0% to 14.2%). Acute bronchitis and pneumonia admissions also increased after the fires. There was limited evidence of a small impact of wildfire-related PM(2.5) on cardiovascular admissions. Wildfire-related PM(2.5) led to increased respiratory hospital

  15. Quality of diabetes care at Armed Forces Hospital, Southern Region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, 2006

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    Ibrahim S Al-Arfaj

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the current status of care provided by the Diabetes Center at Armed Forces Hospital, Southern Region. Materials and Methods : A total of 260 patients were randomly selected from the diabetic patients attending the Diabetes Center. Study tools comprised patients′ data sheets and patients′ interview questionnaire. Results : Two-thirds of the patients were aged 50 years or more. Half of patients had had the disease for less than 10 years. Diet therapy alone was followed by 2.3% of diabetic patients. More than half of patients (56.5% were on insulin. Most of the diabetic patients were tested for HbA1c at least once per year (88.1%, and 71.5% had their lipid profile done at least once within two years. Low indicators included having a dilated eye examination (35.4%, assessment for nephropathy (28.8%, and having a well-documented foot examination (12.7%. Highest risk HbA1c level (>9.5% was reached by 38.8% of patients, 48.8% had a low-density lipoprotein level of <130 mg/dl, and 36.5% of patients had controlled blood pressure (≤130/80 mmHg. Most patients were satisfied with their interaction with the treating doctor, 41.5% were satisfied with access to treatment. Hypertension was found to be the most frequent comorbidity (38.5%. Conclusion : The quality of services as regard to process and outcome are low at the Diabetes Center. The overall diabetic patients′ satisfaction was high, whereas their satisfaction was low as regards to access to treatment or health professionals.

  16. Current Trends in Treatment Outcomes of Orbital Cellulitis in a Tertiary Hospital in Southern Nigeria

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    Uhumwangho, Odarosa M; Kayoma, Dumebi H

    2016-01-01

    Background: Orbital cellulitis refers to the inflammation or infection of the soft tissues of the orbit located behind the orbital septum. Aim: To determine the current trends in the outcomes following the management of orbital cellulitis in a tertiary hospital in Southern Nigeria. Patients and Methods: A retrospective review of medical records of patients with orbital cellulitis from January 2008 to December 2014 was conducted. The age, sex, duration of symptoms, predisposing factors, clinical findings, laboratory/radiological investigations, treatment provided, complications, and follow-up were recorded. Results were analyzed with SPSS Version 21 program. Results: Forty-two patients were seen made of 17 (40.5%) males and 25 (59.5%) females with a mean age of 18.2 ± 18.7 years of which children Orbital cellulitis was a unilateral occurrence in 38 (90.5%) patients. Trauma and sinusitis were the common predisposing causes in 20 (47.6%) and 6 (14.3%) patients, respectively. The most common complaint was eye swelling 36 (52.9%). Most patients had visual acuities of >6/18 at presentation, 38 (82.6%) and at discharge, 39 (84.8%). The mean duration of presenting complaints was 15.5 ± 31.6 days. Patients who presented early were less likely to develop complications, P = 0.003. The most common complication was exposure keratopathy in 8 (44.4%) eyes. The only surgical intervention performed was incision and drainage of abscess in 3 (7.1%) eyes. No patient came for follow-up. Conclusion: Prompt institution of effective antibiotics and management of complications that may arise improves prognosis of orbital cellulitis. PMID:27843275

  17. Seroepidemiology of Helicobacter pylori infection among children seen in a tertiary hospital in Uyo, southern Nigeria.

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    Etukudo, Ofonime Michael; Ikpeme, Enobong Emmanuel; Ekanem, Emmanuel Eyo

    2012-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection occurs worldwide with higher seroprevalence rates in the childhood populations of developing countries. In Nigeria, there is a dearth of information concerning its occurrence in children and infection enhancing factors. A prospective seroepidemiologic survey to determine the prevalence rate and possible associations of environmental and socio-demographic factors with its seropositivity was therefore conducted. The subjects were children seen at the Children's Emergency Unit of University of Uyo Teaching Hospital in southern Nigeria. Two hundred and thirty subjects, comprising 132(57.4%) males and 98(42.6%) females (male: female ratio= 1.3:1.0) with an age range of 0.5-15 years and a mean age of 5.0 (SD ± 4.0) years were recruited. The median age was 4.0 years. H. pylori immunoglobulin G (1gG) antibody was determined from serum samples stored at -200C using a commercial Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) kit, VicTorch. The overall seroprevalence rate was 30.9% with a peak prevalence of 40.7% for the 6.0 to 10.0 years age group. H. pylori seroprevalence in our children is associated with low social class (p=0.038), increased household population (p=0.009), source of drinking water (p=0.014), type of convenience used (p=0.019) and the method of disposal of household waste (p=0.043). The seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in Nigerian children is high and is associated with low social class, poor domestic water and poor sanitation. Improvement of water supply, human and domestic waste disposal systems and ultimately poverty alleviation would control this bacterial infection that has severe long term consequences.

  18. Current Trends in Treatment Outcomes of Orbital Cellulitis in a Tertiary Hospital in Southern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhumwangho, Odarosa M; Kayoma, Dumebi H

    2016-01-01

    Orbital cellulitis refers to the inflammation or infection of the soft tissues of the orbit located behind the orbital septum. To determine the current trends in the outcomes following the management of orbital cellulitis in a tertiary hospital in Southern Nigeria. A retrospective review of medical records of patients with orbital cellulitis from January 2008 to December 2014 was conducted. The age, sex, duration of symptoms, predisposing factors, clinical findings, laboratory/radiological investigations, treatment provided, complications, and follow-up were recorded. Results were analyzed with SPSS Version 21 program. Forty-two patients were seen made of 17 (40.5%) males and 25 (59.5%) females with a mean age of 18.2 ± 18.7 years of which children Orbital cellulitis was a unilateral occurrence in 38 (90.5%) patients. Trauma and sinusitis were the common predisposing causes in 20 (47.6%) and 6 (14.3%) patients, respectively. The most common complaint was eye swelling 36 (52.9%). Most patients had visual acuities of >6/18 at presentation, 38 (82.6%) and at discharge, 39 (84.8%). The mean duration of presenting complaints was 15.5 ± 31.6 days. Patients who presented early were less likely to develop complications, P = 0.003. The most common complication was exposure keratopathy in 8 (44.4%) eyes. The only surgical intervention performed was incision and drainage of abscess in 3 (7.1%) eyes. No patient came for follow-up. Prompt institution of effective antibiotics and management of complications that may arise improves prognosis of orbital cellulitis.

  19. Evaluation of energy, protein, and selected micronutrient density of homemade complementary foods consumed by children between 6 months and 23 months in food insecure woredas of Wolayita zone, Southern Ethiopia

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    Abeshu MA

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Motuma Adimasu Abeshu,1,2 Abdulaziz Adish,3 Gulelat D Haki,4 Azeb Lelisa,5 Bekesho Geleta6 1John Snow, Inc, 2Addis Ababa University, Center for Food Science and Nutrition, 3Micronutrient Initiative Africa, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; 4Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Botswana, Gaborone, Botswana; 5Micronutrient Initiative Ethiopia, 6Ethiopian Public Health Institute, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Abstract: Complementary feeding should be timely, adequate, and given in a way that is appropriate for the age of the child, applying responsive feeding to fill the gap between what is provided by breastfeeding and the total nutritional requirements of the infant. The purpose of this study was to assess nutrient composition and evaluate adequacy of observed nutrient densities (energy, protein, calcium [Ca], iron [Fe], and zinc [Zn] in homemade complementary foods for children of age 6–23 months, in comparison to the desired levels in food insecure woredas of the Wolayita zone, Southern Ethiopia. A cross-sectional weighed food record method was used to assess the energy and micronutrient compositions of homemade complementary foods and evaluate adequacy of observed nutrient densities in relation to the desired levels. Multistage sampling was used to locate the children. Observation and measurement of complementary food preparations throughout the day was made. Representative portions from the diets were sampled for further laboratory analysis and to evaluate adequacy of observed nutrient levels. More than 20 different complementary food types (mostly an extension of family foods prepared from various food items were observed. Dietary diversity of the foods was very poor. The average dietary diversity score was only 2.54, while animal-source foods and vitamin A-rich fruits and vegetables were virtually absent. The energy and protein compositions of the diets, however, were sufficient. Energy density of 0.92 kcal/g, 1.24 kcal/g, and 1.41

  20. Research output utilization in clinical practice and perceived barriers among nurses working in public hospitals and teaching institutions in south Ethiopia

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    Woldeyes, Tigist Assefa

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The use of research evidence in clinical practice remains a challenge. Evidence indicates that there are gaps in utilization of research output in clinical practice. Having the knowledge of barriers may enhance research utilization in clinical practice. Much is investigated about barriers to the use of research in clinical practice. Nevertheless, there is limited evidence about what inhibits nurses working in Ethiopia from using research evidence in to practice. This study aim...

  1. Children with Kaposi Sarcoma in Two Southern African Hospitals: Clinical Presentation, Management, and Outcome

    OpenAIRE

    de Bruin, G.P.; Stefan, D. C.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. In 2010 more than 3 million children with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) were living in Sub-Saharan Africa. The AIDS epidemic has contributed to an abrupt increase of the frequency of Kaposi sarcoma (KS), especially in Southern Africa. There is a need to describe the clinical features of this disease, its management, and its outcome in HIV positive children in Southern Africa. The aim of the study is to describe two different populations with HIV and KS from two African hosp...

  2. Clinical and epidemiological characteristics in hospitalized young children with acute gastroenteritis in southern Taiwan: According to major pathogens

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    Ning Chung

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute gastroenteritis (AGE can be caused by a wide array of pathogens, including bacteria, viruses, and parasites. A prospective study to investigate the epidemiology and clinical presentation in young children hospitalized with AGE was conducted in a medical center in southern Taiwan. Methods: Patients aged less than 5 years who was hospitalized due to AGE in National Cheng Kung University Hospital were enrolled from July 2014 to June 2016. The demographic information, clinical features and laboratory data were collected by chart reviews, and stool samples were sent to Centers of Disease Control, Taiwan (Taiwan CDC for a panel of pathogen identification consisting of two viruses, nine bacteria, and five parasites. Results: Totally 441 patients were enrolled in this study. Salmonella spp. was the leading cause of disease (21.8%, followed by norovirus (17.0%, Clostridium difficile (9.5%, and rotavirus (9.3%. Norovirus identification rate was the highest among patients less than 6 months of age, while Salmonella was highest among patients between 2 and 3 years old. Patients with Salmonella infection frequently presented with fever, lethargy, bloody stool, and elevated serum level of C-reactive protein (CRP; norovirus and rotavirus infection frequently presented with vomiting. Salmonella gastroenteritis also resulted in longer hospitalization and more frequent antibiotics administration. C. difficile could be isolated from both gastroenteritis patients and control children. Conclusion: Salmonella spp. was the most common pathogen of AGE in hospitalized children in southern Taiwan during 2014–2016, followed by norovirus and rotavirus. Further monitoring of epidemiology characteristics among cardinal pathogens of pediatric gastroenteritis is necessary. Keywords: Acute gastroenteritis, Children, Epidemiology, Taiwan

  3. Determinant of Implanon Discontinuation among Women Who Ever Used Implanon in Diguna Fango District, Wolayita Zone, Southern Ethiopia: A Community Based Case Control Study

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    Amanuel Tadesse

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. A significant number of women make Implanon their first choice of contraception. However, they discontinue their Implanon before its expiry date was high, but factors that contribute to discontinuing their Implanon were poorly described in Ethiopia. Methods. A community based unmatched case control study was conducted. Then simple random sampling technique was used to select 340 women. Data was collected by nurses using face to face interview. Epi-Info version 7 and SPSS 20 software were used. Bivariate and multiple logistic regressions were performed with COR and AOR with 95% CI. Findings. Having preinsertion counseling (AOR: 0.36, 95% CI: 0.20–0.64, having follow-up appointment (AOR: 0.35, 95% CI: 0.2–0.62, age at insertion <20 years (AOR: 3, 95% CI: 1.16–7.8, women who had no formal education (AOR: 2.8, 95% CI: 1.31–6.11, women who had ≤4 children (AOR: 1.8, 95% CI: 1.01–3.21, and women who had previous abortion history (AOR: 2.3, 95% CI: 1.10–4.63 were determinants of Implanon discontinuation. Conclusions. Policy makers and concerned bodies should take into account future intervention and also great emphasis should be given to follow-up appointment and counseling services, especially counseling on side effects, and informed choice for clients after Implanon insertion.

  4. UTILITY OF THE DECAF SCORE IN PREDICTING IN HOSPITAL OUTCOME IN PATIENTS WITH ACUTE EXACERBATION OF CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL OF SOUTHERN INDIA

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    Ravi Chethan Kumar A. N

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease being an all too common cause for hospital admissions Worldwide poses a logistical stress for the treating physicians and hospital administration with regards to morbidity and mortality rates. Identifying upon admission those at higher risk of dying in-hospital could be useful for triaging patients to the appropriate level of care, determining the aggressiveness of therapies and timing safe discharges. The aim of this study was to evaluate the utilisation of the DECAF score in predicting in hospital outcome in patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Southern India. MATERIALS AND METHODS Patients admitted with COPD exacerbations in K.R. Hospital, Mysore Medical College And Research Institute, Mysuru in between the May 2017 and July 2017 were taken has study subjects. A total of 80 patients were taken into the study. The duration of hospital stay, ICU admission and deaths were noted. DECAF score is applied to all study subjects and the severity of AECOPD is graded at the time of admission. The data collected and complied were then analysed for the correlation between score and subsequent management and overall outcome. RESULTS Total of 80 patients were recruited in the study. Mean age for male was 66.47, female was 70.86. Length of hospital stay was more in patients with decaf score more than 3 (average hospital stay 10 days. Patients with DECAF score of 2, 70.4% required inhalations oxygen, remaining 29.6% were managed with only bronchodilators whereas patients with DECAF score of 5 (max score in our study group there was a 100% initiation of assisted ventilation 33.3% received NIV ventilation while 66.6% required endotracheal intubation with ventilator support. In present study, 85 percent patients were survived. Total 6 patients (7.5% had died, belonging to high risk DECAF group (score 3 to 6

  5. Estimating the cost of healthcare delivery in three hospitals in southern ghana.

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    Aboagye, A Q Q; Degboe, A N K; Obuobi, A A D

    2010-09-01

    The cost burden (called full cost) of providing health services at a referral, a district and a mission hospital in Ghana were determined. Standard cost-finding and cost analysis tools recommended by World Health Organization are used to analyse 2002 and 2003 hospital data. Full cost centre costs were computed by taking into account cash and non-cash expenses and allocating overhead costs to intermediate and final patient care centres. The full costs of running the mission hospital in 2002 and 2003 were US$600,295 and US$758,647 respectively; for the district hospital, the respective costs were US$496,240 and US$487,537; and for the referral hospital, the respective costs were US$1,160,535 and US$1,394,321. Of these, overhead costs ranged between 20% and 42%, while salaries made up between 45% and 60%. Based on healthcare utilization data, in 2003 the estimated cost per outpatient attendance was US$ 2.25 at the mission hospital, US$ 4.51 at the district hospital and US$8.5 at the referral hospital; inpatient day costs were US$ 6.05, US$ 9.95 and US$18.8 at the respective hospitals. User fees charged at service delivery points were generally below cost. However, some service delivery points have the potential to recover their costs. Salaries are the major cost component of the three hospitals. Overhead costs constitute an important part of hospital costs and must be noted in efforts to recover costs. Cost structures are different at different types of hospitals. Unit costs at service delivery points can be estimated and projected into the future.

  6. Influences of gender in metabolic syndrome and its components among people living with HIV virus using antiretroviral treatment in Hawassa, southern Ethiopia.

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    Hirigo, Agete Tadewos; Tesfaye, Demo Yemane

    2016-03-05

    Data regarding the influences of gender in metabolic syndrome (MetS) among patients using antiretroviral treatment (ART) in Ethiopia is scarce. The aim of this study was to assess the influences of gender in MetS and its components among HIV-infected patients receiving ART. A cross-sectional study was conducted between February 2012 and April 2013. Data on demographic, clinical and anthropometric characteristics were collected from 185 HIV patients using ART. Glucose and lipid profiles were measured from overnight fast blood. The International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and United States national cholesterol education program: adult treatment (US NCEP-ATP) panel III criteria were used to define MetS. A total number of 185 (36.8% males and 63.2% females) participants were recruited in this study. The overall prevalence of MetS was 24.3 and 17.8%, diagnosed using IDF and NCEP-ATP criteria respectively. Using IDF criteria, MetS was significantly higher in females compared to males (33.3 vs. 8.8%; p = 25 kg/m(2) was significantly associated with MetS in both IDF and NCEP-ATP criteria: unadjusted (UOR) and adjusted odds ratio (AOR) with 95% CI were 3.0 (1.3-6.5) and 3.8 (1.5-9.8); as well as 3.2 (1.4-7.4) and 3.4 (1.4-7.4) respectively. Furthermore age >40 years was significantly associated with MetS using NCEP-ATP: UOR and AOR (95% CI) were 3.1 (1.2-8.3), and 3.8 (1-13.70) respectively. Comprehensive medical care approach including with MetS components are a crucial instruments in order to minimize the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases in HIV-infected patients using ART.

  7. Perceptions of usage and unintended consequences of provision of ready-to-use therapeutic food for management of severe acute child malnutrition. A qualitative study in Southern Ethiopia.

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    Tadesse, Elazar; Berhane, Yemane; Hjern, Anders; Olsson, Pia; Ekström, Eva-Charlotte

    2015-12-01

    Severe acute child malnutrition (SAM) is associated with high risk of mortality. To increase programme effectiveness in management of SAM, community-based management of acute malnutrition (CMAM) programme that treats SAM using ready-to-use-therapeutic foods (RUTF) has been scaled-up and integrated into existing government health systems. The study aimed to examine caregivers' and health workers perceptions of usages of RUTF in a chronically food insecure area in South Ethiopia. This qualitative study recorded, transcribed and translated focus group discussions and individual interviews with caregivers of SAM children and community health workers (CHWs). Data were complemented with field notes before qualitative content analysis was applied. RUTF was perceived and used as an effective treatment of SAM; however, caregivers also see it as food to be shared and when necessary a commodity to be sold for collective benefits for the household. Caregivers expected prolonged provision of RUTF to contribute to household resources, while the programme guidelines prescribed RUTF as a short-term treatment to an acute condition in a child. To get prolonged access to RUTF caregivers altered the identities of SAM children and sought multiple admissions to CMAM programme at different health posts that lead to various control measures by the CHWs. Even though health workers provide RUTF as a treatment for SAM children, their caregivers use it also for meeting broader food and economic needs of the household endangering the effectiveness of CMAM programme. In chronically food insecure contexts, interventions that also address economic and food needs of entire household are essential to ensure successful treatment of SAM children. This may need a shift to view SAM as a symptom of broader problems affecting a family rather than a disease in an individual child. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical

  8. Depression among patients with tuberculosis: determinants, course and impact on pathways to care and treatment outcomes in a primary care setting in southern Ethiopia--a study protocol.

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    Ambaw, Fentie; Mayston, Rosie; Hanlon, Charlotte; Alem, Atalay

    2015-07-08

    Depression is commonly comorbid with chronic physical illnesses and is associated with a range of adverse clinical outcomes. Currently, the literature on the role of depression in determining the course and outcome of tuberculosis (TB) is very limited. Our aim is to examine the relationship between depression and TB among people newly diagnosed and accessing care for TB in a rural Ethiopian setting. Our objectives are to investigate: the prevalence and determinants of probable depression, the role of depression in influencing pathways to treatment of TB, the incidence of depression during treatment, the impact of anti-TB treatment on the prognosis of depression and the impact of depression on the outcomes of TB treatment. We will use a prospective cohort design. 703 newly diagnosed cases of TB (469 without depression and 234 with depression) will be consecutively recruited from primary care health centres. Data collection will take place at baseline, 2 and 6 months after treatment initiation. The primary exposure variable is probable depression measured using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9. Outcome variables include: pathways to treatment, classical outcomes for anti-TB treatment quality of life and disability. Descriptive statistics, logistic regression and multilevel mixed-effect analysis will be used to test the study hypotheses. Ethical approval has been obtained from the Institutional Review Board (IRB) of the College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University. Findings will be disseminated through scientific publications, conference presentations, community meetings and policy briefs. Findings will contribute to a sparse evidence base on comorbidity of depression and TB. We hope the dissemination of findings will raise awareness of comorbidity among clinicians and service providers, and contribute to ongoing debates regarding the delivery of mental healthcare in primary care in Ethiopia. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use

  9. Magnitude, Severity, and Morphological Types of Anemia in Hospitalized Children Under the Age of Five in Southern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mghanga, Fabian P; Genge, Christopher M; Yeyeye, Leonia; Twalib, Zainab; Kibopile, Wilfred; Rutalemba, Fredrick J; Shengena, Tito M

    2017-07-21

    Introduction Anemia is a significant public health problem among children and women globally. It is one of the most common causes of deaths among children admitted to hospitals in sub-Saharan Africa. Case fatality rates of 6 percent to 18 percent have been reported even in facilities that have blood transfusions services. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the magnitude, severity, and morphological types of anemia among hospitalized children under five years of age in the southern part of Tanzania. Methods A cross-sectional, hospital-based, retrospective analysis was conducted in February 2016 using hospital records of 303 children aged 0-59 months admitted to St. Benedict Ndanda Referral Hospital, Mtwara, Tanzania between 1 July 2015 and 31 December 2015.  Results The mean hemoglobin (Hb) level of the study population was 7.87 ± 2.84 g/dL, the median was 8.00g/dL, the interquartile range (IQR) was 4.40g/dL, and the prevalence of anemia was 83.17 percent. The magnitude of mild, moderate, and severe anemia was 9.13 percent, 44.84 percent, and 46.03 percent, respectively, and about half of all anemic children had normocytic anemia. Conclusion Severe anemia is a common health problem among hospitalized children under five years of age in the study area. We recommend screening all admitted children under the age of five for anemia, and clinicians should pay attention to and put more emphasis on intervention strategies for anemia when treating children admitted for other diseases.

  10. Factors associated with adolescent–parent communication of reproductive  health issues among high school and preparatory students in Boditi town, Southern Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study

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    Fanta M

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Muluken Fanta,1 Seblewengel Lemma,2 Getu Gamo Sagaro,3 Mengistu Meskele3 1Wolaita Zone Health Department, Southern Nations Nationalities and People Region State, Wolaita Sodo, 2Addis Continental Institute of Public Health, Addis Ababa, 3School of Public Health, College of Health Sciences and Medicine, Wolaita Sodo University, Wolaita Sodo, Ethiopia Background: Communication from parents on reproductive health (RH issues with their adolescent children plays a great role in preventing morbidity and mortality associated with RH. The majority of Ethiopian adolescents do not communicate on these matters with their parents. This study aimed to identify the factors that affect communication on RH issues between parents and high school and preparatory students in Boditi town, Wolaita Zone, Southern Ethiopia.Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the level of communication, and factors affecting communication between high school and preparatory students with their parents on RH issues in Boditi town.Methods: A school-based cross-sectional study was conducted from February 10 to February 20, 2015 among high school and preparatory students in Boditi town. A multistage sampling technique was used to sample the study participants. Data were collected by using a self-administrated structured questionnaire, which was developed based on previous literature incorporating all variables to be assessed. Data were entered and analyzed through Epi Info version 3.5.4 and SPSS version 16.0, respectively.Results: This study revealed that 40.70% (95% confidence interval [CI] 37.2%–44.2% of students discussed RH issues with their parents. Factors such as being a female student (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =1.42; 95% CI 1.00–1.95; being in the 10th grade (AOR =1.62; 95% CI 1.04–2.50; having a mother who was educated (able to read and write only; AOR =0.56; 95% CI 0.34–0.91, who had completed secondary education (AOR =0.43; 95% CI 0.22–0.80, or who had

  11. Malaria parasitemia and its association with lipid and hematological parameters among malaria-infected patients attending at Metema Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirak S

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Solomon Sirak,1,* Abebe Alemu Fola,2 Ligabaw Worku,3 Belete Biadgo4,* 1Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Debre Tabor University, Debre Tabor, Ethiopia; 2Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, Melbourne, VIC, Australia; 3Department of Medical Parasitology, School of Biomedical and Laboratory Sciences, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia; 4Department of Clinical Chemistry, School of Biomedical and Laboratory Sciences, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Malaria is a major public health problem in Ethiopia with wide-ranging hematological and biochemical alterations. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess malaria parasitemia and its association with lipid and hematological parameters. Methods: A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted from April 1 to June 30, 2014. Of 200 study participants, 100 were confirmed malaria patients and 100 healthy controls. Study participants were included based on systematic random sampling techniques. Seven milliliters of blood samples were collected for investigation of hematological and lipid parameters. Data were entered and analyzed using SPSS-20 statistical software. Independent t-test and one-way analysis of variance were run to compare mean differences. A P<0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: A total of 200 study participants (78.5% males and 21.5% females were included with a mean age of 24.67±11.2 years. A majority of malaria patients were infected with Plasmodium falciparum (66%. According to parasitic load, 38%, 52%, and 10% patients were reported with low, moderate, and high malaria parasitemia, respectively. There were statistically significant mean differences in white blood cells count ([6.875±3.20 vs 5.835±2.01]×103/µL, neutrophil (63.1%±8.7% vs 56

  12. Treatment outcomes of severe acute malnutrition in children treated within Outpatient Therapeutic Program (OTP) at Wolaita Zone, Southern Ethiopia: retrospective cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabalo, Mulugeta Yohannis; Seifu, Canaan Negash

    2017-03-09

    Children in third world countries suffer from severe acute malnutrition (SAM) in an extent of public health important. SAM management protocol available this time brought the approach from facility-based to community-based by Outpatient Therapeutic Program (OTP). But, little was known about the treatment outcomes of the program in Ethiopia. Thus, this study was aimed to assess treatment outcomes of SAM and identify factors associated among children treated at OTP in Wolaita Zone. A retrospective facility-based cross-sectional study was conducted in OTP records of 794 children, treated at 24 health posts retrieved from January to December 2014. Population proportion to size (PPS) was used to allocate sample for each selected district and OTP sites within district. Individual cards of children were selected by systematic random sampling. Data were entered, thoroughly cleaned, and analyzed in SPSS version 20. The recovery rate was revealed as 64.9% at 95% CI (61, 68). Death rate, default rate, weight gain, and length of stay were 1.2%, 2.2%, 4.2 g/kg/day, and 6.8 weeks respectively. Children living in children residing in ≥25 min (AOR = 1.53 at 95% CI (1.11, 2.12)). The likelihood of recovery was 2.6 times higher for children with kwashiorkor than for those with marasmus (AOR = 2.62 at 95% CI (1.77, 3.89)). Likewise, children provided with amoxicillin were 1.52 times more likely to recover compared to their counterparts (AOR = 1.52 at 95% CI (1.09, 2.11)). The recovery rate and weight gain were lower than sphere standard. Distance from OTP, provision of amoxicillin, and type of malnutrition were factors identified as significantly associated with treatment outcome of SAM. Building capacity of OTP service providers and regular monitoring of service provision based on the management protocol were recommended.

  13. Which nets are being used: factors associated with mosquito net use in Amhara, Oromia and Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples' Regions of Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosher Aryc W

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been recent large scale-up of malaria control interventions in Ethiopia where transmission is unstable. While household ownership of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLIN has increased greatly, there are concerns about inadequate net use. This study aimed to investigate factors associated with net use at two time points, before and after mass distribution of nets. Methods Two cross sectional surveys were carried out in 2006 and 2007 in Amhara, Oromia and SNNP regions. The latter was a sub-sample of the national Malaria Indicator Survey (MIS 3R. Each survey wave used multi-stage cluster random sampling with 25 households per cluster (224 clusters with 5,730 households in Baseline 2006 and 245 clusters with 5,910 households in MIS 3R 2007. Net ownership was assessed by visual inspection while net utilization was reported as use of the net the previous night. This net level analysis was restricted to households owning at least one net of any type. Logistic regression models of association between net use and explanatory variables including net type, age, condition, cost and other household characteristics were undertaken using generalized linear latent and mixed models (GLLAMM. Results A total of 3,784 nets in 2,430 households were included in the baseline 2006 analysis while the MIS 3R 2007 analysis comprised 5,413 nets in 3,328 households. The proportion of nets used the previous night decreased from 85.1% to 56.0% between baseline 2006 and MIS 3R 2007, respectively. Factors independently associated with increased proportion of nets used were: LLIN net type (at baseline 2006; indoor residual spraying (at MIS 3R 2007; and increasing wealth index at both surveys. At both baseline 2006 and MIS 3R 2007, reduced proportion of nets used was independently associated with increasing net age, increasing damage of nets, increasing household net density, and increasing altitude (>2,000 m. Conclusion This study identified

  14. Prevalence of anxiety in patients admitted to a university hospital in southern Brazil and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullich, Inês; Ramos, Andrews Barcellos; Zan, Tiago Rafael Anschau; Scherer, Cíntia; Mendoza-Sassi, Raúl Andrés

    2013-09-01

    To identify the prevalence of anxiety in adults hospitalized in the clinical ward of a university hospital and to analyze the possible associated factors. A cross-sectional study was performed in a university hospital. All interviewees answered a specific questionnaire and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. A Poisson regression was used to calculate prevalence ratios with 95% confidence intervals. 282 patients were enrolled. The prevalence of anxiety was 33.7% (95%CI 28.2 - 39.3). Characteristics associated with the outcome were female gender (RP 2.44), age ≥ 60 years (PR 0.65), consultation in primary health care (PR 2.37), estimated time of contact between patient and student > 30 min (RP 1.36), high blood pressure (PR 1.57), diabetes mellitus (PR 1.43), and obesity (RP 1.43). This study found prevalence of high anxiety. It may be associated with certain characteristics of the patients (gender, age, chronic diseases); the medical appointment in primary care and time (estimated by the patient) that the student remained with this patient. The need for a focused approach to mental health care within the hospital has been discussed for a long time. The particularity of this study refers to the environment of a university hospital and to what extent the environment and the patient's relationship with the student are associated with higher prevalence of anxiety.

  15. Prevalence of anxiety in patients admitted to a university hospital in southern Brazil and associated factors

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    Inês Gullich

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the prevalence of anxiety in adults hospitalized in the clinical ward of a university hospital and to analyze the possible associated factors. Method: A cross-sectional study was performed in a university hospital. All interviewees answered a specific questionnaire and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. A Poisson regression was used to calculate prevalence ratios with 95% confidence intervals. Results: 282 patients were enrolled. The prevalence of anxiety was 33.7% (95%CI 28.2 - 39.3. Characteristics associated with the outcome were female gender (RP 2.44, age ≥ 60 years (PR 0.65, consultation in primary health care (PR 2.37, estimated time of contact between patient and student > 30 min (RP 1.36, high blood pressure (PR 1.57, diabetes mellitus (PR 1.43, and obesity (RP 1.43. Conclusion: This study found prevalence of high anxiety. It may be associated with certain characteristics of the patients (gender, age, chronic diseases; the medical appointment in primary care and time (estimated by the patient that the student remained with this patient. The need for a focused approach to mental health care within the hospital has been discussed for a long time. The particularity of this study refers to the environment of a university hospital and to what extent the environment and the patient's relationship with the student are associated with higher prevalence of anxiety.

  16. Unsupervised primaquine for the treatment of Plasmodium vivax malaria relapses in southern Papua: A hospital-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Nicholas M; Poespoprodjo, Jeanne Rini; Patriani, Dewi; Malloy, Michael J; Kenangalem, Enny; Sugiarto, Paulus; Simpson, Julie A; Soenarto, Yati; Anstey, Nicholas M; Price, Ric N

    2017-08-01

    Primaquine is the only licensed drug for eradicating Plasmodium vivax hypnozoites and, therefore, preventing relapses of vivax malaria. It is a vital component of global malaria elimination efforts. Primaquine is efficacious when supervised in clinical trials, but its effectiveness in real-world settings is unknown. We aimed to determine whether unsupervised primaquine was effective for preventing re-presentation to hospital with vivax malaria in southern Papua, Indonesia. Routinely-collected hospital surveillance data were used to undertake a pragmatic comparison of the risk of re-presentation to hospital with vivax malaria in patients prescribed dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DHP) combined with primaquine versus those patients prescribed DHP alone. The omission of primaquine was predominantly due to 3 stock outages. Individual clinical, pharmacy, and laboratory data were merged using individual hospital identification numbers and the date of presentation to hospital. Between April 2004 and December 2013, there were 86,797 documented episodes of vivax malaria, of which 62,492 (72.0%) were included in the analysis. The risk of re-presentation with vivax malaria within 1 year was 33.8% (95% confidence Interval [CI] 33.1%-34.5%) after initial monoinfection with P. vivax and 29.2% (95% CI 28.1%-30.4%) after mixed-species infection. The risk of re-presentation with P. vivax malaria was higher in children 1 to malaria, prescribed according to the current World Health Organization guidelines, was associated with a minimal reduction in the risk of clinical recurrence within 1 year in Papua, Indonesia. New strategies for the effective radical cure of vivax malaria are needed in resource-poor settings.

  17. Prevalence of Diabetic Foot Ulcer and Associated Factors among Adult Diabetic Patients Who Attend the Diabetic Follow-Up Clinic at the University of Gondar Referral Hospital, North West Ethiopia, 2016: Institutional-Based Cross-Sectional Study

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    Tesfamichael G. Mariam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder which is characterized by multiple long-term complications that affect almost every system in the body. Foot ulcers are one of the main complications of diabetes mellitus. However, there is limited evidence on the occurrence of foot ulcer and influencing factors in Ethiopia. An institutional-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Gondar University Hospital, Ethiopia, to investigate foot ulcer occurrence in diabetic patients. Systematic random sampling was used to select 279 study participants. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression model was fitted to identify factors associated with diabetic foot ulcer. Odds ratio with 95% confidence interval was computed to determine the level of significance. Diabetic foot ulcer was found to be 13.6%. Rural residence [AOR = 2.57; 95% CI: 1.42, 5.93], type II diabetes mellitus [AOR = 2.58; 95% CI: 1.22, 6.45], overweight [AOR = 2.12; 95% CI: 1.15, 3.10], obesity [AOR = 2.65; 95% CI: 1.25, 5.83], poor foot self-care practice [AOR = 2.52; 95% CI: 1.21, 6.53], and neuropathy [AOR = 21.76; 95% CI: 8.43, 57.47] were factors associated with diabetic foot ulcer. Diabetic foot ulcer was found to be high. Provision of special emphasis for rural residence, decreasing excessive weight gain, managing neuropathy, and promoting foot self-care practice would decrease diabetic foot ulcer.

  18. Prevalence of Diabetic Foot Ulcer and Associated Factors among Adult Diabetic Patients Who Attend the Diabetic Follow-Up Clinic at the University of Gondar Referral Hospital, North West Ethiopia, 2016: Institutional-Based Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariam, Tesfamichael G; Alemayehu, Abebaw; Tesfaye, Eleni; Mequannt, Worku; Temesgen, Kiber; Yetwale, Fisseha; Limenih, Miteku Andualem

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder which is characterized by multiple long-term complications that affect almost every system in the body. Foot ulcers are one of the main complications of diabetes mellitus. However, there is limited evidence on the occurrence of foot ulcer and influencing factors in Ethiopia. An institutional-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Gondar University Hospital, Ethiopia, to investigate foot ulcer occurrence in diabetic patients. Systematic random sampling was used to select 279 study participants. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression model was fitted to identify factors associated with diabetic foot ulcer. Odds ratio with 95% confidence interval was computed to determine the level of significance. Diabetic foot ulcer was found to be 13.6%. Rural residence [AOR = 2.57; 95% CI: 1.42, 5.93], type II diabetes mellitus [AOR = 2.58; 95% CI: 1.22, 6.45], overweight [AOR = 2.12; 95% CI: 1.15, 3.10], obesity [AOR = 2.65; 95% CI: 1.25, 5.83], poor foot self-care practice [AOR = 2.52; 95% CI: 1.21, 6.53], and neuropathy [AOR = 21.76; 95% CI: 8.43, 57.47] were factors associated with diabetic foot ulcer. Diabetic foot ulcer was found to be high. Provision of special emphasis for rural residence, decreasing excessive weight gain, managing neuropathy, and promoting foot self-care practice would decrease diabetic foot ulcer.

  19. [Prevalence of wheezing and associated factors in Guarani indigenous children hospitalized for acute respiratory infections in Southern and Southeastern Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Patrícia Gomes de; Cardoso, Andrey Moreira; Sant Anna, Clemax Couto

    2014-07-01

    Prevalence of wheezing was studied in Guarani indigenous children hospitalized for acute lower respiratory tract infections in Southern and Southeastern Brazil, recruited by a surveillance routine established in villages from May 2007 to June 2008. Data were obtained from hospital records. Crude and adjusted prevalence ratios for wheezing were estimated according to categories of target variables, using Poisson regression with robust variance. Prevalence of wheezing was 58.1% (136/234). Risk factors that remained significantly associated with wheezing in the final model were: age bracket, inversely associated (0-11 months: reference; 24-35 months: 0.63, 95%CI: 0.40-0.99); hospitalization in the autumn (summer: reference; autumn: 1.58, 95%CI: 1.05-2.40); dyspnea (1.41, 95%CI: 1.09-1.83); chest indrawing (1.42, 95%CI: 1.16-1.73); crackles (1.43, 95%CI: 1.09-1.87). The results show a high disease burden related to wheezing and suggest the phenotype of early-onset persistent wheezing related to recurrence of viral respiratory infections.

  20. Prevalence and correlates of depression and anxiety among patients with tuberculosis at WolaitaSodo University Hospital and Sodo Health Center, WolaitaSodo, South Ethiopia, Cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duko, Bereket; Gebeyehu, Abebaw; Ayano, Getnet

    2015-09-14

    Anxiety and depression are frequently and highly occurring mental disorders in patients with tuberculosis. When depression and anxiety co-morbid with tuberculosis, it leads to poor adherence to anti TB medication, which is important barrier to global control of tuberculosis & increases the risk of morbidity and mortality due to TB. Cross sectional study was conducted to assess prevalence and correlates of depression and anxiety among patients with TB at WolaitaSodo University Hospital and Sodo Health Center, WolaitaSodo, Ethiopia. Institution based cross-sectional study was conducted in 2014.A total of 417 TB patients, who had regular follow up at WolaitaSodo University Hospital and Sodo Health Center, WolaitaSodo, South Ethiopia, were recruited to assess depression and anxiety and its associated correlates. Depression and anxiety were assessed through face to face interviews by trained psychiatry nurses using the hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS). Correlates for depression and anxiety were assessed using a structured questionnaire, Oslo social support scale and TB stigma Scale. The prevalence of depression and anxiety among patients with TB were 43.4% (181) and 41.5% (173) respectively. When we adjusted for the effect of potential confounding variables, patients who had co-morbid HIV infection [AOR = 5.90,(95% CI: 2.34,15.93)], poor social support [AOR = 18.06, (95% CI:11.21,25.45)] & perceived TB stigma [AOR = 10.86, (95% CI:10.26,23.47)] were more likely to have depression as compared to individuals who had no co-morbid HIV infection, good social support and no perceived TB stigma respectively. Patients who had co-morbid HIV infection [AOR = 9.61,(95% CI:3.56,25.96)], poor social support [AOR = 8.93,(95% CI: 5.01,15.94)], perceived TB stigma [AOR = 3.11,(95% CI:1.78,5.42)], being female [AOR = 1.72 (95% CI: 1.06, 2.95)], current substance use[AOR = 4.88, (95% CI: 1.79, 13.28)] and being on intensive phase of TB treatment [AOR = 1.91, (95% CI: 1.08, 3

  1. (HRH) in Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Bank has also indicated problems in human resources for health in Ethiopia with regards to stock, distribution ... Bank assessment of health worker performance in Ethiopia, based on data from focus group discussions, has ... to have adequate orientation on their future job at recruitment, even though they expressed high.

  2. Reforming Ethiopia's Expropriation Law

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Muradu_Abdo

    Reforming Ethiopia's Expropriation Law. Muradu Abdo ♧. Abstract. Ethiopia is increasingly using expropriation as the single most important device to take land particularly from small landholders to supply it to corporate farmers and industrialists with a declared intention of boosting economic growth. This is happening in the ...

  3. [Hospitalizations for primary care-sensitive conditions in a Southern Brazilian municipality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues-Bastos, Rita Maria; Campos, Estela Márcia Saraiva; Ribeiro, Luiz Cláudio; Firmino, Róberti Uili Rodrigues; Bustamante-Teixeira, Maria Teresa

    2013-01-01

    To study the most frequent causes of hospitalizations for primary care-sensitive conditions (HPCSC) in the city of Juiz de Fora, MG, Brazil, by age group and gender, over the periods of 2002 to 2005 and of 2006 to 2009. This was a descriptive study, with data collected from the Hospital Information System of the Unified Health System (Sistema de Informação Hospitalar do Sistema Único de Saúde - SIH-SUS) and from population projections by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística - IBGE). HPCSC rates were calculated for 1,000 inhabitants, and the most frequent causes were studied by gender and age group, comparing both periods. HPCSP showed rates of 7.74/1,000 between 2002 and 2005 and 8.81/1,000 between 2006 and 2009. The main causes were heart failure, cerebrovascular diseases, angina pectoris, pulmonary diseases, and kidney and urinary tract infections, which together represented 4.9/1,000 in the first period and 5.6/1,000 in the second period. The evolution of the rates between both periods occurred differently by age group and gender. The study did not exhibit any remarkable differences in HPCSC rates between the periods. Regarding the most frequent causes, reduced hospitalization rates for gastroenteritis, asthma, high blood pressure, and cerebrovascular diseases were observed, as well as increased hospitalizations for heart failure, pulmonary diseases, epilepsies, and kidney and urinary tract infections; these hospitalizations occurred differently by gender and age group. The results showed that a deep reflection regarding the determinants of hospitalizations for avoidable causes is needed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  4. Blood donation practice and its associated factors among health professionals of University of Gondar Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arage, Getachew; Ibrahim, Seada; Adimasu, Endeshaw

    2017-07-19

    Blood donation has remained a challenge in developing countries, like Ethiopia. In Ethiopia there is a high reliance on family surrogate and waged blood donors which carries an attendant increased risk of transfusion transmissible infection. Health workers are expected to practice blood donation so as to create a good image to the public. A study on blood donation behavior may improve successful implementation of the blood donation programs. An institution based cross-sectional study was deployed from January to June 2015. An aggregate of 427 health workers were included in the study by using simple random sampling technique. Data were collected by using pre tested and structured questionnaire via self-administrated method. Descriptive and summary statistics were employed. Bivariate and multiple logistic regressions were computed. Odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals were calculated to determine the level of significance. A total of 427 participants were included in the final analysis (response rate = 100%). Among these participants, 33.2% of them practice blood donation. Age above 25 years [AOR = 1.8 (95% CI 1.1, 3.0)], health professionals' knowledge of blood donation [AOR = 1.9 (95% CI 1.1, 3.1)], health professionals' attitude towards blood donation [AOR = 3.0, 95% CI 1. 8, 4.9)], and the presence of family members or relatives who received blood [AOR = 5.4, 95% CI 3.7, 8.7)] were significantly and independently associated with blood donation behavior of health professionals. Blood donation practice of health professionals in this study was found to be low as compared to other studies conducted in developing countries. Health professionals' knowledge, attitude, age and the presence of family members or relatives who received blood before were independently associated with blood donation practice. Thus, awareness has to be created for health professionals to improve blood donation practices.

  5. Pre-ART nutritional status and its association with mortality in adult patients enrolled on ART at Fiche Hospital in North Shoa, Oromia region, Ethiopia: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesfamariam, Kokeb; Baraki, Negga; Kedir, Haji

    2016-12-20

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) compromises the nutritional status of infected individuals and in turn, malnutrition worsens the effects of the infection itself by weakening the immune system consequently accelerating disease progression and death. However, few studies have examined the association between nutritional status at antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation and early mortality. Therefore, this study assesses pre-ART nutritional status and other baseline characteristics and mortality among adult patients on ART at Fiche Hospital, Ethiopia. A retrospective cohort study was conducted among 489 ART enrolled adult patients between August 01, 2006 and September 30, 2013 in Fiche Hospital. Study participants were selected by using systematic random sampling method. Actuarial table was used to estimate survival of patients after ART initiation and log rank test was used to compare the survival curves. Cox proportional-hazard regression was used to determine independent predictors of time to death. Most of the study subjects were females 254 (51.9%). A total of 489 patients were included in the analysis, of whom 87 died during a median study follow-up of 22 months. The estimated mortality among malnourished was 21, 28, 33, and 38% at 5, 10, 15, and 25 months respectively with mortality incidence density of 5.63 deaths per 100 person years. The independent predictors of mortality were: BMI nutrition counseling at all stages of ART implementation may improve ART outcomes in this vulnerable population.

  6. Epidemiology Analysis of Streptococcus pyogenes in a Hospital in Southern Taiwan by Use of the Updated emm Cluster Typing System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang-Ni, Chuan; Zheng, Po-Xing; Wang, Shu-Ying; Tsai, Pei-Jane; Chuang, Woei-Jer; Lin, Yee-Shin; Liu, Ching-Chuan; Wu, Jiunn-Jong

    2016-01-01

    emm typing is the most widely used molecular typing method for the human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococcus [GAS]). emm typing is based on a small variable region of the emm gene; however, the emm cluster typing system defines GAS types according to the nearly complete sequence of the emm gene. Therefore, emm cluster typing is considered to provide more information regarding the functional and structural properties of M proteins in different emm types of GAS. In the present study, 677 isolates collected between 1994 and 2008 in a hospital in southern Taiwan were analyzed by the emm cluster typing system. emm clusters A-C4, E1, E6, and A-C3 were the most prevalent emm cluster types and accounted for 67.4% of total isolates. emm clusters A-C4 and E1 were associated with noninvasive diseases, whereas E6 was significantly associated with both invasive and noninvasive manifestations. In addition, emm clusters D4, E2, and E3 were significantly associated with invasive manifestations. Furthermore, we found that the functional properties of M protein, including low fibrinogen-binding and high IgG-binding activities, were correlated significantly with invasive manifestations. In summary, the present study provides updated epidemiological information on GAS emm cluster types in southern Taiwan. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  7. Characteristics of registration of medical records in a hospital in southern Peru

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    Cender Udai Quispe-Juli

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the characteristics of registration of medical records of hospitalization in the Hospital III Yanahuara in Arequipa, Peru. Material and methods: The study was observational, cross-sectional and retrospective. 225 medical records of hospitalization were evaluated in November 2015. A tab consisting of 15 items was used; each item was assessed using a scale: "very bad", "bad", "acceptable", "good" and "very good". Adescriptive analysis was done by calculating frequency. Results: Items with a higher proportion of acceptable registration data were: clear therapeutic indication (84%, clinical evolution (74.7%, diagnosis (70.7%, complete and orderly therapeutic indication (54.2%, medical history taking (50.2% and physical examination (43.1%. The very well recorded items were: indication of tests and procedures (97.3%, medical identification (91.1% and allergies (67.1%. Very bad recorded items were: reason for admission (91.1%, life habits (72.9% and prior treatment (38.2%. Conclusions: Most medical records of hospitalization are characterized by an acceptable record of most evaluated items; however they have notable deficiencies in some items.

  8. Investigation of antimicrobial use at a tertiary care hospital in Southern Punjab, Pakistan using WHO methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atif, Muhammad; Azeem, Muhammad; Saqib, Anum; Scahill, Shane

    2017-01-01

    Globally, between 20 to 50% of antimicrobial consumption is inappropriate, causing significant impact on the quality of care, cost of therapy and incidence of adverse drug reactions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prescribing patterns and utilization of antimicrobials in ten selected wards at Bahawal Victoria Hospital (BVH), Bahawalpur, Punjab, Pakistan. A descriptive cross-sectional study was designed using the World Health Organization (WHO) indicators for antimicrobial use. Standard data collection forms were used in ten wards and the Pharmacy Department at BVH. Antimicrobial utilization patterns in terms of frequency and percentage were also determined. Systematic random sampling techniques were used to collect data from 1,000 prescription records out of 21,115 prescriptions written for the six months January to June 2016. For the hospital indicators, a formulary list or essential medicines list (FL/EML) was available, but standard treatment guidelines (STGs) for infectious diseases was not. The average number of days that key antimicrobials were out of stock was 3.3 days per month. The expenditure on antimicrobials as a percentage of the total medicines costs was 12.2%. For the prescribing indicators, the percentage of hospitalizations with antimicrobial(s) prescribed was 82.3%, and the average number of antimicrobials per hospitalization was 1.4 (SD = 0.6). The average duration of antimicrobial treatment per hospitalization was 5.4 days (SD = 3.2). The average cost of antimicrobials prescribed per hospitalization was USD 5.4 (SD = 6.7). None of the patients who were prescribed antimicrobials, received AM according to the STGs (pneumonia and cesarean section cases). Among the patient-care and supplemental indicators, the average duration of hospital stay of patients who received antimicrobials was 6.4 (SD = 4.3) days. The drug sensitivity testing was almost non-existent, with only 0.24% prescription records having drug

  9. Investigation of antimicrobial use at a tertiary care hospital in Southern Punjab, Pakistan using WHO methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Atif

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Globally, between 20 to 50% of antimicrobial consumption is inappropriate, causing significant impact on the quality of care, cost of therapy and incidence of adverse drug reactions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prescribing patterns and utilization of antimicrobials in ten selected wards at Bahawal Victoria Hospital (BVH, Bahawalpur, Punjab, Pakistan. Methods A descriptive cross-sectional study was designed using the World Health Organization (WHO indicators for antimicrobial use. Standard data collection forms were used in ten wards and the Pharmacy Department at BVH. Antimicrobial utilization patterns in terms of frequency and percentage were also determined. Systematic random sampling techniques were used to collect data from 1,000 prescription records out of 21,115 prescriptions written for the six months January to June 2016. Results For the hospital indicators, a formulary list or essential medicines list (FL/EML was available, but standard treatment guidelines (STGs for infectious diseases was not. The average number of days that key antimicrobials were out of stock was 3.3 days per month. The expenditure on antimicrobials as a percentage of the total medicines costs was 12.2%. For the prescribing indicators, the percentage of hospitalizations with antimicrobial(s prescribed was 82.3%, and the average number of antimicrobials per hospitalization was 1.4 (SD = 0.6. The average duration of antimicrobial treatment per hospitalization was 5.4 days (SD = 3.2. The average cost of antimicrobials prescribed per hospitalization was USD 5.4 (SD = 6.7. None of the patients who were prescribed antimicrobials, received AM according to the STGs (pneumonia and cesarean section cases. Among the patient-care and supplemental indicators, the average duration of hospital stay of patients who received antimicrobials was 6.4 (SD = 4.3 days. The drug sensitivity testing was almost non-existent, with

  10. Constraining late stage melt-peridotite interaction in the lithospheric mantle of southern Ethiopia: evidence from lithium elemental and isotopic compositions

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    Alemayehu, Melesse; Zhang, Hong-Fu; Seitz, Hans-Michael

    2017-10-01

    Lithium (Li) elemental and isotopic compositions for mineral separates of coexisting olivine, orthopyroxene and clinopyroxene of mantle xenoliths from the Quaternary volcanic rocks of southern Ethiopian rift (Dillo and Megado) reveal the influence of late stage melt-peridotite interaction on the early depleted and variably metasomatized lithospheric mantle. Two types of lherzolites are reported (LREE-depleted La/Sm(N) = 0.11-0.37 × Cl and LREE-enriched, La/Sm(N) = 1.88-15.72 × Cl). The depleted lherzolites have variable range in Li concentration (olivine: 2.1-5.4 ppm; opx: 1.1-2.3 ppm; cpx: 1.0-1.8 ppm) and in Li isotopic composition (δ7Li in olivine: -9.4 to 1.5‰; in opx: -4.5 to 3.6‰; in cpx: -17.0 to 4.8‰), indicating strong disequilibrium in Li partitioning and Li isotope fractionation between samples. The enriched lherzolites have limited range in both Li abundances (olivine: 2.7-3.0 ppm; opx: 1.1-3.1 ppm; cpx: 1.1-2.3 ppm) and Li isotopic compositions (δ7Li in olivine: -1.3 to +1.3‰; in opx: -2.0 to +5.0‰; in cpx: -7.5 to +4.8‰), suggest that the earlier metasomatic event which lead to LREE enrichment could also homogenize the Li contents and its isotopes. The enriched harzburgite and clinopyroxenite minerals show limited variation in Li abundances and variable Li isotopic compositions. The Li enrichments of olivine and clinopyroxene correlate neither with the incompatible trace element enrichment nor with the Sr-Nd isotopic compositions of clinopyroxene. These observations indicate that the metasomatic events which are responsible for the LREE enrichment and for the Li addition are distinct, whereby the LREE-enrichment pre-dates the influx of Li. The presence of large Li isotopic disequilibria within and between minerals of depleted and enriched peridotites suggest that the lithospheric mantle beneath the southern Ethiopian rift has experienced recent melt-peridotite interaction. Thus, the Li data set reported in this study offer new

  11. Malignant Transformation in Leukoplakia and Its Associated Factors in Southern Iran: A Hospital Based Experience

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    BARFI QASRDASHTI, Alireza; HABASHI, Mina Seied; ARASTEH, Peyman; TORABI ARDAKANI, Mahshid; ABDOLI, Zahra; EGHBALI, Seyed Sajjad

    2017-01-01

    Background: We evaluated factors that affect malignant transformation of leukoplakia in a sample of the Iranian population. Methods: The records of patients with a clinical diagnosis of leukoplakia during a 20-year period from 1989–2009 referred to two of the largest referral centers in southern Iran were studied. Patients that developed malignant transformation were compared with patients that did not have malignant changes. Results: Of 522 patients, female patients, those over 50 yr old and with lesions located on the tongue had the highest rate of malignant changes. Female patients with malignant changes were mostly non-smokers (76.4%), while male patients with malignant changes were mostly smokers (63.8% in non-smokers) (Pleukoplakia lesion that is flat and are white patch or plaques with red components, in addition for patients who have lesions located on the tongue and for nonsmokers who develops leukoplakia lesions. PMID:28894713

  12. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of vancomycin-resistant enterococci in a university hospital of southern Italy

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    Giorgio Liguori

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: In the last decades vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE have emerged as important pathogens responsible for hospital-acquired infections. To analyze the spread and clonal relatedness of VRE, a two-year study of isolates was carried out in the hospital of the University “Federico II” in Naples.

    Methods: Enterococcus species were identified by using API-2 Strep and antibiotic susceptibility was determined through the use of four tests: disk diffusion, broth dilution methods, Etest and Vitek 2. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR was used to analyse glycopeptide resistance. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE and arbitrarily primed (AP-polymerase chain reaction were used for molecular typing of the strains.

    Results: Thirty-two isolates of enterococci (18 E. faecium and 14 E. faecalis showed resistance to vancomycin and teicoplanin and all the strains were vanA-positive. AP-PCR showed a unique clone of E. faecium, as well as for E. faecalis isolates. Identical results were obtained by PFGE for E. faecalis isolates, while three different PFGE patterns emerged for E. faecium.

    Conclusions: The low degree of genetic diversity among the isolates strongly suggests a clonal spread of antibiotic-resistant strains among hospitalized patients in high-risk wards. This report represents the first step to understanding VRE spread in our hospital as well as contributing to the comparison among different antibiotic susceptibility tests and molecular typing methods.

  13. Service quality assessment of a referral hospital in Southern Iran with SERVQUAL technique: patients’ perspective

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    2014-01-01

    Background Providing services to patients according to their expectations and needs is necessary for the success of an organization in order to remain in the competitive market. Recognizing these needs and expectations is an important step in offering high quality services. This study was designed to determine the service quality gap of the main hospital of Hormozgan province. Methods This cross sectional study was conducted in 2013 in Bandar Abbas ShahidMohammadi Hospital in the south of Iran. All 96 participants of this study were provided by SERVQUAL questionnaire. Data was analyzed by Wilcoxon and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Results Service quality gaps were seen in all five service quality dimensions and the overall quality of service. The mean of quality perception score and quality expectation score was 3.44 ± 0.693 and 4.736 ± 0.34, respectively. The highest perception was in assurance dimension and the highest expectation was in Responsiveness and assurance dimensions. Also, the lowest perception was in responsiveness dimension and the lowest expectation was about empathy. In this study, 56.1% of participants defined the quality of services as average. Conclusion According to the results, this hospital was not able to meet patients’ expectations completely. Therefore, action must be taken to decrease the gap between the perception and expectation of the patients. PMID:25064475

  14. Service quality assessment of a referral hospital in southern Iran with SERVQUAL technique: patients' perspective.

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    Aghamolaei, Teamur; Eftekhaari, Tasnim Eghbal; Rafati, Shideh; Kahnouji, Kobra; Ahangari, Shamsieh; Shahrzad, Mohammad Esmaeil; Kahnouji, Ataollah; Hoseini, Seyedeh Hamideh

    2014-07-27

    Providing services to patients according to their expectations and needs is necessary for the success of an organization in order to remain in the competitive market. Recognizing these needs and expectations is an important step in offering high quality services. This study was designed to determine the service quality gap of the main hospital of Hormozgan province. This cross sectional study was conducted in 2013 in Bandar Abbas ShahidMohammadi Hospital in the south of Iran. All 96 participants of this study were provided by SERVQUAL questionnaire. Data was analyzed by Wilcoxon and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Service quality gaps were seen in all five service quality dimensions and the overall quality of service. The mean of quality perception score and quality expectation score was 3.44 ± 0.693 and 4.736 ± 0.34, respectively. The highest perception was in assurance dimension and the highest expectation was in Responsiveness and assurance dimensions. Also, the lowest perception was in responsiveness dimension and the lowest expectation was about empathy. In this study, 56.1% of participants defined the quality of services as average. According to the results, this hospital was not able to meet patients' expectations completely. Therefore, action must be taken to decrease the gap between the perception and expectation of the patients.

  15. Seroprevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen and anti HCV antibody and its associated risk factors among pregnant women attending maternity ward of Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital, northwest Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study.

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    Molla, Sefinew; Munshea, Abaineh; Nibret, Endalkachew

    2015-12-02

    Viral hepatitis is a life-threatening liver disease that has become important public health issue in developing countries including Ethiopia. This study was undertaken to determine the seroprevalence of HBsAgs and anti-HCV antibodies and what socio-demographic factors are associated with sero-positivity of Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) and Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infections among pregnant women attending maternity ward of Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital, northwest, Ethiopia. Hospital based cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2013 to January 2014. Blood samples were randomly collected from 384 pregnant women. Data on socio-demographic characteristics, obstetric and potential risk factors were collected using semi-structured questionnaire. Chromatographic kits were used to detect the presence of HBsAg and antibodies against HCV in serum samples of the studied subjects. Chi-square test was used for assessing the association between socio-demographic variables and HBV and HCV status. Logistic regression analysis was done to determine the strength of association between risk factors and HBV or HCV infection. P-values less than 0.05 were considered as significant. Seroprevalnce of hepatitis B and C virus infections were found to be 4.4 and 0.26 %, respectively. None of the pregnant women were co-infected by these two viruses. Amongst the potential risk factors, previous history of dental procedure (AOR = 4.104, CI = 1.276-13.201, P = 0.018), house hold contact (AOR = 5.475, CI = 1.472-20.368, P = 0.011), multiple sexual exposure (AOR = 5.041, CI = 1.580-16.076, P = 0.006), and delivery at traditional birth attendants (AOR = 4.100, CI = 0.195-86.129, P = 0.024) were significantly associated with and important predictors of hepatitis B infection. This study found an intermediate endemicity (4.4 %) of HBV infection in pregnant women whereas seroprevalence of anti-HCV antibody was very small, but this needs to be confirmed by other similar studies with larger sample

  16. Physician distribution and attrition in the public health sector of Ethiopia.

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    Assefa, Tsion; Haile Mariam, Damen; Mekonnen, Wubegzier; Derbew, Miliard; Enbiale, Wendimagegn

    2016-01-01

    Shortages and imbalances in physician workforce distribution between urban and rural and among the different regions in Ethiopia are enormous. However, with the recent rapid expansion in medical education training, it is expected that the country can make progress in physician workforce supply. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the distribution of physician workforce in Ethiopia and assess the role of retention mechanisms in the reduction of physician migration from the public health sector of Ethiopia. This organizational survey examined physician workforce data from 119 hospitals from 5 regions (Amhara, Oromia, Southern Nations Nationalities and Peoples Region [SNNPR], Tigray, and Harari) and 2 city administrations (Addis Ababa and Dire Dawa City). Training opportunity, distribution, and turnover between September 2009 and July 2015 were analyzed descriptively. Poisson regression model was used to find the association of different covariates with physician turnover. There were 2,300 medical doctors in 5 regions and 2 city administrations in ~6 years of observations. Of these, 553 (24.04%) medical doctors moved out of their duty stations and the remaining 1,747 (75.96%) were working actively. Of the actively working, the majority of the medical doctors, 1,407 (80.5%), were males, in which 889 (50.9%) were born after the year 1985, 997 (57%) had work experience of risk of turnover in comparison with those who were working in the capital, Addis Ababa. The probability of migration did not show a statistically significant difference in all other regions (P>0.05). The public health sector physician workforce largely constituted of male physicians, young and less experienced. High turnover rate among females, the young and less experienced physicians, and those working in distant places (district hospitals) indicate the need for special attention in devising human resources management and retention strategies.

  17. Clinical failure of vancomycin treatment of Staphylococcus aureus infection in a tertiary care hospital in southern Brazil

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    Larissa Lutz

    Full Text Available We describe a case of clinical failure of vancomycin treatment of Staphylococcus aureus infection and the laboratory characteristics of the organism in a tertiary referral university hospital in southern Brazil. An 11-month-old male patient presented with pneumonia and S. aureus was isolated from his respiratory tract. Initial treatment with oxacillin and gentamicin was ineffective. Vancomycin was added to the regimen as the patient worsened, but after the 30th day of vancomycin treatment S. aureus was isolated from the blood. This isolate had a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC for vancomycin of 4 µg/mL. After pre-incubation with vancomycin the isolate displayed an increase in the expression of vancomycin resistance and colonies grew in the presence of up to 12 µg/mL vancomycin. Based on these results, and considering that the patient had not responded to vancomycin, the isolate was considered to be S. aureus heteroresistant to vancomycin (SAHV. The SAHV proved to be similar, based on DNA macrorestriction analysis, to methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA isolates from other patients in the hospital who had responded to vancomycin treatment. Our findings underline the need to improve methods in the clinical laboratory to detect the emergence of S. aureus clinically resistant to vancomycin . The fact that the isolate emerged in the blood 30 days after vancomycin treatment was initiated suggests that the organism was originally an MRSA that had acquired the ability to circumvent the mechanism of action of vancomycin.

  18. Mechanical ventilation in patients in the intensive care unit of a general university hospital in southern Brazil: an epidemiological study.

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    Fialkow, Léa; Farenzena, Maurício; Wawrzeniak, Iuri Christmann; Brauner, Janete Salles; Vieira, Sílvia Regina Rios; Vigo, Alvaro; Bozzetti, Mary Clarisse

    2016-03-01

    To determine the characteristics, the frequency and the mortality rates of patients needing mechanical ventilation and to identify the risk factors associated with mortality in the intensive care unit (ICU) of a general university hospital in southern Brazil. Prospective cohort study in patients admitted to the ICU who needed mechanical ventilation for at least 24 hours between March 2004 and April 2007. A total of 1,115 patients admitted to the ICU needed mechanical ventilation. The mortality rate was 51%. The mean age (± standard deviation) was 57±18 years, and the mean Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score was 22.6±8.3. The variables independently associated with mortality were (i) conditions present at the beginning of mechanical ventilation, age (hazard ratio: 1.01; pmechanical ventilation; and renal (hazard ratio: 1.29; p=0.011) and neurological (hazard ratio: 1.25; p=0.024) failure, and (ii) conditions occurring during the course of mechanical ventilation, acute lung injuri/acute respiratory distress syndrome (hazard ratio: 1.31; pmechanical ventilation patients in South America. The mortality rate of patients who required mechanical ventilation was higher, which may have been related to the severity of illness of the patients admitted to our ICU. Risk factors for hospital mortality included conditions present at the start of mechanical ventilation conditions that occurred during mechanical support.

  19. Seroprevalence of Antibodies against Anisakis simplex Larvae among Health-Examined Residents in Three Hospitals of Southern Parts of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung; Jo, Jin Ok; Choi, Seon Hee; Cho, Min Kyoung; Yu, Hak Sun; Cha, Hee Jae

    2011-01-01

    The present study was performed to estimate the seroprevalence of larval Anisakis simplex infection among the residents health-examined in 3 hospitals in southern parts of Korea. A total of 498 serum samples (1 serum per person) were collected in 3 hospitals in Busan Metropolitan city, Masan city, and Geoje city in Gyeongsangnam-do (Province) and were examined by IgE-ELISA and IgE-western blotting with larval A. simplex crude extract and excretory-secretory products (ESP). The prevalence of antibody positivity was 5.0% and 6.6% with ELISA against crude extracts and ESP, respectively. It was also revealed that infection occurred throughout all age groups and higher in females than in males. A specific protein band of 130 kDa was detected from 10 patients with western blot analysis against crude extract and ESP among those who showed positive results by ELISA. Our study showed for the first time the seroprevalence of anisakiasis in Korea. The allergen of 130 kDa can be a candidate for serologic diagnosis of anisakiasis. PMID:21738269

  20. Prevalence, susceptibility profile for fluconazole and risk factors for candidemia in a tertiary care hospital in southern Brazil

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    Valério Rodrigues Aquino

    Full Text Available Bloodstream infections caused by yeast, Candida spp, are quite important clinically and epidemiologically due to a high mortality rate and an increasing number of non-albicans species with a more resistant (differentiated susceptibility profile. We examined species prevalence and susceptibility profile for fluconazole and the risk for nosocomial infections by Candida spp at the Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, a general tertiary care hospital in southern Brazilian, through a retrospective study, beginning with positive cultures of hospitalized patients. The distribution by species in 131 documented episodes was as follows: Candida albicans (45%, C. parapsilosis (24.4%, C. tropicalis (15.3%, C. glabrata (6.9%, C. krusei (4.6% and 3.8% other species (C. pelicullosa, C. guilliermondii, C. lusitaniae and C. kefyr. The vast majority of samples (121- 92.4% were susceptible to fluconazole; the resistant or dose-dependent sensitive samples included only C. krusei and C. glabrata. Blood diseases (leukemia, lymphoma, or neoplasias (solid tumors, were found in 35.0% of the candidemia episodes. We noted the previous use of antibiotics in 128 (97.7% patients, with 79.7% using three or more antibiotics before the candidemia episode. Other risk factors included a central venous catheter in 94 (71.8% and abdominal surgery in 32 (24.4% patients. The overall mortality rate was 51.9%, which varied according to the underlying disease. We found that C. albicans was the most prevalent species, although the non-albicans species predominated. However, in vitro resistance to fluconazole was detected only among the species (C. glabrata and C. krusei that tend to be resistant to the azolic compounds. Previous use of antibiotic and the use of a central venous catheter were the main risk factors among patients with candidemia.

  1. Institutional delivery service utilization and associated factors among women of reproductive age in the mobile pastoral community of the Liban District in Guji Zone, Oromia, Southern Ethiopia: a cross sectional study.

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    Wako, Wako Golicha; Kassa, Dejene Hailu

    2017-05-15

    Globally, an estimated 289,000 maternal deaths occurred in 2013. Majority of these deaths occurred in sub-Saharan Africa and Southern Asia. Mobility of pastoralists is a well-recognized survival strategy in arid and semi-arid land of sub-Saharan Africa. However governments often encourage settlement as a solution to the difficulty of providing health services for mobile pastoralists. This study aimed to assess utilization of institutional delivery and associated factors among women of reproductive age in the mobile pastoral community of the Liban District in Guji zone, Oromia, Ethiopia. A Community based cross-sectional survey was conducted among the mobile pastoralist community of the Liban District. Seven hundred ninety-one (791) randomly selected women, who had birth within the last 2 years preceding the survey, were interviewed using a pretested structured questionnaire. Data were entered into Epi-Info version 3.5.4 and analyzed by Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 16. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were done. Out of 791 women who gave birth within the last 2 years preceding the survey, only 110 (13.9%) gave birth in health institutions. Majority (74.1%) of the women gave birth at their home. Ninety-one women (11.5%) gave birth at traditional birth attendant's home; assisted by traditional birth attendants. Multiple logistic regression shows that women who had readily available cash at the onset of labor (aOR 2.79, 95% CI: 1.29-6.25), delivered the birth preceding the most recent birth in a health institution (aOR 6.8, 95% CI: 3.44-13.45) and had birth related complications during the birth preceding the most recent birth (aOR 1.90, 95% CI: 1.08-3.36) were more likely to deliver at health institutions. Majority of the pastoral women seek institutional delivery, only when labor related complications are perceived. Mechanisms of alleviating indirect health care costs affecting institutional delivery need to be addressed in future studies.

  2. Anxiety symptoms in crack cocaine and inhalant users admitted to a psychiatric hospital in southern Brazil.

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    Zubaran, Carlos; Foresti, Katia; Thorell, Mariana Rossi; Franceschini, Paulo Roberto

    2013-01-01

    The occurrence of psychiatric comorbidity among individuals with crack or inhalant dependence is frequently observed. The objective of this study was to investigate anxiety symptoms among crack cocaine and inhalant users in southern Brazil. The study investigated two groups of volunteers of equal size (n=50): one group consisted of crack cocaine users, and the other group consisted of inhalant users. Research volunteers completed the Portuguese versions of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A), and Self-Report Questionnaire (SRQ). Both crack and inhalant users experience significant symptoms of anxiety. Inhalant users presented significantly more anxiety symptoms than crack users according to the HAM-A questionnaire only. In contrast to the results of the HAM-A, the STAI failed to demonstrate a significant difference between the two groups of substance users. SRQ scores revealed that crack and inhalants users had significant degrees of morbidity. A significant difference regarding anxiety symptomatology, especially state anxiety, was observed among inhalant and crack users. Anxiety and overall mental psychopathology were significantly correlated in this sample. The results indicate that screening initiatives to detect anxiety and additional psychiatric comorbidities among crack and inhalant users are feasible and relevant. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  3. Malnutrition in pre-dialysis chronic kidney disease patients in a teaching hospital in Southern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluseyi, Adejumo; Enajite, Okaka

    2016-03-01

    Malnutrition is a complication in chronic kidney disease (CKD) known to affect quality of life and prognosis although not often diagnosed. It is associated with rapid progression to end stage renal disease (ESRD) and mortality. Early identification and treatment will slow down progression to ESRD and mortality. To determine the prevalence and pattern of malnutrition in pre-dialysis CKD patients in Southern Nigeria. One hundred and twenty consecutive pre-dialysis CKD and 40 control subjects without CKD were studied. Data obtained from participants were demographics, body mass index (BMI), and aetiology of CKD. Indices used to assess presence of malnutrition were low BMI, hypocholesterolaemia and hypoalbuminaemia. Statistical significance was taken at 0.05 level. The mean age of the CKD subjects was 48.8±16.6years with a male: female ratio of 1.7:1. Prevalence of malnutrition in the CKD subjects was 46.7%, higher than 27.5% observed in the controls (p=0.033). Prevalence of malnutrition increased significantly across CKD stages 2 to 5 (p=0.020). It was significantly commoner in elderly patients (p=0.047) but not significantly different between males and females(p=0.188). Malnutrition is common in pre-dialysis CKD patients even in early CKD stages. Prevalence of malnutrition increases with worsening kidney function and increasing age.

  4. Assessment of the needs of caregivers of stroke patients at state-owned acute-care hospitals in southern Vietnam, 2011.

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    Hayashi, Yumiko; Hai, Hoang Hoa; Tai, Nguyen Anh

    2013-08-22

    Care for stroke patients has improved steadily in southern Vietnam. Medical treatments such as thrombolytic therapy have been implemented at several hospitals, and stroke-care units composed of a team of various health professionals have been created. However, little attention has been focused on providing support to caregivers of stroke patients. This study aimed to characterize the caregivers of stroke patients who were treated in state-owned acute-care hospitals and to learn about their needs when patients are discharged. Such information can be used to enhance the caregiver's support system. We used questionnaires to conduct a descriptive study in 2011 at a state-owned acute-care hospital in southern Vietnam. We recruited study participants from among caregivers of stroke patients who had been informed of their hospital discharge date. We assessed 8 caregiver characteristics, and caregiver participants selected their needs from the survey's list of 15 possible needs. We analyzed the data by using the independent sample t test and logistic regression. Of the 93 caregivers who consented to participate, 86 (92.5%) completed the survey and indicated their concerns at discharge. The most frequently cited need was information on how to prevent stroke recurrence (72, 83.7%), followed by which drugs are most effective in preventing a relapse (62, 72.1%), how long recovery would take (61, 70.9%), and availability of hospitals in the patient's hometown (60, 69.8%). A little over half of caregivers indicated financial concerns. A caregiver's need for information on diet for a stroke survivor increased with the caregiver's education level. This study revealed several needs among caregivers of stroke survivors in southern Vietnam that are similar to those found by studies of caregivers of stroke survivors in high-income countries. Our findings suggest that comprehensive stroke care that includes caregiver education about healthful diets and prevention of stroke recurrence

  5. Appraising hospital performance by using the JCHAO/CMS quality measures in Southern Italy.

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    Domenico Flotta

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The main objective of the present study was to estimate the uptake to quality indicators that reflect the current evidence-based recommendations and guidelines. METHODS: A retrospective review of medical records of patients admitted to two hospitals in the South of Italy was conducted. For the purposes of the analysis, a sets of quality indicators has been used from the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Hospital Organizations and Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. Four areas of care were selected: acute myocardial infarction (AMI, heart failure (HF, pneumonia (PN, and surgical care improvement project (SCIP. Frequency or median was calculated, as appropriate, for each indicator. A composite score was calculated to estimate the overall performance for each area of care. RESULTS: A total of 1772 medical records were reviewed. The adherence rates showed a wide-ranging variability among the selected indicators. The use of aspirin and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI or angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB for AMI, the use of ACEI or ARB for HF, the use of appropriate thromboembolism prophylaxis and appropriate hair removal for surgical patients almost approached optimal adherence. At the other extreme, rates regarding adherence to smoking-cessation counseling in AMI and HF patients, discharge instructions in HF patients, and influenza and pneumococcal vaccination in pneumonia patients were noticeably intangible. Overall, the recommended processes of care among eligible patients were provided in 70% for AMI, in 32.4% for HF, in 46.4% for PN, and in 46% for SCIP. CONCLUSIONS: The results show that there is still substantial work that lies ahead on the way to improve the uptake to evidence-based processes of care. Improvement initiatives should be focused more on domains of healthcare than on specific conditions, especially on the area of preventive care.

  6. Cranial computed tomography utilization in head trauma in a Southern Nigerian tertiary hospital

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    Ehimwenma Ogbeide

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Computed tomography (CT is the imaging modality of choice in evaluating patients with acute head trauma. Objective: The objective of this study is to assess CT utilization in head trauma in University of Benin Teaching Hospital (UBTH with reference to sociodemographic characteristics and cause of injury. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study of patients who had CT scanning done for head trauma in the UBTH, from 2011 to 2013 was undertaken. Medical Records of patients with special emphasis on the patient′s demographic characteristics and detailed information about the cause of injury of the patients were obtained from the accident and emergency department of the hospital. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 17. Results: A total of 1387 patients with male: female ratio of 3.7:1 were studied. The mean age of the patients was 33.2 ± 18.8 years. Road traffic accidents (RTA were the predominant cause of injury among the patients accounting for 62.6% of the cases. Gunshot injury (GSI and patients struck by objects accounted for only 2.7% and 1.3% of the cases, respectively. The Glasgow coma score (GCS of the patients revealed that 42.0%, 26.1%, and 31.9% of patients had severe head injury, moderate injury, and mild injury, respectively. Conclusion: Road traffic accidents involving young adult males constituted the predominant cause of injury in patients that had brain CT in UBTH. There is an urgent need for improvement in the condition of roads and enforcement of the use of protective devices by road users to curb the epidemic of head injury resulting from RTAs.

  7. Mold contamination in a controlled hospital environment: a 3-year surveillance in southern Italy.

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    Caggiano, Giuseppina; Napoli, Christian; Cor